Take Your Dog To Work Day
The Battle of Little Bighorn
The white men were disrespecting the Indians sacred grounds in the Black Hills, an offense that the Indians considered a capital offense. Hatred for the white man had grown to the point that, defiantly, the Sioux and Cheyenne left their reservations. It was now late 1875.
Custer took the field for the last time after the discovery of gold in the Black Hills of the Dakotas (by an expedition he led). White prospectors flooded onto Sioux land. The Army was ordered to force the Sioux onto reservations to make way for miners. Pushing west across the Great Plains in June of 1876, Custer’s command was looking for a fight. After marching 72 miles in three days, they found it on the Little Bighorn.The Army saw the need to force the Indians back on to their reservations. The Army sent three columns to attack in coordinated fashion. One of them was led by Lt. Colonel George Custer and the Seventh Cavalry.
On June 25th, 1876 Custer spotted a Sioux village about fifteen miles from the reservation. It was along the Rosebud River.It was one of the largest Indian camps the Plains had ever seen–around 7,000 strong, made up of Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho bands. In addition to the village, Custer spotted about forty warriors nearby.This was the setting for the Battle of the Little Bighorn, also known as Custer’s Last Stand and, by the Native Americans involved, the Battle of the Greasy Grass.
Orders were received to wait until the rest of the troops arrived but Colonel George Armstrong Custer was petulant to say the best so he decided to attack. Brimming with confidence and afraid the Indians would escape, he split his troops into three columns to encircle them.
There were a number of problems that were lurking before that some good intelligence would have taken care of. Facts such as the number of warriors in the village numbered three times his strength and the terrain included a maze of bluffs and ravines that had to be negotiated in order to attack.
Colonel Custer divided his troops into three groups. The first group, under Captain Frederick Benteen, was tasked with preventing the villages escape through the upper valley of the Little Bighorn River. The second group, under Major Marcus Reno, was tasked to pursue the warriors, cross the river, and charge the Indian village from the south in a coordinated effort with Custer’s troops. He hoped to strike the Indian encampment at the northern and southern ends simultaneously.
Reno’s squadron of 175 soldiers attacked the southern end. Quickly finding themselves in a desperate battle with little hope of any relief, Reno halted his charging men before they could be trapped, fought for ten minutes in dismounted formation, and then withdrew into the timber and brush along the river. When that position proved indefensible, they retreated uphill to the bluffs east of the river, pursued hotly by a mix of Cheyenne and Sioux.
Just as they finished driving the soldiers out, the Indians found roughly 210 of Custer’s men coming towards the other end of the village, taking the pressure off of Reno’s men. Cheyenne and Sioux together crossed the river and slammed into the advancing soldiers, forcing them back to a long high ridge to the north. Meanwhile, another force, largely Oglala Sioux under Crazy Horse’s command, swiftly moved downstream and then doubled back in a sweeping arc, enveloping Custer and his men in a pincer move. They began pouring in gunfire and arrows. As the Indians closed in, Custer ordered his men to shoot their horses and stack the carcasses to form a wall, but they provided little protection against bullets. He found himself surrounded by well-armed Indians atop what is today called Custer Hill. In less than an hour, Custer and his men were killed in the worst American military disaster ever.
Most historians agree the battle was quick. Custer was found two days later, stripped naked and shot in the left temple and chest. Every one of his 210 men was killed.
Mark Kellogg was a newspaper reporter killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Kellogg rode with George Armstrong Custer during the battle and was evidently one of the first men killed by the Sioux and Cheyenne. His dispatches were the only press coverage of Custer and his men in the days leading up to the battle. As a newspaper stringer whose reports were picked up around the country, Kellogg is considered the first Associated Press correspondent to die in the line of duty.
Colonel John Gibbon, whose men arrived at the battle on the second day and also helped bury the dead, said he found Kellogg’s body in a ravine where a number of men from Company E died. Kellogg’s body was scalped and missing an ear; he was identified by the boots he wore.
John 16:33 King James Version (KJV)
33 These things I have spoken unto you, that in me ye might have peace. In the world ye shall have tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have overcome the world.
“[A] rigid economy of the public contributions and absolute interdiction of all useless expenses will go far towards keeping the government honest and unoppressive.”
–Thomas Jefferson, letter to Marquis de Lafayette, 1823
“Football combines the two worst features of modern American life; it’s violence punctuated by committee meetings.”
~ George Will
onus OH-nuss noun
1 : burden
2 : a disagreeable necessity : obligation
3 : blame
1096 – The First Crusaders slaughtered the Jews of Werelinghofen, Germany.
1503 – Christopher Columbus beached his sinking ships in St. Anne’s Bay, Jamaica, and spent a year shipwrecked and marooned there before returning to Spain.
1630 – The fork was introduced to American dining by Governor Winthrop of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1672 – First recorded monthly Quaker meeting in US was held in Sandwich, Mass.
1749 – Massachusetts residents were asked to fast due to a severe drought.
1788 – Virginia becomes the tenth state to ratify the United States Constitution.
1798 – US passed the Alien Act allowing the president to deport dangerous aliens.
1844 – President John Tyler took Julia Gardiner as his bride, thus becoming the first U.S. President to marry while in office.
1862 – Civil War: The first day of the Seven Days Campaign began with fighting at Oak Grove, Virginia, with Robert E. Lee commanding the Confederate Army for the first time.
1864 – Civil War: Union troops surrounding Petersburg, VA, began building a mine tunnel underneath the Confederate lines.
1867 – Lucien B. Smith patented the first barbed wire.
1868 – The U.S. Congress enacted legislation granting an eight-hour day to workers employed by the Federal government.
1868 – The states of Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina were readmitted to the Union.
1876 – Lt. Col. Custer and the 210 men of U.S. 7th Cavalry were killed by Sioux and Cheyenne Indians at Little Big Horn in Montana. The event is known as “Custer’s Last Stand.” Interestingly, The only survivor was a horse named, “Comanche.”
1877 – In Philadelphia, PA, Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated the telephone for Sir William Thomson (Baron Kelvin) and Emperor Pedro II of Brazil at the Centennial Exhibition.
1910 – Congress established a postal savings system in post offices, effective January 1, 1911. It paid 2% interest on deposits not to exceed $2,500. In 1966 post offices stopped taking deposits.
1910 – The Mann Act was passed in the US. It forbade transporting women across state lines for immoral purposes.
1913 – Civil War veterans begin arriving at the Great Reunion of 1913.
1917 – World War I: The first American fighting troops landed in France.
1918 – World War I: At Belleau Woods, major fourteen-hour bombardment starting at 0300 makes clearance of the remaining woods possible. The following attack swamps the remaining machine gun outposts of the enemy. Marines and Army machine-gunners participate in the assault.
1919 – First advanced monoplane airliner flight (Junkers F13).
1921 – Samuel Gompers was elected head of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) for the fortieth time.
1929 – President Hoover authorizes building of Boulder Dam (Hoover Dam).
1937 – Cubs switch-hitter Augie Galan becomes the first NL player to hit HRs from both sides of the plate in the same game as Chicago beats Brooklyn 11-2.
1938 – Federal minimum wage law guarantees workers 25 cents per hour.
1938 – The US Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 was enacted.
1941 – A new group was added to the Marine Corps family. Executive Order #8802 was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to erase discrimination in the Armed Forces. This paved the way for black Americans to enlist in the Marines.
1942 – “It Pays to Be Ignorant” debuts on WOR Radio and the Mutual Broadcasting System.
1942 – World War II: Major General Dwight D. Eisenhower takes command of U.S. forces in Europe.
1943 – World War II: Arthur Seyss-Inquart ordered a mass arrest of Dutch physicians.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust: Crematory III at Birkenau, Poland, was finished.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be Seeing You” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Frank Sinatra), “I’ll Get By” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Dick Haymes), “Swinging on a Star–Going My Way” by Bing Crosby and “Straighten Up and Fly Right” by King Cole Trio all topped the charts.
1944 – The final page of the comic Krazy Kat was published, exactly two months after its author George Herriman died.
1945 – World War II: On Luzon, Tuguegarao is captured by the American forces, of the US 37th Division, in the Cagayan valley.
1945 – World War II: Imperial General Headquarters in Tokyo announced the fall of Okinawa.
1947- The “Diary of Anne Frank” under the title “The Diary of a Young Girl” is published.
1948 – The Republican national convention in Philadelphia chose California Gov. Earl Warren to be Thomas E. Dewey’s running mate.
1948- Truman signed Displaced Persons Bill allowing 205,000 Europeans to come to the US.
1948 – The Soviet Union tightened its blockade of Berlin by intercepting river barges heading for the city.The Berlin airlift begins.
1948 – Joe Louis KOs Jersey Joe Walcott in eleven rounds to retain championship.
1949 – “Long-Haired Hare“ is released in Theaters starring Bugs Bunny.
1949 – “Riders in the Sky” by Vaughan Monroe topped the charts.
1950 – The Korean War begins with the invasion of South Korea by North Korea. The United States, acting under the auspices of the United Nations, quickly sprang to the defense of South Korea and fought a bloody and frustrating war for the next three years.
1951 – First color TV broadcast-CBS’ Arthur Godfrey from New York City to four cities: Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C.
1955 – “Learnin’ the Blues” by Frank Sinatra topped the charts.
1955 – “Can Can” closed at Shubert Theater in New York City after 892 performances.
1958 – Mackinac Straits Bridge, Michigan dedicated as “the world’s longest suspension bridge between anchorages”
1959 – Charles Starkweather, spree murderer, was executed.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cathy’s Clown” by The Everly Brothers, “Everybody’s Somebody’s Fool “ by Connie Francis, “Swingin’ School” by Bobby Rydell and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling” by Hank Locklin all topped the charts.
1960 – Two cryptographers working for the United States National Security Agency left for vacation to Mexico, and from there defected to the Soviet Union.
1961 – Pat Boone spent this day at number one for one last time with “Moody River.”
1962 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the use of unofficial non-denominational prayer in public schools was unconstitutional. Thomas Jefferson speaks through the sands of time: ‘Can the liberties of a nation be secure when we have removed a conviction that these liberties are the gift of God? Indeed I tremble
for my country when I reflect that God is just, that his justice cannot sleep forever.'”
1963 – The Joint Service Commendation Medal was Authorized by the Secretary of Defense.The JSCM shall be awarded only to members of the Armed Forces of the United States who, after January 1, 1963, distinguished themselves by meritorious achievement or service.
1964 – President Lyndon Johnson ordered 200 naval personnel to Mississippi to assist in finding three missing civil rights workers.
1965 – Vietnam War: Two Viet Cong terrorist bombs rip through a floating restaurant on the Saigon River. Thirty-one people, including nine Americans, were killed in the explosions. Dozens of other diners were wounded, including 11 Americans.
1966 – Beatles’ “Paperback Writer,” single goes #1.
1967 – The Beatles perform their new song, “All You Need Is Love,” during a live international telecast.
1967 – Mohammed Ali (Cassius Clay) was sentenced to 5 years for draft evasion.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “This Guy’s in Love with You” by Herb Alpert, “MacArthur Park” by Richard Harris, “The Look of Love” by Sergio Mendes & Brazil ’66 and “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro all topped the charts.
1968 – Bobby Bonds hits a grand slam in his first major league game with the Giants. The only other player to hit a grand slam in his first major league game was William Duggleby of the Philadelphia Nationals, who achieved the feat in 1898.
1970 – The U.S. Federal Communications Commission handed down legislative ruling 35 FR 7732, making it illegal for radio stations to put telephone calls on the air without the permission of the person being called.
1973 – John Dean begins testimony before Senate Watergate Committee. He implicated many administration officials, including himself, Nixon fundraiser and former Attorney General John Mitchell, and Nixon himself. He was the first administration official to accuse Nixon of direct involvement with Watergate.
1976 – Missouri Governor Christopher S. Bond issues an executive order rescinding the Extermination Order, formally apologizing on behalf of the state of Missouri for the suffering it had caused the Latter Day Saints.
1977 – “Got to Give it Up” by Marvin Gaye topped the charts.
1977 – Roy C Sullivan of VA is struck by lightning for the 7th time! In his lightning encounters from 1942 to 1977, Roy had his hair set alight, lost his big toe nail and eyebrows, and suffered injuries to his arms, legs, chest, and stomach.
1980 – Miami Dolphins quarterback Bob Griese announced his retirement from professional football after 14 years.
1981 – Microsoft is restructured to become an incorporated business in its home state of Washington.
1981 – The Supreme Court decided that male-only draft registration was constitutional.
1981 – HMH-464 at MCAS New River, North Carolina, received its first CH-53E “Super Stallion.”
1983 – “Flashdance…What a Feeling” by Irene Cara topped the charts.
1985 – ABC’s “Monday Night Football” began with a new line-up. The trio was Frank Gifford, Joe Namath and O.J. Simpson.
1985 – New York Yankees officials enacted the rule that mandated that the team’s bat boys were to wear protective helmets during all games.
1986 – Congress approved $100 million in aid to the Contras fighting in Nicaragua.
1988 – “Foolish Beat” by Debbie Gibson topped the charts.
1988 – American-born Mildred Gillars, better known during World War II as “Axis Sally” for her Nazi propaganda broadcasts, died in Columbus, Ohio, at age 87. Gillars had served 12 years in prison for treason.
1989 – A judge in Cincinnati temporarily blocked a hearing by baseball Commissioner A. Bartlett Giamatti into allegations that Cincinnati Reds manager Pete Rose had gambled on baseball games.
1990 – Phoenix, AZ reaches 120o. This is one day before it reached its all-time record of 122o. Aircraft were grounded because there was no test data for temperatures above 120o.
1990 – NBC decides to air episodes of “Quantum Leap” for 5 straight days. Quantum Leap was a science fiction television series that ran for 97 episodes from March 1989 to May 1993.
1990 – The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the right of an individual, whose wishes are clearly made, to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. “The right to die” decision was made in the Curzan vs. Missouri case.
1992 – The space shuttle Columbia, carrying seven astronauts, blasted off on a two-week mission.
1992 – Both houses of Congress rushed to pass a back-to-work order ending a national rail strike; President Bush signed it June 26.
1996 – The Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia kills 19 U.S. servicemen and injured over 500 Saudis and Americans.
1996 – The music industry threatened to sue hundreds of individual computer users who were illegally sharing music files online.
1997 – An unmanned Progress spacecraft collides with the Russian Space station, Mir.
1997 – It was reported that a man from Rio Vista, Ca., was doing a good business selling the moon’s real estate. Dennis Hope was charging $15.99 for 1,777 acres of lunar land plus tax and shipping.
1997 – The Supreme Court struck down the 1993 Religious Freedom Restoration Act. It said Congress had intruded on the authority of local officials. The legislation had instructed government officials to bend the rules for persons whose actions are based on their religion.
1997 – An auction of Princess Diana’s 79 cocktail and evening dresses brought in $3.26 million.
1998 – In Clinton v. City of New York, the US Supreme Court decides that the Line Item Veto Act of 1996 presidential power to cancel specific items in tax and spending legislation, is unconstitutional.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that those infected with HIV are protected by the Americans With Disabilities Act.
1998 – Microsoft’s “Windows 98” was released to the public.
1998 – A planet, 1.9 times bigger than Jupiter, was reported found to be circling the small star Gliese 876, 15 light-years from Earth. Travelling at the speed-of-light, it would take only 1.5 million years to get there.
1999 – The San Antonio Spurs won their first NBA title as they beat the New York Knicks 78-77 in their 5th game.
2000 – A Florida judge approved a class-action lawsuit to be filed against American Online (AOL) on behalf of hourly subscribers who were forced to view “pop-up” advertisements.
2000 – In Puerto Rico US Navy bombing in Vieques resumed with nonexplosive dummy bombs after 37 demonstrators were arrested. A fatal accident had prompted a yearlong occupation by protesters.
2000 – Juli Inkster became the first player in 16 years to successfully defend the LPGA Championship.
2002 – A federal judge in Alexandria, Va., refused to accept a no-contest plea from Zacarias Moussaoui, accused of conspiracy in the Sept. 11 attacks, and instead entered an innocent plea on his behalf.
2002 – Three American mountain climbers were swept away by an avalanche on Peru’s highest peak and are feared dead. Two other climbing expeditions saw the Americans disappear in the avalanche. Identities were never confirmed.
2002 – President Bush surveyed a huge wildfire in Arizona by air and declared the region a disaster area.
2003 – The US Federal Reserve cut short-term interest rates by one-quarter percent. The new 1% rate was the lowest since 1958.
2005 – Gov. Rod Blagojevich signed a new state law that requires Illinois to divest about $1 billion worth of pension investments in companies that do business in Sudan to protest the ongoing humanitarian crisis in the country’s Darfur region.
2005 – The NAACP selected retired Verizon executive Bruce S. Gordon to be its new president.
2006 – MASS SHOOTING: In Denver, Colorado, Michael Ford burst into a sprawling Safeway Inc. warehouse, killing one person, wounding five others and sending terrified workers fleeing the building. The attacker was later killed in a shootout with police.
2007 – In California a forest fire raged out of control for a second day near Lake Tahoe. The seven-day Angora fire destroyed 254 homes burning 3,100 acres with damages estimated at over $150 million.
2007 – A Washington DC judge rejected a lawsuit by Roy Pearson, who sought $54 million for a pair of pants lost by the Custom Cleaners dry cleaning firm in 2005. Pearson’s claim had been reduced from $67 million.
2008 -MASS SHOOTING: An employee of Atlantis Plastics shot and killed five people after an argument, which ended in the gunman’s suicide in Henderson, Kentucky.
2008 – The US Supreme Court ruled the death penalty cannot be imposed for child rape.
2008 – In Cleveland, Ohio, three teenagers beat a homeless man to death as passers-by slowed to watch the attack, some of which was caught on videotape. Anthony Waters (42) suffered a lacerated spleen and broken ribs during the attack and died at a hospital.
2008 – The US Supreme Court overturned the $2.5 billion in punitive damages that Exxon Mobil Corp had been ordered to pay for the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill off Alaska. Punitive damages were reduced to $507.5 million.
2009 – Famous actress Farrah Fawcett, 1970s sex symbol and TV star of “Charlie’s Angels” (1976), died in Santa Monica, Ca. of cancer at age 62.
2009 – Supreme Court rules strip-search of a girl was unconstitutional. Upholding a lower court decision, the Supreme Court ruled that officials at an Arizona public school violated a 13-year-old student’s constitutional rights when they subjected her to a search of her bra and underpants for prescription and over-the-counter drugs that were forbidden by school rules.
2009 – Rock singer Michael Jackson dies at age 50 from a heart attack. Later, the LA coroner confirmed that Jackson’s death was ruled a homicide caused by a mixture of propofol and lorazepam administered by Dr. Conrad Murray.
2010 – President Barack Obama declared victory after congressional negotiators reached a dawn agreement on a sweeping overhaul of rules overseeing Wall Street. The congressional compromise overhauled the US banking system and called for an international effort to prevent future economic meltdowns.
2011 – The death toll from the California Zephyr Amtrak train colliding with a truck in the U.S. state of Nevada rises to six, with two dozen passengers unaccounted for.
2011 – The number of adults with diabetes in the world has more than doubled since 1980, according to a new study.
2012 – The final steel beam of 4 World Trade Center is lifted into place in a ceremony.
2012 – The US Supreme Court rules that the sentence of life imprisonment without parole cannot be automatically given to a minor at all, extending its earlier restrictions on its automatic use in cases involving minors.
2012 – President Obama signed an Executive Order that officially put the US into a state of National Emergency. Such a step is the natural precursor to the legitimization of the institution of MARTIAL LAW.
2012 – The Supreme Court handed down its decision on the Arizona immigration lawy, striking some portions of the law in a 5-3 ruling but unanimously upholding immigration status checks by law enforcement. The Obama Administration countered by announcing it would tell Arizona to release most of the people whose status was in question.
2012 – Palm City, Florida, a woman is hospitalized and her two dogs killed after they were attacked by a swarm of what appeared to be Africanized bees.
2013 – The Supreme Court in a 5-4 ruling struck down a key part of the Voting Rights Act (Section 4), ruling unconstitutional a provision of the landmark civil rights legislation used to promote the political power of minority voters across large swaths of the southern United States for nearly forty years.
1865 – Robert Henri, American painter (d. 1929)
1886 – Henry H. Arnold, American Army Air Force commander (d. 1950)
1903 – Anne Revere, American actress (d. 1990)
1925 – June Lockhart, American actress
1933 – James Meredith, American civil rights activist
1939 – Harold Melvin, American musician (Harold Melvin & the Blue Notes) (d. 1997)
1945 – Carly Simon, American singer
1947 – Jimmie Walker, American actor (Good Times)
1970 – Ariel Gore, American journalist and author
1979 – Katie Doyle, American actress and reality television star
*EPPERSON, HAROLD GLENN
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 14 July 1923, Akron, Ohio. Accredited to: Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 1st Battalion, 6th Marines, 2d Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on the Island of Saipan in the Marianas, on June 25th, 1944. With his machinegun emplacement bearing the full brunt of a fanatic assault initiated by the Japanese under cover of predawn darkness, Pfc. Epperson manned his weapon with determined aggressiveness, fighting furiously in the defense of his battalion’s position and maintaining a steady stream of devastating fire against rapidly infiltrating hostile troops to aid materially in annihilating several of the enemy and in breaking the abortive attack. Suddenly a Japanese soldier, assumed to be dead, sprang up and hurled a powerful hand grenade into the emplacement. Determined to save his comrades, Pfc. Epperson unhesitatingly chose to sacrifice himself and, diving upon the deadly missile, absorbed the shattering violence of the exploding charge in his own body. Stouthearted and indomitable in the face of certain death, Pfc. Epperson fearlessly yielded his own life that his able comrades might carry on the relentless battle against a ruthless enemy. His superb valor and unfaltering devotion to duty throughout reflect the highest credit upon himself and upon the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
*KELLY, JOHN D.
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant (then Corporal), U.S. Army, Company E, 314th Infantry, 79th Infantry Division. Place and date: Fort du Roule, Cherbourg, France, June 25th, 1944. Entered service at: Cambridge Springs, Pa. Birth: Venango Township, Pa. G.O. No.: 6, 24 January 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 25 June 1944, in the vicinity of Fort du Roule, Cherbourg, France, when Cpl. Kelly’s unit was pinned down by heavy enemy machinegun fire emanating from a deeply entrenched strongpoint on the slope leading up to the fort, Cpl. Kelly volunteered to attempt to neutralize the strongpoint. Arming himself with a pole charge about ten feet long and with fifteen pounds of explosive affixed, he climbed the slope under a withering blast of machinegun fire and placed the charge at the strongpoint’s base. The subsequent blast was ineffective, and again, alone and unhesitatingly, he braved the slope to repeat the operation. This second blast blew off the ends of the enemy guns. Cpl. Kelly then climbed the slope a third time to place a pole charge at the strongpoint’s rear entrance. When this had been blown open he hurled hand grenades inside the position, forcing survivors of the enemy guncrews to come out and surrender The gallantry, tenacity of purpose, and utter disregard for personal safety displayed by Cpl. Kelly were an incentive to his comrades and worthy of emulation by all.
OGDEN, CARLOS C.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company K, 314th Infantry, 79th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Fort du Roule, France, June 25th, 1944. Entered service at: Fairmont, Ill. Born: 19 May 1917, Borton, Ill. G.O. No.: 49, 28 June 1945. Citation: On the morning of 25 June 1944, near Fort du Roule, guarding the approaches to Cherbourg, France, 1st Lt. Ogden’s company was pinned down by fire from a German 88-mm. gun and two machineguns. Arming himself with an M-1 rifle, a grenade launcher, and a number of rifle and handgrenades, he left his company in position and advanced alone, under fire, up the slope toward the enemy emplacements. Struck on the head and knocked down by a glancing machinegun bullet, 1st Lt. Ogden, in spite of his painful wound and enemy fire from close range, continued up the hill. Reaching a vantage point, he silenced the 88mm. gun with a well-placed rifle grenade and then, with handgrenades, knocked out the two machineguns, again being painfully wounded. 1st Lt. Ogden’s heroic leadership and indomitable courage in alone silencing these enemy weapons inspired his men to greater effort and cleared the way for the company to continue the advance and reach its objectives.
INTERIM AWARDS 1871-1898
Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1854, Boston, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S.S. Saratoga, off Coasters Harbor Island, R.I., June 25th, 1881, and sustaining until picked up by a boat from the ship, Frank Gallagher, second class boy, who had fallen overboard.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Oswego, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Brought water for the wounded under a most galling fire.
BRANT, ABRAM B.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Brought water for the wounded under a most galling fire.
CRISWELL, BANJAMIN C.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at:——. Birth: Marshall County, W. Va. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Rescued the body of Lt. Hodgson from within the enemy’s lines; brought up ammunition and encouraged the men in the most exposed positions under heavy fire.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company B, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Hudson, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Declined to leave the line when wounded in the neck during heavy fire and fought bravely all next day.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 15 October 1878. Citation: Voluntarily brought water to the wounded under fire.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Cincinnati, Ohio. Date of issue: S October 1878. Citation: With 3 comrades during the entire engagement courageously held a position that secured water for the command.
HANLEY, RICHARD P.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at:——. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation. Recaptured, singlehanded, and without orders, within the enemy’s lines and under a galling fire lasting some 20 minutes, a stampeded pack mule loaded with ammunition.
HARRIS, DAVID W.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Birth: Indianapolis, Ind. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Brought water to the wounded, at great danger to his life, under a most galling fire from the enemy.
HARRIS, WILLIAM M.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at: Mt. Vernon, Ky. Birth: Madison County, Ky. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Voluntarily brought water to the wounded under fire of the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at: ——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Brought up ammunition under a galling fire from the enemy.
HUTCHINSON, RUFUS D.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Birth: Butlerville, Ohio. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Guarded and carried the wounded, brought water for the same, and posted and directed the men in his charge under galling fire from the enemy.
MECHLIN, HENRY W. B.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Blacksmith, Company H, 7th U.S. Cavalry Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa. Born: 14 October 1851, Mount Pleasant, Westmoreland County, Pa. Date of issue: 29 August 1878. Citation: With 3 comrades during the entire engagement courageously held a position that secured water for the command.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: S October 1878. Citation: Brought up the pack train, and on the second day the rations, under a heavy flre from the enemy.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Oxfordshire, England. Date of issue: S October 1878. Citation: Voluntarily went for water and secured the same under heavy fire.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at:——. Birth: France. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Brought water to the wounded at great danger to life and under a most galling fire of the enemy.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: After having voluntarily brought water to the wounded, in which effort he was shot through the head, he made two successful trips for the same purpose, notwithstanding remonstrances of his sergeant.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Malone, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Voluntarily brought water to the wounded under fire.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Saddler, Company H, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., June 25th, 1876. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Volunteered with George Geiger, Charles Windolph, and Henry Mechlin to hold an exposed position standing erect on the brow of the hill facing the Little Big Horn River. They fired constantly in this manner for more than 20 minutes diverting fire and attention from another group filling canteens of water that were desperately needed.
DILLON, MICHAEL A.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 2d New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Williamsburg, Va., 5 May 1862. At Oak Grove, Va., June 25th, 1862. Entered service at: Wilton, N.H. Birth: Chelmsford, Mass. Date of issue: 10 October 1889. Citation: Bravery in repulsing the enemy’s charge on a battery, at Williamsburg, Va. At Oak Grove, Va., crawled outside the lines and brought in important information.
McKEEN, NINEVEH S.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company H, 21st Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Stone River, Tenn., 30 December 1862. At Liberty Gap, Tenn., June 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Marshall, Clark County, Ill. Birth: Marshall, Clark County, Ill. Date of issue: 23 June 1890. Citation: Conspicuous in the charge at Stone River, Tenn., where he was three times wounded. At Liberty Gap, Tenn., captured colors of 8th Arkansas Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1839, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as seaman on board the U.S.S. Monticello during the reconnaissance of the harbor and water defenses of Wilmington, N.C. 23 to June 25th, 1864. Taking part in a reconnaissance of enemy defenses which covered a period of 2 days and nights, Sullivan courageously carried out his duties during this action, which resulted in the capture of a mail carrier and mail, the cutting of a telegraph wire, and the capture of a large group of prisoners. Although in immediate danger from the enemy at all times, Sullivan showed gallantry and coolness throughout this action which resulted in the gaining of much vital information of the rebel defenses.
TAYLOR, HENRY H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 45th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., June 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Galena, Jo Daviess County, Ill. Birth: Jo Daviess County, Ill. Date of issue: 1 September 1893. Citation: Was the first to plant the Union colors upon the enemy’s works.
WARD, NELSON W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company M, 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Staunton River Bridge, Va., June 25th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Columbiana County, Ohio. Date of issue: 10 September 1897. Citation: Voluntarily took part in a charge; went alone in front of his regiment under a heavy fire to secure the body of his captain, who had been killed in the action.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1836, Scotland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as coxswain on board the U.S.S. Monticello during the reconnaissance of the harbor and water defenses of Wilmington, N.C., 23 to June 25th, 1864. Taking part in a reconnaissance of enemy defenses which lasted 2 days and nights, Warren courageously carried out his duties during this action which resulted in the capture of a mail carrier and mail, the cutting of a telegraph wire, and the capture of a large group of prisoners. Although in immediate danger from the enemy, Warren showed gallantry and coolness throughout this action which resulted in the gaining of much vital information of the rebel defenses.
Rank and organization: Yoeman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, London, England. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as yeoman on board the U.S.S. Monticello during the reconnaissance of the harbor and water defenses of Wilmington, N.C., 23 to June 25th, 1864. Taking part in a reconnaissance of enemy defenses which covered a period of two days and nights, Wright courageously carried out his cutting of a telegraph wire and the capture of a large group of prisoners. Although in immediate danger from the enemy at all times, Wright showed gallantry and coolness throughout this action which resulted in the gaining of much vital information of the rebel defenses.
Celebration of the Senses
National Handshake Day
FIVE QUICK QUESTIONS TO EXPOSE ANY FAKE CONSTITUTIONALIST
By J.B. Williams
February 26, 2012
Due to the unconstitutional nature of today’s lawyers, lawmakers, judges, professors and politicians, it has become politically fashionable to proclaim ones constitutional credentials, even among folks who have clearly never read the document.
Many political pundits and politicians have tried to ideologically define what it is to be, or not to be, a constitutionalist, even when they can’t pass the test themselves.
This gives true constitutionalists a unique opportunity to set the record straight today, an opportunity that only exists when people are overtly operating outside of constitutional boundaries. Such a circumstance provides an easy five question test that may deliver more than exposing a lot of faux constitutionalists…
1. Is Barack Hussein Obama II a legitimate resident of the White House based on the Article II Natural Born Citizen requirement for the offices of President and Vice President?
No, because a Natural Born Citizen of the United States must be the natural born offspring of a Father who was at the time of the child’s birth, a legal citizen of the United States and every member of the U.S. Supreme Court know it. As the society cannot exist and perpetuate itself otherwise than by the children of the citizens, those children naturally follow the condition of their fathers, and succeed to all their rights. The country of the fathers is therefore that of the children; and these become true citizens merely by their tacit consent. In order to be of the country, it is necessary that a person be born of a father who is a citizen; for, if he is born there of a foreigner, it will be only the place of his birth, and not his country. Barack Hussein Obama’s natural father was at no time in his life, a legal citizen of the United States. He was at all times, a citizen of Kenya.
Get this one wrong and there is little chance of getting anything else right.
2. Which branch of the federal government was given the most power under the U.S. Constitution?
An argument could be made that Congress holds more power than the judicial or executive branches as congress alone has the power to make law, control the purse strings, override presidential vetoes and provide oversight over both other branches. But technically speaking, none of the three branches was given more powerful than the other; they were just assigned different duties. All three branches of the federal government were designed to be co-equal parts, each providing checks and balances upon the other. Each of the three branches has very limited distinct duties and powers to carry out those constitutionally assigned duties. Only the Legislative branch has the power to create laws. The Judicial branch has the power to interpret and enforce the laws created by congress. The Executive branch is the administrative branch with the most limited scope of duties. None of the three branches has more power than another. The Constitution did not form an Oval Office dictatorship, or a nine member oligarchy of unelected and unaccountable ideologues.
3. Is the final authority in America entrusted to the Executive branch, the Legislative branch, the Judicial branch, State government, Local government or the American people?
According to the U.S. Constitution, the American people are the final authority in the United States. Next to the American people, the government body closest to the people is the more powerful government authority. Local government has the most local power, followed by the State having authority over State issues and last, with the least amount of constitutional power over individual, local and state affairs, is the Federal Government, having authority over only those enumerated duties assigned to it by the people and their States via the U.S. Constitution. The federal government cannot “mandate” anything which is beyond the enumerated scope and powers of its constitutional authority.
4. Did States lose their sovereignty and Tenth Amendment rights during the Civil War, or at any other time in U.S. history?
Of course not, although I have heard numerous alleged “constitutionalist” or “legal authorities” make this silly claim in recent years. Actually, the Supreme Court has tended to uphold the Tenth Amendment far more after the Civil War than before. The U.S. Constitution created the Federal Government to operate at the pleasure of the people and the States. It gave the Federal Government very limited specific duties and the power to carry out those duties and only those duties. The entire Constitution, including the Bill of Rights and the Tenth Amendment, remain just as much in force today as the day they were ratified. It is the right and power of the States to keep the Federal Government operating within constitutional bounds via the Tenth Amendment, without which, there is no constitution and no Federal Government.
5. Does the Federal Supremacy clause protect all possible federal actions?
No, it does not — it only protects “constitutional” federal actions. “This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.”
Unconstitutional federal acts beyond the enumerated powers, duties, scope and authority granted the federal government by the States; enjoy no such supremacy over anyone or anything. For federal laws to enjoy the protections of the supremacy clause, they must be constitutionally sound laws. This means that the law must have been created by Congress, not a court or the Oval Office.
It must have been created by legitimate legislative process. It must not infringe upon any other constitutional clause or protection in the Bill of Rights; and it must enjoy the support of the majority of the states and the people of the United States in order to comply with the General Welfare clause, which prohibits the federal government from doing anything that is at odds with the general welfare of the States and the people at large. When a dispute arises concerning the balance of powers between a State and the Federal Government, the Constitution gives the U.S. Supreme Court original jurisdiction to hear the arguments of the dispute. However, the American people have the final word on what is or is not “constitutional.”
