Have you ever noticed how good you feel after laughing at a funny movie, television program, or humorous event? It is known and accepted that we respond positively when we laugh. Laughing is like exercise to the body and challenging games are to the brain. Laughing reduces stress, it changes things like blood pressure, muscle activity, and heart rate. Just laughing hard for ten minutes can release you for the next two hours. It is “internal jogging.Certainly the best example of this is in the recovery of Norman Cousins in the book, “Anatomy of an Illness.” He recovered from a long-term disease that causes inflammation of the joints between the spinal bones, and the joints between the spine and pelvis. This disease usually results in these joint solidifying. Mr. Cousins attributed much of his healing to laughter and the power of spirit.
A good dose of laughter is said to increase the release of endorphins in the brain. Endorphins are the body’s natural painkillers and relievers of depressions.
“Warning: Humor may be hazardous to your illness.” ~Ellie Katz; “You have a cough? Go home tonight, eat a whole box of Ex-Lax – tomorrow you’ll be afraid to cough.” ~Pearl Williams.
At Loma Linda University School of Medicine, in the Department of Clinical Immunology, studies have shown that laughter stimulates the immune system
Humor, as a tool or skill can be found predominately in two major places, in healthcare and in business settings especially where the work tends to be tedious. In healthcare it has been shown tobe especially advantageous in settings where pain tends to be high over long period or where there would be a highly depressing atmosphere. Regular doses of humor have proven to be good for a patient’s sense of well-being and it assists in the tolerance of pain.
The impact of stress on personal health has lead to humor being incorporated into the workplace. The high cost of burnout and stress-related illness accounts for a significant percentage of sick days being used, “just to get away from the stress.” Humor improves employee creativity, the ability to learn and “just a feeling” of general wellness.
Just a few strategies that have been shown to work include theme days picking from any number of “funny” or “crazy” holidays: Just in the month of April it is possible to celebrate National Fun Day, One Day without Shoes Day, National Pie Day, Barbershop Quartet Day, Take A Wild Guess Day, Blah! Blah! Blah! Day and Talk Like Shakespeare Day. An excellent source of these type holidays is at: http://www.brownielocks.com/.
The message is that a good laugh shared by office workers or colleagues doesn’t necessarily take much time from the workday. The pay-off is that it can improve the environment/climate and leave people feeling rejuvenated.
“He who sits in heaven will laugh, the Lord will mock them.”
“The ordaining of laws in favor of one part of the nation, to the prejudice and oppression of another, is certainly the most erroneous and mistaken policy.”
“To reach our goal we must sail sometimes with the wind and sometimes against it. But we must sail and not drift, not lie at anchor.”
~ Oliver Wendell Holmes , Sr.
imbroglio im-BROHL-yoh, noun:
1. A complicated and embarrassing state of things.
2. A confused or complicated disagreement or misunderstanding.
3. An intricate, complicated plot, as of a drama or work of fiction.
4. A confused mass; a tangle.
1192 – Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I), King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title to the throne is confirmed by election. The killing is carried out by Hashshashin.
1635 – Virginia Governor John Harvey was accused of treason and removed from office.
1686 – The first volume of Isaac Newton’s “Principia Mathamatic” was published.
1788 – Maryland becomes the seventh state to ratify the Constitution of the United States.
1789 – Mutiny on the Bounty, Captain William Bligh and 18 sailors are set adrift and the rebel crew returns to Tahiti briefly and then sets sail for Pitcairn Island. Fletcher Christian led the mutiny against Captain William Bligh.
1818 – Monroe proclaims naval disarmament on Great Lakes & Lake Champlain.
1856 – Yokut Indians repelled an attack on their land by 100 would-be Indian fighters in California.
1862 – Civil War: Admiral David Farragut captures New Orleans, Louisiana.
1881 – Billy the Kid was held in Lincoln County Courthouse jail, near Carrizozo N.M. for the shooting of Sheriff William Brady, but escaped and killed two guards. He used an 1876 single-action army revolver made by Samuel Colt.
1881 – Robert W. Ollinger, US warden, last victim of Billy the Kid, died.
1896 – The Addressograph was patented by J.S. Duncan of Sioux City, IA.
1897 – The Chickasaw and Choctaw, two of the Five Civilized Tribes, become the first to agree to abolish tribal government and communal ownership of land.
1898 – Spanish – American War: U.S. warships engage Spanish gunboats and shore batteries at Cienfuegos, Cuba.
1902 – Using the ISO 8601 standard Year Zero definition for the Gregorian calendar preceded by the Julian calendar, the one billionth minute since the start of January 1, Year Zero occurs at 10:40 AM on this date.
1908 – Leonard Dyer obtained a patent for an automobile transmission.
1908 – In San Francisco a fire began just before midnight at a stable at 475 11th St. 48 horses belonging to F.M. Barrett, a lumber drayman, were killed.
1914 – W.H. Carrier was issued a patent for a method of “dew point control,” crucial to the development of automatic air cooling systems. In 1923 he invented an air-conditioning system powerful enough for installation at movie theaters.
1918 – World War I: Coast Guard Cutter Seneca saves 81 survivors from the torpedoed British naval sloop Cowslip while on convoy route to Gibraltar. Cowslip was attacked by three German U-boats.
1919 – First jump with Army Air Corp (rip-cord type) parachute (Les Irvin). The parachute was designed by Floyd Smith, with free-type back-pack parachute at McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio.
1922 – WOI-AM went on the air with its first regular feature market news. Announcers read commodity prices gathered by ticker tape and Morse code.
1927 – First test flight of the Spirit of St Louis is completed. Construction of the Spirit took 60 days and cost $10,580.
1929 – The first Red Sox Sunday game played in Boston was a 7-3 loss to Philadelphia at Braves Field.
1930 – The first night game in organized baseball history takes place in Independence, Kansas. The Producers lost to Muskogee, 13-3. The game was played under temporary portable lights provided by black baseball’s Kansas City Monarchs.
1931 – Program for woman athletes approved for 1932 Olympics track & field.
1932 – A vaccine for yellow fever is announced for use on humans.
1934 – FDR signed a Home Owners Loan Act.
1937 – The first animated-cartoon electric sign was displayed on a building on Broadway in New York City. It consisted of several thousand light bulbs and presented a four-minute show that featured a cavorting horse and ball-tossing cats.
1940 – Glenn Miller records “Pennsylvania 6-5000.”
1942 – World War II: Nightly “dim-out” begins along the East Coast. No lights were to be seen in stores or houses, streetlights were dimmed, and the upper halves of car headlights were blackened.
1944 – World War II: American and Japanese forces, moving west from Wewak, engage near Aitape in New Guinea.
1944 – World War II: Exercise “Tiger” ended with 749 U.S. soldiers and sailors killed, when their D-Day landing practice was attacked by German torpedo boats off the south coast of England. The casualties were not announced until nearly two months after the Normandy invasion. Full details were not known until 1974.
1945 – World War II: Benito Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci are executed by a firing squad consisting of members of the Italian resistance movement.
1945 – World War II: The US 7th Army captures Augsburg in its advance south toward Austria. Other Allied units are crossing the Elbe River in the north and others are advancing on Munich in the south.
1945 – World War II: US 5th Army reached the Swiss border.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, fighting along the Shuri Line continues. American forces employ tanks, flame-throwers and artillery in an effort to destroy Japanese defensive positions.
1945 – John F. Kennedy, correspondent for the Hearst Newspapers, filed his first dispatch on the founding of the UN in San Francisco.
1946 – The Allies indicted Tojo with 55 counts of war crimes.
1946 – Kazue Katz became the 1st Japanese woman to marry an American following WW II. Her marriage to Sgt. Frederick Katz in Tokyo required 29 endorsements.
1947 – Thor Heyerdahl and five crew mates set out from Peru on the Kon-Tiki to prove that Peruvian natives could have settled Polynesia. The 101-day trip covered approximately 4300 miles.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton, “My Foolish Heart” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Eileen Wilson), “The Third Man Theme” by Alton Karas and “Long Gone Lonesome Blues” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1951 – “How High the Moon” by Les Paul & Mary Ford topped the charts.
1952 – Dwight D. Eisenhower resigns as Supreme Commander of NATO.
1952 – War with Japan officially ended as a treaty that had been signed by the United States and 47 other countries took effect. The United States occupation of Japan ends.
1956 – Elvis Presley’s first hit record, “Heartbreak Hotel“, becomes #1.
1957 – Mike Wallace was seen on TV for the first time. He was the host of “Mike Wallace Interviews.” 1957 Frank Lloyd Wright Interview (50:02)
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tequila” by The Champs, “All I Have to Do is Dream” by The Everly Brothers, “The Witch Doctor” by David Seville and “Oh Lonesome Me” by Don Gibson all topped the charts.
1958 – Vice President Richard Nixon and his wife, Pat, began a goodwill tour of Latin America that was marred by hostile mobs in Lima, Peru, and Caracas, Venezuela.
1958 – The United States conducted the first of thirty-five nuclear test explosions in the Pacific Proving Ground as part of Operation Hardtack I.
1959 – Arthur Godfrey was seen for the last time in the final broadcast of “Arthur Godfrey and His Friends” on CBS-TV (14:35).
1961 – 41 year-old Warren Spahn pitched his second no-hit game for the Milwaukee Braves.
1962 – “Good Luck Charm” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1965 – Barbara Streisand’s first TV special aired on CBS. It was titled “My Name is Barbara”.
1965 – Lindsey Nelson broadcasts game at Astrodome from a hanging gondola. He was 208 feet above 2B. It took about 45 minutes to lower and raise the contraption.
1965 – U.S. Army and Marines under US President Lyndon Johnson invaded the Dominican Republic to stop a civil war. Johnson sent 22,800 troops at the urging of Thomas Mann (d.1999 at 87), a high state department official. The troops stayed until until Oct 1966.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration” by The Righteous Brothers, “Bang Bang (My Baby Shot Me Down)” by Cher, “Secret Agent Man” by Johnny Rivers and “I Want to Go with You” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1966 – NBA CHAMPIONSHIP: 20th NBA Championship Boston Celtics beat Los Angeles Lakers, 4 games to 3.
1967 – Muhammad Ali refuses induction into army & stripped of boxing title. He cited religious grounds for his refusal.
1967 – Mrs. Robert W. Claytor elected president of the YWCA, the first African American president of the organization.
1967- Lt. Col. Leo Thorsness and “backseater” Harry Johnson ejected over North Vietnam following an attack by an enemy MiG fighter. They were released along with other POWs in 1973. In Oct, 1973, Thorsness received a Medal of Honor.
1970 – Vietnam War: President Richard M. Nixon formally authorizes American combat troops to fight communist sanctuaries in Cambodia.
1971 – Samuel L. Gravely, Jr. became the first African American Admiral in the United States Navy.
1971 – The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was established within the Dept. of Labor under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, which was passed on Dec 29, 1970. It was formed to protect workers from on-the-job injuries and illnesses.
1973 – “Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree” by Tony Orlando & Dawn topped the charts.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “TSOP (The Sound of Philadelphia)” by MFSB featuring The Three Degrees, “Best Thing that Ever Happened to Me” by Gladys Knight & The Pips, “The Loco-Motion” by Grand Funk and “Hello Love” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1974 – Vietnam: The last Americans were evacuated from Saigon.
1975 – Vietnam: Operation Frequent Wind evacuation from Vietnam begins.
1977 – Christopher Boyce was convicted of selling U.S. spy satellite secrets to the Soviet Union in the 1970s. His spying for the Russians was chronicled in the film “The Falcon and the Snowman,”and he was free in 2003 after spending almost half his life in federal prison.
1979 – “Heart of Glass” by Blondie topped the charts.
1980 – President Carter accepted the resignation of Secretary of State Cyrus Vance (1917-2002), who had opposed the failed rescue mission aimed at freeing American hostages in Iran.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Love Rock ’N Roll” by Joan Jett & The Blackhearts, “We Got the Beat” by Go-Go’s, “Chariots of Fire” by Titles – Vangelis and “Crying My Heart Out Over You” by Ricky Skaggs all topped the charts.
1983 – The nuclear powered aircraft carrier Enterprise ran aground in SF Bay and was stuck for over five hours, yards from her berth at the Alameda Naval air Station.
1984 – “Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)” by Phil Collins topped the charts.
1984 – The largest sand castle in the world was completed near St. Petersburg, FL. It was four stories tall.
1986 – The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise becomes the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier to transit the Suez Canal, navigating from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea to relieve the USS Coral Sea, on station across the “Line of Death” in the Gulf of Sidra off the coast of Libya. The transit began at 0300 and lasted 12 hours.
1987 – American engineer Ben Linder is killed in an ambush by U.S.-funded Contras in northern Nicaragua.
1987 – NBA announces expansion to Charlotte NC & Miami FL in 1988 & Minneapolis MN & Orlando FL in 1989.
1988 – Near Maui, Hawaii, flight attendant Clarabelle “C.B.” Lansing is blown out of Aloha Flight 243, a Boeing 737, and falls to her death when part of the plane’s fuselage rips open in mid-flight.
1989 – Mobil announced that they were divesting from South Africa because congressional restrictions were too costly.
1989 – President Bush announced the U.S. and Japan had concluded a deal on joint development of a new Japanese jet fighter, the FSX, despite concerns that U.S. technology secrets would be given away.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Nothing Compares 2U” by Sinead O’Connor, “I Wanna Be Rich” by Calloway, “How Can We Be Lovers” by Michael Bolton and “Love on Arrival” by Dan Seals all topped the charts.
1990 – Boston Celtics score most points in a playoff, beat New York Knicks 157-128.
1990 – “Chorus Line” closes at Shubert Theater NYC after 6,137 performances (15 years).
1992 – Milwaukee Brewers beat Toronto Blue Jays 22-2 with American League record 31 hits in 9 innings.
1993 – The last A-6E Intruder departed from Marine Corps service. Marine All Weather Attack Squadron 332 transferred the last Marine A-6E to St. Augustine, Florida.
1993 – Secretary of Defense Les Aspin issues a directive allowing women to fly fighter aircraft in combat.
1993 – The first “Take Our Daughters to Work Day,” promoted by the New York City-based Ms. Foundation, was held to boost self-esteem of girls with invitations to a parent’s workplace.
1994 – Former C.I.A. official Aldrich Ames pleads guilty to giving U.S. secrets to the Soviet Union and later Russia.
1996 – Whitewater controversy: Bill Clinton gives a 4½ hour videotaped testimony for the defense.
1998 – The Arizona Supreme Court struck down as unconstitutional a voter-approved law requiring English be used in official state and local business.
1998 – In San Francisco, Supervisor Mabel Tang announced that the Boy Scouts of America will be barred from taking part in a city charity drive due to the groups stance against admitting gays.
1998 – Public Radio Inc. of San Francisco received a NEA grant for $185,000 to create “Lost and Found Sound: An American Record.” The project will produce a series of radio programs for NPR to chronicle, reflect and celebrate the 20th century.
2001 – First Tourist in Space Millionaire Dennis Tito of California, aged 60, 20 million dollars – seats still available.
2002 – Storms hit the Ohio and Tennessee valleys with tornadoes in Missouri and Maryland. At least six people were killed.
2003 – Operation Iraqi Freedom: US soldiers opened fire on Iraqis at a nighttime demonstration against the American presence there after people shot at them with automatic rifles.
2003 – An environmental group reported that chemical perchlorate, the explosive ingredient in rocket fuel, was found in samples of lettuce traced to growers in southern California or Arizona.
2003 – Apple Computer revealed a new online music store, entitled the iTunes Music Store. Each song can be downloaded for 99 cents and there is no subscription fee.
2003 – A Mexicana de Aviación jet is forced to land at San Francisco International Airport in California after the pilot accidentally sets off the anti-terror alarm.
2004 – CBS broadcast photos on “60 Minutes” showing US abuse of prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison.
2004 – In Iraq a series of explosions and gunfire rocked Fallujah in new fighting the day after a heavy battle in which U.S. warplanes and artillery pounded the city in a show of force against Sunni insurgents.
2005 – The Ivory-billed Woodpecker, long thought to be extinct, has been rediscovered in the “Big Woods” area of Arkansas.
2005 – A military jury at Fort Bragg, N.C., sentenced Sgt. Hasan Akbar to death for the murders of two officers in Kuwait that occurred in 2003 .
2006 – Storms battered eastern Texas with wind up to 100 mph and hail the size of baseballs.
2006 – Congressman John Conyers and others file a lawsuit (Conyers v. Bush) against President George W. Bush alleging a violation of the United States Constitution in the passing of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005.
2006 – Five members of the United States Congress are arrested outside the Sudanese embassy in Washington, D.C., for protesting the Darfur genocide.
Rep. Tom Lantos, D-Calif., a Holocaust survivor who founded the Congressional Human Rights Caucus, James McGovern, John Olver of Massachusetts, Sheila Jackson Lee of Texas and Jim Moran of Virginia. They were arrested on charges of disorderly conduct and unlawful assembly, a misdemeanor subject to a fine.
2008 – Tornadoes sweep through central and southeastern Virginia injuring more than 200 people and damaging multiple houses. The National Weather Service states that tornadoes hit Suffolk, Virginia, Colonial Heights, Virginia and Brunswick County, Virginia.The Governor of Virginia Timothy Kaine declares a state of emergency in southern Virginia.
2008 – The US Supreme Court upheld Indian’s voter-ID law, passed in 2005. It ruled that states can require voters to produce photo identification without violating their constitutional rights, validating Republican-inspired voter ID laws.
2008 – In Washington truck drivers honked horns, waved placards and shouted through bullhorns at the Capitol to protest rising fuel prices they say are hurting their livelihood.
2009 – The US Supreme Court upheld an FCC rule penalizing broadcasters for isolated utterances of expletives before 10 pm.
2009 – In California a charter bus carrying French tourists overturned near Soledad killing at least five people.
2009 – Senator Arlen Specter of Pennsylvania switches from the Republican to the Democratic Party.
2010 – The US Coast Guard plans a controlled burn to remove spilled oil in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster.
2010 – Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar approves Cape Wind, the nation’s first off-shore wind farm. It will be on Horseshoe Shoal in Nantucket Sound off Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
2011 – President Barack Obama nominates General David Petraeus, current head of the war on Afghanistan, as his new CIA chief, and names outgoing CIA chief Leon Panetta as head of The Pentagon. (BBC)
2011 – U.S. retail giant Wal-Mart vows increased sales of weapons, including rifles and shotguns.
2012 – One person dies and more than 110 are injured when a tent collapses at a restaurant near Busch Stadium in St. Louis, Missouri.
2013 -A man repeatedly stabs choir members at St. Jude Thaddeus Parish in Albuquerque, NM for being ‘fake preachers’”. Witnesses said the man charged the choir just after communion yelling and began stabbing. Four were injured with two being critical.
1758 – James Monroe, 5th President of the United States (d. 1831)
1819 – Ezra Abbot, American Bible scholar (d. 1884)
1838 – Tobias Michael Carel Asser, Dutch jurist, Nobel laureate (d. 1913)
1878 – Lionel Barrymore, American actor (d. 1954)
1916 – Ferruccio Lamborghini, Italian automobile manufacturer (d. 1993)
1928 – Eugene M. Shoemaker, American planetary scientist (d. 1997)
1930 – James Baker, American politician
1941 – Ann-Margret, Swedish-born actress
1950 – Jay Leno, American comedian and television host
1954 – Ron Zook, American Football Coach
1955 – Paul Guilfoyle, American actor
1960 – Joel H. Rosenthal American political scientist
1974 – Penélope Cruz, Spanish actress
NEGRON, JUAN E.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army. Place and date: Kalma-Eri, Korea, April 28th, 1951. Born: September 26, 1929, Corozal, Puerto Rico Entered Service at: Departed: Yes (3/29/1996)
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Sergeant Juan E. Negron distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a member of Company L, 65th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Kalma-Eri, Korea on April 28, 1951. That afternoon, Sergeant Negron took up the most vulnerable position on his company’s exposed right flank after an enemy force had overrun a section of the line. When notified that elements of his company were withdrawing, Sergeant Negron refused to leave his exposed position, instead delivering withering fire at hostile troops who had broken through a road block. When the hostile troops approached his position, Sergeant Negron accurately hurled hand grenades at short range, halting their attack. Sergeant Negron held the position throughout the night while friendly forces organized and launched a counterattack. The next morning, after the enemy had been repulsed, friendly forces relieved Sergeant Negron and found the bodies of fifteen enemy soldiers surrounding his position. Sergeant Negron’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company A, 6th Armored Infantry, 1st Armored Division. Place and date: Near MedjezelBab, Tunisia, April 28th, 1943. Entered service at: Carteret, N.J. Birth: Sedden, Poland. G.O. No.: 24, 25 March 1944. Citation: For distinguishing himself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the loss of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy on 28 April 1943, in the vicinity of MedjezelBab, Tunisia. When the advance of the assault elements of Company A was held up by flanking fire from an enemy machinegun nest, Pvt. Minue voluntarily, alone, and unhesitatingly, with complete disregard of his own welfare, charged the enemy entrenched position with fixed bayonet. Pvt. Minue assaulted the enemy under a withering machinegun and rifle fire, killing approximately 10 enemy machinegunners and riflemen. After completely destroying this position, Pvt. Minue continued forward, routing enemy riflemen from dugout positions until he was fatally wounded. The courage, fearlessness and aggressiveness displayed by Pvt. Minue in the face of inevitable death was unquestionably the factor that gave his company the offensive spirit that was necessary for advancing and driving the enemy from the entire sector.
RUIZ, ALEJANDRO R. RENTERIA
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 165th Infantry, 27th Infantry Division. Place and date: Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, April 28th,1945. Entered service at: Carlsbad, N. Mex. Birth: Loving, N. Mex. G.O. No.: 60, 26 June 1946. Citation: When his unit was stopped by a skillfully camouflaged enemy pillbox, he displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty. His squad, suddenly brought under a hail of machinegun fire and a vicious grenade attack, was pinned down. Jumping to his feet, Pfc. Ruiz seized an automatic rifle and lunged through the flying grenades and rifle and automatic fire for the top of the emplacement. When an enemy soldier charged him, his rifle jammed. Undaunted, Pfc. Ruiz whirled on his assailant and clubbed him down. Then he ran back through bullets and grenades, seized more ammunition and another automatic rifle, and again made for the pillbox. Enemy fire now was concentrated on him, but he charged on, miraculously reaching the position, and in plain view he climbed to the top. Leaping from one opening to another, he sent burst after burst into the pillbox, killing twelve of the enemy and completely destroying the position. Pfc. Ruiz’s heroic conduct, in the face of overwhelming odds, saved the lives of many comrades and eliminated an obstacle that long would have checked his unit’s advance.
HEYL, CHARLES H.
INDIAN WAR PERIOD
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 23d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Hartsuff, Nebr., April 28th, 1876. Entered service at: Camden, N.J. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 26 October 1897. Citation: Voluntarily, and with most conspicuous gallantry, charged with three men upon six Indians who were entrenched upon a hillside.
INDIAN WAR PERIOD
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 23d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Hartsuff, Nebr., April 28th, 1876. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 26 August 1876. Citation: Gallantry in charge on hostile Sioux.
LYTTON, JEPTHA L.
INDIAN WAR PERIOD
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 23d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Hartsuff, Nebr., April 28th,1876. Entered service at:——. Birth: Lawrence County, Ind. Date of issue: 26 August 1876. Citation: Gallantry in charge on hostile Sioux.
After becoming a New York Yankee, Babe’s transition to a full-time outfielder became complete. Babe dominated the game, amassing numbers that had never been seen. He changed baseball from a grind it out style to one of power and high scoring games. He re-wrote the record books from a hitting standpoint, combining a high batting average with unbelievable power. The result was an assault on baseball’s most hallowed records. In 1920, he bested the homerun record he set in 1919 by belting a staggering 54 homeruns, a season in which no other player hit more than 19 and only one team hit more that Babe did individually. But Babe wasn’t done, as his 1921 season may have been the greatest in MLB history. That season, he blasted a new record of 59 homeruns, drove in 171 RBI, scored 177 runs, batted .376 and had an unheard of .846 slugging percentage. Babe was officially a superstar and enjoyed a popularity never seen before in professional baseball. With Babe leading the way, the Yankees became the most recognizable and dominant team in baseball, setting attendance records along the way. When the Yankees moved to a new stadium in 1923, it was appropriately dubbed “The House that Ruth Built”. After joining the Yankees prior to the 1920 season, Babe helped the Yankees capture seven pennants and four World Series titles. The 1927 team is still considered by many to be the greatest in baseball history. Upon retiring from the Boston Braves in 1935, Babe held an astonishing 56 major league records at the time, including the most revered record in baseball… 714 homeruns.
In 1936, the Baseball Hall of Fame was inaugurated and Babe was elected as one of its first five inductees. During the fall of 1946, it was discovered that Babe had a malignant tumor on his neck, and his health began to deteriorate quickly. On June 13, 1948, his jersey number “3” was retired by the Yankees during his last appearance at Yankee Stadium. Babe lost his battle with cancer on August 16, 1948. His body lay in repose in Yankee Stadium, with his funeral two days later at St. Patrick’s Cathedral in New York. In all, over 100,000 people lined up and paid their respects to the Babe.
10 My son, if sinners entice thee, consent thou not. 11 If they say, Come with us, let us lay wait for blood, let us lurk privily for the innocent without cause:
12 Let us swallow them up alive as the grave; and whole, as those that go down into the pit:13 We shall find all precious substance, we shall fill our houses with spoil:14 Cast in thy lot among us; let us all have one purse:15 My son, walk not thou in the way with them; refrain thy foot from their path:16 For their feet run to evil, and make haste to shed blood.
” Our fates are in the hands of An Almighty God, to whom I can with pleasure confide my own; he can save us, or destroy us; his Councils are fixed and cannot be disappointed, and all his designs will be Accomplished.”
“When a defining moment comes along, you can do one of two things, define the moment or let the moment define you.”
~ Tin Cup
propinquity pruh-PING-kwih-tee, noun:
1. Nearness in place; proximity.
2. Nearness in time.
3.Nearness of relation; kinship.Propinquity derives from Latin propinquitas, from propinquus, near, neighboring, from prope, near.
4977 BC Johannes Kepler’s date for creation of universe.
1667 – The blind and impoverished, John Milton sells the copyright of Paradise Lost for £10.
1677 – Colonel Jeffreys became the governor of Virginia.
1773 – The Parliament of Great Britain passes the Tea Act, designed to save the British East India Company by granting it a monopoly on the North American tea trade.
1777 – Revolutionary War:The Battle of Ridgefield: An British invasion force engaged and defeated Continental Army regulars and militia irregulars at Ridgefield, Connecticut.
1805 – First Barbary War: United States Marines and Berbers attack the Tripolitan city of Derna (The “shores of Tripoli” part of the Marines’ hymn). Lt. Presley O’Bannon and seven Marines led the attack .
1813 – War of 1812: US troops capture the capital of Ontario, York (present day Toronto, Canada).
1813 – Zebulon Pike, discoverer of Pikes Peak, dies during a battle in the War of 1812 while leading an attack on British troops in Toronto.
1838 – Fire destroyed one-third of Charleston, SC. The fire broke out at 8:15 p.m. in a paint store, on the western side of King Street, corner of Beresford St. Over 1,000 homes were destroyed.
1859 – The Clipper ship U.S.S. “Pomona” sank in North Atlantic drowning all 400 aboard.
1860 – Thomas J Jackson (the future “Stonewall”) was assigned to command Harpers Ferry.
1861 – Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus which requires a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court.
1861 – Civil War: West Virginia seceded from Virginia after Virginia seceded from the Union during the Civil War.
1861 – Civil War: President Lincoln extended blockade of Confederacy to Virginia and North Carolina ports.
1861 – Civil War: US Secretary of the Navy Welles issued order for Union ships to seize Confederate privateers upon the high seas.
1862 – Civil War: Fort Livingston, Bastian Bay, Louisiana, surrendered to the Navy Boat crew from U.S.S. Kittatinny who raised the United States flag over the fort.
1863 – Civil War: The Army of the Potomac began marching on Chancellorsville.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Streight’s raid: Tuscumbia to Cedar Bluff, AL.
1864 – Civil War: Union gunboats under Rear Admiral Porter fought a running engagement with Confederate troops and artillery along the Red River as they attempted to reach Alexandria.
1865 – The New York State Senate creates Cornell University as the state’s land grant institution.
1865 – The steamboat Sultana, carrying 2,400 passengers, explodes and sinks in the Mississippi River, killing 1,700, most of whom were Union survivors of the Andersonville Prison.
1877 – President Rutherford B. Hayes removed Federal troops from Louisiana. Reconstruction ended.
1880 – The first U.S. patent for an electric hearing aid was issued to Francis D. Clarke and M.G. Foster, titled a Device for Aiding the Deaf to Hear (No. 226,902).
1886 – A band of Apaches led by Geronimo attacked a ranch west of Fort Huachuca and killed three American citizens.
1897 – Grant’s Tomb dedicated. The occasion was a full public holiday, Grant Day, and attracted a throng of spectators to rival Grant’s funeral nearly twelve years earlier.
