Don’t Trip Over the Threshold - In the olden days, the groom carried the bride over the threshold to protect her from evil demons that might try to pull her under. A lot of superstitions come from evil spirits trying to kidnap the bride.
If you cut an apple in half and count how many seeds are inside, you will also know how many children you will have.
It’s bad luck to walk under a ladder. This came from the early Christian belief that a leaning ladder formed a triangle with the wall and ground. You must never violate the Holy Trinity by walking through a triangle, lest you be considered in league with the devil.
Skin Of Your Teeth. This saying means to barely escape from a harrowing situation. It comes from Job 19:20 (KJV), where God inflicts all sorts of terrible things on one of those who love him. Poor Job had all his animals stolen, his children die, his house collapse and his body covered with sores. Job has this to say; “My bone cleaveth to my skin and to my flesh, and I am escaped with the skin of my teeth.”
Knocking on wood was supposed to keep the evil spirits that lived in the wood from coming out to spoil our good fortune. Men believed that the gods lived in trees and if you wanted a favor from the gods, you would “knock on wood.” To thank the gods if your request were to come to fruition, you would “knock on wood.”
Good Luck Charms. Horseshoes - In ancient Greece, horses were considered sacred animals. If a horse’s shoe was hung over the door of a house, it was believed it would attract good luck. The open end of the horseshoe had to point up though, making it look like a roundish ‘U’, so that it would hold the good luck in. If it pointed downwards, the good luck was believed to have spilled out.
The number ‘13’
Both the sixth day of the week and the number 13 both have foreboding reputations said to date from ancient times, and their inevitable conjunction from one to three times a year portends more misfortune than some credulous minds can bear. Some people won’t go to work on Friday the 13th; some won’t eat in restaurants; many wouldn’t think of setting a wedding on the date. Of special interest to the student of history is the number of times the number ‘13’ shows up in the United States documents and symbols. It should be very clear that our Founding Fathers had no fear of this number.
Why do so many people get married in June? For one thing June has been known to be the luckiest month for weddings since the days of ancient Rome. The goddess Juno, after whom the month has been named, was the guardian of happy marriages. June also has the longest day of the year. A wedding in June therefore was supposed to materialize into a long and happy marriage.
Why do all engaged or married people wear a ring around their finger? The wedding ring comes to us from ancient Egypt. A circle is an uninterrupted and unbroken continuous ring – the sign of a lasting marriage. If the ring broke, it meant bad luck. If it were taken off, love might escape from the heart. Additionally, the Egyptians believed that a vein ran from the third finger of the left hand to the heart. That is how the third finger of left hand became the ring finger.
The custom of showering rice, now illegal in most of the US, comes from Pakistan, India and China. Rice is considered as one of the main diets in these countries. It stands for health and wealth. People throw rice on newlyweds so that the couple would have many children. This wasted or thrown away rice is also a gift for any evil spirits who might be lurking around so that they get busy in collecting and eating it leaving the couple in peace.
Finally, why is a diamond a ‘girl’s best friend’? Its sparkle was believed to come from the fires of love. Wearing a diamond was supposed to bring love and faithfulness.
“In the long run the pessimist may be proved right, but the optimist has a better time on the trip.”
~ Daniel L. Reardon
valediction val-uh-DIK-shuhn, noun:
the action of bidding farewell; a farewell
In use by 1614, from Latin valedicere “bid farewell,” from vale, imperative form of valere “be well” + dicere “to say”
1099 – First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon elected first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1298 – Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of Falkirk – King Edward I of England and his longbowmen defeats William Wallace and his Scottish schiltrons outside the town.
1376 – The legend of the Pied Piper of Hamelin leading rats out of town is said to have occurred on this date.
1587 – Colony of Roanoke: A second group of English settlers arrive on Roanoke Island off of North Carolina to re-establish the deserted colony. It was lead by John White and financed by Sir Walter Raleigh.
1620 – The Pilgrims set out from Holland destined for the New World. The Speedwell sailed to England from the Netherlands with members of the English Separatist congregation that had been living in Leiden, Holland.
1686 – Albany, New York formally chartered as a municipality by Governor Thomas Dongan
1789 – Thomas Jefferson became the first head of the U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs.
1793 – Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Pacific Ocean becoming the first Euro-American to complete a transcontinental crossing north of Mexico.
1796 – Surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company name an area in Ohio “Cleveland” after Gen. Moses Cleaveland, the superintendent of the surveying party.
1802 – Frigate Constellation defeats nine Corsair gunboats off Tripoli.
1823 – Marines attack pirates near Cape Cruz, Cuba.
1862 – Civil War: U.S.S. Essex and ram Queen of the West attacked C.S.S. Arkansas while it was at anchor with a disabled engine at Vicksburg.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Atlanta – Outside of Atlanta, Georgia, Confederate General John Bell Hood leads an unsuccessful attack on Union troops under General William T. Sherman on Bald Hill.
1864 – Civil War: A landing party from U.S.S. Oneida conducted a daring expedition that resulted in the capture of a Confederate cavalry patrol near Fort Morgan, Mobile Bay.
1873 – Louis Pasteur received a patent for the manufacture of beer and treatment of yeast.
1881 – The first volume of “The War of the Rebellion,” a compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, was published.
1893 – Katherine Lee Bates (1819-1910), Wellesley professor, wrote the words to the song “America the Beautiful,” while atop Pike’s Peak during a trip to Colorado. It appeared in print on July 4, 1895.
1905 – Body of John Paul Jones moved to Annapolis, MD for reburial.
1916 – In San Francisco, California, a bomb explodes on Market Street during a Preparedness Day parade killing 10 and injuring 40.
1919 – Two companies of Quantico Marines helped civil authorities restore order after race riots in Washington, DC.
1923 – Walter Johnson becomes the first to strikeout 3,000 batters.
1926 – Babe Ruth caught a baseball that was dropped from an airplane. The plane was at 250 feet and traveling at about 100 miles-per-hour. Ruth was knocked flat during the first two attempts.
1933 – Wiley Post becomes first person to fly solo around the world traveling 15,596 miles in 7 days, 18 hours and 49 minutes. in his single-engine Lockheed Vega 5B aircraft “Winnie Mae.”
1933 – Caterina Jarboro became the first African American prima donna of an opera company. The singer performed “Aida” with the Chicago Opera Company at the Hippodrome in New York City.
1934 – Outside Chicago’s Biograph Theatre, “Public Enemy No. 1″ John Dillinger is mortally wounded by FBI agents.
1937 – Senate rejects FDR proposal to enlarge the Supreme Court.
1937 – Hal Kemp and his orchestra recorded, “Got a Date with an Angel.” The distinctive vocal on the tune is provided by Skinnay Ennis.
1942 – World War II: The United States government begins compulsory civilian gasoline rationing due to the wartime demands.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: The systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto to Treblinka begins.
1942 – World War II: Gasoline rationing involving the use of coupons began along the Atlantic seaboard.
1943 – World War II: American forces led by Gen. George S. Patton captured Palermo, Sicily.
1943 – World War II: US naval forces including two battleships and four cruisers as well as lighter units bombard Japanese held Kiska Island.
1944 – World War II: On Guam, Marines of US 3rd Amphibious Corps attempt to link up their two beachheads with converging attacks. The American forces only advance about one mile against heavy Japanese resistance.
1946 – Jewish extremists, that included Menachem Begin and Yitzhak Shamir, blew up a wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, which housed British administrative offices.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Peg o’ My Heart” by The Harmonicats, “I Wonder, I Wonder, I Wonder” by Eddy Howard, “Chi-Baba, Chi-Baba” by Perry Como and “Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)” by Tex Williams all topped the charts.
1950 – “Mona Lisa” by Nat ‘King’ Cole topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: Major John H. Glenn, future astronaut and U.S. senator, claimed his third MiG kill in the last aerial victory of the war by a Marine pilot.
1953 – Korea War: First Lieutenant Sam P. Young, 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, was credited with the final MiG kill of the Korean War.
1954 – Governor Gordon Persons declares martial law in Russell County after a key witness in an upcoming grand jury inquiry is murdered to prevent his testimony about local corruption and vote fraud. One hundred fifty Alabama Guardsmen move in to “clean up.”
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Around the Clock” by Bill Haley & His Comets, “Honey-Babe” by Art Mooney, “The House of Blue Lights” by Chuck Miller and “I Don’t Care” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1955 – Vice President Richard M. Nixon chaired a cabinet meeting in Washington, D.C. It was the first time that a Vice President had carried out this task.
1957 – The Frisbee aka ‘Pluto Plater’ patented (Design patent 183,626). It was invented by a Los Angeles building inspector named Walter Frederick Morrison.
1957 – In El Segundo, CA, two police officers were shot and killed after pulling over a car for running a red light. Gerald Mason (68) was arrested in 2003 following fingerprint ID from a new FBI database.
1960 – Cuba nationalized all US owned sugar factories.
1961 – “Tossin’ & Turnin‘” by Bobby Lewis topped the charts.
1962 – Mariner program: Mariner 1 spacecraft flies erratically several minutes after launch and has to be destroyed.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Surf City” by Jan & Dean, “So Much in Love” by The Tymes, “Memphis” by Lonnie Mack and “Act Naturally” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1963 – World Heavyweight Champion Sonny Liston hung on to his boxing title by knocking out challenger Floyd Patterson in the first round of a bout in Las Vegas, NV.
1964 – Four Navy Divers (LCDR Robert Thompson, MC; Gunners Mate First Class Lester Anderson, Chief Quartermaster Robert A. Barth, and Chief Hospital Corpsman Sanders Manning) submerge in Sealab I for 10 days at a depth of 192 feet, 39 miles off Hamilton, Bermuda.
1966 – Vietnam War: B-52 bombers hit the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Vietnam for the first time.
1967 – “Windy“, by The Association topped the “Billboard” charts.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Too Late/I Feel the Earth Move” by Carole King, “You’ve Got a Friend” by James Taylor, “Don’t Pull Your Love” by Hamilton, Joe Frank & Reynolds and “When You’re Hot, You’re Hot” by Jerry Reed all topped the charts.
1972 – Venera 8 makes soft landing on Venus. The spacecraft took 117 days to reach Venus, entering the atmosphere today. Venera 8 transmitted data during the descent and continued to send back data for 50 minutes after landing.
1972 – “Lean On Me” by Bill Withers topped the “Billboard”charts.
1975 – Confederate General Robert E. Lee had his U.S. citizenship restored by the U.S. Congress.
1977 – Tony Orlando announced his retirement from show business.
1978 – “Shadow Dancing” by Andy Gibb topped the “Billboard” charts.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bad Girls” by Donna Summer, “Good Times” by Chic, “Makin’ It” by David Naughton and “Shadows in the Moonlight” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.
1986 – The US House of Representatives impeached Judge Harry E. Claiborne. He was later convicted by the Senate of tax evasion and bringing disrepute on the federal courts.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Alone” by Heart, “Shakedown” by Bob Seger, “Don’t Disturb This Groove” by The System and “I Know Where I’m Going” by The Judds all topped the charts.
1987 – The US began its policy of escorting re-flagged Kuwaiti tankers up and down the Persian Gulf to protect them from possible attack by Iran.
1990 – Greg LeMond won his third Tour de France.
1991 – Desiree Washington, a Miss Black America contestant, charged she’d been raped by boxer Mike Tyson in an Indianapolis hotel room. Tyson was later convicted of rape and served 3 years in prison.
1991 – Police arrested Jeffrey Dahmer after finding the remains of 11 victims in his apartment in Milwaukee. Dahmer confessed to 17 murders and was sentenced to life in prison. He was murdered while in prison in 1994.
1992 – Near Medellín, Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar escapes from his luxury prison fearing extradition to the United States.
1994 – Last of the large fragments of the comet Shoemaker-Levy strikes Jupiter.
1994 – O.J. Simpson pleaded innocent to the slaying of his ex-wife, Nicole, and her friend, Ronald Goldman.
1995 – Susan Smith was convicted by a jury in Union, South Carolina, of first-degree murder for drowning her two sons. She was later sentenced to life in prison.
1997 – The second Blue Water Bridge opens between Port Huron, Michigan and Sarnia, Ontario.
1997 – In Michigan some 2,800 UAW workers went on strike at a GM plant in Warren.
1999 – The first version of MSN Messenger was released by Microsoft.
1999 – The ashes of John F. Kennedy Junior, his wife, Carolyn, and her sister, Lauren Bessette, were cast into the sea off Martha’s Vineyard, consigned to the depths where they died.
1999 – In Waverly, Iowa, the Cedar River crested at 21 feet and flooded 65 city blocks forcing some 1500 people out of their homes.
2000 – Astronomers at the University of Arizona announced that they had found a 17th moon orbiting Jupiter.
2000 – Mack Metcalf (42) of Kentucky and his wife Virginia Metcalf Merida (46) won $34.1 million in the Powerball Lottery. They planned to split their winnings 60/40.
2002 – The Bush administration said it would not contribute to a UN program that it contends provides aid to the Chinese government to coerce women in getting abortions.
2003 – Members of 101st Airborne, aided by Special Forces, attack a compound in Iraq, killing Saddam Hussein’s sons Uday and Qusay, along with Mustapha Hussein, Qusay’s 14-year old son, and a bodyguard.
2003 – Months after her prisoner-of-war ordeal, Pvt. 1st Class Jessica Lynch returned home to a hero’s welcome in Elizabeth, W.Va.
2004 – The USS John F. Kennedy aircraft carrier collided with a dhow in the Arabian Gulf while running night flights in support of U.S. operations in Iraq. The crew of the small boat was missing.
2004 – The 567-page 9/11 Commission Report was made public.
2005 – In Irving, Texas, Kimberly-Clark Corp., maker of Kleenex tissues and Huggies diapers, said it plans to cut about 6,000 jobs and sell or close up to 20 manufacturing plants.
2008 – North Carolina-based Wachovia Corp., the 4th largest US bank, lost $8.86 billion in the 2nd quarter, and said it was slashing its dividend and cutting 6,350 jobs after losses tied to mortgages soared.
2009 – In Lynn, Massachusetts, 6 boys, aged 7-15, used bricks to severely beat Damien Merida (30), a Guatemalan immigrant, as he slept near railroad tracks.
2010 - Tornado strikes Battle Creek, Michigan.
2010 - U.S. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack Wednesday apologizes to Shirley Sherrod for firing her over a heavily-edited video tape of a speech, circulated by Tea Party activists, which alleged that Sherrod’s actions were the result of racism, and offers her an official job.
2011 – Democratically controlled Senate tables, effectively killing, the House Republicans’ “cut, cap and balance” deficit reduction bill.
2011 – Debt negotiations between President Barack Obama and Speaker of the House John Boehner collapse.
2012 – The US Marine Corps has created its first law enforcement battalions – a lean, specialized force of military police officers that it hopes can quickly deploy.The Corps activated three such battalions last month. Each is made up of roughly 500 military police officers and dozens of dogs.
2013 - Southwest Flight 345 crash-landed at LaGuardia Airport. The plane’s front-landing gear collapsed shortly after the plane touched down. Six passengers were taken to the hospital with minor injuries and 10 passengers were treated at the crash scene. New York Port Authority Acting Director of Aviation Thomas Bosco told the Associated Press that there was no warning signal leading up to the plane landing.
1844 – William Archibald Spooner, English priest and scholar (d. 1930)
1882 – Edward Hopper, American painter (d. 1967)
1890 – Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy, American Kennedy family matriarch (d. 1995)
1898 – Stephen Vincent Benét, American author (d. 1943)
1908 – Amy Vanderbilt, American author (d. 1974)
1923 – Bob Dole, American politician
1928 – Orson Bean, American film actor
1936 – Tom Robbins, American author
1955 – Willem Dafoe, American actor
1964 – David Spade, American comedian
1992 – Selena Gomez, American actress
LOBAUGH, DONALD R.
Rank and organization: Private, U .S. Army, 127th Infantry, 32d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Afua, New Guinea, 22 July 1944. Entered service at: Freeport, Pa. Birth: Freeport, Pa. G.O. No.: 31, 17 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty near Afua, New Guinea, on 22 July 1944. While Pvt. Lobaugh’s company was withdrawing from its position on 21 July, the enemy attacked and cut off approximately one platoon of our troops. The platoon immediately occupied, organized, and defended a position, which it held throughout the night. Early on 22 July, an attempt was made to effect its withdrawal, but during the preparation therefor, the enemy emplaced a machinegun, protected by the fire of rifles and automatic weapons, which blocked the only route over which the platoon could move. Knowing that it was the key to the enemy position, Pfc. Lobaugh volunteered to attempt to destroy this weapon, even though in order to reach it he would be forced to work his way about thirty yards over ground devoid of cover. When part way across this open space he threw a hand grenade, but exposed himself in the act and was wounded. Heedless of his wound, he boldly rushed the emplacement, firing as he advanced. The enemy concentrated their fire on him, and he was struck repeatedly, but he continued his attack and killed two more before he was himself slain. Pfc. Lobaugh’s heroic actions inspired his comrades to press the attack, and to drive the enemy from the position with heavy losses. His fighting determination and intrepidity in battle exemplify the highest traditions of the U.S. Armed Forces.
MASON, LEONARD FOSTER
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Asan-Adelup Beachhead, Guam, Marianas Islands on 22 July 1944. Born: 2 February 1920, Middleborough, Ky. Accredited to: Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as an automatic rifleman serving with the 2d Battalion, 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on the Asan-Adelup Beachhead. Suddenly taken under fire by two enemy machineguns not more than fifteen yards away while clearing out hostile positions holding up the advance of his platoon through a narrow gully, Pfc. Mason, alone and entirely on his own initiative, climbed out of the gully and moved parallel to it toward the rear of the enemy position. Although fired upon immediately by hostile riflemen from a higher position and wounded repeatedly in the arm and shoulder, Pfc. Mason grimly pressed forward and had just reached his objective when hit again by a burst of enemy machinegun fire, causing a critical wound to which he later succumbed. With valiant disregard for his own peril, he persevered, clearing out the hostile position, killing five Japanese, wounding another and then rejoining his platoon to report the results of his action before consenting to be evacuated. His exceptionally heroic act in the face of almost certain death enabled his platoon to accomplish its mission and reflects the highest credit upon Pfc. Mason and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
SKAGGS, LUTHER, JR.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, 3d Battalion, 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Asan-Adelup beachhead, Guam, Marianas Islands, 21 -22 July 1944. Entered service at: Kentucky. Born: 3 March 1923, Henderson, Ky. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as squad leader with a mortar section of a rifle company in the 3d Battalion, 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division, during action against enemy Japanese forces on the Asan-Adelup beachhead, Guam, Marianas Islands, 21 -22 July 1944. When the section leader became a casualty under a heavy mortar barrage shortly after landing, Pfc. Skaggs promptly assumed command and led the section through intense fire for a distance of 200 yards to a position from which to deliver effective coverage of the assault on a strategic cliff. Valiantly defending this vital position against strong enemy counterattacks during the night, Pfc. Skaggs was critically wounded when a Japanese grenade lodged in his foxhole and exploded, shattering the lower part of one leg. Quick to act, he applied an improvised tourniquet and, while propped up in his foxhole, gallantly returned the enemy’s fire with his rifle and handgrenades for a period of 8 hours, later crawling unassisted to the rear to continue the fight until the Japanese had been annihilated. Uncomplaining and calm throughout this critical period, Pfc. Skaggs served as a heroic example of courage and fortitude to other wounded men and, by his courageous leadership and inspiring devotion to duty, upheld the high traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
FORCE, MANNING F.
Rank and organization: Brigadier General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Atlanta, Ga., 22 July 1864. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Born: Washington, D.C. 17 December 1824. Date of issue: 31 March 1892. Citation: Charged upon the enemy’s works, and after their capture defended his position against assaults of the enemy until he was severely wounded.
HANEY, MILTON L.
Rank and organization: Chaplain, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Atlanta, Ga., 22 July 1864. Entered service at: Bushnell, Ill. Birth: Ohio. Date of issue: 3 November 1896. Citation: Voluntarily carried a musket in the ranks of his regiment and rendered heroic service in retaking the Federal works which had been captured by the enemy.
SANCRAINTE, CHARLES F.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 15th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Atlanta, Ga., 22 July 1864. Entered service at: Monroe, Mich. Born: 1840, Monroe, Mich. Date of issue: 25 July 1892. Citation: Voluntarily scaled the enemy’s breastworks and signaled to his commanding officer in charge; also in single combat captured the colors of the 5th Texas Regiment (C.S.A.).
SPRAGUE, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 63d Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Decatur, Ga., 22 July 1862. Entered service at: Sandusky, Ohio Born: 4 April 1817, White Creek, N.Y. Date of issue: 18 January 1894. Citation: With a small command defeated an overwhelming force of the enemy and saved the trains of the corps.
Legal Drinking Age Day
Monkeying Around Day
Just Interesting (Strange and Weird but useless)
Months that begin with a Sunday will always have a “Friday the 13th.”
The dial tone of a normal telephone is in the key of “F”.
The Earth orbits the Sun at a speed of about 67,000 miles per hour or 18.6 miles per second (1/10000 of the speed of light.)
Non-dairy creamer is flammable.
The reason firehouses have circular stairways is from the days of yore when the engines were pulled by horses. The horses were stabled on the ground floor and figured out how to walk up straight staircases. They could not, however, walk back down.
There are at least a half-million more automobiles in Los Angeles than there are people.
Money isn’t made out of paper; it’s made out of cotton.
The oceans contain enough salt to cover all the continents to a depth of nearly 500 feet.
The “57″ on Heinz ketchup bottle represents the number of varieties of pickles the company once had.
Your stomach has to produce a new layer of mucus every two weeks otherwise it will digest itself.
A duck’s quack doesn’t echo. No one knows why.
At any particular time, there are approximately 1,800 thunderstorms occurring in the Earth’s atmosphere.
A 2×4 is 1 1/2″ x 3 1/2″.
Chocolate kills dogs! True, chocolate affects a dog’s heart and nervous system. A few ounces are enough to kill a small sized dog.
Most lipstick contains fish scales.
During the California Gold Rush of 1849 miners sent their laundry to Honolulu for washing and pressing. Due to the extremely high costs in California during these boom years it was deemed more feasible to send the shirts to Hawaii for servicing.
There are no clocks in Las Vegas gambling casinos.
The capital of Burkina Faso is Ouagadougou. This is just in case you want to bamboozle someone.
There are no words in the dictionary that rhyme with: orange, purple, and silver!
The original name for the butterfly was ‘flutterby’!
By raising your legs slowly and lying on your back, you can’t sink in quicksand.
Celery has negative calories! It takes more calories to eat a piece of celery than the celery has in it to begin with.
In Gulliver’s Travels, Jonathan Swift described the two moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos, giving their exact size and speeds of rotation. He did this more than 100 years before either moon was discovered.
At the equator the Earth spins at about 1,038 miles per hour.
The name Wendy was made up for the book Peter Pan, there was never a recorded Wendy before!
Venus is the only planet that rotates clockwise.
Guinness Book of Records holds the record for being the book most often stolen from Public Libraries.
There are more than 250,000 rivers in the United States, which amounts to 3.5 million miles of rivers.
“If there are a hundred steps
In thy path to success
And ye have not reached it
In ninety-nine of them
Do not conclude
That the journey is a failure.”
~ Sir Lancelot
caveat \KAY-vee-at; KAV-ee-; KAH-vee-aht\, noun:
1. (Law) A notice given by an interested party to some officer not to do a certain act until the opposition has a hearing.
2. A warning or caution; also, a cautionary qualification or explanation to prevent misunderstanding
1669 – John Locke’s Constitution of the English colony of Carolina was approved.
1733 – John Winthrop was granted the first honorary Doctor of Law degree in the U.S., by Harvard College.
1823 – After pirate attack, LT David G. Farragut leads landing party to destroy the pirate stronghold in Cuba.
1846 – Mormons founded the first English settlement in the San Joaquin Valley of California.
1861 – Civil War: The first Battle of Bull Run was fought at Manassas, Virginia — a Confederate victory. Many folks, dressed in their Sunday best, came to watch and picnic as 60,000 men fought for over ten hours. When a shell destroyed a wagon blocking the main road of retreat, panic sent Union troops and picnickers scurrying back to Washington D.C.
1862 – U.S. steamers Clara Dolsen and Rob Roy and tug with troops, embarked, arrived from Cairo, IL to protect Evansville, IN, at the request of Governor Morton.
1865 -Wild Bill Hickok killed gunman Dave Tutt in Springfield, Illinois, in the first formal quick-draw duel.
1873 – A train robbery, mistakenly called the first, in America was pulled off by Jesse James and his gang. They took $3,000 from the Rock Island Express after derailing it at Adair, IA.