Now, if one cannot answer all five of these questions correctly, they are NOT a “constitutionalist” and they cannot be relied upon as an authority on the Constitution or the law no matter the fancy paper on their wall.
However, there are two kinds of fake constitutionalists. The kind that cannot answer these five questions correctly, and the kind who can, but won’t take a stand to protect every clause in the Constitution and Bill of Rights as though each is the only clause that matters.
How did you score? Should you be leading American citizens, or should you sit down and shut up, allowing real constitutionalists to lead this country back to greatness?
Shouldn’t every individual seeking public office have to pass this test today? How many 2012 candidates can pass this test? I don’t take any candidate who can’t pass this simple fundamental test seriously, and in my opinion, a candidate who fails this test will fail to help our country too.
© 2012 JB Williams – All Rights Reserved
John 6: 35 – 40 . .
35 Then Jesus declared, “I am the bread of life. Whoever comes to me will never go hungry, and whoever believes in me will never be thirsty. 36 But as I told you, you have seen me and still you do not believe. 37 All those the Father gives me will come to me, and whoever comes to me I will never drive away. 38 For I have come down from heaven not to do my will but to do the will of him who sent me. 39 And this is the will of him who sent me, that I shall lose none of all those he has given me, but raise them up at the last day. 40 For my Father’s will is that everyone who looks to the Son and believes in him shall have eternal life, and I will raise them up at the last day.”
“Since the general civilization of mankind, I believe there are more instances of theabridgment of the freedom of the people by gradual and silent encroachment of those in power, than by violent and sudden usurpations.”
— James Madison in 1788, speaking to the Virginia Convention.
“Never give in, never give in, never, never, never, never– in nothing, great or small, large or petty– never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense.”
~ Sir Winston Churchill
Usage: Every thing is just fine.
972 – Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces, takes place.
1314 – First War of Scottish Independence: The Battle of Bannockburn concludes with a decisive victory of the Scottish forces led by Robert the Bruce. Scotland regains its independence in the aftermath of this battle.
1340 – Hundred Years’ War: Battle of Sluys: The French fleet is almost destroyed by the English Fleet commanded in person by Edward III of England.
1348 – The Black Plague (later Black Death), according to the chronicle of the Grey Friars at King’s Lynn, arrived by ship from Gascony to Melcombe in Dorset – today normally referred to as Weymouth – shortly before “the Feast of St. John The Baptist”. The Grey Friars’ Chronicle is considered the most authoritative account. It is assumed that the chronicle reports the first outbreak of the plague. If that is true, then the arrival probably happened around May 8, 1348.
1374 – A sudden outbreak of St. John’s Dance causes people in the streets of Aachen, Germany, to experience hallucinations and begin to jump and twitch uncontrollably until they collapse from exhaustion.
1441 – Eton College is founded. Eton, is a world-famous British independent school for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It was founded as the King’s College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor.
1497 – John Cabot lands on North America in Newfoundland; the first European exploration of the region since the Vikings.
1509 – Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon are crowned King and Queen of England.
1571 – Manila, the capital of the Republic of the Philippines, is founded by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi.
1664 – The colony of New Jersey is founded and was the first European settlement in the area established by the Swedes and Dutch in the early 1600s. The English later seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey, which was granted to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton as a colony. It is named after the Isle of Jersey.
1675 – King Philip’s War begins when a band of Wampanoag warriors raid the border settlement of Swansee, Massachusetts, and massacre the English colonists.
1692 – Kingston, Jamaica is founded.
1717 – The Grand Lodge of England, the first Freemasonic Grand Lodge (now the United Grand Lodge of England), is founded in London, England. Freemasons were very active in the forming of the U.S.
1748 – The Kingswood School is opened by John Wesley and his brother Charles Wesley in Bristol. The school later moved to Bath.
1778 – David Rittenhouse observes a total solar eclipse in Philadelphia. Rittenhouse (1732-1796) was not only an American astronomer, but also a mathematician and public official. He is reputed to have built the first American-made telescope and was the first director of the U.S. Mint (1792-1795).
1794 – Bowdoin College is founded. It is a private liberal arts college located in the coastal New England town of Brunswick, Maine.
1807 – A grand jury in Richmond, Va., indicted former Vice President Aaron Burr on charges of treason and high misdemeanor. He was later acquitted.
1813 – War of 1812: The Battle of Beaver Dams. An American attempt to surprise a British outpost at Beaver Dams near Fort George failed, and the Americans were ambushed by First Nation warriors, eventually surrendering to the commander of a small British detachment.
1841 – Fordham University (then St John’s College), opened in the Bronx.
1844 – Charles Goodyear was granted U.S. patent #3,633 for vulcanized rubber.
1853 – The treaty allowing the Gadsen Purchase was signed by President Franklin Pierce. The Gadsen Purchase is a 29,670-square-mile region of what is today southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico.
1861 – Civil War: Federal gunboats attacked Confederate batteries at Mathias Point, Virginia.
1861 – Civil War: Tennessee became the eleventh and last state to secede from the US.
1863 – Civil War: Planning an invasion of Pennsylvania, Lee’s army crossed the Potomac.
1864 – Civil War: Iron screw steamer U.S.S. Calypso and wooden side wheeler U.S.S. Nansemond transported and supported an Army expedition in the vicinity of New River, North Carolina.
1864 – Civil War: Lieutenant Cushing with seventeen men, all from the U.S.S. Monticello, reconnoitered up Cape Fear River to within three miles of Wilmington, North Carolina.
1864 – Civil War: U.S.S. Queen City lying at anchor off Clarendon, Arkansas, on the White River, was attacked and destroyed in the early morning hours by two regiments of Confederate cavalry supported by artillery.
1864 – Colorado Governor John Evans warns that all peaceful Indians in the region must report to the Sand Creek reservation or risk being attacked, creating the conditions that will lead to the infamous Sand Creek Massacre.
1873 – Mark Twain patented a scrapbook. His invention was to coat the pages of the scrapbook with mucilage or adhesive.
1882 – The National League expelled umpire Richard Higham for dishonesty. He was banned for conspiring to help throw a Detroit Wolverines game. Higham has been the only umpire banned for life.
1896 – Booker T. Washington became the first African-American to receive an honorary MA degree from Howard University.
1898 – Spanish-American War: American troops drove Spanish forces from La Guasimas, Cuba.
1901 – First exhibition of Pablo Picasso’s work opens.
1908 – The 22nd and 24th president (1893-1897) of the United States, Grover Cleveland, died in Princeton, N.J., at age 71.
1915 – More than 800 people died when the excursion steamer “Eastland” capsized at Chicago’s Clark Street dock.
1916 – Mary Pickford becomes the first female film star to get a million dollar contract.
1916 – World War I: The Battle of the Somme, also known as the Somme Offensive, begins with a week long artillery bombardment on the German Line. It was fought from July to November 1916 and was among the largest battles of the First World War. With more than 1.5 million casualties, it is also one of the bloodiest military operations recorded.
1922 – The American Professional Football Association took the name of The National Football League. The Chicago Staleys become the Chicago Bears.
1924 – The Democrats began their convention in New York’s Madison Square Garden. They were lured there by newspaper mogul Herbert Bayard Swope’s fundraising offer of $205,000.
1930 – The first radar detection of planes was made at Anacostia, DC.
1936 – Joe DiMaggio becomes the fifth to hit two HRs in one inning. The Yankees beat the St. Louis Browns 18-4.
1938 – A 450 metric ton meteorite exploded approximately twelve miles above the Earth’s surface near Chicora, Pennsylvania. Only two fragments of the meteorite were found following initial investigations. Numerous reports of the Chicora Meteor mention that a cow was struck and injured by a falling stone; other accounts say that the cow was in fact killed by the stone. The meteor was an olivine-hypersthene chondrite.
1939 – Pan Am’s first US to England flight. It was a main run to Southampton.
1940 – The Republican Convention, opened in Philadelphia. TV cameras were used for the first time in a political convention.
1940 – France and Italy sign an armistice.
1941 – World War II: Europe: Holocaust: The entire Jewish male population of Gorzhdy, Lithuania, was exterminated.
1943 – Dr. William Randolph Lovelace II jumped out of a B-17 bomber flying at 40,200 feet in order to test the emergency oxygen unit he had designed with colleagues.
1943 – World War II: Allies began a ten-day fire bombing of Hamburg, Germany.
1944 – World War II: Japanese bases on Iwo Jima and Chichi Jima are raided by American carrier aircraft.The planes are from Hornet, Yorktown, Bataan and Belleau Wood.
1945 – World War II: The last of four German Ar234 jet bombers (collected by “Watson’s Wizzers” of the USAAF) lands in Cherbourg, flying from Sola in Norway. These aircraft are to be loaded onboard the British aircraft carrier HMS Reaper, along with thirty-four other advanced German aircraft, for shipment to the United States.
1945 – Moscow Victory Parade of 1945 was a victory parade held after the defeat of Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War. It was the first major Soviet event recorded on color film.
1946 – Mary McLeod Bethune was named director of the Division of Minority Affairs for the National Youth Administration by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The well-known educator thus became the first Black woman ever to head a US government agency.
1946 – Fred M. Vinson (1890-1953) was sworn in as Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court.
1947 – Kenneth Arnold, an American businessman and pilot, makes the first widely reported UFO sighting near Mount Rainier, Washington.
1948 – The Republican National Convention, meeting in Philadelphia, nominated New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey for president.
1948 – Start of the Berlin Blockade. One of the most dramatic standoffs in the history of the Cold War begins as the Soviet Union blocks all road and rail traffic to and from West Berlin. The blockade turned out to be a terrible diplomatic move by the Soviets, while the United States emerged from the confrontation with renewed purpose and confidence. It lasted to May 11th, 1949.
1949 – The first television western, Hopalong Cassidy, is aired on NBC starring William Boyd.
1950 – “I Wanna Be Loved” by the Andrews Sisters topped the charts.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Too Young” by Nat King Cole, “On Top of Old Smokey” by The Weavers (vocal: Terry Gilkyson), “How High the Moon” by Les Paul & Mary Ford and “I Want to Be with You Always” by Lefty Frizzell all top the charts.
1952 – Eddie Arcaro set a thoroughbred racing record for American jockeys by winning his 3,000th horse race.
1953 – The 6th annual World Trade Fair opened in San Francisco at the Palace Hotel with products imported from 21 nations.
1955 – Harmon Killebrew hits his first HR off pitcher Billy Hoeff. Killebrew was the Senators’ first “bonus baby” in 1954, signing a week before his 18th birthday.
1955 – Soviet MIG’s down a lightly armed US Navy patrol plane over the Bering Strait.
1957 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules that obscenity is not protected by the First Amendment in Roth v. United States.
1957 – The U.S. Supreme Court requires that an arrested person be taken before a committing magistrate “without unnecessary delay,” Mallory v. United States.
1957 – “I Love Lucy,” last aired on CBS-TV.
1957 – A 37-kiloton nuclear fission bomb, code-named Priscilla, was exploded in the Nevada desert at Frenchman Flat. The security of a bank vault was tested in the experiment.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Personality” by Lloyd Price, “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka, “Along Came Jones” by The Coasters and “The Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton all top the charts.
1961 – “Moody River” by Pat Boone topped the charts.
1962 – The New York Yankees beat the Detroit Tigers, 9-7, after 22 innings. The game took 7 hours.
1964 – The Federal Trade Commission announced that starting in 1965, cigarette manufactures will be required to include warnings on their packaging about the harmful effects of smoking.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Groovin’” by The Young Rascals, “She’d Rather Be with Me” by The Turtles, “Windy” by The Association and “All the Time” by Jack Greene all top the charts.
1968 – Deadline for redeeming silver certificate dollars for silver bullion.
1968 – “Resurrection City,” a shantytown constructed as part of the Poor People’s March on Washington, D.C., was closed by authorities.
1970 – The film “Catch-22,” directed by Mike Nichols, opened. It was based on the novel by Joseph Heller.
1970 – The movie “Myra Breckinridge” premiered.
1970 – In a doubleheader with the Indians at Yankee Stadium, Bobby Murcer ties Lou Gehrig’s record of four straight homers.
1970 – Vietnam War: The US Senate voted overwhelmingly to repeal the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. With fresh evidence later available, claims that the Tonkin Gulf incident was deliberately provoked gained new plausibility.
1971 – The National Basketball Association modified its four-year eligibility rule to allow for collegiate hardship cases.
1972 – “I Am Woman,” by Helen Reddy, was released.
1972 – “Candy Man” by Sammy Davis, Jr. topped the charts.
1972 – Baseball’s first woman umpire, Mrs. Bernice Gera called her first game. The game was a doubleheader between Auburn and Geneva (New York-Pennsylvania League). Several disputes take place and she ejects the Auburn manager.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Will Keep Us Together” by The Captain & Tennille, “When Will I Be Loved” by Linda Ronstadt, “Wildfire” by Michael Murphey and “You’re My Best Friend” by Don Williams all top the charts.
1975 – In New York, 113 people were killed when an Eastern Airlines Boeing 727 crashed while attempting to land during a thunderstorm at John F. Kennedy International Airport. The crash was later attributed to a microburst, not experienced at the control tower because of a sea breeze front.
1977 – IRS reveals Jimmy Carter paid no taxes in 1976.
1978 – “Shadow Dancing“ by Andy Gibb topped the charts.
1982 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that no president could be sued for damages connected with actions taken while serving as President of the United States.
1982 – Pres. Reagan dismissed Gen. Alexander Haig (1924-2010) from his position as Secretary of State.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Flashdance…What a Feeling” by Irene Cara, “Time (Clock of the Heart)” by Culture Club, “Electric Avenue” by Eddy Grant and “You Can’t Run from Love” by Eddie Rabbitt all top the charts.
1983 – The US Supreme Court ruled that Congress cannot veto presidential decisions.
1983 – Don Sutton becomes eighth pitcher to strikeout 3,000 batters.
1983 – Space Shuttle program: STS-7: Sally Ride, the first female American astronaut, returns to earth.
1984 – Oakland’s Joe Morgan hits his 265th career home run as a 2B, breaking Rogers Hornsby’s major-league record for that position.
1985 – STS-51-G Space Shuttle Discovery completed its mission, best remembered for having Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, the first Arab and first Muslim in space, as a Payload Specialist.
1986 – Guy Hunt elected first Republican governor of Alabama in 112 years.
1986 – US Senate approves “tax reform”. The top tax rate was lowered from 50% to 28% while the bottom rate was raised from 11% to 15%.
1989 – “Satisfied” by Richard Marx topped the charts.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rush, Rush” by Paula Abdul, “Losing My Religion” by R.E.M., “Unbelievable” by EMF and “The Thunder Rolls” by Garth Brooks all top the charts.
1991 – The US Supreme Court ruled the First Amendment did not shield news organizations from being sued when they publish the names of sources who had been promised confidentiality.
1992 – The US Supreme Court, in a 5-4 decision, strengthened its 30-year ban on officially sponsored worship in public schools, prohibiting prayer as a part of graduation ceremonies.
1993 – Yale computer science professor Dr. David Gelernter loses the sight in one eye, the hearing in one ear, and part of his right hand after receiving a mail bomb from the Unabomber.
1993 – Eight Muslim fundamentalists were arrested in New York, accused of plotting a day of bombings of the United Nations, a federal building and the Holland and Lincoln tunnels. They and two others were later convicted of seditious conspiracy.
1994 – President Clinton struck out at his conservative critics and the media, complaining in a speech in St. Louis that unfair and negative reports about him were feeding a cynical mindset in America.
1995 – The New Jersey Devils won the Stanley Cup as they completed a sweep of the Detroit Red Wings.
1995 – The Coast Guard Cutter “Juniper” was launched, the first of the new 225-foot Juniper Class buoy tenders.
1995 – In his weekly radio address, President Clinton blamed the failed nomination of Dr. Henry Foster to be surgeon general on right-wing extremists who, he said, would “stop at nothing” to outlaw abortion.
1996 – The US Post Office issued its James Dean stamp for its “Legends of Hollywood” series.
1997 – The Air Force released a report on the so-called “Roswell Incident,” suggesting the alien bodies witnesses reported seeing in 1947 were actually life-sized dummies.
1997 – A federal judge in Miami gave 40,000 Nicaraguans and other immigrants a 7-month reprieve from deportation.
1997 – It was reported that a man from Rio Vista, Ca., was doing a good business selling the moon’s real estate. Dennis Hope was charging $15.99 for 1,777 acres of lunar land plus tax and shipping.
1998 – Walt Disney World Resort admitted its 600-millionth guest.
2000 – Revising an earlier plan, President Clinton proposed using $58 billion from the growing budget surplus to help senior citizens pay for prescription drugs in 2002.
2001 – Karrie Webb won the LPGA Championship by two strokes to become the youngest woman to complete the Grand Slam.
2002 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled 7-2 that juries, not judges, must make the decision to give a convicted killer the death penalty. The Court overturned the death sentences of at least 150 convicted killers.
2003 – Beyoncé Knowles released her debut solo album “Dangerously in Love“.
2003 – President George W. Bush outlined his blueprint for peace in the Middle East. His statement included a call on Palestinians to replace Yasser Arafat with leaders “not compromised by terror” and adopt democratic reforms that could produce an independent state within three years.
2004 – A federal appeals court struck down a Federal Communications Commission effort to make sweeping changes in media ownership rules.
2004 – Western advisers completed their handover Iraq’s remaining government ministries. The final eleven of twenty-five were handed over six days before the official end of coalition occupation.
2004 – Insurgents launched coordinated attacks against police and government buildings across Iraq. The strikes killed over 105 people, including three American soldiers. In Mosul alone four car bombs killed sixty-two people.
2004 – In New York, capital punishment is declared unconstitutional.
2005 – Paul Winchell (b.1922), ventriloquist, inventor and children’s TV show host best known for creating the lispy voice of Winnie the Pooh’s animated friend Tigger, died in LA, CA.
2006 – Patsy Ramsey (49), who was thrust into the national spotlight by the unsolved slaying of her daughter JonBenet, died in Roswell, Ga.
2007 – The Angora Fire, a wind driven fire, starts near South Lake Tahoe, California destroying 200+ structures in its first 48 hours. The fire operation area extended almost the entire length of Lake Tahoe just to the east of the lake. It was as a result of an illegal campfire. The fire cost $11.7 million to fight.
2007 – Charles W. Lindberg (86), one of the U.S. Marines who raised the first American flag over Iwo Jima during World War II, died in Edina, Minn.
2008 – In Iowa a railroad bridge collapsed into the flooded Iowa River near Columbus Junction, dropping a locomotive and its engineer into the water.
2009 – Ed Thomas, Iowa high school football coach, was shot at Aplington-Parkersburg High School while training in the school weight room. Thomas soon died of his wounds and former student Mark Becker (24) was arrested for the murder.
2009 – In Arizona Trenda Lynne Halton of Peoria was indicted for recruiting as many as 136 people to pose as college students and defrauding the government out of nearly $154,000 in student aid money.
2010 – Apple released the iPhone 4.
2010 – John Isner hit a backhand up the line to win the last of the match’s 980 points, and he beat Nicolas Mahunt in the fifth set, 70-68. The first round marathon took 11 hours, 5 minutes over three days.
2010 – President Barack Obama hosted Russian President Dmitry Medvedev at the White House. They appeared to get along like a couple of buddies.
2010 – The US Supreme Court ruled that disclosing the names of people who sign initiative petitions generally does not violate their right to free speech.
2011 – The New York Times reports that a cell phone belonging to Osama bin Laden’s courier contains contacts with Harakat-ul-Mujahedeen indicating possible ties with Pakistan’s intelligence agencies.
2011 – At least two people are killed and dozens injured after a tractor-trailer truck collides with the California Zephyr Amtrak train on US Route 95 in Nevada.
2011 – United States District Court judge Tanya Walton Pratt halts enforcement of an Indiana state law cutting funding for Planned Parenthood and other organisations that provide abortions.
2011 – The New York Senate votes to legalize same-sex marriage in New York, assuring passage of the legislation and making New York the largest state to approve such legislation since California reversed its legalization in 2008.
2012 – Tropical Storm Debby continues to organize off the coast of Florida, lashing the state with high winds and heavy rains. The outer bands of the storm spawn two tornadoes, killing one person near Sarasota.
2012 – Manitou Springs in Colorado is evacuated due to a raging wildfire just three miles from this vacation town.
2012 – Canadian-American game show personality Alex Trebek suffers a mild heart attack, but is expected to “fully recover.”
2013 – A NASA advanced ion propulsion engine has successfully operated for more than 48,000 hours, or 5 and a half years, making it the longest test duration of any type of space propulsion system demonstration project ever.
1386 – Giovanni da Capistrano, Italian saint (d. 1456) was a Franciscan friar from Italy.
1777 – John Ross, British naval officer and explorer (d. 1856)
1795 – Ernst Heinrich Weber, German anatomist and physiologist (d. 1878)
1811 – John Archibald Campbell, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1889)
1813 – Henry Ward Beecher, American clergyman and reformer (d. 1887)
1893 – Roy O. Disney, (d. 1971) co-founder of what is now The Walt Disney Company.
1895 – Jack Dempsey (d. 1983) American boxer
1897 – Daniel K. Ludwig, American shipping magnate (d. 1992)
1931 – Billy Casper, American professional golfer
1945 – George Pataki, American politician who was the 53rd Governor of New York
1946 – Ellison Onizuka (d. 1986) Japanese-American astronaut from Kealakekua, Kona, Hawaii
*BENNETT, EMORY L.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Sobangsan, Korea, June 24th, 1951. Entered service at: Cocoa, Fla. Born: 20 December 1929, New Smyrna Beach, Fla. G.O. No.: 11, 1 February 1952. Citation: Pfc. Bennett a member of Company B, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against an armed enemy of the United Nations. At approximately 0200 hours, two enemy battalions swarmed up the ridge line in a ferocious banzai charge in an attempt to dislodge Pfc. Bennett’s company from its defensive positions. Meeting the challenge, the gallant defenders delivered destructive retaliation, but the enemy pressed the assault with fanatical determination and the integrity of the perimeter was imperiled. Fully aware of the odds against him, Pfc. Bennett unhesitatingly left his foxhole, moved through withering fire, stood within full view of the enemy, and, employing his automatic rifle, poured crippling fire into the ranks of the onrushing assailants, inflicting numerous casualties. Although wounded, Pfc. Bennett gallantly maintained his one-man defense and the attack was momentarily halted. During this lull in battle, the company regrouped for counterattack, but the numerically superior foe soon infiltrated into the position. Upon orders to move back, Pfc. Bennett voluntarily remained to provide covering fire for the withdrawing elements, and, defying the enemy, continued to sweep the charging foe with devastating fire until mortally wounded. His willing self-sacrifice and intrepid actions saved the position from being overrun and enabled the company to effect an orderly withdrawal. Pfc. Bennett’s unflinching courage and consummate devotion to duty reflect lasting glory on himself and the military service.
Rank and organization: Assistant Surgeon, 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry. Place and date: At Las Guasimas, Cuba, June 24th,1898. Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Birth: Chicago, Ill. Date of issue: 10 January 1906. Citation: In addition to performing gallantly the duties pertaining to his position, voluntarily and unaided carried several seriously wounded men from the firing line to a secure position in the rear, in each instance being subjected to a very heavy fire and great exposure and danger.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 12th Kentucky Infantry. Place and date: At Weldon Railroad, Va., June 24th,1864. Entered service at: Albany, Ky. Born: 21 January 1841, Fentress County, Tenn. Date of issue: 1 August 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 11th South Carolina (C.S.A.).
SMITH, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 1st Maine Cavalry. Place and date: At St. Mary’s Church, Va., June 24th, 1864. Entered service at: Maine. Birth: Hollis, Maine. Date of issue: 11 April 1895. Citation: Remained in the fight to the close, although severely wounded.
WEIR, HENRY C.
Rank and organization: Captain and Assistant Adjutant General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At St. Mary’s Church, Va., June 24th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: West Point, N.Y. Date of issue: 18 Nay 1899. Citation: The division being hard pressed and falling back, this officer dismounted, gave his horse to a wounded officer, and thus enabled him to escape. Afterwards, on foot, Captain Weir rallied and took command of some stragglers and helped to repel the last charge of the enemy.
Public Service Day
Let It Go Day
The first practical can opener was developed 50 years after the birth of the metal can. Canned food was invented for the British Navy in 1813. Made of solid iron, the cans usually weighed more than the food they held! The inventor, Peter Durand, was guilty of an incredible oversight. Though he figured out how to seal food into cans, he gave little thought to how to get it out again. Instructions read: “Cut round the top near the outer edge with a chisel and hammer.” Only when thinner steel cans came into use in the 1860s could the can opener be invented. The first (patented in 1858), devised by Ezra Warner of Waterbury, Connecticut, looked like a bent bayonet. Its large curved blade was driven into a can’s rim, then forcibly worked around its edge. Stranger yet, this first type of can opener never left the grocery store. A clerk had to open each can before it was taken away!
The modern can opener, with a cutting wheel that rolls around the rim, was invented by William Lyman of the United States in 1870. The only change from the original patent was the introduction of a serrated rotation wheel by the Star Can Company of San Francisco in 1925. The basic principle continues to be used on the modern can openers, and it was the basis of the first electric can opener, introduced in December 1931. Pull-open cans, patented by Ermal Fraze of Ohio, debuted in 1966.
Deuteronomy 32:1-4 King James Version (KJV)
32 Give ear, O ye heavens, and I will speak; and hear, O earth, the words of my mouth. 2 My doctrine shall drop as the rain, my speech shall distill as the dew, as the small rain upon the tender herb, and as the showers upon the grass:3 Because I will publish the name of the Lord: ascribe ye greatness unto our God.4 He is the Rock, his work is perfect: for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he.
“No political truth is certainly of greater intrinsic value, or is stamped with the authority of more enlightened patrons of liberty than that on which the objection is founded. The accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judiciary, in the same hands, whether of one, a few, or many, and whether hereditary, self-appointed, or elective, may justly be pronounced the very definition of tyranny.” —James Madison, Federalist No. 47, 1788
“The lion cannot protect himself from traps, and the fox cannot defend himself from wolves. One must therefore be a fox to recognize traps, and a lion to frighten wolves.“
~ Niccolo Machiavelli
chawbacon \CHAW-bay-kun\ noun
bumpkin, hick , uncultured yokel
1683 – William Penn signs friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Indians in Pennsylvania.
1775 – First Continental currency issued ($3,000,000). The money, for “The United Colonies”, was to be used to pay war expenses and was to be redeemed from taxes collected by the colonies.
1776 – The final draft of Declaration of Independence was submitted to US Congress.
1780 – Revolutionary War: Battle of Springfield fought in and around Springfield, New Jersey (including Short Hills, formerly of Springfield, now of Millburn Township.
1784 – The first US balloon flight was made by 13 year-old Edward Warren. He soloed in a 35-foot diameter hot-air balloon held in place from the ground with a tether.
1786 – First Barbary War: Morocco was the first Barbary Coast state to sign a treaty with the U.S. This treaty formally ended all Moroccan (Muslim) piracy against American shipping interests.
1810 – John Jacob Astor forms the Pacific Fur Company.
1812 – The church at Mission San Juan Bautista in California was dedicated.
1812 – War of 1812: Great Britain revokes the restrictions on American commerce, thus eliminating one of the chief reasons for going to war.
1812 – Marine Lt. John Heath became the first casualty of the War of 1812. He was severely wounded in an engagement between the Frigate “President” and the British Frigate “Belvidere”.
1836 – The U.S. Congress approved the Deposit Act, which contained a provision for turning over surplus federal revenue to the states.
1845 – The Congress of the Republic of Texas agreed to annexation by the United States after 10 years as an independent republic.
1860 – The United States Congress establishes the Government Printing Office.
1860 – The U.S. Secret Service was created to arrest counterfeiters.
1861 – Civil War: Confederate Navy- began reconstruction of ex- U.S.S. Merrimack as ironclad C.S.S. Virginia at Norfolk.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate forces overwhelmed a Union garrison at the Battle of Brasher City in Louisiana.
1865 – Civil War: At Fort Towson in the Oklahoma Territory, Confederate General Stand Watie, who was also a Cherokee chief, surrenders the last significant rebel army.
1868 – Christopher Latham Sholes receives a patent for his Type-Writer.
1887 – The Rocky Mountains Park Act becomes law in Canada, creating the nation’s first national park, Banff National Park.
1888 – Abolitionist Frederick Douglass was the first African-American nominated for U.S. President.He received one vote from the Kentucky delegation at the Republican convention in Chicago, effectively making him the first black candidate nominated for US president. The nomination went to Benjamin Harrison.
1892 – The Democratic national convention in Chicago nominated former President Cleveland on the first ballot.
1904 – The first American motorboat race got underway on the Hudson River in New York. The boat “Standard” covered the 32-mile course in the shortest time, averaging a “rip-roaring” speed of 22.63 miles an hour, to win the gold cup.
1909 – A Ford Model T crossed the finish line in the New York City to Seattle Automobile Race after 22 days and 55 minutes to claim the Guggenheim Cup and a $2,000 first prize. A Shamut came in 17 hours later to win the second-place prize of $1500. An Acme car came in on June 29 to claim a $1000 3rd prize. The Ford was later disqualified for having switched engines en route.
1917 – In a game against the Washington Senators, Boston Red Sox pitcher Ernie Shore retires 26 batters in a row after replacing Babe Ruth, who had been ejected for punching the umpire after the umpire called him out on strikes.
1924 – Lt. Russell Maugham flew from New York to San Francisco in his third attempt at a dawn to dusk traverse of the continent.
1925 – Landslides create three-mile long “Slide Lake” (Gros Ventre, Wyoming). The landslide created a huge dam across the Gros Ventre River, backing up the water and forming Lower Slide Lake. Approximately 50 million cubic yards of primarily sedimentary rock slid down the north face of Sheep Mountain.
1926 – The College Board administers the first SAT exam.
1926 – The first lip reading tournament in America was held in Philadelphia, PA.
1927 – The Sioux County Pioneer newspaper of North Dakota reports that President Calvin Coolidge will be “adopted” into a Sioux tribe at Fort Yates on the south-central border of North Dakota.
1930 – The US Coast Guard Cutter Tingard captured the trawler “5048” also known as the Dora, and confiscated 400 cases of imported whiskey in Drake’s Bay, Marin, Ca.
1931 – Wiley Post and Harold Gatty take off from Roosevelt Field, Long Island in an attempt to circumnavigate the world in a single-engine plane.They arrived back on July 1 after traveling 15,474 miles in the record time of 8 days and 15 hours and 51 minutes.
1933 – The USS Macon, the Navy’s last dirigible, was commissioned.
1933 – “The Pepper Pot” radio program welcomed a new host – Don McNeill. McNeill took over the show on June 23rd and renamed it “The Breakfast Club.” Within a decade, “The Breakfast Club” had become radio’s first, and most, successful morning program.
1936 – “The Congress, by Senate Joint Resolution 115 of June 23, 1936 (49 Stat. 1895 as amended), has designated the last Sunday in September as “Gold Star Mother’s Day” and has authorized and requested the President to issue a proclamation in its observance.” From the Proclamation Issued By President George W. Bush, September 21, 2007
1938 – The Civil Aeronautics Act is signed into law, forming the Civil Aeronautics Authority.
1938 – Marineland opened near St. Augustine, Florida. First public aquarium. Thirty-thousand people clogged the two-lane road and saw the blue arches above one of the nation’s first oceanariums.
1939 – Congress created the Coast Guard Reserve which later became what is today the Coast Guard Auxiliary.
1940 – World War II: German leader Adolf Hitler surveys newly defeated Paris in now occupied France. This was Adolf Hitler’s first and only visit to Paris and he is said to have visited Paris Opera, Champs-Elysees, the Arc de Triomphe, the Eiffel Tower, and Napoleon’s tomb.
1941 – Lena Horne recorded “St. Louis Blues” for Victor Records.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: The first selections for the gas chamber at Auschwitz take place on a train load of Jews from Paris.
1942 – World War II: Germany’s latest fighter, a Focke-Wulf FW190 is captured intact when it mistakenly lands at RAF Pembrey in Wales.
1943 – World War II: The British destroyers Eclipse and Laforey sink the Italian submarine Ascianghi in the Mediterranean after she torpedoes the cruiser HMS Newfoundland.
1943 – World War II: RAF discovered and bombed Werner von Braun’s V1/V2-base in Peenemunde.
1944 – Four tornadoes strike Appalachia, killing 153.
1944 – World War II: In one of the largest air strikes of the war, the U.S. Fifteenth Air Force sent 761 bombers against the oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania.
1944 – World War II: On Saipan, US 5th Amphibious Corps remains engaged in fighting. The 2nd Marine Division continues to battle for Mount Tapotchau.
1944 – World War II: American forces of the US 7th Corps (part of 1st Army) penetrate the outer defenses of Cherbourg.
1945 – World War II: The Battle of Okinawa ends when organized resistance of Imperial Japanese Army forces collapses in the Mabuni area on the southern tip of the main island.
1945 – On Okinawa, the systematic mopping up of the island begins. General Stilwell takes command of the US 10th Army in place of General Geiger. Lt Gen Ushijima, Japanese commander, committed suicide.
1947 – The United States Senate follows the United States House of Representatives in overriding U.S. President Harry Truman’s veto of the Taft-Hartley Act.
1949 – First twelve women graduate from Harvard Medical School.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Foolish Heart” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Eileen Wilson), “Bewitched” by The Bill Snyder Orchestra, “The Old Piano Roll Blues” by Hoagy Carmichael & Cass Daley and “I’ll Sail My Ship Alone” by Moon Mullican all topped the charts.
1950 – The New York Yankees & the Detroit Tigers hit a record 11 HRs, Tigers win 10-9.
1951 – “Too Young” by Nat ‘King’ Cole topped the charts.
1951 – U.S. Air Force Captain and former fighter pilot Richard Heyman, 8th Bomber Squadron, was officially credited with the only B-26 Invader light bomber aerial victory of the war when he shot down a communist PO-2.
1952 – Korean War: More than 200 aircraft attacked four power complexes located along the Yalu River in the largest joint air operation since World War II. The combined Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps force flew over 1,200 sorties during the two-day operation.
1955 – Dr. Jonas Salk, the medical pioneer who developed the first polio vaccine, died.