1899 – The Western Golf Association was founded in Chicago, IL.
1903 – Jamaica Race Track opened in Long Island, NY.
1903 – The publication of W.E.B. DuBois’s “The Souls of Black Folk” crystallized opposition to Booker T. Washington’s program of social and political subordination.
1903 – Maggie L. Walker named president of Richmond’s St. Luke Bank and Trust Company and became the first African American woman to head a bank.
1911 – Following the resignation and death of William P. Frye, a compromise is reached to rotate the office of President pro tempore of the United States Senate.
1918 – The Battle of Ambos Nogales takes place between U.S. forces and Mexican Carrancistas aided by German military advisors.
1920 – Elijah McCoy “The Real McCoy” received a patent for an air brake pump lubricator.
1927 – Actress Mae West was released from jail after 10 days. She and the entire cast and producers of her Broadway play “Sex” had been thrown in jail. The 1926 Mae West comedy-drama “Sex” caused a scandal and police closed it down after 375 performances.
1933 – Karl Jansky reports reception of cosmic radio signal in Washington DC.
1935 – US Congress declared soil erosion “a national menace” in an act establishing the Soil Conservation Service in the Department of Agriculture.
1937 – The nation’s first Social Security checks were distributed. Ida May Fuller was the first American to receive a monthly benefit Social Security check. She received the check, amounting to $22.54, on January 31, 1940. first Social Security record , (055-09-0001) belonged to John D. Sweeney, Jr., age 23, of New Rochelle, New York.
1938 – Tommy Dorsey and his orchestra recorded “I Hadn’t Anyone ’til You” with Jack Leonard as vocalist.
1938 – A colored baseball was used for the first time in any baseball game. The ball was yellow and was used between Columbia and Fordham Universities in New York City.
1940 – Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler orders the construction of Auschwitz concentration camp.
1941 – World War II: German troops enter Athens.
1942 – World War II: The first convoys of Japanese detainees arrived at the Tanforan detention center south of San Francisco. They stayed there for 169 days and most were then transferred to Abraham, Utah.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: Belgium Jews were forced to wear stars.
1942 – Tornado destroyed Pryor, Oklahoma, killing 100 and injuring 300. The town was ultimately rebuilt.
1944 – World War II: Three American LST landing craft, conducting an invasion exercise (Exercise “Tiger”), are torpedoed by German E-boats in Lyme Bay. A total of 638 troops are killed. This incident is kept secret for fear of damaging Anglo-American relations. Lyme Bay is an area of the English Channel situated in the southwest of England between Torbay in the west and Portland in the east.
1944 – World War II: US troops occupy the main airstrip at Hollandia, New Guinea.
1944 – Dr. H. Corwin Hinshaw (d.2000) first treated four tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs with the newly developed streptomycin antibiotic. The animals were cured.
1945 – World War II: Forces of US 5th Army liberate Genoa, which is already substantially controlled by Italian partisan forces.
1945 – World War II: US forces capture Baguio, on Luzon. Fighting continues in the Bicol Peninsula.
1945 – World War II: A squadron of three cruisers and six destroyers, commanded by Admiral Berkey, make a preparatory bombardment of targets in the Tarakan area in the northeast of the island of Borneo.
1945 – World War II: Benito Mussolini is arrested by Italian partisans in Dongo, while attempting escape disguised as a German soldier.
1945 – World War II: The Völkischer Beobachter, the newspaper of the Nazi Party, ceases publication.
1946 – First radar installation aboard a commercial ship installed. The craft was the SS African Star. The SS African Star was a 6,507 gross ton freighter that was built in 1942 at Los Angeles, CA.
1947 – Babe Ruth Day celebrated at Yankee Stadium & through the US.
1947 – The first broadcast of “Studio One” on CBS radio was broadcast.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cruising Down the River” by The Blue Barron Orchestra (vocal: ensemble), “Forever and Ever” by Perry Como, “”A” You’re Adorable” by Perry Como and “Candy Kisses” by George Morgan all topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: Munsan fell to communist forces as the CCF (Chinese Communist Forces) Spring Offensive continued.
1953 – Korean War: Operation Moolah is initiated by General Mark W. Clark against Communist pilots.The U.S. offered $50,000 and political asylum to any Communist pilot that delivered a MIG jet.
1953 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed Executive Order 10450: Security Requirements for Government Employment. The order listed “sexual perversion” as a condition for firing a federal employee and for denying employment to potential applicants. Homosexuality, moral perversion, and communism were categorized as national security threats.
1956 – Heavyweight champion, Rocky Marciano, retires undefeated from boxing. He was credited with 43 knockouts.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley, “Little Darlin’” by The Diamonds, “Mama Look at Bubu” by Harry Belafonte and “Gone” by Ferlin Husky all topped the charts.
1959 – Lloyd Price’s song, “Personality“, was released.
1960 – First atomic powered electric-drive submarine launched. USS Tullibee was specially designed as a quiet hunter-killer for use in narrow waters. Tullibee, the second ship in the Navy to bear the name, it was the Navy’s first submarine to be equipped with the BQQ-2 Sonar system.
1961 – NFL officially recognizes Hall of Fame in Canton OH.
1963 – “I Will Follow Him” by Little Peggy March topped the charts.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Game of Love” by Wayne Fontana & The Mindbenders, “Mrs. Brown You’ve Got a Lovely Daughter” by Herman’s Hermits, “I Know a Place” by Petula Clark and “This is It” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1965 – RC Duncan patents “Pampers” disposable diaper.
1965 – Edward R. Murrow (b.1908), newscaster (Person to Person), died of cancer in Pawling, N.Y. He had filed his first radio broadcast from London during the WW II German air raids.
1966 – After a US Air Force B-57 became reported overdue, the US Coast Guard Eastern Area Commander commenced an intensive air search. The 2-day, large-scale, over water search for the missing aircraft, all of which was coordinated by the U.S. Coast Guard, unfortunately, yielded negative results.
1968 – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro topped the charts.
1968 – Simon & Garfunkel’s “Mrs. Robinson” was released.
1972 – Apollo 16 returned to Earth.
1972 – Vietnam: North Vietnamese troops shatter defenses north of Quang Tri and move to within three miles of the city. Using Russian-built tanks, they took Dong Ha, seven miles north of Quang Tri, the next day and continued to tighten their ring around Quang Tri
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree” by Dawn featuring Tony Orlando, “Sing” by Carpenters, “The Cisco Kid” by War, “Superman” by Donna Fargo all topped the charts.
1973 – Opryland opened in Nashville, TN.
1973 – Acting FBI Director L. Patrick Gray resigned after it was revealed that he had handed over bureau files on the Watergate burglary to the Nixon White House.
1974 – “TSOP” by MFSB featuring the Three Degrees topped the charts.
1974 – Ten thousand march in Washington, D.C., calling for impeachment of President Richard Nixon.
1975 – Vietnam: Saigon was encircled by North Vietnamese troops.
1978 – Former President Nixon aide John D. Ehrlichman is released from an Arizona prison after serving eighteen months for Watergate-related crimes.
1978 – In West Virginia fifty-one construction workers plunged to their deaths when a scaffold inside a cooling tower at the nuclear Pleasants Power Station on Willow Island fell 168 feet to the ground.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss on My List” by Daryl Hall & John Oates, “Morning Train (Nine to Five)” by Sheena Easton, “Being with You” by Smokey Robinson and “A Headache Tomorrow (Or a Heartache Tonight)” by Mickey Gilley all topped the charts.
1981 – First female soccer official is hired by the North American Soccer League (NASL).
1981 – Xerox PARC introduces the computer mouse.
1982 – The trial of John W. Hinckley Jr. began in Washington. Hinckley was later acquitted by reason of insanity for the shooting of U.S. President Reagan and three others.
1983 – Nolan Ryan becomes strikeout king (3509), passing Walter Johnson.
1985 – “We Are the World” by USA for Africa topped the charts.
1986 – A video pirate calling himself Captain Midnight (John R MacDougall) interrupts HBO.
1987 – The U.S. Justice Department bars the Austrian President Kurt Waldheim from entering the United States, saying he had aided in the deportation and execution of thousands of Jews and others as a German Army officer during World War II.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Like a Prayer” by Madonna, “Funky Cold Medina” by Tone Loc, “I’ll Be There for You” by Bon Jovi and “The Church on Cumberland Road” by Shenandoah all topped the charts.
1990 – Fiftieth annual barbershop quartet singing convention was held (Michigan).
1990 – The aperture door of the Hubble Space Telescope was opened by ground controllers as the space shuttle Discovery, which had carried the Hubble into orbit, prepared to return home.
1991 – “Baby Baby” by Amy Grant topped the charts.
1994 – President Richard Nixon buried in Nixon Library in California.
1996 – William Egan Colby (76), CIA Director, disappeared while canoeing near his waterfront home in southern Maryland. His body was found 8 days later.
1997 – A Texas militia group, called Republic of Texas, took two hostages at the Davis Mountain Resort community in a standoff with 300 police officers. They advocated independence for the state. The hostages were released later the next day in exchange for a jailed comrade.
1998 – A Pentagon panel said remains of the Vietnam veteran in the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington National Cemetery should be exhumed to determine whether they belonged to Air Force 1st Lt. Michael J. Blassie, as his family believed. The remains were later positively identified as Blassie’s.
1998 – In Arlington, Washington, a fire at a 90-year-old building, used as a home for the elderly, killed seven residents.
1999 – The US Pentagon announced a call for 33,102 reservists for active duty in Kosovo.
1999 – A week after the Columbine High School massacre, President Clinton called for new gun control measures, saying, “People’s lives are at stake here.”
1999 – Al Hirt, “The King of the Trumpet,” died in New Orleans at age 76. Samples: September Song, Rhapsody In Blue, and Begin the Beguine.
2001 – The US National Arbor Day Foundation announced that the oak tree was nominated as the national tree in its sponsored vote.
2002 – Ruth Handler (85), co-founder of Mattel and creator of the Barbie doll (1959), died.
2002 – In Laughlin, Nev., members of the Hells Angels clashed with members of the Mongol gang and 3 people were killed in a shootout at Harrah’s. Some 80,000 bikers were in town for the annual Laughlin River Run party.
2002 – The last successful telemetry from the NASA space probe Pioneer 10.
2002 – Derek Lowe (news ) of the Boston Red Sox pitched a no-hitter against the Tampa Bay Devil Rays, 10-0.
2003 – Pitcher Kevin Millwood of baseball team the Philadelphia Phillies, throws a no-hitter against the San Francisco Giants.
2004 – Iraq: U.S. troops fought gunbattles with militiamen overnight near the city of Najaf, killing 64 gunmen and destroying an anti-aircraft system belonging to the insurgents.
2005 – President Bush called for construction of more nuclear power plants and urged Congress to give tax breaks for fuel-efficient hybrid and clean-diesel cars.
2005 – The U.S. House of Representatives votes 406-20 to rescind controversial Republican ethics rules, in order to end a stalemate in the evenly-divided Ethics Committee since their introduction in January.
2005 – The A380, the world’s largest jetliner, completed its maiden flight. The passenger capability was 840. There do not appear to be any in use by US air carriers. Update 2012, it is still flying in US airspace but is NOT owned by US Air Carriers.
2006 – Alberto Gonzales, the US Attorney General, said police nationwide had arrested 9,037 people in a roundup of fugitives from April 17 to 23, including over 1,100 sex offenders.
2006 – Construction begins on the Freedom Tower for the new World Trade Center in New York City to be completed in 2012. The 1,776-foot tower is the centerpiece of the rebuilding effort.
2007 – Randall Tobias, head of the Bush administration’s foreign aid programs, abruptly resigned after his name surfaced in an investigation into a high-priced call-girl ring.
2007 – The US dollar slid to a record low against the euro. The worst economic growth in four years raised concern that troubles in the US housing market will spread and throw the country into a recession before the year is out.
2008 – In Arizona a truck jammed with as many as sixty illegal immigrants crashed near Arizona City killing four people.
2008 – It was made public that Mars Inc. of McLean, Va., together with Berkshire Hathaway had agreed to acquire Wrigley Co. of Chicago, Ill., for about $23 billion. The deal closed on Oct 6.
2009 – Still reeling from the World Trade Center destruction, a low-flying Boeing VC-25, Air Force One, causes momentary panic in New York City, New York.
2009 – General Motors Corp. said it will cut 21,000 US factory jobs by next year, phase out its storied Pontiac brand and ask the government to take more than half its stock in exchange for half of GM’s government debt as part of a major restructuring that would leave current shareholders holding just 1 percent of the company.
2009 -Five members of the US Congress were arrested while protesting the expulsion of aid groups from Darfur in front of the Sudanese Embassy in Washington, DC. The included Democratic Reps. Keith Ellison of Minnesota, Jim McGovern of Massachusetts, John Lewis of Georgia, Donna Edwards of Maryland and Lynn Woolsey of California.
2010 – A US Senate investigation finds that Goldman Sachs made billions of dollars at the expense of its clients during the collapse of the housing market.
2010 – The evangelical group Noah’s Ark Ministries International claims to have found a 4800 year old wood structure that they are “99.9 percent” certain is the remains of Noah’s Ark.
2011 – Extreme storms in Alabama cause the temporary closure of three Tennessee Valley Authority nuclear reactors and knocking out eleven high-voltage power lines.
2011 – At least 54 people have died in the storms of Tuesday and Wednesday with 40 people dead in Alabama, five in Mississippi and one in Arkansas.
2011 – Sony’s PlayStation Network remains offline after a worldwide security breach obtains 77 million of users’ personal information, making this the largest breach of personal information in history.
2013 – A Mississippi man has been arrested by federal agents in connection with the ricin-laced letters sent to President Obama and two other public officials. The suspect Everett Dutschke, 41, is a martial arts instructor. He was taken into custody by U.S. marshals at his home in Tupelo, Miss.
2013 – US Supreme Court Justice Stephen G. Breyer is taken to hospital by ambulance after he breaks his shoulder in a fall from his bicycle.
2015 – Young protesters in Baltimore, Maryland hurl rocks, bricks and bottles at police as tensions rise in the city over the death of Freddie Gray, who suffered a severe spinal cord injury after an arrest this month.
1718 – Thomas Lewis, Irish-born Virginia settler (d. 1790)
1724 – Col. Thomas Gardner, a heroic political figure and soldier (d. 1775)
1791 – Samuel F. B. Morse, American inventor (d. 1872)
1812 – William W. Snow, American politician (d. 1886)
1822 – Ulysses S. Grant, Civil War general and 18th President of the United States (d. 1885)
1894 – George Petty, WWII Pin-Up Artist (d. 1975)
1899 – Walter Lantz, American cartoonist (d. 1994)
1922 – Jack Klugman, American actor
1927 – Coretta Scott King, American civil rights activist and wife of Martin Luther King, Jr. (d. 2006)
1939 – Judy Carne, British actress and comedian.”Sock it to me” on Rowan & Martin’s “Laugh-in.”
1944 – Cuba Gooding, Sr., American musician (The Main Ingredient)
1948 – Frank William Abagnale, Jr., con artist turned security consultant.
1972 – David Lascher, American actor
Rank and organization: Coxwain, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Yokohama, Japan, April 27th, 1902. Entered service at: New York. Birth: New York. G.O. No.: 93, 7 July 1902. Citation: For heroism in rescuing Walenty Wisnieroski, Machinist Second Class, from drowning at Yokohama, Japan, 27 April 1902, while serving on board the U.S.S. Yorktown.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry. Place and date: At Rio Grande de la Pampanga, Luzon, Philippine Islands, April 27th, 1899. Entered service at: Iola, Kans. Birth: Springfield, Ohio. Date of issue: 14 February 1900. Citation: Crossed the river on a raft and by his skill and daring enabled the general commanding to carry the enemy’s entrenched position on the north bank of the river and to drive him with great loss from the important strategic position of Calumpit.
TREMBLEY, WILLIAM B.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry. Place and date: At Calumpit, Luzon, Philippine Islands, April 27th,1899. Entered service at: Kansas City, Kans. Birth: Johnson, Kans. Date of issue: 11 March 1902. Citation: Swam the Rio Grande de Pampanga in face of the enemy’s fire and fastened a rope to the occupied trenches, thereby enabling the crossing of the river and the driving of the enemy from his fortified position.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry. Place and date: At Calumpit, Luzon, Philippine Islands, April 27th,1899. Entered service at: Kansas City, Kans. Birth: Seneca, Kans. Date of issue: 11 March 1902. Citation: Swam the Rio Grande de Pampanga in face of the enemy’s fire and fastened a rope to occupied trenches, thereby enabling the crossing of the river and the driving of the enemy from his fortified position.
INTERIM 1871- 1898
Rank and organization: Captain of the Mizzen Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1844, New Orleans, La. Accredited to: Louisiana. Citation: For gallant conduct in jumping overboard from the U.S.S. Plymouth, at sea, and rescuing from drowning one of the crew of that vessel on April 27th, 1876.
BURRITT, WILLIAM W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 113th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., April 27th,1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Campbell, N.Y. Date of issue: 8 July 1896. Citation: Voluntarily acted as a fireman on a steam tug which ran the blockade and passed the batteries under a heavy fire.
The Richter Magnitude Scale
Seismic waves are the vibrations from earthquakes that travel through the Earth; they are recorded on instruments called seismographs. Seismographs record a zig-zag trace that shows the varying amplitude of ground oscillations beneath the instrument. Sensitive seismographs, which greatly magnify these groundmotions, can detect strong earthquakes from sources anywhere in the world. The time, location, and magnitude of an earthquake can be determined from the data recorded by seismograph stations.
The Richter magnitude scale was developed in 1935 by Charles F. Richter of the California Institute of Technology as a mathematical device to compare the size of earthquakes. The magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the amplitude of waves recorded by seismographs. Adjustments are included in the magnitude formula to compensate for the variation in the distance between the various seismographs and the epicenter of the earthquakes.
On the Richter Scale, magnitude is expressed in whole numbers and decimal fractions. For example, a magnitude of 5.3 might be computed for a moderate earthquake, and a strong earthquake might be rated as magnitude 6.3. Because of the logarithmic basis of the scale, each whole number increase in magnitude represents a tenfold increase in measured amplitude; as an estimate of energy, each whole number step in the magnitude scale corresponds to the release of about 31 times more energy than the amount associated with the preceding whole number value.
A majority of quakes register less than 3 on the Richter scale; these tremors, called microquakes, aren’t even felt by humans. Only a tiny portion — 15 or so of the 1.4 million quakes that register above 2.0 — register at 7 or above, which the threshold for a quake being considered major [source: USGS]. The biggest quake in recorded history was the 9.5 quake that struck Chile in 1960. It killed nearly 1,900 people and caused about $4 billion in damage in 2010 dollars [source: USGS]. Generally, you won’t see much damage from earthquakes that register below 4 on the Richter scale.
At first, the Richter Scale could be applied only to the records from instruments of identical manufacture. Now, instruments are carefully calibrated with respect to each other. Thus, magnitude can be computed from the record of any calibrated seismograph.
Great earthquakes, such as the 1964 Good Friday earthquake in Alaska, have magnitudes of 8.0 or higher. On the average, one earthquake of such size occurs somewhere in the world each year. Although the Richter Scale has no upper limit, the largest known shocks have had magnitudes in the 8.8 to 8.9 range. Recently, another scale called the moment magnitude scale has been devised for more precise study of great earthquakes.
Richter ratings only give you a rough idea of the actual impact of an earthquake, though. As we’ve seen, an earthquake’s destructive power varies depending on the composition of the ground in an area and the design and placement of man-made structures. The extent of damage is rated on the Mercalli scale. Mercalli ratings, which are given as Roman numerals, are based on largely subjective interpretations. A low intensity earthquake, one in which only some people feel the vibration and there is no significant property damage, is rated as a II. The highest rating, a XII, is applied to earthquakes in which structures are destroyed, the ground is cracked and other natural disasters, such as landslides or tsunamis, are initiated.
Deuteronomy 8 1599 Geneva Bible (GNV)
1 Ye shall keep all the commandments which I command thee this day, for [a]to do them: that ye may live, and be multiplied, and go in, and possess the land which the Lord sware unto your fathers. 2 And thou shalt remember all the way which the Lord thy God led thee this forty years in the wilderness, for to humble thee, and to [b]prove thee, to know what was in thine heart, whether thou wouldest keep his commandments or no.
3 Therefore he humbled thee, and made thee hungry, and fed thee with Manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know it, that he might teach thee that man lived not by bread only, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord, doth a man live. 4 Thy raiment waxed not old upon thee, neither did thy foot swell those forty years.
5 Know therefore in thine heart, that as a man nurtureth his son, so the Lord thy God nurtureth thee.
“Resistance to tyrants is obedience to God.”
“Be of good cheer. Do not think of today’s failures, but of the success that may come tomorrow. You have set yourselves a difficult task, but you will succeed if you persevere; and you will find joy in overcoming obstacles. Remember, no effort that we make to attain something beautiful is ever lost.”
~ Helen Keller
cogent \KOH-juhnt\, adjective:
Having the power to compel conviction; appealing to the mind or to reason; convincing.
Cogent derives from Latin cogere, “to drive together, to force,” from co-, “with, together” + agere, “to drive.”
1478 – Easter is celebrated for the first time.
1514 – Copernicus makes his first observations of Saturn.
1521 – Magellan was killed in a fight with natives on Mactan Island. Magellan named the Mariana Islands Islas de los Ladrones (Islands of Thieves), and was killed by natives on Cebu.
1564 – William Shakespeare was baptized. (Date of birth unknown)
1607 – English colonists of the Jamestown settlement make landfall at Cape Henry, Virginia. They found “fair meadows and goodly tall trees, with such fresh waters running through the woods.”
1655 – Dutch West Indies Co. denied Peter Stuyvesant’s desire to exclude Jews from New Amsterdam.
1717 – Pirate Black Sam Bellamy died along with 143 others when their ship, the Whydah, sank off of Wellfleet, Cape Cod.
1777 – Sybil Ludington, daughter of Col. Henry Ludington, rode from NY to Ct rallying her father’s militia to the approach of enemy troops. Her action was similar to that performed by Paul Revere, though she rode more than twice the distance of Revere and was only 16 years old at the time of her action.
1805 – United States Marines captured Derne, Tripoli under the command of First Lieutenant Presley O’Bannon.
1819 – The first Odd Fellows lodge in the U.S. was established in Baltimore, MD. The family of Oddfellowship, composed of Men, Women, and Youth, believing in a supreme being, the creator and preserver of the universe, who have come together in our local communities having the same beliefs and values as others, that; Friendship, Love and Truth are the basic guidelines that we need to follow in our daily lives.
1844 – African American pioneer Jim Beckwourth discovered a path through the Sierra Nevada Mountains that now bear his name. Beckwourth Pass on U.S. Alt 40 between Reno, Nevada and Sacramento, California made overland travel to the gold fields of California possible.
1856 – The Nataqua Territory was formed in the area between California and Utah. It was formed as a tax dodge and was led by Peter Lassen and Isaac Roop.
1862 – Civil War: Fort Macon, North Carolina, surrendered to combined land-sea forces under Commander Lockwood and Brigadier General John G. Parke. U.S.S. Daylight, State of Georgia, Chippewa, and Gemsbok heavily bombarded the fort.
1865 – Civil War: Confederate General Joseph Johnston surrenders his army to General William Tecumseh Sherman at the Bennett Place near Durham, North Carolina.
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Ft. Tobacco, VA.
1865 – Civil War: Union cavalry troopers corner and shoot dead John Wilkes Booth, President Lincoln’s assassin, at John M. Garrett’s farm three miles outside Port Royal, Virginia in a burning tobacco barn.
1881 – Frederick Allen patented a life raft.
1892 – Sarah Boone patented an ironing board. Boone’s ironing board was made of a narrow wooden board, with collapsible legs and a padded cover and was specifically designed for the fitted clothing worn during that time period, particularly the sleeves and bodices of ladies’ garments.
1898 – African American J.A. Joyce received Patent No. 603,143 for a new and inovate Coal or Ore Bucket.
1906 – In Hawaii, motion pictures were shown for the first time.
1912 – Hugh Bradley of the Red Sox hit the first homerun at Fenway Park.
1921 – Weather broadcasts were heard for the first time on St. Louis radio station WEW.
1931 – “Lum and Abner” debuts on NBC radio. This team delighted radio audiences for the next 25 years.
1931 – New York Yankee Lou Gehrig hit a home run but was called out for passing a runner.
1932 – Ed Wynn was heard on radio’s “Texaco Star Theater”. Wynn, a popular vaudeville performer, demanded a live audience to react to his humor if he was to make the switch to radio.
1933 – The Gestapo, the official secret police force of Nazi Germany, is established.
1933 – Jewish students were barred from school in Germany.
1937 – LIFE magazine’s name left off its front page.
1937 – “Lorenzo Jones” (12:32) premiered on NBC radio.
1938 – Austrian Jews required to register property above 5,000 Reichsmarks.
1941 – A tradition begins, first organ at a baseball stadium. The Chicago Cubs were the first team to install an organ with Roy Nelson at the keyboard.
1943 – World War II: Admiral McMorris bombards the Japanese held harbors on Attu Island in the Aleutians.
1943 – World War II:New plans are approved for the Solomon Islands operations, code named “Cartwheel”.
1944 – World War II:First B-29 attacked by Japanese fighters, one fighter shot down.
1945 – World War II: Marshal Henri Philippe Petain, the head of France’s Vichy government was arrested.
1945 – World War II: Battle of Bautzen – last successful German tank-offensive of the war and last noteworthy victory of the Wehrmacht.
1946 – Father Divine, a controversial religious leader who claims to be God, marries the much-younger Edna Rose Ritchings, a celebrated anniversary in the International Peace Mission movement.
1946 – The Naperville train disaster occurred at the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad station in Naperville, Illinois. The wreck occurred when the railroad’s Exposition Flyer rammed into the Advance Flyer, which had made an unscheduled stop to check its running gear. The Exposition Flyer had been coming through on the same track at 85 miles per hour). Forty-seven people died, and approximately 125 were injured.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Now is the Hour” by Bing Crosby, “Manana” by Peggy Lee, “The Dickey Bird Song” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Glenn Hughes) and “Anytime” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 – The XP-86 prototype for the Sabre Jet first “officially” breaks the sound barrier.
1952 – Korean War : Air Force Major William H. Wescott, 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, scored his fifth aerial victory to become the 12th ace of the Korean War.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1952 – US minesweeper “Hobson” rammed the aircraft carrier “Wasp,” and 176 were killed when the minesweeper sank.
1952 – Patty Berg set a new record for major women’s golf competition when she shot a 64 over 18 holes in a tournament in Richmond, CA.
1954 – Nationwide test of Salk anti-polio vaccine begins. It was announced on April 12th, 1955 that it had been successful. It was the tenth anniversary of FDR’s death.
1954 – Grace Kelly was seen on the cover of “LIFE” magazine.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Heartbreak Hotel/I Was the One” by Elvis Presley, “The Poor People of Paris” by Les Baxter, “Ivory Tower” by Cathy Carr and “Blue Suede Shoes” by Carl Perkins all topped the charts.
1956 -The SS Ideal X, the world’s first successful container ship, leaves Port Newark, New Jersey for Houston, Texas.
1958 – “Twilight Time” by the Platters topped the charts.
1958 – Final run of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad’s Royal Blue from Washington, D.C., to New York City after 68 years, the first U.S. passenger train to use electric locomotives.
1961 – Roger Maris hits first of 61 homers in 1961.
1962 – NASA’s Ranger 4 spacecraft crashes into the Moon.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “Can’t Buy Me Love” by The Beatles, “Twist and Shout” by The Beatles, “Do You Want to Know a Secret” by The Beatles and “Understand Your Man” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1964 – NBA CHAMPIONSHIP – 18th NBA Championship Boston Celtics beat San Francisco Warriors, 4 games to 1.
1966 – Arnold “Red” Auerbach retires as Boston Celtic’s coach. Just three years after Bob Cousy.
1968 – United States exploded a one-megaton nuclear device called “Boxcar” beneath the Nevada desert.
1968 – Students seized the administration building at Ohio State University.
1969 – “Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In” by 5th Dimension topped the charts.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face” – Roberta Flack, “Rockin’ Robin” by Michael Jackson, “I Gotcha” by Joe Tex and “Chantilly Lace” by Jerry Lee Lewis all topped the charts.
1973 – The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) was founded.
1975 – “(Hey Won’t You Play) Another Somebody Done Somebody Wrong Song” by B. J. Thomas topped the charts.
1976 – Pan Am began non-stop flights between NYC and Tokyo.
1977 – NY’s famed disco Studio 54 opened. It closed in March, 1986.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Call Me” by Blondie, “Ride like the Wind” by Christopher Cross, “With You I’m Born Again” by Billy Preston & Syreeta and “A Lesson in Leavin’” by Dottie West all topped the charts.
1980 – Following an unsuccessful attempt on April 24th by the United States to rescue our Embassy hostages in Iran, the Tehran government announced that captives were being scattered to thwart any future effort.
1981 – Dr. Michael R. Harrison of the University of California, San Francisco Medical Center performs the world’s first human open fetal surgery.
