Unerased History – July 27th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 27, 2017 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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 National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day

Parents Day

Coffee Milkshake Day



I have always wondered how “restaurants” got their starts, no from a financial perspective but from an ideological standpoint. In looking at how they began I was surprised to find that they went back to ancient Roman history and actually started as mess-halls. Those were when the soldiers were near their deployments. How then did they eat “on the move.” The secret is by using “street vendors”, people who traveled with the troops to serve the military. That grew to what we currently call “street vendors over a long time.

The idea of cooking and serving food from portable canteens evolved over time. Ancient Romans hawked “street foods” in marketplaces and sold them in sporting venues. Medieval street foods were sold at fairs, tournaments, and other large gatherings. Today, we sometimes call this “fast food.”

The types of items consumed “on the street” are generally determined by the traditional foods of the country/region. Which foods are most popular? That depends upon the time and place. In the places where many cultures and cuisine combine, the confluence of street food is a reflection of the inhabitants. Food carts were often used by peddlers to sell inexpensive homemade and manufactured goods. Ice cream and candy were often sold in this fashion. Early carts where powered by people (pushed, pulled), animals (goats, horses), wheels (bicycles, tricycles) and motors (cars, trucks).

This is how one food historian sums up the topic:
“Street food in a given place, is often far more interesting than restaurant food. Generally speaking, wherever it is found it will be likely to represent well-established local traditions; and in some places a tour of hawkers’ stalls may be the quickest and most agreeable method of getting the feel of local foods. Among the factors which seem to determine how numerous and diverse street foods are in this or that country, one is clearly climate–a temperate or warm climate makes these operations much easier and also produces a larger number of passers-by who are not intent on getting to somewhere out of the cold. Another factor is the degree of economic development. Broadly speaking, developed countries have fewer street foods. However, there are many exceptions or anomalies…there are indeed few generalizations which can be safely made on the subject. Nor is there much literature available for study…A list of the most famous and widespread street foods would certainly include ice cream, doughnut, hamburger, and hot dog.”
Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 1999 (p. 758)

The next time I go to Philadelphia, I will find the street vendor near the downtown Doubletree Inn who sells the best (IMHO) Philly cheesesteaks in the world!!!

Scripture of the Day

Jeremiah 1:5-8  King James Version (KJV)

Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee; and before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee, and I ordained thee a prophet unto the nations.

Then said I, Ah, Lord God! behold, I cannot speak: for I am a child.

But the Lord said unto me, Say not, I am a child: for thou shalt go to all that I shall send thee, and whatsoever I command thee thou shalt speak.

Be not afraid of their faces: for I am with thee to deliver thee, saith the Lord.


Founders Thoughts

Founding FathersWe hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

– Declaration of Independence, 1776


“Excellence is to do a common thing in an uncommon way.”

~ Booker T. Washington


yestreen (ye-STREEN) noun;

Yesterday evening.[From Middle English yester- + even.]

1586Sir Walter Raleigh brings first tobacco to England from Virginia.

1663 – The British Parliament passed a second Navigation Act, which required all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.

1775 – The Army Medical Department and the Medical Corps trace their origins to Benjamin_Churchthis date when the Continental Congress established the Army hospital headed by a “Director General and Chief Physician.” Benjamin Church began his service as the first Surgeon-General and the Director of Hospitals.

1776 – Silas Deane (1737-1789), secretly sent to France as America’s first official envoy, wrote a letter to the US Congress informing them that he has been successful beyond his expectations. Deane had served as the Connecticut delegate to the Continental Congress.

1777The Marquis of Lafayette arrived in New England to help the rebellious colonists fight the British.

1784 – “Courier De L’Amerique” became the first French newspaper to be published in the United States. The paper was printed in Philadelphia, PA for all the many Philadelphians who spoke French.

1789 – Congress established the Department of Foreign Affairs, the forerunner of the Department of State.

1804 – The 12th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. With the amendment Electors were directed to vote for a President and for a Vice-President rather than for two choices for President.

1816 – U.S. troops destroy Ft. Apalachicola, a Seminole fort, to punish Indians for harboring runaway slaves.

1837 – US Mint opens in Charlotte, NC.

1861 – Civil War: Battle of Mathias Point, VA. Rebel forces repelled a Federal landing.

1861 – Civil War: General George B. McClellan as head of the Army of the Potomac.

1861 – Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln replaced General Irwin McDowell with George B. McClellan who then assumed command of the Army of the Potomac following a disastrous Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run.

1861 – Civil War: Battle of St. Augustine Springs, New Mexico Territory.

1863 – Civil War: Morgan’s Raid ends – At Salineville, Ohio, Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and 360 of his volunteers are captured by Union forces.

1864 – Civil War: Battle of Darbytown, VA. Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Alfred Terry for the North and  Lt. Gen. Richard Anderson for the Confererates.

1864 – Civil War:  Pickets from U.S.S. Shokokon  were attacked ashore by Confederate sharpshooters at Turkey Bend, in the James River.

1866 – Cyrus W. Field finally succeeded in laying the first underwater telegraph cable between North America and Europe.

1888 – Philip Pratt unveils first electric automobile.

1898 – Marines from the USS Dixie were the first to raise the American flag over Puerto Rico.

1901 – The 1901 Wright Glider was the second of the brothers’ experimental gliders. They tested it over the Kill Devil Hills, four miles south of Kitty Hawk. The glider was similar to the 1900 version, but had larger wings. It first flew today and was retired on August 17.

1908 – US Attorney General Charles Joseph Bonaparte issues an order to immediately staff the Office of the Chief Examiner (later renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation).

1909 – Orville Wright set a record for the longest airplane flight. He was testing the first Army airplane and kept it in the air for 1 hour 12 minutes and 40 seconds. He was also carrying a passenger.

1914 – World War I: Germany informed Belgium and Luxembourg of its intention to pass its troops through their countries.

1918 – Socony 200, first concrete barge in US, launched to carry oil, NY. Socony was the Standard Oil Company of New York.

1919 – Troops were mobilized to put down Chicago riot which erupted on July 27, and continued for several days. Fifteen whites and twenty-three African-Americans were killed and more than five hundred were injured.

1920 – A radio compass was used for the first time for aircraft navigation.

1921 – Canadian scientists Frederick Banting and Charles Best successfully isolated insulin.

1923 – John Herbert Dillinger joins the Navy in order to avoid charges of auto theft in Indiana, marking the beginning of America’s most notorious criminal’s downfall.

1925Charlie Poole (1892-1931) and His North Carolina Ramblers recorded “Don’t Let Your Deal Go Down Blues” at the New York City studios of Columbia Records.

1931Grasshoppers in Iowa, Nebraska and South Dakota destroyed thousands of acres of crops.

1940 – Bugs Bunny made his debut in the animated cartoon “A Wild Hare (8:16).” This marked the beginning of the Bugs Bunny series by Fred “Tex” Avery along with the rhetorical “What’s up, Doc?”

1940 – Billboard magazine starts publishing bestseller charts.

1942 – Peggy Lee recorded her first hit record — “Why Don’t You Do Right” with the Benny Goodman Orchestra.

1944 – World War II: U.S. troops completed the liberation of Guam.

1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be Seeing You” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Frank Sinatra), “Swinging on a Star” by Bing Crosby, “Amor” by Bing Crosby and “Straighten Up and Fly Right” by King Cole Trio all topped the charts.

1945 – British and American carriers conduct extensive air strikes. During the night (July 27-28), US B-29 bombers drop some 600,000 leaflets over eleven Japanese cities which warn inhabitants that the cities are on the target list for bombing raids.

1947 – Yogi Berra starts a record 148-game errorless streak.

1949 – First jet-propelled airline, De Havilland Comet, flies.

1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Yours” by Eddie Fisher, “Walkin’ My Baby Back Home by Johnnie Ray, “Auf Wiedersehn, Sweetheart” by Vera Lynn and “Are You Teasing Me” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.

1953 – Korean War: Air Force Captain Ralph S. Parr, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, achieved the last air victory of the Korean War when he destroyed an Il-12 transport plane. Col. Parr was a double ace pilot who flew 641 combat missions during three wars and was credited with downing the last enemy aircraft of the Korean conflict.

1953 – Korean War: Representatives of the United Nations, Korea, and China signed the Korean War armistice at Panmunjon, Korea ending the war.

1953 – Dizzy Dean, Al Simmons Chief Bender, Bobby Wallace, Harry Wright, Ed Barrow, and Bill Klem and Tom Connolly are inducted into Hall of Fame.

1957 – “Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.

1959 – Santo and Johnny (Farina) of Brooklyn, NY saw their one and only hit record, the instrumental “Sleepwalk” released.

1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Sorry” by Brenda Lee, “Only the Lonely” by Roy Orbison, “Itsy Bitsy Teeny Weenie Yellow Polkadot Bikini” by Brian Hyland and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling” by Hank Locklin all topped the charts.

1960 – Vice President Nixon nominated for President at the Republican convention in Chicago.

1962 – Martin Luther King Jr. jailed in Albany, Georgia.

1963 – “Surf City” by Jan & Dean topped the charts.

1964 – Vietnam War: The United States will send an additional 5,000 U.S. troops to Vietnam, bringing the total number of U.S. forces in Vietnam to 21,000.

1965 – Vietnam War: Forty-six U.S. F-105 fighter-bombers attack the missile installation that had fired at U.S. planes on July 24.

1965The Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act was signed into law. The law required health warnings on all cigarette packages.

1967 – President Johnson appointed the Kerner Commission to assess the causes of the violence in the wake of urban rioting.

1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Grazing in the Grass” by Hugh Masekela, “Stoned Soul Picnic” by The 5th Dimension, “Hurdy Gurdy Man” by Donovan and “Folsom Prison Blues” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.

1968 – Race riots lasted three days in Gary, Indiana.

1973 – Walter Blum becomes 6th jockey to ride 4,000 winners. In his illustrious 22-year jockey career, he rode 4,382 winners.

1973 – Secretariat broke two records while practicing at Saratoga Springs, NY. The legendary horse covered a mile in a speedy 1 minute, 34 seconds and ran a 1-1/8 mile distance in 1 minute, 47-4/5 seconds.

1974 – NBC-TV removed “Dinah’s Place” from its daytime programming roster.

1974The House Judiciary Committee voted 27-11 to recommend President Nixon’s impeachment on a charge that he had personally engaged in a “course of conduct” designed to obstruct justice in the Watergate case.

1974 – “Annie’s Song” by John Denver topped the charts.

1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss and Say Goodbye” by Manhattans, “Love is Alive” by Gary Wright, “Moonlight Feels Right” by Starbuck and “Teddy Bear” by Red Sovine all topped the charts.