1955 – Walt Disney’s “Lady and the Tramp” released. It was the first animated feature filmed in CinemaScope.
1956 – “Jimmy Durante Show,” last airs on NBC-TV.
1956 – “I’ll Be Home” by Pat Boone topped the charts.
1957 – The Roy Rogers Show airs its last episode after running for more than a decade.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “All I Have to Do is Dream” by The Everly Brothers, “The Purple People Eater “ by Sheb Wooley, “Hard Headed Woman” by Elvis Presley and “Guess Things Happen that Way” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1959 – Convicted Manhattan Project spy Klaus Fuchs is released after only nine years in prison and allowed to emigrate to Dresden, East Germany (where he resumed a scientific career).
1960 – “Pat Boone Show,” last airs on ABC-TV.
1961 – Navy’s first major low frequency radio station commissioned at Cutler, ME.
1961 – USAF Maj Robert M White takes X-15 to 107,715 feet.
1962 – “I Can’t Stop Loving You” by Ray Charles topped the charts.
1963 – NY Mets Jimmy Piersall, hits his 100th HR, he circles bases backwards. Dallas Green of the Phillies, who gave up the home run, is not amused. Neither is Commissioner Ford Frick, who is in the stands. Nor are the Mets who will hand Jimmy his walking papers in a few days.
1964 – Arthur Melin obtained a patent for the Hula-Hoop.
1964 – The burned car of three civil rights workers was found prompting the FBI to begin a search. The men had been missing since June 21, 1964. Their bodies were found on August 4, 1964.
1965 – The Supremes made the studio recording of “Love Is Like an Itching in My Heart.”
1965 – Smokey Robinson & The Miracles released “Tracks Of My Tears“.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Paint It, Black” by The Rolling Stones, “Did You Ever Have to Make Up Your Mind?” by The Lovin’ Spoonful, “Barefootin’” by Robert Parker and “Take Good Care of Her” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1966 – Civil Rights marchers in Mississippi were dispersed by tear gas.
1967 – Jim Ryun sets the one-mile record (3:51.1, Bakersfield CA). The record held for nine years.
1967 – U.S. Senate censures Thomas J Dodd (D-Ct) for misusing campaign funds.
1967 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson meets with Soviet Premier Aleksei Kosygin in Glassboro, New Jersey for the three-day Glassboro Summit Conference.
1969 – Warren E. Burger is sworn in as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court by retiring chief Earl Warren.
1969 – Vietnam War: U.S. soldiers (250) and South Vietnamese Montagnard tribesmen (750), at Ben Het, a U.S. Special Forces camp, fought off a superior force of 2,000 North Vietnamese troops. The NVA were using artillery and mortars in addition to their numbers.
1969 – Joe Frazier TKOs Jerry Quarry in eight rounds for heavyweight boxing title.
1970 – Chubby Checker and three others were arrested in Niagra Falls after marijuana and unidentified drug capsules were found in Checker’s car.
1972 – Navy helicopter squadron aids flood-stricken residents in Wilkes-Barre, Scranton, and Pittstown area of PA.
1972 – President Richard M. Nixon and White House chief of staff H. R. Haldeman are taped talking about using the Central Intelligence Agency to obstruct the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s investigation into the Watergate break-ins.
1972 – President Richard Nixon signs into law the Higher Education Act, which includes the groundbreaking Title IX legislation. Title IX barred discrimination in higher education programs, including funding for sports and other extracurricular activities.
1973 – “My Love” by Paul McCartney & Wings topped the charts.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Billy, Don’t Be a Hero” by Bo Donaldson & The Heywoods, “You Make Me Feel Brand New” by The Stylistics, “Sundown” by Gordon Lightfoot and “This Time” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1974 – First extraterrestrial message sent from Earth into space.
1979 – Charlie Daniels Band releases “Devil Went Down to Georgia“.
1979 – The rock group, the Knack releases “My Sharona“.
1979 – “Hot Stuff” by Donna Summer topped the charts.
1980 – First solar-powered coast-to-coast two-way radio conversation.
1980 – “David Letterman Show,” debuts on NBC-TV daytime.
1981 – Thirty-three-inning game ends, Pawtucket 3, Rochester 2. The game started on April 18, 1981. Play was suspended at 4:07AM at the end of the 32nd inning. The game did not resume again until June 23 when the Red Wings returned to Pawtucket. Only one inning was needed, with the PawSox winning 3-2 in the bottom of the 33rd. Future Major League Baseball stars Cal Ripken Jr. and Wade Boggs played in the game.
1982 – Mary Hart joins Entertainment Tonight.
1983 – U.S. Supreme Court ruled Congress could not veto presidential decisions.
1984 – “The Reflex” by Duran Duran topped the charts.
1986 – Tip O’Neill, Representative-D-Massachusetts, refuses to let President Reagan address the House of Representatives.
1987 – The Iran-Contra hearings resumed with testimony from former CIA employee Glenn A. Robinette, who said he’d installed a $14,000 security system at the home of Lt. Col. Oliver North.
1988 – James Hansen testifies to the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources that it was 99% probable that global warming had begun.
1988 – The Yellowstone Fire began and by September 11th burned some 1.6 million acres in Idaho and Montana.
1989 – The movie “Batman” was released nationwide. It was the first in the original four-part Batman film series, the first directed by Tim Burton and the first to star Michael Keaton as Bruce Wayne/Batman. It also starred Jack Nicholson as the Joker.
1989 -The US Supreme Court refused to shut down the “dial-a-porn” industry, ruling Congress had gone too far in passing a law banning all sexually oriented phone message services.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “It Must Have Been Love” by Roxette, “Step By Step” by New Kids on the Block, “Do You Remember?” by Phil Collins and “Love Without End, Amen” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1991 – Iraq violates cease-fire agreements and U.N. Security Council Resolution 687.
1992 – John Gotti was sentenced in New York to life in prison after being convicted of racketeering charges.
1993 – Lorena Bobbitt of Prince William County, VA, sexually mutilated her husband, John, after he allegedly raped her by cutting off his sexual organ. John Bobbitt was later acquitted of marital sexual assault; Lorena Bobbitt was later acquitted of malicious wounding by reason of insanity.
1996 – Congressional Democrats unveiled a “families first” legislative package aimed at winning middle-class voters and retaking Capitol Hill.
1997 – Betty Shabazz, the widow of Malcolm X, died in New York of burns suffered in a fire set by her 12-year old grandson. She was 61.
1997 – Two freight trains collided in Texas near San Antonio and four people were killed.
1998 – Iraq admits to experimenting with deadly VX chemical agent, but says it was unable to turn it into a weapon.
1998 – In Chicago some 4,500 got sick from an outbreak of E. coli possibly due to contaminated potato salad at Iwan’s Deli in Orland Park.
1998 – Laboratory grown adult nerve cells were implanted into a human brain for the first time to treat a stroke at the Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
1999 – House Republicans unveiled their “e-Contract,” a pitch to the high-tech community that included a promise to keep the Internet free.
1999 – In Chicago delegates of the 290,000 member US AMA voted to form a union for doctors.
2000 – Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, during a visit to South Korea, said American troops would remain in the country indefinitely to maintain strategic stability in the Pacific area.
2003 – Apple Computer Inc. unveiled the new Power Mac desktop computer.
2003 – The US Supreme Court, in Grutter v. Bollinger, upheld a University of Mich. law school admissions policy that gave minorities an edge, ruling 6-3 that race can be one of many factors that colleges consider when selecting their students. A point system for undergraduate admission was ruled unconstitutional.
2003 – The US Supreme Court ruled that Congress can require libraries to install filters on computers to screen out pornography.
2004 – The US issued four new 1st class stamps, part of a series featuring Disney themes. This set was titled “The Art of Disney.”
2004 – The U.S. proposed that North Korea agree to a series of nuclear disarmament measures over a three-month period in exchange for economic benefits.
2005 – The San Antonio Spurs won Game 7 over Detroit Pistons, 81-74, to claim the NBA championship.
2005 – In Kelo vs. London a divided US Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that local governments may seize people’s homes and businesses against their will for private development. In 2006 a group petitioned for signatures in Weare, New Hampshire, to seize the home of Justice David Souter in order to build an inn called the Lost Liberty Hotel.
2005 – Ohio Republican Gov. Bob Taft was reported to be mired in a scandal that started with a questionable state investment in rare coins.
2005 – The US FDA approved the heart failure drug BiDil for use by blacks. It will be the first medication targeted for a specific racial group.
2008 – A survey of religion found that 92% of Americans believe in God, but most say their faith isn’t the only way to eternal life.
2008 – More than 840 wildfires sparked by an “unprecedented” lightning storm burned across Northern California, alarming the governor and requiring the help of firefighters from Nevada and Oregon.
2009 – Former Gitmo detainee accused of killing 3 missionaries. U.S. President Barack Obama and the United Nations are not expressing outrage over the execution-style murder of three Christian missionaries in Yemen, apparently by al Qaeda.
2009 – Ed McMahon, America’s Top Second Banana, Dies at 86. Ed McMahon, who for nearly 30 years was Johnny Carson’s affable sidekick on “The Tonight Show,” introducing it with his ringing trademark call, “Heeeere’s Johnny!,”
2010 – President Barack Obama met with General Stanley McChrystal, his top Afghanistan commander, to decide whether to fire him over inflammatory comments that angered the White House and threatened to undermine the war effort.
2010 – The Obama administration announced that it will station an unmanned aerial drone in Texas as part of its stepped-up surveillance of criminal trafficking along the Mexican border.
2010 – In Michigan former Detroit Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick (40) was indicted on federal fraud and tax charges. He was accused of turning a charity into a private slush fund.
2010 – The TV show “As the World Turns,” daytime TV’s oldest drama, wrapped up production. The show premiered in 1956.The last show aired on Sep 17, 2010.
2011 – Tsunami warning is in effect for coastal Alaska after 7.4-magnitude earthquake hits in the Pacific Ocean
2011 – Women’s clothing manufacturers are changing the numbering systems on sizes for women’s fashions. It is believed that by doing so women will feel better about themselves and spend more money.
2011 – Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner told the House Small Business Committee on Wednesday that the Obama administration believes taxes on small business must increase so the administration does not have to “shrink the overall size of government programs.”
2011 – A robbery of approximately $1,210,440 from a Garda armored vehicle occurred when it was located adjacent to the Washington, North Carolina Bank of America automated teller machine. No one was killed, suspects were caught.
2012 – Jerry Sandusky, the former Penn State assistant football coach, was convicted of sexually abusing nine young boys, completing the downfall of a onetime local hero in a pedophilia scandal that seized national attention.
2013 – Daredevil Nik Wallenda completed a historic high-wire walk over a section of the Grand finishing his journey over the canton on a 2-inch steel cable. He walked 1,400 feet across the Little Colorado River. The event was broadcast live around the world.
47 BC – Pharaoh Ptolemy XV of Egypt
1894 – Alfred Kinsey, American entomologist and sexologist (d. 1956)
1912 – Alan Turing, English mathematician, often considered to be the father of modern computer science (d. 1954)
1929 – June Carter Cash, American singer (d. 2003)
1940 – Wilma Rudolph, American runner (d. 1994)
1943 – Vint Cerf, American Internet pioneer, Turing Award laureate
1946 – Ted Shackleford, American actor
1948 – Clarence Thomas, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
BUTTS, JOHN E.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Co. E, 60th Infantry, 9th Infantry Division. Place and date: Normandy, France, 14, 16, and June 23rd, 1944. Entered service at: Buffalo, N.Y. Birth: Medina, N.Y. G.O. No.: 58, 19 July 1945. Citation: Heroically led his platoon against the enemy in Normandy, France, on 14, 16, and 23 June 1944. Although painfully wounded on the 14th near Orglandes and again on the 16th while spearheading an attack to establish a bridgehead across the Douve River, he refused medical aid and remained with his platoon. A week later, near Flottemanville Hague, he led an assault on a tactically important and stubbornly defended hill studded with tanks, antitank guns, pillboxes, and machinegun emplacements, and protected by concentrated artillery and mortar fire. As the attack was launched, 2d Lt. Butts, at the head of his platoon, was critically wounded by German machinegun fire. Although weakened by his injuries, he rallied his men and directed one squad to make a flanking movement while he alone made a frontal assault to draw the hostile fire upon himself. Once more he was struck, but by grim determination and sheer courage continued to crawl ahead. When within ten yards of his objective, he was killed by direct fire. By his superb courage, unflinching valor and inspiring actions, 2d Lt. Butts enabled his platoon to take a formidable strong point and contributed greatly to the success of his battalion’s mission.
KINGSLEY, DAVID R.
WW II (Air Mission)
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 97th Bombardment Group, 15th Air Force. Place and date: Ploesti Raid, Rumania, June 23rd, 1944. Entered service at. Portland, Oreg. Birth: Oregon. G.O. No.: 26, 9 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty, 23 June 1944 near Ploesti, Rumania, while flying as bombardier of a B17 type aircraft. On the bomb run 2d Lt. Kingsley’s aircraft was severely damaged by intense flak and forced to drop out of formation but the pilot proceeded over the target and 2d Lt. Kingsley successfully dropped his bombs, causing severe damage to vital installations. The damaged aircraft, forced to lose altitude and to lag behind the formation, was aggressively attacked by three ME-109 aircraft, causing more damage to the aircraft and severely wounding the tail gunner in the upper arm. The radio operator and engineer notified 2d Lt. Kingsley that the tail gunner had been wounded and that assistance was needed to check the bleeding. 2d Lt. Kingsley made his way back to the radio room, skillfully applied first aid to the wound, and succeeded in checking the bleeding. The tail gunner’s parachute harness and heavy clothes were removed and he was covered with blankets, making him as comfortable as possible. Eight ME-109 aircraft again aggressively attacked 2d Lt. Kingsley’s aircraft and the ball turret gunner was wounded by 20mm. shell fragments. He went forward to the radio room to have 2d Lt. Kingsley administer first aid. A few minutes later when the pilot gave the order to prepare to bail out, 2d Lt. Kingsley immediately began to assist the wounded gunners in putting on their parachute harness. In the confusion the tail gunner’s harness, believed to have been damaged, could not be located in the bundle of blankets and flying clothes which had been removed from the wounded men. With utter disregard for his own means of escape, 2d Lt. Kingsley unhesitatingly removed his parachute harness and adjusted it to the wounded tail gunner. Due to the extensive damage caused by the accurate and concentrated 20mm fire by the enemy aircraft the pilot gave the order to bail out, as it appeared that the aircraft would disintegrate at any moment. 2d Lt. Kingsley aided the wounded men in bailing out and when last seen by the crewmembers he was standing on the bomb bay catwalk. The aircraft continued to fly on automatic pilot for a short distance, then crashed and burned. His body was later found in the wreckage. 2d Lt. Kingsley by his gallant heroic action was directly responsible for saving the life of the wounded gunner.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 4th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Weldon Railroad, Va., June 23rd, 1864. Entered service at: Chester, Vt. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 18 January 1893. Citation: Saved the colors of his regiment when it was surrounded by a much larger force of the enemy and after the greater part of the regiment had been killed or captured.
Stupid Guy Thing Day
AMERICA IS MANY THINGS…
America is – A brisk wind from the Atlantic Ocean… a soft breeze from the Pacific…
America is a mountain peak in Colorado… the Mississippi River… a snowstorm in Montana… the hot July sun on the wheat fields of Kansas…
America is a big town – with concrete canyons of skyscrapers.
America has broad shoulders…and a cocky grin…and nervous feet that want to keep moving.
American is restless. It moves… It churns…It was born in rebellion.
America thrives on hope. It’s a second chance nation – where every man has the right to dream a new dream.
America is the place where losers can become winners… where the poor can become rich… where the ignorant can become educated… where the ill can become healthy… where the lost can be found…
America is music …
The hoe-down fiddle at a country dance, a great symphony playing in a giant hall… the Yankee-Doodle tune of a New England town band on the Fourth of July…
America is many things: The right to attend church, the right not to attend church… The right to speak up, the right to keep quiet… The right to join the crowd, the right to walk alone…
The ghosts of giant heroes walk the hall of America’s memory: Patrick Henry… Davy Crocket… Nathan Hale… John Paul Jones … Ben Franklin … and Washington and Lincoln… and Jefferson…
America is Thomas Edison… and Walt Whitman… and Charles Lindbergh… and Babe Ruth … and Bing Crosby and Willie Mays…
America Is a magic mixture of all the people of the world…
English, Scots and Germans pushing back the wilderness… Italians, Dutch and Swedes walking across the plains to a new tomorrow… Jews, Poles and the French blending together to make a dream come true… People of all races and creeds working together to create a nation… American is many things… The Statue of Liberty… Mount Rushmore… freeways… Yankee Stadium… Yellowstone Park…
America is a traffic jam… an election day… a town meeting… a Little league baseball game… a junior prom… a Labor Day parade… a trip to the moon…
America is the right to work at a job… the right to quit a job… the right to own property… the right to compete… the right to follow a dream… America is many things… a mood, a state of mind… a philosophy…
America is a red, white and blue tomorrow for all men who hold the hope of freedom in their hearts…
Amos 4:13 King James Version (KJV)
13 For, lo, he that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, and declareth unto man what is his thought, that maketh the morning darkness, and treadeth upon the high places of the earth, The Lord, The God of hosts, is his name.
“We live under the only government that ever existed which was framed by…deliberate consultations of the people. Miracles do not cluster. That which has happened but once in 6,000 years cannot be expected to happen often. Such a government, once gone, might leave a void, to be filled, for ages, with revolution and tumult, riot and despotism.”
Daniel Webster warned in his 4th of July Oration, Fryeburg, Maine, 1802
“If we study the lives of great men and women carefully and unemotionally we find that, invariably, greatness was developed, tested and revealed through the darker periods of their lives. One of the largest tributaries of the RIVER OF GREATNESS is always the STREAM OF ADVERSITY.”
~ Cavett Robert
Lodestar \LOHD-star noun
One that serves as an inspiration, model, or guide
1564 – A three-ship French expedition under René de Laudonnière arrived in Florida and built Fort Caroline. It was established in what is now Jacksonville, Florida.
1611 – Henry Hudson, his teenage son John and seven crewmen loyal to Hudson were set adrift by mutineers in a small open boat with no food or water.
1633 – The Holy Office in Rome forces Galileo Galilei to recant his scientific view that the Sun, not the Earth, is the center of the Universe.
1799 – In France a scientific congress adopted the length of the meter as one ten-millionth of the distance along the surface of the Earth from its equator to its pole, in a curved line of latitude passing through the center of Paris.
1807 – The British warship HMS Leopard crew boards the USS Chesapeake, a provocation leading to War of 1812 .
1813 – War of 1812: A British force attempted to take Craney Island, the fort there was one of the key defenses to Norfolk’s inner harbor and was home to the frigate “Constellation”.
1813 – War of 1812: After learning of American plans for a surprise attack on Beaver Dams in Ontario, Laura Secord sets out on a 30 kilometer journey on foot to warn Lieutenant James FitzGibbon.
1818 – Boarding parties from the Revenue cutter Dallas seized the privateer Young Spartan, her crew, and the privateer’s prize, the Pastora, off Savannah, Georgia.
1822 – Charles Babbage (1792-1871) announced the invention of a machine capable of performing simple arithmetic calculations in a paper to the Astronomical Society.
1832 – A pin manufacturing machine was patented by John Ireland Howe. The invention reduced making pins from 18 steps to one. Howe also invented a machine to stick the pins in paper packets.
1839 – Cherokee leaders Major Ridge, John Ridge, and Elias Boudinot are assassinated for signing the Treaty of New Echota, which had resulted in the Trail of Tears.
1844 – Influential North American fraternity Delta Kappa Epsilon is founded at Yale University.
1847 – The first doughnut with a hole in it was created. It was invented by Hansen Gregory from one of his mother’s recipes.
1860 – Nathan Maroney, a Philadelphia station agent for Adams Express Co., pleaded guilty to the theft of $40,000 after Pinkerton agents, who had secretly befriended him, appeared in court to testify against him.
1864 – Civil War: Union forces attempt to capture a railroad that had been supplying Petersburg from the south and extend their lines to the Appomattox River. The Confederates thwarted the attempt, and the two sides settled into trenches for a nine-month siege.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Ream’s Station, VA (Wilson’s Raid).
1864 – Civil War: U.S.S. Lexington with stood a surprise Confederate strike on White River Station, Arkansas, and forced the attacking Confederate troops to withdraw.
1865 – Confederate raider Shenandoah fires last shot of Civil War in Bering Strait.
1868 – Arkansas was re-admitted to the Union.
1870 – Congress created the Department of Justice. Prior to this, attorney general had represented the government in legal matters and given legal advice to the executive branch under the authority of the Judiciary Act of 1789.
1874 – Dr. Andrew Taylor Still began the first known practice of osteopathy.
1876 – General Alfred Terry sent Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer to the Rosebud and Little Bighorn rivers to search of Indian villages.
1890 – The San Francisco Chronicle completed its new 10-story building at Kearny and Market, the first steel-framed building in the West.
1898 – Spanish-American War: United States Marines land in Cuba. Admiral Sampson begins amphibious landing near Santiago, Cuba. Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt and Col. Leonard Wood led the Rough Riders, a volunteer cavalry regiment, onto the beach at Daiquiri.
1900 – Dodgers score seven runs in the top of the eleventh to go ahead of the Phillies, 20-13.
1909 – The first transcontinental auto race ended in Seattle, WA.
1918 – Hammond circus train wreck kills 86 and injures 127 near Hammond, Indiana.
1922 – Herrin massacre: 19 strikebreakers and 2 union miners are killed in Herrin, Illinois. After an early morning gunfire attack on non-union miners going to work on June 21, three union miners (Jordie Henderson, Joseph Pitkewicius and one other) were killed in a confrontation after the striking union members marched on the mine. The next day, union miners killed 19 of fifty strikebreakers and union guards, many of them in brutal ways.
1933 – Germany became a one political party country when Hitler banned parties other than the Nazis.
1934 – San Francisco Police Capt. Charles Goff voiced the sensational charge that carefully planned communistic programs are being carried out in San Francisco schools and churches.
1936 – Congress passed an act to define jurisdiction of Coast Guard. Congress designated the Coast Guard as the federal agency for “enforcement of laws generally on the high seas and navigable waters of the United States.”
1937 – Joe Louis, the Brown Bomber, knocked out James J. Braddock in a boxing match in Chicago, Illinois. The bout lasted eight rounds and Louis was announced as the world heavyweight boxing champion.1938 – US boxing champion Joe Louis knocked out Max Schmeling in the first round of their heavyweight rematch at New York City’s Yankee Stadium.
1939 – Bing Crosby and Connee Boswell joined in song to perform “An Apple for the Teacher”, on Decca Records.
1939 – The first U.S. water-ski tournament was held at Jones Beach, on Long Island, New York .
1940 – World War II: France forced to sign the Second Compiègne armistice with Nazi Germany.
1940 – Port Security responsibilities are undertaken again for the first time since World War I when President Franklin Roosevelt invoked the Espionage Act of 1917.
1941 – World War II: Nazi Germany invades the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa, one of the most dramatic turning points of the war.
1942 – Pledge of Allegience recognized officially by the U. S. Congress.
1942 – V-Mail, or Victory-Mail, was sent for the first time. V-Mail used a special paper for letter writing during WWII. It was designed to reduce cargo space taken up by mail sent to and from members of the armed forces.
1942 – World War II: A Japanese submarine shelled Fort Stevens at the mouth of the Columbia River.
1943 – Federal troops put down race-related rioting in Detroit. Thirty-six hours of rioting claimed 34 lives, 25 of them black. More than 1,800 were arrested for looting and other incidents, the vast majority black. Thirteen murders remained unsolved.
1944 – World War II: The US 7th Corps (part of US 1st Army) begin assaulting the city of Cherbourg. There is heavy German resistance.
1944 – World War II: US Pilot William Kalan and his nine-man crew bailed out of their B-24 Liberator during a mission over Nazi-occupied France. Kalan avoided capture and went on to work with the French underground to harass German troops.
1944 – President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signs the “GI Bill of Rights” into law. (Servicemen’s Readjustment Act). It provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs or G. I.s) as well as one year of unemployment compensation. It also provided loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses.
1945 – World War II: The battle for Okinawa officially ended after 81 days. American forces have lost 12,500 dead and 35,500 wounded. The US Navy had 36 ships sunk and 368 damaged. In the air, the American forces lost 763 planes.
1945 – World War II: American B-29 Superfortress bombers drop about 3000 tons of bombs on Japanese munitions plants in Kobe, Osaka, Nagoya and Okayama.:
1946 – Jet airplanes were used to transport mail for the first time.
1947 – Holt, MO had 12 inches of rain in 42 minutes. Holt has the distinction of holding the record for the fastest accumulation of rainfall.
1953 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Colonel Robert P. Baldwin, commander of the 51st Fighter-Interceptor Group, became the 35th ace of the Korean War.
1954 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized the first use of the first official Marine Corps Seal.
1954 – Rolaids was trademark registered. It was invented by American chemist Irvine W. Grote, head of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. Its name is derived from the original packaging that came in foil roll.
1954 – The maiden flight of the A-4 Skyhawk. It was an American attack aircraft originally designed to operate from United States Navy aircraft carriers. It went on to be the workhorse of the Vietnam War.
1959 – Eddie Lubanski rolled 24 consecutive strikes — two back-to-back perfect games — in a bowling tournament in Miami, FL.
1959 – Chuck Berry’s “Memphis” was released.
1963 – “Sukiyaki” by Kyu Sakamoto topped the charts.
1963 – The Safaris’ “Wipe Out” was released.
1963 – “Fingertips – Pt 2,” by Stevie Wonder, was released.
1964 – The U.S. Supreme Court decided that Henry Miller’s book, “Tropic of Cancer”, could not be banned.
1968 – “This Guy’s in Love with You” by Herb Alpert topped the charts.
1968 – Mason Williams’ “Classical Gas” was released.
1969 – The Cuyahoga River (Cleveland, Ohio) caught fire, which triggered a crack-down on pollution in the river. Native Americans called this winding water “Cuyahoga,” which means “crooked river” in the Iroquois language. At the time of the fire it was considered one of the most polluted rivers in the United States. The reach from Akron to Cleveland was devoid of fish.
1969 – Judy Garland died from an accidental overdose of prescription sleeping aids. She was 47.
1970 – President Nixon signs 26th amendment to the Constitution (voting age lowered to 18.)
1971 – Vietnam War: 1,500 North Vietnamese attack the 500-man South Vietnamese garrison at Fire Base Fuller.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Love” by Paul McCartney & Wings, “Playground in My Mind” by Clint Holmes, “I’m Gonna Love You Just a Little More Baby” by Barry White and “Kids Say the Darndest Things” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1973 – Skylab astronauts splashed down safely in the Pacific after a record 28 days in space.
1974 – “Billy, Don’t Be a Hero” by Bo Donaldson & the Heywoods topped the charts.
1977 – Walt Disney’s “The Rescuers” is released.
1977 – Secretary of Transportation Brock Adams introduced Ensign Beverly G. Kelley and Boatswain’s Mate 3/c Debra Lee Wilson during a press conference as two of 14 women who had been assigned to sea duty.”This is the first time in Coast Guard history that women have been sent to sea.”
1977 – John N. Mitchell became the first former U.S. Attorney General to go to prison as he began serving a sentence for his role in the Watergate cover-up. He served 19 months.
1978 – Charon, a satellite of the dwarf planet Pluto, is discovered by James Christy.
1978 – Neo-Nazis called off plans to march in the Jewish community of Skokie, Ill.
1980 – In Arizona, Lake Powell hit its high-water mark. (See March 13th) It took seventeen years to fill.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Stars on 45 Medley” by Stars on 45, “Sukiyaki” by A Taste of Honey, “A Woman Needs Love (Just like You Do)” by Ray Parker Jr. & Raydio and “But You Know I Love You” by Dolly Parton all topped the charts.
1981 – Mark David Chapman pled guilty to killing John Lennon.
1982 – Pete Rose of the Philadelphia Phillies connected for hit #3,786. Rose was 41 years old at the time. Three years later he surpassed Cobb’s mark.
1982 – The first successful hostage rescue at sea occurred when a combined Coast Guard / FBI boarding party deployed from the Coast Guard Cutter “Alert” took control of the 890-foot Liberian-flagged motor tanker Ypapanti.
1982 – The U.S. Department of Justice charged eighteen Japanese with conspiring to steal industrial secrets from IBM.
1984 – Richard Branson led the inaugural flight of his Virgin Airlines from London to Newark, NJ.
1985 – “Heaven” by Bryan Adams topped the charts.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be Loving You (Forever)” by New Kids on the Block, “Satisfied” by Richard Marx, “Buffalo Stance” by Neneh Cherry and “Love Out Loud” by Earl Thomas Conley all topped the charts.
1990 – Billy Joel became the first rock artist to perform at Yankee Stadium.
1992 – The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that hate-crime laws that ban cross-burning and similar expressions of racial bias violated free-speech rights.
1993 – A bomb mailed from Sacramento attributed to the Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski maimed Univ. of Calif. San Francisco geneticist Charles Epstein at his home in Tiburon.
1993 – Former first lady Pat Nixon died in Park Ridge, N.J., at age 81.
1994 – President Clinton announced North Korea had confirmed its willingness to freeze its nuclear program.
1994 – The Houston Rockets defeated the New York Knicks 90-84 to win the NBA championship.
1995 – US House and Senate Republicans announced agreement on a compromise seven-year budget-balancing plan that would cut taxes by $245 billion and slow spending for Medicare, Medicaid and dozens of other programs.
1996 – “Give Me One Reason” by Tracy Chapman topped the charts.
1996 – President Clinton endorsed a national registry to track sexual predators as they cross state lines.
1997 – Dr. Nancy W. Dickey was named the first female president of the American Medical Association.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that evidence illegally obtained by authorities could be used at revocation hearings for a convicted criminal’s parole.
1998 – CompUSA announced that it was buying Computer City from Tandy for $275 million.
1998 – The Supreme Court made it much harder for students who are sexually harassed by teachers to hold school districts financially responsible, ruling 5-4 that a key anti-bias law applies only if administrators know about the misconduct.
1999 – The first demonstration of brain signals from live rat directly controlling a robot arm was published by Nature Neuroscience.
1999 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that persons with remediable handicaps cannot claim discrimination in employment under the Americans with Disability Act.
2000 – Independent Counsel Robert Ray ended his investigation of the 1993 firings in the White House travel office, issuing no indictments but saying he’d found “substantial evidence” that First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton played a role in the dismissals.
2001 – The US and Mexico unveiled a new border safety pact with measures to prevent migrants from crossing at deadly transit points and planned to equip US agents with nonlethal weapons.
2001 – US forces in the Middle East were put on high alert following intelligence reports on possible terrorist attacks.
2002 – A bin Laden spokesman said in audiotaped remarks from Qatar that Osama bin Laden and his #2 man are both alive and well and their al-Qaida network is ready to attack new U.S. targets.
2004 – The American Film Institute released its list of 100 best movie songs. Judy Garland’s “Over the Rainbow” from the 1939 “Wizard of Oz” topped the list.
2004 -A federal judge granted class-action status to a lawsuit against Wal-Mart on behalf of 1.6 million women who claimed discrimination in pay and promotions.
2004 – Microsoft received patent #6,754,472 for “a method and apparatus for transmitting power and data using the human body.”
2005 – The US reported plans to send 50,000 tons of food to North Korea.
2006 – The US Supreme Court expanded the definition of what constitutes “retaliatory discrimination” by employers against employees.
2006 – In Florida FBI agents arrested seven people in the Liberty City area of Miami in connection with a plot to attack the Sears Tower and federal buildings in south Florida.
2006 – A 2,585-acre fire approached Slide Rock State Park in northern Arizona. The blaze started June 18 in a camp used by transients and spread quickly.
2007 – The space shuttle Atlantis landed in California to avoid rain in Florida, ending a two-week, five-million-mile mission for its crew of seven.
2009 – Tracy, CA man sentenced to eleven years for killing a co-worker during a fight at their Livermore workplace.
2009 – Nine people are killed and 80 were injured in a rush-hour collision between two Metro transit trains in northeast Washington. The collision happened about 5 p.m. EDT, the height of the city’s rush hour, on the Metro system’s Red Line near the Washington-Maryland border.
2009 – Pres. Obama, in an effort to curb teen smoking, signed the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. The legislation gave the FDA unprecedented authority to regulate what goes into tobacco products.
2009 – Eastman Kodak Company announces that it will discontinue sales of the Kodachrome Color Film, concluding its 74-year run as a photography icon.
2010 – The United States investigates itself to see if it is accidentally financing the Taliban in Afghanistan with $4 million per week in U.S. taxpayers’ money.
2010 – General Stanley A. McChrystal, the top United States commander in Afghanistan, apologises for an article in Rolling Stone magazine in which he criticised senior members of the Obama administration. McChrystal is later summoned to Washington, D.C. for talks with Obama.
2010 – United States federal judge Martin Leach-Cross Feldman issues a preliminary injunction blocking a six month moratorium on deep water offshore drilling.
2011 – President Barack Obama announces that 33,000 US troops will be withdrawn from the War in Afghanistan by the summer of 2012.
2011 – U.S. country music singer Glen Campbell is diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease.
2011 – A tornado touches down in Louisville, Kentucky near the University of Louisville, Belknap campus, damaging some buildings at the Churchill Downs horse racing track.
2011 – Fugitive alleged Boston crime boss James J. Bulger is arrested in Santa Monica, California.
2012 – Wells Fargo plans to move jobs to India and the Philippines.
2012 – Jerry Sandusky, former American football coach at Pennsylvania State University, is convicted on 45 charges of child sex abuse. He is on suicide watch.
2012 – Judicial Watch a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request seeking all documents relating to Operation Fast and Furious and “specifically [a]ll records subject to the claim of executive privilege invoked by President Barack Obama on or about June 20, 2012.”
2013 – A stunt pilot and a wing-walking performer die in a fiery crash at the Vectren Dayton Air Show.The pair was identified as Jane Wicker and pilot Charlie Schwenker.
2015 – Governor of South Carolina, Nikki Haley, calls for the Confederate battle flag to be removed from the U.S. Civil War memorial on the grounds of the South Carolina State House due to the Charleston Church shooting.