1983 – Dow Jones Industrial Average broke 1,200 for first time.
1984 – President Reagan arrived in China for the start of a six-day visit.
1986 – The world’s worst nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl plant in the Soviet Union. An explosion and fire in the No. 4 reactor sent radioactivity into the atmosphere; at least 31 Soviets died immediately.
1986 – “Kiss” by Prince & the Revolution topped the charts.
1987 – Tennis star Chris Evert won her 150th career tennis tournament. She beat Martina Navratilova in Houston, TX.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Where Do Broken Hearts Go” by Whitney Houston, “Devil Inside” by INXS, “Wishing Well” by Terence Trent D’Arby and “I’ll Always Come Back” by K.T. Oslin all topped the charts.
1988 – NBA approves addition of a third referee in the 1988-89 season.
1989 – Lucille Ball (b.1911), Actress-comedian and star of I Love Lucy, died at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles at age 77.
1991 – Seventy tornadoes break out in the central US. Before the outbreak’s end, Andover, Kansas, would record the year’s only F5 tornado.
1991 – Maryann Bishop Coffey is named the first woman and the first African American co-chair of the National Conference of Christians and Jews.
1993 – Conan O’Brien was named to succeed David Letterman as host of NBC’s “Late Night” program.
1994 – Physicists announce first evidence of the top quark subatomic particle.
1995 – The US Supreme Court led by Chief Justice William Rehnquist overturned a federal law banning gun possession near schools on the grounds that it was beyond the scope of congress power to regulate interstate commerce.
1996 – The Effingham Baptist Church in Effingham, S.C., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1998 – Bubba Blackwell began his career when he jumped 20 cars in Everett, Massachusetts, breaking the 19 car record held by Evel Knievel.
1999 – Detroit and Wayne County filed suits for over $800 million against 35 manufacturers, distributors and sellers of firearms.
1999 – The FDA approved an obesity drug, Xenical from Roche Holdings, that works by absorbing body fat.
2000 – Vermont Governor Howard Dean signed the nation’s first bill allowing same-sex couples to form civil unions.
2001 – A US federal judge ruled that military exercises could resume on Vieques Island. Puerto Ricans mobilized for mass demonstrations.
2001 – A group led by Larry Silverstein, a NYC developer, and Westfield America Inc., signed a 99-year lease on the 11-million square-foot WTC complex from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
2003 – Charlton Heston (78), diagnosed with symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, made his last appearance as president of the National Rifle Association during a convention in Orlando, Fla., where he briefly thanked the membership.
2003 – Hiker and mountain climber Aron Ralston is stuck for five days in Blue John Canyon after an 800 pound rock falls on his right arm, pinning it to the canyon wall. He was forced to amputate his own right forearm with a multi-tool after it became trapped by that boulder.
2004 – The US unveiled a new $50 bill to make counterfeiting more difficult. The new or upgraded security features of the $50 note include a watermark, security thread and color-shifting ink. The design also features shades of red, white and blue.
2004 – Nick Holonyak Jr., inventor of the light-emitting diode (LED), receives the 10th annual Lemelson-MIT Prize, awarded to prominent inventors by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
2005 – US Congressional aides said global terrorist attacks rose to 650 in 2004 from 175 in 2003.
2005 – A federal jury in Virginia convicted Islamic scholar Ali al-Timini of urging followers to join the Taliban and fight the US after the 9/11 attacks.
2007 – The Dow-Jones Industrial Average rose 15.61 to a record 13,105.50. Nasdaq rose 6.57 to 2,554.
2007 – New Hampshire became “…the first state to embrace same-sex unions without a court order or the threat of one.”
2008 – Eos Airlines, a business-class carrier launched in 2005, filed for bankruptcy. It ceased operations the next day.
2008 – A wildfire broke out in southern California, 10 miles northeast of Pasadena. Officials the next day said that it has scorched 270 acres and forced the evacuation of about 100 homes in neighborhoods might not be under control for days.
2009 – The United States declares a public health emergency over the outbreak of swine influenza.
2010 – Robotic submarines attempt to stop leaking oil in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion.
2010 – By a 6-5 margin, a United States federal appeals court rules that a sex-discrimination lawsuit, the largest employment discrimination case in history, against Wal-Mart can continue.
2010 – The US Supreme Court agrees to hear a case challenging laws that forbid the selling of violent video games to minors.
2011 – U.S. television personality Katie Couric announces that she will no longer host the CBS Evening News at the end of June.
2011 – Thousands of residents in Poplar Bluff, Missouri are evacuated as the Black River overflows its banks.
2011 – President Barack Obama is criticized by supporters of U.S. serviceman Bradley Manning for interfering in any future trial after Obama is caught on camera accusing Manning of breaking the law.
2012 – The National Football League draft begins in New York City’s Radio City Music Hall, with quarterbacks Andrew Luck and Robert Griffin III the first two players chosen.
2013 – Boston Marathon bombings suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev is transferred from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center to the federal prison facility in Fort Devens, Massachusetts.
2013 – Country music singer George Jones dies at the age of 81.
2014 – A dangerous storm system that spawned a chain of deadly tornadoes over three days flattened homes and businesses. As the storm moved across a large swath of the U.S., the overall death toll was more than 30, in a band stretching from Oklahoma to Alabama.
121 – Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor (d. 180).
570 – Muhammed, founder of Islam, according to the Shi’a sect. Other sources suggest April 20.
1564 – William Shakespeare, English poet and playwright (d. 1616)
1718 – Esek Hopkins, American Revolutionary War admiral (d. 1802)
1785 – John James Audubon, French-American naturalist and illustrator (d. 1851) 1804 – Charles Goodyear, American politician (d. 1876)
1826 – George Hull Ward, American general (d. 1863)
1826 – Ambrose R. Wright, American CIVIL WAR General (d. 1872)
1900 – Charles Richter, American geophysicist (d. 1985)
1933 – Carol Burnett, American comedian
1961 – Anthony Cumia, American radio personality (The Opie and Anthony Show)
*ESTOCIN, MICHAEL J.
Rank and organization: Captain (then Lt. Cmdr.), U.S. Navy, Attack Squadron 192, USS Ticonderoga (CVA-14). Place and date: Haiphong, North Vietnam, 20th and April 26th, 1967. Entered service at: Akron Ohio, 2() July 1954. Born: 27 April 1931, Turtle Creek, Pa. Citation. For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on 20 and 26 April 1967. He was a pilot in Attack Squadron 192, embarked in USS Ticonderoga (CVA-14). Leading a three-plane group of aircraft in support of a coordinated strike against two thermal power plants in Haiphong, North Vietnam, on 20 April 1967, Capt. Estocin provided continuous warnings to the strike group leaders of the surface-to-air missile (SAM) threats, and personally neutralized three SAM sites. Although his aircraft was severely damaged by an exploding missile, he reentered the target area and relentlessly prosecuted a SHRIKE attack in the face of intense antiaircraft fire. With less than five minutes of fuel remaining he departed the target area and commenced in-flight refueling which continued for over one-hundred miles. Three miles aft of Ticonderoga, and without enough fuel for a second approach, he disengaged from the tanker and executed a precise approach to a fiery, arrested landing. On 26 April 1967, in support of a coordinated strike against the vital fuel facilities in Haiphong, he led an attack on a threatening SAM site, during which his aircraft was seriously damaged by an exploding SAM; nevertheless, he regained control of his burning aircraft and courageously launched his SHRIKE missiles before departing the area. By his inspiring courage and unswerving devotion to duty in the face of grave personal danger, Captain Estocin upheld the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
*DUKE, RAY E.
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 21st Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Mugok, Korea, April 26th, 1951. Entered service at: Whitwell (Marion County), Tenn. Born: 9 May 1923, Whitwell, Tenn. G.O. No.: 20, 19 March 1954. Citation: Sfc. Duke, a member of Company C, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. Upon learning that several of his men were isolated and heavily engaged in an area yielded by his platoon when ordered to withdraw, he led a small force in a daring assault which recovered the position and the beleaguered men. Another enemy attack in strength resulted in numerous casualties but Sfc. Duke, although wounded by mortar fragments, calmly moved along his platoon line to coordinate fields of fire and to urge his men to hold firm in the bitter encounter. Wounded a second time he received first aid and returned to his position. When the enemy again attacked shortly after dawn, despite his wounds, Sfc. Duke repeatedly braved withering fire to insure maximum defense of each position. Threatened with annihilation and with mounting casualties, the platoon was again ordered to withdraw when Sfc. Duke was wounded a third time in both legs and was unable to walk. Realizing that he was impeding the progress of two comrades who were carrying him from the hill, he urged them to leave him and seek safety. He was last seen pouring devastating fire into the ranks of the onrushing assailants. The consummate courage, superb leadership, and heroic actions of Sfc. Duke, displayed during intensive action against overwhelming odds, reflect the highest credit upon himself, the infantry, and the U.S. Army.
|SHELTON, GEORGE M.
Rank and organization: Private, Company 1, 23d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At La Paz, Leyte, Philippine Islands, April 26th, 1900. Entered service at: Bellington, Tex. Birth: Brownwood, Tex. Date of issue: 10 March 1902. Citation: Advanced alone under heavy fire of the enemy and rescued a wounded comrade.
|CODY, WILLIAM F.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank: Civilian Scout. Born: Scott County, Iowa. Organization: 3rd Cavalry U.S. Army. Place and Date: Platte River, Nebraska April 26th, 1872. Citation: Gallantry in action.
(In 1916, the general review of all Medals of Honor deemed 900 unwarranted. This recipient was one of them. In June 1989, the U.S. Army Board of Correction of Records restored the medal to this recipient.)
This man was later known as “Buffalo Bill”
|FOLEY, JOHN H.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Loupe Fork, Platte River, Nebr., April 26th, 1872. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 22 May 1872. Citation: Gallantry in action.
|STRAYER, WILLIAM H.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Loupe Forke, Platte River, Nebr., April 26th, 1872. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Maytown, Pa. Date of issue: 22 May 1872. Citation: Gallantry in action.
|VOKES, LEROY H.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company B, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Loupe Fork, Platte River, Nebr., April 26th, 1872. Entered service at:——. Birth: Lake County, Ill. Date of issue: 22 May 1872. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1832, Ireland. Accredited to: New York G.O. No.: 62, 29 June 1865. Citation: Served as quartermaster on Acting Rear Admiral Thatcher’s staff. During the terrific fire at Mobile, on April 26th, 1865, at the risk of being blown to pieces by exploding shells, Cooper advanced through the burning locality, rescued a wounded man from certain death, and bore him on his back to a place of safety.
Administrative Professionals Day
Red Hat Society
“The Red Hat Society began as a result of a few women deciding to greet middle age with verve, humor and elan. We believe silliness is the comedy relief of life, and since we are all in it together, we might as well join red-gloved hands and go for the gusto together. Underneath the frivolity, we share a bond of affection, forged by common life experiences and a genuine enthusiasm for wherever life takes us next.”– Sue Ellen Cooper,
Oh! there is danger in thrift stores and at yard sales but sometimes, yes, sometimes some really good ideas happen. The story behind the Red Hat Society goes something like this: While visiting a friend in Tucson, Sue Ellen Cooper impulsively bought a bright red fedora at a thrift shop and for no other reason than that it was cheap, she thought it was quite dashing. A year or two later she read the poem “Warning” by Jenny Joseph, which depicts an older woman in purple clothing with a red hat. Sue Ellen felt an immediate kinship with Ms. Joseph. She decided that her birthday gift to her dear friend, Linda Murphy, would be a vintage red hat and a copy of the poem. She has always enjoyed whimsical decorating ideas, so she thought the hat would look nice hanging on a hook next to the framed poem. Linda got so much enjoyment out of the hat and the poem that Sue Ellen gave the same gift to another friend, then another, then another.
One day it occurred to these friends that they were becoming a sort of “Red Hat Society” and that perhaps they should go out to tea… in full regalia. They decided they would find purple dresses which didn’t go with their red hats to complete the poem’s image.
The tea was a smashing success.
Soon, each of them thought of another woman or two she wanted to include, and they bought more red hats. Their group swelled to 18, and they began to encourage other interested people to start their own chapters (18 women don’t fit well around a tea table). One of their members passed along the idea to a friend of hers in Florida, and their first “sibling” group was born.
Sue Ellen’s fondest hope is that these societies will proliferate far and wide. We have now held three successful Red Hat Society conventions entire hotels filled with women of a certain age wearing red hats and purple outfits! Could world domination be far behind?
If you access from here, please tell them you heard about them from Unerased History!!
2 Corinthians 4:8-11 King James Version (KJV)
8 We are troubled on every side, yet not distressed; we are perplexed, but not in despair; 9 Persecuted, but not forsaken; cast down, but not destroyed; 10 Always bearing about in the body the dying of the Lord Jesus, that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our body. 11 For we which live are always delivered unto death for Jesus’ sake, that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our mortal flesh.
“A wise and frugal government, which shall restrain men from injuring one another, which shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned. This is the sum of good government, and this is necessary to close the circle of our felicity.”
Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address.
“Only as high as I reach, can I grow, only as far as I seek can I go, only as deep as I look can I see, only as much as I dream can I be.”
~ Karen Ravn
absquatulate (ab-SKWOCH-uh-layt) verb intransitive
To leave in a hurry; to flee.
A Mock-Latinate formation, from ab- (away) + squat + -ulate (as in congratulate). First cited from the late 1830s.
1507 – Martin Waldseemuller, a German geographer working at a small college in Eastern France, labeled the New World “America,” for the first time in his book “Cosmographiae Introductio,” and gave Amerigo Vespucci (d.1512) credit for discovering it.
1684 – A patent was granted for the thimble. The earliest known thimble was Roman and was found at Pompeii. This was the first patent.
1719 – Daniel Defoes publishes “Robinson Crusoe.”
1781 – Gen. Nathanael Greene engaged British forces at Hobkirk’s Hill, South Carolina, and was forced to retreat.
1792 – Highwayman Nicolas J. Pelletier becomes the first person under French law executed by guillotine.
1819 – The Revenue cutter Active captured the pirate vessel Irresistible in the Chesapeake Bay.
1831 – The New York and Harlem Railway was incorporated in New York City.
1846 – The Mexican-American War ignited as a result of disputes over claims to Texas boundaries. It was called the Thornton Affair. The outcome of the war fixed Texas’ southern boundary at the Rio Grande River.
1847 – The last survivors of the Donner Party are out of the wilderness.
1854 – The Gadsden Purchase was ratified in the US.
1860 – The first Japanese ambassador to the US, Niimi Buzennokami, and his 74-man staff arrived in Washington to present their credentials to President James Buchanan.
1861 – Civil War: The Union Army arrives in Washington, D.C.
1862 – Civil War: Forces under Union Admiral David Farragut capture the Confederate city of New Orleans, Louisiana.
1864 – Civil War: The Battle of Marks’ Mills.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate force captures a Union wagon train trying to supply the Federal force at Camden, Arkansas.
1864 – Civil War: After facing defeat in the Red River Campaign, Union General Nathaniel Bank returned to Alexandria, LA.
1865 – Four of the five Lincoln assassination suspects arrested on the 17th were imprisoned on the monitors U.S.S. Montauk and Saugus which had been prepared for this purpose on the 15th and were anchored off the Washington Navy Yard in the Anacostia River.
1873 – The Beaumaris Castle, an English sailing ship was shipwrecked on the Mills Breakers in the Bermuda coral reefs.
1876 – The first major league team in Chicago was the Cubs, who played in the inaugural National League season of 1876 and were known as the White Stockings at that time.
1891 – President Benjamin Harrison visited San Francisco. This was just 41 years after it became a city.
1896 – A fight at the Central Dance Hall in the red light district knocked over a kerosene lamp and started a fire that burned down a good part of Cripple Creek, CO.
1896 – In Kansas a tornado swept through several counties killing at least nine people in Clay County. Twenty-seven farms were destroyed.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The U.S. Congress recognizes that a state of war exists between the United States and Spain as of this date. Spain had declared war on the U.S. on the 24th.
1901 – New York becomes the first U.S. state to require automobile license plates. The “fee” was $1 and the motorists was required to make their own.
1901 – In last of 9th, Detroit Tigers, trailing by 13-4, score 10 runs to win one of the greatest comebacks in baseball (1st game in Detroit).
1913 – The formal charter of the Marine Corps Association was established.
1914 – First combat observation mission by Navy plane, at Veracruz, Mexico.
1928 – Buddy, a German Shepherd, becomes first guide dog for the blind. He was originally trained in Switzerland, then he was placed with Morris Frank in the United States.
1933 – US & Canada drop Gold Standard. The use of gold came to an end in 1933 when President Franklin D. Roosevelt outlawed private gold ownership (except for the purposes of jewelry).
1938 – U.S. Supreme Court delivers opinion in Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins and overturns almost a century of federal civil procedure case law, and established the foundation of what remains the modern law of diversity jurisdiction as it applies to United States federal courts.
1938 – “Your Family and Mine,” a radio serial, was first broadcast.
1939 – DC Comics publishes its second major superhero in Detective Comics #27; he is Batman.
1940 – W2XBS (now WCBS-TV) in New York City presented the first circus on TV.
1943 – World War II: American bombers raid an airfield around Bari, Italy in the south.
1944 – The United Negro College Fund is incorporated.
1945 – World War II : Elbe Day: United States and Russian troops meet in Torgau along the River Elbe, cutting the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany in two, a milestone in the approaching end of World War II in Europe.
1945 – World War II: The Nazi occupation army leaves Northern Italy after a general partisan insurrection by the Italian resistance movement. This day is taken as symbolic of the Liberation of Italy.
1945 – World War II: Soviet forces complete the encirclement of Berlin near Ketzin.
1945 – World War II: American planes strike Skoda Works near Pilsen, Czechoslovakia.
1945 – World War II: Last B-17 attack against Nazi Germany.
1946 – Jimmie Lunceford Orchestra recorded “Cement Mixer” for Majestic records.
1946 – A train crash at Naperville, Illinois, killed 45-48 and injured 125 people. The “Exposition Flyer” rammed into the “Advance Flyer”, which had made an unscheduled stop to check its running gear.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Heartaches” by The Ted Weems Orchestra (whistler: Elmo Tanner), “The Anniversary Song” by Dinah Shore, “Linda” by Buddy Clark with the Ray Noble Orchestra and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1950 – Chuck Cooper becomes the first Black to play in the NBA. The 6’5″ Cooper attended Duquesne University and was one of the first Black All-Americans. Cooper broke the color barrier in the National Basketball Association (NBA) by being drafted by the Boston Celtics.
1951 – Korean War: Eighth Army was pushed back twenty miles. The volunteer battalion from Belgium and Luxembourg was cut off but fought its way to safety after a 20-hour siege. Members of the battalion had high praise for the support provided by U.S. Marine Corsairs.
1952 – Korean War: After a three-day fight against Chinese Communist Forces, the Gloucestershire Regiment was annihilated on “Gloucester Hill,” in Korea. The regiment was awarded the South Korean Distinguished Unit Citation and United States Distinguished Unit Citation, the regiment gained the nickname “The Glorious Glosters”, for its heroic last stand against overwhelming Chinese forces.
1952 – American Bowling Congress approves use of an automatic pinsetter.
1953 – “The Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1953 – NBC-TV presented “Ethel and Albert“, the video version of the popular radio show. Peg Lynch and Alan Bunce starred in the program. Ethel & Albert – Duck Hunting.
1953 – U.S. Senator Wayne Morse ended the longest speech in U.S. Senate history. The speech on the Offshore Oil Bill lasted 22 hours and 26 minutes.
1953 – Francis Crick and James D. Watson identify DNA They publish “Molecular structure of nucleic acids: a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid” describing the double helix structure of DNA.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes, “Unchained Melody” by Les Baxter, “Unchained Melody” by Al Hibler and “In the Jailhouse Now” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1955 – The first cases of polio in children who received a vaccine were reported. It was later found that two batches of vaccine made by Cutter Laboratories of Berkeley, Ca., contained live polio virus.
1956 – John W. Powell (1919-2008), former editor of the China Weekly Review, was indicted by a federal grand jury in San Francisco on charges of sedition. Powell had published articles about alleged military use of germ warfare during the Korean War.
1957 – The Santa Susana Sodium Reactor Experimental (SRE) was a small sodium-cooled experimental reactor built by Southern California Edison and Atomics International at Santa Susana, near Moorpark in Ventura County. The reactor operated from 1957 to 1964.
1959 – The St. Lawrence Seaway, linking the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean, officially opens to shipping. The official opening ceremonies were held three months later on June 26th in presence of Queen Elizabeth II (representing Canada) and President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
1959 “Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods topped the charts.
1960 “Stuck on You” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1960 – Consent judgment in Memphis federal court ended restrictions barring voters in Fayette County, Tennessee. This was the first voting rights case under the Civil Rights Act.
1960 – The U.S. Navy submarine USS Triton completes the first submerged circumnavigation of the globe.
1961 – Elvis Presley made his last stage appearance for nearly eight years at Bloch Arena, HI.
1961 – Robert Noyce is granted a patent for an integrated circuit.
1961 – Mercury-Atlas rocket lifted off with an electronic mannequin. An unmanned Mercury test exploded on launch pad.
1962 – The U.S. spacecraft, Ranger, crashed on the Moon.
1962 – Operation Dominic began with a test blast on Christmas Island. The operation was a series of 105 nuclear test explosions conducted in 1962 and 1963 by the United States.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “He’s So Fine” by The Chiffons, “Can’t Get Used to Losing You” by Andy Williams, “I Will Follow Him” by Little Peggy March and “Still” by Bill Anderson all topped the charts.
1964 – “Can’t Buy Me Love” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1965 – MASS SHOOTING: Teenage sniper Michael Andrew Clark kills three and wounds six others shooting from a hilltop along Highway 101 just south of Santa Maria, California.
1967 – Colorado Governor John Love signed the first law legalizing abortion in the U.S. The law was limited to therapeutic abortions when agreed to, unanimously, by a panel of three physicians.
1970 – The band Pacific Gas and Electric was shot at while leaving a club in Raleigh, NC.
1970 – “ABC” by the Jackson 5 topped the charts.
1970 – Freda Payne releases “Band of Gold“.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Joy to the World” by Three Dog Night, “Put Your Hand in the Hand” by Ocean, “Never Can Say Goodbye” by The Jackson 5 and “Empty Arms” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1972 – Major General Frederick E. Davidson first African American to lead an Army division.
1972 – Vietnam War: Nguyen Hue Offensive – The North Vietnamese 320th Division forces 5,000 South Vietnamese troops to retreat and traps about 2,500 others northwest of Kontum.
1973 – “The Sweet”, received a gold record for the hit “Little Willy“.
1974 – NFL moves the goal posts & adopts sudden-death playoff.
1976 – Cub centerfielder Rick Monday rescues US flag from two fans trying to set it on fire. William Thomas and his 11-year-old son, ran into the outfield and tried to set fire to an American flag they had brought with them. Ricky Monday, then playing with the Cubs, noticed they had placed the flag on the ground and were fumbling with matches and lighter fluid; he then dashed over and grabbed the flag from the ground to thunderous cheers. He handed the flag to Los Angeles pitcher Doug Rau, after which the ballpark police officers arrested the two intruders.
1977 – Elvis Presley recorded a concert in Saginaw, Michigan. Three of the songs later appeared on the album “Moody Blue,” which was released posthumously.
1978- William Clinton (31), attorney general of Arkansas and candidate for governor, sexually assaulted Juanita Broaddrick at the Camelot Inn in Little Rock. Broaddrick made the story public on national TV in 1999.
1978 – The US Supreme Court ruled pension plans can’t require women to pay more.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Knock on Wood” by Amii Stewart, “Heart of Glass” by Blondie, “Music Box Dancer” by Frank Mills and “All I Ever Need is You” by Kenny Rogers & Dottie West all topped the charts.
1980 – President Jimmy Carter announced the hostage rescue disaster in Iran.
1981 – “Kiss on My List” by Daryl Hall & John Oates topped the charts.
1983 – American schoolgirl Samantha Smith is invited to visit the Soviet Union by its leader Yuri Andropov after he read her letter in which she expressed fears about nuclear war.
1983 – May 19th Communist Organization responsible for a bombing at the National War College at Fort McNair in Washington, D.C.
1983 – Pioneer 10 travels beyond Pluto’s orbit.
1985 – “Big River (The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn)” opened at the Eugene O’Neill Theatre on Broadway in New York City.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Knew You Were Waiting (For Me)” by Aretha Franklin & George Michael, “Don’t Dream It’s Over” by Crowded House, “Sign ’o’ the Times” by Prince, “Rose in Paradise” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts .
1990 – The Hubble Telescope is deployed into orbit from the Space Shuttle Discovery.
1992 – “Jump” by Kris Kross topped the charts.
1992 – The Ms. Foundation began its “Take Our Daughters to Work Day.”
1992 – An earthquake measuring 7.1 on the Richter scale shook northern California.
1995 – Baseball season begins after lengthy strike.
1996 – Ford Motor Co. announced a recall of about eight- million cars, minivans and pickups because of an ignition switch fire hazard.
1997 – The Clinton administration extended the area over which the northwest coast silvery Coho salmon is considered a “threatened” species.
1997 – In the US a federal judge ruled that cigarettes are drug delivery systems and that the FDA has the right to regulate cigarettes and other tobacco products — but said it couldn’t restrict cigarette advertising.
1998 – “Too Close” by Next topped the charts.
1998 – U.S. First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton on was questioned by Whitewater prosecutors on videotape about her work as a private lawyer for the failed savings and loan at the center of the investigation.
1998 – In Millbrae, Ca., motorcycle Patrolman David Chetcuti (43) was shot and killed by Marvin Patrick Sullivan (43) during a routine traffic stop. Sullivan, a paranoid schizophrenic, was found to be carrying a cache of pipe bombs and rifles. Sullivan was later found to be incompetent to stand trial.
1999 – More than 70,000 mourners gathered in Littleton, Colo., to remember the victims of the Columbine High School massacre.
2000 – The Ohio state motto, “With God, all things are possible,” was declared unconstitutional by a federal appeals court. The ACLU lost this battle and the motto survived this challenge.
2001 – A rescue plane flew out of the South Pole with ailing American doctor Ronald S. Shemenski in the most daring airlift ever from the pole.
2002 – The US House voted 405-9 to abolish the embattled Immigration and Naturalization Service.
2003 – Georgia lawmakers reached a compromise over the controversial state flag that bears the Confederate symbol, and redesigned the banner to display a less divisive symbol.
2005 – In Chicago 11 reputed mob figures were indicted on charges of plotting at least 18 murders including the 1986 hit on Tony Spilotro.
2007 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 13,000 for the first time closing at 13,089.89.
2007 – The House on Wednesday narrowly approved a $124 billion war spending bill that would require American troops to begin withdrawing from Iraq by Oct. 1, setting the stage for the first veto fight between President Bush and majority Democrats.
2008 – Wachovia Corp. agreed to pay as much as $144 million to settle an 18-month government investigation into its relationships with telemarketers that allegedly harmed 350,000 to 500,000 consumers.
2008 – In San Diego a bomb exploded at the FedEx building. The fire department found a second bomb in the parking lot and detonated it. On August 6 authorities indicted three people: Rachelle Carlock, Ella Louise Sanders and Eric Reginald Robinson.
2008 – Near San Diego, Ca., a shark killed triathlete David Martin (66) at Solano Beach.
2008 – Two people are killed and more than a dozen injured after a semitrailer crashes into a Chicago Transit Authority station during rush hour.
2009 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: University of Georgia Professor George Zinkhan allegedly kills three people in Athens, Georgia.
2010 – Nearly 100,000 people rally in Okinawa, Japan, demanding the removal of an American base from the island.
2011 – At least 300 people killed in deadliest tornado outbreak in the Southern United States since the 1974 Super Outbreak.
2011 – The Governor of Arkansas Mike Beebe declares a state of emergency following heavy storms including tornadoes hit the US state of Arkansas with at least two people dead and 100,000 without power.
2011 – The Governor of Kentucky Steve Beshear declares a state of emergency due to rising flood waters from the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
2012 – A judge on the Cook County Circuit Court rules that the Amazon tax levied on Internet businesses by the US state of Illinois is unconstitutional.
2013 – In the aftermath of the Boston Marathon bombings, Michael Bloomberg, mayor of New York City, claims that the FBI briefed him that suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev said that the bombers intended to attack New York City next.
2013 – The George W. Bush Presidential Center in Dallas, Texas, is dedicated in the presence of President Barack Obama, former president George W. Bush and all living former presidents. The complex will be opened to the public on May 1.
2014 – Bullets flew between a security guard and two armed robbers at a San Diego medical marijuana dispensary. Just yesterday the city had begun the process of issuing permits for medical marijuana dispensaries. One robber was killed, the security officer wounded and the second suspect on the run, according to a report by CBS 8 News.
2015 – The Hubble Space Telescope marks 25 years in orbit today. Hubble blasted off aboard the space shuttle Discovery on April 24, 1990, embarking upon an incredible mission filled with disappointment, drama, redemption and innumerable discoveries.
