A covered wooden bridge is a bridge made of timber whose passageway is protected by a roof and enclosing sides. Covered wooden bridges are popular in art and folklore, but they are also important in engineering history. Few engineering structures have captivated the American imagination like a covered wooden bridge Wooden bridges tended to deteriorate rapidly from exposure to the elements, having a useful lifespan of only nine years. Covering them protected their structural members, thus extending their life to 80 years or more..
The Hillsgrove Covered Bridge (above) is a Burr arch truss covered bridge over Loyalsock Creek in Hillsgrove Township, Sullivan County, Pennsylvania. It was built circa 1850 and is 186 feet long. In 1973, it became the first covered bridge in the county to be placed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The bridge is named for the township and nearby unincorporated village of Hillsgrove, and is also known as Rinkers Covered Bridge for an adjoining farm. Pennsylvania had the first covered bridge in the United States, and has had the most such bridges since the 19th century.
While there is little or no evidence of covered bridges in the ancient world, there are sketches of covered bridges going back to the 13th century. The first covered wooden bridge in the United States is credited to Timothy Palmer of Newburyport, Massachusetts, and spanned the Schuylkill River of Philadelphia in 1800.
The Cornish bridge is 449’5″ long and consists of two spans of 204’0″ and 203’0″. It has an overall width of 24’0″., a roadway width of 19’6″, and a maximum vertical clearance of 12’9″. It is posted for ten tons.
Parke County, Indiana has the largest concentration of covered bridges, 35, in the United States and Lancaster County, Pennsylvania has 29 covered bridges, the most in a Pennsylvania County.
There are approximately 800 covered wood bridges in the United States.
“Either you decide to stay in the shallow end of the pool or you go out in the ocean.”
exacerbate ig-ZAS-ur-bayt, transitive verb:
To render more severe, violent, or bitter; to irritate; to aggravate; to make worse.
Exacerbate is from Latin exacerbare, “to irritate, to provoke, to aggravate very much,” from ex-, intensive prefix + acerbare, “to make bitter, to aggravate,” from acerbus, “bitter.”
1493 – Christopher Columbus arrived in La Navidad, Hispaniola. He found the fort burned and his men from the first voyage dead.
1520 – After navigating through the South American strait, three ships under the command of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reach the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Europeans to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific.
1582 – In Stratford-upon-Avon, William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway pay a £40 bond for their marriage licence.
1729 – Natchez Indians massacre 138 Frenchmen, 35 French women, and 56 children at Fort Rosalie, near the site of modern-day Natchez.
1745 – French troops attacked Indians at Saratoga, NY. The Saratoga of 1745 was on the site of the present Schuylerville, NY, on the west bank of the Hudson River about eleven miles east of the present Saratoga Springs NY.
1775 – The Second Continental Congress adopts first rules for regulation of the “Navy of the United Colonies.”
1775 – Samuel Nicholas is commissioned as Captain of Marines.
1776 – Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware River.
1785 – The Treaty of Hopewell is signed between the US Representative Benjamin Hawkins and the Cherokee Indians. The treaty laid out a Western boundary of settlement for the Colonials. The treaty gave rise to the sardonic Cherokee phrase of Talking Leaves, since they claimed that when the treaties no longer suited the Americans, they would “blow away like talking leaves.”
1795 – US paid $800,000 and a frigate as tribute to Algiers and Tunis.
1843 – Ka Lahui: Hawaiian Independence Day – The Kingdom of Hawaii is officially recognized by the United Kingdom and France as an independent nation.
1861 – The Confederate Congress admitted Missouri to the Confederacy, although Missouri had not yet seceded from the Union.
1862 – Civil War: In the Battle of Cane Hill, Union troops under General John Blunt defeat General John Marmaduke’s Confederates.
1864 – Civil War: Battles at Waynesboro and Jones’s Plantation, Georgia (3rd day).
1864 – Civil War: Battle of New Creek, WV, (Rosser’s Raid, Ft. Kelly).
1872 – The Modoc War of 1872-73 began in Siskiyou County, northern California when fighting broke out between Modoc Chief Captain Jack and a cavalry detail led by Captain James Jackson.
1895 – The first American automobile race takes place over the 54 miles from Chicago’s Jackson Park to Evanston, Illinois. Frank Duryea wins in approximately ten hours. The average speed was seven mph. Eighty cars entered the race, six started and two finished.
1905 – ARM & HAMMER baking soda was trademark registered .
1906 – Philadelphia Jack O’Brien and Tommy Burns fought to no decision in a twenty-round draw in a world heavyweight title bout in Los Angeles.
1907 – In Haverhill, Massachusetts, scrap-metal dealer Louis B. Mayer opens his first movie theater.
1908 – A coal mine explosion at Marianna, Pa killed 154 men.
1914 – World War I: Following a war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opens for bond trading.
1916 – World War I: First (German) air attack on London.
1917 – Fred and Adele Astaire debut on Broadway in the Sigmund Romberg revue “Over the Top”.
1919 – American-born Lady Astor is elected to be the first female to sit in the Parliament of the United Kingdom.She was not the first to be elected.That was Countess Markievicz. The Lady Astor and Winston Churchill literally hated one another.
1920 – “The Mark of Zorro”, starring Douglas Fairbanks opens in New York at the Capitol Theater.
1922 – First skywriting over US-“Hello USA – Call Vanderbilt 7200 ” -by Captain Turner, RAF.
1925 – Country-variety show “WSM Barn Dance” makes its radio debut on station WSM. The program would be renamed “Grand Ole Opry” in 1927.
1929 – Adm Richard E Byrd makes first South Pole flight.
1929 – Chicago Cardinals fullback Ernie Nevers, scored every one of his team’s points (six touchdowns and four extra point conversions) in a 40-6 rout of the Chicago Bears. Record still stands.
1932 – Groucho Marx performed on radio for the first time. The original title was “Beagle, Shyster and Beagle – Attorneys at Law.”
1936 – “Pennies From Heaven” hits #1 on the pop singles chart by Bing Crosby.
1941 – World War II: The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise departed Pearl Harbor to deliver F4F Wildcat fighters to Wake Island. This mission saved the carrier from destruction when the Japanese attacked.
1942 – A huge fire occurred at the Cocoanut Grove Night Club in Boston. 492 people perished in total. The Cocoanut Grove was originally a speakeasy—an illegal bar during alcohol Prohibition—and some of its doors were bricked up or bolted shut. The main entrance to the club was only a revolving door.
1942 – Coffee rationing began in the United States, lasting through the end of World War II.
1942 – World War II: The first production Ford bomber, the B-24 Liberator, rolled off the assembly line at Ford’s huge Willow Run plant in Ypsilanti, Michigan.
1943 – World War II: Tehran Conference – US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran to discuss war strategy.
1944 – “Meet Me in St. Louis,” starring Judy Garland, opened in New York.
1948 – The first instant camera, Polaroid Model 95, and film (40 series roll film) were sold to the public at the Jordan Marsh department store (now Macy’s) in Boston, Massachusetts.
1948 – “Hopalong Cassidy” TV western premiered on NBC television.
1950 – Lieutenant General Walton Walker announced that the Eighth Army offensive was at an end. In Tokyo, General Douglas MacArthur announced an “entirely new war.”
1953 – “Rags to Riches” by Tony Bennett topped the charts.
1953 – New York City began eleven days without newspapers due to a strike of photoengravers.
1958 – The US reported the first full-range firing of an ICBM.
1960 – “Are You Lonesome Tonight?” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1961 – Ernie Davis became the first Black to win the Heisman Trophy.
1963 – First million copy record prior to release “I Want to Hold Your Hand.”
1963 – Cape Canaveral, Florida, was renamed Cape Kennedy. The name was changed back to Cape Canaveral in 1973 by a vote of residents.
1963 – Willie Nelson made his debut on the Grand Ole Opry.
1964 – Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 4 probe toward Mars.
1964 – “Leader of the Pack” by Shangri-Las topped the charts.
1964 – Vietnam War: National Security Council members agree to recommend that US President Lyndon B. Johnson adopt a plan for a two-stage escalation of bombing in North Vietnam.
1965 – Vietnam War: In response to U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson’s call for “more flags” in Vietnam, Philippines President Elect Ferdinand Marcos announces he will send troops to help fight in South Vietnam.
1966 – Several groups earned gold records. The Righteous Brothers received one for their album “Soul and Inspiration“,” The Monkees for “I’m a Believer,” and The New Vaudeville Band for “Winchester Cathedral“.
1967 – “Nature” carries the announcement of the discovery of pulsars (pulsating radio sources). The first pulsar was discovered by a graduate student, Jocelyn Bell, then working under the direction of Prof. A. Hewish.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Incense and Peppermints” by Strawberry Alarm Clock, “The Rain, the Park & Other Things” by The Cowsills, “Daydream Believer” by The Monkees and “It’s the Little Things” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1970 – “I Think I Love You” by the Partridge Family topped the charts.
1970 – George Harrison’s “My Sweet Lord” was released.
1974 – John Lennon performs onstage at Madison Square Garden in New York City with Elton John, as a result of losing a wager that his song “Whatever Gets You Thru the Night” (which Elton also played and sang on) would hit #1 on the pop chart (on November 11). This would also be Lennon’s final concert appearance.
1974 – Bowie Kuhn suspends George Steinbrenner for two years as a result of Steinbrenner’s conviction for illegal campaign contributions to Richard Nixon and others.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “That’s the Way (I like It)” by KC & The Sunshine Band, “Fly, Robin, Fly” by Silver Convention, “The Way I Want to Touch You” by Captain & Tennille and “Rocky” by Dickey Lee all topped the charts.
1975 – President Gerald Ford nominated Federal Judge John Paul Stevens to the U.S. Supreme Court seat vacated by William O. Douglas.
1975 – “As the World Turns” and “The Edge of Night”, the final two American soap operas that had resisted going to pre-taped broadcasts, air their last live episodes.
1977 – “The Honeymooners Christmas,” (25:58) directed by Jackie Gleason, aired on
1979 – Billy Smith becomes the first goalie in NHL history to score a goal in a game.
1979 – “Young Maverick”, a TV Western Drama, made its debut on CBS.
1981 – Alabama football coach Paul ‘Bear’ Bryant won his 315th victory.
1981 – “Physical” by Olivia Newton-John topped the charts.
1981 – “Open All Night” (TV Comedy) debut on ABC.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “All Night Long (All Night)” by Lionel Richie, “Say Say Say” by Paul McCartney & Michael Jackson, “Uptown Girl” by Billy Joel and “Holding Her and Loving You” by Earl Thomas Conley all topped the charts.
1983 – The space shuttle Columbia blasted into orbit, carrying six astronauts who conducted experiments using the $1 billion Spacelab in the shuttle’s cargo bay.
1984 – Over 250 years after their deaths, William Penn and his wife Hannah Callowhill Penn are made honorary citizens of the United States.
1985 – Astronauts aboard the space shuttle Atlantis celebrated Thanksgiving with a dinner of irradiated turkey and freeze-dried vegetables, and launched a satellite from the cargo bay.
1987 – “The Time of My Life” by Bill Medley & Jennifer Warnes topped the charts.
1990 – Margaret Thatcher formally tenders her resignation to The Queen and leaves Downing Street for the last time. John Major is elected her successor.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “When a Man Loves a Woman” by Michael Bolton, “Set Adrift on Memory Bliss” by PM Dawn, “That’s What Love is For” by Amy Grant and “Shameless” by Garth Brooks all topped the charts.
1992 – “I Will Always Love You” by Whitney Houston hit #1 on the pop singles chart.
1994 – John Magoch and his armored car disappeared from outside Dillard’s at Arrowhead Towne Center, in Glendale, AZ. Hours later, Magoch was found dead in the parked van, its engine running, in a Sun City, AZ church parking lot. He had a bullet hole in his head.
1995 – U.S. President Bill Clinton signs a highway bill that ends the federal 55 mph speed limit.
1996 – A stuck hatch on the space shuttle Columbia prevented two astronauts from going on a spacewalk. A second planned spacewalk also had to be canceled; engineers later discovered a loose screw had jammed the hatch mechanism.
1999 – Hsing-Hsing, the popular giant panda who arrived in America in 1972 as a symbol of US-China detente, was euthanized at age 28. Officials at Washington’s National Zoo decided to end the panda’s life because of his deteriorating health.
2000 – George W. Bush’s lawyers asked the U.S. Supreme Court to bring “legal finality” to the presidential election by ending any further ballot recounts; Al Gore’s team countered that the nation’s highest court should not interfere in Florida’s recount dispute.
2001 – Officials recovered the body of CIA officer Johnny “Mike” Spann from a prison compound in Mazar-e-Sharif after northern alliance rebels backed by U.S. airstrikes and special forces quelled an uprising by Taliban and al-Qaida prisoners.
2003 – In Ohio authorities said for the first time they had linked the Nov. 25 death of Gail Knisley to at least one of 10 other reports of shots fired at vehicles along I-270.
2003 – The US suspended $49 million in aid payments to Nicaragua’s judiciary, a day after the court told America to stay out of its business.
2003 – It was reported that the New Zealand mud snail had invaded trout streams in Northern California. They were capable of stripping entire river systems of algae and had already infested trout streams in Montana.
2004 – A private jet crashed while taking off in Montrose, CO, killing two crewmen and Edward Ebersol (14), the son of NBC Sports chairman Dick Ebersol, who escaped with his other son Charles.
2005 – A new phenomenon called “Cyber Monday” took effect as millions of Americans returned to work after the Thanksgiving and used office computers to shop for Christmas presents.
2005 – Randy “Duke” Cunningham (63), a Republican US congressman, resigned after pleading guilty in San Diego, Ca., to taking 2.4 million dollars in bribes in return from a military contractor to influence the award of defense deals.
2006 – A US federal judge said the government discriminates against blind people by printing money in bills that all feel the same, and ordered the Treasury Dept. to fix the problem.
2006-In San Francisco Genevieve Paez (53) was shot execution style outside her home in Visitacion Valley. She worked as a customer service supervisor for the US Postal Service.
2007 – In Minnesota a fire at a pipeline from Canada that feeds oil to the US killed two people.
2007 – O.J. Simpson pleaded not guilty in Las Vegas to charges of kidnapping and armed robbery stemming from a confrontation with sports memorabilia dealers. Simpson and a co-defendant were convicted in October, 2008.
2007 – An Oakland, Ca., city auditor’s report said employees were allowed to cash out unused vacation time and received millions of dollars in perks, much of it not subject to scrutiny.
2007 – Nazi documents stored in a vast warehouse in Germany were unsealed, opening a rich resource for Holocaust historians and for survivors to delve into their own tormented past. Inquiries were handled by the archive’s 400 staff members in the German spa town of Bad Arolsen (WSW of Berlin).
2008 – This day was marked as Native American Heritage Day. US federal legislation set aside the day after Thanksgiving — for this year only — to honor the contributions American Indians have made to the US.
2008 – Space shuttle Endeavour and its crew of seven departed the international space station, ending a 12-day visit.
2008 – In New York Jdimytai Damour (34), a Long Island Wal-Mart worker, was killed after a crowd of post-Thanksgiving shoppers burst through the doors at the suburban Valley Stream store and knocked him down.
2010 – Wikileaks releases 250,000 messages sent by U.S. embassies, including messages discussing corruption, criticisms of the UK, Guantánamo Bay prison camp, a Chinese cyber attack, the relationship between Vladimir Putin and Silvio Berlusconi, and a possible unified Korea.
2012 – Motivational speaker Zig Ziglar died after a battle with pneumonia, in Plano, Texas. “Though his time on earth has ended, he is speaking with Jesus now in his heavenly home.” “The angels in heaven are rejoicing and his family is celebrating a life well lived.”
2012 – The Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree, a world-wide symbol of the holidays in New York City was lit. This year’s tree arrived at Rockefeller Center on Wednesday, November 14, 2012. Once the tree is in place, it will be decorated with more than 30,000 multi-colored, energy-efficient LED lights, and crowned by a Swarovski star.
1489 – Margaret Tudor, wife of James IV of Scotland (d. 1541)
1628 – John Bunyan, English cleric and author (d. 1688)
1837 – John Wesley Hyatt, American inventor of celluloid (d. 1920)
1853 – Helen Magill White, first American woman to earn a Ph.D. (d. 1944)
1866 – Henry Bacon, American architect (d. 1924) is best remembered for his severe Greek Doric Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. (built 1915–1922), which was his final project.
1936 – Gary Hart, American politician
1949 – Alexander Godunov, Russian composer and ballet dancer (d. 1995)
1949 – Paul Schaffer, Canadian-born musician and composer, bandleader on “The Late Show with David Letterman.”
1962 – Jon Stewart, American comedian, actor, and television host
CAFFERATA, HECTOR A., JR.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Korea, November 28th, 1950. Entered service at: Dover, N.J. Born: 4 November 1929, New York, N.Y. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a rifleman with Company F, in action against enemy aggressor forces. When all the other members of his fire team became casualties, creating a gap in the lines, during the initial phase of a vicious attack launched by a fanatical enemy of regimental strength against his company’s hill position, Pvt. Cafferata waged a lone battle with grenades and rifle fire as the attack gained momentum and the enemy threatened penetration through the gap and endangered the integrity of the entire defensive perimeter. Making a target of himself under the devastating fire from automatic weapons, rifles, grenades, and mortars, he maneuvered up and down the line and delivered accurate and effective fire against the onrushing force, killing fifteen, wounding many more, and forcing the others to withdraw so that reinforcements could move up and consolidate the position. Again fighting desperately against a renewed onslaught later that same morning when a hostile grenade landed in a shallow entrenchment occupied by wounded Marines, Pvt. Cafferata rushed into the gully under heavy fire, seized the deadly missile in his right hand and hurled it free of his comrades before it detonated, severing part of one finger and seriously wounding him in the right hand and arm. Courageously ignoring the intense pain, he staunchly fought on until he was struck by a sniper’s bullet and forced to submit to evacuation for medical treatment. Stouthearted and indomitable, Pvt. Cafferata, by his fortitude, great personal valor, and dauntless perseverance in the face of almost certain death, saved the lives of several of his fellow Marines and contributed essentially to the success achieved by his company in maintaining its defensive position against tremendous odds. His extraordinary heroism throughout was in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
KENNEMORE, ROBERT S.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company E, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division ( Rein ). Place and date: North of Yudam-ni, Korea, November 27th and November 28th, 1950. Entered service at: Greenville, S.C. Born: 21 June 1920, Greenville, S.C. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as leader of a machine gun section in Company E, in action against enemy aggressor forces. With the company’s defensive perimeter overrun by a numerically superior hostile force during a savage night attack north of Yudam-ni and his platoon commander seriously wounded, S/Sgt. Kennemore unhesitatingly assumed command, quickly reorganized the unit and directed the men in consolidating the position. When an enemy grenade landed in the midst of a machine gun squad, he bravely placed his foot on the missile and, in the face of almost certain death, personally absorbed the full force of the explosion to prevent injury to his fellow Marines. By his indomitable courage, outstanding leadership and selfless efforts in behalf of his comrades, S/Sgt. Kennemore was greatly instrumental in driving the enemy from the area and upheld the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1839, Boston, Mass. Accredited to. Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as coxswain on board the U.S. Sloop John Adams, Sullvan’s Island Channel, November 28th, 1864. Taking part in the boarding of the blockade runner Beatrice while under heavy enemy fire from Fort Moultrie, O’Brien, who was in charge of one of the boarding launches, carried out his duties with prompt and energetic conduct. This action resulted in the firing of the Beatrice and the capture of a quantity of supplies from her.
The Art of Listening
“Friends, Romans, Countrymen lend me your ears!” This is the first line of the funeral oration by Marc Antony from William Shakespeare’s “Julius Caesar.” When this is said it can be said in many ways from sounding like a sportscaster to someone who has lost a dear friend. The ability and need to communicate touches every area of our lives. Everything we do in life requires communication with others. In this case, it is how people hear this to determine its communication effect.
As a long-term member of Toastmasters International it has long been a goal to effectively communicate to my audience.Much of communication theory focuses on how to speak to others and how to convey your message. But, communication is really a two-way process. It is an activity, not a one-time event. The listener’s role is as central to the communication process as the speaker’s role.
In the Toastmasters model positions such as ah-counter, evaluator and individual evaluators all are designed to train people in listening skills as well as speaking skills. For example, the ah-counter position is to listen for speaking fillers such as ah, um, er, ya-know, give a sound and then report at the end of the meeting. This helps not just speakers but audiences to learn how to listen. Since listening is as important as speaking in the communication process, if you wanted to improve your listening skills, where would you begin? Here are a few ideas and suggestions you can use:
Exercise active listening skills.. Try nodding your head to show interest. Try making eye contact with the speaker. Even though you are sitting and listening quietly, this may be enough for the speaker to feel that they are being understood.
Important in listening is how and what makes you tick. We are the product of how we were brought up and where, of our culture, of our experiences, of our education and anything and everything that makes us unique. Our uniqueness can sometimes be an obstacle to being an effective listener. As you listen, try to remain open to what you are hearing and withhold evaluation or judgment. Become aware of what your triggers are in the communication process and what shuts your listening down.
Observe your own and other people’s listening habits. Ask yourself what it feels like when someone really listens to you and when they don’t. Make a list of any behaviors that you find irritating in the listening habits of other people and then examine your own listening behavior. See if you just might exhibit any of the behaviors you find annoying.
Create a checklist of habits you want to change. Also, acknowledge yourself for listening habits you have that do work for you. This type of thorough self-exploration is another way to learn about your filters and your barrier or triggers as a listener. Once you identify and reduce what gets in the way of your ability to hear, you’ll increase your effectiveness as a listener.
Listen without formulating a response to the speaker. As listeners we think about 500 words per minute while the normal speaking rate is about 125 to 150 words per minute. That creates a lot of room for creative thought and for your mind to wander! Try to hear everything that is being said, listen to the entire message and then respond. The temptation is to fill the extra space with your own thoughts and/or responses to what is being said will take you out of the current conversation. And, you may miss valuable information because you’ve moved on to a new topic – without the speaker.
Listen with empathy. Empathy is an imaginative process. Empathy is emptying the mind and listening with the whole being. Empathy is a respectful understanding of what others are experiencing. True empathy is the ability to fully understand and accept another. Learn to listen for: What’s not being said? What’s in the way? What’s missing? What’s needed right now? What’s most important to the speaker?
Become aware of the speaker’s non-verbal communication. One estimate has it that 75% of all communication is non-verbal. Beyond the words is a host of clues as to what the speaker is communicating. Is the speaker’s posture rigid or relaxed? Does the speaker maintain eye contact? Does the speaker’s vocal tone and intonation match the words they are using? Do the speaker’s movements match with the message the words are conveying? Is the verbal and non-verbal communication consistent?
Create an environment for the listening to occur. Remove distractions. Limit side conversations
We all need to feel that we are being heard and understood. It is a basic human need that is as primary a need as having enough water, food or air to survive. So, try out any of these suggestions and you will experience more of a connection to those around you.
And, if all else fails just remember these words by Epictetus, an ancient Greek philosopher and you are guaranteed to improve your listening skills: “Nature gave us one tongue and two ears so we could hear twice as much as we speak.”
“Guard well your spare moments. They are like uncut diamonds. Discard them and their value will never be known. Improve them and they will become the brightest gems in a useful life.”
~ Ralph Waldo Emerson“
Svelte (svelt) adjective:
43 B.C.E. – Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus formed the triumvirate of Rome.
1095 – Pope Urban II called for the first crusade to free the Holy land from Islamic occupation.
1582 – William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway.
1703 – The first Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed in the Great Storm of 1703.
1779 – The College of Philadelphia, considered a Royalist institution, was converted into the University of the State of Pennsylvania, thus creating both America’s first state school and first official university. In 1791, the school became a privately endowed institution and took the name of the University of Pennsylvania.
1804 – Pres. Jefferson issued a nationwide proclamation to military and public officials warning of a conspiracy to attack Spanish territory in Texas. He had opened negotiations with Spain to purchase Texas territory west of New Orleans. Jefferson had heard rumors that Aaron Burr had begun plotting an invasion of Texas.
1817 – US soldiers attacked a Florida Indian village and began the Seminole War.