2015 – Walmart, the largest store in the United States, announces that it will withdraw all merchandise featuring the Confederate flag from sale at its stores and online.
2016 – A rural Oregon man was sentenced to 30 days in jail and over $1,500 in fines because he had three reservoirs on his property to collect and use rainwater. Gary Harrington of Eagle Point, Ore., says he plans to appeal his conviction in Jackson County (Ore.) Circuit Court on nine misdemeanor charges under a 1925 law for having what state water managers called “three illegal reservoirs” on his property – and for filling the reservoirs with rainwater and snow runoff.
1884 – James Rector, American athlete (d. 1949)
1888 – Harold Burton, U.S. Supreme Court justice (d. 1964)
1903 – John Dillinger, American bank robber (d. 1934)
1906 – Anne Morrow Lindbergh, American author and pilot (d. 2001)
1906 – Billy Wilder, Austrian-born director (d. 2002)
1907 – Mike Todd, American film producer (d. 1958)
1916 – Johnny Jacobs, American television announcer for Chuck Barris productions (namely The Newlywed Game and The Dating Game). (d. 1982)
1922 – Bill Blass, American fashion designer (d. 2002)
1941 – Ed Bradley, American journalist (d. 2006)
1943 – Brit Hume, American news anchor and commentator
1947 – Pete Maravich, American basketball player (d. 1988)
1949 – Meryl Streep, American actress
1949 – Lindsay Wagner, American actress
1954 – Freddie Prinze, American actor and comedian (d. 1977)
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 4 December 1859, Amsterdam, Holland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: Fighting with the relief expedition of the Allied forces on 13, 20, 21, and June 22nd, 1900, Allen distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 28 February 1880, Stamford, Conn. Accredited to: Connecticut. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battles at Peking, China, 13, 20, 21 and June 22nd, 1900. Throughout this period, Rose distinguished himself by meritorious conduct. While stationed as a crewmember of the U.S.S. Newark, he was part of its landing force that went ashore off Taku, China. on 31 May 1900, he was in a party of six under John McCloy (MH) which took ammunition from the Newark to Tientsin. On 10 June 1900, he was one of a party that carried dispatches from LaFa to Yongstsum at night. On the 13th he was one of a few who fought off a large force of the enemy saving the Main baggage train from destruction. On the 20th and 21st he was engaged in heavy fighting against the Imperial Army being always in the first rank. On the 22d he showed gallantry in the capture of the Siku Arsenal. He volunteered to go to the nearby village which was occupied by the enemy to secure medical supplies urgently required. The party brought back the supplies carried by newly taken prisoners.
Baby Boomers Recognition Day
Presidential Executive Orders
An executive order in the United States is an order issued by the President, the head of the executive branch of the federal government. Presidents have issued Executive Orders since 1789, usually to help officers and agencies of the Executive branch manage the operations within the Federal Government itself. Executive orders do have the full force of law. In Acts of Congress they are often used to spell out powers that Congress has given the President to give authority that is inherently granted to the President by the Constitution.
Article I, Section 1 of the United States Constitution is concise in its language, “All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.”
There is no Constitutional provision or statute that explicitly permits Executive Orders, there is a vague grant of “executive power” given in Article II, Section 1, Clause 1 of the Constitution, and furthered by the declaration “take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed” made in Article II, Section 3, Clause 4.
The greatest fear the founders of this nation had was the establishment of a strong central government and a strong political leader at the center of that government. They no longer wanted kings, potentates or czars, they wanted a loose association of States in which the power emanated from the States and not from the central government. John Adams advocated that a good government consists of three balancing powers, the legislative, executive and the judicial.
James Madison wrote, “That all power is originally vested in, and consequently derived from the people. That government is instituted and ought to be exercised for the benefit of the people; which consists in the enjoyment of life and liberty and the right of acquiring property, and generally of pursing and obtaining happiness and safety. That the people have an indubitable, unalienable, and indefeasible right to reform or change their government whenever it be found adverse or inadequate to the purpose of its institution.”
The Office of the President has become much more powerful than any of the founding fathers ever imagined. One of the greatest abuses we see today is the improper use of Executive Orders. Some of our most recent Presidents use these to create entire governmental departments, remove our freedoms and create things such as “czars” that are not even mentioned in the Constitution. George Washington’s idea was to use these only as long as necessary when Congress was gone and then reviewed when they returned.
Luke 12:5 King James Version (KJV)
5 But I will forewarn you whom ye shall fear: Fear him, which after he hath killed hath power to cast into hell; yea, I say unto you, Fear him.
“The race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong; but the God of Israel is He that giveth strength and power unto His people. Trust in Him at all times, ye people, pour out your hearts before him; God is a refuge for us.”
~ Abigail Adams
“No one is ever warmed by wool pulled over his eyes.”
~ Marcelene Cox
reticent• \RET-uh-sunt\ adj
*1 : inclined to be silent or uncommunicative in speech : reserved
2 : restrained in expression, presentation, or appearance
3 : reluctant
1607 – The Church of England Episcopal Church, the first Protestant Episcopal parish in America, was established at Jamestown, Va. The 39 articles of the Episcopal Faith included the statement: “There is but one living and true God, everlasting, without body, parts, or passions; of infinite power, wisdom and goodness; the Maker, and Preserver of all things both visible and invisible.”
1684 – Massachusetts Bay Colony charter revoked.
1734 – In Montreal in New France (today primarily Quebec), a black slave known by the French name of Marie-Joseph Angélique, having been convicted of the arson that destroyed much of the city, is tortured and hanged by the French authorities in a public ceremony that involved her disgrace and the amputation of a hand.
1788 – New Hampshire ratifies the Constitution of the United States and is admitted as the ninth state in the United States.1805 – Francis Whitcomb and Luke Brooks, part of a Franconia survey crew, were the first white settlers to record observing the Old Man of the Mountain. It was also known as the great stone face and was a series of five granite cliff ledges on Cannon Mountain in the White Mountains of New Hampshire that produce a shape like a face.
1821 – African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ) Church was organized in New York City as a national body.
1831 – Cyrus Hall McCormick invented the mechanical reaper, a horse drawn mechanical machine used for harvesting grain or other small crops. Designed to cut down wheat much more quickly and more efficiently. The Patent #: X8277 (US) Patent issued June 21, 1834.
1853 – The envelope folding machine was patented by Dr. Russell L. Hawes of Worcester, MA. Hawes’s envelope-making machines turned out 10,000 to 12,500 envelopes per day.
1859 – Andrew Lanergan of Boston, MA received the first rocket patent. His design allowed for the fuse (which he called the “match”) to be pre-assembled with the rocket.
1860 – The Signal Corps was authorized as a separate branch of the Army by act of Congress on March 3, 1863. However, the Signal Corps dates its existence from June 21, 1860, when Congress authorized the appointment of one signal officer in the Army, and a War Department order carried the following assignment: “Signal Department–Assistant Surgeon Albert J. Myer to be Signal Officer, with the rank of Major, June 27, 1860, to fill an original vacancy.”
1862 – Civil War: Union and Confederate forces skirmished at the Chickahominy Creek during the Peninsular Campaign.
1863 – Civil War: In the second day of fighting, Confederate cavalry failed to dislodge a Union force at the Battle of LaFourche Crossing in Louisiana.
1864 – Civil War: A Confederate Army-Navy long-range bombardment opened on the Union squadron in the James River at Trent’s and Varina Reaches.
1864 – Civil War: Union General Ulysses S. Grant stretches his lines further around Petersburg, Virginia, accompanied by his commander-in-chief, Abraham Lincoln.
1877 – The Molly Maguires, ten Irish immigrants, are hanged at the Schuylkill County and Carbon County, Pennsylvania prisons.
1879 – F.W. Woolworth opened his first store. It failed almost immediately. Frank Woolworth added 10-cent items to the Great 5-Cent Store in Lancaster, Pa., and created Woolworth’s five-and-ten.|
1893 – First Ferris wheel premieres (Chicago’s Columbian Exposition). It was invented by George Washington Ferris, a Pittsburgh bridge builder, for the purpose of creating an attraction like the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Each of the 36 cars carried 60 passengers, making a full passenger load of 150 tons.
1898 – Guam becomes a U.S. territory.
1900 – After the Empress declared war on all foreign powers, the Boxers began a two-month assault on the legations in Beijing.
1904 – The Boston Herald tells of a Red Sox trade with the headline “Dougherty as a Yankee” speaking of New York. During the early 1900s, the nickname “Yankees” was occasionally applied to the club, as a variant on “Americans”, verifiably as early as June 21, 1904, when Patsy Dougherty was traded from Boston to New York, and the Boston Herald’s article was headlined, “Dougherty as a Yankee”. It was the first known reference to NY club as Yankees (became Yankees in 1913).
1907 – American newspaper publisher E.W. Scripps founded the United Press Associations, a forerunner of United Press International.
1913 – Tiny Broadwick becomes first woman to parachute from an airplane. She jumped from a plane piloted by Glenn L. Martin, 2,000 feet over Griffith Park in Los Angeles. She was also the first woman to parachute into water.
1915 – The U.S. Supreme Court hands down its decision in Guinn v. United States 238 US 347 1915, striking down an Oklahoma law denying the right to vote to some citizens.
1915 – World War I: Germany used poison gas for the first time in warfare in the Argonne Forest.
1916 – The U.S. military expedition against Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa brings the United States and Mexico closer to war when Mexican government troops attack U.S. Brigadier General John J. Pershing’s force at Carrizal, Mexico.
1921 – U.S. Army Air Service pilots bombed the captured German battleship Ostfriesland to demonstrate the effectiveness of aerial bombing on warships.
1938 – In Washington, U.S. President Roosevelt signed the $3.75 billion Emergency Relief Appropriation Act.
1939 – Lou Gehrig quit baseball due to illness.
1941 – Wayne King and his orchestra recorded “Time Was” with Buddy Clark.
1942 – Ben Hogan recorded the lowest score (to that time) in a major golf tournament. Hogan shot a 271 for 72 holes in Chicago, IL.
1942 – World War II: Tobruk falls to Italian and German forces.
1942 – World War II: A Japanese submarine surfaces near the Columbia River in Oregon, firing seventeen shells at nearby Fort Stevens in one of only a handful of attacks by the Japanese against the United States mainland.
1943 – World War II: On New Georgia, the 4th Marine Raider Battalion lands at Segi Point in the south. There is no Japanese garrison there.
1944 – World War II: Coast Guard Cutter’s 83415 and 83477 wrecked off coast of Normandy, France during a storm – no lives were lost. This is the storm that wrecked the artificial harbor constructed by the Allies off the coast of Normandy.
1944 – World War II: Very heavy bombing took place on Berlin.
1945 – World War II: The Battle of Okinawa ends. Japanese forces on Okinawa surrendered to the Americans.
1945 – World War II: On Luzon, the last Japanese-held port, Aparri, falls to American forces. The American regimental task force make contact with Filipino guerrillas.
1945 – Pan Am announced an 88-hour round-the-world flight at a cost of $700.
1946 – Bill Veeck bought the Cleveland Indians for $2.2 million.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Nature Boy” by Nat King Cole, “Toolie Oolie Doolie” by The Andrews Sisters, “You Can’t Be True, Dear “ by The Ken Griffin Orchestra (vocal: Jerry Wayne) and “Texarkana Baby” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 – The “Manchester Baby” (SSEM) runs the first ever computer program stored in electronic memory.
1948 – The Republican national convention opened in Philadelphia. The delegates ended up choosing Thomas E. Dewey to be their presidential nominee.
1948 – Columbia Records introduces the long-playing record album in a public demonstration at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City.
1950 – Joe Dimaggio’s 2,000th hit, Yanks beat Indians 8-2.
1952 – “Here in My Heart” by Al Martino topped the charts.
1952 – Fats Domino’s “Goin’ Home” became his first #1 hit.
1954 – NBC radio presented the final broadcast of “The Railroad Hour.”
1955 – Johnny Cash’s first single, “Cry Cry Cry,” was released.
1955 – The David Lean movie “Summertime” starring Katharine Hepburn and Rossano Brazzi had its world premiere in New York.
1958 – “Splish Splash“, Bobby Darin’s first million-seller, was released.
1958 – “Purple People Eater” by Sheb Wooley topped the charts.
1958 – In Arkansas, a federal judge let Little Rock delay school integration.
1962 – USAF Maj Robert M White takes X-15 to 246,698 feet.
1963 – In St. Louis, Bob Hayes set a record when he ran the 100-yard dash in 0:09.1.
1964 – Three civil rights workers, Andrew Goodman, James Chaney and Mickey Schwerner, are murdered in Neshoba County, Mississippi, by members of the Ku Klux Klan.
1964 – Jim Bunning of the Philadelphia Phillies throws a perfect game against the New York Mets and becomes the seventh pitcher to do so. At Shea Stadium, Jim Bunning fans 10, drives in two runs, and pitches the first perfect game since Charlie Robertson’s on April 30, 1922.
1965 – Gary Player wins the U.S. Open golf tournament.
1966 – Vietnam: U.S. planes strike North Vietnamese petroleum-storage facilities in a series of devastating raids.
1969 – Zager & Evans release “In the Year 2525” to Radio.
1969 – “Get Back” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1970 – Penn Central was forced into bankruptcy. The default caught the market by surprise, largely because commercial paper ratings were in their infancy.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Candy Man” by Sammy Davis, Jr., “Song Sung Blue” by Neil Diamond, “Nice to Be with You” by Gallery and “The Happiest Girl in the Whole U.S.A.” by Donna Fargo all topped the charts.
1972 – Billy Preston received a gold record for the instrumental hit, “Outa-Space.”
1972 – The TV sitcom “Corner Bar” began its first of two seasons.
1973 – In handing down the decision in Miller v. California 413 US 15, the Supreme Court of the United States establishes the Miller Test, which now governs obscenity in U.S. law.
1973 – The US Supreme Court, in Keyes v. School District No. 1, ordered the complete desegregation of the Denver school system.
1974 – The U.S. Supreme Court decided that pregnant teachers could no longer be forced to take long leaves of absence.
1975 -“Love Will Keep Us Together” by Captain & Tennille topped the charts.
1975 – James Taylor’s “How Sweet It Is” was released.
1977 – HR Haldeman, former White House chief of staff, entered prison.
1979 – SN Ina J. Toavs was awarded the Coast Guard Medal, the first woman to receive the award.
1981 – “Raiders of the Lost Ark” opened.
1982 – John W. Hinckley, Jr., who on March 30, 1981, shot President Ronald Reagan and three others outside a Washington, D.C., hotel, was found not guilty of attempted murder by reason of insanity.
1986 – “On My Own” by Patti LaBelle & Michael McDonald topped the charts.
1988 – The Roger Rabbit cartoon character debuted in “Who Framed Roger Rabbit?”
1988 – The Los Angeles Lakers repeated as NBA champions as they beat the Detroit Pistons, 108-105.
1989 – The New Kids on the Block released “Hangin’ Tough.”
1989 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that burning the American flag as a form of political protest was protected by the First Amendment.
1992 – Democrat Bill Clinton unveiled an economic blueprint calling for substantially higher taxes on the rich.
1993 – The US Supreme Court ruled that Haitian boat people could be stopped at sea and returned home without asylum hearings.
1994 – American teenager Michael Fay was released from a Singapore prison, where he’d been flogged for vandalism. He had been caught chewing gum.
1996 – The $46 million Chicago Museum of Contemporary Art opened.
1997 – The WNBA made its debut as the New York Liberty defeated the Los Angeles Sparks 67-57.
1999 – US warplanes bombed Iraqi air defense sites in the northern and southern no-fly zones.
2000 – In San Leandro, Ca., Stuart Alexander (39), owner of the Santo Linguisa sausage factory, shot and killed three government meat inspectors, Jean Hillery (56), Tom Quadros (52), and Bill Shaline (57). In 2004 Alexander was convicted of three counts of first-degree murder.
2000 – Some 55 years after World War Two ended, twenty-two Asian-American veterans received the Medal of Honor for bravery on the battlefield during a White House ceremony.
2001 – A federal grand jury in Alexandria, Virginia, indicts thirteen Saudis and a Lebanese in the 1996 bombing of the Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia that killed nineteen American servicemen.
2002 – One of the worst wildfires in Arizona history grew to 128,000 acres, forcing thousands of homeowners near the community of Show Low to flee.
2002 – Scientist reported today that an asteroid (2002 MN) the size of a soccer field whizzed by Earth on this day at a distance of 75,000 miles, a third of the distance to the Moon.
2002 – Abu Sabaya (Aldam Tilao), one of the Philippines’ most wanted Muslim rebels and the key man in last year’s kidnapping of a U.S. missionary couple, was reportedly shot and likely killed in a clash with government troops.
2003 – Lennox Lewis retained his heavyweight title after a cut stopped Vitali Klitschko after six rounds in Los Angeles.
2004 – The US Supreme Court ruled 5-4 in Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada that people can be arrested for refusing to give their names to police even if no crime is alleged.In addition, it does not violate the Fifth Amendment, and the Miranda warning does not apply.
2004 – SpaceShipOne, designed by Burt Rutan, piloted by Mike Melvill and built with more than $20 million in funding by billionaire Paul Allen, reached 328,491 feet above Earth in a 90-minute flight. The height is about 400 feet above the distance scientists consider to be the boundary of space.
2005 – It was reported that the number of California state employees who earned over $132,000 nearly doubled from 2002 to 2004.
2005 – Edgar Ray Killen (80) was convicted in Philadelphia, Miss., of manslaughter in the 1964 abduction and killing of three voter-registration volunteers.
2005 – The popular video game, Battlefield 2, was officially released.
2006 – MASS SHOOTING: In Tallahassee, Florida, corrections officer Ralph Hill, an Air Force veteran, had smuggled a gun into the prison and opened fire on FBI agents and Justice Department investigators.
2006 – Pluto’s newly discovered moons are officially named Nix & Hydra.
2006 – In California some 830 firefighters battled a fire in the Los Padres National Forest, which grew to an estimated 14,000 acres.
2007 – In Kentucky a cable broke on the superman Tower of Power ride at the Six Flags Kentucky Freedom park in Louisville and sliced off the feet of a 13-year-old girl.
2008 – In New Jersey Scott Kalitta died when his Funny Car crashed and burst into flames during the final round of qualifying for the Lucas Oil NHRA SuperNationals at Old Bridge Township Raceway Park.
2008 – The flooding in the Midwest has brought freight traffic on the upper Mississippi to a standstill, stranding more than 100 barges loaded with grain, cement, scrap metal, fertilizer and other products while shippers wait for the water to drop on the Big Muddy.
2009 – President Barack Obama tells a television news crew his country is “fully prepared” for a possible missile test by North Korea over the Pacific Ocean.
2010 – In New York City, Faisal Shahzad (30), a Pakistani-born US citizen, pleaded guilty to all charges related to his May 1 driving of a bomb-laden SUV meant to cause a fireball in Times Square.
2010 – In Arizona the Schultz fire around Flagstaff spread to 8,850 acres as some 300 firefighters battled the blaze.
2011 – Storms in the Central US caused more than 270,000 people in the US city of Chicago, Illinois and more than 114,000 people in the city of Knoxville, Tennessee, to be left without power due to the storms. There were also reports of funnel clouds. More than 300 flights are cancelled from O’Hare International Airport and passengers are stuck on Chicago passenger trains for three hours.
2011 – First Lady of the United States Michelle Obama begins a six-day visit to southern Africa with her daughters; they were granted an audience with Nelson Mandela.
2012 – Moody’s downgrades the credit rating of Bank of America, Citigroup, Goldman Sachs and JP Morgan.
2012 – The jury begins deliberations in the Penn State sex scandal trial. The adopted son of former football coach Jerry Sandusky says that Sandusky molested him.
2012 – The Miami Heat wins the 2012 NBA Finals defeating the Oklahoma City Thunder four games to one. LeBron James wins the NBA Finals MVP award.
2013 – A gunman opens fire at the Kellum Law Firm and at a Walmart in Greenville, North Carolina, U.S., injuring four people. A sixty-year-old man with a shotgun wounded one person at the law office and three persons in the store parking lot. The gunman was later shot by the police and brought into custody after being wounded.
2016 – US Rep. Chaka Fattah (D-Pa.) was found guilty of all charges in a federal corruption trial. Fattah and four associates had been charged with 29 counts related to bribery, money laundering, fraud and racketeering. After his conviction, Fattah could face a lengthy prison term. The charges related to conspiracy, falsification of records and mail fraud each carry sentences of up to 20 years in prison.
1639 (O.S.) – Increase Mather, New England Puritan minister (d. 1723)
1732 – Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach, German composer (d. 1791)
1736 (O.S.) – Enoch Poor, American general in the Continental Army (d. 1780)
1774 – Daniel D. Tompkins, Congressman, Governor of New York, and sixth Vice President of the United States (d. 1825)
1850 – Daniel Carter Beard, founder of the Boy Scouts of America (d. 1941)
1880 – Arnold Gesell, American psychologist and pediatrician (d. 1961)
1903 – Al Hirschfeld, American cartoonist (d. 2003)
1921 – Judy Holliday, American actress (d. 1965)
1921 – Jane Russell, American actress
1938 – Ron Ely, American actor
1954 – Mark Kimmitt, US Army general
1959 – Tom Chambers, American basketball player
*MONTI, JARED C.
Rank and Organization: Sergeant First Class, United States Army, 3rd Squadron, 71st Cavalry, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division. Born: September 20, 1975 in Abington, Massachusetts. Place and Date: Nuristan Province, Afghanistan, June 21st, 2006.
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Staff Sergeant Jared C. Monti distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a team leader with Headquarters and Headquarters troop, 3rd Squadron, 71st Cavalry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, in connection with combat operations against an enemy in Nuristan Province, Afghanistan, on June 21st, 2006. While Staff Sergeant Monti was leading a mission aimed at gathering intelligence and directing fire against the enemy, his 16-man patrol was attacked by as many as 50 enemy fighters. On the verge of being overrun, Staff Sergeant Monti quickly directed his men to set up a defensive position behind a rock formation. He then called for indirect fire support, accurately targeting the rounds upon the enemy who had closed to within 50 meters of his position. While still directing fire, Staff Sergeant Monti personally engaged the enemy with his rifle and a grenade, successfully disrupting an attempt to flank his patrol. Staff Sergeant Monti then realized that one of his soldiers was lying wounded in the open ground between the advancing enemy and the patrol’s position. With complete disregard for his own safety, Staff Sergeant Monti twice attempted to move from behind the cover of the rocks into the face of relentless enemy fire to rescue his fallen comrade. Determined not to leave his soldier, Staff Sergeant Monti made a third attempt to cross open terrain through intense enemy fire. On this final attempt, he was mortally wounded, sacrificing his own life in an effort to save his fellow soldier. Staff Sergeant Monti’s selfless acts of heroism inspired his patrol to fight off the larger enemy force. Staff Sergeant Monti’s immeasurable courage and uncommon valor are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, Headquarters and Headquarters Troop, 3rd Squadron, 71st Cavalry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, and the United States Army.
*HARVEY, CARMEL BERNON, JR.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and date: Binh Dinh Province, Republic of Vietnam, June 21st, 1967. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 6 October 1946, Montgomery, W. Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Harvey distinguished himself as a fire team leader with Company B, during combat operations. Ordered to secure a downed helicopter, his platoon established a defensive perimeter around the aircraft, but shortly thereafter a large enemy force attacked the position from three sides. Sp4c. Harvey and two members of his squad were in a position directly in the path of the enemy onslaught, and their location received the brunt of the fire from an enemy machine gun. In short order, both of his companions were wounded, but Sp4c. Harvey covered this loss by increasing his deliberate rifle fire at the foe. The enemy machine gun seemed to concentrate on him and the bullets struck the ground all around his position. One round hit and armed a grenade attached to his belt. Quickly, he tried to remove the grenade but was unsuccessful. Realizing the danger to his comrades if he remained and despite the hail of enemy fire, he jumped to his feet, shouted a challenge at the enemy, and raced toward the deadly machine gun. He nearly reached the enemy position when the grenade on his belt exploded, mortally wounding Sp4c. Harvey, and stunning the enemy machine gun crew. His final act caused a pause in the enemy fire, and the wounded men were moved from the danger area. Sp4c. Harvey’s dedication to duty, high sense of responsibility, and heroic actions inspired the others in his platoon to decisively beat back the enemy attack. His acts are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
*MCWETHY, EDGAR LEE, JR.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fifth Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and date: Binh Dinh province, Republic of Vietnam, June 21st, 1967. Entered service at: Denver, Colo. Born: 22 November 1944, Leadville, Colo. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Serving as a medical aidman with Company B, Sp5c. McWethy accompanied his platoon to the site of a downed helicopter. Shortly after the platoon established a defensive perimeter around the aircraft, a large enemy force attacked the position from 3 sides with a heavy volume of automatic weapons fire and grenades. The platoon leader and his radio operator were wounded almost immediately, and Sp5c. McWethy rushed across the fire-swept area to their assistance. Although he could not help the mortally wounded radio operator, Sp5c. McWethy’s timely first aid enabled the platoon leader to retain command during this critical period. Hearing a call for aid, Sp5c. McWethy started across the open toward the injured men, but was wounded in the head and knocked to the ground. He regained his feet and continued on but was hit again, this time in the leg. Struggling onward despite his wounds, he gained the side of his comrades and treated their injuries. Observing another fallen rifleman lying in an exposed position raked by enemy fire, Sp5c. McWethy moved toward him without hesitation. Although the enemy fire wounded him a third time, Sp5c. McWethy reached his fallen companion. Though weakened and in extreme pain, Sp5c. McWethy gave the wounded man artificial respiration but suffered a fourth and fatal wound. Through his indomitable courage, complete disregard for his safety, and demonstrated concern for his fellow soldiers, Sp5c. McWethy inspired the members of his platoon and contributed in great measure to their successful defense of the position and the ultimate rout of the enemy force. Sp5c. McWethy’s profound sense of duty, bravery, and his willingness to accept extraordinary risks in order to help the men of his unit are characteristic of the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Assistant Surgeon, U.S. Army. Place and date: In Apache campaign, summer of 1886. (June 21st) Entered service at: Massachusetts. Birth: Winchester, N.H. Date of issue: 8 April 1898. Citation: Voluntarily carried dispatches through a region infested with hostile Indians, making a journey of 70 miles in one night and walking 30 miles the next day. Also for several weeks, while in close pursuit of Geronimo’s band and constantly expecting an encounter, commanded a detachment of Infantry, which was then without an officer, and to the command of which he was assigned upon his own request.
CAMPBELL, ALBERT RALPH
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 8 April 1875, Williamsport, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In action at Tientsin, China, June 21st, 1900. During the advance on Tientsin, Campbell distinguished himself by his conduct.
FRANCIS, CHARLES ROBERT
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 19 May 1875, Doylestown, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle near Tientsin, China, June 21st, 1900, Francis distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.
KATES, THOMAS WILBUR
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 7 May 1865, Shelby Center, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the advance on Tientsin, China, June 21st, 1900, Kates distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.
American Eagle Day
Family Awareness Day
The American Bald Eagle
The bald eagle was chosen June 20, 1782 as the emblem of the United States of American, because of its long life, great strength and majestic looks, and also because it was then believed to exist only on this continent.
On the backs of our gold coins, the silver dollar, the half dollar and the quarter, we see an eagle with outspread wings.
On the Great Seal of the United States and in many places which are exponents of our nation’s authority we see the same emblem.
The eagle represents freedom. Living as he does on the tops of lofty mountains, amid the solitary grandeur of Nature, he has unlimited freedom, whether with strong pinions he sweeps into the valleys below, or upward into the boundless spaces beyond. His vision is unique from its strength and can see more than eight times farther than a human.
At the Second Continental Congress, after the thirteen colonies voted to declare independence from Great Britain, the colonies determined they needed an official seal. So Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Mr. John Adams, and Mr. Thomas Jefferson, as a committee, prepared a device for a Seal of the United States of America. However, the only portion of the design accepted by the congress was the statement E pluribus unum, attributed to Thomas Jefferson.
Six years and two committees later, in May of 1782, the brother of a Philadelphia naturalist provided a drawing showing an eagle displayed as the symbol of “supreme power and authority.”Congress liked the drawing, so before the end of 1782, an eagle holding a bundle of arrows in one talon and an olive branch in the other was accepted as the seal. The image was completed with a shield of red and white stripes covering the breast of the bird; a crest above the eagle’s head, with a cluster of thirteen stars surrounded by bright rays going out to a ring of clouds; and a banner, held by the eagle in its bill, bearing the words E pluribus unum. Yet it was not until 1787 that the American bald eagle was officially adopted as the emblem of the United States. This happened only after many states had already used the eagle in their coat of arms, as New York State did in 1778. Though the official seal has undergone some modifications in the last two hundred years, the basic design is the same.
While the eagle has been officially recognized as America’s national bird, there have been dissenters who feel the bird was the wrong choice. One of those people was none other than Dr. Franklin who wrote, “I wish that the bald eagle had not been chosen as the representative of our country, he is a bird of bad moral character, he does not get his living honestly, you may have seen him perched on some dead tree, where, too lazy to fish for himself, he watches the labor of the fishing-hawk, and when that diligent bird has at length taken a fish, and is bearing it to its nest for the support of his mate and young ones, the bald eagle pursues him and takes it from him…. Besides he is a rank coward; the little kingbird, not bigger than a sparrow attacks him boldly and drives him out of the district. He is therefore by no means a proper emblem for the brave and honest. . . of America.. . . For a truth, the turkey is in comparison a much more respectable bird, and withal a true original native of America . . . a bird of courage, and would not hesitate to attack a grenadier of the British guards, who should presume to invade his farmyard with a red coat on.”
Jude 1 17 – 21 King James Version (KJV)
17 But, beloved, remember ye the words which were spoken before of the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ;
18 How that they told you there should be mockers in the last time, who should walk after their own ungodly lusts.
19 These be they who separate themselves, sensual, having not the Spirit.
20 But ye, beloved, building up yourselves on your most holy faith, praying in the Holy Ghost,
21 Keep yourselves in the love of God, looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life.
“It is very imprudent to deprive America of any of her privileges. If her commerce and friendship are of any importance to you, they are to be had on no other terms than leaving her in the full enjoyment of her rights.”
Benjamin Franklin, Political Observations
“To dream anything that you want to dream, that is the beauty of the human mind. To do anything that you want to do, that is the strength of the human will. To trust yourself, to test your limits, that is the courage to succeed.”
~ Bernard Edmonds
alienist \AY-lee-uh-nist\ noun
” In the case of “alienist,” the etymological trail leads from Latin to French, where the adjective “aliene” (“insane”) gave rise to the noun “alieniste,” referring to a doctor who treats the insane. “Alienist” first appeared in print in English in 1864. It was preceded by the other “alius” descendants, “alien” (14th century) and “alienate” (used as a verb since the early 16th century). “Alienist” is much rarer than “psychiatrist” these days, but at one time it was the preferred term.
451 – Battle of Chalons: Flavius Aetius’ defeats Attila the Hun. Roman and Barbarian warriors halted Attila’s army at the Catalaunian Plains (Catalarinische Fields) in eastern France. Attila the Hun was defeated by a combined Roman and Visigoth army.
1675 – King Philip’s War began when Indians, retaliating for the execution of three of their people who had been charged with murder by the English, massacred colonists at Swansea, Plymouth colony.
1782 – Congress approves Great Seal of US & the eagle as it’s symbol.
1787 – Oliver Ellsworth moves at the Federal Convention to call the government the United States.
1793 – Eli Whitney applies for a cotton gin patent.The cotton gin was a machine that automated the separation of cottonseed from the short-staple cotton fiber. His machine could generate up to fifty pounds of cleaned cotton daily, making cotton production profitable for the southern states.
1813 – War of 1812: Fifteen U.S. gunboats engage 3 British ships in Hampton Roads, VA.
1815 – Trials of Fulton I, built by Robert Fulton, are completed in New York. This ship would become the Navy’s first steam-driven warship.
1819 – The U.S. vessel SS Savannah arrives at Liverpool, United Kingdom. She is the first steam-propelled vessel to cross the Atlantic, although most of the journey was made under sail. It took her twenty-seven days and eleven hours.
1820 – The Revenue cutter Diligence captured the Buenos Aires privateer-turned-pirate General Rondeau near Wilmington, North Carolina, after a seven-day chase.
1840 – Samuel Morse receives the patent for the telegraph.
1862 – Civil War: Union gunboats occupied the Stono River above Cole’s Island, South Carolina, and shelled Confederate positions there.
1863 – Civil War: West Virginia is admitted as the 35th U.S. state.
1863 – Civil War: The National Bank of Philadelphia in Philadelphia, PA, became the first bank to receive a charter from the U.S. Congress.
1863 – Civil War: A heavy combined Army-Navy bombardment of Vicksburg, lasting six hours, hammered Confederate positions.
1864 – Civil War: General John Bell Hood’s Confederate force attack William T. Sherman’s troops outside of Atlanta, Georgia, but are repulsed with heavy losses.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Petersburg, VA, in trenches.
1866 – Fifty US Marines and Sailors landed at new Chwang, China, to assure punishment for those who attacked an American official.
1867 – President Andrew Johnson announces purchase of Alaska.
1874 – First US Lifesaving Medal awarded. The Gold Lifesaving Medal is awarded by the Commandant of the Coast Guard to any person who rescues, or endeavors to rescue, any other person from drowning, shipwreck, or other peril of the water.
1877 – Alexander Graham Bell installs the world’s first commercial telephone service in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
1881 – Five years after the Battle of Little Bighorn, Hunkpapa Teton Sioux leader Sitting Bull surrenders to the U.S. Army, which promises amnesty for him and his followers.
1893 – A jury in New Bedford, Mass., found Lizzie Borden innocent of the ax murders of her father, wealthy Fall River, Massachusetts, businessman Andrew Borden and his wife, Abby Borden. Lizzie Borden, defended by a team of skilled lawyers, was acquitted—some say on the strength of her lawyers’ portrayal of Lizzie as a respectable woman who could not have committed such brutal acts.
1894 – During the summer of 1894, the Pullman Palace Car Company was embroiled in what proved to be one of the most bitter strikes in American history. The strike was a direct response to company chief George Pullman and his hardball tactics, most notably his decision in the midst of the Depression of 1893 to preserve profits by slashing wages and hiking up workers’ rents.
