Unerased History – September 23rd

Posted by Wayne Church on September 23, 2014 in 09 - September, Blog by month |
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Checkers Day
Dogs in Politics Day


Research carried out by the Association for Research into the Science of Enjoyment (ARISE) has shown that happy thoughts and pleasant smells can boost the immune system. A study by Professor Warburton at Reading University in England showed that within 20 minutes of happy thoughts being experienced, the amount of antibody immunoglobulin (sIgA) found in the saliva doubled, remaining raised for at least three hours. By contrast, memory of traumatic or painful experiences caused the sIgA levels to drop. Another study carried out by Angela Clow at the University of Westminster showed a similar response to unpleasant and pleasant smells. Strangely the smell of water appears to have had an effect similar to unpleasant smells such as rotting meat.

The good news though is that this effect could be counteracted by the smell of chocolate. Professor David Warburton, found of ARISE and head of psychopharmacology at Reading University, said “Previous scientific experiments have observed a correlation between changing moods and the immunity system, but these new studies provide a direct causal link. Identifying this direct link proves that happiness could make you healthier. Instead of worrying about the often ill-founded health scares created by so- called health experts most people would do better to listen to their bodies. These studies illustrate how our bodies naturally seek to protect themselves from disease by doing the things we enjoy.”

Researchers have discovered that events such as pleasant family celebrations or evenings with friends boost the immune system for the following two days. Unpleasant moments had the opposite effect: negative events, such as being criticized at work, weakened the immune function for one day afterward.


  There is great treasure there behind our skull and this is true about all of us. This little treasure has great, great powers, and I would say we only have learnt a very, very small part of what it can do.”

~ Isaac Bashevis Singer

inveigh in-VAY, intransitive verb: 

To rail (against some person or thing); to protest strongly or attack with harsh and bitter language — usually with “against”; as, “to inveigh against character, conduct, manners, customs, morals, a law, an abuse.”

53 BC – Augustus, the first Roman emperor, or Caesar, was born. His ascension to the title of emperor marked the end of true Roman democracy, even though the Senate survived for generations.
1518 – The Royal College of Physicians was established to protect citizens from medical charlatans and quacks.
1642 – First commencement exercises occur at Harvard College.
1667 – Slaves in Virginia were banned from obtaining their freedom by converting to Christianity.
1776 – Continental Marines were ordered to reinforce General George Washington in New York.
1779 – Revolutionary War: USS Bonhomme Richard, commanded by John Paul Jones, wins a fight against the British ships of war Serapis and Countess of Scarborough off the coast of England. John Paul Jones’ French-Irish Marines participated in epic battle. John Paul Jones was quoted as saying “I have not yet begun to fight!”
1780 – Revolutionary War: British Major John André arrested as a spy by American soldiers exposing Benedict Arnold’s treason. He was caught  with papers revealing Benedict Arnold’s plot to surrender West Point to the British.
1805 – Lieutenant Zebulon Pike paid $2,000 to buy from the Sioux a 9-square-mile tract at the mouth of the Minnesota River that would be used to establish a military post, Fort Snelling. It was originally known as Fort Saint Anthony and was a military fortification located at the confluence of the Minnesota River and Mississippi River in Hennepin County, Minnesota
1806 – Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis, after exploring the Pacific Northwest of the United States. This was the first recorded overland journey from the Mississippi River to the Pacific coast and back.
1845 – The Knickerbockers Baseball Club is founded in New York.  It was the first baseball team to play under the modern rules,
1846 – Discovery of Neptune by French astronomer Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier and British astronomer John Couch Adams; verified by German astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle
1848 – First commercial production of chewing gum by John Curtis on a stove at his home in Bangor, Maine in the United States and marketed as ‘The State of Maine Pure Spruce Gum’.
1862 – Lincoln’s Emancipation is published in northern newspapers.
1863 – Civil War: The most impressive logistical accomplishment of the war occurred when an entire Union Army was moved from Virginia to Chattanooga, TN. General William Rosecrans’s army had been dealt a serious defeat at Chickamauga, Georgia, just south of Chattanooga. It took just a week and a half to ship an entire army of soldiers, animals, and equipment, which underscored the Union’s ability to effectively utilize the rail network.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate and Union forces clashed at Mount Jackson, Front Royal and Woodstock in Virginia during the Valley campaign.
1875 – William Bonney (“Billy the Kid”) is arrested for the first time.
1879 – Richard Rhodes invented a hearing aid called the Audiophone.
1884 – Herman Hollerith patents his mechanical tabulating machine.
1885 – In Rock Springs, Wyoming, 150 White miners, who are struggling to unionize so they could strike for better wages and work conditions, attack their Chinese fellow workers killing 28, wounding 15 and forcing several hundred more out of town.
1897 – First frontier days rodeo celebration (Cheyenne Wyoming).
1912 – First Mack Sennett Keystone Comedy, “The Water Nymph“,  is released.
1923 – Jan Savitt and his orchestra recorded “720 in the Books” on Decca Records.
1930 – Johannes Ostermeier was issued a patent for the flash bulb.
1931 – LT Alfred Pride pilots Navy’s first rotary wing aircraft, XOP-1 autogiro, in landings and takeoffs on board USS Langley while underway. The Langley was the first aircraft carrier of the Navy.
1938 – Time capsule, to be opened in 6939, buried at World’s Fair in NYC. The capsule contained a woman’s hat, man’s pipe & 1,100′ of microfilm.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: The first gas experiments are conducted at Auschwitz.
1942 – World War II: Holocausts: At Auschwitz Nazis began experimental gassing executions.
1942 – World War II: The Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins.  U.S. Marines attack Japanese units along the Matanikau River.
1944 – World War II: USS West Virginia (BB-48) reaches Pearl Harbor and rejoins the Pacific Fleet, marking the end of the salvage and reconstruction of eighteen ships damaged at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.
1945 – The first American to die in Vietnam was Lt. Col. A. Peter Dewey, head of the American OSS mission. He was killed by Vietminh troops while driving a jeep during the fall of Saigon to French forces.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “You’re Breaking My Heart” by Vic Damone, “Let’s Take an Old Fashioned Walk” by Perry Como, “Someday” by Vaughn Monroe and “Slipping Around” by Ernest Tubb all topped the charts.
1949 – Truman announces evidence of USSR’s first nuclear device detonation.
1950 – Congress adopted the Internal Security Act, which provided for registration of communists. The Act was ruled later unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court. US Senator Pat McCarran (Nevada) legislated the Internal Security Act, which included a jumble of restrictions on speech and association. Pres. Truman attempted an unsuccessful veto of the McCarran Act, which gave the government unprecedented powers.
1950 – “Goodnight Irene” by the Weavers with Gordon Jenkins topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: US Mustangs accidentally bombed British troops on Hill 282 Korea, 17 killed.
1951 – The first transcontinental telecast was received on the west coast. The show “Crusade for Freedom” was broadcast by CBS-TV from New York.
1952 – Rocky Marciano knocked Jersey Joe Walcott out in the thirteenth round, becoming the new Heavyweight Champion. This was the first Pay Television sporting event ever to take place. The Marciano-Walcott fight was seen in 49 theaters in 31 cities.
1952 – Republican vice-presidential candidate Richard M. Nixon went on television to deliver the “Checkers” speech, to deny the accuracy of allegations of improper campaign financing.
1953 – “The Robe” premiered in Hollywood a week after its premiere in New York. The 20th Century Fox movie had been filmed using the Cinemascope wide screen process.
1957– CHART TOPPERS – “Tammy” by Debbie Reynolds, “Diana” by Paul Anka, “Mr. Lee” by The Bobbettes and “My Shoes Keep Walking Back to You” by Ray Price all topped the charts.
1957 – Nine black students withdrew from Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas due to the white mob outside.
1957 – Hank Aaron of the MLB gives the Milwaukee Braves the pennant with a home run.
1957 – “Honeycomb” by Jimmie Rodgers shared the top spot.
1957 – “That’ll Be the Day” by Crickets shared the top spot.
1961 – First movie to become a TV series-How to Marry a Millionaire.
1961 – “Take Good Care of My Baby” by Bobby Vee topped the charts.
1961 – Mantle slugs his career high 54th HR.
1962 – New York’s Philharmonic Hall opened.
1962 – ABC’s first color TV series-The Jetsons premiered.
1962 – Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York City opens with the first building completed, Philharmonic Hall, now Avery Fisher Hall home of the New York Philharmonic.
1965– CHART TOPPERS – “Help!” by The Beatles, “Eve of Destruction” by Barry McGuire, “You Were on My Mind” by We Five and “Is It Really Over?” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1967 – “The Letter” by Box Tops topped the charts.
1968 – The TV western “The Outcasts” premiered. The one season show featured Otis Young (d.2001 at 69) and Don Murray working together as post Civil War bounty hunters.
1969 – The Chicago 8 trial opens in Chicago, Illinois
1969 – The first broadcast of “Marcus Welby MD” on ABC-TV. The drama with Robert Young continued to 1976.
1972 – “Baby Don’t Get Hooked on Me” by Mac Davis topped the charts.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Let’s Get It On” by Marvin Gaye, “We’re an American Band by Grand Funk, “Loves Me like a Rock” by Paul Simon and “You’ve Never Been This Far Before” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1973 – Largest known prime number, 2 ^ 132,049-1, is discovered.
1978 – “Boogie Oogie Oogie” by A Taste of Honey topped the charts.
1979 – St. Louis legend Lou Brock steals the 938th and final base of his career in a 7-4 win against the New York Mets.
1979 – The ABC TV show “The Associates” premiered as a comedy about lawyers. It lasted for one season.
1980 – Big Thunder Mountain Railroad opens at the Magic Kingdom in Disneyland. The ride is a relatively mild indoor/outdoor roller coaster based on the concept of a runaway train careening through an abandoned mine complex.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Endless Love” by Diana Ross & Lionel Richie, “Queen of Hearts” by Juice Newton, “Stop Draggin’ My Heart Around” by Stevie Nicks with Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers and “You Don’t Know Me” by Mickey Gilley all topped the charts.
1983 – Phillies Steve Carlton wins his 300th game (beating St Louis Cards).
1984 – Sparky Anderson is first baseball manager to win 100 games in both the American and National Leagues.
1986 – The US Congress selected the rose as the US national flower.
1986 – Houston Astro Jim Deshales sets record of striking out first 8 men starting a baseball game.
1987 – Delaware Sen. Joseph Biden withdrew from the Democratic presidential race following questions about his use of borrowed quotations and the portrayal of his academic record.
1988 – Jose Canseco becomes baseball’s first to steal 40 bases & hit 40 HRs.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Girl I’m Gonna Miss You” by Milli Vanilli, “Heaven” by Warrant, “If I Could Turn Back Time” by Cher and  “Above and Beyond” by Rodney Crowell all topped the charts.
1990 – Iraq publicly threatened to destroy Middle East oil fields and to attack Israel if any nation tried to force it from Kuwait.
1990 – Two Hospital ships (USNS Mercy and USNS Comfort) steam together for first time in Arabian Gulf.
1991 – UN weapons inspectors in Baghdad discovered documents detailing Iraq’s secret nuclear weapons program and said Iraq was close to building a bomb. This triggered a standoff with Iraqi authorities.
1995 – Guillermo Gaede, an Intel engineer, was arrested in Phoenix. He had used his computer to tap into plans for the Pentium & 486 chip manufacturing process and videotaped the information in May 1993. He sent the info to his former employer Advanced Micro Devices who notified federal authorities.
1996 – Space Shuttle Atlantis left Russia’s orbiting Mir station with astronaut Shannon Lucid, who ended her six-month visit.
1997 – Kevin (18) and Tilmon Golphin (19) of Virginia shot and killed Patrol Troopers Ed Lowry and David Hathcock on I-95 in North Carolina after they were pulled over in a stolen car. The two brothers were sentenced to death May 13, 1998.
1998 – Joan Kroc, the heiress to McDonald’s, donated $80 million to the Salvation Army.
1999 – NASA announces that it lost contact with the Mars Climate Orbiter. The $125 million Mars Climate Orbiter was presumed lost after it hit the Martian atmosphere. The crash was later blamed on navigation confusion due to two teams using conflicting English and metric units.
1999 – President Clinton vetoed the $792 billion GOP proposed ten-year tax cut calling it “too big, too bloated.”
2001 – After 9/11, President George W. Bush returned the American flag to full staff at Camp David, symbolically ending a period of national mourning.
2001 – Thousands gathered at New York’s Yankee Stadium to offer prayers for the victims of terrorism; Mayor Rudolph Giuliani pledged that “our skyline will rise again.”
2001 – Four coal miners were killed in an explosion at the Blue Creek Mine Number Five in Brookwood, Ala. nine miners who rushed to their aid also died. The mine is the deepest in North America at 2,140 feet below the surface.
2002 – Mozilla Firefox (Phoenix) web browser is born: version 0.1.
2002 – The Bush administration asked a federal appeals court to strike down Oregon’s assisted-suicide law.
2003 – Puerto Rico’s congressional delegate said the United States will close its Roosevelt Roads Naval Station in eastern Puerto Rico within the next six months. It was actually closed on March 31, 2004.
2003 – An 11-judge panel of the  Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit overturns the earlier ruling of a three-judge panel and reinstates October 7 as the date of the California gubernatorial recall election.
2003 – Iraqi War: A raid in Saudi Arabia on Islamic militants left three suspects dead, including an Sultan Jubran Sultan al-Qahtani (aka as Zubayr al-Rimi), an al-Qaida figure wanted by the US.
2004 – The US Congress voted to extend three tax cuts aimed at the middle class along with a bevy of business tax breaks.
2004 – The US agrees to release Yaser Esam Hamdi, who was born in the United States and raised in Saudi Arabia, after holding him for almost three years without charges, as an “illegal enemy combatant”. In exchange, Hamdi agrees to relinquish his American citizenship and to never return to the United States.
2004 – Iraqi War: US warplanes fired on insurgent targets in the east Baghdad slum of Sadr City. Gunmen in Mosul killed a senior official of Iraq’s North Oil Co.
2005 – Hurricane Rita, dropped to Category 4, moved toward the Texas and Louisiana coast with 135 mph winds, creating monumental traffic jams along evacuation routes and raising fears of a crippling blow to the nation’s oil-refining industry.
2005 – In Texas, a bus carrying elderly evacuees from Hurricane Rita caught fire and was rocked by explosions on a gridlocked highway near Dallas, killing twenty-three people.
2006 – Barry Bonds hit his 734th career home run in the Giants’ 10-8 loss to the Brewers, breaking Hank Aaron’s NL record.
2006 – Two days of high winds, heavy rain and tornadoes pounded parts of the US Midwest and the South, killing at least ten people and stranding others in trees and shelters while forecasters warned that the stormy weather was expected to continue.
2007 – The 7-part, 15-hour opus “The War,” by Ken Burns and co-director Lynn Novick, began on PBS. PBS later estimated 18.7 million viewers saw the airings of “The War,” the first chapter of Ken Burns’ seven-part documentary about World War II.
2008 – California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger signed a $144.5 billion spending plan. The state budget was a record 85 days late.
2008 – Goldman Sachs said it will get a $5 billion infusion from Warren Buffett and his Berkshire Hathaway Inc., giving Berkshire roughly 10% of Goldman.
2009 – In Illinois Michael Finton (29) was arrested in Springfield after federal officials said he attempted to detonate what he believed to be explosives in a van in Springfield. The FBI had provided the decoy devices.
2010 – Approximately 16,000 people have died in the United States between 2001 and 2007 due to people using cell phones while driving,
2010 – The U.S state of Virginia executes its first woman since 1912; Teresa Lewis will also be the first woman in the U.S to be executed since 2005.
2011 – Top executives from a bankrupt California solar energy company (Solyndra) pleaded the Fifth Amendment more than a dozen times in a congressional hearing that went nowhere but gave members the opportunity to pose dozens of questions about the loss of a half billion dollars in government loans.
2011 –  NASA’s 1991-era Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite is expected to fall from orbit sometime this evening Greenwich Mean Time.
2012 – Researchers find that there are four genetically distinct types of breast cancer.


63 BC – Augustus Caesar, Roman Emperor (d. 14)
1215 – Kublai Khan of the Mongol Empire (d. 1294)
1838 – Victoria Chaflin Woodhull was born. She became the first female candidate for the U.S. Presidency.
1852 – William Stewart Halsted, American surgeon (d. 1922) is known as the father of American surgery. Born in New York City, he was the founder of the American residency training system of progressive responsibility.
1863 – Mary Eliza Church Terrell, American writer (d. 1954) A high school teacher and principal, Terrell was appointed to the District of Columbia Board of Education, 1895- 1906, the first black woman in the United States to hold such a position. She led the successful fight to integrate eating places in the District of Columbia. Terrell continued to participate in picket lines protesting the segregation of Blacks in restaurants, as well as theatres way into her eighties.
1910 – Elliot Roosevelt, son of FDR and writer (Murder in the Oval Office).
1920 – Mickey Rooney, American actor. He was born Joe Yule, Jr. in Brooklyn, NY.
1926 – John Coltrane, American saxophonist (d. 1967)
1930 – Ray Charles, American musician (d. 2004)
1943 – Julio Iglesias, Spanish singer
1943 – Marty Schottenheimer, American football coach
1949 – Bruce Springsteen, American singer and songwriter







Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, 157th Infantry, 45th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Oliveto, Italy, September 23rd, 1943. Entered service at: Gulfport, Miss. Born: 2 April 1912, Laurel, Miss G.O. No.: 44, 30 May 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy in the vicinity of Oliveto, Italy, on 23 September 1943. Cpl. Slaton was lead scout of an infantry squad which had been committed to a flank to knock out enemy resistance which had succeeded in pinning two attacking platoons to the ground. Working ahead of his squad, Cpl. Slaton crept upon an enemy machinegun nest and, assaulting it with his bayonet, succeeded in killing the gunner. When his bayonet stuck, he detached it from the rifle and killed another gunner with rifle fire. At that time he was fired upon by a machinegun to his immediate left. Cpl. Slaton then moved over open ground under constant fire to within throwing distance, and on his second try scored a direct hit on the second enemy machinegun nest, killing two enemy gunners. At that time a third machinegun fired on him one-hundred yards to his front, and Cpl. Slaton killed both of these enemy gunners with rifle fire. As a result of Cpl. Slaton’s heroic action in immobilizing three enemy machinegun nests with bayonet, grenade, and rifle fire, the two rifle platoons which were receiving heavy casualties from enemy fire were enabled to withdraw to covered positions and again take the initiative. Cpl. Slaton withdrew under mortar fire on order of his platoon leader at dusk that evening. The heroic actions of Cpl. Slaton were far above and beyond the call of duty and are worthy of emulation.







Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Red Creek, Ariz., September 23rd, 1869. Entered service at: Montgomery County, Ohio. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 23 November 1869. Citation: Gallantry in action.







Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Red Creek, Ariz., September 23rd,1869. Entered service at:——. Birth: Albion, N.Y. Date of issue: 23 November 1869. Citation: Gallantry in action.






Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Red Creek, Ariz., September 23rd, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: France. Date of issue: 23 November 1869. Citation: Gallantry in action with Indians.


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Unerased History – September 22nd

Posted by Wayne Church on September 22, 2014 in 09 - September, Blog by month |
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National White Chocolate Day
Hobbit Day

Hobbit Day

Bilbo and Frodo Baggins






Hobbit Day is the birthday of the hobbits Bilbo and Frodo Baggins, two of the fictional characters in  The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien. In the books both Bilbo and Frodo were said to be born on September 22, but of different years. Bilbo was born in the year of 2890 and Frodo in the year of 2968 in the Third Age (1290 and 1368 respectively in Shire-Reckoning.)

The books are set in a time “Between the Dawn of Færie and the Dominion of Men”, The Hobbit follows the quest of home-loving hobbit Bilbo Baggins to win a share of the treasure guarded by the dragon, Smaug. Bilbo’s journey takes him from light-hearted, rural surroundings into darker, deeper territory. The story is told in the form of an episodic quest, and most chapters introduce a specific creature, or type of creature, of Tolkien’s Wilderland. By accepting the disreputable, romantic, fey and adventurous side of his nature (the “Tookish” side) and applying his wits and common sense, Bilbo develops a new level of maturity, competence and wisdom. The story reaches its climax in the Battle of Five Armies, where many of the characters and creatures from earlier chapters re-emerge to engage in conflict. Themes of personal growth and forms of heroism figure in the story. Along with conflict, these themes lead critics to cite Tolkien’s own experiences, and those of other writers who fought in World War I.

The four main characters are: Bilbo Baggins, the titular protagonist, a respectable, conservative hobbit. During his adventure, Bilbo often refers to the contents of his larder at home and wishes he had more food. Until he finds the magic ring, he is more baggage than help. Gandalf is an itinerant wizard, who introduces Bilbo to a company of thirteen dwarves. During the journey he disappears on side errands dimly hinted at, only to appear again at key moments in the story. Thorin Oakenshield, proud, pompous head of the company of dwarves and heir to the destroyed dwarven kingdom under the Lonely Mountain. Thorin makes many mistakes in his leadership, relying on Gandalf and Bilbo to get him out of trouble, but he proves himself a mighty warrior and Smaug, a dragon who long ago pillaged the dwarven kingdom of Thorin’s grandfather and sleeps upon the vast treasure.

The minor characters’ include the other 12 dwarves in Thorin’s company : Balin, Dwalin, Bifur, Bofur, Bombur, Dori, Nori, Ori, Fili, Kili, Oin, and Gloin. They support Thorin in many ways in the story; though they are not as important as Bilbo. The trolls in the story are Bert, Tom, and William. These trolls are large creatures that came down from their mountain; Bilbo attempts to steal from them but fails and almost gets the dwarves killed. Gandalf the Wizard saves the company from their demise.

Follow this link to find out how to celebrate Hobbit Day

Follow this link to find out how to celebrate Hobbit Day with your kids!



“Much of the stress that people feel doesn’t come from having too much to do. It comes from not finishing what they started.”

~ David Allen

heterogeneous \het-uh-ruh-JEE-nee-uhs; -JEE-nyuhs\, adjective:
Consisting of dissimilar elements, parts, or ingredients — opposed to homogeneous.Heterogeneous derives from Greek heterogenes, from heter-, “other, different” + genos, “kind.”

66 – Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica.
1554 – Spanish explorer Francisco Vásquez, his health badly deteriorated from injuries and the toll of his strenuous travels, dies. He never found the fabled cities of gold that he had sought for decades.
1598 – Ben Jonson, an English Renaissance dramatist, poet, actor and a contemporary of William Shakespeare,  is indicted for manslaughter.
1656 – The General Provincial Court in session at Patuxent, Maryland, impaneled the first all-woman jury in the Colonies to hear evidence against Judith Catchpole, who was accused of murdering her child. The jury acquitted her after hearing her defense of never having been pregnant.
1692 – Last people hanged for witchcraft in the United States.
1711 – The Tuscarora Indian War began with a massacre of settlers in North Carolina, following white encroachment that included making slaves of Indian children.
1776 – Nathan Hale is hanged for spying during the Revolutionary War. His last words, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.” He was a Connecticut schoolteacher and captain in the Continental Army.
1784 – Russia establishes a colony at Kodiak, Alaska.

1789 – The position of United States Postmaster General established.
1851 – First telegraph used in railroading.
1862 – Civil War: President Lincoln issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. It stated that all slaves held within rebel states would be free as of January 1, 1863.
1863 – Civil War: A  crew of nineteen Confederate seamen and their commander captured the Army tug “Leviathan” before dawn at South West pass, Mississippi River. They quickly put to sea  but were captured 40 miles off-shore.
1863 – Civil War: An expedition from the U.S.S. Seneca destroyed the Hudson Place Salt Works near Darien, Georgia.
1864 – Civil War: Union General Philip Sheridan defeated Confederate General Jubal Early’s troops at the Battle of Fisher’s Hill, in Virginia.
1868 – Race riots took place in New Orleans, La.
1869 – The Cincinnati Red Stockings, the first professional baseball team, arrived in San Francisco after a rollicking, barnstorming tour of the West.
1888 – The first issue of National Geographic Magazine is published.
1893 – The first American-built automobile, built by the Duryea Brothers, is displayed.
1902 – A long-simmering feud between the Brooks and McFarland clans erupted into a bloody gunfight in the railroad town of Spokogee, Indian Territory, which is now Dustin, Oklahoma.
1903 – Italo Marchiony files patent for the ice cream cone.
1905 – Race riot in Atlanta, Georgia killed 10 blacks and 2 whites.
1906 – Race riots in Atlanta, Georgia, killed 21 people.
1909 – In Oakland, Ca., Fung Joe Guey made the first West Coast flight of a heavier than air motor driven airplane at Piedmont Heights. He flew for half a mile some 15-feet above the ground.
1911 – Boston Rustlers Cy Young shuts out Pittsburgh and Babe Adams 1-0 for his final career victory, number 511. Cy Young was 44.
1912 – Eddie Collins steals 6 bases in a game, for 2nd time in 11 days.
1915 – Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas, held its 1st class.
1915 – Xavier University, the first African-American Catholic college, opened in New Orleans, Louisiana.
1919 – Steel workers at Gary, Ind., went on strike to force US Steel to recognize their union. The walkout ended in 110 days without success.
1920 – Chicago grand jury convened to investigate charges that 8 White Sox players conspired to fix the 1919 World Series.
1927 – Jack Dempsey loses the “Long Count” boxing match to Gene Tunney.
1938 – The musical comedy revue “Hellzapoppin’,” starring Ole Olsen and Chic Johnson, began a three-year run on Broadway.
1941 – World War II: On the Jewish New Year Day, the German SS murder 6,000 Jews in Vinnytsya, Ukraine. Those are the survivors of the previous killings that took place a few days earlier in which about 24,000 Jews are executed.
1942 – World War II: The Communications Branch of the OSS is formed by General Donovan.
1943 – Singer Kate Smith ended her War Bond radio appeal.
1944 – World War II: On Peleliu, US 3rd Amphibious Corps (Geiger) deploys a regiment of US 81st Infantry Division to replace depleted elements of the US 1st Marine Division. The Marines have suffered heavy casualties in attacks on Mount Umurbrogol.
1944 – World War II: US Task Force 38 conducts air strikes on Japanese targets on Luzon, particularly Manila and Manila Bay. Twelve American carriers are involved.
1945 – Gen. George S. Patton tells reporters that he does not see the need for “this denazification thing” and compares the controversy over Nazism to a “Democratic and Republican election fight.”
1945The Fifth Marine Division landed at Sasebo, Japan, for occupation duty.
1945 – Stan Musial gets five hits off five pitchers on five consecutive pitches.
1947 – A Douglas C-54 Skymaster made the first automatic-pilot flight over the Atlantic.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “A Tree in the Meadow” by Margaret Whiting, “It’s Magic by Doris Day, “You Call Everybody Darlin’” by Al Trace (vocal: Bob Vincent) and “Just a Little Lovin’ (Will Go a Long Way)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1950 – Omar Bradley was promoted to the rank of five-star general, joining an elite group that included Dwight D. Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, George Marshall and Henry “Hap” Arnold.
1951 – The 2nd Infantry Division’s struggle for Heartbreak Ridge continued. By the time the battle was over Oct. 15, 1951, the division has suffered 3,700 casualties.
1951 – The first live sporting event seen coast-to-coast in the United States, a college football game between Duke and the University of Pittsburgh, is televised on NBC.
1951 – “Because of You” by Tony Bennett topped the charts.
1954 – Karl Spooner of the Dodgers pitches a 3-0 shutout, fanning 15 Giants in his first ML start. Six of the strikeouts are consecutive.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Canadian Sunset” by Hugo Winterhalter & Eddie Heywood, “Whatever Will Be Will Be (Que Sera Sera)” by Doris Day, “Be-Bop-A-Lula” by Gene Vincent & His Blue Caps and “Don’t Be Cruel/Hound Dog” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.
1957 – The TV series “Maverick” premiered on ABC.
1958 – The nuclear submarine USS Skate remained a record thirty-one days under the North Pole.
1958 – The detective TV show “Peter Gunn”  (complete playlist) premiered on NBC with Craig Stevens as the private eye.
1959 – The “Go-Go” White Sox clinch their first pennant in forty years with a 4-2 win over the second-place Cleveland Indians.
1959 – The first telephone cable linking Europe and the United States was inaugurated.
1959 – Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev visited San Francisco and dropped in at the ILWU union hall near Fisherman’s Wharf.
1961 – President John F. Kennedy signed a congressional act that established the Peace Corps.
1962 – “Sherry” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “The House of the Rising Sun” by The Animals, “Bread and Butter” by The Newbeats, “Oh, Pretty Woman” by Roy Orbison and “I Guess I’m Crazy” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1964 – “The Man from U.N.C.L.E.” premieres.
1964 – “Fiddler on the Roof” opens on Broadway, runs 3,242 performances.
1966 – A crowd of 413, a record low for Yankee Stadium, sees the White Sox beat New York 4-1.
1966 – The U.S. lunar probe Surveyor 2 crashed into the moon.
1969 – San Francisco Giant Willie Mays, becomes the second player to hit home run # 600.
1970 – The Laguna Fire started. It previously known as the Kitchen Creek Fire and the Boulder Oaks Fire and was, at its time, the largest wildfire in the history of California; and an episode of a massive conflagration that spanned the whole state from September 22, – October 4, 1970.
1970 – President Richard M. Nixon signed a bill giving the District of Columbia representation in the U.S. Congress.
1970 – President Nixon requested 1,000 new FBI agents for college campuses.
1971 – Captain Ernest Medina is acquitted of all charges relating to the My Lai massacre of March 1968.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “Black & White” by Three Dog Night, “Baby Don’t Get Hooked on Me” by Mac Davis, “Saturday in the Park” by Chicago and “When the Snow is on the Roses” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
The song Black&White was inspired by the United States Supreme Court decision of Brown v. Board of Education that outlawed racial segregation of public schools. The original folk song was first recorded by Sammy Davis Jr. in 1957. The original lyrics of the song opened with this verse, in reference to the court: “Their robes were black, Their heads were white, The schoolhouse doors were closed so tight, Nine judges all set down their names, To end the years and years of shame.”

1973 – “Let’s Get It On” by Marvin Gaye topped the charts.
1973 – Henry Kissinger is sworn in as Secretary of State. He was America’s first Jewish Secretary of State, the first time a naturalized citizen held this office.
1973 – Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport was dedicated. It was constructed to accommodate the new jumbo jets.
1975 – President Gerald R. Ford dodged a second assassination in less than three weeks. Sara Jane Moore tries to assassinate U.S. President Gerald Ford, but is foiled by Oliver Sipple. Sipple was a decorated Marine and Vietnam War veteran.
1979 – “My Sharona” by Knack topped the charts.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Upside Down” by Diana Ross, “All Out of Love” by Air Supply, “Another One Bites the Dust” by Queen and “Lookin’ for Love” by Johnny Lee all topped the charts.
1980 – Iraq invades Iran.
1982 – San Francisco’s famous cable cars made a final run before closing down for a 20-month, $60 million renovation.
1984 – “Missing You” by John Waite topped the charts.
1985 – St Louis Cardinals set an unusual streak record by winning 9 of 10 games, each pitched by a different man.
1986 – LA Dodger Fernando Valenzuela is first Mexican pitcher to win 20 games.
1987 – U.S. forces attack an Iranian mine-laying vessel in the Persian Gulf.
1987 – The stock market surged higher. The Dow Jones industrial average rose 75.23 points (the largest one-day gain recorded to that time), closing at 2,568.05.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sweet Child o’ Mine” by Guns N’ Roses, “Simply Irresistible” by Robert Palmer, “Don’t Worry Be Happy” by Bobby McFerrin and “Joe Knows How to Live” by Eddy Raven all topped the charts.
1989 – After Hurricane Hugo, sailors and Marines provide assistance to Charleston, SC, through 10 October.
1990 – Andre Dawson steals his 300th base.
1990 – “Release Me” by Wilson Phillips topped the charts.
1991 – The Dead Sea Scrolls are made available to the public for the first time, by the Huntington Library.
1992 – Former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger denounced as a  “flat-out lie” an allegation that he and other officials had known American servicemen were left behind when the war in Southeast Asia ended.
1993 – Forty-seven people were killed when an Amtrak passenger train derailed after a barge strikes a railroad bridge. The train crashed into Bayou Canot near Mobile, Al.
1993 – The Space Shuttle “Discovery” and its five astronauts landed at Kennedy Space Center, ending a ten-day mission.
1995 – Both sides rested in the O.J. Simpson murder trial.
1995 – An AWACS plane carrying US and Canadian military personnel crashed on takeoff from Elmendorf Air Force Base near Anchorage, Alaska, killing all 24 people aboard.
1997 – Elton John released his Diana tribute “Candle in the Wind 1997.”
2000 – The Cincinnati Symphony premiered “The Millennium Fantasy for Piano and Orchestra” by Ellen Taaffe Zwilich. The work was commissioned by 27 orchestras.
2000 – Pres. Clinton moved to release 30 million barrels of crude oil from the nation’s 570-million-barrel emergency stockpile in a futures market exchange to alleviate winter fuel costs.
2000 – Kraft Foods recalled all taco shells sold nationwide in supermarkets under the Taco Bell brand after tests confirmed they were made with StarLink, a genetically engineered corn not approved for human consumption.
2001 – Katie Harman, Miss Oregon, was crowned in Atlantic City, N.J., Miss America for 2002.
2003 – David Hempleman-Adams becomes the first person to cross the Atlantic Ocean in an open-air, wicker-basket hot air balloon.
2003 – California signed into law a privacy bill, effective Jul 1, 2004, that prevents use of vehicle recorded data without the consent of the owner. GM began installing data boxes in the 1970s.
2004 – The FCC fined CBS $550,000 for Janet Jackson’s Feb 1 breast exposure.
2005 – John Roberts’ nomination as chief justice cleared the US Senate Judiciary Committee on a bipartisan vote of 13-5.
2005 – Hurricane Rita, weakened to Category 4 status, closed on the Texas coast.
2005 – Boxer Leavander Johnson (35) died from injuries suffered in a September 17th Los Vegas boxing match with Jesus Chavez.
2006 – The F-14 Tomcat, famous from the movie “TopGun”, retires from the United States Navy.
2006 – Eleven Domino’s employees in Pensacola, Fla., hoping fort a bigger slice of the profits have formed the nation’s first union of pizza delivery drivers.
2006 – The reported number of people fallen ill after eating tainted spinach reaches 166 in 25 U.S. states.
2007 – According to the movie, Evan Almighty, this is the date of the “flood.”
2008 – The price of oil jumped $16.37 to $120.92 per barrel, its biggest single-day gain ever.
2008 – The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 is debated on by the 110th United States Congress.The Dow Jones Industrial Average falls by 370 points due to uncertainty over the plan.
2009 – The U.S. Food and Drug Administration bans the sale of flavored cigarettes, except for menthol cigarettes.
2009 -President Barack Obama calls for the resumption of the Middle East peace process in meetings with the Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu and the President of the Palestinian Authority Mahmoud Abbas.
2010 –  It was reported that North Dakota’s Devil’s Lake, called a slow-growing monster, has steadily expanded over the last 20 years, swallowing up thousands of acres, hundreds of buildings and at least two towns in its rising waters.
2010 – Rutgers Univ. freshman Tyler Clementi jumped to his death from the George Washington Bridge. On Sep 19 his roommate and another student had used a webcam to broadcast live images on the Internet of Clementi having sex with another man.
2010 –   Eddie Fisher (b.1928), American singer, died in Berkeley, Ca. His 32 hit songs included “Oh My Papa” (1953). His five wives included Debbie Reynolds (1955), Elizabeth Taylor (1959), Connie Stevens, Terry Richard and Betty Lin.
2011- Facebook makes major changes to its social networking interface, updating its profile page, adding an app store, and amending its news feed with a “timeline” feature.
2010-Paris Hilton is barred from entering Japan after pleading guilty to cocaine possession in Las Vegas, Nevada.
2011 – The United States and European nations walk out of the General Assembly of the United Nations during an accusatory speech by the President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
2011 –  Facebook makes major changes to its social networking interface, updating its profile page and amending its news feed with a “timeline” feature.
2011- Hewlett-Packard fires CEO Leo Apotheker, replacing him with former EBay CEO Meg Whitman.
2013 – The Navajo Nation and others in Indian Country are mourning the passing of Navajo Code Talker Nelson Draper who walked on early Sunday, September 22. He was 96 years old. He entered the US Marine Corp when he was 25 years old after the United States entered World War II. He became a code talker and fought in the Pacific front in both Iwo Jima and Okinawa.