1826 – Jebediah Smith and his expedition reached San Diego, becoming the first Americans to cross the southwestern part of the U.S.
1839 – In Boston, Massachusetts, the American Statistical Association is founded.
1841 – The liberators of the ship Amistad set sail for Africa aboard the “Gentleman.”
1852 – Ada Lovelace (b.1815), Lord Byron’s daughter and the inventor of computer language, was bled to death by physicians at age 36. She had helped Charles Babbage develop his “Analytical Engine,” that performed mathematical calculations through the use of punched cards.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and several of his men escape the Ohio state prison and return safely to the South.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Payne’s Farm, Va. Payne’s Farm and New Hope Church were the first and heaviest clashes of the Mine Run Campaign.
1864 – Civil War: Battles at Waynesboro, Georgia. (2nd Day)
1864 – Civil War: An explosion and fire destroyed General Butler’s headquarters steamer Greyhound, on the James River, Virginia, and narrowly missed killing Butler, Major General Schenck, and Rear Admiral Porter.
1868 – Indian Wars: Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer’s 7th Cavalry killed Chief Black Kettle (b.1801) and 103 Cheyenne (mostly women and children) on the Washita River near present day Cheyenne, Oklahoma.
1870 – New York Times dubs baseball “The National Game.”
1871 – Ku Klux Klan trials began in Federal District Court in Columbia, SC.
1879 – Virgil Earp became a Deputy U.S. Marshal.
1887 – U.S. Deputy Marshal Frank Dalton, brother of the three famous outlaws, was killed in the line of duty near Fort Smith, Ark.
1889 – First permit issued to drive a car through Central Park (Curtis Brady).
1894 – Mildred Lord was granted a patent for a washing machine.
1895 – At the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, Alfred Nobel signs his last will and testament, setting aside his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after he dies.
1896 – Richard Strauss’ “Also Sprach Zarathustra” (Thus Spake Zarathustra) debuted in Frankfurt. It was later (1968) used as a theme in “2001- A Space Odyssey.”
1898 – The SS Portland, under Capt. Hollis H. Blanchard, sank overnight in the Portland Gale off New England and all 192 people aboard were killed.
1901 – The Army War College was established in Washington, D.C.
1909 – U.S. troops land in Bluefields, Nicaragua, to protect American interests there.
1910 – New York’s Penn Station opens as world’s largest railway terminal. The 28-acre train and transportation facility is still the busiest Amtrak rail station in the U.S.
1911 – Audience threw over-ripe vegetables at actors for the first recorded time in US. The act involved The Cherry Sisters. They were so awful it was described to be like a car wreck.
1924 – In New York City the first Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade is held.
1926 – Louis ‘Satchmo’ Armstrong recorded “You Made Me Love You“.
1928 – Patent for a permanent wave machine which could wave the hair of both white and Black people. U.S. Patent 1,693,515 Marjorie Joyner was employed by the Madame C.J. Walker Cosmetic Company and assigned her patent rights to that company.
1930 – “The First Nighter” first appeared on the Blue Network. It continued with some interruptions until 1953.
1934 – Bank robber Baby Face Nelson dies in a shoot-out called “The Battle of Barrington”with the FBI.
1935 – “Eeny Meeny Miney Mo” was recorded by Ginger Rogers and Johnny Mercer.
1939 – The play “Key Largo,” by Maxwell Anderson, opened in New York.
1941 – The State of Jefferson seceded from Oregon and California. Jefferson was the winning name for a new state made of California’s northern Siskiyou, Del Norte and Trinity counties along with Oregon’s southern Curray County.
1942 – World War II: The French navy at Toulon scuttled its ships and submarines to keep them out of the hands of the Nazis.
1944 – World War II: The second B-29 Superfortress bombing raid on Tokyo targets the Musashi aircraft engine plant.
1944 – World War II: The battleship USS Colorado and 2 light cruisers are damaged in Kamikaze attacks.
1945 – C.A.R.E. (Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere) was founded by Wallace Campbell to provide relief to survivors of World War II. The relief came in “CARE Packages”, which were U.S. Army surplus 10-in-1 food parcels left over from the planned U.S. invasion of Japan.
1947 – Joe DiMaggio wins his 3rd MVP, beating Ted Williams by one vote.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Harbor Lights” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Tony Alamo), “Nevertheless” by Jack Denny, “All My Love” by Patti Page and “I’m Moving On” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: Eighth Army’s 2nd, 24th and 25th Infantry Divisions began withdrawing to the south of the Chongchon River in the face of the Chinese offensive.
1950 – Korean War: East of the Chosin River, Chinese forces annihilated an American task force. Col. Barber (d.2002 at 82) and 220 soldiers in Fox Company withstood a 5-day assault to protect an escape pass.
1951 – Korean War: Cease-fire and demarcation zone accord was signed in Panmunjom, Korea.
1951 – At White Sands, NM a Nike Ajax missile intercepted an aircraft flying at 15 miles range, 33,000 feet altitude, and 300 miles per hour, marking the first successful kill of an aerial target by a U.S. guided missile.
1951 – Hosea Richardson became the first Black horse racing jockey to be licensed in Florida.
1954 – Alger Hiss is released from prison after serving 44 months for perjury.
1954 – “I Need You Now” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.
1957 – Army withdrew from Little Rock, Ark., after the Central High School integration.
1957 – Dorothy Height, YMCA official, elected president of the National Council of Negro Women.
1960 Gordie Howe becomes first NHLer to score 1,000 points .
1960 – CBS radio cancelled “Have Gun Will Travel.”
1961 – Navy reports first use of its cyclotron at Harvard University to treat a human brain tumor. After three treatments, the tumor of the 2-year old patient shrank by eighty percent.
1961 – Gordie Howe becomes first to play in 1,000 NHL games and he scores his 600th goal.
1963 – President Lyndon B. Johnson delivered his first address to a joint session of Congress.
1965 – Vietnam War: The Pentagon tells U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson that if planned operations were to succeed, the number of American troops in Vietnam has to be increased from 120,000 to 400,000.
1965 – “I Hear a Symphony” by the Supremes topped the charts.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Keep Me Hangin’ On” by The Supremes, “Good Vibrations” by The Beach Boys, “Devil with a Blue Dress On & Good Golly Miss Molly” by Mitch Ryder & The Detroit Wheels and “Somebody Like Me” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1966 – In highest-scoring NFL game, Washington Redskins defeat NY Giants 72-41.
1967 – Beatles release “Magical Mystery Tour“.
1970 – Pope Paul VI, visiting the Philippines, was attacked at the Manila airport by a Bolivian painter disguised as a priest.
1971 – “Theme From Shaft” by Isaac Hayes topped the charts.
1973 – The Twenty-fifth Amendment: The United States Senate votes 92 to 3 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President of the United States (on December 6, the House confirmed him 387 to 35).
1973 – Neil Simon’s “Good Doctor,” premiered in New York City.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Can Help” by Billy Swan, “Do It (’Til You’re Satisfied)” by B.T. Express, “Longfellow Serenade” by Neil Diamond and “Trouble in Paradise” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1976 – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)” by Rod Stewart topped the charts.
1978 – San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and City Supervisor Harvey Milk, a gay-rights activist, were shot to death inside City Hall by former supervisor Dan White.
1980 – Dave Williams (Chicago Bears) became the first player in NFL history to return a kick for touchdown in overtime.
1988 – The United States was hit by a flood of worldwide criticism for its refusal a day earlier to allow PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat to address the United Nations.
1990 – The Conservative Party chose John Major to succeed former British prime minister Margaret Thatcher as party leader.
1991 – Both houses of the U.S. Congress approved legislation authorizing $70 billion in borrowing authority for the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) because of the savings and loan failures.
1992 – President-elect Clinton met for more than an hour with former President Reagan in Los Angeles.
1996 – Evan C. Hunziker, an American jailed by North Korea on spy charges, was set free, ending a three-month ordeal.
1996 – A federal judge blocked enforcement of a California initiative to dismantle affirmative action, saying civil rights groups had a “strong probability” of proving it unconstitutional.
1997 – Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York was marred when a wind gust knocked part of a lamppost onto a 34-year-old woman, fracturing her skull and leaving her in a coma for almost a month.
1997 – In Denver five skinheads beat up a 26-year-old black woman who was shopping at a 7-Eleven. All 5 were captured and arraigned in court.
1997 – Gold closed below $300 for the first time since 1985 to $296.
1998 – Shoppers on Black Friday crowded shopping centers and the new Furby toys, a furry talking toy, was creating a mania. Black Friday was used to describe the big shopping day following Thanksgiving that put stores into the black.
1998 – In Texas, Martin E. Gurule became the first inmate to escape from Death Row at Huntsville.
2001 – A hydrogen atmosphere is discovered on the extrasolar planet Osiris by the Hubble Space Telescope, the first atmosphere detected on a planet outside our solar system.
2002 – President Bush gave the go-ahead to open U.S. highways to Mexican trucks.
2003 – Pres. Bush flew to Iraq under extraordinary secrecy and security to spend Thanksgiving with US troops.
2003 – Researchers in Cleveland reported on a gene that causes heart attacks.
2004 – U.S. Army deserter Charles Jenkins was released from a military jail after serving 25 days for abandoning his squadron and crossing the border into North Korea in 1965. Thirty-nine years living in North Korea was considered part of time-served.
2005 – The first partial human face transplant is completed in Amiens, France. Isabelle Dinoire received the lips, nose and chin of a brain-dead woman in a 15-hour operation.
2005 – In Santa Maria, Ca., a Greyhound bus overturned, killing two people and injuring dozens of others.
2006 – An early morning fire at a group home for the mentally disabled in southwest Missouri killed ten residents and a caretaker and sent at least a dozen more to a hospital.
2007 – A Somali immigrant, Nuradin Abdi, was sentenced to ten years in prison for plotting to blow up an Ohio shopping mall.
2007 – In Florida Pro Bowl safety Sean Taylor died after he was shot in his home by an apparent intruder, leaving the Washington Redskins in mourning for a teammate who seemed to have reordered his life since becoming a father.
2007 – Cessna said it will turn over complete production of its new Cessna 162 SkyCatcher to a Chinese partner, Shenyang Aircraft Corporation.
2008 – Macy’s held its 82nd Thanksgiving Day parade in New York City.
2008 – An SUV plunged off an overpass in northern Colorado and hit a concrete embankment in a fiery crash, killing all seven people inside it, including two young children.
2009 – Tiger Woods ran his SUV into a fire hydrant and a tree outside his Florida home. This took place just days after the National Enquirer claimed he had an affair with Rachel Uchitel, the 33-year-old golf champ.
2009 – Space shuttle Atlantis and its seven astronauts completing STS-129 returned to Earth with a smooth touchdown at Cape Canaveral, Fla., to end an “amazing” flight that resupplied the International Space Station.
2010 – TERRORISM: Somali-born teenager Mohamed Osman Mohamud is arrested in Portland, Oregon, for allegedly plotting a bombing attack on a Christmas tree lighting ceremony.
2012 – The remains of Yasser Arafat are exhumed as part of an investigation into how the Palestinian leader died in November 2004.
2013 – OBAMACARE: The small business exchange is delayed another year.
2013 – U.S. Bankruptcy Court Judge Sean Lane, who is overseeing the case of the bankruptcy reorganization of American Airlines, gives his required approval to the American Airlines–US Airways merger.
2013 – In Tucson, AZ, three girls that had been held hostage by their knife-wielding stepfather were rescued. They had been held captive for several months or more in extremely dirty conditions (possibly up to two years), subjected to long barrages of loud music or static, fed only once a day and having gone up to four months without a bath.
1701 – Anders Celsius, Swedish astronomer and thermometer inventor.
1843 – Cornelius Vanderbilt, American businessman.
1853 – Bat Masterson, American Wild West gambler, saloonkeeper, lawman, and editor.
1909 – James Agee, American Pulitzer Prize-winning author.
1912 – David Merrick, American Broadway producer.
1917 – Buffalo Bob (Smith), American TV host.
1940 – Bruce Lee (Liu Yuen Kam), Chinese-born American actor, martial arts expert.
1942 – Jimi Hendrix, American guitarist and singer.
1957 – Caroline Kennedy Schlossberg, daughter of President John F.Kennedy.
*DESIDERIO, REGINALD B.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, commanding officer, Company E, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Ipsok, Korea, November 27th, 1950. Entered service at: Gilroy, Calif. Born: 12 September 1918, Clairton, Pa. G.O. No.: 58, 2 August 1951. Citation: Capt. Desiderio distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the repeated risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. His company was given the mission of defending the command post of a task force against an enemy breakthrough. After personal reconnaissance during darkness and under intense enemy fire, he placed his men in defensive positions to repel an attack. Early in the action he was wounded, but refused evacuation and despite enemy fire continued to move among his men checking their positions and making sure that each element was prepared to receive the next attack. Again wounded, he continued to direct his men. By his inspiring leadership he encouraged them to hold their position. In the subsequent fighting when the fanatical enemy succeeded in penetrating the position, he personally charged them with carbine, rifle, and grenades, inflicting many casualties until he himself was mortally wounded. His men, spurred on by his intrepid example, repelled this final attack. Capt. Desiderio’s heroic leadership, courageous and loyal devotion to duty, and his complete disregard for personal safety reflect the highest honor on him and are in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 22d Infantry, 4th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Grosshau, Germany, November 27th,1944. Entered service at: Sugarland, Tex. Born: 20 January 1920, Villa de Castano, Mexico. G.O. No.: 74, 1 September 1945. Citation: While an acting squad leader of Company B, 22d Infantry, on 27 November 1944, near Grosshau, Germany, he single-handedly assaulted two enemy machinegun emplacements. Attacking prepared positions on a wooded hill, which could be approached only through meager cover, his company was pinned down by intense machinegun fire and subjected to a concentrated artillery and mortar barrage. Although painfully wounded, he refused to be evacuated and on his own initiative crawled forward alone until he reached a position near an enemy emplacement. Hurling grenades, he boldly assaulted the position, destroyed the gun, and with his rifle killed three of the enemy who attempted to escape. When he rejoined his company, a second machinegun opened fire and again the intrepid soldier went forward, utterly disregarding his own safety. He stormed the position and destroyed the gun, killed three more Germans, and captured four prisoners. He fought on with his unit until the objective was taken and only then did he permit himself to be removed for medical care. S/Sgt. (then private) Garcia’s conspicuous heroism, his inspiring, courageous conduct, and his complete disregard for his personal safety wiped out two enemy emplacements and enabled his company to advance and secure its objective.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Ringgold, Ga., November 27th, 1863. Entered service at: Syracuse, N.Y. Birth: Syracuse, N.Y. Date of issue: 28 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and battery guidon.
PACKARD, LORON F.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 5th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Raccoon Ford, Va., November 27th, 1863. Entered service at. Cuba, N.Y. Birth. Cattaraugus County, N.Y. Date of issue. 20 August 1894. Citation. After his command had retreated, this soldier, voluntarily and alone, returned to the assistance of a comrade and rescued him from the hands of three armed Confederates.
SCHEIBNER, MARTIN E.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 90th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Mine Run, Va., November 27th,1863. Entered service at: Berks County, Pa. Born: 13 October 1840, Russia. Date of issue: 23 June 1896. Citation: Voluntarily extinguished the burning fuse of a shell which had been thrown into the lines of the regiment by the enemy.
National Cake Day
Needs No Batteries- Yeah Right!!!!
Electricity has fascinated human kind since our ancestors first witnessed lightning. In ancient Greece, Thales observed that an electric charge could be generated by rubbing amber, for which the Greek word is electron.
In 1938 a jar was found just outside Baghdad, Iraq (that may be, could be or is believed to be) the first battery. The jar is about 2000 years old from the Parthian period. The jar is composed of a clay jar with a stopper made of asphalt. Sticking through the asphalt is an iron rod surrounded by a copper cylinder. When filled with vinegar – or any other electrolytic solution – the jar produces about 1.1 volts. But, such ancient knowledge in the history of electricity bears no known continuous relationship to the development of modern batteries. Its form, though, is nearly identical to the principles that are in use today.
Beginning his work in 1794, Volta observed the electrical interaction between two different metals submerged near each other in an acidic solution. Based on this principle, his first battery consisted of a series of alternating copper and zinc rings in an acid solution known as an electrolyte. His device for generating a consistent flow of electricity was invented in 1800. He called his invention a column battery, although it came to be commonly known as the Volta battery, Voltaic cell or Voltaic pile.
Volta’s discovery of a means of converting chemical energy into electrical energy formed the basis for nearly all modern batteries. Volta researched the effects which different metals produced when exposed to salt water. In 1801, Volta demonstrated the Voltaic cell to Napoleon Bonaparte (who later ennobled him, Count, for his discoveries).
“Wherever there is danger, there lurks opportunity; whenever there is opportunity, there lurks danger. The two are inseparable. They go together.”
~ Earl Nightingale
proclivity pro-KLIV-uh-tee, noun:
A natural inclination; predisposition.
Proclivity comes from Latin proclivitas, from proclivis, “inclined,” from pro-, “forward” + clivus, “a slope.”
1716 – A lion was first exhibited in the U.S., in Boston.
1774 – A congress of colonial leaders criticized British influence in the colonies and affirmed their right to “Life, liberty and property.”
1778 – Captain Cook discovered Maui in the Sandwich Islands, later named Hawaii.
1789 – A national Thanksgiving Day is observed in the United States as recommended by President George Washington and approved by Congress.
1783 – The city of Annapolis, Maryland, was the first peacetime U.S. capital.
1789 – President Washington set aside this day to observe the adoption of the Constitution of the United States.
1789 – George Washington proclaimed this a National Thanksgiving Day in honor of the new Constitution. He made it clear that the day should be one of prayer and giving thanks to God, to be celebrated by all the religious denominations. This date was later used to set the date for Thanksgiving.
1825 – The first college social fraternity, Kappa Alpha, was started at Union College in Schenectady, New York.
1832 – First streetcar railway in America starts operating (New York City) (12cent fare).
1842 – The University of Notre Dame is founded.
1846 – Sarah Josepha Hale, editor of the influential Godey’s Lady’s Book, began a tireless campaign to establish a national Thanksgiving holiday in November. She was the editor and founder of the Ladies’ Magazine in Boston. It was because of her editorials and letters to President Lincoln that he made his proclamation on October 3, 1863, which designated the last Thursday of November as Thanksgiving Day.
1860 – A newspaper print of newly elected President Abraham Lincoln clearly showed the beginnings of a beard. He started to grow it when a supporter said he would look better with one.
1861 – West Virginia was created as a result of dispute over slavery with Virginia.
1862 – Charles Dodgson (AKA Lewis Carroll) sends the handwritten manuscript of Alice’s Adventures Underground to 10-year-old Alice Liddell. (see 1865)
1863 – The first of our modern annual Thanksgivings was held as President Lincoln proclaimed on October 3, 1863 .
1863 – Civil War: Mine Run – Union forces under General George Meade position against troops led by Confederate General Robert E. Lee. This followed months of inaction after Gettysburg.
1864 – Civil War: Skirmish at Sylvan Brutal and Waynesboro, Georgia.
1864 – Colonel Kit Carson led the attack in the First Battle of Adobe Walls, NM. He led a column of 335 officers and men of the First New Mexico Volunteer Cavalry and they surprised an encampment of Kiowa Indians. He was leter forced to retreat when counter-attacked by hundreds of Comanches.
1865 – “Alice in Wonderland” by Lewis Carroll was published in US.
1867 – The refrigerated railroad car was patented by J.B. Sutherland of Detroit, Michigan.
1895 – Russell Penniman received a patent for transparent photographic film.
1896 – A.A. Stagg of the University of Chicago creates the football huddle.
1896 – The University of Chicago defeated the University of Michigan, 7-6, at the Chicago Coliseum. It was the first major college football game played indoors.
1917 – The National Hockey League is formed, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, and Toronto Arenas as its first teams.
1922 – British archaeologists Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon became the first to enter King Tutankhamen’s tomb in over 3000 years.
1922 – “Toll of the Sea” (54:34) debuts as the first general release film to use two-tone Technicolor (The Gulf Between was the first film to do so but it was not widely distributed).
1933 – Fifteen thousand people in San Jose, California, storm the jail where Thomas Thurmond and John Holmes are being held as suspects in the kidnapping and murder of Brooke Hart, the 22-year-old son of a local storeowner. The mob of angry citizens proceeded to lynch and strip the accused men and then pose them for pictures.
1933 – A judge in New York ruled the James Joyce book “Ulysses” was not obscene and could therefore be published in the United States.
1940 – Xavier Cugat and his orchestra recorded “Orchids in the Moonlight” on the Columbia label.
1940 – World War II (Europe): The half-million Jews of Warsaw, Poland, were forced by the Nazis to live within a walled ghetto. For perspective on the conditions, New York City, America’s most populous city, there are 26,401 people per square mile. In this ghetto there were 384,615 per square mile. The ghetto was fifteen times as populous as New York. Conditions were horrible beyond imagination.
1941 – President Franklin Roosevelt established the fourth Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day. In 1789, President George Washington proclaimed Nov. 26 to be Thanksgiving Day. It was the first U.S. holiday by presidential proclamation. Abraham Lincoln changed it to the last Thursday in November and then Roosevelt moved it to the fourth Thursday in November.
1941 – World War II: Attack on Pearl Harbor – A fleet of six aircraft carriers commanded by Japanese Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo leaves Hitokapu Bay for Pearl Harbor under strict radio silence.
1941 – World War II: The Hull Note Ultimatum is delivered to Japan by the United States. It was an edict that “the government of Japan will withdraw all military, naval, air and police forces from China and Indochina.”
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: 572 Norwegian Jews were deported to Auschwitz on the cargo vessel Donau. This was the first step on the journey to the death camp Auschwitz. Altogether the total number of Jews deported from Norway was 767. Twenty-five of the deported survived.
1942 – World War II: President Franklin Roosevelt ordered gas rationing to begin on December 1st.
1942 – The film “Casablanca” with Ingrid Bergman and Humphrey Bogart was made. It had its world premiere at the Hollywood Theater in New York City just as Allied Expeditionary Forces landed in North Africa.
1943 – World War II: The HMT Rohna, a British transport ship carrying American soldiers, was hit by a German missile off Algeria; 1,138 men were killed, including 1,015 American troops.
1943 – World War II: Edward H “Butch” O’Hare, US Navy pilot, Lt Commander (Chicago Airport named for him) and the U.S. Navy’s first flying ace and Medal of Honor recipient in World War II. died in battle. Butch O’Hare’s final action took place on the night of November 26, 1943, while he was leading the U.S. Navy’s first-ever nighttime fighter attack launched from an aircraft carrier. During this encounter with a group of Japanese torpedo bombers, O’Hare’s F6F Hellcat was shot down; his aircraft was never found.
1944 – World War II: A German V-2 rocket hits a Woolworth’s shop on New Cross High Street, United Kingdom, killing 168 shoppers.
1944 – World War II: The US 8th Air Force attacks Hanover (Misburg oil plant), Hamm (the marshalling yards) and Bielefeld (the railway viaduct). The Americans destroyed 138 German fighters for the loss of 36 bombers and 7 fighters.
1945 – “Bride and Groom” debuted on the NBC Blue network.
1949 – “Twenty Questions” had its TV premiere.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Cry, Joe” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Betty Brewer), “I Can Dream, Can’t I?” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Jack Leonard), “A Dreamer’s Holiday” by Perry Como and “Slipping Around” by Margaret Whiting & Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: Troops from the People’s Republic of China move into North Korea and launch a massive counterattack against South Korean and American forces (Battle of Chosin Reservoir), ending any hopes of a quick end to the conflict. It results in the UN troops being pushed completely out of North Korea.
1952 – The first modern 3-D film “Bwana Devil” starred Robert Stack premiered. It was made in 3-D by cameraman Lothrop Worth (d.2000 at 96) and inspired a series of 1950s 3-D movies also including “The House of Wax” and “The Creature from the Black Lagoon.” To watch this or the full movie you will need “3D glasses” from the 50’s. Newer ones don’t work.
1955 – “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford topped the charts.
1956 – “The Price is Right” (29:29) premiered on TV
1956 – Bandleader Tommy Dorsey died in Greenwich, Conn., a week after his 51st birthday.
1960 – “Stay” by Maurice Williams topped the charts.