1898 -The U.S. Navy seized the island of Guam enroute to the Phillipines to fight the Spanish.
1899 – Velocipede invented by Black American inventor Wesley Johnson. He was issued a patent for a “Velocipede”. Although conventional in appearance in a side view, the innovation claimed was to use two wheels separated by four to six inches in the front fork, and two wheels in similar fashion at the back.
1900 – Boxer Rebellion: The Boxer Rebellion begins with the German minister being murdered; the Chinese begin the siege of foreigners in Beijing. Military delegations in the “Foreign Quarter” including the US Marine delegation, band together to defend their charges.
1910 – Fanny Brice debuted in the New York production of the “Ziegfeld Follies”.
1910 – “Krazy Kat” comic strip by George Herriman debuts in NY Journal.
1913 – First fatal accident in Naval Aviation, Ensign W. D. Billingsley killed at Annapolis, MD. Ensign Billingsley was piloting a Wright B-2 biplane with the pusher prop, rigged with pontoons which would allow water landings. The aircraft hit an air pocket and dropped abruptly, lurching forward and down, throwing Billingsley from the wing and through the forward supports, his body damaging the rigging to the point that the upper wing folded down, dooming the aircraft.
1923 – President Harding set out on a 7,500-mile “Voyage of Understanding” through the northwest. The reports of corruption in his administration caused him to go on this speaking tour.
1934 – Commander in Chief, Asiatic Fleet Admiral Frank Upham reports to CNO that, based on Japanese radio traffic, “any attack by (Japan) would be made without previous declaration of war or intentional warning.”
1936 – Jesse Owens of US set a 100-meter record at 10.2 sec.
1937 – W2XBS (later WCBS-TV) in New York City televised the first TV operetta. “Pirates of Penzance”, composed by Gilbert and Sullivan, was presented to a very small viewing audience. Television was a new, experimental medium at the time.
1939 – Test flight of first rocket plane using liquid propellants.
1940 – President Roosevelt strengthens his Cabinet by bringing in two prominent Republicans. Henry Stimson becomes Secretary for War and Frank Knox becomes Secretary for the Navy.
1941 – The U.S. Army Air Force was established, replacing the Army Air Corps.
1941 – A German U-boat sights the American battleship Texas within the area that Germany has declared is the operational area for U-boats. However, after checking with the U-boat command, the Texas is not attacked.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: Adolf Eichmann proclaimed the deportation of Dutch Jews.
1943 – World War II: US General Krueger establishes 6th Army headquarters at Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea.
1943 – Race-related rioting erupted in Detroit. Federal troops were sent in two days later to end the violence that left resulted in 34 deaths and 600 wounded.
1944 – Congress charters the Central Intelligence Agency.
1944 – World War II: The Battle of the Philippine Sea concludes with a decisive U.S. naval victory. The lopsided naval air battle is also known as the “Great Marianas Turkey Shoot”.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust: Nazis began mass extermination of Jews at Auschwitz.
1944 – World War II: Hitler cheats death as a bomb planted in a briefcase goes off, but fails to kill him. High German officials had made up their minds that Hitler must die. He was leading Germany in a suicidal war on two fronts, and assassination was the only way to stop him.
1944 – World War II: The Japanese fleet withdraws to refuel, believing that their aircraft have landed safely on Guam. US Task Force 58 (Admiral Mitscher) launches an air strike on the Japanese fleet in the late afternoon. The 216 American aircraft encounter only 35 defending fighters and sink the carrier Hiyo.
1944 – World War II: Vice Admiral Marc Mitchner, commander of the U.S. Task Force 58, ordered all lights on his ships turned on to help guide his carrier-based pilots back from the Battle of the Philippine Sea.
1944 – On Biak, there is fighting among the Japanese-held caves in the west of the island. The airfields and villages at Borokoe and Sorido are overrun by American forces.
1945 – World War II: On Luzon, Filipino guerrillas advance up the Cagayan valley from Aparri and liberate the town of Tuguegarao.
1945 – The Secretary of State approves the transfer of Wernher von Braun and his team of Nazi rocket scientists to America.
1947 – Benjamin “Bugsy” Siegel was murdered in Beverly Hills, CA, at the order of mob associates angered over the soaring costs of his project, the Flamingo resort in Las Vegas, NV.
1948 – “Toast of the Town“, later The Ed Sullivan Show, makes its television debut.
1948 – President Harry S. Truman institutes a military draft with a proclamation calling for nearly 10 million men to register for military service within the next two months. Truman’s action came during increasing Cold War tensions with the Soviet Union.
1950 – Willie Mays graduated from high school and immediately signed with the New York Giants.
1953 – “Song From Moulin Rouge (Where Is Your Heart)” by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White” by Perez Prado, “Rock Around the Clock” by Bill Haley & His Comets, “It’s a Sin to Tell a Lie” by Somethin’ Smith & The Redheads and “Live Fast, Love Hard, Die Young” by Faron Young all topped the charts.
1956 – A Venezuelan Super-Constellation crashes in the Atlantic Ocean off Asbury Park, New Jersey, killing 74 people.
1958 – FBI headquarters learned of Ronald Reagan’s desire to star in the film “The FBI Story.” The bureau rejected the idea because of Reagan’s association with Communist front organizations in the 1940s.
1959 – “Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton topped the charts.
1960 – “Cathy’s Clown” by The Everly Brothers topped the charts
1960 – Floyd Patterson knocked Ingemar Johansson out in the fifth round of a rematch to become the first man to recover the world’s undisputed heavyweight title.
1963 – The so-called “red telephone” or “Hot Line” is established between the Soviet Union and the United States following the Cuban Missile Crisis.
1964 – “Chapel of Love” by the Dixie Cups topped the charts.
1964 – The Coast Guard Cutter “Reliance”, the first of the Coast Guard’s 210-foot medium endurance cutter class, was commissioned.
1964 – Vietnam: Viet Cong forces overrun Cai Be, the capital of Dinh Tuong Province, killing 11 South Vietnamese militiamen, 10 women, and 30 children. On July 31, South Vietnam charged that the enemy troops involved in the attack were North Vietnamese Army regulars.
1966 – Sheila Scott completes first round-the-world solo flight by a woman.
1966 – The U.S. Open golf tournament was broadcast in color for the first time.
1966 – Vietnam: Coast Guard Cutter “Point League” attacked and crippled a North Vietnamese junk attempting to run the Navy’s Market Time blockade.
1967 – Boxer Muhammad Ali (formerly Cassius Clay) convicted of refusing induction into armed services.
1968 – Jim Hines becomes first person to run 100 meters in under 10 seconds.
1969 – American astronaut Neil Armstrong, 240,000 miles from Earth, speaks these words to more than a billion people listening at home: “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”
1970 – Oriole’s Brooks Robinson gets his 2,000th career hit, a 3 run HR.
1970 – “Long & Winding Road” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Too Late/I Feel the Earth Move” by Carole King, “Rainy Days and Mondays” by Carpenters, “Treat Her Like a Lady” by Cornelius Brothers & Sister Rose and “When You’re Hot, You’re Hot” by Jerry Reed all topped the charts.
1972 – President Richard Nixon named General Creighton Abrams as Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. armed forces.
1972 – President Richard Nixon recorded on tape, information relating to the Jun 16 Watergate break-in.
1975 – The Steven Spielberg shark thriller “Jaws” was first released.
1976 – On the seventh anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, the Viking 1 lander, an unmanned U.S. planetary probe, becomes the first spacecraft to successfully land on the surface of Mars.
1977 – Oil enters Trans-Alaska pipeline and travels 799 miles. It exits it in 38 days at Valdez.
1979 – ABC News correspondent Bill Stewart is shot dead by a Nicaraguan soldier under the regime of Anastasio Somoza Debayle. The murder is caught on tape and sparked international outcry of the regime.
1980 – Lake Powell, straddling the Arizona-Utah border behind the Glen Canyon Dam, completed its fill, which began in 1963.
1981 – “Stars on 45 Medley” by the Stars on 45 topped the charts.
1983 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that employers must treat male and female workers equally in providing health benefits for their spouses.
1985 – Reggie Jackson hits his 513th HR to move into 10th place.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Head to Toe” by Lisa Lisa & Cult Jam, “I Wanna Dance with Somebody (Who Loves Me)” by Whitney Houston, “In Too Deep” by Genesis and “Forever and Ever, Amen” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.
1988 – The US Supreme Court unanimously upheld a New York City law making it illegal for private clubs to generally exclude women and minorities.
1988 – Price is Right model Janice Pennington is knocked out by a TV camera.
1992 – “I’ll Be There” by Mariah Carey topped the charts.
1993 – The Chicago Bulls won their third NBA title in a row as they defeated the Phoenix Suns in Game 6 of their championship series, 99-98.
1994 – SHOOTING RAMPAGE: Former airman Dean Allen Mellberg went on a shooting rampage at Fairchild Air Force Base near Spokane, Wash., killing four people and wounding 22 others before being killed by a military police sharpshooter.
1994 – O.J. Simpson pleaded innocent in Los Angeles to the killing of his ex-wife, Nicole, and her friend, Ronald Goldman.
1995 – The Mount Zion AME Church in Greeleyville, S.C., was destroyed by fire. On the next day the Macedonia Baptist Church in Bloomville was burned. Two KKK members, Gary Cox and Timothy Welch, were charged in federal court for setting the fires. Former Klansmen Hubert Rowell and Arthur Haley pleaded guilty to four counts of conspiracy. The Christian Knights of KKK and Horace King, Grand Dragon of South Carolina, were ordered to pay $37.8 million in damages for the burning of the Macedonia Baptist church.
1997 – A jury in Trenton, N.J., ordered the death penalty for Jesse K. Timmendequas, whose rape and strangling of his 7-year-old neighbor, Megan Kanka, led to the creation of “Megan’s Laws.”
1998 – Seven people were killed on the Pennsylvania Turnpike when a Greyhound bus crashed into a tractor-trailer parked on the shoulder. At least 18 people were hurt. The driver was on his last run before retirement. He was among the dead with his wife and boy that they took care of.
1999 – Golfer Payne Stewart won his second US Open title, by one stroke over Phil Mickelson. On October 25th, 1999 he died in an airplane accident.
2001 – Andrea Yates (36) of Houston, Texas, drowned her 5 children, ages 6 months to 7 years, at her home near the Johnson Space Center. Yates had been under medication for post-partum depression. She was ultimately found not guilty by reason of insanity.
2002 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the execution of mentally retarded murderers was unconstitutionally cruel. The vote was 6 in favor and 3 against.
2003 – California Governor Davis announced that car license fees would triple as of Oct. 1 and Finance Director Steve Peace said California was now operating on borrowed money.
2003 – General Motors Corp. said it will sell about $13 billion of bonds, one of the largest corporate debt offerings ever, to help shore up its U.S. pension plan which ended last year under-funded by $19.3 billion.
2003 – Wildfires fueled by high winds burned 250 homes in southern Arizona.
2003 – The Houston Chronicle reports that Bill Sikora, who advised NASA in 1989 on how to evade Freedom of Information Act requests, is now working as legal counsel on the agency’s Space Shuttle Columbia disaster investigation board.
2005 – A US federal judge threw out evidence against four men charged with laundering more than $60 million through their chain of US Virgin Islands grocery stores, ruling that FBI agents acted in “reckless disregard for the truth.”
2006 – The US Mint at West Point, NY, staged a promotion for the nation’s first 24-karat, pure gold one-ounce coin, the American Buffalo. The $50 gold piece design was based on the 1913 buffalo nickel designed by James Earle Fraser.
2006 – National Guardsmen rolled into New Orleans to reinforce a depleted police department and battle a surge in violence.
2006 – CBS announced that Dan Rather, the anchorman who dominated CBS News for more than two decades, is leaving the network after 44 years.
2006 – The Miami Heat won their first NBA title, beating the Dallas Mavericks 95-92 in Game 6.
2006 – Georgia Tech and IBM announced a microchip speed record of 500 billion cycles per second (500 gigahertz) by applying liquid helium to cool a chip to 451 degrees below zero.
2007 – For the second time, President Bush vetoed an embryonic stem cell bill as he urged scientists toward what he termed “ethically responsible” research.
2007 – Sammy Sosa, playing for the Texas Rangers after a year out of baseball, hit his 600th home run, making him the fifth player to reach the milestone.
2008 – NASA scientists reported that the Mars Phoenix spacecraft had uncovered chunks of ice.
2009- The San Francisco Chronicle displayed a picture of a 9’x7’x2′ miniature, toothpick construct of San Francisco, created over the last 34 years by Scott Weaver of Rohnert Park, Ca. Weaver spent some 3,000 hours creating the work.
2010 – In Montana, a tornado ripped the roof off the 10,000 seat Rimrock Auto Arena in Billings. No injuries were reported.
2010 – At least 40 people were shot over the weekend across Chicago, with seven of them slain, Chicago Tribune reported.
2011 – The US Supreme Court overturned 8-0 a U.S. appeals court ruling against five big power utility companies, brought by U.S. states , New York City, and Land trusts, attempting to force cuts in United States greenhouse gas emissions regarding global warming.
2011 – The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) votes to allow the creation of new website domain suffixes by private companies.
2012 – After a House investigation of fourteen months, stonewalling at every turn, and is spite of a claim of executive privilege by President Barack Obama, Eric Holder, Attorney General of the United States, has been found in contempt of Congress by the House Oversight Committee in the Fast & Furious Scandal.
2013 – Edward Snowden is charged by the United States with espionage.
2013 – The Miami Heat defeat the San Antonio Spurs to win the NBA Finals 4–3, successfully defending their title from last season. Season MVP LeBron James is named Finals MVP for the second straight year.
2016 – New record heat in Phoenix, AZ for this date- 116 degrees.
2016 – Summer Solstice. The moon appeared as a Strawberry Moon.
2016 – In a long string of shooting victims, Fathers Day saw fifty-six people were shot during Father’s Day weekend, and 13 of those shooting victims died. The Chicago Tribune reported “nearly 400” people shot and 66 killed in May 2016 alone.
1733 – Betty Washington- sister of George Washington
1770 – Moses Waddel, American educator/minister and bestselling author (d. 1840)
1872 – George Carpenter, the 5th General of The Salvation Army (d. 1948)
1907 – Jimmy Driftwood, American songwriter and musician (d. 1998)
1918 – George Lynch, American auto racer (d. 1997)
1924 – Chet Atkins, American guitar player and producer (d. 2001)
1924 – Audie Murphy, American Medal of Honor recipient and actor (d. 1971)
1931 – Martin Landau, American actor
1933 – Danny Aiello, American actor
1942 – Brian Wilson, American musician; founder of The Beach Boys
1944 – Cheryl Holdridge, American actress. One of the original Mouseketeers.
1949 – Lionel Richie, American musician (The Commodores)
1958 – Ron Hornaday, American racecar driver
1967 – Nicole Kidman, American-born Australian actress
*O’BRIEN, WILLIAM J.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, 1st Battalion, 105th Infantry, 27th Infantry Division. Place and date: At Saipan, Marianas Islands, June 20th, through July 7th, 1944. Entered service at: Troy, N.Y. Birth: Troy, N.Y. G.O. No.: 35, 9 May 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty at Saipan, Marianas Islands, from 20 June through 7 July 1944. When assault elements of his platoon were held up by intense enemy fire, Lt. Col. O’Brien ordered three tanks to precede the assault companies in an attempt to knock out the strongpoint. Due to direct enemy fire the tanks’ turrets were closed, causing the tanks to lose direction and to fire into our own troops. Lt. Col. O’Brien, with complete disregard for his own safety, dashed into full view of the enemy and ran to the leader’s tank, and pounded on the tank with his pistol butt to attract two of the tank’s crew and, mounting the tank fully exposed to enemy fire, Lt. Col. O’Brien personally directed the assault until the enemy strongpoint had been liquidated. On 28 June 1944, while his platoon was attempting to take a bitterly defended high ridge in the vicinity of Donnay, Lt. Col. O’Brien arranged to capture the ridge by a double envelopment movement of two large combat battalions. He personally took control of the maneuver. Lt. Col. O’Brien crossed 1,200 yards of sniper-infested underbrush alone to arrive at a point where one of his platoons was being held up by the enemy. Leaving some men to contain the enemy he personally led four men into a narrow ravine behind, and killed or drove off all the Japanese manning that strongpoint. In this action he captured five machineguns and one 77-mm. fieldpiece. Lt. Col. O’Brien then organized the two platoons for night defense and against repeated counterattacks directed them. Meanwhile he managed to hold ground. On 7 July 1944 his battalion and another battalion were attacked by an overwhelming enemy force estimated at between 3,000 and 5,000 Japanese. With bloody hand-to-hand fighting in progress everywhere, their forward positions were finally overrun by the sheer weight of the enemy numbers. With many casualties and ammunition running low, Lt. Col. O’Brien refused to leave the front lines. Striding up and down the lines, he fired at the enemy with a pistol in each hand and his presence there bolstered the spirits of the men, encouraged them in their fight and sustained them in their heroic stand. Even after he was seriously wounded, Lt. Col. O’Brien refused to be evacuated and after his pistol ammunition was exhausted, he manned a .50 caliber machinegun, mounted on a jeep, and continued firing. When last seen alive he was standing upright firing into the Jap hordes that were then enveloping him. Some time later his body was found surrounded by enemy he had killed His valor was consistent with the highest traditions of the service.
APPLETON, EDWIN NELSON
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 29 August 1876, Brooklyn, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 84, 22 March 1902. Citation: In action against the enemy at Tientsin, China, June 20th, 1900. Crossing the river in a small boat while under heavy enemy fire, Appleton assisted in destroying buildings occupied by the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 14 January 1870, Worcester, Mass. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 84, 22 March 1902. Citation: In action against the enemy at Tientsin, China, June 20th, 1900. Crossing the river in a small boat with 3 other men while under a heavy fire from the enemy, Burnes assisted in destroying buildings occupied by hostile forces.
DAHLGREN, JOHN OLOF
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 14 September 1872, Kahliwar, Sweden. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China, June 20th, to 16 July 16th, 1900, Dahlgren distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 20 October 1874, McKeesport, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: Served in the presence of the enemy at the battle of Peking, China, June 20th, to 16 July 16th, 1900. Assisting in the erection of barricades during the action, Fisher was killed by the heavy fire of the enemy.
HEISCH, HENRY WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 10 June 1872, Latendorf, Germany. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 84, 22 March 1902. Citation: In action against the enemy at Tientsin, China, June 20th, 1900. Crossing the river in a small boat while under heavy fire, Heisch assisted in destroying buildings occupied by the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 9 July 1873, County of Mayo, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China, June 20th, to 16 July 16th, 1900, Hunt distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 23 January 1869, Belfast, Ireland. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 84, 22 March 1902. Citation: In action against the enemy at Tientsin, China, June 20th, 1900. Crossing the river in a small boat while under heavy enemy fire, McAllister assisted in destroying buildings occupied by the enemy.
WALKER, EDWARD ALEXANDER
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 2 October 1864, Huntley, Scotland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China, June 20th, to 16 July 16th, 1900. Throughout this period, Walker distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845, Denmark. Enlisted at: Yokohama, Japan. G.O. No.: 180, 10 October 1872. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Ossipee, June 20th, 1872. Risking his life, Benson leaped into the sea while the ship was going at a speed of 4 knots and endeavored to save John K. Smith, landsman, of the same vessel, from drowning.
Garfield the Cat Day
$3,000,000 cup of coffee
We have all read about the $3,000,000.00 cup of McDonald’s coffee, but have you heard of Mrs. Liebeck’s cup of coffee? On February 27, 1992, Mrs. Liebeck ordered a cup of coffee at McDonald’s. While holding the cup between her knees with one hand, trying to get the lid off, since there was no cup holder in her car, scalding coffee spilled into her lap. The 170 degree coffee seared her skin, causing second and third degree burns.
After seven days in the hospital and approximately three weeks of recuperation, she began to undergo painful skin grafts. She was helped during the recuperation period by her daughter, who stayed off work to take care of Mrs. Liebeck. In August, 1992, Mrs. Liebeck asked McDonald’s to turn down the temperature of their coffee and sought $2,000.00 in out-of-pocket expenses she incurred, plus her daughter’s lost wages while she was taking care of her. McDonald’s response was $800.00.
Mrs. Liebeck, who did not want to sue, was left with no alternative but to get a lawyer to see the protection of our civil justice system.
Prior to her trial, her attorney offered to settle with McDonald’s for $300,000.00. McDonald’s refused. In August, 1994, this case went to trial, requiring Mrs. Liebeck to have expert witnesses, doctors and witnesses come to court to explain to the jury her side of the cup of coffee. One of her experts, Dr. Charles Baxter, who was a burn expert, testified that coffee at 170 degrees would cause second degree burns within 3.5 seconds. A McDonald’s spokesman testified that even thought they had 700 complaints of burns over a ten-year period, they decided not to turn the temperature of their coffee down. An expert for McDonald’s told the jury that even thought 700 complaints were received, in relation to the amount of coffee that McDonald’s sold, these were trivial.
One juror, who initially went into the trial thinking that Mrs. Liebeck’s claim was frivolous, after hearing all the evidence, felt that $9.6 million dollars was a more appropriate jury award. The jury determined that Mrs. Liebeck was 20% at fault and reduced her damages accordingly. They awarded $200,000.00 compensatory damages and $2.7 million punitive damages. The punitive damages represented two days of McDonald’s gross sales of coffee. The judge, as required by the civil justice system, reviewed the evidence and determined that the jury verdict should be reduced to $640,000.00, which was basically three times the compensatory damages awarded to Mrs. Liebeck.
The judge, a self-described conservative Republican, wanted to deliver a message to McDonald’s. The case was later settled for an undisclosed amount after McDonald’s threatened an appeal. As is generally the case, the secrecy of the settlement was at the insistence of McDonald’s.
Mrs. Liebeck’s cup of coffee is an example of how the civil justice system currently works without tort reform. Mrs. Liebeck was an injured person who was rebuked by the wrongdoer and was required to get a lawyer to protect her rights. The evidence to the jury supported not only compensatory damages, but punitive damages based on the egregious conduct of McDonald’s. The judge, after reviewing the evidence, determined that a more appropriate verdict would be three times the compensatory damages and entered the judgment in that amount. The case was later settled.
Thanks to Mrs. Liebeck, now McDonald’s and other fast-food restaurants have turned down the temperature of their coffee to a safe temperature. We all knew that coffee spilled on you would cause a sting and a burn, but now, thanks to Mrs. Liebeck, we can be assured that the coffee that spills on us or those in the car with us, including our children, will not cause second or third degree burns.
We also know that McDonald’s still sells coffee, and that we still buy it.
Jude 1 King James Version (KJV)
1 Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, to them that are sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ, and called:
2 Mercy unto you, and peace, and love, be multiplied.
3 Beloved, when I gave all diligence to write unto you of the common salvation, it was needful for me to write unto you, and exhort you that ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints.
4 For there are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained to this condemnation, ungodly men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness, and denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ.
“Liberty is not to be enjoyed, indeed it cannot exist, without the habits of just subordination; it consists, not so much in removing all restraint from the orderly, as in imposing it on the violent.”
~ Fisher Ames, Essay on Equality, December 15, 1801
“Ask yourself: Have you been kind today? Make kindness your daily modus operandi and change your world.”
~ Annie Lennox
parry \PAIR-ee\ verb
1 : to ward off a weapon or blow
2 : to evade especially by an adroit answer
1269 – King Louis IX of France orders all Jews found in public without an identifying yellow badge to be fined ten livres of silver. The livre was established by Charlemagne as a unit of account equal to one pound of silver. In today’s dollars it is the equivalent of approximately $2000.
1586 – English colonists sailed from Roanoke Island.
1754 – The Albany Congress met in Albany from June 19 to July 11. Holding daily meetings at the City Hall, official delegates from seven colonies considered strategies for Indian diplomacy and put forth the so-called Albany Plan of Union.
1770 – Emanuel Swedenborg reports the completion of the Second Coming of Christ in his work True Christian Religion.
1775 – George Washington appointed commander-in-chief of the American Army. He assumed command of the Continental Army in Cambridge on July 3, 1775.
1778 – Washington’s troops marched away from Valley Forge in pursuit of the British who were moving toward New York. An ordeal had ended. The war would last for another five years, but for Washington, his men, and the nation to which they sought to give birth, a decisive victory had been won — a victory not of weapons but of will.
1786 – General Nathanael Greene died of sunstroke at his Georgia plantation.
1816 – Battle of Seven Oaks between North West Company and Hudson’s Bay Company, near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
1846 – The first baseball game under recognizable modern rules is played in Hoboken, New Jersey.It was NY Nines 23, Knickerbockers 1.
1861 – Loyal Virginians, in what would soon be West Virginia, elected Francis Pierpoint as their provisional governor.
1862 – Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln outlined his Emancipation Proclamation.
1862 – Congress prohibits slavery in United States territories, nullifying the Dred Scott Case.
1863 – Civil War: Battle at Middleburg Virginia (100+ casualties).
1864 – Civil War: The USS Kearsarge sank the CSS Alabama off of Cherbourg, France. The Alabama had captured, sank or burned 68 ships in 22 months.
1864 – Civil War: Skirmish at Pine Knob Georgia.
1865 – “Juneteenth,” U.S. troops land in Galveston, TX to enforce ban on slavery that had been declared more than two years before by the Emancipation Proclamation. Slaves in Galveston, Texas, are finally informed of their freedom. The anniversary is still officially celebrated in Texas and 13 other contiguous states as Juneteenth.
1867 – The Belmont predates the Preakness by six years and the Kentucky Derby by eight. The Belmont Stakes was first run today 1867, at the Jerome Park race course. A filly, “Ruthless”, won the first Belmont outlasting DeCourcey by a head and winning the $1,850 purse.
1868 – Attempting to convince hostile Indians to make peace with the United States, the Jesuit missionary Pierre-Jean De Smet meets with the great Sioux Chief Sitting Bull in present-day Montana.
1870 – After all of the Southern States are formally readmitted to the United States, the Confederate States of America ceases to exist.
1885 – Statue of Liberty arrived in New York City aboard the French ship `Isere’.
1888 – Marines landed in Korea and marched 25 miles to protect the Seoul Legation.
1890 – The operetta, “Robin Hood”” opened at the Grand Opera House in Chicago, IL.
1900 – Michael Pupin is granted a patent for long distance telephony.
1902 – The US Senate voted in favor of Panama as the canal site. US support for a $40 million purchase was based on Congressional acceptance for a canal in Panama rather than Nicaragua, and the acquisition of land to serve as a canal zone.
1905 – First all-electric house opened. The Bungalow style house at 1155 Avon Road in Schenectady, NY is known as the house without a kitchen chimney. Built for GE’s Harry W. Hilman in 1905, it was a very special house – the first all electric house in the world. Today (2013) the Hilman all electric house sits quietly in its Avon Street section of Schenectady, the home of a retired judge. It still remains as it was in 1905 – an all-electric house.
1910 – The first Father’s Day is celebrated in Spokane, Washington. It is celebrated on the third Sunday in June.
1911 – The first motion-picture censorship board was established in Pennsylvania.
1912 – The United States government adopted an 8-hour work day. The Federal Public Works Act was passed, which provided that every contract to which the U.S. government was a party must contain an eight-hour day clause.
1914 – A radio-telegraphic link is established between Germany and the United States. German Emperor Wilhelm II and President Woodrow Wilson exchange telegrams to mark the event.
1914 – The comic strip “Captain and the Kids” debut in newspapers.
1919 – Phoenix, AZ hires its first African-American police officer.The event made headlines in a local newspaper, the Phoenix Tribune. The headline read, “Phoenix Now Has Colored Man on Police Force “. The story reported that, “W.H. Williams, one of the enterprising colored men of this community was sworn in as a full fledged peace officer and assigned on the nightforce of the City Police”.
1923 – “Moon Mullins”, Comic Strip, made its debut.
1926 – The first black musician, DeFord Bailey, appeared on Nashville’s Grand Ole Opry show.
1931 – First photoelectric cell installed commercially West Haven, CT.
1934 – The Communications Act of 1934 establishes the United States’ Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
1938 – In Montana, forty-seven people were killed when a railroad bridge in Montana collapsed, sending a train known as the “Olympian Flyer” hurtling into Custer Creek. A cloudburst caused the bridge to collapse sending a locomotive and seven passenger cars into the creek.
1939 – In Atlanta, GA, legislation was enacted that did not allow pinball machines in the city.
1941 – Cheerios invented.They are an O-shaped cereal 1/2-inch diameter, .0025 ounce, 400=1 serving; first called Cheerie Oats.
1942 – World War II: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrived in Washington, DC, to discuss the invasion of North Africa with President Roosevelt.
1943 – “Sheik Of Araby” by Spike Jones & the City Slickers made the Pop Chart; it peaked at #19.
1943 – Steagles is the popular nickname for the team created by the temporary merger of two National Football League (NFL) teams, the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Philadelphia Eagles, during the 1943 season. The teams were forced to merge because both had lost many players to military service due to World War II.
1943 – Race riots occur in Beaumont, Texas.
1944 – World War II: First day of the Battle of the Philippine Sea. The US fought and won against the Imperial Japanese fleet.
1944 – World War II: The Battle at Guam: In the early morning hours Japanese reconnaissance finds US Task Force 58 while remaining undetected. American radar gave the US advance warning of the attack. The Japanese lost 280 aircraft vs. 29 for the US and they lost two aircraft carriers where the USS South Dakota was only damaged by one bomb.
1944 – World War II: On Biak, the reinforced US 41st Division launches attacks against Japanese strongpoints in the west of the island.
1945 – World War II: Millions of New Yorkers turned out to cheer Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was honored with a parade.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, the insistent use of propaganda by means of leaflets and loudspeakers, by the American forces, induces some 343 Japanese troops to surrender.
1946 – “Anna & The King Of Siam”, Motion Picture, with Irene Dunne & Rex Harrison, opened in theaters.
1946 – First TV sports spectacular-Joe Louis vs Billy Conn. It was viewed by a record 140,000 (mostly at bars which had sets installed).
1947 – First plane (F-80) to exceed 600 mph -Albert Boyd, Muroc, CA .
1947 – The Tucker automobile premiered in Chicago.
1948 – The first successfully produced microgroove 33 1/3 rpm, long-playing, records were unveiled by Dr. Peter Goldmark of Columbia Records. Plans to phase out 78’s followed.
1951 – President Harry S. Truman signed the Universal Military Training and Service Act, which extended Selective Service until July 1, 1955 and lowered the draft age to 18.
1952 – “I’ve Got A Secret” debuted on CBS with Garry Moore as host.
1953 – Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed at Sing Sing, a prison in New York State. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, a married couple convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage in 1951, are put to death in the electric chair. The execution marked the dramatic finale of the most controversial espionage case of the Cold War.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Little Things Mean a Lot” by Kitty Kallen, “Three Coins in the Fountain” by The Four Aces, “Hernando’s Hideaway” by Archie Bleyer, “I Don’t Hurt Anymore” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1954 – The Tasmanian Devil, a Cartoon Character, made its debut in ‘Devil May Hare‘ by Warner Bros.
1955 – Mickey Mantle hits career HR # 100.
1956 – Jerry Lee Lewis’s “Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On” debuted on the national pop music charts.
1957 – Walt Disney’s movie “Johnny Tremain” was released in movie theaters.
1958 – In Washington, DC, nine entertainers refused to answer a congressional committee’s questions on communism.
1958 – “The Lux Show Starring Rosemary Clooney”, TV Variety; last aired on NBC.
1960 – Grand Ole Opry member Loretta Lynn made her debut on the country charts with her first single release, “Honky Tonk Girl,” on the Zero label.
1961 – “Moody River” by Pat Boone topped the charts.
1961 – The U.S. Supreme Court struck down a provision in Maryland’s constitution that required state officeholders to profess a belief in God.
1961 – 367 U.S. 643 Mapp v. Ohio The Supreme Court ruled that all evidence obtained by searches and seizures in violation of the Federal Constitution is inadmissible in a criminal trial in a state court.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Can’t Stop Loving You” by Ray Charles, “It Keeps Right on a-Hurtin’” by Johnny Tillotson, “(The Man Who Shot) Liberty Valance” by Gene Pitney and “She Thinks I Still Care” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1964 – The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was approved in the US Senate, after surviving an 83-day filibuster in the U.S. Senate. The final vote was 73-27.
1965 – “I Can’t Help Myself (Sugar Pie Honey Bunch)” by the Four Tops topped the charts.
1968 – 50,000 people marched on Washington, DC. to support the Poor People’s Campaign.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Long and Winding Road/For You Blue” by The Beatles, “Which Way You Goin’ Billy?” by The Poppy Family, “Get Ready” by Rare Earth and “Hello Darlin’” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1970 – Jim Bouton’s controversial “Ball Four” is published. The book detailed the inside story of the sometimes unruly life of professional baseball players. The book caused a sensation, and Bouton was severely criticized by baseball commissioner Bowie Kuhn.
1970 – “The Tim Conway Show“, TV Comedy, last aired on CBS after 13 episodes.
1971 – “It’s Too Late” by Carole King topped the charts.
1971 – The song “Rainy Days And Mondays” by the Carpenters peaked at #2 on the pop singles chart.
1972 – Ronald L. Ziegler, President Nixon’s Press Secretary, characterized the break-in that had occurred two days earlier at the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate, “a third-rate burglary.” It ultimate became “Watergate.”
1972 – Hurricane Agnes was the first tropical storm and first hurricane of the 1972 Atlantic hurricane season. A rare June hurricane, it made landfall on the Florida Panhandle before moving northeastward and ravaging the Mid-Atlantic region as a tropical storm. The worst damage occurred along a swath from central Maryland through central Pennsylvania to the southern Finger Lakes region of New York.
1972 – The US Supreme Court voted 5-3 to confirm lower court rulings in the Curt Flood case, which upheld baseball’s exemption from antitrust laws.
1973 – Pete Rose & Willie Davis both get career hit # 2,000.
1973 – The Case-Church Amendment prevented further U.S. involvement in Southeast Asia effective August 15, 1973. The veto-proof vote was 278-124 in the House and 64-26 in the Senate. The Amendment paved the way for North Vietnam to wage yet another invasion of the South, this time without fear of US bombing.