1599 – Oliver Cromwell, English statesman (d. 1658)
1710 – James Ferguson, Scottish astronomer (d. 1776)
1868 – John Bevins Moisant, pioneer aviator, first to cross English Channel with passenger and a cat, killed in New Orleans whose present day airport was originally name for him. (D. 1910)
1874 – Guglielmo Marconi, Italian inventor, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics (d. 1937)
1906 – William J. Brennan, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1997)
1917 – Ella Fitzgerald, American singer (d. 1996)
1932 – Meadowlark Lemon, American basketball player
1940 – Al Pacino, American actor
1969 – Joe Buck, American sports broadcaster
1969 – Renée Zellweger, American actress
SPRAYBERRY, JAMES M
Rank and organization: Captain (then 1st Lt.), U.S. Army, Company D, 5th Battalion, 7th Cavalry , 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, April 25th, 1968. Entered service at: Montgomery, Ala. Born: 24 April 1947, LaGrange, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Sprayberry, Armor, U.S. Army, distinguished himself by exceptional bravery while serving as executive officer of Company D. His company commander and a great number of the men were wounded and separated from the main body of the company. A daylight attempt to rescue them was driven back by the well entrenched enemy’s heavy fire. Capt. Sprayberry then organized and led a volunteer night patrol to eliminate the intervening enemy bunkers and to relieve the surrounded element. The patrol soon began receiving enemy machinegun fire. Capt. Sprayberry quickly moved the men to protective cover and without regard for his own safety, crawled within close range of the bunker from which the fire was coming. He silenced the machinegun with a hand grenade. Identifying several l-man enemy positions nearby, Capt. Sprayberry immediately attacked them with the rest of his grenades. He crawled back for more grenades and when two grenades were thrown at his men from a position to the front, Capt. Sprayberry, without hesitation, again exposed himself and charged the enemy-held bunker killing its occupants with a grenade. Placing two men to cover his advance, he crawled forward and neutralized three more bunkers with grenades. Immediately thereafter, Capt. Sprayberry was surprised by an enemy soldier who charged from a concealed position. He killed the soldier with his pistol and with continuing disregard for the danger neutralized another enemy emplacement. Capt. Sprayberry then established radio contact with the isolated men, directing them toward his position. When the two elements made contact he organized his men into litter parties to evacuate the wounded. As the evacuation was nearing completion, he observed an enemy machinegun position which he silenced with a grenade. Capt. Sprayberry returned to the rescue party, established security, and moved to friendly lines with the wounded. This rescue operation, which lasted approximately 7-1/2 hours, saved the lives of many of his fellow soldiers. Capt. Sprayberry personally killed twelve enemy soldiers, eliminated two machineguns, and destroyed numerous enemy bunkers. Capt. Sprayberry’s indomitable spirit and gallant action at great personal risk to his life are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
STUMPF, KENNETH E.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant (then Sp4c.), U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 35th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Duc Pho, Republic of Vietnam, April 25th, 1967. Entered service at: Milwaukee, Wis. Born: 28 September 1944, Neenah, Wis. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. S/Sgt. Stumpf distinguished himself while serving as a squad leader of the 3d Platoon, Company C, on a search and destroy mission. As S/Sgt. Stumpf’s company approached a village, it encountered a North Vietnamese rifle company occupying a well fortified bunker complex. During the initial contact, three men from his squad fell wounded in front of a hostile machinegun emplacement. The enemy’s heavy volume of fire prevented the unit from moving to the aid of the injured men, but S/Sgt. Stumpf left his secure position in a deep trench and ran through the barrage of incoming rounds to reach his wounded comrades. He picked up one of the men and carried him back to the safety of the trench. Twice more S/Sgt. Stumpf dashed forward while the enemy turned automatic weapons and machineguns upon him, yet he managed to rescue the remaining two wounded squad members. He then organized his squad and led an assault against several enemy bunkers from which continuously heavy fire was being received He and his squad successfully eliminated two of the bunker positions, but one to the front of the advancing platoon remained a serious threat. Arming himself with extra hand grenades, S/Sgt. Stumpf ran over open ground, through a volley of fire directed at him by a determined enemy, toward the machinegun position. As he reached the bunker, he threw a hand grenade through the aperture. It was immediately returned by the occupants, forcing S/Sgt. Stumpf to take cover. Undaunted, he pulled the pins on two more grenades, held them for a few seconds after activation, then hurled them into the position, this time successfully destroying the emplacement. With the elimination of this key position, his unit was able to assault and overrun the enemy. S/Sgt. Stumpf’s relentless spirit of aggressiveness, intrepidity, and ultimate concern for the lives of his men, are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
*ESSEBAGGER, JOHN, JR.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company A, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Popsudong, Korea, April 25th, 1951. Entered service at: Holland, Mich. Born: 29 October 1928, Holland, Mich. G.O. No.: 61, 24 April 1952. Citation: Cpl. Essebagger, a member of Company A, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. Committed to effect a delaying action to cover the 3d Battalion’s withdrawal through Company A, Cpl. Essebagger, a member of one of two squads maintaining defensive positions in key terrain and defending the company’s right flank, had participated in repulsing numerous attacks. In a frenzied banzai charge the numerically superior enemy seriously threatened the security of the planned route of withdrawal and isolation of the small force. Badly shaken, the grossly outnumbered detachment started to fall back and Cpl. Essebagger, realizing the impending danger, voluntarily remained to provide security for the withdrawal. Gallantly maintaining a l-man stand, Cpl. Essebagger raked the menacing hordes with crippling fire and, with the foe closing on the position, left the comparative safety of his shelter and advanced in the face of overwhelming odds, firing his weapon and hurling grenades to disconcert the enemy and afford time for displacement of friendly elements to more tenable positions. Scorning the withering fire and bursting shells, Cpl. Essebagger continued to move forward, inflicting destruction upon the fanatical foe until he was mortally wounded. Cpl. Essebagger’s intrepid action and supreme sacrifice exacted a heavy toll in enemy dead and wounded, stemmed the onslaught, and enabled the retiring squads to reach safety. His valorous conduct and devotion to duty reflected lasting glory upon himself and was in keeping with the noblest traditions of the infantry and the U.S. Army.
GILLILAND, CHARLES L.
Rank and organization: Corporal (then Pfc.), U.S. Army, Company I, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Tongmang-ni, Korea, April 25th, 1951. Entered service at: Yellville (Marion County), Ark. Born: 24 May 1933, Mountain Home, Ark. G.O. No.: 2, 11 January 1955. Citation: Cpl. Gilliland, a member of Company I, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. A numerically superior hostile force launched a coordinated assault against his company perimeter, the brunt of which was directed up a defile covered by his automatic rifle. His assistant was killed by enemy fire but Cpl. Gilliland, facing the full force of the assault, poured a steady fire into the foe which stemmed the onslaught. When two enemy soldiers escaped his raking fire and infiltrated the sector, he leaped from his foxhole, overtook and killed them both with his pistol. Sustaining a serious head wound in this daring exploit, he refused medical attention and returned to his emplacement to continue his defense of the vital defile. His unit was ordered back to new defensive positions but Cpl. Gilliland volunteered to remain to cover the withdrawal and hold the enemy at bay. His heroic actions and indomitable devotion to duty prevented the enemy from completely overrunning his company positions. Cpl. Gilliland’s incredible valor and supreme sacrifice reflect lasting glory upon himself and are in keeping with the honored traditions of the military service.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company D, 7th Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Near Popsu-dong, Korea, 24th and April 25th, 1951. Entered service at: Burnham, Maine. Born: 18 September 1929, Fort Kent, Maine. G.O. No.: 14, 1 February 1952. Citation: Cpl. Goodblood, a member of Company D, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against an armed enemy of the United Nations. Cpl. Goodblood, a machine gunner, was attached to Company B in defensive positions on thickly wooded key terrain under attack by a ruthless foe. In bitter fighting which ensued, the numerically superior enemy infiltrated the perimeter, rendering the friendly positions untenable. Upon order to move back, Cpl. Goodblood voluntarily remained to cover the withdrawal and, constantly vulnerable to heavy fire, inflicted withering destruction on the assaulting force. Seeing a grenade lobbed at his position, he shoved his assistant to the ground and flinging himself upon the soldier attempted to shield him. Despite his valorous act both men were wounded. Rejecting aid for himself, he ordered the ammunition bearer to evacuate the injured man for medical treatment. He fearlessly maintained his l-man defense, sweeping the onrushing assailants with fire until an enemy banzai charge carried the hill and silenced his gun. When friendly elements regained the commanding ground, Cpl. Goodblood’s body was found lying beside his gun and approximately one-hundred hostile dead lay in the wake of his field of fire. Through his unflinching courage and willing self-sacrifice the onslaught was retarded, enabling his unit to withdraw, regroup, and resecure the strongpoint. Cpl. Goodblood’s inspirational conduct and devotion to duty reflect lasting glory on himself and are in keeping with the noble traditions of the military service.
MIYAMURA, HIROSHI H.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company H, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Taejon-ni, Korea, 24th and April 25th, 1951. Entered service at: Gallup, N. Mex. Birth: Gallup, N. Mex. G.O. No.: 85, 4 November 1953. Citation: Cpl. Miyamura, a member of Company H, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. On the night of 24 April, Company H was occupying a defensive position when the enemy fanatically attacked threatening to overrun the position. Cpl. Miyamura, a machine gun squad leader, aware of the imminent danger to his men unhesitatingly jumped from his shelter wielding his bayonet in close hand-to-hand combat killing approximately ten of the enemy. Returning to his position, he administered first aid to the wounded and directed their evacuation. As another savage assault hit the line, he manned his machine gun and delivered withering fire until his ammunition was expended. He ordered the squad to withdraw while he stayed behind to render the gun inoperative. He then bayoneted his way through infiltrated enemy soldiers to a second gun emplacement and assisted in its operation. When the intensity of the attack necessitated the withdrawal of the company Cpl. Miyamura ordered his men to fall back while he remained to cover their movement. He killed more than fifty of the enemy before his ammunition was depleted and he was severely wounded. He maintained his magnificent stand despite his painful wounds, continuing to repel the attack until his position was overrun. When last seen he was fighting ferociously against an overwhelming number of enemy soldiers. Cpl. Miyamura’s indomitable heroism and consummate devotion to duty reflect the utmost glory on himself and uphold the illustrious traditions on the military service.
*GONZALES, DAVID M.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 127th Infantry, 32d Infantry Division. Place and date: Villa Verde Trail, Luzon, Philippine Islands, April 25th, 1945. Entered service at: Pacoima, Calif. Birth: Pacoima, Calif. G.O. No.: 115, 8 December 1945. Citation: He was pinned down with his company. As enemy fire swept the area, making any movement extremely hazardous, a 500-pound bomb smashed into the company’s perimeter, burying five men with its explosion. Pfc. Gonzales, without hesitation, seized an entrenching tool and under a hail of fire crawled fifteen yards to his entombed comrades, where his commanding officer, who had also rushed forward, was beginning to dig the men out. Nearing his goal, he saw the officer struck and instantly killed by machinegun fire. Undismayed, he set to work swiftly and surely with his hands and the entrenching tool while enemy sniper and machinegun bullets struck all about him. He succeeded in digging one of the men out of the pile of rock and sand. To dig faster he stood up regardless of the greater danger from so exposing himself. He extricated a second man, and then another. As he completed the liberation of the third, he was hit and mortally wounded, but the comrades for whom he so gallantly gave his life were safely evacuated. Pfc. Gonzales’ valiant and intrepid conduct exemplifies the highest tradition of the military service.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date: In Northern Po Valley, Italy, 24th- April 25th, 1945. Entered service at: Houston, Tex. Birth: Texas. G.O. No.: 81, 24 September 1945. Citation: He piloted a fighter-bomber aircraft in a series of low-level strafing missions, destroying fourteen grounded enemy aircraft and leading attacks which wrecked ten others during a critical period of the Allied drive in northern Italy. On the morning of 24 April, he volunteered to lead two other aircraft against the strongly defended enemy airdrome at Ghedi. Ordering his fellow pilots to remain aloft, he skimmed the ground through a deadly curtain of antiaircraft fire to reconnoiter the field, locating eight German aircraft hidden beneath heavy camouflage. He rejoined his flight, briefed them by radio, and then led them with consummate skill through the hail of enemy fire in a low-level attack, destroying five aircraft, while his flight accounted for two others. Returning to his base, he volunteered to lead three other aircraft in reconnaissance of Bergamo airfield, an enemy base near Ghedi and one known to be equally well defended. Again ordering his flight to remain out of range of antiaircraft fire, 1st Lt. Knight flew through an exceptionally intense barrage, which heavily damaged his Thunderbolt, to observe the field at minimum altitude. He discovered a squadron of enemy aircraft under heavy camouflage and led his flight to the assault. Returning alone after this strafing, he made ten deliberate passes against the field despite being hit by antiaircraft fire twice more, destroying six fully loaded enemy twin-engine aircraft and two fighters. His skillfully led attack enabled his flight to destroy four other twin-engine aircraft and a fighter plane. He then returned to his base in his seriously damaged plane. Early the next morning, when he again attacked Bergamo, he sighted an enemy plane on the runway. Again he led three other American pilots in a blistering low-level sweep through vicious antiaircraft fire that damaged his plane so severely that it was virtually nonflyable. Three of the few remaining enemy twin-engine aircraft at that base were destroyed. Realizing the critical need for aircraft in his unit, he declined to parachute to safety over friendly territory and unhesitatingly attempted to return his shattered plane to his home field. With great skill and strength, he flew homeward until caught by treacherous air conditions in the Appennines Mountains, where he crashed and was killed. The gallant action of 1st Lt. Knight eliminated the German aircraft which were poised to wreak havoc on Allied forces pressing to establish the first firm bridgehead across the Po River; his fearless daring and voluntary self-sacrifice averted possible heavy casualties among ground forces and the resultant slowing on the German drive culminated in the collapse of enemy resistance in Italy.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Indian Scouts. Place and date: At Pecos River, Tex., April 25th, 1875. Entered service at:——. Birth: Arkansas. Date of issue: 28 May 1875. Citation: With three other men, he participated in a charge against twenty-five hostiles while on a scouting patrol.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Trumpeter, Indian Scouts. Place and date: At Pecos River, Tex., April 25th, 1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Mexico. Date of issue: 28 May 1875. Citation: With three other men, he participated in a charge against twenty-five hostiles while on a scouting patrol.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, 24th U.S. Infantry Indian Scouts Place and date: At Pecos River, Tex., April 25th, 1875. Entered service at. Fort Duncan, Tex. Birth: Arkansas. Date of issue: 28 May 1875. Citation. With three other men, he participated in a charge against twenty-five hostiles while on a scouting patrol.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1832, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Mississippi during attacks on Forts Jackson and St. Philip and during the taking of New Orleans, 24th-April 25th, 1862. Taking part in the actions which resulted in the damaging of the Mississippi and several casualties on it, Brennan showed skill and courage throughout the entire engagements which resulted in the taking of St. Philip and Jackson and in the surrender of New Orleans.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1808, Baltimore, Md. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Brooklyn in the attack upon Forts Jackson and St. Philip and at the taking of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. Although severely wounded by a heavy splinter, Buck continued to perform his duty until positively ordered below. Later stealing back to his post, he steered the ship for 8 hours despite his critical condition. His bravery was typical of the type which resulted in the taking of the Forts Jackson and St. Philip and in the capture of New Orleans.
Rank and organization: Boy, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Pensacola in the attack on Forts Jackson and St. Philip and at the taking of new Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. Swept from the bridge by a shell which wounded the signal quartermaster, Flood returned to the bridge after assisting the wounded man below and taking over his duties, “Performed them with coolness, exactitude and the fidelity of a veteran seaman. His intelligence and character cannot be spoken of too warmly.”
Rank and organization: Captain of the Foretop, U.S. Navy. Born: Scotland. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Captain of foretop, and a volunteer from the Colorado, McLeod served on board the U.S.S. Pensacola during the attack upon Forts Jackson and St. Philip and the taking of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. Acting as gun captain of the rifled howitzer aft which was much exposed, he served this piece with great ability and activity, although no officer superintended it.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Afterguard, U.S. Navy. Birth: Boston, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: At the wheel on board the U.S.S. Cayuga during the capture of Forts St. Philip and Jackson, and New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. As his ship led the advance column toward the barrier and both forts opened fire simultaneously, striking the vessel from stem to stern, Parker conscientiously performed his duties throughout the action in which attempts by three rebel steamers to butt and board were thwarted, and the ships driven off. Eleven gunboats were successfully engaged and the enemy garrisons forced to surrender during this battle in which the Cayuga sustained forty-six hits.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Richards served as quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Pensacola in the attack upon Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and at the taking of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. Through all the din and roar of battle, he steered the ship through the narrow opening of the barricade, and his attention to orders contributed to the successful passage of the ship without once fouling the shore or the obstacles of the barricade.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Forecastle, U.S. Navy. Born: 1804, Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 71, 15 January 1866. Citation: Served as captain of the forecastle on board the U.S.S. Wissahickon during the battle of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862; and in the engagement at Fort McAllister, 27 February 1863. Going on board the U.S.S. Wissahickon from the U.S.S. Don where his seamanlike qualities as gunner’s mate were outstanding, Shutes performed his duties with skill and courage. Showing a presence of mind and prompt action when a shot from Fort McAllister penetrated the Wissahickon below the water line and entered the powder magazine, Shutes contributed materially to the preservation of the powder and safety of the ship.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1829, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Cayuga during the capture of Forts St. Philip and Jackson and the taking of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. As his ship led the advance column toward the barrier and both forts opened fire simultaneously, striking the vessel from stem to stern Wright conscientiously performed his duties throughout the action in which attempts by three rebel steamers to butt and board were repelled, and the ships driven off or forced to surrender. Eleven gunboats were successfully engaged and the enemy garrisons captured during this battle in which the Cayuga sustained forty-six hits.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Cayuga during the capture of Forts St. Philip and Jackson and the taking of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. As his ship led the advance column toward the barrier and both forts opened fire simultaneously, striking the vessel from stem to stern, Young calmly manned a Parrot gun throughout the action in which attempts by three rebel steamers to butt and board were thwarted and the ships driven off or captured, eleven gunboats were successfully engaged and garrisons forced to surrender. During the battle, the Cayuga sustained forty-six hits.
“In God We Trust” and the Constitution
The argument brought forward by the anti-motto group is that it promotes a theistic religion or one that believes in a single, male diety that is followed by the main Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam). It should not be allowed because Buddhists don’t believe in a personal diety, religions that believe in two deities include Zorastrianism (Iran) and Wiccans (a Neopagan, Earth-centered religion). Hindus believe in many dieties. Due to those differences, it would appear that the motto violates the principle of separation of Church and state. Some of the groups that take offense to our national motto include agnostics (those that question whether there really is a God), atheists (Belief in no God, or no belief in God), Buddhists, Hindus, Wiccans and other neopagans.
The religiousity of the national motto has been challenged by three lawsuits and, in each case, it has been found to be constitutional. Basically, the courts have ruled that the motto does not endorse religion. The decisions from latest to earliest:
1994 -The Freedom From Religion Foundation, Inc. conducted a national survey which showed that “In God We Trust” was regarded as religious by an overwhelming percentage of U.S. citizens. The actual results are said to be that sixty-one percent consider “In God We Trust” religious, and 71% believe it endorses a belief in God. A majority also regard the motto as preferring religion over nonreligion. (Chamberlain Research, poll of 900 adults, conducted May 18-23, 1994). Neither the polling group nor the questions asked are available.
They initiated a lawsuit on June 8th, 1994 in Denver CO to have it removed from U.S. paper currency and coins. They also wanted it to be discontinued as the national motto. Their lawsuit was dismissed by the district Court without trial, on the grounds that “In God We Trust” is not a religious phrase! The Tenth-Circuit federal judge confirmed the dismissal, stating in part:
“…we find that a reasonable observer, aware of the purpose, context, and history of the phrase ‘In God we trust,’ would not consider its use or its reproduction on U.S. currency to be an endorsement of religion.”
1979 – “Madalyn Murray O’Hair, et al. v. W. Michael Blumenthal, Secretary of Treasury, et al.” 588 F.2d 1144 (1979) in the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. Ms. O’Hair is infamous for successfully challenging compulsory prayer in U.S. public schools. The United States District Court, Western District of Texas, referring to the wording of the Ninth Circuit below, ruled that:
“From this it is easy to deduce that the Court concluded that the primary purpose of the slogan was secular; it served as secular ceremonial purpose in the obviously secular function of providing a medium of exchange. As such it is equally clear that the use of the motto on the currency or otherwise does not have a primary effect of advancing religion.”
1970 – “Aronow v. United States,” 432 F.2d 242 (1970) in the United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit The court ruled that:
“It is quite obvious that the national motto and the slogan on coinage and currency ‘In God We Trust’ has nothing whatsoever to do with the establishment of religion. Its use is of patriotic or ceremonial character and bears no true resemblance to a governmental sponsorship of a religious exercise.”
This ruling was sustained by the Fifth Circuit court.
In the end, the motto is constitutional and patriotic and used for a secular ceremonial purpose. It does not “establish a religion.”
Matthew 5:44 King James Version (KJV)
44 But I say unto you, “Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you”;
“Are we at last brought to such humiliating and debasing degradation that we cannot be trusted with arms for our defense? Where is the difference between having our arms in possession and under our direction, and having them under the management of Congress? If our defense be the real object of having those arms, in whose hands can they be trusted with more propriety, or equal safety to us, as in our own hands?”
“A good deed is never lost: he who sows courtesy reaps friendship; and he who plants kindness gathers love.”
verb intr.: To leave hurriedly.
First noticed during the Civil War in 1861. Perhaps from northern England dialect.
303 – St. George, dragon-slaying knight, died. He was made the patron saint of England in the 14th century.
1597 – William Shakespeare’s “The Merry Wives of Windsor” is first performed, with Queen Elizabeth I of England in attendance.
1635 – First public school in the United States, Boston Latin School, is founded in Boston, Massachusetts.
1662 – Connecticut was chartered as an English colony.
1775 – The Provincial Congress in Massachusetts orders 13,600 American soldiers to be mobilized. Colonial volunteers from all over New England assemble and head for Boston, then establish camps around the city and begin a year long siege of British-held Boston.
1778 – Revolutionary War: Captain John Paul Jones attempted to kidnap the Earl of Selkirk, but he only got Lady Selkirk’s silverware.
1789 – President-elect George Washington moves into Franklin House, New York. This was the first executive mansion. Two days previous George Washington was inaugurated at Federal Hall and formerly lived at 3 Cherry Street in New York City. That area is now the New Way Deli and Public School 126.
1790 – Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton asked Congress for authorization to build a “system of cutters” for “securing the collection of the revenue.” The request was for ten cutters.
1856 – Free Stater J.N. Mace in Westport, Kansas shot pro-slavery Sheriff Samuel Jones in the back.
1860 – The Pony Express rider missed the boat at Benicia, Ca. Thomas Bedford, a 34-year-old stable keeper, was hired on the spot and boarded the ferry Carquinez with his horse.
1860 – Democratic convention in Charleston, SC, divided over slavery.
1861 – Civil War: Arkansas troops seized Fort Smith.
1861 – Civil War: Battle of San Antonio, TX.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Cane River, LA (Red River Expedition, Monett’s Ferry).
1865 – Civil War: Union cavalry units continued to skirmish with Confederate forces in Henderson, North Carolina and Munsford Station, Alabama.
1865 – Dedicated Massachusetts abolitionist Silas Soule (b.1838) was shot and killed near his home in Colorado by a soldier named Charles Squires.
1867 – William Lincoln patents the zoetrope, a machine which shows animated pictures by mounting a strip of drawings in a wheel.
1872 – Charlotte E. Ray became the first Black female lawyer.
1896 – Vitascope system of movie projection first demonstrated at Koster and Bial’s Music Hall in New York City.
1899 – In Georgia some 2000 people gathered to watch the lynching Sam Hose, a black man questionably accused of murdering a white planter and raping his wife. His ears, fingers, and genitals were cut off and his face was skinned before he was burned in kerosene soaked wood.
1900 – Hillbilly, the word, has been used in American print since April 23, 1900. On that day the New York Journal reported that “a Hill-Billie is a free and untrammelled white citizen of Alabama, who lives in the hills, has no means to speak of, dresses as he can, talks as he pleases, drinks whiskey when he gets it, and fires off his revolver as the fancy takes him.”
1903 – New York Highlanders (Yankees) win their first game beating Washington Senators 7-2.
1908 – President Theodore Roosevelt signed an act creating the U.S. Army Medical Reserve Corps.Reserve officers could be ordered to active duty during time of emergency. In June 1908, the first 160 Reserve medical officers received their commissions. This number grew to about 360 by 1909, to 1,900 by 1916, and to 9,223 by 1917.
1912 – Eagle Scout Scout Rank earned by Arthur Eldred in Troop 1 in Oceanside, New York.
1915 – The A.C.A. became the National Advisory Council on Aeronautics (NACA).
1918 – USS Stewart destroys German submarine off France.
1919 – Major leagues open a reduced 140-game season. The season opened in Washington with General March, Army Chief of Staff, throwing out the first ball. Walter Johnson wins a 1-0, 13-inning duel with the Philadelphia A’s Scott Perry.
1921 – Charles Paddock set a record time in the 300-meter track event when he posted a time of 33.2 seconds.
1924 – The U.S. Senate passed the Soldiers Bonus Bill. Veterans’ advocates argued that their members deserved a cash award to balance out the difference between their modest military pay and the high wages enjoyed by civilian war workers.
1934 – In first U.S. Navy movement through Panama Canal over 100 ships went through.
1940 – The Rhythm Night Club fire (1:53:32) at a dance hall in Natchez, Mississippi, kills 198 people.
1941 – World War II: Greek government and King George II evacuate Athens before the attacking Wehrmacht.
1942 – World War II: Baedeker Blitz – German bombers hit Exeter, Bath and York in retaliation for the British raid on Lübeck.
1944 – World War II: US forces capture Hollandia, New Guinea, without a fight.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Candy” by Johnny Mercer & Jo Stafford, “I’m Beginning to See the Light” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “My Dreams are Getting Better All the Time” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day)and “Smoke on the Water” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: Advance units of both US 5th and British 8th Armies reach the Po River in northern Italy. US 5th Army units manage to cross the river south of Mantua.
1945 – World War II: Hitler receives a message from Goering, offering to take over the leadership of the country should Hitler be unable to continue with that task while besieged in Berlin. Hitler is infuriated and orders Goering arrested.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, the attacks of US 24th Corps begin to achieve some gains, notably by US 96th Division.
1945 – World War II: Units of US 37th Division reach the outskirts of Baguio.
1945 – World War II: In only U.S. use of guided missiles in WW II, 2 BAT missiles release at Balikiapan, Borneo.
1945 – World War II: The concentration camp at Flossenburg was liberated.
1947 – James Baskett(1904-1948 )was given a Special Academy Award for his part in Disney’s “Song Of The South“. He was the second Black to receive an Academy Award. Baskett was also the first African American hired by Disney. Unfortunately Baskett was unable to attend the premiere in Atlanta because he was unable to get accommodations.
1948 – Johnny Longden became the first race jockey to ride 3,000 career winners.
1949 – “Cruising Down the River” by Blue Barron topped the charts.
1950 – First major league day game completed under lights. In a double-header, the Phillies dropped the opener 4-3. Behind the pitching of Robin Roberts, the Phillies defeated the Braves 6-5.
1951 – The Associated Press began use of a new service, teletypesetting.
1952 – New York Giant Hoyt Wilhelm wins his first relief game & hits his only homerun in 1,070 games.
1954 – Hank Aaron hits first of his 755 homers, a solo shot off Vic Raschi of St. Louis.
1954 – “Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes topped the charts.
1956 – Project Vanguard, earth satellite launching program, assigned to Deputy Chief Naval Operations (Air).
1956 – US Supreme Court ended race segregation on buses.
1958 – Gil Hodges hits his 300th homerun & Pee Wee Reese plays in 2,000th game.
1960 – Theme from “A Summer Place“by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1960 – The first lunch counters were integrated in San Antonio, Texas.
1962 – New York Mets win their first game in team history.
1962 – Ranger 4, first US satellite to reach Moon launched from Cape Canaveral.
1963 – Jan & Dean recorded “Surf City.”
1963 – Pete Rose of the Cincinnati Reds got his first hit in the major leagues. It was a triple off the Pirates’ Bob Friend.
1964 – Houston’s Ken Johnson becomes the first pitcher ever to hurl a 9-inning no-hitter and lose as Cincinnati wins 1-0. Two errors in the ninth inning allows Pete Rose to score the only run.
1965 – The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. leads thousands of people on a 54 mile march from Selma to Montgomery Alabama to call for voting rights for African Americans.
1966 – “(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration” by the Righteous Brothers topped the charts.
1968 – Vietnam War: Student protesters at Columbia University in New York City take over administration buildings and shut down the university.
1968 – The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church merged to form the United Methodist Church.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Aquarius/Let the Sun Shine In” by The 5th Dimension, “You’ve Made Me So Very Happy” by Blood, Sweat & Tears, “It’s Your Thing” by The Isley Brothers and “Galveston” by Glen Campbell all topped the charts.
