Lawn darts (also called Jarts or yard darts) was a lawn game for two players or teams. A lawn dart set usually includes four large darts and two targets. The game play and objective are similar to both Horseshoes and Darts. The darts are typically 12 inches long with a weighted metal or plastic tip on one end and three plastic fins on a rod at the other end.
The darts are intended to be tossed underhand toward a horizontal ground target, where the weighted end hits first and sticks in to the ground. The target is typically a plastic ring, and landing anywhere within the ring is considered a point.
It was like any other summer day. No school, bright sun, and lots of time to kill. I don’t know what we were doing before hand, probably playing wiffle ball. It was me, my older brother and my good friend at the time Rick. We were out back setting up the Lawn Jarts set.
For those not familiar, probably because they were soon outlawed, Lawn Jarts is like Darts. Except you have two plastic rings, like hoola hoops you set far apart on the law. Then you have six big “Jarts” (see photo to the side). There were three red and three blue and you tried to throw these steel and plastic missile-type Jarts into the circle to score points. It seems pretty innocent until you get them into the hands of bored small-town kids.
I was sitting to the side on the edge of the patio waiting for my turn as Rick and my brother tossed the Jarts high into the air back and forth scoring points. The competition was heating up and I got the winner. The more they scored, they would take more steps backwards to make it a little harder.
I wasn’t paying attention because I was eating a cherry Popsicle. Then I felt it and heard it… THUD.
I looked down and blood was running down on to my shirt. I put my hand up to feel the pain on the right side of my head and there it was, the Jart had hit me and was barley dangling out of my skull. I burst into tears, shook my head and the deadly Jat fell to the grass. I remember seeing the horrified look on my brother and Rick’s faces, and then I ran inside to my Mom. She wrapped my head in a towel and pressed tightly. I felt dizzy, not uncommon for me back then, and she took care of me. For some reason though I remember I kept screaming “I want Dad, I want Dad.” Maybe because the last time something like this happened, I was at the baseball diamond, but that’s another story for later.
Rick and my brother came in the house fearing for their lives, but Mom was too busy caring for me. Dad shortly got home and checked out my Jart battle scar, come to find out the hole wasn’t that big, but it sure bled A LOT. I didn’t have to get stitches, didn’t even need to go to the doctor for that matter.
Now my hair covers the Jart scar of ’77 and I was none the worse for wear, no head damage either….well, maybe.
Banned from sale in the United States
While the tip may not be sharp enough to be obviously dangerous, when misused, these darts can cause skull punctures and other serious injuries. On December 19, 1988, all lawn darts were banned from sale in the United States by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. Lawn darts, used in an outdoor game, have been responsible for the deaths of four children, the latest being in early 1997 near Elkhart, Indiana. It should be noted that the specific incident that caused lawn darts to be made illegal also involved beer. Lawn darts remain legal for use in the United Kingdom as well as other countries.
“A positive attitude may not solve all your problems, but it will annoy enough people to make it worth the effort!”
~ Herm Albright
A custom, trait, or tradition originating in the United States.
A word, phrase, or idiom characteristic of English as it is spoken in the United States.
Allegiance to the United States and its customs and institutions.
211 – Publius Septimius Geta, co-emperor of Rome, is lured to come without his bodyguards to meet his brother Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla), to discuss a possible reconciliation. When he arrives the Praetorian Guard murders him and he dies in the arms of his mother Julia Domna.
324 – Licinius abdicates his position as Roman Emperor. From his name and behavior comes the word licentious. Licentious means “lacking legal or moral restraints; especially disregarding sexual restraints or marked by disregard for strict rules of correctness.
1606 – The “Susan Constant”, the “Godspeed”, and the “Discovery” depart England carrying settlers who, at Jamestown, Virginia, would found the first of the thirteen colonies that became the United States.
1686 – Robinson Crusoe leaves his island after 28 years (as per Defoe)
1732 – Benjamin Franklin began publishing “Poor Richard’s Almanac.” The book was filled with proverbs preaching industry and prudence. It was published continuously for 25 years.
1774 – Deborah Read Franklin died at the age of 66 in Philadelphia from a stroke. Benjamin Franklin, her husband, was in England at the time. According to Leo Lemay, Deborah and Benjamin had not seen one another for the last ten years of their marriage.
1776 – Thomas Paine publishes “American Crisis”: “These are the times that try men’s souls; the summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph.”
1777 – Revolutionary War: George Washington’s battle-weary and destitute Continental Army goes into winter quarters at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, 22 miles from British-occupied Philadelphia. His army of about 11,000 men camped for the winter (Dec. 19, 1777–June 19, 1778). Nearly 3000 died during that very severe time.
1823 – Georgia passed the first US state birth registration law.
1828 – Nullification Crisis: Vice President of the United States John C. Calhoun pens the South Carolina Exposition and Protest. This ordinance declared by the power of the State that the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of South Carolina.
1835 – The first issue of “The Blade” newspaper is published in Toledo, Ohio.
1842 – Hawaii’s independence was recognized by the United States.
1843 – “A Christmas Carol”, by Charles Dickens, is first published in England.
1854 – Allen Wilson of Connecticut patents sewing machine to sew curving seams.
1862 – Civil War: Nathan B. Forrest tore up the railroads in Grant and Rosecrans’ rear, causing considerable delays in the movement of Union supplies.
1862 – Civil War: Skirmish at Jackson-Salem Church, Tenn., left 80 casualties.
1863 – Civil War: Expedition including the U.S.S. Restless, U.S.S Bloomer, and U.S.S. Caroline, proceeded to St. Andrew’s Bay, Florida, to continue the destruction of salt works.
1864 – Civil War: C.S.S. Water Witch, captured from the Union on 3 June, was burned by the Confederates in the Vernon River near Savannah, in order to prevent her capture by General Sherman’s troops advancing on the city.
1870 – Coxswain William Halford reaches Hawaii to seek help for crew of USS Saginaw. It wrecked near Midway Island. Rescuers reach the 88 Saginaw survivors on 4 January 1871. Five men in a 22-foot boat had left Midway for help and Halford was the lone survivor.
1871 – Corrugated paper was patented by Albert L. Jones of New York.
1887 – Jake Kilrain & Jem Smith fight 106 round bare knuckle draw.
1890 – Start of Sherlock Holmes “Adventure of Beryl Coronet.”
1903 – The Williamsburg Bridge opened, spanning the East River between New York City and Brooklyn.. This was America’s first major suspension bridge (1600 feet). It cost $24,000,000 to build — in 1903 dollars.
1907 – A coal mine explosion in Jacobs Creek, Pennsylvania, kills 239 workers. Only one worker in the deep mine at the time survived the tragedy.
1909 – U.S. socialist women denounced suffrage as a movement of the middle class.
1910 – Edward Douglass White is sworn in as the 9th Chief Justice of the United States.
1910 – Rayon was first commercially produced by the American Viscose Company. At the time, it was known by the name of artificial silk.
1912 – William H. Van Schaick, captain of the steamship General Slocum which caught fire and killed over 1,000 people, is pardoned by President Taft after 3.5 years in Sing Sing prison .
1916 – World War I: Battle of Verdun – On the Western Front, the French Army successfully holds off the German Army and drives it back to its starting position.
1917 – National Hockey League (NHL) opens its first season.It plays in Toronto and is the first played on artificial ice.
1918 – Robert Ripley began his “Believe It or Not” column in “The New York Globe”.
1919 – The Thimble Theatre cartoon strip, by Elzie Segar (1894-1938), made its debut in the New York Journal and featured the characters Olive Oyl, Castor Oyl, and Ham Gravy, who were the comic’s leads for about a decade. Segar added Popeye in 1929.
1920 – First US indoor curling rink opens in Brookline, MA.
1924 – Last Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost rolls off the line.
1928 – First autogyro flight in US at Patco Field in Norristown, PA. This was the predecessor of the helicopter.
1939 – World War II: Pre-War: America was still neutral during this part of World War II yetthe US cruiser Tuscaloosa closely trailed the German liner Columbus. The Germans scuttled the ship some 300 miles from the American coast, to avoid capture by the approaching British destroyer HMS Hyperion.
1941 – World War II: Europe: Hitler becomes Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the German Army.
1941 – World War II: US Office of Censorship was created to control info about WW II.
1941 – World War II: US Attorney General Francis Biddle issued Circular No. 3591 to all federal prosecutors to drop references to peonage and label such files as “Involuntary Servitude and Slavery.” This was in response to Pres. Roosevelt’s fear that mistreatment of blacks would be used in propaganda by Japan and Germany.
1941 – World War II: Pacific: Japanese land 500 men from the 56th Infantry Regiment near Davao on Mindanao.
1942 – World War II: Pacific: On Guadalcanal, US forces on Mount Austen meet heavy resistance.
1943 – World War II: Pacific: The American regiment at Arawe captures the nearby Japanese airstrip and hold against counterattacks.
1944 – World War II: Pacific:The Japanese decide that their 35th Army on Leyte is no longer to be reinforced or supplied. Nonetheless, fighting continues to the north of Ormoc and throughout the northwest of the island.
1944 – World War II: Europe: During the Battle of the Bulge, American troops began pulling back from the twin Belgian cities of Krinkelt and Rocherath in front of the advancing German Army.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Buttons and Bows” by Dinah Shore, “On a Slow Boat to China” by The Kay Kaiser Orchestra (vocal: Harry Babbitt & Gloria Wood), “White Christmas” by Bing Crosby and “One Has My Name (The Other Has My Heart)” by Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1950 – General Dwight D. Eisenhower was named Supreme Commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) military forces.
1950 – Korean War: The carrier USS Bataan, commanded by Captain T. N. Neale, arrived on station in Korean waters.
1955 – Carl Perkins records “Blue Suede Shoes“.
1957 – “The Music Man”, starring Robert Preston, opens at Majestic Theater New York City.
1958 – First radio broadcast from space (recorded Christmas message by President Eisenhower).
1959 – Reputed to be the last Civil War veteran, Walter Williams, a Confederate forager, died at 117 in Houston.The last survivor of the Union Army was Albert Woolson. He died on August 2, 1956 at the age of 109.
1959 – “Heartaches by the Number” by Guy Mitchell topped the charts.
1959 – The first Liberty Bowl, Penn State’s Nittany Lions beat Alabama, 7-0.
1960 – Frank Sinatra recorded “Ring-A-Ding-Ding” in his first session with Reprise Records.
1960 – Mercury- Redstone 1A (MR-1A) was launched from LC-5 at Cape Canaveral, Florida. The mission objectives of this unmanned suborbital flight were to qualify the spacecraft for space flight.
1960 – A fire aboard USS Constellation, under construction at Brooklyn, killed fifty.
1960 – Neil Sedaka’s “Calendar Girl” was released on RCA Victor Records.
1962 – Transit 5A1, first operational navigational satellite, launched.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “Come See About Me” by The Supremes, “I Feel Fine” by The Beatles, “Goin’ Out of My Head” by Little Anthony & The Imperials and “Once a Day” by Connie Smith all topped the charts.
1967 – Prime Minister of Australia Harold Holt is officially presumed dead. He went missing and was believed to have drowned on December 17th.
1970 – “Tears of a Clown” by Smokey Robinson & the Miracles topped the charts.
1971 – Director Stanley Kubrick’s controversial film “A Clockwork Orange” opens. Alex, a teenage hooligan in a near-future Britain, gets jailed by the police. There he volunteers as guinea pig for a new aversion therapy proposed by the government to make room in prisons for political prisoners. .
1971 – NASA launches Intelsat 4 F-3 for COMSAT Corp. Intelsat 3 spacecraft were used to relay commercial global telecommunications including live TV.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “Me and Mrs. Jones” by Billy Paul, “You Ought to Be with Me” by Al Green, “It Never Rains in Southern California” by Albert Hammond and “Got the All Overs for You (All Over Me)” by Freddie Hart & The Heartbeats all topped the charts.
1972 – Project Apollo: The last manned lunar flight, Apollo 17, crewed by Eugene Cernan, Ron Evans and Harrison Schmitt, returns to Earth.
1972 – Vietnam War: Hanoi’s foreign ministry, calling the new B-52 raids against Hanoi and Haiphong “extremely barbaric,” accuses the United States of premeditated intensification of the war and labels the actions “insane.”
1973 – Johnny Carson started a fake toilet-paper scare on the “Tonight Show.”
1974 – James Bond, “The Man With the Golden Gun” premieres in US.
1974 – The Altair 8800 microcomputer kit goes on sale. It was featured on the cover of the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics. It was sold as a do-it-yourself computer kit, for $397. It used switches for input and flashing lights as a display.
1974 – Nelson A. Rockefeller is sworn is as the 41st Vice President of the United States under President Gerald Ford.
1975 – John Paul Stevens, appointed by Pres. Gerald Ford, was sworn in as a US Supreme Court judge.
1976 – Piper Cherokee crashes into Baltimore Memorial Stadium upper stands, 10 minutes after Colts lose 40-14 to Steelers; No one seriously hurt.
1977 – Pres. Jimmy Carter signed into law the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). The act made it a crime for a US citizen to pay bribes to win contracts abroad.
1979 – ESPN televised its first NHL game. The teams were the Washington Capitals and the Hartford Whales.
1980 – Iran requests $24 billion in US guarantees to free hostages. On Inauguration Day, Jan. 20, 1981, Iran agreed to accept $8 billion in frozen assets and a promise by the United States to lift trade sanctions in exchange for the release of the hostages.
1981 – “Physical” by Olivia Newton-John topped the charts.
1984 – Near Orangeville, Utah, 27 miners died in a coal mine fire due to a faulty air compressor at the Wilberg Mine.
1984 – The United States formally withdrew from UNESCO in a effort to force reform of the U.N. cultural organization’s budget and alleged Third World bias.
1984 – A group of 33 organ chorale preludes, attributed to J. S. Bach but unknown to modern Bach scholarship, has been found and authenticated by Christoph Wolff, a Harvard professor and Bach authority.
1984 – Scotty Bowman becomes NHL’s all time winningest coach. In 30 years of coaching, Bowman had a 1244-583-314 mark in the regular season and he was 223-130 in the playoffs.
1985 – Jan Stenerud announced his retirement from the NFL. The football kicker holds the record for the most career field goals with 373. He made those field goals while kicking for the Kansas City Chiefs, Green Bay Packers and Minnesota Vikings beginning in 1967.
1985 – In Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mary Lund became the first woman to receive a Jarvik VII artificial heart. Lund received a human heart transplant 45 days later; she died October 14, 1986.
1986 – Michael Sergio, who parachuted into Game Six of the 1986 World Series at New York’s Shea Stadium, is fined $500 and sentenced to 100 hours of community service.
1987 – “Faith” by George Michael topped the charts.
1988 – Lawn darts are banned from sale in the United States by the Consumer Product Safety Commission.
1988 – NASA unveils plans for lunar colony & manned missions to Mars.
1989 – Larry Bird (Celtics) begins NBA free throw streak of 71 games.
1989 – U.S. troops invaded Panama to overthrow the regime of General Noriega.
1989 – Police in Jacksonville, Fla., disarmed a parcel bomb at the local NAACP office, the fourth in a series of mail bombs to turn up in the Deep South. One bomb killed a Savannah, Ga., alderman, and another a federal judge in Alabama. Walter L. Moody Jr. was convicted in both bombings.
1995 – The Federal Reserve cut a key interest rate, turning fears to cheers on Wall Street a day after the biggest one-day stock plunge in four years.
1995 – The United States Government restores federal recognition to the Nottawaseppi Huron Band of Potawatomi Indian tribe.
1995 – A gunman opened fire inside a Bronx, New York, shoe store, killing five people.
1996 – The school board of Oakland, CA, voted to recognize Black English, also known as “ebonics.” The board later reversed its stance.
1996 – The Pentagon chose Lawrence Livermore National Labs. for a $1.1 billion super-laser project. Known as the National Ignition Facility, its goal will be to ignite a self-sustaining fusion reaction in a controlled lab setting.
1996 – The television industry unveiled a plan to rate programs using tags such as “TV-G,” “TV-Y” and “TV-M.”
1997 – The film “Titanic” is released.
1997 – B.B. King, blues guitarist, gave his electric guitar, “Lucille,” to Pope John Paul after the Vatican’s annual Christmas concert.
1997 – In New York City Reginald Bannerman died after he was struck by a train. He was fleeing a beating by six New York City narcotics detectives, who had been out drinking.
1997 – POSTAL SHOOTING: In Milwaukee a postal clerk, Anthony J. De Culit, shot and killed his supervisor, a co-worker and wounded another and then killed himself.
1998 – The United States House of Representatives forwards articles I and III of impeachment against President Bill Clinton to the Senate. (Lewinsky scandal)
1998 – Iraq War: A four-day bombing of Iraq(Operation Desert Fox) by British and American forces ended.
1999 – The shuttle Discovery was launched following nine delays from Cape Canaveral with seven astronauts on a mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope.
2001 – The fire at the World Trade Center, as a result of the September 11, 2001 attacks, is finally extinguished after three months. The Sep 11 WTC death toll was reduced to 3,000. A revised tally put the total dead at 2,795. In 2003 the count was reduced to 2,752.
2002 – AOL Time Warner announces that they have been issued a patent for instant messaging. AOL says that they have no plans to enforce the patent.
2002 – Sen. Patty Murray of Washington told high school students that Osama bin Laden was popular in poor countries because of his charitable works and challenged the US to do the same.
2003 – New plans revealed that the signature New York City skyscraper at the World Trade Center site will be a 1,776-foot glass tower that twists into the sky, topped by energy-generating windmills and a spire that evokes the Statue of Liberty.
2003 – Flights from Vancouver International Airport bound for the U.S. are delayed following the discovery of an envelope containing suspicious white powder and a threatening note at one of the terminals.
2004 – President George Bush for the second time was chosen as Time magazine’s Person of the Year.
2004 – Rice University computer scientists find a security hole in Google’s desktop search program.
2005 – Chalk’s Ocean Airways Flight 101 flying from Miami, Florida to Bimini, Bahamas, crashes in Miami Beach, killing 18 passengers and two crew members. The 1947 Grumman G-73T Turbine Mallard crashed, and the cause was attributed to metal fatigue on the starboard wing resulting in separation of the wing from the fuselage.
2007 – President George Bush signed energy legislation he described as a major step toward reducing American dependence on foreign oil. The bill increases average fuel economy to 35 miles per gallon by 2020, a 40 percent increase, without sacrificing automobile safety.
2007 – An explosion and fire at a T2 Laboratories facility in Jacksonville, Florida, results in four deaths and 14 injuries.
2008 – IRS agents arrested Ausaf Umar Siddiqui (42), vice president of Fry’s Electronics in San Jose, Ca., for gambling with millions in stolen money. He had collected over $65 million in kickbacks from five vendors.
2008 – President George W. Bush signed a $17.4 billion rescue package of loans for ailing auto makers General Motors and Chrysler.
2008 – In Atlanta, Georgia, one worker died and at least 18 others were injured when a walkway being built collapsed at the Atlanta Botanical Garden.
2009 – Senator Ben Nelson of Nebraska agreed to provide the 60th and deciding vote for what would become known as Obamacare.
2010 – Eight people are seriously injured when a tour bus carrying a church group lost control, slid off a road and rolled onto its side on an icy highway in Colorado.
2010 – 60 Minutes, an influential news program, runs a segment with Meredith Whitney, in which she predicts hundreds of millions of dollars worth of defaults by U.S. municipalities.
2011 – Brandon McInerney is sentenced to 21 years in jail in California for the E.O. Green School shooting of gay classmate Larry King.
2012 – U.S. news magazine Time selects President Barack Obama as its 2012 Person of the Year.
2013 – A town hall meeting hosted by Al Sharpton and the National Action Network to address gun violence exploded into a revolt against “Chicago Machine” politics, Mayor Rahm Emanuel and black alderman in City Hall.
1714 – John Winthrop, American astronomer (d. 1779)
1778 – Princess Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte, eldest child of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI (d. 1851)
1817 – James Archer, Confederate general
1852 – Albert Abraham Michelson, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1931) He was a Polish-born German-American physicist known for his work on the measurement of the speed of light and especially for the Michelson-Morley experiment. In 1907 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics, the first American to receive the Nobel in the sciences.
1906 – Leonid Brezhnev, Leader of the Soviet Union (d. 1982)
1920 – David Susskind, American TV talk show host (d. 1987)
1944 – Richard Leakey, British anthropologist
1957 – Kevin McHale, American basketball player
1961 – Reggie White, American football player (d. 2004)
1972 – Warren Sapp, American football player
1974 – Jake Plummer, American football player
|GERSTUNG, ROBERT E.
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company H, 313th Infantry, 79th Infantry Division. Place and date: Siegfried Line near Berg, Germany, December 19th, 1944. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 6 August 1915, Chicago, Ill. G.O. No.: 75, 5 September 1945. Citation: On 19 December 1944 he was ordered with his heavy machinegun squad to the support of an infantry company attacking the outer defense of the Siegfried Line near Berg, Germany. For eight hours he maintained a position made almost untenable by the density of artillery and mortar fire concentrated upon it and the proximity of enemy troops who threw hand grenades into the emplacement. While all other members of his squad became casualties, he remained at his gun. When he ran out of ammunition, he fearlessly dashed across bullet-swept, open terrain to secure a new supply from a disabled friendly tank. A fierce barrage pierced the water jacket of his gun, but he continued to fire until the weapon overheated and jammed. Instead of withdrawing, he crawled fifty yards across coverless ground to another of his company’s machineguns which had been silenced when its entire crew was killed. He continued to man this gun, giving support vitally needed by the infantry. At one time he came under direct fire from a hostile tank, which shot the glove from his hand with an armor-piercing shell but could not drive him from his position or stop his shooting. When the American forces were ordered to retire to their original positions, he remained at his gun, giving the only covering fire. Finally withdrawing, he cradled the heavy weapon in his left arm, slung a belt of ammunition over his shoulder, and walked to the rear, loosing small bursts at the enemy as he went. One hundred yards from safety, he was struck in the leg by a mortar shell; but, with a supreme effort, he crawled the remaining distance, dragging along the gun which had served him and his comrades so well. By his remarkable perseverance, indomitable courage, and heroic devotion to his task in the face of devastating fire, T/Sgt. Gerstung gave his fellow soldiers powerful support in their encounter with formidable enemy forces.
Rank and organization: Technician Fourth Grade, U.S. Army, Company C, 2d Engineer Combat Battalion, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Rocherath, Belgium, December 19th, 1944. Entered service at: Houston, Tex. Birth: Madisonville, Tex. G.O. No.: 42, 24 May 1945. Citation: On 19 December 1944, as scout, he led a squad assigned to the mission of mining a vital crossroads near Rocherath, Belgium. At the first attempt to reach the objective, he discovered it was occupied by an enemy tank and at least twenty infantrymen. Driven back by withering fire, Technician 4th Grade Kimbro made two more attempts to lead his squad to the crossroads but all approaches were covered by intense enemy fire. Although warned by our own infantrymen of the great danger involved, he left his squad in a protected place and, laden with mines, crawled alone toward the crossroads. When nearing his objective he was severely wounded, but he continued to drag himself forward and laid his mines across the road. As he tried to crawl from the objective his body was riddled with rifle and machinegun fire. The mines laid by his act of indomitable courage delayed the advance of enemy armor and prevented the rear of our withdrawing columns from being attacked by the enemy.
|GAUJOT, ANTOINE A.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company M, 27th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At San Mateo, Philippine Islands, December 19th, 1899. Entered service at: Williamson, W. Va. Birth: Keweenaw, Mich. Date of issue: 15 February I911. Citation: Attempted under a heavy fire of the enemy to swim a river for the purpose of obtaining and returning with a canoe.
|GIBSON, EDWARD H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company M, 27th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At San Mateo, Philippine Islands, December 19th, 1899. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Attempted under a heavy fire of the enemy to swim a river for the purpose of obtaining and returning with a canoe.
National Re-gifting Day
The Colorful History of the Corkscrew
The following article is reprinted with copyright permission from Bull’s Pocket Guide to Corkscrews. The author Don Bull, is a world renown corkscrew expert, and author of several books on the subject. You can learn more about Don and his huge collection, in his corkscrew museum.
Although various references to the worme, scrue, and cork-drawer appear in 17th century literature, no one knows when the first corkscrew appeared. One of the most likely theories is that the idea came from a worm on a ramrod or cleaning rod used to draw wadding from a gun barrel. A lithograph entitled “Cork Extractors” was included in a c.1880 book The Growth of Industrial Art. The lithograph by Sackett & Wilhelms Litho Company of New York takes a rather humorous look at the evolution of the corkscrew. In nine steps it shows breaking off the bottle neck, pulling a protruding cork with teeth, lifting the cork with a nail, using two forks and, finally, five different styles of corkscrews. The bottom line, however, is that the first corkscrew, no doubt, was a rather simple device with a wood handle and a pointed and curled piece of steel. The steel was turned into the cork and brute force was used to lift the cork.
The earliest patent issued for a corkscrew was granted in 1795 in England to the Reverend Samuel Henshall. He attached a metal button between the shank and the worm. When the worm penetrated the cork, the button would contact the top, and by continuing to turn the handle, the adhesion between the cork and the bottle neck would be broken. The cork could then be easily lifted. Since then, thousands of worldwide patents have been issued to inventors seeking a better method to extract corks including improved buttons, ratchets, springs, prongs, clutches, levers, and even Teflon coated worms. Other inventors included a corkscrew as an accessory on multipurpose tools including knives, can openers, wrenches, jar openers, bottle cap lifters, and champagne cork grips. In design patents figures of devils, bums, pigs, parrots, and owls can be found.
The first US Patent (42, 784) went to Jesse L. Morrill in New York, NY. It was granted May 17th, 1864 and was actually a puller.
“A mind of the calibre of mine cannot derive its nutriment from cows.”
~George Bernard Shaw
On drinking wine.
Skinflint (SKIN-flint) noun
Someone who is stingy; a miser.
[Flint stones were used in olden times to start a fire. The term skinflint derives from the idea that a miserly person would go to the extreme and “skin a flint” or use a flint till it’s as thin as skin.]
218 BC – Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia – Hannibal’s Carthaginian forces defeat those of the Roman Republic.
1118 – Afonso the Battler, the Christian King of Aragon captured Saragossa, Spain, a major blow to Muslim Spain.
1271 – Kublai Khan renames his empire “Yuan” (元 yuán), officially marking the start of the Yuan Dynasty of China.
1620 – Passengers on the British ship Mayflower come ashore at modern-day Plymouth, Massachusetts, to begin their new settlement, Plymouth Colony.
1642 – Abel Tasman becomes first European to land in New Zealand
1719 – Thomas Fleet publishes “Mother Goose’s Melodies For Children.”
1737 – Antonio Stradivari, the most renowned violin maker in history, died in Cremona, Italy. He made about 1200 violins of great quality of which half still survive. The quality of sound in a Stradivari violin was due to chemicals used to protect the wood from wood-eating worms.
1775 – From today until December 27, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Francis Daymon, members of the Committee of Secret Correspondence, met 3 times at Carpenter’s Hall in Philadelphia with French agent Chevalier Julien-Alexandre Achard de Bonvouloir regarding French support for American Independence.
1777 – The new United States celebrates its first national day of thanksgiving commemorating the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga after the surrender of General John Burgoyne and 5,000 British troops in October 1777.
1787 – New Jersey becomes the third state to ratify the United States Constitution.
1796 – The Baltimore Monitor appeared as the first US Sunday newspaper.
1799 – George Washington’s body interred at Mount Vernon.
1813 – British took Ft. Niagara in War of 1812.
1839 – First celestial photograph (the moon) made in US, John Draper, New York City.
1859 – South Carolina declared itself an “independent commonwealth.”
1862 – Civil War: Confederate cavalry leader General Nathan Bedford Forrest routs a Union force under the command of Colonel Robert Ingersoll on a raid into western Tennessee, an area held by the Union.
1862 – Civil War: Grant announced the organization of his army in the West. Sherman, Hurlbut, McPherson, and McClernand would be Corps Commanders.
1865 – The 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America, abolishing slavery, went into effect.
1878 – John Kehoe, the last of the Molly Maguires is executed in Pennsylvania. The Molly Maguires was a 19th-century secret society composed mainly of Irish and Irish American coal miners.
1888 – Richard Wetherill and his brother in-law discover the ancient Indian ruins of Cliff Palace in Mesa Verde, southwest corner of Colorado..
1892 – The first performance of Tchaikovsky’s ballet “The Nutcracker” is held at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg.
1895 – The National Anti-Saloon League which was officially founded on December 18,1895 in Washington, D.C. The name of this national organization was later changed to Anti-Saloon League of America. Howard Hyde Russell was named as the first superintendent of the national league.
1898 – Count Gaston de Chasseloup-Laubat (the “Electric Count”) set the world’s first official land-speed record over a measured kilometer near Paris. The new record was set in his electric Jeantaud automobile at a hair-raising speed of 39.245mph.
1902 – Admiral of the Navy George Dewey receives orders to send his battleship to Trinidad and then to Venezuela to make sure that Great Britain’s and Germany’s dispute with Venezuela was settled by peaceful arbitration not force.
1912 – The U.S. Congress prohibited the immigration of illiterate persons.
1912 – After three years of digging in the Piltdown gravel pit in Sussex, England, amateur archaeologist Charles Dawson announced the discovery of two skulls that appeared to belong to a primitive hominid and ancestor of man. The find was proved to be a hoax in 1953.
1915 – President Woodrow Wilson, widowed the year before, married Edith Bolling Galt at her Washington home.
1916 – WW I: The Battle of Verdun ended with the French and Germans each having suffered more than 330,000 killed and wounded in ten months.