1875 - Mark Twain’s “The Adventure of Tom Sawyer” was registered.
1877 – The Baltimore and Ohio railroad strike turned bloody: the Maryland militia opened fire on the rail workers, leaving nine strikers dead and touching off a round of riots that engulfed Baltimore. The US Army & Marines broke the strike.
1896 – Mary Church Terrell founded the National Association of Colored Women in Washington, D.C.
1904 – Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson arrived in Cleveland with his mechanic Sewell Croker escorted by a fleet of new Winton automobiles. They were enroute to NYC from San Francisco
1904 – In a Gobron-Brilli, Louis Rigolly set a new land speed record of 103.58 mph at Ostend, Belgium. Built explicitly for land speed racing, it was the first vehicle to set record over 100 mph.
1918 – World War I: The German U-boat, U-156, fired at an American tug and four barges just off shore of Orleans, Massachusetts.
1919 – A dirigible crashed through a bank skylight killing 13 in Chicago.
1921 – Gen. Billy Mitchell flew off with a payload of makeshift aerial bombs and sank the former German battle ship Ostfriesland off Hampton Roads, Virginia; the first time a battleship was ever sunk by an airplane.
1925 – John T. Scopes was convicted of violating state law for teaching Darwin’s Theory of Evolution (later overturned).
1930 – The U.S. Veterans Administration was established by an executive order of President Herbert Hoover.
1931 – Ted Husing was master of ceremonies for the very first CBS-TV program. The first broadcast included Mayor James J. Walker, Kate Smith, and George Gershwin.
1941 – Roosevelt asks Congress to extend the draft period from one year to 30 months and to make similar increases in the terms of service for the National Guard.
1941 – Holocaust: Himmler ordered the building of the Majdanek concentration camp. The camp was built in eastern Poland as a principal site to exterminate Jews. It contained seven gas chambers.
1943 – World War II: The Allied advances continue. The British capture Gerbini, the Canadians take Leonforte and the Americans occupy Corleone and Castelvetrano.
1944 – World War II: Guam, in the western Pacific Ocean, which had been under Japanese occupation since Dec 1941, was retaken by U.S. Marines. The 3rd Marine Division establishes a beachhead at Asan, west of Agana. The 1st Marine Division comes ashore at Agat.
1944 – Harry S Truman accepted the Democratic party’s nomination for vice president.
1945 – World War II: American radio broadcasts call on Japan to surrender or face destruction.
1946 - CHART TOPPERS – “The Gypsy” by The Ink Spots, “They Say It’s Wonderful” by Frank Sinatra, “Surrender” by Perry Como and “New Spanish Two Step” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1946 – In first U.S. test of adaptability of jet aircraft to shipboard operations, XFD-1 Phantom makes landings and takeoffs without catapults from the USS Franklin D. Roosevelt.(CVB/CVA/CV-42)
1947 – Loren MacIver’s portrait of Emmett Kelly as Willie the Clown appeared on the cover of “LIFE” magazine.
1949 – The U.S. Senate ratified the North Atlantic Treaty.
1950 – Korean War: Major General William F. Dean was reported missing in action as his 24th Infantry Division fought its way out of Taejon. During that action, he set the example by single-handedly attacking a T-34 tank with a grenade and directing the fire of others from an exposed position.
1951 – “Too Young” by Nat ‘King’ Cole topped the charts.
1952 – A quake in the Tehachapi-Bakersfield area 50 miles north of Los Angeles, California, registers 7.7.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Little Things Mean a Lot” by Kitty Kallen, “Sh-Boom” by The Crew Cuts, “Goodnight, Sweetheart, Goodnight” by The McGuire Sisters and “Even Tho” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1954 – Construction for Disneyland began. The spot was in the rural Anaheim, California area with a purchase of a 160-acre orange grove near the junction of the Santa Ana Freeway (I-5) and Harbor Boulevard.
1954 – France surrendered North Vietnam to the Communists.
1955 – First sub powered by liquid metal cooled reactor launched-Seawolf.
1956 – “The Wayward Wind” by Gogi Grant topped the charts.
1957 – First Black to win a major US tennis tournament (Althea Gibson). She won the Women’s National clay-court singles competition.
1958 – “Hard Headed Woman” by Elvis Presley shares #1 with “Yakety Yak” by the Coasters. “Hard Headed Woman” became the first rock and roll single to earn the RIAA designation of “Gold Record.”
1958 – The last of “Arthur Godfrey’s Talent Scouts” programs aired on CBS-TV.
1959 – First atomic powered merchant ship, Savannah, is christened in Camden NJ. The NS Savannah served until 1971.
1959 – A U.S. District Court judge in New York City ruled that “Lady Chatterley’s Lover” was not a dirty book.
1961 – Captain Virgil “Gus” Grissom became the second American to go into space on the final suborbital Mercury test flight aboard the Liberty Bell 7.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Roses are Red” by Bobby Vinton, “The Wah Watusi” by The Orlons, “Johnny Get Angry” by Joanie Sommers and “Wolverton Mountain” by Claude King all topped the charts.
1962 – One hundred-sixty civil right activists were jailed after demonstration in Albany, Ga.
1965 – Gemini 5 launched atop Titan V with Cooper & Conrad.
1966 – Gemini X returned to Earth.
1968 – Arnold Palmer became the first golfer to earn a million dollars.
1969 – Neil Armstrong steps on the Moon at 2:56:15 AM (GMT).
1969 – Just one day after Neil Armstrong set foot on the moon, Duke Ellington and a portion of his band performed a 10-minute composition on ABC-TV titled “Moon Maiden“. The work featured piano, drums, bass and vocals.
1969 – Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin blasted off from the moon aboard the lunar module.
1969 – Riots in York, Pa., left 2 people dead, Lillie Belle Allen (27) along with rookie officer Henry Schaad (22). Schaad was mortally wounded 3 days before Allen was killed.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mama Told Me (Not to Come)” by Three Dog Night, “They Long to Be) Close to You” by Carpenters, “Band of Gold” by Freda Payne and “He Loves Me All the Way”( by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1973 – Hank Aaron becomes second major leaguer to hit 700 HRs.
1973 – “Bad, Bad Leroy Brown” by Jim Croce topped the “Billboard” pop-singles chart. Jim Croce died September 20th.
1974 – US House Judiciary approved two Articles of Impeachment against Pres. Nixon.
1976 – “Legionnaire’s Disease” struck in Philadelphia, Pa. 29 people died from the disease. The disease was first identified after an outbreak at the Bellevue Stratford Hotel in Philadelphia.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Shadow Dancing” by Andy Gibb, “Baker Street” by Gerry Rafferty, “Miss You by” The Rolling Stones and “Only One Love in My Life” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1979 – “Bad Girls” by Donna Summer topped the charts.
1979 – National Women’s Hall of Fame (Seneca Falls, NY) dedicated
1980 – Jean-Claude Droyer climbs the Eiffel Tower in 2 hrs 18 mins.
1980 – Draft registration began for 19 and 20-year-old men.
1983 – The coldest temperature ever measured on Earth was -129 at Vostok, Antarctica.
1984 – “When Doves Cry” by Prince topped the charts.
1984 – In Jackson, Michigan, a male die-cast operator (34) was pinned by a hydraulic Unimate robot. He died after 5 days. This was the first documented case of a robot killing a human in US.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Invisible Touch” by Genesis, “Sledgehammer” by Peter Gabriel, “Nasty” by Janet Jackson and “Until I Met You” by Judy Rodman all topped the charts.
1989 – The State Department confirmed an ABC News report that Felix S. Bloch, a veteran U.S. diplomat, was being investigated as a possible Soviet spy. Bloch was never charged with espionage, but was fired from his job in 1990.
1990 – “She Ain’t Worth It” by Glenn Medeiros featuring Bobby Brown topped the charts.
1996 – At the Atlanta Olympics, swimmer Tom Dolan gave the United States its first gold, in the 400-meter individual medley.
1997 – The U.S.S. Constitution, which defended the United States during the War of 1812, set sail under its own power for the first time in 116 years.
1998 – Astronaut Alan Shepard, the first American in space, died in Monterey, Calif., at age 74.
1998 – The Pentagon said it found no evidence to support allegations in a CNN report that U.S. troops had used nerve gas against American defectors in Laos.
1998 – In New York City a 48-story elevator scaffold collapsed at the construction site of the Conde Nast building on West 43rd St.
1999 – The missing plane of John F. Kennedy Jr. was found off of the coast of Martha’s Vineyard, MA. The bodies of Kennedy, his wife Carolyn Bessette and her sister Lauren Bessette were found on board. The plane had crashed on July 16, 1999.
2000 – NBC announced that they had found nearly all of Milton Berle’s kinescopes. The filmed recordings of Berle’s early TV shows had been the subject of a $30 million lawsuit filed by Berle the previous May.
2000 – Norm Mineta, the first Asian American to serve in a president’s cabinet, was sworn in as the 33rd US Secretary of Commerce.
2002 – Telecommunications giant WorldCom, Inc. filed for bankruptcy protection, shortly after disclosing it had inflated profits by nearly $4 billion through deceptive accounting.
2004 – The September 11 panel was harshly critical of the U.S. government in its voluminous report released after a 19-month investigation. The report called for sweeping changes in American intelligence agencies.
2005 – The House voted to extend the USA Patriot Act.
2005 – US and Canadian authorities reported the shutdown of a newly completed 100-yard border crossing tunnel outside Lynden, Wa., intended for smuggling marijuana.
2005 – In Phoenix, Az., a blistering heat wave was blamed for the deaths of eighteen people. Fourteen were thought to be homeless; three were elderly women.
2006 - Four men joined a conspiracy and executed a robbery of an armored car which was off-loading money at Casino Arizona on the Salt River Indian Reservation. Ismar Kabaklic, armed with a simulated AK-47 assault rifle, and one of his co-defendants, Adnan Alisic, approached the armored car drivers as they were off-loading money. Alisic sprayed the armored car guard with pepper spray. No one was killed, every one was captured.
2008 – Former Bosnian Serb president Radovan Karadzic arrested after more than a decade on the run as one of the world’s most wanted war crimes fugitives for his role in atrocities committed during the 1990s Balkans conflict.
2008 – The US FDA issued an advisory for consumers to avoid eating uncooked jalapeno peppers after it found a jalapeno grown in Mexico tested positive for salmonella.
2008 – A US B-52 bomber that was due to fly in a Liberation Day parade in the US territory of Guam crashed into the Pacific Ocean soon after take-off. All of the bomber’s six-man crew was killed.
2009 – The US Senate voted to stop production of the F-22 fighter plane, handing President Barack Obama a victory as he tries to reduce the size of the military.
2009 -The Ninth US Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco ruled that police who tell investigators about alleged corruption in their departments have no constitutional protection for their statements and can be fired.
2010 – President Obama signed major financial overhaul legislation named after Senator Chris Dodd (D-Conn) and Representative Barney Frank (D-Mass).
2010 – Scientists said a huge ball of brightly burning gas in a neighboring galaxy may be the heaviest star ever discovered, hundreds of times more massive than the sun after working out its weight for the first time.
2010 – A US federal jury found Beau Diamond of Sarasota, Fla., guilty of 18 counts of fraud and money laundering crimes in association with a $37 million Ponzi scheme between 2006 and 2009.
2011 – Two dozen people have died this week in a heat wave in the United States.
2011 – Space Shuttle Atlantis lands at the Kennedy Space Center, concluding its final mission and marking the end of the 30-year Space Shuttle program.
2011 – Team owners in the National Football League have voted to approve a 10- year deal with the NFL Players Association and to end a lockout if players approve.
1864 – Frances Cleveland (Folsom) – Wife of 22nd U.S. President Grover Cleveland; (d. Oct 29, 1947)
1899 – Ernest Hemingway, American Pulitzer Prize and Nobel Prize-winning author.
1920 – Isaac Stern, American concert violin impresario.
1922 – Kay Starr (Katherine Starks) (singer: Rock and Roll Waltz, My Heart Reminds Me, Wheel of Fortune, Side By Side)
1924 – Don Knotts American comedian, Emmy Award-winning actor: The Andy Griffith Show [1960-1967], Matlock, Three’s Company, The Don Knotts Show, The Steve Allen Show; died Feb 24, 2006)
1951 – Robin Williams (Academy Award-winning actor: Good Will Hunting ; comedian and/or actor:
|DEAN, WILLIAM F.
Rank and organization: Major General, U.S. Army, commanding general, 24th Infantry Division. Place and date: Taejon, Korea, 20 and 21 July 1950. Entered service at: California. Born: 1 August 1899, Carlyle, Ill. G.O. No.: 7, 16 February 1951. Citation: Maj. Gen. Dean distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the repeated risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. In command of a unit suddenly relieved from occupation duties in Japan and as yet untried in combat, faced with a ruthless and determined enemy, highly trained and overwhelmingly superior in numbers, he felt it his duty to take action which to a man of his military experience and knowledge was clearly apt to result in his death. He personally and alone attacked an enemy tank while armed only with a hand grenade. He also directed the fire of his tanks from an exposed position with neither cover nor concealment while under observed artillery and small-arm fire. When the town of Taejon was finally overrun he refused to insure his own safety by leaving with the leading elements but remained behind organizing his retreating forces, directing stragglers, and was last seen assisting the wounded to a place of safety. These actions indicate that Maj. Gen. Dean felt it necessary to sustain the courage and resolution of his troops by examples of excessive gallantry committed always at the threatened portions of his frontlines. The magnificent response of his unit to this willing and cheerful sacrifice, made with full knowledge of its certain cost, is history. The success of this phase of the campaign is in large measure due to Maj. Gen. Dean’s heroic leadership, courageous and loyal devotion to his men, and his complete disregard for personal safety.
Boiler Explosion on USS Bennington, 21 July 1905
At about 10:30 a.m. on 21 July 1905 the gunboat Bennington suffered one of the Navy’s worst peacetime disasters. She had arrived at San Diego, California, just two days earlier, after a difficult seventeen-day voyage from the Hawaiian Islands. Though both the ship and her men could have used a rest, they were soon ordered back to sea to assist the monitor “Wyoming“, which had broken down and needed a tow.
While steam was being raised, much of Bennington‘s crew, having completing the hard and dirty job of coaling, were cleaning their ship and themselves. Below decks, an improperly closed steam line valve, oily feed water and a malfunctioning safety valve conspired to generate steam pressures far beyond the boilers’ tolerance. Suddenly, one of them exploded. Men and equipment were hurled into the air, living compartments and deck space filled with scalding steam, and the ship’s hull was opened to the sea. But for quick work by the tug Santa Fe, which beached Bennington in relatively shallow water, the gunboat would probably have sunk. As it was, she was so badly damaged as to be not worth repairing. Even worse, more than sixty of her crew had been killed outright or were so severely injured that they did not long survive.
The number of casualties overhelmed the then-small city of San Diego’s hospitals, and badly burned Sailors had to be cared for in improvised facilities largely staffed by volunteers. Local morticians were hard pressed to prepare the Bennington‘s dead for burial. On the 23rd of July, the great majority were interred at the Army’s Fort Rosecrans, located on the Point Loma heights overlooking the entrance to San Diego Harbor and what would, years later, become the North Island Naval Air Station.
Despite the awful death toll, which far exceeded that sustained by the Navy in the Spanish-American War, and sometimes lurid rumors of misconduct on the part of some members of Bennington‘s engineering force, official investigations concluded that the tragedy had not resulted from negligence. Eleven surviving crewmen were awarded the Medal of Honor for ” extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion”. USS Bennington was raised, but remained inactive and unrepaired until sold in 1910.
DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY — NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER
805 KIDDER BREESE SE — WASHINGTON NAVY YARD
WASHINGTON DC 20374-5060
BOERS, EDWARD WILLIAM
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 March 1884, Cincinnati, Ohio. Accredited to: Kentucky. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Bennington, 21 July 1905. Following the explosion of a boiler of that vessel, Boers displayed extraordinary heroism in the resulting action.
BROCK, GEORGE F.
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Carpenter’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 18 October 1872, Cleveland, Ohio. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Bennington for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
CLAUSEY, JOHN J.
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Chief Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 16 May 1875, San Francisco, Calif. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Bennington for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 23 October 1883, Chicago, Ill. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Bennington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster Third Class U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Bennington, 21 July i905. Entered service at: Puget Sound, Wash. Born: 19 September 1885, Mankato, Minn. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Bennington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Watertender, U.S. Navy. (Biography not available.) G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Benington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 24 December 1870, Austria. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Bennington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
HILL, FRANK E.
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Ship’s Cook First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 31 July 1880, La Grange, Ind. Accredited to: Indiana. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Bennington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
NELSON, OSCAR FREDERICK
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Machinist’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 5 November 1881, Minneapolis, Minn. Accredited to: Minnesota. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Bennington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
SCHMIDT, OTTO DILLER
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 August 1884, Blair, Nebr. Accredited to: Nebraska. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: While serving on board the U.S.S. Bennington for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
SHACKLETTE, WILLIAM SIDNEY
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Hospital Steward, U.S. Navy. Born: 17 May 1880, Delaplane, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving on the U.S.S. Bennington at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
First Bull Run, Manassas, VA
In July, 1861, Abraham Lincoln sent Major General Irvin McDowell and the Union Army to take Richmond, the new base the Confederate government. On 21st July McDowell attacked the forces of Pierre T. Beauregard near the stone bridge over Bull Run at Manassas Junction, Virginia. The advance was blocked by Thomas Stonewall Jackson, who was described as standing like a “stone wall” against the enemy.
With the arrival of Confederate troops led by E. Kirby Smith, the inexperienced Union Army retreated. Attacked by armies led by Joseph E. Johnston, James Jeb Stuart, Jubal Early, and Braxton Bragg, the Union forces rushed back North. The South had won the first great battle of the war and the Northern casualties totaled 1,492 with another 1,216 missing. Nine men were given the Medal of Honor.
|First Bull Run, Va.21 July 1861|
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 5th U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861. Entered service at: Rockland, Maine. Birth: East Thomaston, Maine. Date of issue: 22 June 1894. Citation: remained upon the field in command of a section of Griffin’s Battery, directing its fire after being severely wounded and refusing to leave the field until too weak to sit upon the caisson where he had been placed by men of his command.
COOKE, WALTER H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company K, 4th Pennsylvania Infantry Militia. Place and date. At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861. Entered service at:——. Birth: Norristown, Pa. Date of issue: 19 May 1887. Citation: Voluntarily served as an aide on the staff of Col. David Hunter and participated in the battle, his term of service having expired on the previous day.
HARTRANFT, JOHN F.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 4th Pennsylvania Militia. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861. Entered service at: Norristown, Pa. Born: 16 December 1830, New Hanover Township, Montgomery County, Pa. Date of issue: 26 August 1886. Citation: Voluntarily served as an aide and participated in the battle after expiration of his term of service, distinguishing himself in rallying several regiments which had been thrown into confusion.
KNOWLES, ABIATHER J.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 2d Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861, Entered service at: ——. Born: 15 March 1830, LaGrange, Maine. Date of issue: 27 December 1894. Citation: Removed dead and wounded under heavy fire.
MERRITT, JOHN G.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 1st Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 1 April 1880. Citation: Gallantry in action; was wounded while capturing flag in advance of his regiment.
MURPHY, CHARLES J.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant and Quartermaster, 38th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861. Entered service at:——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: Took a rifle and voluntarily fought with his regiment in the ranks; when the regiment was forced back, voluntarily remained on the field caring for the wounded, and was there taken prisoner.
WHEELER, HENRY W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 2d Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861. Entered service at: Bangor, Maine. Born: 1842, Fort Smith, Ark. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: Voluntarily accompanied his commanding officer and assisted in removing the dead and wounded from the field under a heavy fire of artillery and musketry.
WILLCOX, ORLANDO B.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 1st Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Birth: Detroit, Mich. Date of issue: 2 March 1895. Citation: Led repeated charges until wounded and taken prisoner.
WITHINGTON, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company B, 1st Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861. Entered service at: Jackson, Mich. Born: 1 February 1835, Dorchester, Mass. Date of issue: 7 January 1895. Citation: Remained on the field under heavy fire to succor his superior officer.
TRUELL, EDWIN M.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 12th Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: Near Atlanta, Ga., 21 July 1864. Entered service at: Mauston, Wis. Birth: Lowell, Mass. Date of issue: 11 March 1870. Citation: Although severely wounded in a charge, he remained with the regiment until again severely wounded, losing his leg.
National Get Out of the Dog House Day
National Hug Your Child Day
God, in the amazing intricacy of His Creation, has shown His level of concern for all in the example of migratory birds.
Hummingbirds, in their migration of 600 miles, cross the Gulf of Mexico, beating their tiny wings up to 75 times a second for 25 hours, over six million wing-beats without stopping.
The migration of the black-poll warbles is marvelous, it weighs only three-quarters of a ounce, its final destination is South America, but it first heads toward Africa, out over the Atlantic Ocean, it picks up to some 20,000 feet, and the prevailing wind turns it toward South America.
Arctic terns are the long-distance champions, they complete an annual migration of about 22,000 miles, nesting north of the Arctic Circle, at summer’s end they fly south to spend the Antarctic summer near the South Pole, before heading north to return to the Arctic they may circle the entire continent of Antarctic.
Sandpipers migrate a thousand miles beyond the pampas to the tip of South America. The golden Plover travels from the arctic tundra to the Pampas in Argentina. Young long tailed cuckoos of New Zealand travel 4,000 miles to pacific islands to join their parents who had gone earlier.
Manx Shearwaters migrate from Wales to Brazil, leaving their chicks, which follow them as soon as they can fly. The penguins when removed 1,200 miles from their rookeries and released, they quickly oriented themselves and set out in a straight line for the open sea and food, they spend the dark winters at sea.
Science experiments indicate that birds may use the sun and the stars for the navigation. They appear to have internal clocks to compensate for the movement of these heavenly bodies. Some birds appear to have built-in magnetic compasses and some appear to have a map in their heads, with both starting and destination point on it. But to science, these are only effects and do not answer the concept of cause.
“Learn everything you can, anytime you can, from anyone you can – there will always come a time when you will be grateful you did.”
~ Sarah Caldwell
innocuous ih-NOK-yoo-uhs, adjective:
1. Harmless; producing no ill effect.
2.Not likely to offend or provoke; as, “an innocuous remark.”
1715 – The Riot Act took effect in England. The Act said … “If a dozen or more persons were disturbing the peace, an authority was required to command silence and read the statute. Any persons who failed to obey within one hour were to be arrested.”
Has anyone ever been “read the Riot Act?”
1801 – President Thomas Jefferson becomes “The Big Cheese”. A mammoth cheese was delivered to the White House by the itinerant Baptist preacher John Leland. The cheese was distilled from the single day’s milk production of nine hundred or more “Republican” cows. It measured more than four feet in diameter, thirteen feet in circumference, and seventeen inches in height; once cured, it weighed 1,235 pounds.
1846 – First visit of U.S. warships (USS Columbus and USS Vincennes) to Japan is unsuccessful in negotiating a treaty.
1858 – First baseball game where a fee was charged to watch the game. New York beats Brooklyn 22-18. It cost $.50 to get in and the players on the field did not receive a salary (until 1863).
1861 – Civil War: The Congress of the Confederate States began holding sessions in Richmond, Virginia.
1861 – Civil War: The New York Tribune compared Peace Democrats to the venomous Copperhead snake, which strikes without warning.
1861 – Civil War: First major battle. The battle becomes known by the Confederates as Manassas, while the Union called it Bull Run. It was fought on Judith Carter Henry’s farm.
1862 – Civil War: A guerrilla campaign in GA (Porter’s & Poindexter’s) The battle left 580 Union causalities and 2,866 Confederate casualties.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Peachtree Creek – Near Atlanta, Georgia, Confederate forces led by General John Bell Hood unsuccessfully attack Union troops under General William T. Sherman.
1868 – First use of tax stamps on tobacco products.
1871 – British Columbia entered Confederation as a Canadian province.
1872 – The United States Patent Office awards the first patent for wireless telegraphy to Mahlon Loomis.
1881 – Sioux Indian leader Sitting Bull, a fugitive since the Battle of the Little Big Horn, surrendered to federal troops. This was five years after General George A. Custer’s infamous defeat.
1894 – Two thousand federal troops were recalled from Chicago with the end of the Pullman strike.
1903 – Ford Motor Company shipped its first car.
1912 – Philadelphia Phillies Sherry Magee steals home twice in one game.
1917 – The draft lottery in World War I went into operation. Secretary of War Baker drew the first draft number (#258) from a large bowl. About 10 million men registered for first draft registration day.