1969 – Sirhan Sirhan was sentenced to death for assassinating New York Senator Robert F. Kennedy. The sentence was later reduced to life imprisonment.
1971 – In the final event of Operation Dewey Canyon III, nearly 1,000 Vietnam War veterans threw their combat ribbons, helmets, and uniforms on the Capitol steps.
1975 – President Gerald Ford says the Vietnam War is finished as far as America is concerned. “Today, Americans can regain the sense of pride that existed before Vietnam. But it cannot be achieved by re-fighting a war.”
1982 – The Unabomber mailed a pipe bomb from Provo, Utah, to Pennsylvania State University. It was forwarded to Vanderbilt Univ. scientist Patrick C. Fisher.
1982 – The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that consumer prices declined the previous month (March). It was the first decline in almost 17 years.
1982 – Key West, Fla., under Mayor Dennis Wardlow declared that it was seceding from the US and would rename itself the Conch Republic. The move was in response to a state roadblock and inspection on all cars heading out of the Florida Keys and protest against what they view as an “unresponsive” central government taking action without considering all of the implications.
1983 – “Come On Eileen” by Dexy’s Midnight Runners topped the charts.
1985 – Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke. (The response is overwhelmingly negative, and the original formula is back on the market in less than 3 months.)
1985 – Liberace appeared on the TV soap opera “Another World”.
1987 – Twenty-eight construction workers die when the L’Ambiance Plaza apartment building collapses while under construction in Bridgeport, Connecticut.
1988 – “Where Do Broken Hearts Go?” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1988 – Pink Floyd’s album “Dark Side of the Moon” (42:56) leaves the charts for its first time after spending a record of 741 consecutive weeks (over 14 years) on the Billboard 200.
1988 – In Martinez, CA, a drain valve was left open at the Shell Marsh. More than 10,000 barrels of oil poured into the marsh adjoining Peyton Slough Marsh Complex.
1988 – Federal smoking ban during domestic airline flights of 2 hours or less.
1989 – Kareem Abdul-Jabbar played his last regular season game in the NBA.
1989 – Troy Aikman of UCLA became the first player chosen in the NFL draft in New York City as he was selected by the Dallas Cowboys.
1990 – Freed American hostage Robert Polhill, released in Lebanon the day before, enjoyed his first full day of freedom in nearly 39 months.
1991 – President Bush welcomed General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the just-returned Gulf War commander, at the White House.
1991 – NASA scrubbed the launch of the space shuttle “Discovery” after a sensor on one of the main engines failed during fueling.
1995 – President Bill Clinton declares a national day of mourning for Oklahoma City bombing victims.
1996 – A New York civil-court jury ordered Bernhard Goetz to pay $43 million to Darrell Cabey. Cabey was paralyzed when he was shot in subway car in 1984.
1997 – The military confirmed that two pieces of wreckage found on a snowy Rocky Mountain peak were from the Air Force warplane that vanished on a training mission over Arizona.
1997 – An infertility doctor in California announced that a 63-year-old woman had given birth in late 1996. The child was from a donor egg. The woman is the oldest known woman to give birth.
1997 – Golfer Fuzzy Zoeller, again apologizing for racial comments about Masters winner Tiger Woods, withdrew from the Greater Greensboro Chrysler Classic.
1998 – James Earl Ray died, at age 70, while serving a life sentence for the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
1998 – Two New Jersey troopers fired 11 shots into a van carrying African American and Latino men from the Bronx. They admitted to racial profiling and pleaded guilty to misdemeanor charges in 2002.
2000 – Elian Gonzalez spent a secluded Easter with his father at Andrews Air Force Base outside Washington, a day after the six-year-old boy was removed from his Miami relatives’ home in a pre-dawn raid by immigration agents.
2001 – A US robot spy plane completed the first unmanned trans-Pacific flight from California to Australia.
2002 – In California the Metrolink Train from Riverside to Orange County collided with a Burlington Northern Santa Fe freight train and two people were killed. Over 260 were injured. The freight train failed to heed line signals.
2003 – President George W. Bush signed legislation that authorized the design change of the 5-cent coin (nickel) for release in 2004. It was the first change to the coin in 65 years.
2003 – American Airlines reported a $1-billion first-quarter loss.
2004 – President George W. Bush eased sanctions against Libya in return for Moammar Gadhafi’s agreement to give up weapons of mass destruction.
2004 – In Illiopolis, Ill.,central Illinois, 4 workers were killed in an explosion at the Formosa Plastics Plant. The entire community was forced to evacuate the area.
2005 – Larry Lasater (35), Pittsburg, Ca., police officer, was shot while chasing 2 robbery suspects. Doctors declared him brain dead the next day.
2005 – The first video was uploaded to YouTube.com.
2006 – Some 10,000 people marched in San Francisco to denounce a bill in the US House of Representatives that would make illegal immigration a felony.
2006 – It was reported that Massachusetts has decided to begin requiring doctors to state the names of anyone testing positive for HIV.
2007 – Congressional Democratic leaders agreed on legislation requiring the first US combat troops to be withdrawn from Iraq by Oct. 1, 2007, with a goal of a complete pullout six months later.
2007 – A US Agriculture Department official said a virus in the Great Lakes, that has killed tens of thousands of fish in recent years, is spreading and poses a threat to inland fish farming.
2008 – The US Supreme Court ruled that police can conduct searches and seize evidence during arrests, even it the arrests turn out to violate state law.
2008 – Officials said the US is scrapping a $20 million virtual fence, developed by Boeing Corp., on the Arizona-Mexico border because the system failed to adequately alert border patrol agents to illegal crossings.
2008 – New York’s Gov. David Paterson signed into law a $1.25 per pack tax hike on top of the state’s $1.50 per pack cigarette tax. New York City has an additional $1.50 per pack tax. By July 1 smokers will be paying an average $9.00 a pack for legal cigarettes. The taxes have encouraged major criminal smuggling.
2010 – Arizona Governor Jan Brewer signs a controversial Immigration Bill. The bill requires the police to ask people about their immigration status if officers have any reason to suspect that they are in the country illegally.
2013 – The United States stock market undergoes a flash crash of 1 percent when the twitter feed from the Associated Press news agency is hacked and erroneously states that several explosions have injured President Barack Obama.
2013 – HE’S BACK IN CLASS: The West Virginia eighth grader taken out of school last Thursday for refusing to change his NRA shirt returned to school, wearing the same shirt that got him arrested last week.
2014 – U.S. District Judge Robert Dow Jr. dismissed a complaint filed on behalf of a Chicago teacher who was suspended for bringing a household toolbox to class for a lesson about tools. In rejecting the complaint, the judge said officials at Washington Irving Elementary School correctly defined the tools as “weapons.” Chicago teacher Douglas Bartlett was suspended for four days for bringing tools to class as a visual aid.
1621 – William Penn, English admiral (d. 1670)
1791 – James Buchanan, 15th President of the United States. He was the only President to never marry. (d. 1868)
1813 – Stephen A. Douglas, U.S. Senator from Illinois and Presidential candidate (d. 1861)
1893 – Frank Borzage, American film director (d. 1952)
1894 – Cow Cow Davenport, American pianist (d. 1955)
1897 – Lucius Clay, American general (d. 1978)
1907 – Lee Miller, American photographer & model (d. 1977)
1908 – Myron Waldman, American animator (d. 2006)
1921 – Janet Blair, American actress (d. 2007)
1928 – Shirley Temple, American actress and politician
1932 – Jim Fixx, American athlete and writer (d. 1984)
1936 – Roy Orbison, American singer and musician (d. 1988)
1939 – Lee Majors, American actor
1942 – Sandra Dee, American actress (d. 2005)
1949 – Joyce DeWitt, American actress
1960 – Valerie Bertinelli, American actress
1972 – Sonya Smith, American actress
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander (Dental Corps), U.S. Navy. Born: 12 November 1889, Gloucester, Mass. Appointed from: Massachusetts. Other Navy award: Legion of Merit. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty while serving with the 5th Regiment, U.S. Marine Corps. Under heavy shellfire, on April 23rd, 1918, on the French Front, Lt. Comdr. Lyle rushed to the assistance of Cpl. Thomas Regan, who was seriously wounded, and administered such effective surgical aid while bombardment was still continuing, as to save the life of Cpl. Regan.
AYERS, JAMES F.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd, 1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Collinstown, Va. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: Rapid pursuit, gallantry, energy, and enterprise in an engagement with Indians.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Trumpeter, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd, 1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: Gallantry in action.
GARDINER, PETER W.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date. At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd, 1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Carlisle, N.Y. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men, he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd,1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Hendricks County, Ind. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd,1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd,1875. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
ROBBINS, MARCUS M.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd,1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Elba, Wis. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Wagoner, Troop G, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Horseshoe Canyon, N. Mex., April 23rd,1882. Entered service at:——. Birth: Bavaria. Date of issue: 17 August 1896. Citation: Assisted, under a heavy fire, to rescue a wounded comrade.
TEA, RICHARD L.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd,1875. Entered servlce at:——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
WILDER, WILBER E.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Horseshoe Canyon, N. Mex., April 23rd, 1882. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Birth: Atlas, Mich. Date of issue: 17 August 1896. Citation: Assisted, under a heavy fire, to rescue a wounded comrade.
BEEBE, WILLIAM S.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Ordnance Department, U.S. Army. Place and date: At Cane River Crossing, La., April 23rd,1864. Entered service at: Thompson, Conn. Born: 14 February 1841, Ithaca, N.Y. Date of issue: 30 June 1897. Citation: Voluntarily led a successful assault on a fortified position.
National Jelly Bean Day
“E Pluribus Unum” was the original motto of the United States. It is Latin for “One from many parts.” The picture that would be drawn by this is of a sword being wielded by a small group. In this case it would be the federal sword being wielded by a group of colonies and later states. In June of 1782 the new “Great Seal of the United States” was adopted and it included an eagle with a heart-shaped shield, holding arrows and an olive branch in its claws. The motto “E Pluribus Unum” appeared on a scroll held in its beak. That motto was also used on some federal coins in as early as 1795.
During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key, an attorney, became a party to the release of several American prisoners including one Dr. William Beanes. Dr. Beanes was a noted country doctor who was, literally, dragged out of his bed and held hostage. Several of the doctors friends asked Key if he could get Dr. Beanes released. Key got the permission of President James Madison who also sent John Stuart Skinner.He was another attorney and had become the US Prisoner Exchange Agent for the region.
Key, accompanied by Colonel Skinner, dined aboard the British ship HMS Tonnant, as the guests of three British officers: Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane, Rear Admiral Sir George Cockburn, and Major General Robert Ross. Skinner and Key were there to negotiate the release of prisoners. The release was approved but Skinner, Key, and Beanes were not allowed to return to their own sloop: they had become familiar with the strength and position of the British units and with the British intent to attack Baltimore. All Key could do was watch the British attack. As the smoke cleared, one thing was very apparent, the American flag was still flying. On his way back to Baltimore he was inspired to write a poem called, “The Defense of Fort McHenry.”
This is the next major change in this history. The final stanza of that poem reads:
“And this be our motto: ‘In God is our trust.’
And the Star Spangled Banner in triumph shall wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave.”
In 1864, those words were shortened to “In God We Trust” and applied to a newly designed two-cent coin.
In 1956, the nation was suffering through the height of the cold war, and the McCarthy communist witch hunt. The “In God We Trust” motto then spread to more than just our coinage. It spread to our paper money and lots of other places. The change was partly motivated by a desire to differentiate between communism, which promotes Atheism, and Western capitalistic democracies, which were at least nominally Christian. The phrase “Atheistic Communists” has been repeated so many times that the public has linked Atheism with communism; the two are often considered synonymous. Many consider Atheism as unpatriotic and un-American as is communism.
The new motto was first used on paper money in 1957, when it was added to the one-dollar silver certificate. By 1966, “In God we Trust” was added to all paper money, from $1 to $100 denominations. The Freedom from Religion Foundation claimed to have been unable to find any other country in the world which has a religious motto on their money. That is, simply, untrue:
The Dutch have had a religious motto on their money for almost two centuries. It is even now included on the new two-euro coin. It says,” God zij met ons” or “God is with us.”
During the 1980’s under Brazilian president Jose Sarney, the phrase “Deus seja louvado” or God be praised” was added to their paper money.
Although not a motto , British coins have a drawing of the Queen and “Elizabeth II D.G. REG. F.D.”. This is an abbreviation for the Latin phrase, “Elizabeth II by Grace of God Defender of the Faith.”
In our states and territories we see mottos that include references to God:
Arizona is “Ditat Deus” – “God enriches”
American Samoais “Samoa, Muamua Le Atua” – “Samoa, let God be first”
Colorado is “Nil sine numine” – “Nothing without the Deity”
Connecticut is “Qui transtulit sustinet” – “He who transplanted sustains”
Florida is “In God We Trust”
Kentucky is “Deo gratiam habeamus” – “Let us be grateful to God”
Ohio is “With God, all things are possible”
South Dakota is “Under God the people rule”
This motto is under constant attack. It must be a priority to protect it from those that want to change or eliminate it.
Tomorrow, “Is it Constitutional?”
Ephesians 1: 3-5
Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ: According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love: Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will,
“Religion is of general and public concern, and on its support depend, in great measure, the peace and good order of government, the safety and happiness of the people.”
“In times of great stress or adversity, it is always best to keep busy, to plow your anger and your energy in to something positive.”
~ Lee Iaccoca
Countermand KOWN-tuhr-mand; kown-tuhr-MAND, transitive verb:
To revoke (a former command); to cancel or rescind by giving an order contrary to one previously given.
To recall or order back by a contrary order.
A contrary order.
Revocation of a former order or command.
1145 – 19th recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet.
1526 – The first American slave revolt occurred in South Carolina.
1692 – Edward Bishop is jailed for proposing flogging as cure for witchcraft. He and and his wife were thrown into prison. His wife, Bridget, was later convicted as being a witch.
1692 -In Salem, Massachusetts, Mary Black, a slave, was convicted of sorcery and jailed after a trial.
1778 – Captain John Paul Jones of Ranger led landing party raid on Whitehaven, England.Whitehaven was an English seaport on the Irish Sea.
1790 – Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, submitted a bill to Congress to create a “system of cutters” to enforce tariff and customs laws along the nation’s coastline. Congress passed his bill on 4 August of the same year. This would be the early version of the Coast Guard.
1792 – President George Washington proclaimed American neutrality in the war in Europe.
1793 – President George Washington attends the opening of Rickett’s, first circus in US.
1836 – Texas Revolution: A day after the Battle of San Jacinto forces under Texas General Sam Houston capture Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.
1861 – Civil War: Robert E. Lee was named commander of Virginia forces.
1861 – Civil War: Captain Franklin Buchanan, Commandant Washington Navy Yard, submitted his resignation and was relieved by Commander John A. Dahlgren; Buchanan joined the Confederate Navy and was promoted to Admiral, CSN. on 26 August 1862.
1863 – Civil War: Grierson’s Raid begins – troops under Union Colonel Benjamin Grierson attack central Mississippi.
1864 – The U.S. Congress passes the Coinage Act which mandates that the inscription “In God We Trust” be placed on all coins minted as United States currency. 2¢ coin is the first appearance of “In God We Trust”.
1876 – First National League game. Boston defeated Philadelphia at Athletic Park 6-5. Jim O’Rourke makes the first hit and Joseph Borden, pitching under the name of Josephs, is the winning pitcher. Philadelphia Athletics Wes Fisler scores baseball’s first run.
1878 – The first Egg Roll was held on the grounds of the White House.
1889 – At high noon, thousands rush to claim land in the Land Run of 1889. Within hours the cities of Oklahoma City and Guthrie are formed with populations of at least 10,000.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The United States Navy begins a blockade of Cuban ports and the USS Nashville captures a Spanish merchant ship.
1897 – New York City Jewish newspaper “Forward” began publishing.
1898 – Congress authorized creation of the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, popularly known as the “Rough Riders.”
1906 – A new baseball rule put the umpire in sole charge of all game balls.
1915 – World War I: The use of poison gas in World War I escalates when chlorine gas is released as a chemical weapon in the Second Battle of Ypres by the Germans.
1915 – The New York Yankees wore pinstripes and the hat-in-the-ring logo for the first time.
1930 – The United Kingdom, Japan and the United States sign the London Naval Treaty regulating submarine warfare and limiting shipbuilding.
1931 – James G. Ray landed an autogyro on the lawn of the White House.
1938 – In Virginia 45 workers were killed in a coal mine explosion at Keen Mountain in Buchanan County.
1940 – Rear Adm. Joseph Taussig testified before US Senate Naval Affairs Committee that war with Japan is inevitable.
1943 – World War II: A series of Allied attacks are launched against the Axis positions in the Tunisian hills. The US 2nd Corps, commanded by General Bradley, attacks Hill 609 in “Mousetrap Valley,” with the objective of advancing to Mateur.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Love, Love, Love” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Skip Nelson), ‘I Love You” by Bing Crosby, “Poinciana” by Bing Crosby and “Too Late to Worry, Too Blue to Cry” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: Operation Persecution initiated – Allied forces land in the Hollandia (currently known as Jayapura) area of New Guinea.
1945 – World War II: Prisoners at the Jasenovac concentration camp revolt. 520 are killed and 80 escape. Jasenovac was a complex of five subcamps [ spread over 93 sq mi on the banks of the Sava river.
1945 – World War II: Adolf Hitler, learning from one of his generals that no German defense was offered to the Russian assault at Eberswalde, admits to all in his underground bunker that the war is lost and that suicide is his only recourse.
1945 – World War II: Himmler meets Count Bernadotte of the Swedish Red Cross and gives him a message to pass to the western Allies, offering a German surrender to the British and Americans but not to the Soviets. The message is passed to the Allies on the 24th.
1945 – World War II: In Europe, US 7th Army units cross the Danube at Dillingen and Baldingen. Units of 2nd and 4th US Corps (parts of US 5th Army) reach the Penaro River in their advance to the Po River. On the left flank Modena is taken.
1951 – Korean War: The Chinese launched their spring offensive with a heavy artillery barrage northeast of Yonchon. The Battle of the Imjin River began.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr, “Any Time” by Eddie Fisher, “Be My Life’s Companion” by The Mills Brothers and “(When You Feel like You’re in Love) Don’t Just Stand There” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1952 – An atomic test conducted in Nevada was the first nuclear explosion shown on live network television.
1954 – Senator Joseph McCarthy begins hearings investigating the United States Army, which he charges with being “soft” on communism.
1956 – Elvis Presley made his Las Vegas debut at the Frontier Hotel.
1959 – The movie “Go Johnny Go” premiered.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith, “Greenfields” by The Brothers Four, “Sweet Nothin’s” by Brenda Lee and “He’ll Have to Go” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1962 – Jerry Lee Lewis’s 3-year-old son drowned.
1964 – The 1964-1965 New York World’s Fair opens for its first season. New York police arrested 294 demonstrators at the opening.
1965 – Vietnam War: USCG and US Navy agree on the deployment of 82-foot patrol and 40-foot utility boats to support Operation Market Time in Vietnam.
1967 – Randy Matson set a new world record with a shot put toss of 71 feet, and 5 1/2 inches in College Station, TX.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro, “Cry like a Baby” by The Box Tops, “Lady Madonna” by The Beatles and “Fist City” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1968 – Herb Alpert debuted “This Guy’s in Love With You” on his CBS-TV special.
1968 – Defense Secretary Clark Clifford declares that the South Vietnamese have “acquired the capacity to begin to insure their own security [and] they are going to take over more and more of the fighting.”
1969 – The first human eye transplant was performed for John Madden in Houston.
1970 – First Earth Day celebrated.
1970 – African American students protest at Yale University in support of the Black panthers.
1971 – Former US Navy Lieutenant John Kerry (27) testified before the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee and talked about alleged war crimes and atrocities committed in Vietnam by US forces.
1972 – Vietnam War: Increased American bombing in Vietnam prompts antiwar protests in New York City, San Francisco, and Los Angeles.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Disco Lady” by Johnnie Taylor, “Let Your Love Flow” by The Bellamy Brothers, “Right Back Where We Started From” by Maxine Nightingale and “Drinkin’ My Baby (Off My Mind)” by Eddie Rabbitt all topped the charts.
1976 – Barbara Walters became first female nightly network news anchor.
1978 – John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd made their first appearance as The Blues Brothers on NBC’s “Saturday Night Live.”
1981 – In the largest US bank robbery, more than $3.3 million was stolen in Tucson Ariz. four men were later arrested for the robbery. The cash vault manager , Bud Grainger, was told that his wife was being held hostage at his home.
1981 – Joint Center for Political Studies reported that 2,991 Blacks held elective offices in 45 states and the District of Columbia, compared with 2,621 in April, 1973, and 1,185 in 1969. The Center reported 108 Black mayors. Michigan had the largest number of Black elected officials (194), followed by Mississippi (191).
1983 – The German magazine, Der Stern claims that Adolf Hitler’s diaries were found in wreckage in East Germany. Later found to be untrue.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)” by Phil Collins, “Hello” by Lionel Richie, “Hold Me Now” by The Thompson Twins and “The Yellow Rose” by Johnny Lee with Lane Brody all topped the charts.
1985 – Prince released the album “Around The World In a Day.” It was his first release after “Purple Rain.” No link, Prince does not want his music on YouTube.
1987 – The American Physical Society said that the “Star Wars” missile system was “highly questionable” and would take ten years to research.
1990 – Pro-Iranian kidnappers in Lebanon freed American hostage Robert Polhill after nearly 39 months of captivity.
1991 – Intel released 486SX chip.
1992 – The Supreme Court heard arguments on Pennsylvania’s restrictive abortion law. The court upheld most of the law’s provisions the following June, but also reaffirmed a woman’s basic right to an abortion.
1992 – A 6.0 Joshua Tree earthquake hit California.
1993 – The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum was dedicated in Washington, D.C., to honor the victims of Nazi extermination.
1994 – Richard M. Nixon (81), the 37th president of the United States (1969-1975), died at New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, four days after suffering a stroke.
1997 – A jury of seven men and five women was chosen in Denver to hear the Oklahoma City bombing trial of Timothy McVeigh.
1998 – Disney’s Animal Kingdom opens at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida, United States.
1998 – National TV Turnoff Week began.
1999 – In Kentucky an Army Black Hawk helicopter crashed during training at Fort Campbell and 7 people were killed and 4 injured.
2000 – In a pre-dawn raid, federal agents seize six-year-old Elián González from his relatives’ home in Miami, Florida. Riots erupted in Little Havana and 290 protesters were arrested.
2001 – Two spacewalking astronauts, including Canadian Chris Hadfield, installed a massive Canadian-built robot arm on the international space station.
2003 – American soldiers in Baghdad found $112 million sealed inside 7 animal kennels.
2003 – The world’s first native 64-bit x86 processor, the AMD Opteron processor, is launched.
2003 – President Bush announced he would nominate Alan Greenspan for a fifth term as Federal Reserve chairman.
2004 – Pat Tillman former safety for the Arizona Cardinals, was killed in an friendly-fire incident in Afghanistan. He had walked away from millions of dollars to join the Army Rangers and serve his country.
2004 – The Evangelical Lutheran Church is ordered to pay the largest per capita settlement in a church sexual abuse case in the United States by a jury in Marshall, Texas.
2005 – Zacarias Moussaoui pleads guilty to terror charges in U.S. federal court. He is a French citizen who was convicted of conspiring to kill citizens of the US as part of the September 11 attacks. As a result of his conviction, he is serving a life sentence without parole at the Federal ADX Supermax prison in Florence, Colorado.
2008 – A U.S. federal grand jury in Las Vegas, Nevada, indicts a man on charges of possessing the toxin ricin and on weapons charges.
2008 – Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice says that former President of the United States Jimmy Carter was advised not to hold talks with Hamas.
2008 – A US district Court in Manhattan charged Ben-ami Kadish (84), a former US Army mechanical engineer, with four counts of conspiracy. He was charged of spying for Israel and sending classified documents on nuclear weapons to an employee of the Israeli consulate.
2008 – In California a grizzly bear named Rocky (5) killed trainer Stephan Miller (39) at the Randy Miller’s Predators in Action center in San Bernadino County.
2010 – President Barack Obama calls on Wall Street to join him in his efforts to reform the financial sector in a visit to Manhattan.
2010 – The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers honours The Killers for “their impact in shaping American music”.
2010 – An episode of the American television series South Park is censored after a threat of fatwā from a New York-based group over the depiction of Muhammad in a bear costume.
2012 – White House lawyers launch an internal investigation into the role its advance staff may have played in the U.S. Secret Service sex scandal in Colombia, though no evidence has been found to implicate anyone in the scandal.
2012 – Officials in Florida refuse to allow Bill Lee, the police chief who did not arrest George Zimmerman after he shot and killed unarmed black teenager Trayvon Martin, to resign.
2012 – The North Carolina trial of former U.S. Senator and presidential hopeful John Edwards, concerning the use of illegal campaign donations to cover up an affair with a mistress, begins.
2013 – News Corporation agrees to pay $139 million to American shareholders due to the phone hacking scandal.
1711 – Eleazar Wheelock, American founder of Dartmouth College (d. 1779)
1724 – Immanuel Kant, German philosopher (d. 1804)
1832 – Julius Sterling Morton, Arbor Day founder (d. 1902 )
1844 – Lewis Thornton Powell, would-be assassin of Secretary of State William H. Seward (d. 1865)
1873 – Ellen Glasgow, American author (d. 1945)
1891 – Nicola Sacco, American anarchist (d. 1927)
1892 – Vernon Johns, American civil rights activist (d. 1965)
1904 – Robert Oppenheimer, American physicist (d. 1967)
1906 – Eddie Albert, American actor (d. 2005)
1916 – Yehudi Menuhin, American-born violinist (d. 1999)
1923 – Bettie Page, American model
1923 – Aaron Spelling, American television producer (d. 2006)
1926 – Charlotte Rae, American actress
1936 – Glen Campbell, American musician
1937 – Jack Nicholson, American actor
1939 – Mel Carter, American singer
1946 – Steven L. Bennett, USAF Congressional Medal of Honor Recipient (d. 1972)
1959 – Catherine Mary Stewart, Canadian actress
*LITTLETON, HERBERT A.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Company C, 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Chungchon, Korea, April 22nd, 1951. Entered service at: Blackhawk, S. Dak. Born: 1 July 1930, Mena, Ark. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a radio operator with an artillery forward observation team of Company C, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Standing watch when a well-concealed and numerically superior enemy force launched a violent night attack from nearby positions against his company, Pfc. Littleton quickly alerted the forward observation team and immediately moved into an advantageous position to assist in calling down artillery fire on the hostile force. When an enemy hand grenade was thrown into his vantage point shortly after the arrival of the remainder of the team, he unhesitatingly hurled himself on the deadly missile, absorbing its full, shattering impact in his body. By his prompt action and heroic spirit of self-sacrifice, he saved the other members of his team from serious injury or death and enabled them to carry on the vital mission which culminated in the repulse of the hostile attack. His indomitable valor in the face of almost certain death reflects the highest credit upon Pfc. Littleton and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and Organization: Sergeant (posthumous), U.S. Army, 442nd Regimental Combat Team – Born: August 14, 1920 in Salinas, California. Citation: Private Joe Hayashi distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on April 20th and April 22nd,1945, near Tendola, Italy. On 20 April 1945, ordered to attack a strongly defended hill that commanded all approaches to the village of Tendola, Private Hayashi skillfully led his men to a point within 75 yards of enemy positions before they were detected and fired upon. After dragging his wounded comrades to safety, he returned alone and exposed himself to small arms fire in order to direct and adjust mortar fire against hostile emplacements. Boldly attacking the hill with the remaining men of his squad, he attained his objective and discovered that the mortars had neutralized three machine guns, killed twenty-seven men, and wounded many others. On 22 April 1945, attacking the village of Tendola, Private Hayashi maneuvered his squad up a steep, terraced hill to within 100 yards of the enemy. Crawling under intense fire to a hostile machine gun position, he threw a grenade, killing one enemy soldier and forcing the other members of the gun crew to surrender. Seeing four enemy machine guns delivering deadly fire upon other elements of his platoon, he threw another grenade, destroying a machine gun nest. He then crawled to the right flank of another machine gun position where he killed four enemy soldiers and forced the others to flee. Attempting to pursue the enemy, he was mortally wounded by a burst of machine pistol fire. The dauntless courage and exemplary leadership of Private Hayashi enabled his company to attain its objective. Private Hayashi’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
*THOMAS, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 149th Infantry, 38th Infantry Division. Place and date: Zambales Mountains Luzon, Philippine Islands, April 22nd, 1945. Entered service at: Ypsilanti, Mich. Birth. Wynne, Ark. G.O. No.: 81, 24 September 1945. Citation: He was a member of the leading squad of Company B, which was attacking along a narrow, wooded ridge. The enemy strongly entrenched in camouflaged emplacements on the hill beyond directed heavy fire and hurled explosive charges on the attacking riflemen. Pfc. Thomas, an automatic rifleman, was struck by oneof these charges, which blew off both his legs below the knees. He refused medical aid and evacuation, and continued to fire at the enemy until his weapon was put out of action by an enemy bullet. Still refusing aid, he threw his last two grenades. He destroyed three of the enemy after suffering the wounds from which he died later that day. The effective fire of Pfc. Thomas prevented the repulse of his platoon and assured the capture of the hostile position. His magnificent courage and heroic devotion to duty provided a lasting inspiration for his comrades.