1917 – The Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution was passed by Congress. It established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the US by declaring illegal the production, transport and sale of alcohol (though not the consumption or private possession).
1920 – First US postage stamps printed without the words United States or US.
1932 – The Chicago Bears defeat the Portsmouth Spartans 9-0 in the first ever NFL Championship Game. The game was played during a blizzard.
1934 – Willie Smith sang with Jimmy Lunceford & his orchestra on “Rhythm is Our Business“.
1935 – Both the face and back (reverse) of the Great Seal of the United States appeared for the first time on paper money on $1 Silver Certificates. The pyramid, on the reverse of the seal , represents permanence and strength. Its unfinished condition indicates that the United States will always grow, build, and improve with a continuous evaluation of Truth. The thirteen layers of stone in the pyramid refer to the thirteen Original States and the individual rights of States. The separate stones represent local self-government.
1936 – Su-Lin, the first giant panda to come to US from China, arrived in San Francisco.
1940 – World War II: Hitler dictated Directive No. 21 to crush Russia in a quick campaign. Adolf Hitler signed a secret directive ordering preparations for a Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union.
1941 – World War II: Defended by 610 fighting men, the American-held island of Guam fell to more than 5,000 Japanese invaders in a three-hour battle.
1941 – World War II: Censorship is imposed with the passage of the first American War Powers Act.
1941 – World War II: German submarine U-434 sank.
1943 – World War II: Europe – The US 5th Army captures Monte Lungo, threatening the German position at San Pietro. German forces launch counterattacks. San Pietro falls to the US 36th Division.
1944 – World War II: 77 B-29 Superfortress and 200 other aircraft of U.S. Fourteenth Air Force bomb Hankow China, a Japanese supply base.
1944 – World War II: US Task Force 38 is caught in a typhoon while retiring to refuel and replenish. Three destroyers, “Hull,” “Spence” & “Monaghan,” are sunk and three fleet carriers, four escort carriers and eleven destroyers sustain damage.The storm killed 778 American sailors. 62 of 264 men on the Hull , 24 of 340 men on the Spence and 6 of 251 men on the Monaghan survived.
1944 – World War II: US B-29 Superfortress bombers raid Nagoya (namely the Mitsubishi aircraft assembly works).
1944 – In a pair of rulings, the US Supreme Court upheld the wartime relocation of Japanese-Americans (Korematsu v. United States), but also said undeniably loyal Americans of Japanese ancestry could not continue to be detained (Ex parte Endo).
1946 – TV’s first network dramatic serial “Faraway Hill” ends 2 month run. For many years “A Woman to Remember” was considered the first soap opera, but actually debuted in 1949.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Civilization” by Louis Prima, “How Soon” by Jack Owens, “White Christmas” by Bing Crosby, “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 – Janet Fay was hammered to death by Martha Beck and Ray Fernandez aka The Lonely Hearts Killers, in Long Island, New York. The phrase lonely hearts killer, sometimes also want-ad killer, or matrimonial bureau murderer, is a journalistic term of art that refers to a person who commits murder by contacting a victim who has either posted advertisements to or answered advertisements via newspaper classified ads and personal or lonely hearts club ads.
1950 – Korean War: U.S. Navy Patrol Squadron 892, the first all-Reserve squadron to operate in Korea’s war zone, began operations from Iwakuni, Japan.
1953 – WPTZ in Philadelphia, PA received its official FCC experimental color license, authorizing transmission of color video during regular broadcast hours. At 2:20 pm today, Philadelphians lucky enough to own color TV sets saw the nation’s first color telecast via “Skinner’s Spotlight.” A color Felso soap commercial was aired during Skinner’s program.
1953 – “Rags to Riches” by Tony Bennett topped the charts.
1954 – “Mr. Sandman” by the Chordettes topped the charts.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Hear You Knocking” by Gale Storm, “Love and Marriage” by Frank Sinatra, “Nuttin’ for Christmas” by Barry Gordon and “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford all topped the charts.
1956 – The show “To Tell the Truth” (32:22) premiered on TV. This video is actually not the premiere but a show that occurred before. Please not Mike Wallace!!!
1956 – The Israeli flag was hoisted on Mount Sinai.
1956 – Phil Rizzuto signs as New York Yankee radio-TV announcer. His popular catchphrase was “Holy Cow.” He also became known for saying “Unbelievable!” or “Did you see that?” to describe a great play, and would call somebody a “huckleberry” if someone did something Rizzuto didn’t like.
1957 – The Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania, the first civilian nuclear facility to generate electricity in the United States, went online. It was taken off-line in 1972 after twenty-five years.
1957 – The motion picture “The Bridge on the River Kwai” premiered at the RKO Palace Theater in New York City.
1958 – The first American communications satellite was launched. Project SCORE (Signal Communication by Orbiting Relay Equipment) was put into orbit from Cape Canaveral using an Atlas B missile, also the first successful trial of the Atlas’ space launch vehicle.
1958 – The first communications satellite broadcast was made when President Dwight Eisenhower delivered his Christmas message.
1959 – In Florida Cliff Walker, his wife and two children were murdered on a ranch in Osprey. Richard Hickock and Perry Smith, the killers of a family in Kansas on Nov 15, were later linked to the murder of the Walker family.
1961 – “The Lion Sleeps Tonight” by the Tokens topped the charts.
1961 – For 2nd consecutive year, AP names Wilma Rudolph female athlete of year.
1963 – Ron Clarke set a world record when he ran six miles in 28 minutes and 15.6 seconds.
1964 – “The Pink Panther” cartoon series premieres (Pink Phink). It was the first Pink Panther animated short released by United Artists and it won the 1964 Academy Award for Short Subjects, animated films.
1964 – The University of California Regents affirmed that university rules should follow the US Supreme Court decisions on free speech.
1965 – Astronauts Frank Borman and James Lovell splash down in Atlantic ending the 14-day Gemini VII flight. It had met up with Gemini VI and flew alongside her.
1965 – Vietnam: River Patrol Force established .
1965 – Kenneth LeBel jumped 17 barrels on ice skates.
1965 – Vietnam: U.S. Marines attacked Viet Cong units in the Que Son Valley during Operation Harvest Moon.
1965 – “Turn! Turn! Turn!” by the Byrds topped the charts.
1966 – Dr. Seuss’ “How the Grinch Stole Christmas” aired for first time on CBS.
1966 – Saturn’s moon Epimetheus is discovered by Richard L. Walker. (Definition: A Titan, husband of Pandora, who together with his brother Prometheus took part in the creation of the human race.)
1967 – Vietnam: Operation Preakness II begins in Mekong Delta.
1970 – “Me Nobody Knows” opened at Helen Hayes Theater in New York City for 587 performances.
1970 – An atomic leak in Nevada forced hundreds to flee the test site.
1971 – CBS radio cancels Saturday morning band concerts.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Family Affair” by Sly & the Family Stone, “Brand New Key” by Melanie, “An Old Fashioned Love Song” by Three Dog Night and “Kiss an Angel Good Mornin’” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1971 – Pres. Nixon devalued the dollar, and even though the devaluation was effective immediately, only Congress could officially change the gold value of the dollar. The US dollar went off the gold standard and was devalued by 7.9%.
1971 – Capitol Reef National Park is established in Utah. It is 100 miles long but fairly narrow.
1971 – President Nixon signed into law the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA). It gave large portions of prime bear habitat to the Alutiiq people, who had hunted and fished on the island for 7,000 years. Forty-four million acres of land (10% of the state), was ceded to native tribes.
1971 – Reverend Jesse Jackson announced in Chicago the founding of Operation PUSH (People United to Save Humanity).
1972 – Vietnam War: The United States began the heaviest bombing of North Vietnam during the Vietnam War. The attack ended 12 days later.
1972 – The Broadway production “Of Mice and Men” opened. It starred James Earl Jones and featured Joe Seneca (d.1996).
1972 – Current Vice President Joe Biden’s wife and one-year-old daughter were killed in an automobile accident while Christmas shopping in Hockessin, Delaware. Neilia Biden’s station wagon was hit by a tractor-trailer as she pulled out from an intersection; the truck driver was cleared of any wrongdoing.
1976 – “A Star is Born“, with Barbra Streisand, premieres.
1976 – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)” by Rod Stewart topped the charts.
1978 – The US Supreme Court ruled that national banks can charge customers throughout the country any interest rate allowed by the institution’s home state. This led financial institutions to move credit offices to states with no or very high interest caps. (Marquette vs. First Omaha Service Corp.)
1979- Stanley Barrett first to exceed land sonic speed (739.666 MPH)
1982 – “Maneater” by Daryl Hall & John Oates topped the charts.
1985 – The U.S. Congress approved the biggest overhaul of farm legislation since the Depression, trimming price supports.
1985 – “Beverly Hills Cop” became the top grossing movie of the year.
1987 – Larry Wall releases the first version of the Perl programming language.
1987 – Ivan F. Boesky was sentenced to three years in prison for plotting Wall Street’s biggest insider-trading scandal. He only served about two years of the sentence.
1989 – “I Love Lucy” Christmas episode, shown for first time in over 30 years.
1989 – A pipe bomb killed Savannah, Ga., City Councilman Robert Robinson, hours after a bomb was discovered at the Atlanta federal courthouse. A racial motive was cited in a rash of bomb incidents. Walter Leroy Moody Junior was later convicted of the bombings, and is on Alabama’s death row.
1991 – General Motors announced it would close 21 plants and eliminate 74,000 jobs in four years to offset record losses.
1995 – A powerful fertilizer bomb was found outside an Internal Revenue Service office in Reno, Nevada, but fizzled before its lit fuse could do much damage.
1995 – The Dow industrials dropped 101.52 points, its biggest one-day loss in four years amid investor worries over the budget stalemate between Congress and President Clinton.
1996 – TV industry executives agree to adopt a ratings system.It was designed to be a voluntary rating system designed to give parents information about the content of television programs.
1996 – Aides to President Clinton disclosed that Asian-American businessman Charles Yah Lin Trie, who delivered $460,000 in questionable donations to the Clintons’ legal defense fund, had been to the White House at least 23 times since 1993.
1996 – The Oakland, California school board passes a resolution officially declaring “Ebonics” a language or dialect.
1996 – Earl Edwin Pitts, a senior US FBI agent, was arrested on espionage charges. He was most active as a Russian spy from 1987-1992.
1997 – HTML 4.0 is published by the World Wide Web Consortium.
1997 – MASS SHOOTING: In California a fired California highway employee, Arturo Reyes Torres, shot and killed four people at the Caltrans maintenance yard in Orange and was himself killed by police.
1997 – President Clinton extended indefinitely the deadline for withdrawal of U.S. troops helping with the U.N. peacekeeping effort in Bosnia.
1998 – The new electronic Rocket Book by NuvoMedia weighed 22 ounces and stored 10 books.
1998 – The House of Representatives began the debate on the four articles of impeachment concerning President Bill Clinton. It was only the second time in U.S. history that that process had begun.
1998 – US and British struck Iraq for a third day with little resistance. The US B-1 bomber was used to drop bombs. Gen’l. Henry Shelton, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said more cruise missiles were launched in the first 2 days than the 289 in the 1991 Gulf War.
1998 – In South Carolina the 500th execution took place since capital punishment was resumed in 1977. Andrew Lavern Smith died by lethal injection for his 1983 murder of an elderly couple.
1999 – NASA launches into orbit the Terra platform carrying five Earth Observation instruments, including ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS and MOPITT.
1999 – After living atop an ancient redwood in Humboldt County, CA, for two years, environmental activist Julia “Butterfly” Hill came down, ending her anti-logging protest.
1999 – In St. Martinville, Louisiana, Cuban inmates who’d held a jail warden and six others hostage for almost a week, surrendered.
2000 – US electors voted for their party’s candidates. In the 224 years of the Electoral College only nine electors had switched votes. The DC elector withheld her vote to protest lack of representation. Bush won 271 votes, one over the constitutional minimum, and became the official president-elect.
2000 – Randolph Apperson Hearst, billionaire newspaper heir and the last surviving son of William Randolph Hearst, died at age 85 in New York.
2001 – Mark Oliver Gebel, a Ringling Bros. Circus star, went on trial for animal abuse. The charges stemmed from an incident with an elephant that was marching too slowly into a circus performance on August 25, 2001. He was acquitted on December 21, 2001.
2001 – A fire damaged New York City’s St. John Cathedral. The cathedral is the largest in the United States.
2002 – 2003 California recall: Governor of California Gray Davis announces that the state would face a record budget deficit of $35 billion, roughly double the figure reported during his reelection campaign one month earlier.
2002 – Nine competing designs for the World Trade Center site were unveiled. The Lower Manhattan Development Corp. expected to choose a design by January 31, 2003.
2002 – Robert Johnson, the billionaire founder of Black Entertainment Television, became the first African-American to own a major sports team. The NBA awarded him rights to the expansion franchise in Charlotte.
2003 – Teenager Lee Malvo was convicted of murder in the Washington area sniper attacks. His adult companion, John Muhammad, was convicted earlier by a jury that recommended the death penalty.
2003 – An Ohio school district suspended classes after bullet holes were found in two of its buses.
2003 – A federal judge in New York ruled that President Bush does not have the power to order that a US citizen captured in this country be held indefinitely as an enemy combatant.
2003 – Michael Jackson was formally charged with child molesting and administering an intoxicating agent.
2003 – The US Census Bureau reported the population had grown to 291 million, and would reach 300 million in four years.
2005 – Time magazine named Bill and Melinda Gates and rock star Bono its “Persons of the Year,” citing their charitable work and activism aimed at reducing global poverty and improving world health.
2006 – The US FBI reported that violent crime for the 1st 6 months of 2006 had increased 3.7% with robberies up 9.7%. This reversed a dropping trend from the 1990s.
2006 – Thirteen US states sued the EPA to force it to cut fine-particle air pollutants.
2006 – A new study said US growers produce nearly $35 billion worth of marijuana annually, making the illegal drug the country’s largest cash crop, bigger than corn and wheat combined.|
2006 – The NBA suspended seven players for their roles in a brawl between Denver and New York; each team was fined $500,000.
2007 – The US Federal Reserve endorsed new rules that would give people taking out home mortgages new protections against shady lending practices.
2007 – PG&E reported plans to support the first commercial wave power plant off California’s Humboldt County coast. 8 power generating buoys, to built by Canada’s Finavera Co., was expected to begin operations in 2012. The project was rejected in 2008.
2008 – W. Mark Felt, Deep Throat of Watergate, dies at 95. Mr. Felt was the No. 2 official at the F.B.I. when he helped bring down President Richard M. Nixon by resisting the Watergate cover-up and becoming Deep Throat, the most famous anonymous source in American history.
2008 – The US FDA cleared Stevia, a shrub and an artificial sweetener extracted from it, for public use.
2009 – US bank regulators shut down seven banks including two in California. This brought to 140 the number of US banks closed down to the weak economy and mounting loan defaults.
2009 – General Motors announced that it would shut down its Saab brand.
2009 – A Paris court ruled that Google was breaking French law with its policy of digitizing books and fined the company a $14,300-a-day fine until it rids its search engine of them.
2010 – James Cameron’s movie “Avatar” was released in the United States. On January 26, the movie became the highest-grossing film worldwide.
2010 – Bank of America bans Wikileaks payments as a result of news of an upcoming release of information on banks in the United States that could leave an impact.
2010 – The United States Senate repeals “Don’t Ask Don’t Tell” by a vote of 65-35. The bill will now be sent to President Barack Obama to be signed.
2011 – More than fifty Occupy Wall Street protesters are arrested as they attempted to establish a new encampment.
2011 – The last convoy of United States Army soldiers withdraws from Iraq, marking the formal end of the Iraq War.
2012 – NBC News Chief Foreign Correspondent Richard Engel and his production team are freed after 5 days of captivity in northern Syria.
2012 – The bodies of Richard Hickock and Perry Smith, the murderers who were the subject of Truman Capote’s non-fiction novel In Cold Blood, are exhumed in Kansas to help solve a cold case in Florida from December 1959.
2013 – OBAMACARE: At the request of the White House, insurers agree to accept payment for coverage as late as 10 days after policies take effect on Jan. 1. “The president is rewriting law on a whim.”—House Speaker John Boehner
1707 – Charles Wesley, co-founder of the Methodist movement, was born.
1825 – Charles Griffin (general), American general (d. 1876) He was a career officer in the United States Army and a Union general in the Civil War.
1863 – Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria (d. 1914) He was an Archduke of Austria. His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated the Austrian declaration of war which triggered World War I.
1886 – Ty Cobb, American baseball player (d. 1961)
1888 – Robert Moses, American public works planner who supervised construction of many New York City landmarks.
1890 – Edwin Armstrong, American inventor (d. 1954) He was an American electrical engineer and inventor. Armstrong was the inventor of the FM radio.
1897 – Fletcher Henderson, American pianist, bandleader, arranger and composer (d. 1952)
1912 – Benjamin O. Davis Jr., (d. 2002) was an American United States Air Force General and commander of the World War II Tuskegee Airmen.
1913 – Willy Brandt, Chancellor of Germany and Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1992)
1916 – Betty Grable, American actress (d. 1973)
1943 – Keith Richards, British guitarist (The Rolling Stones)
1946 – Steven Spielberg, American film director
1954 – Ray Liotta, American actor
1956 – Ron White, American comedian
1963 – Brad Pitt, American actor
1964 – Stone Cold Steve Austin, American wrestler, actor, and producer
1980 – Christina Aguilera, American singer
1989 – Ashley Victoria Benson, American actress
1992 – Bridgit Mendler, American singer-songwriter, musician, producer and actress.
BARNUM, HARVEY C., JR.
Rank and organization: Captain (then Lt.), U.S. Marine Corps, Company H, 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division (Rein). Place and date: Ky Phu in Quang Tin Province, Republic of Vietnam, December 18th, 1965. Entered service at: Cheshire, Conn. Born: 21 July 1940, Cheshire, Conn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. When the company was suddenly pinned down by a hail of extremely accurate enemy fire and was quickly separated from the remainder of the battalion by over five-hundred meters of open and fire-swept ground, and casualties mounted rapidly. Lt. Barnum quickly made a hazardous reconnaissance of the area, seeking targets for his artillery. Finding the rifle company commander mortally wounded and the radio operator killed, he, with complete disregard for his safety, gave aid to the dying commander, then removed the radio from the dead operator and strapped it to himself. He immediately assumed command of the rifle company, and moving at once into the midst of the heavy fire, rallying and giving encouragement to all units, reorganized them to replace the loss of key personnel and led their attack on enemy positions from which deadly fire continued to come. His sound and swift decisions and his obvious calm served to stabilize the badly decimated units and his gallant example as he stood exposed repeatedly to point out targets served as an inspiration to all. Provided with two armed helicopters, he moved fearlessly through enemy fire to control the air attack against the firmly entrenched enemy while skillfully directing one platoon in a successful counterattack on the key enemy positions. Having thus cleared a small area, he requested and directed the landing of two transport helicopters for the evacuation of the dead and wounded. He then assisted in the mopping up and final seizure of the battalion’s objective. His gallant initiative and heroic conduct reflected great credit upon himself and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service.
BELL, BERNARD P.
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 142d Infantry, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: Mittelwihr, France, December 18th, 1944. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Grantsville, W. Va. G.O. No.: 73, 30 August 1945. Citation: For fighting gallantly at Mittelwihr, France. On the morning of 18 December 1944, he led a squad against a schoolhouse held by enemy troops. While his men covered him, he dashed toward the building, surprised two guards at the door and took them prisoner without firing a shot. He found that other Germans were in the cellar. These he threatened with hand grenades, forcing twenty-six in all to emerge and surrender. His squad then occupied the building and prepared to defend it against powerful enemy action. The next day, the enemy poured artillery and mortar barrages into the position, disrupting communications which T/Sgt. Bell repeatedly repaired under heavy small-arms fire as he crossed dangerous terrain to keep his company commander informed of the squad’s situation. During the day, several prisoners were taken and other Germans killed when hostile forces were attracted to the schoolhouse by the sound of captured German weapons fired by the Americans. At dawn the next day the enemy prepared to assault the building. A German tank fired round after round into the structure, partially demolishing the upper stories. Despite this heavy fire, T/Sgt. Bell climbed to the second floor and directed artillery fire which forced the hostile tank to withdraw. He then adjusted mortar fire on large forces of enemy foot soldiers attempting to reach the American position and, when this force broke and attempted to retire, he directed deadly machinegun and rifle fire into their disorganized ranks. Calling for armored support to blast out the German troops hidden behind a wall, he unhesitatingly exposed himself to heavy small-arms fire to stand beside a friendly tank and tell its occupants where to rip holes in walls protecting approaches to the school building. He then trained machineguns on the gaps and mowed down all hostile troops attempting to cross the openings to get closer to the school building. By his intrepidity and bold, aggressive leadership, T/Sgt. Bell enabled his eight-man squad to drive back approximately one-hundred-fifty of the enemy, killing at least eighty-seven and capturing forty-two. Personally, he killed more than twenty and captured thirty-three prisoners.
Rank and organization: Chief Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Off Provincetown, Mass., December 18th, 1927. Entered service at: Rhode Island. Born: 7 April 1887, Scotland. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For display of extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession above and beyond the call of duty on 18 December 1927, during the diving operations in connection with the sinking of the U.S.S. S-4 with all on board, as a result of a collision off Prividencetown, Mass. On this occasion when Michels, Chief Torpedoman, U.S. Navy, while attempting to connect an air line to the submarine at a depth of 102 feet became seriously fouled, Eadie, under the most adverse diving conditions, deliberately, knowingly, and willingly took his own life in his hands by promptly descending to the rescue in response to the desperate need of his companion diver. After two hours of extremely dangerous and heartbreaking work, by his cool, calculating, and skillful labors, he succeeded in his mission and brought Michels safely to the surface.
Wright Brothers Day
The Basics - Snowflakes form when temperature in the atmosphere drops below freezing. The atmosphere must also have enough humidity for water droplets to condense (i.e. in a cloud). You can have very cold temperatures or a lot of humidity, but if you don’t have both, snowflakes won’t form. As soon as these conditions are met, though, the water droplets in the air freeze and condense onto microscopic dust particles that are floating around, creating an ice crystal. Depending upon the conditions, it can be a very quick process growing from one crystal to a full snowflake (with as many as hundreds of individual ice crystals), because crystals will continue to condense onto the original as it “falls” towards the ground. Sometimes, when temperatures fluctuate around the freezing point, ice crystals can form and melt repeatedly.
It is interesting is that all snowflakes have six sides. Why is this? As the two hydrogen and one oxygen (H²O) molecules in the water freeze and become ice, they automatically align into a lattice structure. The temperature, humidity, and amount of dust particles in the air determine exactly how the structure forms (i.g. the final shape), but the lattice structure is limited to a six sided structure. The crystals might be shaped like spikes, hollow columns, flat plates, or stars.
So which snow IS the best for snowball fights? Powdery snow has low moisture content and is full of air. The crystals are big and sparkly. It falls on days that are well below freezing temperatures. Powdery snow doesn’t pack well (but, you can always dig down and get the snow closest to the ground since this snow will have been warmed by the Earth and naturally packed by the weight of the snow on top of it). The very best snow for packing into snowballs is denser, moister snow that falls when it is near freezing. If you wake up to a blanket of white snow and it’s about 30° outside, you’ll most likely have optimal snowball fight conditions!
A snowball is a ball of snow, usually created by scooping snow with the hands and compacting it into a roughly fist-sized ball. The snowball is necessary to hold a snowball fight. The pressure exerted by the hands on the snow determines the density of the final result. Reduced pressure leads to a light and soft snowball.
A snowball may also refer to a large ball of snow formed by rolling a smaller snowball on a snow-covered surface. The smaller snowball grows by picking up additional snow as it rolls. The term snowball effect is named after this process. A higher pressure cause the snow to melt, turning into liquid water. Once the pressure is removed, the water turns again into ice, leading to a more compact and hard snowball, which eventually can be considered harmful during a snowball fight.
Large snowballs are necessary when building your snow fort. Snow forts, like any other fort, are needed to protect the antagonists in a neighborhood snow fight. They are made by taking small snow balls and rolling them into larger ones. The best size for snow fort construction is a size that can be lifted and moved fairly easily. In the construction line these balls straight for about eight feet then add another three of four feet to form sides. Continue to manufacture these balls and place them on the row below using standard construction methods of offsetting the row below. Depending on the size of the ball, bring them up to three or four feet giving a place to hide and a place to store snowballs.
Snowball fights are known to have been a medieval pastime.
On March 5, 1770, the pelting of occupying British soldiers with snowballs eventually led to the Boston Massacre, which helped eventually spark the Revolutionary War.
In 1959 a Yale student snowball fight on city streets got out of hand and resulted in arrests by the New Haven, Connecticut police. Students then pelted police officers with snowballs during the St. Patrick’s Day parade. The so-called “snowball riot” attracted national media attention and was a kind of town-and-gown riot.
“I think about the cosmic snowball theory. A few million years from now the sun will burn out and lose its gravitational pull. The earth will turn into a giant snowball and be hurled through space. When that happens it won’t matter if I get this guy out.”
Bill Lee (William Francis Lee III) (born December 28, 1946), (nicknamed “Spaceman“), is a retired Major League Baseball pitcher. He played for the Boston Red Sox from 1969-1979 and the Montreal Expos from 1980-1982.
reticent \RET-ih-suhnt\, adjective:
1. Inclined to keep silent; reserved; uncommunicative.
2. Restrained or reserved in style.
3. Reluctant; unwilling.
Reticent comes from the present participle of Latin reticere, “to keep silent,” from re- +tacere, “to be silent.”
1577 – Francis Drake sails from Plymouth, England, on a secret mission to explore the Pacific Coast of the Americas for English Queen Elizabeth I.
1777 – George Washington’s army returned to winter quarters in Valley Forge, Pa.
1777 – The French foreign minister, Charles Gravier, count of Vergennes, officially acknowledges the United States as an independent nation.
1787 – New Jersey was counted as the third state to enter the United States of America.
1790 – Aztec calendar stone discovered in México City. This circular carved stone is 3 feet thick, approximately 12 feet in diameter and weights more than 24 tons. According to recent revelations about the calendar, it is supposed to “run out” in 2012.
1791 – New York City traffic regulation creates first one-way street.
1796 – The Monitor of Baltimore, Maryland was published as the first Sunday newspaper.
1798 – The first impeachment trial against a US senator, William Blount of Tennesee, began.He was expelled from the Senate for treason and the only Senator expelled outside of the Civil War.
1812 – War of 1812: U.S. forces attack a friendly Lenape village in the Battle of the Mississinewa.
1821 – Kentucky abolished debtor’s prisons.
1843 – Charles Dickens’s classic: “A Christmas Carol” published.
1846 – Mexican War: Ships under Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry capture Laguna de Terminos during Mexican War.
1861 – Civil War: Flag Officer Foote, Commanding U.S. Naval Forces, Western Waters, issued General Order regarding observance of Sunday on board ships of his flotilla: “It is the wish. . . that on Sunday the public worship of Almighty God may be observed . . . and that the respective commanders will either themselves, or cause other persons to pronounce prayers publicly on Sunday. . .”
1861 – Civil War: The Stonewall Brigade began to dismantle Dam No. 5 of the C&O Canal near Martinsburg, W.Va.
1862 – The first orthopedic hospital was organized — in New York City. It was called the Hospital for Ruptured and Crippled.
1862 – Civil War: General Ulysses S. Grant issues General Order No. 11, expelling Jews from Tennessee, Mississippi, and Kentucky.
1863 – Civil War: Lieutenant Commander Fitch, U.S.S. Moose, reported that he had sent landing parties ashore at Seven Mile Island and Palmyra, Tennessee, where they had destroyed distilleries used by Confederate guerrilla troops.
1886 – At a Christmas party, Sam Starr shot his old enemy Sheriff Frank West. West died immediately and Sam died from a chest wound shortly thereafter. Sam Starr was the husband of the famous Belle Starr.
1895 – Anti-Saloon League of America was formed in Washington, DC.The Anti-Saloon League was the leading organization lobbying for prohibition in the United States in the early 20th century.
1895 – George Brownell from Massachusetts, patents a machine to make paper twine. It twisted strips or ribbons of paper into cord which was as strong as any known steel of the time.
1896 – Pittsburgh’s Schenley Park Casino, which was the first multi-purpose arena with the technology to create an artificial ice surface in North America, was destroyed in a fire.
1900 – New Ellis Island Immigration station completed costing $1.5 million. It replaced the one that burned in 1897.Officials calculated that no more than one-half million immigrants a year would pass through New York on their way to new lives in America. It was a gross miscalculation.
1903 – The Wright Brothers make the first powered heavier-than-air flight in the Wright Flyer at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
1920 – American League votes to allow pitchers who used the spitball in 1920 to continue using it as long as they are in the league. The National League will do the same.
1924 – First US diesel electric locomotive enters service, Bronx NY. Daily in use today and is the nation’s first diesel-electric locomotive.
1925 – Colonel William “Billy” Mitchell court-martialed for insubordination. Mitchell was persistently critical of the low state of preparation of the tiny Air Service and of the poor quality of its equipment. He received the Medal of Honor 20 years after his death.
1926 – Benny Goodman featured with Ben Pollack and His Californians on “He’s the Last Word“.
1933 – NFL starts keeping official statistics as Bears beat Giants 23-21 in championship game. The game was played at Wrigley Field.
1935 – First flight of the Douglas DC-3 airplane.
1935 – A $1 silver certificate was issued. It was the first currency to depict the front and back sides of the Great Seal of the United States.
