Unerased History – August 30th

Posted by Wayne Church on August 30, 2015 in 08 - August, Blog by month |
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National Toasted Marshmallow Day

 Frankenstein Day




Rowing on the Ocean

In 1896 Frank Samuelsen (died 1946) and George Harbo (died of pneumonia in 1909), were recent emigrants from Norway to the United States. Harbo, a surfboat fisherman, and Samuelsen, a merchant seaman, were scraping by, digging clams at Atlantic Highlands on the New Jersey coast, decided that they would make a name for themselves by rowing across the Atlantic Ocean. The inspiration for their scheme was Richard Fox, the publisher of Police Gazette, who had backed previous schemes that today might feature in the Guinness Book of Records. With his support and their meager savings, an 18-foot shiplap (clinker-built) oak rowboat was built with water-resistant cedar sheathing with a couple of watertight flotation compartments and two rowing benches. The boat was fitted with rails to help them right it if capsized, a feature that saved their lives in mid-ocean. With a compass, a sextant, a copy of the Nautical Almanac oilskins and three sets of oars lashed safely in place, they set out from The Battery in New York City June 6, 1896, and arrived 55 days later in the Scilly Isles.

“The world stands aside to let anyone pass who knows where he is going.”

~  David Starr Jordan

supposititious suh-poz-uh-TISH-uhs, adjective:

1. Fraudulently substituted for something else; not being what it purports to be; not genuine; spurious; counterfeit.
2. Hypothetical; supposed.

30 B.C. – Cleopatra, the seventh queen of Egypt, committed suicide.

1645 – American Indians and the Dutch made a peace treaty at New Amsterdam. New Amsterdam later became known as New York.
1682 – William Penn sailed from England and later established the colony of Pennsylvania in America.
1780 – General Benedict Arnold betrayed the US when he promised secretly to surrender the fort at West Point to the British army. Arnold whose name has become synonymous with traitor fled to England after the botched conspiracy.
1781 – The French fleet of 24 ships under Comte de Grasse arrived in the Chesapeake Bay to aid the American Revolution. The fleet defeated British fleet under Admiral Graves at the Battle of Chesapeake Capes.
1806 – New York City’s second daily newspaper, the “Daily Advertiser,” was published for the last time.
1809 – Charles Doolittle Walcott first discovered fossils near Burgess Pass. He named the site Burgess Shale after nearby Mt. Burgess.
1813 – Marines aboard the USS President helped capture the HMS brig Shannon.
1813 – Creek Indians massacred over 500 whites at Fort Mims Alabama. The fort  was 35 to 40 miles north of Mobile, Alabama near Bay Minette, Alabama.
1836 – The city of Houston, TX is founded by Augustus Chapman Allen and John Kirby Allen
1850 – Honolulu, Hawaii, becomes a city
1861 – Civil War: Union General John Fremont declared martial law throughout Missouri and made his own emancipation proclamation to free slaves in the state. However, Fremont’s order was countermanded days later by President Lincoln. Fremont was soon relieved of command after refusing Lincoln’s order to rescind his proclamation and adhere to the terms of the August 6 Confiscation Act.
1862 – Civil War: Union forces, commanded by Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, were defeated by the Confederates at the Second Battle of Bull Run in Manassas, Virginia. McDowell was then relieved of his command until he was sent to command the Department of the Pacific in 1864, where he finished the war.
1862 – Civil War: In the Battle of Altamont, Tennessee, Confederates beat Union forces.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of Richmond: Confederates under Edmund Kirby Smith rout Union forces under General Horatio Wright.
1862 – Civil War: U.S.S. Passaic launched at Greenpoint, New York. A newspaper reporter observed: “A fleet of monsters has been created, volcanoes in a nutshell, breathing under water, fighting under shelter, steered with mirrors, driven by vapor, running anywhere, retreating from nothing.
1863 – Civil War: A detachment of the Marine Brigade, assigned to Rear Admiral Porter’s Mississippi Squadron, captured three Confederate paymasters at Bolivar, Mississippi. The paymasters, escorted by 35 troops who were also taken prisoner, were carrying $2,200,000 in Confederate currency to pay their soldiers at Little Rock.
1872 – The Neptune Line steamer Metis sank in 30 minutes off Watch Hill, RI. Of 104 passengers and 45 crew, only 33 survived.
1879 – Former Confederate General John Bell Hood (b.1831), died of yellow fever in a New Orleans epidemic.
1880 – Diablo, a chief of the Cibecue Apache, is killed during a battle with a competing band of Indians. Known as Eskinlaw to his own people, Diablo was a prominent chief of the Cibecue Apache, who lived in the White Mountains of Arizona.
1881 – The first stereo system, for a telephonic broadcasting service, was patented in Germany by Clement Adler.
1885 – Thirteen thousand meteors were seen in one hour near Andromeda.
1892 – The Moravia, a passenger ship arriving from Germany, brought cholera to the United States.
1901 – Scottish inventor Hubert Cecil Booth patented the vacuum cleaner.
1905 – Ty Cobb’s first major league at bat (Detroit Tigers). He hit a double in his first at-bat in a game against the NY Highlanders. The Tigers won, 5-3.
1906 – Hal Chase became first Yank to hit three triples in a game.
1910 – Yankee Tom Hughes pitches nine no-hit innings but loses to Cleveland 5-0 in eleven innings
1913 – Umpire forfeits game when fans in bleachers try to distract Giants.
1913 – Navy tests Sperry gyroscopic stabilizer (automatic pilot).
1914 – World War I: The first German plane bombed Paris and two people were killed.
1922 – The New Orleans Rhythm Kings recorded “Tiger Rag“. It was released on the General record label.
1926 – The first running of the Hambletonian happened in Syracuse, New York. Guy McKinney was the first horse to win first place in the famous race.
1929 – Near New London, CT, 26 officers and men test Momsen lung to exit submerged USS S-4.
1932 – Pre-WWII Europe: Nazi leader Hermann Goering was elected president of the Reichstag.
1935 – The US Revenue Act increased taxes on inheritances, gifts and higher income individuals.
1939 – NY Yankee Atley Donald pitches a baseball a record 94.7 mph.
1941 – World War II:  The Nazis severed the last railroad link between Leningrad and the rest of the Soviet Union.
1942 – World War II:  At Guadalcanal, the American forces receive 18 more fighters and 12 dive bombers.
1942 – World War II: The Battle of Alam el Halfa took place between August 30 and September 6, 1942 during the Western Desert Campaign of World War II. The combatants were the Afrika Korps, commanded by Erwin Rommel (“the Desert Fox”) and the British Eighth Army, commanded by Bernard Montgomery.
1944 – World War II: Ploesti, the center of the Rumanian oil industry, fell to Soviet troops.
1945 – World War II: American and British forces land in the Tokyo area. The US 11th Airborne Division flies in to Atsugi airfield, while the US 4th Marine Regiment of the US 6th Marine Division lands in the naval base at Yokosuka.
1945 – World War II: Gen. Douglas MacArthur arrived in Japan and set up the Allied occupation headquarters.
1945 – World War II: A proclamation to the German people is signed today formally announcing the establishment of the Allied Control Council and its assumption of supreme authority in Germany.
1945 – A pale green Super Six coupe rolled off the Hudson Company’s assembly line, the first post-World War II car to be produced by the auto manufacturer.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “You’re Breaking My Heart” by Vic Damone, “Room Full of Roses” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Don Cornell), “Some Enchanted Evening” by Perry Como and “I’m Throwing Rice (At the Girl that I Love)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: The USAF organized Detachment F of the 3rd Rescue Squadron in Korea and equipped it with Sikorsky H-5 helicopters.
1950 – Korean War: The U.S. 1st Cavalry Division relieved the ROK 1st Division on the Naktong River front.
1952 – “Half As Much” by Rosemary Clooney topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: Captain Leonard W. Lilley of the 4th Fighter Interceptor Wing scored his first aerial victory. He went on to become an F-86 Sabre ace.
1956 – In Louisiana the two-lane Lake Pontchartrain causeway opened. A second span was added in 1969.
1956 – A white mob prevented the enrollment of blacks at Mansfield HS, Texas.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Letters in the Sand” by Pat Boone, “Tammy” by Debbie Reynolds, “Whole Lot of Shakin’ Going On” by Jerry Lee Lewis and “(Let Me Be Your) Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.
1958 – “Little Star” by The Elegants topped the charts.
1960 – A partial blockade was imposed on West Berlin by East Germany.
1963 – The hot-line communications link (the Red Phone) between Washington, D.C. and Moscow went into operation.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Got You Babe” by Sonny & Cher, “Help!” by The Beatles, California Girl’s by The Beach Boys and “Yes, Mr. Peters” by Roy Drusky & Priscilla Mitchell all topped the charts
1965 – Thurgood Marshall was confirmed by the U.S. Senate as a Supreme Court justice. Marshall was the first black justice to sit on the Supreme Court.
1965 – Casey Stengel announces his retirement after 55 years in baseball.
1966 – Vietnam: Hanoi Radio announces that Deputy Premier Le Thanh Nghi has signed an agreement with Peking whereby the People’s Republic of China will provide additional economic and technical aid to North Vietnam.
1968 – The Beatles’ “Hey Jude” was released.
1969 – “Honky Tonk Women” by the Rolling Stones topped the charts.
1972 – President Nixon announced that John Dean had completed his investigation into the Watergate wiretapping debacle. And he added that no one from the White House was involved. Well, good.
1972 –  John Lennon and Yoko Ono played their “One To One” concert at New York’s Madison Square Garden.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Brother Louie” by Stories, “Live and Let Die” by Wings, Let’s Get It On” by Marvin Gaye and “Everybody’s Had the Blues” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1974 –  “The Brady Bunch“, a typical 1970s scrubbed-face American family sitcom aired on TV Sept. 26, 1969. This was the final episode.
1975 – “Get Down Tonight” by K. C. & the Sunshine Band topped the charts
1976  – Tom Brokaw becomes news anchor of the Today Show
1979  – First recorded occurrence-comet hits sun.
1979 – Hurricane David devastated the tiny Caribbean island of Dominica as it began a rampage through the Caribbean and up the eastern seaboard of the United States that claimed some 1,100 lives.
1980 –  “Sailing” by Christopher Cross topped the charts.
1980 – Cher made an unannounced appearance as vocalist with Black Rose at a concert in New York’s Central Park.
1981– CHART TOPPERS – “Endless Love” by Diana Ross & Lionel Richie, “Slow Handby Pointer Sisters, “Stop Draggin’ My Heart Around” by Stevie Nicks with Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers and “(There’s) No Gettin’ Over Me” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1981 – The Rolling Stones released their “Tattoo You” LP.
1983 – Lt. Col. Guion S. Bluford Jr. became the first Black astronaut to travel in space. He was on the Space Shuttle Challenger.
1984 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan, and several others, were inducted into the Sportscasters Hall of Fame.
1984 – The space shuttle Discovery lifted off for the first time. On the voyage three communications satellites were deployed.
1986 – “Higher Love” by Steve Winwood topped the charts.
1986 –  Roger Clemens of the Boston Red Sox became the first 20-game winner of the year. Clemens was the first Red Sox pitcher to achieve that feat since 1978.
1987 – A redesigned space shuttle booster, created in the wake of the Challenger disaster, roared into life in its first full-scale test-firing near Brigham City, Utah.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Right Here Waiting” by Richard Marx, “Cold Hearted” by Paula Abdul, “Hangin’ Tough” by New Kids on the Block and “Are You Ever Gonna Love Me” by Holly Dunn all topped the charts.
1989 – A federal jury in New York found “hotel queen” Leona Helmsley guilty of income tax evasion but acquitted her of extortion. Helmsley served 18 months behind bars, a month at a halfway house and two months under house arrest.

1990 – President Bush told a news conference that a “new world order” could emerge from the Gulf crisis.
1991 – At the World Track and Field Championships in Tokyo, Mike Powell jumped 29 feet, 4 and 1/2 inches for a new world record.
1991 – Dottie West was critically injured in a car accident while en route to perform at the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, TN. She died five days later.
1992 – The television series “Northern Exposure” won six Emmy Awards, including best drama series, while “Murphy Brown” received three Emmys, including best comedy series, in a ceremony marked by satirical jabs directed at Vice President Dan Quayle.
1993 – “Late Show with David Letterman” debuted on CBS-TV.
1994 – Usher’s first studio album, “Usher”, was released.
1994 –  Oasis’ first studio album, “Definitely Maybe”, was released.
1994 – The largest U.S. defense contractor was created when the Lockheed and Martin Marietta corporations agreed to a merger.
1994 – Rosa Parks was robbed and beaten by Joseph Skipper. Parks was known for her refusal to give up her seat on a bus in 1955, which sparked the civil rights movement.
1994 IBM announced it would not oppose Microsoft’s attempt to trademark the name “Windows.”
1996 – An expedition to raise part of the Titanic failed when the nylon lines being used to raise part of the hull snapped.
1996 – Dick Morris, the campaign strategist for President Bill Clinton, resigned due to exposure in a sex scandal.
1996 – The California Legislature sent a bill to Gov. Wilson that would mandate chemical castration of child molesters.
1997 – “Mo Money Mo Problems” by The Notorious B.I.G. topped the charts.
1997 – Philip Noel Johnson, an armored car driver believed to have stolen $22 million, was arrested at the Texas border. Johnson later pleaded guilty to charges of kidnapping, money laundering and interfering with interstate commerce. He received 25 years in prison.
1997 – Americans and others in the Western Hemisphere learned of the deaths of Princess Diana, her boyfriend, Dodi Fayed, and their driver, Henri Paul, in a car crash in Paris. Bodyguard Trevor Rees-Jones survived. Because of the time difference, it was the morning of Aug. 31 in Paris when Diana was pronounced dead.
2001 – U.S. warplanes launch strikes against Iraqi “military targets” after Iraq claims that it has shot down a U.S. spy plane.
2001 – It was reported that some 40,000 tax forms were destroyed or concealed at a Pittsburgh processing center run by Mellon Bank.
2002 – Major League Baseball players reached agreement with team owners on a four-year labor deal. This action averted a strike that threatened to drive away the sport’s already embittered fans. It was the first time since 1970 that players and owners had agreed to a new collective bargaining agreement without a work stoppage.
2002 – In Washington, DC, some 35,000 gathered for the 39th annual meeting of the Islamic Society of North America.
2003 –  Harley-Davidson celebrated its 100th anniversary in Milwaukee with a parade of 10,000 motorcycles. Some 250,000 bikers packed the roads around Milwaukee for a three-day celebration.
2003 – A flashflood swept cars off the Kansas Turnpike in Emporia and at least four children were killed with two more missing.
2003 – In Gerlach, Nevada, a woman riding an “art car” at the counterculture Burning Man festival died when she accidentally fell under the vehicle’s wheels. The weeklong festival, theme name “Beyond Belief,” peaked Saturday night with the torching of a 70-foot-high wooden effigy of a man. Burning Man is a week-long annual event held in the Black Rock Desert in northern Nevada. The event begins on the last Monday in August, and ends on the first Monday in September.
2004 – Republicans opened their convention in NYC with speeches by Rudolph Giuliani and Sen. John McCain.
2005 –  A US Congressional study said the US is the largest supplier of weapons to developing nations, delivering more than $9.6 billion in arms to Near East and Asian countries last year.
2005 – A US federal court ordered Palestinian Authority assets in the US frozen in order to pay a $116 million judgement for the 1996 killing of an American in Israel.
2005 –  The death toll in Mississippi from Hurricane Katrina passed 100. Flooding reached 11 feet in Mobile, Ala. Breaches in at least 2 levees from Lake Pontchartrain put parts of New Orleans under 20 feet of water. Mayor Ray Nagin estimated that 80% of New Orleans was flooded. Tourists snapped pictures of looters in the French Quarter.
2007 –   In a serious breach of nuclear security, a US B-52 bomber armed with six nuclear warheads flew cross-country unnoticed; the Air Force later punished 70 people.
2008 –  In Black Rock City, Nevada, the 40-foot Burning Man was set aflame. This year’s festival, themed the American Dream, was marked by a 10-story steel frame tower built by union workers of recycled materials.
2009 –  In Utah a fire, which already destroyed three houses and covered over fifteen square miles, threatened the rural town of New Harmony.
2010 –  The Hewlett-Packard Co. agreed to pay $55 million to settle a Justice Dept. probe on overcharges in a kickback scheme. The settlement involved a False Claims Act lawsuit dating back to 2004.
2010 –  In Seattle, Wa., John Williams, a Native American homeless woodcarver, was shot and killed by police officer Ian Birk, who had ordered him to drop his small knife. The shooting was later ruled unjustified, but prosecutors said they would not file criminal charges.
2011 – Hurricane Irene’s  death toll reached 40 in the  US plus three people in the Dominican Republic and one in Puerto Rico. Vermont suffers its worst flooding in 100 years and  New Jersey suffers extensive flooding with Passaic County, Mercer County and Middlesex County worst affected.
2012 –  Mitt Romney accepted the Republican presidential nomination.
2012 -President Obama issues an Executive Order — Accelerating Investment in Industrial Energy Efficiency.



1797 – Mary was an English novelist, the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. She was married to the notable Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley.
1893 – Huey Long, American politician (d. 1935) He was an American politician from the U.S. state of Louisiana. A Democrat, he was noted for his radical populist policies. He served as governor of Louisiana from 1928 to 1932 and as a U.S. senator from 1932 to 1935.
1898 – Shirley Booth, American actress (d. 1992)
1908 – Fred MacMurray, American actor (d. 1991)
1918 – Ted Williams, baseball player (d. 2002)
1930 – Warren Buffett, American entrepreneur. With an estimated current net worth of around US$42 billion, he is ranked by Forbes as the second-richest person in the world, behind only Microsoft chairman Bill Gates.




Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, pilot in Marine Fighting Squadron 124, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Solomon Islands area, August 15th and  August 30th, 1943. Entered service at: New York. Born: 24 November 1916, Brooklyn, N.Y. Other Navy awards: Distinguished Flying Cross with 5 Gold Stars. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty as a pilot in Marine Fighting Squadron 124 in aerial combat against enemy Japanese forces in the Solomon Islands area. Determined to thwart the enemy’s attempt to bomb Allied ground forces and shipping at Vella Lavella on 15 August 1943, 1st Lt. Walsh repeatedly dived his plane into an enemy formation outnumbering his own division six to one and, although his plane was hit numerous times, shot down two Japanese dive bombers and one fighter. After developing engine trouble on 30 August during a vital escort mission, 1st Lt. Walsh landed his mechanically disabled plane at Munda, quickly replaced it with another, and proceeded to rejoin his flight over Kahili. Separated from his escort group when he encountered approximately fifty Japanese Zeros, he unhesitatingly attacked, striking with relentless fury in his lone battle against a powerful force. He destroyed four hostile fighters before cannon shellfire forced him to make a dead-stick landing off Vella Lavella where he was later picked up. His valiant leadership and his daring skill as a flier served as a source of confidence and inspiration to his fellow pilots and reflect the highest credit upon the U.S. Naval Service.


INTERIM 1871 – 1898

Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Cibicu Creek, Ariz., August 30th, 1881. Entered service at: Washington Township, Knox County, Maine. Born: 15 June 1848, Washington Township, Knox County, Maine. Date of issue: 4 November 1882. Citation: Conspicuous and extraordinary bravery in attacking mutinous scouts.


INTERIM 1871 – 1898

Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Cibicu, Ariz., August 30th, 1881. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Nashville, Tenn. Date of issue: 17 September 1891. Citation: Rescued, with the voluntary assistance of two soldiers, the wounded from under a heavy fire.


INTERIM 1871 – 1898

Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Cibicu, Ariz., August 30th, 1881. Entered service at: San Francisco, Calif. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 20 July 1888. Citation: Bravery in action.



Rank and organization. Private, Company F, 6th New Jersey Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., August 30th, 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 17 September 1897. Citation: The flag of his regiment having been abandoned during retreat, he voluntarily returned with a single companion under a heavy fire and secured and brought off the flag, his companion being killed.


Rank and organization: Captain and Assistant Adjutant General, Volunteers. Place and date: At Flint River, Ga., August 30th, 1864. Entered service at: Penobscot, Maine. Birth: Oldtown, Maine. Date of issue: 29 August 1894. Citation: Voluntarily led troops in a charge over a burning bridge.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 72d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Williamsburg, Va.,  May 5th, 1862. At Bristol Station, Va., August 27th,1862. At Manassas, Va., August 29th -August 30th, 1862. Entered service at: Westfield, N.Y. Born: 1 July 1841, Westfield, N.Y. Date of issue: 8 June 1888. Citation: At Williamsburg, Va., voluntarily carried a severely wounded comrade off the field in the face of a large force of the enemy; in doing so was himself severely wounded and taken prisoner. Went into the fight at Bristol Station, Va., although severely disabled. At Manassas, volunteered to search the woods for the wounded.



Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 13th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., August 30th, 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Franklinville, N.Y. Date of issue: 23 March 1895. Citation: Picked up the colors and carried them off the field after the color bearer had been shot down; was himself wounded.



Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 5th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Thoroughfare Gap, Va., 28 August 1862. At Bull Run, Va., August 30th, 1862. Entered service at: Springville, N.Y. Birth: Monroe County, Mich. Date of issue: 9 March 1887. Citation: After having had his horse shot under him in the fight at Thoroughfare Gap, Va., he voluntarily joined the 105th New York Volunteers and was conspicuous in the advance on the enemy’s lines. Displayed gallantry in the advance on the skirmish line at Bull Run, Va., where he was wounded.



Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company K. 26th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., August 30th, 1862. At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Chester Pa. Birth: Chester, Pa. Date of issue: 2 July 1887. Citation: At Bull Run, Va., recaptured the colors, which had been seized by the enemy. At Gettysburg captured a Confederate color bearer and color, in which effort he was severely wounded.




Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 5th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., August 30th, 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Brooklyn, N.Y. Date of issue: 17 September 1897. Citation: Under heavy fire voluntarily carried information to a battery commander that enabled him to save his guns from capture. Was severely wounded, but refused to go to the hospital and participated in the remainder of the campaign.



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Unerased History – August 29th

Posted by Wayne Church on August 29, 2015 in 08 - August, Blog by month |
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More Herbs, Less Salt Day
Chop Suey Day
Anniversary of John the Baptist being beheaded


 Watergate Tapes

It has been forty-one years (2014) since the events of Watergate first became identified in the Nixon Administration. Known as the Watergate scandal, it was a political scandal that occurred in the mid- 1970s as a result of the June 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters located in the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C.  It was specific to the Nixon administration’s attempted cover-up of its involvement.

In the following investigation, the scandal produced the indictment, trial, conviction and jailing of forty-three people, including dozens of top Nixon administration officials.

It all began with the arrest of five men for breaking and entering into the (DNC) headquarters on June 17, 1972. The FBI determined that cash found on the burglars came from a slush fund used by Nixon’s  Committee for the Re-Election of the President (CREP).

By July 1973, evidence was mounting quickly against the president’s staff, including testimony by former staff members in an investigation by the Senate Watergate Committee. It was during these hearings that the existence of a tape recording system in the President’s office was revealed.

The taping system was installed in various rooms of the White House on February 16, 1971. It was installed in two rooms in the White House: the Oval Office and the Cabinet Room. Three months later, microphones were added to President Nixon’s private office in the Old Executive Office Building, and the following year microphones were installed in the presidential lodge at Camp David.

Nixon was not the first president to record his White House conversations; the tradition began with resident Franklin D. Roosevelt and continued under Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson. All of these systems were manual recording systems except the Nixon system which was automatically activated by voice. The recorders were turned off on July 18, 1973, shortly after they became public knowledge. The tape recordings produced hundreds of Sony TC-800B open-reel tapes. In these tapes only nine were identified as being involved with the scandal by White House aide Alexander Butterfield. Special Counsel Archibald Cox, a former  Solicitor General under President Kennedy, asked District Court Judge John Sirica to subpoena eight of the tapes that were relevant to confirming the testimony of White House Counsel John Dean.

Only a very few individuals knew of the existence of the taping system. The recordings were produced on as many as nine Sony TC-800B machines using very thin 0.5 mil tape at the extremely slow speed of 15/16 inches per second.  The tapes contain over 3500 hours of conversation. Hundreds of hours of discussions were on foreign policy, including planning for the 1972 Nixon visit to China and visit to the Soviet Union. Only 200 hours of the 3500 contain references to Watergate.

The existence of the White House taping system was first confirmed by Senate Committee staff member Donald Sanders, in a July 13, 1973 in an interview with White House aide Alexander Butterfield.

Three days later after the televised testimony of Butterfield,  he was asked about the possibility of a White House taping system by Senate Counsel Fred Thompson. On July 16, 1973, Butterfield told the committee that Nixon had ordered a taping system installed in the White House to automatically record all conversations; it was possible to concretely verify what the president said, and when he said it. Only a few White House employees had ever been aware that this system existed.

It all exploded when Special Counsel Archibald Cox, a former United States Solicitor General under President John F. Kennedy, asked District Court Judge John Sirica to subpoena eight relevant tapes to confirm the testimony of White House Counsel John Dean.

” In any moment of decision,
The best thing you can do is the right thing.
The worst thing you can do is nothing.”

~ Theodore Roosevelt


repast \rih-PAST\, noun:
Something taken as food; a meal.

Repast comes from Old French repaistre, “to feed,” from Latin re- + pascere, “to feed.” It is related to pasture, “the grass grown for the feeding of grazing animals, or the land used for grazing.”