The Battle of Veracruz was a 20-day siege of the key Mexican beachhead seaport of Veracruz, during the Mexican-American War. Lasting from 9–29 March 1847, it began with the first large-scale amphibious assault conducted by United States military forces, and ended with the surrender and occupation of the city. U.S. forces then marched inland to Mexico City.
ANDERSON, EDWIN A.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Navy. Born: 16 July 1860, Wilmington N.C. Accredited to: North Carolina. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz,April 22nd, 1914, in command of the 2d Seaman Regiment. Marching his regiment across the open space in front of the Naval Academy and other buildings, Capt. Anderson unexpectedly met a heavy fire from riflemen, machineguns and l_pounders, which caused part of his command to break and fall back, many casualties occurring among them at the time. His indifference to the heavy fire, to which he himself was exposed at the head of his regiment, showed him to be fearless and courageous in battle.
BADGER, OSCAR CHARLES
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Born: 26 June 1890, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: District of Columbia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy Award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Ens. Badger was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
BERKELEY, RANDOLPH CARTER
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 9 January 1875, Staunton, Va. Appointed from: Washington, D.C. G.O. No.: 177 4 December 1915. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Maj. Berkeley was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion; was in the fighting of both days, and exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through action. His cool judgment and courage, and his skill in handling his men in encountering and overcoming the machinegun and rifle fire down Cinco de Mayo and parallel streets account for the small percentage of the losses of marines under his command.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 December 1876, Evansville, Ind. Accredited to: Indiana. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. In command of the 1st Seaman Regiment, Lt. Cmdr. Buchanan was in both days’ fighting and almost continually under fire from soon after landing, about noon of the 21st, until we were in possession of the city, about noon of the 22d. His duties required him to be at points of great danger in directing his officers and men, and he exhibited conspicuous courage, coolness, and skill in his conduct of the fighting. Upon his courage and skill depended, in great measure, success or Failure. His responsibilities were great, and he met them in a manner worthy of commendation.
BUTLER, SMEDLEY DARLINGTON
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 30 July 1881, West Chester, Pa. Appointed from: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy awards: Second Medal of Honor, Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Maj. Butler was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22d and in the final occupation of the city.
CASTLE, GUY WILKINSON STUART
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 8 February 1880. Appointed from: Wisconsin. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion, Lt. Castle was in the fighting of both days, and exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through action. In seizing the customhouse, he encountered for many hours the heaviest and most pernicious concealed fire of the entire day, but his courage and coolness under trying conditions were marked.
CATLIN, ALBERTUS WRIGHT
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1 December 1868, Gowanda, N.Y. Appointed from: Minnesota. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion, Maj. Catlin exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22nd and in the final occupation of the city.
COURTS, GEORGE McCALL
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Junior Grade, U.S. Navy. Born: 16 February 1888, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: District of Columbia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. Under fire, Lt.(j.g.) Courts was eminent and conspicuous in the performance of his duties. He had well qualified himself by thorough study during his years of duty in Mexico to deal with the conditions of this engagement, and his services were of great value. He twice volunteered and passed in an open boat through the zone of fire to convey important orders to the Chester, then under a severe fire.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Utah. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Entered service at: Wisconsin. Birth: Milwaukee, Wis. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Utah, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and 22 April 1914.
DYER, JESSE FARLEY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 2 December 1877, St. Paul, Minn. Appointed from: Minnesota. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914; was in both days fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
Rank and organization: Surgeon, U.S. Navy. Born: 16 October 1872, Beaufort, S.C. Accredited to: South Carolina. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Surg. Elliott was eminent and conspicuous in the efficient establishment and operation of the base hospital, and in his cool judgment and courage in supervising first aid stations on the firing line and removing the wounded.
FLETCHER, FRANK FRIDAY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. Born: 23 November 1855, Oskaloosa, lowa. Accredited to: lowa. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Under fire, Rear Adm. Fletcher was eminent and conspicuous in the performance of his duties; was senior officer present at Vera Cruz, and the landing and the operations of the landing force were carried out under his orders and directions. In connection with these operations, he was at times on shore and under fire.
FLETCHER, FRANK JACK
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Entered service at: Iowa. Born: 29 April 1885, Marshalltown, lowa. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and 22 April 1914. Under fire, Lt. Fletcher was eminent and conspicuous in performance of his duties. He was in charge of the Esperanze and succeeded in getting on board over 350 refugees, many of them after the conflict had commenced. Although the ship was under fire, being struck more than thirty times, he succeeded in getting all the refugees placed in safety. Lt. Fletcher was later placed in charge of the train conveying refugees under a flag of truce. This was hazardous duty, as it was believed that the track was mined, and a small error in dealing with the Mexican guard of soldiers might readily have caused a conflict, such a conflict at one time being narrowly averted. It was greatly due to his efforts in establishing friendly relations with the Mexican soldiers that so many refugees succeeded in reaching Vera Cruz from the interior.
FOSTER, PAUL FREDERICK
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd,1914. Entered service at: Kansas. Birth: Wichita, Kans. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and 22 April 1914. In both days’ fighting at the head of his company, Ens. Foster was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
FRAZER, HUGH CARROLL
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 22nd, 1914. Entered service at: West Virginia. Birth: Martinsburg, W. Va. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, 22 April 1914. During this engagement, Ens. Frazer ran forward to rescue a wounded man, exposing himself to hostile fire and that of his own men. Having accomplished the mission, he returned at once to his position in line.
FRYER, ELI THOMPSON
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 22 August 1878, Hightstown, N.J. Appointed from: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. In both days’ fighting at the head of his company, Captain Fryer was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
GISBURNE, EDWARD A.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Electrician Third Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 14 June 1892, Providence, R.l. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd,1914, and for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during this action.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 25 December 1872, Canada. Appointed from: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd,1914. During the second day’s fighting, the service performed by Lt. Grady, in command of the 2d Regiment, Artillery, was eminent and conspicuous. From necessarily exposed positions, he shelled the enemy from the strongest position.
HARRISON, WILLIAM KELLY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 30 July 1870, Waco, Tex. Accredited to: Texas. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. During this period, Comdr. Harrison brought his ship into the inner harbor during the nights of the 21st and 22d without the assistance of a pilot or navigational lights, and was in a position on the morning of the 22nd to use his guns with telling effect at a critical time.
HARTIGAN, CHARLES CONWAY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 September 1882, Norwich, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd,1914. During the second day’s fighting the service performed by him was eminent and conspicuous. He was conspicuous for the skillful handling of his company under heavy rifle and machinegun fire, for which conduct he was commended by his battalion commander.
HILL, WALTER NEWELL
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 29 September 1881, Haverhill, Mass. Appointed from: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Capt. Hill was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
HUGHES, JOHN ARTHUR
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 2 November 1880, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Capt. Hughes was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
HUSE, HENRY McLAREN PINCKNEY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Navy. Born: 8 December 1858, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y. Appointed from: New York. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Under fire, Capt. Huse was eminent and conspicuous in the performance of his duties; was indefatigable in his labors of a most important character, both with the division commander in directing affairs and in his efforts on shore to get in communication with the Mexican authorities to avoid needlessly prolonging the conflict.
INGRAM, JONAS HOWARD
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Junior Grade, U.S. Navy. Born: 15 October 1886, Jeffersonville, Ind. Accredited to: Indiana. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Distinguished Service Medal with gold stars in lieu of two additional DSM’s. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd,1914. During the second day’s fighting the service performed by him was eminent and conspicuous. He was conspicuous for skillful and efficient handling of the artillery and machineguns of the Arkansas battalion, for which he was specially commended in reports.
JOHNSTON, RUFUS ZENAS
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 7 June 1874, Lincolnton, N.C. Accredited to: North Carolina. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914; was regimental adjutant, and eminent and conspicuous in his conduct. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22d and in the final occupation of the city.
LANGHORNE, CARY DeVALL
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Surgeon, U.S. Navy. Born: 14 May 1873, Lynchburg, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Surg. Langhorne carried a wounded man from the front of the Naval Academy while under heavy fire.
LANNON, JAMES PATRICK
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 12 October 1878, Alexandria, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd,1914. Lt. Lannon assisted a wounded man under heavy fire, and after returning to his battalion was himself desperately wounded.
LOWRY, GEORGE MAUS
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 & April 22nd,1914. Entered service at: Pennsylvania. Birth: Eve, Pa. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21_22 April 1914; Ens. Lowry was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 3 January 1876, Brewster, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy awards: Second Medal of Honor, Navy Cross. Citation: For heroism in leading three picket launches along Vera Cruz sea front, drawing Mexican fire and enabling cruisers to save our men on shore, April 22nd,1914. Though wounded, he gallantly remained at his post.
McDONNELL, EDWARD ORRICK
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 November 1891, Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Posted on the roof of the Terminal Hotel and landing, Ens. McDonnell established a signal station there day and night, maintaining communication between troops and ships. At this exposed post he was continually under fire. One man was killed and three wounded at his side during the two days’ fighting. He showed extraordinary heroism and striking courage and maintained his station in the highest degree of efficiency. All signals got through, largely due to his heroic devotion to duty.
McNAlR, FREDERICK VALLETTE, JR.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 March, 1882, Maryland. Appointed at large. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Lt. McNair was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22nd and in the final occupation of the city.
MOFFETT, WILLIAM A.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Charleston, S.C. Born: 31 October 1869, Charleston, S.C. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. Comdr. Moffett brought his ship into the inner harbor during the nights of the 21st and 22nd without the assistance of a pilot or navigational lights, and was in a position on the morning of the 22nd to use his guns at a critical time with telling effect. His skill in mooring his ship at night was especially noticeable. He placed her nearest to the enemy and did most of the firing and received most of the hits.
NEVILLE, WENDELL CUSHING
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 12 May 1870, Portsmouth, Va. Appointed from: Virginia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz 21 and April 22nd, 1914. In command of the 2d Regiment Marines, Lt. Col. Neville was in both days’ fighting and almost continually under fire from soon after landing, about noon on the 21st, until we were in possession of the city, about noon of the 22d. His duties required him to be at points of great danger in directing his officers and men, and he exhibited conspicuous courage, coolness, and skill in his conduct of the fighting. Upon his courage and skill depended, in great measure, success or failure. His responsibilities were great and he met them in a manner worthy of commendation.
NORDSIEK, CHARLES LUERS
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 April 1896, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, Nordsiek showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914.
REID, GEORGE CROGHAN
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 9 December 1876, Lorain, Ohio. Appointed from: Ohio. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914; was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion; was in the righting of both days and exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through action. His cool judgment and courage and his skill in handling his men in encountering and overcoming the machinegun and rifle fire down Cinco de Mayo and parallel streets account for the small percentage of the losses of Marines under his command.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 September 1857, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. In command of the naval brigade, Capt. Rush was in both days’ fighting and almost continually under fire from soon after landing, about noon on the 21st, until we were in possession of the city, about noon of the 22nd. His duties required him to be at points of great danger in directing his officers and men, and he exhibited conspicuous courage, coolness and skill in his conduct of the fighting. Upon his courage and skill depended in great measure success or failure. His responsibilities were great, and he met them in a manner worthy of commendation.
SCHNEPEL, FRED JURGEN
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 24 February 1892, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, Schnepel showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 22nd, 1914. Entered service at: North Carolina. Born: 28 August 1879, Tarboro, N.C. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz, 22 April 1914; was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22nd and in the final occupation of the city.
STICKNEY, HERMAN OSMAN
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 December 1867, Pepperell, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Comdr. Stickney covered the landing of the 21st with the guns of the Prairie, and throughout the attack and occupation, rendered important assistance to our forces on shore with his three-inch battery.
TOWNSEND, JULIUS CURTIS
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 February 1881, Athens, Mo. Entered service at: Athens, Mo. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Lt. Townsend was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22nd and in the final occupation of the city.
WAINWRIGHT, RICHARD, JR.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 15 September 1881, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: District of Columbia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Lt. Wainwright was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion; was in the fighting of both days, and exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through action. In seizing the customhouse, he encountered for many hours the heaviest and most pernicious concealed fire of the entire day, but his courage and coolness under trying conditions were marked.
WALSH, JAMES A.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 24 July 1897 New York, N.Y. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida; for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914.
WILKINSON, THEODORE STARK, JR.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 December 1888, Annapolis, Md. Appointed from: Louisiana. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal with gold stars in lieu of 2 additional DSM’s. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. Ens. Wilkinson was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 20th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., April 22nd,1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Fayette County, Pa., Date of issue: 23 September 1897. Citation: Voluntarily served as one of the crew of a transport that passed the forts under a heavy fire.
NIBBE, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, Germany. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served as quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Peterel during its capture in Yazoo River, April 22nd, 1864. Standing his ground when a shot came through the stern, raking the gundeck and entering and exploding the boilers, when all the others had deserted the flag, Nibbe assisted in getting the wounded off the guard and proceeded to get ready to fire the ship despite the escaping steam from the boilers at which time he was surrounded on all sides by the rebels and forced to surrender.
VERNAY, JAMES D.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company B, 11th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg Miss., April 22nd, 1863. Entered service at: Lacon, Marshall County, Ill. Birth: Lacon, Ill. Date of issue: 1 April 1898. Citation: Served gallantly as a volunteer with the crew of the steamer Horizon that, under a heavy fire, passed the Confederate batteries.
Born on November 30th 1835 was a young man named Samuel Clemens who would later become “Mark Twain”. He was born in Florida, MO. Florida is a village in Monroe County, Missouri. The population was 9 at the 2000 census and zero at the 2010 census. He is closely tied to Halley’s Comet. It is believed that was born the same month as the passing of Halley’s comet in November 1835. Halley’s Comet passed on November 10th 1835 and Twain was born on the 30th. Twain vowed he would “go out”with the passing of the comet. It passes in 75 year cycles. Halley’s comet passed again April 20th 1910, Twain passed April 21st 1910.
During different times in his life he held many different jobs among them a riverboat pilot, a reporter and a publisher. These and many other jobs gave him a good education and varied experiences with many kinds of people. In 1862 Sam began writing for many magazines and newspapers under his pen name. Twain was a great writer, his three best books were Roughing It, The adventures of Tom Sawyer, and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.Twain was a very interesting character. He took his writing name from a process that was in use by the riverboats of his day. It is well-known that the Mississippi River changes daily. Sandbars come and go, silt moves with the river and what was not there yesterday was there today. As the boats move up and down the river or as they dock, men would throw forward a weight attached to a long string marked by fathoms (six feet). They could feel when the weight was on the bottom, they would look at the string and yell out, “Mark Twine, 6 fathoms.” That told the pilot they were in 36 feet of water.
Several things made Mark Twain great even during his lifetime. Besides the jobs he had and the people he came to know, he was a determined individual. For example, he was a great goal-setter. He would set goals on writing his books, magazine and newspaper articles and other articles. A third thing that helped him achieve greatness was that he had perseverance. He did not give up. It carried him well in all his writings.
Finally, Mark Twain learned from his experiences. He learned early on that his readers liked different writing styles. He didn’t disappoint them when he wrote his humor, satire, and adventure. He wrote as if he were telling his stories to his best friend and he was able to make his audience feel that.That feeling comes forward to today’s readers as well. His characteristics of integrity, sense-of-humor, and initiative came through. Mark Twain’s personality was funny, out-going, and cooperative. His humorous and insightful remarks were often quoted around the world, both then and now. Mark Twain will be remembered and quoted for a long time.
Halley’s Comet passed over Redding, CT on April 20th, 1910. He died the next day; April 21st, 1910, at 6:30 p.m. Mark Twain just stopped breathing.
Listen to the word of the LORD, O sons of Israel, For the LORD has a case against the inhabitants of the land, Because there is no faithfulness or kindness Or knowledge of God in the land. There is swearing, deception, murder, stealing and adultery. They employ violence, so that bloodshed follows bloodshed. Therefore the land mourns, And everyone who lives in it languishes.
“The Americans combine the notions of Christianity and of liberty so intimately in their minds, that it is impossible to make them conceive the one without the other; and with them this conviction does not spring from that barren traditionary faith which seems to vegetate in the soul rather than to live., Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, (New York: A. S. Barnes & Co., 1851), pp. 331, 332, 335, 336-7, 337.
“Kindness is the life’s blood, the elixir of marriage. Kindness makes the difference between passion and caring. Kindness is tenderness. Kindness is love, but perhaps greater than love … Kindness is good will. Kindness says, “I want you to be happy.” Kindness comes very close to the benevolence of God.”
~ Randolph Ray
gundygut (GUHN-di-guht) noun
A voracious eater; a greedy person.
From gundy, of unexplained origin + gut (belly).]
753 BC – Romulus and Remus found Rome (traditional date).
43 BC – Battle of Mutina: Mark Antony is again defeated in battle by Aulus Hirtius, who is killed. Although Antony fails to capture Mutina, Decimus Brutus is murdered shortly afterwards.
1649 – The Maryland Toleration Act passed by the Maryland assembly. This law was issued by Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baron of Baltimore ( Lord Baltimore), the governor of the colony, banning criticism of various forms of Christianity and allowing people to practice their Christian religion freely. It was the first law establishing freedom of religion (or at least, Christianity) in North America.
1789 – John Adams was sworn in as the first U.S. Vice President.
1794 – New York City formally declares coast of Ellis Island publicly owned. In its history Ellis Island was also known as Dyre’s Island, Bucking Island, and Gibbet Island before permanently acquiring the name of Ellis Island from Samuel Ellis.
1828 – Noah Webster published the first American dictionary. It took him nearly 20 years to complete his two-volume dictionary of more than 35,000 entries.
1832 – Abraham Lincoln (23) assembled with his New Salem neighbors for the Black Hawk War on the Western frontier.
1836 – Texas Revolution: The Battle of San Jacinto – Republic of Texas forces under Sam Houston defeat troops under Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.
1856 – First railroad bridge across Mississippi River. The first bridge across the Mississippi was built at Rock Island,IL to Davenport IA.
1857 – Alexander Douglas patents the bustle.
1861 – Civil War: U.S.S. Saratoga, commanded by Commander Alfred Taylor, captured slave ship Nightingale with 961 slaves on board.
1862 – Congress establishes US Mint in Denver CO.
1863 – Civil War: Union Colonel Abel Streight begins a raid into northern Alabama and Georgia with the goal of cutting the Western and Atlantic Railroad between Chattanooga and Atlanta.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate guns at Vicksburg opened fire on Union Army steamers attempting a night passage of the batteries. Tigress was sunk and Empire City was totally disabled; Moderator was badly damaged, but J. W. Cheeseman, Anglo Saxon, and Horizon passed safely.
1864 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Petrel , the U.S.S. Prairie Bird and the transport Freestone steamed up the Yazoo River to operate with Union troops attacking Yazoo City.
1864 – Civil War: Boat crews from U.S.S. Howquah, Fort Jackson, and Niphon destroyed Confederate salt works on Masonboro Sound, North Carolina.
1864 – Civil War: Boat crews from the U.S.S. Ethan Allan landed at Cane Patch, near Murrell’s Inlet, South Carolina, and destroyed a salt work.
1864 – Boat expedition commanded by Acting Master John K. Crosby from U.S.S. Cimarron destroyed a rice mill and 5,000 bushels of rice stored at Winyah Bay, South Carolina.
1865 – Abraham Lincoln’s funeral train leaves Washington. The train would essentially retrace the 1,654 mile route Mr. Lincoln had traveled as President-elect.
1878 – New York installs first firehouse pole.
1878 – Ship Azor left Charleston with 206 blacks for Liberia.
1884 – Potters Field reopened as Madison Square Park in New York City.
1892 – The first Buffalo was born in Golden Gate Park.
1895 – Woodville Latham demonstrated the first use of a moving picture.
1898 – Spanish-American War: Volunteer African-American army units, including the 3rd Alabama, 3rd North Carolina, 6th Virginia, 9th Ohio, 9th Illinois, 23rd Kansas and 10th Cavalry regiments, some units with African-American officers, took part in the Spanish-American War on Cuban soil. Some of these veterans, upon return to the United States, were treated with parades and speeches. Others were assaulted and even lynched.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The U.S. Congress, on April 25, recognizes that a state of war exists between the United States and Spain as of this date.
1910 – Halley’s Comet was visible in the night sky. Entrepreneurs peddled “comet gas masks” for people worried about the Earth’s passage through poisonous cyanogen gas in the comet’s tail.
1910 – Author Mark Twain (b.1835), born as Samuel Langhorne Clemens, died in Redding, Conn.
1914 – U.S. Marines occupied Vera Cruz, Mexico. The troops stayed for six months.
1916 – Bill Carlisle, the infamous ‘last train robber,’ robbed a train in Hanna, WY.
1918 – World War I: German fighter ace Manfred von Richthofen, known as “The Red Baron”, is shot down and killed over Vaux sur Somme in France.
1922 – The first Aggie Muster is held as a remembrance for fellow Aggies who had died in the previous year.
1934 – Moe Berg, Senators catcher (and later US spy), played an American League record 117th consecutive, errorless game. He was sent to Japan with an All-Star baseball team where he took home movies of the Tokyo skyline that were used in the planning of General Jimmy Doolittle’s 1942 bombing raids on the Japanese capital.
1939 – In Texas the new San Jacinto Monument was dedicated following three years of construction. It stood over fourteen feet taller than the Washington Monument.
1940 – First $64 Question, “Take It or Leave It”, on CBS Radio.
1942 – World War II: The most famous (and first international) Aggie Muster is held on the Philippine island of Corregidor, by Brigadier General George F. Moore (with 25 fellow Aggies who were under his command), while 1.8 million pounds of shells pounded the island over a 5 hour attack.
1943 – World War II: President Franklin Roosevelt announced that several Doolittle pilots had been executed by the Japanese.
1944 – US Task Force 58 (Admiral Mitscher) attacks Wakde Island, Sawar, Sarmi and Hollandia. The American force includes twelve carriers and cruisers. Aircraft strike during the day and cruisers bombard the Japanese positions at night.
1945 – World War II: The Soviet Union forces south of Berlin at Zossen attack the German High Command headquarters.
1945 – The US 77th Infantry Division completes the occupation of He Shima, Okinawa. The island and its airfield have been secured after six days of heavy fighting. Approximately 5000 Japanese troops were killed. The division was then ferried to Okinawa to join in the battle in the south.
1945 – World War II: Allied troops occupy German nuclear laboratory.
1948 – The first Polaroid camera was sold in US.
1949 – The prestigious George Foster Peabody Award for Broadcasting was presented to “You Bet Your Life” star, “The one, the only, Groucho Marx.” This was the first time the honor had been awarded to a comedian.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “If” by Perry Como, “Mockingbird Hill” by Les Paul & Mary Ford, “Would I Love You” by Patti Page and “The Rhumba Boogie” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: Carrier-based Marine aircraft downed three Yaks in the first air-to-air contact of Marine pilots with the North Korean Air Force.
1951 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Captain Robert J. Love, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, scored his fifth and sixth aerial victories in his F-86 Sabre “Bernie’s Bo” to become the 11th ace of the Korean War.
1952 – Korean War: A huge blast from gun turret one rocked the cruiser USS Saint Paul, killing 30 sailors. This gunpowder fire of unknown origin caused the U.S. Navy’s greatest single loss of life during the war.
1952 – Secretary’s Day (now Administrative Professionals’ Day) is first celebrated.
1955 – Jerome Lawrence & Robert E Lee’s “Inherit the Wind“, premieres in New York City.
1956 – Elvis Presley’s first hit record, “Heartbreak Hotel“, becomes #1.
1956 – Leonard Ross, age 10, became the youngest prizewinner on a big time quiz program. The youngster won $100,000 on “The Big Surprise” for knowing about his specialty: stocks!
1958 – “Twilight Time” by Platters topped the charts.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods, “I Need Your Love Tonight” by Elvis Presley, “(Now and Then There’s) A Fool Such as I” by Elvis Presley and “White Lightning” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1961 – USAF Major Robert M White takes X-15 to an altitude of 104,960 feet.
1962 – “Good Luck Charm” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1962 – The Seattle World’s Fair (Century 21 Exposition) opens. It is the first World’s Fair in the United States since World War II.
1963 – Dr Michael Ellis De Bakey performs first successful heart implant.
1965 – The Beach Boys appeared on ABC-TV’s “Shindig!” and performed “Do You Wanna Dance?“
1965 – The 1964-1965 New York World’s Fair opens for its second and final season.
1966 – Vietnam War: “GEORGIA” operation southwest of DaNang started (21 Apr – 10 May).
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Somethin’ Stupid” by Nancy Sinatra & Frank Sinatra, “This is My Song” by Petula Clark, “A Little Bit Me, A Little Bit You” by The Monkees and “Lonely Again” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1967 – Josef Stalin’s daughter, Svetlana Alliluyeva (Lana Peters), defected to the US. She was born February 28, 1926 and became a naturalized citizen.
1967 – Northern Illinois was struck by 17 tornadoes, including several in the Chicago metropolitan area. One violent tornado moved through Belvidere (east of Rockford), killing 24 people and injuring another 450, including 13 deaths at the local high school.
1970 – Sportscaster Curt Gowdy was the recipient of the coveted George Foster Peabody Award for achievement in radio and television.
1975 – Vietnam War: President of South Vietnam Nguyen Van Thieu flees Saigon, as Xuan Loc, the last South Vietnamese outpost blocking a direct North Vietnamese assault on Saigon, falls.
1967 – Los Angeles Dodgers first rain out in Los Angeles (after 737 consecutive games).
1972 – Apollo 16 astronauts John Young and Charles Duke explored the surface of the moon. Thet returned with 213 lbs. of lunar material that they had collected.
1973 -“Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree” by Tony Orlando & Dawn topped the charts.
1974 – Lee Elder becomes the first African-American professional golfer to qualify for the Masters Tournament.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Philadelphia Freedom” by The Elton John Band, “(Hey Won’t You Play) Another Somebody Done Somebody Wrong Song” by B.J. Thomas, “He Don’t Love You (Like I Love You)” by Tony Orlando & Dawn and “Always Wanting You” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1975 – Bill Rodgers won the Boston Marathon, the first local winner in 30 years.
1975 – Members of the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) robbed the Carmichael Bank in suburban Sacramento, CA. Myrna Opsahl, a mother (42) of four, was shot dead. Patty Hearst drove the getaway car.
1975 – Vietnam War: Xuan Loc, the last South Vietnamese outpost blocking a direct North Vietnamese assault on Saigon, falls to the communists.
1976 – A Cadillac convertible, the ‘last’ American-made rag-top automobile, rolled off the assembly line at GM’s Cadillac production facility in Detroit, MI. The “last” didn’t last long when Lee Iococca brought them back.
1977 – Billy Martin pulls Yankee line-up out of a hat, beats Blue Jays 8-6.
1977 – The musical “Annie” opened at the Alvin Theatre in New York City for 2,377 performances .
1979 – “Knock on Wood” by Amii Stewart topped the charts.
1980 – Boats with Cuban migrants on board began departing Mariel, Cuba. Thousands of Cubans escaped Castro’s rule. It was later determined that a significant nuber of these people were known criminals.
1982 – Rollie Fingers of the Milwaukee Brewers becomes the first pitcher to record 300 saves.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Billy Jean” by Michael Jackson, “Come on Eileen” by Dexys Midnight Runners, “Mr. Roboto” by Styx and “Dixieland Delight” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1984 – After 37 weeks, “Thriller” is knocked off as top album by “Footloose”.
1984 – “Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)” by Phil Collins hits #1.
1986 – Geraldo Rivera opens Al Capone’s vault on TV & finds nothing.
1987 – Special occasion stamps were offered for the first time by the U.S. Postal Service. “Happy Birthday” and “Get Well” were among the first to be offered.
1989 – In the Philippines there was a communist guerrilla ambush on U.S. Army Col. James Nicolas Rowe. His car was raked with bullets near his office in the Manila suburb of Quezon City, killing him and wounding his driver. Years later, the New People’s Army eventually claimed responsibility for his assassination.
1989 – Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989: In Beijing, around 100,000 students gather in Tiananmen Square to commemorate Chinese reform leader Hu Yaobang.
1990 – “Nothing Compares 2U” by Sinead O’Connor topped the charts.
1990 – Pete Rose pleads guilty to hiding $300,000 in income.
1990 – Bob Engel, a National League umpire was arrested in Bakersfield, Ca., for stealing baseball cards.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “You’re in Love” by Wilson Phillips, “Baby Baby” by Amy Grant, “Joyride” by Roxette and “Down Home” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1991 – Gulf War: US Marines in northern Iraq began building the first safe-haven settlement for Kurdish refugees.
1992- Robert Alton Harris is put to death in the California Gas Chamber for murdering two teenage boys.
1993 – An 11-day siege at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility near Lucasville, Ohio, ended after rioting inmates reached an agreement with prison officials. One guard and nine inmates were killed during the siege.