1934 – Iowa sets its state record high temperature of 118° in Keokuk.
1935 – NBC radio debuted “G-men”. It was sponsored by Chevrolet. The title was changed to “Gang Busters” on January 15, 1936, and the show had a 21-year run through November 20, 1957.
1940 – Billboard magazine publishes its first “Music Popularity Chart”; the first number one song is Frank Sinatra’s “I’ll Never Smile Again“.
1942 – The first detachment of the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) began basic training at Fort Des Moines, Iowa.
1942 – Legion of Merit Medal authorized by Congress. (Public Law 671 – 77th Congress, Chapter 508, 2d Session)
1944 – World War II:An attempt by a group of German officials to assassinate Adolf Hitler with a bomb failed as the explosion at Hitler’s Rastenburg headquarters only wounded the Nazi leader.
1944 – World War II: US invaded Japanese occupied Guam. Japanese aircraft carrier Hijo was sunk by US air attack.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust: The death march of 1,200 Jews from Lipcani, Moldavia, began.
1944 – The Democratic Party nominates Franklin D. Roosevelt for a fourth term as president.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dream” by The Pied Pipers, “The More I See You” by Dick Haymes, “Sentimental Journey” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day) and “Stars and Stripes on Iwo Jima” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1947 – The National Football League ruled that no professional team could sign a player who had college eligibility remaining.
1948 – William Forster, US Communist Party chairman, was arrested.
1950 – “Arthur Murray Party” (10:00) premiers on ABC TV.
1950 – Black troops win first US Victory in Korea, the 24th Infantry Regiment.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Song from Moulin Rouge” by The Percy Faith Orchestra, “April in Portugal” by The Les Baxter Orchestra, “I’m Walking Behind You” by Eddie Fisher and “It’s Been So Long” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1957 – “Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1960 – First submerged submarine to fire Polaris missile (George Washington).
1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tossin’ and Turnin’” by Bobby Lewis, “The Boll Weevil Song” by Brook Benton, “Yellow Bird” by Arthur Lyman Group and “Heartbreak U.S.A.” by Kitty Wells all topped the charts.
1963 – First surfin’ record to go #1-Jan & Dean’s “Surf City“.
1963 – Ray Conniff received two gold-record awards one for the albums, “Concert in Rhythm” and the other for “Memories are Made of This“, on Columbia Records.
1964- Four Navy divers enter Project SEALAB I capsule moored 192 feet on the ocean floor off Bermuda for 11 day experiment.
1967 – Race riots took place in Memphis, Tenn.
1968 – “Grazing in the Grass” by Hugh Masekela topped the charts.
1968 – During a BBC radio interview, actress Jane Asher announced that her engagement to Beatle Paul McCartney was off; he was not the first to find out.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS -“In the Year 2525” by Zager & Evans, “Spinning Wheel” by Blood, Sweat & Tears, “Good Morning Starshine” by Oliver and “I Love You More Today” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1969 – Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin became the first men to walk on the Moon. Armstrong stepped on the lunar surface at 10:56 ET and proclaimed, “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.”
1969 – “Buzz: Aldrin” became the first person to take Communion on any extraterrestrial body. It occurred just after his public statement. His own account says: “In the radio blackout, I opened the little plastic packages which
contained the bread and the wine. I poured the wine into the
chalice our church had given me. In the one-sixth gravity of the
moon, the wine slowly curled and gracefully came up the side of the
cup. Then I read the scripture, ‘I am the vine, you are the branches.
Whosoever abides in me will bring forth much fruit..
Apart from me you can do nothing.’
“I had intended to read my communion passage back to earth,
but at the last minute [they] had requested that I not do this.
NASA was already embroiled in a legal battle with Madelyn Murray
O’Hare, the celebrated opponent of religion, over the Apollo 8 crew
reading from Genesis while orbiting the moon at Christmas. I agreed
“I ate the tiny Host and swallowed the wine. I gave thanks for
the intelligence and spirit that had brought two young pilots
to the Sea of Tranquility. It was interesting for me to think: the
very first liquid ever poured on the moon, and the very first food
eaten there, were the communion elements.”
1974 – “Rock Your Baby” by George McRae topped the charts.
1976 – America’s Viking I robot spacecraft made a successful, first-ever landing on Mars. This was the seventh anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing.
1976 – Hank Aaron hit his 755th and final home run off the California Angels’ Dick Drago at Milwaukee County Stadium. October 3rd was his final Major League game.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Da Doo Ron Ron” by Shaun Cassidy, “Looks Like We Made It” by Barry Manilow, “I Just Want to Be Your Everything” by Andy Gibb and “It Was Almost like a Song” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1977 – Flash flood hits Johnstown, PA, kills 80 & causing $350 million damage.
1981 – David Allen Kirwan, a 24-year-old, died from third-degree burns after attempting to rescue a friend’s dog from the 200°F (93°C) water in Celestine Pool, a hot spring at Yellowstone National Park.
1982 – President Ronald Reagan pulled the U.S. out of comprehensive test ban negotiations indefinitely.
1983 – The US House censured Reps. Gerry Studds of Massachusetts and Daniel B. Crane of Illinois for having sexual relations with pages.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “A View to a Kill” by Duran Duran, “Raspberry Beret” by Prince & The Revolution, “Everytime You Go Away” by Paul Young and “Dixie Road” by Lee Greenwood all topped the charts.
1985 – US divers found the wreck of Spanish galleon Atocha. The divers began hauling up $400 million in coins and silver ingots from the sea floor in the biggest underwater jackpot in history.
1987 – Don Mattingly ties ML record as he makes 22 putouts in the Yankees 7-1 win over the Twins. The feat was last accomplished in the American League by Hal Chase in 1906.
1989 – President Bush called for a long-range space program to build an orbiting space station, establish a base on the moon and send a manned mission to the planet Mars.
1990 – William J. Brennan (1906-1997), US Supreme Court Justice, one of the court’s most liberal voices, left office after serving over 33 years.
1991 – “Unbelievable” by EMF topped the charts.
1993 – White House deputy counsel Vincent Foster Jr. was found shot to death, a suicide, in a park near Washington, DC.
1998 – A smoky fire aboard the cruise ship Ecstasy just two miles from the Florida shore forcing its return to port.
1999 – After 38 years at the bottom of the Atlantic, astronaut Gus Grissom’s “Liberty Bell Seven” Mercury capsule was lifted to the surface.
2000 – A federal grand jury indicted two former Utah Olympic officials for their alleged roles in paying one million dollars in cash and gifts to help bring the 2002 games to Salt Lake City.
2001 – Ira Einhorn, convicted in absentia of killing his girlfriend, was flown from France and handed over to Philadelphia police.
2003 – Golf rookie Ben Curtis, ranked 396th in the world, wins the British Open, the first golfer to win a major golf tournament on his first try in more than ninety years.
2003 – The sons of Saddam Hussein, Uday and Qusay, are killed in an engagement with US forces in Baghdad.
2004 – Microsoft said it would make a one-time dividend payment of $32 billion and buy back up to $30 billion in company stock over the next 4 years.
2004 – In Saudi Arabia the head of slain American hostage Paul M. Johnson Jr., who was kidnapped and decapitated by militants last month, was found by security forces during a raid that targeted the hideout of the Saudi al-Qaida chief. Two militants were killed.
2005 - Eastman Kodak Co. said it is cutting as many as 10,000 more jobs as the company that turned picture-taking into a hobby for the masses navigates a tough transition from film to digital photography.
2005 - Actor James Doohan (85), who transported the crew of “Star Trek” through space on the command “Beam me up, Scotty,” died. He has asked that his ashes be blasted into space.
2006 - President Bush delivered his first address to the 97th annual NAACP convention after having declining invitations for five years in a row.
2006 – The US Senate voted 98-0 to renew the landmark 1965 Voting Rights Act for another quarter-century.
2006 – The US Postal Service released new postage stamps featuring Batman, Superman, Wonder Woman, Supergirl and a half dozen other superheroes.
2007 – A 4.2 earthquake jolted San Francisco Bay area residents awake, breaking glass and rattling nerves, although there were no immediate reports of injuries.
2007 – In Ohio an ambulance heading to a hospital was broadsided by a car in Crane Township and five people were killed including three EMT technicians and two patients.
2007 – President Bush signed an executive order prohibiting cruel and inhuman treatment, including humiliation or denigration of religious beliefs, in the detention and interrogation of terrorism suspects.
2008 – Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama pledged steadfast aid to Afghanistan in talks with its Western-backed leader and vowed to pursue the war on terror “with vigor” if he is elected.
2010 – The Oakland, Ca., City Council adopted regulations permitting industrial-scale marijuana farms.
2010 – Actress Lindsay Lohan starts a 90-day sentence for breaking her parole for a 2007 conviction for drunk driving in California.
2011 – The Supreme Court of the state of Georgia has agreed to the execution of Cobb County killer Andrew Grant DeYoung to be videotaped.
356 BC – Alexander the Great, Macedonian-Greek king and military leader (d. 323 BC)
1591 – Anne Hutchinson, religious liberal, one of the founders of Rhode Island.
1822 – Gregor Mendel was an Augustinian priest and scientist, and is often called the father of genetics for his study of the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants.
1824 – Alexander Schimmelfennig, born in Prussia, Brigadier General Union volunteers
1836 – Thomas C Allbutt, English physiologist, Diseases of the Heart
1919 – Sir Edmund Hillary, New Zealand-born explorer, first to climb Mt. Everest.
1920 – Elliot L. Richardson, Attorney General, 1973, Secretary of Defense, 1973
1921 – Frederick Schroeder, Jr., tennis champ, U.S. Open-1942
1930 – Chuck Daly, American basketball coach. He led the Detroit Pistons to consecutive National Basketball Association (NBA) Championships in 1989 and 1990, and the Dream Team to the men’s basketball gold medal at the 1992 Summer Olympics.
1933 – Nelson Doubleday, publisher, Doubleday, owner for the New York Mets
1933 – Buddy Knox was an American singer and songwriter best known for his 1957 rockabilly hit song, “Party Doll”.
1938 – Natalie Wood was a successful child actor in Miracle on 34th Street as well as Rebel Without a Cause with James Dean.
1938 – Diana Rigg, born in Doncaster, England, actress, Emma Peel-Avengers, Hospital
1947 – Carlos Santana, born in Mexico, rock guitarist, Santana-Black Magic Woman
1957 – Nancy Cruzan was a figure in the right-to-die movement. After an auto accident left her in a persistent vegetative state, her family petitioned in courts for three years, as far as the U.S. Supreme Court (Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health), to have her feeding tube removed.
1964 – Terri Irwin, American naturalist; widow of Steve Irwin.
1968 – Chris Kennedy, actor, Bill and Ted’s Excellent Adventure
1971 Charles Johnson, born in Fort Pierce, Florida, catcher, U.S. Olympics 1992, Marlins.
|*COLLIER, GILBERT G.
Rank and organization: Sergeant (then Cpl.), U.S. Army, Company F, 223d Infantry Regiment, 40th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Tutayon, Korea, 19-20 July 1953. Entered service at: Tichnor Ark. Born: 30 December 1930, Hunter, Ark. G.O. No.: 3, 12 January 1955. Citation: Sgt. Collier, a member of Company F, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. Sgt. Collier was pointman and assistant leader of a combat patrol committed to make contact with the enemy. As the patrol moved forward through the darkness, he and his commanding officer slipped and fell from a steep, 60-foot cliff and were injured. Incapacitated by a badly sprained ankle which prevented immediate movement, the officer ordered the patrol to return to the safety of friendly lines. Although suffering from a painful back injury, Sgt. Collier elected to remain with his leader, and before daylight they managed to crawl back up and over the mountainous terrain to the opposite valley where they concealed themselves in the brush until nightfall, then edged toward their company positions. Shortly after leaving the daylight retreat they were ambushed and, in the ensuing fire fight, Sgt. Collier killed two hostile soldiers, received painful wounds, and was separated from his companion. Then, ammunition expended, he closed in hand-to-hand combat with four attacking hostile infantrymen, killing, wounding, and routing the foe with his bayonet. He was mortally wounded during this action, but made a valiant attempt to reach and assist his leader in a desperate effort to save his comrade’s life without regard for his own personal safety. Sgt. Collier’s unflinching courage, consummate devotion to duty, and gallant self-sacrifice reflect lasting glory upon himself and uphold the noble traditions of the military service.
|*LIBBY, GEORGE D.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 3d Engineer Combat Battalion, 24th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Taejon, Korea, 20 July 1950. Entered service at: Waterbury, Conn. Birth: Bridgton, Maine. G.O. No.: 62, 2 August 1951. Citation: Sgt. Libby distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. While breaking through an enemy encirclement, the vehicle in which he was riding approached an enemy roadblock and encountered devastating fire which disabled the truck, killing or wounding all the passengers except Sgt. Libby. Taking cover in a ditch Sgt. Libby engaged the enemy and despite the heavy fire crossed the road twice to administer aid to his wounded comrades. He then hailed a passing M-5 artillery tractor and helped the wounded aboard. The enemy directed intense small-arms fire at the driver, and Sgt. Libby, realizing that no one else could operate the vehicle, placed himself between the driver and the enemy thereby shielding him while he returned the fire. During this action he received several wounds in the arms and body. Continuing through the town the tractor made frequent stops and Sgt. Libby helped more wounded aboard. Refusing first aid, he continued to shield the driver and return the fire of the enemy when another roadblock was encountered. Sgt. Libby received additional wounds but held his position until he lost consciousness. Sgt. Libby’s sustained, heroic actions enabled his comrades to reach friendly lines. His dauntless courage and gallant self-sacrifice reflect the highest credit upon himself and uphold the esteemed traditions of the U.S. Army.
|KEEFER, PHILIP B.
Rank and organization: Coppersmith, U.S. Navy. Born: 4 September 1875, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: District of Columbia. G.O. No.: 501, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Iowa off Santiago de Cuba, 20 July 1898. Following the blow-out of a manhole gasket of that vessel which caused the fireroom to be filled with live steam and the floor plates to be covered with boiling water, Keefer showed courageous and zealous conduct in hauling fires from two furnaces of boiler B.
Rank and organization: Fireman First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 October 1872, City Point, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 501, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Iowa off Santiago de Cuba, 20 July 1898. Performing his duty at the risk of serious scalding at the time of the blowing out of the manhole gasket on board the vessel, Penn hauled the fire while standing on a board thrown across a coal bucket one foot above the boiling water which was still blowing from the boiler.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 136th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Peach Tree Creek, Ga., 20 July 1864. Entered service at: Avon, N.Y. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 7 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 31st Mississippi (C.S.A.).
|CROSIER, WILLIAM H. H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Peach Tree Creek, Ga., 20 July 1864. Entered service at: Skaneateles, N.Y. Birth: Skaneateles, N.Y. Date of issue: 12 January 1892. Citation: Severely wounded and ambushed by the enemy, he stripped the colors from the staff and brought them back into the line.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 104th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Peach Tree Creek, Ga., 20 July 1864. Entered service at: Ottawa, Ill. Born: 15 January 1839, Ephratah, Fulton County, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: With conspicuous coolness and bravery rallied his men under a severe attack, re-formed the broken ranks, and repulsed the attack.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 14th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Carters Farm, Va., 20 July 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Monomgalis County, W.Va. Date of issue: 31 January 1896. Citation: Charged upon a Confederate fieldpiece in advance of his comrades and by his individual exertions silenced the piece.
|WILLIAMS, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 82d Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Peach Tree Creek, Ga., 20 July 1864. Entered service at: Miami County, Ohio. Birth: Hancock County, Ohio. Date of issue: 19 June 1894. Citation: Voluntarily went beyond the lines to observe the enemy; also aided a wounded comrade.
The Presidential Succession Act establishes the line of succession to the powers and duties of the office of President of the United States in the event that neither a President nor Vice President is able to “discharge the powers and duties of the office.” The current Presidential Succession Act was adopted in 1947 and is codified at 3 U.S.C. § 19.
The original Presidential Succession Act designated the Senate president pro tempore as the first in line to succeed the president should he and the vice president die unexpectedly while in office. The reason there was even one ogf these was because of the early mortality rates in the early 1800’s. If the Vice President for some reason could not take over the duties, the speaker of the house was placed next in the line of succession. In 1886, during Grover Cleveland’s administration, Congress removed both the Senate president and the speaker of the house from the line of succession.
From1886 until 1947, two cabinet officials, (their order in line depended on the order in which the agencies were created) became the next in line to succeed a president should the vice president also become incapacitated or die. The decision was controversial. Many members of Congress felt that those in a position to succeed the president should be elected officials. They were concerned that cabinet members were political appointees, thereby giving both Republican and Democratic parties a chance at controlling the White House.
After Franklin Roosevelt died of a stroke during his fourth term, the new president, Harry Truman, advanced the view that the speaker of the house, as an elected official, should be next in line to be president after the vice president. Also remember that this was the beginning of the atomic age and now they were going to have consider high mortality rates. On July 18, 1947, he signed an act that resurrected the original 1792 law, but placed the speaker ahead of the Senate president pro tempore in the hierarchy.
In the event neither a House Speaker nor a President pro tem of the Senate decided to accept the acting presidency, section 19(d) of the act provides that the Cabinet member who is highest on a specified list shall act as President, provided that the Cabinet member has been confirmed by the Senate. The order of succession proceeds down this list in the event that a Cabinet position is vacant or its incumbent is unable or unwilling to assume the acting presidency.
Now there is a need to re-assess the succession act in light of 9/11/2001. It has raised concerns about the need for continuity in the Executive Branch in the event of a mass terrorist attack on the leadership of the United States. A major change that needs immediate attention is the Office of Homeland Security is not currently in the Secession Plan and another problem is that (2011) the Attorney General has never been approved by Congress and so cannot serve.
“The important thing to remember is that if you don’t have that inspired enthusiasm that is contagious whatever you do have is also contagious.”
Maven ( MAY-vuhn) noun
An expert, connoisseur, or enthusiast. [From Yiddish meyvn, from Hebrew mebhin (one who understands).]
64 – Great fire of Rome: A fire begins to burn in The Circus Maximus in Rome and quickly spread in in the merchant area. It soon burns completely out of control while Emperor Nero reportedly plays his lyre and sings while watching the blaze from a safe distance.
1779 – Three-hundred Continental Marines attacked the British at Fort George, Penobscot Bay.
1799 – During Napoleon Bonaparte’s Egyptian campaign, a French soldier discovered the Rosetta Stone, a black basalt slab inscribed with ancient writing, about 35 miles north of Alexandria.
1812 – War of 1812: USS Constitution escapes from British squadron after three-day chase off New Jersey.
1848 – In Seneca Falls, New York, a women’s rights convention called by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia C. Mott — the first ever held in the U.S. — convened. Bloomers were introduced at the convention.
1862 – Civil War: Naval court martial meeting in Richmond acquitted Flag Officer Tattnall with honor for ordering the destruction of C.S.S. Virginia on 11 May after the evacuation of Norfolk.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Fort Wagner/Morris Island – The first formal African American military unit, the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, unsuccessfully assaults Confederate-held Battery Wagner but their valiant fighting still proves the worth of African-American soldiers during the war.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate General John Hunt Morgan’s raid on the North is dealt a serious blow when a large part of his force is captured as they try to escape across the Ohio River at Buffington Island, Ohio.
1864 – Civil War: Second day of the Battle of Winchester, VA (Stephenson’s Depot).
1867 – The US enacted Reconstruction.
1877 – First Wimbledon tennis championships held. The winner of the very first Lawn Tennis Championship was Spencer Gore.
1886 – “Atlanta”, the first steel-hulled American cruiser armed with breechloading rifled guns, is commissioned.
1897 – LT Robert E. Peary departs on year long Arctic Expedition which makes many important discoveries, including one of the largest meteorites, Cape York.
1909 – First unassisted triple play in major-league baseball by Cleveland Indians shortstop Neal Ball in a game against Boston.
1913 – Billboard publishes earliest known “Last Week’s 10 Best Sellers”.
1914 – Boston Braves begin drive from last to first place in the National League. They won the pennant and the World Series as well.
1916 – World War I – Battle at Fromelles, France, German machine guns and artillery left over 5,500 Australians and over 1,500 British killed, wounded or missing in less than 24 hours.
1918 – World War I: Armored cruiser USS San Diego sunk off Fire Island, NY by a mine laid by U-156, six lost.
1926 – Walter Hagen scored a 132 for 36 holes of golf at the Eastern Open tournament. He set a world’s record low tourney score in the process.
1935 – First parking meters installed in Oklahoma City.
1938 – Douglas “Wrong Way” Corrigan arrives in Ireland.
1939 – Dr. Roy P. Scholz became the first surgeon to use fiberglass sutures.
1939 – Jack Teagarden and his orchestra recorded “Aunt Hagar’s Blues.”
1940 – President Roosevelt signs the “Two-Ocean Navy Expansion Act.” Including the existing ships, the fleet will comprise 35 battleships, 20 carriers and 88 cruisers.
1940 – World War II: Hitler ordered Great Britain to surrender.
1941 – British Prime Minister Winston Churchill launched his “V for Victory” campaign in Europe.
1941 – First US Army flying school for black cadets dedicated (Tuskegee AL).
1942 – World War II: The Germans test fly the Messerschmitt Me-262 using only its jets for the first time.
1942 – World War II: German U-boats were withdrawn from positions off the U.S. Atlantic coast due to effective American anti-submarine countermeasures.
1943 – World War II: During World War II, more than 150 B-17 and 112 B-24 bombers attacked Rome for the first time.
1943 – World War II: The United States bombs railway yards in Rome in an attempt to break the will of the Italian people to resist.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be Seeing You” by Bing Crosby, “Long Ago and Far Away” by Helen Forrest & Dick Haymes, “Amor” by Bing Crosby and “Straighten Up and Fly Right” by King Cole Trio all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: Approximately 1,200 8th Air Force bombers bombed targets in SW Germany. Some 500 15th Air Force Liberators (Flying Fortresses) bombed the Munich vicinity.
1945 – World War II: The USAAF struck the cities of Choshi, Hitachi, Fukui and Okazaki with 600 B-29 Superfortress bombers dropping some 4000 tons of bombs. It is largest employment of the bomber type yet.
1946 – Marilyn Monroe acted in her first screen test. The first two movies she appeared in were minor roles : “Scudda Hoo! Scudda Hay!” and “Dangerous Years.”
1947 – President Harry S Truman signs the Presidential Succession Act into law which places the Speaker of the House and the Senate President Pro Tempore next in the line of succession after the Vice President.
1948 – “Our Miss Brooks“, starring Eve Arden and Gale Gordon, debuted on CBS radio. The program stayed on radio until 1957, running simultaneously on TV from 1952 to 1956.
1951 – Thoroughbred race horse “Citation” retired from racing. For his performances, Citation was voted Horse of the Year honors. Citation was the first horse to win US $1 million.
1951 – In Omaha, Neb., a trenching machine sliced through the main transcontinental telephone cable and disrupted coast-to-coast communication.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Yours” by Eddie Fisher, “Kiss of Fire” by Georgia
Gibbs, “Walkin’ My Baby Back Home” by Johnnie Ray and “Are You Teasing Me” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: The communists communicated a willingness to conclude an armistice on the existing agreed terms.
1953 – Korean War: Air Force Captain Ronnie L. Moore and Lieutenant Colonel Vermont Garrison, both of the 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, qualified as the ninth and 10th “double aces” of the Korean War, with 10 kills each.
1954 – Elvis Presley’s first single was released by Sun Records. It was “That’s All Right“ b/w “Blue Moon of Kentucky.“
1956 – Secretary of State John Foster Dulles announces that the United States is withdrawing its offer of financial aid to Egypt to help with the construction of the Aswan Dam on the Nile River.
1957 – First rocket with nuclear warhead fired, Yucca Flat, NV.
1958 – “Purple People Eater” by Sheb Wooley topped the charts.
1960 – Juan Marichal of the San Francisco Giants became the first pitcher to get a one-hitter in his major league debut.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Sorry” by Brenda Lee, “Only the Lonely” by Roy Orbison, “That’s All You Gotta Do” by Brenda Lee and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling” by Hank Locklin all topped the charts.
1961 – First “in-flight movie” shown (TWA).
1963 – NASA civilian test pilot Joe Walker in X-15 reaches 344,500 feet.
1965 – Shooting begins on Star Trek second pilot “Where No Man Has Gone Before“.
1966 – Fifty year-old singer Frank Sinatra married 21-year-old actress Mia Farrow.