1976 – Air Force veteran Ray Brennan became the first person to die of so-called “Legionnaire’s Disease” following an American Legion convention in Philadelphia.

1977 – John Lennon is granted a green card for permanent residence in U.S.

1980 – On day 267 of the Iranian hostage crisis, the deposed Shah of Iran (1941-1979) died at a military hospital outside Cairo, Egypt, at age 60.

1981Adam Walsh (6) disappeared from a Hollywood, FL mall. Fishermen discovered his severed head two weeks later in a canal 120 miles away. The Adam Walsh Act of 2006 obliged states to make their sex offender registries public.

1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “When Doves Cry” by Prince, “Dancing in the Dark” by Bruce Springsteen, “Ghostbusters” by Ray Parker Jr. and Just Another Woman in Love” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.

1984Pete Rose passed Ty Cobb’s record for most singles in a career.

1985 – “Everytime You Go Away” by Paul Young topped the charts.

1986 – Greg Lemond is the first American to win the Tour de France.

1988 – Radio Shack announces the Tandy 1000 SL computer.

1989 – Workers at the Nissan Motor Corp. assembly plant in Smyrna, Tenn., voted against representation by the United Auto Workers.

1990 – Zsa Zsa Gabor begins a 3-day jail sentence for slapping a cop.

1991 – TV Guide publishes it’s 2000th edition.

1991 – “(Everything I Do) I Do it for You” by Bryan Adams topped the “Billboard 100” charts.

1993 – IBM reported a record $8.4 billion quarterly loss.
1993 – Boston Celtics star Reggie Lewis died after collapsing on a Brandeis University basketball court during practice; he was 27.
1995 – The Korean War Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C., by President Bill Clinton and South Korean President Kim Young-sam.
1996 – In Atlanta, Georgia, the XXVI Summer Olympiad was disrupted by the explosion of a nail-laden pipe bomb in Centennial Olympic Park, which killed one and injured more than 100.
1997 – United Auto Workers approved a deal to end a six-day strike at a General Motors parts plant that forced four assembly plant shutdowns and threatened GM’s entire North American production.
1999 – The Columbia space shuttle landed at Cape Canaveral after a three-day mission to deploy the Chandra X-ray telescope. With Air Force Colonel Eileen Collins at the controls, space shuttle “Columbia” returned to Earth, ending a five-day mission.
1999 – Binney & Smith Inc., makers of Crayola crayons, adopted the name “chestnut” to replace “Indian red.”
2001 – The ribbon cutting ceremony was held for American Airlines Center in Dallas, TX. The event set two new world records, one for the 3 mile long ribbon and one for the 2,000 people that cut it.
2001 – A judge in West Palm Beach, Fla., sentenced 14-year-old Nathaniel Brazill to 28 years in prison for fatally shooting teacher Barry Grunow at Lake Worth Middle School.
2003 – Bob Hope, master of the one-liner and favorite comedian of servicemen and presidents alike, died at his home in Toluca Lake, Ca. (b.1903) May 29th had been his 100th birthday.
2003Lance Armstrong rode to his 5th straight Tour de France victory in a ceremonial final stage in Paris.
2005 – Ahmed Ressam, an Algerian who’d plotted to bomb the Los Angeles airport on the eve of the millennium, was sentenced to 22 years in prison by a judge in Seattle.
2007 – Scientists discovered a prosthetic toe that could be between 1000 and 3000 BC. The device was a wooden and leather toe.
2007California’s top court ruled that police can no longer seize vehicles of suspects in drug or prostitution arrests.
2007 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average ended down over 500 points in its worst week in 5 years.
2007 – In Phoenix, Arizona, two news helicopters covering a police chase on live television collided and crashed to the ground, killing all four people on board.
2008 – CHURCH SHOOTING: In Knoxville, Tennessee, Jim D. Adkisson (58) entered the Tennessee Valley Unitarian Universalist Church during a children’s performance and killed two people. He said he hated the church’s liberal politics.
2010 –  The Plastiki, a catamaran made out of recycled plastic, arrives in Sydney, Australia, after travelling across the Pacific Ocean from San Francisco, United States, to raise awareness of environmental issues.
2011 –  A tropical storm watch is issued for Tropical Storm Don in Texas between Port Mansfield north to San Luis Pass.
2012 – The Citizens Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms today applauds the decision by the United States to not sign the proposed International Arms Trade Treaty, and CCRKBA credits grassroots action for the gun rights victory.




1733 – Jeremiah Dixon was an English surveyor and astronomer who is perhaps best known for his work with Charles Mason, from 1763 to 1767, in determining what was later called the Mason-Dixon line. (d. 1779)
1812 – Thomas Clingman, American Confederate general (d. 1897)
1904 – Kenneth Bainbridge, Director of the Trinity atomic test (d. 1996)
1905 – Leo Durocher, American baseball player and manager (d. 1991)
1913 – George L. Street III was a submariner in the United States Navy. He received the Medal of Honor during World War II. (d. 2000)
1916 – Keenan Wynn, American actor (d. 1986),  Col. Bat Guano in Dr. Strangelove
1922 – Norman Lear, American television writer and producer, Creator of All in the Family.
1927 –
John Seigenthaler, Tennessean editor, RFK aide
1931 – Jerry Van Dyke, American actor
1938 – Jerry Juhl, Head writer, The Muppet Show
1944 – Bobbie Gentry, American singer and songwriter , Ode to Billie Joe.
1948 – Betty Thomas, American actor and film director,  Lucy Bates on Hill Street Blues
1948 – Peggy Fleming, Olympic gold medal winning ice skater.





Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Medical Detachment, 145th Infantry, 37th Infantry Division. Place and date: At Horseshoe Hill, New Georgia, Solomon Islands,  July 27th, 1943. Entered service at: Cleveland, Ohio. Birth: Cleveland, Ohio. G.O. No.: 86, 23 December 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Petrarca advanced with the leading troop element to within one-hundred yards of the enemy fortifications where mortar and small-arms fire caused a number of casualties. Singling out the most seriously wounded, he worked his way to the aid of Pfc. Scott, Iying within seventy-five yards of the enemy, whose wounds were so serious that he could not even be moved out of the direct line of fire Pfc Petrarca fearlessly administered first aid to Pfc. Scott and two other soldiers and shielded the former until his death. On 29 July 1943, Pfc. Petrarca. during an intense mortar barrage, went to the aid of his sergeant who had been partly buried in a foxhole under the debris of a shell explosion, dug him out, restored him to consciousness and caused his evacuation. On 31 July 1943 and against the warning of a fellow soldier, he went to the aid of a mortar fragment casualty where his path over the crest of a hill exposed him to enemy observation from only twenty yards distance. A target for intense knee mortar and automatic fire, he resolutely worked his way to within two yards of his objective where he was mortally wounded by hostile mortar fire. Even on the threshold of death he continued to display valor and contempt for the foe, raising himself to his knees, this intrepid soldier shouted defiance at the enemy, made a last attempt to reach his wounded comrade and fell in glorious death.




Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 23 May 1869, England. G.O. No.: 500, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead at the approaches to Caimanera, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 26 and 27 July 27th, 1898. Displaying heroism, Morin took part in the perilous work of sweeping for and disabling twenty-seven contact mines during this period.





Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 28 May 1864, England. Accredited to. New York. G.O. No.: 500, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead at the approaches to Caimanera, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 26 and  July 27th,  1898. Displaying heroism, Spicer took part in the perilous work of sweeping for and disabling 27 contact mines during this period.





Rank and organization: Chief Carpenter’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 26 May 1867, Furland, Russia. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 500, 19 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead at the approaches to Caimanera, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 26 and  July 27th,  1898. Displaying heroism, Sundquist took part in the perilous work of sweeping for and disabling twenty-seven contact mines during this period.





Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 18 December 1869, Chenokeeke, Kans. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 500, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead at the approaches to Caimanera, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 26 and  July 27th 1898. Displaying heroism, Triplett took part in the perilous work of sweeping for and disabling twenty-seven contact mines during this period.


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Unerased History – July 26th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 26, 2017 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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All Or Nothing Day

Aunt and Uncle Day



 Crazy Lawsuits

Being able to sue just about anybody is something that Ernie Chambers, a Nebraska State Senator, took to his advantage back in 2007 when he sued God for making terroristic threats against the citizens of his constituency. Chambers was out to make a point; he wanted to demonstrate that the laws of his state were too lax when it comes to enabling people to sue anybody for anything, frivolously or not. To make the case truly hilarious, Chambers said that since God was omnipresent, he was within the court’s jurisdiction, and that since he was omniscient, he didn’t need to be served (since he already knew he was being sued).


In 1991, Richard Overton sued Anheuser-Busch for false and misleading advertising under Michigan State law.  The complaint specifically referenced ads involving, among other things, fantasies of beautiful women in tropical settings that came to life for two men driving a Bud Light truck.  In addition to two claims of false advertising, Mr. Overton included a third claim in his complaint in which he claimed to have suffered emotional distress, mental injury, and financial loss in excess of $10,0000 due to the misleading Bud Light ads.  The court dismissed all claims.


A man filed a lawsuit against his doctor because he survived longer than what the doctor had predicted.

Cleanthi Peters sued Universal Studios for $15,000. She claimed to have suffered extreme fear, mental anguish, and emotional distress due to visiting Universal Studios’ Halloween Horror Nights haunted house, which she said was too scary.


Negligent security is a legitimate claim, when you’re the victim, not the perpetrator!  In 2002, Edward Brewer sued Providence Hospital for $2 million. He claimed that the hospital was negligent because it had not prevented him from raping one of its patients. The judge ruled that any damage Brewer suffered due to his crime was his responsibility for choosing to commit the crime, and that the hospital had no legal duty to protect him from that choice.


In 1995, Robert Lee Brock sued himself for $5 million. He claimed that he had violated his own civil rights and religious beliefs by allowing himself to get drunk and commit crimes which landed him in the Indian Creek Correctional Center in Virginia, serving a 23-year sentence for grand larceny and breaking and entering. What could he possibly have to gain by suing himself? Since being in prison prevented him from having an income, he expected the state to pay. This case was thrown out.


In 2001, Linda Sanders and other family members of Columbine High School shooting victims sued 25 movie and video game companies for $5 billion, in a class action lawsuit. They claimed that were it not for movies including The Basketball Diaries and videos games including Doom, Duke Nukem, Quake, Mortal Kombat, Resident Evil, Mech Warrior, Wolfenstein, Redneck Rampage, Final Fantasy, and Nightmare Creatures, the massacre would not have occurred, and that the makers and distributors of the movies and games were partly to blame for their loved ones’ deaths. The case was thrown out and the plaintiffs were ordered to compensate the video game and movie companies for their legal fees.