1975 – Sam Giancana (b.1908), Italian-American mob boss, was murdered at his home in Oak Park, Ill. He had a romance with Phillis McGuire, of the McGuire Sisters vocal group, and was credited with assisting John F. Kennedy in efforts to win the presidential election.
1976 – “Silly Love Songs” by the Wings topped the charts.
1976 – US Viking 1 goes into Martian orbit after 10-month flight from Earth. The first month of orbit was devoted to imaging the surface to find appropriate landing sites for the Viking Landers. On July 20, 1976 the Viking 1 Lander separated from the Orbiter and touched down at Chryse Planitia.
1977 – Red Sox set three game record of 16 Home Runs, all against the Yankees.
1978 – Garfield first published in newspapers. Garfield is a comic strip created by Jim Davis, featuring the cat Garfield, the pet dog Odie, and their socially inept owner Jon Arbuckle.
1978 – “Best Little Whorehouse In Texas” opened at 46th St New York City for 1584 performances.
1981 – “Superman II” set the all-time, one-day record for theater box-office receipts when it took in $5.5 million.
1981 – Boeing commercial Chinook 2-rotor helicopter was certified.
1982 – “Don’t You Want Me” by Human League topped the charts.
1982 – KIDNAPPING: In one of the first militant attacks by Hezbollah, David S. Dodge, president of the American University in Beirut, is kidnapped.
1984 – The first live TV appearance by Chief Justice Warren Burger (Nightline).
1985 – On day six of the hijacking of TWA 847, an ABC News reporter was able to briefly interview the plane’s pilot, John L. Testrake, who said from his cockpit window, “We’re OK.” ABC later denied reports that they had paid the terrorists for the interview.
1985 – In El Salvador four off-duty US Marines and 9 others were killed at sidewalk restaurants in the Zona Rosa section of San Salvador. Pedro Antonio Andrade Martinez (aka Mario Gonzalez), a Marxist guerrilla, was one of the reputed masterminds of the attack.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “On My Own” by Patti LaBelle & Michael McDonald, “I Can’t Wait” by Nu Shooz, “There’ll Be Sad Songs (To Make You Cry)” by Billy Ocean and “Life’s Highway” by Steve Wariner all topped the charts.
1986 – Artificial heart recipient Murray P. Haydon (59) died in Louisville, Ky., after 16 months on the man-made pump.
1986 – Len Bias, an American college basketball player suffered a fatal cardiac arrhythmia that resulted from a cocaine overdose less than 48 hours after being selected by the Boston Celtics.
1987 – The U.S. Supreme Court struck down the Louisiana law that required that schools teach creationism.
1989 – The movie “Batman” premiered.
1990 – Opening statements were presented in the drug and perjury trial of Washington DC Mayor Marion S. Barry Junior. Barry was later convicted of a single count of misdemeanor drug possession, and sentenced to six months in prison.
1992 – In a joint operation with INS, the Coast Guard assisted in the seizure of the 167-foot Belize-registered freighter Lucky No. 1, her 15-man crew, and 117 Chinese migrants that were aboard. The seizure took place off Oahu.
1992 – “A Perfect Score” TV game show debuted on CBS.
1992 – “The Hollywood Game” TV game show debuted on CBS.
1992 – “Batman Returns“opened with $47.7 million for the weekend with a record breaking $16.8 million in its first day.
1995 – The Richmond Virginia Planning Commission approved plans to place a memorial statue of tennis professional Arthur Ashe.
1996 – New York City police announced that a shooting suspect in custody had been linked to the “Zodiac” shootings that terrorized New Yorkers in the early 1990’s.
1997 – In New Orleans, two men identified as the “Assault Poetry Unit,” delivered unmarked boxes of manifestos, poems and innocuous objects to fourteen prominent people. The targets feared for bombs and the two men were arrested for terrorizing.
1998 – Gateway was fined more than $400,000 for illegally shipping personal computers to 16 countries subject to U.S. export controls.
1998 – A study released said that smoking more than doubles risks of developing dementia and Alzheimer’s.
1999 – Stephen King was struck from behind by a mini-van while walking along a road in Maine.
1999 – In the NHL Stanley Cup, the Dallas Stars won their first championship by defeating the Buffalo Sabres in the third overtime of game six.
2000 – The Los Angeles Lakers won their first championship in 12 years, defeating the Indiana Pacers 116-to-111 in game six of the NBA Finals.
2000 – The US Supreme Court ruled that cities and states may not boycott companies that do business with Burma and that only the president and Congress have the authority to set foreign policy.
2000 – Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe, Jane, etc., et al. The Supreme Court, in the most far-reaching school prayer decision in nearly a decade, ruled Monday that public school districts cannot let students lead stadium crowds in prayer before high school football. Somewhere in the 1st Amendment the justices found a principle that called for the separation of church and state.
2001 – Juan Raul Garza (44), Texas drug kingpin, was executed by injection in Terra Haute, Ind. He was strapped to the same padded gurney on which Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh was executed 8 days earlier. He was the second federal inmate to die since 1963.
2002 – The space shuttle Endeavour returned to Earth with one Russian and two American crewmen who’d spent six and a-half months aboard the International Space Station.
2002 – American adventurer Steve Fossett launched his latest solo round-the-world balloon trip from Australia, his silver balloon rising over this western farming town after a long delay caused by surface winds.
2002 – Rod Langway, Bernie Federko, Clark Gillies and Roger Neilson were elected to the Hockey Hall of Fame.
2003 – Arrest and guilty plea unsealed of Lyman Faris, an Ohio truck driver who plotted with Osama Bin Laden to destroy the Brooklyn Bridge.
2003 – In Arizona a wildfire burned up to 250 homes on Mount Lemmon, north of Tucson.
2004 – A US military plane fired missiles into Fallujah, killing 26. The target was a hideout of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi’s terror network. 23 of the 26 killed were foreign terrorists. 3 Iraqis were among the dead.
2006 – The US Supreme Court rolled back coverage of the Clean Water Act, but did not agree on how to define the waters protected by the act.
2006 – US Interior Chief Kempthorne set new rules making it harder for snowmobiles and off-road vehicles to get permission to ride in national parks.
2006 – Kathleen Blanco, the Governor of Louisiana, calls in the Louisiana National Guard to patrol the streets of New Orleans following six deaths on the preceding weekend.
2007 – Thomas Ravenel, treasurer of South Carolina, was indicted on federal cocaine distribution charges.
2007 – After some six years as a Republican, NYC Mayor Michael Bloomberg (65) announced that he has left the Republican Party and become unaffiliated.
2008 – Barack Obama, US presidential candidate, announced that he would not use public funds for his campaign, contrary to a 2007 promise to use public funds. This would allow him to outspend John McCain by a wide margin.
2009 – A federal judge has denied an evangelical group’s request for permission to hand out Christian literature on sidewalks at an Arab festival in Dearborn, Michigan.
2009 – The U.S. begins deploying missile interceptors and radar to defend Hawaii from a North Korean long-range rocket.
2009 – The US House impeached imprisoned US District Judge Samuel Kent of Texas for lying about sexual assaults of two women.
2009 – In Illinois tank cars loaded with thousands of gallons of highly flammable ethanol exploded in flames as a freight train derailed in Rockford, killing Zoila Tellez (41) and forcing evacuations of hundreds of nearby homes.
2011 – Alyssa Campanella, Miss California, is crowned as Miss USA.
2011 – The Boeing 747-8 makes its international debut at the 2011 Paris Air Show.
2012 – The Southern Baptists elected their first African-American president in a historic move that strives to erase its legacy of racism, they also passed a resolution opposing the idea that same-sex marriage is a civil rights issue.
2013 – A California state panel approved a 5% pay raise for Gov. Jerry Brown, legislators and other state elected officials, restoring the salary level they received before it was cut during last year’s budget problems. The California Citizens Compensation Commission also agreed to increase the state’s contribution to the health benefits of state elected officials by 10%, restoring half of the amount cut in 2009.
1623 – Blaise Pascal, French mathematician and philosopher (d. 1662)
1816 – William Henry Webb, American industrialist (d. 1899)
1834 – Charles Spurgeon, English preacher (d. 1892)
1877 – Charles Coburn, American actor (d. 1961)
1897 – Moe Howard, American actor (d. 1975)
1903 – Lou Gehrig, American baseball player (d. 1941)
1907 – Clarence Wiseman, 10th General of The Salvation Army (d. 1985)
1910 – Abe Fortas, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1982)
1914 – Alan Cranston, American politician (d. 2000)
1914 – Lester Flatt, American musician (d. 1979)
1928 – Nancy Marchand, American actress (d. 2000)
1948 – Phylicia Rashad, American actress
1954 – Kathleen Turner, American actress
1972 – Robin Tunney, American actress
1978 – Zoe Saldana, American actress
1979 – John Ford, American software engineer
LASSEN, CLYDE EVERETT
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy, Helicopter Support Squadron 7, Detachment 104, embarked in U.S.S. Preble (DLG-15). Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, June 19th, 1968. Entered service at: Jacksonville, Fla. Born: 14 March 1942, Fort Myers, Fla. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as pilot and aircraft commander of a search and rescue helicopter, attached to Helicopter Support Squadron 7, during operations against enemy forces in North Vietnam. Launched shortly after midnight to attempt the rescue of two downed aviators, Lt. (then Lt. (J.G.)) Lassen skillfully piloted his aircraft over unknown and hostile terrain to a steep, tree-covered hill on which the survivors had been located. Although enemy fire was being directed at the helicopter, he initially landed in a clear area near the base of the hill, but, due to the dense undergrowth, the survivors could not reach the helicopter. With the aid of flare illumination, Lt. Lassen successfully accomplished a hover between two trees at the survivors’ position Illumination was abruptly lost as the last of the flares were expended, and the helicopter collided with a tree, commencing a sharp descent. Expertly righting his aircraft and maneuvering clear, Lt. Lassen remained in the area, determined to make another rescue attempt, and encouraged the downed aviators while awaiting resumption of flare illumination. After another unsuccessful, illuminated rescue attempt, and with his fuel dangerously low and his aircraft significantly damaged, he launched again and commenced another approach in the face of the continuing enemy opposition. When flare illumination was again lost, Lt. Lassen, fully aware of the dangers in clearly revealing his position to the enemy, turned on his landing lights and completed the landing. On this attempt, the survivors were able to make their way to the helicopter. En route to the coast he encountered and successfully evaded additional hostile antiaircraft fire and, with fuel for only five minutes of flight remaining, landed safely aboard U.S.S. Jouett (DLG-29)
RAY, RONALD ERIC
Rank and organization: Captain (then 1st Lt.), U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 35th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and Date: La Drang Valley, Republic of Vietnam, June 19th, 1966. Entered service at: Atlanta, Ga. Born: 7 December 1941, Cordelle, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Ray distinguished himself while serving as a platoon leader with Company A. When one of his ambush patrols was attacked by an estimated reinforced Viet Cong company, Capt. Ray organized a reaction force and quickly moved through two kilometers of mountainous jungle terrain to the contact area. After breaking through the hostile lines to reach the beleaguered patrol, Capt. Ray began directing the reinforcement of the site. When an enemy position pinned down three of his men with a heavy volume of automatic weapons fire, he silenced the emplacement with a grenade and killed four Viet Cong with his rifle fire. As medics were moving a casualty toward a sheltered position, they began receiving intense hostile fire. While directing suppressive fire on the enemy position, Capt. Ray moved close enough to silence the enemy with a grenade. A few moments later Capt. Ray saw an enemy grenade land, unnoticed, near two of his men. Without hesitation or regard for his safety he dove between the grenade and the men, thus shielding them from the explosion while receiving wounds in his exposed feet and legs. He immediately sustained additional wounds in his legs from an enemy machinegun, but nevertheless he silenced the emplacement with another grenade. Although suffering great pain from his wounds, Capt. Ray continued to direct his men, providing the outstanding courage and leadership they vitally needed, and prevented their annihilation by successfully leading them from their surrounded position. Only after assuring that his platoon was no longer in immediate danger did he allow himself to be evacuated for medical treatment. By his gallantry at the risk of his life in the highest traditions of the military service, Capt. Ray has reflected great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army .
*BAKER, THOMAS A.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 105th Infantry, 27th Infantry Division. Place and date: Saipan, Mariana Islands, June 19th, to 7 July 1944. Entered service at: Troy, N.Y. Birth: Troy, N.Y. G.O. No.: 35, 9 May 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty at Saipan, Mariana Islands, 19 June to 7 July 1944. When his entire company was held up by fire from automatic weapons and small-arms fire from strongly fortified enemy positions that commanded the view of the company, Sgt. (then Pvt.) Baker voluntarily took a bazooka and dashed alone to within one-hundred yards of the enemy. Through heavy rifle and machinegun fire that was directed at him by the enemy, he knocked out the strong point, enabling his company to assault the ridge. Some days later while his company advanced across the open field flanked with obstructions and places of concealment for the enemy, Sgt. Baker again voluntarily took up a position in the rear to protect the company against surprise attack and came upon two heavily fortified enemy pockets manned by two officers and ten enlisted men which had been bypassed. Without regard for such superior numbers, he unhesitatingly attacked and killed all of them. Five hundred yards farther, he discovered six men of the enemy who had concealed themselves behind our lines and destroyed all of them. On 7 July 1944, the perimeter of which Sgt. Baker was a part was attacked from three sides by from 3,000 to 5,000 Japanese. During the early stages of this attack, Sgt. Baker was seriously wounded but he insisted on remaining in the line and fired at the enemy at ranges sometimes as close as five yards until his ammunition ran out. Without ammunition and with his own weapon battered to uselessness from hand-to-hand combat, he was carried about fifty yards to the rear by a comrade, who was then himself wounded. At this point Sgt. Baker refused to be moved any farther stating that he preferred to be left to die rather than risk the lives of any more of his friends. A short time later, at his request, he was placed in a sitting position against a small tree . Another comrade, withdrawing, offered assistance. Sgt. Baker refused, insisting that he be left alone and be given a soldier’s pistol with its remaining eight rounds of ammunition. When last seen alive, Sgt. Baker was propped against a tree, pistol in hand, calmly facing the foe. Later Sgt. Baker’s body was found in the same position, gun empty, with eight Japanese lying dead before him. His deeds were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy, Air Group 15. Place and date: First and second battles of the Philippine Sea, June 19th, 1944. Entered service at: Florida. Born: 16 January 1 910, Bessemer, Ala. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Silver Star, Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross with two Gold Stars, Air Medal. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commander, Air Group 15, during combat against enemy Japanese aerial forces in the first and second battles of the Philippine Sea. An inspiring leader, fighting boldly in the face of terrific odds, Comdr. McCampbell led his fighter planes against a force of eighty Japanese carrier-based aircraft bearing down on our fleet on 19 June 1944. Striking fiercely in valiant defense of our surface force, he personally destroyed seven hostile planes during this single engagement in which the outnumbering attack force was utterly routed and virtually annihilated. During a major fleet engagement with the enemy on 24 October, Comdr. McCampbell, assisted by but one plane, intercepted and daringly attacked a formation of sixty hostile land-based craft approaching our forces. Fighting desperately but with superb skill against such overwhelming airpower, he shot down nine Japanese planes and, completely disorganizing the enemy group, forced the remainder to abandon the attack before a single aircraft could reach the fleet. His great personal valor and indomitable spirit of aggression under extremely perilous combat conditions reflect the highest credit upon Comdr. McCampbell and the U.S. Naval Service.
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company E, 305th Infantry, 77th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Ozato, Okinawa, June 19th, 1945. Entered service at: Jersey City, N.J. Birth: Jersey City, N.J. G.O. No.: 60, 26 June 1946. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty. In the heat of the fight, he mounted an assault tank, and, with bullets splattering about him, designated targets to the gunner. Seeing an enemy soldier carrying an explosive charge dash for the tank treads, he shouted fire orders to the gunner, leaped from the tank, and bayoneted the charging soldier. Knocked unconscious and his rifle destroyed, he regained consciousness, secured a machinegun from the tank, and began a furious one-man assault on the enemy. Firing from his hip, moving through vicious crossfire that ripped through his clothing, he charged the nearest pillbox, killing six. Going on amid the hail of bullets and grenades, he dashed for a second enemy gun, running out of ammunition just as he reached the position. He grasped his empty gun by the barrel and in a violent onslaught killed the crew. By his fearless assaults T/Sgt. Meagher single-handedly broke the enemy resistance, enabling his platoon to take its objective and continue the advance.
Rank and organization: Paymaster’s Steward, U.S. Navy. Enlisted in: France. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th, 1864. Carrying out his duties courageously, PmS. Aheam exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended by his divisional officer for gallantry under enemy fire.
BICKFORD, JOHN F.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1843, Tremont, Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th, 1864. Acting as the first loader of the pivot gun during this bitter engagement Bickford exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended for his gallantry under fire by his divisional officer.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1839, Boston, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th, 1864. Carrying out his duties courageously, Bond exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended for his gallantry under fire by his divisional officer.
Rank and organization. Captain of the Forecastle, U.S. Navy. Born: 1824, Ireland. Accredited to. Ohio. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as captain of the forecastle on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th, 1864. Acting as captain of a gun during the bitter engagement, Haley exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly commended by his division officer for his gallantry and meritorious achievement under enemy fire.
HAM, MARK G.
Rank and organization: Carpenter’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1820, Portsmouth, N.H. Accredited to: New Hampshire. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th, 1864. Performing his duties intelligently and faithfully, Ham distinguished himself in the face of the bitter enemy fire and was highly commended by his divisional officer.
HARRISON, GEORGE H.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No. 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th, 1864. Acting as sponger and loader of the 11-inch pivot gun during the bitter engagement, Harrison exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended for his gallantry under fire by the divisional officer.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1831, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th, 1864. Acting as second captain of the No. 2 gun during this bitter engagement, Hayes exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended for his gallantry under fire by the divisional officer.
LEE, JAMES H.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as seaman on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th,1864. Acting as sponger of the No. 1 gun during this bitter engagement, Lee exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended for his gallantry under fire by the divisional officer.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: 25 March 1862, Gibraltar, England. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as seaman on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th,1864. Acting as sponger and loader of the 1 l_inch pivot gun of the second division during this bitter engagement, Moore exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended for his gallantry under fire by the divisional officer.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: Long Island, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as seaman on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th, 1864. Acting as loader on the No. 2 gun during this bitter engagement, Pease exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended by the divisional officer for gallantry under fire.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1836 New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as boatswain’s mate on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th, 1864. Acting as captain of the No. 2 gun during this bitter engagement, Perry exhibited marked coolness and good conduct under the enemy fire and was recommended for gallantry by his divisional officer.
POOLE, WILLIAM B.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1833 Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Service as quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th,1864. Stationed at the helm, Poole steered the ship during the engagement in a cool and most creditable manner and was highly commended by his divisional officer for his gallantry under fire.
READ, CHARLES A.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837, Sweden Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as coxswain on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th,1864. Acting as the first sponger of the pivot gun during this bitter engagement, Read exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended for his gallantry under fire by his divisional officer.
READ, GEORGE E.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, Rhode Island. Accredited to: Rhode Island. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864 Citation: Served as seaman on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th, 1864. Acting as the first loader of the No. 2 gun during this bitter engagement, Read exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended for his gallantry under fire by his divisional officer.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1809, Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served as quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th, 1864. Carrying out his duties courageously throughout the bitter engagement, Saunders was prompt in reporting damages done to both ships, and it is testified to by Commodore Winslow that he is deserving of all commendation, both for gallantry and for encouragement of others in his division.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, Ireland. Accredited to: New Hampshire. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as second quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th, 1864. Acting as captain of the 11-inch pivot gun of the second division, Smith carried out his duties courageously and deserved special notice for the deliberate and cool manner in which he acted throughout the bitter engagement. It is stated by rebel officers that this gun was more destructive and did more damage than any other gun of Kearsarge.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Birth: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Accredited to: New Jersey. Citation: Served as captain of the top on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, June 19th, 1864. Acting as captain of the No. 1 gun, Strahan carried out his duties in the face of heavy enemy fire and exhibited marked coolness and good conduct throughout the engagement. Strahan was highly recommended by his division officer for his gallantry and meritorious achievements.
International Sushi Day
Women in Aviation
Since the Wright Brothers took flight in 1903, women have made a significant contribution to aviation. The following is just a small sampling of the contributions women have made to the field of aviation.
Juanita Pritchard Bailey
Juanita started flying over 55 years ago at Bettis Field near McKeesport, Pennsylvania. She was often referred to as “The Flying Beautician” because she owned and operated a beauty salon in Clairton, Pennsylvania that supported her early flying adventures. Learning to fly in the early 1940s wasn’t an easy task. “Instructors didn’t think women had any business flying. One instructor,” Juanita said, “would take all the boys flying first. I did a lot of needlepoint waiting to be taken up for a lesson.”
In the 1930s Elly Beinhorn was acclaimed for the solo-flights across every continent. While flying in the States, she heard of, and later got to know personally, her famous colleague Amelia Earhart. Elly was drawn by her intelligence and natural charm: “One doesn’t have to be a man to be fascinates by this woman,” she said then, and even now at the age of 91, speaks of her with great passion.
Elly Beinhorn took up flying again after WW II and worked as a journalist and flying reporter in her Piper Cub throughout Europe. In 1959 she accepted an invitation to take part in the Powder Puff Derby in the States. It was there, she learned from The Ninety-Nines that they wanted to produce an Amelia Earhart stamp. The production had been held up due to insufficient funding. Elly remembered the money that she and Bernd had deposited in an American bank more than twenty years before. She tracked down the bank and found that the amount had accumulated enough interest to make a fairly large sum. She was only to be happy to contribute this towards the founding of the stamp in memory of the much loved and respected woman pilot, Amelia Earhart.
Bessie Coleman – World’s first Black woman pilot
Bessie Coleman was born in Texas in 1892. During World War I, she read about the air war in Europe. She became interested in flying and became convinced she should be up there, not just reading about it. She started looking for a flying school but what she didn’t realize was that she had two strikes against her: She was a woman and she was black.
She heard that Europe had a more liberal attitude toward women and people of color so she learned to speak French and earned enough money to go to Paris to get her license. She encountered many problems but would not let go of her dream and earned her license on June 15, 1921 from the Federation Aeronautique Internationale She returned to the U.S. and began teaching other black women to fly, giving lectures and performing at flying exhibitions.
As she gained increasing fame as a barnstorming air circus performer in a war-surplus Jenny Trainer, she became known as “Queen Bessie.” On April 30, 1926, while practicing for a show in Orlando, Florida, she was thrown from the plane and fell to her death.
2 Chronicles 36:21-23 King James Version (KJV)
21 To fulfil the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed her sabbaths: for as long as she lay desolate she kept sabbath, to fulfil threescore and ten years.
22 Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the Lord spoken by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying,
23 Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, All the kingdoms of the earth hath the Lord God of heaven given me; and he hath charged me to build him an house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Who is there among you of all his people? The Lord his God be with him, and let him go up.
“To the philosophical mind, how new and awful an instance do the United States at present exhibit in the political world! They exhibit, sir, the first instance of a people, who, being dissatisfied with their government- unattacked by foreign force, and undisturbed by domestic uneasiness – coolly and deliberately resort to the virtue and good sense of their country, for a correction of their public errors.”
Charles Pinckney, American politician, signer of the United States Constitution, the 37th Governor of South Carolina, a Senator and a member of the House of Representatives.
“A strong positive mental attitude will create more miracles than any wonder drug.”
~ Patricia Neal
vet vet·ted; vet·tingtransitive verb
1. a: to provide veterinary care for (an animal) or medical care for (a person)
b: to subject (a person or animal) to a physical examination or checkup
2 a: to subject to usually expert appraisal or correction <vet a manuscript
b: to evaluate for possible approval or acceptance <vet the candidates for a position
1586 – English colonists sailed from Roanoke Island, N.C., after failing to establish England’s first permanent settlement in America. The Roanoke colonists returned to England with two friendly Indians. They left behind fifteen well-provisioned men to maintain the English claim.
1621 – The first duel in America reportedly took place in the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts. It was between Edward Doty and Edward Leister, servants of a Mr. Hopkins.
1767 – Samuel Wallis, an English sea captain, sights Tahiti and is considered the first European to reach the island.
1778 – Revolutionary War: American forces entered Philadelphia as the British withdrew during the War.
1812 – War of 1812: The U.S. Congress declares war on the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. President James Madison signs the declaration into law. The conflict began over trade restrictions.
1858 – The US and China signed a treaty promoting “peace, amity and commerce.”
1858 – Charles Darwin receives a paper from Alfred Russel Wallace that includes nearly identical conclusions about evolution as Darwin’s own. This prompts Darwin to publish his theory.
1861 – The first American fly-casting tournament was held in Utica, NY.
1862 – Civil War: Commander S.P. Lee submitted a demand from Flag Officer Farragut and General Butler for the surrender of Vicksburg; Confederate authorities refused and a year-long land and water assault on the stronghold began.
1863 – Civil War: After repeated acts of insubordination, General John McClernand was relieved by General Ulysses S. Grant during the siege of Vicksburg.
1863 – Civil War: Rear Admiral Farragut in U.S.S. Monongahela steamed down river from Port Hudson to Plaquemine, Louisiana, where a raid by a company of Confederate cavalry had burned two Army transports.
1864 – Civil War: At Petersburg, Union General Ulysses S. Grant realized the town could no longer be taken by assault and settled into a siege.
1864 – Civil War: Union war hero Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain is severely wounded at Petersburg, Virginia, while leading an attack on a Confederate position.
1873 – Susan B. Anthony is fined $100 for attempting to vote in the 1872 presidential election. Supreme Court Associate Justice Ward Hunt, explicitly instructed the jury to deliver a guilty verdict, refused to poll the jury, delivered an opinion he had written before trial had even begun.
1878 – Congress established the U.S. Life-Saving Service as a separate agency under the control of the Treasury Department (20 Stat. L., 163).
1892 – Macadamia nuts were first planted in Hawaii.
1898 – Atlantic City, NJ opened its Steel Pier. It was named “the Steel Pier” because of its steel underpinnings. It was the Quakers who built the Steel Pier as a place to relax and as a resort of their own. But, it was soon opened to the public. The Steel Pier, over the Atlantic Ocean, offered 9-1/2 miles of amusements, concerts, food, beverages, concessions and more.
1900 – Boxer Rebellion: Empress Dowager Longyu of China orders all foreigners killed, including foreign diplomats and their families.
1903 – Alaska’s first coastal lighthouse, Scotch Cap Lighthouse, located near the west end of Unimak Island on the Pacific side of Unimak Pass, the main passage through the Aleutian Islands into the Bering Sea, was lit.
1903 – First transcontinental auto trip began in San Francisco and arrived in New York three-months later.
1918 – World War I:Allied forces on the Western Front began their largest counter-attack against the spent German army.
1923 – Checker Taxi puts its first taxi on the streets.
1925 – The first degree in landscape architecture was granted by Harvard University.
1927 – The U.S. Post Office offered a special 10-cent postage stamp for sale. The stamp was of Charles Lindbergh’s “Spirit of St. Louis.”
1928 – Aviator Amelia Earhart becomes the first woman to fly in an aircraft across the Atlantic Ocean (she was a passenger; Wilmer Stutz was the pilot and Lou Gordon the mechanic).
1930 – Groundbreaking ceremonies for the Franklin Institute held.
1935 – ROLLS-ROYCE was trademark registered.
1936 – First bicycle traffic court in America established, Racine, WI. A local policeman set up the first bicycle traffic court in America. For seven years, Officer Al Costible held court at his police desk, presiding over 6,000 cases of bicycle ordinance violations.
1936 – In San Francisco Wally the elephant (25) was shot to death following the June 16 trampling death of Fleishhacker Zoo keeper Edward Brown (42).
1938 – Babe Ruth was signed as a Dodger’s coach for the rest of the season.
1939 – “The Adventures of Ellery Queen” debuted on CBS radio.
1940 – “Finest Hour” speech by Winston Churchill.
1941 – Joe Louis knocked out Billy Conn in 13 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.
1942 – World War II: The U.S. Navy commissioned its first black officer, Harvard University medical student Bernard Whitfield Robinson.
1944 – World War II: The main US carrier forces rendezvous west of the Mariana Islands. Japanese scout planes sight the American fleet late in the day.
1944 – World War II: The U.S. First Army broker through the German lines on the Cotentin Peninsula and cut off the German held port of Cherbourg.
1945 – World War II: On instructions from Emperor Hirohito, Prime Minister Suzuki tells the Japanese Supreme Council that it is the intention of Hirohito to seek peace with the Allies as soon as possible.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, the remnants of the Japanese 32nd Army continue to offer determined resistance to attacks of the US 3rd Amphibious Corps and the US 24th Corps.
1945 – World War II: Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower received a tumultuous welcome in Washington, where he addressed a joint session of Congress. Eisenhower went on to meet Pres. Harry Truman.
1945 – World War II: Organized Japanese resistance ended on the island of Mindanao, Philippines.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sentimental Journey” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day), “Dream” by The Pied Pipers, “Laura” by The Woody Herman Orchestra and “At Mail Call Today” by Gene Autry all topped the charts.
1945 – William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw) British radio traitor was charged with treason. He was hanged the following January.
1948 – Philadelphia Phillies pitching great Robin Roberts debut, loses 2-0 to Pittsburgh Pirates. Roberts ranks as the winningest righthander in Phillies history.
1948 – Columbia Records publicly unveiled its new long-playing phonograph record, the 33 1/3, in New York City.
1949 – “Riders in the Sky” by Vaughan Monroe topped the charts.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS -“Song from Moulin Rouge” by The Percy Faith Orchestra, “April in Portugal” by The Les Baxter Orchestra, “I’m Walking Behind You” by Eddie Fisher and “Take These Chains from My Heart” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Captains Lonnie R. Moore and Ralph S. Parr of the 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing became the 33rd and 34th aces of the war. Their F-86s were named “Billie/Margie” and “Barb/Vent De Mort.”
1953 – A United States Air Force C-124 crashes and burns near Tokyo, Japan killing 129.
1954 – Albert Patterson was assassinated in Phenix, Ala. He had recently been elected as attorney general on a platform to crack down on vice. His murder led the governor to call in the National Guard to replace local law enforcement and cleanup the vice.
1955 – “Unchained Melody” by Les Baxter topped the charts.
1958 – President Eisenhower expressed support for his chief of staff, Sherman Adams, who was accused of improperly accepting gifts from a businessman. Adams resigned in September 1958.
1959 – Governor of Louisiana Earl K. Long is committed to a state mental hospital; he responds by having the hospital’s director fired and replaced with a crony who proceeds to proclaim him perfectly sane.
1961 – “Gunsmoke” was broadcast for the last time on CBS radio.
1963 – Three thousand blacks boycotted the Boston public school system.
1965 – Vietnam War: The United States uses B-52 bombers (28 of them) to attack National Liberation Front guerrilla fighters in South Vietnam.
1966 – “Paint It Black” by the Rolling Stones topped the charts.
1966 – Samuel Nabrit became the first Black to serve on the Atomic Energy Commission.
1971 – Fred Smith (b.1944) founded Federal Express Corporation, an overnight air freight delivery service, in Little Rock, Arkansas. It was based on a hub and spoke business plan he cooked up at Yale. In 1973 he moved the operation to Memphis, Tennessee.
1973 – The NCAA made urine testing mandatory for participants.
1975 – Fred Lynn gets 10 RBIs in a Red Sox 15-1 victory over Tigers. Lynn’s 16 total bases ties an American League record.
1976 – Scientists verified Einstein’s equivalence principle in the experiment called Gravity Probe A. They confirmed that clocks in gravitational fields of differing strengths do not keep the same time.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dreams” by Fleetwood Mac, “Got to Give It Up (Pt. I)” by Marvin Gaye, “Gonna Fly Now (Theme from “Rocky”)” by Bill Conti and “Luckenbach, Texas (Back to the Basics of Love)” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1977 – Johnny Rotten (Sex Pistols) was slashed on his face and hands by some kids armed with knives.
1978 – The Whitewater business venture was incorporated. Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton and his wife Hillary set up their 50-50 Whitewater venture with Mr. & Mrs. McDougal. The Clintons lost money in the real estate deal that later turned into the Whitewater scandal.
1979 – SALT II is signed by the United States and the Soviet Union. President Jimmy Carter and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev were the signers.
1981 – The AIDS epidemic is formally recognized by medical professionals in San Francisco, California.
1981 – US Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart announced his retirement; his departure paved the way for Sandra Day O’Connor to become the first female associate justice.
1982 – The U.S. Senate approved the renewal of the 1965 Voting Rights Act for an additional twenty-five years.
1983 – Space Shuttle program: STS-7, Astronaut Sally Ride becomes the first American woman in space. This is Challenger’s second mission.
1983 – “Flashdance…What a Feeling” by Irene Cara topped the charts.
1984 – Radio talk host Alan Berg, the self-described “man you love to hate,” is gunned down in the driveway of his home in Denver, Colorado.
1986 – Don Sutton becomes 19th pitcher to win 300 games.
1986 Twenty-five people were killed when a twin-engine plane and helicopter carrying sightseers collided over the Grand Canyon.
1987 – A woman sued Motley Crue for $5,000 claiming that she lost her hearing because a concert was too loud.
1988 -“Together Forever” by Rick Astley topped the charts .
1990 – First sudden death US Open Golf Championship is won by Hale Irwin.
1990 – MASS SHOOTING: James Edward Pough went on a shooting rampage at an auto-financing company office in Jacksonville, Florida, after his car was repossessed. He fatally fatally shot eight people before killing himself.
1991 -The Louisiana Legislature enacted a strict anti-abortion law, overriding a veto by Governor Buddy Roemer.
1992 – The US Supreme Court ruled criminal defendants may not use race as a basis for excluding potential jurors from their trials.
1993 – Killer bees invade Arizona. It was confirmed that a bee involved in a fatal on attack on a small dog at a Tucson home was an Africanized honey bee. Arizona was the second state to be invaded, less than three years after this species spread north into Texas from Mexico.
1996 – Federal prosecutors in California charged Theodor J. Kaczynski, the UNABOM suspect, in four of the Unabomber attacks He was indicted by a federal grand jury for two killings in Sacramento.
1996 – In California Richard Allen Davis was convicted in San Jose, Calif., on all charges in the 1993 kidnap-murder of 12-year-old Polly Klass of Petaluma.