1966 – Gov. James Rhodes declared a state of emergency in Cleveland due to a race riot.The Hough Riots were in the predominantly Black community of Hough in Cleveland, Ohio that took place over a six-night period from July 18 to July 23. During the riots, four Blacks were killed and 30 people were critically injured. In addition, there were 275 arrests, while more than 240 fires were reported.
1966 – Gemini 10 launched.
1967 – US launches Explorer 35 for lunar orbit.
1967 – Race riots took place in Durham, NC.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “This Guy’s in Love with You” by Herb Alpert, “The Horse” by Cliff Nobles & Co., “Jumpin’ Jack Flash” by The Rolling Stones and “D- I- V- O- R- C- E” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1969 – Apollo 11 and its astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin, and Michael Collins, went into orbit around the Moon.
1969 – “In the Year 2525 (Exordium and Terminus)“ by Zager & Evans topped the charts.
1969 – The Rolling Stones’ “Honky Tonk Women” was released.
1969 – After a party on Chappaquiddick Island, Senator Ted Kennedy from Massachusetts drives an Oldsmobile off a wooden bridge into a tide-swept pond and his passenger, Mary Jo Kopechne, dies.
1974 – The House Judiciary Committee recommended that U.S. President Richard Nixon should stand trial in the Senate for any of the five impeachment charges against him.
1975 – Orleans’ “Dance With Me” was released.
1975 – “Listen to What the Man Said” by the Wings topped the charts.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Afternoon Delight” by Starland Vocal Band, “Kiss and Say Goodbye” by Manhattans “I’ll Be Good to You” by The Brothers Johnson and “Teddy Bear” by Red Sovine all topped the charts.
1980 – “It’s Still Rock and Roll to Me“ by Billy Joel topped the charts.
1980 – Moscow Summer Olympics begin, US & others boycott. They were boycotting the games because of the Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan.
1982 – David Dodge, president of the American University of Beirut, was kidnapped.
1982 – The U.S. Census Bureau reported that 14% of the population had an income below the official poverty level in 1981.
1983 – David Dodge, president of the American University of Beirut, was released.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “When Doves Cry” by Prince, “Dancing in the Dark” by Bruce Springsteen, “Eyes Without a Face” by Billy Idol and “I Don’t Want to Be a Memory” by Exile all topped the charts.
1984 – Geraldine Ferraro was nominated by the Democratic Party to become the first woman from a major political party to run for the office of U.S. Vice-President.
1984 – McDonald’s massacre in San Ysidro, California: In a fast-food restaurant, James Oliver Huberty opens fire, killing 21 people and injuring 19 others before being shot dead by police.
1984 – First female to captain a 747 across the Atlantic (Lynn Rippelmeyer).
1985 – Two years after its initial release, “E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial” grossed an additional $8.8 million in its first three days in rerelease.
1985 – Christa McAuliffe is chosen as the first schoolteacher to fly the space shuttle. She died with six others when the Challenger exploded the following year.
1985 – George Bell won first place in a biggest feet contest with a shoe size of 28-1/2. Bell, at age 26, stood 7 feet 10 inches tall.
1986 – Caroline Kennedy, daughter of President John F. Kennedy, married Edwin A. Schlossberg in Centerville, Massachusetts.
1986 – “Invisible Touch” by Genesis topped the charts.
1989 – One hundred-twelve people were killed when a United Airline DC-10 airplane crashed in Sioux City, Iowa. 184 people did survive the accident.
1990 – Richard Nixon library opens in Yorba Linda, CA.
1990 – Baseball’s all-time hits leader Pete Rose was sentenced in Cincinnati to five months in prison for tax evasion.
1993 – President Clinton announced the “Don’t ask, don’t tell” policy regarding gays in the military.
1993 – Somolia : Two US MP’s are hit by sniper fire.
1996 – The Centennial Olympics opened in Atlanta, Georgia. In the biggest Olympics staged in the 100-year history of the Games, 197 nations marched in the opening ceremonies. Beach volleyball was inaugurated as an Olympic sport at these games.
1998 – Workers for Saturn Corp., a division of GM in Tennessee, authorized union leaders to call their first-ever strike.
1999 – David Cone of the New York Yankees pitches the 16th perfect game in baseball history against the Expos at Yankee Stadium.
1999 – Federal officials said radar data showed the plane piloted by John F. Kennedy Jr. dropped 11,000 feet in just 14 seconds.
1999 – Carleton “Carly” Fiorina (44) was named the new president and CEO of Hewlett Packard Co. She was brought over from Lucent Tech. and became the 3rd woman running a Fortune 500 company.
2001 – The first set of the newly authorized Helicopter Rescue Swimmer insignia, or ‘wings’, were presented to the senior rescue swimmer in the Coast Guard, Master Chief Aviation Survival Technician (AST) Keith Jensen, at Coast Guard headquarters in Washington, D.C.
2002 – ConAgra Beef Co. began recalling 19 million pounds of beef, manufactured in Greeley, Colo., over the last 3 months, due to possible E. coli contamination.
2003 – In Spinboldak, Afghanistan, US forces, backed by helicopter gunships, killed up to 24 suspected Taliban insurgents after their convoy came under attack.
2005 – President Bush announced his choice of Federal Appeals Court Judge John G. Roberts Jr. (50) to replace Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor. Roberts ended up succeeding Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist, who died in September 2005.
2005 – In Phoenix, Az., a blistering 4-day heat wave was blamed for the deaths of 12 people. 10 were homeless; the other two were elderly women.
2006 - President Bush used his first veto to underscore his politically risky stand against federal funding for the embryonic stem cell research that most Americans support.
2006 - Chicago prosecutors reported that local police tortured scores of black suspects from the 1970s to the 1980s to extract confessions, but that the cases were too old or too weak to prosecute.
2007 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 14,000 for the first time closing at 14,010.41
2007 – A federal judge dismissed a lawsuit brought by former CIA operative Valerie Plame, who was demanding money from Bush administration officials she blamed for leaking her agency identity.
2008 – Democratic presidential contender Barack Obama started a campaign-season tour of combat zones and foreign capitals, visiting with US forces in Kuwait and then Afghanistan — the scene of a war he says deserves more attention and more troops.
2009 - A man entered a Golden Market in Virginia in 2009 and began firing a gun. He shot and wounded the clerk and then began firing at patrons inside. He ran out of ammo and was attempting to reload when he was shot, wounded, and then subdued by a permit holder who happened to be in the store.
2010 – Retired United States Coast Guard Admiral Thad Allen, the person in charge of cleaning up the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico states that the cap is leaking but it is not a major concern so far.
2010 - Executive Order 13547 –Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes is issued by President Obama. This order adopts the recommendations of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force, except where otherwise provided in this order, and directs executive agencies to implement those recommendations under the guidance of a National Ocean Council.
2010 – A two-year “Top Secret America” investigation by The Washington Post concludes that United States intelligence gathering has grown so much since the September 11 attacks that neither its true cost, size nor effectiveness in keeping the country safe is actually known.
2011 – The FBI arrests an alleged agent of Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence in Virginia for making illegal campaign contributions.
2011 – The US House of Representatives votes to approve the “Cut, Cap and Balance Act” by 234-190 but it is unlikely to pass the US Senate.
2011 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis undocks from the International Space Station for the final time in the history of the space shuttle program.
1814 – Samuel Colt, American inventor of the revolver.
1834 – Edgar Degas, French artist. was a French artist famous for his work in painting, sculpture, printmaking and drawing. He is regarded as one of the founders of Impressionism although he rejected the term, and preferred to be called a realist.[
1846 – Edward Charles Pickering, American physicist and astronomer.
1860 – Lizzie Borden, American accused murderer (d. 1927)
1865 – Charles Mayo, American surgeon, founded Mayo Clinic / Mayo Foundation with his brother.
1904 – Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith, last Lincoln descendant (d.1985)
1917 – William Scranton, American politician
1922 – Harold Camping, American evangelist, founder of Family Radio .
1922 – George McGovern, American politician
1923 – William A. Rusher, American columnist is an American lawyer and conservative columnist. In 1957, William F. Buckley, Jr. hired Rusher as publisher of National Review. Rusher was an early mentor of Young Americans for Freedom and was active in the campaigns of Barry Goldwater and Ronald Reagan.
1924 – Stanley K. Hathaway, American politician (d. 2005) was a U.S. Republican politician who served as Governor of Wyoming from 1967 to 1975. Thereafter, he served four months as the United States Secretary of the Interior.
|*GERTSCH, JOHN G.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S.. Army, Company E, 1st Battalion, 327th Infantry, 101st Airborne Division. Place and date: A Shau Valley, Republic of Vietnam, 15 to 19 July 1969. Entered service at: Buffalo, N.Y. Born: 29 September 1944, Jersey City, N.J.: Citation: S/Sgt. Gertsch distinguished himself while serving as a platoon sergeant and platoon leader during combat operations in the A Shau Valley. During the initial phase of an operation to seize a strongly defended enemy position, S/Sgt. Gertsch’s platoon leader was seriously wounded and lay exposed to intense enemy fire. Forsaking his own safety, without hesitation S/Sgt. Gertsch rushed to aid his fallen leader and dragged him to a sheltered position. He then assumed command of the heavily engaged platoon and led his men in a fierce counterattack that forced the enemy to withdraw. Later, a small element of S/Sgt. Gertsch’s unit was reconnoitering when attacked again by the enemy. S/Sgt. Gertsch moved forward to his besieged element and immediately charged, firing as he advanced. His determined assault forced the enemy troops to withdraw in confusion and made possible the recovery of two wounded men who had been exposed to heavy enemy fire. Sometime later his platoon came under attack by an enemy force employing automatic weapons, grenade, and rocket fire. S/Sgt. Gertsch was severely wounded during the onslaught but continued to command his platoon despite his painful wound. While moving under fire and encouraging his men he sighted an aidman treating a wounded officer from an adjacent unit. Realizing that both men were in imminent danger of being killed, he rushed forward and positioned himself between them and the enemy nearby. While the wounded officer was being moved to safety S/Sgt. Gertsch was mortally wounded by enemy fire. Without S/Sgt. Gertsch’s courage, ability to inspire others, and profound concern for the welfare of his men, the loss of life among his fellow soldiers would have been significantly greater. His conspicuous gallantry, extraordinary heroism, and intrepidity at the cost of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit on him and the Armed Forces of his country.
|*CHRISTENSEN, DALE ELDON
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Troop E, 112th Cavalry Regiment. Place and date: Driniumor River, New Guinea, 16-19 July 1944. Entered service at: Gray, Iowa. Birth: Cameron Township, Iowa. G.O. No.: 36, 10 May 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty along the Driniumor River, New Guinea, from 16-19 July 1944. 2d Lt. Christensen repeatedly distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry above and beyond the call of duty in the continuous heavy fighting which occurred in this area from 16-19 July. On 16 July, his platoon engaged in a savage fire fight in which much damage was caused by one enemy machinegun effectively placed. 2d Lt. Christensen ordered his men to remain under cover, crept forward under fire, and at a range of fifteen yards put the gun out of action with hand grenades. Again, on 19 July, while attacking an enemy position strong in mortars and machineguns, his platoon was pinned to the ground by intense fire. Ordering his men to remain under cover, he crept forward alone to locate definitely the enemy automatic weapons and the best direction from which to attack. Although his rifle was struck by enemy fire and knocked from his hands he continued his reconnaissance, located five enemy machineguns, destroyed one with hand grenades, and rejoined his platoon. He then led his men to the point selected for launching the attack and, calling encouragement, led the charge. This assault was successful and the enemy was driven from the positions with a loss of four mortars and ten machineguns and leaving many dead on the field. On 4 August 1944, near Afua, Dutch New Guinea, 2d Lt. Christensen was killed in action about two yards from his objective while leading his platoon in an attack on an enemy machinegun position. 2d Lt. Christensen’s leadership, intrepidity, and repeatedly demonstrated gallantry in action at the risk of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, exemplify the highest traditions of the U.S. Armed Forces.
|BALCH, JOHN HENRY
Rank and organization: Pharmacist’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vierzy, France, and Somme-Py, France, 19 July and 5 October 1918. Entered service at: Kansas City, Mo. Born: 2 January 1896, Edgerton, Kans. Citation: For gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty, with the 6th Regiment, U.S. Marines, in action at Vierzy, on 19 July 1918. Balch unhesitatingly and fearlessly exposed himself to terrific machinegun and high-explosive fire to succor the wounded as they fell in the attack, leaving his dressing station voluntarily and keeping up the work all day and late into the night unceasingly for 16 hours. Also in the action at Somme-Py on 5 October 1918, he exhibited exceptional bravery in establishing an advanced dressing station under heavy shellfire.
|BOONE, JOEL THOMPSON
Rank and organization: Lieutenant (Medical Corps), U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vicinity Vierzy, France, 19 July 1918. Entered service at: St. Clair, Pa. Born: 2 August 1889, St. Clair, Pa. Citation: For extraordinary heroism, conspicuous gallantry, and intrepidity while serving with the 6th Regiment, U.S. Marines, in actual conflict with the enemy. With absolute disregard for personal safety, ever conscious and mindful of the suffering fallen, Surg. Boone, leaving the shelter of a ravine, went forward onto the open field where there was no protection and despite the extreme enemy fire of all calibers, through a heavy mist of gas, applied dressings and first aid to wounded Marines. This occurred southeast of Vierzy, near the cemetery, and on the road south from that town. When the dressings and supplies had been exhausted, he went through a heavy barrage of large-caliber shells, both high explosive and gas, to replenish these supplies, returning quickly with a sidecar load, and administered them in saving the lives of the wounded. A second trip, under the same conditions and for the same purpose, was made by Surg. Boone later that day.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company K, 28th Infantry, 1st Division. Place and date: Near Soissons, France, 18-19 July 1918. Entered service at: Monroe, N.C. Birth: Monroe, N.C. G.O. No.: 1, W.D. 1937. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty. During the attack the 2d and 3d Battalions of the 28th Infantry were merged, and after several hours of severe fighting, successfully established a frontline position. In so doing, a gap was left between the right flank of the French 153d Division on their left and the left flank of the 28th Infantry, exposing the left flank to a terrific enfilade fire from several enemy machineguns located in a rock quarry on high ground. 2d Lt. Parker, observing this serious situation, ordered his depleted platoon to follow him in an attack upon the strong point. Meeting a disorganized group of French Colonials wandering leaderlessly about, he persuaded them to join his platoon. This consolidated group followed 2d Lt. Parker through direct enemy rifle and machinegun fire to the crest of the hill, and rushing forward, took the quarry by storm, capturing six machineguns and about forty prisoners. The next day when the assault was continued, 2d Lt. Parker in command of the merged 2d and 3d Battalions was in support of the 1st Battalion. Although painfully wounded in the foot, he refused to be evacuated and continued to lead his command until the objective was reached. Seeing that the assault battalion was subjected to heavy enfilade fire due to a gap between it and the French on its left, 2d Lt. Parker led his battalion through this heavy fire up on the line to the left of the 1st Battalion and thereby closed the gap, remaining in command of his battalion until the newly established lines of the 28th Infantry were thoroughly consolidated. In supervising the consolidation of the new position, 2d Lt. Parker was compelled to crawl about on his hands and knees on account of his painful wound. His conspicuous gallantry and spirit of self-sacrifice were a source of great inspiration to the members of the entire command.
|BYRNE, BERNARD A.
Rank and organization: Captain, 6th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Bobong, Negros, Philippine Islands, 19 July 1899. Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Birth: Newport Barracks, Va. Date of issue: 15 July 1902. Citation: Most distinguished gallantry in rallying his men on the bridge after the line had been broken and pushed back.
|DODDS, EDWARD E.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 21st New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Ashbys Gap, Va., 19 July 1864. Entered service at: Rochester, N.Y. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 11 June 1896. Citation: At great personal risk rescued his wounded captain and carried him from the field to a place of safety.
Roller Coasters first started as large slides in Russia during the 1800’s. The structures were made from wood with a sheet of ice several inches thick covering the surface. People would climb up the structure and then ride down the slide at a fifty degree drop. They rapidly became popular throughout the Russian aristocracy. The problem with these slides was that they were limited to winter times, much like U.S. toboggan slides. The second half of the 1800’s saw tremendous advances and changes in roller coasters.
The first American roller coaster was not built at an amusement park or city, but in the mountains of Pennsylvania. The Mauch Chunk Switchback Railway, which was more like a runaway train than a modern coaster, is considered the forefather of today’s Roller Coaster.
La Marcus Adna Thompson, the father of the American roller coaster, was a creative man who helped bring the American roller coaster to commercial fruition. During the early sixties (’63-’64) I worked at Geauga Lake Park in, then, Geauga Lake, Ohio. The roller coaster there was called the “Clipper” and was a 2,650 foot wooden coaster. The roller coaster is still standing even though the park closed in 2007.
The fastest steel roller coaster in the U.S. is Kingda Ka at Six Flags Great Adventure, Jackson, New Jersey. In 2005 it was clocked at 128 mph. It is also the tallest coaster at 456 feet and has the highest drop at 418 feet.
“Power is the ability to do good things for others.”
~ Brooke Astor
yenta (YEN-tuh) noun
A busybody or a gossip. [From Yiddish yente, originally a female name.]
64 B.C – The Great Fire of Rome started; in 9 days, two-thirds of the city was destroyed.
1743 – “The New York Weekly Journal” published the first half-page newspaper ad.
1775 – Continental Congress resolves that each colony provide armed vessels.
1779 – Continental Marines attacked British forces in Maine.
1792 – American naval hero John Paul Jones died in Paris at age 45. His body was preserved in rum in case the American government wished him back. In 1905 his body was transported to the US and placed in a crypt in Annapolis.
1813 – War of 1812: U.S. Frigate President captures British Daphne, Eliza Swan, Alert and Lion.
1818 – The Revenue Cutter Active captured the pirate vessel India Libre in the Chesapeake Bay.
1853 – Completion of Grand Trunk Line, America’s first international railroad. Trains begin running over the first North American international railroad between Portland, Maine and Montreal, Quebec.
1861 – Civil War: Union and Confederate troops skirmished at Blackburn’s Ford, Virginia.
1864 – Civil War: President Lincoln asked for 500,000 volunteers for military service.
1872 – Britain introduced the concept of voting by secret ballot.
1877 – Inventor Thomas Edison recorded the human voice for the first time. He shouted “Haloo” into a mouthpiece and played back a moving tape.
1897 – Klondike gold rush begins when first successful prospectors arrive in Seattle, Washington.
1898- Spanish-American War: Battle of Santiago Bay – Troops under US General William R. Shafter take the city of Santiago de Cuba from the Spanish.
1913 – After 68 straight innings Christy Mathewson gives up a walk. The record stands until Bill Fischer, in 1962.
1914 – US army air service first comes into being with six planes and is assigned to the in the Signal Corps.
1918 – World War I: US & French forces launched the Aisne-Marne offensive. After the attack Paris was mostly in Allied control.
1918 – World War I: The 4th Brigade of Marines began an attack near Soissons, France.
1920 – Naval aircraft sink ex-German cruiser Frankfurt in target practice.
1921 – The prosecution gave its opening remarks in the trial of the Chicago Black Sox, accused of throwing the 1919 World Series.
1925 – Adolf Hitler published the first volume of his personal manifesto, “Mein Kampf.” It became the bible for the Nazi Party. The book is filled with anti-Semitic writings, a disdain for morality, worship of power, and the blueprints for world domination.
1927 – Ty Cobb recorded his 4,000th career hit.
1928 – Clarence Samuels assumed command of Coast Guard Patrol Boat AB-15. He became the second African-American to command a Coast Guard vessel, the first being Michael Healy.
1931 – First air-conditioned ship called the Mariposa, is launched. The Mariposa was used on the San Francisco – Honolulu – Sydney service and in 1941 entered service as a US Navy transport.
1932 – The United States and Canada signed a treaty to develop the St. Lawrence Seaway.
1936 – Carl Mayer, nephew of Oscar Mayer, invents the Oscar Mayer Wienermobile. It was built by the General Body Company’s factory in Chicago, IL.
1938 – Douglas “Wrong Way” Corrigan arrives in Ireland.
1939 – Edwin H. Armstrong, US radio engineer, started the first FM radio station in Alpine, NJ.
1940 – The Democratic national convention in Chicago nominated President Roosevelt for an unprecedented third term in office.
1940 – The first successful helicopter flight was made at Stratford, CT.
1941 – Joe DiMaggio’s baseball hitting streak ends at 56 games, by Cleveland Indian pitchers, Al Smith & Jim Bagby.
1942 – First legal NJ horse race in 50 years; Garden State Park track opens. Legendary horses that raced here included Whirlaway, Citation, and Secretariat.
1942 – World War II: Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe, Germany’s first operational jet fighter, takes first flight. The Me262 surprised the Allies with its speed advantage – around 100 or more miles per hour.
1943 – World War II: An aircraft carrying the Commander of the Japanese Combined Fleet, Admiral Yamamoto, is shot down by P-38 Lighting fighters over Bougainville. Yamamoto is killed.
1944 – World War II: Hideki Tojo was removed as Japanese premier and war minister due to setbacks suffered by his country in World War II.
1945 – World War II: Captured German mines explode accidentally, destroying an American Red Cross club in Italy and killing 36 people.
1945 – World War II: Aircraft from the aircraft carrier Wasp attack Japanese positions on Wake Island.
1947- Harry Truman signed the Presidential Succession Act, which placed the speaker of the House of Representatives and the Senate president pro tempore next in the line of succession after the vice president.
1950 – Korean War: The U.S. 1st Cavalry and 25th Infantry Divisions reached Korea from Japan.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Too Young” by Nat King Cole, “Mister and Mississippi” by Patti Page, “The Loveliest Night of the Year” by Mario Lanza and “I Wanna Play House with You” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1953 – Elvis Presley recorded “My Happiness” as a gift for his mother. It was his first recording.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka, “Waterloo” by Stonewall Jackson, “Tiger” by Fabian and “The Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton all topped the charts.
1960 – “I’m Sorry” by Brenda Lee topped the charts.
1960 – Elvis Presley’s “It’s Now Or Never“ was released.
1960 – Hank Ballard and the Midnighters released “The Twist.” The song didn’t become a hit until later in the year when Chubby Checker covered it.
1960 – Baseball’s National League votes to add Houston and NY franchises.
1964 – “Rag Doll” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1964 – The Beatles album “A Hard Day’s Night” (30:14) was released.
1964 – Pete Rose of the Cincinnati Reds hit the only grand slam home run of his career.
1964 – Riots erupted in the African American communities of New York City and Rochester, NY. The New York City race riot began in Harlem and spread to Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn.
1965 - Jeremiah A. Denton’s A6 Intruder he was piloting while leading an attack squadron of 28 airplanes off the deck of the carrier USS Independence – was shot down while targeting the heavily defended Thanh Hoa Bridge about 75 miles south of Hanoi.
1966 – Launch of Gemini 10 with LCDR John W. Young, USN as Command Pilot. Mission involved 43 orbits at an altitude of 412.2 nautical miles and lasted 2 days, 22 hours, and 46 minutes.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Windy” by The Association, “Little Bit o’ Soul” by The Music Explosion, “Can’t Take My Eyes Off You” by Frankie Valli and “All the Time” by Jack Greene all topped the charts.
1968 – The Intel Corporation, inventor of the microchip, was incorporated as N M Electronics (the letters standing for Noyce and Moore). It quickly changed its name.
1969 – Commissioner Pete Rozelle told ‘Broadway’ Joe Namath to sell his share in an East Side bar, Bachelors III, because gamblers frequented it. If Namath didn’t, he would be suspended.
1969 – A car driven by Senator Edward M. Kennedy (D-MA) plunged off a bridge on Chappaquiddick Island near Martha’s Vineyard; passenger Mary Jo Kopechne died. The senator did not report the fatal car accident for 10 hours.
1970 – San Francisco’s Willie Mays hits a single off Montreal’s Mike Wegener for his 3,000th hit.
1970 – Ron Hunt of the San Francisco Giants was hit by a pitch for the 119th time in his career. He still holds the record of being hit by a pitch at 234 times in his career.
1970 – “Mama Told Me (Not to Come)” by Three Dog Night topped the charts.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Will Keep Us Together” by The Captain & Tennille, “The Hustle” by Van McCoy & The Soul City Symphony, “Listen to What the Man Said” by Wings and “Movin’ On” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1975 – An American Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft dock with each other in orbit marking the first such link-up between spacecraft from the two nations.
1976 – Nadia Comaneci, the 14-year-old star gymnast from Romania, stunned those watching the Olympic Games by executing perfect form to collect a perfect score of ‘10’ from the judges. This was the first perfect score ever recorded on the uneven parallel bars.
1980 – A US Federal court voided the Selective Service Act as it didn’t include women.