30 – According to some Christian traditions, John the Baptist was beheaded.
70 -The Temple of Jerusalem burned after a nine-month Roman siege. The Second Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed by Rome’s 10th Legion and the Jews there were exiled. In the Jewish War the Israelites tried unsuccessfully to revolt against Roman rule.
1533 – Atahuallpa, the 13th and last emperor of the Incas, died by strangulation at the hands of Francisco Pizarro’s Spanish conquistadors. His death marked the end of 300 years of Inca civilization.
1708 – Haverhill, Mass., was destroyed by French & Indians.
1758 – The New Jersey Assembly established a permanent home for the Lenni-Lenape in Burlington County. It was the first “Indian reservation”.
1776 – Revolutionary War: General George Washington retreated during the night from Long Island to New York City.
1776 – Americans withdrew from Manhattan to Westchester.
1778 – Revolutionary War: British and American forces battle indecisively at the Battle of Rhode Island.
1786 – Shays’ Rebellion, an armed uprising of Massachusetts farmers, begins in response to high debt and tax burdens. It was also to protest the seizure of property for the non-payment of debt.
1828 – Robert Turner of Ward, MA received a patent for his self-regulating wagon brake.
1831 –  Michael Faraday demonstrated the first electric transformer. Faraday had discovered that a changing magnetic field produces an electric current in a wire, a phenomenon known as electromagnetic induction.
1833 – The United Kingdom legislates the abolition of slavery in its empire.
1839 – Fifty-three Africans were seized near modern-day Sierra Leone, taken to Cuba and sold as slaves. On this day, the slaves, led by Cinque, seized control of the ship, asking to be taken back to Africa. The crew secretly changed course and took them back to Long Island, where they stood trial.
1854 – Daniel Halladay patented a self-governing windmill.
1861 – Civil War: US Navy squadron captures forts at Hatteras Inlet, North Carolina.
1861 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Yankee and the U.S.S. Reliance engaged a Confederate battery at Marlborough Point, Virginia.
1861 – Civil War: Four U.S. steamers engaged Confederate battery at Aquia Creek, Virginia, for three hours.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate spy Belle Boyd was released from Old Capital Prison in Washington, DC.
1862 –  Civil War: Second Battle of Bull Run.
1862 – US Bureau of Engraving & Printing begins operation.
1863 –  Civil War: Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley sank in Charleston harbor for the first time.
1864 – Civil War:  While removing Confederate obstructions from the channel leading into Mobile Bay, five sailors were killed and nine others injured when a torpedo exploded. Admiral Farragut regretted the unfortunate loss but knew the channel had to be cleared. His famous quote still resonates,  “Damn the torpedoes.”
1869 – The Mount Washington Cog Railway opens, making it the world’s first rack railway.
1877 –  Brigham Young (76), the second president of the Mormon Church, died in Salt Lake City, Utah. 
1883 – Seismic sea waves (tsunami) created by Krakatoa eruption create a rise in the English Channel.
1885 – Gottlieb Daimler patents the world’s first motorcycle in Germany.
1885 – The first prizefight under the Marquis of Queensberry Rules was held in Cincinnati, OH. John L. Sullivan defeated Dominick McCaffery in six rounds.
1885 – Boxing’s first heavyweight title fight with 3-oz gloves & 3-minute rounds.
1892 – Pop (Billy) Shriver (Chicago Cubs) caught a ball that was dropped from the top of the Washington Monument in Washington, DC.
1893 – Whitcomb Judson received a patent for the “clasp locker,” a clumsy slide fastener and forerunner to the  zipper.
1896 – The Chinese-American dish chop suey was invented in New York City by the chef to visiting Chinese Ambassador Li Hung-chang.
1898 – The Goodyear tire company is founded.
1909 – AH Latham of France sets world airplane altitude record of 508.5 feet .
1909 – World’s first air race was held in Rheims France. American Glenn Curtiss won.
1915 – US Navy salvage divers raise F-4, the first U.S. submarine sunk in accident.
1916 – Congress created the US Naval reserve.
1916 – The Marine Corps Reserve was founded.
1916 -Congress authorized Treasury to establish ten Coast Guard air stations but appropriated only $7000 for an instructor and assistant.
1922 – The first radio advertisement is broadcast on WEAF-AM in New York City.
1929 –  John Jacob Raskob (1879-1950), former General Motors executive, announced the construction of the world’s tallest building, the Empire State Building.
1942 –  Japanese naval forces enter Milne Bay.
1942 – The American Red Cross announced that Japan had refused to allow safe conduct for the passage of ships with supplies for American prisoners of war.
1944 –Pennsylvania’s 28th Infantry Division leads the American contingent in the “Liberation Day” parade down the Champs Elysees as Paris explodes with joy after the Germans withdraw from the city.
1944 – The United States government gives official recognition to the Polish Home Army. At Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C., senior Allied representatives conclude their meetings to discuss postwar security.
1945 – General MacArthur was named the Supreme Commander of Allied Powers in Japan.
1945 – USS Iowa (BB-61) and USS Missouri (BB-63) enter Tokyo Bay in support of landing of occupation forces to take place next day.
1945 – U.S. airborne troops landed in transport planes at Atsugi airfield, southwest of Tokyo, beginning the occupation of Japan.
1945 – Secret Army and Navy reports of official enquiries into the raid on Pearl Harbor are made public. The blame is placed on a lack of preparedness, confusion and a breakdown of inter-service coordination.
1946 – Ella Fitzgerald and The Delta Rhythm Boys recorded “It’s a Pity to Say Goodnight”.
1946 – J.E. Feenstra, Nazi military police commandant, was executed.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “A Tree in the Meadow” by Margaret Whiting, “You Call Everybody Darlin” by Al Trace (vocal: Bob Vincent), “It’s Magic by Doris Day and “Bouquet of Roses” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1949 – Soviet atomic bomb project: The Soviet Union tests its first atomic bomb, known as First Lightning or Joe 1, at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan.
1949 – At the University of Illinois, a nuclear device was used for the first time to treat cancer patients.
1952 – Korean War: In the largest bombing raid of the Korean War, 1,403 planes of the Far East Air Force bombed Pyongyang, North Korea.
1953 – No Other Love by Perry Como topped the charts.
1954 – The San Francisco International Airport’s (SFO) Terminal 2 opened with a ceremony led by Mayor Robinson. Mills Field became San Francisco Airport.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Prayer” by The Platters, “Hound Dog/Don’t Be Cruelby Elvis Presley, “Allegheny Moon” by Patti Page and I Walk the Line” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1957 – Senator Strom Thurmond set a record by filibustering the Civil Rights Act of 1957 for 24 hours and 18 minutes, although the bill ultimately passed.
1958 – United States Air Force Academy opens in Colorado Springs, Colorado.
1958 –  Alan Freed’s “Big Beat Show” opened at the Fox Theatre in Brooklyn, NY.
1959 – The Three Bells by The Browns topped the charts.
1962 – A US U-2 flight saw SAM launch pads in Cuba.
1962 – The lower level of the George Washington Bridge opened.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “Where Did Our Love Go” by The Supremes, “The House of the Rising Sun” by The Animals, “C’mon and Swim” by Bobby Freeman and “I Guess I’m Crazy” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1964 – Walt Disney Pictures released their classic musical film, Mary Poppins, starring Julie Andrews and Dick van Dyke. “Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious!”
1964 – Roy Orbison’s Oh, Pretty Woman was released.
1965 – Astronauts Cooper & Conrad complete 120 Earth orbits in Gemini 5. They splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean after eight days.
1966 – San Francisco’s Candlestick Park rocked on August 29, 1966, as the Beatles (John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr) performed their final public concert.
1966 – Mia Farrow withdrew from the cast of the ABC-TV’s “Peyton Place.”
1967 – Final TV episode of “The Fugitive”.Dr. Richard Kimble (David Janssen), wrongly accused of murdering his wife, escapes custody while en route to Death Row and must elude police and Lt. Philip Gerard (Barry Morse).
1967 – Yankees-Red Sox battle in a 8 hours & 19 minutes doubleheader.
1968 –  Maine Sen. Edmund Muskie was chosen to be the Democratic nominee for vice president at the party’s convention in Chicago.
1968 – Senator Abraham Ribicoff strongly criticized Chicago’s Mayor Daly for his strong-arm tactics in controlling protestors at the Democratic National Convention.
1970 – War” by Edwin Starr topped the charts.
1970 –  The Kinks’ single “Lola” was released.
1970 –  Ruben Salazar (42), a Latino journalist for KMEX, was killed by a tear gas canister fired by a sheriff’s deputy following an anti-war demonstration in East Los Angeles.
1971 – Hank Aaron first in the NL to drive in 100 or more runs in each of 11 seasons.
1971 –  In San Francisco two men burst into the Ingleside Police Station and fired through a hole in a bullet-proof glass window killing Sgt. John Young (45). A civilian clerk was wounded. Black Panthers were suspected. Three men were charged in 1975 but charges were dismissed in 1976.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “Brandy (You’re a Fine Girl)” by Looking Glass, “Alone Again (Naturally)” by Gilbert O’Sullivan, “Long Cool Woman (In a Black Dress)” by The Hollies and “If You Leave Me Tonight I’ll Cry” by Jerry Wallace all topped the charts.
1973 – U.S. President Nixon was ordered by Judge John Sirica to turn over the Watergate tapes. Nixon refused and appealed the order.
1974 – Moses Malone became the first basketball player to go straight from high school to the pros when he joined the Utah Stars.
1977 – St Louis Cardinal Lou Brock eclipses Ty Cobb’s stolen bases record at 893. The record he beat was held by Ty Cobb for 49 years.
1977 – Three people were arrested in Memphis after trying to steal Elvis’ body. As a result his body was moved to Graceland.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Magic” by Olivia Newton-John, “Sailing” by Christopher Cross, “Take Your Time (Do It Right)” by The S.O.S. Band and “Drivin’ My Life Away “by Eddie Rabbitt all topped the charts.
1981 – Endless Love by Diana Ross & Lionel Richie topped the charts.
1983 – The anchor of the USS Monitor, from the U.S. Civil War, was retrieved by divers.
1984 – Edwin Moses won his 108th consecutive 400-meter hurdles race.
1985 –  In Missouri the St. Louis Union Station, purchased by a New York financier, reopened as a Grand Hyatt hotel. The massive, Romanesque-style building, designed by architect Theodore Link in 1894.
1986 – The former “American Bandstand” studio was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. The studio is in Philadelphia,PA.
1986 – The Beatles performed their last public concert. The San Francisco event at Candlestick Park drew some 24,000 people.
1987 – La Bamba by Los Lobos topped the charts.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Monkey” by George Michael, “I Don’t Wanna to Go on with You like That” by Elton John, “I Don’t Wanna Live Without Your Love” by Chicago and “The Wanderer” by Eddie Rabbitt all topped the charts.
1988 – Macy’s Tap-o-Mania sets Guiness record.
1990 – A defiant Iraqi President Saddam Hussein declared in a television interview that America could not defeat Iraq, saying, “I do not beg before anyone.”
1991 – The Supreme Soviet voted to suspend formally all activities of the Communist Party.
1994 – Mario Lemieux announced that he would be taking a medical leave of absence due to fatigue, an aftereffect of his 1993 radiation treatments. He would sit out the National Hockey Leagues (NHL) 1994-95 season.
1995 – While shooting the music video for Meat Loaf’s “I’d Lie for You,” a pilot and cameraman were killed in a helicopter crash in the Sequoia National Forest about 150 miles north of Los Angeles, CA.
1995 – At the O.J. Simpson murder trial in Los Angeles, without the jury present, tape recordings of police detective Mark Fuhrman were played in which Fuhrman could be heard spouting racial invectives.
1996 – Isaac Hayes, who co-wrote the Stax classic “Soul Man,” sent a protest letter to presidential candidate Bob Dole requesting Dole to stop using his song, which his supporters had changed to “I’m A Dole Man.”
1996 –  In San Francisco, dancers from the North Beach Lusty Lady Club voted on union representation with the Service Employees International Union, Local 790. The vote passed 57 to 15. The contract was ratified Apr 10, 1997.
1997 – In New York City some 7,000 protestors marched across the Brooklyn Bridge to protest police brutality and the assault on Abner Louima.
1998 – Northwest Airlines pilots went on strike after their union rejected a last-minute company offer.
1999 –  Hurricane “Dennis” wallowed along the coast toward the Carolinas, prompting evacuation orders for the fragile Outer Banks barrier islands.
2000 – Montana Gov. Marc Racicot asked Pres. Clinton to declare the state a federal disaster area due to the wildfires.
2001 – George Rivas, the ringleader of the biggest prison breakout in Texas history, was sentenced to death for killing an Irving, Tx., policeman, Aubrey Hawkins, while on the run.
2002 – The federal government approved a plan to store Colorado River water under the Mohave Desert and tap it for use by Southern California during times of drought.
2002 – A judge in Norwalk, Conn., sentenced Michael Skakel, a Kennedy cousin, to 20 years to life in prison for the 1975 murder with a golf club of Connecticut neighbor Martha Moxley.
2003 – Jeffrey Lee Parson (18), suspected of writing a variant of the “Blaster,” a virus-like computer worm, was arrested in his hometown, the Minneapolis suburb of Hopkins.
2003 – Surgeons in Baltimore, Maryland, remove a woman’s heart, rebuild its upper chambers from bovine and human tissue, and reinstall it in her body.
2003 – Rep. Bill Janklow, R-S.D., was charged with felony manslaughter in a car accident that claimed the life of motorcyclist Randolph E. Scott. Janklow was later convicted and served 100 days in jail.
2004 –  Tropical Storm Gaston makes landfall at Bulls Bay, South Carolina, with near hurricane strength 70 mph winds.
2004 – Tens of thousands of demonstrators took to the streets of Manhattan to protest President Bush’s foreign and domestic policies as Republican delegates gathered to nominate the president for a second term.
2005 –  Hurricane Katrina made a second landfall as a Category 3 storm near Empire, Buras and Boothville, Louisiana at 6:10 a.m. (CDT)after first previously striking Southeast Florida on 25 August. This date is now known as Black Monday to New Orleanians and many residents of the Gulf Coast. The rescue and response effort was one of the largest in Coast Guard history, involving units from every district, saving 24,135 lives and conducting 9,409 evacuations. Katrina ripped two holes in the curved roof of the Louisiana Superdome, letting in rain as thousands of storm refugees huddled inside. In Mississippi many of the 13 floating casinos in Biloxi and Gulfport smashed historic homes and buildings. The Grand Casino Biloxi destroyed the historic Hotel Tivoli. Storm surges and winds from Katrina unleashed at least 40 oil spills and some 193,000 barrels of oil and other petrochemicals were driven across fragile marshy ecosystems southeast of New Orleans. The death toll from Katrina eventually reached at least 1,600. An estimated 300 Louisiana residents died out of state; some 230 people perished in Mississippi. Property damage estimates were in the hundreds of billions of dollars.
2005 – In New Orleans 34 people died at a Tenet Healthcare hospital after Hurricane Katrina knocked out power and the temperature inside the building rose to more than 100 degrees Fahrenheit). The hospital’s windows couldn’t be opened.
2005 – An oil rig tore free of its moorings as Hurricane Katrina lashed the Alabama coast, before surging downriver and smashing into a suspension bridge. 92% of crude and 83% of natural gas production were shut down, as Gulf of Mexico rigs were evacuated.
2005 – The annual Burning Man Festival in Nevada planned to introduce BORG2, an event within the main event concentrating on art projects.
2005 – A Connecticut man known on the Internet as “illwill” pleaded guilty in Manhattan federal court to charges relating to the theft of the source code to Microsoft Corp.’s Windows operating software.
2005 –  Jude Wanniski (b.1936), economist and journalist, died. He coined the term supply-side economics in 1975 to describe the theory that cutting personal income tax rates would lead to increased investment and create economic growth.
2006 – President George Bush visited New Orleans one year after Hurricane Katrina devastated the region to offer comfort and hope to residents.
2006 – Public school teachers in Detroit begin a strike after failing to reach an agreement with school district officials.
2006 – Omeed Aziz Popal (29), a native of Afghanistan, killed one pedestrian in Hayward, Ca., and injured another sixteen people at eleven locations in San Francisco in a driving rampage. San Francisco police finally rammed him down at California and Spruce streets. In 2008 a San Francisco judge ruled that Popal was legally insane.
2006 –  In East Oakland, Ca., Anthony Quintero (24), a Brink’s guard, was killed during a robbery that involved his partner Clifton Wherry Jr. and Dwight Campbell, who shot Quintero.
2007 – Fellow Republicans called on Idaho Sen. Larry Craig to resign and party leaders pushed him from senior committee posts as fallout continued over his arrest at a Minneapolis airport restroom and guilty plea to disorderly conduct.
2007 – The US Air Force accidentally flew a nuclear-armed B-52 bomber from North Dakota to Louisiana. On October 19 the Air Force said 70 service members would be punished for widespread disregard of rules.
2007 – A new report said CEOs of American companies made an average of $10.8 million last year, more than 364 times the average pay of American workers. The 14th annual study was a joint report from the Institute for Policy Studies and United for a Fair Economy.
2007 – Richard Jewell, the former security guard who was wrongly linked to the 1996 Olympic bombing, was found dead in his west Georgia home; he was 44.
2008 – John McCain, on his 72nd birthday, tapped little-known Alaska Gov. Sarah Palin (44) to be his vice presidential running mate.
2008 –  In Oklahoma a train slammed into a propane tanker truck triggering an explosion that killed two people.
2009 – California Gov. Schwarzenegger declared a state of emergency in Mariposa County due to a wild fire in Yosemite National Park.
2009 – In southeast Georgia seven people were found dead inside a dingy mobile home at a trailer park built on the grounds of a historic US plantation near Brunswick.
2010 – President  Barack Obama pledges to restore the Gulf Coast on the fifth anniversary of Hurricane Katrina in a speech in New Orleans.
2012 – Hurricane Isaac arrives in the US city of New Orleans on the seventh anniversary of Hurricane Katrina hitting the city.
2012 -Yahoo News has fired Washington bureau chief David Chalian after he was caught on a hot-mic during an online video broadcast today saying that Mitt Romney and his wife Ann had no problem with African Americans suffering as a result of Hurricane Isaac. “They’re not concerned at all. They’re happy to have a party with black people drowning,” Chalian said.
2012 – Bill Brockmiller, president of the Western Wisconsin AFL- is arrested in a prostitution sting.
2013 – The Alaska Environmental Crimes Task Force sent eight armed agents wearing body armor to the tiny remote town of Chicken, Alaska to check for dirty water. Agents descended on the small community of only 17 residents and dozens of seasonal miners. According to some miners, armed agents checked for violations of the Clean Water Act, which covers how water is discharged. It was first reported on September 3, 2013.
2014 – NASA is warning a new sunspot spewing powerful X-class flares is beginning to rotate to a position directly in line with Earth. A direct hit on Earth from an X-class flare could cause major disruptions – or even destruction – to the U.S. electrical grid, which already is very vulnerable, as well as to life-sustaining critical infrastructures dependent on the grid to function.



1632 – John Locke, English philosopher.
1809 – Oliver Wendell Holmes, American physician, author, poet.
1876 – Charles Kettering. He held more than 300 U.S. patents. He invented the all-electric starting, ignition, and lighting system for automobiles. All-electric starters replaced crank ignitions for automobiles. First incorporated in the 1912 Cadillac, all-electric starting aided in the growth of the U.S. auto industry. His patents included a portable lighting system, Freon, a World War I “aerial torpedo,” a treatment for venereal disease, an incubator for premature infants, and an engine-driven generator called the “Delco”.
1915 – Ingrid Bergman, Swedish actress.
1924 – Dinah Washington was a blues, R&B and jazz singer.
1936 – John McCain, American politician
1938 – Elliott Gould, American actor
1940 – James Brady, American White House Press Secretary and gun control activist
1958 – Michael Jackson, American entertainer (d. 2009)







Rank and organization: Sergeant, U .S. Army, Company H, 23d Infantry, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Brest, France, August 29, 1944. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. G.O. No.: 24, 6 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty near Brest, France, on 29 August 1944. Shortly after dusk an enemy counterattack of platoon strength was launched against 1 platoon of Company G, 23d Infantry. Since the Company G platoon was not dug in and had just begun to assume defensive positions along a hedge, part of the line sagged momentarily under heavy fire from small arms and two flak guns, leaving a section of heavy machineguns holding a wide frontage without rifle protection. The enemy drive moved so swiftly that German riflemen were soon almost on top of one machinegun position. Sgt. McVeigh, heedless of a tremendous amount of small arms and flak fire directed toward him, stood up in full view of the enemy and directed the fire of his squad on the attacking Germans until his position was almost overrun. He then drew his trench knife. and single-handed charged several of the enemy. In a savage hand-to-hand struggle, Sgt. McVeigh killed one German with the knife, his only weapon, and was advancing on three more of the enemy when he was shot down and killed with small arms fire at pointblank range. Sgt. McVeigh’s heroic act allowed the two remaining men in his squad to concentrate their machinegun fire on the attacking enemy and then turn their weapons on the three Germans in the road, killing all three. Fire from this machinegun and the other gun of the section was almost entirely responsible for stopping this enemy assault, and allowed the rifle platoon to which it was attached time to reorganize, assume positions on and hold the high ground gained during the day.



Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Place and date: U.S.S. Memphis anchored off Santo Domingo City, August 29, 1916. Born: 7 October 1885, Fire Creek, W.Va. Accredited to: West Virginia. (1 August 1932.) Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a senior engineer officer on board the U.S.S. Memphis, at a time when the vessel was suffering total destruction from a hurricane while anchored off Santo Domingo City, 29 August 1916. Lt. Jones did everything possible to get the engines and boilers ready, and if the elements that burst upon the vessel had delayed for a few minutes, the engines would have saved the vessel. With boilers and steam pipes bursting about him in clouds of scalding steam, with thousands of tons of water coming down upon him and in almost complete darkness, Lt. Jones nobly remained at his post as long as the engines would turn over, exhibiting the most supreme unselfish heroism which inspired the officers and men who were with him. When the boilers exploded, Lt. Jones, accompanied by two of his shipmates, rushed into the fire rooms and drove the men there out, dragging some, carrying others to the engine room, where there was air to be breathed instead of steam. Lt. Jones’ action on this occasion was above and beyond the call of duty.





Rank and organization: Chief Machinist’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Place and date: U.S.S. Memphis anchored off Santo Domingo City, August 29, 1916. Born: 7 October 1883, Minneapolis, Minn. Accredited to: Minnesota. (1 August 1932.) Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession while attached to the U.S.S. Memphis, at a time when that vessel was suffered total destruction from a hurricane while anchored off Santo Domingo City, 29 August 1916. C.M.M. Rud took his station in the engine room and remained at his post amidst scalding steam and the rushing of thousands of tons of water into his department, receiving serious burns from which he immediately died.



Rank and organization: Machinist, U.S. Navy. Place and date: U.S.S. Memphis anchored off Santo Domingo City, August 29, 1916. Entered service at: Massachusetts. Born: 31 March 1889, East Boston, Mass. G.O. No.: –1 August 1932. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession while serving on board the U.S.S. Memphis, at a time when that vessel was suffering total destruction from a hurricane while anchored off Santo Domingo City, 29 August 1916. Machinist Willey took his station in the engineer’s department and remained at his post of duty amidst scalding steam and the rush of thousands of tons of water into his department as long as the engines would turn, leaving only when ordered to leave. When the boilers exploded, he assisted in getting the men out of the fireroom and carrying them into the engineroom, where there was air instead of steam to breathe. Machinist Willey’s conduct on this occasion was above and beyond the call of duty.




Rank and organization: Corporal, Company L, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Muddy Creek, Mont., 7 May 1877; at Camas Meadows, Idaho, August 29,1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 28 February 1878. Citation: Gallantry in action with hostile Sioux, at Little Muddy Creek, Mont.; having been wounded in the hip so as to be unable to stand, at Camas Meadows, Idaho, he still continued to direct the men under his charge until the enemy withdrew.



Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Place and date: U.S.S. Pawnee off Baltimore Inlet, August 29, 1861. Born: 1825, Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Embarked in a surfboat from the U.S.S. Pawnee during action against Fort Clark, off Baltimore Inlet, 29 August 1861. Taking part in a mission to land troops and to remain inshore and provide protection, Swearer rendered gallant service throughout the action and had the honor of being the first man to raise the flag on the captured fort.



Rank and organization. Private, Company C, 97th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Hell, Petersburg, Va., August 29, 1864. Entered service at: Upper Oxford, Pa. Birth: Chester, Pa. Date of issue: 6 August 1902. Citation: Went outside the trenches, under heavy fire at short range, and rescued a comrade who had been wounded and thrown out of the trench by an exploding shell.



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Unerased History – August 28th

Posted by Wayne Church on August 28, 2015 in 08 - August, Blog by month |
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Race Your Mouse Around the Icons Day
Crackers Over the Keyboard Day





Famous Failures

One of the great truths of life is that failure is an integral part of success. Many people try things, fail and then give up. The real tragedy is that they gave up. In every failure there is a lesson to be learned. To be successful then you take the lessons learned and re-apply them to the next attempt to succeed. Winston Churchill grabbed the essence of this when he said, “Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm.” Michael Jordan also grasped this idea and displayed it with this quote, “I’ve failed over and over and over again in my life and that is why I succeed.”

Even, sometimes, you will run into people who do not want you to succeed even though they might not verbally say that to you personally. When the statements get back to you they can often hurt and cause disappointment and discouragement. Do not take these to heart. Dale Carnegie once said, “Develop success from failures. Discouragement and failure are two of the surest stepping stones to success.” Keeping this in mind will certainly help you overcome these two maladies successfully.

What about the people who talked me down or said very demeaning things about me? First, forgive them, not necessarily to their face but certainly in your heart. Unforgivingness will most assuredly drag you down and delay your success. One very good description of unforgivingness is, “lighting yourself on fire and hoping the other person dies of smoke inhalation.” Instead of being unforgiving, practice what David Brinkley believed, “A successful man is one who can lay a firm foundation with the bricks others have thrown at him.”

The final truth is this Malcolm Forbes quote, “Failure is success if we learn from it.”

The famous failures below are now well known and their names are synonymous with success, but it wasn’t always that way. At one point the idea of these people reaching the heights they reached would have seemed absurd. Many didn’t just fail, they failed in spectacular fashion.

Abraham Lincoln –First went into politics at the age of 23 when he campaigned for a seat in the Illinois General Assembly and failed. He then opened a general store which failed after only a few months. Eight more failures and he was the President of the United States.

Robert M Pirsig – His well known book ‘Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance’ was rejected by 121 publishers. Since finally being published in 1974 it has gone on to sell millions of copies in 27 languages.

Michael Jordan – The most famous name in basketball was actually cut from his high school basketball team. He, himself, says he lost almost 300 games (that’s more games than many NBA players have court time in), missed over 9000 shots at goal (again more shots than an average NBA player even takes) and  26 times he was given the ball to take the game winning shot and MISSED. He is considered one of the most successful basketball players ever.

John Wayne – Before his successful acting career he was rejected from the United States Naval Academy and then went on to only receive one Oscar in his whole acting career.

Steven Spielberg – Dropped out of high school and applied to attend film school three times but was unsuccessful due to his C grade average.

Beethoven – His music teacher once told him that he was a hopeless composer.

Harry S Truman – This former US President was rejected by the US Military & Naval Academies due to his poor eyesight. At one point he was a clerk in a newspaper mailroom, and also an usher in a movie theater.

Babe Ruth – This baseball legend struck out 1,330 times.

Henry Ford – The Ford Motor Co was Henry Ford’s third business, the first two didn’t work out.

Winston Churchill – This former British Prime Minister did poorly in school and had a speech impediment in his early years.

Marilyn Monroe – She spent much of her younger years in foster homes. One of her first jobs, during the Second World War, was inspecting parachutes.

Walt Disney – He was fired by the editor of a newspaper for lacking in ideas.

Soichiro Honda – The founder of Honda was turned down for an engineering job by Toyota after World War Two.

Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita – These two were the founders of Sony, but one of their first products was an electric rice cooker. They only sold 100 or so of these cookers because they tended to burn rice rather than cook it.

Albert Einstein – He learned to speak at a late age and performed poorly in school.

Thomas Edison – As a boy he was told by his teacher that he was too stupid to learn anything.

John Grisham – This best selling novelist’s first novel was rejected by sixteen agents and twelve publishing houses.

Isaac Newton – He failed at running the family farm and did poorly in school.

Emily Dickinson was told by a magazine editor that he could not publish her poems because they failed to rhyme.

F.W. Woolworth, when employed in a dry goods store, was not allowed to wait on customers because the owner didn’t think he was smart enough.

Most of these people are now household names and there is no reason that you can’t be as well. It is simply a matter of your commitment to your success.


“Character cannot be developed in ease and quiet. Only through experience of trial and suffering can the soul be strengthened, ambition inspired, and success achieved.”

~ Helen Keller

plethora \PLETH-uh-ruh\, noun:
1. An abnormal bodily condition characterized by an excessive amount of blood in the system.
2.Excess; superabundance.Plethora comes from the Greek plethora, “a fullness,” fromplethein, “to be full.”

29/30AD    Aug 28, John the Baptist was beheaded by King Herod, perhaps at the whim of Salome.