Whiplash is already widely seen as a completely fabricated injury in many cases, but this is just taking things too far. A 27-year-old man from Michigan was driving his car one day when another car hit him from behind in an extremely minor rear-end collision. Four years later, the man sued the driver of the other car for changing his sexuality. Apparently he had turned gay over those four years and left his wife, and he felt that the only cause could be the accident. The disgusting part about this is that he actually won the case, and $200,000 from the other driver.


The simple fact of the matter is that these are just a few of the cases that happen everyday across this country. If you are not protected from a lawsuit, frivolous or not you should get protection. There is a product available in most states that can provide 24-hour, 7-days a week access to an attorney and it will cost $20 per month or less. For less than one or two attorney hours you can have that protection for a whole year per family. The product is called Legal Shield.

For more information on this product email me at: wchurchcpp@cox.net or call me, Wayne Church at 623-680-7230. This product is available only in the U.S. and Canada.

Scripture of the Day

Isaiah 62:6-7 King James Version (KJV)

I have set watchmen upon thy walls, O Jerusalem, which shall never hold their peace day nor night: ye that make mention of the Lord, keep not silence,

And give him no rest, till he establish, and till he make Jerusalem a praise in the earth.

Founders Thoughts

Pure democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention; have ever been found incompatible with personal security, or the rights of property; and have, in general, been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths.

– James Madison, Federalist 10, 1787

“Many people have the wrong idea of what constitutes true happiness. It is not attained through self-gratification, but through fidelity to a worthy purpose.”

~  Helen Keller


anachronism  (uh-NAK-ruh-niz-uhm) noun

1. The error of placing a person, object, custom, or event in the wrong
historical period.
2. A person, thing, or practice that does not belong in a time period.

Anachronism can be of two kinds: parachronism, when the assigned date is
too late, and prochronism, when the date is too early. Even language can
be fraught with anachronism. Imagine a science fiction story where the
protagonist rides a time machine to go back some 500 years. While there,
he comments how “nice” someone’s dress is. Well, at that time the word
nice would have meant “stupid”. Sometimes anachronism can be unintentional,
a story written in 1970 and set in 2000 that features the USSR, for example.

1533 – Atahualpa, the 13th and last emperor of the Incas, is strangled to death  Francisco Pizarro’s Spanish conquistadors. His death ends 300 years of Inca civilization.

1775 – A postal system was established by the Second Continental Congress of the United States with Benjamin Franklin as the first postmaster general.

1788 – New York became the eleventh state to ratify the Constitution of the United States of America.

1790 – US passed the Assumption bill making it responsible for state war-debts.

1812 – War of 1812: Frigate Essex captures British brig Leander.

1835 – First sugar cane plantation started in Hawaii. Its first harvest in 1837 produced 2 tons of raw sugar, which sold for $200.

1846 – US Revenue Cutter  Woodbury put down a mutiny on board the troop ship Middlesex during the Mexican War.

1848 – Charles Ellet Jr., engineer, completed a light suspension bridge over the Niagara River. A boy’s kite was used to transfer the first line across.

1848 – Frederick Douglass was the only male to play a prominent role at the first Woman’s Rights Convention at Seneca Falls, New York. He seconded the woman’s suffrage motion introduced by Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

1847 – The Republic of Liberia, formerly a colony of the American Colonization Society, declared its independence. It was the first African colony to secure independence.

1859 – The first intercollegiate regatta began in Worcester, MA. Harvard University defeated both Yale and Brown on Lake Quinsigamond.

1861 – Civil War: General George McClellan assumes command of the Army of the Potomac after the disastrous Union loss at Bull Run five days before.

1863 – Civil War: Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and 360 of his men are captured at Salineville, Ohio.Badly outnumbered, Morgan attempted to cut his way out from the estimated 3,000 Federals. He lost 364 men in a firefight that …

1864 – Civil War: Battle at Ezra Chapel (Church), Georgia.

1865 Patrick Francis Healy, first Black awarded Ph.D. degree, passed final examination at Louvain in Belgium.

1871 – Ferdinand Hayden (1830-1887) and his government sponsored team arrived at the Yellowstone Lake and the geyser fields.

1881 – Thomas Edison and Patrick Kenny execute a patent application for a facsimile telegraph (U.S. Pat. 479,184).

1893 – Commercial production of the Addressograph started in Chicago, Illinois.

1907- The Chester was launched. It was the first turbine-propelled ship.

1908 – U.S. Attorney General Charles J. Bonaparte established the Office of the Chief Examiner, which was the forerunner of the FBI.

1912 – First airborne radio communications from naval aircraft to ship (LT John Rodgers to USS Stringham).

1917 – J. Edgar Hoover got job with the Justice Department.

1918 – Britain’s top war ace, Edward Mannock, was shot down by ground fire on the Western Front.

1926 – Spingarn Medal awarded to Carter G. Woodson for “ten years devoted service in collecting and publishing the records of the ‘Negro in America.”

1939 – Sixteen-year-old singer Kay Starr recorded “Baby Me” with Glenn Miller and his orchestra.

1941 – President Franklin Roosevelt seizes all Japanese assets in the United States in retaliation for the Japanese occupation of French Indo-China.

1942 – Judy Garland joined Gene Kelly to record “For Me and My Gal“.

1942 – World War II: About 400 miles southeast of Fiji, the American aircraft carriers Wasp, Enterprise and Saratoga rendezvous with the invasion force for Guadalcanal.

1942 – CAPT Joy Bright Hancock appointed Director, Women’s Naval Reserve.

1942 – World War II: Actor Gene Autry is sworn into the Army Air Corps on the air, during his regular radio show, “Gene Autry’s Melody Ranch.”

1943 – World War II: In the Solomon Islands, US forces continue to make slow progress with heavy air and artillery support. Tanks and flame throwers are also used.

1944World War II: Holocaust-Soviet army enters Lviv, major city of western Ukraine, liberating it from the Nazis. Only 300 Jewish survivors left, out of 160,000 Jews in Lviv prior to Nazi occupation.

1944 – World War II: The first German V-2 rocket hits Great Britain.

1944 – World War II: The first desegregation in the US Army. This was four years before Truman signed the Executive Order.

1945 – In the 11th hour of World War II, Winston Churchill was forced to resign as British prime minister following his party’s electoral defeat by the Labour Party. He became leader of the opposition and in 1951 was again elected prime minister.

1945 – World War II: The Potsdam Declaration is issued in a radio broadcast demanding the immediate and unconditional surrender of Japan. It also threatens the “prompt and utter destruction” of the Japanese homeland, if the government of Japan fails to do so.

1945 – World War II: The heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis arrived at Tinian Island in the Marianas with an unassembled atomic bomb including the U-235. The bomb is destined for Hiroshima.

1946 – Aloha Airlines begins service from Honolulu International Airport,

1947 – President Harry Truman signed the National Security Act, creating the Department of Defense, the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. President Truman unified the Army and Navy under the Department of Defense and created the U.S. Air Force from the Army Air Force.

1948 – U.S. President Harry Truman signed Executive Order 9981, officially integrating the Armed Forces many years before the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s.

1948 – Babe Ruth was seen by the public for the last time, when he attended the New York City premiere of the motion picture, “The Babe Ruth Story”. Babe Ruth died on August 16, 1948 at Memorial Hospital in New York City at age 53.

1948 – First African-American host of a network show-CBS’ Bob Howard Show.

1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Too Young” by Nat King Cole, “My Truly, Truly Fair” by Guy Mitchell, “Mister and Mississippi” by Patti Page and  I Wanna Play House with You by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1952 – Mickey Mantle hits his first grand-slammer.

1952 – “Half As Much” by Rosemary Clooney topped the charts.

1953 – Fidel Castro’s revolutionary “26th of July Movement ” begins. The 26th of July Movement was the revolutionary organization led by Fidel Castro that in 1959 overthrew the Fulgencio Batista regime in Cuba.

1953 –  Arizona Governor John Howard Pyle orders an anti-polygamy law enforcement crackdown on residents of Short Creek, Arizona, which becomes known as the Short Creek raid.

1954 – Three aircraft from the USS Philippine Sea (CVA-47) shoot down two Chinese fighters that fired on them while they were providing air cover for rescue operations for a U.K. airliner shot down by a Chinese aircraft.

1955 – Ted Allen throws a record 72 consecutive horseshoe ringers.

1958 – Army launches 4th US successful satellite, Explorer IV. It’s purposes were for studying the Van Allen radiation belts and the effects of nuclear explosions upon these belts (and the Earth’s magnetosphere in general). Explorer 4 was the only such satellite launched.

1958 – “Hard Headed Woman” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.

1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka, “A Big Hunk o’ Love” by Elvis Presley, “My Heart is an Open Book” by Carl Dobkins, Jr.and “The Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton all topped the charts.

1959 – There was a partial nuclear reactor meltdown at Rocketdyne’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory 30 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles.

1963 – Mickey’s Monkey was released by Smokey Robinson & the Miracles.

1963 – US Syncom 2, first geosynchronous communications satellite is launched.

1964 – Teamsters president Jimmy Hoffa and six others were convicted of fraud and conspiracy in the handling of a union pension fund.

1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Windy” by The Association, “Can’t Take My Eyes Off You by Frankie Valli, “Light My Fire” (9:26) by The Doors and “With One Exception by David Houston all topped the charts.

1968 – John Lennon and Paul McCartney completed the song “Hey Jude.”

1969 – The Rolling Stones released the album “Beggar’s Banquet.”(39:52)

1969 – “In the Year 2525 (Exordium and Terminus)” by Zager & Evans topped the charts.
1969 – Scientists had a first look at the 46 pounds of rocks that Apollo 11 astronauts brought back from the moon. The “rock box” was opened for the first time in the Vacuum Laboratory of the Manned Spacecraft Center’s Lunar Receiving Laboratory, bldg 37, at 3:55 p.m.

1971 – US launches Apollo 15 to the Moon. The mission was the first flight of the Lunar Roving Vehicle which astronauts used to explore the geology of the Hadley Rille/Apennine region.

1974 – The U.S. House Judiciary Committee recommended impeachment of President Richard M. Nixon.

1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Hustle” by Van McCoy & The Soul City Symphony, “I’m Not in Love” by 10cc, “One of These Nights” by Eagles and “Touch the Hand” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.

1980 – “It’s Still Rock and Roll to Me” by Billy Joel topped the charts.

1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Every Breath You Take” by The Police, “Electric Avenue” by Eddy Grant, “Is There Something I Should Know by Duran Duran and “Pancho and Lefty” by Willie Nelson & Merle Haggard all topped the charts.