1936 – Ventriloquist Edgar Bergen & dummy Charlie McCarthy, make their radio debut. Bergen made his first radio appearance on Rudy Vallee’s “The Royal Gelatin Hour”, for which he received the sum of one hundred and fifty dollars.
1936 – Su Lin arrived in San Francisco, California. She was the first giant panda to come to the U.S. from China. The bear was sold to the Brookfield Zoo for $8,750.
1938 – Otto Hahn discovers the nuclear fission of the heavy element uranium, the scientific and tecnological basis of nuclear energy – thus opening the “Atomic Age” in the history of mankind.
1939 – World War II: Battle of the River Plate – The Admiral Graf Spee is scuttled by Captain Hans Langsdorff outside Montevideo.
1941 – World War II: Admiral Chester W. Nimitz named Commander in Chief, US Pacific Fleet, to relieve Admiral Husband Kimmel. Kimmel was blamed for the quantity losses at Pearl Harbor.
1941 – World War II: North Africa – German troops led by Rommel began to retreat in North Africa.
1942 – World War II: Europe- The Navy credited the Coast Guard Cutter Ingham with attacking and sinking the submerged U-boat U-626 south of Greenland.
1942 – World War II: North Africa – Heavy US air attacks continue on Tunis and Gabes and other German air bases in Tunisia.
1943 – World War II: Europe – German forces withdraw from San Pietro and other positions further north. The US 5th Army capture Monte Sammucro.
1944 – World War II: Battle of the Bulge – Malmedy massacre – Seventy-one American 285th Field Artillery Observation Battalion POWs are shot by Waffen-SS Kampfgruppe Peiper. German forces capture 9000 Americans at Echternach.
1944 – World War II: Europe – The Germans renewed their attack on the Belgian town of Losheimergraben against the American Army during the Battle of the Bulge.
1944 – World War II: Pacific – On Mindoro, American forces capture San Jose Airfield. On Leyte, parts of US 10th and 24th Corps record advances against Japanese positions.
1944 – World War II: U.S. Major General Henry C. Pratt issues Public Proclamation No. 21, declaring that, effective January 2, 1945, Japanese American “evacuees” from the West Coast could return to their homes.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Civilization” by Louis Prima, “How Soon” by Jack Owens, “White Christmas” by Bing Crosby and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1947 – First flight of the Boeing B-47 Stratojet strategic bomber.
1948 – The Smithsonian Institution accepted the Wright brothers’ plane, the Kitty Hawk.
1949 – “Mule Train” by Frankie Laine topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Bruce H. Hinton, commander of the 336th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, earned the distinction of becoming the first F-86 Sabre fighter pilot to shoot down a MiG-15 during the Korean War.
1954 – In Gary IN was built the first fully automated railroad freight yard.
1955 – Carl Perkins wrote and recorded “Blue Suede Shoes“.This was the first song to hit the US Pop, Country, and R&B charts at the same time. “Blue Suede Shoes” was the only hit for Perkins.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Hear You Knocking” by Gale Storm, “Love and Marriage” by Frank Sinatra, “Nuttin’ for Christmas” by Barry Gordon and “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford all topped the charts.
1957 – First successful intercontinental ballistic missile launched, Atlas A flight to the full range of 1100 km (600 nm).
1959 – The film “On the Beach” premiered in New York City and in 17 other cities. It was the first motion picture to debut simultaneously in major cities around the world.
1960 – “Are You Lonesome Tonight?” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1960 – A Convair C-131D Samaritan operated by the United States Air Force crashed on a flight from Munich, Germany to RAF Northolt, west London, United Kingdom shortly after take-off from Munich-Riem Airport due to fuel contamination. All 20 passengers and crew on board as well as 32 people on the ground were killed.
1961 – “The Lion Sleeps Tonight” by The Tokens (Wimoweh for you purists) was a chart topper.
1965 – Largest newspaper-Sunday New York Times at 946 pages (50¢).
1965 – Gemini VII splashed down in the western Atlantic Ocean with command pilot Frank Borman and pilot Jim Lovell Jr. on board.
1965 – Astrodome opens, first event is Judy Garland & Supremes concert.
1966 – “Winchester Cathedral” by the New Vaudeville Band topped the charts.
1969 – Project Blue Book: The USAF closes its study of UFOs, stating that sightings were generated as a result of ‘A mild form of mass hysteria, Individuals who fabricate such reports to perpetrate a hoax or seek publicity, Psychopathological persons, and misidentification of various conventional objects’.
1969 – An estimated 50 million TV viewers watched singer Tiny Tim marry his fiancee, Miss Vicky (Budinger), on NBC’s “Tonight Show.”
1969 – “Chicago Transit Authority” (1:08:10) earns a gold record.
1971 – James Bond, “Diamonds are Forever” premieres in US.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Family Affair” by Sly & The Family Stone, “Brand New Key” by Melanie, “An Old Fashioned Love Song” by Three Dog Night and “Kiss an Angel Good Mornin’“ by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1972 – Helen Reddy received a gold record for the song that became an anthem for women’s liberation, I Am Woman.
1974 – The 1,000,000th trademark was registered to Cumberland Packing Corp, for a simple G clef and staff design used on “Sweet’n Low”.
1975 – Lynette Fromme was sentenced to life in prison for her attempt on the life of U.S. President Ford. She was sentenced to life imprisonment for the attempted assassination and was released on parole on August 14, 2009, after serving 34 years.
1977 – “You Light Up My Life” by Debbie Boone topped the charts.
1978 – OPEC decided to raise oil prices by 14.5% by the end of 1979.
1979 – Budweiser rocket car reaches 740 mph (record for wheeled vehicle). The speed was never official because it had to be a two-way run and the vehicle only did on-way. It never raced again.
1979 – Arthur McDuffie, a black insurance executive, was fatally beaten after a police chase in Miami, FL. Four white police officers were later acquitted of charges stemming from McDuffie’s death.
1981 – U.S. Brigadier General James L. Dozier is abducted by the Red Brigade in Verona, Italy.
1983 – The IRA bomb Harrods Department Store in London, killing seven people. (See Harrods bombing) .
1983 – “Say, Say, Say” by Paul McCartney & Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1986 – Wayne “Danke Schoen” Newton won a $19.2 million suit against NBC News. NBC had aired reports claiming a link between Newton and mob figures. The reports were proven to be false.
1986 – The Doobie Brothers reunited for a benefit in Palo Alto, CA.
1986 – Davina Thompson became the world’s first recipient of a heart, lungs, and liver transplant.
1986 – A federal jury in Detroit cleared automaker John DeLorean of all 15 charges in his fraud and racketeering trial.
1986 – Richard Kuklinsky, a Mafia hitman known as the Iceman, was arrested in New Jersey. He was found guilty of all charges May 25, 1988.
1988 – USS Tennessee, first sub to carry Trident 2 missiles, commissioned.
1988 – “Look Away” by Chicago topped the charts.
1989 – The first episode of The Simpsons, “Simpsons Roasting On An Open-Fire”, airs on FOX.
1990 – Olivia Newton-John appeared in the TV movie “A Mom For Christmas.”
1990 – President Bush pledged “no negotiation for one inch” of Kuwaiti territory would take place as he repeated his demand for Iraq’s complete withdrawal.
1991 – Soap opera “One Life To Live” airs its 6,000th episode.
1991 – Cleveland Cavaliers beat Miami Heat 148-80, by record 68 points.
1991 – Michael Jordan is named 1991 Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year.
1992 – President George H.W. Bush, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari signed the North American Free Trade Agreement.
1992 – President-elect Clinton tapped former San Antonio Mayor Henry Cisneros to be Secretary of Housing.
1993 – 2/14 Infantry, 10th Mountain Division, departs Somalia.
1993 – So-called “suicide doctor” Jack Kevorkian was released from jail in Oakland County, Mich., after promising not to help anyone end their lives for the time being.
1993 – Six shots were fired at the White House by an unidentified gunman.
1994 – North Korea shot down a U.S. Army helicopter which had strayed north of the demilitarized zone – – the co -pilot, Chief Warrant Officer David Hilemon, was killed; the pilot, Chief Warrant Officer Bobby Hall, was captured and held for nearly two weeks.
1997 – President Clinton signed the No Electronic Theft Act. The act removed protection from individuals who claimed that they took no direct financial gains from stealing copyrighted works and downloading them from the Internet.
1997 – A new Montana law, effective today, made the entire state an offshore banking center, allowing foreign interests to anonymously stash their cash. Depositors could not be US citizens and a minimum of $200,000 was required.
1997 – A US court ordered Cuba to pay $187.6 million for three men killed when their planes were shot down in 1996 by MiG fighters.
1998 – US and British forces launched more missiles on the second day of attacks against Iraq.
2000 – Terrell Owens (San Francisco 49ers) caught an NFL-record 20 passes for 283 yards and a touchdown against the Chicago Bears. The previous record was held by Tom Fears (Los Angeles Rams) with 18 catches on December 3, 1950.
2000 – President-elect Bush was named Time magazine’s Person of the Year.
2000 – President-elect Bush named Condoleeza Rice (46) of Stanford to be his national security advisor and Texas Supreme Court Justice Alberto Gonzales as White House counsel.
2001 – US Marines raised the Stars and Stripes over the long -abandoned American Embassy in Kabul, inaugurating what U.S. envoy James F. Dobbins promised would be a long commitment to the rebuilding.
2002 – McDonald’s Corp. warned that they would report its first quarterly loss in its 47-year history.
2002 – The insurance and finance company Conseco Inc. filed for Chapter 11 protection. It was the third-largest bankruptcy in U.S. history.
2002 – President George W. Bush ordered the military to begin deploying a national missile defense system with land – and sea -based interceptor rockets to be operational in 2004.
2002 – Mohammed Jawad allegedly attacked US troops with a grenade. He was arrested and later transferred to Guantanamo Bay.
2003 – SpaceShipOne flight 11P, piloted by Brian Binnie, makes the first privately-funded manned supersonic flight.
2003 – The US CDC reported that the average age of US women for their first child was 25.1 years, up from 21.4 in 1970.
2003 – The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King is released worldwide.
2003 – George Ryan, former governor of Illinois, was indicted by a federal grand jury on charges of racketeering. Ryan was also convicted and sentenced to 6 1/2-years in federal prison sentence for racketeering.
2004 – President George W. Bush signed into law the largest overhaul of U.S. intelligence gathering in 50 years. The bill aimed to tighten borders and aviation security. It also created a federal counter-terrorism center and a new intelligence director.
2005 – President George W. Bush acknowledged he signed a secret order after the September 11th attacks to allow the surveillance of people in the United States.
2005 – The Mexican government slammed the US Congress for approving an immigration bill that would tighten border controls and make it harder for undocumented immigrants to get jobs.
2006 – A roadside bomb kills three United States Army soldiers and wounds another north of Baghdad.
2006 – A climber, Kelly James of Dallas, who had been one of three climbers lost on Oregon’s Mount Hood is found dead in a snow cave minutes after rescuers were exploring a nearby cave containing other related equipment.
2006 – In Kirksville, Missouri, a 911 call reporting a “strange odor” from a duplex apartment led police to the bodies of seven people.
2007 – New Jersey Gov. Jon Corzine signed into law a measure that abolished the death penalty, making New Jersey the first US state in a long time to reject capital punishment.
2007 – A US judge ruled that the White House visitor logs are public.
2007 – A military judge said the US must hold court hearings to determine whether suspected terrorists imprisoned at Guantanamo Bay are prisoners of war or unlawful enemy combatants in a ruling that could delay war crimes trials.
2008 – Microsoft said will release an emergency patch today to fix a perilous software flaw allowing hackers to hijack Internet Explorer browsers and take over computers.
2008 – In Minnesota two freight trains collided sending an engineer and some cars into the Mississippi River.
2008 – A U.S. State Department panel recommends that Blackwater Worldwide should be dropped as the main private security contractor for American diplomats in Iraq.
2009 – The Obama administration handed out the first $182 million of a $7.2 billion pot of stimulus money that will be used toward building high-speed Internet networks and encouraging more Americans to use them.
2010 – The states of Arizona and Nevada sued Bank of America Corp., accusing the largest US bank of routinely misleading consumers about home loan modifications.
2010 – President Obama signed into law a tax bill extending cuts for all Americans. The $858 billion package included 13 months of extended benefits to the unemployed and a boost for renewable power companies.
2011 – The United States Senate votes in favor of extending the payroll tax cut for two months.
2012 – NASA’s twin GRAIL spacecraft will crash into a mile-high cliff near the Lunar North Pole to close out a successful mission to map the Moon’s gravity field with unprecedented precision. NASA will provide live commentary of the scheduled lunar surface impacts.
2012 – The owner of Thai Noodle House in Austin, Texas posted a racially-charged and offensive Facebook status regarding the tragic shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Conn. “I don’t care if a bunch of white kids got killed,” the restaurant’s owner Eddie Nimibutr wrote. When kids from minority groups get shot, nobody cares. Why should I care about people who don’t give a damn about me?”
2012 – Two inmates – Kenneth Conley and Joseph Banks – broke the window of their cell at a Federal loop jail in Chicago, tied together bed sheets, attached the sheets to the bars of their cell window, and proceeded to rappel down 17 stories to freedom.
2012 – The Iowa Supreme Court ruled that employers in the state can legally fire workers they find too attractive. In a unanimous decision, the court held that a dentist did not violate the state’s civil rights act when he terminated a female dental assistant whom his wife considered a threat to their marriage. The dental assistant, Melissa Nelson, who worked for dentist James Knight for more than 10 years and had never flirted with him.
2014 – President Barack Obama declared the end of America’s ‘outdated approach’ to Cuba, announcing the re-establishment of diplomatic relations as well as economic and travel ties with the communist island.
1632 – Anthony Wood, English antiquarian (d. 1695)
1770 – (Baptism) – Ludwig van Beethoven, German composer (d. 1827)
1778 – Sir Humphry Davy, British chemist and physicist (d. 1829)
1807 – John Greenleaf Whittier, American poet and abolitionist (d. 1892)
1853 – Émile Roux, French physician (d. 1933)
1892 – Sam Barry, American basketball coach (d. 1950)
1894 – Arthur Fiedler, American conductor (d. 1979)
1903 – Ray Noble, British bandleader, composer, arranger and actor (d. 1978)
1908 – Willard Frank Libby, American chemist and Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1980) He won a Nobel Prize for his part in creating the carbon-14 method of dating artifacts.
1916 – Ruth Elizabeth Grable (Betty Grable) Hollywood’s most universally-known star and archetypal pinup girl of the 1940s.
1922 – Alan Voorhees, American engineer and urban planner (d. 2005)
1929 – William Safire, American columnist
1982 – Craig Kielburger, child labour activist
*COWAN, RICHARD ELLER
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company M, 23d Infantry, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Krinkelter Wald, Belgium, December 17th, 1944. Entered service at: Wichita, Kans. Birth: Lincoln, Nebr. G.O. No.: 48, 23 June 1945. Citation: He was a heavy machinegunner in a section attached to Company I in the vicinity of Krinkelter Wald, Belgium, 17 December 1944, when that company was attacked by a numerically superior force of German infantry and tanks. The first six waves of hostile infantrymen were repulsed with heavy casualties, but a seventh drive with tanks killed or wounded all but three of his section, leaving Pvt. Cowan to man his gun, supported by only fifteen to twenty riflemen of Company I. He maintained his position, holding off the Germans until the rest of the shattered force had set up a new line along a firebreak. Then, unaided, he moved his machinegun and ammunition to the second position. At the approach of a Royal Tiger tank, he held his fire until about eighty enemy infantrymen supporting the tank appeared at a distance of about 150 yards. His first burst killed or wounded about half of these infantrymen. His position was rocked by an 88mm. shell when the tank opened fire, but he continued to man his gun, pouring deadly fire into the Germans when they again advanced. He was barely missed by another shell. Fire from three machineguns and innumerable small arms struck all about him; an enemy rocket shook him badly, but did not drive him from his gun. Infiltration by the enemy had by this time made the position untenable, and the order was given to withdraw. Pvt. Cowan was the last man to leave, voluntarily covering the withdrawal of his remaining comrades. His heroic actions were entirely responsible for allowing the remaining men to retire successfully from the scene of their last-ditch stand.
LOPEZ, JOSE M.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, 23d Infantry, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Krinkelt, Belgium, December 17th, 1944. Entered service at: Brownsville, Tex. Birth: Mission, Tex. G.O. No.: 47, 18 June 1945. Citation: On his own initiative, he carried his heavy machinegun from Company K’s right flank to its left, in order to protect that flank which was in danger of being overrun by advancing enemy infantry supported by tanks. Occupying a shallow hole offering no protection above his waist, he cut down a group of ten Germans. Ignoring enemy fire from an advancing tank, he held his position and cut down twenty-five more enemy infantry attempting to turn his flank. Glancing to his right, he saw a large number of infantry swarming in from the front. Although dazed and shaken from enemy artillery fire which had crashed into the ground only a few yards away, he realized that his position soon would be outflanked. Again, alone, he carried his machinegun to a position to the right rear of the sector; enemy tanks and infantry were forcing a withdrawal. Blown over backward by the concussion of enemy fire, he immediately reset his gun and continued his fire. Single-handed he held off the German horde until he was satisfied his company had effected its retirement. Again he loaded his gun on his back and in a hail of small arms fire he ran to a point where a few of his comrades were attempting to set up another defense against the onrushing enemy. He fired from this position until his ammunition was exhausted. Still carrying his gun, he fell back with his small group to Krinkelt. Sgt. Lopez’s gallantry and intrepidity, on seemingly suicidal missions in which he killed at least one-hundred of the enemy, were almost solely responsible for allowing Company K to avoid being enveloped, to withdraw successfully and to give other forces coming up in support time to build a line which repelled the enemy drive.
SODERMAN, WILLIAM A.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company K, 9th Infantry, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Rocherath, Belgium, December 17th, 1944. Entered service at: West Haven, Conn. Birth: West Haven, Conn. G.O. No.: 97, 1 November 1945. Citation: Armed with a bazooka, he defended a key road junction near Rocherath, Belgium, on 17 December 1944, during the German Ardennes counteroffensive. After a heavy artillery barrage had wounded and forced the withdrawal of his assistant, he heard enemy tanks approaching the position where he calmly waited in the gathering darkness of early evening until the five Mark V tanks which made up the hostile force were within pointblank range. He then stood up, completely disregarding the firepower that could be brought to bear upon him, and launched a rocket into the lead tank, setting it afire and forcing its crew to abandon it as the other tanks pressed on before Pfc. Soderman could reload. The daring bazookaman remained at his post all night under severe artillery, mortar, and machinegun fire, awaiting the next onslaught, which was made shortly after dawn by five more tanks Running along a ditch to meet them, he reached an advantageous point and there leaped to the road in full view of the tank gunners, deliberately aimed his weapon and disabled the lead tank. The other vehicles, thwarted by a deep ditch in their attempt to go around the crippled machine, withdrew. While returning to his post Pfc. Soderman, braving heavy fire to attack an enemy infantry platoon from close range, killed at least three Germans and wounded several others with a round from his bazooka. By this time, enemy pressure had made Company K’s position untenable. Orders were issued for withdrawal to an assembly area, where Pfc. Soderman was located when he once more heard enemy tanks approaching. Knowing that elements of the company had not completed their disengaging maneuver and were consequently extremely vulnerable to an armored attack, he hurried from his comparatively safe position to meet the tanks. Once more he disabled the lead tank with a single rocket, his last; but before he could reach cover, machinegun bullets from the tank ripped into his right shoulder. Unarmed and seriously wounded he dragged himself along a ditch to the American lines and was evacuated. Through his unfaltering courage against overwhelming odds, Pfc. Soderman contributed in great measure to the defense of Rocherath, exhibiting to a superlative degree the intrepidity and heroism with which American soldiers met and smashed the savage power of the last great German offensive.
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 7 July 1886, Bridgeport, Conn. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 391, 1918. Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving on board the U.S.S. Remlik, on the morning of December 17th, 1917, when the Remlik encountered a heavy gale. During this gale, there was a heavy sea running. The depth charge box on the taffrail aft, containing a Sperry depth charge, was washed overboard, the depth charge itself falling inboard and remaining on deck. MacKenzie, on his own initiative, went aft and sat down on the depth charge, as it was impracticable to carry it to safety until the ship was headed up into the sea. In acting as he did, MacKenzie exposed his life and prevented a serious accident to the ship and probable loss of the ship and the entire crew.
BEAUMONT, EUGENE B.
Rank and organization: Major and Assistant Adjutant General, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Mississippi. Place and date: At Harpeth River, Tenn., December 17th,1864; at Selma, Ala., 2 April 1865. Entered service at: Wilkes Barre, Pa. Birth: Luzerne County, Pa. Date of issue: 30 March 1898. Citation: Obtained permission from the corps commander to advance upon the enemy’s position with the 4th U.S. Cavalry, of which he was a lieutenant; led an attack upon a battery, dispersed the enemy, and captured the guns. At Selma, Ala., charged, at the head of his regiment, into the second and last line of the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Harpeth River, Tenn., December 17th, 1864. Entered service at: Ohio. Birth: Ohio. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: At the head of his regiment charged a field battery with strong infantry supports, broke the enemy’s line and, with other mounted troops, captured three guns and many prisoners.
National Chocolate Covered Anything Day
Hannukah 2014: December 16 -December 24
The Boston Tea Party
1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. By this Act, about 17 million pounds of surplus tea (assets of the East India Company, India) was proposed to be sold in America, by under selling it. Since the tea would be sold at an extremely cheap rate by bypassing the traders, the wholesalers in America were going to be seriously affected. For this reason, the Act was fiercely resisted by the colonies. Since British tea was already being boycotted because of the heavy duties on it, the Act in America was seen as a bribe from the British Authorities. In Boston, the opposition against the Tea Act took a dramatic form. Here some men dressed as Indians boarded a ship containing tea, at the Harbor and dumped the entire consignment into the sea. This incident is known as the Boston Tea Party. While the people in Boston rejoiced, the British Parliament passed certain laws to punish the colony. They passed what the colonists popularly called the Intolerable Acts in 1774. Under these Acts, the Boston port was closed until due compensation was paid to the government (London) for the lost tea. Further, the British troops were re-stationed in the city.
The men who dumped tea into Boston Harbor were from many different backgrounds. About one-third of them were skilled artisans such as carpenters, masons and shoemakers. A much smaller number were merchants, doctors, clerks, and the like. The occupations of all the participants are not known, but the majority of them were probably apprentices and common laborers. Alongside side them were participants of English descent and they were men of Irish, Scottish, French, African and Portuguese origins. The Tea Party was also the work of young people. Two-thirds of those whose ages were known were under 20, including 16 teenagers. Only nine are known to have been older than forty. Most of the men were from Boston and vicinity, but some came from as far away as Worcester and Maine. Listed below are named of patriots recorded to have been involved in the Tea Party protest. Not all of the participants are known, as some carried the secret of their participation to
the end of their days.
SETH INGERSOLL BROWN
JAMES FOSTER DONDY
THOMAS CRAFTS, Jr
GEORGE T. HEWES
EDWARD C. HOWE
RICHARD HUNNEWELL, JR
JOHN MAY MEAD
“If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.”
~ John Quincy Adams
Pandiculation pan-ˌdik-yə-ˈlā-shən\ noun
a stretching and stiffening especially of the trunk and extremities (as when fatigued and drowsy or after waking from sleep)
You do this. You just don’t know that you do. When you’re tired to the extent of yawning in fatigue, you may stretch your arms and neck to ease them. That’s pandiculation.
1653 – English Interregnum: The Protectorate – Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
1689 – English Parliament adopted a Bill of Rights after Glorious Revolution. The Bill of Rights included a right to bear arms. This also ended the “Divine Right of Kings.”
1773 – Revolutionary War: Boston Tea Party – The protestors were led by Samuel Adams, and included Paul Revere, Patrick Henry, and John Hancock. They called themselves The SONS of LIBERTY, and they objected to being ruled by the British and having to PAY them TAX. Members of the Sons of Liberty disguised as Mohawks dump crates of tea into Boston harbor as a protest against the Tea Act.
1811 – A massive earthquake rocked the southern United States. At the time it was called the GREAT EARTHQUAKE and it made church bells in Philadelphia ring. One writer of the time said it appeared to make the Mississippi River current stop. Other reports said it actually ran backward. The first shock was today at Magnitude ~7.7 with hundreds of aftershocks Six aftershocks in the first two days in the range of M5.5 to M6.3. The second was January 23, 1812 at Magnitude ~ 7.5 and the third was February 7, 1812 at Magnitude ~ 7.7. Until 1813, hundreds of quakes were felt. We now call this the New Madrid Earthquake.
1821 – LT Robert F. Stockton and Dr. Eli Ayers, a naval surgeon and member of American Colonizing Society, induce a local African king to sell territory for a colony which became the Republic of Liberia.
1835 – A fire swept New York City, razing 600 buildings and causing $20 million damage. It was America’s first major disaster. Approaching the scene, firemen were confronted with wind, the 17 below zero cold, and the snow-laden streets.
1859 – The schooner Clotilde (or Clotilda) was the last known U.S. slave ship to bring slaves from Africa to the United States, arriving at Mobile Bay.
1859 – John Copeland and Shields Green, two Black members of Johns Brown’s band, hanged at Charleston.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis names General Joseph Johnston commander of the Army of Tennessee.
1864 – Civil War: Franklin-Nashville Campaign – Battle of Nashville – Major General George H. Thomas’s Union forces defeat Lieutenant General John Bell Hood’s Confederate Army of Tennessee.
1864 – Civil War: Acting Master Charles A. Pettit, U.S.S. Monticello, performed a dangerous reconnaissance off New Inlet, North Carolina, removing several Confederate torpedoes and their firing apparatus near the base of Fort Caswell.
1893 – Antonín Dvořák’s Symphony No. 9 in E minor, Op. 95, “From The New World” was given its world premiere at Carnegie Hall.
1897 – First submarine with an internal combustion engine demonstrated.
1899 – Brooklyn Children’s Museum opens.
1901 – “Peter Rabbit”, by Beatrix Potter, was printed for the first time.
1903 – Women ushers were employed for the first time at the Majestic Theatre in New York City.
1905 – “Variety”, covering all phases of show business, first published. The publisher was Sime Silverman.
1907 – The “Great White Fleet” sails from Hampton Downs on its World Cruise. The four squadrons of warships, dubbed the “Great White Fleet,” were manned by 14,000 sailors and Marines under the command of Rear Adm. Robley “Fighting Bob” Evans.
1907 – Eugene H Farrar is first to sing on radio. He sang from the Brooklyn Navy Yard in New York.
1908 – St. Mary’s Bank Credit Union became the first credit union chartered in America.
1910 – During a ground test of his Coandă-1910 plane, Henri Coandă, caught unaware by the power of the engine, finds himself briefly airborne and loses control of the machine which crashes to the ground.
1912 – First US postage stamp picturing an airplane, 20¢ parcel post, issued.
1913 – British actor Charles Chaplin reported to work at Keystone Studios in Hollywood to launch a legendary film career.
1915 – Albert Einstein publishes his “General Theory of Relativity.”
1922 – Mutual Association of Eastern Colored Baseball Clubs formally organizes.
1929 – First NHL game at Chicago Stadium; Chicago Blackhawks beat Pittsburgh Pirates, 3-1.
1935 – The movie “A Tale of Two Cities” was copyright registered.
1937 – Theodore Cole and Ralph Roe attempt to escape from Alcatraz island. Both men entered the bay on December 16th, neither was ever seen again.
1940 – Bob Crosby and his Bobcats backed up brother Bing on “New San Antonio Rose.”
1941 – World War II: USS Swordfish becomes first US sub to sink a Japanese ship.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: Porajmos – Heinrich Himmler orders that Roma candidates for extermination should be deported to Auschwitz. Under Adolf Hitler’s rule, both Roma and Jews were defined by the Nuremberg laws as “enemies of the race-based state.”
1942 – World War II: Pharmacist’s Mate First Class Harry B. Roby, USNR, performs an appendectomy on Torpedoman First Class W. R. Jones on board USS Grayback (SS-208). It is the second appendectomy performed on board a submarine.
1944 – World War II: Battle of the Bulge – General Dwight D. Eisenhower’s allied forces and Field Marshall Gerd von Rundstedt’s German army engage in the Belgian Ardennes. It was the final major German counteroffensive and deadliest battle in he European campaign. It lasted until January 25, 1945 and resulted in more than 90,000 Allied casualties and more than 100,000 German casualties.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “It Might as Well Be Spring” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Billy Williams), “White Christmas” by Bing Crosby, “It’s Been a Long, Long Time” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen) and “Silver Dew on the Blue Grass Tonight” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1946 – The first coining honoring a Black and designed by a Black was issued. The fifty-cent piece, which became available on this day, contained the bust of Booker T. Washington.
1950 – “The Tennessee Waltz” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: Truman proclaims state of emergency against “Communist imperialism”. The U.S. concern was in the increased Chinese influence in Korea.
1950 – Korean War: The U.S. 24th Infantry Division received the Distinguished Unit Citation (now the Presidential Unit Citation) for “extraordinary heroism in combat against a numerically superior enemy.”
1951 – “Dragnet” debuts on NBC-TV. It was given a special review on “Chesterfield Sound Off Time”.
1953 – Chuck Yeager set an airborne speed record when he flew a Bell X-1A rocket-fueled plane at more than 1,600 miles an hour.
1957 – “April Love” by Pat Boone topped the charts.
1960 – Lucille Ball stars in the Broadway production of “Wildcat.”
1960 – New York air disaster: While approaching New York’s Idlewild Airport, a United Airlines Douglas DC-8 collides with a TWA Lockheed Super Constellation in a blinding snowstorm over Staten Island, killing 134.