888 – Today was the last day until February 2, 2000 that all of the digits in the date were even. The last “odd-numbered” date was November 19,1999. Zero is generally considered to be an even number.
1565 – St. Augustine, Florida, established. It is the oldest surviving European settlement in the United States.
1609 – Henry Hudson discovers Delaware Bay.
1640 – The Indian War in New England ended with the surrender of the Indians.
1676 – Indian chief King Philip, also known as Metacom, was killed by English soldiers, ending the war between Indians and colonists.
1777 – Revolutionary War – Battle of Cooch’s Bridge takes place near Newark, Delaware. It was a minor skirmish action between American militia and Hessian troops.
1830 – The passenger-carrying train locomotive “Tom Thumb” was demonstrated.
1837 – Pharmacists John Lea & William Perrins began to manufacture Worcester Sauce.
1845 – Scientific American magazine publishes its first issue.
1862 – Civil War:Confederate General Robert E. Lee, by splitting his smaller army and using flanking maneuvers, succeeds in routing the Union
1862 – Civil War:The Battle of Thoroughfare Gap, VA.
1862 – Civil War:Confederate spy Belle Boyd was released from Old Capital Prison in Washington, DC.
1862 – Civil War: Mistakenly believing the Confederate Army to be in retreat, Union General John Pope attacks, began the Battle of Groveten. Both sides sustained heavy casualties.
1867 – Captain William Reynolds of the U.S.S. Lackawanna raises U.S. flag over Midway Island and took formal possession of these islands for the U.S.
1883 –  John Montgomery (d.1911 in a glider crash) made the first manned, controlled flight in the US in his “Gull” glider, whose design was inspired by watching birds.
1884 – First known photograph of a tornado is made. The original sepia tone photograph was taken by F. N. Robinson of Howard, Dakota Territory.
1884 – Mickey Welsh strikes-out first nine men he faces.
1898 – Caleb Bradham renames his carbonated soft drink “Pepsi-Cola”.
1898 – Marines defended American interests in Valparaiso, Chile.
1907 – UPS is founded by James E. Casey in Seattle, Washington.  Nineteen-year-old Jim Casey founded the American Messenger Company in Seattle with $100 borrowed from a friend. In 1919, the company expanded beyond Seattle and changed it name to United Parcel Service.
1917 – Ten suffragists were arrested as they picketed the White House.
1919 – President Woodrow Wilson signed Executive Order 3160 which returned the Coast Guard to the administrative control of the Treasury Department from the Navy after World War I.
1922 – The first Walker Cup, the oldest international team golf match in America, was held.
1922 – WEAF in New York City airs first radio commercial (Queensboro Realty-$100 for 10 mins)
1931 – “You Rascal You” was recorded by Henry Allen, with the Luis Russell Band.
1938 – Northwestern U awards honorary degree to dummy Charlie McCarthy. The honorary degree was Master of Innuendo and Snappy comeback.
1938 – Mauthausen concentration camp began operating in Austria.
1941 – The Football Writers Association of America was organized.
1941 – President Franklin Roosevelt handed down an executive order establishing the Office of Price Administration (OPA). Charged with controlling consumer prices in the face of war, the OPA wheeled into action, imposing rent controls and a rationing program which initially targeted auto tires.
1942 – World War II: First and Second Battalion, 7th Marines leave Pago Pago for combat.
1942 – World War II: At Guadalcanal, the Japanese received more reinforcements brought in by Admiral Tanaka’s 2nd Destroyer Flotilla, nicknamed the “Tokyo Express.”
1944 – World War II: Elements of US First Army cross the Marne River at Meaux. The US Third Army is approaching Reims.
1944 – World War II: The German garrisons in Toulon and Marseilles surrender. 
1944 -World War II: German 19th Army is cut off, to the south of Montelimar, by forces of the US 7th Army.
1945 – World War II: Goring, Ribbentrop, and 22 others former Nazi government officials are indicted as war criminals.
1945 – US forces under General George Marshall landed in Japan.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Peg o’ My Heart” by The Harmonicats, “I Wonder, I Wonder, I Wonder” by Eddy Howard, “Ask Anyone Who Knows” by The Ink Spots and “Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)” by Tex Williams all topped the charts.
1949A riot prevented Paul Robeson from singing near Peekskill, NY. A fundraising concert for the widows and orphans of the Spanish Civil War turned into the Peeksill riots.
1951 – Oral B (the famous line of dental products) was trademark registered.
1952 – Korean War:  Units on USS Boxer (CV-21) launch explosive-filled drone which explodes against railroad bridge near Hungnam, Korea. First guided missile launched from ship during Korean Conflict.
1954 – “That’s All Right (Mama)” b/w “Blue Moon of Kentucky” became Elvis’ first hit single.
1954 – “Sh-Boom” by the Crew-Cuts topped the charts.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Around the Clock” by Bill Haley & His Comets, “The Yellow Rose of Texas” by Mitch Miller, “Seventeen” by Boyd Bennett & His Rockets and “I Don’t Care” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1955 – Black teenager Emmett Till is murdered in Mississippi, allegedly for whistling to a white woman and calling her “baby.”
1957 – Senator Thurmond began a 24-hr filibuster against civil rights bill.
1961 – “Wooden Heart (Muss I Denn)” by Joe Dowell topped the charts.
1961 – “Please Mr. Postman” was released by the Marvelettes.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Fingertips -Pt 2” by Little Stevie Wonder, “Hello Mudduh, Hello Fadduh!” by Allan Sherman, “Candy Girl” by Four Seasons and “Ring of Fire” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1963 – During a 250,000-person civil rights rally in at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., Martin Luther King, Jr. gives his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. Peter, Paul & Mary performed “Blowin’ In The Wind“.
1963 – Evergreen Point Floating Bridge connecting Seattle & Bellevue opens.
1964 – The Beatles appeared on the cover of “LIFE” magazine.
1964 – Race riots took place in Philadelphia.
1965 – “I Got You Babe” by Sonny & Cher topped the charts.
1965 – Navy CDR Scott Carpenter and nine aquanauts enter SeaLab II, 205 ft. below Southern California’s waters to conduct underwater living and working tests.
1965 – Astronauts Cooper & Conrad complete 120 Earth orbits in Gemini 5.
1965 – Vietnam War: The Viet Cong were routed in the Mekong Delta by U.S. forces, with more than 50 killed.
1968 – Riots in Chicago, Illinois, during the Democratic National Convention.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “How Can You Mend a Broken Heart” by The Bee Gees,Take Me Home, Country Roads” by John Denver, “Signs” by Five Man Electrical Band and “Good Lovin’ (Makes It Right)” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1971 – “How Can You Mend a Broken Heart?” by the Bee Gees topped the charts.
1972 – Vietnam War: Captain Charles B. DeBellevue, in an F-4 out of Udorn Air Base in Thailand, shoots down his fifth MiG near Hanoi.
1972 – David Bowie and the Spiders from Mars made their debut at Carnegie Hall in New York.
1972 – Mark Spitz captured the first of his seven gold medals at the Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany.
1973 – Judge John Sirica ordered President Nixon to turn over secret Watergate tapes. Nixon refused and appealed the order.
1973 – Abbie Hoffman (1936-1989), “cultural revolutionary,” was busted for smuggling and dealing cocaine. He went underground for seven years and became the environmental activist Barry Freed.
1976 – “Don’t Go Breaking My Heart” by Elton John & Kiki Dee topped the charts.
1978 – Donald Vesco rode 21′-long Kawasaki motorcycle at 318.598 mph.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Sharona” by The Knack, “The Main Event/Fight” by Barbra Streisand, “After the Love Has Gone” by Earth, Wind & Fire and “The Devil Went Down to Georgia” by Charlie Daniels Band all topped the charts.
1981 – The National Centers for Disease Control announce a high incidence of Pneumocystis and Kaposi’s sarcoma in gay men. Soon, these will be recognized as symptoms of an immune disorder, which will be called AIDS.
1981 – “The New York Daily News” published its final afternoon edition. The paper had been in a yearlong battle with “The New York Post”.
1981 – John Hinckley, Jr. pled innocent to the charge of attempting to kill President Ronald Reagan. Hinckley was later acquitted by reason of insanity.
1982 – “Eye of the Tiger” by Survivor topped the charts.
1982 – The burlesque musical “Sugar Babies” closed at the Mark Hellinger Theater in NYC after 1208 performances.
1984 – The Jacksons’ Victory Tour broke the record for concert ticket sales. The “Victory” tour, included 55 concerts with an attendance of over 2 million people.
1986 – US Navy officer Jerry A. Whitworth is sentenced to 365 years imprisonment and fined $410,000 for espionage for the Soviet Union.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Who’s That Girl” by Madonna, “La Bamba” by Los Lobos,Luka” by Suzanne Vega and “Why Does It Have to Be (Wrong or Right)” by Restless Heart all topped the charts.
1987 – A fire damaged the Arcadia, Fla., home of Ricky, Robert and Randy Ray, three hemophiliac brothers infected with the AIDS virus whose court-ordered school attendance sparked a local uproar. The Ray family moved to Sarasota, Fla.
1990 – Iraq declares Kuwait to be its newest province.
1990 – Twenty-seven people were killed and 350 injured when a tornado struck in Will County in Chicago.
1990 – Two college students were found and believed to be the fourth and fifth victims in an apparent serial killing near the University of Florida at Gainesville.
1991 – After subway motorman Robert Ray fell asleep drunk in New York his train derailed, killing 5 people and injuring 133. He was charged with manslaughter.
1991 – A helicopter from USS America (CV-66) rescues three civilian sailors who spent ten days in a lifeboat eighty miles off Capt May, NJ after their sailboat capsized.
1993 – Billy Joel’s album “River of Dreams” hit #1 in the U.S.
1994 – A Drug Enforcement Agency plane crashed in Peru killing 5 U.S. agents.
1995 – The biggest bank in the U.S. was created when Chase Manhattan and Chemical Bank announced their $10 billion deal.
1996 – Britain’s Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales, are divorced.
1998 – Over 6,000 pilots of Northwest Airlines went on strike.
2002 – Federal grand juries charged six men in Detroit with conspiring to support al-Qaeda’s terrorism as members of a sleeper cell.
2002 – In Texas Toronto Patterson was executed for the 1995 killing of a cousin when he was 17.
2003 – A US Defense Department survey found that nearly one in five female Air Force Academy cadets said they had been sexually assaulted during their time at the academy.
2003 – Two small pipe bombs exploded at Chiron Corp., Emeryville, Ca. Animal rights activists were suspected.
2004 – George Brunstad, at age 70, became the oldest person to swim the English Channel. The swim from Dover, England, to Sangatte, France, took 15 hours and 59 minutes.
2005 – A mandatory evacuation is ordered by New Orleans, Louisiana mayor Ray Nagin and Louisiana governor Kathleen Blanco as Hurricane Katrina moved nearer to Louisiana.
2006 – Prosecutors in Colorado abruptly dropped their case against John Mark Karr in the slaying of JonBenet Ramsey, saying DNA tests failed to put him at the crime scene despite his repeated insistence he’d killed the 6-year-old beauty queen.
2006 – Rice farmers in Arkansas, California, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi and Texas sued BayerCrop Science alleging that its genetically modified rice has contaminated the nation’s crop.
2006 – US Sen. Barack Obama urged Kenyans to take control of their country’s destiny by opposing corruption and ethnic divisions in government during a policy speech at the main university in his father’s homeland.
2007 – In North Carolina Dwayne Allen Dail (39), a man who remained in prison for 18 years after being wrongly convicted of a 1987 child rape, was released after new DNA testing cleared him of the crime.
2007 – The annual Small Arms Survey said there are nine guns for every 10 people in the United States.
2009 – The Los Angeles County coroner has ruled that Michael Jackson’s death was a homicide involving a combination of drugs.
2009 – The space shuttle Discovery with 7 astronauts blasted off from Cape Canaveral just before midnight to bring supplies to the int’l. space station.
2010 –  A large gathering of people attend Glenn Beck’s “Restoring Honor” rally at the National Mall in Washington, D.C.
2011 – Hurricane Irene spawns a confirmed tornado in Delaware that destroys a home and damages others. At least five people died in Maryland. The storm reaches New York City with 370,000 people having been evacuated from low lying areas.  The state of Vermont is badly affected by the storm with the towns of Wilmington, Brattleboro and Dover all badly flooded and at least one death.
2013 – The largest rocket ever to be launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base had a successful lift-off. The Delta IV Heavy rocket was launched with a $1 billion spy satellite for the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) “in support of national defense,” according to aerospace engineering firm United Launch Alliance (ULA).




1749 – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer and scientist (d. 1832)
1774 – Elizabeth Ann Seton, American-born Catholic saint (d. 1821)
1828 – (O.S.) – Leo Tolstoy, Russian writer (d. 1910)
1899 – Charles Boyer, French actor but also famous in America.
1921 – Nancy Kulp, an American actress best known as “Miss Jane Hathaway” on the popular television series The Beverly Hillbillies. (d. February 3, 1991)
1930 – Ben Gazarra is an American actor in television and motion pictures.
1982 – LeAnn Rimes is an American singer-songwriter and actress, best known for her work in country music.





Rank and organization: Lance Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, Company K, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Quang Nam Province, Republic of Vietnam,  August 28th,  1969. Entered service at: Phoenix, Ariz. Born: 20 March 1946, Mexico City, Mex. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a fire team leader with Company K, in operations against the enemy. L/Cpl. Jimenez’ unit came under heavy attack by North Vietnamese soldiers concealed in well camouflaged emplacements. L/Cpl. Jimenez reacted by seizing the initiative and plunging forward toward the enemy positions. He personally destroyed several enemy personnel and silenced an antiaircraft weapon. Shouting encouragement to his companions, L/Cpl. Jimenez continued his aggressive forward movement. He slowly maneuvered to within 10 feet of hostile soldiers who were firing automatic weapons from a trench and, in the face of vicious enemy fire, destroyed the position. Although he was by now the target of concentrated fire from hostile gunners intent upon halting his assault, L/Cpl. Jimenez continued to press forward. As he moved to attack another enemy soldier, he was mortally wounded. L/Cpl. Jimenez’ indomitable courage, aggressive fighting spirit and unfaltering devotion to duty upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and of the U.S. Naval Service.



Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Smithfield, Va., August 28th, 1864. Entered service at: New Hampshire. Birth: Andover, N.H. Date of issue: 23 January 1896. Citation: In an attack upon a largely superior force, his personal gallantry was so conspicuous as to inspire the men to extraordinary efforts, resulting in complete rout of the enemy.



Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 5th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Thoroughfare Gap, Va., August 28th,1862. At Bull Run, Va., 30 August 1862. Entered service at: Springville, N.Y. Birth: Monroe County, Mich. Date of issue: 9 March 1887. Citation: After having had his horse shot under him in the fight at Thoroughfare Gap, Va., he voluntarily joined the 105th New York Volunteers and was conspicuous in the advance on the enemy’s lines. Displayed gallantry in the advance on the skirmish line at Bull Run, Va., where he was wounded.


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Unerased History – August 27th

Posted by Wayne Church on August 27, 2015 in 08 - August, Blog by month |
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Independence Hall

National Safe @ Home Week

Just Because Day


Within a four city block square area of the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania can be found a maternity ward of extreme proportions.  This maternity ward is not only larger than what would be found in any hospital, but in delivery as well, for here was born not a child, but a nation.  Encompassed within the area named ‘Independence National Historical Park’ can be found – Independence Hall, Carpenters’ Hall, Graff House and City Tavern.  This article seeks to focus on the ward’s delivery room – Independence Hall.

During the years 1790 to 1800, Philadelphia served as the nation’s capital.  It was here the new government, founded on the rights of the individual citizens, met – and passed – its first tests.

The formation of the United States came about by the diligent work of men, imperfect individuals interlaced with faults and failures; but filled with the dream to create for themselves and generations to come a republic which would allow them, with hard work and determination, to become all that God had put them on earth to be.

At the time of its groundbreaking in 1732, Independence Hall became the most ambitious public building to be constructed within the thirteen colonies. The stately red brick building of Georgian style was commissioned by Pennsylvania’s colonial legislature.  Andrew Hamilton and Edmund Woolley were the designers with Woolley the chosen builder.  Hamilton, the original ‘Philadelphia lawyer,’ guaranteed the building’s completion.  Constructed on a pay-as-you-go basis, it was finished in a piecemeal fashion.  Twenty-one years later, in 1753, it was completed. The building’s highest point is 135’.  Two smaller buildings adjoin Independence Hall – Congress Hall on the west side and Old City Hall on the east.

During the years 1732 – 1799, Independence Hall served as the statehouse of Pennsylvania.  From 1775 to 1783, Independence Hall was the site of the Second Continental Congress.  The Constitutional Convention took place here during the summer of 1787.  In 1816, Pennsylvania’s governor signed a contract which sold the statehouse to the City of Philadelphia, though it would be two more years before the city took possession of the deed.

Within the walls of Independence Hall, the Declaration of Independence was adopted.  In addition, this was the place where the Constitution of the United States was debated, drafted and signed.  The oldest federal constitution in existence, the U. S. Constitution was created by a conference of delegates from 12 of the original 13 colonies, with Rhode Island the only colony not to have a delegate in attendance.  Presided over by George Washington, the conference stretched from May to September of 1787.  The Constitution became effective in March 1789 after New Hampshire approved it on June 21, 1788; the ninth state to do so.

During the time Philadelphia served as the nation’s capital, the section of the building known as Congress Hall would be responsible for attaching nick-names to the two sections of Congress – the Senate and the House.  The Senate received the nickname ‘upper house,’ not because it outranked the House of Representative, but because the senators met on the second floor of Congress Hall while the representatives in the ‘lower house,’ met on the main floor.

In 1830, Independence Hall underwent one of many restorations by a Greek revival architect named John Haviland.  In 1950, a committee from the National Park Service had the building restored to its 1776 appearance.

Independence Hall has its picture displayed on both the reverse of the bicentennial minting of the Kennedy half dollar and the back of the US $100 bill.  The reverse of the US $2 bill shows the Assembly Room.

” Imagination – sparks dreams and laughter, Dissolves barriers, expands knowledge and lights the mind. Imagination also holds captive in dark places, the weak and strong. It magnifies courage, and destroys the enormous insurmountable fear that kills.” 

~ Wayne C. Church

stu‧pen‧dous  / [stoo-pen-duhs, styoo-]–adjective

1. causing amazement; astounding; marvelous: stupendous news.
2. amazingly large or great; immense: a stupendous mass of information.

[Origin: 1965–70; < L stupendus, ger. of stupēre to be stunned


55 B.C. – Julius Caesar lands in Britain for the first time.

1660 – John Milton’s books were burned in London because of the author’s attacks on King Charles II
1665 – “Ye Bare & Ye Cubb” is first play performed in N America (Accomac, Va). Dates vary for the first performance, but official Virginia historians link it to August 27th.
1667  – Earliest recorded hurricane in US (Jamestown Virginia).
1776 – Battle of Long Island, in present day Brooklyn, New York, British forces under General William Howe defeat Americans under General George Washington.
1780 – Marines guarding workmen cutting masts for the Navy pursued Indians near Reading, Pennsylvania.
1832 – Black Hawk, leader of the Sauk-Indians, gave himself up.
1855 – Clara Barton becomes the first female federal employee to achieve equal status. She found a position as a patent clerk.
1858 – The second of seven of the Lincoln-Douglas debates in the 1858 Illinois senatorial race of took place in Freeport, Ill.
1859 – Col. Edwin Drake was the first in the U.S. to strike oil — at Titusville, Pennsylvania. The first commercial oil well was pumping out 20 barrels of crude oil a day. This source of crude oil, or petroleum, opened up a new inexpensive source of power and quickly replaced whale oil in lamps.
1861 – Civil War: Union ships sail into North Carolina’s Hatteras Inlet, beginning a two-day operation that secures the area for the Federals and denies the Confederates an important outlet to the Atlantic. Union troops took Fort Clark.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate soldiers attacked Loudoun County, Virginia during the Second Battle of Bull Run.
1864 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Niphon and the U.S.S. Monticello conducted an expedition up Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina, to silence a Confederate battery which was reported to have been erected in the vicinity.
1881 – A hurricane hit Florida and the Carolinas; about 700 died. (MC, 8/27/01)
1883 – Krakatoa, west of Java, explodes with a force of 1,300 megatons. The resulting tidal waves in Indonesia’s Sunda Strait claimed some 36,417 lives in Java and Sumatra.
1889 – Charles G. Conn of Elkhart, IN patented the metal clarinet.
1889 – Boxer Jack Dempsey was defeated for the first time by George LaBlanche.
1892 – Fire seriously damaged New York’s original Metropolitan Opera House. It was located at Broadway and 39th Street.
1894 – The Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act was passed by the U.S. Congress. The provision within for a graduated income tax was later struck down by the U.S. Supreme Court.
1896 – The crew of the Lifesaving Station at Fourth Cliff, Massachusetts, responded to a traffic accident in front of the station.
1910 – Thomas Edison demonstrated the first “talking” pictures in his New Jersey laboratory.
1912 – Edgar Rice Burroughs’ “Tarzan of the Apes” was published for the first time in the October issue of the All-Story magazine. The title was: “Tarzan of the Apes ~ A Romance of the Jungle.” Fifteen cents would get you a copy.
1913 – Lt Peter Nestrov performs a loop in a monoplane at Kiev.
1917 – A squadron of minesweepers departs the U.S. for service off France.
1918 – Frank Bacon starred as “Lightnin” lit up the Gaiety Theatre in New York City.
1918 – 1918 Flu Pandemic: Sailors stationed onboard the Receiving Ship at Commonwealth Pier in Boston begin reporting to sick-bay with the usual symptoms of the grippe. By August 30, over 60 sailors were sick. Soon the Pier was overwhelmed and 50 cases had to be transferred to Chelsea Naval Hospital. Flu sufferers commonly described feeling like they “had been beaten all over with a club.”

1921 – J E Clair of Acme Packing Co of Green Bay granted an NFL franchise. J.E. Clair paid tribute to those who worked in his plant by naming the team the Green Bay Packers.
1927 – Parks College, America’s oldest aviation school, opens. Parks College became the first federally approved school of aeronautics, receiving Air Agency Certificate #1.
1928 – Fifteen nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact, outlawing war and calling for the settlement of disputes through arbitration. Forty-seven other countries eventually signed the pact.
1930 – Wiley Post won the National Air Race Derby, from Los Angeles to Chicago. The fuselage was inscribed, “Los Angeles to Chicago 9 hrs. 8 min. 2 sec. August 27, 1930.”
1932 – John M. Miller, at the National Air Races did a perfect loop-the-loop in his autogyro.
1937 – George E.T. Eyston sets world auto speed record at 345.49 MPH. It was done at the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah in a Rolls-Royce-powered Thunderbolt.
1937 – The automobile division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works is spun off into the Toyota Motor Corporation.
1939 – Hans von Ohain’s and  the world’s first jet-propelled plane, the Heinkel He-178, made its first flight at Marienehe, at the Heinkel Airfield in north Germany. Hans von Ohain’s aircraft became the first jet-powered airplane to fly. It remained airborne for 7 minutes. Erich Warsitz piloted the first jet-propelled flight.
1939 – Singer Allan Jones recorded “I’m Falling in Love with Someone“.
1942 – World War II: The Battle of the Eastern Solomons. Japanese submarine I-26 damages the USS Saratoga. It will remain out of action until October.
1942 – World War II: The Coast Guard Cutter Mojave rescues 293 men from a torpedoed transport, Chatham in the Strait of Belle Isle.
1942 – World War II: Cuba declared war on Germany, Japan and Italy.
1944 – World War II: USS Stingray (SS-186) lands men and supplies on Luzon, Philippines to support guerilla operations against the Japanese.
1944 –  World War II: Two-hundred Halifax bombers attack oil-installations in Hamburg.
1945 – World War II: US troops land in Japan after Japanese surrender. The armada includes 23 aircraft carriers, 12 battleships, 26 cruisers, 116 destroyers and escorts, 12 submarines and 185 other vessels. In addition to the American and British ships, there are ships from Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the Netherlands represented. It is probably the greatest display of naval might in history.
1945 – World War II: B-29 Superfortress bombers began to drop supplies into Allied prisoner of war camps in China.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “To Each His Own” by Eddy Howard, “Surrender” by Perry Como, “They Say It’s Wonderful” by Frank Sinatra and “New Spanish Two Step” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1949 – Some Enchanted Evening by Perry Como topped the “Billboard” charts.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sh-Boom” by The Crew Cuts, “The Little Shoemaker” by The Gaylords, “Hey There” by Rosemary Clooney and “I Don’t Hurt Anymore” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1954 – The first white men crossed the Arctic Circle’s Northwest Passage in a pair of icebreakers.
1955 – The “Guinness Book of World Records” was first published. It posted sales of 80 million in 1997.
1955 – Bill Haley & Comets’ Rock Around the Clock tops the “Billboards” chart.
1958 – The Arkansas Legislature voted 94-1 to pass a law allowing Gov. Orval E. Faubus to close public schools in the face of forced integration. Ray S. Smith (1924-2007) was the only dissenting legislator.
1959 – First ship firing of a Polaris missile, USS Observation Island (EAG-154).
1960 – It’s Now or Never” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1961 – Francis the Talking Mule is the mystery guest on “What’s My Line”
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Loco-Motion” by Little Eva, “Things” by Bobby Darin, You Don’t Know Me” by Ray Charles and “Wolverton Mountain” by Claude King all topped the charts.
1962 – The United States launched the Mariner 2 space probe, which flew past Venus the following December.
1965 – Aug 27- Sep 13, Hurricane Betsy killed 75 in Louisiana & Florida. Betsy left New Orleans under seven feet of water.
1966 – “Summer in the City” by Lovin’ Spoonful topped the charts.
1966 – The Association’s “Cherish” was released.
1966 – There was a race riot in Waukegan, Illinois.
1967 – Brian Epstein, manager of the Beatles, was found dead in his London flat from an overdose of sleeping pills.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Make It with You” by Bread, “Spill the Wine” by Eric Burdon & War, “War” by Edwin Starr and “Don’t Keep Me Hangin’ On” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1972 – Haiphong, North Vietnam’s major port received its first bombings from U.S. warplanes. U.S. aircraft flatten North Vietnamese barracks near Hanoi and Haiphong as part of ongoing Operation Linebacker I, part of President Nixon’s response to the NVA Easter Offensive.
1977 – “Best of My Love” by the Emotions topped the charts.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Grease” by Frankie Valli, “Miss You” by The Rolling Stones, “Boogie Oogie Oogie” by A Taste of Honey and “Talking in Your Sleep” by Crystal Gayle all topped the charts.
1978 – Cincinnati Reds Joe Morgan is first to hit 200 HRs & have 500 stolen bases.
1981 – Divers begin to recover a safe found aboard the Andrea Doria. The Andrea Doria was a luxury liner that had sank in 1956 in the waters off of Massachusetts.
1983 – “Every Breath You Take” by The Police topped the charts.
1984 – President Reagan announces the “Teacher in Space” project. More than 11,000 teachers applied. The teacher that was eventually chosen was Christa McAuliffe from New Hampshire. She died in the Challenger disaster on January 28, 1986.
1985 – 20th Space Shuttle Mission – Discovery 6 launched. It left for a seven-day mission in which three satellites were launched and another was repaired and redeployed.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Papa Don’t Preach” by Madonna, “Higher Love” by Steve Winwood, “Venus” by Bananarama and “Strong Heart” by T.G. Sheppard all topped the charts.
1986 – Nolan Ryan, while with the Houston Astros, earned his 250th career win against the Chicago Cubs.
1988 – “Monkey” by George Michael topped the charts.
1989 – Chuck Berry performed his tune Johnny B. Goode for NASA staff in celebration of Voyager II’s encounter with the planet Neptune.
1991 – The first flight of the YF23 V-22 Osprey tiltrotor took place.
1996 – California Governor Pete Wilson signed an order that would halt state benefits to illegal immigrants.
1997 – “I’ll Make Love to You” by Boyz II Men topped the charts.
1997 – Former Agriculture Secretary Mike Espy was charged with seeking and accepting more than $35,000 dollars in trips, sports tickets and favors from companies that did business with his agency.
1998 – Two suspects in the bombing of the U.S. Embassy in Kenya were sent to the United States to face charges.
1999 – A boarding team from the Coast Guard Cutter “Munro” discover 172 illegal Chinese migrants aboard the fishing vessel “Chih Yung” off the coast of Mexico.
1999 – The US Federal Communications Commission announced new government wiretapping rules intended to help law enforcement authorities keep pace with advances in phone technology.
2001 – Work began on the future site of a World War II memorial on the U.S. capital’s historic national Mall. The site is between the Washington Monument and the Lincoln Memorial.
2001 – Intel unveiled a 2-GHz Pentium 4 chip.
2003 – Mars makes its closest approach to Earth in nearly 60,000 years, passing approximately 34,646,416 miles from Earth. At that time, Mars appeared approximately 6 times larger and 85 times brighter in the sky than it ordinarily does.
2003 – A moving crew rolled a massive Ten Commandments monument out of the rotunda of the Alabama Judicial Building to comply with a federal court order as protesters knelt, prayed and chanted, “Put it back!”
2004 – A fire at a University of Mississippi fraternity house killed 3 students.
2005 – US Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan said US home prices could fall as the housing surge “inevitably” slows.
2006 – In Kentucky a Comair commuter jet carrying 50 people, crashed in a field and caught fire shortly after taking off in light rain. The co-pilot was the sole survivor.
2007 – Sen. Larry Craig, R-Idaho, said in a statement he was not involved in any inappropriate conduct when he was arrested at the Minneapolis airport and should have not pleaded guilty to disorderly conduct.
2008 – In Honolulu Marcus Eriksen and fellow eco-mariner Joel Paschal celebrated the end of their 2,600-mile voyage on what they call the JUNK raft.
2008 – US scientists said they have transformed ordinary pancreas cells in living mice into a rarer type of cell that churns out insulin opening possibilities for future treatment of disease.
2009 – Senator Edward Kennedy died. He served nearly 50 years in the U.S. Senate, serving alongside 10 presidents
2009 – Toyota confirmed that it would stop making cars at the NUMMI plant in Fremont, Ca., idling some 4,700 workers.
2010 -The US Department of Justice closes an antitrust probe into a proposed merger of United Airlines and Continental Airlines clearing the way for shareholders to vote on the proposal.
2010 – Former President  Jimmy Carter secures the release of US citizen Aijalon Gomes from North Korea.
2011 – ExxonMobil sues Obama administration for canceling deepwater well worth ‘billions of barrels of oil’.
2011  – TX gun dealer sues Obama administration on unconstitutional executive order regulations.
2012 – In a bloody and traumatic start to the school year at Perry Hall High School in the Baltimore suburb of White Marsh, Md, a 15-year-old student brought a disassembled shotgun to school on the first day of class today. He put the weapon together on campus and entered the cafeteria where he shot and critically wounded another student.
2012 – The Republican National Committee starts their nominating convention in the face of Hurricane Isaac. It will miss Tampa but is bearing down on New Orleans.
2014 – A man in Stratford. NJ, shot and killed his hospitalized wife and then tried to kill himself, prompting investigators to search their home, where their son, 35, was found fatally shot. There were two shots fired killing Denise Wychowanec, 62 year old.
2014 – All schools in Pickerington, Ohio, were placed on lockdown after an unknown man made a threatening call to the Pickerington North High School, Fairfield County Sheriff Dave Phalen confirmed to the Washington Free Beacon. The man, who claimed to have an AK-47, said he planned to launch an attack on the school and kill students over his apparent anger at the Middle East conflict.