1983 – The United States warns of action to preserve navigation in the Persian Gulf.

1984 – “Purple Rain“, the film creation of Prince, premiered in Hollywood.

1986 – “Sledgehammer” by Peter Gabriel topped the charts.

1986 – Kidnappers in Lebanon released the Reverend Lawrence Martin Jenco, an American hostage held for nearly 19 months.

1988 – Mike Schmidt sets NL record appearing in 2,155 games at third base.

1989 – A federal grand jury indicts Cornell University student Robert T. Morris, Jr. for releasing the Morris worm. He become the first person to be prosecuted under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.

1990 – U.S. President George H.W. Bush signed into law the Americans with Disabilities Act.

1990 – The US House of Representatives reprimanded Congressman Barney Frank, (Democrat, Massachusetts) for ethics violations.

1990 – The US Centers for Disease Control reported that a young woman, later identified as Kimberly Bergalis, had been infected with the AIDS virus, apparently by her dentist.

1990 – General Hospital tapes its 7,000th episode.

1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Unbelievable” by EMF, “(Everything I Do) I Do It for You” by Bryan Adams, “P.A.S.S.I.O.N.” by Rythm Syndicate and “I Am a Simple Man” by Ricky Van Shelton all topped the charts.

1996 – Amy Van Dyken became the first American woman to win four gold medals at a single Olympics as she captured the 50-meter freestyle in Atlanta.

1996 – President Clinton rejected a clemency plea from Jonathan Pollard, who’d spent more than 10 years in prison for spying for Israel.

1999 – Fifteen-hundred pieces of Marilyn Monroe’s personal items went on display at Christie’s in New York, NY. The items went on sale later in 1999.

2000 – The US Navy reported that an F-14 Tomcat jet crashed in Saudi Arabia during a training flight. Iraqi units claimed to have shot down a US Air Force F-14. When the Navy said no, Iraq claimed that the Navy report was a coverup. The U.S. Air Force does not fly F-14s.

2000 – A federal judge approved a $1.25 billion settlement between Swiss banks and more than a half million plaintiffs who alleged the banks had hoarded money deposited by Holocaust victims.

2000 – A U.S. federal judge issued a preliminary injunction against Napster, Inc. The injunction had been requested by the Recording Industry of Association of America (RIAA). The website was ordered to cease trade in music covered by RIAA member copyrights by midnight July 28, 2000.

2002 – The US Republican-led House voted, 295 to 132, to create an enormous Homeland Security Department, the biggest government reorganization in decades.

2005 – Space Shuttle program: The Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 1039 EST this morning on mission STS-114. The NASA commentator says during launch “Lift-off, lift-off, and return to America’s journey to the Moon, Mars, and beyond”.This was NASA’s first scheduled flight mission after the Columbia Disaster in 2003.

2006 – San Francisco police officer Nick-Tomasito Birco (39) was killed when a Dodge van carrying four robbery suspects broadsided his patrol car at Cambridge and Felton.

2007 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average suffered one of its worst losses of the year, closing down 311.50 to 13,473.57.

2007 –  United States Senate passes a package of measures recommended by the 9/11 Commission.

2007 – There was an explosion at a remote test facility in the Mojave Desert belonging to Scaled Composites LLC during testing of a new space tourism vehicle.

2009 – In New York a car crash in Briarcliff killed eight people including four children. Diane Schuler (36) was drunk and high on marijuana when she went the wrong way on Taconic State Parkway and crashed into an SUV.

2010 – Wikileaks releases over 92,000 documents detailing unreported killings of hundreds of Afghan civilians and other incidents related to the war in Afghanistan to The GuardianThe New York Times and Der Spiegel, in one of the biggest leaks in U.S. military history.

2011 –  David Wu resigns as a member of the House of Representatives following allegations of an unwanted sexual encounter with an eighteen-year old.

2011 – U.S. Senator Al Franken of Minnesota, in a letter to the Justice Department and the Federal Communications Commission, demands that they block the effort of telephone giant AT&T to buy rival T-Mobile USA.

2012 -President Obama issued an Executive Order entitled, White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans. It places a premium on all education efforts to the exclusion of all other ethnic groups.

2013 – Ariel Castro, a 53-year-old man charged with the kidnappings of three women from Cleveland, Ohio, between 2002 and 2004, is sentenced to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole after accepting a plea deal with prosecutors.

2013 – A gunman kills six people in Hialeah, Florida, and gets fatally shot by police.



1739 – George Clinton, 4th vice president of the USA
1791 – Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart, composer (d. 1844)
1846 – Texas Jack Omohundro, American frontier scout, actor, and cowboy (d. 1880)
1856 – George Bernard Shaw, Irish playwright.
1894 – Aldous Huxley, English-born author (d. 1963)
1902 – William Lear, American engineer and industrialist who founded the Lear Jet Corporation
1903 – Estes Kefauver, U.S. Senator from Tennessee (d. 1963)
1918 – Marjorie Lord is an American television actress. She played Kathy “Clancy” Williams opposite Danny Thomas on “Make Room for Daddy “and later “Make Room for Granddaddy.”
1922 – Jason Robards, American actor (d. 2000)
1928 – Stanley Kubrick, American film director (d. 1999)
1940 – Mary Jo Kopechne, American aide to Robert F. Kennedy (d. 1969)
1943 – Mick Jagger, English singer (The Rolling Stones)
1956 – Dorothy Hamill, American figure skater
1964 – Sandra Bullock, American actress




Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps, Commanding Rifle Company, 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Fonte Hill, Guam, 25- July 26th, 1944. Entered service at: Mississippi. Born: 11 February 1920, Brandon, Miss. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of a rifle company attached to the 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces at Fonte Hill, Guam, 25-26 July 1944. Ordered to take that portion of the hill within his zone of action, Capt. Wilson initiated his attack in mid-afternoon, pushed up the rugged, open terrain against terrific machinegun and rifle fire for three-hundred yards and successfully captured the objective. Promptly assuming command of other disorganized units and motorized equipment in addition to his own company and one reinforcing platoon, he organized his night defenses in the face of continuous hostile fire and, although wounded three times during this five-hour period, completed his disposition of men and guns before retiring to the company command post for medical attention. Shortly thereafter, when the enemy launched the first of a series of savage counterattacks lasting all night, he voluntarily rejoined his besieged units and repeatedly exposed himself to the merciless hail of shrapnel and bullets, dashing fifty yards into the open on one occasion to rescue a wounded Marine Iying helpless beyond the frontlines. Fighting fiercely in hand-to-hand encounters, he led his men in furiously waged battle for approximately ten hours, tenaciously holding his line and repelling the fanatically renewed counterthrusts until he succeeded in crushing the last efforts of the hard-pressed Japanese early the following morning. Then organizing a seventeen-man patrol, he immediately advanced upon a strategic slope essential to the security of his position and, boldly defying intense mortar, machinegun, and rifle fire which struck down thirteen of his men, drove relentlessly forward with the remnants of his patrol to seize the vital ground. By his indomitable leadership, daring combat tactics, and valor in the face of overwhelming odds, Capt. Wilson succeeded in capturing and holding the strategic high ground in his regimental sector, thereby contributing essentially to the success of his regimental mission and to the annihilation of three-hundred fifty Japanese troops. His inspiring conduct throughout the critical periods of this decisive action sustains and enhances the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.




Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Calamba, Luzon, Philippine Islands,  July 26th, 1899. Entered service at: Carbondale, Ill. Birth: Anna, Ill. Date of issue: 8 March 1902. Citation: Swam the San Juan River in the face of the enemy’s fire and drove him from his entrenchments.




Rank and organization: Captain, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Calamba, Luzon, Philippine Islands,  July 26th, 1899. Entered service at: Eau Claire, Wis. Birth: Fond du Lac, Wis. Date of issue: 29 April 1902. Citation: Swam the San Juan River in the face of the enemy’s fire and drove him from his entrenchments.


INTERIM 1871-1898



Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1853, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 215, 9 August 1876. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Plymouth, Navy Yard, New York,  July 26th,  1876. Showing heroic conduct, Corey endeavored to save the life of one of the crew of that ship who had fallen overboard from aloft.


INTERIM 1871-1898



Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1853, Bangor, Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 215, 9 August 1876. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Plymouth, Gidding showed heroic conduct in trying to save the life of one of the crew of that ship, who had fallen overboard from aloft at the Navy Yard, New York,  July 26th, 1876.


INTERIM 1871-1898



Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1847, St. Johns, Newfoundland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 215, 9 August 1876. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Plymouth at the Navy Yard, New York,  July 26th, 1876, Kersey displayed bravery and presence of mind in rescuing from drowning one of the crew of that vessel.

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Unerased History – July 25th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 25, 2017 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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  Cow Appreciation Day

National Day of the Cowboy


We can all agree that our teeth are very useful. Teeth allow us to cut and tear apart food so that we are able to swallow it. There is no denying that teeth play a huge part in the digestion of our food.

Here are some fun facts about teeth that you might find interesting. According to the American Academy of Periodontology, 50% of people say that a smile is the first feature they notice about someone.

An average person has 32 teeth. That number includes 4 wisdom teeth, 8 incisors, 4 canines, 12 molars and 8 pre-molars. Incisors are cutting teeth; canines grip and tear food; premolars and molars have flattened crowns to crush and grind food.

Teeth in humans start to form before they are born and you get 2 sets of teeth in your lifetime. The first set is your baby teeth and are called “milk teeth.” You will start to lose your baby teeth at around 6-7 years of age. By the time your 21 years old, you will only have permanent teeth.


Teeth are covered with a hard enamel called a crown. The enamel on a humans tooth is the hardest thing in their body. Inside of your tooth is you have dentine and the pulp of your tooth. Each tooth is attached to your jaw socket and has blood vessels and nerves. 2/3rd of the length of your tooth is in the gum.

40% of people over 65 years of age do not have all of their teeth.


Scripture of the Day

Isaiah 61: 1-6 King James Version (KJV)

61 The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me; because the Lord hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek; he hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound;

To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn;

To appoint unto them that mourn in Zion, to give unto them beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness; that they might be called trees of righteousness, the planting of the Lord, that he might be glorified.

And they shall build the old wastes, they shall raise up the former desolations, and they shall repair the waste cities, the desolations of many generations.

And strangers shall stand and feed your flocks, and the sons of the alien shall be your plowmen and your vinedressers.

But ye shall be named the Priests of the Lord: men shall call you the Ministers of our God: ye shall eat the riches of the Gentiles, and in their glory shall ye boast yourselves.