1996 – Heriberto Seda, a 28-year-old recluse obsessed with guns and the Bible, shot his teenage sister in New York City. He later admitted to being the Zodiac killer, guilty of murders from 1990.
1996 – Two Army transport helicopters collided and crashed during training exercises near Fort Campbell, Ky., killing six and injuring 33.
1997 – The Southern Baptist Convention called for a boycott of the Walt Disney Co., protesting what the convention called “gay-friendly” policies.
1998 – “The Boston Globe” asked Patricia Smith to resign after she admitted to inventing people and quotes in four of her recent columns.
1998 – In Portage, Ind., a Chicago-bound commuter train struck a truck and dislodged a steel coil that crashed into the first train car and crushed 3 people to death.
1999 – Walt Disney’s “Tarzan” opened.
1999 – The US House of Representatives defeated a measure for gun control, 280-to-147, and approved a proposal to allow the Ten Commandments to be posted on schoolhouse walls.
1999 – The Native American Church of North America made an agreement with US Defense Dept. officials at its 50th annual convention to allow Native Americans to use peyote in religious services.
1999 – Arsonists struck three synagogues in the Sacramento, California, area.
2000 – A US F-14 Tomcat fighter jet crashed during an air show at Willow Grove, Pa. Two naval aviators were killed.
2000 – Tiger Woods won the US Open Golf Championship at Pebble Beach by twelve under par and fifteen strokes ahead of his nearest rival.
2002 – The Rodeo-Chediski Fire was a wildfire that burned in east-central Arizona. It was the worst forest fire in Arizona’s recorded history to date, consuming 467,066 acres (730 square miles) of woodland. Several local communities, including Show Low, Pinetop-Lakeside, and Heber-Overgaard, were threatened and had to be evacuated.
2002 – Pres. Bush sent to Congress his detailed proposal for creation of a new Homeland Security Department.
2002 – Saudi Arabia announced its first al-Qaida-related arrests since Sept. 11 and said it was holding eleven Saudis, an Iraqi and a Sudanese man behind a plot to shoot down a U.S. military plane taking off from a Saudi air base.
2003 – Andrew Luster (39), a convicted rapist and heir to the Max Factor fortune, was arrested after five months on the run.
2003 – The Mercury Policy Project reported that 1/3 of albacore tuna contained levels of toxic mercury exceeding a federally recommended dose for women of child-bearing age.
2004 – A Saudi al-Qaida group said it killed American hostage Paul M. Johnson Jr., posting three photos on the Internet showing his body and severed head.
2007 – US Supreme Court justices ruled 9-0 that car passengers have the same right as drivers to challenge the legality of police stops of vehicles in which they are riding.
2007 – Torrential overnight rainfall flooded a handful of North Texas towns killing at least four. People and their pets were stranded on the roofs of their homes awaiting rescue.
2007 – In Charleston, SC, a fire swept through a furniture warehouse, collapsing the building’s roof and claiming the lives of nine firefighters.
2007 – New York City officials detailed an experimental anti-poverty program whereby poor residents will be rewarded for good behavior, like $300 for doing well on school tests, $150 for holding a job and $200 for visiting the doctor.
2008 – US FDA said 383 people in 30 states have fallen ill in a Salmonella outbreak linked to certain types of tomatoes.
2008 – Floodwaters breached two levees in western Illinois and threatened more Mississippi River towns in Missouri after inundating much of Iowa for the past week. One official estimated up to 47 square miles (30,000 acres) could be flooded.
2008 – In Illinois Jeff Pelo (43), a former Bloomington police sergeant, was found guilty on 35 counts, including 25 of aggravated sexual assault from 2002-2005.
2009 – The US Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that William Osborne, a prisoner convicted in Alaska in 1994, has no constitutional right to DNA testing to prove his innocence.
2009 – NASA launched the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter/LCROSS probes to the Moon. The mission objectives included confirming the presence or absence of water ice in a permanently shadowed crater at the Moon’s South Pole.It was the first American lunar mission since Lunar Prospector in 1998.
2010 – In Connecticut, Eddie Perez, the first Latino mayor of Hartford, announced that he would step down after being convicted of five corruption charges.
2010 – In Utah death row inmate Ronnie Lee Gardner (49), who had used a gun to fatally shoot two men, suffered the same fate as he was executed by a team of marksmen, the first time Utah used the firing squad to carry out a death sentence in 14 years.
2011 – Oil prices hit a four-month low, with oil now at USD $93 per barrel.
2011 – NOAA states that 2011 is already one of the most extreme weather years on record.
2012 – Former American Major League Baseball player Roger Clemens is acquitted on all charges in a perjury trial.
2012 – Blue Gene/Q becomes the world’s fastest supercomputer.
2013 – Four United States troops are killed near Bagram Airfield Afghanistan.
2013 – Boeing launches the biggest version of its Dreamliner plane, the 787-10, at the Paris Air Show with over 100 orders worth about US$30 billion.
2014 – June 16th- 18th Tornado outbreak continues. Tornadoes rip through parts of the northern plains region again affecting mainly South Dakota. Two towns hard hit are Wessington Springs, SD, by an EF2 tornado, and Alpena, SD, by an EF4 tornado.
2016 – Zumwalt-Class Destroyer is christened US Navy’s 2nd Guided Missile Destroyer. The ship will be named the USS Michael Monsoor. It is named after Medal of Honor recipient Petty Officer 2nd Class (SEAL) Michael A. Monsoor. His mother, Sally Monsoor, conducted the christening.
1839 – William Henry Seward, Jr., Union Brigadier General in the CIVIL WAR (d. 1920)
1854 – E.W. Scripps, American journalist and publisher (d. 1926)
1886 – Alexander Wetmore, American ornithologist (d. 1978)
1895 – Blanche Sweet, American actress (d. 1986)
1908 – Bud Collyer, one of the nation’s first major television game show stars. He is best remembered for his work as the voice of Superman/Clark Kent.
1910 – E.G. Marshall, American actor (d. 1998)
1915 – Red Adair, American firefighter (d. 2004)
1917 – Richard Boone, American actor best remembered for “Have Gun, Will Travel” (d. 1981)
1937 – John D. Rockefeller IV, U.S. Senator
1942 – Roger Ebert, American film reviewer
CLARK, JAMES G.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 88th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., June 18th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germantown, Pa. Date of issue: 30 April 1892. Citation: Distinguished bravery in action; was severely wounded.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company I, 37th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: Near Petersburg, Va., June 18th, 1864. Entered service at: Agawan, Mass. Birth: Agawan, Mass. Date of issue: 16 August 1894. Citation: Voluntarily exposed himself to the fire of a Union brigade to stop their firing on the Union skirmish line.
Rank and organization: Private, 34th New York Battery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., June 18th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: France. Date of issue: 30 July 1896. Citation: As gunner of his piece, inflicted singly a great loss upon the enemy and distinguished himself in the removal of the piece while under a heavy fire.
MOSTOLLER, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 54th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Lynchburg, Va., June 18th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Somerset County, Pa. Date of issue: 27 December 1894. Citation: Voluntarily led a charge on a Confederate battery (the officers of the company being disabled) and compelled its hasty removal.
Thou Art an Eagle
A farmer took his young son on a hike and they tramped through the meadows and woods. They hiked through the pines and up over the hills.
They climbed the steep mountains and finally, high above the timber line, scaled the crags and peaks they saw a giant eagle soaring overhead. They scanned the cliffs and finally located the eagles nest. The boy climbed up the cliff to where the nest was located. He reached into the nest, which rested on a ledge, and pulled out an egg, which he put inside his shirt. Then he climbed carefully back down the cliff.
He and his father returned home, and the boy put the egg in a nest where a hen was brooding over her eggs. By and by, when the eggs were hatched, each delivered a small chick except the one from which a young eaglet was hatched. Months passed and the eaglet matured.
After the eagle was full grown, a naturalist was driving down the highway out in the country. As he drove by the farmer’s yard, he saw the giant eagle. He slammed on his brakes, got out of the car, and went over to the fence. He could hardly believe his eyes. He opened the gate, walked into the yard, and found the farmer. ‘Where did you get that eagle?’ he asked.
The farmer said, ‘It’s a chicken.’ The man responded: ‘I am a naturalist. I know all about these things, and I tell you that is an eagle. Furthermore, I’ll prove it.’ He picked up the eagle, put it on his arm, and said, ‘Thou art an eagle-fly.’ The eagle hopped off his arm and began to scratch in the dirt like the chickens. The farmer said, ‘I told you it was only a chicken.’
The naturalist asked for a ladder. He leaned it against the barn. Then he carried the eagle up on top of the barn. He stood at the peak of the roof on the barn, placed the eagle on his arm, and said, ‘Thou art an eagle-fly.’ The eagle swooped down into the yard below and began scratching in the gravel. The farmer hollered up, ‘I told you it was a chicken.’
The man climbed down off the barn. He made an agreement with the farmer and the next morning, long before sunrise, he picked up the eagle. He carried it through the woods and over the meadows. He continued up into the hills and the pines, onward, upward, above the timberline to the peaks and crags and pinnacles of the mountains. He arrived at the mountaintop just before dawn.
As the first rays of the sun began to streak across the sky, he put the eagle on his arm. The fresh, cool winds came through the valleys and trees below and swept up to the cliff where the naturalist stood. The eagle breathed deeply. The first streaks of sunlight caught his eye. He stretched his giant wings, almost six feet across. The naturalist said, ‘Thou art an eagle-fly.’
The eagle slowly lifted off the naturalist’s arm. It ascended into the sky. It soared higher and higher and further and further.
It saw more in an instant than its companions had in an entire lifetime, and from that time forth it was never again content to be a barnyard fowl.
Psalm 50 King James Version (KJV)
1 The mighty God, even the Lord, hath spoken, and called the earth from the rising of the sun unto the going down thereof.
2 Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God hath shined.
3 Our God shall come, and shall not keep silence: a fire shall devour before him, and it shall be very tempestuous round about him.
4 He shall call to the heavens from above, and to the earth, that he may judge his people.
5 Gather my saints together unto me; those that have made a covenant with me by sacrifice.
6 And the heavens shall declare his righteousness: for God is judge himself. Selah.
“The Constitution is not an instrument for the government to restrain the people, it is an instrument for the people to restrain the government – lest it come to dominate our lives and interests.”
~ Patrick Henry
“To touch someone with kindness is to change someone forever. Heavy, huh? That’s not the half of it, because for everyone you touch you also reach everyone they will ever know. And everyone they will ever know. And so, for the rest of all time, your kindness will be felt in waves that will spread long after you move on.”
~ Mike Dooley
mav·er·ick \ˈmav-rik, ˈma-və-\ noun
1: an unbranded range animal ; especially : a motherless calf
2: an independent individual who does not go along with a group or party
193 – Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is assassinated.
362 – Emperor Julian issued an edict banning Christians from teaching in Syria.
1215 – Beijing, then under the control of the Jurchen ruler Emperor Xuanzong of Jin, is captured by the Mongols under Genghis Khan, ending the Battle of Beijing.
1495 – Friar John Cor records the first known batch of scotch whisky.
1579 – Sir Francis Drake claims a land he calls Nova Albion (modern California) for England.
1660 – Mary Dyer is hanged for defying a law banning Quakers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1745 – American colonials capture Louisburg, Cape Breton Island from the French.
1775 – Revolutionary War: The first major fight between British and American troops occurs at Boston in the Battle of Bunker Hill. American troops are dug in along the high ground of Breed’s Hill (the actual location) and are attacked by a frontal assault of over 2000 British soldiers who storm up the hill. The Americans are ordered not to fire until they can see “the whites of their eyes.” As the British get within 15 paces, the Americans let loose a deadly volley of rifle fire and halt the British advance. British forces under General William Howe seized the Charlestown peninsula. The Americans fell back, but British losses were so heavy that the attack was not followed up. The siege was not broken, and Gage was soon replaced by Howe as the British commander-in-chief.
1779 – Revolutionary War: Benedict Arnold is court-martialed for malfeasance.
1792 – Kentucky is admitted as the 15th state of the United States.
1796 – Tennessee is admitted as the 16th state of the United States.
1812 – War of 1812: U.S. President James Madison asks the Congress to declare war on the United Kingdom.
1813 – James Lawrence, the mortally-wounded commander of the USS Chesapeake, cries out “Don’t give up the ship!”
1831 – James Clark Ross discovers the North Magnetic Pole.
1832 – The practice of utilizing “surplus” naval officers as officers of the Revenue Marine was discontinued. Revenue officer vacancies were henceforth filled by promotion from within the service.
1837 – Charles Goodyear obtains his first rubber patent.
1839 – In the Kingdom of Hawaii, Kamehameha III issues the Edict of toleration which gives Roman Catholics the freedom to worship in the Hawaiian Islands. The Hawaii Catholic Church and the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace is later established as a result.
1850 – The steam paddle-wheeler “G P Griffith” burns to the water’s edge off Mentor, Ohio. The passengers were all in their berths when the alarm of fire was given, about three o’clock in the morning.The burning of the steamer G. P. Griffith cost 286 lives to be lost. Some estimates put the total at 326. It is the second worst disaster in Lake Erie history.
1855 – American adventurer William Walker conquers Nicaragua.
1856 – Republican Party opens its first national convention in Philadelphia.
1861 – President Abraham Lincoln witnessed Dr. Thaddeus Lowe demonstrate the use of a hydrogen balloon.
1861 – Civil War: Battle of Boonville, MI-Brigadier General Lyon defeats Confederate forces.
1862 – Civil War, Peninsula Campaign: Battle of Seven Pines (or the Battle of Fair Oaks) ends inconclusively, with both sides claiming victory.
1863 – Civil War: On the way to Gettysburg, Union and Confederate forces skirmished at Point of Rocks, Maryland.
1863 – Travelers Insurance Co of Hartford chartered (first accident insurer).
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Aldie in the Gettysburg Campaign.
1864 – Two thousand one hundred foot long pontoon bridge over the James River Virginia is finished.
1864 – General John B Hood of the confederacy replaces General Joseph E. Johnston.
1864 – Skirmish at Mud Creek/Noyes’s (Nose) Creek, Georgia.
1868 – Treaty of Bosque Redondo is signed allowing the Navajos to return to their lands in Arizona and New Mexico.
1869 – Thomas Edison receives a patent for his electric voting machine.
1870 – USS Mohican burns Mexican pirate ship “Forward.”
1871 – Mr. and Mrs. Martin Bates were married. He was known as the “Kentucky Giant” among other nicknames and was a Civil War-era American famed for his incredibly large size. The Guinness Book placed him at 7′ 9″.
1872 – George M. Hoover began selling whiskey in Dodge City, Kansas. The town had been dry up until this point.
1876 – George Hall of the Philadelphia A’s was the first to hit two HRs and score five runs in a nine inning National League game.
1876 – Indian Wars: Battle of the Rosebud – Fifteen-hundred Sioux and Cheyenne led by Crazy Horse beat back General George Crook’s forces at Rosebud Creek in Montana Territory.
1877 – Indian Wars: Battle of White Bird Canyon – the Nez Perce defeat the US Cavalry at White Bird Canyon in the Idaho Territory.
1879 – Thomas Edison received an honorary degree of Doctor of Philosophy from the trustees of Rutgers College in New Brunswick, NJ.
1880 – John Monte Ward pitched the second perfect game in major-league history.
1882 – Tornado kills 103 in Iowa.
1885 – The Statue of Liberty arrives in New York Harbor aboard the French ship `Isere’ .
1886 – The railroads of the Southern United States convert 11,000 miles of track from a five foot rail gauge to standard gauge, beginning May 31.
1894 – First US poliomyelitis epidemic breaks out, Rutland, Vermont. It consisted of 132 total cases, including some adults. Again, causation was attributed to such factors as “overheating, chilling, trauma, fatigue, and such illnesses as typhoid fever, whooping cough, and pneumonia.”
1895 – The US Ship Canal (W 225th St) in the Bronx completed, cutting Marble Hill off from Manhattan.
1898 – US Senate agrees to annex Hawaii.
1898 – The United States Navy Hospital Corps is established.
1901 – The College Board introduces its first standardized test, the forerunner to the SAT.
1913 – U.S. Marines set sail from San Diego to protect American interests in Mexico.
1916 – American troops under the command of Gen. Jack Pershing marched into Mexico. US General Pershing led an unsuccessful punitive expedition against Francisco “Pancho” Villa.
1918 – World War I Western Front: Battle for Belleau Wood – Allied Forces under John J. Pershing and James Harbord engage Imperial German Forces under Wilhelm, German Crown Prince.
1919 – “Barney Google” cartoon strip, by Billy De Beck, premiers.
1921 – Tulsa Race Riot: race riots in Tulsa, Oklahoma. A group of whites attacked the black community of Tulsa, Oklahoma. It resulted in the Greenwood District, also known as ‘the Black Wall Street’ and the wealthiest black community in the United States, being burned to the ground.
1925 – Lou Gehrig plays the first game in his streak of 2,130 consecutive games; it was the longest such streak until broken by Cal Ripken Jr. in 1995.
1928 – Amelia Earhart became the first woman to successfully fly across the Atlantic Ocean. She was a passenger in an aircraft piloted by Wilmer Stultz.
1928 – Fox Movietone News covered the first night of a New York dance marathon at the Manhattan Casino and took a close-up of the feet of “Shorty” George Snowden. When asked “What are you doing with your feet,” Shorty replied, “The Lindy.”
1930 – President Herbert Hoover signs the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act into law It raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels.
1930 – Chuck Klein sets Phillies hitting streak at 26 straight games.
1932 – Bonus Army: around a thousand World War I veterans amass at the United States Capitol as the U.S. Senate considers a bill that would give them certain benefits.
1933 – Union Station Massacre: in Kansas City, Missouri, four FBI agents and captured fugitive Frank Nash were gunned down by gangsters attempting to free Nash.
1937 – Marx Brothers’ “A Day At The Races” opens in New York.
1939 – Last public guillotining in France. Eugen Weidmann, a convicted murderer, is guillotined in Versailles outside the prison Saint-Pierre.
1939 – Maiden flight of the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger (D-OPZE) fighter aeroplane.
1940 – World War II: Europe: Operation Ariel begins – Allied troops start to evacuate France, following Germany’s takeover of Paris and most of the nation.
1940 – World War II: Europe: sinking of the RMS Lancastria by the Luftwaffe near Saint-Nazaire, France.
1940 – World War II: Europe: the British Army’s 11th Hussars assault and take Fort Capuzzo in Libya, Africa from Italian forces.
1940 – World War II: Europe:France asked Germany for terms of surrender in World War II. Marshal Henri Petain replaced Paul Reynaud, who chose to resign over surrender, as prime minister and announced his intention to sign an armistice with the Nazis.
1941 – WNBT-TV in New York City, NY, was granted the first construction permit to operate a commercial TV station in the U.S.
1941 – World War II: The Holocaust: The Farhud, a pogrom in Iraqi Jews, takes place in Baghdad.
1942 – World War II: the Warsaw paper Liberty Brigade publishes the first news of the concentration camps.
1942 – World War II: Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Fleet directed the organization of coastal pickets to combat submarine menace of Atlantic Coast. This became known as the “Corsair Fleet.”
1942 – World War II: Four men landed on a Florida beach from a German submarine with plans to sabotage US industrial sites.
1942 – “Suspense“, (1:23:45) known as radio’s outstanding theatre of thrills, debuted on CBS radio.
1942 – “Yank”, coined the term “G.I. Joe” in a comic strip.
1943 – Red Sox player-manager Joe Cronin clutch in doubleheader.
1943 – World War II: British Overseas Airways Corporation Flight 777 is shot down over the Bay of Biscay by German Junkers Ju 88s, killing actor Leslie Howard and leading to speculation the downing was an attempt to kill British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “Long Ago and Far Away” by Helen Forrest & Dick Haymes, “I’ll Be Seeing You” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Frank Sinatra), “I’ll Get By” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Dick Haymes) and “Straighten Up and Fly Right” by King Cole Trio all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, reinforced American units advance in the Kuishi Ridge area which has been stubbornly defended by forces of the Japanese 32nd Army.
1945 – World War II: On Luzon, elements of the US 37th Division, US 1st Corps, captures Naguilian after making a forced crossing of the Cagayan river, near the town of Cagayan.
1945 – World War II: General Arnold orders General Chennault to be replaced by General Stratemeyer as Commander in Chief of the US air forces operating in China. Japanese troops in southern China begin withdrawing northward in five long columns between the Yellow and Yangtze rivers.
1946 – In Saint Louis, Missouri, AT&T and Southwestern Bell introduced the first American commercial mobile radio-telephone service to private customers. Mobiles used newly issued vehicle radio-telephone licenses granted to Southwestern Bell by the FCC. It became the first official mobile phone call when a driver in St. Louis, Mo., pulled out a handset from under his car’s dashboard, placed a phone call and made history.
1947 – First round-the-world civil air service leaves New York City. Pan Am bought the lavish Boeing Stratocruiser, a two-level plane converted from the design for a military tanker, to make the 24-hour President Special run between New York and Frankfurt.
1948 – A Douglas DC-6 carrying United Airlines Flight 624 crashes near Mount Carmel, Pennsylvania, killing all 43 people on board.
1950 – Dr. Richard H. Lawler performed the first kidney transplant in a 45-minute operation in Chicago, IL.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss of Fire” by Georgia Gibbs, “Be Anything” by Eddy Howard (sung by Doris Day), “I’m Yours” by Eddie Fisher and “The Wild Side of Life” by Hank Thompson all topped the charts.
1953 – Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas stayed the executions of spies Julius & Ethel Rosenberg scheduled for next day, their 14th wedding anniversary. They were put to death June 19.
1953 – Most runs scored in one inning (17 by Red Sox).
1954 – Rocky Marciano beats Ezzard Charles in 15 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.
1954 – Televised Senate Army McCarthy hearings ends.
1956 – First international flight (to YUL) from the Atlanta Municipal Airport (ATL; now Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, and currently the world’s busiest airport).
1957 – “So Rare” by Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra peaks at #2.
1957 – Tuskegee boycott begins (Blacks boycotted city stores). After blacks began a voter registration drive, the Alabama Legislature redrew Tuskegee’s previously square boundaries to exclude all black neighborhoods. In response, blacks boycotted the city’s stores, doing considerable economic damage to Tuskegee businesses. The Supreme Court ultimately declared that Alabama’s artful boundary creations were unconstitutional.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cathy’s Clown” by The Everly Brothers “Everybody’s Somebody’s Fool” by Connie Francis, “Burning Bridges” by Jack Scott and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling” by Hank Locklin all topped the charts.
1960 – Ted Williams hit his 500th home run. A two-run home run off Wynn Hawkins at Cleveland Municipal Stadium makes Ted Williams the fourth player in Major League history to hit 500 home runs.
1961 – “Travellin’ Man” by Ricky Nelson topped the charts.
1961 – 61st US Golf Open: Gene Littler shoots a 281 at Oakland Hills MI.
1962 – Adolf Eichmann is hanged in Israel.
1963 – The United States Supreme Court rules 8 to 1 in Abington School District v. Schempp against allowing the reciting of Bible verses and the Lord’s Prayer in public schools. The case began in 1956 when Edward L. Schempp (d.2003), on behalf of his son, objected to a 1949 Pennsylvania law requiring ten Bible verses each day followed by the Lord’s Prayer and the Pledge of Allegiance.
1964 – The Supremes’ “Where Did Our Love Go” was released. It became their first song to get to number one on the Billboard Hot 100 pop singles chart.
1965 – Holly, Colorado sets a state 24-hour record for rainfall, 11.08″.
1967 – The groundbreaking Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band album by The Beatles is released.
1967 – Longest doubleheader 9:15 between the Detroit Tigers and the Kansas City Athletics.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mrs. Robinson” by Simon & Garfunkel, “This Guy’s in Love with You” by Herb Alpert, “Mony Mony” by Tommy James & The Shondells and “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro all topped the charts.
1968 – Ohio Express’ “Yummy Yummy Yummy” goes gold.
1968 – The US Supreme Court in Jones v. Mayer banned racial discrimination in the sale and rental of housing.
1969 – Black Panther William Brent (1931-2006) became the 28th person this year to hijack a US airplane to Cuba. The Cubans put him in jail for two years.
1970 – Edwin Land patents Polaroid camera.
1971 – The United States and Japan signed the Okinawa Reversion Treaty under which the United States would return control of the island of Okinawa and the Ryukyu Island chain, which includes the Senkaku Islands, in 1972.
1972 – Paul McCartney released “Mary Had a Little Lamb.”
1972 – Looking Glass releases “Brandy“.
1972 – Watergate scandal: Five White House operatives are arrested for burglarizing the offices of the Democratic National Committee, in an attempt by some members of the Republican party to illegally wiretap the opposition.
1972 – “Candy Man” by Sammy Davis, Jr. topped the charts.
1974 – The Heimlich maneuver for rescuing choking victims is published in the journal Emergency Medicine.
1976 – The American Basketball Association (Nets, Pacers, Nuggets & Spurs) merges into the National Basketball Association.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Silly Love Songs” by Wings, “Get Up and Boogie (That’s Right)” by Silver Convention, “Misty Blue” by Dorothy Moore and “I’ll Get Over You” by Crystal Gayle all topped the charts.
1978 – “Shadow Dancing” by Andy Gibb topped the charts.
1978 – Ron Guidry sets Yankee record with 18 strike-outs, 15 in six innings-in a 4-hit 4-0 shutout of the Angels, setting an American League record for lefthanders.
1979 – Colonel Valeria Hilgart became the first woman Marine to assume duty as chief of staff of a major command (Albany, Georgia).
1980 – Cable News Network (CNN) begins broadcasting.
1980 – First two video games (Atari) registered in the Copyright Office.
1982 – US President Reagan first UN General Assembly address (“evil empire” speech)
1983 – The US Air Force successfully conducted the first test flight of the Peacekeeper ICBM from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Time After Time” by Cyndi Lauper, “The Reflex” by Duran Duran, “Self Control” by Laura Branigan and “I Got Mexico” by Eddy Raven all topped the charts.
1985 – 18th Space Shuttle Mission – Discovery 5 is launched. The cargo included three commercial communications satellites, a deployable/retrievable spacecraft called Spartan l, six GAS experiment canisters, a tracking experiment for the Defense Department’s Strategic Defense Initiative, a materials processing furnace and a series of biomedical experiments sponsored by France.
1986 – President Reagan announced the retirement of Chief Justice Warren Earl Burger.
1987 – Charles Glass, a journalist on leave from ABC News, was kidnapped in Lebanon. Glass escaped his captors in August 1987.
1988 -In a North Hollywood supermarket, a thief grabbed a bag of cash containing several thousand dollars from an armored-car guard. Blood was later found on the passenger side of an abandoned, silver 1979 Mazda RX-7 that the robber and his accomplice used to get away.
1988 – Microsoft releases MS DOS 4.0
1989 – “I’ll Be Loving You Forever” by the New Kids on the Block topped the charts.
1990 – George H. W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev sign a treaty to end chemical weapon production.
1990 – 90th US Golf Open: Hale Irwin shoots a 280 at Medinah CC in Medinah Il.
1991 – The remains of President Zachary Taylor were briefly exhumed in Louisville, Kentucky, to test a theory that Taylor had died of arsenic poisoning. Results showed death was from natural causes.
1991 – Country entertainer Minnie Pearl suffers a stroke at 78.
1992 – A ‘Joint Understanding’ agreement on arms reduction is signed by U.S. President George H. W. Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin (this would be later codified in START II).
1994 – Following a televised low-speed highway chase and a failed attempt at suicide, O.J. Simpson is arrested for the murders of his wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend Ronald Goldman. The arrest took place after a prolonged slow-car chase where Al A.C. Cowlings drove Simpson around in a white Ford Bronco and talked him into giving up to the police.
1996 – Fires burned down five more Southern churches.
1997 – Mir Aimal Kasi, suspected in the shooting deaths of two CIA employees outside agency headquarters in January 1993, was brought to Fairfax, Va., to face trial after being arrested in Pakistan. He was later convicted and sentenced to death.
1999 – The Republican-controlled House narrowly voted to loosen restrictions on sales at gun shows, marking a victory for the National Rifle Association.
2001 – In New York City, a five-alarm fire at a hardware store in Queens killed three firefighters and injured dozens of others.
2001 – Tropical Strom Allison moved into southeastern Pennsylvania and killed 4 people. This raised the toll from Allison to at least 43.
2002 – The US Supreme Court struck down an Ohio village’s law and ruled that groups have a constitutional right to go door-to-door to promote their causes without getting permission from local officials.
2002 – A converted C-130 air tanker crashed over a flaming ridge near Walker in Mono County, Ca., and three crew members were killed. It was later reported that the 1956 plane had been used by the CIA and lacked maintenance records.
2003 – The Aspen Fire burned for about a month on Mount Lemmon, part of the Santa Catalina Mountains located in the Coronado National Forest north of Tucson, Arizona, and in the surrounding area. It burned 84,750 acres of land, and destroyed 340 homes and businesses of the town of Summerhaven, a small town at 8200 feet on Mt. Lemmon.
2003 – A US federal appeals court ruled the government properly withheld names and other details about hundreds of foreigners who were detained in the months after the Sept. 11 attacks.
2005 – The longest oil/natural gas explosion in the Houston, Texas area occurs in Crosby, Texas. The drill was owned by the Louisiana Oil and Gas Company.
2005 – The US Roman Catholic bishops agreed to a five-year extension on their unprecedented policy of permanently barring sexually abusive clergy from church work.
2005 – MasterCard International said a security breach had exposed about 40 million payment cards of various brands to potential fraud in the biggest such privacy violation ever reported. The breach was traced to Atlanta-based CardSystems Solutions.
2006 – The typical American chief executive earned 300 times the average wage, up tenfold from the 1970s.
2006 – MASS SHOOTING: In Louisiana five people aged 16-19 were gunned down just outside the business district of New Orleans.
2007 – Ángel Cabrera wins the 2007 U.S. Open Golf Championship at Oakmont Country Club in Oakmont, Pennsylvania.
2007 – Jack Kevorkian is released from prison after serving eight years of his 10-25 year prison term for second-degree murder in the 1998 death of Thomas Youk, 52, of Oakland County, Michigan.
2008 – 62nd NBA Championship: Boston Celtics beat Los Angeles Lakers, 4 games to 2.
2008 – First day of legal same-sex marriage in California.
2008 – A fire at the backlot of Universal Studios Hollywood destroys several icons from movies, such as Courthouse Square, the clock tower from Back to The Future, and the King Kong exhibit on the studio tour.
2008 – Florida Gov. Charlie Crist, a potential vice presidential candidate for John
McCain, reversed his long-standing opposition to oil drilling off the Florida coast.
2008 – The Boston Celtics defeated the Los Angeles Lakers to win the N.B.A. championship.
2009 – Eddie Bauer, the well-known retailer of outdoor apparel, filed for bankruptcy in a U.S. Bankruptcy Court in Delaware.
2009 – The Obama administration proposed a sweeping overhaul of the financial system. An 88-page wish list of changes released by the Treasury Dept. would require the approval of Congress and included broad new powers for the Federal Reserve.
2009 – A White House official said President Barack Obama, whose gay and lesbian supporters have grown frustrated with his slow movement on their priorities, is extending benefits to same-sex partners of federal employees but stopping short of a guarantee of full health insurance.
2010 – Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster: BP Chief Executive Tony Hayward testified before Congress, apologizing for the spill but avoiding answering most questions and stating that he was unaware of the risks at the Deepwater Horizon rig that exploded in April causing the oil spill.
2010 – The Los Angeles Lakers win the 2010 NBA Finals defeating the Boston Celtics 83-79 in Game 7. They won games four to three.
2010 – The Times Square bombing attempt suspect is indicted on ten terrorism and weapons charges in New York City.
2012 – Rodney King, whose videotaped beating by Los Angeles police officers in March 1991 later led to riots in April 1992, is found dead at the bottom of a swimming pool in Rialto, California.
2012 – In golf, American Webb Simpson wins the U.S. Open.
2013 – President Barack Obama told a town hall meeting for youth in Belfast, Northern Ireland that there should not be Catholic and Protestant schools because such schools cause division. Note he did not mention Islamic schools.
2013 – The Supreme Court of the United States struck down an Arizona law requiring voters to present citizenship proof to register in state and federal elections. The law clears the way to illegal aliens voting in national elections without substantive means of preventing it for many states.
2014 – Army Staff Sergeant Cory Schroeder was told by University of Wyoming’s (UW) student government that he would not be allowed to say the Pledge of Allegiance before its meetings because it could offend international students.
2015 – CHURCH SHOOTING – A white teen gunman shot dead nine people during a bible study meeting at an African-American church in South Carolina. He told one survivor he ‘had to do it’. The gunman, Dylan Roof, who remains on the run since the horrific massacre at the 150-year-old Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, reloaded his gun five times as he picked off his victims – killing six men and three women.
1704 – John Kay, English inventor, was the inventor of the flying shuttle, which was a key contribution to the Industrial Revolution. (d. 1780)
1742 – William Hooper, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1790)
1861 – Pete Browning, American baseball player who played primarily for the Louisville Eclipse/Colonels, becoming one of the sport’s most accomplished batters of the 1880s. (d. 1905)
1861 – Omar Bundy, U.S. army general and soldier (d. 1940)
1867 – John Robert Gregg, inventor of shorthand system (d. 1948)
1903 – Ruth Wakefield, inventor of the Toll House Cookie, the first chocolate chip cookie (d. 1977)
1904 – Ralph Bellamy, American actor (d. 1991)
1923 – Elroy ‘Crazylegs’ Hirsch, American football player was an American football running back and receiver for the Los Angeles Rams and Chicago Rockets, nicknamed for his unusual running style. (d. 2004)
1932 – Peter Lupus, American actor (Mission: Impossible)
1943 – Newt Gingrich, American politician
1943 – Barry Manilow, American musician
1951 – Joe Piscopo, American actor
1980 – Venus Williams, American tennis player
McGANN, MICHAEL A.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company F, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Rosebud River, Mont., June 17th, 1876. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 9 August 1880. Citation: Gallantry in action.