1961 – Martin Luther King Jr & 700 demonstrators arrested in Albany GA.
1962 – New York Giant YA Tittle sets NFL season touchdown pass record at 33.
1965 – Vietnam War: Gen. William Westmoreland, Commander of U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam, sends a request for more troops.
1966 – Jimi Hendrix Experience releases its first single, “Hey Joe“, in the UK.
1967 – The Lemon Pipers released “Green Tambourine.”
1967 – “Daydream Believer” by the Monkees topped the charts.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Leaving on a Jet Plane” by Peter, Paul & Mary, “Someday We’ll Be Together” by Diana Ross & The Supremes, “Down on the Corner/Fortunate Son” by Creedence Clearwater Revival and “ (I’m So) Afraid of Losing You Again” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1969 – “Hello Dolly” with Barbra Streisand premieres.
1971 – Melanie (Safka) received a gold record for the single, “Brand New Key.”
1972 – “Me and Mrs. Jones” by Billy Paul topped the charts.
1972 – Paul McCartney’s single, “Hi, Hi, Hi,” was released.
1972 – Miami Dolphins become first undefeated NFL team (14-0-0). The Dolphins went on to defeat the Washington Redskins in Super Bowl VII.
1973 – O J Simpson becomes first NFLer to rush 2,003 yards in a season. He broke Jim Brown’s single-season rushing record in the NFL. Brown had rushed for 1,863 yards.
1976 – Government halts swine flu vaccination program following reports of paralysis. Reports of the vaccine touching off neurological problems, especially rare Guillain-Barre syndrome, the government suspended the program, having inoculated 40 million people for a flu that never came.
1976 – President Jimmy Carter appoints Andrew Young ambassador to the UN.
1977 – The “Saturday Night Fever” film debuted.
1978 – “You Don’t Bring Me Flowers” by Neil Diamond & Barbra Streisand topped the charts.
1978 – Ronald Reagan denounces President Jimmy Carter’s recognition of China People’s Republic.
1979 - Libya joined four other OPEC nations in raising the price of crude oil. Since the U.S. bought much of its oil from Libya, the price hike had an almost immediate effect on American gas prices.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Broken Wings” by Mr. Mister, “Say You, Say Me” by Lionel Richie, “Party All the Time” by Eddie Murphy and “Nobody Falls Like a Fool” by Earl Thomas Conley all topped the charts.
1985 – Mafia: In New York City, Paul Castellano and Thomas Bilotti are shot dead on the orders of John Gotti, who assumes leadership of the Gambino family.
1989 – “We Didn’t Start the Fire” by Billy Joel topped the charts.
1989 – Federal Judge Robert Vance is instantly killed by a powerful explosion after opening a package mailed to his house in Birmingham, Alabama.
1991 – United Nations General Assembly: UN General Assembly Resolution 4686 revokes UN General Assembly Resolution 3379 after Israel makes revocation of resolution 3379 a condition of its participation in the Madrid Peace Conference of 1991.
1991 – Nearly 300 members of the 8th Marines arrived at Guantanamo Bay to participate in Haitian humanitarian efforts for 6,000 refugees.
1995 – President Clinton and congressional Republicans traded accusations as their budget impasse led to a second shutdown of the federal government.
1996 – The US Supreme Court ruled that states must let parents appeal orders terminating such rights even when they cannot afford court fees.
1996 – Intel announced the world’s fastest computer capable of 1 trillion operations per second.
1997 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Fourteen year old Joseph Todd opened fire wounding two classmates at the Stamps High School, Stamps, AR. Todd was in the eighth grade at the time and shot an older girl & boy because he was tired of being picked on by stronger schoolmates, some of whom extorted money from him in exchange for sparing him a beating.
1997 – Typhoon Paka makes landfall on the island of Guam with 150 mph winds. During that storm the highest wind speed ever measured — 236 mph — was recorded at Anderson Air Force Base .
1997 – The Pokémon episode Electric Soldier Porygon triggers attacks of photosensitive epilepsy in hundreds of Japanese children.
1997 - The Galileo spacecraft flew to within 124 miles of the surface of Europa, a Jupiter moon, and recorded images.
1998 – Iraq disarmament crisis: Operation Desert Fox – U.S. and British jetfighters began a four-night campaign of bombing more than 100 Iraqi military targets. The long threatened action came after the allies concluded Iraq wouldn’t cooperate with U.N. weapons inspectors.
1998 – Federal prosecutors in New York City charged five men in the Aug 7th bombing of the American Embassy in Tanzania. Mustafa Mohamed Fadhil of Egypt, Khalfan Khamis Mohamed and Ahmed Khalfan Ghailani of Tanzania, and Fahid Mohammed Ally Msalam and Sheik Ahmed Salim Swedan of Kenya. A 6th man, “Ahmed the German,” detonated the explosive device and was killed.
2000 – U.S. President-elect George W. Bush selected Colin Powell to be the first African-American secretary of state.
2000 – In Alabama tornadoes hit the state and ten people were killed at a Tuscaloosa trailer park. A total of twelve people were killed and fifty were injured.
2000 – Researchers announced that information from NASA’s Galileo spacecraft indicated that Ganymede appeared to have a liquid saltwater ocean beneath a surface of solid ice.
2001 – Cleveland Browns fans threw thousands of bottles onto the field after officials overturned a last-minute call, a decision that helped the Jacksonville Jaguars win the game 15-10.
2001 – It was reported that all the anthrax spores mailed to Capital Hill were identical to stocks from the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick, Md.
2002 – A jury in Baltimore acquitted former altar boy Dontee Stokes of attempted murder in the shooting of a Roman Catholic priest he’d claimed molested him a decade earlier.
2002 – The EPA issued a water-pollution rule to cover animal waste from “factory farms.”
2003 – President George Bush signed legislation authorizing the creation of a museum honoring African-Americans.
2003 – Pres. Bush signed a measure that made WW II Filipino American veterans eligible for full Veterans Affair health care. Previous benefits were at half the rate of US veterans. Veterans in the Philippines did not qualify.
2003 – The third film episode of “Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring” opened.
2004 – Bobbie Jo Stinnet (23) was found strangled to death in Maryville, Mo., with her baby girl cut from her womb. Police within days arrested Lisa M. Montgomery (36) of Melvern, Kansas. The baby was rescued alive.
2005 – The last scheduled edition of US radio program The Howard Stern Show is broadcast on terrestrial radio.
2005 -US Senate Democrats blocked passage of a new Patriot Act to combat terrorism at home, depicting the measure as a threat to the constitutional liberties of innocent Americans. The result was a revised Patriot Act signed by Bush in March 2006.
2006 – Residents of the Pacific Northwest struggled to stay warm after the worst windstorm in more than a decade knocked out power to more than 1.5 million homes and businesses and killed at least six people.
2006 – A rocket carrying two experimental satellites blasted off in the first launch from the mid-Atlantic region’s commercial spaceport. The Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority, a state agency, built the commercial launch pad in 1998 on land leased from NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility.
2007 – Street and highway crews were at work trying to clear roads across the Great Lakes states into New England as a storm blamed for three deaths spread a hazardous mix of snow, sleet and freezing rain.
2008 – The publisher of the Detroit Free Press and the Detroit News confirmed plans to cut home delivery to three days a week and cut close to 900 jobs.
2008 – Three Guantanamo prisoners were flown to Bosnia and released to their families.
2009 – President Obama, by amending Executive Order 12425 grants INTERPOL, the International Police Organization, full immunity from U.S. law.
2009 – The US Federal Trade Commission voted to sue Intel Corp. over its business practices, saying it engaged in anti-competitive behavior by abusing its dominant market position.
2009 – South Carolina lawmakers voted to formally rebuke Gov. Mark Sanford, sparing him from impeachment over secret trips to his Argentine mistress and his use of state planes.
2010 – President Barack Obama said the United States will start withdrawing US troops from Afghanistan in July as promised.
2010 – Lorillard Tobacco Co. was ordered to pay $81 million in punitive damages to the estate and son of a Boston woman who started smoking at age 13.
2012 – Gunfire broke out in a San Antonio movie theater. Moviegoers rushed to exits and ducked for cover as a lone gunman, Jesus Manuel Garcia, began shooting in a China Garden that spilled over into an attached movie complex. The gunman was eventually shot and struck by an off-duty police officer, Lisa Castellano, who was working at the theater that night.
2013 – DC District Court Judge Richard Leon handed down a ruling that the National Security Agency’s bulk data collection of metadata violates the Fourth Amendment and has issued a preliminary injunction against the entire program, but has stayed the order pending appeal.
2013 – United States District Court Judge Brian Cogan ruled that the Affordable Care Act cannot force religious nonprofit organizations to pay for birth control for their employees.
1485 – Catherine of Aragon, Queen of England (d. 1536)
1584 – John Selden, English jurist and oriental scholar (d. 1654)
1714 – George Whitefield, British-born Methodist leader (d. 1770)
1770 – Ludwig van Beethoven, German composer (d. 1827)
1775 – Jane Austen, British writer (d. 1817)
1863 – George Santayana, Spanish philosopher and writer (d. 1952)
1882 – Walther Meissner, German physicist (d. 1974)
1883 – Max Linder, French pioneer of silent film (d. 1925)
1899 – Sir Noel Coward, British playwright, actor and composer (d. 1973)
1917 – Sir Arthur C. Clarke, British writer
1941 – Lesley Stahl, American journalist
1943 – Steven Bochco, American television producer and writer
1962 – William Perry, American football player Nickname:”Refrigerator”
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company L, 393d Infantry, 99th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Krinkelt, Belgium, December 16th, 1944. Entered service at: Model, Tenn. Born: 1 December 1921, Right, Tenn. G.O. No.: 6, 11 January 1946. Citation: He was painfully wounded in an artillery barrage that preceded the powerful counteroffensive launched by the Germans near Krinkelt, Belgium, on the morning of 16 December 1944. He made his way to an aid station, received treatment, and then refused to be evacuated, choosing to return to his hard-pressed men instead. The fury of the enemy’s great Western Front offensive swirled about the position held by T/Sgt. McGarity’s small force, but so tenaciously did these men fight on orders to stand firm at all costs that they could not be dislodged despite murderous enemy fire and the breakdown of their communications. During the day the heroic squad leader rescued 1 of his friends who had been wounded in a forward position, and throughout the night he exhorted his comrades to repulse the enemy’s attempts at infiltration. When morning came and the Germans attacked with tanks and infantry, he braved heavy fire to run to an advantageous position where he immobilized the enemy’s lead tank with a round from a rocket launcher. Fire from his squad drove the attacking infantrymen back, and 3 supporting tanks withdrew. He rescued, under heavy fire, another wounded American, and then directed devastating fire on a light cannon which had been brought up by the hostile troops to clear resistance from the area. When ammunition began to run low, T/Sgt. McGarity, remembering an old ammunition hole about 100 yards distant in the general direction of the enemy, braved a concentration of hostile fire to replenish his unit’s supply. By circuitous route the enemy managed to emplace a machinegun to the rear and flank of the squad’s position, cutting off the only escape route. Unhesitatingly, the gallant soldier took it upon himself to destroy this menace single-handedly. He left cover, and while under steady fire from the enemy, killed or wounded all the hostile gunners with deadly accurate rifle fire and prevented all attempts to reman the gun. Only when the squad’s last round had been fired was the enemy able to advance and capture the intrepid leader and his men. The extraordinary bravery and extreme devotion to duty of T/Sgt. McGarity supported a remarkable delaying action which provided the time necessary for assembling reserves and forming a line against which the German striking power was shattered.
MURRAY, CHARLES P., JR.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company C, 30th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kaysersberg, France, December 16th, 1944. Entered service at: Wilmington, N.C. Birth: Baltimore, Md. G.O. No.: 63, 1 August 1945. Citation: For commanding Company C, 30th Infantry, displaying supreme courage and heroic initiative near Kaysersberg, France, on 16 December 1944, while leading a reinforced platoon into enemy territory. Descending into a valley beneath hilltop positions held by our troops, he observed a force of 200 Germans pouring deadly mortar, bazooka, machinegun, and small arms fire into an American battalion occupying the crest of the ridge. The enemy’s position in a sunken road, though hidden from the ridge, was open to a flank attack by 1st Lt. Murray’s patrol but he hesitated to commit so small a force to battle with the superior and strongly disposed enemy. Crawling out ahead of his troops to a vantage point, he called by radio for artillery fire. His shells bracketed the German force, but when he was about to correct the range his radio went dead. He returned to his patrol, secured grenades and a rifle to launch them and went back to his self-appointed outpost. His first shots disclosed his position; the enemy directed heavy fire against him as he methodically fired his missiles into the narrow defile. Again he returned to his patrol. With an automatic rifle and ammunition, he once more moved to his exposed position. Burst after burst he fired into the enemy, killing twenty, wounding many others, and completely disorganizing its ranks, which began to withdraw. He prevented the removal of three German mortars by knocking out a truck. By that time a mortar had been brought to his support. 1st Lt. Murray directed fire of this weapon, causing further casualties and confusion in the German ranks. Calling on his patrol to follow, he then moved out toward his original objective, possession of a bridge and construction of a roadblock. He captured ten Germans in foxholes. An eleventh, while pretending to surrender, threw a grenade which knocked him to the ground, inflicting eight wounds. Though suffering and bleeding profusely, he refused to return to the rear until he had chosen the spot for the block and had seen his men correctly deployed. By his single-handed attack on an overwhelming force and by his intrepid and heroic fighting, 1st Lt. Murray stopped a counterattack, established an advance position against formidable odds, and provided an inspiring example for the men of his command.
EDWARDS, WALTER ATLEE
INTERIM 1920- 1940
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Sea of Marmora, Turkey, December 16th, 1922. Born: 8 November 1886, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 123, 4 February 1924. (Medal presented by President Coolidge at the White House on 2 February 1924.) Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For heroism in rescuing 482 men, women and children from the French military transport Vinh-Long, destroyed by fire in the Sea of Marmora, Turkey, on 16 December 1922. Lt. Comdr. Edwards, commanding the U.S.S. Bainbridge, placed his vessel alongside the bow of the transport and, in spite of several violent explosions which occurred on the burning vessel, maintained his ship in that position until all who were alive were taken on board. Of a total of 495 on board, 482 were rescued by his coolness, judgment and professional skill, which were combined with a degree of heroism that must reflect new glory on the U.S. Navy.
ANDERSON, MARION T.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company D, 51st Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., December 16th, 1864. Entered service at: Kokomo, Ind. Birth: Decatur County, Ind. Date of issue: 1 September 1893. Citation: Led his regiment over 5 lines of the enemy’s works, where he fell, severely wounded.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 124th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., December 16th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Stark County, Ohio. Date of issue: 24 February 1865. Citation: Recapture of U.S. guidon from a rebel battery.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company G, 95th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., December 16th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Champaign County, Ohio. Date of issue: 24 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 41st Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., December 16th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 24 February 1865. Citation: With several companions dashed forward, the first to enter the enemy’s works, taking possession of four pieces of artillery and captured the flag of the 13th Mississippi Infantry (C.S.A.).
GERE, THOMAS P.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant and Adjutant, 5th Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., December 16th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Chemung County, N.Y. Date of issue: 24 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 4th Mississippi (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 41st Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Brentwood Hills, Tenn., December 16th,1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Hartford, Ohio. Date of issue. 22 February 1865. Citation. Capture of Confederate guidon.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 12th lowa Infantry. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., December 16th, 1864. Entered service at: Honey Creek, lowa. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 24 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag, of 44th Mississippi Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 32d lowa Infantry. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., December 16th, 1864. Entered service at: Maysville, Franklin County, lowa. Birth: Pennsylvania. Date of issue: 24 February 1865. Citation: Ran ahead of his regiment over the enemy’s works and captured from its bearer the flag of Bonanchad’s Confederate battery (C.S.A.).
McCLEARY, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company C. 72d Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., December 16th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Sandusky County, Ohio. Date of issue: 24 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 4th Florida Infantry (C.S.A.), while in advance of his lines.
MOORE, WILBUR F.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 117th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., December 16th, 1864. Entered service at: Lebanon, St. Clair County, Ill. Birth: Lebanon, St. Clair County, Ill. Date of issue: 22 February 1865. Citation: Captured flag of a Confederate battery while far in advance of the Union lines.
PARKS, JAMES W.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 11th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., December 16th, 1864. Entered service at: Xenia, Clay County, Ill. Birth: Lawrence County, Ohio. Date of issue: 24 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
POST, PHILIP SIDNEY
Rank and organization: Colonel, 59th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., 15-December 16th, 1864. Entered service at: Galesburg, Ill. Born: 19 March 1833, Flordia, Orange County, N.Y. Date of issue: 18 March 1893. Citation: Led his brigade in an attack upon a strong position under a terrific fire of grape, canister, and musketry; was struck down by a grapeshot after he had reached the enemy’s works.
SIMMONS, WILLIAM T.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company C, 11th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., December 16th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Born: 29 January 1843, Green County, Ill. Date of issue: 24 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 34th Alabama Infantry (C.S.A ). Being the first to enter the works, he shot and wounded the enemy color bearer.
SLOAN, ANDREW J.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 12th lowa Infantry. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., December 16th,1864. Entered service at: Colesburg, Delaware County, lowa. Birth: Bedford County, Pa. Date of issue: 24 February 1865. Citation: Captured flag of 1st Louisiana Battery (C.S.A.).
SMITH, OTIS W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 95th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., December 16th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Logan County, Ohio. Date of issue: 24 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 6th Florida Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 122d Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., December 16th, 1864. Entered service at: Jerseyville, Ill. Birth. England. Date of issue: 24 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
WELCH, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 11th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., December 16th, 1864. Entered service at: Keokuk, Lee County, lowa. Birth: Brown County, lowa. Date of issue: 24 February 1965 Citation: Captured the flag of the 13th Alabama Infantry (C.S.A.).
Has anyone built a better mousetrap?
James Henry Atkinson was the British inventor who in 1897 invented the prototype mousetrap called the “Little Nipper”. The Little Nipper is the classic snapping mousetrap that we are all familiar with that has the small flat wooden base, the spring trap, and the wire fastenings.
The Little Nipper slams shut in 38,000s of a second and that record has never been beaten. This is the design that has prevailed until today. This mousetrap has captured a sixty percent share of the British mousetrap market alone, and an estimated equal share of the international market.
James Atkinson sold his mousetrap patent in 1913 for $2,500 to Procter, the company that has been manufacturing the “Little Nipper” ever since, and has even erected a 150-exhibit mousetrap museum in their factory headquarters. The Patent Office has issued over 4400 mousetrap patents, however, only about twenty of those patents have made any money?
Mousetraps are not the only thing ever invented that we use every day and here is another of these inventions where someone created something that changed everything we do.
Scotch tape was invented by an American inventor who worked for Johnson and Johnson, Permacel Co., and 3M in St. Paul, Minnesota, by the name of Richard Drew. When Drew joined 3M in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1924, it was a modest manufacturer of sandpaper. While testing their new Wet or dry sandpaper at auto shops, Drew was intrigued to learn that the two-tone auto paintjobs so popular in the Roaring Twenties were difficult to manage at the border between the two colors.As a result and in response to customer need he invented the first masking tape, a two-inch-wide tan paper strip backed with a light, pressure sensitive adhesive. The first tape had adhesive along its edges but not in the middle. In its first trial run, it fell off the car and the frustrated auto painter growled at Drew, “Take this tape back to those Scotch bosses of yours and tell them to shove it!” (By “Scotch,” he meant “cheap”.) The nickname stuck, both to Drew’s improved masking tape, and to his 1930 invention, Scotch Brand cellulose tape.
“One isn’t necessarily born with courage, but one is born with potential. Without courage, we cannot practice any other virtue with consistency. We can’t be kind, true, merciful, generous, or honest.”
~ Maya Angelou
pe·nul·ti·mate / [pi-nuhl-tuh-mit–adjective
next to the last: the penultimate scene of the play.
1766 – Oliver Goldsmith’s “Poems for Young Ladies” is published.
1791 – The United States Bill of Rights becomes law when ratified by the Virginia legislature. It became known as the Bill of Rights because they contained freedoms that Americans held to be their inalienable rights.
1791 – First US law school established at University of Pennsylvania.
1792 – First life insurance policy issued in US (Philadelphia).
1811 – A 7.3 earthquake struck the central US on the Mississippi River. It was centered at New Madrid, Missouri, and reversed the course of the Mississippi for a while. Aftershocks continued into 1812.
1815 – Jane Austen’s “Emma” was published.
1820 – First general pharmacopoeia in US was published in Boston, MA. It was the first book of drug standards from a professional source to have achieved a nation’s acceptance.
1836 – A fire destroyed the U.S. Patent Office. All records of over 10,000 patents issued over 46 years were lost, most forever, and the patent models filed with them.
1849 – California’s first legislature convened in San Jose.
1854 – First street-cleaning machine in US was first used in Philadelphia. It was a series of brooms attached to a cyclinder mounted on a cart was turned by a chain driven by the turning of the cart’s wheels.
1862 – Civil War: Nathan B. Forrest crossed the Tennessee River at Clifton with 2,500 men to raid the communications around Vicksburg.
1864 – Civil War: The Confederate Army of Tennessee is nearly destroyed when a Union army commanded by General George Thomas swarms over the Rebel trenches around Nashville.
1864 – Civil War: An expedition under Acting Master William G. Morris, including U.S.S. Coeur De Lion and U.S.S. Mercury, seized and burned more than thirty large boats. The Confederates had been massing them on the Coan River, Virginia.
1877 – Thomas Edison patents phonograph. It was first a machine that would transcribe telegraphic messages through indentations on paper tape, which could later be sent over the telegraph repeatedly. More refinements ended up in the phonograph.
1890 – The great Sioux chief and holy man Sitting Bull(Tatanka Iyotake) is killed by Indian police at the Standing Rock reservation in South Dakota.
1891 – James Naismith introduces the first version of basketball, with thirteen rules, a peach basket nailed to either end of his school’s gymnasium, and two teams of nine players.
1909 – Thomas J Lynch becomes president of baseball’s National League.
1909 – San Francisco’s Palace Hotel re-opened. It had survived the 1906 earthquake but was gutted by the following fire.
1914 – The outbreak of fighting in Europe triggered the closing of the New York Stock Exchange, as market officials looked to prevent a rapid-fire liquidation of the European account, then worth roughly $2.4 billion.
1916 – Dr. Ben Reitman is again arrested for distributing illegal birth control literature at one of Emma Goldman’s lectures in Rochester, NY.
1925 – First road with a depressed trough (Texas) opens to traffic.
1933 – In San Francisco Lloyd J. Evans became the first worker on the Bay Bridge to die. He had been working 112 feet down on the bay bottom and experienced decompression sickness. An 11-hour effort to revive him in a recompression chamber failed.
1938 – Groundbreaking begins for Jefferson Memorial in Washington DC. The total cost of the monument was a little over $3 million. It occupies 2.5 acres in the National Mall. The distance to the top of the dome is over 129 feet, while the thickness of the dome is 4 feet.
1939 – Gone with the Wind premieres in Atlanta, Georgia. Spotlights swept the sky with huge beacons of light. Peachtree at Pryor Street was closed to traffic. An enormous crowd, numbering 300,000 people according to the Atlanta Constitution, lined the streets on this ice-cold night.
1939 – Nylon yarn was sold to hosiery mills to make women’s stockings, marking the first use of commercial yarn for apparel.
1941 – Lena Horne records “Stormy Weather“.
1941 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed into practice Bill of Rights Day.
1941 -World War II: Holocaust: Annihilation of Jews in Kharkiv, Ukraine: in the proximity of the Rogan works. They were herded five miles in temperatures near 5 degrees F. from Kharkiv to “Drobitsky Ravine” (Drobitsky Yar). Over 15,000 Jews were shot.
1942 – World War II: Pacific – Japanese Admiral Tanaka’s supply flotilla begins missions to aid the building of an airfield on New Georgia to support the Japanese positions on Guadalcanal.
1942 – Massachusetts issues first US vehicular license plate tabs (made from plastic)
1943 – World War II: Europe – The US 5th Army begins new attacks. The 2nd Corps renews its drive toward San Pietro and Monte Lungo. To the right the 6th Corps attacks as well. The 1st Moroccan Division performs well.
1943 – World War II: Pacific- The US 112th Cavalry Regiment (General Cunningham), with Coast Guard support, lands at Arawe, off the island of New Britain. This is a diversionary operation.
1944 – World War II: Pacific – American forces invaded Mindoro Island in the Philippines.
1944 – World War II: Europe – The US 7th Army enters Germany, along the Palatinate frontier, from Alsace between Wissembourg and Lauterbourg.
1944 – World War II: Europe – In Hungary a gold train departed Budapest on orders from Adolf Eichmann. In May it was intercepted by American forces in Austria.
1944 – The US Senate approved the promotions of Henry H. Arnold, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur and George C. Marshall to the five-star rank of General of the Army and the nominations of William D. Leahy, Ernest J. King and Chester W. Nimitz as Admirals of the Fleet.
1944 – Dr. R. Townley Paton and a small group of doctors laid the groundwork for the Eye-Bank for Sight Restoration.
1944 – Bandleader, Major Glenn Miller, lost over English Channel. His grave marker is in Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, DC.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “White Christmas” by Bing Crosby, “The Trolley Song” by The Pied Pipers, “I’m Making Believe” by Ella Fitzgerald & The Ink Spots and “Smoke on the Water” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1945 – Occupation of Japan: General Douglas MacArthur orders that Shinto be abolished as state religion of Japan.
1946 – The 1946 National Football League championship game was between the New York Giants and the Chicago Bears. Giants fullback Merle Hapes was suspended before the game for not reporting a bribe attempt, and Giants quarterback Frank Filchock threw six interceptions as the Bears won, 24-14. Both were suspended.
1948 – The Secretary of the Navy signed a “Memorandum of Agreement” with the State Department which laid the basis for the modern Marine Security Guard program at U.S. embassies throughout the world.
1948 – Former state department official Alger Hiss indicted in NYC for perjury.
1949 – After a decade on radio, Captain Midnight was heard for the final time. It was re-started on TV in 1954 sponsored by Ovaltine.
1950 – Korean War: The F-86 Sabre jets of the U.S. Air Force’s 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing flew their first missions of the war.
1951 – “Sin (It’s No Sin)” by Eddy Howard topped the charts.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Saw Mommy Kissing Santa Claus” by Jimmy Boyd, “Rudolph, the Red-Nosed Reindeer” by Gene Autry, “White Christmas” by Bing Crosby and “Back Street Affair” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1954 – Davy Crockett, Indian Fighter was featured on Walt Disney’s TV series for the first time. Crockett was played by Fess Parker.
1954 – Fordham University scraps football team for financial reasons.
1956 – “Singing the Blues” by Guy Mitchell topped the charts.
1959 – Everly Brothers record “Let It Be Me“. It was recorded in New York City and was the first time they recorded outside of Nashville and it was the first time they recorded with strings.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Are You Lonesome Tonight?” by Elvis Presley, “A Thousand Stars” by Kathy Young with The Innocents, “Wonderland by Night” by Bert Kaemphert and “Wings of a Dove” by Ferlin Husky all topped the charts.
1960 – Richard Paul Pavlick (February 13, 1887 – November 11, 1975) is arrested for attempting to blow up and assassinate the 35th U.S. President, John F. Kennedy only four days earlier.
1961 – In Jerusalem, Adolph Eichmann is sentenced to death after being found guilty of 15 criminal charges, including charges of crimes against humanity, crimes against the Jewish people and membership of an outlawed organization.
1961 – Equal access rule, political parties get TV broadcasting time. The Equal Time Rule, requires broadcasters to afford equal opportunity to candidates seeking political office, and formally included provisions for rebuttal of controversial viewpoints under the contested Fairness Doctrine.
1962 – “Big Girls Don’t Cry” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1962 – The first record album to poke fun at a U.S. President became the #1 LP in the country. Vaughn Meader’s The First Family made the humorist a household word. The album stayed at #1 for three months.
1962 – Bob Cousy of the Boston Celtics set a NBA record as he made his 5,926th field goal.
1964 – A patent was granted to Kenneth Olsen for “magnetic core memory.” Magnetic core memory, or ferrite-core memory, is an early form of computer memory. It uses small magnetic ceramic rings, the cores, to store information via the polarity of the magnetic field they contain.
1965 – Gemini program: Gemini 6A, crewed by Wally Schirra and Thomas Stafford, is launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida to meet up with Gemini 7.
1965 – The film The Sound of Music is released.
1965 – In the first raid on a major North Vietnamese industrial target, U.S. Air Force planes destroy a thermal power plant at Uong Bi, l4 miles north of Haiphong. The plant reportedly supplied about 15 percent of North Vietnam’s total electric power production.
1967 – The Silver Bridge across the Ohio River collapsed during rush hour. Dozens of cars fell into the icy water. Forty-six people lost their lives in the accident, and many others were injured. Personal note: The editor’s grandmother, Henrietta Church was the last car off the bridge before the collapse.
1967 – Beatles release “Christmas Time is Here Again”
1967 – The US Age Discrimination Employment Act became public law.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Heard It Through the Grapevine” by Marvin Gaye, “For Once in My Life” by Stevie Wonder, “Abraham, Martin and John” by Dion, “Born to Be with You” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1971 – Pres. Nixon signed the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burro Act. An $18 million Wild Horse and Burro Program, headed by the Bureau of Land Management, was designed to find homes for wild horses.
1973 – Jean Paul Getty III, the grandson of American billionaire J. Paul Getty, is found alive near Naples, five months after his kidnapping by an Italian gang.
1973 – “The Most Beautiful Girl” by Charlie Rich topped the charts.