1981 – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes topped the charts.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Every Breath You Take” by The Police, “Electric Avenue” by Eddy Grant, “Never Gonna Let You Go” by Sergio Mendez and “The Closer You Get” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1984 – A gunman opened fire at a McDonald’s fast-food restaurant in San Ysidro, CA. James Huberty killed 21 people and injured another 19 before being shot dead by police.
1985 – Jack Nicklaus II, at age 23 years old, made his playing debut on the pro golf tour at the Quad Cities Open in Coal Valley, IL.
1987 – “Alone” by Heart topped the charts.
1989 – Actress Rebecca Schaeffer (21) was shot to death at her Los Angeles home by obsessed fan Robert Bardo, who was later sentenced to life in prison.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rush, Rush” by Paula Abdul, “Unbelievable” by EMF, “Right Here, Right Now” by Jesus Jones and “Don’t Rock the Jukebox” by Alan Jackson all topped the charts.
1993 – FBI Director William Sessions continued to resist White House suggestions he step down, saying he would resign only if President Clinton asked him to. Sessions was fired by Clinton the next day.
1994 – Crayola announced the introduction of scented crayons.
1995 – The oldest known musical instrument in the world was found in the Indrijca River Valley in Slovenia. The 45,000 year-old relic was a bear bone with four artificial holes along its length.
1995 – Selena’s “Dreaming of You” was posthumously released.
1997 – Federal agents in California arrested eight seafood importers accused of smuggling contaminated seafood by bribing customs brokers and FDA inspectors.
1997 – German businessman Thomas Kramer was slapped with a record $323,000 penalty by the Federal Election Commission for making illegal U.S. political contributions.
1999 – David Cone of the New York Yankees pitched a perfect game against the Montreal Expos, leading his team to a 6-to-0 victory.
2000 – Shrugging off a veto threat from President Clinton, the Senate voted 61-to-38 in favor of eliminating the so-called “marriage penalty” by cutting taxes for virtually every married couple.
2001 – A train derailed, involving sixty cars, in a Baltimore train tunnel. The fire that resulted lasted for six days and virtually closed down downtown Baltimore for several days. Fifty-four cars burned and phone cables were melted. The last burning car was pulled out July 23.
2002 – Accused Sept. 11 conspirator Zacarias Moussaoui tried to plead guilty to charges that could have brought the death penalty, but a federal judge in Alexandria, Va., insisted he take time to think about it.
2002 – It was reported that drought in western US states was causing the biggest grasshopper invasion in 50 years. Nebraska was among the hardest hit.
2004 – Iraq: American jets hit a position in Fallujah used by foreign militants, demolishing a house and killing 14 insurgents.
2006 – Space Shuttle Discovery lands successfully on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility of the Kennedy Space Center, ending a 13-day mission to the International Space Station.
2007 – A massive geyser of steam and debris erupted through a midtown Manhattan street near Grand Central Terminal when an 83-year-old steam pipe ruptured.
2008 – The Batman sequel “The Dark Knight” opened and set a single-day box office record by taking in $66.4 million.
2008 – In Houston, Texas, one of the nation’s largest mobile cranes collapsed at Lyondell Basell refinery, killing four workers.
2008 - A report by the Civil Rights Division of the United States Department of Justice finds that the Cook County Jail, which houses 9,800 people, systematically violated the constitutional rights of its inmates.
2009 – Forty-seven people are injured in a collision between two Muni Metro light rail cars at the West Portal Station i in San Francisco.
2010 – A ten-year manhunt orchestrated by the FBI ends with the capture of José Figueroa Agosto in San Juan, Puerto Rico. He was a drug trafficker who escaped from prison in Puerto Rico, where he was serving a 209-year sentence for murder and illegal weapon possession.
2011 – Phoenix, Arizona, is hit by a haboob
2011 – The San Francisco County Superior Court announces plans to cut 200 jobs and close 25 out of 63 court rooms due to budget problems.
2011 -The Dawn spacecraft takes its first photo of the asteroid 4 Vesta. Launched on September 27, 2007, Dawn entered orbit around Vesta on July 16, 2011, and will explore it until August 26, 2012. Thereafter, the spacecraft will head to Ceres, which it is scheduled to reach in February 2015.Dawn is NASA’s first purely exploratory mission to use ion propulsion.
2013 - The city of Detroit filed for Chapter 9 bankruptcy protection in federal court. This laid the groundwork for a historic effort to bail out a city that is sinking under billions of dollars in debt and decades of mismanagement, population flight and loss of tax revenue. The bankruptcy filing makes Detroit the largest city in U.S. history to do so.
1635 – Robert Hooke, English scientist (d. 1703) Hooke is known principally for his law of elasticity (Hooke’s Law). He is also remembered for his work as “the father of microscopy” — it was Hooke who coined the term “cell” to describe the basic unit of life.
1867 – Margaret Brown, American activist, philanthropist, and RMS Titanic passenger (d. 1932) She became known after her death as The Unsinkable Molly Brown, although she was never called Molly during her life.
1895 – George Machine Gun Kelly, (d. 1954) was a notorious American criminal during the prohibition era. His crimes included bootlegging, armed robbery and, most prominently, kidnapping.
1903 – Chill Wills, American actor (d. 1978) One of his more memorable roles was that of the distinctive voice of Francis the Mule in a series of popular films.
1906 – S.I. Hayakawa, U.S. senator, college administrator, writer. He was an English professor and academic who served as a US Senator (1977 to 1983) from California.
1909 – Harriet Nelson, American singer and actress (d. 1994)
1913 – Red Skelton, American comedian. He was an entertainer, born in Vincennes, Indiana, USA. As a child he toured the Midwest in a medicine show, and later gained fame as a variety performer of stage, radio, television, and films. He was voted the outstanding new radio star in 1941, and is remembered for the NBC television program The Red Skelton Show (1951–71). He gave a farewell performance at Carnegie Hall in 1990.
1921 – John Glenn Jr., American astronaut and politician, b. Cambridge, Ohio. On Feb. 20, 1962, he became the first American and the third person to orbit the earth, circling the globe three times in a vehicle launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla. After leaving the space program, Glenn entered Ohio politics and was elected to the U.S. Senate as a Democrat in 1974. Known for his work on military issues, he campaigned unsuccessfully for the Democratic Presidential nomination in 1984. In Oct., 1998, Glenn went into orbit again, on a space shuttle mission, to test effects of space on the elderly. In 1999 he retired from the Senate.
1929 – Dick Button, is an American figure skater and a well-known long-time skating television analyst.
1947 – Steve Forbes, is the son of Malcolm Forbes and the editor-in-chief of business magazine Forbes as well as president and chief executive officer of its publisher, Forbes Inc. He was a Republican candidate in the U.S. Presidential primaries in 1996 and 2000.
*EVANS, RODNEY J.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 1st Battalion, 12th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Tay Ninh Province, Republic of Vietnam, 18 July 1969. Entered service at: Montgomery, Ala. Born: 17 July 1948, Chelsea, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Evans distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism while serving as a squad leader in a reconnaissance sweep through heavy vegetation to reconnoiter a strong enemy position. As the force approached a well-defined trail, the platoon scout warned that the trail was booby-trapped. Sgt. Evans led his squad on a route parallel to the trail. The force had started to move forward when a nearby squad was hit by the blast of a concealed mine. Looking to his right Sgt. Evans saw a second enemy device. With complete disregard for his safety he shouted a warning to his men, dived to the ground and crawled toward the mine. Just as he reached it an enemy soldier detonated the explosive and Sgt. Evans absorbed the full impact with his body. His gallant and selfless action saved his comrades from probable death or injury and served as an inspiration to his entire unit. Sgt. Evans’ gallantry in action at the cost of his life were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
|McGINTY, JOHN J. III
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant (then S/Sgt.), U.S. Marine Corps, Company K, 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, 3d Marine Division, Fleet Marine Force. Place and Date: Republic of Vietnam, 18 July 1966. Entered service at: Laurel Bay, S.C. Born: 21 January 1940, Boston, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. 2d Lt. McGinty’s platoon, which was providing rear security to protect the withdrawal of the battalion from a position which had been under attack for three days, came under heavy small arms, automatic weapons and mortar fire from an estimated enemy regiment. With each successive human wave which assaulted his 32-man platoon during the four-hour battle, 2d Lt. McGinty rallied his men to beat off the enemy. In one bitter assault, two of the squads became separated from the remainder of the platoon. With complete disregard for his safety, 2d Lt. McGinty charged through intense automatic weapons and mortar fire to their position. Finding twenty men wounded and the medical corpsman killed, he quickly reloaded ammunition magazines and weapons for the wounded men and directed their fire upon the enemy. Although he was painfully wounded as he moved to care for the disabled men, he continued to shout encouragement to his troops and to direct their fire so effectively that the attacking hordes were beaten off. When the enemy tried to out-flank his position, he killed five of them at point-blank range with his pistol. When they again seemed on the verge of overrunning the small force, he skillfully adjusted artillery and air strikes within fifty yards of his position. This destructive firepower routed the enemy, who left an estimated 500 bodies on the battlefield. 2d Lt. McGinty’s personal heroism, indomitable leadership, selfless devotion to duty, and bold fighting spirit inspired his men to resist the repeated attacks by a fanatical enemy, reflected great credit upon himself, and upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service.
|MODRZEJEWSKI, ROBERT J.
Rank and organization: Major (then Capt.), U.S. Marine Corps, Company K, 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, 3d Marine Division, FMF. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, 15 to 18 July 1966. Entered service at: Milwaukee, Wis. Born: 3 July 1934, Milwaukee, Wis. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 15 July, during Operation HASTINGS, Company K was landed in an enemy-infested jungle area to establish a blocking position at a major enemy trail network. Shortly after landing, the company encountered a reinforced enemy platoon in a well-organized, defensive position. Maj. Modrzejewski led his men in the successful seizure of the enemy redoubt, which contained large quantities of ammunition and supplies. That evening, a numerically superior enemy force counterattacked in an effort to retake the vital supply area, thus setting the pattern of activity for the next 2 1/2 days. In the first series of attacks, the enemy assaulted repeatedly in overwhelming numbers but each time was repulsed by the gallant marines. The second night, the enemy struck in battalion strength, and Maj. Modrzejewski was wounded in this intensive action which was fought at close quarters. Although exposed to enemy fire, and despite his painful wounds, he crawled 200 meters to provide critically needed ammunition to an exposed element of his command and was constantly present wherever the fighting was heaviest, despite numerous casualties, a dwindling supply of ammunition and the knowledge that they were surrounded, he skillfully directed artillery fire to within a few meter* of his position and courageously inspired the efforts of his company in repelling the aggressive enemy attack. On 18 July, Company K was attacked by a regimental-size enemy force. Although his unit was vastly outnumbered and weakened by the previous fighting, Maj. Modrzejewski reorganized his men and calmly moved among them to encourage and direct their efforts to heroic limits as they fought to overcome the vicious enemy onslaught. Again he called in air and artillery strikes at close range with devastating effect on the enemy, which together with the bold and determined fighting of the men of Company K, repulsed the fanatical attack of the larger North Vietnamese force. His unparalleled personal heroism and indomitable leadership inspired his men to a significant victory over the enemy force and reflected great credit upon himself, the Marine Corps, and the U.S. Naval Service.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 66th Company, 5th Regiment. Place and date: Near Villers-Cotterets, France, 18 July 1918. Entered service at: Minneapolis, Minn. Born: 1 May 1888, Sebenes, Austria. G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919. (Also received Navy Medal of Honor.) Citation: When his company, advancing through a wood, met with strong resistance from an enemy strong point, Sgt. Cukela crawled out from the flank and made his way toward the German lines in the face of heavy fire, disregarding the warnings of his comrades. He succeeded in getting behind the enemy position and rushed a machinegun emplacement, killing or driving off the crew with his bayonet. With German handgrenades he then bombed out the remaining portion of the strong point, capturing 4 men and 2 damaged machineguns.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 66th Company, 5th Regiment. Born: 1 May 1888, Sebenes, Austria. Accredited to: Minnesota. (Also received Army Medal of Honor.) Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving with the 66th Company, 5th Regiment, during action in the Forest de Retz, near Viller-Cottertes, France, 18 July 1918. Sgt. Cukela advanced alone against an enemy strong point that was holding up his line. Disregarding the warnings of his comrades, he crawled out from the flank in the face of heavy fire and worked his way to the rear of the enemy position. Rushing a machinegun emplacement, he killed or drove off the crew with his bayonet, bombed out the remaining part of the strong point with German handgrenades and captured two machineguns and four men.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company H, 103d Infantry, 26th Division. Place and date: Near Belleau, France, 18 July 1918. Entered service at: Keene, N.H. Birth: Greece. G.O. No.: 13, W.D., 1919. Citation: After his platoon had gained its objective along a railroad embankment, Pfc. Dilboy, accompanying his platoon leader to reconnoiter the ground beyond, was suddenly fired upon by an enemy machinegun from 100 yards. From a standing position on the railroad track, fully exposed to view, he opened fire at once, but failing to silence the gun, rushed forward with his bayonet fixed, through a wheat field toward the gun emplacement, falling within 25 yards of the gun with his right leg nearly severed above the knee and with several bullet holes in his body. With undaunted courage he continued to fire into the emplacement from a prone position, killing 2 of the enemy and dispersing the rest of the crew.
EDWARDS, DANIEL R.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 3d Machine Gun Battalion, 1st Division. Place and date: Near Soissons, France, 18 July 1918. Entered service at: Bruceville, Tex. Born: 9 April 1897, Moorville, Tex. G.O. No.: 14, W.D., 1923. Citation: Reporting for duty from hospital where he had been for several weeks under treatment for numerous and serious wounds and although suffering intense pain from a shattered arm, he crawled alone into an enemy trench for the purpose of capturing or killing enemy soldiers known to be concealed therein. He killed four of the men and took the remaining four men prisoners; while conducting them to the rear one of the enemy was killed by a high explosive enemy shell which also completely shattered one of Pfc. Edwards’ legs, causing him to be immediately evacuated to the hospital. The bravery of Pfc. Edwards, now a tradition in his battalion because of his previous gallant acts, again caused the morale of his comrades to be raised to high pitch.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 66th Company, 5th Regiment, 2d Division. Place and date: Near Soissons, France, 18 July 1918. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 31 December 1882, Gbely (Slovakia), Austria. G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919. (Also received Navy Medal of Honor.) Citation: When the advance of his battalion was checked by a hidden machinegun nest, he went forward alone, unprotected by covering fire from his own men, and worked in between the German positions in the face of fire from enemy covering detachments. Locating the machinegun nest, he rushed it and with his bayonet drove off the crew. Shortly after this he organized 25 French colonial soldiers who had become separated from their company and led them in attacking another machinegun nest, which was also put out of action.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 31 December 1882, Gbely (Slovakia), Austria. Accredited to: New York. ( Also received Army Medal of Honor. ) Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving with the 66th Company, 5th Regiment, 2d Division, in action in the Viller-Cottertes section, south of Soissons, France, 18 July 1918. When a hidden machinegun nest halted the advance of his battalion, Sgt. Kocak went forward alone unprotected by covering fire and worked his way in between the German positions in the face of heavy enemy fire. Rushing the enemy position with his bayonet, he drove off the crew. Later the same day, Sgt. Kocak organized French colonial soldiers who had become separated from their company and led them in an attack on another machinegun nest which was also put out of action.
|CARNEY, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 54th Massachusetts Colored Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Wagner, S.C., 18 July 1863. Entered service at: New Bedford, Mass. Birth: Norfolk, Va. Date of issue: 23 May 1900. Citation: When the color sergeant was shot down, this soldier grasped the flag, led the way to the parapet, and planted the colors thereon. When the troops fell back he brought off the flag, under a fierce fire in which he was twice severely wounded.
CROSS, JAMES E.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company K, 12th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Blackburns Ford, Va., 18 July 1861. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Darien, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: With a companion, refused to retreat when the part of the regiment to which he was attached was driven back in disorder, but remained upon the skirmish line for some time thereafter, firing upon the enemy.
HIBSON, JOSEPH C.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 48th New York Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 13 July 1863, Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 14 July 1863; Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 18 July 1863. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: England. Date of issue: 23 October 1897. Citation: While voluntarily performing picket duty under fire on 13 July 1863, was attacked and his surrender demanded, but he killed his assailant. The day following responded to a call for a volunteer to reconnoiter the enemy’s position, and went within the enemy’s lines under fire and was exposed to great danger. On 18 July voluntarily exposed himself with great gallantry during an assault, and received three wounds that permanently disabled him for active service.
RAND, CHARLES F.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 12th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Blackburns Ford, Va., 18 July 1861. Entered service at: Batavia, N.Y. Birth: Batavia, N.Y. Date of issue: 23 October 1897. Citation: Remained in action when a part of his regiment broke in disorder, joined another company, and fought with it through the remainder of the engagement.
“Wrong Way” Corrigan Day
In 1935, Corrigan applied to the federal government for permission to make a non-stop flight from New York to Ireland. Officials denied his application, however, because they claimed that his plane was not sound enough to make a non-stop transatlantic trip. Nevertheless, they did certify it for cross-country journeys. In an attempt to get full certification, Corrigan made several modifications to his aircraft over the next two years, but each time he reapplied for permission, officials turned him down.
By 1937, Corrigan had grown tired of “red tape” and decided to try the flight without official sanction (although he never publicly acknowledged such a decision during his lifetime). His plan was to land in New York late at night, after airport officials had already left for the day, fill his gas tanks, and then leave for Ireland. But various mechanical problems while in route to New York caused him to lose his “safe weather window” over the Atlantic, and Corrigan decided not to risk the flight just then. He returned to California to wait for another opportunity the next year.
On 17 July 1938, Douglas Corrigan took off from Brooklyn’s Floyd Bennett airfield in a tiny single-engine plane. Corrigan had filed a flight plan for California, but 29 hours later he arrived in Ireland, claiming his compasses had failed and that he had accidentally flown the wrong way. Although Corrigan never quite admitted it, his ‘mistake’ was surely a ruse to circumvent aviation authorities who had turned down his request to make a trans-Atlantic flight. Corrigan’s stunt caught the public fancy; he was given a hero’s welcome on his return to New York, and “Wrong-Way Corrigan” became a popular nickname for anyone who made a big blunder or did things backwards.
“Watch your thoughts; they become words. Watch your words; they become actions. Watch your actions; they become habits. Watch your habits; they become character. Watch your character; it becomes your destiny.”
penchant PEN-chunt, noun:Inclination; decided taste; a strong liking.
Penchant comes from the present participle of French pencher, “to incline, to bend,” from (assumed) Late Latin pendicare, “to lean,” from Latin pendere, “to weigh.”
180 – Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa are executed for being Christians. This is the earliest record of Christianity in that part of the world.
1212 – The Moslems were crushed in the Spanish crusade.
1754 – King’s College opened in New York City; the Anglican academy would later become Columbia University.
1771 – Bloody Falls Massacre: Chipewyan chief Matonabbee, traveling as the guide to Samuel Hearne on his Arctic overland journey, massacres a group of unsuspecting Inuit.
1801 – The U.S. fleet arrived in Tripoli after Pasha Yusuf Karamanli declared war for being refused tribute.
1821 – Spain ceded Florida to the United States. Andrew Jackson became the governor of that area.
1850 – Harvard Observatory takes first photograph of a star (Vega)
1850 – Statesman Daniel Webster said: “I was born an American; I will live an American; I shall die an American.”
1856 – The Great Train Wreck of 1856 occurs in Fort Washington, Pennsylvania killing over 60 people.
1861 – Congress authorizes the U.S. Treasury to issue paper money for the first time in the form of non-interest bearing treasury notes called demand notes.
1861 – Civil War: At Manassas, VA, Gen Beauregard requested reinforcements for his 22,000 men and Gen Johnston was ordered to Manassas.
1862 – Congress passed an act which established that “every officer, seaman, or Marine, disabled in the line of duty, shall be entitled to receive for life, or during his disability, a pension from the United States.”
1862 – Civil War: US army was authorized to accept blacks as laborers.
1862 – National cemeteries were authorized by the U.S. government.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis replaced General Joseph E. Johnston with General John Bell Hood in hopes of defeating Union General William T. Sherman outside Atlanta. Strikes started against the Baltimore & Ohio, and quickly spread west.
1866 – Authorization was given to build a tunnel beneath the Chicago River. Completed January 1, 1869, the tunnel was 1605 feet long and cost over $512,000.
1867 – Harvard School of Dental Medicine was established in Boston, Massachusetts — the first dental school in the U.S.
1870 – A drunken brawl turns deadly when “Wild Bill” Hickok shoots two soldiers in self-defense, mortally wounding one of them.
1877 – Riots and violence erupted in several major American cities stemming from strikes against railroads in protest of wage cuts.
1888 – Granville Woods received a patent for the “tunnel construction for electric railways”.
1888 – Miriam E. Benjamin (School teacher) patented a gong and signal chair for motels.
1897 – The Steamer “Portland” arrived into Seattle from Alaska with 68 prospectors carrying more than a ton of gold. The Seattle Post-Intelligencer announced that men with gold from Alaska were landing.
1898 – U.S. troops under General William R. Shafter took Santiago de Cuba during the Spanish-American War.
1899 – NEC Corporation is organized as the first Japanese joint venture with foreign capital.
1901 – Dr. Willis Carrier installed a commerical air conditioning system at a Brooklyn, NY printing plant.
1918 – Chicago Cubs and Philadelphia Phillies set a new Major League record for longest game (twenty-one innings) without a single error.
1918 – On the orders of the Bolshevik Party carried out by Cheka, Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, his immediate family and retainers are murdered at the Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg, Russia.
1918 – World War I: The RMS Carpathia, the ship that rescued the 705 survivors from the RMS Titanic, is sunk off Ireland by the German submatine U-55; only 5 lives are lost.
1920 – Sinclair Lewis finished the now-famous novel, “Main Street”.
1927 – First organized dive bombing attack in combat by Marine Corps pilots against Nicaraguan bandits who were surrounding U.S. Marine garrison at Ocotal, Nicaragua.
1930 – A natural gas explosion in the Mitchell ravine tunnel of the Hetch Hetchy water project in California killed 12 men. 35 other workers quit charging that carelessness and lack of equipment was responsible for the tragedy.
1935 – The entertainment trade publication Variety ran its famous headline, “Sticks Nix Hick Pix,” which might be translated as “rural America dislikes rural-themed movies.”
1938 – Douglas Corrigan takes off to fly the “wrong way” to Ireland and becomes known as “Wrong Way” Corrigan. Upon his return to America, “Wrong-Way” Corrigan was greeted as a hero. More than a million people lined New York’s Broadway for a ticker-tape parade honoring the man who had flown in the face of authority.
1939 – Charlie Barnet and his orchestra recorded “Cherokee” for Bluebird Records.
1941 – The longest hitting streak in baseball history ended when the Cleveland Indians pitchers held New York Yankee Joe DiMaggio hitless for the first time in 57 games.
1941 – Brigadier General Soervell directed Architect G. Edwin Bergstrom to have basic plans and architectural perspectives for an office building that could house 40,000 War Department employees on his desk by the following Monday morning. The building became known as the Pentagon.
1943 - World War II: Americans conduct a large air raid on Bougainville. Shipping offshore and airfields between Buin and Faisi are targeted. One Japanese destroyer is sunk.
1944 – World War II: Near the San Francisco Bay, two ships laden with ammunition for the war explode in Port Chicago, California, killing 320 seamen, 202 of the victims were African-American enlisted men. Those that survived and refused to continue loading were convicted of mutiny.
1944 – World War II: Napalm incendiary bombs were dropped for the first time by American P-38 pilots on a fuel depot at Coutances, near St. Lô, France.
1945 – World War II: Potsdam Conference – at Potsdam, President Harry Truman, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, the three main Allied leaders, begin their final summit of the war. The meeting would end on August 2.
1948 – Southern Democrats opposed to the nomination of President Truman met in Birmingham, AL, to endorse South Carolina Gov. Strom Thurmond.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bewitched” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Mary Lou Williams), “My Foolish Heart” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Eileen Wilson), “Mona Lisa” by Nat King Cole and “Mississippi” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1950 – The television show “The Colgate Comedy Hour” debuted featuring Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis.
1951 – Western New England College in Springfield, Massachusetts is chartered.
1952 – Korean War : The U.S. 2nd Infantry Division’s 23rd Infantry Regiment sustained heavy casualties, including 39 killed and 84 missing in action, during the Battle for Old Baldy.
1953 – Lieutenant Guy P. “Lucky Pierre” Bordelon scored his fifth aerial victory and qualified as the only U.S. Navy ace of the Korean War and the only Korean War ace who did not fly an F-86 Sabre jet.