Founders Thoughts

The Founders’ vision of family is built on the equality of the sexes and individual consent. Marriage’s public purpose or function is the procreation and education of children. This function requires a suitable form, so early laws discouraged or outlawed bigamous, polygamous, adulterous relations as inconsistent with marriage, the proper education of children, and hence the interests of society; public opinion was more severe than the laws. The Founders also made efforts to bring surrounding nations toward the peaceful adoption of monogamous, lifelong marriage.


“You can conquer almost any fear if you will only make up your mind to do so. For remember, fear doesn’t exist anywhere except in the mind.”

~ Dale Carnegie

carte blanche(kart blanch, kart blansh) noun

Unrestricted authority.

[From French carte blanche (blank card or blank document).]

1394 – Charles VI of France issued a decree for the general expulsion of Jews from France.

1587 – Japanese shogun Toyotomi Hideyoshi banned Christianity in Japan and ordered all Christians to leave, although the order was not immediately enforced. A decade later, the crackdown began, and 26 Christians were crucified.

1609 – Admiral William Somers, head of a 7-ship fleet enroute to Virginia, spied land after being blown off course and soon deliberately drove his ship, the Sea Venture, onto the reefs of Bermuda during the storm to prevent its sinking; the survivors go on to found a new colony called Bermuda.

1722 –  Father Rale’s War begins along the Maine-Massachusetts border. The root cause of the conflict on the Maine frontier was over the border between Acadia and New England.

1729 – North Carolina becomes royal colony.

1759 –  French and Indian War:  In Western New York, British forces capture Fort Niagara from the French, who subsequently abandon Fort Rouillé.

1775- Maryland issued currency depicting George III trampling the Magna Carta.

1783 – The Revolutionary War:war’s last action, the Siege of Cuddalore, is ended by preliminary peace agreement.

1788 – Virginia ratified the U.S. Constitution and became the 10th state of the United States.

1805 – Aaron Burr visited New Orleans with plans to establish a new country, with New Orleans as the capital city.

1814 – During the  War of 1812 at the Battle of Lundy’s Lane, reinforcements arrive near Niagara Falls for General Riall’s British and Canadian forces and a bloody, all-night battle with Jacob Brown’s Americans started at 6 pm; the Americans retreat to Fort Erie.

1832 – The first recorded railroad accident in U.S. history occurred, on the Granite Railway near Quincy, Massachusetts. In addition it was the site of the first fatal railway accident in the United States when the wagon containing Mr. Thomas B. Achuas, of Cuba, derailed as he was taking a tour.

1850 – In Worcester, MA, Harvard and Yale University freshmen met in the first intercollegiate billiards match.

1850 – Gold was discovered in the Rogue River in Oregon.

1854 – The paper shirt collar was patented by Walter Hunt of New York City.Mr. Hunt was best known for the safety pin and as developer of the first repeating rifle.

1861 – Civil War: The Crittenden Resolution, which called for the American Civil War to be fought to preserve the Union and not for slavery, was passed by the U.S. Congress.

1861 – Civil War: John LaMountain began balloon reconnaissance ascensions at Fort Monroe, Virginia.

1863 – Civil War: U.S. Squadron bombards Fort Wagner, NC.

1864 – Civil War: Union troops surrounding Petersburg, VA, began building a mine tunnel underneath the Confederate lines.

1866 – Rank of Admiral created. David G. Farragut is appointed the first Admiral in the U.S. Navy.

1866 – Ulysses S. Grant was named General of the Army, the first officer to hold the rank.

1867 – Lucien B. Smith patented the first barbed wire.

1868 – Congress passed an act creating the Wyoming Territory.

1868 – Congress enacted legislation granting an eight-hour day to workers employed by the Federal government.

1868 – Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina were readmitted to the Union.

1871 – Seth Wheeler of Albany, NY patented perforated wrapping paper.

1871 – Carousel patented by Wilhelm Schneider, Davenport, Iowa.

1876 – Emily Tassey was granted a patent for an apparatus for raising sunken vessels.

1898 – During the Spanish-American War, U.S. forces launch their invasion of Puerto Rico, the 108-mile-long, 40-mile-wide island that was one of Spain’s two principal possessions in the Caribbean.

1909 – Louis Bleriot first crossed the English Channel in an airplane.

1912 – First specifications for naval aircraft published.

1913 – Pittsburgh Pirates Max Carey goes hitless, but scores 5 runs against the Phillies.

1916 – Inventor of the gas mask, Garrett T Morgan, rescues six from gas-filled tunnel in Cleveland, Ohio.

1917 – Margaretha Zelle, the Dutch spy known as Mata Hari, was sentenced to death.

1917 – The first American fighting troops landed in France.

1918 – Race riot in Chester, Pennsylvania, left three African-Americans and two whites dead.

1920 – The first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast takes place.

1925 – First radio station in the U.S. to broadcast with a 50,000-watt transmitter – Station 2XAG in Schenectady, NY was the first name then it became WGY.

1930 – US Marine Lt. General “Chesty” Lewis Puller won first of five Navy Crosses chasing Sandino guerrillas in Nicaragua.

1934 – First President to visit Hawaii, Franklin D. Roosevelt, reaches Hilo on board USS Houston.

1934 – There was a Nazi coup in Vienna. Austrian Premier Engelbert Dollfus was shot and killed by Adolph Hitler.

1939 – W2XBS TV in New York City presented “Topsy and Eva,” the first musical comedy on TV.

1940 – The United States prohibits the export of oil and metal products in certain categories, unless under license, to countries outside the Americas generally and to Britain.

1940 – John Sigmund of St. Louis , MO completed a 292-mile swim down the Mississippi River. The swim from St. Louis to Caruthersville , MO took him 89 hours and 48 minutes.

1941 – Red Sox Lefty Grove becomes 12th to win 300 games (his last victory.)

1941 – The U.S. government froze Japanese and Chinese assets.

1943 – World War II: Benito Mussolini was forced to resign as Dictator of Italy, by his own Italian Grand Council and is replaced by Pietro Badoglio bringing an end to the Fascist regime.

1943 – Launching of USS Harmon (DE-72), first ship named for an African-American. It was named after Mess Attendant Leonard Roy Harmon, who was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross for his actions on the USS San Francisco during the battle of Guadalcanal.

1944 – Bing Crosby and the Andrew Sisters recorded Cole Porter’s “Don’t Fence Me In” in Los Angeles for Decca Records.

1944 – World War II: The US 1st Army begins “Operation Cobra”.

1946 – Crooner Dean Martin and comedian Jerry Lewis staged their first show as a team in Atlantic City at Club 500.

1946 – The U.S. detonated an atomic bomb at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific. It was called Operation Crossroads and was the first underwater test of the device.

1947 – The Women’s Reserve of the Coast Guard Reserve (SPARS) was disestablished.

1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bewitched” by The Bill Snyder Orchestra, “Mona Lisa” by Nat King Cole, “I Wanna Be Loved” by The Andrews Sisters and “I’m Moving On” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.

1950 – North Korea invaded South Korea initiating the Korean War.

1950 – Korean War: American soldiers In Korea ordered villagers away from Im Ke Ri and sent them on the road to Hwanggan.

1950 – The independent U.S. 29th Infantry Regimental Combat Team was committed to action near Chinju. The North Koreans ambushed its 3rd Battalion at Hadong, killing 313 and capturing 100.

1951 – The first regular commercial color TV transmissions were presented on CBS using the FCC-approved CBS Color System. The public did not own color TV’s at the time.

1952 – Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth of the United States.

1953 – “I’m Walking Behind You” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.

1953 – New York City transit fare rose from 10 to 15 cents and it was the first use of subway tokens.

1956 – The Italian liner Andrea Doria sank after colliding with the Swedish ship Stockholm, 45 miles south of Nantucket Island; 51 people died.

1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hard Headed Woman” by Elvis Presley, “Poor Little Fool by Ricky Nelson, “Little Star” by The Elegants and “Alone with You” by Faron Young all topped the charts.

1959 – “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka topped the “Billboard” charts.

1961 – Maris hits home runs 37, 38, 39 & 40 in a double header. The games between New York and  Chicago were both won by New York, 5-1 and 12-0.

1962 – The Elvis Presley film “Kid Galahad” premiered.

1962 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the use of unofficial non-denominational prayer in public schools was unconstitutional.

1964 – “Rag Doll” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.

1964 – Race riot in Rochester, NY.

1964 – Beatles’ ” A Hard Day’s Night” album goes #1.

1965 – Folk-rock begins, Dylan uses electric guitar at Newport Folk Festival.

1966 – CHART TOPPERS –  “Hanky Panky” by Tommy James & The Shondells, “Wild Thing” by The Troggs, “Lil’ Red Riding Hood” by Sam the Sham & The Pharoahs and “Think of Me” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1966 – Supremes release “You Can’t Hurry Love“.

1966 – “Dark Shadows” began running on ABC-TV.

1966 – Yankee manager Casey Stengel was elected to baseball’s Hall of Fame.

1967 – US Navy Lt. Commander Donald Davis crashed his jet on the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Searchers later recovered fragments of his remains for return to the US.

1968 – Bobby Bonds (San Francisco Giants) hit a grand-slam home run in his first game with the Giants. He was the first player to debut with a grand-slam.

1969 – Neil Young made his first appearance with Crosby, Stills and Nash.

1969 – Edward Kennedy pleads guilty to leaving scene of an accident a week after the Chappaquiddick car accident that killed Mary Jo Kopechne.

1969 – The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam, in which he stated that the US henceforth expected its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense.

1970 – “(They Long to Be) Close to You” by the Carpenters topped the charts.

1970 – Chicago’s “25 or 6 to 4” was released.

1971 – The Beach Boys released their album “Surf’s Up.”

1972 – US health officials conceded that blacks were used as guinea pigs in the 40-year Tuskegee Syphilis Study in Macon County, Ala.

1973 – White House Counsel John Dean admitted that U.S. President Nixon took part in the Watergate cover-up.

1974 – CHART TOPPERS –  “Rock Your Baby” by George McCrae, “Annie’s Song” by John Denver, “Rock and Roll Heaven” by The Righteous Brothers and “Maria Laveau” by Bobby Bare all topped the charts.

1974 – The US Supreme Court ruled in Milliken v Bradley that desegregation cannot be required across school district lines. The case had originated in Detroit.

1975 – “A Chorus Line,” longest-running Broadway show (6,137), premiers. The show closed in 1990.

1976 – Viking 1 takes the famous Face on Mars photo.

1978 – Louise Joy Brown, the first test-tube baby, was born in Oldham, England; she’d been conceived through in-vitro fertilization.

1978 – Bob Dylan booed off Newport Folk Festival for using electric guitar.

1978 – Pete Rose sets NL record hitting in 38 consecutive games.

1978 – The Viking 2 Orbiter to Mars was powered down after 706 orbits.