1961 – Professional Baseball Rules Committee voted 8-1 against legalizing the spitball.
1962 – The Beatles recorded “Please Please Me” during their first recording session.
1962 – Arlo Guthrie (17) was arrested in Stockbridge, Mass., for dumping some trash following a Thanksgiving feast at a restaurant run by Alice Brock. He wrote a song about the event that became a folk classic and was turned into a movie in 1969. Alice’s Restaurant (23 minutes)
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Hear a Symphony” by The Supremes, “1-2-3” by Len Barry, “Rescue Me” by Fontella Bass and “May the Bird of Paradise Fly Up Your Nose” by “Little” Jimmy Dickens all topped the charts.
1965 – France successfully launched the Diamant-A rocket into space, becoming the world’s third space power after the Soviet Union and the United States.
1968 – Vietnam War: United States Air Force helicopter pilot James P. Fleming rescues an Army Special Forces unit pinned down by Viet Cong fire and is later awarded the Medal of Honor. (See citation below in Medal of Honor Recipients.)
1969 – Lottery for Selective Service draftees executive order #11497 was signed by President Nixon.
1969 – The Heisman Trophy was awarded to Steve Owens of Oklahoma as the nation’s outstanding college football player. Owens scored more touchdowns and gained more yardage than any previous player in collegiate history.
1970 – In Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, 1.5 inches of rain fell in a minute, the heaviest rainfall ever on record.
1973 – President Nixon’s personal secretary, Rose Mary Woods, told a federal court that she’d accidentally caused part of the 18 1/2-minute gap in a key Watergate tape.
1975 – Lynette Alice Fromme, also known as “Squeaky” Fromme, a follower of Charles Manson, was found guilty of attempting to assassinate President Gerald R. Ford.
1975 – Fred Lynn becomes the first rookie to win MVP honors, taking the American League award.
1976 – Catholicism ceased to be the state religion of Italy.
1977 – “You Light Up My Life” by Debbie Boone topped the charts.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Physical” by Olivia Newton-John, “Waiting for a Girl like You” by Foreigner, “Here I Am (Just When I Thought I was Over You)” by Air Supply and “All My Rowdy Friends (Have Settled Down)” by Hank Williams, Jr. all topped the charts.
1983 – Brinks Mat robbery: In London, 6,800 gold bars worth nearly £26 million are taken from the Brinks Mat vault at Heathrow Airport.
1983 – “All Night Long (All Night)” by Lionel Richie topped the charts.
1983 – Angela Bugay of Antioch, Ca., 5-years-old, was found in a shallow grave in Concord, Ca. She had been kidnapped a week earlier. Larry Graham, who dated Angela’s mother, was later arrested as a suspect and prosecutors in 1995 received a court order to draw his blood for DNA evidence. In 1996 police matched the DNA of Graham, with samples recovered from the girl’s body and arrested him on charges of murder. Use of the DNA evidence was cleared in 1998. Graham was convicted Aug 20, 2002, and sentenced to death Oct 22. He was found dead in his cell at San Quentin State Prison , an apparent suicide, on June 16, 2009.
1985 – Space shuttle Atlantis makes second flight and carries seven astronauts.
1985 – The rights to Ronald Reagan’s autobiography were acquired by Random House for $3,000,000.
1986 – US President Ronald Reagan announces the members of what will become known as the Tower Commission. It’s mission, to investigate his National Security Council staff in the wake of the Iran-Contra affair.
1987 – Cuban detainees concerned about the possibility of being sent back to Cuba continued to hold hostages at a prison in Atlanta and a detention center in Oakdale, La.
1988 – The U.S. denied an entry visa to PLO chairman Yasser Arafat, who was seeking permission to travel to New York to address the U.N. General Assembly.
1988 – “Bad Medicine” by Bon Jovi topped the charts.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Blame It on the Rain” by Milli Vanilli, “Love Shack” by The B-52’s, “(It’s Just) The Way That You Love Me” by Paula Abdul and “Yellow Roses” by Dolly Parton all topped the charts.
1990 – The Delta II rocket makes its maiden flight.
1991 – The Custer Battlefield was renamed Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument.
1991 – The Stars and Stripes were lowered for the last time at Clark Air Base in Angeles City, Philippines, as the United States abandoned one of its oldest and largest overseas installations, which was damaged by Mount Pinatubo’s eruption.
1991 – School administration handed out condoms to thousands of New York City high school students.
1992 – Queen Elizabeth II announced she would start paying taxes on her personal income and take her children off the national payroll.
1994 – Margaret Garrish, a 72-year-old Detroit woman, committed suicide in the presence of Dr. Jack Kevorkian.
1995 – Two men set fire to a subway token booth in the Brooklyn borough of New York City. The clerk inside was fatally burned. On December 14th 18-year-old James Irons was arrested for the attack. He was charged with second-degree murder. The victim of the attack, Harry P. Kaufman, a 50-year-old clerk who suffered second- and third-degree burns from his head to his knees, died Sunday.
1996 – The Sands Hotel in Las Vegas was blown up to make room for the new 6,000 room Venetian resort.
1997 – In the Aleutian Islands 800 miles southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, the freighter, Kuroshima, ran aground off Dutch Harbor in heavy winds. Two crewmen were reported dead and 10,000 gallons of oil was reported to have leaked.
1998 – Hulk Hogan announced that he was retiring from pro wrestling and would run for president in 2000.
1999 – In New Jersey a small plane crashed in Newark. Pilot Itzhak Jacoby (56), his wife Gail and daughter Atira (13) were killed. 22 people were injured on the ground.
2000 – Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris certified Gov. George W. Bush as winner in the state’s presidential election, 2,912,790 to 2,912,253, a 537-vote margin. Ralph Nader received 97,488 votes.
2001 – President Bush appealed to Congress to outlaw human cloning after scientists in Worcester, Mass., reported they had created the first cloned human embryo.
2001 – In Pensacola, Fla., Terry Lee King was murdered and his house set afire. His two sons, Derek (14) and Alex (13) confessed to the murder.
2001 – Iraq: After nine days of heavy fighting and American aerial bombardment, Taliban fighters surrendered to Northern Alliance forces. The Taliban surrendered the border town of Spin Buldak as US Marines directed air attacks on a column of enemy vehicles.
2002 – President George W. Bush signed into law a bill that created the Department of Homeland Security, the largest reorganization of the federal government in fifty years.
2002 – WorldCom and the government settled a civil lawsuit over the company’s $9 billion accounting scandal.
2003 – Concorde makes its last ever flight. Concorde featured a maximum speed over twice the speed of sound at Mach 2.04, with seating for 92 to 128 passengers. First flown in 1969, Concorde entered service in 1976 and continued commercial flights for 27 years until 2003.
2003 – Human rights activist Gao Zhan pleaded guilty in Alexandria, Va., to illegally selling American high-tech items with potential military uses to China. She had been recently freed from a Chinese prison after the US government interceded on her behalf. Strange way to say thanks!!
2004 – A Cyprus-registered tanker spilled 30,000 gallons of crude oil into the Delaware River between Philadelphia and southern New Jersey, creating a 20-mile-long slick that killed dozens of birds and threatened other wildlife.
2004 – In New York City a man jumped to his death from the 86th-floor observation deck at the Empire State Building.
2005 – A U.S. Marine died when his vehicle was hit by a roadside bomb near Camp Taqaddum, 45 miles west of Baghdad. Iraqi police arrested eight Sunni Arabs in the northern city of Kirkuk for allegedly plotting to assassinate the investigating judge who prepared the case against Saddam Hussein.
2005 – The US military said four US soldiers face disciplinary action for burning the bodies of two Taliban rebels, but they will not be charged with crimes because their actions were motivated by hygienic concerns.
2007 – A new report said the US District of Columbia has the highest rate of AIDS of any city in the country.
2007 – Roger Lee Dillon (22), his girlfriend, Nicole N. Boyd (24), and Dillon’s mother, Sharon Lee Gregory (48), stole $7.4 million in cash and checks from an Ohio AT armored car company. They were arrested Dec 1 in West Virginia.
2007 – Mississippi Sen. Trent Lott announced his retirement after a 35-year career in Congress.
2007 – Washington Redskins star safety Sean Taylor was mortally wounded when he was shot during a botched armed robbery at his home in Palmetto Bay, Fla. Taylor died the next day.
2008 – Edna Parker (115), the world’s oldest person, died in Shelbyville, Indiana.
2009 – In Jupiter, Florida, three women and a child, Makayla Sitton, in bed were shot to death during a family Thanksgiving gathering.
2009 – The Univ. of Michigan announced that football player Charles Woodson is donating $2 million to its new Mott Children’s Hospital and Women’s Hospital.
2010 – Country music singer Willie Nelson is charged with marijuana possession.
2011 – NASA launches the robotic Mars Science Laboratory, the largest rover yet sent to Mars, with the aim of finding evidence for past or present life on Mars.
2011 – NBA team owners and players reach an agreement to end the 149-day NBA lockout and to begin the current NBA season on Christmas Day.
2012 – NASA and Roscosmos announce that veteran spaceflyers Scott Kelly and Mikhail Korniyenko will carry out the first year-long mission to the International Space Station in 2015.
2012 -The Northside Independent School District in San Antonio, TX is requiring students to wear a card with has a microchip in it that can be tracked throughout the school. Starting this fall, all students at John Jay High School and Anson Jones Middle School are required to carry them and they are tracked by the dozens of electronic readers installed in the schools’ ceiling panels.
2013 – A nurse is dead and four other people are wounded after an attack at the Ambulatory Surgery Center at Good Shepherd Medical Center in Longview, TX. The suspect, identified as Kyron Rayshaun Templeton, 22, of Longview was taken into custody a short while later on Sixth Street in Longview. He is now charged with murder and four counts of aggravated assault. He is being held on $2.6 million bond.
1607 – John Harvard, English clergyman and scholar, whose bequest permitted the establishment of Harvard College.
1731 – William Cowper, English poet.
1827 – Ellen Gould White, American, founder of the Seventh Day Adventists.
1832 – Mary Edwards Walker, American physician, women’s right leader.
1876 – Willis Haviland Carrier, American, inventor of the first air conditioning system.
1909 – Eugene Ionesco, Romanian-born French playwright, often called the “Father of the Absurd,”
1922 – Charles Schulz, American cartoonist, creator of the “Peanuts” comic strip.
FLEMING, JAMES P.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Air Force, 20th Special Operations Squadron. Place and date: Near Duc Co, Republic of Vietnam, November 26th, 1968. Entered service at: Pullman, Wash. Born: 12 March 1943, Sedalia, Mo. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Fleming (then 1st Lt.) distinguished himself as the Aircraft Commander of a UH-1F transport Helicopter. Capt. Fleming went to the aid of a six-man special forces long range reconnaissance patrol that was in danger of being overrun by a large, heavily armed hostile force. Despite the knowledge that one helicopter had been downed by intense hostile fire, Capt. Fleming descended, and balanced his helicopter on a river bank with the tail boom hanging over open water. The patrol could not penetrate to the landing site and he was forced to withdraw. Dangerously low on fuel, Capt. Fleming repeated his original landing maneuver. Disregarding his own safety, he remained in this exposed position. Hostile fire crashed through his windscreen as the patrol boarded his helicopter. Capt. Fleming made a successful takeoff through a barrage of hostile fire and recovered safely at a forward base. Capt. Fleming’s profound concern for his fellowmen, and at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Air Force and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
MITCHELL, FRANK N.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company A, 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Near Hansan-ni, Korea, November 26th, 1950. Entered service at: Roaring Springs, Tex. Born: 18 August 1921, Indian Gap, Tex. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as leader of a rifle platoon of Company A, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Leading his platoon in point position during a patrol by his company through a thickly wooded and snow-covered area in the vicinity of Hansan-ni, 1st Lt. Mitchell acted immediately when the enemy suddenly opened fire at pointblank range, pinning down his forward elements and inflicting numerous casualties in his ranks. Boldly dashing to the front under blistering fire from automatic weapons and small arms, he seized an automatic rifle from one of the wounded men and effectively trained it against the attackers and, when his ammunition was expended, picked up and hurled grenades with deadly accuracy, at the same time directing and encouraging his men in driving the outnumbering enemy from his position. Maneuvering to set up a defense when the enemy furiously counterattacked to the front and left flank, 1st Lt. Mitchell, despite wounds sustained early in the action, reorganized his platoon under the devastating fire, and spearheaded a fierce hand-to-hand struggle to repulse the onslaught. Asking for volunteers to assist in searching for and evacuating the wounded, he personally led a party of litter bearers through the hostile lines in growing darkness and, although suffering intense pain from multiple wounds, stormed ahead and waged a single-handed battle against the enemy, successfully covering the withdrawal of his men before he was fatally struck down by a burst of small-arms fire. Stouthearted and indomitable in the face of tremendous odds, 1st Lt. Mitchell, by his fortitude, great personal valor and extraordinary heroism, saved the lives of several marines and inflicted heavy casualties among the aggressors. His unyielding courage throughout reflects the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
PITTMAN, JOHN A.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 23d Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kujangdong, Korea, November 26th,1950. Entered service at: Carrolton, Miss. Born: 15 October 1928, Carrolton, Miss. G.O. No.: 39, 4 June 1951. Citation: Sgt. Pittman, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. He volunteered to lead his squad in a counterattack to regain commanding terrain lost in an earlier engagement. Moving aggressively forward in the face of intense artillery, mortar, and small-arms fire he was wounded by mortar fragments. Disregarding his wounds he continued to lead and direct his men in a bold advance against the hostile standpoint. During this daring action, an enemy grenade was thrown in the midst of his squad endangering the lives of his comrades. Without hesitation, Sgt. Pittman threw himself on the grenade and absorbed its burst with his body. When a medical aid man reached him, his first request was to be informed as to how many of his men were hurt. This intrepid and selfless act saved several of his men from death or serious injury and was an inspiration to the entire command. Sgt. Pittman’s extraordinary heroism reflects the highest credit upon himself and is in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the military service.
*SHERIDAN, CARL V.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company K, 47th Infantry, 9th Infantry Division. Place and date: Frenzenberg Castle, Weisweiler, Germany, November 26th,1944. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Baltimore, Md. G.O. No.: 43, 30 May 1445. Citation: Attached to the 2d Battalion of the 47th Infantry on 26 November 1944, for the attack on Frenzenberg Castle, in the vicinity of Weisweiler, Germany, Company K, after an advance of 1,000 yards through a shattering barrage of enemy artillery and mortar fire, had captured two buildings in the courtyard of the castle but was left with an effective fighting strength of only thirty-five men. During the advance, Pfc. Sheridan, acting as a bazooka gunner, had braved the enemy fire to stop and procure the additional rockets carried by his ammunition bearer who was wounded. Upon rejoining his company in the captured buildings, he found it in a furious fight with approximately seventy enemy paratroopers occupying the castle gate house. This was a solidly built stone structure surrounded by a deep water-filled moat twenty feet wide. The only approach to the heavily defended position was across the courtyard and over a drawbridge leading to a barricaded oaken door. Pfc. Sheridan, realizing that his bazooka was the only available weapon with sufficient power to penetrate the heavy oak planking, with complete disregard for his own safety left the protection of the buildings and in the face of heavy and intense small-arms and grenade fire, crossed the courtyard to the drawbridge entrance where he could bring direct fire to bear against the door. Although handicapped by the lack of an assistant, and a constant target for the enemy fire that burst around him, he skillfully and effectively handled his awkward weapon to place two well-aimed rockets into the structure. Observing that the door was only weakened, and realizing that a gap must be made for a successful assault, he loaded his last rocket, took careful aim, and blasted a hole through the heavy planks. Turning to his company he shouted, “Come on, let’s get them!” With his .45 pistol blazing, he charged into the gaping entrance and was killed by the withering fire that met him. The final assault on Frezenberg Castle was made through the gap which Pfc. Sheridan gave his life to create.
STEWART, GEORGE E.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 19th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Passi, Island of Panay, Philippine Islands, November 26th, 1899. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: New South Wales. Date of issue: 26 June 1900. Citation: While crossing a river in face of the enemy, this officer plunged in and at the imminent risk of his own life saved from drowning an enlisted man of his regiment.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company L, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Arizona, November 26th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Baltimore, Md. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
POWELL, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Major, 2d West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Sinking Creek Valley, Va., November 26th, 1862. Entered service at: Ironton, Ohio. Birth: England. Date of issue: 22 July 1890. Citation: Distinguished services in raid, where with twenty men, he charged and captured the enemy’s camp, five-hundred strong, without the loss of man or gun.
OH MY!!! Only 30 shopping days to Christmas
Bob Hope Military Monday
The point of Thanksgiving is to remember the things we have to be grateful for. It’s our special time to give thanks… not just for the obvious, like food, but for the thousands of fortunate moments, the multitude of blessings that we receive each year.Think of all the good things that happened because something bad happened first. For example, “If that slow driver hadn’t pulled in front of me, I would have gotten a speeding ticket.” “If I hadn’t tripped on the playground, I would never have met such a nice person.” “If I hadn’t experienced unemployment, I would never have acquired the skills that got me a more fulfilling job.”
On a vacation trip through Vicksburg, MS, we passed an elderly woman whose car apparently had just broke down on the side of the freeway. My son, 4, said, “Dad we should go back and help her.” We went to the next exit, up and over the bridge and back down on to the freeway. When we got back to the Vicksburg exit we repeated that so we could get back to the same spot. We did but she and the car were gone. We had lost almost an hour but it completely dissipated when Mark said, ” Don’t worry Dad we probably missed a bad accident or something.” Oh what a blessing that was!!!
Don’t focus on what you don’t have. Focus on what you do have. For example: “I’m so fortunate to have a warm place to sleep in the winter.” “I’m so fortunate to live in a safe neighborhood where I can take walks.” “I’m so fortunate to be able to see the beauty around me.” “I am so fortunate to have my family and especially my wife or my husband.”
Think about people you’ve known that have made you thankful for their existence. They can be family, friends or simply people that you’ve read about or seen on television, that you know by Facebook or other social media. Imagine how many other people there are who might be equally as wonderful. You just haven’t met them yet. You know that a stranger is a friend that you have not met.
Think about people who have made life hard for you. Now think about the things you accomplished because of them. Did you finish something because they said that you couldn’t? Did you get better at something because they made fun of you when you did it badly? Did their cruel actions make you vow never to treat others that way? Even the negative forces in your life can be hidden blessings, worthy of your gratitude.
Think about the animals that have given you joy: Dogs that love you with every inch of their hearts, cats that think your lap is the best place to nap in the whole world, birds whose songs uplift your spirit, squirrels whose antics put a grin on your face.
Think about the places that make you smile: A favorite hangout, a wooded trail, an exciting city, a great spot from which to view the sky, a hill that you once rolled down. Give thanks for all these things.
Give thanks to the Lord who has given you all these things by giving you the one thing that you needed to experience them all and that is LIFE!!!
Now pass it on. True gratitude involves action. Lend a hand. Pitch in. Make a gift. Give your time. Listen. Give back as often as you can. Even a friendly greeting can make all the difference in the world. SMILE!!!!!
” Most of us, swimming against the tides of trouble the world knows nothing about, need only a bit of praise or encouragement — and we will make the goal. “
~ Jerome P. Fleishman
trencherman TREN-chuhr-muhn, noun:
A hearty eater.
Trencherman is from trencher, “a wooden board or platter on which food is served or carved” (from Medieval French trencheoir, from Old French trenchier, “to cut,” from Latin truncare, “to lop off, to shorten by cutting”) + man. It is related to trench, “a hole cut into the ground.”
1248 – In the middle of the night a mass on the north side of Mont Granier suddenly collapsed, in one of the largest historical avalanches known in Europe.
1639 – Jeremiah Horrocks observes the transit of Venus (November 24 in the Julian calendar, or December 4 in the Gregorian calendar).
1642 – Dutch navigator Abel Tasman discovered Van Diemen’s Land which he named after his captain; later it was renamed Tasmania.
1703 – First Lutheran pastor ordained in America, Justus Falckner at Philadelphia.
1832 – South Carolina passed an Ordinance of Nullification. The US government had enacted a tariff. South Carolina nullified it and threatened to secede. The doctrine of nullification involved an argument concerning the nature of the union as defined by the writers of the Constitution and addressed the question: “Was the US a compact of sovereign states, each retaining ultimate authority, or was the US one nation formed by the people through the writing of the Constitution?”
1835 – Texas Rangers, a mounted police force, was authorized by the Texas Provisional Government. Rangers served primarily as volunteers since government offers of payment rarely materialized. The affairs of this group provided the basis for “The Lone Ranger.”
1859 – British naturalist Charles Darwin published “The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection” which explained his groundbreaking theory of evolution.
1861 – Civil War: Landing party from U.S.S. Flag, Commander J. Rodgers, U.S.S. Augusta, Pocahontas, Seneca, and Savannah, took possession of the Tybee Island, Savannah Harbor.
1862 – Civil War: U.S.S. Monticello, Lieutenant Commander Braine, destroyed two Confederate salt works near Little River Inlet, North Carolina.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Lookout Mountain – Near Chattanooga, Tennessee, Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant capture Lookout Mountain and begin to break the Confederate siege of the city led by General Braxton Bragg. The battle for Lookout Mountain was fought in a layer of fog whose lower level began at the Cravens House, used as Rebel headquarters.
1863 – Civil War: Union Army troops commenced sinking piles as obstructions in the Stono River above Legareville, South Carolina.
1864 – Kit Carson and his 1st Cavalry, New Mexico Volunteers, attacked a camp of Kiowa Indians in the First Battle of Adobe Walls.
1871 – The National Rifle Association was incorporated in New York City, and its first president was Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside. Another founder was Union General Willam Church.
1874 – Robert B. Elliott, Black American, elected Speaker of the lower house of the South Carolina legislature.
1896 – Vermont passed the first statute extending the privilege of absentee voting to both civilians and military personnel. Most legislation pertaining to absentee voting has been introduced during wartime, when large numbers of eligible voters have been serving their country in the Armed Forces.
1903 – Clyde Coleman of New York City patents the automobile electric starter.
1906 – A 13-6 victory by the Massillon Tigers over their rivals, the Canton Bulldogs, for the “Ohio League” Championship, leads to accusations that the championship series was fixed and results in the first major scandal in professional American football.
1904 – The first successful caterpillar track is made.
1918 – Frank O. King premiered his comic strip “Gasoline Alley” in the Chicago Tribune. He aged his characters over time.
1927 – In California troops battled 1,200 inmates after Folsom prisoners revolted. On Thanksgiving Day there was a prison break at Folsom. One prisoner was shot in the ensuing uprising and five others were later hung.
1930 – Ruth Nichols becomes the first woman pilot on a transcontinental air flight.
1932 – In Washington, D.C., the FBI Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory (better known as the FBI Crime Lab) officially opens.
1938 – Clifford Odets’ “Rocket to the Moon,” premiered in New York City.
1938 – Mexico seized oil land adjacent to Texas.
1939 – In Czechoslovakia, the Gestapo executed 120 students who were accused of anti-Nazi plotting.
1940 – World War II: Nazis closed off the Jewish ghetto in Warsaw, Poland. Over the next three years the population dropped from 350,000 to 70,000 due to starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: “Life Certificates” were issued to some Jews of Vilna. The rest were exterminated.
1943 – World War II: Japanese forces mount a small attack on the American divisions on Bougainville. The US Marines hold.
1943 – World War II: The USS Liscome Bay is torpedoed near Tarawa and sinks, killing 650 men.
1944 – World War II: Bombing of Tokyo – The first bombing raid since Capt. Jimmy Doolittle’s raid in 1942 against the Japanese capital from the east and by land was made by 111 American aircraft.
1944 – World War II: The US 3rd Army captures crossings over the Saar River, about 25 miles north of Saarbrucken.
1944 – World War II: Heinrich Himmler ordered the destruction of the Auschwitz and Birkenau crematoriums.
1947 – After refusing to co-operate with the House Un-American Activities Committee concerning allegations of Communist influence in the movie industry, the United States House of Representatives votes 346 to 17 to approve citations of contempt of Congress against the so-called “Hollywood 10”.