1515 – Anne of Cleves, queen consort of Henry VIII of England (d. 1557)
1788 – Theodore Edward Hook, English author (d. 1841)
1791 – Michael Faraday, English scientist (d. 1867) discovered principle of electric motor
1900 – William Spratling, (d. 1967) was an American-born silversmith and artist, best known for his influence on 20th Century Mexican silver design.
1904 – Ellen Church was the first airline stewardess (flight attendant). (d. 1965)
1920 – Bob Lemon, Major League Baseball pitcher (d. 2000)
1927 – Tommy Lasorda, baseball manager
1932 – Ingemar Johansson, Swedish boxer
1934 – Lute Olson, American basketball coach . He was the head coach at the University of Arizona for 25 years, the University of Iowa for 9 years, and Long Beach State University for one season.
1956 – Debby Boone, American singer
1958 – Neil Cavuto, American television commentator
1961 – Bonnie Hunt, American actress






Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company E, 338th Infantry, 85th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Firenzuola, Italy, 22 September 1944. Entered service at: Streeter, N. Dak. Birth: Big Falls, Wis. G.O. No.: 9, 10 February 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. 1st Lt. Bloch undertook the task of wiping out five enemy machinegun nests that had held up the advance in that particular sector for one day. Gathering three volunteers from his platoon, the patrol snaked their way to a big rock, behind which a group of three buildings and five machinegun nests were located. Leaving the three men behind the rock, he attacked the first machinegun nest alone charging into furious automatic fire, kicking over the machinegun, and capturing the machinegun crew of five. Pulling the pin from a grenade, he held it ready in his hand and dashed into the face of withering automatic fire toward this second enemy machinegun nest located at the corner of an adjacent building fifteen yards distant. When within twenty feet of the machinegun he hurled the grenade, wounding the machinegunner, the other two members of the crew fleeing into a door of the house. Calling one of his volunteer group to accompany him, they advanced to the opposite end of the house, there contacting a machinegun crew of five running toward this house. 1st Lt Bloch and his men opened fire on the enemy crew, forcing them to abandon this machinegun and ammunition and flee into the same house. Without a moment’s hesitation, 1st Lt. Bloch, unassisted, rushed through the door into a hail of small-arms fire, firing his carbine from the hip, and captured the seven occupants, wounding three of them. 1st Lt. Bloch with his men then proceeded to a third house where they discovered an abandoned enemy machinegun and detected another enemy machinegun nest at the next corner of the building. The crew of six spotted 1st Lt. Bloch the instant he saw them. Without a moment’s hesitation he dashed toward them. The enemy fired pistols wildly in his direction and vanished through a door of the house, 1st Lt. Bloch following them through the door, firing his carbine from the hip, wounding two of the enemy and capturing six. Altogether 1st Lt. Bloch had single-handedly captured nineteen prisoners, wounding six of them and eliminating a total of five enemy machinegun nests. His gallant and heroic actions saved his company many casualties and permitted them to continue the attack with new inspiration and vigor.






Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 45th Infantry Division. Place and date: At Oliveto, Italy, 22 September 1943. Entered service at: Tulsa, Okla. Birth: Broken Arrow, Okla. G.O. No.: 30, 8 April 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in action on 22 September 1943, at Oliveto, Italy. Although 2d Lt. Childers previously had just suffered a fractured instep he, with eight enlisted men, advanced up a hill toward enemy machinegun nests. The group advanced to a rock wall overlooking a cornfield and 2d Lt. Childers ordered a base of fire laid across the field so that he could advance. When he was fired upon by two enemy snipers from a nearby house he killed both of them. He moved behind the machinegun nests and killed all occupants of the nearer one. He continued toward the second one and threw rocks into it. When the two occupants of the nest raised up, he shot one. The other was killed by one of the eight enlisted men. 2d Lt. Childers continued his advance toward a house farther up the hill, and single-handed, captured an enemy mortar observer. The exceptional leadership, initiative, calmness under fire, and conspicuous gallantry displayed by 2d Lt. Childers were an inspiration to his men.



INTERIM 1871 – 1898



Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Place and date :  U.S.S. Tigress  off the coast of Greenland 22 September 1873   Born: 1839, Boston, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Tigress, Willis displayed gallant and meritorious conduct on the night of 22 September 1873 off the coast of Greenland.






Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 43d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fishers Hill, Va., 22 September 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 6 October 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.





Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 23d Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Fishers Hill, Va., 22 September 1864. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 6 October 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.






Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 11th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Fishers Hill, Va., 22 September 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Tyler County W. Va. Date of issue: 6 October 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.






Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 61st Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Fishers Hill, Va., 22 September 1864. Entered service at: Wilkes_Barre, Pa. Birth: Plains, Pa. Date of issue: 16 February 1897. Citation: Was on the skirmish line which drove the enemy from the first entrenchment and was the first man to enter the breastworks, capturing one of the guns and turning it upon the enemy.






Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 5th Battery, Maine Light Artillery. Place and date: At Fishers Hill, Va., 22 September 1864. Entered service at: Gorham, Maine. Birth: Portland, Maine. Date of issue: 13 January 1892. Citation: While acting as assistant adjutant general, Artillery brigade, 6th Army Corps, went over the enemy’s works, mounted, with the assaulting column, to gain quicker possession of the guns and to turn them upon the enemy.

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Unerased History – September 21st

Posted by Wayne Church on September 21, 2014 in 09 - September, Blog by month |
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World Gratitude Day

Autumn equinox



 An Easter Egg is an undocumented feature or novelty that is in a program that the programmers have placed in the larger program. for additional fun and credits. Easter Eggs are in no way destructive to any software or hardware within the computer and are usually meant for something unique and fun. In the days of electronic bulletin boards they would include an intentional hidden message, in-joke or feature in a work such as a computer program, web page, video game, movie, book or crossword. The term was coined—according to Warren Robinett—by Atari after they were pointed to the secret message left by Robinett in the game Adventure.  It draws a parallel with the custom of the Easter egg hunt observed in US as well as the last Russian imperial family’s tradition of giving elaborately jeweled egg-shaped creations by Carl Fabergé which contained hidden surprises.

Hiding easter eggs in a program is analogous in some respects to the hidden signature such as Alfred Hitchcock’s legendary cameo appearances in his works, Jerry Seinfeld’s “Superman” memorabilia in each episode and various “Hidden Mickeys” that can be found throughout the various Disney Parks. Today it could be a hidden logo or statement that later could prove copyright.

Atari’s Adventure, released in 1979, contained what was thought to be the first video game “Easter egg”, the name of the programmer (Warren Robinett). However, evidence of earlier Easter eggs has since surfaced. Several cartridges for the Fairchild Channel F, a game console released by Fairchild Semiconductor in August 1976, include previously unknown Easter eggs, programmed by Michael Glass and Brad Reid-Selth, that are believed to predate Robinett’s work. More examples occurred throughout the pre-internet days of “bulletin boards.”

Easter eggs are messages, videos, graphics, sound effects, or an unusual change in program behavior that sometimes occur in a software program in response to some undocumented set of commands, mouse clicks, keystrokes or other stimuli intended as a joke or to display program credits.

Many personal computers have very elaborate eggs hidden in ROM, including lists of the developers’ names, political exhortations, snatches of music, and (in one case) images of the entire development team. Easter eggs in the 1997 version of Microsoft Office include a hidden flight simulator in Microsoft Excel and a pinball game in Microsoft Word.

An Easter egg is found on all Microsoft Windows operating systems before XP. In the 3D Text screen saver, entering the text “volcano” will display the names of all the volcanoes in the United States. Microsoft removed this Easter egg in XP but added others. One which continues still in Windows XP is to simultaneously press Alt+⇧ Shift+2 in the Solitaire game to produce a forced win.  Microsoft Excel 95 contained a hidden Doom-like action game called The Hall of Tortured Souls.

Google Maps contains several Easter eggs whereby a user asking for directions from Japan to China, from New York to Tokyo, or from Taiwan to China would be directed to either jetski, kayak, or swim across the Pacific Ocean. Amazon.com contains two perpetual Easter Eggs placed on the site as tributes to Rick Dalzell and David Risher.

Easter Eggs in Windows 7

1. God Mode
This hidden egg will conveniently put hundreds of settings from all over the os into one place. How? Create a new folder on your desktop and name it GodMode.{ED7BA470-8E54-465E-825C-99712043E01C}
270 items will automatically be added to the folder consisting of every configurable option in Windows 7.

2. The calculator on windows is as old as time. Not much cool stuff to do with calculators except the cool formulas that we used to do as kids that spelled out funny and bad words when you turned the calculator upside down. Anyways, the Windows 8 calculator actually has a few extra useful tools like unit conversions, (weight, temperature, area etc) and cool worksheets to help you calculate a car’s fuel mileage or a mortgage payment.

3. Having Issues with your computer? Use the Reliability Monitor
The Reliability Monitor allows you to see a graph of your system’s “stability index” over a period of days, weeks, months, and up to even a year. It is then rated on a scale of 1 to 10, 1 being not reliable at all and 10 being super reliable, and shows you the specific programs that are causing issues or crashing over a specific period of time.
How? Search for “reliability” in the Start Menu Search and run View Reliability history

4. Need help with something on your computer, like port fowarding, ip camera settings, etc, but remote access tech support isn’t an option? Use the Problem Steps Recorder.
The Problem Steps Recorder will record your computer activities through a series screenshots. The program also automatically adds captions to the screenshots to show exactly where you clicked. You can also add custom comments by clicking the Add Comment button. When you have finished recording, the program will automatically join all of the images together and save the file, conveniently zipped as a MTHML file. How? Search for “psr” in the Start Menu Search and run the program. Click Start Record and viola!

5. Power Management
My Windows Laptop battery isn’t the greatest, and it usually drives me nuts. I recently found a cool way to diagnose the battery issue and it works like a charm. Power Efficiency Report will quickly report what programs or errors are causing your computers battery to drain quickly. How? Search for “CMD” in the Start Menu Search. Run it as an admin – right click cmd.exe on the search menu and choose Run as administrator.
From the command prompt type:  powercfg -energy

When it is finished you will be presented with a file called energy-report.html in your windowssystems32 folder. Drag the report to your desktop or some other place (it won’t open in the systems32 folder) double click to open and view what may be causing problems in your power management.

6. Pin your favorite folders and programs to the Taskbar.
 Right click any folder, or program – drag to an empty space on your Taskbar and drop it when “Pin to Windows Explorer appears. Now, when you right click on the Windows Explorer button your folders will be easily accessible.

Today Easter Eggs can be placed in text if the programmer can hide the hyper-link indicators. The only way to find these is to watch for places where the cursor changes to the hand.


“If you will call your troubles experiences, and remember that every experience develops some latent force within you, you will grow vigorous and happy, however adverse your circumstances may seem to be.”

~ John R. Miller


quandary    KWAHN-duh-ree; -dree, noun:

A state of difficulty, perplexity, doubt, or uncertainty.

Quandary is of unknown origin

454 – Roman Emperor Valentinian III assassinates Aëtius in his own throne room.

1451 – Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa ordered the Jews of Holland to wear a badge.
1599 – The Globe Theater had its first recorded performance. The 20-sided timber building for Shakespeare’s plays was constructed on the South Bank of the Thames, England.
1673 – James Needham returned to Virginia after exploring the land to the west, which would become Tennessee.
1677 – John and Nicolaas van der Heyden patented a fire extinguisher.
1692 – Two men and seven women were executed for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts.
1776 – Nathan Hale was hung by the British Army. He said, “I regret that I have but one life to give for my country.”
1776 – A fire broke out in New York City, most likely in the Fighting Cocks Tavern at Whitehall Street. Strong winds quickly spread the flames among tightly packed homes and businesses. It eventually consumed between 400 and 500 buildings, about one-quarter of the city. This fire occurred five days after British took over.
1780 – Revolutionary War: Benedict Arnold gives the British the plans to West Point.
1814 – Andrew Jackson issued Proclamation at Mobile, Ala., urging free Blacks “to rally around the standard of the eagle” in the War of 1812.
1814 – “Star Spangled Banner” was published as a poem.
1837 – Charles Lewis Tiffany (1812-1902) founded his jewelry and china stores.
1856 – Illinois Central Railroad connects Chicago to Cairo. With 700 miles of track, the railroad is the longest in the country.
1858 – Navy Sloop Niagara departs Charleston, SC, for Liberia with African slaves rescued from slave ship.
1862 – Civil War: William Benjamin Gould and 7 other black men stole a boat and rowed past Fort Caswell, NC. They were picked up the next day by the Union warship “Cambridge”.
1862 – Three hundred Indians were sentenced to hang in Mankato, Minnesota.
1863 – Civil War: Union troops under Major Gen’l. William S. Rosencrans defeated at Chickamauga sought refuge in Chattanooga, Tennessee, which was then besieged by Confederate troops. There they lost 10,000 horses and mules to starvation.
1872 – John Henry Conyers of South Carolina became the first black student at Annapolis.
1891 – Inventor, FW Leslie, patents the envelope seal.
1893 – Frank Duryea drove the first US-made gas propelled car.
1895 – The Duryea Motor Wagon Company, the first auto manufacturer, opened.
1897 – The “Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus” letter is published in the New York Sun. The editorial was written by veteran newsman Francis Pharcellus Church.
1903 – The first cowboy film, “Kit Carson,” premiered in US.
1906 - Yankee first baseman Hal Chase’s 22 put-outs ties record.
1922 – President Warren G. Harding signed a joint resolution of approval to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
1928 – “My Weekly Reader” magazine made its debut.
1930 – Johann Ostermeyer patented the flashbulb.
1937 – J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit is published.
1937 – The women’s airspeed record was set at 292 mph by American pilot Jacqueline Cochran.
1938 – The Great Hurricane of 1938 makes landfall on Long Island in New York. The death toll is estimated at 500-700 people. The winds were estimated at 180 mph.
1941 - With America on the verge of entering World War II, the government needed a source of extra revenue to fund the war effort. To that end, Congress passed the Revenue Act of 1941, increasing the burden on America’s taxpayers to help pay for the upcoming conflict.
1941 – The US launched its first Liberty-ship, “Patrick Henry.”
1942 – The B-29 Superfortress makes its debut.
1942 – World War II: Nazis executed 116 hostages in Paris.
1944 – World War II: US Task Force 38 conducts air strikes on Japanese targets on Luzon, particularly Manila and Manila Bay. Twelve American carriers are involved.
1944 – World War II: U.S. troops of the 7th Army, invading Southern France, crossed the Meuse River.
1946 – “The Second Mrs. Burton” was heard for the first time on the entire CBS radio network.
1946 – The Cleveland Indians played their final game in League Park, ending a 55-year stay. The field opened in the late 19th century on May 1, 1891 with the legendary Cy Young pitching for Cleveland before 9,000 fans.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Peg o’ My Heart” by The Harmonicats, “That’s My Desire by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Don Cornell), I Wonder Who’s Kissing Her Now” by Perry Como and Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette) by Tex Williams all topped the charts.
1948 – “Texaco Star Theater” with Milton Berle premieres on NBC-TV.
1948 – “Life With Luigi” debuted on the CBS Radio Network.
1950 – George Marshall sworn in as the third Secretary of Defense of United States.
1950 – General Douglas MacArthur, upon returning from the front is quoted as saying, I have just returned from visiting the Marines at the front, and there is not a finer fighting organization in the world.” 
1951 – Korean War: Operation CLEAVER took place. This one-day tank and infantry raid by elements of the U.S. 24th Infantry Division at the eastern end of the Iron Triangle near Kumsong inflicted heavy losses on the communists.
1952 – Korean War: USAF Captain Robinson Risner, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, destroyed his fifth and sixth MiG-15 near Sinuiju to become the 20th jet ace of the Korean War.
1953 – Korean War: North Korean pilot Lieutenant Ro Kim Suk landed his aircraft at Kimpo airfield outside Seoul. The Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15, powered by a jet engine superior to those then used in American fighter planes.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Yellow Rose of Texas” by Mitch Miller, “Maybellene by Chuck Berry, “Love is a Many-Splendored Thing” by The Four Aces and “I Don’t Care” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1955 – Rocky Marciano knocked down, but retains championship.
1957 – “Perry Mason” with Raymond Burr premiers on CBS-TV.
1957 – “Tammy” by Debbie Reynolds topped the charts.
1959 – “Sleep Walk” by Santo & Johnny topped the charts.
1961 – The U.S. Army’s 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces, is activated at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. The Special Forces were formed to organize and train guerrilla bands behind enemy lines.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Blue Velvet” by Bobby Vinton, “Heat Wave” by Martha & The Vandellas, “Sally, Go ’Round the Roses” by The Jaynetts and “Abilene” by George Hamilton IV all topped the charts.
1964 -The North American XB-70 Valkyrie, the world’s first air-breathing aircraft to achieve a speed of Mach 3, made its maiden flight from Palmdale, California.
1966 – National Guard mobilized to stop rioting in Dayton, Ohio.
1968 – “Harper Valley P.T.A.” by Jeannie C. Riley topped the charts.
1970 – Monday Night Football premieres. Cleveland Browns beat the New York Jets 31-21.
1970 – Luna 16 leaves the Moon.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Go Away Little Girl” by Donny Osmond, “Spanish Harlem by Aretha Franklin, “Ain’t No Sunshine” by Bill Withers and “The Year That Clayton Delaney Died” by Tom T. Hall all topped the charts.
1973 – Henry Kissinger was confirmed by the U.S. Senate to become 56th Secretary of State. He was the first naturalized citizen to hold the office of Secretary of State.
1974 – “Can’t Get Enough of Your Love, Babe” by Barry White topped the charts.
1974 – US Mariner 10 makes its second fly-by of Mercury.
1975 – Self-proclaimed revolutionary Sara Jane Moore attempted to kill President Gerald Ford as he walked from a San Francisco hotel. A bullet she fired slightly wounded a man in the crowd.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Sharona” by The Knack, “After the Love Has Gone” by Earth, Wind & Fire, “The Devil Went Down to Georgia” by The Charlie Daniels Band and “You’re My Jamaica” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1980 – Richard Todd of the Jets completes 42 passes in a game (NFL record).
1981 – Sandra Day O’Connor, the first female Supreme Court justice, is confirmed by the senate in a 99-0 vote.
1981 – Philadelphia Phillies pitcher Steve Carlton strikes out NL record 3,118th (Andre Dawson).
1982 – National Football League players began a 57-day strike, their first regular-season walkout ever.
1985 – “Money for Nothing” by Dire Straits topped the charts.
1986 – NY Jets beat Miami Dolphins 51-45 in OT; record 884 passing yards.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – I Just Can’t Stop Loving You” by Michael Jackson with Siedah Garrett, “Didn’t We Almost Have It All” by Whitney Houston, “Here I Go Again” by Whitesnake and “This Crazy Love” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1987 – A U.S. helicopter gunship disabled an Iranian vessel, the “Iran Ajr,” that was caught laying mines in the Persian Gulf; four Iranian crewmen were killed, 26 wounded and detained.
1989 – Hurricane Hugo makes landfall in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It hit in Charleston and caused $8 billion in damages.
1989 – Twenty-one students were killed in Alton, TX, when their bus was in an accident with a truck causing the bus to careen into a water-filled pit.
1989 – General Colin Powell was confirmed by the U.S. Senate as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
1990 – Pittsburg Pirate Barry Bonds is second to hit 30 home runs & steal fifty bases in a season.
1991 – Hospital Hostage taking: Richard L. Worthington finally freed his nine hostages at the end of 18 hours in Sandy, UT. Worthington had killed a nurse before seizing control of a hospital maternity ward.
1993 – The police drama “NYPD Blue” premiered on ABC.
1994 – Prosecutors from Los Angeles and Santa Barbara counties announced that Michael Jackson would not face child molestation charges.
1996 – The board of all-male Virginia Military Institute voted to admit women.
1998 – The videotaped grand jury statement that U.S. President Bill Clinton made concerning the Monica Lewinsky case was made public.
2001 – Deep Space 1 flies within 2,200 km of Comet Borrelly.
2001 – The US Congress passed a $15 billion relief package for the nation’s air carriers.
2001 – Ronald C. Sheffield, a federal security officer was shot and killed in the Patrick V. McNamara building in Detroit. The gunman was seriously wounded.
2002 – Erika Harold, Miss Illinois, was crowned in Atlantic City, NJ, as Miss America 2003.
2003 – Galileo mission terminated by sending the probe into Jupiter’s atmosphere, where it is crushed by the pressure at the lower altitudes.
2003 – The Washington Times reveals the arrest of U.S. Army Captain James Yee, an Islamic chaplain at the Guantanamo Bay naval base, for espionage.
2004 – An earthquake swarm is currently in progress in the Adobe Hills about 18 miles (29 km) east of California’s Mono Lake. Over 600 earthquakes have been recorded since September 18,
2004 – Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian opened in Washington DC. It included some 800,000 artifacts collected by George Gustav Heye (1874-1957).
2004 – A posting on an Islamic Web site claimed that the al-Qaida-linked group led by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi has slain US hostage Jack Hensley.
2004 – The U.S. Department of Homeland Security intercepts a United Airlines flight from London, so that Yusuf Islam, the musician formerly known as Cat Stevens, can be arrested and deported for allegedly financially supporting groups linked to terrorism.
2005 – Hurricane Rita intensified into a Category 5 storm with 140 mph winds and threatened to devastate the Texas coast or already-battered Louisiana by week’s end. More than 1.3 million people in Texas and Louisiana were evacuated The death toll from Katrina topped 1,000.
2005 – JetBlue Airways Flight 292 performs an emergency landing at Los Angeles International Airport following a front landing gear failure.
2006 – In Santa Cruz, Ca., Kirby Scudder (50), former bike messenger, set up 500 giant flashlights to shine skyward every 30 feet along West Cliff Drive overlooking the Pacific Ocean in his tribute to International Peace Day. The lights came on at 9PM.
2006 – The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced it would recommend all Americans ages 13 to 64 be routinely tested for HIV.
2006 – A U.S. federal judge in San Francisco orders two San Francisco Chronicle reporters jailed for up to 18 months for refusing to reveal who leaked them secret grand jury testimony about steroids in baseball.
2007 – One student was mortally wounded, another injured, at Delaware State University, and the campus was locked down as police searched for a gunman.
2007 -NASA releases new plans for moon base in 2020.
2008 – The New York Yankees beat The Baltimore Orioles, 7-3, at their last home game at Yankee Stadium. This is the last time the New York Yankees play at Yankee Stadium before moving to the New Yankee Stadium across the street.
2008 – New York City police arrested more than a dozen people for stealing pieces of Yankee Stadium during the 85-year-old ballpark’s final game.
2008 – The United States wins the Ryder Cup for the first time since 1999.
2009 – US prosecutors said Hassan Nemazee, a fund-raiser for Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton and other Democrats, has been indicted for defrauding Bank of America, HSBC and Citigroup Inc out of more than $290 million in loan proceeds.
2010 – The Minnesota Twins win the American League Central in Major League Baseball and become the first team to qualify for postseason play in 2010.
2011 –  Iran releases jailed American hikers Shane Bauer and Josh Fattal into the custody of the Omani envoy in Tehran.
2011 –  The US rock band R.E.M. announce they are splitting up.
2011 – Google+, the social network service developed by search engine giant Google, is released to the general public.
2012 – The Space Shuttle Endeavor overflies Los Angeles on its way to retirement. (15:19)  Actual Landing  (8:37).


1756 – John MacAdam, Scottish engineer and road-builder (d. 1836) created macadam road surface (asphalt)
1849 – Maurice Barrymore, actor; patriarch of the Barrymore family (d. 1905).
1866 – H. G. Wells, English writer (d. 1946)
1866 – Charles Nicolle, French bacteriologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1936)
1912 – Chuck Jones, American animator (d. 2002) He directed many of the classic short animated cartoons starring Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, the Road Runner & Wile E. Coyote, Pepé Le Pew and the other Warners characters, including the memorable What’s Opera, Doc?
1931 – Larry Hagman, American actor
1935 – Henry Gibson, Laugh-in’s poet
1944 – Fanny Flagg, in Alabama – Candid Camera
1944 – Hamilton Jordan, President Jimmy Carter’s 1st Chief of Staff
1947 – Stephen King, American author Horror and fantasy short story writer and novelist.
In King’s words, “Talent in cheaper than table salt. What separates the talented individual from the successful one is a lot of hard work.”
1953 – Arie Luyendyk, Dutch race car driver
1955 – Richard Hieb, American astronaut
1967 – Faith Hill, American singer







Rank and organization: Lance Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, Company F, 2d Battalion, 4th Marines, 3d Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and date: Near Con Thein, Republic of Vietnam, September 21st, 1967. Entered service at: Park Ridge, N.J. Born: 20 June 1945, Franklin, N.H. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a machine gunner with Company F. During a reconnaissance operation L/Cpl. Barker’s squad was suddenly hit by enemy sniper fire. The squad immediately deployed to a combat formation and advanced to a strongly fortified enemy position, when it was again struck by small arms and automatic weapons fire, sustaining numerous casualties. Although wounded by the initial burst of fire, L/Cpl. Barker boldly remained in the open, delivering a devastating volume of accurate fire on the numerically superior force. The enemy was intent upon annihilating the small Marine force and, realizing that L/Cpl. Barker was a threat to their position, directed the preponderance of their fire on his position. He was again wounded, this time in the right hand, which prevented him from operating his vitally needed machine gun. Suddenly and without warning, an enemy grenade landed in the midst of the few surviving Marines. Unhesitatingly and with complete disregard for his personal safety, L/Cpl. Barker threw himself upon the deadly grenade, absorbing with his body the full and tremendous force of the explosion. In a final act of bravery, he crawled to the side of a wounded comrade and administered first aid before succumbing to his grievous wounds. His bold initiative, intrepid fighting spirit and unwavering devotion to duty in the face of almost certain death undoubtedly saved his comrades from further injury or possible death and reflected great credit upon himself, the Marine Corps, and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.







Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 2d Battalion, 5th Cavalry, 1st Air Cavalry Division. Place and date: Near Bon Son in Binh Dinh province, Republic of Vietnam, September 21st, 1966. Entered service at: Phoenix, Ariz. Born: 20 October 1945, Murray, Ky. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Lauffer’s squad, a part of Company C, was suddenly struck at close range by an intense machine gun crossfire from two concealed bunkers astride the squad’s route. Pfc. Lauffer, the second man in the column, saw the lead man fall and noted that the remainder of the squad was unable to move. Two comrades previously wounded and being carried on litters, were lying helpless in the beaten zone of the enemy fire. Reacting instinctively, Pfc. Lauffer quickly engaged both bunkers with fire from his rifle, but when the other squad members attempted to maneuver under his covering fire, the enemy fusillade increased in volume and thwarted every attempt to move. Seeing this and his wounded comrades helpless in the open, Pfc. Lauffer rose to his feet and charged the enemy machine gun positions, firing his weapon and drawing the enemy’s attention. Keeping the enemy confused and off balance, his 1-man assault provided the crucial moments for the wounded point man to crawl to a covered position, the squad to move the exposed litter patients to safety, and his comrades to gain more advantageous positions. Pfc. Lauffer was fatally wounded during his selfless act of courage and devotion to his fellow soldiers. His gallantry at the cost of his life served as an inspiration to his comrades and saved the lives of an untold number of his companions. His actions are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.







Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, Company G, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Vicinity of Songnae-Dong, Korea, September 21st, 1951. Entered service at: Mission, Kans. Born: 7 September 1931, Kansas City, Mo. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a squad leader in Company G, in action against enemy aggressor forces, early in the morning. While expertly directing the defense of his position during a probing attack by hostile forces attempting to infiltrate the area, Cpl. Davenport, acting quickly when an enemy grenade fell into the foxhole which he was occupying with another marine, skillfully located the deadly projectile in the dark and, undeterred by the personal risk involved, heroically threw himself over the live missile, thereby saving his companion from serious injury or possible death. His cool and resourceful leadership were contributing factors in the successful repulse of the enemy attack and his superb courage and admirable spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of almost certain death enhance and sustain the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. Cpl. Davenport gallantly gave his life for his country.







Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company F, 38th Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Chorwon, Korea, September 21, 1952.  Born: May 3, 1932,  Puerto Rico   Entered Service at: Puerto Rico  Departed: Yes 9/21/1952

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Private Miguel A. Vera distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an automatic rifleman with Company F, 38th Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division in Chorwon, Korea, on September 21, 1952. That morning, despite suffering from wounds inflicted in a previous battle, Private Vera voluntarily left the aid station to join his comrades in an attack against well-fortified enemy positions on a hill of great importance. When the assaulting elements had moved within twenty yards of the enemy positions, they were suddenly trapped by a heavy volume of mortar, artillery and small-arms fire. The company prepared to make a limited withdrawal, but Private Vera volunteered to remain behind to provide covering fire. As his companions moved to safety, Private Vera remained steadfast in his position, directing accurate fire against the hostile positions despite the intense volume of fire which the enemy was concentrating upon him. Later in the morning, when the friendly force returned, they discovered Private Vera in the same position, facing the enemy. Private Vera’s noble intrepidity and self-sacrifice saved many of his comrades’ lives. Private Vera’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.





 State of Nebraska


Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company E, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Lure, France, September 17, 1944.  Born: Dec. 6, 1918, in Hooper, Neb.   Entered Service at: Nebraska  Departed: Yes (02/19/2005)  Date Issued: 3/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

First Lieutenant Donald K. Schwab distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as the Commander of Company E, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division, during combat operations against an armed enemy near Lure, France on September 17, 1944. That afternoon, as First Lieutenant Schwab led his company across four hundred yards of exposed ground, an intense, grazing burst of machinegun and machine-pistol fire sprung forth without warning from a fringe of woods directly in front of the American force. First Lieutenant Schwab quickly extricated his men from the attempted ambush and led them back to a defiladed position. Soon after, he was ordered to overwhelm the enemy line. He rapidly organized his men into a skirmish line and, with indomitable courage, again led them forward into the lethal enemy fire. When halted a second time, First Lieutenant Schwab moved from man to man to supervise collection of the wounded and organize his company’s withdrawal. From defilade, he rallied his decimated force for a third charge on the hostile strong point and successfully worked his way to within fifty yards of the Germans before ordering his men to hit the dirt. While automatic weapons fire blazed around him, he rushed forward alone, firing his carbine at the German foxholes, aiming for the vital enemy machine-pistol nest which had sparked the German resistance and caused heavy casualties among his men. Silhouetted through the mist and rain by enemy flares, he charged to the German emplacement, ripped the half-cover off the hostile firing pit, struck the German gunner on the head with his carbine butt and dragged the German back through a hail of fire to friendly lines. First Lieutenant Schwab’s action so disorganized hostile infantry resistance that the enemy forces withdrew, abandoning their formidable defensive line. First Lieutenant Schwab’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.







Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company C, 504th Parachute Infantry, 82d Airborne Division. Place and date: Near Oosterhout, Holland, September 21st, 1944. Entered service at: Cleveland, Ohio. Birth: Cleveland, Ohio. G.O. No.: 18, 15 March 1945. Citation. For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty on 21 September 1944, near Oosterhout, Holland. The rifle company in which Pvt. Towle served as rocket launcher gunner was occupying a defensive position in the west sector of the recently established Nijmegen bridgehead when a strong enemy force of approximately one-hundred infantry supported by two tanks and a half-track formed for a counterattack. With full knowledge of the disastrous consequences resulting not only to his company but to the entire bridgehead by an enemy breakthrough, Pvt. Towle immediately and without orders left his foxhole and moved two-hundred yards in the face of intense small-arms fire to a position on an exposed dike roadbed. From this precarious position Pvt. Towle fired his rocket launcher at and hit both tanks to his immediate front. Armored skirting on both tanks prevented penetration by the projectiles, but both vehicles withdrew slightly damaged. Still under intense fire and fully exposed to the enemy, Pvt. Towle then engaged a nearby house which nine Germans had entered and were using as a strongpoint and with one round killed all nine. Hurriedly replenishing his supply of ammunition, Pvt. Towle, motivated only by his high conception of duty which called for the destruction of the enemy at any cost, then rushed approximately one hundred-twenty-five yards through grazing enemy fire to an exposed position from which he could engage the enemy half-track with his rocket launcher. While in a kneeling position preparatory to firing on the enemy vehicle, Pvt. Towle was mortally wounded by a mortar shell. By his heroic tenacity, at the price of his life, Pvt. Towle saved the lives of many of his comrades and was directly instrumental in breaking up the enemy counterattack.



INTERIM 1871 – 1898



Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born. 1853, Newfoundland. Accredited to: Rhode Island. G. O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S.S. Trenton, at Genoa, Italy, September 21st, 1880, and rescuing from drowning Hans Paulsen, ordinary seaman.




INTERIM 1871 – 1898



Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1852, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S.S. Trenton, at Genoa, Italy, September 21st, 1880, and rescuing from drowning Hans Paulsen, ordinary seaman.







Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served as gunner’s mate on board the U.S.S. Montauk, September 21st,  1864. During the night of 21 September, when fire was discovered in the magazine lightroom of the vessel, causing a panic and demoralizing the crew, Horton rushed into the cabin, obtained the magazine keys, sprang into the lightroom and began passing out combustibles, Including the box of signals in which the fire originated.







Rank and organization: First Class Fireman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served as first class fireman on board the U.S.S. Montauk, September 21st,  1864. During the night of 21 September when fire was discovered in the magazine lightroom of that vessel, causing a panic and demoralizing the crew, Rountry, notwithstanding the cry of “fire in the magazine,” forced his way with hose in hand, through the frightened crowd to the lightroom and put out the flames.







Rank and organization: Captain of the Foretop, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837, New Jersey. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 84, 3 October 1867. Citation: Served as captain of the foretop on board the U.S.S. Montauk, September 21st, 1864. During the night of 21 September, when fire was discovered in the magazine lightroom of that vessel, causing a panic and demoralizing the crew, Weeks, notwithstanding the cry of “fire in the magazine,” displayed great presence of mind and rendered valuable service in extinguishing the flames which were imperiling the ship and the men on board.

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Unerased History – September 20th

Posted by Wayne Church on September 20, 2014 in 09 - September, Blog by month |
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National Gymnastics Day





The U.S.created the United Nations in 1945 in an effort to centralize pointless squabbling.

The job of the U.N. is to make other nations feel like they have a say in things while the U.S.goes ahead and does whatever the heck it feels like.

The U.N. has expanded its job to getting kickbacks for their members and hatingIsrael.

The main job for the U.N. is “peacekeeping” which usually means “whining at the U.S.”

Plans for turning the U.N. headquarters into an IHOP are on the table, but nothing has been finalized.

Last year  a worldwide survey was conducted by the UN.
The only question asked was:

Would you please give your honest opinion about solutions to the food shortage in the rest of the world?

The survey was a failure.
In Africa they didn’t know what “food” meant.
In Eastern Europe they didn’t now what “honest” meant.
In Western Europe they didn’t know what “shortage” meant.
In China they didn’t know what “opinion” meant.
In the Middle East they didn’t know what “solution” meant.
In South America they didn’t know what “please” meant.
And in the USA they didn’t know what “the rest of the world” meant.


“Take your God-given talents, turn them into finely crafted skills and put those skills to their highest and best use. Distinguish yourself… take action today to separate yourself from the pack… earn your name as someone who is “noticeably great” at what you do.”

Bruce Jenner



goombah (GOOM-bah) noun

1. Friend, accomplice, or crony.
2. Godfather or mentor.
3. Gangster or Mafioso.

[Dialectal pronunciation of Italian compa, a clipping of compare
(godfather, friend, or accomplice), from Latin compater, from
com- (with) + pater (father).]


 480 BC – Themistocles and his Greek fleet won one of history’s first decisive naval victories over Xerxes’ Persian force off Salamis. Persia under Xerxes attacked Greece. Athens got burned but the Athenian fleet under Themistocles trapped and destroyed the Persian navy at Salamis. Phoenician squadrons were at the heart of Xerxes’ fleet; the king of Sidon was among his admirals.
451- According to some sources, this was the date of the Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius’ victory over Attila the Hun.

1519 – Ferdinand Magellan – set sail from Sanlúcar de Barrameda with about 270 men on his expedition to circumnavigate the globe.
1565 – Spanish forces under Pedro Menendez de Aviles capture the French Huguenot settlement of Fort Caroline, near present-day Jacksonville, Florida.
1664Maryland enacted first anti-amalgamation law to prevent widespread intermarriage of English women and Black men. Other colonies passed similar laws: Virginia, 1691; Massachusetts 1705; North Carolina, 1715; South Carolina, 1717; Delaware, 1721; Pennsylvania, 1725.
1737 – Runner Edward Marshall completes his journey in the Walking Purchase forcing the cession of 1.2 million acres of Lenape-Delaware tribal land to the Pennsylvania Colony.
1776 – American soldiers, some of them members of Nathan Hale’s regiment, filtered into British-held New York City and stashed resin soaked logs into numerous buildings and a roaring inferno was started. A fourth of the city was destroyed including Trinity Church.
1777 – British Dragoons massacred sleeping Continental troops at Paoli, Pa. Prior to launching a surprise night attack on Anthony Wayne’s Continental division at Paoli, General Charles Grey ordered his troops to rely entirely on their bayonets.
1784Packet and Daily, the first daily publication in America, appeared on the streets.
1797The US frigate Constitution (Old Ironsides) was launched in Boston.
1806 – Explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark passed the French village of La Charette, the first white settlement they had seen in over two years.
1814 – With the U.S. Capitol destroyed by the British, Marines protected Congress in a hotel.
1830 – First National Black convention met at Philadelphia’s Bethel AME church and elected Richard Allen president. Thirty-eight delegates from eight states attended the first national meeting of Blacks.
1847 – William A. Leidesdorf elected to San Francisco town council receiving the third highest vote. Leidesdorf, who was one of the first Black elected officials, became the town treasurer in 1848.
1849 – First commercial laundry established in Oakland California
1853 – The first Union passenger station opens in Indianapolis, IN.
1859 – The electric range, invented by George B. Simpson of Washington, D.C., was patented Mr. Simpson called his invention, an “electroheater.”.
1860 – The Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII of the United Kingdom) visits the United States.
1863 – Civil War: The Battle of Chickamauga ends.
1873 – The New York Stock exchange is forced to close in an attempt to contain panic resulting from the failure of Jay Cooke & Company.
1881 – President Garfield dies of gunshot wound
1881 – Chester A. Arthur is inaugurated as the 21st President of the United States.
1884 – The Equal Rights Party was formed during a convention of suffragists in San Francisco. The convention nominated Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood of Washington, D.C., for president and Marietta Snow as her running mate.
1893 – The first successful run of an automobile in the U.S. Charles Duryea founded the Duryea Motor Wagon Company in 1896, the first company to manufacture and sell gasoline powered vehicles.
1904 – Orville and Wilbur Wright flew a circle in their Flyer II.
1913 – Francis Ouimet won as a 20-year-old amateur, the 1913 U.S. Open  held September 18–20 at The Country Club in Brookline, Massachusetts. It was the 19th U.S. Open.  He was the first amateur to win the U.S. Open.

1917 – The 26th “Yankee” Division (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT) becomes the first American division to arrive in Europe during World War I.
1921 – KDKA, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, began the first daily radio newscast in the United States.
1933 – Pittsburgh Steelers (as Pirates) play first NFL game, lose 23-2.
1938 – A patent was granted for “synthetic fiber” (nylon) to Wallace H. Carothers.
1939 – A German Messerschmitt Bf 109 is shot down by Fairey Battle gunner Sgt. F. Letchard during a patrol near Aachen. This is the RAF’s first aerial victory of the Second World War.
1940 – Genevieve Grotjan completes the decryption of the Japanese Purple code .
1945 – German rocket engineers who have been captured at the end of the war and been brought to the US start work on the American rocket program.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “To Each His Own” by Eddy Howard, “Five Minutes More” by Frank Sinatra, “Surrender” by Perry Como and “Wine, Women and Song” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1946 – WNBT-TV, New York became the first station to promote a motion picture. It showed scenes from “The Jolson Story.”
1946 – President Harry S Truman asked Secretary of Commerce Henry A. Wallace to resign, due to Wallace’s comments about Russia on September 12.
1950 – Korean War: Marines of the First Marine Division crossed the Han River along a six-mile beachhead, eight miles northwest of Seoul, Korea.Five days later, the 1st and 5th Marines would attack Seoul and the city would be captured by 27 September.
1951 – Korean War: Operation Summit, the first combat helicopter landing in history, U.S. Marines were landed in Korea.
1952 – “You Belong to Me” by Jo Stafford topped the charts.
1952 – Scientists confirmed that DNA holds hereditary data.
1953 – Loretta Young hosted “Letter to Loretta.” The series was renamed “The Loretta Young Show” during the first season. Originally, the series was framed as the dramatization of viewers’ letters.
1953 – Jimmy Stewart debuted NBC’s radio western, “The Six Shooter.”
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sh-Boom” by The Crew-Cuts, “Skokiaan” by The Four Lads, “The High and the Mighty” by Les Baxter and “I Don’t Hurt Anymore” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1954 – First FORTRAN computer program run. Fortran is the dominating language for technical and scientific applications.
1954 – Roger Bannister awarded Britain’s Silver Pears Trophy for cracking the 4-minute mile.
1955 – “You’ll Never Get Rich” started its run on CBS-TV. The comedy show traces the minor victories and misfortunes of the scheming, fast-talking Master Sergeant Ernie Bilko (Phil Silvers), head of the motor pool at the mythical U.S. army station of Fort Baxter in Roseville, Kansas.
1957 – “M Squad,” starring Lee Marvin, premiered on NBC-TV.
1958 – “Volare” by Domenico Modugno topped the charts.
1958 – Martin Luther King Jr. was stabbed in the chest by Izola Curry at a New York City department store, an apparently deranged black woman.
1961 – Roger Maris hits home run # 59 & barely misses # 60 in game 154.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sheila” by Tommy Roe, “Ramblin’ Rose” by Nat King Cole,Green Onions” by Booker T. & The MG’s and “Devil Woman” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.
1962 – James Meredith, an African-American, is barred from entering the University of Mississippi.
1963 – President Kennedy propose a joint U.S.-Soviet expedition to the moon.
1967 – The RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 is launched at John Brown & Company, Clydebank, Scotland. It is operated by the Cunard Line.
1968 – Mickey Mantle hits final career homer # 536.
1969 – “Sugar, Sugar” by the Archies topped the charts.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” by Diana Ross, “Lookin’ Out My Back Door/Long as I Can See the Light” by Creedence Clearwater Revival, “Patches” by Clarence Carter and “For the Good Times” by Ray Price all topped the charts.
1970 – Syrian tanks roll into Jordan in response to continued fighting between Jordan and the fedayeen. The Jordanians knock out 30 of the Syrian tanks.
1970 – Luna 16 lands on Moon’s Mare Fecunditatis, drills core sample.
1970 – President Nixon’s aide, Charles W. Colson, stated in a memo to Chief of staff H.R. Haldeman: “(the networks) are very much afraid of us and are trying hard to prove they are ‘good guys.’”
1971 – The American League Ok’d the Washington Senators move to Arlington, TX, where they became the Texas Rangers.
1972 – The NBC TV series Madigan” premiered with Richard Widmark (1914-2008).
1973 – Billie Jean King beats Bobby Riggs in battle-of-sexes tennis match.
1973 – Willie Mays announces retirement at end of 1973 season.
1973 – Jim Croce (b.1943), American singer-songwriter, died in an airplane crash near Natchitoches, La., just as he was beginning to capitalize on his success. Maury Muehleisen and four others also died as their plane crashed into a tree while taking off for a concert in Sherman, Texas.     (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Croce)
1974 – Gail A. Cobb (24), a member of the Metropolitan Police Force of Washington, D.C., became the first female police officer to be killed in the line of duty. Cobb was murdered by a robbery suspect in an underground garage in downtown Washington.
1976 – Playboy magazine released an interview in which Democratic presidential nominee Jimmy Carter admitted he’d “looked on a lot of women with lust.” Carter was interviewed for the November issue of Playboy and he admitted that he had committed “lust in my heart.”
1977 – The first of the “boat people” arrived in San Francisco from Southeast Asia under a new U.S. resettlement program.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Boogie Oogie Oogie” by A Taste of Honey, “Three Times a Lady” by Commodores, “Hot Blooded” by Foreigner and “I’ve Always Been Crazy” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1979 – Lee Iacocca is elected president of the Chrysler Corporation.
1980 – “Upside Down” by Diana Ross topped the charts.
1982 – NFL players begin a 57-day strike.
1984 – An Islamic Jihad car bomber attacks the U.S. Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon, killing twenty-four people .
1984 – “The Cosby Show” premiered on NBC-TV.
1985 – Walt Disney World’s 200-millionth guest.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Stuck with You” by Huey Lewis & The News, “Dancing on the Ceiling” by Lionel Richie, “Friends and Lovers” by Gloria Loring & Carl Anderson and “Got My Heart Set on You” by John Conlee all topped the charts.
1986 – “Stuck with You” by Huey Lewis & the News topped the charts.
1987 – Alfre Woodard wins an Emmy for outstanding guest performance in the dramatic series L.A. Law. It is her second Emmy award, her first having been for a supporting role in Hill Street Blues in 1984.
1987 – Walter Payton scores NFL record 107th rushing touchdown.
1992 – The Space Shuttle Endeavour landed at the Kennedy Space Center.
1992 – Leanza Cornett of Florida was crowned “Miss America” in Atlantic City, N.J.
1993 – A 5.4-magnitude earthquake hits southern Oregon, killing a motorist whose pickup was hit by falling rock.
1994 – Space shuttle Discovery and its six astronauts landed at Edwards Air Force Base in California after an 11-day mission.
1995 – The U.S. House of Representatives voted to drop the national speed limit. This allowed the states to decide their own speed limits.
1995 –  In a move that stunned Wall Street, AT&T Corporation announced it was splitting into three companies.
1996 – President Clinton announced his signing of a bill outlawing homosexual marriages, but said it should not be used as an excuse for discrimination, violence or intimidation against gays and lesbians. The actual signing came a little after midnight.
1997 – President Clinton’s attorneys insisted no laws were broken as it was disclosed that Attorney General Janet Reno had taken a first step toward seeking a special prosecutor to investigate the president’s 1996 fund-raising activities.
1998 – Baseball: After playing 2,632 consecutive games for the Baltimore Orioles, Cal Ripken, Jr takes a day off.
1998 – Mark McGwire his 65th home run against the Milwaukee Brewers.
1998 –  In Palo Alto, Ca., the 2nd annual Sand Hill Challenge, a soapbox derby for the Peninsula Community Foundation, was held. The world’s largest accordion band was scheduled to set a Guinness record. The band of over 500 played “Lady of Spain.”
1999 – Lawrence Russell Brewer became the second white supremacist to be convicted in the dragging death of James Byrd Junior in Jasper, Texas.
2000 – Last performance of the musical Cats (musical) on Broadway.
2000 – The space shuttle Atlantis returned after hauling in 3 tons of equipment for the International Space Station.
2000 – Robert Ray, the independent counsel who succeeded Kenneth Starr, ended the $52 million Whitewater probe ended without charges against the Clintons, saying there was insufficient evidence to warrant charges against Pres. Clinton and first lady Hillary Clinton.
2001 – George W. Bush delivers his “Freedom at War with Fear” speech to a joint session of Congress and the nation and promised that “justice will be done.” The New York City death toll was raised to 6,333 missing to include citizens missing from foreign countries. The total Sep 11 death toll reached 6,807. On Nov 20 the official count was reduced to just below 3,900.
2001 – President Bush named Gov. Tom Ridge (56) of Pennsylvania to direct the new office of Homeland Security.
2001 – The FBI arrested Nabil Al-Marabh (34), a suspected bin Laden associate, in the Chicago area.
2002 – Scientists urged stronger warning labels for aspirin, ibuprofen and similar painkillers due to the risk of ulcers.
2002 – It was reported that cancer in Melanoma patients went into remission following injections of their own T-cells.
2003 – In Atlantic City, NJ, Miss Florida Ericka Dunlap is crowned Miss America.
2003 – A Grand Canyon sightseeing helicopter crashed and all seven aboard were killed.
2003 – Five of six children riding on an all-terrain vehicle in Coffee County, Ga., were killed when they were hit by a motorist.
2004 – A small plane with five people aboard crashed in Montana’s Glacier National Park. Two survivors were found two days later.
2004 – CBS News apologized for a “mistake in judgment” in its story questioning President Bush’s National Guard service, saying it could not vouch for the authenticity of documents featured in the report.
2004 – The diocese of Tucson, Arizona, filed for bankruptcy protection in seeking relief from debt due to sex-abuse settlements.
2005 – President Bush made his fifth visit to Hurricane Katrina’s disaster zone on the Gulf Coast.
2005 – The Sacramento Monarchs won their first championship with a 62-59 victory over the Connecticut Sun in Game 4 of the WNBA Finals.
2006 –  A US federal judge overturned a Bush administration rule that would have allowed roads to be built through nearly 60 million acres of national forest land.
2006 –  In Florida Clarence Hill was executed for the 1982 murder of a Pensacola police officer. He had argued that Florida’s use of lethal injections amounted to cruel and unusual punishment, but the US Supreme Court denied him another stay of execution.
2006 – A public memorial service is held at Australia Zoo in Beerwah, Queensland, Australia, for “The Crocodile Hunter” Steve Irwin. This is posted here because he was also very popular in the US.
2007 –  President Bush cited “some unsettling times” in the US housing and credit markets as he sought to assure jittery Americans that the economy basically is in good shape despite worries about a recession.
2007 – A police officer in Warren, Ohio, is caught on camera using a taser on a woman while she was handcuffed.
2007 – A new US five-dollar bill with high-tech security features and new colors made a digital debut, the first time the US government has exclusively used the Internet to unveil its paper money.
2007 – In San Francisco Supervisor Ed Jew (47) was charged with one count of mail fraud in an extortion scheme against immigrant operators of tapioca drink shops.
2007 – Some 20,000 people gathered in Jena, Louisiana, to protest what they considered to be the overzealous prosecution of 6 black high school students charged with beating a white schoolmate last December.
2008 – The Bush administration asks the congress for $700 billion to buy mortgage-related assets to try to resolve the subprime mortgage crisis.
2008 – Arkansas State Police troopers raided the 15-acre complex of evangelist Tony Alamo (74), searching for evidence of child pornography.
2008 – In Washington state Shawn Roe (36) killed police officer  Kristine Fairbanks (51) during a traffic stop.  Roe was killed in a shootout with sheriff’s deputies.
2009 – Michele Dickerson of Alameda County, Ca., won the $32 million state lottery. She planned to take a $19.7 million lump sum before taxes.
2009 – Report issued that US Democrat Rep. Charlie Rangel (79), the person most in charge of writing the nation’s tax laws, had neglected to pay taxes on rental income from his vacation villa in the Dominican Republic, and that he had also failed to report assets worth hundreds of thousands of dollars on his annual disclosure forms, including a hard-to-miss credit union account worth up to $500,000.
2010 – More than 600 antiquities lost in mysterious circumstances due to “inappropriate handover procedures” after being repatriated by the United States in 2009 are found and returned to the National Museum of Iraq.
2010 – In New Jersey a woman from Togo was been sentenced to 27 years in prison after being convicted of running a human smuggling operation and forcing women to work at New Jersey hair braiding salons.
2010 -Jupiter becomes the brightest object in the night sky after the Moon as it makes its closest approach to Earth since 1963.
2011 –  The US military officially ends its policy known as “don’t ask, don’t tell” and allows homosexual personnel to publicly declare their sexual orientation without being dismissed.
2012 – The US Deputy Secretary of State William Burns meets with government officials in Libya about last week’s deadly attack at the US consulate in Benghazi.



1737 – Charles Carroll, signed Declaration of Independence

1842 – Sir James Dewar, Scottish chemist (d. 1923) he discovered a process to produce liquid oxygen in industrial quantities. He developed an insulating bottle and he is credited as the inventor of the vacuum flask.
1861 – Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress (d. 1955) The Librarian of Congress is the head of the Library of Congress, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate.
1878 – Upton Sinclair, American writer and politician (d. 1968)
1917 – Red Auerbach, American basketball coach and executive is president of the NBA’s Boston Celtics, and was its coach from 1950 to 1966, including a stretch from 1959 to 1966 when the Celtics won eight straight NBA championships.




Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion (Airborne), 503d Infantry, 173d Airborne Brigade. Place and date: Near Ben Cat, Republic of Vietnam, 20 September 1965. Entered service at: Fresno, Calif. Born: 6 July 1941, Wewoka, Okla. G.O. No.: 7, 24 February 1966. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Pierce was serving as squad leader in a reconnaissance platoon when his patrol was ambushed by hostile forces. Through his inspiring leadership and personal courage, the squad succeeded in eliminating an enemy machinegun and routing the opposing force. While pursuing the fleeing enemy, the squad came upon a dirt road and, as the main body of his men entered the road, Sgt. Pierce discovered an antipersonnel mine emplaced in the road bed. Realizing that the mine could destroy the majority of his squad, Sgt. Pierce saved the lives of his men at the sacrifice of his life by throwing himself directly onto the mine as it exploded. Through his indomitable courage, complete disregard for his safety, and profound concern for his fellow soldiers, he averted loss of life and injury to the members of his squad. Sgt. Pierce’s extraordinary heroism, at the cost of his life, are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.






Rank and organization: First Lieutenant (then 2d Lt.), U.S. Marine Corps, Company C, 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Near Yongdungp’o, Korea, 20 September 1950. Entered service at: Hattiesburg, Miss. Birth: 10 January 1927, Hattiesburg, Miss. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a platoon leader in Company C, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Directed to attack hostile forces well dug in on Hill 85, 1st Lt. Commiskey, spearheaded the assault, charging up the steep slopes on the run. Coolly disregarding the heavy enemy machine gun and small arms fire, he plunged on well forward of the rest of his platoon and was the first man to reach the crest of the objective. Armed only with a pistol, he jumped into a hostile machine gun emplacement occupied by five enemy troops and quickly disposed of four of the soldiers with his automatic pistol. Grappling with the fifth, 1st Lt. Commiskey knocked him to the ground and held him until he could obtain a weapon from another member of his platoon and killed the last of the enemy guncrew. Continuing his bold assault, he moved to the next emplacement, killed two more of the enemy and then led his platoon toward the rear nose of the hill to rout the remainder of the hostile troops and destroy them as they fled from their positions. His valiant leadership and courageous fighting spirit served to inspire the men of his company to heroic endeavor in seizing the objective and reflect the highest credit upon 1st Lt. Commiskey and the U.S. Naval Service.







Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company F, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Near Sosa-ri, Korea, 17 and 20 September 1950. Entered service at: Seattle, Wash. Born: 25 December 1930, Melrose, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a rocket gunner attached to Company F, and in action against enemy aggressor forces. Dug in on a hill overlooking the main Seoul highway when six enemy tanks threatened to break through the battalion position during a predawn attack on 17 September, Pfc. Monegan promptly moved forward with his bazooka, under heavy hostile automatic weapons fre and engaged the lead tank at a range of less than fifty yards. After scoring a direct hit and killing the sole surviving tankman with his carbine as he came through the escape hatch, he boldly fired two more rounds of ammunition at the oncoming tanks, disorganizing the attack and enabling our tank crews to continue blasting with their 90-mm guns. With his own and an adjacent company’s position threatened by annihilation when an overwhelming enemy tank-infantry force bypassed the area and proceeded toward the battalion command post during the early morning of September 20, he seized his rocket launcher and, in total darkness, charged down the slope of the hill where the tanks had broken through. Quick to act when an illuminating shell lit the area, he scored a direct hit on one of the tanks as hostile rifle and automatic-weapons fire raked the area at close range. Again exposing himself, he fired another round to destroy a second tank and, as the rear tank turned to retreat, stood upright to fire and was fatally struck down by hostile machine gun fire when another illuminating shell silhouetted him against the sky. Pfc. Monegan’s daring initiative, gallant fighting spirit and courageous devotion to duty were contributing factors in the success of his company in repelling the enemy, and his self-sacrificing efforts throughout sustain and enhance the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country .







Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps, Company C, 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Peleliu Island, Palau group, 19-20 September 1944. Entered service at: Massachusetts. Born: 16 July 1919, Milton, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as commanding officer of Company C, 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division, during action against enemy Japanese forces on Peleliu Island, Palau group, on 19-20 September 1944. Subjected to pointblank cannon fire which caused heavy casualties and badly disorganized his company while assaulting a steep coral hill, Capt. Pope rallied his men and gallantly led them to the summit in the face of machinegun, mortar, and sniper fire. Forced by widespread hostile attack to deploy the remnants of his company thinly in order to hold the ground won, and with his machineguns out of order and insufficient water and ammunition, he remained on the exposed hill with twelve men and one wounded officer determined to hold through the night. Attacked continuously with grenades, machineguns, and rifles from three sides, he and his valiant men fiercely beat back or destroyed the enemy, resorting to hand-to-hand combat as the supply of ammunition dwindled, and still maintaining his lines with his eight remaining riflemen when daylight brought more deadly fire and he was ordered to withdraw. His valiant leadership against devastating odds while protecting the units below from heavy Japanese attack reflects the highest credit upon Capt. Pope and the U.S. Naval Service .





 State of Connecticut

Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company B, 2d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Shepherdstown Ford, Va., 20 September 1862. Entered service at: Connecticut. Birth: New Haven, Conn. Date of issue 21 April 1892. Citation: Voluntarily attempted to spike a gun in the face of the enemy.






Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 2d New York Veteran Cavalry. Place and date: At Alabama Bayou, La., 20 September 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Broome, N.Y. Date of issue: 17 August 1894. Citation: Swam the bayou under fire of the enemy and captured and brought off a boat by means of which the command crossed and routed the enemy.







Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company G, 74th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Chickamauga, Ga., 20 September 1863. Entered service at: Elkhart, Ind. Birth: Kosciusko County, Ind. Date of issue: 1 I March 1896. Citation: While exposed to a galling fire, went in search of another regiment, found its location, procured ammunition from the men thereof, and returned with the ammunition to his own company.







Rank and organization: Captain, Company C, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Chickamauga, Ga., 20 September 1863. Entered service at: Sasioja, Minn. Birth: Rockingham County, N.H. Date of issue: 12 June 1895. Citation: Seized the colors of a retreating regiment and led it into the thick of the attack.







Rank and organization: Musician, 1st Illinois Cavalry. Place and date. At Lexington, Mo., 20 September 1861. Entered service at: Illinois. Birth: New York. Date of issue. 10 March 1896. Citation: Volunteered to fight in the trenches and also led a charge which resulted in the recapture of a Union hospital, together with Confederate sharpshooters then occupying the same.







Rank and organization: Captain, Ordnance Department, U.S. Army. Place and date: At Chickamauga, Ga., 20 September 1863. Entered service at: Harrisburgh, Pa. Born: 15 April 1837, Huntington, Pa. Date of issue: 8 July 1902. Citation: While acting as a volunteer aide, at a critical moment when the lines were broken, rallied enough fugitives to hold the ground under heavy fire long enough to effect the escape of wagon trains and batteries.







Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company A, 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Chickamauga, Ga., 20 September 1863. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Born: 11 October 1837, Burlington, N.J. Date of issue: 4 December 1893. Citation: Held out to the last with a small force against the advance of superior numbers of the enemy.







Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 11th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Chickamauga, Ga., 20 September 1863. Entered service at: Quincy, Mich. Born. 13 December 1840, Allen, Mich. Date of issue: 21 October 1895. Citation: As the enemy was about to charge, this officer went outside the temporary Union works among the dead and wounded enemy and at great exposure to himself cut off and removed their cartridge boxes, bringing the same within the Union lines, the ammunition being used with good effect in again repulsing the attack.


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Unerased History – September 19th

Posted by Wayne Church on September 19, 2014 in 09 - September, Blog by month |
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Talk Like a Pirate Day

National Butterscotch Pudding Day

Harvest Moon – 2013




Pirate Phrases – You can use these phrases in your conversations today!!!

Aaaarrrrgggghhhh! – exhortation of discontent or disgust
Ahoy! – Hello!
Ahoy, Matey – Hello, my friend!
Ahoy, me Hearties! – the same as saying “Hello, my friends!”
All hand hoay! – comparable to all hands on deck
Avast ye – stop and check this out or pay attention
Aye – yes
Batten down the hatches – put everything away on the ship and tie everything down because a storm is brewing
Bilge-sucking – insult
Blimey! – exhortation of surprise
Blow me down! – expression of shock of disbelief akin to “Holy Crap!”
Blow the man down – command to kill someone
Booty – treasure
Buccaneer – a pirate
Bucko – a buccaneer
Cat O’Nine Tails – a whip with nine strands
Corsair – pirates in the Mediterranean Sea
Crow’s nest – small platform atop the mast where the lookout stands
Cutlass – short heavy curved bladed sword used by pirates
Davy Jones’ Locker – fabled, mythical place at the bottom of the ocean where the evil spirit of Davy Jones brings sailor and pirates to die
Dead men tell no tales – phrase indicating to leave no survivors
Doubloons – other coins or found in pirate hoards and stashes
Feed the fish – will soon die
Hang ‘im from the yardarm – punishment of those captured in battle
Head – the pirate ship’s toilet
Heave Ho – give it some muscle and push it
Hempen Halter – a noose for hanging
Hornswaggle – to defraud or cheat out of money or belongings
Jacob’s Ladder – the rope ladder one uses to climb aboard a sloop
Jolly Roger – pirate’s flag including white skull and crossbones over a black field
Keelhaul – punishment in which a person where dragged underneath the pirate ship from side to side and was lacerated by the barnacles on the vessel
Lad, lass, lassie – a younger person
Landlubber – big, slow clumsy person who doesn’t know how to sail
Letters of Marque – letters issue from governments during wartime to privateers endorsing the piracy of another vessel.

Man-O-War – pirate’s ship outfitted for battle
Me – my
Mizzen – third mast from the bow of the ship on ships that have three or more masts
Old Salt – an experienced sailor
Pieces of eight – coins or found in pirate stashes
Pillage – rob, sack or plunder
Poop deck – the part of the ship farthest to the back, which is usually above the captain’s quarters. This is not the bathroom.
Privateer – government-sponsored pirates
Rum – pirate’s traditional alcoholic beverage
Run a shot across the bow – warning shot to another vessel’s captain
Savvy? – do you understand and do you agree?
Scallywag – mild insult akin to rapscallion or rogue
Scurvy dog – the pirate is talking directly to you with mild insult
Scuttle – to sink a ship
Seadog – old pirate or sailor
Shark bait – will soon join Davy Jones’ Locker
Shipshape – cleaned up and under control
Shiver me timbers! – comparable to “Holy Crap!”
Son of a Biscuit Eater – insult directed towards someone you don’t like
Thar she blows! – Whale sighting
Three sheets to the wind – someone who is very drunk. One sheet is mildly drunk and four sheets is passed out.
Walk the plank – punishment in which person walks off a board jutting over the side of the ship while at sea. The consequence is drowning and a visit to Davy Jones’ Locker.
Weigh anchor and hoist the mizzen! – pull up the anchor and the sail and let’s get going
Wow !!! – shiver me timbers
Ye – you
Yo Ho Ho – cheerful exhortation to demand attention

English to Pirate Translator



“Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand.”

~ Albert Einstein


suasion SWAY-zhun, noun:
The act of persuading; persuasion.