1954 – The Brooklyn Dodgers were the first major league game where majority of team is African-American.
1954 – Gen. Joseph Swing, appointed by Pres. Eisenhower to head the INS, began “Operation Wetback.” Because political resistance was lower in California and Arizona, the roundup of aliens began there.
1955 – Disneyland televises its grand opening in Anaheim, California.
Part 1 (9:56) Part 2 (10:05)
1955 – Arco, Idaho becomes first US city lit by nuclear power.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Purple People Eater” by Sheb Wooley, “Hard Headed Woman” by Elvis Presley, “Poor Little Fool” by Ricky Nelson and “Guess Things Happen that Way” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1959 – Dr Leakey discovers oldest human skull (600,000 years old).
1960 – Francis Gary Powers pled guilty to spying charges in a Moscow court after his U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union.
1961 – Motown Records released The Supremes’ first single, “Buttered Popcorn.”
1961 – John Chancellor becomes news anchor of the Today Show.
1962 – Nuclear testing: The “Small Boy” test shot Little Feller I becomes the last atmospheric test detonation at the Nevada Test Site.
1962 – Robert White in X-15 sets altitude record of 354,300 ft.
1964 – Don Campbell sets record for turbine vehicle, 429.31 mph. His Bluebird-Proteus CN7 reached this average speed using a gas turbine engine.
1965 – “I Can’t Get No Satisfaction” by the Rolling Stones topped the charts.
1965 – The Miracles’ “Tracks of My Tears” was released.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hanky Panky” by Tommy James & The Shondells, “Wild Thing” by The Troggs, “You Don’t Have to Say You Love Me” by Dusty Springfield and “Think of Me” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1967 – Race riots took place in Cairo, Illinois.
1970 – Jimi Hendrix, Steppenwolf, and Grand Funk Railroad played at the three-day Randall’s Island Rock Festival, New York City.
1971 – “It’s Too Late” by Carole King topped the charts.
1972 – First two women begin training since the 1920’s as FBI agents at Quantico, VA. The first two women FBI agents were Joanne Pierce, a former nun, and Susan Roley, a Marine 1st lieutenant.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Your Baby” by George McCrae, “Annie’s Song” by John Denver, “On and On” by Gladys Knight & The Pips and “He Thinks I Still Care” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.
1974 – Bob Gibson becomes second pitcher to strike-out 3,000 batters.
1975 – Apollo-Soyuz Test Project: An American Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft dock with each other in orbit marking the first such link-up between spacecraft from the two nations.
1976 – Heart’s “Magic Man” was released.
1976 – ABA merges into the NBA
1976 – The opening of the Summer Olympics is marred by 25 African teams boycotting the New Zealand team.
1980 – Ronald Reagan formally accepted the Republican nomination for president.
1981 – A walkway at the Hyatt Regency (45:54) in Kansas City, Missouri collapses killing 114 people and injuring more than 200 caused by structural failure. Five years later two design engineers were convicted for their negligence.
1981 – Fulton County (Atlanta) grand jury indicted Wayne B. Williams, a twenty-three-year-old photographer, for the murder of two of the twenty-eight Black youths killed in a series of slayings and disappearances in Atlanta. William denied the charges but was convicted in February, 1982.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t You Want Me” by The Human League, “Rosanna” by Toto, “Hurts So Good” by John Cougar and “’Till You’re Gone” by Barbara Mandrell all topped the charts.
1986 – The largest bankruptcy filing in U.S. history took place when LTV Corporation asked for court protection from more than 20,000 creditors. LTV Corp. had debts in excess of $4 billion.
1987 – Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North and rear Admiral John Poindexter begin testifying to Congress at the “Iran-Contra” hearings.
1987 – Ten teen-agers were killed when raging floodwaters from the Guadalupe River near Comfort, Texas, swept away a church bus and van holding 43 people.
1989 – First flight of the B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber completed at Edwards Air Force Base in California.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Step By Step” by New Kids on the Block, “She Ain’t Worth It” by Glenn Medeiros featuring Bobby Brown, “Hold On” by En Vogue and “The Dance” by Garth Brooks all topped the charts.
1991 – The US Senate voted 53-to-45 to give itself a $23,200 pay raise while at the same time banning outside speaking fees. Great deal for senators no one wants to listen to.
1994 – CGC Polar Sea departed from Victoria, British Columbia on operation Arctic Ocean Section 1994 and became the first U.S. surface vessel to reach the North Pole.
1994 – Fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy continued to smash into Jupiter, sending up towering fireballs.
1995 – The Nasdaq composite stock index rose above 1,000 for the first time.
1996 – TWA Flight 800: Off the coast of Long Island, New York, a Paris-bound TWA Boeing 747 explodes, killing all 230 on board.
1996 – Scientists discovered that the earth’s solid-iron core rotates 12 miles a year faster than the liquid-iron outer core. The inner core grows about an inch in radius every 50 years. A report was published in Nature.
1997 – The F.W. Woolworth Company closes its last 400 stores after 117 years in business.
1997 – The Columbia space shuttle and it crew of 7 returned after a 16-day mission.
1998 – A diplomatic conference adopts the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, establishing a permanent international court to prosecute individuals for genocide, crime against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression.
1998 – The Clinton administration sought approval to use funds for covert operations against Iraqi Pres. Saddam Hussein.
1998 – Biologists reported that they had deciphered the genome (genetic map) of the syphilis bacterium.
2001 – John Ashcroft, US Attorney General reported that 184 FBI laptops and nearly 450 guns were stolen or lost over the last decade.
2001 – A USAF F-16 crashed in northeast San Bernadino County, Ca. Maj. Aaron George, pilot, and Judson Brohmer, photographer, were killed.
2003 – President Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair forcefully defended their decision to topple Saddam Hussein during a joint White House news conference.
2003 – The US combat death toll in Iraq hit a milestone as the Pentagon acknowledged its casualties from hostile fire reached 147.
2004 – California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger mockingly used the term “girlie men” during a rally as he claimed Democrats were delaying the state budget by catering to special interests.
2005 – Tiger Woods closed with a 2-under 70 to win the British Open for his tenth career major.
2008 – Kay Ryan (b.1945) of Fairfax, CA, was named the 16th poet laureate of the US. She was selected by James Billington, the Librarian of Congress.
2008 – California became the first US state to approve green building standards.
2010 – The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) claims 2010 could be the warmest year on record since 1880.
2010 – An unmanned solar-powered plane Zephyr, reaches its seventh consecutive day of flight.
2011 – At least two people are killed and 35 injured due to a bus crash on Interstate 390 near the US town of Bath, New York.
2011 – Crowds gather outside the jail in Orange County, Florida for the release of Casey Anthony who was recently cleared of murdering her daughter Caylee.
1239 – Edward Longshanks, English king (d. 1307)
1674 – Isaac Watts, English hymnwriter (d. 1748)
1744 – Elbridge Gerry, 5th Vice President of the United States (d. 1814)
1763 – John Jacob Astor, American businessman (d. 1848)
1839 – Ephraim Shay, American inventor who designed the first Shay locomotive and patented the type. (d. 1916)
1889 – Erle Stanley Gardner, American lawyer and author (Perry Mason) (d. 1970)
1898 – George Robert Vincent, American sound recording pioneer (d. 1985)
1899 – James Cagney, American actor (d. 1986)
1913 – Bertrand Goldberg, American architect (d. 1997)
1917 – Phyllis Diller, American comedian
1917 – Red Sovine, American country music singer (d. 1980)
1920 – Gordon Gould, inventor of the laser (d. 2005)
1935 – Diahann Carroll, American actor
1935 – Donald Sutherland, Canadian actor
1951 – Lucie Arnaz, American actress
1952 – David Hasselhoff, American actor and musician
1960 – Nancy Giles, American actress
1968 – Beth Littleford, American comedian
1977 – Tiffany Taylor, American model
1978 – Katharine Towne, American actress
1979 – Mike Vogel, American actor
|PENDLETON, CHARLES F.
Rank and organization: Corporal. U.S. Army, Company D, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Choo Gung-Dong, Korea, 16 and 17 July 1953. Entered service at: Fort Worth, Tex. Born: 26 September 1931, Camden, Tenn. Citation: Cpl. Pendleton, a machine gunner with Company D, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. After consolidating and establishing a defensive perimeter on a key terrain feature, friendly elements were attacked by a large hostile force. Cpl. Pendleton delivered deadly accurate fire into the approaching troops, killing approximately fifteen and disorganizing the remainder with grenades. Unable to protect the flanks because of the narrow confines of the trench, he removed the machine gun from the tripod and, exposed to enemy observation, positioned it on his knee to improve his firing vantage. Observing a hostile infantryman jumping into the position, intent on throwing a grenade at his comrades, he whirled about and killed the attacker, then inflicted such heavy casualties on the enemy force that they retreated to regroup. After reorganizing, a second wave of hostile soldiers moved forward in an attempt to overrun the position and, later, when a hostile grenade landed nearby, Cpl. Pendleton quickly retrieved and hurled it back at the foe. Although he was burned by the hot shells ejecting from his weapon, and he was wounded by a grenade, he refused evacuation and continued to fire on the assaulting force. As enemy action increased in tempo, his machine gun was destroyed by a grenade but, undaunted, he grabbed a carbine and continued his heroic defense until mortally wounded by a mortar burst. Cpl. Pendleton’s unflinching courage, gallant self-sacrifice, and consummate devotion to duty reflect lasting glory upon himself and uphold the finest traditions of the military service.
|WAYBUR, DAVID C.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 3d Reconnaissance Troop, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Agrigento, Sicily, 17 July 1943. Entered service at: Piedmont, Calif. Birth: Oakland, Calif. G.O. No.: 69, 21 October 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in action involving actual conflict with the enemy. Commander of a reconnaissance platoon, 1st Lt. Waybur volunteered to lead a three vehicle patrol into enemy-held territory to locate an isolated Ranger unit. Proceeding under cover of darkness, over roads known to be heavily mined, and strongly defended by road blocks and machinegun positions, the patrol’s progress was halted at a bridge which had been destroyed by enemy troops and was suddenly cut off from its supporting vehicles by four enemy tanks. Although hopelessly outnumbered and out-gunned, and himself and his men completely exposed, he quickly dispersed his vehicles and ordered his gunners to open fire with their .30 and .50 caliber machineguns. Then, with ammunition exhausted, three of his men hit and himself seriously wounded, he seized his .45 caliber Thompson submachinegun and standing in the bright moonlight directly in the line of fire, alone engaged the leading tank at thirty yards and succeeded in killing the crewmembers, causing the tank to run onto the bridge and crash into the stream bed. After dispatching one of the men for aid he rallied the rest to cover and withstood the continued fire of the tanks till the arrival of aid the following morning.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Big Dry Fork, Ariz., 17 July 1882. Entered service at: Owensboro, Ky. Birth: Owensboro, Ky. Date of issue: 12 July 1892. Citation: Gallantly charged hostile Indians, and with his carbine compelled a party of them to keep under cover of their breastworks, thus being enabled to recover a severely wounded soldier.
|MORGAN, GEORGE H.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Big Dry Fork, Ariz., 17 July 1882. Entered service at: Minneapolis, Minn. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 15 July 1892. Citation: Gallantly held his ground at a critical moment and fired upon the advancing enemy (hostile Indians) until he was disabled by a shot.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company D, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Big Dry Wash, Ariz., 17 July 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Baltimore, Md. Date of issue: 16 December 1882. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Big Dry Wash, Ariz., 17 July 1882. Entered service at: Mohawk, N.Y. Birth: Mohawk, N.Y. Date of issue: 12 July 1892. Citation: Rallied his command and led it in the advance against the enemy’s fortifled position.
Get to Know Your Customers Day
Hot Dog Night
A Billion and a Trillion
This is too true to be very funny. The next time you hear a politician use the word “billion” in a casual manner, think about whether you want the “politicians” spending YOUR tax money. A billion is a difficult number to comprehend, but one advertising agency did a good job of putting that figure into some perspective in one of its releases. Now we can look at how a trillion compares and see some interesting comparisons.
A. A billion seconds ago it was 1959.
AA. A trillion seconds ago it was 29,701 B.C.
B. A billion minutes ago Jesus was alive.
BB. A trillion minutes ago is approximately the time of the Big Bang.
C. A billion hours ago our ancestors were living in the Stone Age.
CC. A trillion hours ago only God knows
D. A billion days ago no-one walked on the earth on two feet.
DD. A trillion days ago, again, only God knows but certainly may predate time.
E. A billion dollars ago was only 8 hours and 20 minutes, at the rate our government is spending it.
EE. In 2009 the government is spending $8.2 billion dollars a day, 342 million dollars a minute, 5.7 million dollars a second.
While this thought is still fresh in our brain, let’s take a look at New Orleans It’s amazing what you can learn with some simple division . .
Louisiana Senator, Mary Landrieu (D), once asked the Congress for $250 BILLION (one quarter of a trillion) to rebuild New Orleans. Interesting number, what does it mean?
A. Well, if you are one of 484,674 residents of New Orleans (every man, woman, child), you each get $516,528.
B. Or, if you have one of the 188,251 homes in New Orleans , your home gets $1,329,787.
C. Or, if you are a family of four, your family gets $2,066,012.
Washington , D.C .. HELLO!!! … Are all your calculators broken??
2011 UPDATE: The Obama Administration has managed to increase our national debt to 14 Trillion dollars. How much is that? Well, a dollar bill is six inches long so one mile of dollar bills contains 10, 560 dollar bills. Fourteen trillion dollars would stretch one billion, three hundred twenty-five million, 757 thousand, five hundred seventy-five miles. Light travels at 186,000 miles per second and that means that to go from one end of this money to the other would take 7,128 light-seconds or 119 light-minutes or almost two light hours. Yes it is the time it takes to go from one end of that money to the other at the speed of light.
The total of our government’s unfunded obligations is approximately $61 Trillion. Using the previous numbers means that to travel from one end of that money to the other would take 2,248 light hours or 93.7 light-days.
“When we walk to the edge of all the light we have and take the step into the darkness of the unknown, we must believe that one of two things will happen. There will be something solid for us to stand on or we will be taught to fly.”
~ Frank Outlaw
“I think I’ve discovered the secret of life — you just hang around until you get used to it.”
~ Charles M. Schulz
horripilation haw-rip-uh-LAY-shuhn; ho-, noun:
the act or process of the hair bristling on the skin, as from cold or fear; goose flesh
Used first by 1623, from Latin horripilatio, from horripilare “to bristle” + pilus “hair”
622 – The beginning of the Islamic calendar.
1439 – Kissing is banned in England to stop the spread of disease.
1769 – Father Junipero Serra founds Mission San Diego de Alcalá, the first mission in California. The mission later evolves into the city of San Diego. The Franciscan friars soon planted cuttings of olive trees.
1775 – John Adams graduated from Harvard.
1779 – American troops under General Anthony Wayne capture Stony Point, NY.
1782 – First performance of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s opera The Abduction from the Seraglio.
1790 – The signing of the Residence Bill establishes a site along the Potomac River as the District of Columbia (seat of government).
1798 – US Public Health Service established & US Marine Hospital authorized. The Marine Hospitals were a Federal government program to provide health care to merchant seamen.
1845 – The New York Yacht Club hosted the first American boating regatta.
1862 – Civil War: Flag Officer David Farragut becomes the first United States Navy rear admiral. It was given to him for his impressive victory at New Orleans.
1862 – Civil War: Two Union soldiers and their servant ransacked a house and raped a slave in Sperryville, VA.
1862 – Civil War: David G. Farragut became the first rear admiral in the U.S. Navy.
1863 – The draft riot enters its fourth day in New York City in response to the Enrollment Act, which was enacted on March 3, 1863.
1878 – Thaddeus Hyatt was granted a patent for reinforced concrete.
1882 - Mary Todd Lincoln, the widow of Abraham Lincoln, dies of a stroke.
1909 – At Bennett Field, Detroit and Washington play the longest scoreless game in American League history,18 innings.
1912 – Naval torpedo launched from an airplane patented by Rear Admiral B.A. Fiske.
1912 - New York gambler Herman Rosenthal, set to testify before a grand jury about police corruption, was gunned down by members of the Lennox Avenue Gang.
1915 – First Navy ships, battleships Ohio, Missouri, and Wisconsin transit Panama Canal.
1916 – Captain Raynal Bolling commanded the 1st Aero Squadron, New York National Guard, when it was mobilized during the Mexican Border Crisis.
1920 – Gen. Amos Fries was appointed first US army chemical warfare chief.
1926 – The first underwater color photographs appeared in “National Geographic” magazine. The pictures had been taken near the Florida Keys.
1929 – Col. Charles Lindbergh was extremely angry when he realized a sound-camera man had recorded a private conversation using a concealed microphone.
1934 – The NBC Red radio network premiered the musical drama, “Dreams Come True.”
1934 – The nation’s first general strike was called in San Francisco in response to violence and disregard of worker’s rights in the waterfront strike.
1935 – First automatic parking meter in US installed, Oklahoma City, OK.
1936 – The movie, “Green Pastures”, premieres in New York’s Radio City Music Hall.
1940 – World War II: Adolf Hitler ordered the preparations to begin on the invasion of England, known as Operation Sea Lion.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: The Vichy France government orders French police officers to round up 13,000-20,000 Jews and imprison them in the Winter Velodrome. Germany had agreed to not deport French Jews if France arrested foreign Jews.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: Jews were transported from Holland to an extermination camp.
1943 – World War II: Roosevelt and Churchill issue a joint statement calling for an Italian surrender and the overthrow of Mussolini.
1945 – The Atomic Age begins when the United States successfully detonates a plutonium-based test nuclear weapon at the Trinity site near Alamogordo, New Mexico. The mushroom-shaped cloud rose to a height of 41,000 feet above the New Mexico desert.
1945 – World War II: A force of 500 B-29 Superfortress bombers strike targets on Honshu and Kyushu. In total, over 1500 American planes attack raid various objectives on the Japanese home islands during the day.
1945 – World War II: Cruiser USS Indianapolis left San Francisco with an atom bomb.
1946 – World War II: US court martial in Dachau condemned 46 SS to hang for the Malmedy massacre of disarmed GIs.
1948 – The city of Nazareth, hometown of Jesus, capitulates to Israeli troops during Operation Dekel led by Ben Dunkelman, after little more than token resistance, during 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
1949 -– CHART TOPPERS – “Some Enchanted Evening” by Perry Como, “Bali Ha’I” by Perry Como, “Again” by Gordon Jenkins and “One Kiss Too Many” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1949 – “Riders in the Sky” by Vaughan Monroe topped the charts.
1950 – U.S. Army Chaplain Herman G. Felhoelter became the first chaplain to receive an award for heroism and the first to lose his life in the Korean War. He was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.
1951 – J.D. Salinger’s novel, “The Catcher in the Rye,” was first published.
1953 – “I’m Walking Behind You” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.
1953 – F-86 Sabre sets world aircraft speed record of 716 mph.
1955 – Disneyland opens in Anaheim, California.
1955 – Bill Haley & Comets’ “Rock Around the Clock” tops billboards chart.
1956 – Last Ringling Bros, Barnum & Bailey Circus under a canvas tent.
1957 -– CHART TOPPERS – “Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley, “Searchin’/Young Blood” by The Coasters, “Valley of Tears/It’s You I Love” by Fats Domino and “Bye Bye Love” by The Everly Brothers all topped the charts.
1957 – United States Marine Major John Glenn flies a F8U Crusader supersonic jet from California to New York in 3 hours, 23 minutes and 8 seconds setting a new transcontinental speed record.
1958 – The science-fiction film “The Fly” opened in San Francisco.
1959 – The Coasters recorded “Poison Ivy.”
1960 – “Alley Oop” by The Hollywood Argyles topped the charts.
1962 – NASA civilian test pilot Joseph A Walker takes X-15 to 106,961 feet.
1963 – Congressman Carl Vinson of Georgia broke House Speaker Sam Rayburn’s record of service in the U.S. Congress, as he celebrated serving 48 years, 8 months and 13 days.
1964 - Barry M. Goldwater, as he accepted the Republican presidential nomination in San Francisco, declared that “extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice” and that “moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue.”
1964 – Little League Baseball Incorporated was granted a Federal Charter unanimously by the United States Senate and House of Representatives.
1965 -– CHART TOPPERS – “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” by The Rolling Stones, “Wonderful World” by Herman’s Hermits, “Yes, I’m Ready” by Barbara Mason and “Before You Go” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1966 – “Hanky Panky” by Tommy James & the Shondells topped the charts.
1966 – “Half a Sixpence” closed at Broadhurst Theater in New York City after 512 performances.
1966 – The Lovin’ Spoonful’s “Summer In The City” was released.
1969 – Apollo program: Apollo 11 is launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida and will become the first manned space mission to land on the moon. Astronauts – Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and Michael Collins.
1969 – The Who’s “I’m Free” was released.
1970 – Pittsburgh Pirates replaces Forbes Field with Three Rivers Stadium and play their first game.
1973 -– CHART TOPPERS – “Will It Go Round in Circles” by Billy Preston, “Kodachrome” by Paul Simon, “Bad, Bad Leroy Brown” by Jim Croce and “Love is the Foundation” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1973 – Former White House aide Alexander P. Butterfield informs the US Senate during the Watergate scandal that President Richard Nixon had secretly recorded potentially incriminating conversations.
1977 – “Da Doo Ron Ron” by Shaun Cassidy topped the charts.
1979 – Iraqi President Hasan al-Bakr resigns and is replaced by Saddam Hussein.
1979 – Jeffrey MacDonald stands trial in North Carolina for the murder of his wife and children nearly 10 years before.
1980 -Ronald Reagan won the Republican presidential nomination at the party’s convention in Detroit.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes, “All Those Years Ago” by George Harrison, “The One That You Love” by Air Supply and “Fire & Smoke” by Earl Thomas Conley all topped the charts.
1981 – After 23 years with the name Datsun, executives of Nissan changed the name of their cars to Nissan.
1981 – Singer Harry Chapin (38) was killed when his car was struck by a tractor-trailer on New York’s Long Island Expressway while he was on his way to a benefit concert. Cat’s In the Cradle
1982 – NASA launches Landsat 4 to thematic map the Earth.
1983 – Sikorsky S-61 disaster: A helicopter crashes off the Isles of Scilly, causing 20 fatalities.
1983 – “Every Breath You Take” by The Police topped the charts.
1985 – The All-Star Game, televised on NBC-TV, was the first program broadcast in stereo by a TV network.
1988 – “The Flame” by Cheap Trick topped the charts.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Satisfied” by Richard Marx, “Buffalo Stance” by Neneh Cherry, “Baby Don’t Forget My Number” by Milli Vanilli and “I Don’t Want to Spoil the Party” by Roseanne Cash all topped the charts.
1990 – New York City’s Empire State Building caught fire, but there were no fatalities.
1991 – In Paris, jazz trumpeter Miles Davis was named a Knight in the (French) Legion of Honor, one of that nation’s highest cultural honors.
1993 – The Mississippi River charged through a levee at West Quincy, Mo., closing the Bayview Bridge, the only bridge across the river to Illinois for more than 200 miles.
1994 – Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collides with Jupiter. Impacts continue until July 22nd.
1995 – William Barloon and David Daliberti, the two Americans who were imprisoned in Iraq for crossing the border from Kuwait four months earlier, were released.
1995 – Amazon.com went live on the Internet. The first book sold on the site was “Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought.”
1997 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 8,000 for the first time closing at 8,038.88.
1998 – The US FDA approved the use of thalidomide as a treatment for leprosy.
1999 – John F. Kennedy Jr., his wife Carolyn Bessette Kennedy, and sister-in-law Lauren Bessette are killed in a plane crash off the coast of Martha’s Vineyard. The Piper Saratoga aircraft was piloted by Kennedy.
1999 – Stanley Kubrick’s final film, “Eyes Wide Shut” starring Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman, made its debut.
2003 – House passage of Project Bioshield to help prevent and inoculate for bio-terror attack.
2003 – In Santa Monica, Ca., 10 people were killed and over 70 injured when a car driven by George Russell Weller (87) plowed through a crowded street market in an apparent accident.
2004 – Millennium Park, considered the first and most ambitious architectural project in the early 21st century for Chicago, is opened to the public by Mayor Richard M. Daley.
2004 – Martha Stewart was sentenced to five months in prison for lying about a stock sale. She was also ordered to spend five months confined to her home and fined $30,000. She was allowed to remain free pending her appeal.
2005 – “Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince” by J.K. Rowling is published, selling 6.9 million copies in the first 24 hours after release.