1947 – John Steinbeck’s novel “The Pearl” published.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Do” by Dinah Shore, “Near You” by The Francis Craig Orchestra (vocal: Bob Lamm), “The Whiffinpoof Song” by Bing Crosby and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1950 – The musical comedy, “Guys and Dolls”, opened on Broadway.
1950 – The “Storm of the Century”, a violent snowstorm, takes shape on this date before paralyzing the northeastern United States and the Appalachians the next day, bringing winds up to 100 mph and sub-zero temperatures. Pickens, West Virginia, records 57 inches of snow. 353 people would die as a result of the storm.
1951 – The Broadway play Gigi opens with little-known actress Audrey Hepburn in the title role.
1951 – “Sin (It’s No Sin)” by Eddy Howard topped the charts.
1953 – Walter O’Malley named Walston Alston to replace Charlie Dressen, who wanted a multi-year contract, a Dodger taboo. Alston served under 23 consecutive one-year contracts.
1954 – First US Presidential airplane christened. The presidential call sign, Air Force One, was established for security purposes during the administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower.
1956 – “Love Me Tender” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1956 – “Pajama Game” closed at St James Theater New York City after 1063 performances.
1958 – Jackie Wilson’s “Lonely Teardrops” was released.
1958 – “It’s Only Make Believe” by Conway Twitty topped the charts.
1959 – The new TV show Twilight Zone ran “The Time Element” (51:57)about a bartender returning to Pearl Harbor Dec 6, 1941.
1960 – Wilt Chamberlain pulls down 55 rebounds in a game (NBA record).
1962 – “Big Girls Don’t Cry” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Leaving It Up to You” by Dale & Grace, “Washington Square” by The Village Stompers, “She’s a Fool” by Lesley Gore and “Love’s Gonna Live Here” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1963 – Jack Ruby shot and mortally wounded Lee Harvey Oswald, the accused assassin of President John F. Kennedy, in the Dallas police station in a scene captured on live television. (In 1979, the House Assassination’s Committee concludes that Kennedy likely was killed as part of a larger conspiracy. It may even have included members of organized crime.) The whole event was broadcast on television.
1963 – Vietnam War: Newly sworn-in US President Lyndon B. Johnson confirms that the United States intends to continue supporting South Vietnam both militarily and economically.
1964 – USS Princeton (LPH-5) completes seven-days of humanitarian relief to South Vietnam which suffered damage from typhoon and floods.
1964 – Residents of Wash DC were permitted to vote for the first time since 1800.
1966 – Four-hundred die of respiratory failure & heart attack in killer New York City smog. It was caused by a temperature inversion trapping the urban air pollution for three days.
1968 – Three Latins hijacked a US B-707 jet, from New York’s Kennedy Int’l. to Cuba. Pena Soltren, a US citizen, and two accomplices used weapons hidden in a diaper bag to hijack Pan Am Flight 281.
1969 – Apollo 12, the second manned mission to the Moon, successfully returned to Earth.
1969 – U.S. Army officials announce 1st Lt. William Calley will be court-martialed for the premeditated murder of 109 Vietnamese civilians at My Lai.
1970 – Stanford’s QB Jim Plunkett wins Heisman Trophy.
1971 – Hijacker D.B. Cooper parachuted from a Northwest Airlines 727 over Washington state with $200,000 in ransom. He was never found. In 2011 evidence was presented that Lynn Doyle Cooper (d.1999) of Oregon, a Korean war veteran, was the hijacker.
1971 – A prison rebellion took place at Rahway State Prison, NJ.
1972 – A Friday night show that would compete head-to-head with NBC’s “Midnight Special” premiered. “In Concert” featured Chuck Berry, Alice Cooper, Blood Sweat and Tears, Seals and Crofts and Poco.
1973 – “Photograph” by Ringo Starr topped the charts.
1976 – NBA Atlanta Hawks end a 28 game road losing streak.
1977 – Greece announced the discovery of the tomb of King Philip II, father of Alexander the Great.
1979 – The United States government admitted that thousands of troops in Vietnam were exposed to the toxic Agent Orange.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “No More Tears (Enough Is Enough)” by Barbra Streisand & Donna Summer, “Babe” by Styx, “Please Don’t Go” by K.C. & The Sunshine Band and “Come with Me” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1982 – FCC dropped limits on the duration and frequency of TV ads.
1984 – “Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go” by Wham! topped the charts.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mony Mony “Live” by Billy Idol, “(I’ve Had) The Time of My Life” by Bill Medley & Jennifer Warnes, “Heaven is a Place on Earth” by Belinda Carlisle and “I Won’t Need You Anymore (Always and Forever)” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.
1986 – First day issue of the American Eagle silver dollar. It sold out on its first day.
1987 – The United States and the Soviet Union agreed to scrap shorter- and medium-range missiles.
1990 – “Love Takes Time” by Mariah Carey topped the charts.
1991 – The space shuttle Atlantis blasted off from Cape Canaveral with six astronauts and a military satellite.
1992 – Marines lowered the flag at Subic Bay, U.S. Naval Facility, Republic of the Philippines, for the last time during ceremonies to turn over the facility to the government of the Philippines. The withdrawal ended almost a century of U.S. presence in that nation.
1993 – The “Brady Bill” was passed by the U.S. Congress. The battle over the bill had been long and loud since its introduction in 1987.
1996 – Barry Sanders (Detroit Lions) set an NFL record when he recorded his eighth straight 1,000-yard season.
1997 – Space-walking astronauts from the shuttle Columbia grabbed a spinning satellite with their hands, enabling the cockpit crew to use the shuttle’s robot arm to return it to the cargo bay.
1998 – America Online announced that it would buy Netscape Communications for $10 billion.
1998 – Bill Gates, chairman of Microsoft Corp., donated $20 million to the Seattle Public Library system.
1999 – It was reported that US married couples with children comprised 26% of the population as opposed to 45% in 1972.
2000 – The PlayStation 2 is released in Europe, for around €449/£299.
2000 – The U.S. Supreme Court stepped into the bitter, overtime struggle for the White House, agreeing to consider George W. Bush’s appeal whether the extended Florida ballot counting violates federal law.
2001 – Heavy storms hit the US and at least 12 people were killed in the lower Mississippi valley.
2002 – Space Shuttle Endeavour lifts off on mission STS-113, the final successful shuttle flight before the ill-fated STS-107 Columbia mission.
2003 – A jury in Virginia Beach, Virginia, sentenced John Allen Muhammad to death for the series of Washington-area sniper shootings.
2003 – A new US FCC regulation allowed cell phone users to transfer their numbers to a different carrier beginning today.
2003 – Warren Spahn (82), the Hall of Fame pitcher who won more games than any other left-hander in history, died in Broken Arrow, Ok.
2004 – The US military ended a nine-year peacekeeping role in Bosnia but kept on a small contingent to hunt down top war crimes suspects Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic.
2004 – In Fallujah the US military uncovered the largest arms cache yet inside the mosque of an insurgent leader.
2005 – A giant balloon in the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York snagged a street light and caused part of it to fall, injuring a woman and a child.
2006 – In Chicago a gunman who took his neighbor hostage for 23 hours over Thanksgiving ended the standoff by killing the woman and himself.
2007 – In southern California a fast-moving wildfire destroyed more than a dozen homes and spread through the canyons and hills above Malibu, forcing dozens of residents to flee ahead of the flames. Fifty-three homes were destroyed with seven square miles scorched.
2008 – The US government won a terrorism conviction against Texas-based Holy Land, what had been the nation’s largest Muslim charity, and five of its leaders for funneling millions of dollars to the Palestinian militant group Hamas.
2010 – The US Federal Transit Administration sent an invoice to New Jersey for some $271 million for work done on the cancelled $8.7 billion Hudson River rail tunnel connecting the state with NY.
2010 – Former US House of Representatives Majority Leader and former Dancing with the Stars contestant Tom DeLay is convicted of money laundering and conspiracy in relation to Republican fundraising for the 2002 Texas state elections.
2010 – In Virginia 5 Somali men, accused of attacking the USS Nicholas on April 1, were convicted on federal piracy charges. On March 14, 2011, the 5 men were sentenced to life in prison.
2012 – Retail analysis says more Americans went out to shop (as opposed to shopping online) on Black Friday, 23 November. However, total sales decreased 1.8% from the previous Black Friday.
2012 – The NHL cancels all games through 14 December, plus the 2013 NHL All-Star Game scheduled for 27 January in Columbus, Ohio, due to the 2012 NHL lockout.
2012 – In a Springfield, Massachusetts a natural gas explosion leveled two buildings and many more buildings are damaged. At least 18 people are injured.
2014 – A grand jury in St. Louis County, Missouri decides not to indict police officer Darren Wilson in relation to the shooting of Michael Brown in the suburb of Ferguson. Protests turn violent following the announcement despite a request by President Obama and Brown’s family for any protests to be peaceful.
1784 – Zachary Taylor, 12th President of the United States of America (1849-50).
1806 – William Webb Ellis, credited with the invention of Rugby (d. 1872)
1853 – Bat Masterson, American gunfighter (d. 1921)
1868 – Scott Joplin, American ragtime music composer and pianist.
1877 – Alben W. Barkley, Vice President of the United States (d. 1956)
1888 – Dale Carnegie, American lecturer and author.
1897 – Lucky Luciano, American gangster (d. 1962)
1925 – William F. Buckley, conservative commentator who founded National Review in 1955.
1942 – Marlin Fitzwater, White House Press Secretary
*KNIGHT, NOAH O.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company F, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kowang-San, Korea, November 23rd and November 24th, 1951. Entered service at: Jefferson, S.C. Born: 27 October 1929, Chesterfield County, S.C. G.O. No.: 2, 7 January 1953. Citation: Pfc. Knight, a member of Company F, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. He occupied a key position in the defense perimeter when waves of enemy troops passed through their own artillery and mortar concentrations and charged the company position. Two direct hits from an enemy emplacement demolished his bunker and wounded him. Disregarding personal safety, he moved to a shallow depression for a better firing vantage. Unable to deliver effective fire from his defilade position, he left his shelter, moved through heavy fire in full view of the enemy and, firing into the ranks of the relentless assailants, inflicted numerous casualties, momentarily stemming the attack. Later during another vicious onslaught, he observed an enemy squad infiltrating the position and, counterattacking, killed or wounded the entire group. Expending the last of his ammunition, he discovered three enemy soldiers entering the friendly position with demolition charges. Realizing the explosives would enable the enemy to exploit the breach, he fearlessly rushed forward and disabled two assailants with the butt of his rifle when the third exploded a demolition charge killing the three enemy soldiers and mortally wounding Pfc. Knight. Pfc. Knight’s supreme sacrifice and consummate devotion to duty reflect lasting glory on himself and uphold the noble traditions of the military service.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1825, Malta. Citation: For courage and fidelity displayed in the loss of the U.S.S. Huron, November 24th, 1877. While on a scientific trip to Cuba, Huron ran aground off Nags Head, North Carolina in heavy weather, and was wrecked shortly after 1 a.m. next morning. For a time, her crew worked in relatively little danger, attempting to free their ship, but she soon heeled over, carrying 98 officers and men to their deaths.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Lookout Mountain, Tenn., November 24th, 1863. Entered service at: Syracuse, N.Y. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 28 June 1865. Citation: Capture of Confederate flag (Bragg’s army).
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Lookout Mountain, Tenn., November 24th, 1863. Entered service at: Syracuse, N.Y. Birth: Syracuse, N.Y. Date of issue: 12 January 1892. Citation: Waved the colors to save the lives of the men who were being fired upon by their own batteries, and thereby drew upon himself a concentrated fire from the enemy.
POTTER, NORMAN F.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company E, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Lookout Mountain, Tenn., November 24th, 1863. Entered service at: Pompey, N.Y. Birth: Pompey, N.Y. Date of issue: 24 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag (Bragg’s army).
Receiving a Medal of Honor for any activity is simply ordinary people doing extremely extraordinary things. We tend to look at things such as capturing a flag as fairly simple events when that is far from the truth. First, the flags captured in these contexts are powerful symbols of the organization displaying it. During the CIVIL WAR it was an extreme honor to capture the enemy’s flag and a disgrace to lose your own. To take your enemy’s flag was also a very important mark of success.
Second, in addition to the emotional aspects, having your flag stolen would be tantamount to losing a very important communication device. To the soldiers in the battle it said, “Here are your leaders and they are still standing.” It gave a focal point or a rallying point to those in battle but away from their leaders.
Finally it was a sense of pride that transcended the battle and the war and all of the following history. There is still (2010) contention between states over these banners, guidons and flags from the CIVIL WAR. This demonstrates the military and emotional importance of these pieces of cloth.
National Adoption Day
The day after Thanksgiving is commonly called Black Friday. Usually Black is not with many things that are positive but I think it could be when I heard a statistic that said many small businesses make 40% of their annual profit on that one day. In history, though, there have been a number of events that happened on a Friday and are thus known as Black Friday:
- Black Friday (1869), a financial crisis in the United States
- Black Friday (1889), the day of the Johnstown Flood.
- Black Friday (1929), a stock market crash in the United States
- Black Friday (1939), a day of devastating fires in Australia
- Black Friday (1945), largest air battle over Norway, over Sunnfjord
- Hollywood Black Friday (1945), the day the six-month-old Confederation of Studio Unions (CSU) strike boiled over into a bloody riot at the Warner Bros. studios leading to the eventual breakup of the CSU.
- Black Friday (1978), a massacre of protesters in Iran
- Black Friday (1982), known in Britain after Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, sparking the Falklands Wa
- rOther uses of the term include:
- Black Friday, a name used for any Friday which falls on the 13th of a month
- Black Friday (shopping), the day after Thanksgiving Day in the United States, the first shopping day of the Christmas season and one of the busiest shopping days of the year
- “Black Friday” is the name given to the last Friday before Christmas in the United Kingdom. It is a day when widespread anti-social behaviour due to public alcohol consumption is expected to occur, and police are given additional powers to combat it.
- Black Friday (1940 film), a science-fiction/horror film starring Boris Karloff, Stanley Ridges and Bela Lugosi
- “Black Friday”, a title of a song by Grinspoon
- “Black Friday”, a title of a song by Steely Dan
- “Black Friday”, a title of a song by Megadeth
- “Black Friday Rule”, a title of a song by Flogging Molly
- “Black Friday”, the nickname for game 3 of the 1977 National League Championship Series, Philadelphia Phillies fans gave the nickname because the Phillies blew an early lead against the Los Angeles Dodgers and a controversial call was made during the game
- “Black Friday”, a title of a poem written by Dennis Rader, the BTK killer
“Gratitude unlocks the fullness of life. It turns what we have into enough, and more. It turns denial into acceptance, chaos to order, confusion to clarity. It can turn a meal into a feast, a house into a home, a stranger into a friend. Gratitude makes sense of our past, brings peace for today, and creates a vision for tomorrow.”
~ Melody Beattie
ef‧fer‧vesce /ef‧fer‧ves‧cence, noun
to give off bubbles of gas, as fermenting liquors.
as a verb
to issue forth in bubbles.
to show enthusiasm, excitement, liveliness, etc.: The parents effervesced with pride over their new baby.
as an adjective
He has such an effervescent personality
[Origin: 1695–1705; < L effervēscere, equiv. to ef- ef- + ferv- hot (see fervent) + -ēscere -esce]
1499 – Pretender to the throne Perkin Warbeck is hanged for reportedly attempting to escape from the Tower of London. He had invaded England in 1497, claiming to be the lost son of King Edward IV of England.
1654 – French mathematician, scientist, and religious philosopher Blaise Pascal experiences an intense vision that marks him for life.
1765 – Frederick County, Md., became the first colonial entity to repudiate the British Stamp Act.
1783 – Annapolis, Md., became the US capital until June 1784.
1785 – John Hancock was elected president of the Continental Congress for the second time.
1808 – Zebulon Pike reaches his peak.
1835 – Henry Burden patents Horseshoe manufacturing machine, Troy, NY.
1837 – William Crompton of Taunton, MA patented the silk, power loom.
1848 – The Female Medical Educational Society was established.
1849 – Harvard chemistry Professor John Webster murdered Dr. George Parkman. Dental identification played a key role in the trial.
1852 – Just past midnight, a sharp jolt causes Lake Merced to drop 30′. A severe earthquake created a fissure a half mile wide and three hundred yards long through which the waters of Lake Merced flowed to the sea.
1863 – Civil War: Union forces struck out and captured Orchard Knob and Lookout Mountain.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Chattanooga began. Union forces drove the Confederates away and set the stage for Union General William Sherman’s triumphant March to the Sea.
1864 – Civil War: The Battle at Ball’s Ferry, Georgia, left 30 casualties.
1868 – Louis Ducos du Hauron patents trichrome color photo process.
1869 – In Dumbarton, Scotland, the clipper Cutty Sark is launched – one of the last clippers ever to be built, and the only one still surviving to this day.
1874 – Farmer Joseph Glidden’s patent for barbed wire was granted. Glidden designed a simple wire barb that attached to a double-strand wire, as well as a machine to mass-produce the wire.
1876 – William Marcy “Boss” Tweed, leader of New York City’s corrupt Tammany Hall political organization during the 1860s, was turned in to authorities in New York City after his capture in Spain.
1876 – The first intercollegiate football association was established by Columbia, Harvard & Princeton in Springfield, MA.
1887 – Notre Dame played its inaugural game, the Irish lost to the University of Michigan Wolverines by a score of 8-0. Their first win came in the final game of the 1888 season when the Irish defeated Harvard Prep by a score of 20-0.
1887 – The opera “The Trumpeter of Sackingen” first American production.
1889 – The first jukebox was installed when an entrepreneur named Louis Glass and his business associate, William S. Arnold, placed a coin-operated Edison cylinder phonograph in the Palais Royale Saloon in San Francisco. There was a coin slot for each tube. 5 cents bought a few minutes of music. The contraption took in $1,000 in six months!
1895 – The first ever Backyard Brawl rivalry match-up between Pitt Panthers and West Virginia Mountaineers takes place. The Backyard Brawl is an annual football game between the University of Pittsburgh and West Virginia University.
1897 – A pencil sharpener was patented by J.L. Love.
1898 – Andrew Beard, African-American inventor, was granted a patent (Patent # 594,059) for a railway car coupler. It was , commonly called the Jenny Coupler. It did the dangerous job of hooking railroad cars together, Beard, himself had lost a leg in a car coupling accident.
1903 – Singer Enrico Caruso made his U.S. debut at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York, in “Rigoletto.”
1903 – Colorado Governor James Peabody sends the state militia into the town of Cripple Creek to break up a miners’ strike.
1905 – Henry Watson Furness, an Indiana physician, named minister of Haiti. He was the last Black minister to Haiti in this period. President Woodrow Wilson appointed a white minister in 1913.
1909 – The Wright brothers formed a corporation for the commercial manufacture of their airplanes.
1919 – The first play-by-play football game radio broadcast took place during the Texas A&M – Texas game.
1921 – U.S. President Warren Harding signed the Willis Campell Act, better known as the anti-beer bill. It forbids doctors to prescribe beer or liquor for medicinal purposes, which was a loophole in Prohibition.
1935 – Ethel Leginska became the first woman to write an opera — and conduct it.
1936 – Henry R. Luce’s “LIFE” magazine debuted. The first cover pictured the Fort Peck Dam in Montana (part of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal program) photographed by Margaret Bourke-White. On page 2, a photo showed a doctor slapping a newborn baby — and the caption read, “LIFE begins.”
1936 – U.S. abandoned the American embassy in Madrid, Spain, which was engulfed by civil war.
1937 – John Steinbeck’s “Of Mice & Men,” premiered in New York City.
1938 – “Thanks for the Memory” was a song in the film “The Big Broadcast of 1938. The words and music were written by Leo Robin and Ralph Rainger, and was recorded by Shep Fields and his orchestra. It won the Academy Award for Best Song. Bob Hope sang the vocals and it became his signature song.
1939 – Thanksgiving. Franklin D. Roosevelt had proclaimed Thanksgiving Day a week earlier–on the fourth, not the last, Thursday of November–in an effort to encourage more holiday shopping.
1940 – World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt appoints Admiral William D. Leahy as U.S. Ambassador to Vichy France to try to prevent the French fleet and naval bases from falling into German hands.
1941 – U.S. troops moved into Dutch Guiana [Surinam] to guard the bauxite (aluminum ore) mines. The attack at Pearl Harbor is only 14 days away.
1942 – The Coast Guard Woman’s Auxiliary (SPARS) was authorized.
1942 – The film “Casablanca” premiered in New York City.
1943 – World War II: Pacific: The U.S. began its offensive against Japan in the Central Pacific by taking Tarawa Island and Makin Island in the Gilbert Islands. On Tarawa Atoll, the battle ends by noon. The US Marines have suffered 1000 killed and 2000 wounded. The Japanese garrison of 4800 troops has been annihilated. A total of 17 wounded Japanese troops and 129 Korean laborers are the only survivors.
1944 – World War II: Europe: On the right flank of the German line, the 15th Army falls back in Holland. Meanwhile, the German 7th Army launches attacks on forces of US 9th Army. To the south, French troops of US 7th Army reach Strasbourg.
1945 – Wartime rationing of food, particularly meat and butter, was ended in the U.S.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rumors are Flying” by Frank Sinatra (sung by Andrews Sisters), “Ole Buttermilk Sky” by The Kay Kyser Orchestra (vocal: Mike Douglas & The Campus Kids), “The Whole World is Singing My Song” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day) and “Divorce Me C.O.D” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1947 – Washington Redskin Sammy Baugh passes for six touchdowns vs the Chicago Cardinals (45-21).
1948 – Dr. Frank G. Back of New York City patented the Zoomar lens. At some point Zoomar and Zoom lens became interchangeable.
1954 – For the first time, the Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above the peak it reached just before the 1929 crash.
1954 – At 0950, the 50 millionth GM body met up with the 50 millionth GM Chassis. The result a few minutes later was a 1955 Chevrolet Bel-Air. The car was painted gold and had more than 600 parts plated in 24-karat gold.
1957 – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1958 – “Have Gun Will Travel” premieres on radio. It was broadcast on CBS radio and starred John Dehner as Paladin. Richard Boone played Paladin on TV.
1958 – Ronald and Nancy Reagan appeared together in the “GE Theatre” production of “A Turkey for the President”.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Big Girls Don’t Cry” by The Four Seasons, “Return to Sender” by Elvis Presley, “Next Door to an Angel” by Neil Sedaka and “I’ve Been Everywhere” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1963 – “Dr. Who” premiered on British TV; it didn’t air in the U.S. until September 1975.
1963 – “I’m Leaving it up to You” by Dale & Grace topped the charts.
1963 – President John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s body, lay in repose in East Room of White House.
1968 – Hijacking: Five Cubans hijacked a US B-727 jet, from Chicago to Cuba.
1968 – “Hey Jude” by the Beatles topped the charts. This is the most commercially successful Beatles song. It was #1 in at least 12 countries and by the end of 1968 had sold more than 5 million copies.
1970 – Simas I. Kudirka, a Soviet fisherman, attempted to defect from his Soviet fishing vessel to the Coast Guard Cutter Vigilant, during a meeting between the Soviets and the U.S. on fishing rights.
1970 – George Harrison released “My Sweet Lord” in the US.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Think I Love You” by The Partridge Family, “The Tears of a Clown” by Smokey Robinson & The Miracles, “Gypsy Woman” by Brian Hyland and “Fifteen Years Ago” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1974 – “I Can Help” by Billy Swan topped the charts.
1976 – Police arrested Jerry Lee Lewis outside the gates of Graceland after he showed up for the second time that night and made a scene by shouting, waving a pistol and demanding to see Elvis Presley.
1980 – One-thousand people from twenty five states gather in Philadelphia and form the National Black Independent Party.
1981 – President Ronald Reagan signs the top secret National Security Decision Directive 17 (NSDD-17), giving the Central Intelligence Agency the authority to recruit and support Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
1984 – Boston College quarterback Doug Flutie throws a game-winning 48-yard “Hail Mary pass” to Gerard Phelan to defeat the University of Miami Hurricanes 45-41. It is one of the most famous plays in American college football history.
1985 – “We Built This City” by Starship topped the charts.
1985 – Larry Wu-tai Chin, a retired CIA analyst, was arrested and accused of spying for China. He committed suicide a year after his conviction.