551 B.C. – Confucius (K’ung Fu-tzu), Chinese philosopher.

1770 – Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, German philosopher.
1890 – Man Ray, American photographer, painter, filmmaker.
1899 – C.S. Forester, British author (d. 1966)  an English novelist who rose to fame with tales of adventure with military themes. His most notable works were the 11-book Horatio Hornblower series, about naval warfare during the Napoleonic era, and The African Queen (1935; filmed in 1951 by John Huston).
1908 – Lyndon B. Johnson, the 36th President of the United States of America (1963-1969).
1910 – Mother Teresa (Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu), Macedonian-born Nobel Peace Prize-winner, missionary, humanitarian.




Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Battery A, 15th Field Artillery Battalion, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kobangsan-ni, Korea, August 27th, 1951. Entered service at: Danbury, Conn. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. G.O. No.: 16, 1 February 1952. Citation: 1st. Lt. Hartell, a member of Battery A, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against an armed enemy of the United Nations. During the darkness of early morning, the enemy launched a ruthless attack against friendly positions on a rugged mountainous ridge. 1st Lt. Hartell, attached to Company B, 9th Infantry Regiment, as forward observer, quickly moved his radio to an exposed vantage on the ridge line to adjust defensive fires. Realizing the tactical advantage of illuminating the area of approach, he called for flares and then directed crippling fire into the onrushing assailants. At this juncture a large force of hostile troops swarmed up the slope in banzai charge and came within ten yards of 1st Lt. Hartell’s position. 1st Lt. Hartell sustained a severe hand wound in the ensuing encounter but grasped the microphone with his other hand and maintained his magnificent stand until the front and left flank of the company were protected by a close-in wall of withering fire, causing the fanatical foe to disperse and fall back momentarily. After the numerically superior enemy overran an outpost and was closing on his position, 1st Lt. Hartell, in a final radio call, urged the friendly elements to fire both batteries continuously. Although mortally wounded, 1st Lt. Hartell’s intrepid actions contributed significantly to stemming the onslaught and enabled his company to maintain the strategic strongpoint. His consummate valor and unwavering devotion to duty reflect lasting glory on himself and uphold the noble traditions of the military service.





Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 143d Infantry, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Montelimar, France, August 27th,1944. Entered service at: Bayonne, N.J. Birth: New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 31, 17 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty on 27 August 1944, in the vicinity of Montelimar, France. As his platoon advanced upon the enemy positions; the leading scout was fired upon and 2d Lt. Gregg (then a Tech. Sgt.) immediately put his machine guns into action to cover the advance of the riflemen. The Germans, who were at close range, threw hand grenades at the riflemen, killing some and wounding seven. Each time a medical aid man attempted to reach the wounded, the Germans fired at him. Realizing the seriousness of the situation, 2d Lt. Gregg took one of the light .30-caliber machine guns, and firing from the hip, started boldly up the hill with the medical aid man following him. Although the enemy was throwing hand grenades at him, 2d Lt. Gregg remained and fired into the enemy positions while the medical aid man removed the seven wounded men to safety. When 2d Lt. Gregg had expended all his ammunition, he was covered by four Germans who ordered him to surrender. Since the attention of most of the Germans had been diverted by watching this action, friendly riflemen were able to maneuver into firing positions. One, seeing 2d Lt. Gregg’s situation, opened fire on his captors. The four Germans hit the ground and thereupon 2d Lt. Gregg recovered a machine pistol from one of the Germans and managed to escape to his other machine gun positions. He manned a gun, firing at his captors, killed one of them and wounded the other. This action so discouraged the Germans that the platoon was able to continue its advance up the hill to achieve its objective. The following morning, just prior to daybreak, the Germans launched a strong attack, supported by tanks, in an attempt to drive Company L from the hill. As these tanks moved along the valley and their foot troops advanced up the hill, 2d Lt. Gregg immediately ordered his mortars into action. During the day by careful observation, he was able to direct effective fire on the enemy, inflicting heavy casualties. By late afternoon he had directed 600 rounds when his communication to the mortars was knocked out. Without hesitation he started checking his wires, although the area was under heavy enemy small arms and artillery fire. When he was within 100 yards of his mortar position, One of his men informed him that the section had been captured and the Germans were using the mortars to fire on the company. 2d Lt. Gregg with this man and another nearby rifleman started for the gun position where he could see five Germans firing his mortars. He ordered the two men to cover him, crawled up, threw a hand grenade into the position, and then charged it. The hand grenade killed one and injured two, 2d Lt. Gregg took the other two prisoners, and put his mortars back into action.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Davidson Canyon near Camp Crittenden, Ariz., August 27th,1872. Entered service at:——. Birth: Wexford, Ireland. Date of issue: 4 December 1874. Citation: In command of a detachment of four men defeated a superior force.


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Unerased History – August 26th

Posted by Wayne Church on August 26, 2015 in 08 - August, Blog by month |
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Women’s Equality Day
Cherry Popsicle Day
National Dog Day

Women’s Equality Day Established

Joint Resolution of Congress, 1971

Designating August 26th of each year as Women’s Equality Day WHEREAS, the women of the United States have been treated as second-class citizens and have not been entitled the full rights and privileges, public or private, legal or institutional, which are available to male citizens of the United States; and WHEREAS, the women of the United States have united to assure that these rights and privileges are available to all citizens equally regardless of sex; and WHEREAS, the women of the United States have designated August 26th, the anniversary date of the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment, as symbol of the continued fight for equal rights: and WHEREAS, the women of United States are to be commended and supported in their organizations and activities, NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that August 26th of each year is designated as “Women’s Equality Day,” and the President is authorized and requested to issue a proclamation annually in commemoration of that day in 1920, on which the women of America were first given the right to vote, and that day in 1970, on which a nationwide demonstration for women’s rights took place.

Don’t walk in front of me, I may not follow. Don’t walk behind me, I may not lead. Just walk beside me and be my friend.”

~  Albert Camus

tete-a-tete \TAYT-uh-TAYT; TET-uh-TET\, adjective: 1. Private; confidential; familiar. 2. A private conversation between two people. 3. A short sofa intended to accommodate two persons. Tete-a-tete comes from the French, literally “head-to-head.”

55 B.C. – Roman forces under Julius Caesar invaded Britain.

1346 -The military supremacy of the English longbow over the French combination of crossbow and armored knights is established at the Battle of Crécy in the Hundred Years War.

1429 – Joan of Arc made a triumphant entry into Paris.

1498 – Michelangelo was commissioned to make the “Pieta.”

1748 – The first Lutheran denomination in North America, the Pennsylvania Ministerium, is founded in Philadelphia.

1775 – Rhode Island Resolve: Rhode Island delegates to Continental Congress press for creation of Continental Navy to protect the colonies.

1791 – John Fitch, an American inventor, clockmaker, entrepreneur and engineer, was granted a United States patent for the steamboat.

1818 – Illinois becomes the 21st state.

1839 – The ship Amistad is captured off Long Island. The U.S.S. Washington, a U.S. Navy brig, seized the Amistad York, and escorted it to New London, Connecticut.

1842 – The U.S. Congress established the fiscal year, which begins on July first.

1843 – Charles Thurber patented a typewriter.

1847 – Liberia was proclaimed an independent republic. Freed American slaves founded Liberia.They modeled their constitution after that of the US, copied the US flag, and named their capital Monrovia, after James Monroe.

1862 – Civil War: The Second Battle of Bull Run begins. Confederate General Thomas ‘Stonewall’ Jackson encircles the Union Army under General John Pope.

1863 – Civil War: Battle of Rocky Gap, WV, (White Sulphur Springs).

1865 – Civil War ends with Naval strength over 58,500 men and 600 ships.

1873 – First public school kindergarten in the U.S. was authorized in St. Louis, MO.

1883 – The volcano Krakatoa erupted in the largest recorded explosion.

1884 – The first roller coaster in America opens at Coney Island, in Brooklyn, New York. Known as a switchback railway, it was the brainchild of LaMarcus Thompson, traveled approximately six miles per hour and cost a nickel to ride.

1902 – Arthur McCurdy obtained a patent for a daylight developing tank for roll film.

1903 – The patent for a flashlight was issued to Conrad Hubert. The patent number is  737,107. It is for a flashlight with an on/off switch in the now familiar cylindrical casing containing lamp and batteries.

1907 – Houdini escapes from chains underwater at Aquatic Park in 57 seconds.

1908 – Tony Pastor (b.1837), singer and actor, died. He is considered to be the father of American vaudeville.

1920 – US Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby certified ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment. The amendment had been first introduced in Congress in 1878 and gave women the right to vote.

1935 – The US Public Utilities Act gave federal agencies powers to regulate gas and electric companies.

1937 – President Roosevelt signed the Judicial Procedure Reform Act, a compromise on his judicial reorganization plan.

1939 – WXBS of New York City televised the first major league baseball games. The event was a double-header between the Cincinnati Reds and the Brooklyn Dodgers at Ebbets Field. The Reds won first, 5-2; the Dodgers, second, 6-1.

1942 – World War II: Japanese troops landed on New Guinea, Milne Bay.

1942 – World War II: Seven thousand Jews were rounded up in Vichy, France.

1942 – World War II: Holocaust:   At 2.30 am in Chortkiav, western Ukraine, the German Schutzpolizei starts driving Jews out of their houses, divided them into groups of 120, and deported 2000 to Belzec death camp. Five hundred of the sick and children are murdered on the spot.

1944 – World War II: US 12th Army Corps crossed the river Seine East of Paris.

1944 – World War II: Bulgaria announced that it had withdrawn from the war and that German troops in the country were to be disarmed.

1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “If I Loved You” by Perry Como, “Till the End of Time” by Perry Como, “On the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe” by Johnny Mercer, “You Two Timed Me One Time Too Often” by Tex Ritter all topped the charts.

1945 – The Japanese were given surrender instructions on the U.S.S. Missouri at the end of World War II.

1947 – First African-American baseball pitcher Don Bankhead (Hit a HR on first at bat).

1949 – The US submarine Cochino (SS-345) sank off Norway following an electrical fire and battery explosion a day earlier. A second battery explosion made “Abandon Ship” the only possible order, and Cochino sank.

1950 – “Goodnight Irene” by the Weavers with Gordon Jenkins topped the charts.

1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Walking Behind You” by Eddie Fisher, “No Other Love by Perry Como, “You, You, You” by The Ames Brothers and “Hey Joe!” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.

1955 – First color telecast (NBC) of a tennis match (Davis Cup).

1957 – Ford Motor Company unveiled the Edsel. It was supposed to Ford’s new luxury car. 110,847 of the cars were built before Ford pulled the plug due to lack of sales.

1957 – The Soviet Union announces that it has successfully tested an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) capable of being fired “into any part of the world.”

1958 – Alaskans went to the polls to overwhelmingly vote in favor of statehood.

1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tossin’ and Turnin’” by Bobby Lewis, “Wooden Heart” by Joe Dowell, “Michael” by The Highwaymen and “Tender Years” by George Jones all topped the charts.

1962 – Mariner 2 launched for first planet flyby (Venus). The spacecraft discovered ground temperatures as high as 428o C (800o F). Radio contact was lost on January 3, 1963.

1967 – “Ode to Billy Joe” by Bobbie Gentry topped the charts.

1968 – As the Democratic National Convention began in Chicago, thousands of antiwar demonstrators protested the Vietnam War and its support by presidential candidate, Vice President Hubert Humphrey.

1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Honky Tonk Women” by The Rolling Stones, “Sweet Caroline” by Neil Diamond, “Put a Little Love in Your Heart” by Jackie DeShannon and “A Boy Named Sue” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.

1969 – Donald “Shorty” Shea (b.1933), a Hollywood stuntman, was murdered by members of the Manson family about this time. The location of his body was not discovered until 1977.

1971 – NY Giant football team announces its leaving the Bronx for NJ in 1975.They were getting a new sports complex to be built in East Rutherford.

1971 – A Joint Resolution of Congress declared that August 26th each year is Women’s Equality Day.

1972 – “Brandy (You’re a Fine Girl)” by Looking Glass topped the charts.

1973 – The University of Texas at Arlington became the first accredited school to offer belly dancing.

1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Best of My Love” by Emotions, “(Your Love Has Lifted Me) Higher and Higher” by Rita Coolidge, “Easy” by Commodores and “Way Down” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.

1978 – “Grease” by Frankie Valli topped the charts.

1978 – Papal conclave: Albino Luciani is elected as Pope John Paul I.

1980 – John Birges plants a bomb at Harvey’s Resort Hotel in Stateline, Nevada. It was disguised as a new “computer.”

1981 – Voyager 2 took photo’s of Saturn’s moon Titan.

1982 – Rickey Henderson tied Lou Brock’s 1974 record of 118 stolen bases.

1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Power of Love” by Huey Lewis & The News, “St. Elmo’s Fire (Man in Motion)” by John Parr, “Freeway of Love” by Aretha Franklin and “Real Love” by Kenny Rogers & Dolly Parton all topped the charts.

1985 – Thirteen-year-old AIDS patient Ryan White began “attending” classes at Western Middle School in Kokomo, Indiana, via a telephone hook-up at his home. School officials had barred Ryan from attending classes in person.

1987 – The US stock market began a two-month decline of 41%.

1987 – President Ronald Reagan proclaims September 11, 1987 as 9-1-1 Emergency Number Day.

1987 – The Fuller Brush Company announced plans to open two retail stores in Dallas, TX. The company that had sold its products door to door for 81 years.

1987 – Sonny Bono, formerly of Sonny & Cher, announced that he was running for mayor of Palm Springs, CA. He won the election.

1987 – The US stock market began a two month decline of 41%.

1988 – Republican presidential nominee George Bush denounced Democrat Michael Dukakis’ criticism of Reagan administration drug policies as “an insult,” one day after the Massachusetts governor called U.S. dealings with Panamanian General Manuel Noriega “criminal.”

1989 – “Right Here Waiting” by Richard Marx topped the charts.

1989 – A team from Trumbull, Conn., became the first American team since 1983 to win the Little League World Series in Williamsport, Pa.

1990 – The fifty-five Americans at the U.S. Embassy in Kuwait left Baghdad by car and headed for the Turkish border.

1992 – A mistrial was declared in the Iran-Contra cover-up trial of CIA spy Clair George.

1992 – A “no-fly zone” was imposed on the southern one-third of Iraq. The move by the U.S., France and Britain was aimed at protecting Iraqi Shiite Muslims.

1993 – Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman and 14 co-defendants entered innocent pleas in federal court in New York, a day after their indictment on charges of conspiring to wage terrorism against the United States.

1993 – Landlady Dorothea Puente was convicted in Monterey, Calif., of murdering three of her boardinghouse tenants; she was later sentenced to life without parole.

1995 – “Kiss From a Rose” by Seal topped the charts.

1996 – After two vetoes, President Bill Clinton signed welfare reform into law with the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act. The act ended entitlement welfare and gave a block grant to the states, called TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families).

1996 – Barbara Jewell asked U.S. President Clinton to clear her son’s name in connection with the Centennial Olympic Park bombing. Richard Jewell was later cleared by the Justice Department.

1996 – A Cuban court convicted fugitive U.S. financier Robert Vesco of economic crimes. He was sentenced to thirteen years in prison.

1997 – It was announced that researchers at Johns Hopkins had found a gene that causes colon cancer in some people of Jewish ancestry.

1998 – U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno ordered a review of the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.

1998 – U.N. weapons inspector Scott Ritter resigns, saying the Security Council and the United States have failed to take a tougher stand against Iraq.

1998 – A $225 million rocket and communication satellite exploded after take-off at Cape Canaveral.

1998 – Hurricane Bonnie drifted ashore in North Carolina and began creeping up the coast, packing heavy rains and high winds.

1999 – Attorney General Janet Reno pledged that a new investigation of the 1993 Waco, Texas, siege would “get to the bottom” of how the FBI used potentially flammable tear gas grenades against her wishes and then took six years to admit it.

2000 –  United Airlines signed a tentative accord with its 10,000 pilots following 20 months of negotiations.

2000 – The Houston Comets won their fourth straight WNBA championship by defeating the New York Liberty 79-73.

2001 – The Tokyo Kitasuna beat Apopka, Fla., 2-1 to win the Little League championship in South Williamsport, Pa.

2001 – IBM computer scientists reported that they had constructed a working logic circuit within a single molecule of carbon fiber known as a carbon nanotube.

2002 – Vice President Dick Cheney, speaking at a Veterans of Foreign Wars convention in Tennessee, warned that there is “no doubt” that Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein is amassing weapons of mass destruction for use against America and its allies.

2003 –  The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) releases 200 page final dossier over the space shuttle Columbia’s destruction (and the death of its seven astronauts). It states the cause is from NASA’s cultural traits, lack of funds, and insufficient safety program.

2003 – The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) forecast a US deficit of $401 billion this year and $480 billion in 2004.

2003 –  President Bush, in  a speech to the American Legion, defends the Iraq policy, declaring the United States had hit terrorism in overthrowing the government of Saddam Hussein. President Bush vows “no retreat” from Iraq, states that the United States may carry out other pre-emptive strikes.

2003 – O.J. Simpson, giving an interview to Playboy, states that he is still innocent, but says his “dream team” lawyers saved him. Without the money to pay for a “dream team” of lawyers, he says he would not have prevailed by being acquitted.

2004 – MIT named Yale neuroscientist Susan Hockfield as its new president, the first woman to ever hold that job.

2005 – Florida’s Gov. Bush signed legislation giving people the right to meet “force with force.

2005 – Utility crews in South Florida scrambled to restore power to more than one million customers blacked out by Hurricane Katrina.

2006 – NASA delays the launch of the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-115) for 24 hours. Lightning struck the space shuttle launch pad on Friday but no damage was caused.

2007 –  Tornadoes hit parts of central and southeast Ohio as hundreds of thousands of people in the Midwest are without power.

2007 – The $95 million Hawaii Superferry made its maiden run from Honolulu to Maui as environmentalists protested. The 349-foot giant catamaran, named Alakai, carried over 500 passengers and 150 cars for the 3-hour trip.

2007 – Flying the Friendly Skies: Iran vowed to use a new 2,000-pound “smart” bomb against its enemies and unveiled mass production of the new weapon.

2008 – California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger signed a measure for a statewide bullet train system to be placed on the November ballot.

2008 – California Attorney General Jerry Brown said he expected raids on medical pot clubs that sell for big profits in the Bay Area.

2008 – In the second day of the Democratic Convention in Denver, Senator Hillary Clinton endorsed Senator Barack Obama for the US presidential nomination.

2008 – An Ohio jury convicted Andrew Siemaszko, a former nuclear plant engineer, of hiding information in 2001 about reactor corrosion at the Davis-Besse plant along Lake Erie.

2009 – Court orders Christian student to attend public school. She has been ordered into government-run public school for having “sincerely held” religious beliefs. The court said that the girl’s Christian faith was a “bit too sincerely held and must be sifted, tested by, and mixed among other worldviews.”

2009 – In California Phillip Garrido (58) and his wife Nancy (55) were arrested for their 1991 kidnapping of  Jaycee Lee Dugard (11) from a bus stop outside her home in South Lake Tahoe. Police freed Dugard and her two children who were fathered by Garrido, who had kept them in tents in a fenced, backyard compound in Antioch, Ca.

2009 – In southern California the Station Fire began in Los Angeles County and soon grew to become the largest wildfire in county history. It did not get contained until Sep 1.

2011 – As Hurricane Irene moved toward the East Coast, government officials: 1. sent the US Second Fleet out of its base in Naval Station Norfolk to ride the storm out at sea. 2. declared a “state of emergency”  in  North Carolina, Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and Connecticut. 3. made plans to shut down New York City’s  subway and bus system beginning at noon on Saturday, 8/27.

2011 – The Boeing 787 Dreamliner, Boeing’s all-new composite airliner, receives certification from the FAA.

2012 – Several hundred earthquakes hit Southern California, with the largest one measuring 5.5 on the Richter magnitude scale near San Diego.

2014 – Fast food giant Burger King agrees to acquire Canadian coffee giant Tim Hortons for $11.4 billion and move its headquarters to Canada.

2015 – A U.S. television reporter and her cameraman, Alison Parker and Adam Ward, are shot dead during a live broadcast in Moneta, Virginia; the woman they were interviewing, Vicki Gardner, is wounded. The  shooter, Vester Lee Flanagan II, later uploads a video of the murder and commits suicide. (WTKR)
2015 – School bans little girl’s Wonder Woman lunchbox for this INSANE reason. It seems or school administrators believe Wonder Woman is too violent.

2015 – MSNBC is moving reverend and talk-show host Al Sharpton’s Politics Nation to Sundays, network president Phil Griffin said in a memo. Its last weekday airing will be on Sept. 4.


694 – Elisha Williams, American rector of Yale College (d. 1755)
1743 – Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, French chemist, known as the “Father of Modern Chemistry.” He stated the first version of the Law of conservation of matter, recognized and named oxygen (1778) as well as hydrogen, disproved the phlogiston theory, introduced the Metric system, invented the first periodic table including 33 elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature.
1874 – Lee De Forest, American physicist, inventor of the Audion vacuum tube, considered the “Father of radio.”
1884 – Earl Biggers, author (“Charlie Chan” detective series).
1898 – Peggy Guggenheim, art patron and collector
1906 – Albert Sabin, Polish-born American polio researcher.
1910 – Mother Teresa, Humanitarian Activist and Worker (d. 1997)
1921 – Ben Bradlee, editor, journalist, executive (Washington Post).
1935 – Geraldine Ferraro, (Rep-D-NY) first female Democrat VP candidate (1984). 1945 – Tom Ridge, first United States Secretary of Homeland Security




Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 4th Battalion, 21st Infantry, 11th Infantry Brigade, Americal Division. Place and date: West of Tam Ky, Republic of Vietnam,  August 26th, 1968. Entered service at: Phoenix, Ariz. Born: 25 November 1945, Caraway, Ark. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. S/Sgt. Bacon distinguished himself while serving as a squad leader with the 1st Platoon, Company B, during an operation west of Tam Ky. When Company B came under fire from an enemy bunker line to the front, S/Sgt. Bacon quickly organized his men and led them forward in an assault. He advanced on a hostile bunker and destroyed it with grenades. As he did so, several fellow soldiers including the 1st Platoon leader, were struck by machine gun fire and fell wounded in an exposed position forward of the rest of the platoon. S/Sgt. Bacon immediately assumed command of the platoon and assaulted the hostile gun position, finally killing the enemy gun crew in a single-handed effort. When the 3d Platoon moved to S/Sgt. Bacon’s location, its leader was also wounded. Without hesitation S/Sgt. Bacon took charge of the additional platoon and continued the fight. In the ensuing action he personally killed 4 more enemy soldiers and silenced an antitank weapon. Under his leadership and example, the members of both platoons accepted his authority without question. Continuing to ignore the intense hostile fire, he climbed up on the exposed deck of a tank and directed fire into the enemy position while several wounded men were evacuated. As a result of S/Sgt. Bacon’s extraordinary efforts, his company was able to move forward, eliminate the enemy positions, and rescue the men trapped to the front. S/Sgt. Bacon’s bravery at the risk of his life was in the highest traditions of the military service and reflects great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.



Rank and organization: Colonel (then Major), U.S. Air Force, Forward Air Controller Pilot of an F-100 aircraft. Place and date: North Vietnam, August 26th,1967. Entered service at: Sioux City, Iowa. Born: 24 February 1925, Sioux City, Iowa. Citation: On 26 August 1967, Col. Day was forced to eject from his aircraft over North Vietnam when it was hit by ground fire. His right arm was broken in three places, and his left knee was badly sprained. He was immediately captured by hostile forces and taken to a prison camp where he was interrogated and severely tortured. After causing the guards to relax their vigilance, Col. Day escaped into the jungle and began the trek toward South Vietnam. Despite injuries inflicted by fragments of a bomb or rocket, he continued southward surviving only on a few berries and uncooked frogs. He successfully evaded enemy patrols and reached the Ben Hai River, where he encountered U.S. artillery barrages. With the aid of a bamboo log float, Col. Day swam across the river and entered the demilitarized zone. Due to delirium, he lost his sense of direction and wandered aimlessly for several days. After several unsuccessful attempts to signal U.S. aircraft, he was ambushed and recaptured by the Viet Cong, sustaining gunshot wounds to his left hand and thigh. He was returned to the prison from which he had escaped and later was moved to Hanoi after giving his captors false information to questions put before him. Physically, Col. Day was totally debilitated and unable to perform even the simplest task for himself. Despite his many injuries, he continued to offer maximum resistance. His personal bravery in the face of deadly enemy pressure was significant in saving the lives of fellow aviators who were still flying against the enemy. Col. Day’s conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Air Force and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Armed Forces.




Rank and organization: Master Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 5th Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Near Sobuk San Mountain, Korea, August 25th and August 26th,1950. Entered service at: Manawa, Wis. Born: 26 January 1919, Manawa, Wis. G.O. No.: 60, 2 August 1951. Citation: M/Sgt. Handrich, Company C, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. His company was engaged in repulsing an estimated 150 enemy who were threatening to overrun its position. Near midnight on 25 August, a hostile group over 100 strong attempted to infiltrate the company perimeter. M/Sgt. Handrich, despite the heavy enemy fire, voluntarily left the comparative safety of the defensive area and moved to a forward position where he could direct mortar and artillery fire upon the advancing enemy. He remained at this post for 8 hours directing fire against the enemy who often approached to within 50 feet of his position. Again, on the morning of 26 August, another strong hostile force made an attempt to overrun the company’s position. With complete disregard for his safety, M/Sgt. Handrich rose to his feet and from this exposed position fired his rifle and directed mortar and artillery fire on the attackers. At the peak of this action he observed elements of his company preparing to withdraw. He perilously made his way across fire-swept terrain to the defense area where, by example and forceful leadership, he reorganized the men to continue the fight. During the action M/Sgt. Handrich was severely wounded. Refusing to take cover or be evacuated, he returned to his forward position and continued to direct the company’s fire. Later a determined enemy attack overran M/Sgt. Handrich’s position and he was mortally wounded. When the position was retaken, over 70 enemy dead were counted in the area he had so intrepidly defended. M/Sgt. Handrich’s sustained personal bravery, consummate courage, and gallant self-sacrifice reflect untold glory upon himself and the heroic traditions of the military service.



Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1856, Ireland. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S. Tug Leyden, near Boston, Mass., August 26th, 1881, and sustaining until picked up, Michael Drennan, landsman, who had jumped overboard while temporarily insane.


  WEISSEL, ADAM INTERIM 1871 – 1898 

Rank and organization: Ship’s Cook, U.S. Navy. Born: 1854, Germany. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S. Training Ship Minnesota, at Newport, R.l., August 26th, 1881, and sustaining until picked up by a boat from the ship, C. Lorenze, captain of the forecastle, who had fallen overboard.


Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Seneca Mountain, Ariz., August 26th, 1869. Entered service at:——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.

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Unerased History – August 25th

Posted by Wayne Church on August 25, 2015 in 08 - August, Blog by month |
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Kiss and Make Up Day

National Secondhand Wardrobe Day


Economic Stimulus and how they work:

The Yellow Pine Stimulus

It is a slow day in the small Idaho village of Yellow Pine, and the streets are deserted.  Times are tough, everybody is in debt, and everybody is living on credit.