PARNELL, WILLIAM R.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At White Bird Canyon, Idaho, June 17th,1877. Entered service at: New York. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 16 September 1897. Citation: With a few men, in the face of a heavy fire from pursuing Indians and at imminent peril, returned and rescued a soldier whose horse had been killed and who had been left behind in the retreat.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company D, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Rosebud River, Mont., June 17th, 1876. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 23 January 1880. Citation: Discharged his duties while in charge of the skirmish line under fire with judgment and great coolness and brought up the lead horses at a critical moment.
SHINGLE, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Troop 1, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Rosebud River, Mont., June 17th, 1876. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 1 June 1880. Citation: Gallantry in action.
SNOW, ELMER A.
Rank and organization: Trumpeter, Company M, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Rosebud Creek, Mont., June 17th, 1876. Entered service at: ——. Birth. Hardwick, Mass. Date of issue: 16 October 1877. Citation. Bravery in action; was wounded in both arms.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 164th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., June 17th, 1864. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 18 January 1894. Citation: Rescued a wounded comrade who lay exposed to the enemy’s fire, receiving a severe wound in the effort.
CHANDLER, HENRY F.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 59th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., June 17th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Andover, Mass. Date of issue: 30 March 1898. Citation: Though seriously wounded in a bayonet charge and directed to go to the rear he declined to do so, but remained with his regiment and helped to carry the breastworks.
DI CESNOLA, LOUIS P.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 4th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Aldie, Va., June 17th,1863. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 29 June 1832, Rivarola, Piedmont, Italy. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Was present, in arrest, when, seeing his regiment fall back, he rallied his men, accompanied them, without arms, in a second charge, and in recognition of his gallantry was released from arrest. He continued in the action at the head of his regiment until he was desperately wounded and taken prisoner.
DICKEY, WILLIAM D.
Rank and organization: Captain, Battery M, 15th New York Heavy Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., June 17th, 1864. Entered service at: Newburgh, N.Y. Born: 11 January 1845, Newburgh, N.Y. Date of issue: 10 June 1896. Citation: Refused to leave the field, remaining in command after being wounded by a piece of shell, and led his command in the assault on the enemy’s works on the following day.
HARBOURNE, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 29th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., June 17th, 1864. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Born: 9 September 1840, England. Date of issue: 24 February 1897. Citation: Capture of flag along with three enemy men.
MEYER, HENRY C.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company D, 24th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., June 17th, 1864. Entered service at: Dobbs Ferry, N.Y. Birth: Hamburg, N.Y. Date of issue: 29 March 1899. Citation: During an assault and in the face of a heavy fire rendered heroic assistance to a wounded and helpless officer, thereby saving his life and in the performance of this gallant act sustained a severe wound.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 48th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., June 17th,1864. Entered service at: Minersville, Pa. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Recapture of colors of 7th New York Heavy Artillery.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 85th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Bermuda Hundred, Va., June 17th, 1864. Entered service at: Drakestown, Pa. Birth: Fayette County, Pa. Date of issue: 2 August 1897. Citation: Voluntarily exposed himself to a heavy fire to bring off a wounded comrade.
PLOWMAN, GEORGE H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 3d Maryland Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., June 17th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Recaptured the colors of the 2d Pennsylvania Provisional Artillery.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 48th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., June 17th, 1864. Entered service at: Pottsville, Pa. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 44th Tennessee Infantry (C.S.A.).
ROWE, HENRY W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 11th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., June 17th, 1864. Entered service at: Candia, N.H. Born: April 1840, Candia, N.H. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: With 2 companions, he rushed and disarmed 27 enemy pickets, capturing a stand of flags.
STRAUSBAUGH, BERNARD A.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company A, 3d Maryland Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., June 17th, 1864. Entered service at: Warfordsburg, Pa. Birth: Adams County, Pa. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Recaptured the colors of 2d Pennsylvania Provisional Artillery.
WAGEMAN, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 60th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., June 17th, 1864. Entered service at: Amelia, Ohio. Birth: Clermont County, Ohio. Date of issue: 27 July 1896. Citation: Remained with the command after being severely wounded until he had fired all the cartridges in his possession, when he had to be carried from the field.
YOUNG, BENJAMIN F.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 1st Michigan Sharpshooters. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., June 17th,1864. Entered service at: Canada. Born: 1844, Canada. Date of issue: 5 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 35th North Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.).
History of the Guitar
The first instrument was probably nothing more than a bow in the hands of a prehistoric hunter. One day, some nameless innovator attached a hollow gourd to the shaft of a bow. By hugging the gourd to his chest and bending the shaft back and forth with one hand (to change the tension on the string), he produced resonant notes by plucking the string with his other hand. Primitive instruments of this type are still played in various parts of Africa.
A natural outgrowth of the single-string bow was the “bow-harp”, consisting of several strings attached to a single soundbox and strung so as to yield different notes when plucked by the fingers.
This “one string, one note” principle was common to all instruments of the harp family known to early inhabitants of the lands around eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea.
They included the Nubian kissar, the Greek kithara and the lyre of the Greeks, Assyrians and other Near Eastern peoples. David, King of Israel and slayer of Goliath, was said to have been proficient on the lyre (harp). 1 Samuel 16:23(KJV) – And it came to pass, when the evil spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took an harp, and played with his hand: so Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him.
Although the Egyptian nefer (which had both soundbox and a neck) was in use well before the time of Christ, the first “neck” instrument about very much is known was Chinese. The tzi-tze (pronounced see-see), as it was called after the emperor who invented it in the fifth century B.C., was a small square box, punctured at the top, with four strings running the length of a thick bamboo cane. Historians believe that this instrument influenced the development of Western stringed instruments, particularly the Arab ud which eventually became the lute.
From the Greek word kithara came the names of both guitar and zither. In ancient Rome, the kithara was also called the fidula, which in time gave rise to the words vihela, once used in Spain for “guitar”, and violao, still used in Portugal. “viola” and “violin” stem from the same source, as does “fiddle”. The ud (in Arabic, Al ud) had a soundbox shaped like a melon or a giant pear sliced in half. When the Arabs and Moors invaded Spain in the eighth century, they took many examples of the instrument with them. Gradually “Al ud” spread from Spain, whose people called it the “laud”. to become the French liuth, the German laute and the English lute.
Centuries before this, after the fall of Rome, the music-loving Celts of Western Europe had added a fingerboard to the kithara, and called the resulting instrument the chrotta, which may simply have been their way of pronouncing the old name. In Provence, in South of France, the new instrument was called the crota. It was there, in all probability, that the guitar had its first beginnings, for Provence experienced a cultural flowering during the 11th and 12th centuries, in which music played a paramount role.
Troubadours who accompanied themselves on the crota as they sang songs of love and war were key figures in Provencial society. Often of knightly rank, they were poets and lyricists who generally composed works as they sang.
To keep up with the ever-more sophisticated tastes of their noble audiences and so win fame and distinction over their rivals, some troubadours began to tinker with their instruments. by slow stages, the crota was refined to produce clearer notes of purer pitch and wider range, until it came to resemble in a general way, the modern guitar.
The transition was interrupted by a bitter religious war which ultimately destroyed the Provincial civilization and it’s way of life. Some of the Provincial troubadours fled to Italy, but more sought refuge in Spain, especially in nearby Catalonia. The Catalans, long familiar with the lute, eagerly adopted the improved crota and began to “cross-breed” it with the older instrument. Thus was laid in the thirteenth century, the foundations of that devotion to the guitar which was to make Spain the leading center for that instrument after well into the 20th Century.
Isaiah 13: 11 – 16
11 And I will punish the world for their evil, and the wicked for their iniquity; and I will cause the arrogancy of the proud to cease, and will lay low the haughtiness of the terrible.
12 I will make a man more precious than fine gold; even a man than the golden wedge of Ophir.
13 Therefore I will shake the heavens, and the earth shall remove out of her place, in the wrath of the Lord of hosts, and in the day of his fierce anger.
14 And it shall be as the chased roe, and as a sheep that no man taketh up: they shall every man turn to his own people, and flee every one into his own land.
15 Every one that is found shall be thrust through; and every one that is joined unto them shall fall by the sword.
16 Their children also shall be dashed to pieces before their eyes; their houses shall be spoiled, and their wives ravished.
”A nation of well-informed men who have been taught to know and prize the RIGHTS which God has given them cannot be enslaved. It is in the religion of ignorance that tyranny begins.”
“If a man is called to be a streetsweeper, he should sweep streets even as Michelangelo painted, or Beethoven composed music, or Shakespeare wrote poetry. He should sweep streets so well that all the hosts of heaven and earth will pause to say, here lived a great streetsweeper who did his job well.”
~ Martin Luther King Jr.
misogyny \mə-ˈsä-jə-nē\ noun
: a hatred of women
— miso·gy·nic \ˌmi-sə-ˈji-nik, -ˈgī-\ adjective
— mi·sog·y·nist \mə-ˈsä-jə-nist\ noun or adjective
1746 – English fleet occupied Cape Breton on St. Lawrence River.
1755 – French and Indian War: the French surrender Fort Beauséjour to the British, leading to the expulsion of the Accadians of Nova Scotia. They were uprooted by an English governor and forced to leave. The Longfellow story “Evangeline” is based on this displacement.
1774 – Formation of Harrodsburg, Kentucky which is the oldest city in Kentucky.
1775 – American Col. William Prescott led 1200 men from Cambridge to dig in at Bunker’s Hill but arrived at night and dug in at Breed’s Hill.
1775 – Continental Congress authority for a “Chief Engineer for the Army” was passed.
1822 – Denmark Vessy led a slave rebellion in South Carolina.
1833 – Lucie (Ruthy) Blackburn (30), a fugitive slave, escaped from jail in Detroit and made her way to Canada. The next day a riot erupted, “The Blackburn Riots,” as her husband, Thornton Blackburn (21), was escorted for return to slavery.
1858 – Abraham Lincoln delivers his “House Divided” speech in Springfield, Illinois. He said, “A house divided against itself cannot stand.” More than 1,000 Republican delegates met in the Springfield, Illinois, statehouse for the Republican State Convention. At 5 p.m. they chose Abraham Lincoln as their candidate for the U.S. Senate, running against Democrat Stephen A. Douglas. At 8 p.m. Lincoln delivered this address to his Republican colleagues in the Hall of Representatives. The title comes a sentence from the speech’s introduction, “A house divided against itself cannot stand,” which paraphrases a statement by Jesus in the New Testament.”
1856 – James Strang, king of Big Beaver Island, Mich., was ambushed by Thomas Bedford and Alexander Wentworth. They shot him three times and then pistol-whipped him and fled to Mackinac on the USS Michigan.
1861 – Civil War: A Union attempt to capture Charleston, South Carolina, is thwarted when the Confederates turn back an attack at Secessionville.
1862 – Civil War: Union naval squadron advancing up the Mississippi River toward Vicksburg, shelled Grand Gulf, Mississippi.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Lynchburg, VA.
1864 – Civil War: U.S.S. Commodore Perry shelled Fort Clifton, Virginia, at the request of Major General Butler.
1879 – Gilbert & Sullivan’s “HMS Pinafore” debuted at Bowery Theater in New York City.
1882 – Seventeen-inch hailstones weighing 1.75 lbs each fall in Dubuque, Iowa.
1883 – Baseball’s first “Ladies’ Day.” Women, with or without a male companion, were admitted for free and the New York Gothams did not disappoint defeating the Spiders 5-2.
1884 – First gravity-powered roller coaster. It was put in operation at Coney Island, N.Y. and was the invention of La Marcus Thompson . Passengers rode a train on undulating tracks over a wooden structure 600-ft. It cost five cents and made about $600 per day.
1890 – The second Madison Square Gardens opened.
1893 – Cracker Jack was invented by R.W. Rueckheim, a unique popcorn, peanuts, and molasses confection which he introduced at the World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago’s First World Fair.
1897 – A treaty annexing the Republic of Hawaii to the United States is signed; the Republic would not be dissolved until a year later.
1898 – Spanish-American War: U.S. squadron bombards Santiago, Cuba.
1903 – The Ford Motor Company is incorporated.
1903 – Clark Griffith tosses a 1-0 shutout against the White Sox, to give the New York Highlanders (Yankees) their first shutout ever.
1903 – Pepsi-Cola Co. registered the Pepsi-Cola trademark with the U.S. Patent Office. Pharmacies in NC at the time were favorite gathering places.To increase business at his store’s soda fountain, pharmacist Caleb D. Bradham created a soft drink. In the summer of 1898, he mixed carbonated water, sugar, vanilla, oils, pepsin, and kola nut extract.
1904 – Bloomsday. The 1922 novel “Ulysses” by James Joyce was set on this day. It charts the wanderings of Leopold Bloom and Stephen Dedalus among Dublin streets and beaches, museums and galleries, pubs and brothels through the ebb and tide of their memories and emotions. The “same day that the penniless and Myopic Jimmy Joyce (22) first walked out with the redheaded chambermaid Nora Barnacle,” (20) who became his Molly Bloom.
1909 – First US airplane sold commercially was by Glenn Curtiss for $5,000. He sold it to the newly organized Aeronautic Society of New York.
1909 – Jim Thorpe made his pro baseball pitching debut for Rocky Mount (ECL) with a 4-2 win. This later caused him to forfeit his Olympic medals.
1911 – A 772-gram stony meteorite strikes the earth near Kilbourn, Columbia County, Wisconsin damaging a barn.
1911 – IBM incorporates. Actually it was the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) that was incorporated but it was a predecessor of IBM (1924). Earlier, in 1890, Dr. Herman Hollerith had constructed an electromechanical machine using perforated cards for use in the U.S. census, and in 1896 he founded the Tabulating Machine Co. to construct sorting machines.
1922 – Henry A. Berliner demonstrated the first helicopter prototype for representatives of the U.S. Bureau of Aeronautics in College Park, Maryland.
1925 – France accepted a German proposal for a security pact.
1933 – National Industrial Recovery Act becomes law (later struck down). This was a set of United States federal laws and codes that authorized the President to regulate businesses in the interests of promoting “fair” competition.
1933 – The 2nd US Glass-Steagall Act, actually the Bank Act of 1933, banned banks from underwriting stocks. It separated regular banks from investment banks.
1935 – President Roosevelt’s New Deal legislation was passed by the House of Representatives.
1937 – Marx Brothers’ “A Day At The Races” opens in Los Angeles.
1940 – World War II: Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain becomes Premier of Vichy France.
1941 – The Washington National Airport Terminal and South Hangar Line, products of New Deal initiatives, were milestones in American aviation technology. It was the first federally-owned airport.
1941 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the closure of all German consulates in the United States. The deadline was set as July 10.
1941 – World War II:The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade was activated for duty in Iceland.
1942 – The SS Port Nicholson was headed for New York with 71 tons of platinum valued at about $53 million when it was sunk off Maine in an attack that left six people dead. The platinum was a payment from the Soviet Union to the US for war supplies.
1943 – World War II:US fighters from Henderson Field claim to have shot down 93 Japanese aircraft from a force attacking shipping assembled for operations against New Georgia Island.
1943 – World War II: Operation Husky. The first convoys bound for the invasion of Sicily leave port.
1943 – Ol’ 666, an aircraft and crew that received Medals of Honor and Distinguished Flying Crosses making it the most decorated mission of WWII, flew its most famous mission. One bomber against 17 enemy fighters. Watch the video (8:23).
1944 – World War II: Forces of the US 5th Army take Grosseto, Italy.
1944 – World War II: US battleships, under the command of Admiral Ainsworth, shell Guam.
1944 – World War II:Admiral Clark leads two groups of US carrier forces raiding Iwo Jima, Chichi Jima and Haha Jima. The Japanese fleets link up and refuel. US patrols make two sightings.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, Mount Yuza is captured by the US 381st Infantry Regiment. Fighting continues on the south of the island. At sea, the Japanese air offensive against American ships slackens, but the Japanese still sink 1 destroyer and damage one escort carrier.
1947 – First network news-Dumont’s “News from Washington”.
1949 – The first gas turbine-electric locomotive in the U.S. was publicly demonstrated in Erie, Pa.
1950 – “Sentimental Me” by the Ames Brothers topped the charts.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Too Young” by Nat King Cole, “On Top of Old Smokey” by The Weavers (vocal: Terry Gilkyson), “Syncopated Clock” by The Leroy Anderson Orchestra and “I Want to Be with You Always” by Lefty Frizzell all topped the charts.
1951 – Ben Hogan wins golf’s US open for the second year in a row.
1951 – Korean War: The 1st Marine Division reached its objective — a line running northeast from the Hwachon Reservoir through the Punch Bowl, a gigantic volcanic crater.
1951 – “How High the Moon” by Les Paul & Mary Ford topped the charts.
1952 – “My Little Margie” debuted on CBS-TV.
1952 – “Anne Frank: Diary of a Young Girl” was published in the United States.
1954 – In San Francisco the 13-foot neon schooner atop the new Hamm’s Brewery building at 1550 Bryant St. was turned on. Brewing at the facility ended in 1974.
1955 – The U.S. House of Representatives voted to extend Selective Service until 1959.
1956 – “I’ll Be Home” by Pat Boone topped the charts.
1956 – “Be-Bop-A-Lula“, by Gene Vincent and His Blue Caps, was released on Capitol Records.
1958 – The US Supreme Court, in Kent v. Dulles, ruled that artist Rockwell Kent could not be denied a passport because of his communist affiliations.
1960 – The Alfred Hitchcock movie “Psycho” (1:41:37)opened in New York City.
1961 – Dave Garroway is fired as Today Show host.
1962 – “I Can’t Stop Loving You” by Ray Charles topped the charts.
1965 – Vietnam War: Navy Department schedules reactivation of hospital ship Repose (AH-16), first hospital ship activated for Vietnam Conflict.
1966 – “Rowan & Martin Show,” debuted on NBC-TV.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Respect” by Aretha Franklin, “Him or Me by What’s It Gonna Be?” by Paul Revere & The Raiders, “Somebody to Love” by Jefferson Airplane and “It’s Such a Pretty World Today” by Wynn Stewart all topped the charts.
1967 – The three-day Monterey International Pop Music Festival begins in Monterey, California.
1968 – Lee Trevino is first to play all four rounds of golf’s US open under par.
1971 – An El Greco sketch, “The Immaculate Conception,” was recovered in New York City by the FBI. The work had been stolen 35 years earlier.
1972 – The New York Jazz Museum opened.
1973 – “My Love” by Paul McCartney & Wings topped the charts.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sister Golden Hair” by America, “Love Will Keep Us Together” by The Captain & Tennille, “I’m Not Lisa” by Jessi Colter and “When Will I Be Loved” by Linda Ronstadt all topped the charts.
1975 – Bucks trade Kareem Abdul-Jabber & Walt Wesley to LA for four players.
1975 – Randy Farland finds a 14-leaf clover near Sioux Falls, SD.
1975 – The US Supreme Court ruled that uniform minimum legal fees are a violation.
1975 – John Lennon sued the U.S. government, he charged that officials tried to deny his immigration through selective prosecution.
1977 – Oracle Corporation is incorporated in Redwood Shores, California, as Software Development Laboratories (SDL) by Larry Ellison, Bob Miner and Ed Oates.
1978 – The film adaptation of “Grease” premiered in New York City.
1979 – “Hot Stuff” by Donna Summer topped the charts.
1979 – Carl Yastrzemski hits his 1,000th extra base hit.
1980 – “The Blues Brothers” opened in Chicago, IL.
1980 – US Supreme Court ruled that new forms of life created in labs could become patents.
1981 – The “Chicago Tribune” purchased the Chicago Cubs baseball team from the P.K. Wrigley Chewing Gum Company for $20.5 million.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Flashdance…What a Feeling” by Irene Cara, “Time (Clock of the Heart)” by Culture Club, “My Love” by Lionel Richie and “Our Love is on the Faultline” by Crystal Gayle all topped the charts.
1984 – Edwin Moses wins his 100th consecutive 400-meter hurdles race.
1984 – “Time After Time” by Cyndi Lauper topped the charts.
1985 – Willie Banks broke the world record for the triple jump with a leap of 58 feet, 11.5 inches at the U.S.A. championships in Indianapolis, IN.
1987 – New York City subway gunman Bernhard Goetz was acquitted on all but gun possession charges after shooting four black youths who tried to rob him. In 1996, a civil jury ordered Goetz to pay $43 million to one of the persons he’d shot.
1988 – In Santa Barbara, CA, a team of 32 divers begin cycling underwater on a standard tricycle, to complete 116.66 mi in 75 hrs 20 mins.
1988 – Impeached and ousted Arizona Governor Evan Mecham and his brother, Willard, were found innocent by a Phoenix jury of concealing a $350,000 campaign loan.
1989 – Four golfers shoot a hole-in-one on the same hole at the US Open.
1990 – “It Must Have Been Love” by Roxette topped the charts.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rush, Rush” by Paula Abdul, “Love is a Wonderful Thing” by Michael Bolton, “Losing My Religion” by R.E.M. and “If the Devil Danced (In Empty Pockets)” by Joe Diffie all topped the charts.
1991 – Otis Nixon steals National League record six bases in one day.
1992 – Sister Souljah called future U.S. President Bill Clinton a “draft dodging, pot smoking womanizer.” Clinton had criticized Sister Souljah on June 13, 1992.
1993 – The U.S. Postal Service released a set of seven stamps that featured Bill Haley, Buddy Holly, Clyde McPhatter, Otis Redding, Ritchie Valens, Dinah Washington and Elvis Presley.
1993 – The Dan Quayle Center and Museum opened in Huntington, Indiana.
1995 – Salt Lake City was awarded the XIX Winter Olympic Games for 2002. A scandal later developed over pay-offs.
1996 – “Batman Forever” opened in the U.S.
1996 – The Chicago Bulls won the NBA championship, beating the Seattle SuperSonics in game six, 87-to-75.
1997 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average climbed above 8,000 for the first time.
1998 – The Detroit Red Wings took home the Stanley Cup for the second consecutive year after completing a sweep of the Washington Capitals with a 4-1 victory in game four.
1998 – Massachusetts’ highest court cleared the way for Louise Woodward to return home to England, upholding a judge’s ruling that freed the au pair convicted of killing a baby.
1998 – CNSNews.com was launched as a news source for individuals, news organizations and broadcasters who put a higher premium on balance than spin and seek news that’s ignored or under-reported as a result of media bias by omission.
1999 – The U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals said that a 1992 federal music piracy law does not prohibit a palm-sized device that can download high-quality digital music files from the Internet and play them at home.
1999 – Kathleen Ann Soliah, a fugitive member of the Symbionese Liberation Army, was captured in St. Paul, Minnesota, where she had made a new life under the name Sara Jane Olson.
2000 – U.S. federal regulators approved the merger of Bell Atlantic and GTE Corp. The merger created the nation’s largest local phone company.
2000 – The US Senate passed a bill to allow e-signatures for online contracts. President Clinton said he would sign the bill.
2002 – The Bush administration revealed a secret plan to for the CIA to undermine and possibly kill Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.
2002 – A runaway winner again in the U.S. Open, Tiger Woods became the first player since Jack Nicklaus in 1972 to capture the first two major championships of the year.
2003 – Douglas Brinkley authored “Wheels for the World,” a history of the Ford Motor Company.
2003 – A divided US Supreme Court said the government can force medication on mentally ill criminal defendants only in the rarest of circumstances.
2004 – A new computer worm targeting mobile phones was reported. It was dubbed “Cabir” and reportedly written by a virus-writing group in Spain known as 29A.
2006 – In Oakland, Ca., an unofficial final tally showed former US Rep. Ron Dellums winning the mayor’s race by 155 votes with 50.18% of the vote.
2006 – The US House of Representatives rejected a timetable for pulling forces out of Iraq, 256-153.
2007 – A North Carolina State Bar disciplinary committee said disgraced prosecutor Mike Nifong would be disbarred for his disastrous prosecution of three Duke University lacrosse players falsely accused of rape.
2007 – US astronaut Sunita “Suni” Williams set a record aboard the international space station for the longest single spaceflight by any woman, surpassing the record of 188 days set by astronaut Shannon Lucid at the Mir space station in 1996.
2008 – In Utah the Bureau of Land Management announced a dinosaur find, calling the quarry near Hanksville “a major dinosaur fossil discovery.”
2008 – Same-sex marriage in California comes into effect following a court ruling on May 15, 2008.
2008 – Tiger Woods defeats Rocco Mediate in a playoff to win the 2008 U.S. Open Golf Championship.
2009 – US FDA said consumers should stop using Zicam Cold Remedy nasal gel and related products because they can permanently damage the sense of smell.
2009 – Sammy Sosa, one of six Major League Baseball players to have hit 600 home runs in his career, is reported to have tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs during the 2003 season.
2010 – BP, under pressure from President Obama, agreed to set aside $20 billion in a spill recovery escrow program to compensate Gulf Coast fishermen and others who have lost work and wages from the 8-week old massive oil spill.
2010 – Police in Seattle say they will “review training procedures” following the surfacing of a video which attracted international attention. The video shows a white officer from the Seattle department punching a black teenager girl in the face.
2010 – The United States announces new sanctions against Iran’s financial sector, shipping industry and Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps.
2011 – A senior aide and consultant to former Governor of Maryland Bob Ehrlich are indicted in connection to robocalls in the 2010 Maryland gubernatorial elections.
2011 – U.S. Representative Anthony Weiner of New York resigns his office amidst pressure from Democratic leadership and President Barack Obama after admitting to sending lewd photos via Twitter.
2011 – Traces of dioxin are found in stream waters near the United States Army base Camp Carroll in South Korea where drums of Agent Orange were allegedly dumped three decades ago.
2012 – One of the US’s most wanted fugitives, Air Force deserter David A. Hemler, has reportedly been living and working in Stockholm, Sweden, for the past 28 years. He assumed a false identity, got married and had a family in Sweden. Now a Swedish citizen, his lawyers have told him it is unlikely he will be extradited.
2012 – The Air Force’s robotic Boeing X-37B spaceplane returns to Earth after a classified 469-day orbital mission.
2012 – Daredevil Nik Wallenda becomes the first person to walk a tightrope above the brink of Niagara Falls between the United States and Canada.
2013 – The U.S. Supreme Court strikes down a law of the state of Arizona requiring that voters in federal elections show proof of citizenship, upholding the National Voter Registration Act of 1993.
2013 – Confidence in President Barack Obama drops below 50%, its lowest level in 19 months as Americans worry over broad government surveillance and other controversies.
2014 – 275 United States Military personnel are deployed to Iraq to provide extra protection for the American embassy in Baghdad,
2014 – President Barack Obama proposes to expand the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument, creating the world’s largest marine sanctuary in the Central Pacific Ocean.
2015 – U.S. Treasury Secretary Jack Lew announces that the Treasury will supplement Alexander Hamilton’s depiction on the U.S. ten-dollar bill with that of a woman, the identity of which is to be chosen after public debate.
2015 – CHURCH SHOOTING: Nine people are dead following a mass shooting at the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, South Carolina.
2016 – The Philadelphia City Council made the city the first major American city to pass a soda tax Thursday. The council approved a tax of 1.5 cents per ounce on a wide range of sugary and diet drinks. The tax would raise the cost of a can of soda by 18 cents, a six-pack by $1.08, a two-liter bottle by $1.02 and a 12-pack by $2.16. The soda tax would be an extra cost on top of the 8 percent sales tax that already applies to soda.
1738 – Mary Katharine Goddard, American printer and publisher (d. 1816)
1829 – Geronimo, Apache leader (d. 1909)
1836 – Wesley Merritt was a general in the United States Army during the CIVIL WAR and the Spanish-American War. (d. 1910)
1838 – Cushman Davis, American politician (d. 1900)
1890 – Stan Laurel, British-born actor and comedian Member of the comedy team, Laurel & Hardy(d. 1965)
1907 – Jack Albertson, American actor (d. 1981)
1909 – Archie Fairley Carr, biologist (d. 1987)
1917 – Katherine Graham, American publisher who led her family’s newspaper, The Washington Post, for more than two decades, (d. 2001)
1924 – Faith Domergue, American actor (d. 1999)
1934 – William Forsyth Sharpe, American economist, Nobel laureate
1937 – Erich Segal, American author
1943 – Joan Van Ark, American actress
HOWARD, JIMMIE E.
Rank and organization: Gunnery Sergeant (then S/Sgt.) U.S. Marine Corps, Company C, 1st Reconnaissance Battalion, 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, June 16th, 1966. Entered service at: Burlington, Iowa. Born: 27 July 1929, Burlington, Iowa. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his own life above and beyond the call of duty. G/Sgt. Howard and his eighteen-man platoon were occupying an observation post deep within enemy-controlled territory. Shortly after midnight a Viet Cong force of estimated battalion size approached the marines’ position and launched a vicious attack with small arms, automatic weapons, and mortar fire. Reacting swiftly and fearlessly in the face of the overwhelming odds, G/Sgt. Howard skillfully organized his small but determined force into a tight perimeter defense and calmly moved from position to position to direct his men’s fire. Throughout the night, during assault after assault, his courageous example and firm leadership inspired and motivated his men to withstand the unrelenting fury of the hostile fire in the seemingly hopeless situation. He constantly shouted encouragement to his men and exhibited imagination and resourcefulness in directing their return fire. When fragments of an exploding enemy grenade wounded him severely and prevented him from moving his legs, he distributed his ammunition to the remaining members of his platoon and proceeded to maintain radio communications and direct air strikes on the enemy with uncanny accuracy. At dawn, despite the fact that five men were killed and all but one wounded, his beleaguered platoon was still in command of its position. When evacuation helicopters approached his position, G/Sgt. Howard warned them away and called for additional air strikes and directed devastating small-arms fire and air strikes against enemy automatic weapons positions in order to make the landing zone as secure as possible. Through his extraordinary courage and resolute fighting spirit, G/Sgt. Howard was largely responsible for preventing the loss of his entire platoon. His valiant leadership and courageous fighting spirit served to inspire the men of his platoon to heroic endeavor in the face of overwhelming odds and reflect the highest credit upon G/Sgt. Howard, the Marine Corps, and the U.S. Naval Service.
*McCARD, ROBERT HOWARD
Rank and organization: Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 25 November 1918, Syracuse, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as platoon sergeant of Company A, 4th Tank Battalion, 4th Marine Division, during the battle for enemy Japanese-held Saipan, Marianas Islands, on June 16th, 1944. Cut off from the other units of his platoon when his tank was put out of action by a battery of enemy 77mm. guns, G/Sgt. McCard carried on resolutely, bringing all the tank’s weapons to bear on the enemy, until the severity of hostile fire caused him to order his crew out of the escape hatch while he courageously exposed himself to enemy guns by hurling hand grenades, in order to cover the evacuation of his men. Seriously wounded during this action and with his supply of grenades exhausted, G/Sgt. McCard then dismantled one of the tank’s machineguns and faced the Japanese for the second time to deliver vigorous fire into their positions, destroying 16 of the enemy but sacrificing himself to insure the safety of his crew. His valiant fighting spirit and supreme loyalty in the face of almost certain death reflect the highest credit upon G/Sgt. McCard and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
*SARNOSKI, JOSEPH R.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 43rd Bomber Group, Place and date: Over Buka Area, Solomon Islands, June 16th, 1943. Entered service at: Simpson, Pa. Born. 30 January 1915, Simpson, Pa. G.O. No.: 85, 17 December 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty. On 16 June 1943, 2d Lt. Sarnoski volunteered as bombardier of a crew on an important photographic mapping mission covering the heavily defended Buka area, Solomon Islands. When the mission was nearly completed, seventeen enemy fighters intercepted. At the nose guns, 2d Lt. Sarnoski fought off the first attackers, making it possible for the pilot to finish the plotted course. When a coordinated frontal attack by the enemy extensively damaged his bomber, and seriously injured five of the crew, 2d Lt. Sarnoski, though wounded, continued firing and shot down two enemy planes. A twenty-millimeter shell which burst in the nose of the bomber knocked him into the catwalk under the cockpit. With indomitable fighting spirit, he crawled back to his post and kept on firing until he collapsed on his guns. 2d Lt. Sarnoski by resolute defense of his aircraft at the price of his life, made possible the completion of a vitally important mission.
ZEAMER, JAY JR.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date: Over Buka area, Solomon Islands, June 16th, 1943. Entered service at: Machias, Maine. Birth: Carlisle, Pa. G.O. No.: 1, 4 January 1944. Citation: On 16 June 1943, Maj. Zeamer (then Capt.) volunteered as pilot of a bomber on an important photographic mapping mission covering the formidably defended area in the vicinity of Buka, Solomon Islands. While photographing the Buka airdrome. his crew observed about twenty enemy fighters on the field, many of them taking off. Despite the certainty of a dangerous attack by this strong force, Maj. Zeamer proceeded with his mapping run, even after the enemy attack began. In the ensuing engagement, Maj. Zeamer sustained gunshot wounds in both arms and legs, one leg being broken. Despite his injuries, he maneuvered the damaged plane so skillfully that his gunners were able to fight off the enemy during a running fight which lasted forty-five minutes. The crew destroyed at least five hostile planes, of which Maj. Zeamer himself shot down one. Although weak from loss of blood, he refused medical aid until the enemy had broken combat. He then turned over the controls, but continued to exercise command despite lapses into unconsciousness, and directed the flight to a base 580 miles away. In this voluntary action, Maj. Zeamer, with superb skill, resolution, and courage, accomplished a mission of great value.
GREGG, JOSEPH O.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 133d Ohio Infantry. Place and date: Near the Richmond & Petersburg Ry., Va., June 16th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Born: 5 January 1841, Circleville, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 May 1899. Citation: Voluntarily returned to the breastworks which his regiment had been forced to abandon to notify 3 missing companies that the regiment was falling back; found the enemy already in the works, refused a demand to surrender, returning to his command under a concentrated fire, several bullets passing through his hat and clothing.
JACKSON, FREDERICK R.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company F, 7th Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At James Island, S.C., June 16th, 1862. Entered service at: New Haven, Conn. Birth: New Haven, Conn. Date of issue: 1863. Citation: Having his left arm shot away in a charge on the enemy, he continued on duty, taking part in a second and a third charge until he fell exhausted from the loss of blood.
LEWIS, DEWITT CLINTON
Rank and organization: Captain, Company F, 97th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Secessionville, S.C., June 16th, 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: West Chester, Pa. Date of issue: 23 April 1896. Citation: While retiring with his men before a heavy fire of canister shot at short range, returned in the face of the enemy’s fire and rescued an exhausted private of his company who but for this timely action would have lost his life by drowning in the morass through which the troops were retiring.