1974 – Bert Jones, quarterback of the Baltimore Colts, set an NFL record by completing seventeen consecutive passes in a game against the New York Jets.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright) “ by Rod Stewart, “The Rubberband Man” by Spinners, “You Don’t Have to Be a Star (To Be in My Show)” by Marilyn McCoo & Billy Davis, Jr. and “Thinkin’ of a Rendezvous” by Johnny Duncan all topped the charts.
1977 – Charles Finley sold his Oakland A’s baseball team to Marvin Davis for a reported $12.5 million.
1978 – President Jimmy Carter states that as of January 1, 1979, the United States will formally recognize the communist People’s Republic of China (PRC) and sever relations with Taiwan.
1978 – Cleveland, OH became the first major US city since the Great Depression to default on its loans.
1979 – World Court in Hague rules Iran should release all US hostages.
1979 – “Babe” by Styx topped the charts.
1981 – The U.S. Congress passed $200 billion spending bill. At the time it was the largest in U.S. history.
1982 – Paul “Bear” Bryant announced his retirement as head football coach at the University of Alabama.
1983 – Wendy Wasserstein’s “Isn’t It Romantic” premieres in New York, NY.
1983 – The last 80 U.S. combat soldiers in Grenada withdrew. It was just over seven weeks after the U.S.-led invasion of the Caribbean island.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Out of Touch” by Daryl Hall & John Oates, “The Wild Boys” by Duran Duran, “Like a Virgin” by Madonna and “Nobody Loves Me Like You Do” by Anne Murray (with Dave Loggins) all topped the charts.
1988 – Singer James Brown was sentenced to a six-year jail term for leading police on a late-night, two-state car chase. He was released on February 27, 1991.
1989 – Mt. Redoubt erupted in Alaska and sent baseball-sized pieces of pumice over 20 miles from the volcano. A 747 jet flew into its ash cloud, lost all four engines and dropped 4,000 feet before it recovered. No one was hurt but the plane sustained $80 million in damage.
1990 – “Because I Love You” by Stevie B topped the charts.
1992 – IBM announced it would eliminate 25-thousand employees in the coming year.
1994 – The web browser Netscape Navigator 1.0 is released.
1996 – The Tyco Toys “Tickle Me Elmo” stuffed animal that giggles and says “that tickles” when squeezed retailed for $30 and was flying out of stores.
1996 – Boeing Co. announced plans to pay $13.3 billion to acquire rival aircraft manufacturer McDonnell Douglas Corp.
1997 – San Francisco 49ers retire Joe Montana’s #16.
1997 – In Missouri the nation’s last workable Minuteman II missile silo was destroyed in Dederick.
1997 – Pres. Clinton answered a written discovery posed by Ms. Jones to identify all women who were state or federal employees since 1986 that he had had sexual relations with. His response under oath was none.
1998 – U.S. House of Representatives’ Committee on the Judiciary releases a 265-page report recommending the impeachment of President Bill Clinton for high crimes and misdemeanors.
1999 – In North Korea a US led consortium signed a $4.6 billion deal to build 2 nuclear reactors in Kumho.
2000 – New York Senator-elect Hillary Rodham Clinton agreed to accept an $8 million book deal with Simon & Schuster. The advance was the highest ever to be paid to a member of the U.S. Congress.
2000 – Derwin Brown (46), the sheriff-elect of DeKalb County, Georgia, was gunned down in what police called an assassination. Brown had promised to clean up the sheriff’s dept. and fire 38 employees.
2001 – With a crash and a large dust cloud, a 50-foot tall section of steel, the last standing piece of the World Trade Center’s facade, was brought down in New York.
2001 – Italy’s Leaning Tower of Pisa reopens after a team of experts spent 11 years and $27 million to fortify the tower without eliminating its famous lean.
2002 – The digital radio station BBC7 is launched by the comedian Paul Merton.
2003 – Charles Cullen (43), a former nurse, was charged with murder after telling prosecutors that he killed 30-40 severely ill patients in Pennsylvania and New Jersey since 1987 by injecting them with drugs.
2004 – A US interceptor missile failed to fire in a test flight from the Marshall Islands. It was the first test flight for the missile defense system in two years.
2004 – Section 404 of the 2002 Sarbanes-Oxley Act came into effect. It required the chief executive and chief financial officers of public companies to appraise internal controls and report any weaknesses within 75 days of the company’s fiscal year.
2004 – A walking, talking child-size robot from Honda Motor Co. managed an easy, although comical, jog in the Japanese automaker’s latest quest to imitate human movement.
2005 – The 43rd known Mersenne prime is discovered by Dr. Curtis Cooper & Dr. Steven Boone of USA, participants of the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search distributed computing project. The prime number is 2nd largest known prime and has more than nine million digits.
2005 – The futuristic F-22A “Raptor” fighter jet, designed to dominate the skies well into the 21st century, joined the US combat fleet.
2005 – The US Interior Dept. said it plans to open 20 million acres in 9 Western states to wind farms.
2006 – The US military published a new Army and Marines field manual titled “FM 3-24 Counterinsurgency.” It said the American Army’s main objective is to protect the population rather than kill the enemy.
2007 – It was reported that Google is testing a new service called Knol, that enlists selected users to write about the breadth of human knowledge in competition with Wikipedia.
2008 – California Senator Diane Feinstein (75) was tapped as the chairwoman of the US Senate Intelligence Committee.
2009 – The Boeing 787 ‘Dreamliner’ wide-body passenger airliner takes its maiden flight, travelling from Paine Field to Boeing Field, in Washington State.
2010 – U.S. Border Patrol Agent Brian Terry was shot and killed by an untraceable assault weapon that was deliberately handed to Mexican drug lords by U.S. officials via Operation Fast and Furious.
2010 – Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg is TIME’s 2010 Person of the Year. WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange wins top place in the reader’s poll.
2010 – The Obama administration launches legal action against BP and its partners to recover the cost of cleaning up the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
2011 – Associated Press reported that according to the 2010 United States Census one in two people are classified as low-income or poor.
2012 – The founder of Domino’s Pizza is suing the federal government over mandatory contraception coverage in the health care law. Tom Monaghan, a devout Roman Catholic, says contraception isn’t health care but a “gravely immoral” practice. He filed a lawsuit Friday in federal court. It also lists as a plaintiff Domino’s Farms, a Michigan office park complex that Monaghan owns.
37 – Nero, Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (d. 68)
1832 – Gustave Eiffel, French engineer and architect (Eiffel tower) (d. 1923)
1860 – Abner Powell, American baseball player (d. 1953) 1861 – Charles Duryea, American automobile pioneer (d. 1938)
1911 – Stan Kenton, American musician (d. 1979)
1916 – Buddy Cole, American pianist (d. 1964)
1918 – Jeff Chandler, American actor (d. 1961)
1933 – Tim Conway, American actor and comedian
1942 – Dave Clark, British musician (The Dave Clark Five)
1949 – Don Johnson, American actor
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 1st Battalion (Airmobile), 12th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and date: Near My An (2), Binh Dinh province, Republic of Vietnam, December 15th, 1967. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 28 October 1945, Chicago, Ill. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Lynch (then Sp4c.) distinguished himself while serving as a radio telephone operator with Company D. While serving in the forward element on an operation near the village of My An, his unit became heavily engaged with a numerically superior enemy force. Quickly and accurately assessing the situation, Sgt. Lynch provided his commander with information which subsequently proved essential to the unit’s successful actions. Observing three wounded comrades Lying exposed to enemy fire, Sgt. Lynch dashed across fifty meters of open ground through a withering hail of enemy fire to administer aid. Reconnoitering a nearby trench for a covered position to protect the wounded from intense hostile fire, he killed two enemy soldiers at point blank range. With the trench cleared, he unhesitatingly returned to the fire-swept area three times to carry the wounded men to safety. When his company was forced to withdraw by the superior firepower of the enemy, Sgt. Lynch remained to aid his comrades at the risk of his life rather than abandon them. Alone, he defended his isolated position for two hours against the advancing enemy. Using only his rifle and a grenade, he stopped them just short of his trench, killing five. Again, disregarding his safety in the face of withering hostile fire, he crossed seventy meters of exposed terrain five times to carry his wounded comrades to a more secure area. Once he had assured their comfort and safety, Sgt. Lynch located the counterattacking friendly company to assist in directing the attack and evacuating the three casualties. His gallantry at the risk of his life is in the highest traditions of the military service, Sgt. Lynch has reflected great credit on himself, the 12th Cavalry, and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company K, 126th Infantry, 32d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Limon, Leyte, Philippine Islands, December 15th, 1944. Entered service at: Oakdale, La. Birth: Caney Creek, La. G.O. No.: 83, 2 October 1945. Citation: He was squad leader of a nine-man patrol sent to reconnoiter a ridge held by a well-entrenched enemy force. Seeing an enemy machinegun position, he ordered his men to remain behind while he crawled to within six yards of the gun. One of the enemy crew jumped up and prepared to man the weapon. Quickly withdrawing, Sgt. Johnson rejoined his patrol and reported the situation to his commanding officer. Ordered to destroy the gun, which covered the approaches to several other enemy positions, he chose three other men, armed them with hand grenades, and led them to a point near the objective. After taking partial cover behind a log, the men had knocked out the gun and begun an assault when hostile troops on the flank hurled several grenades. As he started for cover, Sgt. Johnson saw two unexploded grenades which had fallen near his men. Knowing that his comrades would be wounded or killed by the explosion, he deliberately threw himself on the grenades and received their full charge in his body. Fatally wounded by the blast, he died soon afterward. Through his outstanding gallantry in sacrificing his life for his comrades, Sgt. Johnson provided a shining example of the highest traditions of the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 126th Infantry, 32d Infantry Division. Place and date. Near Limon, Leyte, Philippine Islands, December 15th, 1944. Entered service at: Grand Rapids, Mich. Birth: Maple Lake, Minn. G.O. No.: 60, 26 June 1946. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty when an American roadblock on the Ormoc Road was attacked by a group of enemy tanks. He left his covered position, and with a rocket launcher and six rounds of ammunition, advanced alone under intense machinegun and 37-mm. fire. Loading single-handedly, he destroyed the first tank, killing its occupants with a single round. As the crew of the second tank started to dismount and attack him, he killed one of the foe with his pistol, forcing the survivors to return to their vehicle, which he then destroyed with a second round. Three more hostile tanks moved up the road, so he flanked the first and eliminated it, and then, despite a hail of enemy fire, pressed forward again to destroy another. With his last round of ammunition he struck the remaining vehicle, causing it to crash down a steep embankment. Through his sustained heroism in the face of superior forces, Pfc. Vlug alone destroyed five enemy tanks and greatly facilitated successful accomplishment of his battalion’s mission.
Rank and organization: Seaman, Engineer’s Force, U.S. Navy. Born: 1844, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 169, 8 February 1872. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Shenandoah during the rescue of a shipmate at Villefranche, December 15th, 1871. Jumping overboard, Sapp gallantly assisted in saving Charles Prince, seaman, from drowning.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 2d Illinois Light Artillery. Place and date: At Nashville, Tenn., December 15th, 1864. Entered service at: DeKalb County, Ill. Birth: Rutland County, Vt. Date of issue: 20 January 1897. Citation: When the fire of the enemy’s batteries compelled the men of his detachment for a short time to seek shelter, he stood manfully at his post and for some minutes worked his gun alone.
National Bouillabaisse Day
The Heisman Trophy or the Heisman is awarded annually to the most outstanding player in college football in the United States whose performance best exhibits the pursuit of excellence with integrity. Winners epitomize great ability combined with diligence, perseverance, and hard work. It is presented by the Heisman Trophy Trust in early December before the postseason bowl games.
The award was created in 1935 for the “most valuable football player in the East” by the Downtown Athletic Club (now the Downtown Club). After the death of the Club’s athletic director, John Heisman, the award was named in his honor and broadened to include players west of the Mississippi. Heisman had been active in college athletics as a football player; a head football, basketball, and baseball coach; and an athletic director. It is the oldest of several overall awards in college football, including the Maxwell Award, Walter Camp Award, and the AP Player of the Year. The Heisman and the AP Player of the Year honor the most outstanding player, while the Maxwell and Walter Camp awards recognize the best player, and the Archie Griffin Award recognizes the most valuable player.
There are many notable achievements in the history of the Heisman:
Larry Kelley and Clint Frank of Yale were the first teammates to win the Heisman Trophy, in 1936 and 1937.
Nile Kinnick of Iowa was the only Heisman Trophy winner (1939) to have a stadium named after him. In 1972, the University of Iowa renamed its football complex Kinnick Stadium.
Doc Blanchard was the first junior to win the Heisman Trophy when he led Army to the national title in 1945.
Paul Hornung was the only player to win the Heisman Trophy as a player for a losing team. He took the award at Notre Dame 1956, when the Irish finished a dismal 2-8 on the year.
John David Crow of Texas A&M holds the distinction of being Bear Bryant’s only Heisman Trophy winner (1957).
Ernie Davis was the first Black player to win the Heisman Trophy. He attended Syracuse University and was the overall first round draft pick in 1962, yet never played a game in the NFL as he was diagnosed with leukemia and died in 1963.
Terry Baker was the only player to win the Heisman Trophy and play in the Final Four in the NCAA Basketball Tournament in the same school year (1962-1963).
Archie Griffin of Ohio State is the only player to receive the award twice, winning it as a junior in 1974 and a senior in 1975.
Steve Spurrier, the 1966 recipient as a Florida Gator, became the first Heisman Trophy winner to coach a winner in 1996 (Danny Wuerffel, also of the University of Florida).
Charlie Ward of Florida State was the only player to win the Heisman Trophy (1993) and play in the National Basketball Association.
Charles Woodson of the University of Michigan is the only primarily defensive player to win the award, beating out Heisman-favorite Peyton Manning, quarterback for the University of Tennessee, in 1997. He was a standout cornerback, but also occasionally played as a wide receiver and punt returner.
In 2007, Tim Tebow was the first sophomore to win the Heisman.
In 2012, Johnny Manziel became the first redshirt freshman to win the award.
In 2013, Jameis Winston became the youngest player to ever win the award, at 19 years and 342 days old.
Ohio State and Notre Dame have the most number of Heisman trophies won, each with seven; Ohio State has had six different players win the award.
The player who received the most votes (by percentage) was Reggie Bush of USC in 2005, which has now been vacated. Bush gave up the Heisman when he was accused of receiving “illegal benefits) during his playing time. USC elected to leave it open rather that have someone to fill the award.
The player who won by the widest margin was Troy Smith of Ohio State in 2006. The closest margin of votes was in 2009 between winner Mark Ingram of Alabama and Toby Gerhart of Stanford.
You were born to win, but to be a winner, you must plan to win, prepare to win, and expect to win.
~ Zig Ziglar
par·si·mo·ni·ous adjective \ˌpär-sə-ˈmō-nē-əs\
: very unwilling to spend money
exhibiting or marked by parsimony; especially : frugal to the point of stinginess
1287 – St. Lucia’s flood: The Zuiderzee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses, killing over 50,000 people.
1774 – First incident of the Revolution-400 attack Fort William & Mary, New Hampshire. Mr. Samuel Cutts of the Portsmouth committee, announced that troops were to be sent to reinforce the fort.
1782 – The Montgolfier brothers’ first balloon lifts off on its first test flight.
1782 – Charleston, SC, was evacuated by British.
1793 – First state road authorized, Frankfort KY to Cincinnati OH.
1799 – The first president of the United States, George Washington, died of acute laryngitis at the age 67.
1814 – War of 1812: The British Royal Navy seizes control of Lake Borgne, Louisiana.
1814 – The steamboat Enterprise, designed by keelboat captain Henry Miller Shreve, arrived in New Orleans with guns and ammunition for Gen. Jackson. It was immediately commandeered for military service.
1819 – Alabama becomes the 22nd U.S. state. This made eleven slave states and eleven free states.
1836 – The Toledo War unofficially ends. This war was the almost bloodless boundary dispute between the U.S. state of Ohio and the adjoining territory of Michigan.
1854 – Congress authorized appointment of first lifeboat station keepers at $200 per year each and superintendents for Long Island and New Jersey serving under Secretary of Treasury.
1863 – Gen. James Longstreet attacked Union troops at Bean’s Station, TN.
1863 – Civil War: General Beauregard, CSA, ordered Lieutenant Dixon, CSA, to proceed with submarine H. L. Hunley to the mouth of Charleston harbor and “sink and destroy any vessel of the enemy with which he can come in conflict.”
1863 – President Lincoln announces a grant of amnesty for Mrs. Emilie Todd Helm, Mary Lincoln’s half sister and the widow of a Confederate general. The pardon was one of the first under Lincoln’s Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction.
1864 – Union gunboats supporting General Sherman aided in the capture of Forts Beaulieu and Rosedew in Ossabaw Sound, Georgia, the outer defenses of Savannah.
1900 – Quantum mechanics: Professor Max Planck presents a theoretical derivation of his black-body radiation law.
1902 – The Commercial Pacific Cable Company started laying the first Pacific telegraph cable, from San Francisco to Honolulu. The “Silverton” started out today.
1903 – The Wright brothers make their first attempt to fly with the Wright Flyer at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The engine stalled during take-off and the plane was damaged in the attempt. Three days later, after repairs were made, the modern aviation age was born when the plane stayed aloft for 12 seconds and flew 102 feet.
1907 – The schooner Thomas W. Lawson runs aground and founders near the Hellweather’s Reef within the Isles of Scilly in a gale. All but two of her eighteen crew and a harbor pilot already aboard died. Her cargo of 58,000 barrels of light paraffin oil caused perhaps the first large marine oil spill.
1911 – Roald Amundsen’s team, comprising himself, Olav Bjaaland, Helmer Hanssen, Sverre Hassel, and Oscar Wisting, becomes the first to reach the South Pole.
1915 – Jack Johnson is the first black world heavyweight boxing champion.
1916 – People of Denmark voted to sell Danish West Indies to United States for $25 million.
1926 – TILT-A-WHIRL was trademark registered. TILT-A-WHIRL is the famous theme park ride invented by Herbert Sellner.
1928 – America’s original Funny Girl, Fanny Brice, recorded “If You Want the Rainbow (You Must Have the Rain)” on Victor Records.
1934 – The first streamlined locomotive, nicknamed the “Commodore Vanderbilt”, was introduced by the New York Central Railroad. The locomotive was quite impressive: 228 tons and 4,075 horsepower.
1941 – First NFL division playoff, Bears beat Packers 33-14. The Bears went on to defeat the Giants 37-9 for the NFL championship, December 21.
1941 – World War II: Japan signs a treaty of alliance with Thailand.
1941 – U.S. Marines made a stand in battle for Wake Island. Wake Island defenders were left with one aircraft surviving Japanese attacks.
1944 – MGM released the movie “National Velvet“. Elizabeth Taylor starred as Velvet Brown.
1944 – Major-league baseball representatives, who were meeting in New York City, decided to allow ball clubs to play night games any day except Sundays and holidays, providing the visiting team agreed.
1944 – Congress established the rank of General of Army, the 5-star General and the Rank of Fleet Admiral, U.S. Navy (five star admiral).
1944 – The former NYK liner Oryoku Maru left Manila with 1619 American POWs packed in the holds. U.S. Navy planes from the “Hornet” attacked, causing the Hell Ship to sink the following day. Only 200 of the men survived.
1944 – US Task Force 38 (Admiral McCain) launches air strikes on airfields throughout Luzon. TF38 includes 13 carriers, 8 battleships and numerous cruisers and destroyers. The attacks are in support of the American landing on Mindoro.
1945 – Captain Sue S. Dauser receives the first Distinguished Service Medal awarded to a nurse.
1945- World War II: Holocaust: Josef Kramer, known as “the beast of Belsen,” and 10 others were executed in Hamelin for the crimes they committed at the Belsen and Auschwitz Nazi concentration camps.
1946 – The United Nations General Assembly votes to establish its headquarters in New York, New York.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sin (It’s No)” by Eddy Howard, “Slowpoke” by Pee Wee King”, “Rudolph, the Red-Nosed Reindeer” by Gene Autry and “Let Old Mother Nature Have Her Way” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1952 – President-elect Eisenhower announced a new policy of firmness in dealing with the communists on his return from Korea.
1953 – Sandy Koufax, age 19, was signed by the Brooklyn Dodgers. In the next 12 seasons, Koufax posted 167 wins, 87 losses and 2,396 strikeouts, becoming a baseball legend!
1955 – Tappan Zee Bridge in New York opens to traffic. The Bridge opens carrying 18,000 vehicles per day. It was designed to accommodate 100,000 vehicles a day.
1957 – “You Send Me” by Sam Cooke topped the charts.
1959 – J B Jordan in F-104C (Starfighter) sets world altitude record, 103,395 feet (19.58 miles).
1960 – A U.S. B-52 bomber set a 10,000 mile non-stop record without refueling.
1960 – Expansion draft for the Washington Senators and Los Angeles Angels.
1961 – Jimmy Dean’s “Big Bad John” is first country song to get a gold record.
1962 – Bob Dylan’s first single, “Mixed-Up Confusion“, was released.
1962 – NASA’s Mariner 2 becomes the first spacecraft to fly by Venus. It transmitted information about the planet’s atmosphere and surface temperature.
1963 – “Dominique” by Singing Nun topped the charts. It was the first time that a single topped the Hot 100 as the same time that its LP topped the Billboard album chart.
1963 – The dam containing the Baldwin Hills Reservoir bursts, killing five people and damaging hundreds of homes in Los Angeles, California.
1964 – American Civil Rights Movement: Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States – The Supreme Court of the United States rules that Congress can use the Constitution’s Commerce Clause to fight discrimination.
1964 – Vietnam War: Operation Barrel Roll, the name given to the first phase of the bombing plan approved by President Lyndon B. Johnson on December 1, begins with U.S. planes attacking “targets of opportunity” in northern Laos.
1966 – The Elvis Presley film “Spinout” premiered.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Daydream Believer” by The Monkees, “The Rain, the Park & Other Things” by The Cowsills, “I Say a Little Prayer” by Dionne Warwick and “It’s the Little Things” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1967 – DNA created in a test tube.
1968 – Tommy James and the Shondells released “Crimson & Clover.”
1968 – Marvin Gaye was number one in the U.S. with “I Heard It Through the Grapevine“.
1969 – Jackson Five made their first appearance on “Ed Sullivan Show.”
1970 -George Harrison received a gold record for his single, “My Sweet Lord“.
1972 – Apollo program: Eugene Cernan is the last person to walk on the moon, after he and Harrison Schmitt complete the third and final extra-vehicular activity (EVA) of the Apollo 17 mission.
1973 – Jerry Quarry defeated Ernie Shavers in 2 minutes, 21 seconds of the first round of their heavyweight boxing match in New York.
1974 – “Kung Fu Fighting” by Carl Douglas topped the charts.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Fly, Robin, Fly” by Silver Convention, “Let’s Do It Again” by The Staple Singers, “Saturday Night” by Bay City Rollers and “Love Put a Song in My Heart” by Johnny Rodriguez all topped the charts.
1977 – “Saturday Night Fever“, starring John Travolta, premieres in New York City.
1982 – Marcel Dionne, Los Angeles CA, becomes 9th NHLer to score 500 goals.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Say Say Say” by Paul McCartney & Michael Jackson, “Say It Isn’t So” by Daryl Hall-John Oates, “Union of the Snake” by Duran Duran and “Tell Me a Lie” by Janie Fricke all topped the charts.
1984 – Howard Cosell retired from the NFL’s Monday Night Football.
1985 – “Broken Wings” by Mr. Mister topped the charts.
1985 – Wilma Mankiller became the first woman to lead a major American Indian tribe as she formally took office as principal chief of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma.
1985 – America’s winningest high school football coach called it quits this day. Gordon Wood, 71, of Brownwood High School in Central Texas retired after 43 years. Wood sported a career record of 405 wins, 88 losses and 12 ties. The football stadium at Brownwood High has since been rebuilt and named for him.
1986 – The experimental aircraft Voyager, piloted by Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager, took off from California on the first non-stop, non-refueled flight around the world. The trip took nine days to complete.
1987 – Chrysler pled no contest to federal charges of selling several thousand vehicles as new when Chrysler employees had driven the vehicles with the odometer disconnected.
1988 – NBA’s Miami Heat wins first game ever.
1988 – The first transatlantic underwater fiber-optic cable went into service.
1990 – Right to Die case permits Nancy Cruzan to have her feeding tube removed, she dies 12 days later
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Black or White” by Michael Jackson, “It’s So Hard to Say Goodbye to Yesterday” by Boyz II Men, “All 4 Love” by Color Me Badd and “For My Broken Heart” by Reba McEntire all topped the charts.
1991 – 57th Heisman Trophy Award: Desmond Howard, Michigan (WR)
1993 – A judge in Colorado struck down the state’s voter-approved Amendment Two prohibiting gay rights laws, calling it unconstitutional.
1993 – The United Mine Workers approved a five-year contract that ended a strike that had reached seven states and involved some of the nation’s biggest coal operators.
1995 – Classified documents from the White House were released that revealed the FBI had spied on John Lennon and his anti-war activities during the early ’70s in a possible attempt to have Lennon deported.
1995 – AIDS patient Jeff Getty received the first-ever bone-marrow transplant from a baboon. Mr. Getty died of heart failure after treatment for cancer and a long struggle with AIDS on October 9, 2006.
1995 – An agreement for peace in Bosnia, reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio, was formally signed.
1996 – “Don’t Speak” by No Doubt topped the charts.
1996 – 62nd Heisman Trophy Award: Danny Wuerffel, Florida (quarterback)
1996 – The disabled freighter “Bright Field” rammed a crowded New Orleans riverfront mall on the Mississippi River. Quick action by the vessel’s pilot may have averted disaster. The pilot sent off a last-second warning blast of the horn and tried to redirect the ship by dropping an anchor. The ship slammed bow-first into the busy riverfront shopping complex, injuring dozens of people, but no one was killed.
1997 – Mike Gartner (Phoenix Coyotes) became only the fifth player in National Hockey League (NHL) history to score 700 career goals.
1999 – In Seattle Ahmed Ressam (32) was arrested after crossing the border at Port Angeles from Canada with a car trunk with over 150 pounds of bomb-making materials that included 200 pounds of urea, timing devices and a bottle of RDX, cyclotrimethylene trinitramine. He was carrying these for what became known as the Millennium Plot.
2004 – Pres. Bush awarded the Presidential Medal of Honor to Gen. Tommy Franks, Paul Bremer, and George Tenet, for their efforts in the war in Iraq.
2008 – Muntadhar al-Zaidi throws his shoes at then-U.S. President George W. Bush during a press conference in Baghdad, Iraq.
2012 – Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting: Twenty-eight people, including the gunman, are killed in Sandy Hook, Connecticut.
1503 – Physician, astrologer and clairvoyant Nostradamus was born at St. Remy, Provence, France. |
1884 – Jane Cowl, American actress and playwright (d. 1950) Actress Jane Russell was name after tis actress.
1896 – Jimmy Doolittle, American pilot and general, Medal of Honor recipient (d. 1993) was an American aviation pioneer.
1897 – Margaret Chase Smith, American educator and politician (d. 1995) She was the first woman to serve in both houses of the United States Congress, and the first woman to represent Maine in either.
1902 – Frances Bavier, ”Aunt Bea” from Mayberry RFD. American actress (d. 1989)
1911 – Spike Jones, American singer, actor, and bandleader (d. 1965)
1917 – June Taylor, American dancer and choreographer (d. 2004) Best known as the founder of the June Taylor Dancers, who were featured on Jackie Gleason’s various television variety programs.
1922 – Don Hewitt, American journalist and producer, created 60 Minutes (d. 2009)
1922 – Junior J. Spurrier, American sergeant, Medal of Honor recipient (d. 1984)
1925 – Sam Jones, American baseball player (d. 1971)
1932 – Abbe Lane, American actress, singer, and dancer
1932 – Charlie Rich, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 1995)
1935 – Lee Remick, American actress (d. 1991)
1941 – Ellen Willis, American journalist, critic, and academic (d. 2006)
1946 – Patty Duke, American actress and singer
1946 – Joyce Vincent Wilson, American singer (Tony Orlando and Dawn and Former Ladies of the Supremes)
1962 – Ginger Lynn, American model and actress
1963 – Cynthia Gibb, American actress and singer
1971 – Tia Texada, American actress and singer
1971 – Michaela Watkins, American actress
1972 – Marcus Jensen, American baseball player and coach
1974 – Billy Koch, American baseball player
1975 – Justin Furstenfeld, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Blue October and The Last Wish)
1975 – KaDee Strickland, American actress
1976 – Leland Chapman, American bounty hunter
NEPPEL, RALPH G.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 329th Infantry, 83d Infantry Division. Place and date: Birgel, Germany, December 14th, 1944. Entered service at: Glidden, lowa. Birth: Willey, lowa. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He was leader of a machinegun squad defending an approach to the village of Birgel, Germany, on 14 December 1944, when an enemy tank, supported by 20 infantrymen, counterattacked. He held his fire until the Germans were within 100 yards and then raked the foot soldiers beside the tank killing several of them. The enemy armor continued to press forward and, at the pointblank range of 30 yards, fired a high-velocity shell into the American emplacement, wounding the entire squad. Sgt. Neppel, blown 10 yards from his gun, had 1 leg severed below the knee and suffered other wounds. Despite his injuries and the danger from the onrushing tank and infantry, he dragged himself back to his position on his elbows, remounted his gun and killed the remaining enemy riflemen. Stripped of its infantry protection, the tank was forced to withdraw. By his superb courage and indomitable fighting spirit, Sgt. Neppel inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy and broke a determined counterattack.
|NETT, ROBERT B.