1988 – Wayne Gretzky scored his 600th National Hockey League (NHL) goal.
1990 – The first all-woman expedition to the South Pole (3 Americans, 1 Japanese and 12 Russians), sets off from Antarctica on the first leg of a seventy day, 1287 kilometer ski trek.
1991 – “When a Man Loves a Woman” by Michael Bolton topped the charts.
1992 – The play “Someone Who’ll Watch Over Me” opened. This is an opening video montage to accompany drama piece ‘Someone Who’ll Watch Over Me’, set in Gaza during the war of 2009.
1995 – The Bosnian Serbs accepted a peace plan proposed during talks in Dayton, Ohio, to end the four years of conflict in the former Yugoslavia.
1998 – A U.S. federal judge rejected a Virginia county’s effort to block pornography on library computer calling the attempt unconstitutional.
1998 – The Georgia state Supreme Court invalidated Georgia’s anti-sodomy law.
1998 – The Dow Jones hit a new record high at 9,374.27.
1999 – Defense Secretary William Cohen called for a military-wide review of conduct after a Pentagon study said up to 75 percent of blacks and other ethnic minorities reported experiencing racially offensive behavior.
2001 – A crowd of 87,555 people watched the Texas Longhorns beat the Texas A&M Aggies 21-7. The crowd was the largest to see a football game in Texas.
2001 – Heavy storms hit Arkansas and at least 4 people were killed.
2001 – It was reported that Hawaii’s Supreme Court struck down the state’s sex offender registration law, declaring it unconstitutional.
2002 – NC State beats Florida State 17-7 to give the Wolfpack it’s first 10-win season in 111 years.
2003 – Adolfo “Big Al” Bruno (57), a regional Mafia boss, was killed in Springfield, Mass.
2003 – The New York Times reports that the Federal Bureau of Investigation is actively monitoring and gathering intelligence on anti-war protest movements’ activities, ostensibly to detect possible terrorist activity.
2004 – Dan Rather announced that he would step down as anchorman of “The CBS Evening News” in March 2005.
2004 – Iraq: 5,000 US Marines, British troops and Iraqi commandos launched raids and arrested suspected insurgents aimed at clearing a swath of insurgent hotbeds south of Baghdad.
2005 – The record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season continues as Tropical Storm Delta forms from a non-tropical low 1,000 nautical miles southwest of the Azores.
2005 – A federal jury in New York convicted Uzair Paracha (25), a Pakistani man detained in 2003, of providing material support to terrorists and other related charges. His father was being held as an enemy combatant at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.
2005 – A commuter train slammed into several vehicles caught in a traffic jam on a busy road in Elmwood Park, Ill., starting a chain reaction that injured at least ten people.
2007 – The ice breaker/cruise ship MS Explorer sinks in the Southern Ocean after striking an iceberg. Everyone aboard is rescued.
2007 – Emily Sander (18), a Kansas college student and Internet porn star, was last seen leaving a bar in El Dorado, about 30 miles from Wichita, with a man identified as Israel Mireles (24). Her body was found Nov 29 about 50 miles east of El Dorado.
2008 – In Hollywood, Ca., Mario Majorski (48) of Oregon was shot and killed by a security guard at the Scientology Celebrity Center as he tried to attack guests with a pair of Samurai swords.
2009 – The US Consumer Product Safety Commission recalled of 2.1 million cribs following links to four infant suffocations. The drop-side cribs were made by Stork Craft Manufacturing of Canada.
2009 – Ohio police seized about 35 pipe bombs, an assortment of firearms, hundreds of rounds of ammunition at the Cuyahoga Falls apartment of Mark Campano (56), a former doctor, following two loud explosions.
2010 – Rep. Dan Maffei (D-N.Y.) conceded to his GOP challenger Tuesday afternoon, giving Republicans their 63rd pickup in the House.
2012 – Black Friday- Gun sales resulted in a record-high 154,873 background check requests, a 20 percent increase over last year’s record of 129,166.
1616 – John Wallis, English mathematician (d. 1703) He was an English mathematician who is given partial credit for the development of modern calculus. Between 1643 and 1689 he served as chief cryptographer for Parliament and, later, the royal court. He is also credited with introducing the symbol ∞ for infinity.
1749 – Edward Rutledge, U.S. statesman from South Carolina. He was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and later governor of South Carolina.
1804 – Franklin Pierce, 14th President of the United States of America (1853-57).
1859 – Billy the Kid (William Bonney), American outlaw of the Wild West.
1887 – Boris Karloff (William Henry Pratt), British actor.
1888 – Harpo Marx (Adolph Marx/Arthur Marx), American comedian.
SILK, EDWARD A.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company E, 398th Infantry, 100th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near St. Pravel, France, November 23rd, 1944. Entered service at: Johnstown, Pa. Born: 8 June 1916, Johnstown, Pa. G.O. No.: 97, 1 November 1945. Citation: 1st Lt. Edward A. Silk commanded the weapons platoon of Company E, 398th Infantry, on 23 November 1944, when the end battalion was assigned the mission of seizing high ground overlooking Moyenmoutier France, prior to an attack on the city itself. His company jumped off in the lead at dawn and by noon had reached the edge of a woods in the vicinity of St. Pravel where scouts saw an enemy sentry standing guard before a farmhouse in a valley below. One squad, engaged in reconnoitering the area, was immediately pinned down by intense machinegun and automatic-weapons fire from within the house. Skillfully deploying his light machinegun section, 1st Lt. Silk answered enemy fire, but when fifteen minutes had elapsed with no slackening of resistance, he decided to eliminate the strong point by a one-man attack. Running one-hundred yards across an open field to the shelter of a low stone wall directly in front of the farmhouse, he fired into the door and windows with his carbine; then, in full view of the enemy, vaulted the wall and dashed fifty yards through a hail of bullets to the left side of the house, where he hurled a grenade through a window, silencing a machinegun and killing two gunners. In attempting to move to the right side of the house he drew fire from a second machinegun emplaced in the woodshed. With magnificent courage he rushed this position in the face of direct fire and succeeded in neutralizing the weapon and killing the two gunners by throwing grenades into the structure. His supply of grenades was by now exhausted, but undaunted, he dashed back to the side of the farmhouse and began to throw rocks through a window, demanding the surrender of the remaining enemy. Twelve Germans, overcome by his relentless assault and confused by his unorthodox methods, gave up to the lone American. By his gallant willingness to assume the full burden of the attack and the intrepidity with which he carried out his extremely hazardous mission, 1st Lt. Silk enabled his battalion to continue its advance and seize its objective.
VAN SCHAICK, LOUIS J.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 4th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near Nasugbu, Batangas, Philippine Islands, November 23rd, 1901. Entered service at: Cobleskill, N.Y. Birth: Cobleskill, N.Y. G.O. No.: 33, 1913. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: While in pursuit of a band of insurgents was the first of his detachment to emerge from a canyon, and seeing a column of insurgents and fearing they might turn and dispatch his men as they emerged one by one from the canyon, galloped forward and closed with the insurgents, thereby throwing them into confusion until the arrival of others of the detachment.
BARNUM, HENRY A.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Chattanooga, Tenn., November 23rd,1863. Entered service at: Syracuse, N.Y. Born: 24 September 1833, Jamesville, Onondaga County, N.Y. Date of issue: July 1889. Citation: Although suffering severely from wounds, he led his regiment, inciting the men to greater action by word and example until again severely wounded.
SEWARD, RICHARD E.
Rank and organization: Paymaster’s Steward, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Ship Island Sound, La., November 23rd, 1863. Entered service at——. Born: 1840, Kittery, Maine. Date of issue: 16 April 1864. Citation: Served as paymaster’s steward on board the U.S.S. Commodore, November 1863. Carrying out his duties courageously, Seward “volunteered to go on the field amidst a heavy fire to recover the bodies of two soldiers which he brought off with the aid of others; a second instance of personal valor within a fortnight.” Promoted to acting master’s mate.
TOFFEY, JOHN J.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company G, 33d New Jersey Infantry. Place and date. At Chattanooga, Tenn., November 23rd, 1863. Entered service at: Hudson, N.J. Birth: Duchess, N.Y. Date of issue: 10 September 1897. Citation: Although excused from duty on account of sickness, went to the front in command of a storming party and with conspicuous gallantry participated in the assault of Missionary Ridge; was here wounded and permanently disabled.
ANNIVERSARY – John F. Kennedy Assassination
JOHN F. KENNEDY ASSASSINATED
On this most Americans can agree: President John F. Kennedy was shot and killed in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963.
President Kennedy’s motorcade route through Dallas was planned to give him maximal exposure to Dallas crowds before his arrival, along with the vice president and the governor, at a luncheon with civic and business leaders in that city. The White House staff informed the secret service that the president would arrive in Dallas via a short (13 minutes in the air) flight, from Carswell Air Force Base in Fort Worth, to Dallas Love Field. The Dallas Trade Mart had been selected for the luncheon, and the final decision of the Trade Mart as the end of the motorcade journey was selected by Kennedy’s friend and appointments secretary Kenneth O’Donnell, who would accompany him on the trip.
Leaving from Love Field, 45 minutes had been allotted for the motorcade to reach the Dallas Trade Mart at a planned arrival time of 12:15 PM. The actual route was chosen to be a meandering 10-mile route which could be driven slowly in the allotted time. Special Agent Winston G. Lawson, a member of the White House detail and Secret Service agent Forrest V. Sorrels, SAC of the Dallas office, were most active in planning the actual route.
On November 14, Lawson and Sorrels attended a meeting at Love Field and drove over the route which Sorrels believed best suited for the motorcade. From Love Field, the route passed through a portion of suburban Dallas, through the downtown area along Main Street, and finally to the Trade Mart including a short segment of the Stemmons Freeway. For the President’s return to Love Field, for a fund-raising dinner in Austin later in the day would be a more direct and shorter route. The planned route to the Trade Mart was widely reported in Dallas newspapers several days before the event, for the benefit of people who wished to view the motorcade.
To pass through downtown Dallas, a route west along Dallas’ Main Street, rather than Elm Street was chosen. This was the traditional parade route, and provided the maximal building and crowd views. It also had an exit accessible only from Elm Street. The planned motorcade route thus included a short one-block turn at the end of the downtown segment of Main Street, onto Houston Street for one block northward, before turning again west onto Elm. The motorcade would proceed through Dealey Plaza before exiting Elm onto the Stemmons Freeway. The Texas School Book Depository was situated at this corner of Houston and Elm.
After a breakfast speech in Fort Worth, where Kennedy had stayed overnight after arriving from San Antonio the day previously, the President boarded Air Force One which departed at 11:10 and arrived at Love Field 15 minutes later. At about 11:40, the presidential motorcade left Love Field for the trip through Dallas, which was running on a schedule about 10 minutes longer than the planned 45 minutes, due to enthusiastic crowds and an unplanned stop directed by the president. By the time the motorcade reached Dealy Plaza, however, they were only 5 minutes away from their planned destination.
At 12:30 p.m. CST, as Kennedy’s uncovered limousine entered Dealey Plaza, Nellie Connally, then the First Lady of Texas, turned around to Kennedy, who was sitting behind her, and commented, “Mr. President, you can’t say Dallas doesn’t love you,” which President Kennedy acknowledged. From Houston Street, the presidential limousine made the planned left turn to put it on Elm Street to allow it to pass to the Stemmons Freeway exit. As it turned on Elm, the motorcade passed the Texas School Book Depository. As it continued down Elm Street, shots were fired at
Kennedy; a clear majority of witnesses recalled hearing three shots. A minority of the witnesses did recognize the first gunshot blast they heard as a weapon blast, but there was hardly any reaction from a majority in the crowd or riding in the motorcade itself to the first shot, with many later saying they heard what they first thought to be a firecracker or the exhaust backfire of a vehicle just after the president started waving.
Within one second of each other, President Kennedy, Governor Connally, and Mrs. Kennedy, all turned abruptly from looking to their left to looking to their right, between Zapruder film frames 155 and 169. Governor Connally, like the President, a WWII military veteran, testified that he immediately recognized the sound of a high-powered rifle, then he turned his head and torso rightward attempting to see President Kennedy behind him. Connally testified he could not see the president, so he then started to turn forward again (turning from his right, to his left). Connally testified that when his head was facing about twenty-degrees left of center he was hit in his upper right back by a bullet. He testified he did not hear the muzzle blast. After Connally was hit he then shouted, “Oh, no, no, no. My God. They’re going to kill us all!”
Mrs. Connally testified that right after hearing a first loud, frightening noise that came from somewhere behind her and to her right, she immediately turned towards President Kennedy and saw him with his arms and elbows already raised high with his hands already close to his throat. She then heard another gunshot and her husband started yelling. Mrs. Connally then turned away from President Kennedy towards her husband, then another gunshot sounded. She and the limousine’s rear interior were now covered with fragments of skull, blood, and brain matter.
According to the Warren Commission and the House Select Committee on Assassinations, as President Kennedy waved to the crowds on his right with his right arm upraised on the side of the limo, a shot entered his upper back, penetrated his neck, slightly damaged a spinal vertebra and the top of his right lung, exited his throat nearly centerline just beneath his larynx, then nicked the left side of his suit tie knot. He then raised his elbows and clenched his fists in front of his face and neck, then leaned forward and towards his left. Mrs. Kennedy then put her arms around him in concern.
Governor Connally also reacted after the same bullet penetrated his back just below his right armpit, creating an oval entry wound, impacted and destroyed four inches of his right, fifth rib bone, exited his chest just below his right nipple creating a two-and-a-half inch oval sucking-air chest wound, then entered just above his right wrist, impacted and cleanly shattered his right radius bone, exited just below the wrist at the inner side of his right palm, and entered his left inner thigh.
A second shot struck at Zapruder film frame 313 when the Presidential limousine was passing in front of the John Neely Bryan north pergola concrete structure. Both the Commission and the House Select Committee each concluded that this shot entered the rear of President Kennedy’s head then exploded out a roughly oval-shaped hole from his head’s rear and right side. Head matter, brain, blood, and skull fragments, originating from Kennedy, covered the interior of the car, the inner and outer surfaces of the front glass windshield and raised sun visors, the front engine hood, the rear trunk lid, the followup Secret Service car and its driver’s left arm, and motorcycle officers riding on both sides of the president behind him. Mrs. Kennedy then reached out onto the rear trunk lid. After she crawled back into her limousine seat, both Governor Connally and Mrs. Connally heard her say more than once, “They have killed my husband,” and “I have his brains in my hand.”
Clint Hill was riding on the left front running board of the followup car, immediately behind the Presidential limousine. Hill testified he heard one shot, then, he jumped off into Elm Street and ran forward to try and get on the limousine and protect the president. Hill testified to the Warren Commission that after he jumped into Elm Street, he heard two more shots. After the president had been shot in the head, Mrs. Kennedy began to climb out onto the back of the limousine, though she later had no recollection of doing so. Hill believed she was reaching for something, perhaps a piece of the president’s skull. He jumped onto the back of the limousine while at the same time Mrs. Kennedy returned to her seat, and he clung to the car as it exited Dealey Plaza and accelerated, speeding to Parkland Memorial Hospital.
I (Wayne Church) was a sophomore at Aurora High School in Aurora, Ohio on this day. My friends and I were on the far north side of the cafeteria up against the windows looking over the football field. We were in 8th period study hall and the next stop was the bus to go home. Mr. Richard Golnick walked toward our table. I remember him as a hard-nosed teacher from Brooklyn, NY. He was our gym teacher. As he walked across the room I remember that the noise level was dropping. He was wearing his blue gym suit with white striping and he had a day-old beard.
I remember all of this fifty years later (2013) because of what he said next. He said, “President Kennedy has been shot and killed in Dallas.” Nothing before or since has hit me harder than that short sentence. If you were old enough to remember, where were you???
“Joy is what happens when we allow ourselves to recognize how good things really are.”
~ Marianne Williamson
Lying under or below something.
[From Latin subjacent- (stem of subjacens), present participle of subjacere
(to underlie), from sub- (under) + jacere (to lie). Ultimately from the
Indo-European root ye- (to throw), that is also the source of jettison,
eject, project, reject, object, subject, adjective, joist, and ejaculate.]
1247 – Robin Hood died according to the 1400 ballad “A Lytell Geste of Robyn Hode.”
1497 – Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope in his search for a route to India.
1542 – New laws were passed in Spain giving protection against the enslavement of Indians in America.
1718 – Off the coast of North Carolina, British pirate Edward Teach (best known as “Blackbeard”) is killed in battle with a boarding party led by Royal Navy Lieutenant Robert Maynard.
1809 – Peregrine Williamson of Baltimore patents a steel pen.
1812 – War of 1812: Seventeen Indiana Rangers are killed at the Battle of Wild Cat Creek.
1842 – Mt Saint Helens erupts. In late fall or early winter of 1842, nearby settlers and missionaries were witness to the so-called “Great Eruption”. This small-volume outburst created large ash clouds, and mild explosions followed for 15 years. It was then fairly quiet for 123 years.
1847 – Astor Place Opera House, New York City’s first operatic theater, was opened.
1858 – Denver, Colorado is founded.
1862 – Civil War: Joint Army–Navy expedition to vicinity of Mathews Court House, Virginia.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate General John Bell Hood invades Tennessee in an unsuccessful attempt to draw Union General William T. Sherman from Georgia.
1864 – Civil War: Union General O. Howard at Gettysburg, ordered plunderers shot to death. Howard University is named for this General.
1864 – Civil War: Battle at Griswoldville, Georgia, ended after 650 casualties.
1869 – In Dumbarton, Scotland, the clipper Cutty Sark is launched – one of the last clippers ever built, and the only one still surviving today.
1880 – Vaudeville actress Lillian Russell makes her debut at Tony Pastor’s Theatre in New York City.
1898 – In Lake City, S.C. a Black postmaster was lynched and his three daughters were shot and maimed for life.
1899 – The Marconi Wireless Company of America was incorporated under laws of the State of New Jersey.
1904 – Design Patent for the Congressional Medal of Honor was granted to George Gillespie.
1906 – The “SOS” distress signal was adopted at the International Radio Telegraphic Convention.
1910 – Arthur Knight patents steel shaft golf clubs. The metal shaft was not approved by the US Golf Association until 1925. ;Approval by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrew’s wasn’t until 1929.
1915 – Germany offers £1,000 each of American passengers lost in “Lusitania”. Offer refused by America.
1917 – NHL created. The founding teams were the Canadiens, Wanderers, Senators and the newly-created Toronto Arenas.
1922 – Howard Carter, assisted by Lord Carnarvon, opens the tomb of Tutankhamen.
1923 – Pres. Coolidge pardoned WW I German spy Lothar Witzke, who was sentenced to death. Witzke, a member of a “fifth column” organization run from Mexico. He was suspected in the “Black Tom” explosion that damaged the Statue of Liberty in 1916.
1927 – The first U.S. patent for a snowmobile was issued to Carl J.E. Eliason of Saynor, Wisconsin. His “motor toboggan” had ski-like front runners and a rear drive track.
1927 – George Gershwin’s “Funny Face,” premiered in New York City.
1928 – “Bolero” by Maurice Ravel, first performed publicly, in Paris. The composition was a great success when it was premiered with choreography by Bronislava Nijinska and designs by Benois.
1930 – Elijah Muhammad formed the Nation of Islam in Detroit.
1932 – A pump was patented that computed quantity and price delivered.
1934 – “Santa Claus Is Comin’ to Town” was first heard on Eddie Cantor’s show.
1935 – Pan Am’s China Clipper, a flying boat, takes off from Alameda, California in an attempt to deliver the first airmail cargo across the Pacific Ocean (the airplane later reached its destination, Manila, and delivered over 110,000 pieces of mail).
1938 – The first coelacanth, a prehistoric fish thought extinct, was caught off the South African coast.
1938 – Bunny Berigan and his orchestra waxed “Jelly Roll Blues” on Victor Records.
1942 – World War II: General Friedrich von Paulus sends Adolf Hitler a telegram saying that the German 6th army is surrounded.
1943 – World War II:President Franklin Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek met to discuss strategies for defeating Japan.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Been a Long, Long Time” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “Till the End of Time” by Perry Como, “I’ll Buy that Dream” by The Pied Pipers and “Sioux City Sue” by Dick Thomas all topped the charts.
1945 – Jim Benton, Cleveland end, gains 303 yards (NFL record).
1946 – Biro ball point pens went on sale, invented by Hungarian journalist László Biro.
1950 – Lowest NBA score, Ft Wayne Pistons (19), Minneapolis Lakers (18).
1952 – “It’s in the Book” by Johnny Standley topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War – Captain Cecil G. Foster of the 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing became the 23rd ace of the Korean War.
1954 – The Humane Society of the United States is founded.
1957 – Mickey Mantle beats Ted Williams by one vote for MVP.
1958 – “Tom Dooley” by The Kingston Trio topped the charts.
1963 – In Dallas, Texas, US President John F. Kennedy is assassinated and Texas Governor John B. Connally is seriously wounded. Later the same day, US Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn in as the 36th President of the United States.
1963 – Two amateur films recorded the assassination of Pres. Kennedy. A 24 ½ sec. video by Orville Nix Sr. and Abraham Zapruder, a dress manufacturer, captured the assassination on video tape.
1963 – Dallas police officer J.D. Tippit was slain by Oswald 45 minutes after Kennedy was shot when he called Oswald over for questioning.
1964 – 40,000 paid tribute to John F Kennedy at Arlington Cemetery on the first anniversary of his death.
1965 – The production of “Man of La Mancha” opened in NYC for the first of 2,328 performances.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wedding Bell Blues” by The 5th Dimension, “Take a Letter Maria” by R.B. Greaves, “Smile a Little Smile for Me” by The Flying Machine and “Okie from Muskogee” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1969 – In American football, the University of Michigan upset Ohio State University, 24-12, in Bo Schembechler’s first season as Michigan’s head coach. The win set off the 10 Year War between Schembechler and Ohio State’s Woody Hayes.
1972 – Vietnam War: The United States loses its first B-52 Stratofortress of the war.
1972 – Pittsburgh Penguins set NHL record for scoring fastest 5 goals (2m7s).
1975 – “Dr. Zhivago” appeared on TV for the first time.
1975 – “That’s the Way (I Like It)” by K. C. & the Sunshine Band topped the charts.
1976 – Comic strip “Cathy,” by Cathy Guisewhite, made its debut.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Light Up My Life” by Debby Boone, “Don’t It Make My Brown Eyes Blue” by Crystal Gayle, “Baby, What a Big Surprise” by Chicago and “The Wurlitzer Prize (I Don’t Want to Get over You)” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1977 – Passenger service between New York and Europe on the British Airways supersonic Concorde began.
1980 – “Lady” by Kenny Rogers topped the charts.
1981 – San Diego Charger Dan Fouts passes for 6 touchdowns vs Oakland (55-21).
1984 – Fred Rogers (1928-2003) of PBS’ “Mr. Rogers’ Neighborhood” presented his sweater to the Smithsonian Institution.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “We Built this City” by Starship, “You Belong to the City” by Glenn Frey, “Separate Lives” by Phil Collins & Marilyn Martin and “Hang on to Your Heart” by Exile all topped the charts.
1985 – The largest swearing-in ceremony took place as 38,648 immigrants became citizens of the United States after six days of rallies around the country.
1985 – Anne Henderson-Pollard was taken into custody a day after her husband Jonathon Jay Pollard was arrested for spying for Israel.
1986 – The U.S. Justice Department found a memo in Lt. Col. Oliver North’s office on the transfer of $12 million to Contras of Nicaragua from Iranian arms sale.
1986 – Mike Tyson knocks out Trevor Berbick in the second round, becoming the youngest world heavyweight champion at the age of 20 years and 4 months.
1987 – Two Chicago television stations are hijacked by an unknown pirate dressed as Max Headroom.
1988 – The Northrop B-2 “stealth” bomber is shown publicly for the first time at Air Force Plant 42 in Palmdale, California.
1988 – Americans honored President Kennedy on the 25th anniversary of his assassination, with 2,500 people turning out in Dallas, and visitors stopping by his gravesite at Arlington National Cemetery.
1989 – DJ Jazzy Jeff and the Fresh Prince win the first rap Grammy for the hit single “Parents Just Don’t Understand.”