2007 – A man carrying a gun and declaring “I am the emperor” was shot and killed by security outside the offices of Colorado Gov. Bill Ritter.
2008 – The US Postal Service released a series of stamps honoring black cinema.
2008 – The United States Senate agrees to triple funding for the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief to $48 billion.
2008 – Ben Bernanke, the Chairman of the Federal Reserve, assures the United States House of Representatives Financial Services Committee that giant mortgage companies Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are in “no danger of failing.”
2009 – The 110-story Sears Tower in Chicago, IL is renamed the Willis Tower. The name comes from the new owners, Willis Group Holdings, a London-based insurance brokerage.
2010 - Goldman Sachs pays a record $550 million (US) fine to settle civil fraud charges.
2010 – The United States places U.S.-born Muslim cleric Anwar al-Awlaki on its “terror blacklist”.
2010 – Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen pledges the majority of his estimated $13.5 billion fortune to philanthropy after his death.
2012 – NBCUniversal buys full control of the US news website MSNBC.com which is rebranded as NBCNews.com.
1821 – Mary Baker Eddy, American religious leader (d. 1910)
1862 – Ida B. Wells, American civil rights activist. An early leader in the civil rights movement, she documented the extent of lynching in the United States. (d. 1931)
1883 – Charles Sheeler, American photographer and artist is recognized as one of the master photographers of the 20th century. (d. 1965)
1888 - “Shoeless” Joe Jackson, American baseball player . He is remembered for his performance on the field and for his association with the Black Sox Scandal, when members of the 1919 Chicago White Sox participated in a conspiracy to fix the World Series. (d. 1951)
1907 – Orville Redenbacher, American farmer and businessman (d. 1995)
1907 – Barbara Stanwyck, American actress (d. 1990)
1911 – Ginger Rogers, American actress and dancer (d. 1995)
1923 – Chris Argyris, American educator
1924 – Bess Myerson, Miss America-1945
1932 – Dick Thornburgh, American politician
1934 – Don Payne, American politician
1936 – Buddy Merrill, American musician (The Lawrence Welk Show)
1956 – Jerry Doyle is an American talk radio host, conservative political commentator, and television actor. His nationally-syndicated talk show, The Jerry Doyle Show, airs throughout the United States on Talk Radio Network.
1968 – Barry Sanders is a former American football running back who spent all of his professional career with the Detroit Lions in the NFL.
1968 – Larry Sanger, American co-founder of Wikipedia
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Hartford, Philadelphia, Pa., 16 July 1876. Born: 1850, Rouses Point, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 214, 27 July 1876. Citation: Showing gallantry, Costello rescued from drowning a landsman of that vessel.
|FORBECK, ANDREW P.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Katbalogan, Samar, Philippine Islands, 16 July 1900. Born: 29 August 18,9, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy during the battle of Katbalogan.
|STOLTENBERG, ANDREW V.
Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Katbalogan, Samar, Philippine Islands, 16 July 1900. Born: Boto, Norway. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 55, 29 July 1899. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy in battle at Katbalogan.
Beginning in 1898, groups of peasants in northern China began to band together into a secret society known as “Righteous and Harmonious Fists”, and called the “Boxers” by Western press. Members of the secret society practiced boxing and calisthenic rituals (hence the nickname, the “Boxers”) which they believed would make them impervious to bullets. By late 1899, bands of Boxers were massacring Christian missionaries, Chinese Christians and foreigners. On June 18, 1900, the Empress Dowager ordered all foreigners to be killed. Several foreign ministers and their families were killed before the international force could protect them. The battle started on July 13th and on August 14, 1900, the international force took Peking and subdued the rebellion.
|DAHLGREN, JOHN OLOF
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Peking, China, 20 June to 16 July 1900 Born: 14 September 1872, Kahliwar, Sweden. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China, Dahlgren distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Peking, China, 20 June to 16 July 1900 Born: 20 October 1874, McKeesport, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: Served in the presence of the enemy at the battle of Peking, China. Assisting in the erection of barricades during the action, Fisher was killed by the heavy fire of the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Peking, China, 20 June to 16 July 1900 Born: 9 July 1873, County of Mayo, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China, Hunt distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.
|WALKER, EDWARD ALEXANDER
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Peking, China, 20 June to 16 July 1900. Born: 2 October 1864, Huntley, Scotland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China. Throughout this period, Walker distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.
|YOUNG, FRANK ALBERT
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Peking, China, 20 June to 16 July 1900 Born: 22 June 1876, Milwaukee, Wis. Accredited to: Wisconsin. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China. Throughout this period, Young distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.
Each decade, the Census Bureau calculates the mean center of population—the place where an imaginary map of the U.S. would balance if all residents were the same weight. In other words, it’s the “middle point” of where we all live. As the nation has grown, the center of population has moved west. In 1790 it lay near Chestertown, Maryland. By 2000 it lay more than 1,000 miles away near Edgar Springs, Missouri.
|US Census||County||Location description||Decimal coordinates|
|1790||Kent County, Maryland||23 miles east of Baltimore.||39.27500°N 76.18667°W|
|1800||Howard County, Maryland||18 miles west of Baltimore.||39.26833°N 76.94167°W|
|1810||Loudoun County, Virginia||40 miles northwest by west of Washington, DC.||39.19167°N 77.62000°W|
|1820||Hardy County, Virginia (now W. Virginia)||16 miles east of Moorefield.||39.09500°N 78.55000°W|
|1830||Grant County, Virginia (now W. Virginia)||19 miles west-southwest of Moorefield.||38.96500°N 79.28167°W|
|1840||Upshur County, Virginia (now W. Virginia)||16 miles south of Clarksburg.||39.03333°N 80.30000°W|
|1850||Wirt County, Virginia (now W. Virginia)||23 miles southeast of Parkersburg.||38.98333°N 81.31667°W|
|1860||Pike County, Ohio||20 miles south by east of Chillcothe.||39.00667°N 82.81333°W|
|1870||Highland County, Ohio||48 miles east by north of Cincinnati.||39.20000°N 83.59500°W|
|1880||Boone County, Kentucky||8 miles west by south of Cincinnati.||39.06889°N 84.66111°W|
|1890||Decatur County, Indiana||20 miles east of Columbus.||39.19889°N 85.54806°W|
|1900||Bartholomew County, Indiana||6 miles southeast of Columbus.||39.16000°N 85.81500°W|
|1910||Monroe County, Indiana||in the city of Bloomington.||39.17000°N 86.53889°W|
|1920||Owen County, Indiana||8 miles south-southeast of Spencer.||39.17250°N 86.72083°W|
|1930||Greene County, Indiana||3 miles northeast of Linton.||39.06250°N 87.13500°W|
|1940||Sullivan County, Indiana||2 miles southeast by east of Carlisle.||38.94833°N 87.37639°W|
|1950||Richland County, Illinois||8 miles north-northwest of Olney.||38.83917°N 88.15917°W|
|1950||Clay County, Illinois||3 miles northeast of Louisville.||38.80417°N 88.36889°W|
|1960||Clinton County, Illinois||6-1/2 miles northwest of Centralia.||38.59944°N 89.20972°W|
|1970||St. Clair County, Illinois||5 miles east-southeast of Mascoutah.||38.46306°N 89.70611°W|
|1980||Jefferson County, Missouri||1/4 mile west of DeSoto.||38.13694°N 90.57389°W|
|1990||Crawford County, Missouri||9.7 miles southeast of Steelville.||37.87222°N 91.21528°W|
|2000||Phelps County, Missouri||2.8 miles east of Edgar Springs||37.696987°N 91.809567°W|
|2010||Texas County, Missouri||2.7 miles northeast of Plato.||37.517534°N 92.173096°W|
|2013 (estimated)||Laclede County, Missouri||2.9 miles southwest of Plato.||37.47716°N 92.26603°W|
|2020 (projected)||Wright County, Missouri||10.3 miles north/northeast of Hartville.||37.39330°N 92.45904°W|
Gummy Worm Day
Saint Swithin’s Day
Gummi Worm Cupcakes
Kids just love digging into these decadent chocolate cupcakes, oozing with chocolate frosting and gummi worms. They make the perfect touch for a backyard birthday bash or Halloween party.
- 1 (18.25 ounce) package chocolate cake mix
- 1 (16 ounce) package prepared chocolate frosting
- 3 cups chocolate cookie crumbs
- 1 (16 ounce) package gummi worms
Prepare cake mix according to package directions. Pour batter into cupcake pans and bake as directed on cake mix box. Let cupcakes cool thoroughly before frosting.
Spread cupcakes lightly with chocolate icing. Sprinkle cookie crumbs on top to make it look like “dirt”.
Cut gummi worms in half (as many as you like). Put icing onto cut end of the worms and stick to the top of cupcakes. You can use as few or as many as will fit on each cupcake. Let icing set for 10 minutes and then enjoy.
The goal is to make it look as though the worms are coming from the ground. Another way is to fill small (8oz) cups with chocolate pudding, cover the pudding with ground chocolate cookies and stick the worms in for the same effect.
“The way to get started is to quit talking and begin doing.”
~ Walt Disney
“Life is one grand, sweet song, so start the music.”
vitiate \VISH-ee-ayt\, transitive verb:
1. To make faulty or imperfect; to render defective; to impair; as, “exaggeration vitiates a style of writing.”
2. To corrupt morally; to debase.
3. To render ineffective; as, “fraud vitiates a contract.”
Vitiate comes from Latin vitiare, from vitium, fault. It is related to vice (a moral failing orfault), which comes from vitium via French.
1099 – Christian soldiers take Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after a difficult siege during this First Crusade.
1381 – John Ball, a leader in the Peasants’ Revolt, hanged, drawn and quartered in the presence of Richard II of England.
1799 – Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta, by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard.
1806 – Near St. Louis, Missouri, United States Army Lieutenant Zebulon Pike begins an expedition from Fort Belle Fountaine to explore the west.
1830 – Three Indian tribes, Sioux, Sak & Fox, signed a treaty giving the US most of Minnesota, Iowa & Missouri.
1838 - Ralph Waldo Emerson delivers the Divinity School Address at Harvard Divinity School, discounting Biblical miracles and declaring Jesus a great man, but not God. The Protestant community reacts with outrage.
1862 – Civil War: The Confederate ironclad Arkansas breaks naval blockade of Vicksburg, Mississippi.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate raider Bill Anderson and his Bushwhackers attacked Huntsville, MO, where they stole $45,000 from the local bank.
1863 – Civil War: Boat crews from U.S.S. Stars and Stripe and Somerset landed at Marsh’s Island, Florida, and destroyed nearly 60 bushels of salt and 50 salt boilers.
1868 – “The Torrent” sank in Alaska’s Cook Inlet after tidal currents, among the world’s most powerful, rammed it into a reef south of the Kenai Peninsula.
1869 – Margarine is patented by Hippolyte Mège Mouriés in Paris. He won a contest held by Emperor Napoleon III to find a suitable substitute for butter used by the French Navy. He named his product after the Greek word for pearl – margaritari.
1870 – Georgia becomes the last of the former Confederate states to be readmitted to the Union.
1870 – Act of Congress establishes Navy Pay Corps, which later becomes the Navy Supply Corps.
1876 – George Washington Bradley was the first man to pitch an official no-hit, no-run game in major league history. He pitched for St. Louis against Hartford. The score was 2-0 without a single hit being allowed.
1888 – “Printers’ Ink” was first sold.
1897 – The gold-laden ship Excelsior from Alaska landed in San Francisco.
1897 – W. Sheldon of NY patented a seed counter for retail seed sales.
1901 – Over 74,000 Pittsburgh steel workers went on strike.
1912 – Jim Thorpe won the decathlon in the Olympic games in Stockholm, Sweden.
1913 - Augustus Bacon of Georgia becomes the first senator elected by popular vote (before the Seventeenth Amendment, senators were elected by state legislators).
1916 – In Seattle, Washington, William Boeing and George Conrad Westervelt incorporate Pacific Aero Products (later renamed Boeing).
1918 – World War I: Second Battle of the Marne – The battle begins near the River Marne with a German attack.
1920 – Babe Ruth ties his record of 29 home runs in a season.
1922 – First duck-billed platypus publicly exhibited in the US at the New York Zoo.
1933 – Wiley Post began first solo flight around the world.
1940 – Robert Wadlow died at the age of 22. At that time he was 8 feet, 11inches tall and weighed 439 pounds.
1941 – Master spy Juan Pujol Garcia, nicknamed “Garbo,” sends his first communique to Germany from Britain.
1942 – Glenn Miller and his band recorded the classic “Jukebox Saturday Night.”
1943 – World War II: An air battle takes place over Rendova in which the Americans lose three aircraft and claim to shoot down more than forty Japanese planes.
1945 – World War II: President Harry Truman disembarks the heavy cruiser the USS Augusta (CA-31) in Antwerp en route to Potsdam for the Potsdam Conference.
1945 – World War II: American naval vessels bombard Muroran, the second biggest steel center in Japan, lying in Volcano Bay on the east side of the island of Hokkaido.
1945 – World War II: American B-29 Superfortress bombers, based in the Marianna Islands, raided an oil refinery at Kudamatsu on Honshu Island while fighters and bombers from Okinawa attacked objectives on Kyushu and southern Honshu.
1948 – President Truman was nominated for another term of office by the Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Woody Woodpecker Song” by The Kay Kaiser Orchestra (vocal: Gloria Wood & The Campus Kids), “You Can’t Be True, Dear” by The Ken Griffin Orchestra (vocal: Jerry Wayne), “Little White Lies” by Dick Haymes and “Bouquet of Roses” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1950 – “Mona Lisa” by Nat ‘King’ Cole topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: F-80s accounted for 85 percent of the enemy’s losses to air attack.
1952 – Two U.S. Air Force Sikorsky H-19s traveled from the U.S. to Wiesbaden, Germany with stops in Labrador, Greenland, Iceland, Scotland, and the Netherlands on their way. Total flight time was about 52 hours, but because of stops the trip took 21 days.
1952 – Singer Patti Page made her TV debut in a summer replacement series for Perry Como.
1953 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Captain James Jabara, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, qualified as the second and last “triple ace” of the war — 15 kills.
1954 – The Boeing “Dash 80,” a prototype of the 707, made its first test flight. It was the first American jet passenger airliner.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Wayward Wind” by Gogi Grant, “My Prayer” by The Platters, “Hound Dog/Don’t Be Cruel” by Elvis Presley and “I Want You, I Need You, I Love You” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.
1957 – Full-scale production of the Edsel automobile begins.
1958 – In Lebanon, 5,000 United States Marines land in the capital Beirut in order to provide military support to the pro-Western government there.
1959 – The steel strike of 1959 begins, leading to significant importation of foreign steel for the first time in United States history.
1960 – “The New York World-Telegram” reported that the average white-collar worker would earn a lifetime income of $200,000 (forty years at $5,000 per year.)
1960 – John F. Kennedy accepted the Democratic nomination for president of the United States.
1961 – “Tossin’ & Turnin‘” by Bobby Lewis topped the charts.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Get Around” by The Beach Boys, “Memphis” by Johnny Rivers, “Rag Doll” by The Four Seasons and “My Heart Skips a Beat” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1964 – Barry M Goldwater (Sen-R-Az) nominated for president by Republicans. His nomination was challenged by more moderate Republicans who thought his hard-line foreign policy stances would come back to haunt him. He lost to Lyndon Johnson in a landslide, and the Republican Party suffered a significant setback nationally, losing many seats in both houses of Congress.
1965 – US scientists display close-up photos of Mars from Mariner IV.
1966 – Singer Percy Sledge earned a gold record for “When a Man Loves a Woman.”
1967 – “Windy” by the Association topped the charts.
1967 – In Alaska a major blizzard caught twelve climbers high on Mount McKinley (Denali). Five of twelve climbers managed to reach safety, but seven were caught and froze to death.
1968 – Soap opera “One Life To Live” premiers.
1968 – Intel was founded.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lean on Me” by Bill Withers, “Too Late to Turn Back Now” by Cornelius Brothers & Sister Rose, “Brandy (You’re a Fine Girl)” by Looking Glass and “Made in Japan” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1974 – Christine Chubbuck becomes the first person to commit suicide on-air.
1975 – Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft take off for U.S.-Soviet link-up in space.
1975 – Virginia records state record high temperature of 110° in Balcony Falls.Johnny Bench
1976 – A 36-hour kidnap ordeal began for 26 schoolchildren and their bus driver when they were abducted by three gunmen near Chowchilla, CA. All of the captives escaped unharmed.
1978 – “Shadow Dancing” by Andy Gibb topped the charts.
1979 – President Jimmy Carter gives his famous “malaise” speech, where he characterizes the greatest threat to the country as “this crisis in the growing doubt about the meaning of our own lives and in the loss of a unity of purpose for our nation.”
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Coming Up” by Paul McCartney & Wings, “It’s Still Rock & Roll to Me” by – Billy Joel, “Little Jeannie” by Elton John and “You Win Again” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1980 – Johnny Bench hits his 314th HR as a catcher and breaks Yogi Berra’s record.
1980 – Linda Ronstadt made her dramatic debut in “The Pirates Of Penzance” at the New York Shakespeare Festival in Central Park.
1980 - A massive storm tears through western Wisconsin, causing $160 million dollars in damage.
1983 – The US Supreme Court struck down state & local restrictions on abortion.
1985 – Baseball players voted to strike on August 6th if no contract was reached with baseball owners. The strike turned out to be just one-day.
1985 – Aldus PageMaker, the first desktop publishing program, was first shipped for sale to consumers. The new software created by Paul Brainard began the era of desktop publishing.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Flame” by Cheap Trick, “Mercedes Boy” by Pebbles, “Pour Some Sugar on Me” by Def Leppard and “Fallin’ Again” by Alabama.
1988 - The premiere of the film blockbuster, “Die Hard.”
1989 – “If You Don’t Know Me by Now” by Simply Red topped the charts.
1993 – Los Angeles Police announced eight arrests in connection with an alleged plot by white supremacists to ignite a race war by bombing a black church and killing prominent black Americans.
1994 -Microsoft Corp. reached a settlement with the Justice Department, promising to end practices it used to corner the market for personal computer software programs.
1995 – Connecticut sets a record high temperature of 106° in Danbury.
1995 – First item sold on Amazon.com.
1996 – MSNBC, a 24-hour all-news network, made its debut on cable and the Internet.
1996 – Arkansas Gov. Guy Tucker stepped down following a felony conviction in the Whitewater scandal. Lt. Gov. Mike Huckabee became governor.
1997 – In Miami, Florida, serial killer Andrew Phillip Cunanan guns down Gianni Versace outside his home.
1998 – The Congressional Budget Office estimated federal surpluses of $1.55 trillion over the next decade.
1999 – The Seattle Mariners played their first game in their new home, Safeco Field, losing to the San Diego Padres, 3-to-2.
1999 – The US House voted to give Congress a pay raise of $4,600 in January and to double the next president’s salary to $400,000.
1999 – The Religious Liberty Protection Act was signed by 107 House Democrats and 199 Republicans. It said local and state officials must bend their rules to accommodate religious claims.
2002 – “American Taliban” John Walker Lindh pleads guilty to supplying aid to the enemy and for the possession of explosives during the commission of a felony.
2002 – Osama bin Laden is alive and planning another attack on the United States, said an Arab journalist with close ties to the militant’s associates. This ‘new’ attack has not yet materialized.
2002 – Anti-Terrorism Court of Pakistan awarded death sentence to British born Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh and life term to three other suspects in murdering Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.
2003 – AOL Time Warner disbands Netscape Communications Corporation. The Mozilla Foundation is established on the same day.
2003 – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention removed its SARS-related travel advisory for Taiwan, the last area to have such a travel alert.
2004 – Monorail service begins in Las Vegas.
2004 – President Bush signed into law a measure imposing mandatory prison terms for criminals who use identity theft in committing terrorist acts and other offenses.
2004 - The House of Representatives passes a resolution condemning the International Court of Justice ruling on the Israeli West Bank barrier.
2005 – Jack Nicklaus plays his last hole of competitive golf during The Open Championship at Hole 18 at St Andrews, finishing with a birdie.
2006 – The space shuttle Discovery undocked from the international space station.
2007 – The Los Angeles Times reported that about 45 percent of all foreign militants targeting US troops and Iraqi security forces were from Saudi Arabia, 15 percent from Syria and Lebanon, and 10 percent from North Africa.
2008 – Mei Ling Chen (46) of Taiwan was arrested in Sunnyvale, Ca., after customs inspectors at SF Int’l. Airport found $380,000 in counterfeit $100 bills in a package of dried seafood.
2008 – Volkswagen announced that it would build a $1 billion car plant in Chattanooga, Tenn., and expected to open it as soon as 2011.
2009 – The National Education Association has thrown its full support behind homosexual “marriage.”
2009 – Space shuttle Endeavour rocketed toward the international space station as engineers on Earth pored over launch pictures that showed debris breaking off the fuel tank and striking the craft.
2010 - BP reports that no oil is leaking into the Gulf of Mexico from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill for the first time since it began in April.
2010 - World Trade Center site workers in the US excavate a 32 foot-long ship hull said to have been buried in the 18th century.
2010 - Two major US TV networks, CBS and NBC, censor the “Kill the Ground Zero Mosque” advertisement by conservative group National Republican Trust which calls plans to erect a mosque near New York City’s Ground Zero a “monstrosity.”
2011 – President Barack Obama makes a phone call to the International Space Station (ISS) and jokes with astronauts about pizza.
1606 – Rembrandt, Dutch artist (d. 1669)
1779 – Clement Clarke Moore, American educator, author, and poet (d. 1863)
1796 – Thomas Bulfinch, American mythologist (d. 1867)
1921 – Robert Bruce Merrifield, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2006)
1922 – Leon M. Lederman, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
1930 – Stephen Smale, American mathematician
1935 – Alex Karras, American football player and actor
1936 – George Voinovich, American politician, senior senator of Ohio
1938 – Barry Goldwater Jr., American politician
1944 – Jan-Michael Vincent, American actor
1946 – Linda Ronstadt, American singer
1958 – Mac Thornberry, American politician
1960 – Kim Alexis, American supermodel and actress
1961 – Scott Ritter, UN weapons inspector in Iraq
1961 – Forest Whitaker, American actor
1972 – Scott Foley, American actor
|MODRZEJEWSKI, ROBERT J.
Rank and organization: Major (then Capt.), U.S. Marine Corps, Company K, 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, 3d Marine Division, FMF. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, 15 to 18 July 1966. Entered service at: Milwaukee, Wis. Born: 3 July 1934, Milwaukee, Wis. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 15 July, during Operation HASTINGS, Company K was landed in an enemy-infested jungle area to establish a blocking position at a major enemy trail network. Shortly after landing, the company encountered a reinforced enemy platoon in a well-organized, defensive position. Maj. Modrzejewski led his men in the successful seizure of the enemy redoubt, which contained large quantities of ammunition and supplies. That evening, a numerically superior enemy force counterattacked in an effort to retake the vital supply area, thus setting the pattern of activity for the next 2 1/2 days. In the first series of attacks, the enemy assaulted repeatedly in overwhelming numbers but each time was repulsed by the gallant Marines. The second night, the enemy struck in battalion strength, and Maj. Modrzejewski was wounded in this intensive action which was fought at close quarters. Although exposed to enemy fire, and despite his painful wounds, he crawled two hundred meters to provide critically needed ammunition to an exposed element of his command and was constantly present wherever the fighting was heaviest, despite numerous casualties, a dwindling supply of ammunition and the knowledge that they were surrounded, he skillfully directed artillery fire to within a few meter* of his position and courageously inspired the efforts of his company in repelling the aggressive enemy attack. On 18 July, Company K was attacked by a regimental-size enemy force. Although his unit was vastly outnumbered and weakened by the previous fighting, Maj. Modrzejewski reorganized his men and calmly moved among them to encourage and direct their efforts to heroic limits as they fought to overcome the vicious enemy onslaught. Again he called in air and artillery strikes at close range with devastating effect on the enemy, which together with the bold and determined fighting of the men of Company K, repulsed the fanatical attack of the larger North Vietnamese force. His unparalleled personal heroism and indomitable leadership inspired his men to a significant victory over the enemy force and reflected great credit upon himself, the Marine Corps, and the U.S. Naval Service.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 442nd Infantry. Place and date: Pieve di S. Luce, Italy, 15 July 1944. Born: Visalia, Calif. Entered service at: Rivers Relocation Center, Ariz. Citation: Staff Sergeant Kazuo Otani distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on 15 July 1944, near Pieve Di S. Luce, Italy. Advancing to attack a hill objective, Staff Sergeant Otani’s platoon became pinned down in a wheat field by concentrated fire from enemy machine gun and sniper positions. Realizing the danger confronting his platoon, Staff Sergeant Otani left his cover and shot and killed a sniper who was firing with deadly effect upon the platoon. Followed by a steady stream of machine gun bullets, Staff Sergeant Otani then dashed across the open wheat field toward the foot of a cliff, and directed his men to crawl to the cover of the cliff. When the movement of the platoon drew heavy enemy fire, he dashed along the cliff toward the left flank, exposing himself to enemy fire. By attracting the attention of the enemy, he enabled the men closest to the cliff to reach cover. Organizing these men to guard against possible enemy counterattack, Staff Sergeant Otani again made his way across the open field, shouting instructions to the stranded men while continuing to draw enemy fire. Reaching the rear of the platoon position, he took partial cover in a shallow ditch and directed covering fire for the men who had begun to move forward. At this point, one of his men became seriously wounded. Ordering his men to remain under cover, Staff Sergeant Otani crawled to the wounded soldier who was lying on open ground in full view of the enemy. Dragging the wounded soldier to a shallow ditch, Staff Sergeant Otani proceeded to render first aid treatment, but was mortally wounded by machine gun fire. Staff Sergeant Otani’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army 10th Field Artillery, 3d Division. Place and date: Near Greves Farm, France, 14-15 July 1918. Entered service at: Okarche, Oklahoma. Born: 27 September 1892, China. G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919. Citation: At the very outset of the unprecedented artillery bombardment by the enemy, his line of communication was destroyed beyond repair. Despite the hazard attached to the mission of runner, he immediately set out to establish contact with the neighboring post of command and further establish liaison with two French batteries, visiting their position so frequently that he was mainly responsible for the accurate fire therefrom. While thus engaged, seven horses were shot under him and he was severely wounded. His activity under most severe fire was an important factor in checking the advance of the enemy.
|BUCHANAN, DAVID M.