1981 – Voyager 2 encounters Saturn. Voyager 2 flew by Saturn’s cloudtops at a distance of 100,800 kilometers (62,600 miles).

1981 – Walter Payton signed a contract to play with the Chicago Bears of the NFL on this, his 27th birthday.

1981 – “The One That You Love” by Air Supply topped the charts.

1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Eye of the Tiger” by Survivor, “Rosanna” by Toto, “Hurts So Good” by John Cougar and “Take Me Down” by Alabama all topped the charts.

1984 – Soviet cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya became the first woman to walk in space.

1985 – ABC’s “Monday Night Football” began with a new line-up. The trio was Frank Gifford, Joe Namath and O.J. Simpson.

1987 – “Alone” by Heart topped the charts.

1987 – The Salt Lake City Trappers set a professional baseball record as the team won its 29th game in a row. The Trappers were an independent Pioneer League minor league baseball team, based in Salt Lake City from 1985 to 1992.

1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “She Ain’t Worth It” by Glenn Medeiros featuring Bobby Brown, “Hold On” by En Vogue, “Cradle of Love” by Billy Idol and “The Dance” by Garth Brooks all topped the charts.

1990 – Roseanne Barr screeched out the national anthem very off-key at a Padres game, grabbed her crotch and spit on the ground. The incident made the national news and set off widespread outrage.

1990 – The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the right of an individual, whose wishes are clearly made, to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. “The right to die” decision was made in the Curzan vs. Missouri case.

1992 – Army refused to overturn 127 year old conviction against Dr. Mudd.

1992 – General Colin Powell, chairman of the joint chiefs of staff, dedicated the Buffalo Soldiers Monument at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

1994 – Israel and Jordan formally ended the state of war that had existed between them since 1948.

1996 – Outside the Khobar Towers near Dhahran, Saudi Arabia a truck bomb exploded. The bomb killed 19 Americans and injured over 500 Saudis and Americans.

1996 – Divers searching the wreckage of TWA Flight 800 off Long Island, N.Y., recovered the flight data and cockpit voice recorders.

1997 – Autumn Jackson, found guilty of trying to extort $40M from Bill Cosby.

1997 – US immigration agents rounded up seventeen deaf Mexicans in Sanford, North Carolina. This followed the revelation of fifty deaf Mexicans held in servitude in New York City and forced to sell trinkets on the streets.

1997 – In Elk Creek, Virginia, Louis Ceparano and Emmett Cressell Jr. doused Garnett Paul “G.P.” Johnson with gasoline, set him on fire and cut off his head.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court rejected the line-item veto thereby striking down presidential power to cancel specific items in tax and spending legislation.

1998 – The new nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, USS Harry S. Truman, was commissioned by President Clinton. The 97,000 ton ship cost $4.5 billion.

1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that those infected with HIV are protected by the Americans With Disabilities Act.

1998 – Microsoft’s “Windows 98” was released to the public.

1998 – The US Capitol was reopened, a day after a gunman killed two police officers; a wounded suspect, Russell E. Weston Junior, was charged with murder.

1998 – U.S. President Clinton was subpoenaed to appear before a federal grand jury regarding the Monica Lewinsky case. The subpoena was withdrawn when Clinton agreed to give videotaped testimony with his lawyers present.

1999 – Lance Armstrong overcomes cancer to win the Tour de France.

2000 – Presidential candidate George W. Bush announced Former Defense Sec. Dick Cheney as his running mate.

2000 – A New York-bound Air France Concorde crashed outside Paris shortly after takeoff, killing all 109 people on board and four people on the ground. It marked the end of the Concorde. Up until the crash of Air France Flight 4590 in 2000, the Concorde SST had been considered among the world’s safest aircraft.

2002 – The space shuttle Atlantis landed in Florida.

2002 – Zacarias Moussaoui declared he was guilty of conspiracy in the Sept. 11 attacks, then dramatically withdrew his plea at his arraignment in Alexandria, Va.

2004 – Lance Armstrong won a record sixth Tour de France bicycle race, in an amazing comeback after his bout with cancer.

2005 – Lance Armstrong became the first 7-time winner Tour de France bicycle race.

2005 – Corporal Dustin Berg, an Indiana National Guard soldier, pleaded guilty to negligent homicide in the death of an Iraqi police officer.

2005 – Intel announced plans to build a $3 billion computer microprocessor fabrication plant in Arizona.

2006 – San Francisco Supervisors gave final approval to a plan to provide health care coverage to the city’s estimated 82,000 uninsured residents.

2006 – The Interstate Abortion Bill is passed by the United States Senate. The bill would make it illegal for non-parents to take a minor to another state to obtain an abortion without parental consent.

2008 – Congressman Dennis Kucinich (D-Ohio) presents the articles for the impeachment of President George W. Bush to the U.S. House Judiciary Committee.

2008 – Google announces that it has indexed over 1 trillion unique web pages.

2008 – US regulators took over two banks and sold them to Mutual of Omaha Bank, the sixth and seventh bank failures this year as financial institutions struggle with a housing bust and credit crunch.

2008 – California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger signed a bill banning trans fat in restaurants and food facilities, making California the first state to do so. The law takes effect in two stages: Jan 1, 2010 and Jan 1, 2011.

2009 – Harry Patch, the last surviving World War I veteran to have fought in the trenches, dies aged 111.

2010 – WikiLeaks leaked to the public more than 90,000 internal reports involving the U.S.-led War in Afghanistan from 2004-2010.

2011 – The NFL Players Association unanimously accepts a 10 year pay deal with team owners in the NFL.

2011 – In softball, the U.S. defeats Japan 6-4 to win its fifth straight World Cup.

2011 – The President Barack Obama cancels fundraising dinners due to the ongoing debt crisis.

2016 – 2016 Fort Myers nightclub shooting At least two people are killed after as many as 17 people are injured during a mass shooting at Club Blu, a nightclub in Fort Myers, Florida, with most of the victims reportedly minors. Two suspects and a person of interest have been detained in connection with the shooting,


1750 – Henry Knox was an American bookseller from Boston who became the chief artillery officer of the Continental Army and later the nation’s first Secretary of War.
1775 – Anna Symmes Harrison, Ohio, ninth First Lady, 1841
1822 – Schuyler Hamilton, Major General Union volunteers in the Civil War.
1824 – Richard James Oglesby, Major General of U.S. Volunteers in the Civil War.
1894 – Walter Brennan, American actor (d. 1974)
1925 – Jerry Paris, born in San Francisco, California, director/actor, Jerry-Dick Van Dyke Show
1932 – Paul Joseph Weitz, born in Erie, Pennsylvania, astronaut, Skylab 2, STS-6
1941 – Emmett Louis “Bobo” Till was an African-American teenager from Chicago, Illinois who was brutally murdered in a region of Mississippi known as the Mississippi Delta near the small town of Drew in Sunflower County. His murder was one of the key events that energized the nascent American Civil Rights Movement.
1948 – Peggy Fleming, American Athlete
1954 – Walter Payton, American football player (d. 1999)
1957 – Daniel W. Bursch, born in Bristol, Pennsylvania, Lieutenant Commander USN/Astronaut, STS-51, 68, 77
1971 – Stacy Dawn Cenedese, Miss USA-Wyoming 1997
1978 – Louise Joy Brown, born in Oldham , England, world’s first “test tube baby”.






Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Near Songuch-on, Korea, 25 July 1953. Entered service at: El Paso, Tex. Born: 7 December 1929, La Junta, Colo. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a platoon sergeant of Company F in action against enemy aggressor forces. Participating in the defense of an outpost forward of the main line of resistance, S/Sgt. Guillen maneuvered his platoon over unfamiliar terrain in the face of hostile fire and placed his men in fighting positions. With his unit pinned down when the outpost was attacked under cover of darkness by an estimated force of two enemy battalions supported by mortar and artillery fire, he deliberately exposed himself to the heavy barrage and attacks to direct his men in defending their positions and personally supervise the treatment and evacuation of the wounded. Inspired by his leadership, the platoon quickly rallied and engaged the enemy in fierce hand-to-hand combat. Although critically wounded during the course of the battle, S/Sgt. Guillen refused medical aid and continued to direct his men throughout the remainder of the engagement until the enemy was defeated and thrown into disorderly retreat. Succumbing to his wounds within a few hours, S/Sgt. Guillen, by his outstanding courage and indomitable fighting spirit, was directly responsible for the success of his platoon in repelling a numerically superior enemy force. His personal valor reflects the highest credit upon himself and enhances the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.


INTERIM 1871-1898




Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1832, Kensington, N.J. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 215, 9 August 1876. Citation: For gallant conduct in attempting to save a shipmate from drowning at the Navy Yard, Mare Island, Calif., on 25 July 1876.





Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 3d Missouri Cavalry. Place and date: At Benton, Ark., 25 July 1864. Entered service at: Mt. Sterling, Brown County, Ill. Birth: Adams County, Ill. Date of issue: December 1864. Citation: Pursued and killed Confederate Brig. Gen. George M. Holt, Arkansas Militia, capturing his arms and horse.


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Unerased History – July 24th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 24, 2017 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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 National Drive-Thru Day

Tell An Old Joke Day




The last Andy Griffith Show was televised on September 16, 1968.


The Beatles last concert was at Candlestick Park, San Francisco, on August 29, 1966. The last song they played was “Long Tall Sally.” The Beatles recorded their last song together, “I Me Mine,” in 1970.


Italian violin maker Antonius Stradivarius of Cremona made his finest instruments after 1700. His last surviving instrument was dated 1737, the year of his death.


Buddy Holly’s last performance was on February 2, 1959.


Buddy Holly’s last record, “It Doesn’t Matter,” was released in 1959.


Last comedy show together for Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis at New York City’s Copacabana Club, the performance started on July 25, 1946.


The last Ed Sullivan Show on CBS-TV was June 6, 1971. Running for more than 20 years, the Ed Sullivan Show was the longest running variety show on TV. The first show had been telecast on June 20, 1948.


The last song that Elvis ever performed publicly was “Bridge Over Troubled Water“, at his final concert in Indianapolis in June, 1977.


The final episode of M*A*S*H was broadcast on February 28, 1983, and was titled “Goodbye, Farewell and Amen.”


In 2006 at the Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy, Luciano Pavarotti did his last performance. Pavarotti lip-synched (it was too cold to sing) a song during the opening ceremonies.  he died in 2007 at 71-years-old.


Heath Ledger finished filming on “The Dark Knight” as The Joker and had started filming The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus when he died of an accidental drug overdose in January 2008.


On September 30, 1955, James Dean was killed in a car crash not long after completing filming on the 1956 movie “Giant.”