1356 – In the Battle of Poitiers, the English defeat the French.
1559 – Five Spanish ships sank in a storm off Tampa. About 600 died.
1676 – Nathaniel Bacon, leader of Bacon’s Rebellion set fire to Jamestown, VA.
1692 – Giles Corey is pressed to death after refusing to plead in the Salem witch trials. He is the only person in America to have suffered this punishment.
1777 – First Battle of Saratoga/Battle of Freeman’s Farm/Battle of Bemis Heights. It was won by American soldiers.
1778 – The Committee on Finance of the Continental Congress passes the first budget of the United States.
1796 – President Washington’s farewell address was published. In it, America’s first chief executive advised, “Observe good faith and justice toward all nations. Cultivate peace and harmony with all.”
1838 – First patent for a railroad brake issued to Ephraim Morris of Bloomfield, NJ.
1846 – Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning eloped.
1849 – The first commercial laundry was established, in Oakland, California.
1854 – Henry Meyer patented a sleeping rail car. Patent #11,699 is issued for a mode of converting the backs of car seats into beds or lounges.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of Luka – Union troops under General William Rosecrans defeat a Confederate force commanded by General Sterling Price at Luka, Mississippi.
1864 – Civil War: Union General Philip Sheridan routs a Confederate force under General Jubal Early in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley. This battle was part of Sheridan’s pacification of the valley.
1871 – President Abraham Lincoln’s body was transferred to a partially completed permanent tomb at Springfield, Il.
1876 – Melville Bissell patented a carpet-sweeper.
1881 – James A. Garfield died of wounds from an assassin. The 20th U.S. president lived for eleven weeks after the wounds were inflicted.
1900 – Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid commit their first robbery together.
1906 – Mark Twain addresses the Associated Press. Mark Twain said there were “only two forces that can carry light to all the corners of the globe … the sun in the heavens and the Associated Press down here.”
1912 – Marines participated in the Battle of Masaya during the Nicaraguan Campaign.
1921 – Railroad officials are arrested in Chicago for denying workers two hours to vote.
1928 – Walt Disney releases “Steamboat Willie“, the most well-known of the early short films to feature Mickey Mouse.
1928 – The second talkie (the opposite of a silent movie) for Al Jolson was released.
1934 – Bruno Hauptmann is arrested for the murder of infant Charles Lindbergh , Jr.
1935 – “Just Plain Bill” was first heard on CBS radio. “Just Plain Bill” was a suspenseful serial soap opera following the extraordinary life of an ordinary man. Bill Davidson owned a barbershop and solved both local and international troubles.
1936 – “Indian Love Call“, was recorded by Nelson Eddy and Jeanette MacDonald, on Victor Records.
1940 – World War II: A Nazi decree forbade gentile woman to work in Jewish homes.
1941 – World War II: The Nazi’s forced all German Jews from the age of 6 to wear the Star of David.
1943 – World War II: Liberator bombers sank U-341.
1945 – World War II: Nazi propagandist William Joyce, known as “Lord Haw-Haw,” was sentenced to death by a British court.
1945 – World War II: In Japan, American occupation forces issue a press code, totally banning reports or publications about the atomic bombing.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Till the End of Time” by Perry Como, “On the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe” by Johnny Mercer, “If I Loved You” by Perry Como and You Two-Timed Me One Time Too Often” by Tex Ritter all topped the charts.
1947 – Jackie Robinson was named 1947 “Rookie of Year.”
1952 – The US bars Charlie Chaplin from reentering the country after a trip to England.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “You, You, You” by The Ames Brothers, “Vaya Con Dios” by Les Paul & Mary Ford, “Crying in the Chapel” by June Valli and “A Dear John Letter” by Jean Shepard & Ferlin Husky all topped the charts.
1953 – Gisele MacKenzie took over as host on NBC-TV’s “Your Hit Parade.”
1953 – “No Other Love” by Perry Como topped the charts.
1955 – “Producer’s Showcase” present “Our Town” on NBC-TV. The play depicts life in a rural New Hampshire village, with its humor, its pity and sympathy.
1957 – First U.S. underground nuclear bomb test.
1957 – Bathyscaph Trieste, in a dive sponsored by the Office of Naval Research in the Mediterranean, reaches record depth of two miles.
1959 – Nikita Khrushchev is barred from visiting Disneyland for security reasons. Khrushchev reacted angrily.
1959 – “The Three Bells” by The Browns topped the charts.
1960 – Cuban leader Fidel Castro, in New York to visit the United Nations, checked out of the Shelburne Hotel angrily after a dispute with the management.
1960 – “The Twist” by Chubby Checker topped the charts.
1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Take Good Care of My Baby” by Bobby Vee, “My True Story” by The Jive Five, “(Marie’s the Name) His Latest Flame” by Elvis Presley and “Walk on By” by Leroy Van Dyke all topped the charts.
1964 – “The House of the Rising Sun” by the Animals topped the charts.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Honky Tonk Women by The Rolling Stones, “Sugar, Sugar” by The Archies, “I’ll Never Fall in Love Again” by Tom Jones and “A Boy Named Sue” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1970 – “Mary Tyler Moore Show “premiers.
1970 – “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” by Diana Ross topped the charts.
1974 – Eric Clapton received a gold record for “I Shot the Sheriff.”
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Play That Funky Music” by Wild Cherry, “I’d Really Love to See You Tonight” by England Dan & John Ford Coley, “A Fifth of Beethoven” by Walter Murphy & The Big Apple Band and “I Don’t Want to Have to Marry You” by Jim Ed Brown/Helen Cornelius all topped the charts.
1983 – Chuck Woolery (b.1941) began hosting the syndicated TV game show “Love Connection.” He continued to 1995.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “What’s Love Got to Do with It” by Tina Turner, “Missing You” by John Waite, “She Bop” by Cyndi Lauper and “You’re Getting to Me Again” by Jim Glaser all topped the charts.
1985 – A strong earthquake (8.1 on Richter scale) hits Mexico City and other parts of Mexico, killing thousands and demolishing about 400 buildings.
1981 – “Endless Love” by Diana Ross & Lionel Richie topped the charts.
1982 – New Orleans Saints first road shutout victory beating Chicago Bears 10-0.
1982 – Streetcars stop running on San Francisco’s Market St after 122 years of service.
1982 – Carnegie Mellon Freshman Scott Fahlman introduces the email smiley :-) in an online message. .
1985 – Tipper Gore and other political wives form the Parents Music Resource Center.
1985 – Frank Zappa and other musicians testify at Congressional hearings on obscenity in rock music.
1987 – “I Just Can’t Stop Loving You” by Michael Jackson & Siedah Garrett topped the charts
1987 – Supreme Court nominee Robert H. Bork concluded five days of testimony before the US Senate Judiciary Committee, vowing that he would “interpret the law and not make it.”
1991 – Ötzi the Iceman is discovered by a couple of German tourists. Otzi the Iceman (also spelled Oetzi and known also as Frozen Fritz) is the modern nickname of a well-preserved natural mummy of a man from about 3300 BC.
1993 – The NBC sitcom “Seinfeld” and the offbeat CBS drama “Picket Fences” each won three trophies at the 45th Annual Primetime Emmy Awards.
1995 – The Washington Post and The New York Times publish the Unabomber’s manifesto.
1995 – The commander of American forces in Japan and the U.S. ambassador apologized for the rape of a schoolgirl committed by three U.S. servicemen.
1997 – The crime drama “L.A. Confidential” opened.
1997 – A US Air Force B-1 bomber crashed on a training mission in Montana and all 4 crew members were killed.
1998 – Miss Virginia Nicole Johnson, a 24-year-old diabetic who wore an insulin pump on her hip, was crowned Miss America 1999.
1998 – At the 22nd annual Oktoberfest in Cincinnati 25,000 kazoos were distributed in an attempt to set a Guinness record for the “World’s Largest Kazoo Band.
2001 – Commencement of combatant activities in Afghanistan (the date designated by U.S. President George W. Bush in Executive Order 13239 of December 12, 2001).
2002 – Kansas City first base coach Tom Gamboa was attacked without warning by two fans, a father and son, who came out of the seats at Chicago’s Comiskey Park. The father, 34-year-old William Ligue Jr., and his 15-year-old son later received probation.
2003 – Hurricane Isabel knocked out power to more than 4.5 million people as it weakened into a tropical storm and raced toward Canada after swamping tidal communities along Chesapeake Bay. 21 of 36 storm victims were in Virginia.
2005 – Four US soldiers died in two roadside bombings near the insurgent stronghold of Ramadi.
2005 – The Secular Coalition for America, a new lobbying organization “whose purpose is to amplify the diverse and growing voice of the nontheistic community in the US,” began operations.
2006 – George Lucas, creator of “Star Wars,” announced that his private foundation will give his alma mater, the University of Southern California, $175 million to endow and rebuild its School of Cinematic Arts in what amounts to the largest donation in USC history.
2006 – A Georgia judge struck down the state’s photo ID requirement to vote.
2007 – The US Senate blocked legislation that would have regulated the amount of time troops spent in combat, a blow for Democrats struggling to challenge President Bush’s Iraq policies.
2007 – Dan Rather (75) filed a $70 million lawsuit alleging that CBS and its former parent company intentionally botched the aftermath of a discredited story about President Bush’s military service to curry favor with the administration.
2008 – Four people die in a plane crash in Columbia, South Carolina with Travis Barker, formerly of Blink 182, and DJ AM being critically injured.
2009 – NASA launched the Black Brant XII to gather data on the highest clouds in the Earth’s atmosphere.
2009 – Hundreds of parachutists from the United States, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands commemorate the 65th anniversary of Operation Market Garden near Arnhem, the Netherlands.
2009 – According to authorities, a parachute failed to fully open during a tandem jump at a northwestern Ohio skydiving center. An instructor and student were killed in the accident. The jump occurred about a half hour before sunset, and police were called to the scene about 7:30pm.
2011 – President Barack Obama outlines a plan to cut US deficits by $3 trillion over 10 years, with half of the reductions coming from tax increases.
2011 – U.S. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack told members of the National Restaurant Association that Americans need to “adjust” their tastes so that they like the kind of food the government believes they should eat—and “we have to make sure that what we do is create the appropriate transition.”
2011 – Mariano Rivera of the New York Yankees sets a record in Major League Baseball for career saves.
2012 – The US Justice Department’s inspector general finds that the agency’s Operation Fast and Furious created a “significant danger to public safety”.


1714 – Charles Humphreys, American delegate to the Continental Congress (d. 1786)

1737 – Charles Carroll of Carrollton, American signer of the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Senator (d. 1832)
1754 – John Ross Key, commissioned officer in the Continental Army, judge, lawyer and the father of Francis Scott Key (d. 1821)
1905 – Leon Jaworski, American Watergate scandal special prosecutor (d. 1982)
1907 – Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr. American Supreme Court Justice (d. 1998)
1934 – Brian Epstein, English musical group manager (the Beatles) (d. 1967)
1941 – Mama Cass Elliot, American musician (d. 1974)



Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company C, 27th Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Near Chindong-ni, Korea, 19 September 1950. Entered service at: Worthington, Ky. Born: 3 April 1929, Worthington, Ky. G.O. No.: 86, 2 August 1951. Citation: Cpl. Collier, Company C, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. While engaged in an assault on a strategic ridge strongly defended by a fanatical enemy, the leading elements of his company encountered intense automatic weapons and grenade fire. Cpl. Collier and three comrades volunteered and moved forward to neutralize an enemy machine gun position which was hampering the company’s advance, but they were twice repulsed. On the third attempt, Cpl. Collier, despite heavy enemy fire and grenade barrages, moved to an exposed position ahead of his comrades, assaulted and destroyed the machine gun nest, killing at least four enemy soldiers. As he returned down the rocky, fire-swept hill and joined his squad, an enemy grenade landed in their midst. Shouting a warning to his comrades, he, selflessly and unhesitatingly, threw himself upon the grenade and smothered its explosion with his body. This intrepid action saved his comrades from death or injury. Cpl. Collier’s supreme, personal bravery, consummate gallantry, and noble self-sacrifice reflect untold glory upon himself and uphold the honored traditions of the military service.




Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 35th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Saga, Korea, 19 September 1950. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Baltimore, Md. G.O. No.: 24, 25 April 1951. Citation: Sgt. Jecelin, Company C, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and Intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. His company was ordered to secure a prominent, saw-toothed ridge from a well-entrenched and heavily armed enemy. Unable to capture the objective in the first attempt, a frontal and flanking assault was launched. He led his platoon through heavy enemy fire and bursting shells, across rice fields and rocky terrain, in direct frontal attack on the ridge in order to draw fire away from the flanks. The unit advanced to the base of the cliff, where intense, accurate hostile fire stopped the attack. Realizing that an assault was the only solution, Sgt. Jecelin rose from his position firing his rifle and throwing grenades as he called on his men to follow him. Despite the intense enemy fire this attack carried to the crest of the ridge where the men were forced to take cover. Again he rallied his men and stormed the enemy strongpoint. With fixed bayonets they charged into the face of antitank fire and engaged the enemy in hand-to-hand combat. After clubbing and slashing this force into submission the platoon was forced to take cover from direct frontal fire of a self-propelled gun. Refusing to be stopped he leaped to his feet and through sheer personal courage and fierce determination led his men in a new attack. At this instant a well-camouflaged enemy soldier threw a grenade at the remaining members of the platoon. He immediately lunged and covered the grenade with his body, absorbing the full force of the explosion to save those around him. This incredible courage and willingness to sacrifice himself for his comrades so imbued them with fury that they completely eliminated the enemy force. Sgt. Jecelin’s heroic leadership and outstanding gallantry reflect the highest credit upon himself and uphold the esteemed traditions of the military service.


INTERIM 1871 – 1898


Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1852, Germany. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation. For jumping overboard from the U.S.S. Shenandoah at Rio de Janeiro Brazil, 19 September 1880, and rescuing from drowning James Grady, first class fireman.


INTERIM 1871 – 1898


Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1854, Bermuda. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S.S. Shenandoah, at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19 September 1880, and rescuing from drowning James Grady, first class fireman.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 19th New York Cavalry (1st New York Dragoons). Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 19 September 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Nunda, N.Y. Date of issue: 27 September 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.




Rank and organization: Musician, Company E, 1st Battalion, 15th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Chickamauga, Ga., 19 September 1863. Entered service at: North Greenfield, Ohio. Birth: Washington County, Pa. Date of issue: 27 January 1894. Citation: At a critical stage in the battle when the 14th Corps lines were wavering and in disorder he on his own initiative bugled “to the colors” amid the 18th U.S. Infantry who formed by him, and held the enemy. Within a few minutes he repeated his action amid the wavering 2d Ohio Infantry. This bugling deceived the enemy who believed reinforcements had arrived. Thus, they delayed their attack.




Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 5th Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 19 September 1864. Entered service at: New Salem, Mich. Birth: Chenango County, N.Y. Date of issue: 27 September 1864. Citation: Capture of flag, during which he was wounded in the leg.




Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company I, 8th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 19 September 1864. Entered service at: Newfane, Vt. Birth: Jamaica, Vt. Date of issue: 13 December 1893. Citation: With one comrade, voluntarily crossed an open field, exposed to a raking fire, and returned with a supply of ammunition, successfully repeating the attempt a short time thereafter.




Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company M, 5th Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 19 September 1864. Entered service at: Coldwater, Mich. Born: 1844, Trumbull, Ohio. Date of issue: 27 September 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.




Rank and organization: Commissary Sergeant, 19th New York Cavalry (1st New York Dragoons). Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 19 September 1864. Entered service at:——. Born: 8 November 1832, Dansville, Steuben County, N.Y. Date of issue: 27 September 1864 Citation: Amid the enemy he grabbed the flag from a color bearer who then called for help. When the bearer’s comrades were readying their rifles he dashed directly at them securing their disarming. As he rode away, the Confederates picked up their guns firing at the captor of their flag.




Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 38th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Opequan Creek, Va., 19 September 1864. Entered service at: Cambridge, Mass. Birth: Berwick, Maine. Date of issue: 10 May 1894. Citation: Carried his flag to the most advanced position where, left almost alone close to the enemy’s lines he refused their demand to surrender, withdrew at great personal peril, and saved his flag.




Rank and organization: Quartermaster Sergeant, Company B, 9th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 19 September 1864. Entered service at: East Randolph, N.Y. Birth: Cattaraugus, N.Y. Date of issue: 20 August 1894. Citation: In an attempt to capture a Confederate flag he captured one of the enemy’s officers and brought him within the lines.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 6th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 19 September 1864. Entered service at: New York. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 September 1864. Citation: Capture of colors of 36th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).




Rank and organization: Farrier, Company I, 6th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 19 September 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 27 September 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.




Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 101st Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Chickamauga, Ga., 19 September 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Fairfield, Ohio. Date of issue: 9 April 1894. Citation: Saved the regimental colors by greatest personal devotion and bravery.



Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 1st U.S. Sharpshooters. Place and date: Near Blackburn’s Ford, Va., 19 September 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Brookfield, Vt. Date of issue: 12 October 1892. Citation: Took command of such soldiers as he could get and attacked and captured a Confederate battery of four guns. Also, while on a reconnaissance, overtook and captured a Confederate soldier.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Chickamauga, Ga., 19 September 1863; At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., 25 November 1863. Entered service at: Glencoe, Minn. Birth: Maine. Date of issue: 2 April 1898. Citation: While in arrest at Chickamauga, Ga., left his place in the rear and voluntarily went to the line of battle, secured a rifle, and fought gallantly during the two-day battle; was released from arrest in recognition of his bravery. At Missionary Ridge commanded his company and gallantly led it, being among the first to enter the enemy’s works; was severely wounded, losing an arm, but declined a discharge and remained in active service to the end of the war.




Rank and organization: Private, Company M, 9th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 19 September 1864. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 September 1864. Citation: Capture of Virginia State flag.




Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 15th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Chickamauga, Ga., 19 September 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Athens County, Ohio. Date of issue: 9 November 1893. Citation: While on the extreme front, between the lines of the combatants single-handedly he captured a Confederate major who was armed and mounted.




Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 11th Indiana Infantry Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 19 September 1864. Entered service at: Vigo County, Ind. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 4 April 1865. Citation: With one companion, captured fourteen Confederates in the severest part of the battle.




Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company K, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 19 September 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue. 16 March 1896. Citation: Went to the assistance of his regimental commander, whose horse had been killed under him in a charge, mounted the officer behind him, under a heavy fire from the enemy, and returned him to his command.




Rank and organization: Colonel, 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 19 September 1864. Entered service at: Maryland. Born: 30 June 1842, Pittsburgh, Pa. Date of issue: 19 May 1899. Citation: At a critical period, gallantly led a cavalry charge against the left of the enemy’s line of battle, drove the enemy out of his works, and captured many prisoners.




Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 11th Battery, Ohio Light Artillery. Place and date: At Luka, Miss., 19 September 1862. Entered service at: Bucyrus, Ohio. Born: 10 March 1832, Delaware County, N.Y. Date of issue: 31 December 1892. Citation: Although severely wounded, fought his battery until the cannoneers and horses were nearly all killed or wounded.




Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company I, 11th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 19 September 1864. Entered service at: New Albany, Ind. Birth: New Albany, Ind. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Gallant and meritorious service in carrying the regimental colors.




Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 11th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Winchester, Va., 19 September 1864. Entered service at: Marion County, Ind. Birth. Edgar County, Ill. Date of issue: 4 April 1865. Citation: With one companion captured fourteen of the enemy in the severest part of the battle.

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Unerased History – September 18th

Posted by Wayne Church on September 18, 2014 in 09 - September, Blog by month |
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National Respect Day

Wife Appreciation Day

U.S. Air Force Birthday



 Obituary of the late Mr. Common Sense

Today we mourn the passing of a beloved old friend, Common Sense, who has been with us for many years. No one knows for sure how old he was, since his birth records were long ago lost in bureaucratic red tape. He will be remembered as having cultivated such valuable lessons as:

Knowing when to come in out of the rain; Why the early bird gets the worm;

Life isn’t always fair; and Maybe it was my fault.
Common Sense lived by simple, sound financial policies (don’t spend more than you can earn) and reliable strategies (adults, not children, are in charge).

His health began to deteriorate rapidly when well-intentioned but overbearing regulations were set in place. Reports of a 6 -year-old boy charged with sexual harassment for kissing a classmate; teens suspended from school for using mouthwash after lunch; and a teacher fired for reprimanding an unruly student, only worsened his condition.

Common Sense lost ground when parents attacked teachers for doing the job that they themselves had failed to do in disciplining their unruly children. It declined even further when schools were required to get parental consent to administer Calpol, sun lotion or a band-aid to a student; but could not inform parents when a student became pregnant and wanted to have an abortion.

Common Sense lost the will to live as the Ten Commandments became contraband; when some churches turned away from truth and traded in deception; and criminals received better treatment than their victims.

Common Sense took a beating when you couldn’t defend yourself from a burglar in your own home and if you did, the burglar could sue you for assault.

Common Sense finally gave up the will to live, after a woman failed to realize that a steaming cup of coffee was hot. She spilled a little in her lap, and was promptly awarded a huge settlement. Common Sense was preceded in death by his parents, Truth and Trust; his wife, Discretion; his daughter, Responsibility; and his son, Reason.

He is survived by his three stepbrothers; I Know My Rights, Someone Else Is To Blame, and I’m A Victim. 

Not many attended his funeral because so few realized he was gone.


“In the long run, we shape our lives, and we shape ourselves. The process never ends until we die. And the choices we make are ultimately our own responsibility.”

~ Eleanor Roosevelt

tetchy TECH-ee, adjective:Peevish; testy; irritable.

Tetchy probably comes from Middle English tecche, “a bad habit,” from Old French tache,teche, “a spot, stain, blemish, habit, vice.”

1502 – Christopher Columbus lands at Costa Rica on his fourth, and final, voyage. Columbus left 52 Jewish families in Costa Rica.
1634 – Anne Hutchinson, the first female religious leader in American colonies, arrived at the Massachusetts Bay Colony with her family.
1679 – New Hampshire becomes a county of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1755 – Ft. Ticonderoga was established in New York.
1769 – Boston Gazette reports first US piano (a spinet). The first American spinet was actually made in 1743 by Gustavus Hesselius of Philadelphia.
1789 – American government takes out first ever loan, a total of $191,608.81.
1793 – The first cornerstone of the Capitol building is laid by George Washington on Jenkins Hill.
1812 – Fire in Moscow destroys 90% of houses & 1,000 churches.
1830 – A horse beats the first U.S.-made locomotive near Baltimore. “Tom Thumb” led the race until a belt slipped off a pulley and the engine lost power.
1837 – Tiffany and Co. (first named Tiffany & Young) is founded by Charles Lewis Tiffany and Teddy Young in New York City. The store is called a “stationery and fancy goods emporium”.
1838 – The Anti-Corn Law League is established by Richard Cobden.
1850 – The U.S. Congress passes the Fugitive Slave Act. The act allowed slave owners to claim slaves that had escaped into other states.

1851 – The first edition of The New York Times was published as the New-York Daily Times. It was founded by Henry J. Raymond, Republican Speaker of the NY State Assembly, and banker George Jones as a conservative counterpoint to Horace Greeley’s Tribune. It  started publishing at 2 ¢ a copy.
1858 – Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas held the fourth of their senatorial debates, this one in Charleston, Ill.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s army pulls away from Antietam Creek, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, and heads back to Virginia.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Chickamauga. fought September 18–20, 1863, marked the end of a Union offensive in south-central Tennessee and northwestern Georgia called the Chickamauga Campaign. The battle was the most significant Union defeat in the Western Theater of the Civil War.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Martinsburg WV.
1870 –  Old Faithful Geyser is observed and named by Henry D. Washburn during the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition to Yellowstone.
1873 – The Panic of 1873 begins. This was a serious downturn in the economy of the United States that was precipitated by the bankruptcy on September 18, 1873 of the Philadelphia banking firm Jay Cooke and Company. It was one of a series of economic crises in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
1874 -The Nebraska Relief and Aid Society was formed to help farmers whose crops were destroyed by grasshoppers swarming throughout the American West.
1877 – Bass gang pulls off largest train robbery of that time, taking $60,000 from a Union Pacific train near Big Spring, Nebraska.
1882 – Pacific Stock Exchange opens (as the Local Security Board).
1891 – Harriet Maxwell Converse became the first white woman to ever be named chief of an Indian tribe (her Indian name was Ga-is-wa-noh: the Watcher). The tribe was the Six Nations Tribe at Towanda Reservation in New York.
1895 – Booker T Washington delivers “Atlanta Compromise” address. His address to the White audience, told them that, rather than rely on the immigrant population arriving at the rate of a million souls a year, they should hire some of the eight million Blacks.
1895 – D.D. Palmer gives the first chiropractic adjustment, initiating the health care profession of chiropractic. He  founded the first “college” of chiropractic near a duck farm in Iowa.
1906 – A typhoon with tsunami kills an estimated 10,000 people in Hong Kong.
1914 – World War I: The Battle of Aisne ends with Germans beating French.
1919 – Fritz Pollard becomes the first black to play Professional football for a major team, the Akron Indians. Pollard was also the first Black to play in the Rose Bowl.
1924 – After seven years of occupation, the last Marines departed the Dominican Republic.
1927 – Columbia Phonograph Broadcasting System (later, CBS) goes on the air with a network of sixteen stations..
1928 – Juan de la Cierva makes first autogyro crossing of the English Channel.
1929 – Charles Lindbergh took off on a 10,000 mile air tour of South America. B.F. Mahoney was the ‘mystery man’ behind the Ryan company that built Lindbergh’s Spirit of St. Louis.
1939 – President Roosevelt directs enlistment of 2,000 new Coast Guardsmen and opens two new training stations.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust: The Jews of Minsk are massacred at Sobibór.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust: Hitler ordered the deportation of Danish Jews (unsuccessful).
1944 – World War II:  American B-17 bombers drop 1284 containers of supplies to the embattled Polish Home Army (AK) in Warsaw.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS –  “I’ll Walk Alone” by Dinah Shore, “Swinging on a Star” by Bing Crosby, “Time Waits for No One” by Helen Forrest and “Soldier’s Last Letter” by Ernest Tubb all topped the charts.
1945 –  General Douglas MacArthur moves his command headquarters to Tokyo.
1945 – In Gary, Indiana, one- thousand white students walked out of three, Gary, Ind. schools to protest integration. There were similar disturbances in Chicago and other Northern and Western metropolitan areas.
1947 – The National Security Act went into effect. It created a Cabinet secretary of defense and unified the Army, Navy and newly formed Air Force into a National Military Establishment.
1947 – Country singers Ernest Tubb and Roy Acuff perform at Carnegie Hall in New York City, making it the venue’s first country performance.
1948 – Margaret Chase Smith becomes the first woman elected to the Senate without completing another senator’s term when she defeats Democratic opponent Adrian Scolten.
1948 – “The Original Amateur Hour” returned to radio on ABC.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wish You Were Here” by Eddie Fisher, “Auf Wiedersehn, Sweetheart” by Vera Lynn, “Half as Much” by Rosemary Clooney and “Jambalaya (On the Bayou)” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1952 – First ultra high frequency (UHF) television station, Portland OR. Station KPTV became the first commercial TV station to broadcast in the new UHF band.
1954 – “Sh-Boom” by the Crew-Cuts topped the charts.
1955 – “The Toast of the Town” became “The Ed Sullivan Show.” The show had been “The Toast of the Town” since 1948.
1957 – “The Big Record”, hosted by Patti Page, debuted on CBS-TV.
1957 – “Wagon Train” premiers.
1959 – Vanguard 3 launched into Earth orbit.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Now or Never” by Elvis Presley, “The Twist” by Chubby Checker, “My Heart Has a Mind of Its Own” by Connie Francis and “Alabam” by Cowboy Copas all topped the charts.
1961 – “Take Good Care of My Baby” by Bobby Vee topped the charts.
1961 – U.N. Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold dies in a plane crash while attempting to negotiate peace in the war-torn Katanga region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
1963 – “The Patty Duke Show” premiered on ABC-TV.
1964 – North Vietnamese Army begins infiltration of South Vietnam.
1965 – “Get Smart” premiers.
1965 – “Help!” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1965 – I Dream of Jeannie” premieres on NBC-TV.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “People Got to Be Free” by The Rascals, “Harper Valley P.T.A.” by Jeannie C. Riley,  “1,2,3, Red Light” by 1910 Fruitgum Co. and “Mama Tried” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1968 – The film “Funny Girl” with Barbra Streisand premiered in New York City.
1969 – Tiny Tim announces engagement on the Tonight Show.
1970 – Rocker Jimi Hendrix dies at 27.
1971 – “Go Away Little Girl by Donny Osmond topped the charts.
1972 – First Black NL umpire (Art Williams-Los Angeles vs San Diego).
1975 – Patricia Hearst, the newspaper heiress and wanted fugitive, was captured by the FBI in San Francisco, nineteen months after being kidnapped by the Symbionese Liberation Army. Also arrested were William and Emily Harris, Steven Soliah and Wendy Yoshimura in San Francisco.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Play That Funky Music” by Wild Cherry, “I’d Really Love to See You Tonight” by England Dan & John Ford Coley, “A Fifth of Beethoven” by Walter Murphy & The Big Apple Band and “I Don’t Want to Have to Marry You” by Jim Ed Brown/Helen Cornelius all topped the charts.
1977 – US Voyager I takes first space photograph of Earth & Moon together.
1978 – Leaders of Israel and Egypt reach a settlement for the Middle East at Camp David.
1981 – A museum honoring former U.S. President Ford was dedicated in Grand Rapids, MI.
1982 – “Hard to Say I’m Sorry” by Chicago topped the charts.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “What’s Love Got to Do with It” by Tina Turner, “Missing You” by John Waite, “She Bop” by Cyndi Lauper and “You’re Getting to Me Again” by Jim Glaser all topped the charts.
1984 – Joe Kittinger completes first solo balloon crossing of Atlantic.
1987 – Ronald Reagan announces joint destruction of nuclear war heads by the US and USSR.
1987 – Detroit Tiger Darrell Evans is first 40 year old to hit 30 HRs.
1987 – The movie “Fatal Attraction,” starring Michael Douglas and Glenn Close, opened in US theaters.
1990 – A 500 lb 6′ Hershey Kiss is displayed at 1 Times Square, New York City.
1990 – The city of Atlanta was named the site of the 1996 Summer Olympics.
1990 – Charles H. Keating was jailed in Los Angeles in lieu of $5 million bail after being indicted on criminal fraud charges concerning saving-and-loans.
1991 – The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite was deployed from the space shuttle Discovery. It measured the ozone hole for the next decade. Operations of the satellite ceased in 2001 due to NASA economics.
1992 – Ross Perot’s name was submitted for the 50th state ballot — Arizona — on the same day that Perot hinted on NBC’s “Today” show that he might throw his hat into the presidential ring, after all.
1993 – Garth Brooks’ “In Pieces” debuted at #1 in the US. (Copyright won’t allow link)
1993 – Kimberly Clarice Aiken of South Carolina was crowned Miss America at the pageant in Atlantic City, N.J.
1995 – President Clinton began a five-day re-election campaign fund-raising tour that got off to a rocky start after a deal to convert the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard to civilian use collapsed at the last minute.
1996 – Republican presidential nominee Bob Dole fell off a stage during a campaign rally in Chico, Calif., after a railing gave way; he was not seriously hurt.
1996 – The O.J. Simpson civil trial opened in Santa Monica, Calif.
1996 – Photos taken of Mars that indicated a huge dust storm near the north pole that was active for months.
1997 – Media mogul Ted Turner pledged $1 billion to the United Nations over the next ten years.
1997 – Coopers & Lybrand and Price Waterhouse agreed to merge to create the world’s biggest accounting firm.
1998 – ICANN (International Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is formed.
1998 – A federal judge in San Jose awarded the Church of Scientology a $3 million settlement against Grady Ward for publishing secret scriptures on the Internet. Grady would not have to pay the full fine if he refrains from publishing church secrets and pays the church $200 per month for the rest of his life.
1998 – The House Judiciary Committee voted to release the video tape of President Clinton’s grand jury testimony along with 2,800 pages of sexually explicit testimony.
1999 – Sammy Sosa became the first player to hit 60 HRs twice.
1998 – Mark McGwire hit his 64th home run of the season, pulling out of a tie with Sammy Sosa.
1999 – The 79th annual Miss America Pageant was held in Atlantic City. Heather Renee French (24), a graduated design student from Maysville, Ky., was the winner.
2000 – The first working day of a transit strike that began over the weekend forced nearly a half-million Southern California commuters to scrounge for rides or get behind the wheel themselves.
2000 – Scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab had fashioned the smallest transistor using a buckyball, single molecule of carbon-60.
2001 – Letters postmarked in Trenton, N.J., and later tested positive for anthrax, were sent to the New York Post and NBC anchorman Tom Brokaw.
2001 – A week after the Sept. 11 attacks, President George W. Bush said he hoped to “rally the world” in the battle against terrorism and predicted that all “people who love freedom” would join.
2001The US airline industry won assurances of billions of dollars in financial help from the government. Charitable donations to victims of the terrorist attacks topped $200 million. Boeing estimated that it would cut as many as 30,000 workers by the end of the year.
2002 – The Bush administration pressed Congress to take the lead in authorizing force against Iraq, with Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld asserting, “It serves no U.S. or U.N. purpose to give Saddam Hussein excuses for further delay.”
2002 – Bob Hayes (59), former Olympic gold medal sprinter (1964) and Dallas Cowboy, died.
2003 – Hurricane Isabel plowed into North Carolina’s Outer Banks with 100 mile-an-hour winds and pushed its way up the Eastern Seaboard; the storm was later blamed for thirty deaths.
2003 – Anti-virus companies warned of a new computer worm circulating through e-mail that purports to be security software from Microsoft Corp.
2004 – Louisiana voters overwhelmingly approved a state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriages and civil unions.
2004 – Miss Alabama Deidre Downs, an aspiring medical student, won the Miss America contest.
2005 – “Everybody Loves Raymond” won the Emmy for best comedy in its final season; first-year hit “Lost” was named best drama.
2005 -Former US president Bill Clinton sharply criticized George W. Bush for the Iraq War and the handling of Hurricane Katrina, and voiced alarm at the swelling US budget deficit.
2005 – Tropical Storm Rita formed southeast of the Florida Keys.
2006 – Researchers at Intel and UC Santa Barbara announced new technology using lasers on silicon chips for optical computing. Practical use was thought to be 5-7 years away.
2006 – The US Commerce Department said the current account deficit had widened more than expected in the second quarter to $218.4 billion, as surging oil prices pushed goods imports higher.
2007 –  President Bush, cheered on by Iraq war veterans and their families on the White House’s South Lawn, urged lawmakers to back his plan to withdraw some troops from Iraq but keep at least 130,000 through the summer of 2008 or longer.
2007 – O.J. Simpson was charged with seven felonies, including kidnapping, in the alleged armed robbery of sports memorabilia collectors in a Las Vegas casino-hotel room.
2007 – Maryland’s highest court, in a 4-3 decision, upheld a law defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman and said the 1973 ban on gay marriage does not discriminate on the basis of gender and does not deny any fundamental rights.
2008 –  In Minnesota the new Interstate 35W bridge opened. The old span over the Mississippi River had collapsed on August 1, 2007. The new $234 million St. Anthony Falls Bridge was embedded with an early warning system consisting of hundreds of sensors.
2008 – A non-profit Internet rights group filed a lawsuit against President George W. Bush and others in his administration for the “massively illegal” surveillance of emails and telephone calls without court warrants.
 2009 – Obama White House scraps Bush’s approach to missile shield. President Obama’s new missile defense plan is more about international politics than new military technology.
2009 –  In Chicago 4 former members of a now-disbanded police unit admitted that they used to barge into people’s homes and steal money. They were sentenced to 6 months in jail
2011 – In golf, Lexi Thompson of the United States becomes the youngest player to win a LPGA event winning the Navistar LPGA Classic at age 16.
2012 – The Chicago Teachers Union and Chicago Public Schools reach a deal that would end an 8-day strike.