1989 – Conjunction of Venus, Mars, Uranus, Neptune, Saturn & the Moon.
1990 – Margaret Thatcher, the first female prime minister in British history, resigned after 11 years.
1990 – President H.W. Bush, his wife, Barbara, and other congressional leaders shared Thanksgiving dinner with U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia.
1994 – Inside the District of Columbia’s police headquarters a gunman opened fire. Two FBI agents, a city detective and the gunman were killed in the gun battle.
1996 – The 86-year-old Nobel Peace Prize winner Mother Teresa underwent heart surgery in Calcutta, India.
1996 – O.J. Simpson took the stand as a hostile witness in the wrongful death lawsuit filed against him, saying it was “absolutely not true” that he killed Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman.
1998 – Denver Broncos QB John Elway passed the 50,000-yard career-passing mark.
1998 – CBS’s “60 Minutes” aired a tape of Jack Kevorkian giving lethal drugs in an assisted suicide of a terminally ill patient. Kevorkian was later sentenced to 25 years in prison for second-degree murder.
1999 – In Japan a T-33 jet crashed and killed two crewmen. The crash severed a 275,000-volt power line.
2000 – Gov. George Bush called on the US Supreme Court to stop the vote counting in Florida.
2000 – Republican vice-presidential candidate Dick Cheney was hospitalized with what doctors called a very slight heart attack.
2000 – Yemen identified the bombers of the USS Cole as two Saudi Arabian citizens with Yemeni family roots.
2001 – Mary Kay Ash (b.1918), founder of the Mary Kay cosmetics firm, died in Dallas. By 2001 her 1963 sales force of 11 had grown to over 750,000 in 37 countries.
2003 – The Heritage Classic, the first outdoor hockey game in the history of the NHL, is played in Edmonton, Alberta.
2005 – A federal jury in Virginia found Ahmed Omar Abu Ali (24), a US citizen, guilty of numerous charges to commit acts of terrorism. In 2009 he was sentenced to life in prison for plotting to kill President George W. Bush.
2005 – Massachusetts signed an agreement with Venezuela to obtain discounted home heating oil. Democrat Representative William Delahunt helped broker the deal.
2005 – Ted Koppel hosted his final edition of ABC News’ “Nightline.”
2006 – Two explosions at a chemical plant in Danvers, Mass., wrecked 25 homes and left nearly 400 people homeless.
2006 – The U.S. Copyright Office said cell phone owners can now break locks to use their handsets with competing carriers, while film professors have the right to copy snippets from DVDs for educational compilations.
2010 – FBI raided three hedge funds in New York City as part of a sweeping investigation into insider trading.
2010 – A Washington D.C. jury convicts Ingmar Guandique of the murder of Chandra Levy.
2010 – Brad Childress is sacked as head coach of the Minnesota Vikings National Football League team.
2012 – Up to 120 people are injured and 2 killed near Beaumont, Texas in a 100-vehicle pileup in dense fog that forced the closure of both directions of Interstate 10 in Southeast Texas.
2013 – OBAMACARE: In an end run around the broken Obamacare website, the administration says people can enroll directly with insurance companies and still qualify for subsidies, which the law wasn’t supposed to allow.
2014 – A 3.3 earthquake is felt at Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) at 9:15 p.m. The epicenter was 3 miles ENE of Irving, TX. There as no serious damage.
1643 – René-Robert La Salle, French explorer of North America.
1744 – Abigail Smith Adams, wife of John Adams, second President of the United States.
1808 – Thomas Cook, English travel package pioneer.
1889 – Wiley Post, American airman, first to fly solo around the world (1933).
1890 – Charles de Gaulle, President of France (d. 1970)
1899 – Hoagy Carmichael, American songwriter, pianist, singer.
1918 – Claiborne Pell, American politician
1921 – Rodney Dangerfield, born Jacob Cohen, American comedian and actor.
1932 – Robert Vaughn (Emmy Award-winning actor: The Man from U.N.C.L.E., The Magnificent Seven, The Towering Inferno, Delta Force, Superman 3)
1943 – Billie Jean King, American tennis player.
1958 – Jamie Lee Curtis, American film actress.
1967 – Boris Becker, German-born professional tennis player.
1983 – Tyler Hilton, American singer and actor
1985 – DeVon Walker, American football player
*LORING, CHARLES J., JR.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Air Force, 80th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 8th Fighter-Bomber Wing. Place and date: Near Sniper Ridge, North Korea, November 22nd, 1952. Entered service at: Portland, Maine. Born: 2 October 1918, Portland, Maine. Citation: Maj. Loring distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While leading a night of four F-80 type aircraft on a close support mission, Maj. Loring was briefed by a controller to dive-bomb enemy gun positions which were harassing friendly ground troops. After verifying the location of the target, Maj. Loring rolled into his dive bomb run. Throughout the run, extremely accurate ground fire was directed on his aircraft. Disregarding the accuracy and intensity of the ground fire, Maj. Loring aggressively continued to press the attack until his aircraft was hit. At approximately 4,000 feet, he deliberately altered his course and aimed his diving aircraft at active gun emplacements concentrated on a ridge northwest of the briefed target, turned his aircraft forty-five degrees to the left, pulled up in a deliberate, controlled maneuver, and elected to sacrifice his life by diving his aircraft directly into the midst of the enemy emplacements. His selfless and heroic action completely destroyed the enemy gun emplacement and eliminated a dangerous threat to United Nations ground forces. Maj. Loring’s noble spirit, superlative courage, and conspicuous self-sacrifice in inflicting maximum damage on the enemy exemplified valor of the highest degree and his actions were in keeping with the finest traditions of the U.S. Air Force.
STONE, JAMES L.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company E 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Near Sokkogae, Korea, November 21 st and November 22nd, 1951. Entered service at: Houston Tex. Born: 27 December 1922, Pine Bluff, Ark. G.O. No.: 82, 20 October 1953. Citation: 1st Lt. Stone, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. When his platoon, holding a vital outpost position, was attacked by overwhelming Chinese forces, 1st Lt. Stone stood erect and exposed to the terrific enemy fire calmly directed his men in the defense. A defensive flame-thrower failing to function, he personally moved to its location, further exposing himself, and personally repaired the weapon. Throughout a second attack, 1st Lt. Stone; though painfully wounded, personally carried the only remaining light machine gun from place to place in the position in order to bring fire upon the Chinese advancing from two directions. Throughout he continued to encourage and direct his depleted platoon in its hopeless defense. Although again wounded, he continued the fight with his carbine, still exposing himself as an example to his men. When this final overwhelming assault swept over the platoon’s position his voice could still be heard faintly urging his men to carry on, until he lost consciousness. Only because of this officer’s driving spirit and heroic action was the platoon emboldened to make its brave but hopeless last ditch stand.
BONNYMAN, ALEXANDER, JR.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserves. Born: 2 May 1910, Atlanta, Ga. Accredited to: New Mexico. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as Executive Officer of the 2d Battalion Shore Party, 8th Marines, 2d Marine Division, during the assault against enemy Japanese-held Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands, November 20th -November 22nd, 1943. Acting on his own initiative when assault troops were pinned down at the far end of Betio Pier by the overwhelming fire of Japanese shore batteries, 1st Lt. Bonnyman repeatedly defied the blasting fury of the enemy bombardment to organize and lead the besieged men over the long, open pier to the beach and then, voluntarily obtaining flame throwers and demolitions, organized his pioneer shore party into assault demolitionists and directed the blowing of several hostile installations before the close of D-day. Determined to effect an opening in the enemy’s strongly organized defense line the following day, he voluntarily crawled approximately forty- yards forward of our lines and placed demolitions in the entrance of a large Japanese emplacement as the initial move in his planned attack against the heavily garrisoned, bombproof installation which was stubbornly resisting despite the destruction early in the action of a large number of Japanese who had been inflicting heavy casualties on our forces and holding up our advance. Withdrawing only to replenish his ammunition, he led his men in a renewed assault, fearlessly exposing himself to the merciless slash of hostile fire as he stormed the formidable bastion, directed the placement of demolition charges in both entrances and seized the top of the bombproof position, flushing more than one-hundred of the enemy who were instantly cut down, and effecting the annihilation of approximately 150 troops inside the emplacement. Assailed by additional Japanese after he had gained his objective, he made a heroic stand on the edge of the structure, defending his strategic position with indomitable determination in the face of the desperate charge and killing three of the enemy before he fell, mortally wounded. By his dauntless fighting spirit, unrelenting aggressiveness and forceful leadership throughout three days of unremitting, violent battle, 1st Lt. Bonnyman had inspired his men to heroic effort, enabling them to beat off the counterattack and break the back of hostile resistance in that sector for an immediate gain of 400 yards with no further casualties to our forces in this zone. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
SHOUP, DAVID MONROE
Rank and organization: Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps, commanding officer of all Marine Corps troops on Betio Island, Tarawa Atoll, and Gilbert Islands, from November 20th -November 22nd, 1943. Entered service at: Indiana. Born: 30 December 1904, Tippecanoe, Ind. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of all Marine Corps troops in action against enemy Japanese forces on Betio Island, Tarawa Atoll, Gilbert Islands, from 20 to 22 November 1943. Although severely shocked by an exploding enemy shell soon after landing at the pier and suffering from a serious, painful leg wound which had become infected, Col. Shoup fearlessly exposed himself to the terrific and relentless artillery, machinegun, and rifle fire from hostile shore emplacements. Rallying his hesitant troops by his own inspiring heroism, he gallantly led them across the fringing reefs to charge the heavily fortified island and reinforce our hard-pressed, thinly held lines. Upon arrival on shore, he assumed command of all landed troops and, working without rest under constant, withering enemy fire during the next 2 days, conducted smashing attacks against unbelievably strong and fanatically defended Japanese positions despite innumerable obstacles and heavy casualties. By his brilliant leadership daring tactics, and selfless devotion to duty, Col. Shoup was largely responsible for the final decisive defeat of the enemy, and his indomitable fighting spirit reflects great credit upon the U.S. Naval Service .
WHAT DO YOU LOVE ABOUT AMERICA DAY
PUMPKIN PIE DAY
Directions for Making Pumpkin Pie from Scratch
Yield: It really depends on the size of the pumpkin and the size of your pie plate. If you use a 6″ pie pumpkin and a full deep dish 9″ pie plate, then it should fill that pie to the brim and maybe have enough extra for either a small (4 inch) shallow pie (or a crustless pie – see step 11).
Some people manage to make 2 full pies, especially if they use shallow pie plates and/or 8 inch pie plates.
Ingredients and Equipment
A sharp, large serrated knife
an ice cream scoop
a large microwaveable bowl or large pot
1 large (10 inch) deep-dish pie plate and pie crust they will open in a new window) – or two small pie plates (9 inch) and crusts
A pie pumpkin (see step 1; you can use different types of pumpkin or even a butternut squash)
1 cup sugar (see step 10 for alternatives)
1.5 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1 teaspoon ground cloves
1 teaspoon ground allspice
1/2 teaspoon ground ginger
1/2 teaspoon of vanilla extract (optional)
1/2 teaspoon salt (optional)
4 large eggs – to reduce fat and cholesterol, you may use egg whites (like “Egg Beaters) instead, and vegans may want to use Ener-G .
3 cups pumpkin glop (ok… “sieved, cooked pumpkin”)
1.5 cans (12oz each) of evaporated milk (can use the nonfat version) for best results.
If you can’t get canned evaporated milk, make your own from nonfat dried milk and make it twice as concentrated as the directions on the box call for!
If you can’t get nonfat dried milk, just use milk.
If you are lactose-intolerant, use lactose-free milk or soy milk.
Try fresh whipping cream (unwhipped) to make a “wonderful” pie”
If you are allergic to dairy try using coconut milk,.
Note: if you do not have cinnamon, cloves, allspice and ginger, you can substitute 3 teaspoons of “pumpkin pie spice”. It’s not exactly the same, but it will do.
Recipe and Directions
Yield: One 9-inch deep dish pie or two 8-inch shallow pies
Step 1 – Get your pie pumpkin
“Pie pumpkins” are smaller, sweeter, less grainy textured pumpkins than the usual jack-o-lantern types. Grocery stores usually carry them in late September through December in the U.S. In some parts of the country, they are also called sugar pumpkins or even “cheese pumpkins”. To give you an idea of the size of a typical pie pumpkin look for one . They’re only about 6 to 8 inches in diameter (about 20 to 24 inches in circumference). TIP: If you’re in a pinch and can’t find a pie pumpkin, use a butternut squash, it tastes almost the same! If you need to use a regular Jack O’ Lantern type pumpkin, you may need to add about 25% more sugar and run the cooked pumpkin through a blender or food processor to help smooth it out.
Just like selecting any squash, look for one that is firm, no bruises or soft spots, and a good orange color. One 6″ pie pumpkin usually makes one 10 inch deep dish pie and a bit extra; or two 9 inch shallow pies! If you have extra goop, you can always pour it into greased baking pans and make a crustless mini pie with the excess (and the cooked pies do freeze well!)
Step 2 – Prepare the pumpkin for cooking
Wash the exterior of the pumpkin in cool or warm water, no soap.
Cut the pumpkin in half. A serrated knife and a sawing motion works best – a smooth knife is more likely to slip and hurt you!
Step 3 – Scoop out the seeds…
And scrape the insides. You want to get out that stringy, dangly stuff that coats the inside surface. I find a heavy ice cream scoop works great for this.
Note: SAVE THE SEEDS: The seeds can be used either to plant pumpkins next year, or roasted to eat this year! Place them in a bowl of water and rub them between your hands, then pick out the orange buts (throw that away) and drain off the water. Spread them out on a clean towel or paper towel to dry and they’re ready to save for next year’s planting or roast.
Step 4 – Cooking the pumpkin
There are several ways to cook the pumpkin; just choose use your preferred method.
Method 1 – Put it in a microwaveable bowl
Remove the stem, and put the pumpkin into a microwaveable bowl. You may need to cut the pumpkin further to make it fit. The fewer the number of pieces, the easier it will to scoop out the cooked pumpkin afterwards.
Put a couple of inches of water in the bowl, cover it, and put in the microwave. Cook it on high until it is soft. That may take 20 minutes or more, so like anything else, try 15 minutes, see how much it is softened, then do 5 minute increments until it is soft
Method 2 – Steam on the stovetop
You can also cook it on the stovetop; it takes about the same length of time in a steamer (20 to 30 minutes). Use a double pot steamer or you could use an ordinary large pot with a steamer basket.
Method 3 – Bake in the oven
You can also bake the prepared pumpkin in the oven, just like a butternut squash. This method takes the longest. Basically, you cut and scoop out the pumpkin as for the other methods, place it cut side down into a covered oven container. Cover the ovenproof container (with a lid), and pop it in a 3500 F oven. It normally takes about 45 minutes to 90 minutes (it can vary a lot!); just test it periodically by sticking it with a fork to see if it is soft!
Step 6 – Scoop out the cooked pumpkin
Whether you cook the pumpkin on the stove, microwave, or even the oven, once it is cooked until it is soft, it is easy to scoop out the guts with a broad, smooth spoon, (such as a tablespoon). Use the spoon to gently lift and scoop the cooked pumpkin out of the skin. It should separate easily an in fairly large chucks, if the pumpkin is cooked enough.
Many times the skin or rind will simply lift off with your fingers. The result is pumpkin “glop.”
If your pumpkin “glop” has standing, free water, you may want to let it sit for 30 minutes and then pour off any free water. This will help prevent the pie from being too watery! Don’t be TOO concerned about it! The recipe accounts for the fact that fresh pumpkin is more watery than canned!
Step 7 – Puree the pumpkin
To get a nice, smooth consistency use a hand blender. By blending it, you give the pie a smooth, satiny texture; rather than the rough graininess that is typical of cooked squashes. A regular blender works as well or a food processor.With the hand blender, it just takes 2 or 3 minutes!
Step 8 – Done with the pumpkin!
The pumpkin is now cooked and ready for the pie recipe. Note: You may freeze the puree or pie filling to use it later! Just use a freezer bag or other container to exclude as much air as possible. It should last a year or more in a deep freezer On the other hand, you may NOT “can” it: Pumpkin and winter squash are low-acid foods (pH > 4.6) capable of supporting the growth of Clostridium botulinumbacteria which can cause the very serious illness, botulism, under the right storage conditions. If the bacteria are present and survive processing, and the product has a high enough water activity, they can thrive and produce toxin in the product.
Step 9 – Make the pie crust
A flaky crust is easy to make! It is also time to start preheating the oven. Turn it on and set it to 425 F (210 C, for those in Europe)
Directions for Making a Flakey Pie Crust – Easily!
Yield: makes 1 deep dish 10″ pie shell. If you are making a double crust pie (a pie with dough on the top, too), simply double it.
1.5 cups flour (about 6 ounces by weight) – plain flour, not self-rising
2 tablespoons sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt (optional)
1/6 cup (1 ounce by weight) COLD vegetable shortening like Crisco.
Here’s a useful conversion: 1/6 cup = 2 tablespoons + 2 teaspoons
1/3 cup COLD butter
1/4 cup cold water
Food processor (is very helpful, but you can blend by hand)
Recipe and Directions
Step 1 – Mix the ingredients
Mix the flour, sugar and shortening first. About 15 seconds in a food processor is by far the best way, since it is fast and the ingredients don’t warm up much. Don’t make it too smooth or uniform. Little pea sized granules makes a flaky crust.
Note: Use shortening and butter together because they will melt at different temperatures. It makes a a lighter, flakier crust. Another key is to keep all the ingredients, especially the butter, shortening and water are very cold.
Another way is to substitute coconut oil for the Cisco vegetable shortening.
Step 2 – Mix and add water as needed
Sprinkle the water, just enough water to make it hold together; a good dough consistency. A pastry blender works very well to mix, but some people prefer a few seconds in a food processor instead. Just mix it enough to make it into pieces that hold together about the size of a pea. Do not overmix it!
If you have time, put the dough (wrapped in plastic wrap or a ziploc bag) into the fridge to rest and chill for a half hour or more. If you don’t have time, don’t worry, just move on to step 3.
Step 3 – Roll out the dough
Use a pie crust bag (a circular plastic bag that zips up around the edge. If unavailable, use two pieces of waxed paper). A couple of tablespoons of flour shaken in the bag will help to keep the dough from sticking to the bag. Roll it out to an even thickness, and just an inch or two wider than your pie pan. The crust should be about 1/8 inch thick.
Step 4 – Put in the pie pan and shape!
Place the dough into the pie pan. Don’t worry if it breaks. You can easily fix that.
Press the dough into the pan, seal any broken areas, and shape the top edge in any pattern you like; just for appearance’s sake. It’s now ready to add the pie ingredients and pop in the oven!
Step 10 – Mix the pie contents
All the hard work is behind you! Here’s where it gets really easy. If you start with a fresh 8″ pie pumpkin, you will get about 3 cups of cooked, mashed pumpkin. The right amount of ingredients for this is as follows:
1 cup sugar – or 1 cup Splenda, or 3/4 cup honey
1-1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1 teaspoon ground cloves
1 teaspoon ground allspice
one half teaspoon ground ginger
one half teaspoon salt (optional, I don’t use any)
4 large eggs
3 cups pumpkin glop
1-1/2 cans (12oz each) of evaporated milk (regular or nonfat )
1/2 teaspoon of vanilla extract (optional) For different flavors try rum or brandy extracts.
Mix well using a hand blender or mixer.
Note: This pie is light and fluffy. If you want a heavy, more dense pie, use 3 eggs instead of 4 and 1 can of evaporated milk instead of 1 ½ cans.
Step 11 – Pour into the pie crust
Fill it right up to about one quarter to one half inch from the very top.
Don’t be surprised if the mixture is very runny! It may start as a soupy liquid, but it will firm up nicely in the oven! Accident prevention! If you put the empty pie crust on the oven rack, with the rack slid partially out, you can fill it there and avoid making a mess while carrying the pie to the oven!
TIP: What do you do if you end up with more filling than will fit in your pie crust(s)? Easy! Of course, you can make another, smaller pie crust and fill a small pie pan… or just grease any baking dish, of a size that the extra filling will fill to a depth of about 2 inches (see the photo at right), and pour the extra filling in.. then bake it. It will be a crustless pumpkin pie that kids especially love! You can also use it in making pumpkin muffins or pumpkin bread!
TIP: Cover the exposed edges of the crust with strips of aluminum foil will prevent them from burning. Make your own crust cover by cutting the rim off of a disposable aluminum pie pan!
Step 12 – Bake the pie
Bake at 425 F (210 C ) for the first 15 minutes, then turn the temperature down to 350 F ( 175 C ) and bake another 45 to 60 minutes, until a clean knife inserted into the center comes out clean.
Step 13 – Cool the pie
And enjoy! Warm or chilled, with whipped cream , ice cream or nothing at all – it’s great!
“As we express our gratitude, we must never forget that the highest appreciation is not to utter words, but to live by them.”
~John Fitzgerald Kennedy
monomania mon-uh-MAY-nee-uh; -nyuh, noun:1. Pathological obsession with a single subject or idea.
2. Excessive concentration of interest upon one particular subject or idea.
Monomania is derived from the Greek elements mono-, “one, single, alone” + mania, “madness, frenzy, enthusiasm.”
164 BC – Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family, restores the Temple in Jerusalem. Events commemorated each year by the festival of Hanukkah.
1620 – Plymouth Colony settlers sign the Mayflower Compact (11 November, Old Style calendar), 10 days after arrival.
1783 – François de Rozier and the Marquis d’Arlandres made the first human flight in a hot-air balloon, in Paris, in a balloon built by the Joseph-Michel Montgolfier and Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier.
1789 – North Carolina ratifies the United States Constitution and is admitted as the twelfth U.S. state.
1791 – The first student entered Georgetown College. He was William Gaston, the son of a widow from New Bern, North Carolina. Mrs. Gaston agreed to an annual tuition of six pounds ten shillings, payable in six-month installments, with room and board adding 27pounds 10s. to the total bill.
1794 – Honolulu Harbor was discovered.
1836 – Marines and Soldiers took action against the Seminole Indians at Wahoo Swamp, Florida.
1847 – Steamer “Phoenix” was lost on Lake Michigan. 200 people were killed.
1848 – The John C. Fremont expedition, in search of a railroad route across the Rocky Mountains, reached Pueblo, Colorado.
1854 – Issac Von Bunschoten patented a rosin-oil lamp.
1855 – Franklin Colman, a pro-slavery Missourian, gunned down Charles Dow, a Free Stater from Ohio, near Lawrence, Kansas.
1861 – Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis appoints Judah Benjamin Secretary of War.
1864 – Civil War : Confederate General John Bell Hood launched the Franklin-Nashville Campaign into Tennessee from Georgia.
1865 – Shaw University was founded.Shaw University is a private liberal arts institution and historically black university specializing in social research and the liberal arts, located in Raleigh, North Carolina.
1871 – The first U.S. patent for a cigar lighter was issued to Moses F. Gale of New York City as an “Improvement in Cigar-Lighters.”
1871 – The first human cannonball, Emilio Onra, was fired from a cannon.
1877 – Thomas Edison announced his invention of his “talking machine” – the tin-foil cylinder recorder that preceded the phonograph.
1899 – Vice President Garret A. Hobart, serving under President McKinley, died in Paterson, N.J., at age 55.
1902 – First night football game, Philadelphia Athletics beats Kanaweola AC, 39-0.
1905 – Albert Einstein’s paper, “Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?”, is published in the journal “Annalen der Physik”. This paper reveals the relationship between energy and mass. This leads to the famous equation e=mc².
1906 – In San Juan, President Theodore Roosevelt pledged citizenship for Puerto Rican people.
1907 – The Cunard liner Mauritania set a new speed record for steamship travel, 624 nautical miles in a one day run.
1918 – World War I: The German High Seas Fleet surrendered to the Allies.
1918 – The last German troops left Alsace-Lorraine, France.
1921 – The first mid-air refueling was done by hand over Long Beach on a Curtiss JN-4.
1922 – Rebecca L. Felton of Georgia was sworn in as the first woman to serve in the U.S. Senate. She only got to serve one-day though.
1925 – Three-time All-American Harold “Red” Grange played his last football game for the University of Illinois and joined the Chicago Bears less than a week later on Thanksgiving Day.