INTERIM 1871- 1898
Rank and organization: Apprentice, U.S. Navy. Born: 1862, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 246, 22 July 1879. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Saratoga off Battery, New York Harbor, 15 July 1879. On the morning of this date, Robert Lee Robey, apprentice, fell overboard from the after part of the ship into the tide which was running strong ebb at the time and, not being an expert swimmer, was in danger of drowning. Instantly springing over the rail after him, Buchanan never hesitated for an instant to remove even a portion of his clothing. Both men were picked up by the ship’s boat following this act of heroism.
INTERIM 1871- 1898
Rank and organization: Apprentice, U.S. Navy. Born: 1863, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: Washington, D.C. G.O. No.: 246, 22 July 1879. Citation: On board the U.S. Training Ship Saratoga. On the morning of 15 July 1879, while the Saratoga was anchored off the Battery, in New York Harbor, R. L. Robey, apprentice, fell overboard. As the tide was running strong ebb, the man, not being an expert swimmer, was in danger of drowning. David M. Buchanan, apprentice, instantly, without removing any of his clothing, jumped after him. Stripping himself, Hayden stood coolly watching the two in the water, and when he thought his services were required, made a dive from the rail and came up alongside them and rendered assistance until all three were picked up by a boat from the ship.
INTERIM 1866- 1870
Rank and organizarion: Captain of the Afterguard, U.S. Navy. Born: 17 May 1837, Norway. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 77, 1 August 1866. Citation: For heroic efforts to save from drowning Wellington Brocar, landsman, of the Tallapoosa, off New Orleans, 15 July 1866.
|MORRISON, JOHN G.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Lansingburg, N.Y. Born: 3 November 1842, Ireland G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Serving as coxswain on board the U.S.S. Carondelet, Morrison was commended for meritorious conduct in general and especially for his heroic conduct and his inspiring example to the crew in the engagement with the rebel ram Arkansas, Yazoo River, 15 July 1862. When the Carondelet was badly cut up, several of her crew killed, many wounded and others almost suffocated from the effects of escaped steam, Morrison was the leader when boarders were called on deck, and the first to return to the guns and give the ram a broadside as she passed. His presence of mind in time of battle or trial is reported as always conspicuous and encouraging.
Comedy Celebration Day
Condiments are food substances used to heighten the natural flavors of foods, stimulate the appetite, aid digestion, or preserve certain foods; the word comes from Latin condire “to preserve.” The custom of using condiments is as ancient as cookery itself, the first ones being mainly of vegetable origin and used as a means of preserving. In the U.S., large quantities of bottled sauces and condiments are used to accompany salads, meats, vegetables, etc. The familiar packets of condiments in the United States are ubiquitous.
Mustard – At first, mustard was considered a medicinal plant rather than a culinary one. In the sixth century B.C., Greek scientist Pythagoras used mustard as a remedy for scorpion stings. One hundred years later, Hippocrates used mustard in a variety of medicines and poultices. Mustard plasters were applied to “cure” toothaches and a number of other ailments.
Prepared mustard dates back thousands of years to the early Romans, who used to grind mustard seeds and mix them with wine into a paste not much different from the prepared mustards we know today.
The mustard seed is a prominent reference for those of the Christian faith, exemplifying something which is small and insignificant, which when planted, grows in strength and power.
Many variations of ketchup have been created, but the tomato-based version did not appear until about a century after other types were invented. By 1801, a recipe for tomato ketchup was created by Sandy Addison and was later printed in an American cookbook, the Sugar House Book.
- Get [the tomatoes] quite ripe on a dry day, squeeze them with your hands till reduced to a pulp, then put half a pound of fine salt to one hundred tomatoes, and boil them for two hours.
- Stir them to prevent burning.
- While hot press them through a fine sieve, with a silver spoon till nought but the skin remains, then add a little mace, 3 nutmegs, allspice, cloves, cinnamon, ginger, and pepper to taste.
- Boil over a slow fire till quite thick, stir all the time.
- Bottle when cold.
- One hundred tomatoes will make four or five bottles and keep good for two or three years.”‘
The salt in this recipe, which served as a preservative, yields an extremely salty taste. This recipe is important because tomato was not widely accepted by people in North America in the early 1800s. Many believed tomatoes were poisonous.
Most authorities believe the first batch of this mixture we now call Mayonaisse was a combination of egg yolks, oil and seasonings and was whipped up to celebrate the 1756 French capture of Mahon. The Duke (duc de Richelieu) who is credited with that capture, or his personal chef, is credited with inventing mayonnaise. The motivation of the chef was to create a victory feast that was to include a sauce made of cream and eggs. Realizing that there was no cream in the kitchen, the chef substituted olive oil for the cream and a new culinary creation was born. Supposedly the chef named the new sauce “Mahonnaise” in honor of the Duc’s victory. Besides enjoying a reputation as a skillful military leader, the Duke was also widely known as a bon vivant. Early French immigrant cooks that originally lived in Fort Mahon brought the original recipe to Minnesota.
Two other stories include one where he Duke brought back a local sauce from Les Mayons, capital of Minorque in the Balearic Islands, based on lemon juice key and egg yolk, olive oil, raised of a little black pepper and marine salt, garlic or fresh grass.
The second is about Bayonne, a resort town on the Aquitaine/Basque coast in southwest France. It is thought that mayonnaise could be an alteration and corruption of bayonnaise sauce. Nowdays, bayonnaise refers to a mayonnaise flavored with the Espelette chiles.
In 1910, Nina Hellman, a German immigrant from New York City, made a dressing that her husband, Richard Hellman, used on the sandwiches and salads he served in his New York delicatessen. He started selling the spread in “wooden boats” that were used for weighing butter. Initially he sold two versions of the recipe, and to differentiate between the two, he put a blue ribbon around one. In 1912, there was such a great demand for the “ribbon” version, that Hellmann designed a “Blue Ribbon” label, which he placed on larger glass jars. He did so well that he started a distribution business, purchased a fleet of trucks, and in 1912 built a manufacturing plant. Also Best Foods, Inc. in California did the same. Hellman and Best Foods later merged and account for about 45% of all bottled mayonnaise sole in the United States.
“Slow down and enjoy life. It’s not only the scenery you miss by going to fast — you also miss the sense of where you are going and why.”
imbroglio im-BROHL-yoh, noun:
1. A complicated and embarrassing state of things.
2. A confused or complicated disagreement or misunderstanding.
3. An intricate, complicated plot, as of a drama or work of fiction.
4. A confused mass; a tangle.
Imbroglio derives from Italian, from Old Italian imbrogliare, “to tangle, to confuse,” fromin-, “in” + brogliare, “to mix, to stir.” It is related to embroil, “to entangle in conflict or argument.”
1520 – Hernando Cortes fought the Aztecs at the Battle of Otumba, Mexico.
1754 – King’s College opened in New York City; the Anglican academy would later become Columbia University.
1769 – The de Portolá Expedition establishes a base in California, and sets out to find the Port of Monterey (now Monterey, California).
1771 – Father Junipero Serra founded the Mission San Antonio de Padua in California.
1776 – Jemima Boone (13), the daughter of Daniel Boone, and two friends were kidnapped by a group of five Shawnee and Cherokee Indians near Boonesborough, Kentucky.
1798 – First direct federal tax on the states-on dwellings, land & slaves. 1 Stat. 597 created the first property tax of its citizens. The purpose of the tax was to raise a war chest for the threatened conflict with France. The amount to be raised was 2 million dollars.
1798 – The Sedition Act becomes United States law making it a federal crime to write, publish, or utter false or malicious statements about the US President and the United States government.
1813 – LT John M. Gamble was the first Marine to command a ship in battle (prize vessel Greenwich in capture of British whaler Seringapatam).
1821 – Spain ceded Florida to the United States.
1825 – The Jefferson Literary and Debating Society was founded at the University of Virginia.
1850 – First public demonstration of ice made by refrigeration.
1853 – President Franklin Pierce opens the first-ever American World’s Fair in the Crystal Palace, in New York.
1861 – Civil War: Union troops tried to force a crossing at Seneca Falls on the Potomac, northwest of Washington but were repulsed by the Confederates. A company of the Louisiana Tiger Rifles helped defend the line.
1861 – Civil War: Gen McDowell advanced toward Fairfax Courthouse, VA, with 40,000 troops.
1861 – Civil War: Naval Engagement at Wilmington, NC. USS Daylight establishes a blockade.
1862 – Congress passed an act stating that: ” . . . the spirit ration in the Navy of the United States shall forever cease, and . . . no distilled spiritous liquors shall be admitted on board vessels of war, except as medical stores . . .
1863 – Civil War:Naval forces captured Fort Powhatan on the James River, VA.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest suffers his biggest defeat when Union General Andrew J. Smith routs his force in Tupelo, Mississippi.
1864 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Paul Jones was captured while making an attempt in Ossabaw Sound, Georgia to destroy C.S.S. Water Witch.
1864 – Gold was discovered in Helena, Mont. Four prospectors discovered gold in a small stream they called “Last Chance.”
1867 – Harvard School of Dental Medicine was established in Boston, Massachusetts — the first dental school in the U.S.
1867 – Nobel demonstrates dynamite.
1868 – Alvin J. Fellows of New Haven, Connecticut recieved the first U.S. patent for a spring tape measure. The tape measure was enclosed in a circular case with a spring click lock to hold the tape at any desired point.
1877 – The Baltimore rail workers’ walked off the job to agitate for higher pay and fairer work conditions.
1881 – Billy the Kid was killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett in Fort Sumner, New Mexico.
1882 – Sailors and Marines from four U.S. ships land to help restore order at Alexandria, Egypt.
1882 – Johnny Ringo, a fast draw gunman, was found dead in Tombstone, Az.
1885 – Sarah Goode became the first African-American woman to receive a U.S. patent. Goode invented a Folding Cabinet Bed. The Cabinet Bed when folded up resembled a desk which included compartments for stationary and writing instruments.
1891 – The primacy of Thomas Edison’s lamp patents was upheld in the court decision Electric Light Company vs. U.S. Electric Lighting Company.
1891 – J Standard, awarded patent for making the refrigerator.
1891 - Inventor John T. Smith patented corkboard.
1898 – During the Spanish-American War, Spanish troops in Santiago, Cuba, surrendered to U.S. forces.
1908 – “The Adventures of Dolly” opened at the Union Square Theatre in New York City.
1911 – For the first time, a pilot flew an airplane onto the lawn of the White House. Harry N. Atwood flew in to accept an award from President William Taft.
1913 - A future President was born as Leslie Lynch King Jr., Gerald Ford’s mother’s second husband, Gerald R. Ford, adopted him and renamed him.
1914 – Robert Hutchins Goddard patents a liquid-fuel rocket motor.
1921 – Italian anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were convicted for the May 5, 1920 killing of a paymaster and guard at a shoe factory in South Braintree, Massachusetts.
1926 – The first radio-beacon established in Alaska, at Cape Spencer, was placed in commission.
1933 – In Germany, Gleichschaltung is enforced against all political parties and they are outlawed except the Nazi Party.
1934 – The New York Times erronously declares that Babe Ruth’s 700 HR record will stand for all time.
1938 – Howard Hughes landed at Floyd Bennet Field in New York with a crew of four after flying around the world in 3 days, 19 hours, and 17 min., a new record.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: 6,000 Lithuanian Jews were exterminated at Viszalsyan Camp.
1942 – Helen O’Connell and Bob Eberly recorded “Brazil” with the Jimmy Dorsey band.
1943 – World War II: The main British and American forces continue to advance evenly along the entire front. American units in Italy capture Biscani airfield and Niscemi. British units capture Vizzini.
1943 – In Joplin, Missouri, George Washington Carver National Monument becomes the first United States National Monument in honor of an African-American.
1944 – World War II: In the Pacific, Task Force 74 (Commodore Collins) bombards Japanese positions near Aitape, between Yakamul and But.
1945 – World War II: Over 1000 US naval aircraft raid Hokkaido and the port of Kamaishi. The force included the American battleships South Dakota, Indiana and Massachusetts, as well as two heavy cruisers and four destroyers.
1945 – President Harry Truman, Soviet leader Josef Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill began meeting at Potsdam in the final Allied summit of World War II.
1946 – Heart Mountain, Wyoming: Japanese-American draft resisters were released from McNeil Island.
1946 – Dr. Benjamin Spock’s “The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care” was first published.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Peg o’ My Heart” by The Harmonicats, “I Wonder, I Wonder, I Wonder” by Eddy Howard, “Chi- Baba, Chi – Baba” by Perry Como and “Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)” by Tex Williams all topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: U.S. Marines sail from San Diego for Korean Conflict.
1950 – Korean War: The U.S. 555th Field Artillery Battalion (“Triple Nickel”) was overrun and lost 300 soldiers.
1951 – The first sports event to be shown in color, on CBS-TV, was the Molly Pitcher Handicap at Oceanport, NJ.
1951 – Citation becomes first horse to win $1,000,000 in races.
1951 – “Too Young” by Nat ‘King’ Cole topped the charts.
1952 – Laying of keel for the USS Forrestal, the first 59,900 ton aircraft carrier.
1953 – First national monument dedicated to an African-American – George Washington Carver.
1953 – The freighter Jacob Luckenbach from San Francisco rammed the Matson freighter Hawaiian Pilot near Point Montara, 17 miles from the Golden Gate.
1954 – The central region of the United States suffers extremely hot weather, with the temperature reaching 118° F in Warsaw and Union, Missouri, and 117° F in East St. Louis, Illinois, setting new all-time state record high temperatures.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Around the Clock” by Bill Haley & His Comets, “Learnin’ the Blues” by Frank Sinatra, “Hard to Get by” Giselle Mackenzie and “A Satisfied Mind” by Porter Wagoner all topped the charts.
1956 – “The Wayward Wind” by Gogi Grant topped the charts.
1958 – In Iraq the monarchy is overthrown by Arab nationalists and Abdul Karim Kassem becomes the nation’s new leader.
1959 – First atomic powered cruiser, the Long Beach, Quincy, Massachusetts. She was the first nuclear powered surface warship in the world and the first large combatant in the US Navy with its main battery consisting of guided missiles. She was also the first American cruiser since the end of World War II to built entirely new from the keel up, and, when completed, boasted the highest bridge in the world. She was also the last warship to be fitted with teakwood decks.
1962 – “Roses Are Red (My Love)” by Bobby Vinton topped the charts.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Easier Said Than Done” by The Essex, “Surf City” by Jan & Dean, “Tie Me Kangaroo Down, Sport” by Rolf Harris and “Act Naturally” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 – Mariner 4 flyby of Mars takes the first close-up photos of another planet.
1966 – In Chicago, Richard Speck murders eight student nurses in their dormitory. He made a videotape in prison and admitted to the killings.
1967 – Eddie Mathews becomes the seventh member of the 500 Home Run Club with a home run at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California.
1968 – Hank Aaron becomes the eighth member of the 500 Home Run Club with a home run off Mike McCormick of the San Francisco Giants at Fulton County Stadium.
1969 – Large denominations of United States currency, namely the $500, $1,000, $5,000 and $10,000 bills, are officially withdrawn from circulation by the Federal Reserve System due to “lack of use,” leaving the $100 bill as the largest unit of circulating United States currency. Another side effect was that it made large drug deals much more difficult because of the volume of money that had to change hands increased significantly.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Too Late - I Feel the Earth Move” by Carole King, “Indian Reservation” by Raiders, “You’ve Got a Friend” by James Taylor and “When You’re Hot, You’re Hot” by Jerry Reed all topped the charts.
1972 – Vietnam War: The State Department criticized actress Jane Fonda for making antiwar radio broadcasts in Hanoi, calling them “distressing.”
1973 – “Will It Go Round in Circles” by Billy Preston topped the charts.
1974 – Bundy victims Janice Ott and Denise Naslund disappeared at Lake Sammamish, WA.
1975 – The U.S. spacecraft Apollo 18 and the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz 19 docked in space.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ring My Bell” by Anita Ward, “Bad Girls” by Donna Summer, “Chuck E.’s in Love” by Rickie Lee Jones and “Amanda” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1981 – The All-Star Game was postponed because of a 33-day-old baseball players strike. The game was held on August 9.
1985 – Baltimore defeated Oakland, 28-24, to clinch their second consecutive United States Football League championship. This ended up being the end of the league.
1986 – Richard W Miller became first FBI agent convicted of espionage.
1986 – An expedition from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute filmed the wreck of the Titanic for the first time.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Wanna Dance with Somebody (Who Loves Me)” by Whitney Houston, “Shakedown” by Bob Seger, “Songbird” by Kenny G and “All My Ex’s Live in Texas” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1987 – Greyhound Bus buys Trailways Bus for $80 million.
1987 – The National League took thirteen innings to defeat the American League, 2-0, in the 58th All-Star Game in Oakland, CA.
1988 - Nashville radio WYHY offered to pay $1 million to anyone who could provide proof that Elvis Presley (1935 – 1977) was still alive.
1989 – The 16th James Bond movies “License to Kill“.
1990 – “Step by Step” by New Kids on the Block topped the charts.
1991 – In California a Southern Pacific tanker car derailed near Dunsmuir and spilled 18,000 gallons of pesticides (19k gallons of metam sodium) into the Sacramento River. This killed every living thing in the river for 40 miles downstream including 250,000 trout.
1992 – The American League won the All-Star game, defeating the National League team 13-6 at Jack Murphy Stadium in San Diego.
1993 – The USS IWO JIMA was decommissioned after over 30 years of service in a ceremony at Norfolk Naval Base, Virginia.
1996 – Shortly after takeoff from New York’s Kennedy International Airport, a TWA Boeing 747 jetliner bound for Paris exploded over the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 230 people aboard. Investigators concluded that the explosion resulted from mechanical failure.
1996 – Fire crews battled blazes covering more than 16,000 acres in California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon and Utah.
1997 – After 117 years, the Woolworth Corporation closed its last 400 five-and-dime stores.
1997 – O.J. Simpson’s California mansion was auctioned off for $2.6 million.
1998 – Los Angeles sued 15 tobacco companies for $2.5 billion over the dangers of secondhand smoke.
2000 – In Waco, Texas, a federal jury decided that federal agents were not responsible for the deaths of 80 Branch Davidians in 1993.
2001 – The Pentagon scored a hit with a missile interceptor that soared into space from a tiny Pacific isle and destroyed its target, a mock nuclear warhead.
2001 – NASA launched an unmanned solar-powered plane named Helios over Hawaii.
2003 – Columnist Robert Novak identified Valerie Plame as a CIA employee.
2005 – A US appeals court overturned the 2003 “mad cow” ban on beef imports from Canada. The USDA said it would lift restrictions within days.
2006 – Hezbollah declares war on Israel.
2008 – Bush lifted the presidential moratorium on offshore drilling, however Congress has renewed its ban on drilling every year since 1981 and top Democrats said it will do so again this year.
2009 – Boeing to slash about 1,000 jobs because of funding cuts by the Pentagon.
2009 – U.S. House Democrats unveiled a health care plan Tuesday that creates a government-run health system that will operate in addition to private insurance.
2009 – President Barack Obama unveiled a $12 billion initiative to boost community colleges and propel the United States toward his goal of having the highest proportion of college graduates in the world by 2020.
2010 – The US discusses the arrest of Bradley Manning, accused of providing secret information about US military corruption to Wikileaks.
2010 – Boeing unveils Phantom Eye, its unmanned hydrogen-powered spy plane capable of flying for up to four consecutive days.
2010 – An 18th-Century wood-hulled ship is discovered at the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City.
2011 – The FBI is investigating reports that News Corporation sought to hack the phones of victims of the September 11 terrorist attacks.
2011 – U.S. district court judge Reggie Walton declares a mistrial in the perjury trial of former baseball star Roger Clemens after prosecutors present evidence that Walton had previously ruled inadmissible.
2011 – President Barack Obama, gives Congressional leaders 24 to 36 hours to reach an agreement on debt reduction as credit agency Standard & Poor’s places the US on a downgrade watch.
2014 - Police in Spokane, Washington, say a corrections officer fired a gun at Deaconess Hospital early Monday when a prisoner waiting for a surgical procedure tried to escape.
1785 – Mordecai Manuel Noah was an American playwright, diplomat, journalist, and utopian. (d. 1851)
1834 – James McNeil Whistler, American painter. He is probably best known for his most famous painting is the iconic Whistler’s Mother. (d. 1903)
1860 – Owen Wister, was an American writer and “Father” of western fiction. (d. 1938)
1889 – Erle Stanley Gardner, American detective writer, creator of the character Perry Mason.
1898 – A. B. “Happy” Chandler was twice governor of Kentucky, a U.S. Senator, the 2nd Commissioner of Major League Baseball, and a member of the Baseball Hall of Fame. His jovial attitude earned him the nickname “Happy,” which stuck for the remainder of his life. (d. 1991)
1899 – James Cagney was an American film star. Although he won acclaim and major awards for a wide variety of roles, he is best remembered for playing “tough guys.”
1903 – Irving Stone was an American writer known for his biographical novels of famous historical personalities. (d. 1989)
1906 – Tom Carvel, Greek-born businessman and inventor, known for the invention and promotion of soft ice cream in the northeastern United States. (d. 1990)
1910 – William Hanna, American animator (d. 2001)
1912 – Art Linkletter, American television host.
1912 – Woody Guthrie, American folk musician (d. 1967)
1913 – Gerald Ford, 38th President of the United States (d. 2006)
1918 – Ingmar Bergman, Swedish film and theatre director (d. 2007)
1922 – Robin Olds, American World War II and Vietnam War ace fighter pilot (d. 2007)
1923 – Dale Robertson, American actor
1927 – John Chancellor, American television commentator (d. 1996)
1932 – Roosevelt Grier, American football player and actor
1947 – Claudia Kennedy, U.S. Army officer
1952 – Franklin Graham, American evangelist
1960 – Jane Lynch, American actress
1963 – Phil Rosenthal, American newspaper columnist
1973 – Adam Quinn, American bagpipe player
|HIBSON, JOSEPH C.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 48th New York Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 13 July 1863, Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 14 July 1863; Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 18 July 1863. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: England. Date of issue: 23 October 1897. Citation: While voluntarily performing picket duty under fire on 13 July 1863, was attacked and his surrender demanded, but he killed his assailant. The day following responded to a call for a volunteer to reconnoiter the enemy’s position, and went within the enemy’s lines under fire and was exposed to great danger. On 18 July voluntarily exposed himself with great gallantry during an assault, and received three wounds that permanently disabled him for active service.
|HOLTON, CHARLES M.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company A, 7th Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At Falling Waters, Va., 14 July 1863. Entered service at: Battle Creek, Mich. Born: 25 May 1838, Potter, N.Y. Date of issue: 21 March 1889. Citation: Capture of flag of 55th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.). In the midst of the battle with foot soldiers he dismounted to capture the flag.