1994 – The first discoveries of extrasolar planets are announced by astronomer Alexander Wolszczan.
1994 – The U.S. House of Representatives passed a $28 billion get-tough-on-crime bill.
1994 – Jackie Parker became the first woman to qualify to fly an F-16 combat aircraft.
1995 – The FBI arrested former soldier Timothy McVeigh at an Oklahoma jail where he had spent two days on minor traffic and weapons charges; he was charged in connection with the Oklahoma City bombing two days earlier.
1995 – Boston Celtics final game at Boston Gardens, New York Knicks win 98-92.
1996 – Chicago Bulls win NBA record 72 games (72-8).
1997 – Ashes of Timothy Leary & Gene Roddenberry launched into orbit.
1997 – Police in Franklin, N.J., arrested 2 teen-agers they say lured two pizza deliverymen on April 19 to an abandoned house before opening fire, killing both men.
1997 – The swollen Red River, which had flooded 75 percent of Grand Forks, N.D., reached a projected crest of 54 feet — or 26 feet above flood stage.
1999 – A day after the mass killing at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colo., investigators continued their work, while memorial services were held across the city and dozens of counselors offered support to grieving students, parents, friends and family.
1999 – The National Rifle Association scaled back its annual meeting in Denver from 3 days to one in response to the Columbine killings.
2000 – In Sinking Spring, PA, a man chased his estranged girlfriend through town and then forced her car into the path of an oncoming train. The woman and her 3 passengers were killed.
2000 – The 1998 Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act went into effect.
2001 – The Los Angeles Xtreme beat the San Francisco Demons 38-to-6 in the first and last XFL championship game.
2004 – Iraqi Freedom: U.S Marines backed by tanks and helicopter gunships battled insurgents in northern Fallujah, killing nine insurgents.
2004 – A grand jury indicts Michael Jackson on charges of child molestation.
2005 – Army Sgt. Hasan Akbar was convicted by a military jury at Fort Bragg, N.C., of premeditated murder and attempted murder in an attack that killed two of his comrades and wounded 14 others in Kuwait.
2005 – A commercial helicopter contracted by the US Defense Department was shot down by missile fire north of Baghdad. Eleven people aboard, including six American bodyguards, were killed.
2005 – Anna Ayala, the woman who claimed she found a finger in her bowl of Wendy’s chili on Mar 22 in San Jose, Ca., was arrested at her home in Las Vegas.
2006 – The US Justice Dept. gave assent to a Georgia law requiring photo IDs to vote.
2007 – The United States issues travel advisories warning not to go to the Philippines due to a potentially imminent terrorist threat.
2007 – A US Navy Blue Angel jet went down during an air show in Beaufort, South Carolina, plunging into a neighborhood of small homes and trailers, killing the pilot and injuring eight people on the ground.
2007 – Police in Las Vegas raided illegal brothels as part of “Operation Dollhouse,” a sting aimed at prostitution and human trafficking with suspected links to Asia. Prostitution is legal in most counties of Nevada, but not in Clark County, which includes Las Vegas.
2008 – The United States Air Force retires the F-117 Nighthawk.
2009 – U.S. Education Dept. partners with communist re-educators.
2009 – Twelve navies from the Americas begin annual UNITAS Gold exercises near Florida.
2009 – President Barack Obama signed a $5.7 billion national service bill to foster and fulfill people’s desire to make a difference, such as by mentoring children, cleaning up parks or building and weatherizing homes for the poor. Under the bill the AmeriCorps program started by President Bill Clinton will triple in size over the next eight years.
2009 – Daniel Andreas San Diego (31), a computer specialist from Berkeley, Ca., was added to the FBI’s list of “Most Wanted” terror suspects. Authorities described him as an animal rights activist who had turned to bomb attacks.
2010 – US Treasury officials unveiled a new $100 bill.
2010 – In Mississippi Richard Barrett (67), a white supremacist lawyer, was fatally stabbed and beaten at his home in Pearl. The next morning the house was set on fire and Vincent McGee (22), a black neighbor, was charged with murder.
2010 – Justice Department reports 60 percent increase in number of drug-smuggling tunnels at U.S.-Mexican Border.
2011 – U.S. Congressman Ed Markey (D-Mass.) sends Apple chief executive Steve Jobs a letter asking him to explain the purpose of a file embedded on iPhones and iPads that keeps a detailed log of the devices’ location. The controversy escalates as some governments announce an intent to investigate any violation of privacy laws.
2011 – U.S. Senator John Ensign, a Nevada Republican, announces his resignation from his Senate seat effective May 3, due to allegations he had an affair with the wife of a member of his staff.
2013 – A man approached a security officer at the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant and opened fire. The officer returned fire, and the assailant escaped. The security officer was unhurt in the exchange. Later in the day, helicopters and surveillance aircraft could be seen over the plant for several hours.
1555 – Ludovico Carracci, Italian painter (d. 1619)
1671 – John Law, Scottish economist (d. 1729)
1810 – John Putnam Chapin, American politician (d. 1864)
1811 – Alson Sherman, American politician (d. 1903)
1838 – John Muir, American environmentalist (d. 1914)
1882 – Percy Williams Bridgman, American physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1961)
1887 – Joe McCarthy, American baseball manager (d. 1978)
1915 – Anthony Quinn, Mexican-born actor (d. 2001)
1926 – Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
1936 – James Dobson, American evangelist
1951 – Tony Danza, American actor and comedian
1958 – Andie MacDowell, American actress
1980 – Tony Romo, American football player
*MARTINI, GARY W.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company F, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and Date: Binh Son, Republic of Vietnam, April 21st, 1967. Entered service at: Portland, OR Born: 21 September 1948, Lexington, Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 21 April 1967, during Operation UNION*, elements of Company F, conducting offensive operations at Binh Son, encountered a firmly entrenched enemy force and immediately deployed to engage them. The Marines in Pfc. Martini’s platoon assaulted across an open rice paddy to within twenty meters of the enemy trench line where they were suddenly struck by hand grenades, intense small arms, automatic weapons, and mortar fire. The enemy onslaught killed fourteen and wounded eighteen Marines, pinning the remainder of the platoon down behind a low paddy dike. In the face of imminent danger, Pfc. Martini immediately crawled over the dike to a forward open area within fifteen meters of the enemy position where, continuously exposed to the hostile fire. He hurled hand grenades, killing several of the enemy. Crawling back through the intense fire, he rejoined his platoon which had moved to the relative safety of a trench line. From this position he observed several of his wounded comrades lying helpless in the fire-swept paddy. Although he knew that one man had been killed attempting to assist the wounded, Pfc. Martini raced through the open area and dragged a comrade back to a friendly position. In spite of a serious wound received during this first daring rescue, he again braved the unrelenting fury of the enemy fire to aid another companion Lying wounded only twenty meters in front of the enemy trench line. As he reached the fallen Marine, he received a mortal wound, but disregarding his own condition, he began to drag the Marine toward his platoon’s position. Observing men from his unit attempting to leave the security of their position to aid him, concerned only for their safety, he called to them to remain under cover, and through a final supreme effort, moved his injured comrade to where he could be pulled to safety, before he fell, succumbing to his wounds. Stouthearted and indomitable, Pfc. Martini unhesitatingly yielded his life to save two of his comrades and insure the safety of the remainder of his platoon. His outstanding courage, valiant fighting spirit and selfless devotion to duty reflected the highest credit upon himself, the Marine Corps, and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
INOUYE, DANIEL K.
Rank and organization: United States Army, Nisei 442nd Regimental Combat Team. Entered Service: 1943, Honolulu, Hawaii. Born: September 7, 1924 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Citation: Second Lieutenant Daniel K. Inouye distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on April 21st, 1945, in the vicinity of San Terenzo, Italy. While attacking a defended ridge guarding an important road junction, Second Lieutenant Inouye skillfully directed his platoon through a hail of automatic weapon and small arms fire, in a swift enveloping movement that resulted in the capture of an artillery and mortar post and brought his men to within forty yards of the hostile force. Emplaced in bunkers and rock formations, the enemy halted the advance with crossfire from three machine guns. With complete disregard for his personal safety, Second Lieutenant Inouye crawled up the treacherous slope to within five yards of the nearest machine gun and hurled two grenades, destroying the emplacement. Before the enemy could retaliate, he stood up and neutralized a second machine gun nest. Although wounded by a sniper’s bullet, he continued to engage other hostile positions at close range until an exploding grenade shattered his right arm. Despite the intense pain, he refused evacuation and continued to direct his platoon until enemy resistance was broken and his men were again deployed in defensive positions. In the attack, twenty-five enemy soldiers were killed and eight others captured. By his gallant, aggressive tactics and by his indomitable leadership, Second Lieutenant Inouye enabled his platoon to advance through formidable resistance, and was instrumental in the capture of the ridge. Second Lieutenant Inouye’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
*MAY, MARTIN O.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 307th Infantry, 77th Infantry Division. Place and date: legusuku-Yama, Ie Shima, Ryukyu Islands, 19th -April 21st, 1945. Entered service at: Phillipsburg, N.J. Birth: Phillipsburg, N.J. G.O. No: 9, 25 January 1946. Citation: He gallantly maintained a three-day stand in the face of terrible odds when American troops fought for possession of the rugged slopes of legusuku-Yama on Ie Shima, Ryukyu Islands. After placing his heavy machinegun in an advantageous yet vulnerable position on a ridge to support riflemen, he became the target of fierce mortar and small arms fire from counterattacking Japanese. He repulsed this assault by sweeping the enemy with accurate bursts while explosions and ricocheting bullets threw blinding dust and dirt about him. He broke up a second counterattack by hurling grenades into the midst of the enemy forces, and then refused to withdraw, volunteering to maintain his post and cover the movement of American riflemen as they reorganized to meet any further hostile action. The major effort of the enemy did not develop until the morning of 21 April. It found Pfc. May still supporting the rifle company in the face of devastating rifle, machinegun, and mortar fire. While many of the friendly troops about him became casualties, he continued to fire his machinegun until he was severely wounded and his gun rendered useless by the burst of a mortar shell. Refusing to withdraw from the violent action, he blasted fanatical Japanese troops with hand grenades until wounded again, this time mortally. By his intrepidity and the extreme tenacity with which he held firm until death against overwhelming forces, Pfc. May killed at least sixteen Japanese, was largely responsible for maintaining the American lines, and inspired his comrades to efforts which later resulted in complete victory and seizure of the mountain stronghold.
BEASLEY, HARRY C.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1 November 1888 Ohio. Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914.
BISHOP, CHARLES FRANCIS
Rank and organization: Quartermaster Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 2 August 1898, Pittsburgh, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Florida, at Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914. Entered service at: New York. Born: 11 December 1885, New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 April 1914. Cregan was ashore when he volunteered for an assault detail under Ens. George Maus Lowry on the Vera Cruz Customhouse under enemy fire both in the alley between the customhouse and warehouse and the assault over objective’s walls. During the move up the alley, he tended a wounded comrade, J. F. Schumaker, holding a compress with one hand and firing with the other.
DECKER, PERCY A.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 4 August 1890, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914; for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 17 October 1876, Denmark. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 131, 17 July 1924. Citation: For meritorious service under fire on the occasion of landing of the naval forces at Vera Cruz, Mexico, on April 21st,1914. For several hours Lt. Drustrup was in charge of an advanced barricade under a heavy fire, and not only displayed utmost ability as a leader of men but also exerted a great steadying influence on the men around him. Lt. Drustrup was then attached to the U.S.S. Utah as a chief turret captain.
HARNER, JOSEPH GABRIEL
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 February 1889, Louisville, Ohio. Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914.
JARRETT, BERRIE H.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 June 1894 Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 116, 19 August 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida Jarrett displayed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st,1914.
NICKERSON, HENRY NEHEMIAH
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy U.S.S. Utah. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st,1914. Entered service at: West Virginia. Birth: Edgewood, W. Va. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Utah, Nickerson showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 April 1914.
Rank and organization: Chief Gunner, U.S. Navy. Born: 18 August 1887, Pittsburgh, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 120, 10 January 1924. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For meritorious service under fire on the occasion of the landing of the American naval forces at Vera Cruz on April 21st, 1914. C.G. Semple was then attached to the U.S.S. Florida as a chief turret captain.
SINNETT, LAWRENCE C.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 4 April 1888, Burnt House, W. Va. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, Sinnett showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914.
Rank and organization: Hospital Apprentice First Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st,1914. Entered service at: Michigan. Birth: Michigan. G.O. No.: 116, 9 August 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, Zuiderveld showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 April 1914.
SULLIVAN, JAMES F.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1857, Lowell, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S. Training Ship New Hampshire, at Newport, R.I., April 21st,1882, and rescuing from drowning Francis T. Price, third class boy.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S. Training Ship New Hampshire, at Newport, R.I., April 21st,1882, and rescuing from drowning Francis T. Price, third class boy.
National Look Alike Day
US Park Ranger Roy C. Sullivan from Virginia holds the record for the person most times struck by lightning – and living to tell the tale. Between 1942 and 1983, Roy has the dubious distinction of being struck by lightning seven times. He was known as the Human Lightning Rod.
The first lightning strike in 1942 happened as he was working up in a lookout tower and the lighting bolt shot through his leg and knocked his big toenail off.
In 1969 while he was driving along a mountain road a second strike burned off his eyebrows and knocked him unconscious. Another strike just a year later, while he was walking across his yard to get the mail, left his shoulder seared.
He was standing in the office at the ranger station in 1972 when lightning set his hair on fire and Roy had to throw a bucket of water over his head to cool off. A year later, after his hair had grown back, a lightning bolt ripped through his hat and hit him on the head, setting his hair on fire again. It threw him out of his truck, knocked his left shoe off and seared his legs. A sixth strike hit him in 1976 while he was checking on a campsite, injuring his ankle.
The last lightning bolt to hit Roy in 1977 happened while he was fishing. It sent him to hospital with chest and stomach burns.
Roy Sullivan was never killed by lighting – he committed suicide while in his 70’s in 1983 reportedly distraught over the loss of a woman.
John 6: 44 – 51 . .
44 No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him. And I will raise him up on the last day. 45 It is written in the Prophets, ‘And they will all be taught by God.’ Everyone who has heard and learned from the Father comes to me— 46 not that anyone has seen the Father except he who is from God; he has seen the Father. 47 Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever believes has eternal life. 48 I am the bread of life. 49 Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. 50 This is the bread that comes down from heaven, so that one may eat of it and not die. 51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. And the bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.
“You have rights antecedent to all earthly governments; rights that cannot be repealed or restrained by human laws; rights derived from the Great Legislator of the Universe”
~ John Adams
“The path to success is to take massive, determined action.”
~ Anthony Robbins
A dull or slovenly person.
[From Yiddish shlumperdik (unkempt, sloppy).]
1534 – Jacques Cartier begins his voyage, in which he will discover Canada and Labrador.
1657 – Freedom of religion is granted to the Jews of New Amsterdam (later New York City).
1775 – Revolutionary War: The siege of Boston begins, which followed the first battles at Lexington and Concord. Also following these two battles was the Gunpowder Incident or Gunpowder Affair. This was a conflict between Lord Dunmore, the Royal Governor of the Colony of Virginia, and militia led by Patrick Henry. Lord Dunmore ordered the removal of the gunpowder from the magazine in Williamsburg, Virginia to a Royal Navy ship. Dunmore, fearing for his personal safety, later retreated to a naval vessel, ending royal control of the colony.
1777 – New York adopts new constitution as an independent state.
1812 – George Clinton (73), the 4th vice president of the United States, died in Washington, becoming the first vice president to die while in office.
1832 – Hot Springs National Park was established by an act of the U.S. Congress. It was the first national park in the U.S.
1836 – U.S. Congress passes an act creating the Wisconsin Territory.
1841 – First detective story (Poe’s “Murders in the Rue Morgue”) published.
1853 – Harriet Tubman starts Underground Railroad
1861 – Civil War: Robert E. Lee resigns his commission in the United States Army in order to command the forces of the state of Virginia.
1861 – Civil War: Norfolk Navy Yard partially destroyed to prevent Yard facilities from falling into Confederate hands and abandoned by Union forces.
1861 – Civil War: Thaddeus Lowe’s balloon landed in South Carolina only to be surrounded by a group of incredulous Carolinians who believed he was a spy. Lowe managed to persuade the crowd that his 500-mile trip from Cincinnati, Ohio, was merely an innocent aerial journey to test his strange craft.
1862 – Civil War: U.S.S. Itasca commanded by Lieutenant Caldwell and the U.S.S. Pinola commanded by Lieutenant Crosby, under direction of Commander Bell, breached the obstructions below Forts Jackson and St. Philip under heavy fire, opening the way for Flag Officer Farragut’s fleet.
1862 – The first pasteurization test completed by Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard.
1863 – Civil War: A joint Army-Navy attack succeeded in capturing a strong Confederate position at Hill’s Point on the Nansemond River, Virginia, taking 5 howitzers and some 160 prisoners.
1863 – Civil War: U.S.S. Estrella, Lieutenant Commander Cooke, with U.S.S. Clifton, Arina, and Calhoun, engaged and received the surrender of Fort Burton, Butte a’ la Rose, Louisiana.
1865 – Safety matches were first advertised this day.
1871 – Civil Rights Act of 1871 is a federal law in force in the United States. Several of its provisions still exist today as codified statutes, but the most important still-existing provision is 42 U.S.C. § 1983 – Civil action for deprivation of rights.
1871 – Republicans passed the anti-Ku Klux Klan Act outlawing Democratic terrorist groups. Popularly known as the Ku Klux Act, also known as the third Enforcement Act, Congress authorizes President Ulysses S. Grant to declare martial law, impose heavy penalties against terrorist organizations, and use military force to suppress the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).
1871 – Secretary of Treasury authorized to employ crews of experienced surfmen at lifeboat stations at maximum rate of $40 per month, marking the end of the volunteer system. This was the beginning of direct Federal control over life-saving activities.
1896 – First public film showing in US, John Philip Sousa’s “El Capitán” (Part 1), premieres in New York City.
1897 – Simon Lake was granted a patent for an even keel submarine. His Lake Torpedo Boat Company built a total of 33 submarines for the U.S. Navy between 1909 and 1922.
1902 – Marie & Pierre Curie isolate radioactive element radium.
1904 – The World’s Fair of 1904 opens and celebrates the Centennial of the Louisiana Purchase.
1910 – Halley’s Comet passes 29th recorded perihelion at 54 million miles.
1912 – Opening day for Tiger Stadium in Detroit, Michigan.
1912 – Fenway Park officially opens.
1914 – Forty-five men, women, and children die in the Ludlow Massacre during a Colorado coal-miner’s strike.
1914 – In first call to action of naval aviators, detachment on USS Birmingham sailed to Tampico, Mexico.
1916 – Chicago Cubs played their first game at Weeghman Park (later Wrigley Field), defeating the Cincinnati Reds 7-6 in 11 innings.
1918 – World War I: Manfred von Richthofen, aka The Red Baron, shoots down his 79th and 80th victims marking his final victories before his death the following day.
1925 – First regular-season Cubs game to be broadcast.
1926 – Western Electric and Warner Bros. announce Vitaphone, a process to add sound to film.
1926 – First check sent by radio facsimile transmission across the Atlantic.
1930 – Charles and Anne Lindbergh set a transcontinental speed record flying from Los Angeles to New York in 14 hours and 45 minutes.
1931 – Louis Armstrong records “When It’s Sleepy Time Down South.”
1934 – The movie “Stand Up And Cheer” (1:09:00) opened. It was Shirley Temple’s debut.
1935 – “Your Hit Parade”premieres on radio. Every Saturday night, Your Hit Parade presented the top tunes of the week, saving the top three songs for the end of the show.
1940 – First electron microscope demonstrated (RCA). It was able to produce a magnification of 100,000 times, in an apparatus 10 feet high and weighing half a ton.
1941 – Dodgers start to wear protective liners in their caps as a safety precaution.
1944 – NFL legalizes coaching from the bench.
1944 – World War II: The Germans use Neger (in English: Negro) human torpedoes against shipping off Anzio. A total of 37 are launched from beaches and 24 are lost. No results are achieved.
1945 – World War II: Allied bombers in Italy begin a three-day attack on the bridges over the rivers Adige and Brenta to cut off German lines of retreat on the Italian peninsula.
1945 – World War II: US troops capture Leipzig, Germany, only to later cede the city to the Soviet Union.
1945 – World War II: Allied forces took control of the German cities of Nuremberg and Stuttgart.
1945 – World War II: American forces liberated Buchenwald. 350 Americans were imprisoned at Berga, a sub-camp of Buchenwald, following their Dec, 1944, capture at the Battle of the Bulge.
1945 – World War II: Adolf Hitler makes his last trip from Fuehrerbunker to the surface to award Iron Crosses to boy soldiers of the Hitler Youth.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, US 3rd Amphibious Corps completes the capture of the Motobu Peninsula and the whole of the main northern part of the island. The US 24th Corps, on the Shuri Line, continue to attack but the limited gains made cannot be held against the Japanese counterattacks.
1946 – First baseball game telecast was in Chicago with the Cards vs. Cubs.
1947 – Fred Allen censored during his radio broadcast. Allen was telling a joke about a mythical network vice-president when he was suddenly taken off the air.
1947 – Capt L.O. Fox, USN, supported by 80 Marines, accepted the surrender of LT Yamaguchi and 26 Japanese soldiers and sailors, two and one half years after the occupation of Peleliu and nearly 20 months after the surrender of Japan.
1948 – United Auto Workers president Walter P. Reuther was shot and wounded at his home in Detroit.
1949 – Willie Shoemaker wins his first race as a jockey aboard Shafter V at Golden Gate Fields in Albany, CA.
1949 – Scientists at the Mayo Clinic announced they’d succeeded in synthesizing a hormone found to be useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis; the substance was named “cortisone.”
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton, “Music, Music, Music” by Teresa Brewer, “Peter Cottontail” by Gene Autry and “Long Gone Lonesome Blues” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: Operation Little Switch began in Korea. It was the exchange of sick and wounded prisoners of war. Thirty Americans were freed.
1953 – Korean War: USS New Jersey shells Wonsan, Korea from inside the harbor.
1957 – “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “He’s Got the Whole World (In His Hands)” by Laurie London, “Book of Love” by The Monotones, “Don’t You Just Know It” by Huey (Piano) Smith & The Clowns and “Oh Lonesome Me” by Don Gibson all topped the charts.
1958 – The last Key System train left San Francisco for Oakland. Ferry service from the SF Ferry Building ended when the Southern Pacific “Eureka” made its last crossing to Oakland.
1959 – “Desilu Playhouse” on CBS-TV presented a two-part show titled “The Untouchables.”
1961 – American Harold Graham makes first rocket belt flight. The device was three tanks mounted on a form-fitting strapped fiberglas jacket or corset worn by the rocket belt user.
1961 – Failure of the Bay of Pigs Invasion of US troops against Cuba.
1961 – FM stereo broadcasting was approved by the FCC.
1962 – NASA civilian pilot Neil A Armstrong takes X-15 to an altitude of 207,500 feet.
1962 – The New Orleans Citizens’ Council offered a free one-way ride for blacks to move to northern states.
1963 – “He’s So Fine” by the Chiffons topped the charts.
1964 – USS Henry Clay (SSBN-625) launches a Polaris A-2 missile from the surface in first demonstration that Polaris submarines could launch missiles from the surface.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler, “(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration” by The Righteous Brothers, “Daydream” by The Lovin’ Spoonful and “I Want to Go with You” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1967 – Surveyor III bounced and skidded to a halt in a broad crater in eastern Oceanus Procellarum.
1967 – Vietnam War: U.S. planes bombed Haiphong for first time during the Vietnam War.
1968 – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro topped the charts.
1970 – Vietnam War: President Nixon pledges to withdraw 150,000 more U.S. troops over the next year “based entirely on the progress” of the Vietnamization program.
1971 – Barbra Streisand records “We’ve Only Just Begun.”
1971 – The Pentagon releases figures confirming that “fragging incidents” are on the rise. In 1970, 209 such incidents caused the deaths of 34 men; in 1969, 96 such incidents cost 34 men their lives. Fragging was a slang term used to describe U.S. military personnel tossing of fragmentation hand grenades (hence the term “fragging”) usually into sleeping areas to murder fellow soldiers.
1971 – The U.S. Supreme Court in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education,upheld the use of busing to achieve racial desegregation in schools.
1972 – Apollo 16 lands on the Moon.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “TSOP (The Sound of Philadelphia)” by MFSB featuring The Three Degrees, “Best Thing that Ever Happened to Me” by Gladys Knight & The Pips, “The Loco-Motion” by Grand Funk and “A Very Special Love Song” by Charlie Rich all topped the charts.
1974 – Paul McCartney releases “Band on the Run.”
1977 – Woody Allen’s film “Annie Hall” premiered, Diane Keaton starred.
1979 – Howard K. Smith (d.2002) resigned as news analyst for ABC over the curtailment of his commentary.
1979 – President Carter attacked by a rabbit on a canoe trip in Plains, GA.
1980 – The first Cubans sailing to the United States as part of the massive Mariel boatlift reached Florida.
1981 – Final performance of TV show “Soap” airs.
1981 – A spokesman for the U.S. Navy announced that the U.S. was accepting full responsibility for the sinking of the Nissho Maru on April 9.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Love Rock ’N Roll” by Joan Jett & The Blackhearts, “We Got the Beat” by the Go-Go’s, “Chariots of Fire” by Titles – Vangelis and “The Clown” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1983 – President Ronald Reagan signs a $165 billion bail-out for Social Security.
1984 – In Washington, terrorists bombed an officers club at a Navy yard.
1985 – ATF raid on The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord compound in northern Arkansas.
1985 – “We Are the World” by USA for Africa topped the charts.
1986 – Professional basketball player Michael Jordan sets all-time record for points in an NBA playoff game with 63 against the Boston Celtics.
1989 – The case of Oliver North went to the jury in his Iran-Contra trial.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be Your Everything” by Tommy Page, “Don’t Wanna Fall in Love” by Jane Child, “Nothing Compares 2 U” by Sinead O’Connor and “Five Minutes” by Lorrie Morgan all topped the charts.
1990 – Oakland, California hosted the first Bay Area “Black Filmworks Festival.” Sponsored by the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame, the three-day event featured 25 films including a documentary entitled, “Making ‘Do the Right Thing.'”
1990 – Pete Rose pleaded guilty to two felony counts of filing false income tax returns.
1991 – “You’re in Love” by Wilson Phillips topped the charts.
1991 – US Marines landed in northern Iraq to begin building the first center for Kurdish refugees on Iraqi territory.
1993 – President Clinton said he accepted responsibility for the decision to try to end the 51-day siege at the Branch Davidian compound in Texas, yet laid “ultimate responsibility” on David Koresh for the deaths that resulted.
1995 – In the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing, the FBI announced it was looking for two men suspected of renting the truck used to carry the explosive.
1997 – In Atlanta, Ga., African American Timmie Sinclair (27) was beaten by police officers in a scene that was captured on videotape and showed excessive use of force and baton beating.
1998 – A federal jury in Chicago ruled that anti-abortion protest organizers had used threats and violence to shut down clinics. However, the US Supreme Court ruled in February 2003 that federal racketeering and extortion laws were wrongly used to try to stop blockades, harassment and violent protests outside clinics.
1999 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Littleton, Colo., two Columbine High School students, students Eric Harris (18) and Dylan Klebold (17), used guns and explosives to randomly kill twelve other students and one teacher and injuring twenty-four others before killing themselves.
1999 – Jay Scott Ballinger (36), arrested in Feb., was indicted on charges of burning ten churches in Indiana and Georgia.
2001 – In Peru an air force jet shot down a Cessna 185 carrying US missionaries. Veronica Bowers (35) and her infant daughter, Charity, were killed when the plane crash landed in the Amazon River.
2002 – A US Navy F-4 Phantom crashed during an air show at Ventura, Ca., and its two crew members were killed.
2003 – Iraq: U.S. Army forces took control of Baghdad from the Marines in a changing of the guard that thinned the military presence in the capital.
2003 – A bench clearing brawl happens in a baseball game between the Arizona Diamondbacks and the St. Louis Cardinals. Tino Martinez was hit by a 1–0 pitch from Miguel Batista, and took first base. He was then forced out at second base. Martinez charged Batista from behind. Batista turned and threw the ball at him, and players from both teams joined the altercation.
2004 – The US Labor Dept. established new rules on overtime pay. It expanded the range for lower income workers and put a ceiling on overtime for higher income workers.
2004 – The US federal government agreed to settle a civil suit filed by leaders of Earth First following an FBI arrest in Oakland May 24, 1990. Darryl Cherney and the estate of Judi Bari expected to receive $2 million.
2004 Iraq War: Twelve mortars are fired on Abu Ghraib Prison by insurgents, killing 22 detainees and wounding 92.
2004 – The NASA Gravity Probe B satellite, designed by Stanford researchers, was launched to test Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.
2005 – President Bush signed new legislation to make individual bankruptcy more difficult.
2005 – An air tanker Lockheed P-3 Orion crashed in California’s Lassen National Forest killing three crew members during a training run.