 A tourist visiting the area drives through, stops at the lodge, and lays a $100 bill on the table saying he wants to inspect the rooms upstairs to pick one for the night. As soon as he walks upstairs, the lodge owner grabs the bill and runs next door to pay his debt to the bar.

 The bar owner takes the $100 and runs down the street to retire her debt at the store. The store owner takes the $100 and heads off to pay his bill to his wood supplier.

 The guy that cuts firewood takes the $100 and runs to pay his debt to the local prostitute, who has also been facing hard times and has had to offer her “services” on credit.

 The hooker rushes to the lodge and pays off her room bill with the lodge owner.

 The lodge proprietor then places the $100 back on the table so the traveler will not suspect anything. At that moment the traveler comes back down the stairs, states that the rooms are not satisfactory, picks up the $100 bill and leaves.

 No one produced anything.  No one earned anything.  However, the whole village is now out of debt and looks to the future with a lot more optimism.

And that, ladies and gentlemen, is how a “Stimulus Package” works.


“It is amazing what can be accomplished, When you don’t care who gets the credit.”

~ John Wooden

phatic(FAT-ik) adjective

Relating to a communication meant to generate an atmosphere of  social relationship rather than to convey some information.

When you bump into your neighbor on your way out and say, “How are ya?”you’re engaging in phatic communion. The idea is not to inquire your
neighbor’s state of affairs but simply to create a feeling of shared

[Coined by anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942). From Greek phatos, from phanai (to speak), which also gave us prophet and aphasia (loss of ability to understand language as a result of an injury).]


79 – Gaius Plinius Secundus, [Plinius Maior], Roman admiral, writer, died in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.
325 – Council of Nicaea ended with adoption of the Nicene Creed establishing the doctrine of the Holy Trinity. The Council also decreed that priests cannot marry after their ordination.
1212 – Children’s crusaders under Nicolas (10) reached Genoa.
1346 – New Weapon: Edward III of England defeated Philip VI’s army at the Battle of Crecy in France. The English overcame the French at the Battle of Crecy. The longbow proved instrumental in the victory as French knights on horseback outnumbered the British 3 to 1. At the end of the battle 1,542 French lords and knights were killed along with 20,000 soldiers. The English lost two knights and eighty men.
1540 – Explorer Hernando de Alarcon traveled up the Colorado River.
1609 – Galileo Galilei demonstrates his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers.
1718 – Hundreds of French colonists arrived in Louisiana, some settling in what is now New Orleans.
1765 – In protest over the stamp tax, American colonists sacked and burned the home of Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson.
1789 – Mary Ball Washington, mother of George, died.
1814 – War of 1812: Washington, D.C. is burned and White House is destroyed by British forces during the War of 1812. All 3,000 volumes were destroyed. To restart the library Thomas Jefferson sold his personal library, the largest and finest in the country, to the Congress. The purchase of Jefferson’s 6,487 volumes for $23,940 was approved in 1815.
1829 – President Jackson made an offer to buy Texas but the Mexican government refused.
1830 – The “Tom Thumb” steam locomotive, designed by Peter Cooper, ran its famous race with a horse-drawn car. The horse won because the engine, which had been ahead, broke down.
1835 – Ann Rutledge (22), said to be Abraham Lincoln’s first true love, died in New Salem, IL during a wave of typhoid that hit the town. This sad event left Lincoln severely depressed.
1835 – The New York Sun perpetrates the Great Moon Hoax. The Hoax refers to a series of six articles that were published in the newspaper beginning today about the supposed discovery of life and even civilization on the Moon. The discoveries were falsely attributed to Sir John Herschel, perhaps the best-known astronomer of his time.
1840 – Joseph Gibbons of Albion, Michigan patents the seeding machine.
1843 – Steam frigate Missouri arrives at Gibraltar completing first Trans-Atlantic crossing by U.S. steam powered ship.
1857 – The California gold rush town of Columbia burned down in a second fire that was blamed on a Chinese cook. Miners soon evicted all Chinese from the town.
1861 – Civil War: John LaMountain began balloon reconnaissance ascensions at Fort Monroe, Virginia.
1862 – Civil War: US Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton authorized Gen. Rufus Saxton to arm 5,000 slaves.
1862 – Civil War: Union and Confederate troops skirmished at Waterloo Bridge, Virginia, during the Second Bull Run Campaign.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate troops secure a vital supply line into Petersburg, Virginia, when they halt destruction of the Weldon and Petersburg Railroad by Union troops.
1864 – A combination rail and ferry service became available from San Francisco to Alameda, Ca.
1875 – Navy Captain Matthew Webb became the first person to swim across the English Channel (in 21 hours, 45 minutes).
1879 – New York’s Madison Square Garden displayed a real floating ship in a gigantic water tank as Gilbert and Sullivan’s operetta, “H.M.S. Pinafore”, was performed.
1901 – Clara Maass, army nurse, sacrificed her life to prove that the mosquito carries yellow fever. She was twenty-five at the time of her death.
1908 – “Allen Winter” wins US first $50,000 trotting race.
1908 – The National Association of Colored Nurses was formed.
1910 – Yellow Cab is founded.
1912 – First time an aircraft recovers from a spin. He recovered and lived by breaking the rules and turning to the right. The conventional wisdom was to turn to the left.
1914 – World War I: The library of the Catholic University of Leuven is deliberately destroyed by the German Army. Hundreds of thousands of irreplaceable volumes and Gothic and Renaissance manuscripts are lost.
1916 – The National Park Service was established.It was established within the Department of the Interior by the Organic Act. Horace Albright and Stephen Mather helped persuade the US Congress to establish the organization.
1920 – The first airplane to fly from New York to Alaska arrived in Nome.
1920 – First US woman to win in Olympics (Ethelda Bleibtrey). She set a world record for the 100-metre freestyle race of 1 min 13.6 sec in the final race. She set another world record (4 min 34 sec) in the 300-metre freestyle. Her third gold medal came in the 4 x 100-metre relay.
1921 – The first skirmishes of the Battle of Blair Mountain occur. For five days in late August and early September, in Logan County, West Virginia, some 10,000 armed coal miners confronted 3,000 lawmen and strikebreakers, called the Logan Defenders, who were backed by coal mine operators during an attempt by the miners to unionize the southwestern West Virginia coalfields. The battle ended after approximately one million rounds were fired, and the United States Army intervened by presidential order.
1921 – The United States, which never ratified the Versailles Treaty ending World War I, finally signed a peace treaty with Germany.
1922 – Cubs beat Phillies 26-23 in highest scoring major-league game.
1925 – Asa Philip Randolph (36) began to organize the Pullman Sleeping Car Porters’ Union.
1928 – An expedition led by Richard E. Byrd set sail from Hoboken, N.J., on its journey to Antarctica.
1932 – Amelia Earhart completes transcontinental flight.
1937 – Pullman signed a contract with the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, one of the first substantive victories for African-American  workers.
1940 – The first parachute wedding ceremony was performed by Rev. Homer Tomlinson at the New York City World’s Fair for Arno Rudolphi and Ann Hayward. The minister, bride and groom, best man, maid of honor and four musicians were all suspended from parachutes. At the end of the ceremony they were released.
1941 – Skinnay Ennis and his orchestra recorded the tune “Don’t Let Julia Fool Ya.”
1941 – World War II: President Franklin Roosevelt signed the bill appropriating funds for construction of the Pentagon.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: German SS began transporting Jews of Maastricht, Netherlands to concentration camps.
1942 – World War II: Second day of the Battle of the Eastern Solomons. A Japanese naval transport convoy headed towards Guadalcanal is turned-back by Allied air attack, losing one destroyer and one transport sunk, and one light cruiser heavily damaged.
1942 – World War II: Five Navy nurses who became POWs on Guam repatriated . Chief Nurse Marion Olds and nurses Leona Jackson, Lorraine Christiansen, Virginia Fogerty and Doris Yetter were taken prisoner on Guam shortly after Pearl Harbor and transported to Japan.
1943 –  World War II: U.S. forces completed the occupation of New Georgia in the Solomon Islands during World War II. The US lost Hill 700 to the Japanese meant defeat for the American forces on Bougainville.
1944 – World War II: Paris was liberated by Allied forces after four years of Nazi occupation.
1944 – World War II: In France eleven US planes were shot down when a squadron was overwhelmed in a dogfight with 80 German fighters. Five pilots survived and eluded capture. Two pilots were captured. The remains of three missing were later recovered.
1944 – “Dammit colonel, I’m looking up at Notre Dame!” became the battle cry of an on-going feud between two former Guard units as each claim the bragging rights as to which American unit was the first to actually enter the city of Paris.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “Amor” by Bing Crosby, “I’ll Be Seeing You” by Bing Crosby,Time Waits for No One” by Helen Forest and “Is You Is or Is You Ain’t (Ma’ Baby)” by Louis Jordan all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: General Yamashita informs the commander of the US 32nd Division that he has ordered all Japanese troops in the Philippines to lay down their arms.
1945 – John Birch, Baptist missionary and US army intelligence specialist, was killed by Chinese Communists. His death is considered the first US death in the struggle against communism.
1945 – Coast Guard Cutter “Magnolia” sank in a collision off Mobile Bay with the loss of one man.
1946 – Ben Hogan won his first major golf title. He captured the PGA (Professional Golfers’
Association) championship at Portland, OR.
1947 – Marine Major Marion Carl in D-558-I sets world aircraft speed record, 650.6 mph. He was shot to death in Oregon by a house robber in 1998 at age 82.
1948 – The House Un-American Activities Committee holds first-ever televised congressional hearing: “Confrontation Day” between Whittaker Chambers and Alger Hiss.
1949 – NBC radio debuted “Father Knows Best.” The show moved to TV in 1954.
1950 – President Harry Truman ordered the Army to seize control of the nation’s railroads to avert a strike. The railroads were returned to their owners two years later.
1950 – The US Navy hospital ship USS Benevolence sank after it was struck by the SS Mary Luckenbach in dense fog in the Golden Gate. Twenty-three crew members of the Benevolence died. San Francisco fisherman John A. Napoli single-handedly rescued seventy people from the Benevolence. In 1961 US Congress passed a bill to pay Napoli for his efforts.
1951 – Korean War: Twenty-three fighters from USS Essex (CV-9) escort Air Force heavy bombers attacking Najin, Korea since target was beyond range of land-based fighters.
1951 – “Come On-a My House” by Rosemary Clooney topped the charts.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Auf Wiedersehn, Sweetheart” by Vera Lynn, “Walkin’ My Baby Back Home” by Johnnie Ray, “Kiss of Fire” by Georgia Gibbs and “It Wasn’t God Who Made Honky Tonk Angels” by Kitty Wells all topped the charts.
1956 – “Hound Dog/Don’t Be Cruel” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1958 – The game show “Concentration” premiered on NBC-TV.
1958 – “Little Star by the Elegants & Bird Dog by the Everly Brothers topped the charts.
1958 – President Eisenhower signed a measure providing pensions for former U.S. presidents and their widows.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Now or Never” by Elvis Presley, “Walk-Don’t Run” by The Ventures, “The Twist” by Chubby Checker and “Alabam” by Cowboy Copas all topped the charts.
1960 – AFL begins placing players names on back of their jerseys.
1960 – The 17th summer Olympics opened in Rome. Wilma Rudolph (1940-1994), was the first Black to win three gold medals in a single Olympiad.
1962 – “The Loco-Motion” by Little Eva topped the charts.
1964 – The Beatles received a gold record for their hit single A Hard Day’s Night“.
1967 – George Lincoln Rockwell, founder of the American Nazi Party, was shot to death in the parking lot of a shopping center in Arlington, Va. Former party member John Patler was later convicted of the killing.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “People Got to Be Free” by The Rascals, “Born to Be Wild” by Steppenwolf, “Light My Fire” by Jose Feliciano and “Already It’s Heaven” by David Houston all topped the charts.
1968 – Arthur Ashe became the first Black to win the US tennis singles championship.
1970 – British singer and pianist Elton John made his U.S. concert debut at the Troubadour in LA.
1971 – Contract awarded to Lockheed Shipbuilding “to build the world’s most powerful icebreaker for the US Coast Guard,” Polar Star, the first of the Polar-Class of icebreakers.
1972 – In Great Britain, computerized axial tomography (CAT scan) was introduced.
1973 – The Allman Brothers’ “Ramblin’ Man” was released.
1975 – Bruce Springsteen’s album “Born to Run” was released.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Go Breaking My Heart” by Elton John & Kiki Dee,You Should Be Dancing” by Bee Gees, “Let ’Em In” by Wings and “Bring It on Home to Me” by Mickey Gilley all topped the charts.
1978 – The Turin shroud believed to be the burial cloth of Jesus Christ went on display for the first time in 45 years.
1979 – My Sharona by Knack topped the charts
1980 – The Broadway musical “42nd Street” opened in New York City for 3486 performances.; the show’s director, Gower Champion, died earlier that day.
1981 – Jeff Schwartz, sets solo record for trampoline bouncing (266:09)
1981 – The US spacecraft Voyager 2 came within 63,000 miles of Saturn’s cloud cover, sending back pictures and data about the ringed planet and its moons.
1982 – The group, Fleetwood Mac, received a gold record for the album “Mirage”.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ghostbusters” by Ray Parker Jr., “What’s Love Got to Do with It” by Tina Turner, “Stuck on You” by Lionel Richie and “Long Hard Road (The Sharecropper’s Dream)” by Nitty Gritty Dirt Band all topped the charts.
1984 – The latest fad toys: robotic action figures that fought galactic battles. They were called Transformers.
1985 – STS 51-I (Space Shuttle Discovery) was scrubbed at T –9 min because of an onboard computer problem.
1985 – Samantha Smith, the schoolgirl whose letter to Yuri V. Andropov resulted in her famous peace tour of the Soviet Union, was killed with her father in an airplane crash in Maine.
1987 – Dow Jones Industrial Average reached a record 2722.42.
1988 – Challenger Center opens its classroom doors in Houston.
1988 – NASA launched space vehicle S-214.
1989 – NASA scientists received stunning photographs of Neptune and its moons from Voyager 2.
1989 – Rep. Barney Frank, D-Mass., acknowledged hiring a male prostitute as a personal employee, then firing him after suspecting the aide was selling sex from Frank’s apartment.
1990 – “Vision of Love by Mariah Carey topped the charts.
1990 – The United Nations gave the world’s navies the right to use force to stop vessels trading with Iraq.
1991 – Thousands of abortion foes rallied at a stadium in Wichita, Kan., where six weeks of anti-abortion protests led by Operation Rescue resulted in more than 2,600 arrests.
1992 – It was reported by researchers that cigarette smoking significantly increased the risk of developing cataracts.
1992 – Hurricane Andrew devastated the Louisiana coast.
1992 – President Bush and Democrat Bill Clinton appeared separately before the American Legion in Chicago; Bush cited his World War II military service while Clinton sought to bury the controversy over his Vietnam-era draft status.
1993 – Amy Biehl, Stanford graduate and Fulbright scholar from Newport Beach, CA , was killed in South Africa by a mob stoning her and stabbing her to death..
1993 – Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman was indicted by a federal grand jury for terrorist activities, one of which was the World Trade Center bombing.
1993 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 3,652.09, an all-time high.
1994 – Jimmy Buffett’s plane flipped after taking off in Nantucket, MA. He swam to safety.
1994 – The US Senate passed a $30 billion crime bill, a major victory for President Clinton.
1996 – President Clinton began a whistle-stop train trip in Huntington, W.Va., that would take him to the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.
1997 – The tobacco industry agreed to an $11.3 billion settlement with the state of Florida.
1997 – Dow Corning Corp. offered $2.4 billion to settle claims from more than 200,000 women with illnesses related to silicone breast implants.
1997 – The Wall Street Journal reported that the US government would pay 1,000 teaching hospitals not to train doctors in specialties where there is a glut.
1997 – NASA sent a Delta rocket aloft with the Ace solar observatory, Advanced Composition Explorer. The 5-year $110 million project will go into orbit at a point 1 million miles from Earth and 92 million miles from the Sun where the gravity of Earth and Sun balance.
1997 – It was reported that the US government would pay 1,000 teaching hospitals not to train doctors in specialties where there is a glut.
1998 – Gary Coleman plead innocent to the charge that he hit a woman in a mall after she had sought his autograph. Coleman was working at the mall as a security guard.
1998 – Hurricane Bonnie hit North Carolina with winds up to 115 mph.
1998 – Dolly Parton released the album “Hungry Again.”
1998 – In Cincinnati, Ohio, four boys under the age of 11 were charged in the sexual assault of a 7-year-old girl.
1999 – In Miami, Florida, federal agents arrested 50 American Airline workers for smuggling drugs and weapons.
1999 – The FBI, reversing itself after six years, admitted that its agents might have fired some potentially flammable tear gas canisters on the final day of the 1993 standoff with the Branch Davidians near Waco, Texas.
2000 – Daniel Wiant (35), former executive of the American Cancer Society, pleaded guilty to embezzling nearly $8 million from the charity.
2000 – In West Virginia the new $75 million Robert C. Boyd Green Bank Telescope, the world’s largest fully steerable radio telescope, was dedicated following almost 10 years of construction.
2000 – Iraqi War: German intelligence confirmed that it had discovered a secret Iraqi missile factory near Baghdad. Some 250 technicians were reported working on ARABIL-100 short-range missiles.
2001 – University of Chicago doctors announced that they a kept a human kidney operating for 24 hours in a machine that simulated a warm human body.
2003 – NASA launched the largest-diameter infrared telescope ever in space. The Spitzer Space Telescope is the final mission of NASA’s Great Observatories Program.
2003 – Pete Sampras announces his retirement from competitive tennis.
2004 – Astronomers reported the discovery of a planet 14 times as massive as Earth near the star Mu Arae which is 50 light years away (300 trillion miles).
2004 – An Army investigation found that 27 people attached to an intelligence unit at Abu Ghraib prison near Baghdad either approved or participated in the abuse of Iraqi prisoners.
2005 – Hurricane Katrina makes her first landfall in the US, crossing the Miami-Dade and Broward county line as a Category 1 hurricane. It left four people dead.
2005 – The US base closing commission voted to shut down the Army’s historic Walter Reed hospital.
2005 –  In Southern California summer heat and the loss of key transmission lines forced power officials to impose rolling blackouts, leaving as many as half a million people without power for an hour at a time.
2006 – The US Navy debuted “SSN Texas”, its newest nuclear-powered submarine.
2006 – A college student’s checked luggage on a Continental Airlines flight that had arrived in Houston from Buenos Aires, Argentina, was found to contain a stick of dynamite.
2006 – The Alabama Supreme Court ruled that Richard Scrushy, the fired CEO of HealthSouth Corp., must repay $47.8 million in bonuses he received during a massive financial fraud at the medical services chain.
2007 – Wyoming Republicans decided to hold their delegate selection process on Jan 5, 2008, before both Iowa and New Hampshire.
2007 – A lawyer for missing coal miners in the Crandall Canyon mine in Utah says that a sixth probe has not found enough space for the men to survive.
2008 – The  Democratic Convention opened in the Pepsi Center of Denver, Colorado, where Sen. Edward Kennedy passed the party’s crown to Barack Obama.
2008 – US immigration agents uncovered some 350 suspected undocumented workers in a raid on the Howard Industries electrical equipment plant in Laurel, Mississippi.
2009 – The US White House forecast a 10-year federal deficit of $9 trillion, more than the sum of all previous deficits since America’s founding.
2009 –  Sony Corp. unveiled a new electronic book reader for the American market, dubbed the “Daily Edition.” It was scheduled to become available in December for $399 and compete with Amazon’s Kindle.
2009 – Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (b.1932) of Massachusetts, died at his home on Cape Cod after a yearlong struggle with brain cancer.
2009 – The Morris Fire begins near Morris Dam in the Angeles National Forest. This fire is thought to have been caused by arson and is the first in a series of wildfires to burn through Southern California in 2009.
2009 – The United States budget deficit for 2009 will reach $1.6 trillion, the highest ever recorded.
2010 –  The California Energy Commission approved the Beacon Solar Energy Project, which a Florida company plans to build on the western edge of the Mojave Desert. This was the first in a series of large scale solar projects planned in California.
2010 – Former President  Jimmy Carter arrives in North Korea to negotiate for the release of US citizen Aijalon Gomes.
2011 – Berkshire Hathaway, the conglomerate headed by Warren Buffett, announces a plan to invest $5 billion in Bank of America.
2011 –  Norfolk, Virginia declares a mandatory evacuation of lowlying areas in advance of Hurricane Irene. It will start by 8am Saturday morning.
2011 –  The New York Yankees hit three grand slam home runs in a single game, the first time such a feat has occurred, to win over the Oakland Athletics.
2012 – Neil Armstrong, the Apollo 11 astronaut who became the first human being to set foot on another world, has died. He was 82.In a statement his family said Armstrong had passed away following complications resulting from cardiovascular procedures.
2012 –  Republican National Committee Chairman Reince Priebus announced Saturday that the GOP would cancel Monday’s convention events due to Tropical Storm Isaac.
2013 – FACEBOOK BLACKOUT –  Thousands of facebook bloggers deactivated their accounts for this 24 hour period.
2013 – An improvised explosive device (IED) was detonated next to the Coos Bay Vietnam Veterans Memorial. The memorial, which sits in a public park in Coos Bay, Oregon, and includes a cross, recently became a target of the ACLU and the Wisconsin-based Freedom From Religion Foundation, which demanded the cross be removed because it violates the so-called “separation of church and state.”
2014 – The United States District Court for the Eastern District of California issued an opinion holding that California’s 10-day waiting period for nearly all firearm sales violates the Second Amendment.




1819 – Allan Pinkerton, American, started first private detective agency and served as Abraham Lincoln’s personal bodyguard..
1836 – Bret Harte, American writer (d. 1902)  Best remembered for his accounts of pioneering life in California.
1900 – Sir Hans Adolf Krebs, German-born English Nobel Prize-winning biochemist.
1909 – Ruby Keeler, Canadian-born American dancer, actress.
1913 – Walt Kelly, American cartoonist, creator of the character Pogo.
1918 – Leonard Bernstein, American conductor, composer.
1919 – George Wallace, American politician (d. 1998)
1927 –  Althea Gibson, American tennis player (d. 2003)
1930 – Sir Thomas Sean Connery, Scottish-born Academy Award-winning actor.
1931 –  Regis Philbin, American television host
1958 –  Tim Burton, American film director





Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, 62d Transportation Company (Medium Truck), 7th Transportation Battalion, 48th Transportation Group. Place and date: Near Ap Nhi, Republic of Vietnam  August 25th, 1968. Entered service at: Montgomery, Ala. Born: 24 October 1948, Brewton, Ala. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Seay distinguished himself while serving as a driver with the 62d Transportation Company, on a resupply mission. The convoy with which he was traveling, carrying critically needed ammunition and supplies from Long Binh to Tay Ninh, was ambushed by a reinforced battalion of the North Vietnamese Army. As the main elements of the convoy entered the ambush killing zone, they were struck by intense rocket, machinegun and automatic weapon fire from the well concealed and entrenched enemy force. When his convoy was forced to stop, Sgt. Seay immediately dismounted and took a defensive position behind the wheels of a vehicle loaded with high-explosive ammunition. As the violent North Vietnamese assault approached to within ten meters of the road, Sgt. Seay opened fire, killing two of the enemy. He then spotted a sniper in a tree approximately seventy-five meters to his front and killed him. When an enemy grenade was thrown under an ammunition trailer near his position, without regard for his own safety he left his protective cover, exposing himself to intense enemy fire, picked up the grenade, and threw it back to the North Vietnamese position, killing four more of the enemy and saving the lives of the men around him. Another enemy grenade landed approximately three meters from Sgt. Seay’s position. Again Sgt. Seay left his covered position and threw the armed grenade back upon the assaulting enemy. After returning to his position he was painfully wounded in the right wrist; however, Sgt. Seay continued to give encouragement and direction to his fellow soldiers. After moving to the relative cover of a shallow ditch, he detected three enemy soldiers who had penetrated the position and were preparing to fire on his comrades. Although weak from loss of blood and with his right hand immobilized, Sgt. Seay stood up and fired his rifle with his left hand, killing all three and saving the lives of the other men in his location. As a result of his heroic action, Sgt. Seay was mortally wounded by a sniper’s bullet. Sgt. Seay, by his gallantry in action at the cost of his life, has reflected great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.



Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company B, 5th Medical Battalion, 5th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Montereau, France, August 25th,  1944. Entered service at: Albion, Ill. Born: 26 February 1918, Fairfield, Ill. G.O. No.: 20, 29 March 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 25 August 1944, in the vicinity of Montereau, France, the enemy was sharply contesting any enlargement of the bridgehead which our forces had established on the northern bank of the Seine River in this sector. Casualties were being evacuated to the southern shore in assault boats paddled by litter bearers from a medical battalion. Pvt. Garman, also a litter bearer in this battalion, was working on the friendly shore carrying the wounded from the boats to waiting ambulances. As one boatload of wounded reached midstream, a German machinegun suddenly opened fire upon it from a commanding position on the northern bank 100 yards away. All of the men in the boat immediately took to the water except one man who was so badly wounded he could not rise from his litter. Two other patients who were unable to swim because of their wounds clung to the sides of the boat. Seeing the extreme danger of these patients, Pvt. Garman without a moment’s hesitation plunged into the Seine. Swimming directly into a hail of machinegun bullets, he rapidly reached the assault boat and then while still under accurately aimed fire towed the boat with great effort to the southern shore. This soldier’s moving heroism not only saved the lives of the three patients but so inspired his comrades that additional assault boats were immediately procured and the evacuation of the wounded resumed. Pvt. Garman’s great courage and his heroic devotion to the highest tenets of the Medical Corps may be written with great pride in the annals of the Corps.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Agua Fria River, Ariz., August 25th,  1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Agua Fria River, Ariz., August 25th,  1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Agua Fria River, Ariz., August 25th,  1869. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Seneca Mountain, Ariz., August 25th,  1869. Entered service at:——. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Seneca Mountain, Ariz., August 25th,  1869. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Seneca Mountain, Ariz., August 25th,  1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Seneca Mountain, Ariz., August 25th,  1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.




Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st New York Light Artillery. Place and date: At Reams Station, Va., August 25th,  1864. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 22 December 1822, Ireland. Date of issue: 31 October 1890. Citation: The command having been driven from the works, he, having been left alone between the opposing lines, crept back into the works, put 3 charges of canister in one of the guns, and fired the piece directly into a body of the enemy about to seize the works; he then rejoined his command, took the colors, and ran toward the enemy, followed by the command, which recaptured the works and guns.



Rank and organization: Captain, Company A, 140th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863; At Reams Station, Va., August 25th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Green County, Pa. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: While a sergeant and retiring with his company before the rapid advance of the enemy at Gettysburg, he and a companion stopped and carried to a place of safety a wounded and helpless comrade; in this act both he and his companion were severely wounded. A year later, at Reams Station, Va., while commanding a skirmish line, voluntarily assisted in checking a flank movement of the enemy, and while so doing was severely wounded, suffering the loss of an arm.



Rank and organization: Chief Bugler, 16th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date. At Reams Station, Va., August 25th, 1864. Entered service at: Jumata County, Pa. Birth: Juniata County, Pa. Date of issue: 16 October 1897. Citation. While his regiment was retiring under fire voluntarily remained behind to succor a wounded officer who was in great danger, secured assistance, and removed the officer to a place of safety.



Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 5th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Waterloo Bridge, Va., August 25th, 1862. Entered service at: Oswego, N.Y. Birth: Tioga County, N.Y. Date of issue: 11 June 1895. Citation: Voluntarily assisted in the burning and destruction of the bridge under heavy fire of the enemy.


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Unerased History – August 24th

Posted by Wayne Church on August 24, 2015 in 08 - August, Blog by month |
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Vesuvius Day

National Waffle Day




Stockholm Syndrome

 Mental disorders effect millions of people in the world and can lead to years of psychotherapy. Not all cases start with a medical or mental condition formed over time or as a result of familial connections. In some cases, the psychological problem suffered is brought on by extreme, fairly short-term stress where the person sees no escape. Examples of this include, but are not limited to the Stockholm and the Lima Syndromes.

The Stockholm Syndrome is the phenomenon in which a hostage begins to identify and sympathize with his or her captor. The syndrome is displayed when the hostages take the side of the hostage-takers. Law enforcement and security personnel are well advised to understand this phenomenon in their approaches to management of hostage situations.