1927 – Columbine Mine Massacre: Striking coal miners were allegedly attacked with machine guns by a detachment of state police dressed in civilian clothes in Serene, CO. Six strikers were killed, and dozens were injured.
1929 – Surrealist painter Salvador Dali had his first exhibit.
1933 – S.H. Love patents improved vending machine – Patent No.1936515
1934 – New York Yankees buy Joe DiMaggio from San Francisco Seals.
1934 – The Cole Porter musical “Anything Goes,” starring Ethel Merman as Reno Sweeney, premiered at New York’s Alvin Theatre.
1934 – Ella Fitzgerald makes her singing debut at age 16 at the Apollo Theater in Harlem, New York.
1938 – World War II: Nazi forces occupied western Czechoslovakia and declared its people German citizens.This annexation of Sudetenland was the first major belligerent action by Hitler.
1938 – WBOE in Cleveland, OH became the first school-operated radio station (owned by a municipality) to receive a license from the FCC.
1941 – The radio program King Biscuit Time is broadcast for the first time (it would later become the longest running daily radio broadcast in history and the most famous live blues radio program).
1942 – Tweety Bird, cartoon character, was born.
1942 – The Alcan Highway, an overland military supply route to the U.S. territory of Alaska, linking Canada and Alaska, was opened. It is now called the Alaska Highway. Passing through the Yukon, the more than 1,500-mile roadway connected Dawson Creek, British Columbia with Fairbanks, Alaska.
1943 – World War II: On Tarawa Atoll, more American troops (of the 2nd Marine Divison) land on Betio Island.
1944 – World War II: On Leyte, the US 32nd Division, advancing from the north coast, is held in the Ormoc Valley by Japanese forces.
1944 – World War II: Northeast of Formosa, the US submarine Sealion sinks the Japanese battleship Kongo and a destroyer.
1944 – :World War II: US 1st and 9th Armies meet firm resistance from German forces west of the Roer River.The US 3rd Army continues the siege of Metz while other elements gain ground near Saarebourg.
1944 – “The Roy Rogers Show” was first heard on the Mutual Broadcasting System. “Happy trails to you, until we meet again….”
1944 – “I’m Beginning to See the Light“, recorded by Harry James and his orchestra.
1945 – The last residents of the US Japanese-American internment left their camps.
1945 – General Motors workers went on strike.Within days of the end of World War II, the United Auto Workers demanded a 30% increase in wages. When denied their demands, the UAW went on strike for 113 days. They did not strike for increased wages but more for reduced profits by GM.
1946 – Harry Truman becomes first US President to travel in a submerged submarine. Mr. Truman had something to show for his temerity: a membership in the Royal Order of Deep Dunkers.
1950 – Korean War: The 17th Infantry Regiment of the 7th Infantry Division reached the Yalu River near its source at Hyesanjin, “Ghost City of Broken Bridges.”
1950 – The battleship USS New Jersey was recommissioned and re-entered active service under the command of Captain David M. Tyree.
1952 – First US postage stamp in 2 colors (rotary process) introduced.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Belong to Me” by Jo Stafford, “Glow Worm” by The Mills Brothers, “Because You’re Mine” by Mario Lanza and “Jambalaya (On the Bayou)” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – “Rags to Riches” by Tony Bennett topped the charts.
1953 – Authorities at the British Natural History Museum announce that the “Piltdown Man” skull, held to be one of the most famous fossil skulls in the world, was a hoax.
1955 – The first lady of the American stage, Helen Hayes, was honored for her many remarkable years in show business.
1959 – Jack Benny (violin) & Richard Nixon (piano) play their famed duet.
1959 – “Mr. Blue” by The Fleetwoods topped the charts.
1960 – Mercury-Redstone 1 (MR-1) was launched from Launch Complex 5 at Cape Canaveral, Florida. It was to be an unmanned suborbital flight. This was the first launch attempt for the Mercury-Redstone combination. The Redstone’s engine cut out about 1 second after lift-off.
1960 – American rocket launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, went off-course and a piece of debris fell in Cuba, killing a cow. The Cuban government gave the cow an official funeral as the victim of “imperialist aggression.” Date only known as November 1960.
1963 – President John F. Kennedy and his wife, Jacqueline, arrived in San Antonio, TX. They were beginning a two-day tour of Texas that would end in Dallas.
1963 – The Elvis Presley film “Fun in Acapulco” premiered.
1964 – New York’s Verrazano Narrows Bridge opened. World’s longest suspension bridge.
1964 – “Baby Love” by the Supremes topped the charts.
1967 – President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the air quality act, which allotted money to fight air pollution.
1967 – Vietnam War: American General William Westmoreland tells news reporters: “I am absolutely certain that whereas in 1965 the enemy was winning, today he is certainly losing.”
1967 – According to Guiness, “The single kite record is 22,500ft (min) – 28,000 ft. (max) by Prof. Phillip R. Kunz and Jay P. Kunz at Laramie, Wyoming.
1968 – Supremes & Temptations release “I’m Gonna Make You Love Me“.
1969 – The Senate (Democrat Majority) voted down the nomination of Clement F. Haynsworth to the Supreme Court, the first time since 1930 that a candidate for the nation’s highest court was rejected.
1970 – Vietnam War: Operation Ivory Coast – A joint Air Force and Army team raids the Son Tay prison camp in an attempt to free American POWs thought to be held there. It would be later learned that the POWs had been relocated to Dong Hoi, on July 14.
1970 – Vietnam War: Two 378-foot cutters, US Coast Guard Cutters Sherman and Rush combined with USS Endurance to sink a North Vietnamese trawler attempting to smuggle arms into South Vietnam.
1970 – “I Think I Love You” by the Partridge Family topped the charts.
1972 – It’s easy, and it’s good for everyone. What could possibly be so wonderful? World Hello Day, that’s what. This friendly annual event began on this day and has grown enormously since. Here’s what you do to participate: you just say “hello” to ten people on this day. Greet them warmly and with a smile. And you can say “hello” in any language.
1973 – The 18.5-minute gap in one of Richard Nixon’s White House tape recordings related to Watergate was revealed by Nixon’s lawyer, J. Fred Buzhardt .
1974 – George W. Bush is honourably discharged from the US Air Force Reserve.
1974 – U.S. Congress (Democrat Majority) passed the Freedom of Information Act over President Gerald Ford’s veto.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)” by Rod Stewart, “The Wreck of the Edmond Fitzgerald” by Gordon Lightfoot, “Love So Right” by Bee Gees and “Somebody Somewhere (Don’t Know What He’s Missin’ Tonight)” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1979 – The United States Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan is attacked by a mob and set on fire killing four, two of which were American.
1980 – A deadly fire breaks out at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada (now Bally’s Las Vegas). Eighty-seven people are killed and more than 650 are injured in the worst disaster in Nevada history.
1980 – Lake Peigneur, Louisiana drained into an underlying salt deposit. A misplaced Texaco oil probe drilled into the Diamond crystal salt mine; water flowing down into the mine eroded the edges of the hole. The whirlpool created sucked the drilling platform, several barges, houses and trees thousands of feet, to the bottom of the dissolving salt deposit.
1980 – Who Shot JR? – The Dallas Episode “Who Done It?” aired on US television. It was one of the highest-rated episodes (53.3) of a TV show ever aired. Kristin, played by Mary Crosby, was the character that fired the gun.
1981 – Olivia Newton-John’s “Physical,” single goes #1 & stays for 10 weeks.
1985 – United States Navy intelligence analyst Jonathan Jay Pollard is arrested for spying (he was caught giving Israel classified information on Arab nations and was eventually sentenced to life in prison).
1986 – Iran-Contra Affair: National Security Council member Oliver North and his secretary, Fawn Hall, start to shred documents implicating them in the sale of weapons to Iran and channeling the proceeds to help fund the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
1987 – “Mony Mony” by Billy Idol topped the charts.
1987 – An eight-day siege began at a detention center in Oakdale, LA, as Cuban detainees seized the facility and took hostages after news that they were going to be returned to Cuba.
1988 – “The Delicate Sound Of Thunder” by Pink Floyd was released.
1989 – A law banning smoking on most domestic flights signed by President Bush.
1990 – Leaders of NATO and Warsaw Pact member states signed the Charter of Paris and a treaty on conventional forces in Europe, bringing an end to the Cold War.
1991 – President George H.W. Bush signed the Civil Rights Act of 1991, making it easier for workers to sue in job discrimination cases.
1992 – Sen. Bob Packwood, R-Ore., issued an apology but refused to discuss allegations that he’d made unwelcome sexual advances toward ten women over the years.
1993 – The U.S. House of Representatives voted against making the District of Columbia the 51st state, 277-153.
1995 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed above the 5000 (5023.55) mark for the first time.
1995 – Israel granted jailed US spy Jason Pollard, citizenship.
1995 – “Toy Story” is released as the first feature-length film created completely using computer-generated imagery.
1996 – Thirty-three people were killed, and more than 100 injured, when an explosion blamed on leaking gas ripped through a six-story building in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
1997 – “The Food and Drug Administration Act of 1997″ was signed into law by President Clinton. The new law was designed to enhance the product development and review process; streamline the way the Agency regulates medical devices and simplify enforcement procedures.
2000 – Pres. Clinton agreed not to punish China for exporting missile components to Iran and Pakistan after China promised to end future technological cooperations with countries seeking to develop missile weaponry.
2000 – In a setback for George W. Bush, the Florida Supreme Court granted Al Gore’s request to keep the presidential recounts going; Democrats were jubilant, Republicans bitter and angry.
2001 – Tiger Woods won his 4th consecutive PGA Grand Slam with a win at Poipu Bay in Hawaii.
2002 -” It’s A Very Muppet Christmas Movie” first airs on NBC. Baby Jordan Elliott was born.
2002 – Intensive cleaning began aboard the cruise ship Disney Magic after over 100 passengers fell sick from an unknown stomach virus.
2002 – NATO invited the seven former communist countries into its membership.
2003 – Health officials said a deadly outbreak of hepatitis A at a Chi-Chi’s Mexican restaurant in suburban Pittsburgh was probably caused by green onions from Mexico.
2003 – Phil Spector was charged with the murder of Lana Clarkson at his home the previos February. Spector pled innocent.
2003 – The Air Force conducted a second test of the “Mother of All Bombs,” officially the Massive Ordnance Air Blast, in Florida. It was first tested Mar 11.
2004 – Donald Trump’s casino empire filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
2004 – Kurt Busch clinches the first NASCAR Nextel Cup championship trophy.
2004 – Fred Hale Sr., believed to have been the oldest man on Earth, died less than a month before his 114th birthday at a DeWitt, N.Y., nursing home. He was born the same year as basketball was invented and the Swiss Army knife was developed.
2004 – A trespassing deer hunter in northern Wisconsin opened fire on other hunters when they asked him to leave, killing five and wounding three. In 2005 Vang (36) was convicted of 1st degree murder and sentenced to six life terms.
2004 – Scientists began releasing water from Glen Canyon Dam to flood the Grand Canyon in a five-day effort to restore the Colorado river ecosystem.
2004 – The Nintendo DS was released in North America.
2005 – Camden, NJ, was named the most dangerous city in the USA for the 2nd year in a row by the Morgan Quitno, a Kansas-based publishing and research company.
2005 – In New Mexico, police arrested Monsignor Dale Fushek (53), former vicar general of the Phoenix Roman Catholic Diocese, on sex charges involving boys and young men.
2005 – General Motors Corp. said it will eliminate 30,000 jobs and close nine North American assembly, stamping and powertrain plants by 2008.
2006 – In Atlanta, Ga., Kathryn Johnston (92) was shot to death by police after she fired at narcotics investigators as they stormed her house in a no-knock raid.
2007 – University of Wisconsin-Madison scientists reported they had reprogrammed human skin cells to behave as embryonic stem cells. The procedure by-passes the ethical or political controversy caused by destroying embryos or cloning for stem cell research.
2007 – Senator Barack Obama makes the case for an Obama Presidency by saying he is uniquely qualified to bring stability to America’s relationships in the Muslim world because he lived in an Islamic country during his youth and his half-sister is Muslim.
2007 – New Hampshire set its presidential primary to Jan 8, claiming its traditional spot as the nation’s first primary.
2007 – Officials in the US announced the recall of more than a half-million pieces of Chinese-made children’s jewelry contaminated with lead.
2008 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average rose 494.13 to close at 8,046.42 following news that President-elect Obama would likely pick Timothy Geithner, chief of the New York Federal Reserve, as the next Treasury secretary.
2008 – The U.S. National Intelligence Council predicts a major decline in U.S. economic, military, and political dominance over the next two decades.
2009 – Th US Senate voted 60-39 to open debate on the health care bill. The vote was hailed a victory for President Obama, but final passage of the legislation was far from certain.
2009 – President Barack Obama’s job approval rating slips below 50 percent in a daily tracking survey by Gallup poll and reported by Rueters.
2010 – Iran delays the trial of two American citizens detained while hiking until 6 February 2011.
2010 – US stock car racer Jimmie Johnson wins his fifth straight NASCAR Sprint Cup Series championship, the first driver to do so.
2011 – The United States, United Kingdom, and Canada impose further sanctions against Iran’s nuclear program.
2011 – A Congressional panel fails to agree on proposals to cut the United States’ national budget deficit by $1.2 trillion, leading to automatic budget cuts.
2012 – Will Rogers World Airport in Oklahoma is shut down over the discovery of a painted golden object with a hole in the bottom in the luggage of musician Wayne Coyne. The object is mistaken for a live grenade by frightened staff.
2012 – Jesse Jackson, Jr. (D) resigns from U.S. Congress due to health problems and federal criminal investigation of his activities.|
2013 – The US Senate approved the most fundamental alteration of its rules in more than a generation, ending the minority party’s ability to filibuster most presidential nominees in response to the partisan gridlock that has plagued Congress for much of the Obama administration. By a vote of 52 to 48, with only three Democrats defecting, led by Reid, changed the rules to prevent filibusters of virtually all presidential nominees except Supreme Court justices.
694 – Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet), French philosopher, historian, poet, dramatist and novelist.
1787 – Samuel Cunard, Canadian-born shipping magnate (d. 1865)
1903 – Tom Horn was an American Old West lawman, scout, soldier, hired gunman, detective, outlaw and assassin during his lifetime. He was hanged for a murder he probably did not commit the day before his 43rd birthday, in Cheyenne, Wyoming.
1907 – Jim Bishop (newspaper columnist, author: The Day Christ Died, The Days of Martin Luther King, Jr., The Day Kennedy Was Shot; died July 26, 1987)
1916 – Sid Luckman (Pro Football Hall of Famer: Chicago Bears quarterback: 4 NFL Championships, MVP ; shares NFL individual record for touchdowns thrown in a game [7, Nov. 14, 1943]; died July 5, 1998)
1920 – Stan Musial, American baseball Hall-of-Famer.
1937 – Marlo Thomas, American actress
1945 – Goldie Hawn, American Academy Award-winning actress.
1949 – Barbara Jo Rubin (horse-racing jockey: first U.S. woman to win a flat race against male jockeys ; first woman to ride in NY & NJ)
1962 – Steven Curtis Chapman, American musician
1966 – Troy Aikman (football: Dallas Cowboys quarterback: Super Bowl XXVII, XXVIII; holds record for longest pass completion w/receiver Alvin Harper in a playoff game [94 yards, 1/8/95]) 1969 – Ken (George Kenneth) Griffey Jr. (baseball: Seattle Mariners left-handed outfielder)
CARPENTER, WILLIAM KYLE
Rank: Lance Corporal Organization: U.S. Marine Corps, Company F, 2d Battalion Division: 9th Marines Born: 17 October, 1989, Flowood, MS Entered Service At: Columbia, SC Date of Issue: 06/19/2014 Accredited To: South Carolina Place / Date: November 21st, 2010, Marjah District, Helmand Province, Afghanistan Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an Automatic Rifleman with Company F, 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, Regimental Combat Team 1, 1st Marine Division (Forward), 1 Marine Expeditionary Force (Forward), in Helmand Province, Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom on 21 November 2010. Lance Corporal Carpenter was a member of a platoon-sized coalition force, comprised of two reinforced Marine squads partnered with an Afghan National Army squad. The platoon had established Patrol Base Dakota two days earlier in a small village in the Marjah District in order to disrupt enemy activity and provide security for the local Afghan population. Lance Corporal Carpenter and a fellow Marine were manning a rooftop security position on the perimeter of Patrol Base Dakota when the enemy initiated a daylight attack with hand grenades, one of which landed inside their sandbagged position. Without hesitation, and with complete disregard for his own safety, Lance Corporal Carpenter moved toward the grenade in an attempt to shield his fellow Marine from the deadly blast. When the grenade detonated, his body absorbed the brunt of the blast, severely wounding him, but saving the life of his fellow Marine. By his undaunted courage, bold fighting spirit, and unwavering devotion to duty in the face of almost certain death, Lance Corporal Carpenter reflected great credit upon himself and upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the United States Naval Service.
HAWKINS, WILLIAM DEAN
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 19 .April 1914, Fort Scott, Kans. Appointed from: El Paso, Tex. Citation: For valorous and gallant conduct above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of a Scout Sniper Platoon attached to the Assault Regiment in action against Japanese-held Tarawa in the Gilbert Island, 20 and November 21st, 1943. The first to disembark from the jeep lighter, 1st Lt. Hawkins unhesitatingly moved forward under heavy enemy fire at the end of the Betio Pier, neutralizing emplacements in coverage of troops assaulting the main beach positions. Fearlessly leading his men on to join the forces fighting desperately to gain a beachhead, he repeatedly risked his life throughout the day and night to direct and lead attacks on pillboxes and installations with grenades and demolitions. At dawn on the following day, 1st Lt. Hawkins resumed the dangerous mission of clearing the limited beachhead of Japanese resistance, personally initiating an assault on a hostile position fortified by S enemy machineguns, and, crawling forward in the face of withering fire, boldly fired pointblank into the loopholes and completed the destruction with grenades. Refusing to withdraw after being seriously wounded in the chest during this skirmish, 1st Lt. Hawkins steadfastly carried the fight to the enemy, destroying three more pillboxes before he was caught in a burst of Japanese shellfire and mortally wounded. His relentless fighting spirit in the face of formidable opposition and his exceptionally daring tactics served as an inspiration to his comrades during the most crucial phase of the battle and reflect the highest credit upon the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
MINICK, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 121st Infantry, 8th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Hurtgen, Germany, November 21st, 1944. Entered service at: Carlisle, Pa. Birth: Wall, Pa. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, in action involving actual conflict with the enemy on 21 November 1944, near Hurtgen, Germany. S/Sgt. Minick’s battalion was halted in its advance by extensive minefields, exposing troops to heavy concentrations of enemy artillery and mortar fire. Further delay in the advance would result in numerous casualties and a movement through the minefield was essential. Voluntarily, S/Sgt. Minick led four men through hazardous barbed wire and debris, finally making his way through the minefield for a distance of three-hundred yards. When an enemy machinegun opened fire, he signaled his men to take covered positions, edged his way alone toward the flank of the weapon and opened fire, killing two members of the guncrew and capturing three others. Moving forward again, he encountered and engaged single-handedly an entire company killing twenty Germans and capturing twenty, and enabling his platoon to capture the remainder of the hostile group. Again moving ahead and spearheading his battalion’s advance, he again encountered machinegun fire. Crawling forward toward the weapon, he reached a point from which he knocked the weapon out of action. Still another minefield had to be crossed. Undeterred, S/Sgt. Minick advanced forward alone through constant enemy fire and while thus moving, detonated a mine and was instantly killed.
Rank and organization: Seaman Apprentice, Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 1866, France. Accredited to: New York. (Letter, Capt. N. Judlow, U.S. Navy, No. 8326B; 21 November 1885.) Citation: On board the U.S.S. Quinnebaug, Alexandria, Egypt, on the morning of November 21st, 1885. Jumping overboard from that vessel, Chandron, with the aid of Hugh Miller, boatswain’s mate, rescued William Evans, ordinary seaman, from drowning.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1859 Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. (Letter Capt. N. Judlow U.S. Navy, No. 8326/B; 21 November 1885.) Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S.S. Quinnebaug, at Alexandria, Egypt, on the morning of November 21st,1885 and assisting in saving a shipmate from drowning.
NATIONAL BIBLE WEEK
NAME YOUR PC DAY
Armadillos are an amazing group of animals that originated in South America. Armadillos are mammals, just like you. Contrary to what you may have heard, the armadillo is neither a rodent nor a marsupial, and they are not related to the opossum any more than you are. There are twenty different species of armadillos. They belong to the order Xenarthra, family Dasypodidae.
What’s an armadillo?
Their closest relatives are sloths and anteaters. The most easily recognized feature of an armadillo is its shell. All armadillos have shells, made of true bone, that cover their backs. Most armadillos also have bony rings or plates that protect their tails. Because their backs are covered with bone, armadillos are not very flexible. Although one species, the three-banded armadillo, can roll itself into a ball, none of the others can do so. They rely on speed or their digging ability to escape danger.
Armadillos are built to dig. They have short, strong legs that are well suited to rapid digging, either for food or for shelter. Like their cousins, the sloth and anteater, armadillos have strong claws. They use them to help in digging, or to tear apart rotting wood to find food. Armadillos eat a wide variety of different foods, ranging from insects to plants. Most armadillos eat small invertebrates like ants, beetles, and grubs. Many of them also eat bits of flesh from dead animals when they can find them.
Most armadillos also eat plants, and some species — like the giant armadillo — can cause quite a bit of agricultural damage if they happen to wander into a farmer’s field. Because small bugs and soft plants are not too difficult to chew, armadillos do not have very complicated teeth. They have lost all but their molars over time, and the teeth that remain are peg-shaped. Armadillo teeth do not have the hard white enamel coating that protects the teeth of other mammals.
Many species of armadillo are endangered or threatened. Human encroachment, slash-and-burn farming, hunting, and deaths due to domestic dogs account for a large percentage of the problem. Of the twenty species of armadillo, only one — the nine-banded armadillo — appears to be increasing in number. In the last hundred years or so, the nine-banded armadillo has expanded its home range northward into the United States. Armadillos have moved as far west as Colorado and as far north as Nebraska, with occasional sightings even farther north. Cold weather will eventually stop the spread of the armadillo, as they cannot tolerate even relatively short periods of extreme cold — they do not have large fat reserves to help insulate their bodies.
“It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”
~ Charles Darwin
inveterate in-VET-uhr-it, adjective:
1. Firmly established by long persistence; deep-rooted; of long standing.
2. Fixed in habit by long persistence; confirmed; habitual.
Inveterate is from the past participle of Latin inveterari, “to grow old, to endure,” from in- + vetus, veter-, “old.” It is related to veteran, “one who is long experienced in some activity or capacity; an old soldier of long service; one who has served in the armed forces.” The noun form is inveteracy or inveterateness.
269 – Diocletian was proclaimed emperor of Numerian in Asia Minor. Under his rule the last and most terrible persecution of the Christians took place, perhaps some 3,000 martyrs.
1620 – Peregrine White was born aboard the Mayflower in Massachusetts Bay. White was the first child to be born of English parents, son of William and Susanna White, in present-day New England.
1720 – Pirates Mary Read, Anne Bonny (b.~1700) and Captain Calico Jack Rackham were tried by an admiralty court in Jamaica. Rackham was found guilty and hanged the next day. Read and Bonny were also found guilty and sentenced to hang but pleaded pregnancy.
1789 – New Jersey became the first state to ratify the Bill of Rights, approving ten of the twelve amendments.
1817 – First Seminole War began in Florida.
1819 – Louis Charles Guille at 500 feet altitude, cut his basket loose from a balloon in Jersey City and parachuted safely to earth. He is credited with the first parachute jump in the western world.
1820 – The whaler Essex, from Nantucket, Massachusetts, was attacked and sunk by an 80-ton sperm whale 2,000 miles from the western coast of South America. It was the first American vessel sunk by a whale. (Herman Melville’s 1851 novel Moby-Dick is in part inspired by this story).
1856 – Commander Andrew H. Foote lands at Canton, China, with 287 Sailors and Marines to stop attacks by Chinese on U.S. military and civilians.