The last episode of the original Star Trek was on 6/3/1969 and was called “Turnabout Intruder.”


 In February 2009, despite a tiger mauling during a show in 2003 (Roy Horn was almost killed), Siegfried and Roy gave a final performance in Las Vegas.

Scripture of the Day

Isaiah 60:18-22 King James Version (KJV)

18 Violence shall no more be heard in thy land, wasting nor destruction within thy borders; but thou shalt call thy walls Salvation, and thy gates Praise.

19 The sun shall be no more thy light by day; neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee: but the Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God thy glory.

20 Thy sun shall no more go down; neither shall thy moon withdraw itself: for the Lord shall be thine everlasting light, and the days of thy mourning shall be ended.

21 Thy people also shall be all righteous: they shall inherit the land for ever, the branch of my planting, the work of my hands, that I may be glorified.

22 A little one shall become a thousand, and a small one a strong nation: I the Lord will hasten it in his time.

Founders Thoughts

Thomas Jefferson“Can the liberties of a nation be thought secure when we have removed their only firm basis, a conviction in the minds of the people that these liberties are the gift of God?” George Washington thought religion essential to curbing the influence of despots and providing a higher authority for the rule of law, proclaiming in his Farewell Address that “of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports.”

Thomas Jefferson

It’s not what is available or unavailable that determines your level of success and happiness; it’s what you convince yourself is true.”

~ Dr. Wayne Dyer

exculpate \EK-skuhl-payt; ek-SKUHL-payt\, transitive verb:
To clear from alleged fault or guilt; to prove to be guiltless; to relieve of blame; to acquit.

1567 – Mary Queen of Scots is deposed and replaced by her one-year old son King James VI.

1651 – Anthony Johnson, a free Black, receives grant of 250 acres in VA. He was Virginia’s first free black and first to establish a black community, first black landowner, first black slave owner and as the first, white or black, to secure slave status for a servant, he was actually the founder of slavery in Virginia.

1683 – First settlers from Germany to US, leave aboard the Concord from London. They will arrive in Philadelphia on October 6, 1683 and form Germantown (part of Philadelphia).

1701 – Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac established Fort Ponchartrain for France at present-day Detroit.

1758 – George Washington admitted to Virginia’s House of Burgesses.

1763 – Ottawa Chief Pontiac led an uprising in the wild, distant lands that would one day become Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania.

1813 – Sailing Master Elijah Mix attempts to blow up British warship Plantagenet with a torpedo (mine) near Cape Henry, Virginia.

1824 – Harrisburg Pennsylvanian newspaper publishes results of first public opinion poll. It showed that Andrew Jackson was leading John Quincy Adams by 335 votes to 169 in the contest for the United States Presidency.

1832 – Benjamin Bonneville leads the first wagon train to cross the Rocky Mountains at Wyoming’s South Pass.

1847 – Brigham Young arrived with 148 Mormon pioneers at Utah’s Valley of the Great Salt Lake.

1847 – Rotary-type printing press patented by Richard March Hoe, New York City.

1849 – Georgetown University in Washington, DC, presented its first Doctor of Music Degree. It was given to Professor Henry Dielman.

1861 – Act “to provide for the temporary increase of the Navy” passed by Congress; gave President authority to take vessels into the Navy and appoint officers for them, to any extent deemed necessary; this con¬firmed action that had been taken by President Lincoln since April.

1862 – Martin Van Buren (79), the eighth president of the United States, died in Kinderhook, N.Y.

1862 – Civil War: Union fleets abandoned their attack on Vicksburg, Miss.

1863 – Civil War: Battle at Battle Mountain, Virginia.

1864 – Civil War: Confederate General Jubal Early defeats Union troops under General George Crook to keep the Shenandoah Valley clear of Yankees.

1864Battle of Winchester, VA, casualties numbered 1200 Union soldiers  and 600 Confederate soldiers.

1864 – Civil War: Confederate guerrillas captured and burned steamer Kingston, which had run aground the preceding day between Smith’s Point and Windmill Point on the Virginia shore of Chesapeake Bay.

1866 – Tennessee became the first state to be readmitted to the Union after the Civil War.

1870 – The first Transcontinental Railroad was a railroad line built between 1863 and 1869 in the United States. When connected to the eastern railroads, it allowed trans-continental traffic.

1880 – First commercial hydroelectric power plant begins, Grand Rapids, MI.

1883 – Matthew Webb (b.1848), the first person to swim the English Channel (1875), drowned while trying to swim across the Niagara River just below the falls.

1897 – Black soldiers of the 25th Infantry Bicycle Corps arrived in St. Louis,  MO, after completing a 40-day bike ride from Missoula, Montana.

1900 – Race riot in New Orleans, two white policemen killed.

1911 – Machu Picchu (Lost City of the Incas) was discovered by Hiram Bingham.

1911 – The first ‘all-star game’ in MLB history took place at League Park in Cleveland. It predated the first official ASG by 22 years. The contest was a benefit game to raise money for the widow and two children of Cleveland pitcher Addie Joss, who had died of meningitis at age 31 three months earlier.

1915 – Excursion ship Eastland capsizes in Lake Michigan. The fully-loaded passenger ship Eastland slowly rolled to her side, killing 844 of the more than 2,500 passengers.

1919 – Race Riot, Washington, D.C. Triggered by raids on Black residential areas by white soldiers. Six persons killed and more than one hundred wounded.

1929 – U.S. President Hoover proclaimed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which renounced war as an instrument of foreign policy.

1933 – The first broadcast of “The Romance of Helen Trent” (13:13) was heard on radio. It was on for 7,222 episodes, more than any other radio soap opera.

1933 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave his fourth “Fireside Chat.”

1935 – The Dust Bowl heat wave reaches its peak, sending temperatures to 109°F (44°C) in Chicago, Illinois and 104°F (40°C) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

1936 – The Coast Guard Cutter Cayuga was ordered to San Sebastian, Spain as the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War necessitated the evacuation of U.S. citizens.

1937 – The state of Alabama dropped charges against four African-American men accused of raping two white women in the so-called Scottsboro case.

1938 – Artie Shaw recorded his now-classic, “Begin the Beguine“.

1938 – Instant coffee was invented. Nestle came up with the first instant coffee after 8 years of experiments.

1941 – The U.S. government denounced Japanese actions in Indochina. This is jst

1942 – Irving Berlin’s musical “This is the Army,” premieres in New York City.

1943 – World War II: The U.S. submarine “Tinosa” fired fifteen torpedoes at a lone Japanese merchant ship, but none detonated.

1943 – World War II: British bombers raid Hamburg, Germany, by night in Operation Gomorrah, while Americans bomb it by day in its own “Blitz Week.” The bombings created “firestorms” that killed 40,000.

1944 – The V Amphibious Corps, commanded by Major General Harry Schmidt, landed on Tinian, in the Mariana Islands.

1945 – World War II:U.S. Navy bombers sank the Japanese battleship-carrier Hyuga in shallow waters off Kure, Japan.

1945 – World War II: At Potsdam, President Truman informs Stalin that a new and powerful weapon is now available for use against Japan but does not elaborate on the kind of weapon.

1945The Osaka-Nagoya area, the second largest population center in Japan, is bombed by 600 B-29 Superfortress bombers.

1946 – U.S. performs atmospheric nuclear test at Bikini Atoll. It was called Operation Crossroads.

1948 – Soviet occupation forces in Germany blockaded West Berlin. The U.S.-British airlift begins tomorrow.

1948 – Henry A. Wallace accepted the presidential nomination of the Progressive Party in Philadelphia.

1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Some Enchanted Evening” by Perry Como, “Bali Ha’I” by Perry Como, “Again” by Gordon Jenkins and “One Kiss Too Many” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1950 – V-2/WAC Corporal rocket launch; first launch from Cape Canaveral.

1952 – President Truman announced a settlement in a 53-day steel strike.

1952 – Pres. Truman commuted Oscar Collazo’s death sentence to life imprisonment. He was one of the two who had attempted to assassinate the president. On the same day he signed an act enlarging the self-government of Puerto Rico.

1954 – “Three Coins in the Fountain” by the Four Aces topped the charts.

1956 – At New York City’s Copacabana Club, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis perform their last comedy show together which started on July 25, 1946.

1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley, “Love Letters in the Sand” by Pat Boone, “It’s Not for Me to Say” by Johnny Mathis and  “Bye Bye Love” by The Everly Brothers all topped the charts.

1958 – Jack Kilby (1923-2005) of Texas Instruments came up with the idea for creating the first integrated circuit on a piece of silicon. By September 12 he made a working prototype.

1959 – Vice President Nixon argued with Khrushchev known as the `Kitchen Debate’. This debate took place during a time of increasing tension in the Cold War, starting with Sputnik in 1957 and ending with the U-2 affair in 1960.

1961 – Roger Maris hits four home runs in a doubleheader.

1961 – Edwin Newman becomes news anchor of the Today Show. Newman was a longtime correspondent for NBC News. He was a member of the network news team that announced to the nation the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963.

1961 – A US commercial plane was hijacked to Cuba and began a trend. The lone flight attendant on this first aerial hijacking is still well, and living in Manitowoc, Wis., 50 years later (2011). The flight attendant’s maiden name was Inez Harlow (23).

1964 – A race riot took place in Rochester, New York, and four people were killed. Violence and looting in Rochester spanned a period of approximately sixty hours, resulting in four deaths, at least 350 injuries, over 800 arrests, and property damage totalling more than a million dollars.

1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” by The Rolling Stones, “I’m Henry VIII, I Am” by Herman’s Hermits, “What’s New Pussycat?” by Tom Jones and  “Before You Go” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1965 – Bob Dylan released “Like a Rolling Stone“.

1965 – The Beach Boys’ “California Girls” was released on the Jack Benny Show with guest Bob Hope.

1965 – Vietnam War: U.S. bombers on a raid over munitions manufacturing facilities at Kang Chi, 55 miles northwest of Hanoi, were fired at from an unknown launching site. It was the first time the enemy had launched antiaircraft missiles at U.S. aircraft.

1966 – Golfer Tony Lema (32), while flying with his wife Betty to an exhibition match in Chicago, Illinois, crashed on the seventh hole of a golf course in Lansing, Illinois. All four people on board were killed.

1967 – Race riot, Cambridge, Maryland. National Guard mobilized.

1969 – Hoyt Wilhelm pitches in a record 907th major league game. At his retirement in 1972 he had pitched in 1070 games, more than any pitcher in major league history.

1969 – Apollo 11 splashes down safely in the Pacific.

1969 – Muhammad Ali is convicted for refusing induction in U.S. Army on appeal.