On August 23rd, 1973 in Stockholm, Sweden, Jan Erik Olsson walked into Kreditbanken at Norrmalmstorg, central Stockholm and attempted to hold up the bank. Swedish police responded immediately and two officers entered the bank. Olsson shot one of the officers, not fatally, and made the other to sit in a chair and sing a song, any song. The officer started singing “Lonesome Cowboy.” It could be argued, listening to the opening lyrics, that he was trying to, one, send his command staff a message that it was a single robber and he had not yet taken any money. Two, send a message that he was now alone with his partner shot or 3) both at the same time.

Olsson then took four people hostage and issued his demands. He wanted his friend Clark Olofsson brought to the bank. He also wanted 3 million Swedish Kronor ($730,000 US 1973 value, $3.6 million in 2010 dollars), two guns, bullet-proof vests, helmets and a fast car. The government approved and Olofsson was brought in to assist the negotiators. Olsson and Olofsson barricaded the inner main vault where they kept the hostages.

Olsson called up the Prime Minister Olof Palme and said he would kill the hostages, backing up his threat by grabbing one in a stranglehold; she was heard screaming as he hung up. The next day Olof Palme received another call. This time it was Kristin Enmark who said she was very displeased with his attitude, asking him to let the robbers and the hostages leave. Olofsson walked around in the vault singing Roberta Flack’s Killing Me Softly“.

After the robbery attempt, both Olsson and Olofsson were charged, convicted and sentenced to extended prison terms for the robbery. However, Olofsson claimed he did not help Olsson and was only trying to save the hostages by keeping the situation calm. At the court of appeal his convictions were nullified. He later met hostage Kristin Enmark several times and their families becoming friends. “Stockholm Syndrome” is a word coined by criminologist Nils Bejerot after the robbery attempt when it appeared that the hostages were more afraid of the police than of their captors.

Another famous case was the kidnapping of Patty Hearst at gunpoint by two black men and a white woman from her Berkeley apartment on February 4th, 1974 and taking her captive. They identified themselves as members of the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA). By Patty’s account, she was kept blindfolded for two months in a closet at the group’s headquarters, unable even to use the bathroom in privacy. Then she was subjected to a number of abusive assaults with the intent to turn her into a member of this gang/group. Among these assaults were total isolated and made to feel that no one was going to rescue her,  physical and sexual abuse by various gang members, she was told that she might die and she was fed lies about how they were oppressed by the “establishment”.

By April 15th, 1974 she had a new identity, had taken a new name (Tania) and was deemed ready to accompany the gang on their next event. It was 9:40 A.M. on that day, tax day. Customers were going to the Hibernia Bank in the Sunset district of San Francisco to make their usual transactions. Suddenly four white women and a black man walked in and yelled, “It’s a hold-up! Down on the floor! On your faces, you (expletive deleted)!” In under four minutes, they robbed the bank of over $10,000, wounded two bystanders, and fled in a getaway car.

In the review of the back videotapes after the robbery, law enforcement was caught by surprise when the recognized the face of a young lady who had been listed as missing for two months, Patricia Campbell Hearst. Not only that, she was brandishing a carbine and acting excited, as if she were one of them.

The FBI’s Hostage Barricade Database System shows that roughly 27% of victims show evidence of Stockholm syndrome. It was originally defined by psychiatrist Frank Ochberg to aid the management of hostage situations. The opposite of this is the Lima Syndrome where the hostage-takers feel empathy toward the hostages.

“Don’t wait for extraordinary opportunities. Seize common occasions and make them great. Weak people wait for opportunities; strong people make them.”

 ~ Orison Swett Marden

ensorcell (en-SOR-suhl) verb tr.
To bewitch; to enchant.

[From Middle French ensorceler, from Old French ensorcerer, from en- + -sorcerer, from Old French sorcier, from Vulgar Latin sortiarius, from Latin sort-, stem of sors (lot, fate).]


79 – Mount Vesuvius erupted, burying the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum in volcanic ash and killing an estimated 20,000.
410 – The Visigoths (German barbarians), led by Alaric, sacked Rome. This event symbolized the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
1215 – Pope Innocent III, following a request from King John, declared the Magna Carta invalid. The barons of England soon retaliated by inviting King Philip of France to come to England. Philip accepted the offer.
1349 – Six thousand Jews are killed in Mainz after being blamed for the bubonic plague. Jews of Cologne Germany set themselves on fire to avoid baptism.
1456 – The printing of the Gutenberg Bible is completed.
1542 – In South America, Gonzalo Pizarro returned to the mouth of the Amazon River after having sailed as far as the Andes Mountains.
1572 – The Catholics began their slaughter of the French Protestants in Paris. The killings claimed about 70,000 people.
1680 – Colonel Thomas Blood died. He was the Irish adventurer that had stolen the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London in 1671.
1682 – The Duke of York awarded Englishman William Penn the three “lower counties” in the American colonies which later became the state of Delaware.
1814 – War of 1812: British forces under General Robert Ross overwhelm American militiamen at the Battle of Bladensburg, Maryland, and march unopposed into Washington, D.C.
1814 – War of 1812: British forces invaded Washington, D.C., setting fire to the Capitol and the White House. President James Madison and his wife fled from the advancing enemy, but not before Dolly Madison saved the famous Gilbert Stuart portrait of George Washington.
1853 – First potato chips prepared by Chef George Crum (Saratoga Springs, NY). It was a case of an angry chef and an insistent customer.
1853 – The first convention of the American Pharmaceutical Association was held.
1857 – The Panic of 1857 was a notable sudden downturn in the economy of the United States . The downturn was brief and the recovery strong, so that the impact was small. Over five thousand businesses failed within a year. Unemployment was accompanied by protest meetings in urban areas. The catalyst for the Panic of 1857 was this day’s failure of the New York branch of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company.
1858 – In Richmond, Virginia in the Richmond “Daily Dispatch” it was reported that 90 blacks are arrested for learning.
1862 – Civil War: The C.S.S. Alabama was commissioned at sea off Portugal’s Azore Islands, beginning a career that would see over sixty Union merchant vessels sunk or destroyed by the Confederate raider.
1867Johns Hopkins died. The railroad millionaire left $7.5 million in his will for the founding of a new medical school in his name.
1869Cornelius Swarthout of Troy, New York received a patent for the waffle iron.
1875 – Captain Matthew Webb became first person to swim English Channel
1891 – Thomas Edison filed a patent for the kinetoscope and kinetograph (U.S. Pats. 493,426 and 589,168).
1893 – A fire in south Chicago left 5,000 people homeless.
1894 – Congress passed the first graduated income tax law, which was declared unconstitutional the next year. It imposed a 2% tax on incomes over $4000.
1909 – Workers started pouring concrete for Panama Canal.
1912 – US passed an anti-gag law giving federal employees the right to petition government.
1912 – Alaska becomes a United States territory and is given a territorial two-house legislature..
1912 – Launching of USS Jupiter, first electrically propelled Navy ship. This collier will later be converted in to the first US Aircraft Carrier, the USS Langly.
1912 – The U.S. Post Office got heavy — by abolishing its rule that only parcels up to four pounds could be sent through the system.
1912 – New York City held a ticker tape parade for Jim Thorpe and victorious US Olympians.
1914 – World War I: German troops capture Namur.
1928 – Sixteen people died in NYC’s second worst subway accident.
1929 – Riots in Palestine of 1929: 18 Jews in Safed, 67 in Hebron, and 22 in Jerusalem killed by Arab Palestinians.
1932 – Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly non-stop across the United States, traveling from Los Angeles to Newark, New Jersey, in just over 19 hours.
1932 – Charles H. Calhoun, Sr. shot a hole in one on the third hole of the Washington, GA golf course Just moments later, Mr. Calhoun’s son, Charles Jr., playing in the same foursome, repeated the feat with an identical ace.
1934 – In Philadelphia, Pa., Philo T. Farnsworth (28), a San Francisco scientist, produced a televised picture of the moon, the first recorded use of television in astronomy.
1936 – President Roosevelt (FDR) gave the FBI authority to pursuit fascists and communists.
1939 – Louis ‘Lepke’ Buchalter, the leader of Murder, Incorporated, surrenders.
1940 – World War II: Luftwaffe bombed London.
1942 – World War II: The Battle of the Eastern Solomons. Japanese aircraft carrier Ryūjō is sunk and the carrier USS Enterprise heavily damaged.
1944 – World War II: The French 4th Armored Division (Leclerc), part of the US 5th Corps, reaches the outskirts of Paris as renewed fighting takes place within the city  between German forces and French resistance members.
1944 – World War II: Allied forces captured Bordeaux.
1945 – World War II: The last Cadillac-built M-24 tank was produced on this day, ending the company’s World War II effort.
1948Edith Mae Irby became the University of Arkansas’ first African-American student.
1949 – The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) went into effect. The agreement was that an attack against on one of the parties would be considered “an attack against them all.”
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Too Young” by Nat King Cole, “Because of You” by Tony Bennett, “My Truly, Truly Fair” by Guy Mitchell and “Hey, Good Lookin’” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1954 – The Communist Control Act goes into effect. The American Communist Party is outlawed.
1956 – First non-stop transcontinental helicopter flight arrived Washington, DC. A specially-equipped HU-21 made the first nonstop transcontinental helicopter flight with in-flight refueling in 37 hours.
1957 – “Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Three Bells” by The Browns, “Sea of Love” by Phil Phillips, “Lavender-Blue” by Sammy Turner and “Waterloo” by Stonewall Jackson all topped the charts.
1959 – Three days after Hawaiian statehood, Hiram L. Fong was sworn in as the first Chinese-American U.S. Senator while Daniel K. Inouye was sworn in as the first Japanese-American U.S. Representative.
1959 – The Three Bells by the Browns topped the charts.
1963 – John Pennel is first to pole-vault 17′ using a fiberglass pole a clearance of 17 feet, 3/4 inch.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “All You Need is Love” by The Beatles, “Pleasant Valley Sunday” by The Monkees, “Baby I Love You” by Aretha Franklin and “I’ll Never Find Another You” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1968 – “People Got to Be Free by the Rascals topped the charts.
1969 – Arlo Guthrie’s “Alice’s Restaurant (22:31)” premiered in both New York and Los Angeles. The song is based on a true incident.
1970 – U.S. B-52s carry out heavy bombing raids along the DMZ.
1970 – A radical protest group calling themselves the New Year’s Gang, a cover for a faction of the Weather Underground, blew up the Army Mathematics Research Center at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. The bomb killed Robert Fassnacht, a student.
1974 – (You’re) Having My Baby by Paul Anka topped the charts.
1975 – 1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Fallin’ in Love” by Hamilton, Joe Frank & Reynolds,One of These Nights” by Eagles, “Get Down Tonight” by K.C. & The Sunshine Band and “Rhinestone Cowboy” by Glen Campbell all topped the charts.
1981 – Mark David Chapman is sentenced to 20 years to life in prison for murdering John Lennon.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Every Breath You Take” by The Police, “Sweet Dreams (Are Made of This)” by Eurythmics, “She Works Hard for the Money” by Donna Summer and “Love Song” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1985 – The Power of Love by Huey Lewis & the News topped the charts.
1986 – Frontier Airlines shut down. Thousands of people were left stranded.
1987 – A military jury in Quantico, Va., sentenced Marine Sgt. Clayton Lonetree to 30 years in prison for disclosing U.S. secrets to the Soviet Union. He ultimately served eight years of the sentence.
1989 – Baseball Commissioner A. Bartlett Giamatti banned Cincinnati Reds manager Pete Rose from the game for gambling.
1989 – British brewer Bass bought the Holiday Inn hotel chain.
1989 – Voyager II passed within three thousand miles of Neptune.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “(Everything I Do) I Do It for You” by Bryan Adams, “It Ain’t Over ’Til It’s Over” by Lanny Kravitz, “Fading Like a Flower (Every Time You Leave)” by Roxette and “You Know Me Better Than That” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1991 – Soviet Union begins to break apart – Mikhail Gorbachev resigns.
1991 – Bernard Castro (b.1904), Sicilian-born inventor of the convertible couch, died. His exact birth date is unknown.
1992 – Hurricane Andrew hits South Florida as a Category 5 Hurricane. It caused 55 deaths in the Bahamas, Florida, and Louisiana. Insurance losses in the US and Bahamas totaled $21.5 billion.
1993 – NASA’s Mars Observer, which was supposed to map the surface of Mars, was declared lost.
1993 – A patent for a Bubble Dispensing Doll was issued by Vowles, Barad, Smith and Stern.
1995 – The Windows 95 operating system by Microsoft is released with much fanfare.
1996 – Four women began two days of academic orientation at The Citadel; they were the first female cadets admitted to the South Carolina military school since Shannon Faulkner.
1996 – I Love You Always Forever by Donna Lewis topped the charts.
1996 – Steve Fossett sailed across the Pacific Ocean and set a solo speed record of 20 days in his 60-foot 3-hulled boat, the Lakota.
1998 – A donation of 24 beads was made, from three parties, to the Indian Museum of North America at the Crazy Horse Memorial. The beads are said to be those that were used in 1626 to buy Manhattan from the Indians.
1998 – A federal court rejected the Census Bureau’s plans to use statistical sampling for the 2000 census, a decision later upheld by the Supreme Court
1998 – Tropical Storm Charley dropped a foot of rain on South Texas and northern Mexico and left at least 14 people dead and over 60 missing.
1999 – In Ohio a federal judge halted the state’s 4-year-old tuition voucher program saying that it violated constitutional mandates for separation of church and state.
2001 – In McAllen, TX, Bridgestone/Firestone agreed to settle out of court and pay a reported $7.5 million to a family in a rollover accident in their Ford Explorer.
2001 – The remains of nine American servicemen killed in the Korean War were returned to the U.S. The bodies were found about 60 miles north of Pyongyang.
2003 – A 150-strong US Marine force ended an eleven-day sortie and headed back to warships off the coast of Monrovia, Liberia.
2003 – In Oregon eight firefighters died as their van hit a tractor-trailer while returning from fighting a wildfire in Idaho.
2003 – .The US Justice Department reported the crime rate in 2002 was the lowest since studies began in 1973.
2005 – The planet Pluto was reclassified as a “dwarf planet” by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
2005 – A federal commission voted against closing the New London submarine base in Groton, Conn., and the Portsmouth shipyard in Kittery, Maine.
2006 – A US House report said 70% of contracts for Hurricane Katrina were let with little or no competition. Four Katrina contractors were indicted for taking $700,000 for no work..
2006 – Deadly storms swept across the northern Plains, bringing tornadoes that ripped roofs off houses and hail that smashed car windshields. One man was killed when a tornado hit his home in Minnesota, and in Wisconsin, lightning apparently killed a dozen cows and struck a woman as she left a supermarket.
2006 – In Essex, Vermont, Christopher Williams (26) shot and killed 2 people after breaking up with his girlfriend, and then shot himself in the head.
2007 – A US federal appeals court revived California’s request for at least $1 billion in refunds for electricity customers due to overcharges during the Enron debacle.
2007 – Atlanta Falcons quarterback Michael Vick admitted he participated in an illegal dogfighting operation and was suspended indefinitely by the National Football League.
2007 – In Mississippi Klansman James Ford Seale (71) was sentenced to three life terms in prison for his role in the 1964 deaths of Charles Moore and Henry Hezekiah Dee.
2008 – In New Mexico eight inmates escaped from a county jail in Clovis. 3 were captured the next day and five remained at large.
2009 – A senior administration said that Pres. Obama has approved establishment of the new unit, to be known as the High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group, which will be overseen by the National Security Council.
2009 –  In the San Francisco Bay Area Alexander Robert Youshock (17), a former Hillsdale High School student in San Mateo, lit 2 of 10 pipe bombs before he was tackled by teachers. Youshock also carried a chain saw and a sword and planned to attack students as the ran from the bombs.
2009 – The US government “Cash for Clunkers” program ended.
2009 – Reader’s Digest, founded in 1922, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. The company piled on debt following a $1.6 billion leveraged buyout in 2007.
2009 –  The Los Angeles County coroner’s preliminary assessment is that Michael Jackson’s death was caused by an overdose of the anesthetic propofol.
2010 – Scientists reported that the Gulf of Mexico oil spill has revealed a previously unknown type of oil-eating bacteria, which is suddenly flourishing. The dominant microbe in a studied deep water oil plume is a new species, closely related to members of Oceanospirillales.
2010 –  Attorneys general in 17 US states demanded in a joint letter that San Francisco-based Craigslist remove its adult services section because the website cannot adequately block potentially illegal ads promoting prostitution and child trafficking.
2010 –  In Eastport, Maine, the Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) launched a $2.5 million prototype, tidal grid-compatible power system.
2011 – Steve Jobs resigns as the CEO of Apple Inc. Tim Cook took over the CEO position for the company.
2011 -Federal  agents from the US Fish and Wildlife Service  executed four search warrants on Gibson Guitars facilities in two cities. They seized several pallets of wood, electronic files and guitars valued at several hundred thousand dollars.
2011 – Hurricane Irene strengthens to Category 3 status as it heads towards the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos and then the East Coast of the United States. Thousands of people on Ocracoke Island off the coast of North Carolina are told to evacuate.
2013 – Love Wins Ministries says North Carolina police threatened to arrest members of the charity group for distributing food to more than 70 homeless people in downtown Raleigh. The group had free coffee and sausage biscuits but local police stopped them. Police officers threatened to arrest anyone who tried to distribute food, claiming it violates one of the city’s ordinances but refusing to say which one.
2015 – A painting of Jesus Christ has hung in the hallway of Royster Middle School in Chanute,  Kansas for as long as anyone can remember. “I do know it’s been decades,” said Chanute superintendent Richard Proffitt. “Some people who went through the system before – 30 to 40 years ago – knew it was hanging in the hallway back then. It was kind of a permanent fixture, if you will.”
2154 – From the movie “Avatar” it is the date that Jake Scully is changed from human to Avatar.


1759 – William Wilberforce, (d. 1833) was a British politician, a philanthropist and a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade.
1880 – Joshua Lionel Cowen, American inventor and entrepreneur (d. 1965)He was an American inventor and the cofounder of Lionel Corporation, a manufacturer of model railroads and toy trains.
1912 – Durward Kirby, American TV announcer was a 20th Century American television personality.
1917 – Dennis James, was an American pioneering television personality. He worked as an actor, wrestling announcer, sports show host, game show host, and newsreel announcer.
1955 – Mike Huckabee, American politician, Governor/Presidential candidate-2008.
1960 – Cal Ripken, Jr., baseball player. Ripken was best known as baseball’s “Iron Man” playing in a record 2,632 straight games, spanning sixteen seasons, from May 30, 1982 – September 20, 1998.
1965 – Reggie Miller, is a retired  professional basketball player. He holds the NBA record for career three-pointers made (2,560)
1973 – Dave Chappelle, is a comedian, screenwriter, television/film producer, and actor. In 2003, he became known for his popular sketch comedy television series, Chappelle’s Show.






Rank and organization: Lance Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, Company E, 3d Reconnaissance Battalion, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam,  August 24, 1969. Entered service at: Houston, Tex. Born: 16 April 1948, Washington, D.C. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an assistant team leader with Company E, in connection with combat operations against an armed enemy. While conducting a patrol during the early morning hours L/Cpl. Anderson’s reconnaissance team came under a heavy volume of automatic weapons and machine gun fire from a numerically superior and well concealed enemy force. Painfully wounded in both legs and knocked to the ground during the initial moments of the fierce fire fight, L/Cpl. Anderson assumed a prone position and continued to deliver intense suppressive fire in an attempt to repulse the attackers. Just a few moments later he was wounded a second time by an enemy soldier who had approached to within eight feet of the team’s position. Undaunted, he continued to pour a relentless stream of fire at the assaulting unit, even while a companion was treating his leg wounds. Observing an enemy grenade land between himself and the other Marine, L/Cpl. Anderson immediately rolled over and covered the lethal weapon with his body, absorbing the full effects of the detonation. By his indomitable courage, inspiring initiative, and selfless devotion to duty, L/Cpl. Anderson was instrumental in saving several Marines from serious injury or possible death. His actions were in keeping with the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.



The Unknown


By virtue of an act of Congress approved August 24, 1921, the Medal of Honor, emblem of highest ideals and virtues is bestowed in the name of the Congress of the United States upon the unknown American, typifying the gallantry and intrepidity, at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty, of our beloved heroes who made the supreme sacrifice in the World War. They died in order that others might live (293.8, A.G:O.) (War Department General Orders, No. 59, 13 Dec. 1921, sec. I).

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Unerased History – August 23rd

Posted by Wayne Church on August 23, 2015 in 08 - August, Blog by month |
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Rudolph Valentino Day

Ride the Wind Day




The Importance of Good Attitudes

The shades of our opinions, beliefs, worldviews, worries, fears, hopes and expectations frame our experiences. We face situations that are neither positive nor negative, but our attitude towards them defines how they impact our life. Chuck Swindoll says, “We cannot change our past. We cannot change the fact that people act in a certain way. We cannot change the inevitable. The only thing we can do is play on the one string we have, and that is our attitude.” If we see something as a problem, we will react differently than if we perceive the same event as a lesson, or even an opportunity.  If we approach people we do not know with distrust and an air of superiority, we will build a different kind of relationship than if we greet them with a genuine open smile.

No matter how old you are, where you live or what you do, having a positive outlook on life always pays off – even when things do not go according to plan.

Maintaining a positive attitude that will help you to deal with everyday challenges requires a plan. Here are some ideas.

1.         Build a spiritual worldview. Simply remember two rules. “Love the Lord your God with all your heart and soul and mind” and the second is “Love your neighbor as yourself.”  When you shift your focus toward the Creator of the Universe, your attitude towards many situations will change. He fills your heart with love and peace that ordinary problems cannot shatter.

2.         Keep positive people in your life. Positive attitudes grow exponentially. Surround yourself with kind, happy, optimistic people and their positive qualities will rub off on you.

3.         Become aware of your self-talk. Remember ideas become thoughts, thoughts become words, and words become actions.

4.         Remember your blessings. Take time and be thankful for everything you have in your life. Even if you are facing tough times, there are still many things to be grateful for.

5.         Laugh often. Find humor in the simplest of things. Learn to laugh at yourself.

6.          Dream big dreams and then set smaller, achievable goals that inspire you to work harder and smarter.

7.         Tell yourself “you can do it”. “Never, never, never give up”- Winston Churchill.

8.         Give. The simple act of giving brings more joy and positive energy to you than any other action. Give love, give of your talents, give of your wisdom and never expect repayment.

9.         Don’t compare yourself to others. You react to be the inspiration.

10.       Refrain from judging yourself. Mother Teresa said, “When you judge people, you have no time to love them.” Therefore judge less and compliment more. Say thank you at every possible turn.


There is no better time than right now to be happy.”

 ~ Scriptor Incompertus


compunction kuhm-PUHNK-shuhnnoun:

1.Anxiety or deep unease proceeding from a sense of guilt or consciousness of causing pain.

2. A sting of conscience or a twinge of uneasiness; a qualm; a scruple.


79 – Mount Vesuvius begins stirring, on the feast day of Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.

1305 – William Wallace, Scottish patriot, is executed for high treason by Edward I of England. was hanged, drawn, beheaded, and quartered in London. See the movie, “Braveheart” with Mel Gibson (1995).

1541 – Jacques Cartier landed near Quebec on his third voyage to North America.

1617 – The first one-way streets were established in London. An Act of Common Council was passed to regulate the “disorder and rude behavior of Carmen, Draymen and others using Cartes.”

1711 – A British attempt to invade Canada by sea failed.

1775 – King George III of England refused the American colonies’ offer of peace and declared them in open rebellion.

1784 – Eastern Tennessee declares itself an independent state under the name of Franklin; the step is rejected by Congress one year later.

1820 – The Revenue Cutter “Louisiana” captured four pirate vessels.

1833 – Long before the US, the British Parliament ordered the abolition of slavery in its colonies by Aug 1, 1834. This would free some 700,000 slaves, including those in the West Indies.

1838 – The first class was graduated from Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in South Hadley, MA. It was one of the first colleges for women.

1839 – Hong Kong was taken by the British in a war with China.

1850 – The first national women’s rights convention convened in Worcester, Mass.

1858 – “Ten Nights in a Barroom” opened in New York City at the National Theater. It was a melodrama about the evils of drinking.

1861 – Civil War: Allen Pinkerton, head of the new secret service agency of the Federal government, places Confederate spy Rose O’Neal Greenhow under house arrest in Washington, D.C. She was sent to the Old Capitol Prison and then was banished to Richmond, Va., in May, 1863. She had supplied Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard with a warning that Union General Irvin McDowell was planning an attack on Manassas in July 1861. She drowned in a shipwreck on September 30, 1864.

1863Civil War: Union batteries ceased their first bombardment of Fort Sumter, leaving it a mass of rubble but still unconquered by the North.

1863 – Civil War: A ruthless band of guerrillas attacks the town of Lawrence, Kansas, killing every man and boy in sight.

1864 – Civil War: Brigadier General Page surrendered Fort Morgan, the last Confederate bastion at Mobile Bay.

1864Civil War: The Geneva Convention of 1864 for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick of Armies in the Field is adopted by twelve nations meeting in Geneva.

1877 – The Texas outlaw Wes Hardin was captured in near Pensacola, FL. He was an outlaw and gunfighter of the American Old West. He was born in Bonham, Fannin County, Texas. When Hardin went to prison in 1878, he claimed to have killed 42 men.

1889 – First ship-to-shore wireless message received in the US (San Francisco).

1892 – John H. Stedman of Rochester, NY patented the printed streetcar transfer (also invented the fuzzy pipe cleaner).

1900 – Booker T. Washington formed the National Negro Business League in Boston, Massachusetts.

1902 – Fanny Farmer, among the first to emphasize the relationship of diet to health, opened her School of Cookery in Boston.

1902 – Gold was discovered in Goldfield, NV, near Tonopah, NV. By 1907 Goldfield grew to 20,000 residents. At the 2010 Census, the population was 268. The town is now a semi ghost town.

1904 – Harold D. Weed of Canastota, New York, is issued U.S. Patent No. 768,495 for his “Grip-Tread for Pneumatic Tires,” a non-skid tire chain to be used on automobiles in order to increase traction on roads slick with mud, snow or ice.

1914 – Japan declared war on Germany in World War I.

1919 – “Gasoline Alley” cartoon strip premiers in Chicago Tribune.

1923 – Billy Jones and Ernie Hare, “The Happiness Boys“, debuted on radio.

1924 – The distance between Earth and Mars is the smallest since the 10th century.

1926 – The death of silent film actor Rudolph Valentino caused a worldwide frenzy among his fans. Valentino, who appeared in only 14 major films during his brief seven-year movie career, was idolized by countless women as the “Great Lover” of the 1920s.

1927 – Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, two Italian-American anarchists, accused of robbery and murder on April 15, 1920 were sent to the electric chair. There was a world-wide protest against their death penalty.

1935 – The US Banking Act of 1935 revised the operation of the Federal Reserve System.

1936 – Bob Feller made his pitching debut with the Cleveland Indians.

1939 – Zane Grey (b.1872), American novelist, died. He best known for his popular adventure novels and stories that presented an idealized image of the rugged Old West. He authored over 90 books.

1939 – The Nazis threatened to invade Poland and Europe braced itself for war. The Dow responded to the news with a 3.25 drop to close the day at 131.82.

1940 – World War II: German Luftwaffe began night bombing on London.

1942 – World War II: Beginning of the Battle of Stalingrad.

1942 – World War II: The first US flights landed on Guadalcanal.

1943 – “Lindy Hop” makes the cover of “LIFE” magazine. The Lindy was named after American aviation hero Charles A. Lindbergh; and began its entry into the American lifestyle in 1927.

1944 – World War II: US 1st Army (part of US 12th Army Group) drives forward to the Seine.

1944 – World War II: Allied troops captured Marseilles, France.

1944World War II: A US B-24 crashed into the Holy Trinity Church of England School, Freckelton, England, demolishing three houses and the Sad Sack Snack Bar. The death toll was 61, including 38 children.

1944 – World War II: German SS engineers began placing explosive charges around the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Adolf Hitler had decreed that Paris should be left a smoking ruin, but Dietrich von Choltitz thought better of his Fuehrer’s order.

1944 – World War II: The last Japanese resistance on the island of Numfoor is overcome and most of the American force is redeployed.