Rank and organization: Captain (then Lieutenant), U.S. Army, Company E, 305th Infantry, 77th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Cognon, Leyte, Philippine Islands, December 14th,1944. Entered service at: New Haven, Conn. Birth: New Haven, Conn. G.O. No.: 16, 8 February 1946. Citation: He commanded Company E in an attack against a reinforced enemy battalion which had held up the American advance for 2 days from its entrenched positions around a 3-story concrete building. With another infantry company and armored vehicles, Company E advanced against heavy machinegun and other automatic weapons fire with Lt. Nett spearheading the assault against the strongpoint. During the fierce hand-to-hand encounter which ensued, he killed 7 deeply entrenched Japanese with his rifle and bayonet and, although seriously wounded, gallantly continued to lead his men forward, refusing to relinquish his command. Again he was severely wounded, but, still unwilling to retire, pressed ahead with his troops to assure the capture of the objective. Wounded once more in the final assault, he calmly made all arrangements for the resumption of the advance, turned over his command to another officer, and then walked unaided to the rear for medical treatment. By his remarkable courage in continuing forward through sheer determination despite successive wounds, Lt. Nett provided an inspiring example for his men and was instrumental in the capture of a vital strongpoint.
|*THOMAS, CHARLES L.
Rank and Organization: Major United States Army, 761st Tank Battalion
614th Tank Destroyer Battalion Born: Alabama April 17, 1920 Died February 15, 1980 (aged 59) Detroit, Michigan Place and Date: December 14th, 1944 near Climbach, France.
Citation: Near Climbach, France. While riding in the lead vehicle of a task force organized to storm and capture the village of Climbach, France, then First Lieutenant Thomas’s armored scout car was subjected to intense enemy artillery, self-propelled gun, and small arms fire. Although wounded by the initial burst of hostile fire, Lieutenant Thomas signaled the remainder of the column to halt and, despite the severity of his wounds, assisted the crew of the wrecked car in dismounting. Upon leaving the scant protection which the vehicle afforded, Lieutenant Thomas was again subjected to a hail of enemy fire which inflicted multiple gunshot wounds in his chest, legs, and left arm. Despite the intense pain caused by these wounds, Lieutenant Thomas ordered and directed the dispersion and emplacement of two antitank guns which in a few moments were promptly and effectively returning the enemy fire. Realizing that he could no longer remain in command of the platoon, he signaled to the platoon commander to join him. Lieutenant Thomas then thoroughly oriented him on enemy gun dispositions and the general situation. Only after he was certain that his junior officer was in full control of the situation did he permit himself to be evacuated. First Lieutenant Thomas’ outstanding heroism were an inspiration to his men and exemplified the highest traditions of the Armed Forces.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Simon Valley, Ariz., December 14th, 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 9 January 1880. Citation: Engaged singlehanded two renegade Indians until his horse was shot under him and then pursued them so long as he was able.
(See also 3rd Sunday in July)
My favorite part about euphemisms is the fact that, if you look into their origins, colorful euphemisms such as “kick the bucket” or “let the cat out of the bag” often reference something much worse than the topic the speaker is trying to avoid. I have a neat little book about the origins of some of these euphemisms, and I thought I’d share a few:
First, the best. “Kicking the Bucket.” = “to die.” Kicking the bucket goes back to the time when cattle were slaughtered manually. This was done by tying the cow in a hanging position and slitting it open so that the guts fell out into a bucket. Oftentimes, however, the still-living animal would jerk when it was sliced and kick said bucket.
“Letting the Cat out of the Bag.”= “revealing a secret.” In Elizabethan times, suckling pigs were a great delicacy. they were, however, expensive, so people took to selling them on the black market. Black marketers would meet their patrons in alleys with the animal in a bag… only sometimes, they’d try to trick the buyer by placing a cat inside rather than a pig. Obviously, if the cat got out, the cover was blown and the seller would be in trouble.
“Jerry rigging”= “fixing something in an impromptu way.” This is a nautical reference. When a ship ran into a storm, sails, masts, and other rather important parts of the boat were often lost. In order to keep going, the sailors would have to fix the ship with whatever they had – they had to “injury rig” it. In time, ‘injury’ was shortened to ‘jury’ and then mispronounced to ‘jerry.’
And then there is the subject of people with extra weight on their bodies. From a huge list of euphemisms come: Aisle Blocker, Big-Boned, Bodus Rotundus, Chub Scout, Crisco Kid, Full bodied, Full-Figured, Generously Proportioned, Gluttinus Maximus, Gravitationally Challenged, Heroically Proportioned, Gravitationally Challenged, Plus-Sized, Rubenesque, There’s More Of Me To Love, …..
Euphemisms can eventually become taboo words themselves through a process called the euphemism treadmill, a term coined by linguist Steven Pinker. Words originally intended as euphemisms may lose their euphemistic value, acquiring the negative connotations of the items they are trying to describe. In some cases, they may be used mockingly and become dysphemistic. For example “concentration camp” was used by the Third Reich as an expression for their death camps. Since then new terms have been invented as euphemisms for them, such as internment camps, resettlement camps, fortified villages, etc.
The term toilet as used in the phrase “I have to go to the toilet” has been replaced with bathroom and rest room. Excuse me? You need a room to rest in or to take a bath in?
Connotations easily change over time. Idiot was once a neutral term, and moron a similar one. Negative senses of a word tend to crowd out neutral ones, so the word retarded was used to replace them and idiot has been relegated to a pure insult.. Now that too is considered rude, and as a result, new terms like mentally-challenged or special have replaced it. In a few decades, calling someone special may well be a grave insult, and indeed among many young school students, it is already a common term of abuse, “Oh well, now aren’t you special.” A similar progression occurred with crippled which became disabled which became handicapped and now differently-abled.
The euphemism treadmill also occurs with notions of profanity and obscenity, but in the reverse direction. Words once called “offensive” were later described as “objectionable,” and later “questionable.”
A complementary “dysphemism treadmill” exists, but is more rarely observed. One modern example is the word “sucks.” “That sucks” began as American slang for “that is very unpleasant”, it has gone from an extremely vulgar phrase to near-acceptability and some use the term “inhales vigorously.”
“Magic is believing in yourself. If you can do that, you can make anything happen.”
~Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
A person or thing that isn’t properly able to function, especially one that was previously proficient.
The description of ‘lame duck’ is often applied to politicians who are known to be in their final term of office, when colleagues and electors look toward a successor. It is also sometimes used to describe office-holders who have lost an election but have not yet left office.
1204 – Maimonides (b.1135), Spanish-born Jewish scholar, died in Cairo. His books included the “Mishnah Torah,” the single most important Jewish book after the Bible and Talmud.
1545 – The Church Council of Trent began with the meeting of thirty bishops. It lasted three years but took eighteen years to complete its work.
1577 – Sir Francis Drake sets out from Plymouth, England, on his round-the-world voyage.
1621 – The first American furs to be exported from the continent left for England aboard the Fortune, under the care of Robert Cushman.
1636 – The Massachusetts Bay Colony organizes three militia regiments to defend the colony against the Pequot Indians. This organization is recognized today as the founding of the United States National Guard.
1759 – First music store in America opens (Philadelphia).
1769 – Dartmouth College founded by the Rev. Eleazar Wheelock, with a Royal Charter from King George III, on land donated by Royal Governor John Wentworth.
1774 – Four hundred colonials attacked Ft. William & Mary, NH.
1775 – Continental Congress authorizes the building of thirteen frigates, mounting twenty-four and thirty-six guns.
1809 – The first abdominal surgical procedure was performed in Danville, KY, on Jane Todd Crawford. The operation was performed without an anesthetic.
1814 – War of 1812: General Andrew Jackson announced martial law in New Orleans, Louisiana, as British troops disembark at Lake Borne, 40 miles east of the city.
1816 – Patent for a dry dock issued to John Adamson in Boston.
1843 – “A Christmas Carol” by Charles Dickens published, 6,000 copies sold.
1861 – Civil War: Battle of Alleghany Summit, WV.
1862 – Civil War: At the Battle of Fredericksburg, Confederate General Robert E. Lee defeats the Union Major General Ambrose E. Burnside. An estimated 11,000 Northern soldiers were killed or wounded.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Ft. McAllister, Ga.
1864 – Civil War: The Union fleet massed for the bombardment of Fort Fisher departed Hampton Roads for Wilmington.
1884 – Percy Everitt received a patent for the first coin-operated weighing machine.
1903 – Molds for ice cream cones were patented by Italo Marcione of New York.
1913 – The Federal Reserve System was established as the first U.S. central bank.
1918 – President Wilson arrived in France, becoming the first chief executive to visit a European country while holding office.
1918 – US army of occupation crossed the Rhine and entered Germany.
1920 – Betelgeuse became the first star to have its diameter measured by means of the beam interferometer invented by Albert A. Michelson. If Betelgeuse were at the center of the Solar System, its surface would extend past the asteroid belt, possibly to the orbit of Jupiter and beyond, wholly engulfing Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.
1921 – Britain, France, Japan and the United States signed the Pacific Treaty. This treaty promised to respect each other’s rights in their island possessions in the Pacific and agreed not to build any new battleships, cruisers, or aircraft carriers for ten years.
1922 – Charles Ebbets proposes putting numbers on players’ sleeves or caps.
1928 – George Gershwin’s musical work “An American in Paris” (18:17) premiered at Carnegie Hall in New York.
1928 – Clip-on tie designed.
1929 – Hoagy Carmichael records “Rockin’ Chair” with Louis Armstrong.
1930 – George Sisler’s career ends when Boston Braves release him. Sisler won two batting titles, hitting over .400 both times, and amassed an astounding total of 257 hits in 1920, a record that stood for 84 years until surpassed by Ichiro Suzuki in 2004.
1936 – Green Bay beat the Boston Redskins, 21-6, to capture the National Football League championship. It was the last game for Boston. In 1937, the team became the Washington Redskins.
1938 – World War II: The Holocaust: One-hundred deportees from Sachsenhausen build the Neuengamme concentration camp near Hamburg.
1939 – World War II: Battle of the River Plate – Captain Hans Langsdorff of the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee engages with Royal Navy cruisers HMS Exeter, HMS Ajax and HMNZS Achilles.
1940 – “The Anvil Chorus“, was recorded by Glenn Miller and his orchestra.
1941 – World War II: Hungary and Romania declare war on the United States.
1942 – World War II: Over Tunisia, US air forces stage heavy raids on Bizerta and Tunis.
1942 – “Allen’s Alley” characters debut on “The Fred Allen Show.”
1943 – World War II: The P-51D Mustang fighter is first used on a bomber escort mission in support of the USAAF 8th Air Force raid on Kiel.
1944 – World War II: U.S. cruiser Nashville was badly damaged in a Japanese kamikaze suicide attack. 138 people were killed in the attack.
1949 – The Knesset votes to move the capital of Israel to Jerusalem.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “A Bushel and a Peck” by Perry Como & Betty Hutton, “Rudolph, the Red-Nosed Reindeer” by Gene Autry, “Nevertheless” by Jack Denny and “I’m Moving On” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1950 – James Dean begins his career with an appearance in a Pepsi commercial.
1951 – After meeting with FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, President Harry S. Truman vowed to purge all disloyal government workers.
1951 – Foreign Service Officer John S. Service is dismissed from the Department of State following a determination by the Civil Service Commission’s Loyalty Board that there was “reasonable doubt” concerning his loyalty to the United States.
1951 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force George A. Davis, flying a F-86 Sabre jet out of the 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, was credited with four aerial victories against MiG-15s, the largest number of kills by a single pilot in one day during the war.
1952 – “The Glow-Worm” by Mills Brothers topped the charts.
1956 – Dodgers trade Jackie Robinson to Giants – Robinson promptly retires.
1961 – Jimmy Dean’s “Big Bad John” album is country music’s first million dollar seller.
1962 – Relay I, the first U.S. communications earth satellite to transmit telephone, television, teleprinter and facsimile signals was launched.
1964 – In El Paso, TX, President Johnson and Mexican President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz set off an explosion that diverted the Rio Grande River, reshaping the U.S.-Mexican border. This ended a century-old border dispute.
1966 – The rights to the first four Super Bowls were sold to CBS and NBC for total of $9.5 million.
1966 – Vietnam War: The first US bombing of Hanoi took place.
1966 – Jimi Hendrix recorded “Foxey Lady.”
1969 – Arlo Guthrie releases “Alice’s Restaurant.” (18:16) This reflected the attitude of many young people in America at the time. It was considered an antiwar song, but unlike most protest songs, it used humor to speak out against authority.
1969 – “Na Na Hey Hey Kiss Him Goodbye” by Steam topped the charts.
1970 – “Tears of a Clown” by Smokey Robinson & the Miracles topped the charts.
1972 – Astronaut Gene Cernan climbed into his Lunar Lander on the Moon and prepared to lift-off. He was the last man to set foot on the Moon.
1973 – Detroit became the first city to receive a franchise in the fabulously unsuccessful World Football League.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kung Fu Fighting” by Carl Douglas, “When Will I See You Again” by The Three Degrees, “Cat’s in the Cradle” by Harry Chapin and “She Called Me Baby” by Charlie Rich all topped the charts.
1975 – “Fly, Robin, Fly” by the Silver Convention topped the charts.
1975 – David Bowie’s “Golden Years” was released.
1976 – Longest non-stop passenger airflight (Sydney to San Francisco 13 hours 14 minutes).
1977 – A United States government aircraft DC-3 crashes near Evansville Regional Airport, killing 29, including the University of Evansville basketball team.
1978 – The first Susan B. Anthony dollar enters circulation. It minted for only four years, 1979, 1980, 1981, and 1999.
1979 – “Oklahoma!” (Playlist – 12 videos) opens at Palace Theater in New York City for 301 performances.
1980 – “Lady” by Kenny Rogers topped the charts.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mickey” by Toni Basil, “Maneater” by Daryl Hall & John Oates, “The Girl is Mine” by Michael Jackson/Paul McCartney and “Redneck Girl” by The Bellamy Brothers all topped the charts.
1983 – 9,655 fans see the highest-scoring NBA game: Detroit 186, Denver 184 (3 OT).
1985 – In a movie first, the murder mystery, “Clue”, opened nationally.
1986 – “The Way It Is” by Bruce Hornsby & the Range topped the charts.
1987 – Secretary of State George P. Shultz said the Reagan administration would begin making funding requests for the proposed “Star Wars” defense system.
1988 – A bankruptcy judge in Columbia, SC, ordered the assets of the troubled Praise The Lord (PTL) television ministry sold to a Toronto real estate developer for $65 million.
1989 – The “Queen of Mean” Leona Helmsley sentenced for tax fraud fine in New York.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Because I Love You (The Postman Song)” by Stevie B, “From a Distance” by Bette Midler, “Something to Believe In” by Poison and “I’ve Come to Expect It from You” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1991 – North Korea and South Korea signed a treaty of reconciliation and nonaggression, formally ending the Korean War 38 years after fighting ceased in 1953.
1993 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that people must receive a hearing before property linked to illegal drug sales can be seized.
1993 – The space shuttle Endeavour returned from its mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope.
1995 – US Federal Court votes that Cable companies must carry local stations.
1995 – Four hostages: Donald Hutchings, Keith Mangan, Paul Wells and Dirk Hasert, who were seized in July by Kashmir guerillas, who called themselves Al Faran, were killed. Originally there were six hostages, The six victims included two British tourists, Keith Mangan (from Middlesbrough) and Paul Wells; two Americans, John Childs of Simsbury, Connecticut and Donald Hutchings ofSpokane, Washington; a German, Dirk Hasert; and a Norwegian, Hans Christian Ostrø.
1996 – Kofi Annan, a Ghanan diplomat, is elected as Secretary-General of the United Nations.
1997 – A ribbon-cutting ceremony was held in Los Angeles for the $1 billion Getty Center, one of the largest arts centers in the United States.
1997 – Michigan Wolverine Charles Woodson was named winner of the Heisman Trophy, the first primarily defensive player so honored.
1998 – Puerto Rican voters rejected U.S. statehood in a non-binding referendum.
1998 – With a grave impeachment threat looming, President Clinton told a news conference in Jerusalem he would not resign, and insisted he did not commit perjury.
1998 – Gary Anderson (Minnesota Vikings) kicked six field goals against Baltimore. In the game Anderson set a (NFL) record for 34 straight field goals without a miss.
2000 – American Vice President Al Gore delivers his concession speech ending his hopes of becoming the 43rd President of the United States.
2000 – The US energy secretary exercised emergency authority and ordered 12 generating companies to sell power to California.
2000 – Seven convicts, the “Texas 7,” escaped from Connally Unit in Kenedy, TX, southeast of San Antonio, by overpowering civilian workers and prison employees. They fled with stolen clothing, pickup truck and 16 guns and ammunition.
2001 – The US Defense Dept. released a videotape of Osama bin Laden talking about the Sep 11 attacks. The tape clearly indicated his advance knowledge of the suicide attacks. He also said that the September 11 attacks exceeded his “most optimistic” expectations.
2001 – NBC-TV announced that it would begin running hard liquor commercials. NBC issued a 19-point policy that outlined the conditions for accepting liquor ads.
2002 – President Bush announced he would take the smallpox vaccine along with U.S. military forces, but was not recommending the potentially risky inoculation for most Americans.
2003 – Oklahoma quarterback Jason White won the Heisman Trophy.
2003 – Former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein is captured near his home town of Tikrit (Operation Red Dawn).
2003 – In the most-attended college basketball game in history, 78,129 watch Michigan State University lose 79-74 to the University of Kentucky at Ford Field.
2004 – A jury in Redwood City, Calif., recommended the death penalty for Scott Peterson for the murders of his wife and unborn child.
2004 – Google announced plans to digitally scan the book collections of 5 major libraries, including the Univ. Michigan, Stanford, Harvard, NY Public Library and Oxford, which agreed to books published before 1900.
2004 – It was reported that the math skills of US students were declining so rapidly that some educators were importing texts from Singapore, where students routinely scored high.
2005 – Virgin Galactic, the British company created by entrepreneur Richard Branson to send tourists into space, and New Mexico announced an agreement for the state to build a $225 million spaceport.
2005 – General Motors Corp. said it plans to nearly triple the number of cars it produces in India to meet growing demand.
2006 – Angel Nieves Diaz (55) was executed by lethal injection in Florida for the 1979 murder of the manager of a Miami topless bar and strip joint.
2007 – Democratic presidential hopefuls meeting in Johnston, Iowa, called for higher taxes on the highest-paid Americans and on big corporations in an unusually cordial debate.
2007 – In Louisiana, two graduate students from India were found tied up and shot in the head on the edge of Louisiana State Univ.
2008 – In New Hampshire 370,000 customers still had no electricity following a huge ice storm. More than 1 million homes and businesses were blacked out by the storm. Most of the outages were in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine and New York.
2008 – Former Vice President Al Gore declared that there would be no Arctic Ice five years from now. In 2013 the ice pack actually grew.
2009 – President Obama said: “I did not run for office to be helping out a bunch of fat-cat bankers on Wall Street.”
2009 -The US Senate cleared a $447 billion omnibus spending bill for President Obama’s signature. It contained thousands of earmarks and double digit increases for several Cabinet agencies.
2010 – The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, Judge Henry E. Hudson, rules against Barack Obama’s health care reform requirement to purchase health insurance.
2010 – U.S. senator Bernie Sanders gives an 8.5 hour Senate speech denouncing the extension of tax cuts for the wealthiest Americans, citing the very large inequality in income and wealth and its growth, and that America is close to being a Banana republic.
2010 – Minnesota Vikings quarterback Brett Favre is sidelined for the Vikings’ game against the New York Giants due to an injury to his right (throwing) shoulder. This ends his NFL record of consecutive regular-season starts, which had run since 1992, at 297.
2011 – The US House of Representatives passes a bill extending a payroll tax extension containing another bill expediting the Keystone XL pipeline between Canada and Texas.
2011 – Iran has turned down the United States request to return a RQ-170 drone that was captured recently by Iranian forces after it crash landed in the country.
2012 – U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice withdraws her name from consideration to be nominated U.S. Secretary of State, following increasing opposition to her nomination by Republican members of the Senate.
2014 – Leisha Campbell gave birth to a baby girl named Hazel. Hazel Grace’s birthday was extra special, because baby Hazel was born at 10:11 a.m. 12/13/14. Hazel was born at 7 pounds, 14 ounces to Leisha and Shawn Zimmerman. This won’t happen again until 3014.
1816 – Ernst Werner von Siemens, German engineer, inventor, and industrialist (d. 1892)
1818 – Mary Todd Lincoln, First Lady of the United States (d. 1882)
1854 – Thomas Watson, American assistant to Alexander Graham Bell (d. 1934)
1887 – Alvin York, American soldier & Medal of Honor recipient (d. 1964)
1910 – Van Heflin, American actor (d. 1971)
1913 – Archie Moore, American boxer and World Light-Heavyweight Champion (d. 1998)
1913 – Arnold Brown, the 11th General of The Salvation Army (d. 2002)
1925 – Dick Van Dyke, American actor and comedian
1929 – Christopher Plummer, Canadian actor
1934 – Richard D. Zanuck, American film producer
ADAMS, JOHN G. B.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company I, 19th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862. Birth: Groveland, Mass. Date of issue: 16 December 1896. Citation: Seized the two colors from the hands of a corporal and a lieutenant as they fell mortally wounded, and with a color in each hand advanced across the field to a point where the regiment was reformed on those colors.
BECKWITH, WALLACE A.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 21st Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862. Entered service at: New London, Conn. Birth: New London, Conn. Date of issue: 15 February 1897. Citation: Gallantly responded to a call for volunteers to man a battery, serving with great heroism until the termination of the engagement.
BLISS, ZENAS R.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 7th Rhode Island Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862. Entered service at: Johnston, Maine. Birth: Johnston, Maine. Date of issue: 30 December 1898. Citation: This officer, to encourage his regimen; which had never before been in action, and which had been ordered to lie down to protect itself from the enemy’s fire, arose to his feet, advanced in front of the line, and himself fired several shots at the enemy at short range, being fully exposed to their fire at the time.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 7th Pennsylvania Reserve Corps. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862. Entered service at:——. Birth: Carlisle, Pa. Date of issue: 25 November 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 19th Georgia Infantry (C.S.A.), wresting it from the hands of the color bearer.
COLLIS, CHARLES H. T.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 114th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Born: 4 February 1838, Ireland. Date of issue: 10 March 1893. Citation: Gallantly led his regiment in battle at a critical moment.
COPP, CHARLES D.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company C, 9th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862. Entered service at: Nashua, N.H. Born: 12 April 1840, Warren County, N.H. Date of issue: 28 June 1890. Citation: Seized the regimental colors, the color bearer having been shot down, and, waving them, rallied the regiment under a heavy fire.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 69th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 17 January 1894. Citation: Voluntarily carried a wounded officer off the field from between the lines; while doing this he was himself wounded.
FRICK, JACOB G..
Rank and organization: Colonel, 129th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th,1862. At Chancellorsville, Va., 3 May 1863. Entered service at. Pottsville, Pa. Born: 23 January 1838, Northumberland, Pa. Date of issue: 7 June 1892. Citation: At Fredericksburg seized the colors and led the command through a terrible fire of cannon and musketry. In a hand-to-hand fight at Chancellorsville, recaptured the colors of his regiment.
GOODALL, FRANCIS H..
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company G, 11th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862. Entered service at: Bath, N.H. Birth: Bath, N.H. Date of issue: 14 December 1894. Citation: With the assistance of another soldier brought a wounded comrade into the lines, under heavy fire.
HOGARTY, WILLIAM P.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 23d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Antietam, Md., 17 September 1862. At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 22 June 1891. Citation: Distinguished gallantry in actions while attached to Battery B, 4th U.S. Artillery; lost his left arm at Fredericksburg.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 2d Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862; Antietam. Entered service at: Janesville, Rock County, Wis. Born: 25 March 1842, Norway. Date of issue: 28 August 1893. Citation: Conspicuous gallantry in battle in which he was severely wounded. While serving as cannoneer he manned the positions of fallen gunners.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 26th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 2 December 1892. Citation: Voluntarily seized the colors after several color bearers had been shot down and led the regiment in the charge.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 13th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date. At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862. Entered service at:——. Born 2 February 1836, Waltham, Mass. Date of issue: 1898. Citation: A wounded and helpless comrade, having been left on the skirmish line, this soldier voluntarily returned to the front under a severe fire and carried the wounded man to a place of safety.
Rank and organization. Corporal, Company F, 21st Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862. Entered service at: Montville, Conn. Birth. Montville, Conn. Date of issue. 30 October 1896. Citation: First of 6 men who volunteered to assist gunner of a battery upon which the enemy was concentrating its fire, and fought with the battery until the close of the engagement. His commanding officer felt he would never see this man alive again.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 136th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th,1862. Entered service at: Tioga County, Pa. Born: 7 May 1840, England. Date of issue: 21 August 1893. Citation: Took up the colors as they fell out of the hands of the wounded color bearer and carried them forward in the charge.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 134th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862. Entered service at: Beaver County, Pa. Born: 30 September 1833, Dilkburg, Pa. Date of issue: 9 July 1888. Citation: Although out of service, he voluntarily resumed duty on the eve of battle and took a conspicuous part in the charge on the heights.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 26th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue. 1 September 1893. Citation. Relinquished a furlough granted for wounds, entered the battle, where he picked up the colors after several bearers had been killed or wounded, and carried them until himself again wounded.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 90th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th,1862. Entered service at: Cressonville, Pa. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 21 January 1897. Citation: Carried a dangerously wounded comrade into the Union lines, thereby preventing his capture by the enemy.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant and Adjutant, 2d Pennsylvania Reserve Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg, Va., December 13th, 1862. Entered service at: ——. Born: 11 March 1838, Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 14 December 1894. Citation: Advanced between the lines, demanded and received the surrender of the 19th Georgia Infantry and captured their battle flag.
In the 17th century, Juan Balme, a botanist, noted the poinsettia plant in his writings. The botanical name, Euphorbia pulcherrima, was assigned to the poinsettia by the German botanist, Wilenow. The plant grew through a crack in his greenhouse. Dazzled by its color, he gave it the botanical name, Euphorbia pulcherrima meaning “very beautiful.”
The Aztecs called poinsettias “Cuetlaxochitl.” During the 14th – 16th century the sap was used to control fevers and the bracts (modified leaves) were used to make a reddish dye. Montezuma, the last of the Aztec kings, would have poinsettias brought into what now is Mexico City by caravans because poinsettias could not be grown in the high altitude.
Joel Roberts Poinsett was the first United States Ambassador to Mexico being appointed by President Andrew Jackson in the 1820’s. At the time of his appointment, Mexico was involved in a civil war. Because of his interest in botany he introduced the American elm into Mexico. During his stay in Mexico he wandered the countryside looking for new plant species. In 1828 he found a beautiful shrub with large red flowers growing next to a road. He took cuttings from the plant and brought them back to his greenhouse in South Carolina. Even though Poinsett had an outstanding career as a United States Congressman and as an ambassador he will always be remembered for introducing the poinsettia into the United States.
William Prescott, a historian and horticulturist, was asked to give Euphorbia pulcherrima a new name as it became more popular. At that time Mr. Prescott had just published a book called the ‘Conquest of Mexico’ in which he detailed Joel Poinsett’s discovery of the plant. Prescott named the plant the poinsettia in honor of Joel Poinsett’s discovery. A nurseryman from Pennsylvania, John Bartram is credited as being the first person to sell poinsettias under its botanical name, Euphorbia pulcherrima
In the early 1900’s the Ecke family of southern California grew poinsettias outdoors for use as landscape plants and as a cut flower. Eventually the family grew poinsettias in greenhouses and today is recognized as the leading producer of poinsettias in the United States.
“We need quiet time to examine our lives openly and honestly… spending quiet time alone gives your mind an opportunity to renew itself and create order.”
~ Susan Taylor
Back to basics – Actually a phrase but with a single meaning: A return to previously held values of decency.
627 – Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeated Emperor Khosrau II’s Persian forces, commanded by General Rhahzadh.
1531 – Apparition of Our Lady of Guadalupe to Juan Diego in Mexico City.
1719 – The Boston Gazette is published for the first time.
1753 – George Washington, the adjutant of Virginia, delivered an ultimatum to the French forces at Fort Le Boeuf, south of Lake Erie, reiterating Britain’s claim to the entire Ohio River valley.
1770 – The British soldiers responsible for the “Boston Massacre” were acquitted on murder charges.
1776 – The Armor branch of the Army traces its origin to the Cavalry. A regiment of cavalry was authorized to be raised by the Continental Congress Resolve.
1787 – Pennsylvania becomes the second state to ratify the United States Constitution. One of the original thirteen colonies, Pennsylvania is geographically located in the keystone position in relation to the other twelve colonies, earning the nickname, the Keystone State.
1799 – Two days before his death, George Washington composed his last letter, to Alexander Hamilton, his aide-de-camp during the Revolution and later his Secretary of the Treasury. In the letter he urged Hamilton to work for the establishment of a national military academy.
1800 – Washington DC established as capital of US.
1822 – Mexico was officially recognized as an independent nation by US.
1850 – “Wide, Wide World,” the novel by Elizabeth Wetherell published.
1862 – Civil War: USS Cairo sunk on the Yazoo River, becoming the first armored ship to be sunk by an electrically detonated mine.
1862 – Civil War: Naval force under Commander Murray including U.S.S. Delaware, Shawsheen, Lockwood, and Seymour with armed transports in the Neuse River supported an Army expedition to destroy railroad bridges and track near Goldsboro, North Carolina.