2006 – The CIA fired Mary McCarthy, a top intelligence analyst, who admitted leaking classified information about a network of secret CIA prisons.
2006 – Tony Snow is named White House Press Secretary.
2006 – John Negroponte, US National Intelligence Director, said the US employs almost 100,000 people in 16 federal departments and agencies dealing with intelligence.
2006 – Arkansas Republican Governor Mike Huckabee signed a $1.10 state minimum wage increase into law to be effective Oct 1. The previous minimum was at the federal standard of $5.15 per hour.
2006 – Georgia’s Gov. Sonny Perdue signed a bill into law that offered government-sanctioned elective classes on the Bible in public high schools. He also signed a bill permitting the display of the Ten Commandments at courthouses.
2006 – In Columbus, Kansas, five teenage boys were arrested for threatening to carry out a shooting spree at their high school on the anniversary of the Columbine bloodbath.
2007 – Johnson Space Center Shooting: A man with a handgun barricades himself in NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas before killing a male hostage and himself.
2007 – Virginia observes a day of mourning for the victims in the Virginia Tech massacre.
2008- Pope Benedict XVI has Papal Mass in Yankee Stadium in New York City .
2008 – The New York Times publishes an exposé on the Pentagon military analyst program.
2008 – Danica Patrick becomes the first woman to win a race in any top-flight American motor racing series with her victory in IndyCar’s 2008 Indy Japan 300.
2009 – The US commemorate the 10th anniversary of the Columbine High School massacre in 1999 by Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold.
2010 – The Gulf Oil Spill: The Transocean-owned (was BP) oil rig Deepwater Horizon explodes, leaking about 4,900,000 barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. At least seven people were injured and over a dozen were missing at sea.
2010 – The United States and Iraq kill an al-Qaeda leader, Ahmed al-Obeidi, in Nineveh.
2011 – Renowned photographers Tim Hetherington and Chris Hondros are killed and four others injured in Misrata, Libya.
2012 – Marcus Robinson, due to have been executed in 2007, is ordered off death row after North Carolina Superior Court Judge Gregory Weeks rules his trial was tainted by racial bias, grounds for cancellation of a death sentence under the state’s Racial Justice Act.
2013 – Howard Phillips, founder of the Constitution Party, died at 3:50 PM, EST today. Phillips is credited for helping to establish the Moral Majority which was instrumental in Ronald Reagan’s election to the White House in 1980.
2015 – The USS Theodore Roosevelt is heading to the Arabia Sea off the coast of Yemen to join other U.S. warships prepared to intercept any Iranian vessels carrying weapons to rebels, according to the U.S. Navy.
2015 – SS ‘accountant of Auschwitz’ going on trial in Germany. 93-year-old Oskar Groening, tasked with collecting belongings of victims arriving on trains, to go on trial for his part in Nazi crimes during Holocaust.
1718 – David Brainerd, American missionary to the Indians (d. 1747)
1723 – Cornelius Harnett, American delegate to the Continental Congress (d. 1781)
1745 – Philippe Pinel, French physician (d. 1826)
1882 – Holland Smith, U.S. General (d. 1967)
1893 – Edna Parker, American supercentenarian , lived in 19th, 20th and 21st centuries.(d. November 26, 2008)
1908 – Lionel Hampton, American musician (d. 2002)
1920 – John Paul Stevens, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
1936 – Pat Roberts, American politician
1937 – George Takei, American actor
1941 – Ryan O’Neal, American actor
1949 – Veronica Cartwright, American actress
1949 – Jessica Lange, American actress
1951 – Luther Vandross, American singer (d. 2005)
Rank and Organization: Corporal, United States Army, Company I, Eighth Regiment, First Cavalry Division. Entered service at Chicago, IL. Born: Pásztó, Hungary, Citation: Corporal Tibor Rubin distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism during the period from July 23rd, 1950, to April 20th, 1953, while serving as a rifleman with Company I, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division in the Republic of Korea. While his unit was retreating to the Pusan Perimeter, Corporal Rubin was assigned to stay behind to keep open the vital Taegu-Pusan Road link used by his withdrawing unit. During the ensuing battle, overwhelming numbers of North Korean troops assaulted a hill defended solely by Corporal Rubin. He inflicted a staggering number of casualties on the attacking force during his personal 24-hour battle, single-handedly slowing the enemy advance and allowing the 8th Cavalry Regiment to complete its withdrawal successfully. Following the breakout from the Pusan Perimeter, the 8th Cavalry Regiment proceeded northward and advanced into North Korea. During the advance, he helped capture several hundred North Korean soldiers. On October 30, 1950, Chinese forces attacked his unit at Unsan, North Korea, during a massive nighttime assault. That night and throughout the next day, he manned a .30 caliber machine gun at the south end of the unit’s line after three previous gunners became casualties. He continued to man his machine gun until his ammunition was exhausted. His determined stand slowed the pace of the enemy advance in his sector, permitting the remnants of his unit to retreat southward. As the battle raged, Corporal Rubin was severely wounded and captured by the Chinese. Choosing to remain in the prison camp despite offers from the Chinese to return him to his native Hungary, Corporal Rubin disregarded his own personal safety and immediately began sneaking out of the camp at night in search of food for his comrades. Breaking into enemy food storehouses and gardens, he risked certain torture or death if caught. Corporal Rubin provided not only food to the starving Soldiers, but also desperately needed medical care and moral support for the sick and wounded of the POW camp. His brave, selfless efforts were directly attributed to saving the lives of as many as forty of his fellow prisoners. Corporal Rubin’s gallant actions in close contact with the enemy and unyielding courage and bravery while a prisoner of war are in the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, United States Army, 442nd Regimental Combat Team. Entered Service: Salinas, CA Born: August 14, 1920, Salinas, CA Citation: Private Joe Hayashi distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on April 20th and April 22nd, 1945, near Tendola, Italy. On 20 April 1945, ordered to attack a strongly defended hill that commanded all approaches to the village of Tendola, Private Hayashi skillfully led his men to a point within 75 yards of enemy positions before they were detected and fired upon. After dragging his wounded comrades to safety, he returned alone and exposed himself to small arms fire in order to direct and adjust mortar fire against hostile emplacements. Boldly attacking the hill with the remaining men of his squad, he attained his objective and discovered that the mortars had neutralized three machine guns, killed twenty-seven men, and wounded many others. On 22 April 1945, attacking the village of Tendola, Private Hayashi maneuvered his squad up a steep, terraced hill to within one-hundred yards of the enemy. Crawling under intense fire to a hostile machine gun position, he threw a grenade, killing one enemy soldier and forcing the other members of the gun crew to surrender. Seeing four enemy machine guns delivering deadly fire upon other elements of his platoon, he threw another grenade, destroying a machine gun nest. He then crawled to the right flank of another machine gun position where he killed four enemy soldiers and forced the others to flee. Attempting to pursue the enemy, he was mortally wounded by a burst of machine pistol fire. The dauntless courage and exemplary leadership of Private Hayashi enabled his company to attain its objective. Private Hayashi’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
TROUT, JAMES M.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Second Class Fireman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1850, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Frolic, Trout displayed gallant conduct in endeavoring to save the life of one of the crew of that vessel who had fallen overboard at Montevideo, April 20th, 1877.
National Auctioneers Day
Four Bad Days
Romans 8:5-8 New International Version (NIV)
5 Those who live according to the flesh have their minds set on what the flesh desires; but those who live in accordance with the Spirit have their minds set on what the Spirit desires. 6 The mind governed by the flesh is death, but the mind governed by the Spirit is life and peace. 7 The mind governed by the flesh is hostile to God; it does not submit to God’s law, nor can it do so. 8 Those who are in the realm of the flesh cannot please God.
“The Christian religion is, above all the religions that ever prevailed or existed in ancient or modern times, the religion of wisdom, virtue, equity and humanity.”
John Adams, Works, Vol. III, p. 421, diary entry for July 26, 1796.
“Success means doing the best we can with what we have. Success is the doing, not the getting; in the trying, not the triumph. Success is a personal standard, reaching for the highest that is in us, being all we can be.”
~ Zig Ziglar
Svengali (sven-GAH-lee) noun
A person who manipulates and exercises excessive control over another for sinister purposes. After Svengali, a musician and hypnotist, in the novel “Trilby” written by George du Maurier (1834-1896). In the story, Trilby is an artist’s model.
607 – Comet 1P/607 H1 (Halley) approaches within 0.0898 astronomical units (AUs) of Earth.
1529 – Beginning of the Protestant Reformation: After the Second Diet of Speyer bans Lutheranism, a group of rulers (German: Fürst) and independent cities (German:Reichsstadt) protests the reinstatement of the Edict of Worm.
1587 – Sir Frances Drake sailed into Cadiz, Spain, and sank the Spanish fleet.
1763 – Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, burned to death while sleeping in his cabin in the Wyoming Valley, Pa. The fire destroyed the whole Indian village. A few days later settlers from Connecticut arrived to resume their construction of a town.
1764 – The English Parliament banned the American colonies from printing paper money.
1770 – Captain James Cook sights the eastern coast of what is now Australia.
1775 – Revolutionary War: The war begins with an alerting by Paul Revere the War began at Lexington Common with the Battle of Lexington-Concord. Capt. John Parker mustered 78 militiamen on the town green of Lexington to send a warning to the 700 British soldiers marching to Concord to seize weapons and gunpowder. Maj. Gen. Thomas Gage sent a force of 700 British troops to Concord, west of Boston, to capture colonial weapons and arrest Patriot leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock. Arriving at Lexington on their way to Concord, the British were met on the town common by about 70 Minutemen. The “shot heard ‘round the world” ignited the American Revolutionary War. No one knows who fired the first shot, but when the smoke cleared, eight Americans lay dead. The British suffered more than 250 casualties as they opposed more than 1,500 Massachusetts men. Isaac Davis was among the first to die at Lexington and Concord.
1778 – Marines participated in the USS Ranger’s capturing and sinking of a British schooner off the coast of Ireland.
1782 – John Adams secures the Dutch Republic’s recognition of the United States as an independent government. The house which he had purchased in The Hague,Netherlands becomes the first American embassy.
1783 – George Washington proclaims end of hostilities.
1802 – Spain reopened the New Orleans port to American merchants.
1813 – Benjamin Rush (67), physician, revolutionary (signed Declaration of Independence), died.
1819 – The USS Alabama and Louisiana destroyed a pirate base at the Patterson’s Town Raid on Breton Island, Louisiana.
1861 – Civil War: President Lincoln ordered the blockade of Confederate ports.
1861 – Civil War: Baltimore riot of 1861: A pro-Secession mob in Baltimore, Maryland, attacks United States Army troops marching through the city. Four Union soldiers, nine civilians killed.
1861 – President Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus and hundreds of secessionist leaders were rounded up.
1864 – Civil War: Naval engagement at Cherbourg, France: USS Kearsarge vs. CSS Alabama.
1865 – Funeral service for Abraham Lincoln is held in the East Room of the White House.
1865 – Lieutenant W. H. Parker, commanding naval escort entrusted with the Confederate archives, treasury, and President Davis’ wife, successfully evaded Federal patrols en route southward from Charlotte and arrived at Washington, Georgia.
1892 – Charles Duryea claims to have driven the first automobile in the United States, in Springfield, Massachusetts.
1897 – Léo Taxil exposes his own fabrications concerning Freemasonry.
1897 – The first Boston Marathon was run from Ashland, Mass., to Boston. Winner John J. McDermott ran the course in 2 hours, 55 minutes and 10 seconds.
1898 – Congress passed a resolution recognizing Cuban independence and demanding that Spain relinquish authority over Cuba. President McKinley was also authorized to use military force to put the resolution into effect.
1913 – California passed the Webb Bill, excluding Japanese from owning land. It was signed into law on May 19, 1913.
1915 – Aviation engineers working for Dutch-born Anthony Fokker develop the mechanical interrupter gear, which allows machine gun bullets to be fired through rotating aircraft propeller blades.
1919 – Leslie Irvin of the United States makes the first successful voluntary free-fall parachute jump using a new kind of self-contained parachute.
1924 – The “National Barn Dance” premiered on WLS in Chicago.
1927 – Mae West is sentenced to ten days in jail for obscenity for her play “Sex.”
1928 – The 125th and final fascicle of the Oxford English Dictionary is published.
1933 – The United States went off the gold standard by presidential proclamation. FDR tied this with orders that 445,000 newly minted gold $20 “Double Eagle” coins be destroyed.
1934 – Shirley Temple appears in her first movie, “Stand Up & Cheer“.
1938 – RCA-NBC launches its first regular TV broadcasts. The programs, broadcast from the Empire State Building, were an experiment and aired only five hours a week. Very few TV sets existed at the time to receive the programs.
1939 – Connecticut finally approved Bill of Rights.
1940 – Jimmy Dorsey and his orchestra record the song “Six Lessons from Madame La Zonga”
1942 – World War II: On Bataan, the Japanese are overwhelmed by thousands of American and Filipino prisoners who assemble in the town of Balanga.
1943 – World War II: In Poland, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins, after German troops enter the Warsaw ghetto to round up the remaining Jews. Young Jews under Mordechai Anielewicz directed the first urban uprising against the Nazis. During World War II, tens of thousands of Jews living in the Warsaw Ghetto began a valiant but futile battle against Nazi forces. SS-Gen Jurgen Stroop led the destruction of the ghetto of Warsaw: “The Warsaw Ghetto is no more!” he wrote proudly to Heinrich Himmler and Adolf Hitler. Stroop was hanged on the site of the Warsaw ghetto after the war.
1944 – World War II: The House of Representatives approves an extension of Lend-Lease legislation.
1945 – World War II: US aircraft carrier Franklin was heavily damaged in Japanese air raid.
1947 – Garvin Smith sets the existing world record for the 25′ rope climb. Smith broke the record at the 1947 AAU competition making the 25′ climb in 4.2 seconds. By 1963 both the 20′ and the 25′ competitions had been discontinued in the AAU and NCAA as well.
1948 – ABC-TV network begins. Known until mid-1944 as “The Blue Network,” the company was re-christened the American Broadcasting Company. One of the starting stations was WXYZ where The Lone Ranger, Sergeant Preston, Sky King and other popular daily serials originated.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cruising Down the River” by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: The Skyliners), “Red Roses for a Blue Lady” by Vaughn Monroe, “Forever and Ever” by Perry Como and “Candy Kisses” by George Morgan all topped the charts.
1951 – General Douglas MacArthur retires from the military. His farewell included quoting a line from a ballad: “Old soldiers never die; they just fade away.”
1951 – “Tree Grows in Brooklyn” opens in New York City.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1956 – Actress Grace Kelly marries Prince Rainier of Monaco. She died in Monaco resulting in injuries from a car crash.
1958 – “Tequila” by the Champs topped the charts.
1958 – The San Francisco Giants defeated the Los Angeles Dodgers 11-4 at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum – their first meeting on the West Coast.
1958 – The last Key System train left Oakland for SF. Ferry service from the Ferry Building ended the next day when the Southern Pacific “Eureka” made its last crossing from SF to Oakland.
1960 – Baseball uniforms began displaying player’s names on their backs.
1961 – Howard Anderson was executed in Cuba after being convicted of arms smuggling to anti-Communist rebels.
1961 – Cuban forces shot down a B-26 bomber piloted by Captain Thomas Ray north of Larga beach, an area they controlled. Ray was flying the bomber from Nicaragua while on contract to the US CIA.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Telling You Now” by Freddie & The Dreamers, “Game of Love” by Wayne Fontana & The Mindbenders, “I Know a Place” by Petula Clark and “King of the Road” by Roger Miller all topped the charts.
1965 – First all news radio station (WINS 1010 AM in NYC) begins operating. Its last record was the Shangri-La’s “Out In The Streets.”
1965 – At a cost of $20,000, the outer Houston Astrodome ceiling was painted because of sun’s glare. This in turn caused the grass to die.
1966 – Lt. Lee Aaron Adams of Willits, Ca., was killed when his F-105D Thunderchief fighter plane was shot down in North Vietnam. His remains were returned home in 2005.
1967 – “Casino Royale” premieres. It was a 1967 spy comedy film originally produced by Columbia Pictures. It is loosely based on Ian Fleming’s first James Bond novel. The film stars David Niven as the “original” Bond, Sir James Bond 007.
1967 – Katherine Switzer (b.1947) ran in the Boston Marathon registered under the name K. Switzer. Up to this time women were not allowed to register for the race.
1968 – Ralph S. Plaisted, insurance salesman turned explorer, reached the North Pole by snowmobile with three other men. This was the first expedition to indisputably reach the North Pole.
1969 – “Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In” by 5th Dimension topped the charts.
1969 – In Ithaca N.Y. approximately 80 armed, militant black students at Cornell Univ. took over Willard Straight Hall. They demanded a black studies program and cut a deal with frightened administrators for total amnesty.
1969 – The US turns over the first 20 of 60 jet fighter-bombers to the South Vietnamese Air Force.
1971 – Vietnam War: Vietnam Veterans Against the War begin a five-day demonstration in Washington, D.C..
1971 – Charles Manson is sentenced to death (later commuted life imprisonment) for conspiracy to commit the Tate/LaBianca murders.
1972 – US 7th Fleet warships, while bombarding the North Vietnamese coast, are attacked by MiGs and patrol boats as Hanoi begins to challenge US naval presence in The Tonkin Gulf for the first time since 1964. The destroyer USS Higbee is badly damaged.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia” by Vicki Lawrence, “Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree” by Dawn featuring Tony Orlando, “Sing” by the Carpenters and “A Shoulder to Cry On” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1973 – Barbra Streisand records “Between Yesterday & Tomorrow”.
1975 – “Philadelphia Freedom” by Elton John topped the charts.
1977 – Alex Haley received a special Pulitzer Prize for his book “Roots.”
1980 – “Call Me” by Blondie topped the charts.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss on My List” by Daryl Hall & John Oates, “Morning Train (Nine to Five)” by Sheena Easton, “Just the Two of Us” by Grover Washington, Jr./Bill Withers and “Old Flame” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1982 – Astronauts Sally K. Ride and Guion S. Bluford Jr. became the first woman and first African-American to be tapped by NASA for U.S. space missions.
1985 – 16th Space Shuttle Mission (51-D)-Discovery 4 returns to Earth.
1987 – Jacqueline Blanc, sets women’s downhill ski speed record (124.902 mph).
1987 – The Simpsons premieres as a short cartoon on The Tracey Ullman Show.
1988 – Sarah LaChapelle (56) was found murdered at her home in East Oakland. Gregory Tate (21) was arrested later that day in LaChapelle’s stolen Oldsmobile Cutlass. He was convicted in 1992 for her murder and in 1993 was sentenced to death.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “She Drives Me Crazy” by Fine Young Cannibals, “Like a Prayer” by Madonna, “Funky Cold Medina” by Tone Loc and “ I’m No Stranger to the Rain” by Keith Whitley all topped the charts.
1989 – The battleship USS Iowa’s number 2 turret exploded while on maneuvers northeast of Puerto Rico. Forty-seven sailors were killed and a $4 million investigation was launched. The Navy attempted to lay the blame on Clayton Hartwig, a seaman described as gay soldier disappointed in a gay affair.
1991 – Evander Holyfield won a unanimous decision over George Foreman to retain boxing’s heavyweight title in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
1992 – After six days, engineers plugged the tunnel leak under the Chicago River that caused an underground flood that had virtually shut down business in the heart of the city.
1993 – The 51-day siege at the Branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas, ended as fire destroyed the structure after federal agents began smashing their way in; dozens of people, including leader David Koresh (Vernon Howell), were killed. In 1999 the FBI admitted that it used incendiary tear gas canisters but still maintained that it did not start the fire.
1993 – South Dakota governor George Mickelson and seven others are killed when a state-owned aircraft crashes in Iowa.
1994 – A Los Angeles jury awarded $3.8 million to beaten motorist Rodney King.
1994 – The US Supreme Court outlawed the practice of excluding people from juries because of their gender.
1995 – Oklahoma City bombing: The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma is bombed. At 9:02 A.M. Oklahoma City, USA, a large car bomb exploded at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building killing 168 people, and injuring 500 including many children in the building’s day care center. Within a week a suspect, Timothy McVeigh, was caught and charged. Two suspects, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, faced trial. McVeigh was arrested during a routine traffic stop 78 miles from Oklahoma City on weapons charges the same day. Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, were later convicted of charges related to the bombing. Michael Fortier, a key government witness and friend of Nichols and McVeigh, was sentenced to 12 years in prison in 1998 for failing to warn authorities, lying to the FBI, transporting stolen weapons and conspiring to fence stolen weapons.
1996 – On the first anniversary of the Oklahoma City bombing, hundreds of mourners paused for 168 seconds of silence at the site where the federal building once stood.
1997 – San Diego Padres hosted the St. Louis Cardinals in a series at Aloha Stadium, where their star Tony Gwynn used to play for the Islanders. The Cardinals won the game 2-1 behind Alan Benes.
1997 – The Red River Flood of 1997 overwhelms the city of Grand Forks, North Dakota. Fire breaks out and spreads in downtown Grand Forks, but high water levels hamper efforts to reach the fire, leading to the destruction of 11 buildings.
1998 – A small plane crashed on the west side of Detroit. It was reported to have contained cash and marijuana that neighbors quickly picked up. The pilot was believed to be Douglas C. Dufresne (66) of Florida.
1998 – In Arizona grasshoppers by the millions descended on communities along the lower Colorado River.
1999 – In Florida the Everglades fire charred had 130,000 acres and continued to rage.
1999 – In Puerto Rico two US Marine jets in training dropped bombs over the island of Vieques and missed their targets. One civilian, David Sanes Rodriguez, was killed and four people were injured.
2000 – President Clinton knelt among 168 empty chairs memorializing each victim of the Oklahoma City bombing and declared the site “sacred ground” in the soul of America during a fifth-anniversary dedication ceremony.
2000 – In Arizona Richard Glassel (61)(55) killed 2 women and injured 4 others in a retirement community in Peoria.
2000 – In Tennessee Robert Glen Coe, convicted for the 1979 murder and rape of Cary Ann Medlin (8), was executed by injection. This was the state’s first execution in 40 years.
2001 – The space shuttle Endeavour went into orbit with 7 astronauts on an 11-day mission to install a billion-dollar robot arm on the International Space Station.
2001 – A US cargo ship departed from Jacksonville, Fla., for Cuba, the first scheduled ship in forty years. Two days later the ship failed to dock in Cuba.
2002 – The space shuttle Atlantis returned to Earth after installing the first girder in what eventually will be a giant framework at the international space station.
2004 – Jim Cantalupo (60), McDonald’s Corp. Chairman and Chief Executive, died of an apparent heart attack in Florida and the company named Chief Operating Officer Charlie Bell to replace him as CEO.
2007 – US Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid offered a bleak assessment of Iraq, saying the war was “lost,” triggering an angry backlash by Republicans.
2007 – A jury in Selmer, Tenn., convicted Mary Winkler of voluntary manslaughter in the shooting death of her preacher-husband, Matthew. Winkler spent seven months in custody, with two months served in a mental facility.
2009 – In Arizona Doug Georgianni (51) was shot and killed while collecting data from a traffic enforcement camera inside an SUV in Phoenix. The next day police arrested Thomas Patrick Destories (68) on 1st degree murder charges.
2010 – Arizona lawmakers passed a controversial immigration bill requiring police in the state that borders Mexico to determine if people are in the United States illegally, a measure critics say is open to racial profiling.
2010 – In Oregon Jorge Ortiz-Oliva (40), the kingpin of one of the biggest drug organizations in Oregon history, was sentenced to 30 years in prison.
2010 – In Tennessee a man opened fire outside the Parkwest Medical Center in Knoxville killing a woman and injuring two others before committing suicide.
2011 – U.S. serviceman PFC Bradley Manning, pending cort martial for the release of reams of classified documents to the Wikileaks website, is moved by officials from the Marine stockade at Quanitco to a military prison in Kansas.
2012 – One of the first pennies ever produced by the US Mint, a 1792 Silver Center penny, was put up for auction and reportedly sold for more than $1 million.
2013 – Boston Marathon bombings suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev is killed in a shootout with police. His brother Dzhokhar Tsarnaev is captured while hiding in a boat inside a backyard in Watertown, Massachusetts.
2013 – A fishing boat owned by a Louisiana sea food company sank off the Texas Gulf Coast after it was hit by a freak wave. Four fishermen were lost and one was rescued.
2013 – The Boy Scouts of America proposed lifting a ban on gay scouts but maintaining a prohibition on gay adults from leading troops.
2013 – Floodwaters swelled the Mississippi River and other Midwestern rivers following days of torrential rains. In Quiincy, Ill., the river rose nearly 10 feet in 36 hours. Two flood related deaths were in Indiana, a 3rd in Missouri.
1857 – Clarence Darrow, American attorney (d. 1938)
1904 – Pigmeat Markham, American comedian (d. 1981)
1905 – George H. Hitchings, American scientist, Nobel laureate (d. 1998)
1915 – Joy Gresham Lewis, American writer, wife of C. S. Lewis (d. 1960)
1922 – Barbara Hale, American actress
1924 – Henry Hyde, American politician (d. 2007)
1939 – Thomas J. Moyer, American judge
1940 – Joseph L. Goldstein, American scientist, Nobel laureate
1947 – Cindy Pickett, American actress
1947 – James Woods, American actor
1956 – Eric Roberts, American actor
1968 – Mary Birdsong, American actress
1976 – Justin Ross, American politician
THORSNESS, LEO K.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel (then Maj.), U.S. Air Force, 357th Tactical Fighter Squadron. Place and date: Over North Vietnam, 19 April 1967. Entered service at: Walnut Grove, Minn. Born: 14 February 1932, Walnut Grove, Minn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. As pilot of an F- 105 aircraft, Lt. Col. Thorsness was on a surface-to-air missile suppression mission over North Vietnam. Lt. Col. Thorsness and his wingman attacked and silenced a surface-to-air missile site with air-to-ground missiles, and then destroyed a second surface-to-air missile site with bombs. In tile attack on the second missile site, Lt. Col. Thorsness’ wingman was shot down by intensive antiaircraft fire, and the 2 crewmembers abandoned their aircraft. Lt. Col. Thorsness circled the descending parachutes to keep the crewmembers in sight and relay their position to the Search and Rescue Center. During this maneuver, a MIG-17 was sighted in the area. Lt. Col. Thorsness immediately initiated an attack and destroyed the MIG. Because his aircraft was low on fuel, he was forced to depart the area in search of a tanker. Upon being advised that 2 helicopters were orbiting over the downed crew’s position and that there were hostile MlGs in the area posing a serious threat to the helicopters, Lt. Col. Thorsness, despite his low fuel condition, decided to return alone through a hostile environment of surface-to-air missile and antiaircraft defenses to the downed crew’s position. As he approached the area, he spotted 4 MIG-17 aircraft and immediately initiated an attack on the MlGs, damaging 1 and driving the others away from the rescue scene. When it became apparent that an aircraft in the area was critically low on fuel and the crew would have to abandon the aircraft unless they could reach a tanker, Lt. Col. Thorsness, although critically short on fuel himself, helped to avert further possible loss of life and a friendly aircraft by recovering at a forward operating base, thus allowing the aircraft in emergency fuel condition to refuel safely. Lt. Col. Thorsness’ extraordinary heroism, self-sacrifice, and personal bravery involving conspicuous risk of life were in the highest traditions of the military service, and have reflected great credit upon himself and the U.S. Air Force.
CARSON, ANTHONY J.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 43d Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Catubig, Samar, Philippine Islands, 15-19 April 1900. Entered service at: Malden, Mass. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 4 January 1906. Citation: Assumed command of a detachment of the company which had survived an overwhelming attack of the enemy, and by his bravery and untiring efforts and the exercise of extraordinary good judgment in the handling of his men successfully withstood for 2 days the attacks of a large force of the enemy, thereby saving the lives of the survivors and protecting the wounded until relief came.
BETTS, CHARLES M.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Greensboro, N.C., 19 April 1865. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Bucks County, Pa. Date of issue: 10 October 1892. Citation: With a force of but 75 men, while on a scouting expedition, by a judicious disposition of his men, surprised and captured an entire battalion of the enemy’s cavalry.
ELLIOTT, RUSSELL C.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 3d Massachusetts Cavalry. Place and date: At Natchitoches, La., 19 April 1864. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Concord, N.H. Date of issue: 20 November 1896. Citation: Seeing a Confederate officer in advance of his command, charged on him alone and unaided and captured him.
LANGBEIN, J. C. JULIUS
Rank and organization: Musician, Company B, 9th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Camden, N.C., 19 April 1862. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 29 September 1846, Germany. Date of issue: 7 January 1895. Citation: A drummer boy, 15 years of age, he voluntarily and under a heavy fire went to the aid of a wounded officer, procured medical assistance for him, and aided in carrying him to a place of safety.
Rank and organization: Captain and Assistant Adjutant General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and Date: At Fort Huger, Va., 19 April 1863. Entered service at: Olympia, Washington Territory. Born: 9 June 1842, Newport, R.I. Date of issue: 13 June 1894. Citation: Gallantly led a party that assaulted and captured the fort.