1945 – World War II: Clarence V. Bertucci is granted a discharge from the Army and sent to a mental institution for further tests and evaluation. He is responsible for the massacre of German POWs at Camp Salina, Utah on July 8th.

1945 – World War II: General MacArthur orders the release of some 5000 Filipinos interned for security reasons.

1947 – Margaret Truman, U.S. President Truman’s daughter, gave her first public performance as a singer. The event was at the Hollywood Bowl and had an audience of 15,000.

1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mona Lisa” by Nat King Cole, “I Wanna Be Loved” by The Andrews Sisters, “Play a Simple Melody” by Bing Crosby and “I’m Moving On” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.

1950 – Korean War: Up to 77,000 members of the U.S. Army Organized Reserve Corps were called involuntarily to active duty to fight the Korean War.

1951 – Korean War: The Navy recommissioned the battleship USS Iowa under the command of Captain William R. Smedberg, III.

1951 – Harlem Globetrotters play in Olympic Stadium, Berlin before 75,052.

1952 – “Half As Much” by Rosemary Clooney topped the charts.

1954 -The YC-130 Hercules made its maiden flight at the Lockheed Martin plant in Burbank, California. The C-130 is still in production today (2015), making it the longest running military aircraft production line in history.

1954 – The small community of Charleston, Arkansas, became the first in the South to end segregation in its schools. This was in response to the May 17 US Supreme Court ruling on Brown vs. Board of Education.

1956 – US Navy pilot Lt. James B. Deane Jr. was shot out of the sky on a nighttime spy flight off the coast of China in the East China Sea . The Martin P4M-1Q Mercator carrying Deane and 15 other men went down and twelve were never recovered.

1957 – Digital Equipment Corp was founded by Kenneth Olsen with $70,000, DEC was the leading producer “Minicomputers”, DEC became the second largest computer company in the 70’s. Ken Olsen made the famous statement “There will never be a use for a computer in the home”. DEC completely missed the PC revolution.

1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Nel Blu Dipinto Di Blu (Volare)” by Domenico Modugno,Little Star” by The Elegants, “My True Love” by Jack Scott and “Alone with You” by Faron Young all topped the charts.

1958 – In Taiwan Straits Crisis, Units of 7th Fleet move into Taiwan area to support Taiwan against Chinese Communists.

1963 – The first satellite communications ship, USNS Kingsport (T-AG-164) in Lagos, Nigeria, connected President John F. Kennedy with Nigerian Prime Minister Balewa. He was aboard for the first satellite (Syncom II) relayed telephone conversation between heads of state.

1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Summer in the City” by The Lovin’ Spoonful, “Sunny” by Bobby Hebb, “See You in September” by The Happenings and “Almost Persuaded” by David Houston all topped the charts.

1966 – The Beatles’ movie “Help!” premiered in the U.S.

1966 – The American cargo ship Baton Rouge Victory strikes a mine laid by the Viet Cong in the Long Tao River, 22 miles south of Saigon. Seven crewmen were killed.

1966 – Lunar Orbiter 1 takes first photograph of Earth from Moon.

1968 – Vietnam War: Communist forces launch rocket and mortar attacks onthe U.S. airfield at Da Nang, the cities of Hue and Quang Tri.

1969 – “Honky Tonk Woman” by the Rolling Stones topped the charts.

1970 – U.S. swimmer Gary Hall broke three world records at the AAU (Amateur Athletic Union) outdoor swimming meet, held in Los Angeles, CA.

1971 – Shamu the Whale, the first of a number of Shamus, died at Sea World in San Diego, Ca., after six years in captivity.

1972 – The Republican National Convention, meeting in Miami Beach, Fla., nominated Vice President Spiro T. Agnew for a second term.

1973 – Intelsat communications satellite launched.

1973 – The final episode of The Mod Squad aired. (See also 9/24/1968 for debut)

1973 – A bank robbery-turned-hostage standoff began in Stockholm, Sweden; by the time the crisis ended, the four hostages had come to empathize with their captors, an occurrence that came to be known as “Stockholm Syndrome.” It would later be used to describe the Patty Hearst case. See April 15th.

1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Night Chicago Died” by Paper Lace, “(You’re) Having My Baby” by Paul Anka, “Tell Me Something Good” by Rufus and “As Soon as I Hang Up the Phone” by Conway Twitty & Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.

1975 – “Fallin’ in Love” by Hamilton, Joe Frank & Reynolds topped the charts.

1977 – The Gossamer Condor 2 flew the first figure-of-eight, a distance of over a mile winning the first Kremer prize at Minter Field in Shafter, California. It was built by Dr Paul B. MacCready and piloted by amateur cyclist and hang-glider pilot Bryan Allen.

1977 – Cincinnati Bengals was trademark registered.

1979 – Soviet dancer Alexander Godunov defected while the Bolshoi Ballet was on tour in New York.

1979 – The keel of the first of the new Coast Guard 270-foot class medium endurance cutters, the CGC Bear, was laid.

1980 – “Magic” by Olivia Newton-John topped the charts.

1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Eye of the Tiger” by Survivor, “Hurts So Good” by John Cougar, “Abracadabra” by The Steve Miller Band and “Nobody” by Sylvia all topped the charts.

1984 – The last Marines to serve peace-keeping duty in Lebanon arrived home.

1984 – South Fork Ranch, the home of the fictitious Ewing clan of the CBS-TV show, “Dallas,” was sold. The ranch was to be transformed from a tourist site into a hotel.

1985 – Paul Hornung sues NCAA and wins. The 3-million dollar suit charged that the NCAA interfered with his right to earn a living as a sports broadcaster.

1986 – “Papa Don’t Preach” by Madonna topped the charts.

1987 – Two teenagers in Alexander, Arkansas, Kevin Ives and Don Henry were run over by a train. Later investigations indicated that they were murdered prior to being run over.

1989 – In a case that inflamed racial tensions in New York City, Yusuf Hawkins, a black teenager, was shot dead after he and his friends were confronted by white youths in a Brooklyn neighborhood.

1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Vision of Love” by Mariah Carey, “Come Back to Me” by Janet Jackson, “If Wishes Came True” by Sweet Sensation and “Next to You, Next to Me” by Shenandoah all topped the charts.

1990 – US began to call up of 46,000 reservists to the Persian Gulf.

1990 – East and West Germany announced that they would unite Oct 3.

1990 – Iraqi state television showed President Saddam Hussein meeting with a group of about 20 Western detainees, telling the group—whom he described as “guests”—that they were being held “to prevent the scourge of war.”

1992 – James A. Baker III bowed out as Secretary of State after three-and-a-half years to become White House Chief of Staff.

1992 – New York department store chain “Alexanders” announces closing of all eleven stores.

1992 – Hurricane Andrew slammed into the Bahamas with 120 mph winds.

1993 – Former Detroit police officers Larry Nevers and Walter Budzyn were convicted of second-degree murder in the fatal beating of black motorist Malice Green. Both convictions were later overturned.

1994 – A new Coast Guard record for people rescued was set when 3,253 Cubans were rescued from dangerously overloaded craft during Operation Able Vigil.

1995 – Alfred Eisenstaedt (96), “Life” magazine photographer, died on Martha’s Vineyard. His picture of a sailor kissing a nurse in Times Square became one of the best-known images of America’s joy at the end of World War Two.

1996 –  President Clinton imposed limits on peddling cigarettes to children as he unveiled Food and Drug Administration regulations declaring nicotine an addictive drug.

1996 – Osama bin Laden issues message entitled ‘A declaration of war against the Americans occupying the land of the two holy places.’

1998 – Michael Jones, a 16-year old boy, was shot when he refused to drop a water gun that appeared real to police officers. In New York City it was illegal to carry to possess a toy gun that looks real or is painted black.

1998 – Kathryn Schoonover was arrested when she was caught stuffing envelopes with cyanide and preparing to send them to people around the U.S.

1998 – Retailers began marketing computers with the new 450 MHz Intel Pentium II.

1999 – The Dow Jones industrial average soared 199.15 to a new record of 11,209.84.

1999 – US and British warplanes attacked targets in northern Iraq after being fired upon by an Iraqi military radar station.

2000 – The Clinton administration released guidelines for federally funded scientists to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells.

2000 – Boeing made the first successful launch of its Delta III rocket.

2000 – Richard Hatch was revealed as the winning castaway on CBS’ “Survivor.” Hatch won $1,000,000 for his stay on the island of Pulau Tida in the South China Sea.

2001 – Brian Regan (38), retired US Air Force master sergeant and cryptanalyst, was arrested by the FBI at Dulles Int’l Airport on charges of spying.

2001 – Modesto Democratic Representative Gary Condit acknowledged on a TV interview with Connie Chung that he had made mistakes but that he had nothing to do with the disappearance of Chandra Levy.

2002 – New York publicist Lizzie Grubman pleaded guilty in a hit-and-run crash that injured 16 people outside a Hamptons nightclub.

2004 – Antigua and Barbuda’s prime minister and American officials signed an agreement extending the lease of the U.S. Air Force base in the Caribbean country until 2008.

2004 – New US rules on overtime pay went into effect. Under the new FairPay rules, workers earning less than $23,660 per year, or $455 per week, were guaranteed overtime protection.

2005 – New York City said it will install 1,000 surveillance cameras and 3,000 motion sensors in its subways and rail stations in a new deal with Lockheed Martin.

2005 – In Arizona two employees were gunned down outside a Wal-Mart store in Glendale, a Phoenix suburb. In 2009 Ed Liu, the accused gunman, was committed to a mental hospital instead of a trial on murder charges.

2006 – In Alaska Republican Gov. Frank Murkowski finished last in a three-day primary election. Sarah Palin, a former Wasilla mayor, won with over 50% of the vote.

2006 –Annie Donnelly (38) of Long Island, NY, pleaded guilty to stealing $2.3 million (1.2 million pounds) from her employers. She spent the money on lottery tickets, buying as much as $6,000 worth of tickets a day in a bid to hit the jackpot.

2007 – U.S. Customs and U.S. Navy officials seized a submarine-like vessel filled with $352 million worth of cocaine off the Guatemalan coast. (prices given by CIA.)

2007 – Ohio’s Gov. Ted Strickland said more than 1,000 people were flooded out of their homes after heavy rain that swamped communities across the Midwest.

2007 – University of Minnesota astronomers announced that they have stumbled upon a tremendous hole in the universe. The cosmic blank spot has no stray stars, no galaxies, no sucking black holes, not even mysterious dark matter. The 1 billion light years across of nothing represented an expanse of nearly 6 billion trillion miles of emptiness.

2008 – The Department of Health and Human Services announces plans to implement a rule that would protect healthcare workers from being fired or otherwise penalized for refusing to provide services they find morally objectionable, such as performing abortions or dispensing contraception.

2008 – In Utah a small plane crashed and burned shortly after takeoff from Canyonlands Field airport. All ten aboard, including nine employees of a Cedar City dermatology company died.

2008 – The death toll from Tropical Storm Fay in Florida rises to eleven

2008 – The Department of Health and Human Services announces plans to implement a rule that would protect healthcare workers from being fired or otherwise penalized for refusing to provide services they find morally objectionable.

2010 – Judge Royce C. Lamberth of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia rules against a decision by President Barack Obama allowing the expansion of embryonic stem cell research claiming it breaks US law.

2011 – Earthquake 4 miles SSE of Louisa, VA went off at 5.8-6.0. Louisa is 41 miles from Richmond, VA and 83 miles from Washington D.C. No significant damage as is evidenced in the below photo.

 The Washington Monument obelisk closed indefinitely due to earthquake damage.

2012 – A former Marine who was forced into a psychiatric ward for anti-government Facebook postings has been freed from the hospital by a Virginia circuit court ruling handed down today. Judge Allan Sharrett dismissed the case against Brandon Raub, 26, who had been detained by government officials in Richmond, Va., and transferred to a VA hospital in Salem, Va.

2012 – The US Anti-Doping Agency said it will strip Lance Armstrong of his unprecedented seven Tour de France titles after he dropped his fight against drug charges that threatened his legacy as one of the greatest cyclists of all time.

2012 – In Illinois authorities in Washington Park, a village next to East St. Louis, raided a house where a teenage girl (17) had been held captive and repeatedly sexually assaulted for over 2 years. Police took into custody a 24-year-old man and his mother.

2013 – Maj. Nidal Hasan was convicted for the 2009 shooting rampage at Fort Hood, TX. Hasan was convicted of 13 specifications of premeditated murder and 32 specifications of attempted premeditated murder under the Uniform Code of Military Justice. He is eligible for the death penalty.



1724 – Abraham Yates, American Continental Congressman (d. 1796)
1754 – King Louis XVI of France.
1785 – Oliver Hazard Perry, American naval officer. He served in the War of 1812 against Britain and earned the nickname “Hero of Lake Erie” for leading American forces in the decisive naval victory at the Battle of Lake Erie. Died in 1819 on his 34th birthday.
1875 – William Henry Eccles was a British physicist and a pioneer in the development of radio communication.
1912 – Gene Kelly, American dancer, choreographer, actor.
1917 – Tex Williams, American singer (d. 1985)
1932 – Mark Russell, American comedian and political commentator
1934 – Barbara Eden  is an American film and television actress and singer; and is best known for her starring role in the sitcom I Dream of Jeannie
1948 -Daniel “Rudy” Ruettiger is a motivational speaker and former collegiate football player best known as the inspiration for the motion picture Rudy.
1970 – River Phoenix, American actor (d. 1993)






Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, 38th Infantry, 2-t Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Plougastel, Brittany, France,  August 23rd, 1944. Entered service at: Laughlinstown, Pa. Born: 16 August 1916, Lycippus, Pa. G.O. No.: 37, 11 May 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, on 23 August 1944. S/Sgt. Carey, leader of a machinegun section, was advancing with his company in the attack on the strongly held enemy hill 154, near Plougastel, Brittany, France. The advance was held up when the attacking units were pinned down by intense enemy machinegun fire from a pillbox two-hundred yards up the hill. From his position covering the right flank, S/Sgt. Carey displaced his guns to an advanced position and then, upon his own initiative, armed himself with as many hand grenades as he could carry and without regard for his personal safety started alone up the hill toward the pillbox. Crawling forward under its withering fire, he proceeded one hundred-fifty yards when he met a German rifleman whom he killed with his carbine. Continuing his steady forward movement until he reached grenade-throwing distance, he hurled his grenades at the pillbox opening in the face of intense enemy fire which wounded him mortally. Undaunted, he gathered his strength and continued his grenade attack until one entered and exploded within the pillbox, killing the occupants and putting their guns out of action. Inspired by S/Sgt. Carey’s heroic act, the riflemen quickly occupied the position and overpowered the remaining enemy resistance in the vicinity.



Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 30th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: Near Sariaya, Luzon, Philippine Islands, August 23rd, 1900. Entered service at: Wayne, Mich. Birth: Detroit, Mich. Date of issue: 14 March 1902. Citation: Single-handed, he defended a disabled comrade against a greatly superior force of the enemy.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company I, 90th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Rappahannock Station, Va., August 23rd, 1862. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth:——. Date of issue: 8 July 1896. Citation: Voluntarily, and at great personal risk, picked up an unexploded shell and threw it away, thus doubtless saving the life of a comrade whose arm had been taken off by the same shell.



Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 90th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Rappanhannock Station, Va., August 23rd, 1862. Entered service at:——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 5 May 1900. Citation: At the imminent risk of his life, crawled to a nearby spring within the enemy’s range and exposed to constant fire filled a large number of canteens, and returned in safety to the relief of his comrades who were suffering from want of water.



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Unerased History – August 22nd

Posted by Wayne Church on August 22, 2015 in 08 - August, Blog by month |
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Southern Hemisphere Hoodie Hoo Day

Be An Angel Day


 The Symbolism of the $1 Bill


Reverse side

Take out a dollar bill and study it.

The one dollar bill you’re looking at first came off the presses in 1957 in its present design. It has been decided that the one-dollar bill will not get the security enhancements because it is too expensive to counterfeit. According to the U.S. Treasury Department, that is when the motto, “In God We Trust” started being used on paper money. It was in use on coins long before that.

This so-called “paper money” is in fact a cotton and linen blend, with red and blue minute silk fibers running through it. It is actually material. We’ve all washed it without it falling apart. A special blend of ink is used, the contents we will never know. It is overprinted with symbols and then it is starched to make it water resistant and pressed to give it that nice crisp look.

If you look on the front of the bill, you will see the United States Treasury Seal located on the right underneath the big word “ONE”. On the seal are three symbols, the scales of justice, a chevron pointing up and a skeleton key. The scales stand for justice and show that this nation is bound by the rule of law.  The chevron contains thirteen stars representing the original thirteen colonies and the key underneath it represents a symbol of authority.

Also on the front of the bill are two signatures, one on each side. On the left is the signature of the Treasurer of the United States and on the right is the signature of the Secretary of the Treasury. Finally, each bill is individually numbered.

Now look at the back side of the bill. On it, you will see two circles. The two circles reflect the two sides of the Great Seal of the United States. Before the adjournment of the Continental Congress on July 4th, 1776, a design committee was appointed to develop a seal for the United States. The committee was Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson, three of the five men who had drafted the Declaration of Independence. They were merely the first committee, however. It took six years, the work of two additional committees and a total of 14 men before a final version of the Great Seal was approved. The final proposal, as accepted by Congress, was submitted on June 13, 1782, by Charles Thompson, Secretary of Congress. He brought together some of the recommendations of the three committees, their consultants, and artists.

If you look at the left hand circle, you will see a Pyramid. This pyramid was not a part of the proposals for the Great Seal until the third committee, and it was not suggested by Jefferson, Franklin, or Adams. A pyramid starts from a quadrangular foundation symbolizing the terrestrial basis, the edges and sides of the pyramid converge towards a unique point, the summit. Please note that it has thirteen steps. Notice the face is lighted and the western side is dark. Although there is no “official” explanation for the shading, some interpret it as a reflection that our country was just beginning and had not begun to explore the West.

The Pyramid is uncapped, which may signify that our country was not yet finished. The unfinished state of the pyramid was intentional, and Charles Thompson, in his remarks to congress about the symbolism on the Great Seal, said the pyramid represented “Strength and Duration.”

Inside the capstone you have the “all-seeing eye”, an ancient symbol for divinity. Although Franklin’s committee did not suggest a pyramid, it did originate the suggestion of the eye. However, the term “the all-seeing eye” was never officially used when describing it. The Franklin committee wanted the seal to include a reflection of divine providence and discussed a variety of themes including the Children of Israel in the Wilderness.

“IN GOD WE TRUST” is on this currency. The Latin above the pyramid, ANNUIT COEPTIS, means “God has favored our undertaking.” It was Franklin’s belief that one man couldn’t do it alone, but a group of men with the help of God could do anything. The Latin below the pyramid, NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM, is interpreted to mean “a new order for the world.”  The style of government being developed had never existed before. America is a republic bound by a Constitution. Never before had a society existed where the people ruled.

At the base of the pyramid is the Roman Numeral for 1776.


Now look at the right-hand circle, and check it carefully, you may notice that with only slight modifications it is the Seal of the President of the United States. It also appears on every National Cemetery in the United States and is the centerpiece of most heroes’ monuments. On the Great Seal, the eagle faces the talon holding the olive branch symbolically saying that we, as a nation, look toward peace . The eagle on The Presidential Seal faces in the opposite direction-toward the talon holding the arrows symbolizing that our nation is always prepared for war. That was until 1945, when Harry Truman had it redesigned to face the olive branch as well.
Also, notice the shield is unsupported. Charles Thompson said it denoted that the United States of America ought to rely on its own virtue. The shield consists of red and white stripes with a blue bar above that represents Congress. The colors are taken from the American flag and officially the red represents hardiness and valor, the white represents purity and innocence, and the blue, vigilance, perseverance, and justice. In the Eagle’s beak you will read, “E PLURIBUS UNUM”, meaning “one nation from many people.” Beyond this, there is no clear explanation for certain what the symbols mean. But although there is no explanation of the imagery of the eagle in the official records, most historical references to the bald eagle indicate that it represents something of uniquely American origin. One of the original design proposals for the Great Seal featured a small crested white eagle, which is not uniquely American, but this was later changed to the uniquely American Bald Eagle. At one time Benjamin Franklin suggested the turkey, also uniquely American.  An unsupported interpretation of the inclusion of the Bald Eagle is that it could also represent victory and independence, because the eagle is not afraid of a storm, is strong and smart enough to soar above it, it wears no material crown and its vision is more than eight times stronger than a human beings.

Above the Eagle are thirteen stars representing the thirteen original colonies. Again, American was coming together as one. Notice that the Eagle holds an olive branch and arrows in his talons. The official meaning is that the olive branch, which has thirteen leaves on it, and the thirteen arrows “denote the power of peace and war” across all thirteen colonies.  As noted previously, the design shows the eagle facing the olive branch.

Some feel that the number 13 is an unlucky number but the significance of the number 13 in U.S. history is very strong. The number 13 as used on many U.S. symbols (the stripes on the flag, steps on the Pyramid, 13 stars above the eagle, 13 bars on the shield, 13 leaves on the olive branch, 13 fruits, and 13 arrows) all represent the beginning of our country, as established by the thirteen colonies. The number 13 is also ”indivisible.” The number is the sixth prime number and only divisible by “1” and itself.


Stripes on the flag

Steps on the Pyramid Stars above the eagle Bars on the shield

Leaves & Fruit on the olive branch



Rattlers on a snakes tail

The Number 13 on the One Dollar Bill


“Wherever we look upon this earth, the opportunities take shape within the problems.”

~ Nelson Rockefeller


quaggy (KWAG-ee) adjective

Marshy; flabby; spongy.
[From quag (marsh), of unknown origin.]


565 – St. Columba reported seeing a monster in Loch Ness, Scotland

1654 – Jacob Barsimson arrives in New Amsterdam. He is the first Jewish immigrant to what is later the United States
1762 – Ann Franklin became the first female editor of an American newspaper, the “Newport Mercury” (in Rhode Island).  She was also the wife of Benjamin Franklin.
1775 – King George III declares the American colonies to be in open rebellion.
1776 – Redcoats land at Long Island.General William Howe’s large army came to Long Island hoping to capture New York City and gain control of the Hudson River.
1777 – With the approach of General Benedict Arnold’s army, British Colonel Barry St. Ledger abandoned Fort Stanwix, currently the site of Rome, NY, and returns to Canada.
1781 – Col. William Campbell (36), West Virginia Patriot militia leader, died of an apparent heart attack during the siege of Yorktown.
1787 – John Fitch’s steamboat completes its tests before delegates of the Continental Congress, years before Fulton. He was granted his first United States patent for a steamboat on August 26, 1791.
1831 –  Nat Turner’s slave rebellion commences just after midnight in Southampton County, Virginia, leading to the deaths of more than fifty whites and several hundred Blacks who are killed in retaliation for the uprising.
1844 – A mass meeting of Blacks in Boston adopted a resolution declaring that segregated public schools in that city violated the State Constitution. Their request was denied.
1846 – Gen. Stephen W. Kearny proclaimed all of New Mexico a territory of the United States. The US pledged to honor the land grants in northern New Mexico that were awarded by the Spanish and Mexican governors of the territory.
1848 – The United States annexes New Mexico.
1851 – U.S.-built schooner “America” beat a fleet of Britain’s finest ships in a race around England’s Isle of Wight, in the Queen’s Cup, later renamed the America’s Cup. The U.S. held that title for 132 years until 1983.
1864 – The International Red Cross was founded by Swiss humanitarian Jean-Henri Dunant.
1864 – Geneva Convention signed, by 12 nations. By 1866 twenty countries had signed and 194 states were signatories as of 2008. This was the creation of the International Red Cross.
1865 – A patent for liquid soap was received by William Sheppard.
1867 – The first Black college founded in Tennessee was Fisk University. Although work on the school was started in October 1865, it did not become incorporated under Tennessee law until this day.
1902 – President Theodore Roosevelt became the first U.S. President to ride in an automobile, in Hartford, Connecticut.
1902 – The Cadillac Company formed from the Henry Ford Co. by Henry Leland when Henry Ford left. Ford formed the Ford Motor Co. in 1903. The company is named after   Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac, who founded Detroit, Michigan. The Cadillac crest is based on his coat of arms.
1906 – The Victor Talking Machine Company of Camden, NJ, began to manufacture the Victrola. The hand-cranked unit, with horn cabinet, sold for $200.
1911 – It was announced that Leonardo da Vinci’s “Mona Lisa” had been stolen from the Louvre Museum in Paris. It was actually stolen on the 21st. The painting reappeared two years later in Italy.
1911  President William Taft vetoed a joint resolution of Congress granting statehood to Arizona.
1912  Birthday of the Navy’s Dental Corps.
1921 – J. Edgar Hoover became Assistant Director of FBI.
1932 – The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) began its first experimental TV broadcast in England.
1933 – The deadly Barker gang robs a Federal Reserve mail truck in Chicago, Illinois, and kills Officer Miles Cunningham.
1938 – Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers appeared on the cover of “LIFE” magazine.
1938 – Count Basie recorded the classic swing tune, “Jumpin’ at the Woodside.
1941 – World War II: Nazi troops reached the outskirts of Leningrad.
1944 – World War II: In Bordeaux, France, Heinz Stahlschmidt (d.2010 at 92), a junior officer in the German navy, defied his superiors plans to blow up Bordeaux’s port by blowing up a munitions depot, rendering some 4,000 fuses useless and saving the port.
1944 – World War II: Hitler ordered Paris to be destroyed.
1944 – World War II: Last transport of French Jews to concentration camps in Germany.
1944 – The Liberty ship SS Alexander V. Frazer, named for the “first” commandant of the Revenue Cutter Service, was launched.
1947 – “Jack Armstrong, the All-American Boy”  was a radio adventure series which maintained its popularity from 1933 to 1951. The program originated at WBBM in Chicago on July 31, 1933, and was later carried on CBS, then NBC and finally ABC.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Some Enchanted Evening” by Perry Como, “Room Full of Roses” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Don Cornell), “You’re Breaking My Heart” by Vic Damone and “I’m Throwing Rice (At the Girl that I Love)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1950 – Althea Gibson becomes the first Black competitor in international tennis.
1951 – Harlem Globetrotters played in Olympic Stadium at Berlin before 75,052.
1953 – “No Other Love” by Perry Como topped the charts.
1956 – Elvis began work on his first movie, “Love Me Tender.” The film was originally entitled “The Reno Brothers.”
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Letters in the Sand” by Pat Boone, “Tammy” by Debbie Reynolds, “Whispering Bells” by The Dell-Vikings and “(Let Me Be Your) Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.
1959 – “Big Hunk o’ Love” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.  Piano it was actually played on.
1962 – USS Savannah, world’s first nuclear powered ship, completed her maiden voyage from Yorktown, Va., to Savannah, Ga.
1963 – NASA civilian test pilot Joe Walker in X-15 an altitude of 354,300 feet (66 miles)  (his last X-15 flight).
1964 – “Where Did Our Love Go?” by the Supremes topped the charts.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Got You Babe” by Sonny & Cher, “Save Your Heart for Me” by Gary Lewis & The Playboys, “Help!” by The Beatles and “Yes, Mr. Peters” by Roy Drusky & Priscilla Mitchell all topped the charts.
1966 – The Beatles arrived in New York City.
1966 – The United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC), later renamed the United Farm Workers of America (UFW), was formed.
1969 – Zager and Evans end a six-week run at #1 with their smash-hit “In The Year 2525 (Exordium & Terminus)“.
1970 – “Make It with You” by Bread topped the charts.
1971 – J. Edgar Hoover and John Mitchell announce the arrest of 20 of the Camden 28. They were a group of “Catholic left” anti-Vietnam War activists who in 1971 planned and executed a raid on a Camden, New Jersey draft board.
1972 – US Congress created the Idaho’s Sawtooth National Recreation Area.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Touch Me in the Morning” by Diana Ross, “Live and Let Die” by Wings, “Brother Louie” by Stories and “Louisiana Woman, Mississippi Man” by Conway Twitty & Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1973 – Henry Kissinger was named Secretary of State by U.S. President Nixon. Kissinger won the Nobel Peace Prize in the same year.
1976 – EPA scientists reported that they had discovered plutonium in the ocean sediment off the SF coast and radioactive cesium leaking from containers 120 miles east of Ocean City, Md. Some 62,000 steel drums of nuclear waste were dumped into the oceans from 1946-1970.
1979 – Two hundred Black leaders, meeting in New York, expressed support for Andrew Young and demanded that Blacks be given a voice in shaping American foreign policy.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Endless Love” by Diana Ross & Lionel Richie, “Theme from “Greatest American Hero” (Believe It or Not)” by Joey Scarbury, “Slow Hand” by Pointer Sisters and “I Don’t Need You” by Kenny Rogers all topped the charts.
1984 – The last Volkswagen Rabbit rolled off the assembly line in New Stanton, PA. Over 11 million of the economical cars had been produced.
1984 – The Republican convention in Dallas renominated Ronald Reagan.
1986 – Kerr-McGee Corp. agreed to pay the estate of the late Karen Silkwood $1.38 million to settle a 10-year-old nuclear contamination lawsuit.
1988 – Speaking to the Veterans of Foreign Wars in Chicago, Vice President George Bush defended the Vietnam-era National Guard service of running mate Dan Quayle, saying, “He did not go to Canada, he did not burn his draft card and he damn sure didn’t burn the American flag.”
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Right Here Waiting” by Richard Marx, “On Our Own” by Bobby Brown, “Cold Hearted” by Paula Abdul and “Sunday in the South” by Shenandoah all topped the charts.
1989 – Nolan Ryan strikes out Rickey Henderson to become the first Major League Baseball pitcher to record 5000 strikeouts.
1989 – Huey P. Newton, co-founder of the Black Panthers, was shot to death in Oakland, CA. Tyrone Robinson was later convicted and sentenced to 32 years to life in prison for the killing.
1992 – FBI HRT sniper Lon Horiuchi shoots and kills Vicki Weaver during an 11-day siege at her home at Ruby Ridge, Idaho.
1992 – “End of the Road (From Boomerang)” by Boyz II Men topped the charts.
1992 – President Bush told an evangelical gathering in Dallas that the Democrats had left “three simple letters” out of their platform: “G-O-D.”
1994 – DNA testing linked OJ Simpson to the murder of Nicole Simpson and Ron Goldman. m)
1995 – Congressman Mel Reynolds of Illinois (D- IL) was convicted in Chicago of criminal sexual assault, sexual abuse, child pornography and obstruction of justice for having sex with a former campaign worker who had been underage at the time.
1996 – The US Army began operating an incinerator in Utah to destroy a 14,000 ton stockpile of chemical weapons over seven years.
1997 – A federal judge rejected Pres. Clinton’s request to dismiss the sexual harassment suit of Paula Jones.
1997 – A federal official threw out the contentious Teamsters election because of alleged campaign fund-raising abuses, forcing union President Ron Carey into another race against James P. Hoffa.
1997 – A $64.8 million 890- lb. Lewis satellite was launched by NASA and went into an uncontrolled spin. It was expected to fall and burn up in Earth’s atmosphere in September.
1998 – President Clinton, in his Saturday radio address, announced he had signed an executive order putting Osama bin Laden’s Islamic Army on a list of terrorist groups.
1999 – The US Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that the number of Americans on parole topped four million for the first time.
2001 – The space shuttle Discovery returned and brought home 3 crew members, Yuri Usachev, Susan Helms, and Jim Voss, who had spent nearly six months on the International Space Station.
2002 – Two US helicopter pilots were reported lost in South Korea. Their bodies were found the next day thirteen miles south of Camp Page. Camp Page was located on the northwest side of the city of Chunchon in the north-central portion of the Republic Of Korea. It provided aviation support to the DMZ.
2003 – Roy Moore, Alabama’s chief justice, was suspended for his refusal to obey a federal court order to remove his Ten Commandments monument from his courthouse.
2003 – In southern California members of the Earth Liberation Front struck four car dealerships. Damage at a Chevrolet dealership in West Covina was over $1 million.
2006 – Paramount Pictures severed ties to Tom Cruise after 14 years, citing unacceptable conduct.
2007 – The Texas Rangers became the first team in 110 years to score 30 runs in a game, setting an American League record in a 30-3 rout of the Baltimore Orioles in the first game of a doubleheader.
2007 – The Storm botnet, a botnet created by the Storm Worm, sends out a record 57 million e-mails in one day.
2007 – It was reported that some US lawyers in New York City had crossed the $1,000 per hour billing mark.
2007 – The death toll across the Upper Midwest and from the remnants of Tropical Storm Erin that swept Texas, Oklahoma and Missouri over the past week rose to at least twenty-six. Three people were electrocuted by lightning at a bus stop in Madison, Wis.
2008 – (Florida state officials said seven people have been killed over the five days that Tropical Storm Fay has been pounding the state with torrential rain and powerful winds.
2010 – Hundreds of people rally in opposition to an Islamic cultural centre proposed for New York City near “Ground Zero”.  Opponents to the building play Bruce Springsteen’s “Born in the U.S.A.” over loudspeakers  very loudly.
2010 –  After a federal investigation, forty-seven foreign-born gang members are arrested in New England, including members of the “True Somali Bloods”, “True Sudanese Bloods” and the “Asian Boyz”. Over half are arrested in Maine.
2011 –  Jerry Leiber, the American lyricist of the Leiber and Stoller duo that wrote many of the most popular songs in the early years of rock and roll, dies at the age of 78 in Los Angeles.
2012 – A state of emergency is declared in California over wildfires threatening hundreds of buildings
2013 – Bob Filner, the Mayor of San Diego, California, has tentatively agreed to resign from office, pending the successful completion of a deal with city officials.
2013 – As of today, the number of U.S. service-members and Defense Department civilians killed in Afghanistan was reported at 2,129 and 3 respectively.