1868 – In Indiana, sixty-five hooded men entered New Albany jail where the Reno Brothers gang was being held. Frank Reno was the first to be dragged from his cell to be lynched. He was followed by his two brothers, William and Simeon. The fourth gang member, Charlie Anderson, was the last to be hanged.
1870 – Joseph H. Rainey (R) of South Carolina becomes the first black U.S. congressman from that state.
1876 – First examination for Revenue Cutter cadets held in Washington, D.C.
1897 – Rudolph Dirks’ first Katzenjammer cartoon strip printed in the New York Journal.
1899 – George F Grant of Boston patents the wooden golf tee.
1900 – Charles M. Schwab formed the United States Steel Corporation.
1901 – Guglielmo Marconi receives the first trans-Atlantic radio signal at Signal Hill in St John’s, Newfoundland.
1906 – Pres. Theodore Roosevelt nominated Oscar Straus to be Secretary of Commerce and Labor; Straus became the first Jewish Cabinet member.
1912 – The Mother’s Day International Association was incorporated with the purpose of furthering meaningful observations of Mother’s Day.
1914 – The largest one-day percentage drop in the history of Dow Jones Industrial Average, down 24.39%.
1917 – In Nebraska, Father Edward J. Flanagan founds Boys Town as a farm village for wayward boys.
1922 – John Wanamaker (b.1838), US merchant who founded a chain of stores in Philadelphia, died. He introduced department stores and price tags to the US and became the first modern advertiser when he bought ads in newspapers to promote his stores.
1925 – Arthur Heinman coins term “motel”, opens Motel Inn (originally known as the Milestone Mo-Tel), San Luis Obispo, CA.
1928 – Nichols/Brownes “Wings over Europe” premieres in New York City.
1930 – Baseball Rules Committee greatly revises the rule book, when a ball bounces into stands now a double, not a homerun. Now called a “Ground Rule Double.”
1937 – Panay incident: Japanese aircraft shell and sink US gunboat Panay on the Yangtze River in China.
1937 – NBC & RCA sends first mobile-TV vans onto the streets of New York.
1937 – Mae West performed a skit about Adam & Eve on the NBC Radio network. During her appearance on the Chase and Sanborn Hour, Mae West took the opportunity to flirt on-air with Charlie McCarthy, telling him that while his kisses gave her splinters, she would let him come home with her to “play in her woodpile.”
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: The German occupying army searched house-to-house in Paris looking for Jews.
1941 – World War II: Fifty four Japanese A6M Zero fighters raid Batangas Field, Philippines. Jesus Villamor and four Filipino fighter pilots fend them off; Cesar Basa is killed.
1941 – World War II: U.S. Navy takes control of the largest and most luxurious ocean liner on the seas at that time, France’s Normandie, while it is docked at New York City.
1943 - World War II: The US 5th Army attacks continue. The US 36th Division of the 2nd Corps attacks Monte Lungo, near its former positions on Monte Maggiore.
1944 – World War II: Forces of the US 1st Army battle towards Duren, through the Hurtgen Forest. The US 3rd Army establishes another crossing of the German frontier east of the Saar. To the south, in Alsace, the US 7th Army is fighting in Seltz.
1944 - World War II: Bomber Command Lancaster bombers, escorted by Mustang fighters, attack Witten, the only city in the Ruhr industrial area that has not been bombed yet.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mule Train” by Frankie Laine, “I Can Dream, Can’t I?” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Jack Leonard), “Don’t Cry, Joe” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Betty Brewer) and “Mule Train” by Tennessee Ernie Ford all topped the charts.
1946 – Tide detergent introduced. Customers liked it so much they made it the best-selling detergent within weeks.
1949 – American League rejects the spitter. The rules committee also alters the strike zone to the space between the armpits and the top of the knees. The new rule eliminates the batter’s shoulders being within the strike zone.
1950 – Korean War: The 1st Marine Division closed into Hungnam having cut its way through six Chinese divisions, killing approximately 20,000 of the enemy, on the way to the sea from Chosin/Changjin Reservoir. Legend has it that the division commander, Major General O. P. Smith, supposedly characterized the operation with, “Retreat? Hell, we’re just attacking in a different direction!”
1950 – Paula Ackerman, the first woman appointed to perform rabbinical functions in the United States, leads the congregation in her first services. (1893- 1989)
1951 – The U.S. Navy Department announced that the world’s first nuclear powered submarine would become the sixth ship to bear the name Nautilus.
1952 – NFL’s Dallas Texans (former Boston Yanks) play last game. They were the last original team.
1953 – Chuck Yeager reaches Mach 2.43 in Bell X-1A rocket plane.
1955 – The largest philanthropic act in the world was announced by the Ford Foundation. The Foundation gave $500,000,000 to various hospitals.
1957 – US announces manufacture of Borazon (harder than diamond). It is the only substance that can scratch a diamond.
1959 – “Mack the Knife” by Bobby Darin topped the charts.
1959 – At 22 years and 104 days of age, Bruce McLaren became the youngest driver to win a Grand Prix race as he earned first place at Sebring, Florida.
1961 – Former big band singer Mike Douglas began a variety TV show from Cleveland, OH on KYW-TV.
1961 – More than seven hundred demonstrators, including Martin Luther King Jr., arrested in Albany, Ga., in five mass marches on city hall to protest segregation. Arrests triggered militant Albany movement.
1963 – Medgar Wiley Evers awarded Spingarn Medal posthumously for his civil rights leadership.
1964 – “Mr. Lonely” by Bobby Vinton topped the charts.
1964 – Shooting starts for “Star Trek” pilot, “The Cage” (Menagerie) but the show was quite different from the one that would eventually hit the screens two years later.
1965 – Gale Sayers of Chicago Bears scores six touchdowns in a single game, ties NFL record. This was in the Chicago Bears vs. San Francisco 49ers game held today and still stands in 2014.
1966 – US Supreme Court votes 4-3 allowing Braves to move to Atlanta.
1967 – US launches Pioneer 8 into solar orbit.
1967 – Vietnam War: The U.S. ended the airlift of 6,500 men in Vietnam.
1968 – Arthur Ashe becomes first Black to be ranked #1 in tennis.
1970 – “The Tears of a Clown” by Smokey Robinson & the Miracles topped the charts.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Top of the World” by the Carpenters, “Goodbye Yellow Brick Road” by Elton John, “The Love I Lost” by Harold Melvin & The Bluenotes and “The Most Beautiful Girl” by Charlie Rich all topped the charts.
1975 – Sara Jane Moore pled guilty to a charge of trying to kill U.S. President Ford in San Francisco the previous September. She was given a life sentence for the attempted assassination and was released from prison on December 31, 2007, after serving 32 years.
1975 – In South Dakota, Anna Mae Pictou Aquash (b.1945) was shot to death. American Indian Movement (AIM) members suspected her of being an FBI informant.
1976 – Quarterback Joe Namath’s last game as a New York Jet.
1979 – In response to the Iran hostage crisis, the Carter administration ordered the removal of most Iranian diplomats in the United States.
1979 – Gold hits record $462.50 an ounce.
1980 – The US enacted the Bayh-Dole Act. It allowed recipients of government grants to retain title to their inventions and the copyright law was amended to include computer programs.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Physical” by Olivia Newton-John, “Waiting for a Girl like You” by Foreigner, “Every Little Thing She Does is Magic” by The Police and “Still Doin’ Time” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1983 – Islamic jihad car bombs were set off in front of the French and U.S. embassies in Kuwait City. Shiite extremists were responsible for the six deaths and 86 wounded. Total of five bombs went off in different locations.
1982 – The Sentry Armored Car Company in New York City was robbed of $11.4 million from its headquarters. It was the biggest cash theft in US history.
1985 – Arrow Air Flight 1285 crashes after takeoff in Gander, Newfoundland killing 256, including 248 members of the United States Army’s 101st Airborne Division.
1987 – “Faith” by George Michael topped the charts.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “We Didn’t Start the Fire” by Billy Joel, “Another Day in Paradise“ by Phil Collins, “Don’t Know Much” by Linda Ronstadt (featuring Aaron Neville) and “If Tomorrow Never Comes” by Garth Brooks all topped the charts.
1989 – Leona Helmsley, “the Queen of Mean”, was fined $7 million and sentenced to four years in prison for tax evasion.
1992 – First US combat action, two Marine Cobra gunships destroy an armed Somali vehicle. Two Somalis were killed.
1992 – President-elect Clinton tapped Thomas F. “Mack” McLarty to be his chief of staff and Democratic national chairman Ron Brown to be Commerce Secretary.
1993- Two US MP’s are wounded in action (WIA) by Somali gunman in Mogadishu. Navy SEAL’s kill a Somali gunman.
1994 – IBM stopped shipments of personal computers with Intel’s flawed Pentium chip.
1995 – Willie Brown (D) defeats incumbent mayor Frank Jordan to become first African American mayor of San Francisco.
1995 – Amendment to make it illegal to physically desecrate the flag was turned down by senate 63-36 (need 2/3 vote, 67 votes).
1996 – Scientists announced that the Jovian moon, Ganymede, possesses a strong magnetic field due to a molten core. Its outer layer solid ice was said to measure some 500 miles thickness.
1997 – In Orlando, Fla., John Armstrong was killed by police after a four-day hostage crises during which he held two children captive.
1998 – In Osseo, Mich., a fireworks explosion at the Independence Professional Fireworks building killed at least seven people.
1998 – The House Judiciary Committee approves a fourth and final article of impeachment. The fourth article of impeachment approved by the committee accuses Clinton of making false statements in his answers to 81 questions the committee asked him during its inquiry. The committee approved it on a party-line, 21-16 vote.
2000 – The United States Supreme Court releases its decision in Bush v. Gore. The Supreme Court found that the recount ordered by the Florida Supreme Court in the 2000 U.S. Presidential election was unconstitutional. U.S. Vice President Al Gore conceded the election to Texas Gov. George W. Bush the next day.
2000 – The Marine Corps grounded all eight of its high-tech V-22 Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft following a fiery crash in North Carolina that killed four Marines.
2000 – Timothy McVeigh, over the objections of his lawyers, abandoned his final round of appeals and asked that his execution be set within 120 days. McVeigh was convicted of the April 1995 truck bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Fedal Building in Oklahoma City, OK, that killed 168 and injured 500.
2000 – The Texas Rangers signed Alex Rodriguez to a record-breaking 10-year, $252 million contract. The contract amount broke all major league baseball records and all professional sports records.
2000 – General Motors announced a restructure and planned phase out of the Oldsmobile vehicle division following a long slide in sales.
2001 – The U.S. House of Representatives passed legislation that would implement minimum federal election standards and provide funding to help states modernize their voting systems.
2001 – US federal agents began a crackdown on student visa violations and arrested ten foreigners in San Diego.
2001 – In Beverly Hills, CA, actress Winona Ryder was arrested at Saks Fifth Avenue for shoplifting and possessing pharmaceutical drugs without a prescription. The numerous items of clothing and hair accessories were valued at $4,760.
2001 – In Los Angeles police arrested Irving David Rubin (56) and Earl Leslie Krugel (59), leaders of the Jewish Defense League, for plotting to blow up a local mosque.
2001 – David Criswell, director of the Univ. of Houston Space Systems Operations, proposed a “Lunar Solar Power System” to collect solar energy on the moon, convert it to microwaves, and beam it to Earth for electrical power.
2002 – Pres. Bush announced a series of regulatory changes to allow religious social-service organizations to receive more government grants and contracts.
2002 – President Bush publicly rebuked Senate Republican leader Trent Lott for his statement that appeared to embrace half-century-old segregationist politics, calling it “offensive” and “wrong.”
2003 – President Bush signed legislation calling for economic penalties against Syria for not doing enough to fight terrorism.
2003 – In California Hispanics protested the repeal of a law allowing illegal immigrants to get driver’s licenses, taking to the streets in a statewide boycott of schools and businesses.
2003 – Keiko the killer whale (27), whose early life inspired the film “Free Willy,” died in Norway of apparent pneumonia.
2004 – A US soldier died of wounds sustained when a roadside bomb hit his patrol in Baghdad. Eight US Marines with the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force died while conducting “security and stabilization operations” in Fallujah and Ramadi in Anbar province.
2005 – California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger refused to block the imminent execution of Stanley Tookie Williams, rejecting the notion that the founder of the murderous Crips gang had atoned for his crimes and found redemption on death row.
2005 – Donald Keyser, a US State Department official, pleaded guilty to removing top secret government documents while conducting a “personal relationship” with a Taiwanese spy, Isabelle Cheng, from 1992-2004.
2006 – A US immigration sweep of six Swift meat plants resulted in nearly thirteen-hundred arrests of illegal immigrants. The action culminated a ten-month investigation targeting the use of stolen social security numbers.
2006 – The Campaign to Defend the Constitution and the Christian Alliance for Progress, demanded that Wal-Mart dump “Left Behind: Eternal Forces”, a new computer game in which players must either kill or convert non-Christians.
2006 – A television cameraman working for The Associated Press in Iraq was shot to death by insurgents while covering clashes in Mosul.
2007 – The US announced that it has sent fifteen prisoners from the Guantanamo Bay prison back to their home nations.
2007 – Merck & Co. recalls a million doses of a childhood vaccines after tests show a sterilization problem at a Pennsylvania factory.
2007 – President George W. Bush vetoed a second bill that would have expanded government-provided health insurance for children. It was an additional cost with no corresponding revenue.
2008 – In Woodburn, Oregon, a bomb exploded inside a branch of the West Coast Bank, killing a police officer and a state bomb disposal technician. Police arrested Joshua A. Turnidge (32), a steelworker, in Salem on December 14 along with his father.
2009 – Golfer Tiger Woods announces he is taking an indefinite break from the sport after a scandal over his infidelity in order to focus on “being a better husband, father, and person”.
2009 – The Democratic-controlled US Senate cleared away a Republican filibuster of a huge end-of-year spending bill that rewards most federal agencies with generous budget boosts.
2009 – Alabama running back Mark Ingram won this year’s Heisman trophy.
2009 – In New York state truck driver Thomas Wallace hit a disabled car killing Julie Stratton (33). The car was disabled after hitting a deer. He was sentenced to 3-9 years in prison after pleading guilty to second-degree murder. His laptop computer was streaming pornography when his rig hit the disabled car.
2010 – A heavy blizzard in the midwestern US states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois and Michigan results in two deaths, road closures, flight cancellations and the inflatable roof of the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome in Minneapolis, Minnesota, collapsing.
2011 – President Barack Obama has asked Iran for the RQ-170 Sentinel (drone) that was captured near Kashmar on December 4.
2012 – Today’s date using the last two numbers spells out 12-12-12. This will not happen again for 100 years.
2012 – Musicians and entertainers including the Rolling Stones, Eric Clapton and Bruce Springsteen perform a benefit concert for victims of Hurricane Sandy at Madison Square Garden in New York City.
2013 – OBAMACARE: The original deadline to purchase coverage beginning on Jan. 1 is extended from Dec. 15 to Dec. 23. The White House “recommends” insurers allow people to sign up beyond that and requires them to accept payments as late as Dec. 31.
1574 – Anne of Denmark, wife of James I of England (d. 1619)
1659 – Francesco Galli-Bibiena, Italian architect/designer (d. 1739)
1745 – John Jay, 1st Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1829)
1783 – Ner Alexander Middleswarth, American politician (d. 1865)
1786 – William L. Marcy, American statesman (d. 1857) Marcy served in the War of 1812. Later, he was recorder of Troy for several years, but as he sided with the Anti-Clinton faction of the Democratic-Republican Party, known as the Bucktails, he was removed from office in 1818 by his political opponents.
1805 – William Lloyd Garrison, American abolitionist (d. 1879)
1805 – Henry Wells was born in Thetford, VT. He was one of the founders of the American Express Company and he teamed up with William Fargo to form the Wells Fargo Company.
1806 – Stand Watie, American Confederate general (d. 1871)
1870 – Walter Benona Sharp, American oil baron (d. 1912)
1893 – Edward G. Robinson, American actor (d. 1973)
1900 – Sammy Davis, Sr., American dancer (d. 1988)
1915 – Frank Sinatra, American singer and actor (d. 1998)
1923 – Bob Barker, American television game show host
1924 – Ed Koch, Mayor of New York City
1938 – Connie Francis, American singer
1940 – Dionne Warwick, American singer
1952 – Cathy Rigby, American gymnast
1976 – Keiko, Orca Whale in Free Willy
No Events occurred on this day
International Mountain Day
The World’s Tallest Mountain
At 29,029 ft Mt. Everest is the highest mountain in the world, but measured from top to bottom, below sea level, Mauna Kea (White Mountain), an inactive volcano on the island of Hawaii, is actually taller. Only 13,796 feet of Mauna Kea stands above sea level, however, if you measure it from its base, which is below sea level, it is 33,465 feet. If you stand Mauna Kea and Mount Everest next to each other, Mount Kea would be 4436 feet taller.
Mount McKinley is the highest peak in North America. It is a huge snowy mass, flanked by five giant glaciers and countless icefalls. It dominates the horizon from as far south as Cook Inlet, 200 miles away, and as far north as Fairbanks, 150 miles away. Its steep unbroken south slope rises 17,000 feet in twelve miles. Five major ridges extend from the summit, and many spurs and buttresses extend from these. The mountain is increasingly known by its native name, Denali, which means The Great One in the Athabaskan language. Denali is not an especially difficult climb technically, but the weather is more severe here than anywhere else in the world, and many lives have been lost attempting the ascent. The number of attempts on the summit have increased dramatically in recent years, and a greater percentage of these are ending in failure.
“Justice is an unassailable fortress, built on the brow of a mountain which cannot be overthrown by the violence of torrents, nor demolished by the force of armies.”
~ Joseph Addison
so·bri·quet (sō’brĭ-kā’, -kět’, sō’brĭ-kā’, kět’)
An affectionate or humorous nickname.
An assumed name.
359 – The first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, Honoratus, took office.
1282 – Llywelyn ap Gruffydd or Gruffudd (b. c. 1228) the last native Prince of Wales, was killed at Cilmeri, near Builth Wells, south Wales. He was the last prince of an independent Wales before its conquest by King Edward I of England. Some would say he was the penultimate, but in effect he was the last ruler. In Welsh, he is remembered by the alliterative soubriquet Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf (Llywelyn, Our Last Leader).
1620 – One-hundred three Mayflower pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock. and the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts is established. (See the Mayflower Compact)
1719 – First recorded display of Aurora Borealis in US and in New England.
1769 – Edward Beran of London patented Venetian blinds.
1816 – Indiana becomes the 19th U.S. state.
1844 – Nitrous oxide was first used in dentistry. Gardner Quincy Colton administered nitrous oxide to Dentist Horace Wells while another dentist, Dr. John M. Riggs, extracted one of Wells’ teeth.
1851 – In Philadelphia thirty-seven men, on trial in federal court for defying the Fugitive Slave Law, were deemed not guilty by a jury with fifteen minutes of deliberation.
1861 – A raging fire swept the business district of Charleston, South Carolina, adding to an already depressed economic state.
1862 – Civil War: The Union Army of the Potomac occupies Fredericksburg, Virginia.
1863 – Civil War: Union gunboats Restless, Bloomer and Caroline entered St. Andrew’s Bay, Fla., and began bombardment of both Confederate Quarters and Saltworks.
1864 – Civil War: Union Commander Preble reported a unique “explosive ball” used by Confederate forces against his skirmishers. He said, “ it seems to me that use of such a missile is an unnecessary addition to the barbarities of war.”
1866 – First yacht race across the Atlantic Ocean . It held under New York Yacht Club rules from Sandy Hook, CT., to Cowes, Isle of Wight, England.
1872 – P.B.S. Pinchback is sworn in as the first black member of the U.S. House of Representatives.
1872 – Already appearing as a well-known figure of the Wild West in popular dime novels, Buffalo Bill Cody makes his first stage appearance on this day, in a Chicago-based production of “The Scouts of the Prairie.”
1882 – Boston’s Bijou Theatre, first American playhouse lit exclusively by electricity, opens. The first performance: Gilbert and Sullivan’s “Iolanthe, Or The Peer and the Peri.”
1900 – Ronald McFeely obtained a patent for a shoe making machine.
1909 – Colored moving pictures demonstrated at Madison Square Garden, New York NY.
1926 – Josephine Baker performs in Amsterdam. She was a dancer, singer, actress and a comedian all in one, Ms. Baker was the first Black female entertainer to break through racial prejudice in Europe and the United States.
1928 – In Buenos Aires, police thwarted an attempt on the life of President-elect Herbert Hoover.
1929 – The Empire State Building’s design was announced. John Jacob Raskob (1879-1950), former General Motors executive, announced a 102-story design.
1930 – Bank of the United States fails in New York NY. It was the most disastrous failure in the banking history of the United States. Investigators discovered that the bank’s owners had been guilty of incompetence and three of them, B. K. Marcus, Saul Singer and Herbert Singer, were sentenced to terms in Sing Sing Prison.
1934 – A fire at the Hotel Kerns in Lansing, Michigan, kills 34 people.
1934 – National League votes to permit night baseball (up to 7 games per home team).
1936 – Edward VIII abdicated to marry Wallis Warfield Simpson, an American-born divorcee. The Duke of York, his brother, became King George VI.
1939 – Marlene Dietrich recorded “Falling In Love Again” on Decca. Due to her war efforts she also received the Medal of Freedom and named Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor.
1941 – World War II: Germany and Italy declare war on the United States. The European and Southeast Asian wars have now become a global conflict with the Axis powers; Japan, Germany and Italy, united against America, Britain, France, and their Allies.
1941 – World War II: A Japanese invasion fleet attacked Wake Island, which was defended by 439 US Marines, 75 sailors and 6 soldiers. The defenders sank four Japanese ships, damaged eight and destroyed a submarine.
1941 – Buick lowered its prices to reflect the absence of spare tires or inner tubes from its new cars.
1942 – World War II: Japanese Admiral Tanaka’s “Tokyo Express” again attempts the delivery of supplies to the Japanese forces on Guadalcanal. The cargo is dropped over board and only 1/4 of it reaches the troops on shore. Machine gun fire from US PT boats sinks most of it.
1944 – World War II: Forces of the US 7th Army enter Haguenau in Alsace and advances southeast of Rohrbach. There are German counterattacks against the US 3rd Army bridgeheads over the Saar River which are repulsed.
1944 – World War II: Over 2000 USAAF bombers of the 8th and 15th Air Forces attack various rail targets in Germany as well as an oil plant and ordnance depots near Vienna.
1944 – “The Chesterfield Supper Club” (14:32) debuted on NBC radio sponsored by Chesterfield Cigarettes. The series was heard weeknights at 7:00 PM over NBC as a fifteen minute series. It was heard on the air until 1949.
1945 – B-29 Superfortress shattered all records by crossing the U.S. in five hours and twenty-seven minutes.
1946 – The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) is established.
1946 – Hank Williams begins to record on Sterling label. The recordings included ‘Callin’ You‘ and ‘When God Comes And Gathers His Jewels‘.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Buttons and Bows” by Dinah Shore, “On a Slow Boat to
China” by The Kay Kaiser Orchestra (vocal: Harry Babbitt & Gloria Wood),”A Little Bird Told Me” by Evelyn Knight and “One Has My Name (The Other Has My Heart)” by Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: The 1st Marine Division completed its breakout from the Chosin/Changjin Reservoir entrapment and began its march to join the rest of X Corps at Hungnam.
1950 – U.S. Navy Air Task Group 1, operating from the USS Valley Forge, flew its first combat mission of the Korean War, striking coastal rail lines and bridges in northeast Korea.
1951 – Cleveland Browns beat San Francisco ’49ers 21-7 in final AAFC (All-American Football Conference) championship game. It took place only a few days after a merger agreement had been reached between the AAFC and the NFL.
1951 – Joe DiMaggio announces his retirement from baseball. When he retired, young star Mickey Mantle arrived to fill his shoes.
1952 – An audience of 70,000 people watched from 31 theatres as Richard Tucker starred in “Carmen.” The event was the first pay-TV production of an opera. Ticket prices ranged from $1.20 to $7.20.
1953 – “Rags to Riches” by Tony Bennett topped the charts.
1954 – “Mr. Sandman” by the Chordettes topped the charts.
1954 – First supercarrier USS Forrestal (CVA-59), launched at Newport News, VA.
1954 – Philadelphia Phillies purchase Connie Mack Stadium.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Singing the Blues” by Guy Mitchell, “A Rose and a Baby
Ruth” by George Hamilton IV, “Rock-A-Bye Your Baby with a Dixie Melody” by Jerry Lewis and “Singing the Blues” Marty Robbins all topped the charts.
1957 – The movie “Peyton Place,” based on the novel by Grace Metalious, had its world premiere in Camden, Maine, where most of it had been filmed.
1960 – Cleveland Browns’ Bernie Parrish sets club record for 92 yd interception return. The final score of the game was Cleveland 42, Chicago Bears 0.
1960 – Coleman/Leigh’s musical “Wildcat” with Lucille Ball premieres in New York NY.
1961 – Elvis Presley’s “Blue Hawaii” album goes to #1 & stays #1 for 20 weeks.
1961 – “Please, Mr. Postman” by Marvelettes, released.
1961 – U.S. Supreme Court reversed conviction of sixteen sit-in students who had been arrested in Baton Rouge.
1961 – Melvin Calvin Awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry for process of photosynthesis.
1961 – President John F. Kennedy ordered the first direct American military support for South Vietnam occurred when a U.S. aircraft carrier carrying Army helicopters arrived in Saigon.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ringo” by Lorne Greene, “Mr. Lonely” by Bobby Vinton, “She’s Not There” by The Zombies and “Once a Day” by Connie Smith all topped the charts.
1964 – An unknown terrorist fired a mortar shell at the United Nations building in New York City during a speech by Che Guevara.
1965 – “Turn! Turn! Turn!” by the Byrds topped the charts.
1965 – Sam Cooke, pop singer, was shot to death by a motel manager in Los Angeles after a prostitute stole his clothes and money. His hits included “You Send Me,” “Cupid,” and “Chain Gang.”
1966 – Al Nelson sets NFL record returning missed field goal, 100 yards.
1967 – The Concorde, created by the British and French and the world’s first supersonic airliner, was unveiled in Toulouse, France.
1969 – Vietnam: Paratroopers from the U.S. Third Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division, depart from Vietnam. The unit was sent to Vietnam in February 1968 as an emergency measure in response to the Communist 1968 Tet Offensive.
1970 – Walt Disney’s “Aristocats” was released.
1971 – “Family Affair” by Sly & the Family Stone topped the charts.
1971 – The Libertarian Party of the United States is formed.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Am Woman” by Helen Reddy, “If You Don’t Know Me by Now” by Harold Melvin & The Bluenotes, “You Ought to Be with Me” by Al Green and “Got the All Overs for You (All Over Me)” by Freddie Hart & The Heartbeats all topped the charts.
1972 – Apollo 17 becomes the sixth mission to land on the Moon. Astronauts Cernan & Harrison become 11th and 12th on the Moon.
1973 – Karen and Richard Carpenter’s “Top of the World” hits gold.
1975 – First class postage rises from 10¢ to 13¢.
1976 – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)” by Rod Stewart topped the charts.
1978 – Six masked men bound ten employees at Lufthansa cargo area at NY Kennedy Airport and made off with $5.8 M in cash & jewelry.
1980 – “Magnum P.I.,” starring Tom Selleck, premiered on CBS television.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lady” by Kenny Rogers, “More Than I Can Say” by Leo Sayer, “Another One Bites the Dust” by Queen and “Smoky Mountain Rain” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1980 – George Rogers is awarded the Heisman Trophy . Rogers played college football for the University of South Carolina and earned All-America honors as well.
1980 – President-elect Ronald Reagan nominated Caspar Weinberger as Secretary of Defense.
1980 – The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (known as either CERCLA or Superfund) is enacted by the U.S. Congress. The $1.6 billion environmental “superfund” would be used to pay for cleaning up chemical spills and toxic waste dumps.
1981 – In his last fight, Muhammad Ali is defeated by Trevor Berbick.
1981 – Spacelab I arrives at Kennedy Space Center.
1982 – “Mickey” by Toni Basil topped the charts.
1984 – With the season still in progress, the Chicago Bears declared their intention to appear in and win the Super Bowl. Members of the team, known as Chicago Bears Shufflin’ Crew, released their “Superbowl Shuffle”. The Bears went on to defeat the New England Patriots in the Super Bowl, 46-10.
1985 – Hugh Scrutton is killed in his computer store in Sacramento, California, by a mail package that explodes in his hands. It is thought it was the work of the Unabomber.
1985 – General Electric acquires RCA Corp & its subsidiary, NBC.
1985 – Phoenix AZ, gets 3″ of snow but it was a dry snow!!!
1985 – The U.S. House of Representatives joined the U.S. Senate by giving final congressional approval to the Gramm-Rudman deficit-reduction law.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Look Away” by Chicago, “How Can I Fail?” by Breathe, “I Don’t Want Your Love” by Duranduran and “If You Ain’t Lovin’ (You Ain’t Livin’)” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1989 – “City of Angels” opens at Virginia Theater in New York City for 878 performances.
1990 – In Chattanooga, Ten.,12 died in a 99 vehicle accident on I-75 due to fog.
1991 – Salman Rushdie, under an Islamic death sentence for blasphemy, made his first public appearance since 1989 in New York, at a dinner marking the 200th anniversary of the First Amendment (which guarantees freedom of speech in the U.S.).
1992 – President-elect Clinton tapped Robert Reich to be labor secretary and Donna Shalala to be Secretary of Health and Human Services.
1993 – “Again” by Janet Jackson topped the charts.