1709 – Samuel Johnson, British lexicographer, poet, essayist, and novelist.

1733 – George Read, signer of the United States Declaration of Independence (d. 1798)
1819 – Jean Bernard Leon Foucault, French physicist who invented the gyroscope.
1908 – Satchel Leroy Paige, Major League Baseball’s oldest rookie after playing 22 years in the Negro Leagues.
1939 – Frankie Avalon (Frances Avellone), American singer and actor.






Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Island of Peleliu in the Palau group, 18 September 1944. Entered service at: Oregon. Born: 18 October 1924, Cleveland Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on the Island of Peleliu in the Palau group, 18 September 1944. Boldly taking the initiative when his platoon’s left flank advance was held up by the fire of Japanese troops concealed in strongly fortified positions, Pfc. Jackson unhesitatingly proceeded forward of our lines and, courageously defying the heavy barrages, charged a large pillbox housing approximately thirty-five enemy soldiers. Pouring his automatic fire into the opening of the fixed installation to trap the occupying troops, he hurled white phosphorus grenades and explosive charges brought up by a fellow marine, demolishing the pillbox and killing all of the enemy. Advancing alone under the continuous fire from other hostile emplacements, he employed similar means to smash two smaller positions in the immediate vicinity. Determined to crush the entire pocket of resistance although harassed on all sides by the shattering blasts of Japanese weapons and covered only by small rifle parties, he stormed one gun position after another, dealing death and destruction to the savagely fighting enemy in his inexorable drive against the remaining defenses, and succeeded in wiping out a total of twelve pillboxes and fifty Japanese soldiers. Stouthearted and indomitable despite the terrific odds, Pfc. Jackson resolutely maintained control of the platoon’s left flank movement throughout his valiant one-man assault and, by his cool decision and relentless fighting spirit during a critical situation, contributed essentially to the complete annihilation of the enemy in the southern sector of the island. His gallant initiative and heroic conduct in the face of extreme peril reflect the highest credit upon Pfc. Jackson and the U.S. Naval Service.






Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 363d Infantry, 91st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Scarperia, Italy, 16-18 September 1944. Entered service at: Foster City, Mich. Birth: Foster City, Mich. G.O. No.: 58, 19 July 1945. Citation: (then Pfc.) He practically single-handed protected the left flank of his company’s position in the offensive to break the German’s gothic line. Company B was the extreme left assault unit of the corps. The advance was stopped by heavy fire from Monticelli Ridge, and the company took cover behind an embankment. Sgt. Johnson, a mortar gunner, having expended his ammunition, assumed the duties of a rifleman. As leader of a squad of seven men he was ordered to establish a combat post fifty yards to the left of the company to cover its exposed flank. Repeated enemy counterattacks, supported by artillery, mortar, and machinegun fire from the high ground to his front, had by the afternoon of 16 September killed or wounded all his men. Collecting weapons and ammunition from his fallen comrades, in the face of hostile fire, he held his exposed position and inflicted heavy casualties upon the enemy, who several times came close enough to throw hand grenades. On the night of 16-17 September, the enemy launched his heaviest attack on Company B, putting his greatest pressure against the lone defender of the left flank. In spite of mortar fire which crashed about him and machinegun bullets which whipped the crest of his shallow trench, Sgt. Johnson stood erect and repulsed the attack with grenades and small arms fire. He remained awake and on the alert throughout the night, frustrating all attempts at infiltration. On 17 September, twenty-five German soldiers surrendered to him. Two men, sent to reinforce him that afternoon, were caught in a devastating mortar and artillery barrage. With no thought of his own safety, Sgt. Johnson rushed to the shell hole where they lay half buried and seriously wounded, covered their position by his fire, and assisted a Medical Corpsman in rendering aid. That night he secured their removal to the rear and remained on watch until his company was relieved. Five companies of a German paratroop regiment had been repeatedly committed to the attack on Company B without success. Twenty dead Germans were found in front of his position. By his heroic stand and utter disregard for personal safety, Sgt. Johnson was in a large measure responsible for defeating the enemy’s attempts to turn the exposed left flank.







Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company H, 502d Parachute Infantry, 101st Airborne Division. Place and date: Best, Holland, 18 September 1944. Entered service at: Seattle, Wash. Birth: Rearden, Wash. G.O. No.: 73, 30 August 1945. Citation: He distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry above and beyond the call of duty. On 18 September 1944, in the vicinity of Best., Holland, his platoon, attempting to seize the bridge across the Wilhelmina Canal, was surrounded and isolated by an enemy force greatly superior in personnel and firepower. Acting as lead scout, Pfc. Mann boldly crept to within rocket-launcher range of an enemy artillery position and, in the face of heavy enemy fire, destroyed an 88mm. gun and an ammunition dump. Completely disregarding the great danger involved, he remained in his exposed position, and, with his M-1 rifle, killed the enemy one by one until he was wounded four times. Taken to a covered position, he insisted on returning to a forward position to stand guard during the night. On the following morning the enemy launched a concerted attack and advanced to within a few yards of the position, throwing hand grenades as they approached. One of these landed within a few feet of Pfc. Mann. Unable to raise his arms, which were bandaged to his body, he yelled “grenade” and threw his body over the grenade, and as it exploded, died. His outstanding gallantry above and beyond the call of duty and his magnificent conduct were an everlasting inspiration to his comrades for whom he gave his life.







Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 16 August 1923, Claude, Tex. Accredited to. Texas. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Peleliu, Palau Islands, 18 September 1944. Shortly after his leader ordered a withdrawal upon discovering that the squad was partly cut off from their company as a result of the rapid advance along an exposed ridge during an aggressive attack on the strongly entrenched enemy, Pfc. Roan and his companions were suddenly engaged in a furious exchange of handgrenades by Japanese forces emplaced in a cave on higher ground and to the rear of the squad. Seeking protection with four other Marines in a depression in the rocky, broken terrain, Pfc. Roan was wounded by an enemy grenade which fell close to their position and, immediately realizing the eminent peril to his comrades when another grenade landed in the midst of the group, unhesitatingly flung himself upon it, covering it with his body and absorbing the full impact of the explosion. By his prompt action and selfless conduct in the face of almost certain death, he saved the lives of fourmen. His great personal valor reflects the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his comrades.







Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 9th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Las Animas Canyon, N. Mex., 18 September 1879. Entered service at: Oberlin, Ohio. Birth: Mansfield, Ohio. Date of issue: 7 May 1890. Citation: Advanced alone into the enemy’s lines and carried off a wounded soldier of his command under a hot fire and after he had been ordered to retreat.







Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 9th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Las Animas Canyon, N. Mex., 18 September 1879. Entered service at: 1867 Elmira, N.Y. Birth: Big Flats, N.Y. Date of issue: 27 November 189i. Citation: Removed a wounded comrade, under a heavy fire, to a place of safety.







Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 9th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Las Animas Canyon, N. Mex., 18 September 1879. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue 24 August 1899. Citation: Lt. Emmet was in G Troop which was sent to relieve a detachment of soldiers under attack by hostile Apaches During a flank attack on the Indian camp, made to divert the hostiles Lt. Emmet and five of his men became surrounded when the Indians returned to defend their camp. Finding that the Indians were making for a position from which they could direct their fire on the retreating troop, the Lieutenant held his point with his party until the soldiers reached the safety of a canyon. Lt. Emmet then continued to hold his position while his party recovered their horses. The enemy force consisted of approximately two-hundred.


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Unerased History – September 17th

Posted by Wayne Church on September 17, 2014 in 09 - September, Blog by month |
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Citizenship Day
Constitution Day




Constitution Day and Citizenship Day is a combined event that occurs in the United States on September 17 each year. On this day US citizens remember the blessings of liberty and are recognized for holding the responsibilities of citizenship.

How does one become a citizen legally if not born in the United States of legal citizens or of legal citizens living abroad?

This entry is copied in its entirety from the US Citizenship & Immigration Service.

Citizenship Through Naturalization

How to Apply for Naturalization

Naturalization is the process by which U.S. citizenship is granted to a foreign citizen or national after he or she fulfills the requirements established by Congress in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA).

To apply for naturalization, file Form N-400, Application for Naturalization.

For more information, see our How Do I Apply for Citizenship? guide. We also provide educational materials to help you prepare for the English, U.S. history and civics portions of the naturalization test, including:

For more test information visit our Naturalization Test page.

If you are in the military and are interested in becoming a U.S. citizen, please see the M-599, Naturalization Information for Military guide.

You May Qualify for Naturalization if:

  • You have been a permanent resident for at least 5 years and meet all other eligibility requirements, please visit our General Path to Citizenship page for more information.
  • You have been a permanent resident for 3 years or more and meet all eligibility requirements to file as a spouse of a U.S. citizen, please visit our For Spouses of U.S. Citizens page for more information.
  • You have qualifying service in the U.S. armed forces and meet all other eligibility requirements. Visit the Military section of our website.
  • Your child may qualify for naturalization if you are a U.S. citizen, the child was born outside the U.S., the child is currently residing outside the U.S., and all other eligibility requirements are met.

You may also qualify through other paths to naturalization if you do not qualify through the paths described on the links to the left. See our A Guide to Naturalization guide. Chapter 4 of the guide discusses who is eligible for Naturalization.

Note: You may already be a U.S. citizen and not need to apply for naturalization if your biological or adoptive parent(s) became a U.S. citizen before you reached the age of 18.  For more information, visit our Citizenship Through Parents page.

WEBSITE: http://www.uscis.gov/portal/site/uscis

“If the ladder is not leaning against the right wall, every step we take gets us to the wrong place faster.”

~ Stephen Covey


keelhaul  (KEEL-hawl)  verb tr.:1. To haul under the keel of a ship. 2. To rebuke sharply.From Dutch kielhalen, from kiel (keel) + halen (to haul). In the olden times this form of punishment was inflicted in the Dutch and British navies. The punished sailor was tied to a rope looped under the ship and thrown in the water. Then he was dragged along the bottom of the ship to the other side. The result was either severe injuries from brushing against the barnacles on the ship’s bottom or death from drowning. Thankfully, in modern times keelhauling is performed only metaphorically.


   642 –  Arabs conquered Alexandria and destroyed the great library. Omar, the second caliph, successor of Mohammed, conquered Alexandria, then the capital of world scholarship.

1630 – The city of Boston, Massachusetts, is founded.
1691 – The Massachusetts Bay Colony received a new charter.
1774 – Congress declares its opposition to the Coercive Acts, saying they are “not to be obeyed,” and also promotes the formation of local militia units.
1775 –  Revolutionary War: The Invasion of Canada begins with the Siege of Fort St. Jean.
1776 – The Presidio of San Francisco is founded in New Spain. New Spain was the political unit of Spanish territories in North and Central America, and Asia-Pacific. The territory included the present-day California, Southwestern United States, Mexico, Central America (except Panama), the Caribbean, and the Philippines.
1778 – Treaty of Fort Pitt signed, the first formal treaty between the United States and a Native American tribe (the Lenape or Delaware).
1787 – The Constitution of the United States was completed and signed by a majority of delegates (12) attending the constitutional convention in Philadelphia. The US Constitution went into effect on Mar 4, 1789.
1787 – The “College of Electors” (electoral college) was established at the Constitutional Convention with representatives to be chosen by the states. Pierce Butler of South Carolina first proposed the electoral college system.
1789 – William Herschel discovers Mimas, satellite of Saturn.
1796 – U.S. President George Washington’s Farewell Address was read before the U.S. Congress. Washington counseled the republic in his farewell address to avoid “entangling alliances” and involvement in the “ordinary vicissitudes, combinations, and collision of European politics.”
1814 – Francis Scott Key finishes his The Star-Spangled Banner poem.
1822 – Rosetta Stone deciphered.
1849 –  American abolitionist Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery.
1859 – The San Francisco Call Bulletin published a notice on an inside page announcing that Joshua A. Norton, formerly a prominent SF businessman, had proclaimed himself Norton I, “Emperor of these United States.” He annexed the whole of the US and suspended the Constitution.
1861 – Civil War: Landing party from U.S.S. Pawnee, Commander Rowan, destroyed guns and fortifications on Beacon Island, closing Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina.
1861 – Civil War:  Mary Smith Peake, the daughter of a white Englishman and a free woman of color, started teaching runaway slaves under an oak tree near Fort Monroe, Va.This became the first American school for freed slaves. The tree itself became known as the Emancipation Oak after President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation was read there in 1863.
1862 – Civil War: George B. McClellan halts the northward drive of Robert E. Lee’s Confederate army in the single-day Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest day in American history. More than 23,000 men were killed, wounded, or missing.
1862 – Civil War: Sgt. William McKinley and a single volunteer drove a wagon of hot coffee and warm food through Confederate fire at Antietam to the men of the 23rd Ohio regiment. Col. Rutherford B. Hayes promoted him to lieutenant for his bravery and initiative.
1862 – Civil War: The Allegheny Arsenal explosion resulted in the single largest civilian disaster during the war .
1863 – Civil War: Union cavalry troops clashed with a group of Confederates at Chickamauga Creek.
1864 – Gen. Grant approved Sheridan’s plan for Shenandoah Valley Campaign. “I want it so barren that a crow, flying down it, would need to pack rations.”
1868 – The Battle of Beecher’s Island began, in which Major George “Sandy” Forsyth and 50 volunteers held off 500 Sioux and Cheyenne in eastern Colorado.
1872 – Phillip W. Pratt, of Abington, MA, patented an automatic fire sprinkler system.
1873 – Nineteen students attend opening class at Ohio State University.
1900 – Philippine-American War: Filipinos under Juan Cailles defeat Americans under Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham at Mabitac.
1902 – U.S. troops were sent to Panama to keep train lines open over the isthmus as Panamanian nationals struggled for independence from Colombia.
1902 –  US protested anti-Semitism in Romania.
1908 – The Wright Flyer flown by Orville Wright, with Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge as passenger, crashes; killing Selfridge. He became the first airplane fatality. They were circling the landing field at Fort Myer, Va., when a crack developed in the blade of the aircraft’s propeller. Wright lost control of the Flyer and the biplane plunged to the ground.
1911 – First transcontinental airplane flight, Long Island, NY-Pasadena in 82 hrs 4 min. The pilot was “Cal” (Calbraith Perry) Rogers.
1916 – World War I: Manfred von Richthofen (“The Red Baron”), a flying ace of the German Luftstreitkräfte, won his first aerial combat near Cambrai, France.
1917 – Some 20,000 iron workers went on strike in SF, Oakland and Alameda in the biggest strike ever on the Pacific Coast. Marines were sent to guard the Union Iron Works and thirty-two men were arrested in street demonstrations.
1918 – Elmer Sperry received a patent for the gyrocompass, essential to modern ship navigation.
1919 – The US saluted Gen. John J. Pershing and soldiers returning from WWI in a parade up Pennsylvania Ave. in Washington DC.
1920 – The American Professional Football Association (later the National Football League) is organized in Canton, Ohio. Jim Thorpe was the first president.
1928 – The Okeechobee Hurricane strikes southeastern Florida, killing upwards of 2,500 people. It is the third deadliest natural disaster in US history, behind the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 and the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.
1930 – Construction on Boulder Dam, later renamed Hoover Dam, began in Black Canyon, near Las Vegas, NV.
1931 – RCA Victor demonstrates early version of the 33-1/3 RPM record in New York City. The venture failed.
1934 – First 33 1/3 rpm recording released (Beethoven’s 5th).
1937 – First NFL game in Washington, DC; the Redskins beat the NY Giants 13-3.
1937 – At Mount Rushmore, Abraham Lincoln’s face was dedicated.
1939 – The Harry James Orchestra and Frank Sinatra recorded “All or Nothing at All” for Columbia Records.
1940 – World War II: Europe: Nazis deprived the Jews of possessions.
1941 –  World War II: The US Navy increases its role in escorting Atlantic convoys. It assumes responsibility for some of the Halifax to Britain convoys and the security of traffic to Iceland.
1942 –  World War II: US Army Lt. Gen. Leslie R. Groves was made a temporary Brigadier General and was placed in charge of the Manhattan Engineer District, which later became known as the Manhattan Project.
1943 –  World War II: The US 5th Army begins to advance out of its beachhead. German forces attack Altavilla and Battipaglia in rearguard action to cover their withdrawal to the Volturno Line.
1943 –  World War II: American land-based Liberator bombers attack the island of Tarawa.
1944 –  World War II: Operation Market Garden begins. The Allied intention is to secure key bridges over a series of rivers and canals in Holland to achieve a rapid advance onto the north German plain.
1944 – World War II: Infantry glider troops of the 82nd Airborne Division and allied Airborne troops parachute into the Netherlands as the “Market” half of Operation Market Garden.
1945 – World War II: Josef Kramer and 44 other German SS officers stand trial at Luneburg on charges of conspiracy to commit mass murder at Auschwitz and Belsen.
1947 – Jackie Robinson was named Rookie of Year by Sporting News.
1947 – James V. Forrestal was sworn in as the first Secretary of Defense of United States.
1949 – “Someday” by Vaughan Monroe topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: North Korean Air Force aircraft slightly damaged the USS Rochester at Inchon during the first enemy air attack of the war on a U.S. ship.
1950 – San Francisco 49ers (formerly AAFC) play first NFL game, lose 21-17.
1950 – Korean War: The U.S. 7th Infantry Division began debarking at Inchon and, augmented by the ROK Army’s 17th Infantry Regiment, prepared for the advanced to secure Suwon.
1950 – Korean War: The 5th Marine Regiment seized Kimpo Airfield, allowing F4U Corsairs from the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing to land and begin combat operations. Meanwhile, the 7th Marine Regiment landed at Inchon to rejoin the 1st Marine Division advancing on Seoul.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Because of You” by Tony Bennett, “The Loveliest Night of the Year” by Mario Lanza, “Sweet Violets” by Dinah Shore and “Always Late (With Your Kisses)” by Lefty Frizzell all topped the charts.
1952 – “I am an American Day” & “Constitution Day” renamed “Citizenship Day.”
1953 – Ernie Banks becomes Chicago Cubs first Black player.
1953 – The Ochsner Foundation Hospital in New Orleans, LA, successfully separated Siamese twins. Carolyn Anne and Catherine Anne Mouton were connected at the waist when born. It was the first such separation.
1954 – Rocky Marciano KO’s Ezzard Charles to keep world heavyweight boxing title.
1955 – “Ain’t That a Shame” by Pat Boone topped the charts.
1955 – “The Perry Como Show” moved to Saturday nights on NBC-TV.
1955 – A US Convair B-36 bomber took off from Carswell AFB, Texas, becoming the first aircraft in the world to fly with a nuclear reactor. Over the next 2 years the Convair Crusader made 47 flights.
1956 – Black students entered a Clay, Ky., elementary school. There almost
all the white students boycotted the grade school when two black students enrolled.
The National Guard and State Police kept order outside an almost empty school.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sleep Walk” by Santo & Johnny, “I’m Gonna Get Married by Lloyd Price, “(’Til) I Kissed You” by The Everly Brothers and “The Three Bells” by The Browns all topped the charts.
1959 – The North American Aviation X-15 rocket plane, piloted by Scott Crossfield, made its first powered flight.
1960 – “It’s Now or Never” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1960 – Cuba nationalized US banks.
1961 – Minnesota Vikings’ first NFL game (beat Chicago Bears 37-13).
1961 – The situation comedy “Car 54, Where Are You?” premiered on NBC. It ran until 1963.
1962 – U.S. space officials announced the selection of Neil A. Armstrong and eight others as new astronauts. Armstrong was the first to set foot on the moon.
1962 – The first federal suit to end public school segregation was filed by the U.S. Justice Department.
1963 – “The Fugitive” premiers on ABC TV.  It  starred David Janssen. Kimble was cleared on the Aug 29, 1967 episode, and narrator William Conrad announced “the day the running stopped.”
1964 – “Bewitched” premiers on ABC TV.
1964 – Mickey Mantle gets hits #1999, 2000 & 2001.
1964 – Supremes release “Baby Love“.
1965 – CBS-TV debuted “Hogan’s Heroes“.
1965 – “The Smothers Brothers Show“, a sitcom, debuted on CBS-TV.
1966 – “You Can’t Hurry Love” by the Supremes topped the charts.
1966 – Mission Impossible” premiered on CBS. The series lasted until 1973.
1966 – Vietnam War: Operation “Golden Fleece,” Marines protected rice harvest in Vietnam. (Concluded 27 September)
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ode to Billie Joe” by Bobbie Gentry, “Reflections” by Diana Ross & The Supremes, “Come Back When You Grow Up” by Bobby Vee and “My Elusive Dreams” by David Houston all topped the charts.
1967 – Jim Morrison and The Doors defy CBS censors on The Ed Sullivan Show.
1967 – New Orleans Saints first NFL game, they lose to LA Rams 27-13.
1972 – Vietnam War: Three U.S. pilots are released by Hanoi.
1972 – “M*A*S*H,” premieres on  CBS-TV.
1973 – Charles Horman, a US free-lance journalist, was arrested by Chilean security forces. He was executed 9/18/1973.His body was found months later.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rhinestone Cowboy” by Glen Campbell, “At Seventeen” by Janis Ian, “Fame” by David Bowie and “Feelins’” by Conway Twitty & Loretta Lynne all topped the charts.
1976 – The first Space Shuttle, Enterprise, was unveiled by NASA in Palmdale, CA. It was a non-flying version used for tests.
1976 – The California Supreme Court ruled that the Univ. of California’s special admissions policy giving preference to minority applicants is unconstitutional.
1977 – “I Just Want to Be Your Everything” by Andy Gibb topped the charts.
1978 – President Jimmy Carter convinced Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin to sign the Camp David Accords.
1979 – Gov. Jerry Brown appointed Steven Lachs as California’s first admittedly gay judge. He served until 1999 when he retired.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Maniac” by Michael Sembello, “Tell Her About It” by Billy Joel, “The Safety Dance” by Men Without Hats and “Night Games” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1983 – Slugger Carl Yastrzemski of the Red Sox broke Hank Aaron’s MLB record for games played.
1983 –  Vanessa Williams of New York became the first black contestant to be crowned “Miss America.” The following July, she also became the first Miss America to resign in the wake of her Penthouse magazine scandal.
1983 – Johnny Bench, of the Cincinnati Reds, retired after 16 years as a catcher.
1984 – Oil heir Gordon P. Getty, with a fortune of $4.1 billion dollars, was named the richest person in the US.
1984 – Reggie Jackson of the California Angels hit his 500th career homer.
1984 – 9,706 immigrants became naturalized citizens when they were sworn in by U.S. Vice-President George Bush in Miami, FL. It was the largest group to become U.S. citizens.
1986 – The Senate confirmed the nomination of William H. Rehnquist to become the 16th chief justice of the United States.
1987 – The city of Philadelphia, birthplace of the U.S. Constitution, threw a big party to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the historic document.
1988 – “Sweet Child o’ Mine” by Guns ‘n’ Roses topped the charts.
1990 – Supreme Court nominee David H. Souter concluded three days of testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee.
1990 – Defense Secretary Dick Cheney fired Air Force chief of staff General Mike Dugan for openly discussing contingency plans about  launching massive air strikes against Baghdad and targeting Iraqi President Saddam Hussein personally.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Promise of a New Day by Paula Abdul, “I Adore Mi
Amor” by Color Me Badd, “Motownphilly” by Boys II Men and Leap of Faith” by Lionel Cartwright all topped the charts.
1991 – The first flight of the McDonnell Douglas C-17 military cargo transport took place.
1992 – A federal judge overturned the impeachment of former U.S. District Judge Alcee Hastings, saying he did not receive a fair trial by the Senate, which convicted him in 1989 of perjury and conspiracy.
1992 – Special prosecutor Lawrence Walsh called a halt to his five-and-a-half-year probe of the Iran-Contra scandal.
1994 – Heather Whitestone of Alabama was crowned “Miss America,” the first deaf contestant to win the title.
1995 – A three-year old girl, Stephanie Kuhen, was shot dead in Los Angeles when the car she was riding in driven by Timothy Stone made a wrong turn into a dead-end alley in Cypress Park, and happened on a gang setting.
1996 – Spiro Agnew (b. Nov 9, 1918), former governor of Maryland and US vice president (1969-1973), died in Berlin, Md., at age 77.
1997 – The US House of Representatives voted themselves a $3,000 pay increase, the equivalent of a 2.3% raise on $133,600. It was termed a cost-of-living increase and was opposed by the Senate.
1997 – Dr. Sam Sheppard’s body (subject of the TV show “The Fugitive”) was exhumed in Cleveland, Ohio, for DNA test.
1997 – Bernard Richard Skelton (Red Skelton, b.1913), comic clown and actor, died at age 84 in Rancho Mirage, Calif.
1998 –  In Apollo, Pennsylvania, nuclear-processing plant operators were ordered to pay 8 cancer-stricken victims $36.5 million.
1999 – Jesse Gelsinger (18) of Tucson died after he participated in a Univ. of Pennsylvania gene therapy experiment.  His liver had been injected with a virus carrying a corrective gene 4 days earlier.
2001 – President Bush said the United States wanted terrorism suspect Osama bin Laden “dead or alive.”
2001 – The New York Stock Exchange opened for the first time since the September 11 attacks; the Dow Jones Industrial Average posted its biggest point drop in its history, closing down 684.81 points to 8920.70.
2001 – “The Late Show with David Letterman” returned to CBS with guests Dan Rather and Regis Philbin.
2002 – US Constitution Day: Article 1, Section 8: “The power to declare war rests with Congress.”
2002 – The US “Religious Congregations & Membership: 2000″ study was released. It counted some 62 million Catholics as the top of 15 faiths and listed the Mormons as the fastest growing with 4.2 million members.
2003 – 26-year-old gunman Harold Kilpatrick, Jr. of Dyersburg, Tennessee, takes a classroom of 12–16 students at Dyersburg State Community College hostage. Kilpatrick, who was mentally ill, was shot dead by police after firing a pistol, ending a nine-hour standoff. Two hostages were slightly wounded.
2003 – Dick Grasso, Chairman of the NY Stock Exchange, resigned following a public outcry over his $139.5 million retirement pay package.
2003 – An audiotape purporting to carry the voice of Saddam Hussein, broadcast on Arab television, called on Iraqis to fight the American occupation.
2004 – Barry Bonds became the first new member of baseball’s homerun 700 club in 31 years, joining Babe Ruth and Hank Aaron. The ball was auctioned off for $804. 129.
2004 – The U.S. State Department for the first time places the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on its list of “countries of particular concern” (CPCs) that engage in “particularly severe violations” of religious freedom. A designation as a CPC requires the State Department to take whatever steps are necessary—up to the level of sanctions—to increase religious tolerance in the designated country.
2004 – The USS Curts intercepted the fishing vessel Lina Maria about 300 miles southwest of the Galapagos Islands. The fishing boat had 30,000 pounds of cocaine on board. At the time it was the largest cocaine seizure in U.S. Coast Guard history.
2004 – The violent remains of Hurricane Ivan pounded a large swath of the eastern United States, drenching an area from Georgia to Ohio. Ivan left seventy dead in the Caribbean and forty dead in the US including four in Alabama, sixteen in Florida, four in Georgia, four in Louisiana, three in Mississippi, and eight in North Carolina.
2005 – A Chicago commuter train was going almost 60 mph above the speed limit just before it derailed, killing two people and injuring dozens.
2006 – In California a fire in Los Padres National Forest burned 60,589 acres, or about 93 square miles, since it began on Labor Day.
2006 –  Fourpeaked Mountain in Alaska erupts, marking the first eruption for the long-dormant volcano in at least 10,000 years.
2006 – Federal Drug Administration reported 109 cases of potentially fatal E .coli in spinach in nine states with at least one death. The outbreak was believed to have originated in California.
2006 – Five Duquesne basketball players were shot and wounded during an apparent act of random violence on campus.
2007 – During a forum at the University of Florida, Andrew Meyer, a student with a history of taping his own practical jokes, was Tasered by campus police and arrested after repeatedly trying to question Massachusetts Sen. John Kerry.
2007 – AOL, once the largest ISP in the U.S., officially announces plans to refocus the company as an advertising business and to relocate its corporate headquarters from Dulles, Virginia to New York, New York.
2007 – A US soldier in Kansas filed a lawsuit alleging a pattern of practices that discriminate against non-Christians in the military. A superior had threatened to file military charges against Spec. Jeremy Hall after he tried to convene a meeting for atheists and non-Christians.
2008 – Gold prices rose $70 to close at $850.50, its biggest one-day price on record.
2008 – The US Coast Guard intercepted a submarine-like vessel carrying 7 tons of cocaine about 400 miles south of the Mexico-Guatemala border. The Coast Guard sank the vessel after determining it was too unstable to be towed to port.
2009 – The House has voted to deny all federal funding for ACORN, the community organizing group that has been caught up in several scandals.
2009 – Pres. Obama said he is abandoning Bush-era plans for a long-range missile defense system based in Poland and the Czech Rep.
2010 – British Petroleum starts pumping cement into the Deepwater Horizon oil well in the Gulf of Mexico at the culmination of cleanup efforts for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
2010 – The U.S. charges two married former nuclear contractors ( Pedro Leonardo Mascheroni (75) and his wife Marjorie Roxby Mascheroni (67)) with trying to give away the country’s nuclear secrets to Venezuela.
2010 –  United Airlines shareholders meeting in Elk Grove, Illinois in Cook County, approve a deal to merge with Continental Airlines to create the world’s biggest airline.
2011 –  A North American T-28 Trojan crashes at an air show at the Eastern WV Regional Airport near Martinsburg, West Virginia, killing the pilot.
2012 – The Thomas More Law Center announced today that it is representing U.S. Army Lieutenant Colonel Matthew Dooley, a 1994 Graduate of the U. S. Military Academy at West Point.  In April 2012, LTC Dooley, a highly decorated combat veteran, was publicly condemned by General Martin Dempsey, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and relieved of his teaching assignment because of the negative way Islam was portrayed in an elective course entitled,Perspectives on Islam and Islamic Radicalism.
2012 – The Louisiana State University (LSU) main campus at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, is evacuated after a bomb threat.
2013 – Oklahoma Gov. Mary Fallin has ordered the National Guard to stop processing requests for military benefits for same-sex couples. Fallin spokesman Alex Weintz told The Associated Press on Tuesday that the governor was following the wish of Oklahoma voters, who approved a constitutional amendment that prohibits giving benefits of marriage to gay couples.


1739 – John Rutledge, 2nd (appointed) Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1800)
1854 – David Dunbar Buick, American automobile pioneer (d.1929)
1890 – Gabriel Heatter, American radio commentator (d. 1972)
1900 – John Willard Marriott, American hotelier (d. 1985)
1903 – Frank O’Connor, Irish-American short-story writer (d. 1966)
1907 – Warren Burger, 15th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1995)
1923 – Hank Williams, American musician (d. 1953)
1927 – George Blanda, American football player
1929 – Sir Stirling Moss, English race car driver
1930 – Edgar Mitchell, American astronaut
1931 – Anne Bancroft, American actress (d. 2005)
1939 – David Souter, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
1945 – Phil Jackson, American basketball player and NBA head coach
1948 – John Ritter, American actor (d. 2003)





State of Oklahoma

Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, 3rd Company. Place and date: Chi Lang, Vietnam, September 17, 1969.  Born: January 7, 1942, Okmulgee, OK, Entered Service at:  Fort Bragg, NC  Departed: No  Date of Issue: 3/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Staff Sergeant Melvin Morris distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as Commander of a Strike Force drawn from Company D, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces, during combat operations against an armed enemy in the vicinity of Chi Lang, Republic of Vietnam on September 17, 1969. On that afternoon, Staff Sergeant Morris’ affiliated companies encountered an extensive enemy mine field and were subsequently engaged by a hostile force. Staff Sergeant Morris learned by radio that a fellow team commander had been killed near an enemy bunker and he immediately reorganized his men into an effective assault posture before advancing forward and splitting off with two men to recover the team commander’s body. Observing the maneuver, the hostile force concentrated its fire on Staff Sergeant Morris’ three-man element and successfully wounded both men accompanying him. After assisting the two wounded men back to his forces’ lines, Staff Sergeant Morris charged forward into withering enemy fire with only his men’s suppressive fire as cover. While enemy machine gun emplacements continuously directed strafing fusillades against him, Staff Sergeant Morris destroyed the positions with hand grenades and continued his assault, ultimately eliminating four bunkers. Upon reaching the bunker nearest the fallen team commander, Staff Sergeant Morris repulsed the enemy, retrieved his comrade and began the arduous trek back to friendly lines. He was wounded three times as he struggled forward, but ultimately succeeded in returning his fallen comrade to a friendly position. Staff Sergeant Morris’ extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.






Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company F, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Near Sosa-ri, Korea, 17 and 20 September 1950. Entered service at: Seattle, Wash. Born: 25 December 1930, Melrose, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a rocket gunner attached to Company F, and in action against enemy aggressor forces. Dug in on a hill overlooking the main Seoul highway when six enemy tanks threatened to break through the battalion position during a predawn attack on 17 September, Pfc. Monegan promptly moved forward with his bazooka, under heavy hostile automatic weapons fre and engaged the lead tank at a range of less than fifty yards. After scoring a direct hit and killing the sole surviving tankman with his carbine as he came through the escape hatch, he boldly fired two more rounds of ammunition at the oncoming tanks, disorganizing the attack and enabling our tank crews to continue blasting with their 90-mm guns. With his own and an adjacent company’s position threatened by annihilation when an overwhelming enemy tank-infantry force bypassed the area and proceeded toward the battalion command post during the early morning of September 20, he seized his rocket launcher and, in total darkness, charged down the slope of the hill where the tanks had broken through. Quick to act when an illuminating shell lit the area, he scored a direct hit on one of the tanks as hostile rifle and automatic-weapons fire raked the area at close range. Again exposing himself, he fired another round to destroy a second tank and, as the rear tank turned to retreat, stood upright to fire and was fatally struck down by hostile machine gun fire when another illuminating shell silhouetted him against the sky. Pfc. Monegan’s daring initiative, gallant fighting spirit and courageous devotion to duty were contributing factors in the success of his company in repelling the enemy, and his self-sacrificing efforts throughout sustain and enhance the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country .







Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 23d Infantry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Pia-ri, Korea, 17 September 1951. Entered service at: Oahu, T.H. Born: 10 October 1928, Waianae, Oahu, T.H. G.O. No.: 58, 18 June 1952. Citation: Pfc. Pililaau, a member of Company C, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. The enemy sent wave after wave of fanatical troops against his platoon which held a key terrain feature on “Heartbreak Ridge.” Valiantly defending its position, the unit repulsed each attack until ammunition became practically exhausted and it was ordered to withdraw to a new position. Voluntarily remaining behind to cover the withdrawal, Pfc. Pililaau fired his automatic weapon into the ranks of the assailants, threw all his grenades and, with ammunition exhausted, closed with the foe in hand-to-hand combat, courageously fighting with his trench knife and bare fists until finally overcome and mortally wounded. When the position was subsequently retaken, more than forty enemy dead were counted in the area he had so valiantly defended. His heroic devotion to duty, indomitable fighting spirit, and gallant self-sacrifice reflect the highest credit upon himself, the infantry, and the U.S. Army.







Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company K, 109th Infantry, 28th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kalborn, Luxembourg, 12 September 1944; near Sevenig, Germany, 17 September 1944. Entered service at: Salem, N.Y. Birth: Whitehall, N.Y. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He fought gallantly in Luxembourg and Germany. On 12 September 1944, Company K began fording the Our River near Kalborn, Luxembourg, to take high ground on the opposite bank. Covered by early morning fog, the 3d Platoon, in which T/Sgt. Clark was squad leader, successfully negotiated the crossing; but when the 2d Platoon reached the shore, withering automatic and small-arms fire ripped into it, eliminating the platoon leader and platoon sergeant and pinning down the troops in the open. From his comparatively safe position, T/Sgt. Clark crawled alone across a field through a hail of bullets to the stricken troops. He led the platoon to safety and then unhesitatingly returned into the fire-swept area to rescue a wounded soldier, carrying him to the American line while hostile gunners tried to cut him down. Later, he led his squad and men of the 2d Platoon in dangerous sorties against strong enemy positions to weaken them by lightning-like jabs. He assaulted an enemy machinegun with hand grenades, killing two Germans. He roamed the front and flanks, dashing toward hostile weapons, killing and wounding an undetermined number of the enemy, scattering German patrols and, eventually, forcing the withdrawal of a full company of Germans heavily armed with automatic weapons. On 17 September, near Sevenig, Germany, he advanced alone against an enemy machinegun, killed the gunner and forced the assistant to flee. The Germans counterattacked, and heavy casualties were suffered by Company K. Seeing that two platoons lacked leadership, T/Sgt. Clark took over their command and moved among the men to give encouragement. Although wounded on the morning of 18 September, he refused to be evacuated and took up a position in a pillbox when night came. Emerging at daybreak, he killed a German soldier setting up a machinegun not more than five yards away. When he located another enemy gun, he moved up unobserved and killed two Germans with rifle fire. Later that day he voluntarily braved small-arms fire to take food and water to members of an isolated platoon. T/Sgt. Clark’s actions in assuming command when leadership was desperately needed, in launching attacks and beating off counterattacks, in aiding his stranded comrades, and in fearlessly facing powerful enemy fire, were strikingly heroic examples and put fighting heart into the hard-pressed men of Company K.







Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company L, 30th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Radden, France, 17 September 1944. Entered service at: Chester, Pa. Birth: Grier City, Pa. G.O. No.: 71, 17 July 1946. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty. Braving machinegun, machine pistol, and rifle fire, he moved fearlessly and calmly from man to man along his 40-yard squad front, encouraging each to hold against the overwhelming assault of a fanatical foe surging up the hillside. Knocked to the ground by a burst from an enemy automatic weapon, he immediately jumped to his feet, and ignoring his grave wounds, fired his submachine gun at the enemy that was now upon them, killing five and wounding many others before his ammunition was spent. Virtually surrounded by a frenzied foe and all of his squad now casualties, he elected to fight alone, using his empty submachine gun as a bludgeon against his assailants. Spotting one of the enemy about to kill a wounded comrade, he felled the German with a blow of his weapon. Seeing friendly reinforcements running up the hill, he continued furiously to wield his empty gun against the foe in a new attack, and it was thus that he made the supreme sacrifice. Sgt. Messerschmidt’s sustained heroism in hand-to-hand combat with superior enemy forces was in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service.







Rank and organization: Shipfitter First Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: While serving on the USS Huntington, 17 Sep 1917.  Born: 30 May 1876, Hubbard, Ohio. Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 341, 1917. Citation: For extraordinary heroism while attached to the Huntington. On the morning of 17 September 1917, while the U.S.S. Huntington was passing through the war zone, a kite balloon was sent up with Lt. (j.g.) H. W. Hoyt, U.S. Navy, as observer. When the balloon was about four hundred feet in the air, the temperature suddenly dropped, causing the balloon to descend about two hundred feet, when it was struck by a squall. The balloon was hauled to the ship’s side, but the basket trailed in the water and the pilot was submerged. McGunigal, with great daring, climbed down the side of the ship, jumped to the ropes leading to the basket, and cleared the tangle enough to get the pilot out of them. He then helped the pilot to get clear, put a bowline around him, and enabled him to be hauled to the deck. A bowline was lowered to McGunigal and he was taken safely aboard.







Rank and organization: Captain, Company L, 37th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: Near Mabitac, Laguna, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 17 September 1900. Entered service at: Cascade County, Mont. Born: 23 August 1856, Vernon, Windham County, Vt. Date of issue: 10 June 1910. Citation: After the attacking party had become demoralized, fearlessly led a small body of troops under a severe fire and through water waist deep in the attack against the enemy.



INTERIM 1871- 1898



Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1871, Newark, N.J. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 404, 22 November 1892. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Philadelphia during the sham attack on Fort McHenry, Baltimore, Md., 17 September 1892. Displaying extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession on this occasion, Eilers remained at his post in the magazine and stamped out the burning particles of a prematurely exploded cartridge which had blown down the chute.






Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 11th Ohio Cavalry. Place and date: At Powder River Expedition Dakota Territory, 17 September 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 24 August 1894. Citation: Carried a message through a country infested with hostile Indians and saved the life of a comrade en route.


The Battle of Antietam

The Battle of Antietam was fought on September 17th, 1862. The location of the battle was near Sharpsburg, Maryland. The name of the battle comes from the creek that was in the area. The generals lined up for this battle were Major General George B. McClellan for the Union and General Robert E. Lee for the Confederacy.


The significance of the battle was to force the Confederate Army to retreat back across the Potomac River.


On September 16, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan confronted Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia at Sharpsburg, Maryland. At dawn September 17, Hooker’s corps mounted a powerful assault on Lee’s left flank that began the single bloodiest day in American military history. Attacks and counterattacks swept across Miller’s cornfield and fighting swirled around the Dunker Church. Union assaults against the Sunken Road eventually pierced the Confederate center, but the Federal advantage was not followed up. Late in the day, Burnside’s corps finally got into action, crossing the stone bridge over Antietam Creek and rolling up the Confederate right. At a crucial moment, A.P. Hill’s division arrived from Harpers Ferry and counterattacked, driving back Burnside and saving the day. Although outnumbered two-to-one, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in less than three-quarters of his army, enabling Lee to fight the Federals to a standstill. During the night, both armies consolidated their lines. In spite of crippling casualties, Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout the 18th, while removing his wounded south of the river. McClellan did not renew the assaults. After dark, Lee ordered the battered Army of Northern Virginia to withdraw across the Potomac into the Shenandoah Valley.


The result of the battle was inconclusive but the north did win a strategic advantage. In this one day battle there were 23,100 casualties.
Source: CWSAC Battle Summaries





Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company H, 90th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth:——. Date of issue: 30 October 1896. Citation: After his command had been forced to fall back, remained alone on the line of battle, caring for his wounded comrades and carrying one of them to a place of safety.






Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company B, 33d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: Nunda, N.Y. Born: 16 June 1842, Troy, N.Y. Date of issue: 10 September 1897. Citation: While in command of a detached company, seeing his regiment thrown into confusion by a charge of the enemy, without orders made a countercharge upon the attacking column and checked the assault. Penetrated within the enemy’s lines at night and obtained valuable information.







Rank and organization: Corporal, Battery A, 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: Providence, R.I. Born: 8 May 1843, Providence, R.I. Date of issue: 20 July 1897. Citation: Was wounded and taken to the rear insensible, but when partially recovered insisted on returning to the battery and resumed command of his piece, so remaining until the close of the battle.







Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 26th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Hartford, N.Y. Date of issue: 12 June 1895. Citation: Voluntarily took and carried the colors into action after the color bearer had been shot.







Rank and organization: Bugler, Battery B, 4th U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At Antietam Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Birth: Hamilton County, Ohio. Date of issue: 30 June 1894. Citation: Volunteered at the age of fifteen to act as a cannoneer, and as such, volunteer served a gun under a terrific fire of the enemy.







Rank and organization: Assistant Surgeon, 33d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: Seneca Falls, N.Y. Born: 4 January 1838, Ireland. Date of issue: 30 March 1898. Citation: Voluntarily exposed himself to great danger by going to the fighting line there succoring the wounded and helpless and conducting them to the field hospital.







Rank and organization: Major and Assistant Adjutant General, U.S. Army. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: Scott, N.Y. Born: 25 January 1833, Scott, N.Y. Date of issue: 13 December 1893. Citation: Formed the columns under heavy fire and put them into position.







Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company C, 61st New York Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: Staten Island, N.Y. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 10 February 1887. Citation: A Confederate regiment, the 4th Alabama Infantry (C.S.A.), having planted its battle flag slightly in advance of the regiment, this officer rushed forward and seized it, and, although shot through the neck, retained the flag and brought it within the Union lines.







Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 128th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: Lehigh County, Pa. Born: 15 August 1832, Germany. Date of issue: 12 December 1895. Citation: While exposed to the fire of the enemy, carried from the field a wounded comrade.







Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 35th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: Chelsea, Mass. Birth: Chelsea, Mass. Date of issue: 18 November 1896. Citation: Although wounded and exposed to a heavy fire from the enemy, at the risk of his own life he rescued a badly wounded comrade and succeeded in conveying him to a place of safety.







Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 23d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. At Fredericksburg, Va., 13 December 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 22 June 1891. Citation: Distinguished gallantry in actions while attached to Battery B, 4th U.S. Artillery; lost his left arm at Fredericksburg.







Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company E, 4th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At South Mountain, Md., 14 September 1862. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Salem, N.Y. Date of issue: 17 September 1891. Citation: Rode alone, in advance of his regiment, into the enemy’s lines, and before his own men came up received the surrender of the major of a Confederate regiment, together with the colors and one-hundred-sixteen men.







Rank and organization: Major, 7th Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: Bath, Maine. Birth: Italy. Date of issue: 8 April 1891. Citation: Led his regiment in an assault on a strong body of the enemy’s infantry and kept up the fight until the greater part of his men had been killed or wounded, bringing the remainder safely out of the fight.







Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 9th Pennsylvania Reserves. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: Connellsville, Pa. Born: 1845, Fayette County, Pa. G.0. No.: 160, 30 May 1863. Citation: Individual bravery and daring in capturing from the enemy two colors of the 1st Texas Rangers (C.S.A.), receiving in the act a severe wound.







Rank and organization: Captain, Company E, 9th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth:——. Date of issue: 2 April 1898. Citation: In the advance on the enemy and after his color bearer and the entire color guard of 8 men had been shot down, this officer seized the regimental flag and with conspicuous gallantry carried it to the extreme front, urging the line forward.







Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 5th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 11 September 1866. Citation: Capture of flag of 13th Alabama Infantry (C.S.A.).







Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 28th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 15 January 1867. Citation: Capture of flag of 7th South Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.), in hand-to-hand encounter, although he was wounded in the shoulder.







Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 90th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 3 November 1896. Citation: Under a most withering and concentrated fire, voluntarily picked up the colors of his regiment, when the bearer and two of the color guard had been killed, and bore them aloft throughout the entire battle.







Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company H, 1st Delaware Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: Wilmington, Del. Birth: Pennsylvania. Date of issue: 13 December 1889. Citation: Carried off the regimental colors, which had fallen within twenty yards of the enemy’s lines, the color guard of nine men having all been killed or wounded; was himself three times wounded.







Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 35th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. At Spotsylvania, Va., 18 May 1864. Entered service at: Ayersville, Mass. Birth: Woodstock, Maine. Date of issue: 21 February 1874. Citation: Was among the last to leave the field at Antietam and was instrumental in saving the lives of several of his comrades at the imminent risk of his own. At Spotsylvania was foremost in line in the assault, where he lost a leg.







Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 29th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. Entered service at: Plympton, Mass. Birth: Plympton, Mass. Date of issue: 29 January 1896. Citation: Voluntarily advanced under a destructive fire and removed a fence which would have impeded a contemplated charge.

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Unerased History – September 16th

Posted by Wayne Church on September 16, 2014 in 09 - September, Blog by month |
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 Mayflower Day

Trail of Tears Commemoration Day



nu na hi du na tlo hi lu i

The Trail Where They Cried

Proud people that did more for early America than anyone else. Prior to the first non-Indians arriving, there were probably ten million native Americans on this continent. By the late 1700’s, more than 85% of the whole Indian populations had been destroyed by famine, disease and warfare imported by the whites.

The first contact between southeastern American Indians and Europeans was the expedition of Hernando de Soto in 1540. De Soto took captives for use as slave labor, while others were abused because the Europeans deemed them savages. Epidemic diseases brought by the Europeans spread through the Indian villages, decimating native populations. Picture if you will what it must have been like when and entire, fairly advanced civilization came into contact with another civilization that thought it was superior.

Over the next two hundred years more white settlers arrived, and the native cultures were forced to adapt to foreign ways. Wanting to be peaceful they did not fight back to the deterioration of their culture.    During the colonial period Indian tribes often became embroiled in European colonial wars. If they were on the losing side, they frequently had to give up parts of their homelands.

After the American Revolution the Indians faced another set of problems. Even though it took time for the new government to establish a policy for dealing with the Indians, the precedent had been set during the colonial period. The hunger of white settlers for lands occupied by Indian people inevitably led to the general policy of removing the unwanted inhabitants and moving them away from the coveted land.

Our political leaders believed that the Indians should be civilized, which meant converting them to Christianity and turning them into farmers. Missionaries were sent among the tribes. It didn’t work. The tribes were not interested in being farmers. They were hunters and they fought the idea that they should somehow become a part of the white man’s culture. In a letter to John Ross, principal chief of the Cherokees, a man named Aitooweyah wrote,  “We, the great mass of the people think only of the love we have to our land for…we do love the land where we were brought up. We will never let our hold to this land go…to let it go it will be like throwing away…[our] mother that gave…[us] birth.”

After the Louisiana Purchase, national policy developed  to open the Purchase to more whites and that meant the Indians had to go. The plan was to move them west of the Mississippi. At this time the Cherokees lived the southern Appalachians – present-day Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, western North Carolina, and South Carolina, northern Georgia, and northeastern Alabama. That was “prime land” and the whites wanted it.


Throughout the early 1800’s the tribes (or Principal People) worked hard to become more American but that did not assuage the lust of the whites for their land. “No eastern tribe had struggled harder or more successfully to make white civilization their own. For generations the Cherokee had lived side by side with whites in Georgia. They had devised a written language, published their own newspaper, adopted a constitution, and a Christian faith. But after gold was discovered on their land, even they were told they would have to start over again in the West.”
(Source: The West, a documentary by Ken Burns and Stephen Ives)

“My friends, circumstances render it impossible that you can flourish in the midst of a civilized community. You have but one remedy within your reach, and that is to remove to the west. And the sooner you do this, the sooner you will commence your career of improvement and prosperity.”  ~Andrew Jackson The federal government had decided they were going and there was no stopping the process.

The first step was the rounding up the Cherokees and moving them into stockades in North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee. Altogether thirty-one forts were constructed for this purpose – thirteen in Georgia, five in North Carolina, eight in Tennessee, and five in Alabama. All of the posts were near Cherokee towns, and they served only as temporary housing for the Cherokees. Conditions were horrible but they got worse. The Indians were then  transferred from the removal forts to eleven internment camps that were more centrally located – ten in Tennessee and one in Alabama.

“One by one Indian peoples were removed to the West. The tribes were The Delaware, the Ottawa, Shawnee, Pawnee and Potawatomi, the Sauk and Fox, Miami and Kickapoo, the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole. In all some ninety-thousand Indians were relocated. The Cherokee were among the last to go. Some reluctantly agreed to move. Others were driven from their homes at bayonet point. Almost two thousand of them died along the route they remembered as the Trail of Tears.”  (Documentary: The West (Ken Burns/Stephen Ives))

All of them were moved in a time of a severe drought and they did not arrive in Indian Territory until the end of the summer. That meant there was no growing season to prepare for the winter. Supplies of flour and corn, and occasionally salt pork, coffee, and sugar, were obtained in advance, but were generally of poor quality (lowest price). Road conditions, illness, and the distress of winter, particularly in southern Illinois while detachments waited to cross the ice-choked Mississippi, made death a daily occurrence. Mortality rates for the entire removal and its aftermath were substantial, totaling approximately 8,000.

Private John G. Burnett of Captain Abraham McClellan’s Company, 2nd Regiment, 2nd Brigade, Mounted Infantry wrote: “I saw the helpless Cherokees arrested and dragged from their homes, and driven at the bayonet point into the stockades. And in the chill of a drizzling rain on an October morning I saw them loaded like cattle or sheep into six hundred and forty-five wagons and started toward the west….On the morning of November the 17th we encountered a terrific sleet and snow storm with freezing temperatures and from that day until we reached the end of the fateful journey on March the 26th 1839, the sufferings of the Cherokees were awful. The trail of the exiles was a trail of death. They had to sleep in the wagons and on the ground without fire. And I have known as many as twenty-two of them to die in one night of pneumonia due to ill treatment, cold and exposure…”


This was not the end of the problems for the Cherokee and the other tribes.Over many years the once proud people have been all but decimated. Richard White, Historian best described it when he wrote, “The Cherokee are probably the most tragic instance of what could have succeeded in American Indian policy and didn’t. All these things that Americans would proudly see as the hallmarks of civilization are going to the West by Indian people. They do everything they were asked except one thing. What the Cherokees ultimately are, they may be Christian, they may be literate, they may have a government like ours, but ultimately they are Indian. And in the end, being Indian is what kills them.”

“Rule number 1 is, “Don’t sweat the small stuff.”

 Rule number 2 is, “It is all small stuff.”

 ~ Robert Eliot


figurehead   (FIG-yuhr-hed, FIG-uhr-hed)  noun: A person who is head of a group in name only, having no authority or responsibility.

The term is derived from the figurative use of the term figurehead which is an ornamental carving, usually of a human figure, on the bow of a ship. From Latin figure (form, shape) + Old English heafod (top of the body).


1620 – The Mayflower departed from Plymouth, England. The ship arrived at Provincetown, MA, on November 21st and then at Plymouth, MA, on December 26th. There were 102 passengers onboard.
1662 – John Flamsteed sees solar eclipse, first known astronomical observation.
1736 – Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (b.1686), Gdansk-born German physicist, died in the Netherlands. He discovered that water boils at 212F and freezes at 32F.
1776 – Revolutionary War: the Battle of Harlem Heights is fought.
1782 – Great Seal of US used for first time.
1798 – The first serious fist fight occurred in Congress.
1814 – War of 1812: A detachment of Marines under Major Daniel Carmick from the Naval Station at New Orleans, together with an Army detachment, destroyed a pirate stronghold at Barataria, on the Island of Grande Terre, near New Orleans.
1857 – The words & music to “Jingle Bells” was registered by Oliver Ditson and Co.
1859 – In San Francisco US Senator David C. Broderick died at the Leonides Haskell house in Fort Mason, following his Sep 13 duel with David S. Terry, Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court, near Lake Merced.
1863 – Robert College of Istanbul-Turkey, the first American educational institution outside the United States is founded by Christopher Robert, an American philanthropist.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest led 4,500 men out of Verona, Miss. to harass Union outposts in northern Alabama and Tennessee.
1887 – The first game of softball was played in Chicago, Illinois.
1893 – Settlers race in Oklahoma for prime land in the Cherokee Strip. More than 100,000 settlers (“Sooners”) claimed land in the Cherokee Strip during the first day of the Oklahoma land rush.
1901 – Alturas, California, incorporated as the only city in Modoc County.
1908 – General Motors is founded by William C Durant. The company was formed by merging the Buick and Olds car companies.
1919 – The American Legion is incorporated by an Act of Congress.
1920 – The Wall Street bombing: a bomb in a horse wagon explodes in front of the J.P.Morgan building in New York City – 38 are killed with 400 injured.
1924 – Jim Bottomley knocked in 12 runs in a single game setting a major league baseball record.
1938 – Tommy Dorsey and his orchestra recorded the swing classic “Boogie Woogie.”
1938 – George E.T. Eyston sets world auto speed record at 357.5 MPH.
1940 – Sam Rayburn elected Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, widely regarded as the most effective Speaker of the House in American history.
1940 – Congress passes first peace-time conscription bill (draft law).
1942 – Third Marine Division activated at Camp Elliott in California.
1942 – The Japanese base at Kiska in the Aleutian Islands was raided by American bombers.
1941 – The “The Arkansas Traveler” debuted on CBS Radio. The show was later renamed “The Bob Burns Show.”
1944 – World War II: The First Marine Division (1stMarDiv (Rein)) landed against heavy opposition on Peleliu.
1947 – First automobile to exceed 400 mph John Cobb Bonneville Salt Flats.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mona Lisa” by Nat King Cole, “Goodnight Irene” by The Weavers, “Tzena, Tzena, Tzena” by The Weavers and “Goodnight Irene” by Red Foley-Ernest Tubb all topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: The First Marine Division (1stMarDiv) landed at Inchon, Korea and moved on to capture Seoul.
1953 – “The Robe” premiered at the Roxy Theater in New York. It was the first movie filmed in the wide screen CinemaScope process.
1953 – The American League approves St. Louis Browns move to become the Baltimore Orioles.
1955 – US Auto Club forms to oversee four major auto racing categories.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Nel Blu Dipinto Di Blu (Volare)” by Domenico Modugno,It’s All in the Game” by Tommy Edwards, “Rock-in Robin” by Bobby Day and “Bird Dog” by The Everly Brothers all topped the charts.
1958 – USS Grayback fires first operational launch of Regulus II surface to surface guided missile off CA coast; Missile carries first U.S. mail sent by guided missile.
1960 – Amos Alonzo Stagg retires as a football coach at 98. He was the first college coach to win 100 football games and the first to win 200 games. His overall record as head football coach was 314-199-35.
1961 – “Michael” by The Highwaymen topped the charts.
1963 – “The Outer Limits” premiered on ABC-TV.
1963 – “She Loves You” was recorded by The Beatles on the Swan label.
1964 – “Shindig” premiers.
1965 – “The Dean Martin Show” debuted on NBC-TV.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Can’t Hurry Love by The Supremes, “Yellow Submarine” by The Beatles, “Land of 1000 Dances” by Wilson Pickett and “Almost Persuaded” by David Houston all topped the charts.
1966 – The Metropolitan Opera House opens at Lincoln Center in New York City to the world premiere of Samuel Barber’s opera, Antony and Cleopatra.
1967 – “Ode to Billy Joe” by Bobbie Gentry topped the charts. This was her sole hit.
1967 – The TV series “Mannix,” starring Mike Connors, premiered on CBS.
1968 – Richard Nixon appears on “Laugh-in.” Richard Nixon, who was running for President, appeared for a few seconds and asked the question, “Sock it to me?”
1968 – “The Andy Griffith Show” was seen for the final time on CBS.
1972 – “Black & White” by Three Dog Night topped the charts.
1972 – “The Bob Newhart Show” premiered on CBS-TV.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Shot the Sheriff” by Eric Clapton, “Rock Me Gently” by Andy Kim, “I’m Leavin It (All) Up to You” by Donny & Marie Osmond and “Please Don’t Tell Me How the Story Ends” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1974 – President Gerald R. Ford announced a conditional amnesty program for Vietnam War deserters and draft-evaders.
1975 – First broadcast of “One Day at a Time” on CBS TV.
1978 – “Boogie Oogie Oogie” by A Taste of Honey topped the charts.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hard to Say I’m Sorry” by Chicago, Jack & Diane” by John Cougar, “You Should Hear How She Talks About You” by Melissa Manchester and “She Got the Goldmine (I Got the Shaft)” by Jerry Reed all topped the charts.
1984 – “Miami Vice” premiers.
1988 – Tom Browning pitched the 12th perfect game in major league baseball.
1988 – Hurricane Gilbert slammed into the Mexico coast for the second time in three days, its center sweeping ashore north of La Pesca, 120 miles south of Brownsville, Texas.  (AP, 9/16/98)
1989 – “Don’t Wanna Lose You” by Gloria Estefan topped the charts.
1989 – Debbye Turner of Missouri was crowned Miss America at the pageant in Atlantic City, N.J.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Release Me” by Wilson Phillips, “Do Me!” by Bell Biv DeVoe,Have You Seen Her” by M.C. Hammer and “Jukebox in My Mind” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1990 – Iraqi television broadcast an eight-minute videotaped address by President Bush, who warned the Iraqi people that Saddam Hussein’s brinkmanship could plunge them into war “against the world.”
1991 – The trial of Panamanian “strongman” Manuel Noriega begins in the United States.
1991 – A federal judge in Washington dismissed the Iran-Contra charges against Oliver North.
1991 – Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas concluded five days of testimony at his confirmation hearing.
1994 – Exxon Corporation was ordered by federal jury to pay $5 billion in punitive damages to the people harmed by the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill.
1994 – Two astronauts from the space shuttle Discovery went on the first untethered spacewalk in 10 years.
1995 – Shawntel Smith of Oklahoma was crowned “Miss America” at the pageant in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
1996 – Space shuttle Atlantis blasted off more than six weeks late on a mission to pick up NASA astronaut Shannon Lucid, aloft since last March, from the Russian space station Mir.
1999 – The White House said it would allow US firms to export computer encryption technology.
1999 – Hurricane “Floyd” hit the Carolinas and began making its way up the East Coast, damaging 12,000 homes and claiming more than 50 lives even after it weakened to a tropical storm.
2000 – American Nancy Johnson captured the first gold medal of the Sydney Olympics, winning the women’s 10-meter air rifle.
2001 – Eight cross-country runners from the University of Wyoming were killed when their sport utility vehicle collided head-on with a pickup truck that had swerved into their lane.
2004 – Hurricane Ivan slammed into Alabama with winds of 130 mph, packing deadly tornadoes and powerful waves and rain that threatened to swamp communities from Louisiana to the Florida Panhandle. Ivan was blamed for at least 115 deaths, 43 in the US.
2004 – The National Hockey League lockout went into effect.
2005 – Gordon Gould, laser pioneer, died. In 1957 as a Columbia Univ. doctoral student, Gould came up with a process for concentrating visible light as opposed to microwaves of a maser. He was the first to use the term “laser.”
2005 – President Bush ruled out raising taxes to pay the massive costs of Gulf Coast reconstruction in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, saying other government spending had to be cut to pay for the recovery effort.
2007 – Police in Las Vegas arrested O.J. Simpson saying he was part of an armed group that broke into a hotel room on Sep 13 and snatched memorabilia that documented his sports career.

2007 – The Phoenix Mercury beat the Detroit Shock 108-92 to win their first WNBA title.
2008 – Trying to keep cash flowing amid a Wall Street meltdown, the Federal Reserve pumped another $70 billion into the nation’s financial system to help ease credit stresses.
2010 – US poverty rates hit 14.3% (43.6 million people), a 15 year high.
2010 – A 49-year-old Hoboken, N.J. man was arrested after he beat his girlfriend with a cat and punched her in the back of her head, according to police reports.
2010 – American banks set a new record for the home repossession rate, with 1.2 million homes this year. Another 3.2 million American homes remain in foreclosure proceedings.
2010 – The Seattle Storm win the WNBA Finals for the second time defeating the Atlanta Dream in Game 3 87-84.
2011 – At least 5 people are killed and at least 50 injured when a P-51D Mustang airplane crashes into the crowd at the 2011 Reno Air Races in Reno, Nevada.
2011 – Scientists at NASA announce the Kepler mission’s discovery of a planet orbiting two suns. This is the first unambiguous detection of a circumbinary planet, i.e., a planet that orbits two stars instead of one.
2012 – The United States has ordered all non-essential staff to evacuate its embassies in Sudan and Tunisia and urges its citizens to avoid travelling to those countries.
2012 – The Mayor of Chicago Rahm Emanuel seeks a court order to resolve a week long teachers strike.
2012 – The National Hockey League locks out its players after the expiration of the collective bargaining agreement.
2013 – The U.S. Navy Yard Massacre occurred at the Washington Navy Yard in southeast Washington, D.C. . A single gunman killed twelve, injured three and then died himself.
2013 – Colorado Floods – Six people have been confirmed dead since the flash floods began Wednesday. Hundreds of others have not been heard from in the flood zone, which has grown to cover an area roughly the size of the state of Connecticut.
2013 – Triple swarm of earthquakes shakes Yellowstone. Temblors from the three quake swarms started September 10th and mostly hit in three areas: Lewis Lake, the Lower Geyser Basin and the northwest part of Norris Geyser Basin. The largest earthquake shook the ground near Old Faithful Geyser on Sept. 15. The epicenter of the magnitude 3.6 quake, the largest in Yellowstone in about a year, was just 6 miles to the north of Old Faithful.



1823 – Francis Parkman, American historian (d. 1893)
1875 – James C. Penney, American department store founder (d. 1971)
1898 – H.A. Rey, American children’s author, creator of “Curious George” (d. 1977)
1914 – Allen Funt, American radio and television personality (d. 1999)
1922 – Janis Paige, American actress
1924 – Lauren Bacall, American actress
1925 – B. B. King, American musician
1927 – Peter Falk, American actor
1927 – Jack Kelly, American actor (d. 1992)
1956 – Mickey Rourke, American actor
1958 – Orel Hershiser, American baseball player




Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Company F, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Hill 749, Korea, 15 and 16 September 1951. Entered service at: Beverly, Mass. Born: 1 August 1929, Beverly, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an automatic-rifleman in Company F, in action against enemy aggressor forces. With a forward platoon suffering heavy casualties and forced to withdraw under a vicious enemy counterattack as his company assaulted strong hostile forces entrenched on Hill 749, Cpl. Vittori boldly rushed through the withdrawing troops with two other volunteers from his reserve platoon and plunged directly into the midst of the enemy. Overwhelming them in a fierce hand-to-hand struggle, he enabled his company to consolidate its positions to meet further imminent onslaughts. Quick to respond to an urgent call for a rifleman to defend a heavy machine gun positioned on the extreme point of the northern flank and virtually isolated from the remainder of the unit when the enemy again struck in force during the night, he assumed position under the devastating barrage and, fighting a single-handed battle, leaped from one flank to the other, covering each foxhole in turn as casualties continued to mount manning a machine gun when the gunner was struck down and making repeated trips through the heaviest shellfire to replenish ammunition. With the situation becoming extremely critical, reinforcing units to the rear pinned down under the blistering attack and foxholes left practically void by dead and wounded for a distance of 100 yards, Cpl. Vittori continued his valiant stand, refusing to give ground as the enemy penetrated to within feet of his position, simulating strength in the line and denying the foe physical occupation of the ground. Mortally wounded by the enemy machine gun and rifle bullets while persisting in his magnificent defense of the sector where approximately two-hundred enemy dead were found the following morning, Cpl. Vittori, by his fortitude, stouthearted courage, and great personal valor, had kept the point position intact despite the tremendous odds and undoubtedly prevented the entire battalion position from collapsing. His extraordinary heroism throughout the furious nightlong battle reflects the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.



Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy Reserve, Torpedo Boat Squadron 33. Place and date. Wasile Bay, Halmahera Island, 16 September 1944. Entered service at: Maryland. Born: 1 November 1913, Washington, D.C. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commander, Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron 33, while effecting the rescue of a Navy pilot shot down in Wasile Bay, Halmahera Island, less than 200 yards from a strongly defended Japanese dock and supply area, 16 September 1944. Volunteering for a perilous mission unsuccessfully attempted by the pilot’s squadron mates and a PBY plane, Lt. Comdr. (then Lieutenant) Preston led PT-489 and PT-363 through 60 miles of restricted, heavily mined waters. Twice turned back while running the gauntlet of fire from powerful coastal defense guns guarding the 11-mile strait at the entrance to the bay, he was again turned back by furious fire in the immediate area of the downed airman. Aided by an aircraft smokescreen, he finally succeeded in reaching his objective and, under vicious fire delivered at 150-yard range, took the pilot aboard and cleared the area, sinking a small hostile cargo vessel with 40-mm. fire during retirement. Increasingly vulnerable when covering aircraft were forced to leave because of insufficient fuel, Lt. Comdr. Preston raced PT boats 489 and 363 at high speed for 20 minutes through shell-splashed water and across minefields to safety. Under continuous fire for 2l/2 hours, Lt. Comdr. Preston successfully achieved a mission considered suicidal in its tremendous hazards, and brought his boats through without personnel casualties and with but superficial damage from shrapnel. His exceptional daring and great personal valor enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.





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Unerased History – September 15th

Posted by Wayne Church on September 15, 2014 in 09 - September, Blog by month |
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National POW/MIA Recognition Day

Felt Hat Day




 Paul Harvey’s Riddle

Here is a pretty neat little thing from Paul Harvey. See if you can guess the riddle at the end.  Paul Harvey Writes:

 We tried so hard to make things better for our kids that we made them worse. For my grandchildren, I’d like better. I’d really like for them to know about hand me down clothes and homemade ice cream and leftover meat loaf sandwiches.. I really would.

I hope you learn humility by being humiliated, and that you learn honesty by being cheated. I hope you learn to make your own bed and mow the lawn and wash the car. And I really hope nobody gives you a brand new car when you are sixteen.

It will be good if at least one time you can see puppies born and your old dog put to sleep.

I hope you get a black eye fighting for something you believe in.

I hope you have to share a bedroom with your younger brother/sister. And it’s all right if you have to draw a line down the middle of the room, but when he wants to crawl under the covers with you because he’s scared, I hope you let him. When you want to see a movie and your little brother/sister wants to tag along, I hope you’ll let him/her.

I hope you have to walk uphill to school with your friends and that you live in a town where you can do it safely. On rainy days when you have to catch a ride, I hope you don’t ask your driver to drop you two blocks away so you won’t be seen riding with someone as uncool as your Mom.

If you want a slingshot, I hope your Dad teaches you how to make one instead of buying one. I hope you learn to dig in the dirt and read books.

When you learn to use computers, I hope you also learn to add and subtract in your head.

I hope you get teased by your friends when you have your first crush on a boy / girl, and when you talk back to your mother that you learn what Ivory soap tastes like. May you skin your knee climbing a mountain, burn your hand on a stove and stick your tongue on a frozen flagpole.

I don’t care if you try a beer once, but I hope you don’t like it… And if a friend offers you dope or a joint, I hope you realize he/she is not your friend.

I sure hope you make time to sit on a porch with your Grandma/Grandpa and go fishing with your Uncle.

May you feel sorrow at a funeral and joy during the holidays.

I hope your mother punishes you when you throw a baseball through your neighbor’s window and that she hugs you and kisses you at Christmas time when you give her a plaster mold of your hand.

These things I wish for you – tough times and disappointment, hard work and happiness. To me, it’s the only way to appreciate life.

Written with a pen. Sealed with a kiss. I’m here for you. And if I die before you do, I’ll go to heaven and wait for you.
Paul Harvey RIDDLE:

When asked this riddle, 80% of kindergarten kids got the answer, compared to 17% of  Stanford   University seniors.

What is greater than God, More evil than the devil, The poor have it, The rich need it, And if you eat it, you’ll die?

Can you answer this riddle?


The only thing that stands between a person and what they want from life is often merely the will to try it and the faith to believe that it is possible.”

~ Richard M. DeVos


paisano (py-SAH-no) noun
1. A pal, buddy.
2. A fellow countryman; a compatriot.[From Spanish paisano, from French paysan, from Latin pagus (district).
Ultimately from the Indo-European root pag- (to fasten) that is also
the source of peace, pacify, pact, travel, compact, pagan, and peasant.]

1683 – Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is founded by thirteen immigrant families.
1749 – According to mathematical calculations, Pluto moves outside Neptune’s orbit to remain the outermost planet until 1979.
1776 – Revolutionary War: British land at Kip’s Bay during the New York Campaign.
1776 – Revolutionary War: British forces occupied New York City.
1789 – The United States Department of State is established (formerly known as Department of Foreign Affairs).
1814 – The words of the “Star-Spangled Banner,” written by Francis Scott Key following the September 13th attack on Fort Henry, was printed on a handbill without the name of Francis Scott Key and originally known as “The Defense of Fort McHenry.”
1831 – The locomotive John Bull operates for the first time in New Jersey on the Camden and Amboy Railroad.
1835 – The HMS Beagle, with Charles Darwin aboard, reaches the Galápagos Islands.
1853 – First US woman ordained a minister, Antoinette Blackwell. She was ordained as minister of the Congregational Church of South Butler
1857 – Timothy Alder patents the typesetting machine.
1857 – Mormon leader Brigham Young called out the Nauvoo Legion to fight the U.S. Troops if they enter Utah Territory.
1858 – The third debate between senatorial candidates Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas was held in Jonesboro, Ill.
1858 – The first mail service begins to the Pacific Coast of the U.S. under government contract. Coaches from the Butterfield Overland Mail Company took 12 days to make the journey between Tipton, MO and San Francisco, CA. The company’s motto was: “Remember, boys, nothing on God’s earth must stop the United States mail!”
1862 – Civil War: Confederates captured the Union weapon arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VA, securing the rear of Robert E. Lee’s forces in Maryland. (Not WV until 1863)
1891 – The Dalton gang held up a train and took $2,500 at Wagoner, Okla.
1904 – Wilbur Wright makes the first half-circle turn in air at Huffman Prairie Flying Field.
1909 – A New York judge rule that Ford Motor Company had infringed on George Seldon’s patent for the “Road Engine.” The ruling was later overturned.
1909 – Charles F. Kettering applied for a patent on his ignition system. His company Delco (Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company) later became a subsidiary of General Motors.
1914 – President Woodrow Wilson ordered the Punitive Expedition out of Mexico. The Expedition, headed by General John Pershing, had been searching for Pancho Villa.
1916 – World War I: Tanks are used for the first time in battle, at the Battle of the Somme.
1923 – Oklahoma was placed under martial law by Gov. John Calloway Walton due to terrorist activity by the Ku Klux Klan. After this declaration national newspapers began to expose the Klan and its criminal activities.
1924 – Saks Fifth Avenue opened, between Forty-ninth and Fiftieth Streets, shoppers in fur coats and pearls mobbed the sales floors. The first package out its doors was a silk top hat, sent to President Calvin Coolidge.
1928 – Sir Alexander Fleming notices a bacteria-killing mold growing in his laboratory, discovering what later became known as penicillin.
1930 – Hoagy Carmichael recorded “Georgia on My Mind” on the Victor label.
1934 – NBC radio presented “The Gibson Family” to American audiences
1934 – The Mutual Broadcast System was formed.
1935 – In Berlin, the Reich under Adolf Hitler adopted The Nuremberg Laws which deprived German Jews of their citizenship, made the swastika the official symbol of Nazi Germany and established gradations of “Jewishness.”
1935 – Nazi Germany adopts a new national flag with the swastika. Interestingly, the swastika was used by many cultures for over 3,000 years to represent life, sun, power, strength, and good luck, until the Nazis used this symbol. Prior to WW II the symbol was used extensively in Navajo art and was on Arizona road signs in honor of the native American cultures.
1938 – John Cobb sets world auto speed record at 350.2 MPH (lasts 1 day).
1938 – Only time brothers hit back-to-back HRs (Lloyd & Paul Waner, Pittsburg Pirates)
1940 – World War II: Europe: Sergeant Ray Holmes (1915-2005) slammed his Hurricane into a German Dornier bomber to prevent it attacking Buckingham Palace. The date of 15 September has come to be known as Battle of Britain Day and has been commemorated every year since.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: Nazis killed 800 Jewish women at Shkudvil, Lithuania.
1941 – The U.S. Attorney General rules that the Neutrality Act is not violated when U.S. ships carry war materiel to British territories, opening the door for the Lend-Lease Act.
1942 – World War II: The U.S. aircraft carrier USS Wasp is torpedoed by a Japanese submarine at Guadalcanal.
1944 – Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meet in Quebec as part of the Octagon Conference to discuss strategy.
1945 – A hurricane in southern Florida and the Bahamas destroys 366 planes and 25 blimps at NAS Richmond. Names were not assigned until 1955.
1946 – Dodgers beat Cubs 2-0 in 5 innings, game was called because of gnats.
1947 – RCA releases the 12AX7 vacuum tube.
1948 – The F-86 Sabre sets the world aircraft speed record at 1080 km/h (671 mph).
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Room Full of Roses” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Don Cornell), “You’re Breaking My Heart by Vic Damone, “Maybe It’s Because” by Dick Haymes and “Why Don’t You Haul Off and Love Me” by Wayne Raney all topped the charts.
1949 – The television series The Lone Ranger premieres on the ABC. Last telecast was aired by ABC on June 6, 1957. Clayton Moore was the Lone Ranger and Jay Silverheels was Tonto.
1950 – Korean War: D-Day for the United States forces landing at Inchon, Korea.
1951 – Gentlemen Prefer Blondes closes on Broadway in New York City after 740 performances.
1951 – “Because of You” by Tony Bennett topped the charts
1954 – The U.S. Postal Service issues its 2¢ Thomas Jefferson Liberty Series stamp.
1956 – “Hound Dog/Don’t Be Cruel” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tammy” by Debbie Reynolds, “Diana” by Paul Anka,Honeycomb” by Jimmie Rodgers and “Fraulein” by Bobby Helms all topped the charts.
1957 – “Bachelor Father with John Forsythe premiers.
1957 – The San Francisco Seals (Pacific Coast League) play their last game. The Seals moved to Phoenix, Arizona for the 1958 season. The team became a minor league affiliate of the new San Francisco Giants, and were renamed the Phoenix Giants.
1958 – In Newark, NJ a commuter train crashed through a drawbridge, killing 48.
1959 – Nikita Khrushchev becomes the first Soviet leader to visit the United States.
1961 – The U.S. resumed underground testing of nuclear weapons. Operation Nougat began a series of forty-five nuclear tests conducted (with one exception) at the Nevada Test Site.
1961 – Hurricane Carla strikes Texas with winds of 175 miles per hour. Hurricane Carla ranks as the most intense U.S. tropical cyclone landfall on the Hurricane Severity Index. The third named storm and first Category 5 hurricane of the 1961 Atlantic hurricane season,
1962 – The Soviet ship Poltava heads toward Cuba, one of the events that sets into motion the Cuban Missile Crisis.
1962 – “Sherry” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1963 – The Ku Klux Klan bombed the 16th St. Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama. Four young black girls (Denise McNair, Carole Robertson, Addie Collins, and Cynthia Wesley) were killed in the bombing as they prepared their Sunday school lesson on “The love that forgives.” Robert Chambliss was not brought to justice until 1977.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Help!” by The Beatles, “Like a Rolling Stone” by Bob Dylan,Eve of Destruction” by Barry McGuire and “Is It Really Over?” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1965 – “Lost in Space” premiers with its Space Family Robinson and robot premiered on CBS. It was set in the year 1997. The show was cancelled in 1968.
1965 – The TV show “I Spy” premiered. Bill Cosby and Roger Culp (d. 2010) starred in the series.
1965 – “Green Acres” debuts on CBS-TV
1966 – The spaceship Gemini XI, with astronauts Pete Conrad and Dick Gordon aboard, returns to earth.
1967 – Former U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson, responding to a sniper attack at the University of Texas at Austin, writes a letter to the United States Congress urging the enactment of gun control legislation.
1968 – The Soviet Zond 5 spaceship is launched, becoming the first spacecraft to fly around the Moon and re-enter the Earth’s atmosphere.
1968 – An Wang obtained a patent for a calculating apparatus, a basic component of computer technology.
1969 –  St. Louis Cardinals pitcher Steve Carlton sets a record by striking out 19 New York Mets in a single game.
1971 – The first broadcast of “Columbo” on NBC-TV.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Delta Dawn” by Helen Reddy, “Say, and Has Anybody Seen My Sweet Gypsy Rose” by Tony Orlando & Dawn, “Loves Me like a Rock” by Paul Simon and “You’ve Never Been This Far Before” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1973 – Secretariat won the Marlboro Cup. The legendary thoroughbred won in 1 minute, 45-2/3 seconds and earned $250,000.
1978 – Muhammad Ali beats Leon Spinks for the world heavyweight boxing title.
1979 – “My Sharona” by Knack topped the charts.
1980 – A B-52H bomber carrying nuclear-armed AGM-69 missiles experienced a fuel leak in its number three main wing tank and caught fire on the ground at Grand Forks AFB in North Dakota.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Endless Love” by Diana Ross & Lionel Richie, “Slow Hand by Pointer Sisters, “Stop Draggin’ My Heart Around” by Stevie Nicks with Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers and “Older Women” by Ronnie McDowell all topped the charts.
1981 – The US Senate Judiciary Committee unanimously approves Sandra Day O’Connor to become the first female justice on the United States Supreme Court.
1981 – The John Bull becomes the oldest operable steam locomotive in the world when the Smithsonian Institution operates it under its own power outside Washington, DC.  (See today in 1813)
1982 – The first issue of USA Today is published by Gannett.
1983 – Israeli premier Menachem Begin resigns.
1983 – New York City cops beat to death Michael Stewart for painting graffiti on the subway.
1984 – “What’s Love Got to Do with It” by Tina Turner topped the charts.
1986 – The first pilot of “LA Law” was broadcast NBC-TV.
1987 – On the opening day of his confirmation hearing, US Supreme Court nominee Robert Bork told the Senate Judiciary Committee his philosophy was “neither liberal nor conservative.”
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hangin’ Tough” by New Kids on the Block, “Don’t Wanna Lose You” by Gloria Estefan, “Heaven” by Warrant and “I Wonder Do You Think of Me” by Keith Whitley all topped the charts.
1990 – “Release Me” by Wilson Phillips topped the charts.
1991 – The last traffic light on I-90  was removed in Wallace, Idaho marking the US Interstate System’s completion.
1993 – The FBI announced a new national campaign concerning the crime of carjacking.
1993 – Katherine Ann Power surrendered to authorities to face charges in a 1970 bank robbery in which Walter Schroeder Sr. of the Boston Police was killed. She had been in hiding for 23 years. On October 6, 1993, she received a five-year federal term, to run concurrently with an 8-12 year state sentence. She was released in 1999.
1995 – Hurricane “Marilyn,” the third major storm to batter the Caribbean in less than a month, hit the Virgin Islands with heavy rains and 100 mile-an-hour winds.
1995 –  The TV series “Xena: Warrior Princess” featured Lucy Lawless as Xena.
1996 – Defense Secretary William Perry was making the rounds among American allies in the Persian Gulf region, seeking additional support for the U.S. stance against Iraq. Bahrain agreed to play host to 26 American F-16 jet fighters.
1997 – A Marine F/Aa-18 Hornet fighter jet crashed in North Carolina’s Pamlico sound and its 2 pilots were killed.
1997 – WORK VIOLENCE: Hastings Wise murders four at the R.E. Phelon Company lawn mower parts manufacturing factory in Aiken, South Carolina. A possible motive for the murders was Hastings’ dismissal from his job eleven weeks earlier.
1997 – Two of the nation’s most popular diet drugs — dexfenfluramine and fenfluramine — were pulled off the market because of new evidence they could seriously damage patients’ hearts.
1998 – WorldCom and MCI Communications finish their landmark merger, forming MCI WorldCom which would later be renamed WorldCom and become the largest bankruptcy in United States history.
1998 – Mark McGuire of the St. Louis Cardinals hit his sixty-third home run against the Pittsburgh Pirates.
1998 – BankAmerica announced trading losses of about $330 million so far in the third quarter.
1999 – CHURCH VIOLENCE: A lone gunman,  Larry Gene Ashbrook (47) of Forest Hill,  killed 7 people, aged 14-36 and himself after opening fire at the Wedgewood Baptist Church in Fort Worth, TX.
1999 – Hurricane Floyd hit North Carolina and dropped 13-16 inches of rain. Damages from Floyd were later estimated at over $800 million and 45 deaths were attributed to the storm.
1999 – In Oregon a leak at the Umatilla Chemical Depot overcame 34 workers, who were building a new incinerator. The depot contained over 3,000 tons of deadly nerve and mustard agents, scheduled for incineration upon completion of the project in October 2001.
2001 – Continental Airlines said it would immediately furlough 12,000 of 56,000 workers. Total air carrier capacity was expected to shrink 20%.
2001 – In Mesa, Arizona, Balbir Singh Sodhi, an Indian immigrant gas station owner, was shot to death. A Lebanese clerk was targeted but not injured. Police later arrested Frank Roque (42) and he was convicted of murder Sep 30, 2003.
2002 –  Iraq: U.S. and British warplanes bombed Iraqi installations in the southern no-fly zone. Major air defense sites were being targeted.
2002 – In Knoxville, Tennessee, a Norfolk Southern train derailed near and one car with 93,000 pounds of sulfuric acid ruptured. The liquid acid vaporized creating a toxic cloud.
2003 –  US professional women’s soccer folded due to low attendance. The WUSA soccer league shut down operations five days before the Women’s World Cup, saying it didn’t have enough money to stay in business for a fourth season.
2004 – Amazon unveiled a new search engine called A9.com.
2004 – National Hockey League owners agreed to lock out the players.
2005 – In the fourth and final day of Senate confirmation hearings on John Roberts’ appointment as chief justice, Sen. Charles Schumer (D-NY) said “You may very well possess the most powerful intellect of any person to come before the Senate for this position.”
2005 – President Bush gave a speech from New Orleans outlining government plans to rebuild the region devastated by Hurricane Katrina, as the disaster death toll passed the 700 mark.
2005 – The Massachusetts state Legislature voted to override Gov. Mitt Romney’s veto of a measure that will expand access to emergency contraception.
2006 – In California Gov. Schwarzenegger signed legislation requiring  drivers use hands-free devices for cell phones starting in 2008.
2006 – A large diabetes-prevention study found that the drug Rosiglitazone (Avandia), made by GlaxoSmithKline, can help keep “pre-diabetics” from developing Type 2 diabetes. The drug was already being used to treat the disease, which afflicted over 200 million worldwide.
2006 – Ford Motor Co. unveiled sweeping job cuts and plant closures to stem losses and said it has no intention of selling its luxury brand Jaguar.
2007 – President Bush said while “formidable challenges” remained in Iraq, the United States would start shifting more troops into support roles.
2007 – Sarah Thomas became the first female official to work a game in the Football Bowl Subdivision, formerly I-A, serving as the line judge in the Jacksonville State-Memphis game.
2008 – Lehman Brothers, burdened by $60 billion in soured real-estate holdings, filed a Chapter 11 bankruptcy petition after attempts to rescue the 158-year-old firm failed.
2008 – Oil closed at $95.71, its first close below $100 since March 4.
2008 – Hewlett-Packard said it will cut 24,600 jobs as part of its plan to integrate Electronic Data Systems Corp. (EDS)
2008 – Hurricane Ike left more than one million households in the Midwestern United States  without electricity due to high winds.
2009 – Obama administration embraced cloud computing to help reduce government waste and ease environmental impact.
2010 – Cartoonist Molly Norris of Seattle, WA, who developed Everybody Draw Mohammed Day, goes into hiding following a death threat from an Islamist radical.
2010 – The United States ordered oil and gas firms to permanently plug nearly 3,500 unused wells and dismantle hundreds of idle platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, in a bid to shore up industry safety after the disastrous BP spill.
2010 –  Microsoft Corp. unveiled the “beta” test version of Internet Explorer 9, the first of a new generation of Web browser programs.
2011 – Japanese automaker Toyota resumes full production at its North American plants, having finally overcome parts shortages caused by the March 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.
2011 –  House of Representatives passes bill that limits National Labor Relations Board’s power to dictate where private businesses can locate, a response to unions and federal government’s efforts to block opening of Boeing plant in South Carolina.
2012 – Sudan has rejected a U.S. request to send a platoon of Marines to bolster security at the U.S. embassy outside Khartoum. This after around 5,000 people protested against a film that insults the Prophet Mohammad, storming the German embassy before breaking into the U.S. mission.
2012 –  Al-Qaida’s branch in Yemen praised the killing of the U.S. ambassador in Libya in a Web statement  called for more attacks to expel American embassies from Muslim nations.
2012 – The Taliban attacked Marine Corps Base Camp Bastion in Helmand Province Afghanistan. The attack resulted in the largest loss US combat aircraft since Vietnam. Two Marines were also killed including AV8B Harrier Squadron Commander Lt. Col Rabie.
2013 – Miss New York wins Miss America pageant. California’s Crystal Lee is first runner-up. She is the second consecutive contestant from New York to win the pageant.


1254 – Marco Polo, Italian explorer (d. 1324)
1857 – William Howard Taft, 27th President of the United States (d. 1930)
1881 – Ettore Bugatti, Italian automobile engineer and designer (d. 1947)
1890 – Agatha Christie, English writer (d. 1976) Mystery novelist who created both Miss Marple and Hercule Poirot.
In Christie’s words, “Crime is terribly revealing. Try and vary your methods as you will, your tastes, your habits, your attitude of mind, and your soul is revealed by your actions.”
1913 – John N. Mitchell, United States Attorney General and convicted Watergate criminal (d. 1988)
1929 – Eva Burrows, the 13th General of The Salvation Army
1984 – Prince Harry of Wales






Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: During Inchon invasion in Korea, 15 September 1950. Entered service at: Tampa, Fla. Born: 23 August 1925, Tampa, Fla. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a Marine platoon commander of Company A, in action against enemy aggressor forces. With his platoon 1st Lt. Lopez was engaged in the reduction of immediate enemy beach defenses after landing with the assault waves. Exposing himself to hostile fire, he moved forward alongside a bunker and prepared to throw a hand grenade into the next pillbox whose fire was pinning down that sector of the beach. Taken under fire by an enemy automatic weapon and hit in the right shoulder and chest as he lifted his arm to throw, he fell backward and dropped the deadly missile. After a moment, he turned and dragged his body forward in an effort to retrieve the grenade and throw it. In critical condition from pain and loss of blood, and unable to grasp the hand grenade firmly enough to hurl it, he chose to sacrifice himself rather than endanger the lives of his men and, with a sweeping motion of his wounded right arm, cradled the grenade under him and absorbed the full impact of the explosion. His exceptional courage, fortitude, and devotion to duty reflect the highest credit upon 1st Lt. Lopez and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.







Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 17 April 1924, Pulaski, Va. Accredited to: District of Columbia. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division, during action against enemy Japanese forces on Peleliu Island, Palau Group, 15 September 1944. Valiantly placing himself at the head of his squad, Cpl. Bausell led the charge forward against a hostile pillbox which was covering a vital sector of the beach and, as the first to reach the emplacement, immediately started firing his automatic into the aperture while the remainder of his men closed in on the enemy. Swift to act, as a Japanese grenade was hurled into their midst, Cpl. Bausell threw himself on the deadly weapon, taking the full blast of the explosion and sacrificing his own life to save his men. His unwavering loyalty and inspiring courage reflect the highest credit upon Cpl. Bausell and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.






Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Peleliu Island, Palau group, 15 September 1944. Entered service at: New Jersey. Born: 11 May 1919, Lindenwold, N.J. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while attached to the 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division, during action against enemy Japanese forces on Peleliu Island, Palau group, 15 September 1944. Before permitting his men to use an enemy dugout as a position for an 81-mm. mortar observation post, 1st Lt. Rouh made a personal reconnaissance of the pillbox and, upon entering, was severely wounded by Japanese rifle fire from within. Emerging from the dugout, he was immediately assisted by two Marines to a less exposed area but, while receiving first aid, was further endangered by an enemy grenade which was thrown into their midst. Quick to act in spite of his weakened condition, he lurched to a crouching position and thrust both men aside, placing his own body between them and the grenade and taking the full blast of the explosion himself. His exceptional spirit of loyalty and self-sacrifice in the face of almost certain death reflects the highest credit upon 1st Lt. Rouh and the U.S. Naval Service.







Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps, Marine Fighter Squadron 223, Place and date: In the Solomon Islands area, August-September 1942. Entered service at: Oklahoma. Born: 26 December 1914, Lexington, Okla. Other Navy award: Legion of Merit. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and heroic achievement in aerial combat above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of Marine Fighting Squadron 223 during operations against enemy Japanese forces in the Solomon Islands area, August-September 1942. Repeatedly risking his life in aggressive and daring attacks, Maj. Smith led his squadron against a determined force, greatly superior in numbers, personally shooting down 16 Japanese planes between 21 August and 15 September 1942. In spite of the limited combat experience of many of the pilots of this squadron, they achieved the notable record of a total of eighty-three enemy aircraft destroyed in this period, mainly attributable to the thorough training under Maj. Smith and to his intrepid and inspiring leadership. His bold tactics and indomitable fighting spirit, and the valiant and zealous fortitude of the men of his command not only rendered the enemy’s attacks ineffective and costly to Japan, but contributed to the security of our advance base. His loyal and courageous devotion to duty sustains and enhances the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.







Rank and organization: Hospital Apprentice First Class, U.S. Navy, serving with the 2d Battalion, 6th Regiment, U.S. Marines. Place and date: Thiaucourt, France, 15 September 1918. Entered service at: Texas. Born: 2 October 1897 Florence, Tex. Citation: For gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. During the advance, when Cpl. Creed was mortally wounded while crossing an open field swept by machinegun fire, Hayden unhesitatingly ran to his assistance and, finding him so severely wounded as to require immediate attention, disregarded his own personal safety to dress the wound under intense machinegun fire, and then carried the wounded man back to a place of safety.







Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, Division Machinegun Officer, 82d Division. Place and date: Near Vandieres, France, 15 September 1918. Entered service at: Des Moines, Iowa. Birth: Columbia City, Iowa. G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919. Citation: Having gone forward to reconnoiter new machinegun positions, Lt. Col. Pike offered his assistance in reorganizing advance infantry units which had become disorganized during a heavy artillery shelling. He succeeded in locating only about twenty men, but with these he advanced and when later joined by several infantry platoons rendered inestimable service in establishing outposts, encouraging all by his cheeriness, in spite of the extreme danger of the situation. When a shell had wounded one of the men in the outpost, Lt. Col. Pike immediately went to his aid and was severely wounded himself when another shell burst in the same place. While waiting to be brought to the rear, Lt. Col. Pike continued in command, still retaining his jovial manner of encouragement, directing the reorganization until the position could be held. The entire operation was carried on under terrific bombardment, and the example of courage and devotion to duty, as set by Lt. Col. Pike, established the highest standard of morale and confidence to all under his charge. The wounds he received were the cause of his death.





 State of Connecticut

Rank and organization: Machinist’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 November 1885, Hartford, Conn. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 138, 13 December 1911 Citation: While attached to the U.S.S. Pampang, Henrechon was one of a shore party moving in to capture Mundang, Philippine Islands, on 24 September 1911. Ordered to take station within one hundred yards of a group of nipa huts close to the trail, Henrechon advanced and stood guard as the leader and his scout party first searched the surrounding deep grasses, then moved into the open area before the huts. Instantly enemy Moros opened point-blank fire on the exposed men and approximately twenty Moros rushed the small group from inside the huts and from other concealed positions. Henrechon, responding to the calls for help, was one of the first on the scene. When his rifle jammed after the first shot, he closed in with rifle, using it as a club to break the stock over the head of the nearest Moro and then, drawing his pistol, started in pursuit of the fleeing outlaws. Henrechon’s aggressive charging of the enemy under heavy fire and in the face of great odds contributed materially to the success of the engagement.




INTERIM 1901-1911


Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 7 August 1867, Stockholm, Sweden. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 172, 4 October 1904. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Missouri, for heroism in attempting to rescue from drowning Cecil C. Young, ordinary seaman, 15 September 1904.




INTERIM 1901-1911


Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 16 November 1869, Russia. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 172, 4 October 1904. Citation: For heroism in attempting to rescue from drowning Cecil C. Young, ordinary seaman, 15 September 1904, while serving on board the U.S.S. Missouri.





Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 15th Battery, Indiana Light Artillery. Place and date: Near Harpers Ferry, W. Va., 15 September 1862. Entered service at: Indianapolis, Ind. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 2 November 1896. Citation: Voluntarily gathered the men of the battery together, re-manned the guns, which had been ordered abandoned by an officer, opened fire, and kept up the same on the enemy until after the surrender.



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Unerased History – September 14th

Posted by Wayne Church on September 14, 2014 in 09 - September, Blog by month |
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International “On This Day Day”
Nothing happened!!
National Crème-Filled Donut Day



The Story of Mankind 
Hendrik Van Loon 

Section 2



   EARLY man did not know what time meant. He kept no records of birthdays or wedding anniversaries or the hour of death. He had no idea of days or weeks or even years. But in a general way he kept track of the seasons for he had noticed that the cold winter was invariably followed by the mild spring — that spring grew into the hot summer when fruits ripened and the wild ears of corn were ready to be eaten and that summer ended when sudden gusts of wind swept the leaves from the trees and a number of animals were getting ready for the long hibernal sleep.

But now, something unusual and rather frightening had happened. Something was the matter with the weather. The warm days of summer had come very late. The fruits had not ripened. The tops of the mountains which used to be covered with grass now lay deeply hidden underneath a heavy burden of snow.

Then, one morning, a number of wild people, different from the other creatures who lived in that neighbourhood, came wandering down from the region of the high peaks. They looked lean and appeared to be starving. They uttered sounds which no one could understand. They seemed to say that they were hungry. There was not food enough for both the old inhabitants and the newcomers. When they tried to stay more than a few days there was a terrible battle with claw-like hands and feet and whole families were killed. The others fled back to their mountain slopes and died in the next blizzard.

But the people in the forest were greatly frightened. All the time the days grew shorter and the nights grew colder than they ought to have been.

Finally, in a gap between two high hills, there appeared a tiny speck of greenish ice. Rapidly it increased in size. A gigantic glacier came sliding downhill. Huge stones were being pushed into the valley. With the noise of a dozen thunderstorms torrents of ice and mud and blocks of granite suddenly tumbled among the people of the forest and killed them while they slept. Century old trees were crushed into kindling wood. And then it began to snow.

It snowed for months and months. All the plants died and the animals fled in search of the southern sun. Man hoisted his young upon his back and followed them. But he could not travel as fast as the wilder creatures and he was forced to choose between quick thinking or quick dying. He seems to have preferred the former for he has managed to survive the terrible glacial periods which upon four different occasions threatened to kill every human being on the face of the earth.

In the first place it was necessary that man clothe himself lest he freeze to death. He learned how to dig holes and cover them with branches and leaves and in these traps he caught bears and hyenas, which he then killed with heavy stones and whose skins he used as coats for himself and his family.

Next came the housing problem. This was simple. Many animals were in the habit of sleeping in dark caves. Man now followed their example, drove the animals out of their warm homes and claimed them for his own.

Even so, the climate was too severe for most people and the old and the young died at a terrible rate. Then a genius bethought himself of the use of fire. Once, while out hunting, he had been caught in a forest-fire. He remembered that he had been almost roasted to death by the flames. Thus far fire had been an enemy. Now it became a friend. A dead tree was dragged into the cave and lighted by means of smouldering branches from a burning wood. This turned the cave into a cozy little room.

And then one evening a dead chicken fell into the fire. It was not rescued until it had been well roasted. Man discovered that meat tasted better when cooked and he then and there discarded one of the old habits which he had shared with the other animals and began to prepare his food.

In this way thousands of years passed. Only the people with the cleverest brains survived. They had to struggle day and night against cold and hunger. They were forced to invent tools. They learned how to sharpen stones into axes and how to make hammers. They were obliged to put up large stores of food for the endless days of the winter and they found that clay could be made into bowls and jars and hardened in the rays of the sun. And so the glacial period, which had threatened to destroy the human race, became its greatest teacher because it forced man to use his brain.




   THESE earliest ancestors of ours who lived in the great European wilderness were rapidly learning many new things. It is safe to say that in due course of time they would have given up the ways of savages and would have developed a civilisation of their own. But suddenly there came an end to their isolation. They were discovered.

A traveller from an unknown southland who had dared to cross the sea and the high mountain passes had found his way to the wild people of the European continent. He came from Africa. His home was in Egypt.

The valley of the Nile had developed a high stage of civilisation thousands of years before the people of the west had dreamed of the possibilities of a fork or a wheel or a house. And we shall therefore leave our great-great-grandfathers in their caves, while we visit the southern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean, where stood the earliest school of the human race.

The Egyptians have taught us many things. They were excellent farmers. They knew all about irrigation. They built temples which were afterwards copied by the Greeks and which served as the earliest models for the churches in which we worship nowadays. They had invented a calendar which proved such a useful instrument for the purpose of measuring time that it has survived with a few changes until today. But most important of all, the Egyptians had learned how to preserve speech for the benefit of future generations. They had invented the art of writing.