1834 – Samuel Pierpont Langley, American astronomer, physicist, aeronautics pioneer.
1880 – George Herriman, American cartoonist.
1893 – Dorothy Parker (Rothschild), American author, columnist.
1920 – Ray Bradbury, American science fiction writer.
1934 – Norman Schwarzkopf, U.S. general





Rank and organization: Master-at-Arms, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Shokokon at New Topsail Inlet off Wilmington, N.C., August 22,  1863. Born: 1835, Pennsylvania. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served participating in a strategic plan to destroy an enemy schooner, Clifford aided in the portage of a dinghy across the narrow neck of land separating the sea from the sound. Launching the boat in the sound, the crew approached the enemy from the rear and Clifford gallantly crept into the rebel camp and counted the men who outnumbered his party three to one. Returning to his men, he ordered a charge in which the enemy was routed, leaving behind a schooner and a quantity of supplies.




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Unerased History – August 21st

Posted by Wayne Church on August 21, 2015 in 08 - August, Blog by month |
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Senior Citizens Day

Poets Day


Poetry is the art of rhythmical composition, written or spoken that uses a wide range of tools to form imaginative or elevated thoughts. It is a literary work usually in metric form. It is designed for people who are literate to write and speak in an effort to bring other people to literacy. In this definition literacy means the ability to read for knowledge, write coherently and think critically about printed material. It is an imaginative awareness of experience expressed through meaning, sound, and rhythmic language choices so as to evoke an emotional response. There are millions and millions of poems that have been written since the earliest times. The earliest poetry is probably dating back to the Sumerian “Epic of Gilgamesh”. The story revolves around a relationship between Gilgamesh and his close male companion, Enkidu. Enkidu is a wild man created by the gods as Gilgamesh’s equal to distract him from oppressing the citizens of Uruk. Together they undertake dangerous quests that incur the displeasure of the gods. First, they journey to the Cedar Mountain to defeat Humbaba, its monstrous guardian. Later they kill the Bull of Heaven that the goddess Ishtar has sent to punish Gilgamesh for spurning her advances. The latter part of the epic focuses on Gilgamesh’s distressed reaction to Enkidu’s death, which takes the form of a quest for immortality. Gilgamesh attempts to learn the secret of eternal life by undertaking a long and perilous journey to meet the immortal flood hero, Utnapishtim. Ultimately the words addressed to Gilgamesh in the midst of his quest foreshadow the end result: “The life that you are seeking you will never find. When the gods created man they allotted to him death, but life they retained in their own keeping.” Finally, Gilagmesh is rewarded for his achievements and for re-introducing the cultic religion of the people. Poetry has evolved from folk songs and from the need to convey long stories to various people groups. The idea behind poetry actually goes to how the brain functions best. The number three has tremendous effect on human memory and that was and is the goal, to try to remember these stories. Poems are written in metre to make them more memorable. It becomes easier to remember and easier to convey the stories. People who read poetry tend to develop an attachment to one of more particular ones. Several of my favorites come from a Canadian poet by the name of Robert Service. He lived in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. He is best known for his poems “The Shooting of Dan McGrew” and “The Cremation of Sam McGee“, from his first book, “Songs of a Sourdough.” This book  has sold more than three million copies, making it the most commercially successful book of poetry of the 20th century. These two poems  are hyper-linked here for your enjoyment. The use of songs helps to convey not only the words of the message but the emotions as well. “Daddy’s Poem” is a recent one that speaks to the emotions of a wife and mother and her little girl who lost her dad in Iraq. Another example of the use of song and poetry is a song from the sixties. How many can remember any race car crash over the past fifty years unless you were personally involved. How many can remember this one, a story, a poem set to music, “Tell Laura I Love Her.” Music (You Tube), Lyrics. Finally, for this article, is the poem by Rudyard Kipling that helps its readers to get over  some very hard times. It is written to his son but I believe that this poem could speak to daughters as well, Read the poem “If“. For more information:

Famous Poets and Poems

Poetry Foundation


eServer Poetry Collection

Poetry of Life

100 Best Poems on Life

Life is ten percent what happens to you and ninety percent how you respond to it.”

~ Lou Holtz

  chary CHAIR-ee, adjective: 1. Wary; cautious. 2.Not giving or expending freely; sparing.

1525 – Estavao Gomes returned to Portugal after failing to find a clear waterway to Asia.

1680 – Pueblo Indians took possession of Santa Fe from the Spanish.

1770 – James Cook formally claims eastern Australia for Great Britain, naming it New South Wales.

1800 – U.S. Marine Corps Band gave its first concert in Washington, D.C. (Star Spangled Banner)   (Pass In Review)   (Trio – National Emblem)

1814 – Marines defended Washington, DC, at Bladensburg, Maryland, against the British.

1831 – Nat Turner launched a bloody slave insurrection in Southampton County, Virginia, hoping to lead his people out of slavery. This history has become a reference point for justification or rationalization of the  Civil War. He was later executed.

1841 – John Hampson of New Orleans patents venetian blinds.

1858 – The famous debates, mainly about slavery, between Senatorial contenders Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas began. The debates were held at seven sites throughout Illinois.

1861 – Civil War: U.S. Marines commanded by Major Reynolds took part in the First Battle of Bull Run: 9 Marines killed, 19 wounded, 16 missing in action.

1862 – Civil War: Fractional currency, alternately known as postage currency.The new 5, 10, 25, and 50-cent notes hit the streets on this day.

1863 – One hundred eighty-two men in the abolitionist town of Lawrence, KS are murdered in a raid by Southern partisans. It was one of the worst acts of violence to be perpetrated during the war.

1864 – Civil War: Confederate General A.P. Hill attacked Union troops south of Petersburg, Va., at the Weldon railroad. His attack was repulsed, resulting in heavy Confederate casualties.

1878 – The American Bar Association was formed by a group of lawyers, judges and law professors in Saratoga, NY.

1883 – First installation of electric lights in a US Navy warship. They were installed on the USS Trenton.

1887 – Mighty (Dan) Casey Struck-out in a game with the NY Giants.

1888 – The first successful adding machine in the United States was patented by William Seward Burroughs.

1901 – The Cadillac Motor Company was formed in Detroit, Michigan, named after the French explorer, Antoine Cadillac.

1901 – Joe McGinnity, suspended from the National League for punching & spitting on an ump.

1911 – Leonardo da Vinci’s painting, the “Mona Lisa,” was stolen from the Louvre in Paris; it was recovered two years later.

1912 – Arthur R. Eldred of Oceanside, New York, achieved the rank of Eagle Scout, the highest rank in the Boy Scouts of America — the first to earn the award. Thirty-one Eagle Scouts went on to become Astronauts and one, Gerald Ford, went on to be President of the United States.

1920 – Radio station built by U.S. Navy and French Government transmits first wireless message heard around the world. At time it was the most powerful radio station in the world.

1922 – Curly Lambeau and Green Bay Football Club were granted an NFL franchise.

1923 – In Kalamazoo, Michigan, an ordinance was passed forbidding dancers from gazing into the eyes of their partner.

1931 – Babe Ruth hits his 600th HR (Yanks beat Browns 11-7).

1933 – Ruth’s homer leads AL to a 4-2 win in first All Star Game.

1938 – Fats Waller’s most famous song, “Ain’t Misbehavin‘” was “waxed”. It was written in 1929 and gained popular recognition in the 1943 movie by the name of “Stormy Weather.”

1942 – World War II: On Guadalcanal, Japanese Colonel Ichiki’s force of 1000 men attack the American positions across the Tenaru River. The American force destroys the Japanese force.

1943Harriet M. West was the first Black woman major in the Women’s Army Corps (WAC).

1943 – World War II: Japan evacuated the Aleutian island of Kiaska. Kiaska had been the last North American foothold held by the Japanese.
1945 – President Harry Truman ended the Lend-Lease program that had shipped some $50 billion in aid to America’s allies during World War II.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “A Tree in the Meadow” by Margaret Whiting, “My

Happiness” by Jon & Sandra Steele, “It’s Magic” by Doris Day and “Bouquet of Roses” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1950 – The United Nations moved into its new permanent facilities in New York City. 1951 – First contract for nuclear-powered submarine awarded.
1954 – “Sh-Boom” by the Crew-Cuts topped the charts.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Prayer” by The Platters, “Hound Dog/Don’t Be Cruel by Elvis Presley, “Canadian Sunset” by Hugo Winterhalter & Eddie Haywood and  “I Walk the Line” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1959 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed an executive order proclaiming Hawaii the 50th state of the Union. 1963 – In South Vietnam, martial law was declared. Army troops and police began to crackdown on the Buddhist anti-government protesters. 1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “Everybody Loves Somebody” by Dean Martin, “Where Did Our Love Go” by The Supremes, “Rag Doll” by The Four Seasons and “Dang Me” by Roger Miller all topped the charts. 1965 – Launch of Gemini 5, piloted by LCDR Charles Conrad Jr., USN, who completed 120 orbits in almost 8 days at an altitude of 217 miles. Recovery was by helicopter from USS Lake Champlain (CVS-39). 1965 – “I Got You Babe” by Sonny & Cher topped the charts. 1968 – James Anderson, Jr. posthumously receives the first Medal of Honor to be awarded to an African-American U.S. Marine. (See February 27, 1968 for citation) 1971 – Laura Baugh, at the age of 16, won the United State’s Women’s Amateur Golf tournament. She was the youngest winner in the history of the tournament. 1971-  “How Can You Mend a Broken Heart?” by the Bee Gees topped the charts. 1971 – Three prisoners, George Jackson (29), Ronald Kane (28), John Lynn (29), and 3 guards, Jere Graham (39), Frank DeLeon (44) and Paul Krasenes (52), were killed during an attempted prison escape at San Quentin, California. 1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “Alone Again (Naturally)” by Gilbert O’Sullivan, “Brandy (You’re a Fine Girl)” by Looking Glass, “Long Cool Woman (In a Black Dress)” by The Hollies and “Bless Your Heart” by Freddie Hart & The Heartbeats all topped the charts. 1972 – US orbiting astronomy observatory Copernicus was launched. 1972 – Apollo 16 astronauts John Young and Charles Duke explored the surface of the moon with Boeing Lunar Rover #2. 1975 – Kathleen Ann Soliah (later known as Sarah Jane Olson) and other members of the Symbionese Liberation Army placed 2 pipe bombs under parked police cars at an Int’l. House of Pancakes on Sunset Blvd in Los Angeles.1975Rick & Paul Reuschel become first brothers to pitch a combined shut out. The final Cubs over the Dodgers 7-0. 1976 – It was announced by RCA Victor records that the sales of Elvis Presley records passed the 400 million mark. 1976 – “Don’t Go Breaking My Heart” by Elton John & Kiki Dee topped the charts. 1977 – Donna Patterson Brice sets high speed water skiing record (111.11 mph). 1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Magic” by Olivia Newton-John, “Sailing” by Christopher Cross, “Take Your Time (Do It Right)” by The S.O.S. Band and “Tennessee River” by Alabama all topped the charts. 1982 – “Eye of the Tiger” by Survivor topped the charts. 1984 – Victoria Roche, a reserve outfielder, became the first girl to ever compete in a Little League World Series game. She played for the team that represented Belgium. The game is played in McKeesport, PA. 1984 – Clint Eastwood was given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. 1987 – A U.S. Marine was convicted for spying for the first time. Sergeant Clayton Lonetree was giving secrets to the KGB while working as a guard at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow. He served eight years in a military prison. He was released in February 1996. 1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Roll with It” by Steve Winwood, “Monkey” by George Michael, “1-2-3” by Gloria Estefan & Miami Sound Machine and “Bluest Eyes in Texas” by Restless Heart all topped the charts. 1989 – Voyager 2 got close to the Neptune moon called Tritan. 1992 – Randall Weaver, a neo-Nazi leader, opened fire on U.S. marshals from his home in Idaho. Weaver surrendered eleven days later ending the standoff. During the standoff a deputy marshal, Weaver’s wife and his son were killed. 1993 – NASA lost contact with the Mars Observer spacecraft. The fate of the spacecraft was unknown. The mission cost $980 million. 1994 – The US House, by a vote of 235-195, passed a $30 billion crime bill that banned certain assault-style firearms. 1996 – The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 ( HIPPA) was signed by President Clinton. The act made it easier to obtain and keep health insurance. 1997 – Hudson Foods Inc. closed a plant in Nebraska after it had recalled 25 million pounds of ground beef that was potentially contaminated with E. coli 01557:H7. It was the largest food recall in U.S. history. 1997 – The CEO of Philip Morris Cos. said that cigarettes “might have” killed 100,000 Americans. It was the first acknowledgement by the company of a possible link between smoking and death. 1998- Samuel Bowers, a 73-year-old former Ku Klux Klan leader, was convicted in Hattiesburg, MS, of ordering a firebombing that killed civil rights activist Vernon Dahmer in 1966. Bowers died in prison in November 2006 at age 82. 2001 – Robert Tools, the first person to receive a self-contained artificial heart (Jul 2), was introduced to the public at Jewish Hospital in Louisville, Ky. 2001 – It was reported that nuclear waste researchers had developed a process, pyroprocessing, to remove long term radioactive elements from waste and transmute them to less radioactive elements. 2001 – Robert Tools, the first person to receive a self-contained artificial heart (Jul 2), was introduced to the public at Jewish Hospital in Louisville, Ky., through a video link from his doctor’s office. (See also 11/30/2001) 2002 – President Bush told reporters at his Texas ranch that ousting Iraq’s Saddam Hussein was “in the interests of the world” but indicated the United States was in no hurry. 2002 – A jury in San Diego convicted David Westerfield of kidnapping 7-year-old Danielle van Dam from her home and killing her. Westerfield was later sentenced to death. 2002 – Weldon Spring, Missouri, was reported open to the public as tourist attraction. The radioactive site opened after a $1 billion, 16-year cleanup. 2002 – Michael Kopper, former Enron financial executive, pleaded guilty to charges related to wire fraud and money laundering. He admitted to large kickbacks to the CFO, Andrew Fastow, and agreed to return $12 million. 2003 – Paul Hamm put together a near-perfect routine on the high bar to become the first American man to win the all-around gold medal at the World Gymnastics Championship. 2003 – The US military reported that Ali Hassan al-Majid (“Chemical Ali”), No. 5 on the list of most-wanted Iraqis, had been captured. 2003 – Alabama’s top judge, Chief Justice Roy Moore, refused to back down in his fight to keep a Ten Commandments monument and lashed out at his colleagues who ordered it removed from the rotunda of the state judicial building. 2004 – In Ohio health officials said cases of gastrointestinal illness had risen to 510 from people in the Put-in-Bay resort area. 2005 – US federal authorities indicted eighty-seven Asians and US citizens on charges of smuggling counterfeit money, drugs and cigarettes into the US. 2005 – Harvard scientists said they have fused an adult skin cell with an embryonic stem cell in a potentially dramatic development that could lead to the creation of useful stem cells without first having to create and destroy human embryos. 2006 – California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger and Democratic lawmakers agreed to raise California’s minimum wage by $1.25 over the next year to $8.00 per hour, making it the highest minimum wage in the nation. 2007 – A research firm said US foreclosure filings rose 9 percent from June to July and surged 93 percent over the same period last year, with Nevada, Georgia and Michigan accounting for the highest foreclosure rates nationwide. 2007 – The US shuttle Endeavour landed in Florida following a 13-day assembly mission on the International Space Station. 2008 – The Food and Drug Administration approves irradiation of lettuce and spinach to kill E. coli and other dangerous germs. 2008 – Intel showed off a wireless electric power system at the California firm’s annual developers forum in San Francisco. Analysts said it could revolutionize modern life by freeing devices from transformers and wall outlets. 2008 – One student is killed in a shooting at Central High School in Knoxville, Tennessee. 2009 – William Calley, the former Army lieutenant convicted on 22 counts of murder in the infamous My Lai Massacre in Vietnam, publicly apologized for the first time this week while speaking in Columbus. 2009 – Guaranty Bank became the second-largest US bank to fail this year after the Texas lender was shut down by regulators and most of its operations sold at a loss of billions of dollars 2010 -In Alaska a float-plane carrying four people went missing 285 miles southwest of Anchorage. The passengers included three Katmai National Park rangers. 2010 – It was reported that the cost of sustaining each American soldier in Afghanistan is about $1 million. 2011 – President Barack Obama called on Muammar Gaddafi to “relinquish power once and for all.” 2012 – Congressman Todd Akin who is also a candidate for the US Senate, vows to continue as the US-wide fall-out over his rape, pregnancy and anti-abortion comments rages on. 2013 – “A man is not dead until he is forgotten. Let us not forget.”  Delbert “Shorty” Belton, a survivor of the WWII Battle of Okinawa was murdered by two black teens in a random attack at the Eagles Lodge in Spokane, WA . He was 89 years old.

2017 – Next total solar eclipse to be visible from North America.

  1904 – (William) Count Basie, American bandleader, composer. 1920 – Christopher Robin Milne, inspiration for the Winnie-the-Pooh stories (d. 1996) 1923 – “Chris” Schenkel. American sportscaster 1936 – Wilt Chamberlain, American basketball Hall-of-Famer. 1938 – Kenny Rogers, American singer and actor 1959 – Jim McMahon, American football player 1973 – Sergey Brin, Co-founder of Google. 1984 – Melissa Schuman, American actress  





Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, (Mechanized), 5th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Ben Cui, Republic of Vietnam, 21 August 1968. Entered service at: Odessa, Tex. Born: 11 May 1947, Alpine, Tex. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. S/Sgt. Young distinguished himself at the cost of his life while serving as a squad leader with Company C. While conducting a reconnaissance mission in the vicinity of Ben Cui, Company C was suddenly engaged by an estimated regimental-size force of the North Vietnamese Army. During the initial volley of fire the point element of the 1st Platoon was pinned down, sustaining several casualties, and the acting platoon leader was killed. S/Sgt. Young unhesitatingly assumed command of the platoon and immediately began to organize and deploy his men into a defensive position in order to repel the attacking force. As a human wave attack advanced on S/Sgt. Young’s platoon, he moved from position to position, encouraging and directing fire on the hostile insurgents while exposing himself to the hail of enemy bullets. After receiving orders to withdraw to a better defensive position, he remained behind to provide covering fire for the withdrawal. Observing that a small element of the point squad was unable to extract itself from its position, and completely disregarding his personal safety, S/Sgt. Young began moving toward their position, firing as he maneuvered. When halfway to their position he sustained a critical head injury, yet he continued his mission and ordered the element to withdraw. Remaining with the squad as it fought its way to the rear, he was twice seriously wounded in the arm and leg. Although his leg was badly shattered, S/Sgt. Young refused assistance that would have slowed the retreat of his comrades, and he ordered them to continue their withdrawal while he provided protective covering fire. With indomitable courage and heroic self-sacrifice, he continued his self-assigned mission until the enemy force engulfed his position. By his gallantry at the cost of his life are in the highest traditions of the military service, S/Sgt. Young has reflected great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.


Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps, Marine Fighter Squadron 223, Place and date: In the Solomon Islands area, August-September 1942. Entered service at: Oklahoma. Born: 26 December 1914, Lexington, Okla. Other Navy award: Legion of Merit. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and heroic achievement in aerial combat above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of Marine Fighting Squadron 223 during operations against enemy Japanese forces in the Solomon Islands area, August-September 1942. Repeatedly risking his life in aggressive and daring attacks, Maj. Smith led his squadron against a determined force, greatly superior in numbers, personally shooting down sixteen Japanese planes between 21 August and 15 September 1942. In spite of the limited combat experience of many of the pilots of this squadron, they achieved the notable record of a total of eighty-three enemy aircraft destroyed in this period, mainly attributable to the thorough training under Maj. Smith and to his intrepid and inspiring leadership. His bold tactics and indomitable fighting spirit, and the valiant and zealous fortitude of the men of his command not only rendered the enemy’s attacks ineffective and costly to Japan, but contributed to the security of our advance base. His loyal and courageous devotion to duty sustains and enhances the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.



Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve Fleet. Born: 16 March 1892, Baltimore, Md. Appointed from: Maryland. Citation: For extraordinary heroism as a pilot of a seaplane on 21 August 1918, when with three other planes Ens. Hammann took part in a patrol and attacked a superior force of enemy land planes. In the course of the engagement which followed the plane of Ens. George M. Ludlow was shot down and fell in the water five miles off Pola. Ens. Hammann immediately dived down and landed on the water close alongside the disabled machine, where he took Ludlow on board. Although his machine was not designed for the double load to which it was subjected, and although there was danger of attack by Austrian planes, he made his way to Porto Corsini. Italy.



Rank and organization: First Class Fireman, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Tallapoosa 21 August 1884 Born: 1856, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: Washington, D.C. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Tallapoosa at the time of the sinking of that vessel, on the night of 21 August 1884. Remaining at his post of duty in the fireroom until the fires were put out by the rising waters, Harrington opened the safety valves when the water was up to his waist.


  MAGEE, JOHN W. INTERIM 1871-1898   

Rank and organization: Second Class Fireman, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Tallapoosa 21 August 1884 Born: 1859, Maryland. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Tallapoosa during the sinking of that vessel on the night of 21 August 1884. During this period, Magee remained at his post of duty in the fireroom until the fires were put out by the rising waters.



Rank and organization: Master-at-Arms, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Tallapoosa 21 August 1884 Born: 1853, Germany. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Tallapoosa at the time of the sinking of that vessel, on the night of 21 August 1884. Clearing the berth deck, Ohmsen remained there until the water was waist deep, wading about with outstretched arms, rousing the men out of their hammocks. Then, going on deck, he assisted in lowering the first cutter and then the dinghy, of which he took charge.


  OSBORNE, JOHN INTERIM 1871-1898   

Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Juniata at Philadelphia, Pa., 21 August 1876. Born: 1844, New Orleans, La. Accredited to: Louisiana. G.O. No.: 218, 24 August 1876. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Juniata, Osborne displayed gallant conduct in rescuing from drowning an enlisted boy of that vessel.



Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 18th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Weldon Railroad, Va., 21 August 1864. Entered service at:——Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 6 September 1864. Citation: Capture of battle flag of 27th South Carolina (C.S.A.) and the color bearer.



Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 7th Wisconsin Infantry (Iron Brigade). Place and date: At Weldon Railroad, Va., 21 August 1864. Entered service at: Chippewa Falls, Wis. Birth: Mercer County, Pa. Date of issue: December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 16th Mississippi (C.S.A.).



Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 11th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Weldon Railroad, Va., 21 August 1864. Entered service at: Johnstown, Pa. Birth: Cambria County, Pa. Dale of issue: 6 September 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 24th North Carolina Volunteers (C.S.A.).



Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company H, 3d Delaware Infantry. Place and date: At Weldon Railroad, Va., 21 August 1864. Entered service at: Felton, Del. Born: 15 February 1832, England. Date of issue: 6 September 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.



Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 95th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Weldon Railroad, Va., 21 August 1864. Entered service at: Harverstraw, Rockland County, N.Y. Birth: Harverstraw, Rockland County, N.Y. Date of issue: 13 March 1865. Citation: Captured two officers and twenty men of Hagood’s brigade while they were endeavoring to make their way back through the woods.

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