1861 – Civil War: Secession ordinance is filed by Kentucky’s Confederate government.
1866 – Howard University, the first university for Black students, was founded in Washington, D.C. as the Howard Theological Seminary.
1866 – The first U.S. patent on a rotary crank bicycle was issued to Pierre Lallemont of Paris, France.
1866 – The first U.S. patent for a yoyo was issued to James L. Haven and Charles Hittrick of Cincinnati, Ohio.
1888 – Willard LeGrand Bundy, a jeweller, was issued the first U.S. patent for a time recording clock. A workman inserted a key which actuating his number by engaging corresponding catches on a type-wheel mechanism. This printed his identification number and time on a paper tape.
1893 – Western League of Professional Baseball Clubs, meeting in Detroit, Michigan, elected Byron Bancroft Johnson (29), a former ballplayer and Cincinnati sportswriter, as president.
1902 – Henri Desgrange and fellow journalist Géo Lefèvre dream up the idea of the Tour de France over lunch at the Café de Madrid in Paris.
1914 – US State Department began requiring photographs for passports.
1917 – USS Kanawha, Noma and Wakiva sink German sub off France.
1919 – Tucson, AZ opened the first municipally owned airport in the United States. Commercial air service began in Tucson with Standard Airlines (later American Airlines) in 1928.
1920 – The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to US President Woodrow Wilson.
1923 – American Black Garrett Morgan (1877-1963) patented an automatic traffic signal. He later sold the technology for the Morgan traffic signal to General Electric Corporation for $40,000.
1928 – Mrs. Glen Hyde became the first woman to dare the Grand Canyon rapids in a scow.
1929 – Leo Reisman and his orchestra recorded “Happy Days are Here Again“.
1929 – The first episode of “The Rise of the Goldbergs” aired as a sustaining program on WJZ, flagship of the NBC Blue network.
1931 – Commercial teletype service begins (AT & T).
1933 – Navy crew (Lt. Commander Thomas G. W. Settle, USN, and MAJ Chester I. Fordney, USMC) sets a world altitude record in balloon (62,237 ft.) in flight into stratosphere.
1940 – World War II: Hungary, Romania and Slovakia join the Axis Powers.
1943 – World War II: Battle of Tarawa begins – United States Marines land on Tarawa Atoll in the Gilbert Islands and suffer heavy fire from Japanese shore guns and machine guns.
1944 – World War II: The first Japanese suicide submarine attack was at Ulithi Atoll, Carolines. A Japanese Kaiten attack sinks the US naval tanker Mississinewa.
1945 – The Nuremberg Trials began for 24 top Nazis accused of war crimes and atrocities.
1947 – Britain’s future queen, Princess Elizabeth II, married Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh, in a ceremony broadcast worldwide from Westminster Abbey.
1947 – “Meet the Press” made network TV debut on NBC.
1950 – Korean War: U.S. troops pushed to Yalu River within five miles of Manchuria.
1953 – Scott Crossfield piloted the Douglas D-558-2 Skyrocket research aircraft to Mach 2, or 1,291 mph.
1954 – “I Need You Now” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.
1955 – Maryland National Guard was ordered desegregated.
1955 – Bo Diddley becomes the first Black performer to appear on The Ed Sullivan Show. Apparently Sullivan was infuriated when Diddley sang his self-titled song instead of Tennessee Ernie Ford’s hit, “Sixteen Tons”.
1955 – RCA paid the unheard of sum of $35,000 to Sam Phillips of Memphis, TN for the rights to the music of a truck driver from Tupelo, Mississippi: Elvis Presley.
1959 – “Moondoggy” himself, Alan Freed, was axed in the midst of the payola music scandal. In 1959 the U.S. House Oversight Committee, at the urging of ASCAP, began to look into deejays who took gifts from record companies in return for playing their records on their shows.
1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis ends: In response to the Soviet Union’s agreeing to remove its missiles from Cuba, U.S. President John F. Kennedy ends the quarantine of the Caribbean nation.
1962 – Mickey Mantle was named the American League – Most Valuable Player for the third time.
1962 – The Four Seasons’ “Big Girls Don’t Cry” was released.
1962 – President Kennedy issued executive order barring religious or racial discrimination in federally financed housing.
1962 – Robert C. Weaver, economist and government official was awarded Spingarn Medal for his leadership in the movement for open housing.
1965 – “I Hear a Symphony” by the Supremes topped the charts.
1966 – “Cabaret” opened on Broadway for the first of 1,165 stellar performances.
1967 – The U.S. census clock reported the population at 200 million.
1968 – Vietnam War: Eleven men comprising a Long Range Patrol team from F Company, 58th Infantry, 101st Airborne are surrounded and nearly wiped out by North Vietnamese army regulars from the 4th and 5th Regiment. The seven wounded survivors are rescued after several hours by an impromptu force made of other men from their unit.
1969 – Vietnam War: The Cleveland Plain Dealer publishes explicit photographs of dead villagers from the My Lai massacre in Vietnam.
1969 – A group of eighty Native Americans, all college students, seized Alcatraz Island in the name of “Indians of All Tribes.”
1969 – The Nixon administration announced a halt to residential use of the pesticide DDT.
1971 – “Theme From Shaft” by Isaac Hayes topped the charts.
1974 – The United States filed an antitrust suit against AT&T Corporation. This suit later leads to the breakup of AT&T and its Bell System.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Island Girl” by Elton John, “Who Loves You” by Four Seasons, “That’s the Way (I like It)” by KC & The Sunshine Band and “Are You Sure Hank Done It This Way” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1976 – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)” by Rod Stewart topped the charts.
1977 – Walter Payton (Bears) rushes for NFL-record 275 yards against the Minnesota Vikings.
1979 – The first US artificial blood transfusion occurred at Univ. of Minnesota Hospital. The patient was a Jehovah’s Witness, who had refused a transfusion of real blood because of his religious beliefs.
1980 – Steve Ptacek in Solar Challenger piloted its first solar-powered flight.
1980 – Lake Peigneur in Louisiana drains into an underlying salt deposit. A misplaced Texaco oil probe had been drilled into the Diamond Crystal Salt Mine, causing water to flow down into the mine, eroding the edges of the hole. The resulting whirlpool sucked the drilling platform, several barges, houses and trees thousands of feet down to the bottom of the dissolving salt deposit.
1982 – Andy Kaufman was forever voted off Saturday Night Live by a live phone poll.
1982 – “Up Where We Belong” by Joe Cocker & Jennifer Warnes topped the charts.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “All Night Long (All Night)” by Lionel Richie, “Say Say Say” by Paul McCartney & Michael Jackson, “Uptown Girl” by Billy Joel and “One of a Kind Pair of Fools” by Barbara Mandrell all topped the charts.
1983 – In the U.S., an estimated 100 million people watch the controversial made-for-television movie “The Day After“, depicting a nuclear war and its effects on the United States.
1984 – McDonalds flip past the 50 billionth burger mark. It came 35 years and 11 months after the very first McDonald’s hamburger was sold. The 50 billionth burger was made by Edward Rensi, president of Mickey D’s at the Grand Hyatt Hotel in New York City.
1985 – Microsoft Windows 1.0 is released.
1990 – The space shuttle Atlantis landed at Cape Canaveral, FL, after completing a secret military mission.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cream” by Prince & The N.P.G., “Can’t Stop This Thing We Started” by Bryan Adams, “When a Man Loves a Woman” by Michael Bolton and “Shameless” by Garth Brooks all topped the charts.
1993 – Savings and Loan scandal: The United States Senate Ethics Committee issues a stern censure of California senator Alan Cranston for his “dealings” with savings-and-loan executive Charles Keating.
1993 – The U.S. Senate passed the Brady Bill and legislation implementing NAFTA.
1994 – David Crosby got a liver transplant.
1995 – Princess Diana admitted being unfaithful to Prince Charles in an interview that was broadcast on BBC Television.
1998 – Forty-six states agreed to a $206 billion settlement of health claims against the tobacco industry.
1998 – International Space Station is launched.
2000 – Lawyers for Al Gore and George W. Bush battled before the Florida Supreme Court over whether the presidential election recount should be allowed to continue.
2000 – The EU began to build its own defense force, a 60,000 man, rapid reaction corps. EU defense chiefs pledged 100,000 soldiers, 400 planes and 100 ships for a rapid-reaction force.
2001 – In Washington, D.C., U.S. President George W. Bush dedicates the US Department of Justice headquarters building as the Robert F. Kennedy Justice Building, honoring the late Robert F. Kennedy on what would have been his 76th birthday.
2001 – A federal judge extended a court order blocking an attempt by Attorney General John Ashcroft to dismantle Oregon’s one-of-a-kind law allowing physician-assisted suicides.
2001 – Jeff Hawkins, inventor of the Palm computer, was reported to hold that the brain works by anticipating and completing patterns more than it does through inputs and outputs of information.
2002 – Louisiana began offering a $4-a-tail bounty on the swamp-dwelling nutria rodent, due to wetlands damage from devoured plants.
2003 – Motor Trend named the Toyota’s hybrid Prius as “Car of the Year.”
2003 – Michael Jackson turned himself over to police in Santa Barbara, Ca., on an arrest warrant alleging multiple counts of child molestation. He posted a $3 million bail bond. Jackson was later acquitted at trial.
2003 – Record producer Phil Spector was charged with murder in the shooting death of an actress, Lana Clarkson in February 2003 at his home in Alhambra, Calif.
2004 – The NBA suspended nine players without pay over the Nov 19 Piston and Pacer brawl in Auburn Hills, Mich.
2004 – Scientist Ancel Keys (100), died in Minneapolis. He invented the K rations eaten by soldiers in World War II.
2004 – Juan Rodriguez (49) of New York City, a Colombian immigrant and parking garage worker, won the $149 million Mega Millions lottery jackpot. He chose to take a single payment of $88.5 million before taxes.
2005 – President George W. Bush attends a church service during his visit to People’s Republic of China as he presses for greater freedoms of expression and faith during his east Asian tour.
2005 – In Tacoma, Wash., Dominick Sergio Maldonado (20) went on a shooting spree at a crowded shopping mall. 7 people were injured, one critically.
2006 – A school bus carrying high school students falls nose-first 40 feet to the ground off an Interstate 565 overpass in downtown Huntsville, Alabama, killing four teenage girls.
2006 – The US Mint announced designs for new one-dollar coins that will feature images of the presidents beginning in February.
2006 – Six imams were removed from a US Airways flight at Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport after passengers reported they were acting suspiciously.
2006 – Authorities seized a 50-foot homemade submarine with three tons of cocaine off the coast of Costa Rica.
2007 – In San Francisco, CA, large grocery stores stopped using plastic bags as a new city ordnance banning the bags took effect.
2007 – Warren Jeffs, the leader of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, is sentenced to five years to life in jail for complicity in rape. He was also sentenced to 10 years to life in prison for forcing a 14-year-old to marry her first cousin.
2008 – US Attorney General Michael Mukasey collapses while giving a speech to the Federalist Society in Washington, D.C.
2008 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average reaches its lowest level since 1997.
2008 – NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter discovers evidence of enormous underground deposits of water ice on Mars; one such deposit, under Hellas Planitia, is estimated to be the size of Los Angeles.
2008 – Five Guantánamo Bay detainees who successfully argued Boumediene v. Bush before the Supreme Court are ordered freed by Judge Richard J. Leon of the District Court for Washington, D.C.
2009 – The United States Senate clears Senator Roland Burris of legal wrongdoing in relation to his appointment to the Senate.
2009 – A US judge blocked a Tennessee law that allowed people to bring handguns into restaurants and bars.
2009 – The Manhattan Declaration was signed by about 150 prominent Christian clergy, ministry leaders and scholars and was released at a press conference in Washington, DC. It was born out of an urgent concern about growing efforts to marginalize the Christian voice in the public square, to redefine marriage, and to move away from the biblical view of the sanctity of life.
2009 – Lester Shubin (84), former US Justice Dept. researcher, died at his home in Virginia. In the 1970s he began developing Kevlar, a new DuPont fabric invented in 1965, into body armor for police and soldiers.
2010 – The US Senate settles with a payment of $4.6 billion to black farmers and at least 300,000 Native Americans who objected to government discrimination and cheating in Cobell v. Salazar.
2010 – Four Talon T-38 Trainer jets flew just 16 feet above the stadium’s press box and at 400 mph (max allowable is 300) when they wowed 70,000 fans inside Kinnick Stadium before Iowa hosted Ohio State in football. The pilots were punished, see March 24th, 2011.
2011 – Jose Pimentel, a 27-year-old Dominican-American, is arrested in New York City after planning to detonate pipe bombs, according to New York mayor Michael Bloomberg. The suspect is believed to have Al-Qaeda sympathies, although no wider conspiracy is suspected.
2012 – Sesame Street puppeteer Kevin Clash, known for being the voice of Elmo, resigns after a second accuser files a complaint that Clash had underage sexual relations with him.
2012 – The nation awoke to the story of Grinnell’s Jack Taylor, the 5-foot-10 guard who scored an NCAA record 138 points in a college basketball game, which undoubtedly evoked a collective, coast-to-coast, “Whaaaaaaaaat?” Fifty-two shots of 108 from the field, 27 of 71 from 3-point land, 7 of 10 free throws, 138 points!
2012 – Wildlife officials investigate the killing and mutilations of dolphins along the coast of the United States over the past year.
2013 – President Barack Obama announces executive orders to defer the deportations of a certain group of illegal immigrants: parents whose children are already U.S. citizens and legal permanent residents who have lived in the United States for five years or more.
1620 – Peregrine White, first English child born in the Plymouth Colony (d. 1704)
1858 – Selma Lagerlof, Swedish author, first woman to win the Nobel Prize for literature.
1889 – Edwin Powell Hubble, American astronomer.
1900 – Chester Gould, creator of comic strips (Dick Tracy) (d. 1985)
1908 – Sir Alistair Cooke, English journalist and TV host.
1917 – Robert Byrd, American politician
1921 – Jim Garrison, American district attorney and judge (d. 1992)
1925 – Robert F. Kennedy, American senator, attorney general, and presidential candidate.
1932 – Richard Dawson, British actor, Game Show Host
1954 – Bo Derek, American film actress and model.
*CRESCENZ, MICHAEL J.
Rank and Organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company A, 4th Battalion, 31st Infantry, 196th Infantry Brigade, Americal Division. Place and date: Hiep Duc Valley area, Republic of Vietnam, November 20th, 1968. Entered service at: Philadelphia, PA. Born: 14 January 1949, Philadelphia, Pa. Citation: Cpl. Crescenz distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action while serving as a rifleman with Company A. In the morning his unit engaged a large, well-entrenched force of the North Vietnamese Army whose initial burst of fire pinned down the lead squad and killed the two point men, halting the advance of Company A. Immediately, Cpl. Crescenz left the relative safety of his own position, seized a nearby machine gun and, with complete disregard for his safety, charged one-hundred meters up a slope toward the enemy’s bunkers which he effectively silenced, killing the two occupants of each. Undaunted by the withering machine gun fire around him, Cpl. Crescenz courageously moved forward toward a third bunker which he also succeeded in silencing, killing two more of the enemy and momentarily clearing the route of advance for his comrades. Suddenly, intense machine gun fire erupted from an unseen, camouflaged bunker. Realizing the danger to his fellow soldiers, Cpl. Crescenz disregarded the barrage of hostile fire directed at him and daringly advanced toward the position. Assaulting with his machine gun, Cpl. Crescenz was within five meters of the bunker when he was mortally wounded by the fire from the enemy machine gun. As a direct result of his heroic actions, his company was able to maneuver freely with minimal danger and to complete its mission, defeating the enemy. Cpl. Crescenz’s bravery and extraordinary heroism at the cost of his life are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*LOZADA, CARLOS JAMES
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 503d Infantry, 173d Airborne Brigade. Place and date: Dak To, Republic of Vietnam, November 20th, 1967. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 6 September 1946, Caguas, Puerto Rico. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Lozada, U.S. Army, distinguished himself at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in the battle of Dak To. While serving as a machine gunner with 1st platoon, Company A, Pfc. Lozada was part of a four-man early warning outpost, located forty yards from his company’s lines. At 1400 hours a North Vietnamese Army company rapidly approached the outpost along a well defined trail. Pfc. Lozada alerted his comrades and commenced firing at the enemy who were within ten yards of the outpost. His heavy and accurate machine gun fire killed at least twenty North Vietnamese soldiers and completely disrupted their initial attack. Pfc. Lozada remained in an exposed position and continued to pour deadly fire upon the enemy despite the urgent pleas of his comrades to withdraw. The enemy continued their assault, attempting to envelop the outpost. At the same time enemy forces launched a heavy attack on the forward west flank of Company A with the intent to cut them off from their battalion. Company A was given the order to withdraw. Pfc. Lozada apparently realized that if he abandoned his position there would be nothing to hold back the surging North Vietnamese soldiers and that the entire company withdrawal would be jeopardized. He called for his comrades to move back and that he would stay and provide cover for them. He made this decision realizing that the enemy was converging on three sides of his position and only yards away, and a delay in withdrawal meant almost certain death. Pfc. Lozada continued to deliver a heavy, accurate volume of suppressive fire against the enemy until he was mortally wounded and had to be carried during the withdrawal. His heroic deed served as an example and an inspiration to his comrades throughout the ensuing four-day battle. Pfc. Lozada’s actions are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*BORDELON, WILLIAM JAMES
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 25 December 1920, San Antonio, Tex. Accredited to: Texas. Citation: For valorous and gallant conduct above and beyond the call of duty as a member of an assault engineer platoon of the 1st Battalion, 18th Marines, tactically attached to the 2d Marine Division, in action against the Japanese-held atoll of Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands on November 20th, 1943. Landing in the assault waves under withering enemy fire which killed all but four of the men in his tractor, S/Sgt. Bordelon hurriedly made demolition charges and personally put two pillboxes out of action. Hit by enemy machinegun fire just as a charge exploded in his hand while assaulting a third position, he courageously remained in action and, although out of demolition, provided himself with a rifle and furnished fire coverage for a group of men scaling the seawall. Disregarding his own serious condition, he unhesitatingly went to the aid of one of his demolition men, wounded and calling for help in the water, rescuing this man and another who had been hit by enemy fire while attempting to make the rescue. Still refusing first aid for himself, he again made up demolition charges and single-handedly assaulted a fourth Japanese machinegun position but was instantly killed when caught in a final burst of fire from the enemy. S/Sgt. Bordelon’s great personal valor during a critical phase of securing the limited beachhead was a contributing factor in the ultimate occupation of the island, and his heroic determination throughout three days of violent battle reflects the highest credit upon the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
BRILES, HERSCHEL F.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Co. C, 899th Tank Destroyer Battalion. Place and date: Near Scherpenseel, Germany, November 20th, 1944. Entered service at: Fort Des Moines, lowa. Birth: Colfax, lowa. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He was leading a platoon of destroyers across an exposed slope near Scherpenseel, Germany, on 20 November 1944, when they came under heavy enemy artillery fire. A direct hit was scored on one of the vehicles, killing one man, seriously wounding two others, and setting the destroyer afire. With a comrade, S/Sgt. Briles left the cover of his own armor and raced across ground raked by artillery and small-arms fire to the rescue of the men in the shattered destroyer. Without hesitation, he lowered himself into the burning turret, removed the wounded and then extinguished the fire. From a position he assumed the next morning, he observed hostile infantrymen advancing. With his machinegun, he poured such deadly fire into the enemy ranks that an entire pocket of fifty-five Germans surrendered, clearing the way for a junction between American units which had been held up for two days. Later that day, when another of his destroyers was hit by a concealed enemy tank, he again left protection to give assistance. With the help of another soldier, he evacuated two wounded under heavy fire and, returning to the burning vehicle, braved death from exploding ammunition to put out the flames. By his heroic initiative and complete disregard for personal safety, S/Sgt. Briles was largely responsible for causing heavy enemy casualties, forcing the surrender of fifty-five Germans, making possible the salvage of our vehicles, and saving the lives of wounded comrades.
MABRY, GEORGE L., JR.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, 2d Battalion, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division Place and date: Hurtgen Forest near Schevenhutte, Germany, November 20th, 1944. Entered service at: Sumter, S.C. Birth: Sumter, SC G.O. No.: 77, September 1945. Citation: He was commanding the 2d Battalion, 8th Infantry, in an attack through the Hurtgen Forest near Schevenhutte, Germany, on 20 November 1944. During the early phases of the assault, the leading elements of his battalion were halted by a minefield and immobilized by heavy hostile fire. Advancing alone into the mined area, Col. Mabry established a safe route of passage. He then moved ahead of the foremost scouts, personally leading the attack, until confronted by a boobytrapped double concertina obstacle. With the assistance of the scouts, he disconnected the explosives and cut a path through the wire. Upon moving through the opening, he observed three enemy in foxholes whom he captured at bayonet point. Driving steadily forward he paced the assault against three log bunkers which housed mutually supported automatic weapons. Racing up a slope ahead of his men, he found the initial bunker deserted, then pushed on to the second where he was suddenly confronted by nine onrushing enemy. Using the butt of his rifle, he felled one adversary and bayoneted a second, before his scouts came to his aid and assisted him in overcoming the others in hand-to-hand combat. Accompanied by the riflemen, he charged the third bunker under pointblank small arms fire and led the way into the fortification from which he prodded six enemy at bayonet point. Following the consolidation of this area, he led his battalion across three-hundred yards of fire-swept terrain to seize elevated ground upon which he established a defensive position which menaced the enemy on both flanks, and provided his regiment a firm foothold on the approach to the Cologne Plain. Col. Mabry’s superlative courage, daring, and leadership in an operation of major importance exemplify the finest characteristics of the military service.
WETHERBY, JOHN C.
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 4th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near Imus, Luzon, Philippine Islands, November 20th, 1899. Entered service at: Martinsville, Ind. Birth: Morgan County, Ind. Date of issue: 25 April 1902. Citation: While carrying important orders on the battlefield, was desperately wounded and, being unable to walk, crawled far enough to deliver his orders.
AUER, JOHN F.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman Apprentice, U.S. Navy. Born: 1866, New York. Accredited to: New York. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Lancaster, Marseille, France, November 20th, 1883. Jumping overboard, Auer rescued from drowning a French lad who had fallen into the sea from a stone pier astern of the ship.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1852, Providence, R.I. Accredited to: Rhode Island. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Lancaster at Marseille, France, November 20th, 1883. Jumping overboard from the Lancaster, Gillick rescued from drowning a French lad who had fallen into the sea from a stone pier astern of the ship.
FALCONER, JOHN A.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 17th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Sanders, Knoxville, Tenn., November 20th, 1863. Entered service at: Manchester, Mich. Born: 1844, Wachtenaw, Mich. Date of issue: 27 July 1896. Citation: Conducted the “burning party” of his regiment at the time a charge was made on the enemy’s picket line, and burned the house which had sheltered the enemy’s sharpshooters, thus insuring success to a hazardous enterprise.
HADLEY, CORNELIUS M.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 9th Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At siege of Knoxville, Tenn., November 20th, 1863. Entered service at: Adrian, Mich. Born: 27 April 1838, Sandy Creek, Oswego County, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: With one companion, voluntarily carried through the enemy’s lines important dispatches from Gen. Grant to Gen. Burnside, then besieged within Knoxville, and brought back replies, his comrade’s horse being killed and the man taken prisoner.
KELLEY, ANDREW J.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 17th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Knoxville, Tenn., November 20th, 1863. Entered service at: Ypsilanti, Mich. Born: 2 September 1845, Lagrange County, Ind. Date of issue: 17 April 1900. Citation: Having voluntarily accompanied a small party to destroy buildings within the enemy’s lines whence sharpshooters had been firing, disregarded an order to retire, remained and completed the firing of the buildings, thus insuring their total destruction; this at the imminent risk of his life from the fire of the advancing enemy.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 17th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Knoxville, Tenn. November 20th, 1863. Entered service at: Chelsea, Mich. Birth: Skaneateles, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 August 1897. Citation: Having voluntarily accompanied a small party to destroy buildings within the enemy’s lines, whence sharpshooters had been firing, disregarded an order to retire, remained and completed the firing of the buildings, thus insuring their total destruction; this at the imminent risk of his life from the fire of the advancing enemy.