We are so accustomed to newspapers and books and magazines that we take it for granted that the world has always been able to read and write. As a matter of fact, writing, the most important of all inventions, is quite new. Without written documents we would be like cats and dogs, who can only teach their kittens and their puppies a few simple things and who, because they cannot write, possess no way in which they can make use of the experience of those generations of cats and dogs that have gone before.

In the first century before our era, when the Romans came to Egypt, they found the valley full of strange little pictures which seemed to have something to do with the history of the country. But the Romans were not interested in “anything foreign” and did not inquire into the origin of these queer figures which covered the walls of the temples and the walls of the palaces and endless reams of flat sheets made out of the papyrus reed. The last of the Egyptian priests who had understood the holy art of making such pictures had died several years before. Egypt deprived of its independence had become a store-house filled with important historical documents which no one could decipher and which were of no earthly use to either man or beast.

Seventeen centuries went by and Egypt remained a land of mystery. But in the year 1798 a French general by the name of Bonaparte happened to visit eastern Africa to prepare for an attack upon the British Indian Colonies. He did not get beyond the Nile, and his campaign was a failure. But, quite accidentally, the famous French expedition solved the problem of the ancient Egyptian picture-language.


One day a young French officer, much bored by the dreary life of his little fortress on the Rosetta river (a mouth of the Nile) decided to spend a few idle hours rummaging among the ruins of the Nile Delta. And behold! he found a stone which greatly puzzled him. Like everything else in Egypt it was covered with little figures. But this particular slab of black basalt was different from anything that had ever been discovered. It carried three inscriptions. One of these was in Greek. The Greek language was known. “All that is necessary,” so he reasoned, “is to compare the Greek text with the Egyptian figures, and they will at once tell their secrets.”

The plan sounded simple enough but it took more than twenty years to solve the riddle. In the year 1802 a French professor by the name of Champollion began to compare the Greek and the Egyptian texts of the famous Rosetta stone. In the year 1823 he announced that he had discovered the meaning of fourteen little figures. A short time later he died from overwork, but the main principles of Egyptian writing had become known. Today the story of the valley of the Nile is better known to us than the story of the Mississippi River. We possess a written record which covers four thousand years of chronicled history.

As the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics (the word means “sacred writing”) have played such a very great rôle in history, (a few of them in modified form have even found their way into our own alphabet,) you ought to know something about the ingenious system which was used fifty centuries ago to preserve the spoken word for the benefit of the coming generations.

 This book is available in the University of Virginia, E-Text Collection


 “The mind is the limit. As long as the mind can envision the fact that you can do something, you can do it, as long as you really believe 100 percent.”

 ~ Arnold Schwarzenegger


 skosh (sk-oh-sh) noun

A small amount; a little bit.

[From Japanese sukoshi (a little).]

1716 – First lighthouse in US lit (Boston Harbor)
1741 – Composer George Frederick Handel finished Messiah after working on it non-stop for 23 days.
1807 – Former U.S. Vice President Aaron Burr was acquitted of a misdemeanor charge. Two weeks earlier Burr had been found innocent of treason.
1814 – Francis Scott Key writes The Star-Spangled Banner. It became the U.S. national anthem in 1931.
1847 – Mexican-American War: U.S. forces under General Winfield Scott enter Mexico City and raise the American flag over the Hall of Montezuma, concluding a devastating advance that began with an amphibious landing at Vera Cruz six months earlier.
1848 – Alexander Stewart opens the first US dept store.
1862 – Civil War: At the battles of South Mountain and Crampton’s Gap, Maryland, Union troops smashed into the Confederates as they closed in on what would become the Antietam battleground. Confederates delayed McClellan’s advance against Lee.
1872 – Britain paid US $15 million for damages during Civil War. The British government paid £3 million in damages to the United States in compensation for building the Confederate commerce-raider Alabama.
1886 – George K Anderson of Memphis, Tennessee patents typewriter ribbon.
1891 – “Empire State Express” train goes from NYC to East Buffalo.
1901 – US President  William McKinley dies after an assassination attempt on September 6, and is succeeded by Theodore Roosevelt.
1912 – The United States government notified Nicaragua that it would protect American lives and property there and uphold the government against rebels.
1915 – Carl G. Muench received a patent for Insulit, the first sound-absorbing material to be used in buildings.
1927 – Gene Austin recorded “My Blue Heaven”, for Victor Records.
1927 – Isadora Duncan died when her scarf became entangled in the wheel of her car.
1930 – Detroit Lions (as Portsmouth Spartans) play first NFL game, win 13-6.
1936 – The NBC radio network presented “John’s Other Wife” for the first time.
1938 – Graf Zeppelin II, world’s largest airship, makes maiden flight.
1938 – The VS-300 made its first flight. The craft was based on the helicopter technology patented by Igor Sikorsky.
1940 – The Selective Service Act was passed by the U.S. Congress providing the first peacetime draft in the United States. It passed by one vote.
1942 – The 3-day Battle of Edson’s Ridge at Guadalcanal continued.
1944 – United States Marines land on the island of Peleliu.
1944 – A Category 3 hurricane, the Great Atlantic Hurricane, struck eastern New England. Winds hit 109 MPH in Connecticut and 46 people were killed on land and caused $100 million in damage. The storm sank five ships killing 344 people.
1944 – The submarine USS Pampanito picked up 73 allied prisoners left adrift following the Sep 12 submarine attack on a Japanese convoy that included the transport ship Rakuyo Maru.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “A Tree in the Meadow” by Margaret Whiting, “It’s Magic” by Doris Day, “You Call Everybody Darlin’” by Al Trace (vocal: Bob Vincent) and “Bouquet of Roses” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 – Groundbreaking for the United Nations headquarters in New York City.
1950 – Sixty-two year old singer Al Jolson arrived in Korea to entertain the troops after paying his own way from the United States.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hound Dog/Don’t Be Cruel” by Elvis Presley, “Whatever Will Be Will Be (Que Sera Sera)” by Doris Day, “The Flying Saucer (Parts 1 & 2)” by Buchanan & Goodman and “I Walk the Line” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1957 – “Have Gun- Will Travel” with Richard Boone airs its first episode.
1957 – “Diana” by Paul Anka topped the charts.
1958 – Two rockets designed by the German engineer Ernst Mohr, the first German post-war rockets, reach the upper atmosphere.
1959 – The Soviet probe Luna 2 crashes onto the Moon, becoming the first man-made object to reach it.
1960 – The Twist sung by Chubby Checker hit #1. It reached #1 a 2nd time in Jan. 1962.
1960 – The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is founded.
1963 – Mary Ann Fischer, Aberdeen, SD, gave birth to America’s first surviving quintuplets. She gave birth to four girls and a boy.
1963 – “My Boyfriend’s Back” by the Angels topped the charts.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “The House of the Rising Sun” by The Animals,Because” by The Dave Clark Five, “Bread and Butter” by The Newbeats and “I Guess I’m Crazy” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1964 – Walt Disney awarded the Medal of Freedom at the White House .
1965 – “My Mother The Car” premiered on NBC TV. The series was canceled after only a few weeks after the debut.
1965 – “F-Troop” premieres. It ended in 1967 after 65 episodes.
1968 – “People Got to Be Free” by the Rascals topped the charts.
1969 – On December 1, 1969 September 14th is drawn as the first birth date in the U.S. draft during the Vietnam War.
1971 – “Cannon” with William Conrad premiered on CBS -TV.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “Alone Again (Naturally)” by Gilbert O’Sullivan, “Long Cool Woman (In a Black Dress)” by The Hollies, “Baby Don’t Get Hooked on Me” by Mac Davis and “Woman (Sensuous Woman)” by Don Gibson all topped the charts.
1972 – “The Waltons” TV program premiers on CBS – TV.
1973 – Donny Osmond received a gold record for his hit single, “The Twelfth of Never.
1973 – President Richard Nixon signed into law a measure lifting pro football’s blackout.
1974 – “I Shot the Sheriff” by Eric Clapton topped the charts.
1975 – The first American saint, Elizabeth Ann Seton, is canonized by Pope Paul VI.
1978 – “Mork & Mindy”premieres on ABC-TV.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Upside Down” by Diana Ross, “All Out of Love” by Air Supply, “Fame” by Irene Cara and “Lookin’ for Love” by Johnny Lee all topped the charts.
1982 – Princess Grace of Monaco died at the age of 52 because of injuries she suffered the day before in a car crash. She was formerly actress Grace Kelly.
1984 – Joe Kittinger becomes the first person to fly a hot air balloon alone across the Atlantic Ocean.
1985 – “St Elmo’s Fire (Man in Motion)” by John Parr topped the charts.
1985 – Reverend Benjamin Weir, an American missionary, was released after being held captive for 16 months by Shiite Muslim kidnappers in Lebanon.
1987 – Oriole Cal Ripken Jr sets record of playing 8,243 innings in 910 games.
1987 – Tony Magnuson cleared 9.5 feet above the top of the U-ramp and set a new skateboard high jump record.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sweet Child o’ Mine” by Guns N’ Roses, “Simply Irresistible” by Robert Palmer “Perfect World” by Huey Lewis & The News and “(Do You Love Me) Just Say Yes” by Highway 101 all topped the charts.
1989 – Joseph T. Wesbecker shot and killed eight people and wounded twelve others at a printing plant in Louisville, KY. Wesbecker, 47 years old, was on disability for mental illness. He took his own life after the incident.
1990 – Ken Griffey, Jr. and his father, Ken Griffey, Sr. become the first father-son duo to hit back-to-back home runs.
1991 – “I Adore Mi Amor” by Color Me Badd topped the charts.
1991 – Carolyn Suzanne Sapp of Hawaii was crowned “Miss America.”
1994 – Acting commissioner Bud Selig announced the cancellation of the 1994 baseball season on the 34th day of a strike by players.
1997 – An Air Force F-117A Stealth fighter broke apart in midair at a Baltimore County air show. The pilot ejected safely but about a dozen people on the ground were slightly injured.
1998 – In Miami ten suspected Cuban spies were arrested for trying to penetrate the military and exile groups.
1998 – Telecommunications companies MCI Communications and WorldCom complete their $37 billion merger to form MCI WorldCom.
1999 – Hurricane “Floyd” clobbered the Bahamas, toppling power lines, ripping roofs off homes and pushing a roiling sea into streets before heading toward the southeastern United States. Hurricane Floyd forced the evacuation of 800,000 in South Carolina and 500,000 in Georgia.
1999 – In Anaheim, Ca., Dung Trinh killed three employees at West Anaheim Medical Center during a shooting spree. He was despondent over the death of his mother.
2001 – U.S. President George W. Bush visits the site of the World Trade Center in New York three days after the terrorist attacks that destroyed the Twin Towers. Standing on top of the rubble, Bush responds to a fireman’s shouts by saying, “I can hear you, the rest of the world hears you, and the people . . . and the people who knocked these buildings down will hear all of us soon.” Americans packed churches and clogged public squares on a day of remembrance for the victims of the Sept. 11 attacks.
2001 – Passenger lists were published for the four airplanes that were hijacked and crashed by terrorists on Sep 11.
2002 – In Lackawanna, New York, five men of Yemeni descent were charged with supporting foreign terrorist organizations.
2002 – In both San Francisco and Los Angeles, California, hundreds of anti-war protesters marched and spoke out against the U.S. plan to invade Iraq.
2003Yetunde Price (31), older sister of tennis stars Venus and Serena Williams, was shot and killed in LA County.
2003 – Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez, the US military commander in Iraq, authorized the use of loud rock music, “to create fear, disorient … and prolong capture shock.”
2004 – Firefox, developed by Mozilla, released a new Web browser.
2004 – As of 13:00 local time (1800 UTC September 14), Hurricane Ivan is located about 400 mi south-southeast of the mouth of the Mississippi River and is moving along a north-northwest path at about 9 mph. The hurricane is now projected to make landfall along the Gulf Coast of the United States on Thursday morning.
2005 – Mandatory emergency evacuation is ordered for Outer Banks in North Carolina as Hurricane Ophelia approaches.
2005 – A US federal judge in Sacramento ruled that requiring children to recite a Pledge of Allegiance that contains the phrase “under God” in public schools is unconstitutional.
2005 – The Port of New Orleans resumed commercial operations. Officials said damage to agriculture in the Gulf states due to Hurricane Katrina has topped $3 billion.
2005 – Frances Newton is executed by lethal injection by the state of Texas for the murder of her ex-husband and two children. She is the first African American woman executed in Texas since 1858.
2006 – The US Department of the Interior’s Inspector General accuses the top officials at the agency of tolerating widespread ethical failures, from cronyism to cover-ups of incompetence.
2006 – U.S. Senate committee approves a bill to give more rights to “terrorism” detainees. The White House and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) agree that signing the bill into law would end a classified CIA interrogation program, which a recent Supreme Court ruling leaves on tenuous ground.
2006 – US federal health officials said an outbreak a deadly strain of E. coli (0157:H7) had left at least one person dead in Wisconsin over 100 others sick and warned consumers not to eat bagged fresh spinach.
2006 – In Green Bay, WI, police arrested two 17-year-olds, suspected of plotting a shooting spree at East High School.
2007 – US Pres. Bush signed the Honest Leadership and Open Governance Act of 2007.
2007 – Chrysler recalls 300,000 sport utility vehicles to investigate braking problems while Honda recalls 180,000 Honda Civics from the 2006–07 season due to problems with a wheel-bearing seal.
2007 – Two airplanes collided at the Reno National Championship Air Races, killing one pilot and injuring another in the third fatal crash at the event in four days.
2008 – The Denver Broncos won 39-38 following a 2-point conversion after a mistaken call by NFL referee Ed Hochuli gave them the ball in the last minute of the game.
2008 – Authorities in Texas have rescued nearly 2,000 victims of Hurricane Ike who refused to evacuate. The American death toll from Hurricane Ike rises to 8.
2008 – Lehman Brothers files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
2009 – Google rolled out Fast Flip, which lets users scroll through the contents of online newspapers in much the same way as they leaf through pages in print.
2009 – Actor Patrick Swayze dies at age 57, after suffering from pancreatic cancer for more than one year.
2010 – Christine O’Donnell is elected the Republican Party candidate in the Delaware US Senate race.
2010 – Robert Gates, the United States Secretary of Defense, outlines a $100 billion savings plan for his Department.
2010 – Iran releases United States hiker Sarah Shourd from Evin Prison following payment of bail.
2010 – Representative Charles Rangel wins the Democratic primary election for New York’s 15th congressional district despite facing thirteen ethics allegations in the House.
2010 – Reggie Bush of the New Orleans Saints gives up his Heisman Trophy won while playing for the USC Trojans due to receiving improper payments.
2011 –  Archaeologists in Maryland claim to have found a fort in the Zekiah Swamp in Charles County built to protect the “friendly” Piscataway Indians in 1680.
2011 –  NASA announces plans for a Space Launch System to replace the Space Shuttle program with the first flight tentatively scheduled for 2017.
2012 – During an anti-Islam film protest, fifty U.S. Marines are deployed to the American embassy in Yemen as a “precautionary measure” after clashes in the Yemeni capital of Sana’a.
2012 – The bodies of Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens, Officer Sean Smith, and former SEALs Tyrone Woods and Glen Doherty, killed in the attack on the American consulate in Benghazi, Libya, are returned to the United States.
2012 – The campus buildings of the University of Texas at Austin and North Dakota State University are evacuated due to bomb threats.


1388 – Claudius Claussön Swart, Danish geographer
1713 – Johann Kies, German mathematician (d. 1781)
1849 – Ivan Pavlov, Russian scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1936)
1889 – Maria Capovilla, Previous oldest living person (d. 2006)
1914 – Clayton Moore, American actor who played “The Lone Ranger.”(d. 1999)
1936 – Walter Marvin Koenig is an American actor, writer, teacher and director, known for his roles as Pavel Chekov in Star Trek and Alfred Bester in Babylon 5.
1961 – Wendy Thomas, namesake of the Wendy’s restaurant chain.







Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Troop D, 1st Squadron, 9th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Near Song Be, Republic of Vietnam, 14 September 1969. Entered service at:Bangor,Maine. Born:13 October 1948, Caribou,Maine. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Skidgel distinguished himself while serving as a reconnaissance section leader in Troop D. On a road near Song Be inBinhLongProvince, Sgt. Skidgel and his section with other elements of his troop were acting as a convoy security and screening force when contact occurred with an estimated enemy battalion concealed in tall grass and in bunkers bordering the road. Sgt.Skidgel maneuvered off the road and began placing effective machinegun fire on the enemy automatic weapons and rocket-propelled grenade positions. After silencing at least one position, he ran with his machinegun across 60 meters of bullet-swept ground to another location from which he continued to rake the enemy positions. Running low on ammunition, he returned to his vehicle over the same terrain. Moments later he was alerted that the command element was receiving intense automatic weapons, rocket-propelled grenade and mortar fire. Although he knew the road was saturated with enemy fire, Sgt. Skidgel calmly mounted his vehicle and with his driver advanced toward the command group in an effort to draw the enemy fire onto himself. Despite the hostile fire concentrated on him, he succeeded in silencing several enemy positions with his machinegun. Moments later Sgt. Skidgel was knocked down onto the rear fender by the explosion of an enemy rocket-propelled grenade. Ignoring his extremely painful wounds, he staggered back to his feet and placed effective fire on several other enemy positions until he was mortally wounded by hostile small arms fire. His selfless actions enabled the command group to withdraw to a better position without casualties and inspired the rest of his fellow soldiers to gain fire superiority and defeat the enemy. Sgt. Skidgel’s gallantry at the cost of his life were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.







Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Reserve, Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Korea, Hill 749, 14 September 1951. Entered service at: Omaha, Nebr. Born: 10 August 1932, Omaha, Nebr. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an ammunition bearer in Company E, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Bolding advancing with his squad in support of a group of riflemen assaulting a series of strongly fortified and bitterly defended hostile positions on Hill 749, Pfc. Gomez consistently exposed himself to the withering barrage to keep his machine gun supplied with ammunition during the drive forward to seize the objective. As his squad deployed to meet an imminent counterattack, he voluntarily moved down an abandoned trench to search for a new location for the gun and, when a hostile grenade landed between himself and his weapon, shouted a warning to those around him as he grasped the activated charge in his hand. Determined to save his comrades, he unhesitatingly chose to sacrifice himself and, diving into the ditch with the deadly missile, absorbed the shattering violence of the explosion in his body. By his stouthearted courage, incomparable valor, and decisive spirit of self-sacrifice, Pfc. Gomez inspired the others to heroic efforts in subsequently repelling the outnumbering foe, and his valiant conduct throughout sustained and enhanced the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.






Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Air Force, 8th Bombardment Squadron, 3d Bomb Group. Place and date: Near Yangdok, Korea, 14 September 1951. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Born. 7 January 1920, Baltimore, Md. Citation: Capt. Walmsley, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While flying a B-26 aircraft on a night combat mission with the objective of developing new tactics, Capt. Walmsley sighted an enemy supply train which had been assigned top priority as a target of opportunity. He immediately attacked, producing a strike which disabled the train, and, when his ammunition was expended, radioed for friendly aircraft in the area to complete destruction of the target. Employing the searchlight mounted on his aircraft, he guided another B-26 aircraft to the target area, meanwhile constantly exposing himself to enemy fire. Directing an incoming B-26 pilot, he twice boldly aligned himself with the target, his searchlight illuminating the area, in a determined effort to give the attacking aircraft full visibility. As the friendly aircraft prepared for the attack, Capt. Walmsley descended into the valley in a low level run over the target with searchlight blazing, selflessly exposing himself to vicious enemy antiaircraft fire. In his determination to inflict maximum damage on the enemy, he refused to employ evasive tactics and valiantly pressed forward straight through an intense barrage, thus insuring complete destruction of the enemy’s vitally needed war cargo. While he courageously pressed his attack Capt. Walmsley’s plane was hit and crashed into the surrounding mountains, exploding upon impact. His heroic initiative and daring aggressiveness in completing this important mission in the face of overwhelming opposition and at the risk of his life, reflects the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Air Force.







Rank and organization: Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 25 April 1897, Rutland, Vt. Appointed from: Vermont. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross with Gold Star, Silver Star Medal, Legion of Merit with Gold Star. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty as Commanding Officer of the 1st Marine Raider Battalion, with Parachute Battalion attached, during action against enemy Japanese forces in the Solomon Islands on the night of 13-14 September 1942. After the airfield on Guadalcanal had been seized from the enemy on 8 August, Col. Edson, with a force of 800 men, was assigned to the occupation and defense of a ridge dominating the jungle on either side of the airport. Facing a formidable Japanese attack which, augmented by infiltration, had crashed through our front lines, he, by skillful handling of his troops, successfully withdrew his forward units to a reserve line with minimum casualties. In a subsequent series of violent assaults, the enemy engaged our force in desperate hand-to-hand combat with bayonets, rifles, pistols, grenades, and knives. Col. Edson, although continuously exposed to hostile fire throughout the night, personally directed defense of the reserve position against a fanatical foe of greatly superior numbers. By his astute leadership and gallant devotion to duty, he enabled his men, despite severe losses, to cling tenaciously to their position on the vital ridge, thereby retaining command not only of the Guadalcanal airfield, but also of the 1st Division’s entire offensive installations in the surrounding area.







Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, 85th Infantry Division. Place and date: Mt. Altuzzo, Italy, 14 September 1944. Entered service at: Lamesa, Tex. Birth: Olney, Tex. G.O. No.: 20, 29 March 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty, in action on the western ridge of Mount Altuzzo, Italy. After bitter fighting his company had advanced to within fifty yards of the objective, where it was held up due to intense enemy sniper, automatic, small arms, and mortar fire. The enemy launched 3 desperate counterattacks in an effort to regain their former positions, but all three were repulsed with heavy casualties on both sides. All officers and noncommissioned officers of the 2d and 3d platoons of Company B had become casualties, and S/Sgt. Keathley, guide of the 1st platoon, moved up and assumed command of both the 2d and 3d platoons, reduced to twenty men. The remnants of the two platoons were dangerously low on ammunition, so S/Sgt. Keathley, under deadly small arms and mortar fire, crawled from one casualty to another, collecting their ammunition and administering first aid. He then visited each man of his two platoons, issuing the precious ammunition he had collected from the dead and wounded, and giving them words of encouragement. The enemy now delivered their fourth counterattack, which was approximately two companies in strength. In a furious charge they attacked from the front and both flanks, throwing hand grenades, firing automatic weapons, and assisted by a terrific mortar barrage. So strong was the enemy counterattack that the company was given up for lost. The remnants of the 2d and 3d platoons of Company B were now looking to S/Sgt. Keathley for leadership. He shouted his orders precisely and with determination and the men responded with all that was in them. Time after time the enemy tried to drive a wedge into S/Sgt. Keathley’s position and each time they were driven back, suffering huge casualties. Suddenly an enemy hand grenade hit and exploded near S/Sgt. Keathley, inflicting a mortal wound in his left side. However, hurling defiance at the enemy, he rose to his feet. Taking his left hand away from his wound and using it to steady his rifle, he fired and killed an attacking enemy soldier, and continued shouting orders to his men. His heroic and intrepid action so inspired his men that they fought with incomparable determination and viciousness. For fifteen minutes S/Sgt. Keathley continued leading his men and effectively firing his rifle. He could have sought a sheltered spot and perhaps saved his life, but instead he elected to set an example for his men and make every possible effort to hold his position. Finally, friendly artillery fire helped to force the enemy to withdraw, leaving behind many of their number either dead or seriously wounded. S/Sgt. Keathley died a few moments later. Had it not been for his indomitable courage and incomparable heroism, the remnants of three rifle platoons of Company B might well have been annihilated by the overwhelming enemy attacking force. His actions were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service.







Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company E, 319th Infantry, 80th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Pompey, France, 14 September 1944. Entered service at: Blytheville, Ark. Birth: Blytheville, Ark. G.O. No.: 25, 7 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 14 September 1944, Company E, 319th Infantry, with which 1st Lt. Lloyd was serving as a rifle platoon leader, was assigned the mission of expelling an estimated enemy force of two-hundred men from a heavily fortified position near Pompey, France. As the attack progressed, 1st Lt. Lloyd’s platoon advanced to within fifty yards of the enemy position where they were caught in a withering machinegun and rifle crossfire which inflicted heavy casualties and momentarily disorganized the platoon. With complete disregard for his own safety, 1st Lt. Lloyd leaped to his feet and led his men on a run into the raking fire, shouting encouragement to them. He jumped into the first enemy machinegun position, knocked out the gunner with his fist, dropped a grenade, and jumped out before it exploded. Still shouting encouragement he went from one machinegun nest to another, pinning the enemy down with submachine gun fire until he was within throwing distance, and then destroyed them with hand grenades. He personally destroyed five machineguns and many of the enemy, and by his daring leadership and conspicuous bravery inspired his men to overrun the enemy positions and accomplish the objective in the face of seemingly insurmountable odds. His audacious determination and courageous devotion to duty exemplify the highest traditions of the military forces of the United States.







Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, 37th Tank Battalion, 4th Armored Division. Place and date: Valhey, France, 14 September 1944. Entered service at: Perth Amboy, N.J. Birth: Perth Amboy, N.J. C o. No.: 32, 23 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty at Valhey, France. On the afternoon of 14 September 1944, Sgt. Sadowski as a tank commander was advancing with the leading elements of Combat Command A, 4th Armored Division, through an intensely severe barrage of enemy fire from the streets and buildings of the town of Valhey. As Sgt. Sadowski’s tank advanced through the hail of fire, it was struck by a shell from an 88-mm. gun fired at a range of 20 yards. The tank was disabled and burst into flames. The suddenness of the enemy attack caused confusion and hesitation among the crews of the remaining tanks of our forces. Sgt. Sadowski immediately ordered his crew to dismount and take cover in the adjoining buildings. After his crew had dismounted, Sgt. Sadowski discovered that one member of the crew, the bow gunner, had been unable to leave the tank. Although the tank was being subjected to a withering hail of enemy small-arms, bazooka, grenade, and mortar fire from the streets and from the windows of adjacent buildings, Sgt. Sadowski unhesitatingly returned to his tank and endeavored to pry up the bow gunner’s hatch. While engaged in this attempt to rescue his comrade from the burning tank, he was cut down by a stream of machinegun fire which resulted in his death. The gallant and noble sacrifice of his life in the aid of his comrade, undertaken in the face of almost certain death, so inspired the remainder of the tank crews that they pressed forward with great ferocity and completely destroyed the enemy forces in this town without further loss to themselves. The heroism and selfless devotion to duty displayed by Sgt. Sadowski, which resulted in his death, inspired the remainder of his force to press forward to victory, and reflect the highest tradition of the armed forces.






Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company K, 135th Infantry, 34th Infantry Division. Place and date: Monte Frassino, Italy, 14 September 1944. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Birth: Indianapolis, Ind. G.O. No.: 8, 7 February 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in the vicinity of Monte Frassino, Italy. The 3d Platoon, in attempting to seize a strongly fortified hill position protected by three parallel high terraced stone walls, was twice thrown back by the withering crossfire. 2d Lt. Wigle, acting company executive, observing that the platoon was without an officer, volunteered to command it on the next attack. Leading his men up the bare, rocky slopes through intense and concentrated fire, he succeeded in reaching the first of the stone walls. Having himself boosted to the top and perching there in full view of the enemy, he drew and returned their fire while his men helped each other up and over. Following the same method, he successfully negotiated the second. Upon reaching the top of the third wall, he faced three houses which were the key point of the enemy defense. Ordering his men to cover him, he made a dash through a hail of machine-pistol fire to reach the nearest house. Firing his carbine as he entered, he drove the enemy before him out of the back door and into the second house. Following closely on the heels of the foe, he drove them from this house into the third where they took refuge in the cellar. When his men rejoined him, they found him mortally wounded on the cellar stairs which he had started to descend to force the surrender of the enemy. His heroic action resulted in the capture of thirty-six German soldiers and the seizure of the strongpoint.







Rank and organization. Captain, U.S. Army, 308th Infantry, 77th Division. Place and date: Near Revillon, France, 14 September 1918. Entered service at: Princeton, N.J. Born: 23 March 1873, Baltimore, Md. G.O. No.: 44, W.D., 1919. Citation: Volunteered to lead his company in a hazardous attack on a commanding trench position near the Aisne Canal, which other troops had previously attempted to take without success. His company immediately met with intense machinegun fire, against which it had no artillery assistance, but Capt. Miles preceded the first wave and assisted in cutting a passage through the enemy’s wire entanglements. In so doing he was wounded five times by machinegun bullets, both legs and 1 arm being fractured, whereupon he ordered himself placed on a stretcher and had himself carried forward to the enemy trench in order that he might encourage and direct his company, which by this time had suffered numerous casualties. Under the inspiration of this officer’s indomitable spirit his men held the hostile position and consolidated the front line after an action lasting two hours, at the conclusion of which Capt. Miles was carried to the aid station against his will.






Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company L, 16th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Carig, Philippine Islands, 14 September 1900. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Chicago, Ill. Date of issue: 10 March 1902. Citation: With twenty-two men defeated four hundred insurgents, killing thirty-six and wounding ninety.




INTERIM 1871-1898



Rank and organization: Second Class Fireman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1855, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Alaska at Callao Bay, Peru, 14 September 1881. Following the rupture of the stop-valve chamber, Barrett courageously hauled the fires from under the boiler of that vessel.




INTERIM 1871-1898


Rank and organization: First Class Fireman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1849, Ireland. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Alaska at Callao Bay, Peru, 14 September 1881. Following the rupture of the stop-valve chamber on that vessel, Laverty hauled the fires from under the boiler of that vessel.



In the aftermath of his great victory at Second Bull Run, Robert E. Lee was determined to launch an invasion of the North. He hoped that a similar victory on northern soil would weaken the North’s resolve, and possibly encourage Maryland to rise and join the Confederacy. Lee convinced Jefferson Davies to approve his plan, and at the start of September Lee’s victorious army crossed the Potomac.

Once in the north, Lee became concerned about the 13,000 strong Federal garrison of Harper’s Ferry. He decided that he could not risk leaving that garrison in his rear. To capture it he took the decision to split his army. Two thirds of the army, under Stonewall Jackson, was sent to capture Harper’s Ferry, while he remained further north with the rest of the army. Lee was taking a massive risk. He assumed that the Federal army defeated at Bull Run would take weeks to be recover, especially with George McClellan restored to command. He had repeated demonstrated a slow, cautious attitude during the Peninsula Campaign, and Lee expected more of the same.

He was wrong. McClellan had taken over a beaten army, but not a demoralised or unorganised one. McClellan soon had an army 70,000 strong on the move towards Lee. He also had a stroke of luck when a copy of Lee’s order for the move against Harper’s Ferry was discovered on 13 September. McClellan received this piece of luck at Frederick, less than twenty miles from Harper’s Ferry, where the garrison was still holding out.

Even with this information in hand, McClellan still did not move quickly. He was nearly always convinced that whatever army he commanded was badly outnumbered – here he was convinced that Lee had at least 100,000 men, twice the real number. Accordingly, he did nothing on 13 September other than issue orders for a movement on the following day.

The main barrier that faced McClellan was South Mountain. This mountain runs north from the Potomac, from the river just east of Harper’s Ferry. McClellan’s men would have to force their way through Confederate held passes before they could engage Lee or go to the relief of Harper’s Ferry. McClellan decided to move his main force through Fox’s and Turner’s gap. This would bring him out at Boonsborough, where the intercepted order suggested he would find Longstreet’s corps. If the move succeeded it would put McClellan’s army between the two main wings of Lee’s army, and give him a very good chance of capturing Lee, who would be isolated to his north.

Unfortunately, but hardly unexpectedly, McClellan’s advance was appallingly sluggish. For most of 14 September McClellan was held up by D.H. Hill’s single division. Two entire Federal army corps were held up for long enough for reinforcements to arrive. Eventually Federal troops captured other routes through the mountain, but Hill had held McClellan back for long enough for Lee to get his supply trains safely away. The Federal army was to remain largely inactive for the next two days, while Lee pulled his army back together behind the line of the Antietam Creek, and prepared for battle.






Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 16th New York Infantry. Place and date: At South Mountain, Md., 14 September 1862. Entered service at:Potsdam,N.Y. Born:6 May 1843,Ireland. Date of issue:11 September 1890. Citation: Single-handed and slightly wounded he accosted a squad of fourteen Confederate soldiers bearing the colors of the 16th Georgia Infantry (C.S.A.). By an imaginary ruse he secured their surrender and kept them at bay when the regimental commander discovered him and rode away for assistance.






Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 51st New York Infantry. Place and date: At New Bern, N.C., 14 March 1862; at South Mountain, Md., 14 September 1862. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ca Valletta, Malta. Date of issue: 14 November 1890. Citation: At New Bern, N.C., brought off the wounded color sergeant and the colors under a heavy fire of the enemy. Was one of four soldiers who volunteered to determine the position of the enemy at South Mountain, Md. While so engaged was fired upon and his three companions killed, but he escaped and rejoined his command in safety.







Rank and organization: Brigadier General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At South Mountain, Md., 14 September 1862. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 9 January 1822, Oswego, N.Y. Date of issue: 28 October 1893. Citation: He was severely wounded while leading one of his brigades in the attack under a heavy fire from the enemy.







Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company E, 4th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At South Mountain, Md., 14 September 1862. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Salem, N.Y. Date of issue: 17 September 1891. Citation: Rode alone, in advance of his regiment, into the enemy’s lines, and before his own men came up received the surrender of the major of a Confederate regiment, together with the colors and one hundred-sixteen men.







Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 12th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At South Mountain, Md., 14 September 1862. Entered service at: Charleston, W. Va. Birth: Chatham, Ohio. Date of issue: 31 January 1894. Citation: Alone and unaided and with his left hand disabled, captured a Confederate captain and four men.

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