1994 – A bomb assembled by Ramzi Yousef explodes on Philippine Airlines Flight 434, killing a Japanese businessman.
1994 – “Sunshine Boys” opens at Lyceum Theater in New York City.
1995 – The Malden Mills textile manufacturing plant in Lawrence, Mass., burned down. Owner Aaron Feuerstein retained all his employees on full pay until the plant was rebuilt.
1997 – The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change opens for signature.
1997 – Federal judge orders Microsoft not to bundle IE4 in Windows. The U.S. Justice Dept. accused Microsoft of violating a 1995 antitrust agreement, because the Windows 95 operating system required consumers to load Microsoft’s Internet browser.
1997 – Henry Cisneros, President Clinton’s first housing secretary, was indicted for conspiracy, obstructing justice and making false statements about payments to former mistress. Cisneros, who later pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor, was eventually pardoned by President Clinton.
1998 – Republicans on the House Judiciary Committee pushed through three articles of impeachment against President Bill Clinton, over the minority Democratic objections.
1998 – Scientists announced that they had deciphered the entire genetic blueprint of a tiny worm.
1998 – The Mars Climate Orbiter blasted off on a nine-month journey to the Red Planet. However, the probe disappeared in September of 1999, apparently destroyed because scientists had failed to convert English measures to metric values.
1999 – Ron Dayne, Wisconsin’s record-setting tailback, was a landslide winner in the Heisman Trophy balloting.
2000 – The space shuttle Endeavour landed in Florida following its mission to install solar panels on the int’l. space station.
2000 – A federal appeals court declared the Cleveland, OH school voucher program unconstitutional.
2000 – A US Marine Osprey aircraft crashed in North Carolina and all 4 people aboard were killed. The fleet was grounded the next day.
2000 – Shortstop Alex Rodriguez agreed to a $252 million deal with the Texas Rangers, by far the most lucrative contract with any sports team.
2001 – A federal appeals court struck a Louisiana law that allowed vocal classroom prayer. The state had passed a 1976 law that required schools to allow a brief time in “silent meditation.” In 1992 the wording was changed to “silent prayer or meditation.” In 1999 the word “silent” was deleted.
2001 – U.S. prosecutors charged Zacarias Moussaoui, a French citizen of Moroccan descent, with conspiring to murder thousands in the Sept. 11 suicide hijackings.
2001 – It was announced that President George W. Bush would withdraw the U.S. from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with Russia.
2001 – Afghanistan: US bombers continued to hit sites at Tora Bora, Afghanistan, as a deadline for al Qaeda surrender passed.
2001 – Federal agents seized computers in 27 U.S. cities as part of “Operation Buccaneer.” The raids were used to gain evidence against an international software piracy ring.
2002 – A congressional report found that intelligence agencies that were supposed to protect Americans from the Sept. 11 hijackers failed to do so because they were poorly organized, poorly equipped and slow to pursue clues that might have prevented the attacks.
2003 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed over 10,000 (10,008) for the first time in over eighteen months.
2004 – Southern California quarterback Matt Leinart won the 70th Heisman Trophy.
2004 – Former New York Police Chief Bernard Kerik withdraws his nomination for the post of Secretary of Homeland Security, fearing a scandal over the immigration status of his nanny.
2005 – Paramount Pictures announced it was buying independent film studio DreamWorks SKG Inc.
2006 – Archaeologists working for the Vatican have found the tomb of Paul of Tarsus.
2006 – The Space Shuttle Discovery successfully docks with the International Space Station with the crew to spend a week rewiring the space station.
2007 – A series of ice storms across the central United States kills at least 24 and leaves nearly one-million homes and businesses without electricity.
2007 – The US Senate Intelligence Committee took closed-door testimony from CIA Director Michael Hayden on how videotapes of terror suspect interrogations were made, then destroyed.
2007 – US officials in Florida arrested four people, three from Venezuelan and one from Uruguay, and accused them of being agents of the Venezuelan government.
2008 – The $14 billion package to aid General Motors Corp., Ford Motor Co. and Chrysler LLC collapsed amid disputes over union wage cuts.
2008 – Bernard Madoff (70), a quiet force on Wall Street for decades, was arrested and charged with allegedly running a $50 billion “Ponzi scheme” in what may rank among the biggest fraud cases ever.
2009 – A US counterterrorism official said Saleh al-Somali, a senior al-Qaida operations planner, was killed in an American missile strike this week in western Pakistan.
2009 – Spc. Marc A. Hall was jailed just before his brigade with the Army’s 3rd Infantry Division out of Ft. Stewart, Georgia, was scheduled to leave for Iraq. He was charged with communicating a threat after telling his battalion commander that he might shoot or otherwise attack a fellow US soldier.
2010 – U.S. attorney-general Eric Holder tells a Muslim community group near San Francisco that FBI sting operations are an “an essential law enforcement tool”.
2011 – Brogan Rafferty, a 16-year-old teenager in Ohio is charged with murder in a deadly Craigslist robbery scheme where victims were lured to remote areas then robbed and killed.
2012 – The Michigan House of Representatives approved the first of two right-to-work bills that would weaken union power in the historical labor stronghold as hundreds of protesters rallied at the Capitol.
2012 – WordPress Version 3.5, named for jazz drummer Elvin Jones, was released to the public.
2012 – Two people were killed and a third was seriously wounded in Clackamas County, Oregon, when Jacob Roberts opened fire in a local shopping mall. Nick Meli, a shopper in the mall, drew a personally owned firearm on Roberts, who then retreated.
2014 – Paul Revere’s 1795 time capsule unearthed in Boston. The time capsule was he buried with Samuel Adams, the man whom Revere was riding to see that night to warn that the British were coming.
1725 – George Mason, American statesman (d. 1792) He was a United States patriot, statesman, and delegate from Virginia to the U.S. Constitutional Convention.
1781 – Sir David Brewster, British physicist (d. 1868)
1843 – Robert Koch, German bacteriologist,Nobel laureate (d. 1910 He became famous for the discovery of the anthrax bacillus (1877), the tuberculosis bacillus (1882) and the cholera vibrio (1883) and for his development of Koch’s postulates.
1882 – Fiorello LaGuardia, American statesman (d. 1947) Three-time mayor of New York City.
1889 – Walter Knott, American farmer (d. 1981). He was a farmer who created the Knott’s Berry Farm amusement park.
1918 – Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Russian writer, Nobel Prize laureate
1931 – Rita Moreno, Puerto Rican entertainer
1942 – Donna Mills, American actress
1943 – John Kerry, American politician
1944 – Brenda Lee, a country-western signer and former teen idol.
1950 – Christina Onassis, American heiress (d. 1988)
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 21st Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date. At Fredericksburg, Va., 11 December 1862. Entered service at: West Boylston, Mass. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 30 March 1866. Citation: Seized the colors of his regiment, the color bearer having been shot down, and bore them to the front where both his arms were carried off by a shell.
Human Rights Day
Nobel Prize Day
Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of nitroglycerin using diatomaceous earth (Kieselguhr) as an absorbent. It was invented by Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in 1866 in Krümmel (Hamburg, Germany) and patented in 1867. It is usually sold in the form of a stick roughly eight inches long and one inch in diameter but other sizes also exist. Dynamite is considered a “high explosive”, which means it detonates rather than deflagrates.
Dynamite consists of three parts nitroglycerin, one part diatomaceous earth and a small admixture of sodium carbonate. This mixture is formed into short sticks and wrapped in paper. Nitroglycerin by itself is a very strong explosive and in its pure form it is shock-sensitive (i.e., physical shock can cause it to explode), degrading over time to even more unstable forms. This makes it highly dangerous to transport or use in its pure form. Absorbed into diatomaceous earth, nitroglycerin is less shock-sensitive.
This is also the anniversary of the death of Alfred Nobel, the prizes bearing his name are awarded “to those persons who shall have contributed most materially to the benefit of mankind during the year immediately preceding.” Each Nobel Prize is regarded as the most prestigious award in its field. Alfred Bernhard Nobel died on this day in 1896 and the first of the Nobel Prizes was presented in 1901 according to instructions in his will. Nobel chose this method to ease his conscience after inventing the deadly explosive, dynamite. One of the richest men in the world, he also felt it would be wrong to leave his fortune to relatives. “Inherited wealth is a misfortune which merely serves to dull man’s faculties.”
So instead of wishing you had a rich relative, get out there and do something good for man and womankind today … and every day, for that matter!
Each recipient, or laureate, receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money which depends on the Nobel Foundation’s income that year. In 2011, each prize was worth c. US$1.45 million dollars but is paid in the recipient’s currency. The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented.” A prize may not be shared among more than three people. The average number of laureates per prize has increased substantially over the 20th century.
“Finish each day and be done with it. You have done what you could. Some blunders and absurdities no doubt crept in; forget them as soon as you can. Tomorrow is a new day; begin it well and serenely and with too high a spirit to be encumbered with your old nonsense. “
~ Ralph Waldo Emerson
ostracize \OS-truh-syz\, transitive verb:
1. To banish or expel from a community or group; to cast out from social, political, or private favor.
2. [Greek Antiquity] To exile by ostracism; to banish by a popular vote, as at Athens.
Ostracize is from Greek ostrakizein, “to banish by voting with potsherds,” from ostrakon, “a piece of earthenware, a potsherd.” Ostracism was practiced at Athens to get rid of a citizen whose power was considered too great for the liberty of the state. Each voter wrote on a potsherd the name of a person he wished banished. The man named on the most ostraka was exiled, normally for a period of ten years.
1520 – Martin Luther burns his copy of the papal bull Exsurge Domine (Arise, O Lord) outside Wittenberg’s Elster Gate. The papacy demanded that he recant or face excommunication. Luther refused and was formally expelled from the church in January 1521.
1672 – New York Governor Lovelace announces monthly mail service between New York and Boston.
1684 – Isaac Newton’s derivation of Kepler’s laws from his theory of gravity, contained in the paper De motu corporum in gyrum, is read to the Royal Society by Edmund Halley.
1690 – Massachusetts Bay becomes first American colonial government to borrow money.
1810 – Tom Cribb beats Tom Molineaux in first interracial boxing championship. He lost after 32 rounds, retiring with exhaustion.
1817 – Mississippi becomes the 20th U.S. state.
1831 – “Spirit of the Times” begins publishing (weekly horse racing sheet)
1836 – Emory College (now Emory University) is chartered in Oxford, Georgia.
1845 – British civil engineer Robert Thompson patented the first pneumatic tires.
1846 – Norbert Rillieux (1806-1894), Black American engineer, received a patent for the Rillieux Process for refining sugar.
1861 – Civil War: Kentucky becomes the 13th state admitted to the Confederacy.
1862 – Civil War: U.S. House of Representatives passed a bill creating the state of West Virginia. It is the only state to form by seceding from a Confederate state.
1864 – Civil War: Sherman’s March to the Sea – Major General William T. Sherman’s Union Army troops reach Savannah, Georgia.
1868 – The first traffic lights are installed outside the Houses of Parliament in London. Resembling railway signals, they use semaphore arms and are illuminated at night by red and green gas lamps.
1869 – Wyoming grants women the right to vote as well as hold public office .
1869 – The first American chapter of Kappa Sigma is founded at the University of Virginia.
1896 – First intercollegiate basketball game (Wesleyan beats Yale 4-3).
1898 – Spanish-American War: The Treaty of Paris is signed, officially ending the conflict. It gave Guam, Puerto Rico and the Philippines to the United States.
1899 – The Delta Sigma Phi fraternity is founded at the City College of New York.
1901 – The first Nobel Prizes are awarded. They were first awarded in Oslo, Norway, and Stockholm, Sweden. They were awarded to to Jean Henri Dunant and Frederic Passy.
1903 – The Nobel Prize for physics was awarded to Pierre and Marie Curie and fellow physicist Henri Becquerel for their work with radioactivity. Marie Curie, the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, had coined the term radioactivity.
1904 – The Pi Kappa Phi fraternity is founded at the College of Charleston in Charleston, South Carolina.
1904 – Charles M. Schwab incorporated a revamped Bethlehem Steel. As president of US Steel he had acquired the Pennsylvania steel maker in 1901.
1906 – U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt wins the Nobel Peace Prize, becoming the first American to win a Nobel Prize of any kind. He received it for helping mediate an end to the Russo-Japanese War.
1907 – Ruyard Kipling receives Nobel prize for literature.
1909 – Red Cloud, Sioux Indian chief, died.
1911 – Calbraith Rogers completes first crossing of US by airplane (84 days).
1915 – 1,000,000th Model-T Ford assembled.
1917 – The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the International Red Cross.
1918 – John A Heyder becomes president of baseball’s National League.
1918 – U.S. troops were called to guard Berlin as a coup was feared.
1919 – National League votes to ban the spitball’s use by all new pitchers.
1927 – Grand Ole Opry makes its first radio broadcast, in Nashville formerly “WSM Barn Dance”
1930 – Lady aviator Ruth Nichols set a new women’s record for coast to coast flight, traveling from Los Angeles to New York in 13 hours 22 minutes.
1931 – Jane Addams became a co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, she was the first American woman to do so.
1931 – Nicholas Murray Butler (1862-1947), presidential advisor and president of Columbia Univ. (1902-1945), was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work on behalf of the Briand Kellogg Pact (1929), a treaty that denounced war as an instrument of national policy.
1934 – Harold C. Urey (1893-1981), US chemist, was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work with deuterium.
1939 – The National Football League’s attendance exceeded 1 million in a season for the first time.
1941 – World War II: The Royal Navy capital ships HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse are sunk by Imperial Japanese Navy torpedo bombers.
1941 – World War II: Aircraft from USS Enterprise attack and sink Japanese Submarine I-70 north of Hawaiian Islands. A participant in the Pearl Harbor Attack, at the time, I-70 is thought to be the first Japanese combatant ship sunk during World War II.
1941 – World War II: PBY piloted by LT Utter of VP-101 shoots down Japanese ZERO in first Navy air-to-air kill during World War II.
1941 – World War II: Battle of the Philippines – Imperial Japanese forces under the command of General Masaharu Homma land on the Philippine mainland.
1941 – World War II: Japanese air attacks and troop landings on Luzon. Attack on the naval base at Caite destroys weapons stocks.
1941 – World War II: The US submarine Sealion was sunk in an air attack at Manila Bay. Ten crewmen were captured by the Japanese and shipped to work in a Mitsubishi copper mine in northern Japan.
1942 – World War II: George W. Merck, former president of Merck Pharmaceutical and head of the War Research Service, requested the Chemical Warfare Service to develop a biological warfare program.
1943 – World War II: On Bougainville, the first American aircraft arrive at the Cape Torokina airfield. American divisions are gradually extending their perimeter.
1943 – World War II: Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a bill that postponed a draft of pre-Pearl Harbor fathers.
1945 – Preston Tucker reveals plan to produce the Torpedo, a new 150 MPH car. Tucker created a car for the future equipped with fuel injection, a center headlight, seat belts, a rear engine, disc brakes, shatterproof glass, and a pop-out windshield.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Near You” by The Francis Craig Orchestra (vocal: Bob Lamm), “You Do” by Dinah Shore, “And Mimi” by Art Lund and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1949 – “Mule Train” by Frankie Laine topped the charts.
1949 – Fats Domino records “The Fat Man.”
1950 – U.S. diplomat Dr. Ralph Joseph Bunche received the Nobel Peace Prize for his peace mediation during the first Arab-Israeli war. He was the first Black American to win the award.
1950 – Korean War: The U.S. Air Force Combat Cargo Command completed a four-day emergency mission in which it airdropped 1,580 tons of supplies and equipment and evacuated 4,687 casualties from the Hagaru-ri and Koto-ri areas near the Chosin/Changjin Reservoir.
1951 – Korean War: The 45th Infantry Division of the Oklahoma Army National Guard arrived in Korea to replace the 1st Cavalry Division.
1953 – Dr. Albert Schweitzer is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his humanitarian work.
1953 – Harry Belafonte debuted on Broadway in “Almanac” at the Imperial Theatre.
1954 – Lt Col John Stapp travels 632 MPH in a rocket sled.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford, “Memories are Made of This” by Dean Martin, “Nuttin’ for Christmas” by Barry Gordon and “Love, Love, Love” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1955 – “The Big Surprise” on NBC-TV awarded the largest amount of money given away on TV. The jackpot was $100,000 and there was a lot of discussion about who would win and when. It had to be ideal timing and the ideal winner. The producers chose 70-year-old Mrs. Ethel Richardson of Los Angeles, a folk-song buff. Good entertainment? Yes. Good scruples? No.
1955 – The anti-proton, discovered in October by a team of UC Berkeley scientists that included Owen Chamberlain, Emilio Segre and Clyde Wiegand (1915-1996), was confirmed by scientists at the Univ. of Rome and the Univ. of California.
1958 – The first domestic passenger jet flight took place in the U.S. when 111 passengers flew from New York to Miami on a National Airlines Boeing 707.
1960 – “Are You Lonesome Tonight?” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1963 – The United States Air Force’s X-20 Dyna-Soar spaceplane program is cancelled by Robert McNamara.
1963 – Donny Osmond made his debut with the Osmonds on NBC’s “Andy Williams Show.”
1964 – Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Dr Martin Luther King Jr. He was the youngest person to receive the award.
1965 – The Grateful Dead play their first concert, at the Fillmore in San Francisco.
1966 – “Good Vibrations” by the Beach Boys topped the charts.
1967 – Otis Redding, at age 26, was killed when his tour plane crashed into a Wisconsin lake. Redding’s tour band, the “Bar-Kays,” were also killed.
1968 – Japan’s biggest heist, the still-unsolved “300 million yen robbery”, occurs in Tokyo.
1968 – John Lennon made his first solo TV appearance.
1970 – Agricultural scientist Norman Borlaug, “father of the Green Revolution”, is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1970 – Vietnam: The defense opens its case in the murder trial of Lt. William Calley.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Family Affair” by Sly & The Family Stone, “Have You Seen Her” by Chi-Lites, “Got to Be There” by Michael Jackson and “Kiss an Angel Good Mornin’ “ by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1971 – Pres. Nixon signed the US Revenue Act into law launching the income tax checkoff system for campaign contributions and paving the way for public funding.
1971 – Jim Hart throws a football for a record 98 yards, the longest recorded throw in NFL history.
1971 – William H. Rehnquist (b.1924) was confirmed as US Supreme Court justice. He replaced Justice John Harlan who resigned in September 1971.
1972 – The American League votes to adopt the Designated Hitter position for the following season.
1972 – Roberta Flack and two members of her backup band are injured in a car accident while driving into Manhattan.
1975 – Activist Andrei Sakharov is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, accepted by his wife, Yelena Bonner.
1976 – Wings release triple album “Wings Over America.”
1977 – “You Light Up My Life” by Debbie Boone topped the charts.
1978 – Arab-Israeli conflict: Prime Minister of Israel Menachem Begin and President of Egypt Anwar Sadat are jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1979 – First Poseidon submarine configured with Trident missiles, USS Francis Scott Key (SSBN-657) completes initial deterrent patrol.
1980 – South Carolina Representative John W. Jenretter resigned to avoid being expelled from the U.S. House of Representatives following his conviction on charges to the FBI’s Abscam investigation.
1981 – A Coast Guard HH-52A landed on CGC Dependable’s flight deck, marking the 5,000th helicopter landing on board the ship.
1982 – USS Ohio (SSBN-726), first Trident-Class submarine, returns from first deterrent patrol.
1983 – Solidarity leader Lech Wałęsa is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, accepted by his wife, Danuta.
1983 – Last NFL game at Shea Stadium; Steelers beat New York Jets 34-7.
1983 – “Say, Say, Say” by Paul McCartney & Michael Jackson topped the charts
1984 – Apartheid: Cleric and activist Desmond Tutu is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1984 – It was reported that a creosote bush in California’s Mojave Desert was determined to be 11,700 years old.
1984 – The National Science Foundation reported the discovery of the first planet outside our solar system, orbiting a star 21 million light-years from Earth.
1985 – Bill to balance the federal budget passed by Congress.
1986 – The Holocaust: Elie Wiesel is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1986 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan declares the date Human Rights Day in the United States.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Heaven is a Place on Earth” by Belinda Carlisle, “Faith” by George Michael, “Should’ve Known Better” by Richard Marx and “Somebody Lied” by Ricky Van Shelton all topped the charts.
1988 – “Look Away” by Chicago topped the charts.
1990 – The U.S. Food & Drug Administration approved Norplant, a long-acting contraceptive implant.
1990 – The space shuttle “Columbia” returned from its tenth mission.
1990 – The first Billboard Music Awards took place. Janet Jackson was the big winner with eight trophies.
1991 – Alan Freed was posthumously awarded a Hollywood Walk of Fame Star. He is accredited with coining the phrase “Rock & Roll.”
1991 – The U.S. Supreme Court struck down New York’s Son of Sam Law that forced criminals’ profits for selling their stories to be seized and given to their victims. The High Court held that the New York law was inconsistent with the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
1992 – Oregon Senator Bob Packwood apologized for what he called “unwelcome and offensive” actions toward women. However, he refused to resign.
1992 – President-elect Clinton announced his first Cabinet selections, including Lloyd Bentsen to be Treasury Secretary and Leon Panetta to be Budget Director.
1993 – The crew of the space shuttle Endeavor deployed the repaired Hubble Space Telescope into Earth’s orbit.
1994 – Advertising executive Thomas Mosser of North Caldwell, NJ, was killed by a mail bomb that was blamed on the Unabomber.
1995 – The first U.S. Marines arrived in the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo to join NATO soldiers sent to enforce peace in the former Yugoslavia.
1997 – The US Supreme Court narrowed double-jeopardy protections for people who face both civil fines and criminal prosecution for the same conduct, ruling that three Oklahoma men could be prosecuted in a bank failure case even though they’d already paid civil fines for their actions.
1998 – Six astronauts opened the doors to the new International space station 250 miles above the Earth’s surface.
1998 – The House Judiciary Committee opened debate on 4 articles of impeachment against Pres. Clinton.
1998 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Detroit Andrzej Olbrot (52), a Wayne State Univ. engineering Prof., was shot and killed while administering final exams. A 48-year-old graduate student turned himself in the next day.
1999 – Wen Ho Lee, nuclear physicist, was charged with 59 counts of mishandling classified information at Los Alamos National Laboratory. After three years under suspicion as a spy for China, computer scientist Wen Ho Lee was arrested and charged with removing secrets from secure computers.
2000 – Jack S. Kilby (1923-2005) received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of the microchip (1958).
2001 – In Philadelphia a gunman opened fire outside the Great Valley Shopping Center in East Whiteland Township and killed two people. A third was wounded.
2001 – Federal authorities charged Golden State Transportation, a Los Angeles-based bus company, with illegally transporting thousands of undocumented aliens from staging areas near the U.S.-Mexico border. Raids over the last 2 days had picked up 26 of the 32 indicted.
2002 – In Los Angeles, CA, the Oakwood Postal Station was renamed the Nat King Cole Post Office. U.S. President George W. Bush had signed the act for the change on October 30, 2002.
2002 – A U.S. F-16 fighter bombed an Iraqi surface-to-air missile system after Iraq moved it deep into the southern no-fly zone.
2003 – Mick Jagger became Sir Mick after the Rolling Stones’ front man was knighted by Prince Charles.
2003 – The U.S. Supreme Court upheld new restrictions on political advertising in the weeks before an election.
2003 – Scientists reported on a partial list of genes that make people human based on comparisons with the chimpanzee genome.
2004 – Staff Sgt. Johnny M. Horne Jr. (30) of Wilson, N.C., was sentenced for killing severely wounded Qasim Hassan (16) in Sadr City on Aug 18. His sentence was three years in prison, reduction in rank to private, forfeiture of all wages and a dishonorable discharge. He was released in September 2005 after having his sentence reduced to one year by, then, Maj. Gen.Peter W. Chiarelli.
2005 – Southern California running back Reggie Bush won the Heisman Trophy.
2005 – In New York City police officer Daniel Enchautegui (28) was shot and killed when he interrupted a burglary in progress while off duty. Two suspects were arrested.
2007 – U.S. Supreme Court granted federal judges new flexibility in criminal sentencing with a ruling that those judges should have broad discretion in imposing reasonable sentencing with the right to disagree with federal guidelines.
2007 – A US judge sentenced former media mogul Conrad Black (63) to 6-1/2 years in prison for obstructing justice and defrauding shareholders in one-time newspaper publishing empire Hollinger International Inc.
2007 – Suspended NFL star Michael Vick was sentenced by a federal judge in Richmond, Va., to 23 months in prison for bankrolling a dogfighting operation and killing dogs that underperformed.
2008 – U.S. Congress Democrats and the White House considered a $14 billion rescue package for Detroit automakers General Motors and Chrysler who said they could not survive until the end of 2008 without financial help. But, while the House of Representatives approved the measure, 237-170, the Senate could not muster enough support and the measure died.
2009 – In San Francisco, police arrested twenty-five protesters a day after students barricaded themselves inside the business school of San Francisco State Univ. to protest fee hikes and budget cuts at the state’s public universities.
2010 – The Federal Aviation Administration loses track of thousands of planes flying all over the U.S. The agency said it isn’t sure who owns close to one-third of the aircrafts in the country.
2011 – NASA clears SpaceX to launch Dragon COTS Demo Flight 2 toward the International Space Station in a window opening on February 7, 2012.
2011 – Robert Griffin III, the quarterback for the Baylor Bears wins the Heisman Trophy, awarded to the best player in college football.
2012 – We honor, twenty-eight-year-old US Navy SEAL Petty Officer 1st Class Nicolas D. Checque who gave of his life yesterday so that another American, Dr. Dilip Joseph, could be saved from the hands of terrorists in Afghanistan, could live in freedom. His life and sacrifice will never be forgotten.
2013 – A Colorado school suspended of a 6-year-old boy for kissing a girl at school, calling it sexual harassment.The boy’s mother said officials at Lincoln School of Science and Technology in Canon City, a southern Colorado city of 16,000, are over-reacting.
1394 – King James I of Scotland (d. 1437)
1787 – Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, American educator (d. 1851)
1813 – Zachariah Chandler, US merchant and politician. He founded the Republican Party.
1830 – Emily Dickinson, American poet (d. 1886)
1911 – Chet Huntley, American journalist (d. 1974)
1912 – Philip A. Hart, U.S. Senator (d. 1976)
1914 – Dorothy Lamour, American actress (d. 1996)
1928 – Dan Blocker, American actor (d. 1972)
1948 – Abu Abbas, founder of the Palestine Liberation Front (d. 2004)
*PAGE, JOHN U. D.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, X Corps Artillery, while attached to the 52d Transportation Truck Battalion. Place and date: Near Chosin Reservoir, Korea, 29 November to December 10th, 1950. Entered service at: St. Paul, Minn. Born: 8 February 1904, Malahi Island, Luzon, Philippine Islands. G.O. No.: 21, 25 April 1957. Citation: Lt. Col. Page, a member of X Corps Artillery, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty in a series of exploits. On 29 November, Lt. Col. Page left X Corps Headquarters at Hamhung with the mission of establishing traffic control on the main supply route to 1st Marine Division positions and those of some Army elements on the Chosin Reservoir plateau. Having completed his mission Lt. Col. Page was free to return to the safety of Hamhung but chose to remain on the plateau to aid an isolated signal station, thus being cut off with elements of the Marine division. After rescuing his jeep driver by breaking up an ambush near a destroyed bridge Lt. Col. Page reached the lines of a surrounded Marine garrison at Koto-ri. He then voluntarily developed and trained a reserve force of assorted army troops trapped with the Marines. By exemplary leadership and tireless devotion he made an effective tactical unit available. In order that casualties might be evacuated, an airstrip was improvised on frozen ground partly outside of the Koto-ri defense perimeter which was continually under enemy attack. During two such attacks, Lt. Col. Page exposed himself on the airstrip to direct fire on the enemy, and twice mounted the rear deck of a tank, manning the machine gun on the turret to drive the enemy back into a no man’s land. On 3 December while being flown low over enemy lines in a light observation plane, Lt. Col. Page dropped handgrenades on Chinese positions and sprayed foxholes with automatic fire from his carbine. After ten days of constant fighting the Marine and army units in the vicinity of the Chosin Reservoir had succeeded in gathering at the edge of the plateau and Lt. Col. Page was flown to Hamhung to arrange for artillery support of the beleaguered troops attempting to break out. Again Lt. Col. Page refused an opportunity to remain in safety and returned to give every assistance to his comrades. As the column slowly moved south Lt. Col. Page joined the rear guard. When it neared the entrance to a narrow pass it came under frequent attacks on both flanks. Mounting an abandoned tank Lt. Col. Page manned the machine gun, braved heavy return fire, and covered the passing vehicles until the danger diminished. Later when another attack threatened his section of the convoy, then in the middle of the pass, Lt. Col. Page took a machine gun to the hillside and delivered effective counterfire, remaining exposed while men and vehicles passed through the ambuscade. On the night of 10 December the convoy reached the bottom of the pass but was halted by a strong enemy force at the front and on both flanks. Deadly small-arms fire poured into the column. Realizing the danger to the column as it lay motionless, Lt. Col. Page fought his way to the head of the column and plunged forward into the heart of the hostile position. His intrepid action so surprised the enemy that their ranks became disordered and suffered heavy casualties. Heedless of his safety, as he had been throughout the preceding ten days, Lt. Col. Page remained forward, fiercely engaging the enemy single-handed until mortally wounded. By his valiant and aggressive spirit Lt. Col. Page enabled friendly forces to stand off the enemy. His outstanding courage, unswerving devotion to duty, and supreme self-sacrifice reflect great credit upon Lt. Col. Page and are in the highest tradition of the military service.