1970 – In Laos Capt. Donald Bloodworth and his pilot were lost on a night reconnaissance mission in a F-4D fighter-bomber. Bloodworth’s remains were returned to the US in 1998.

1970 – Pres. Nixon signed the Failing Newspaper Act (Newspaper Preservation Act) allowing papers in the same market to cut costs by merging some of their operations.

1970 – Freddie Mac (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corp.), a stockholder-owned corporation, was chartered by Congress to keep money flowing to mortgage lenders in support of homeownership and rental housing.

1971 – “Indian Reservation” by the Paul Revere & the Raiders topped the charts.

1971 – The White House Plumbers unit formed to stop the leaking (hence “plumbers”) of classified information to the news media during the Nixon administration.

1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bad, Bad Leroy Brown” by Jim Croce, “Yesterday Once More” by Carpenters, “Shambala” by Three Dog Night and  “Love is the Foundation” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.

1974 – The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that President Richard Nixon had to turn over subpoenaed White House tape recordings to the Watergate special prosecutor.

1976 – “Kiss and Say Goodbye” by the Manhattans topped the charts.

1976 – Hall & Oates’ “She’s Gone” was released.

1978 – movie trailer “Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band,” starring Peter Frampton and the Bee Gees, opened in New York City, NY. movie trailer

1978 – Billy Martin was fired for the first of three times as the manager of the New York Yankees baseball team.

1979 – Red Sox Carl Yastrzemski hits his 400th home run.

1979 – President Carter names Paul Volcker, President of Federal Reserve.

1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes, “All Those Years Ago” by George Harrison, “The One that You Love” by Air Supply and “Feels So Right” by Alabama all topped the charts.

1982 – “Eye of the Tiger” by Survivor topped the charts.

1983 – The Space Shuttle Challenger landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, making Sally Ride the first American woman in space.

1984 – After 14 years and four Super Bowl championships with the Pittsburgh Steelers, Terry Bradshaw retires from the National Football League.

1985 – Walt Disney’s “The Black Cauldron” opened in movie houses around the country. The film was the 25th full-length cartoon produced by the Disney Studios in Burbank, CA.

1986 – San Francisco Federal jury convicts Navy radioman Jerry Whitworth of espionage for the Soviets.

1987 – IBM-PC DOS Version 3.3 (updated) released

1987 – Hulda Crooks, a 91-year-old mountaineer from California, became the oldest woman to conquer Mount Fuji, Japan’s highest peak.

1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Toy Soldiers” by Martika, “Express Yourself” by Madonna,Batdance” by Prince and “What’s Going on in Your World” by George Strait all topped the charts.

1989 – Paula Gwynn, 22, crowned 21st Miss Black America.

1990 – Pantera released “Cowboys From Hell.” It was their first major label release.

1990 – Iraqi forces start massing on the Kuwait/Iraq border.

1993 – “Can’t Help Falling in Love” by UB40 topped the charts.

1993 – US House Ways and Means Chairman Dan Rostenkowski denied allegations he’d received embezzled funds, saying he had engaged in “no illegal or unethical conduct.”

1993 – In Somalia, two Green Berets are WIA when their HUMVEEs are ambushed.

1995 – A three-night celebration of Frank Sinatra’s 80th birthday began at Carnegie Hall.

1997 – William J. Brennan (91), retired Supreme Court Justice (1956-1990), died in Arlington, Va.

1998 – A gunman burst into U.S. Capitol and opened fire killing two police officers, officers Jacob Chestnut and John Gibson, and wounded a visitor. Russel Weston Jr., was later ruled incompetent to stand trial.

1998 – The motion picture “Saving Private Ryan,” starring Tom Hanks and directed by Steven Spielberg, was released.

1999 – “Wild Wild West” by Will Smith topped the charts.

2000 – Georgia’s Democratic Governor Zell Miller was appointed to the late Republican Paul Coverdell’s Senate seat.

2000 – In Minneapolis, Minn., 80 people were arrested as demonstrators protested against a meeting of the Int’l. Society for Animal Genetics.

2001 – The city of Detroit, Michigan celebrated its 300th anniversary with a historical reenactment of city founder Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac landing on the shores of the Detroit River.

2001 – Larry Silverstein signed a $3.2 billion, 99-year lease for the New York City World Trade Center (WTC). This is just seven weeks before their destruction.

2002 – The US House voted 420-1 to oust Rep. James Traficant, an Ohio Democrat. On  July 30 Traficant was sentenced to 8 years in prison for bribery and racketeering.

2002 – In Pennsylvania nine coal miners were trapped by a flood 240 feet underground. All nine were rescued July 27.

2002 – In Houston, Texas, Clara Harris ran over her cheating husband with her Mercedes after catching him with his mistress. Harris (45) was convicted of murder Feb 13, 2003.

2003 – The U.S. released pictures of the bodies of Odai and Qusai Hussein. The two died during a battle with U.S. forces near Mosul, Iraq.

2005 – Lance Armstrong wins his seventh Tour de France.

2005 – Four unions said they would boycott the AFL-CIO convention in Chicago. The Service Employees and Teamsters said they would quit the group.

2006 Floyd Landis wins the 2006 Tour de France.

2006 – Rescuers from the US Coast Guard and Alaska Air National Guard saved 23 crew members from a cargo ship taking on water south of the Aleutian Islands.

2007 – The US minimum wage rose 70 cents to $5.85 an hour, the first increase in a decade.

2007 – Florida began distributing playing cards to prison inmates with pictures and information regarding unsolved murder and missing person cases.

2009 – President Barack Obama conceded his words, that a white police officer “acted stupidly” when he arrested a black university scholar in his own home, were ill-chosen.

2009 – A federal minimum wage increase took effect. The increase to $7.25 meant 70 cents more an hour for the lowest-paid workers in the 30 states that have lower minimums or no minimum wage.

2010 – Alarms on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig are found to have been disabled before the explosion and subsequent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

2010 – A court in Arizona listens to challenges to the state’s policy against illegal immigrants.

2011 –  MASS SHOOTING – A gunman fatally shoots six people, including himself, and wounds four others in a shooting in Grand Prairie, Texas.

2011 –  Nearly 4,000 employees of the US FAA are furloughed due to Congressional authorization for its programs lapsing.

2012 – A man with a gun crawls beneath a dock and enters the grounds of the University of Connecticut’s Avery Point campus. The man later commits suicide.


1802 – Alexander Dumas (Davy de La Pailleterie) (Dumas PÈre), French playwright, novelist.

1897 – Amelia Earhart, American aviator.
1920 – Bella Abzug, American feminist, U.S. Congresswoman.
1932 – William D Ruckelshaus, headed Environmental Protection Agency.
1936 – Ruth Buzzi, Westerly, Rhode Island, comedienne, Laugh-In, Margie-That Girl
1951 – Lynda Carter, born in Phoenix, Arizona, Miss USA, 1973, actress, Wonder Woman
1964 – Barry Bonds, born in Riverside, California, left fielder, Pirates, San Francisco Giants, 3X MVP
1970 – Jennifer Lopez, American actress, singer, record producer, dancer, and fashion designer.




Rank and organization: Sergeant (then L/Cpl.), U.S. Marine Corps, Company 1, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein) FMF. Place and date: near the Demilitarized Zone, Republic of Vietnam,  July 24th, 1966. Entered service at: Stockton, Calif. Born: 26 May 1945, French Camp, San Joaquin, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While Company 1 was conducting an operation along the axis of a narrow jungle trail, the leading company elements suffered numerous casualties when they suddenly came under heavy fire from a well concealed and numerically superior enemy force. Hearing the engaged Marines’ calls for more firepower, Sgt. Pittman quickly exchanged his rifle for a machinegun and several belts of ammunition, left the relative safety of his platoon, and unhesitatingly rushed forward to aid his comrades. Taken under intense enemy small-arms fire at point blank range during his advance, he returned the fire, silencing the enemy position. As Sgt. Pittman continued to forge forward to aid members of the leading platoon, he again came under heavy fire from two automatic weapons which he promptly destroyed. Learning that there were additional wounded Marines fifty yards further along the trail, he braved a withering hail of enemy mortar and small-arms fire to continue onward. As he reached the position where the leading Marines had fallen, he was suddenly confronted with a bold frontal attack by thirty to forty enemy. Totally disregarding his safety, he calmly established a position in the middle of the trail and raked the advancing enemy with devastating machinegun fire. His weapon rendered ineffective, he picked up an enemy submachinegun and, together with a pistol seized from a fallen comrade, continued his lethal fire until the enemy force had withdrawn. Having exhausted his ammunition except for a grenade which he hurled at the enemy, he then rejoined his platoon. Sgt. Pittman’s daring initiative, bold fighting spirit and selfless devotion to duty inflicted many enemy casualties, disrupted the enemy attack and saved the lives of many of his wounded comrades. His personal valor at grave risk to himself reflects the highest credit upon himself, the Marine Corps, and the U.S. Naval Service.




Rank and organization: Captain, Company M, 5th Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At Newbys Crossroads, Va.,  July 24th, 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Quincy, Mich. Date of issue: 2 August 1897. Citation: While in command of a squadron in rear guard of a cavalry division, then retiring before the advance of a corps of infantry, was attacked by the enemy and, orders having been given to abandon the guns of a section of field artillery with the rear guard that were in imminent danger of capture, he disregarded the orders received and aided in repelling the attack and saving the guns.





Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 2d U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At Newbys Crossroads, Va.,  July 24th, 1863. Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Born: Buffalo, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 September 1893. Citation: While in command of a section of a battery constituting a portion of the rear guard of a division then retiring before the advance of a corps of Infantry was attacked by the enemy and ordered to abandon his guns. Lt. Woodruff disregarded the orders received and aided in repelling the attack and saving the guns.

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Unerased History – July 23rd

Posted by Wayne Church on July 23, 2017 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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  Hot Enough For Ya Day

Gorgeous Grandma Day




Fy Rine Meaders,  How your beds.

Let us salute the eponymous master of the verbal somersault, the Rev. William Archibald Spooner. He left us all a legacy of laughter. He also gave the dictionary a new entry: spoonerism. The very word brings a smile. Spoonerisms are words or phrases in which letters or syllables get swapped. This often happens accidentally in slips of the tongue (or tips of the slung as Spoonerisms are often affectionately called or when your tang gets all toungled up.)

Born in 1844 in London, Spooner became an Anglican priest and a scholar. During a 60-year association with Oxford University, he lectured in history, philosophy, and divinity. From 1876 to 1889, he served as a Dean, and from 1903 to 1924 as Warden, or president.

Spooner was an albino, small, with a pink face, poor eyesight, and a head too large for his body. His reputation was that of a genial, kindly, hospitable man. He seems also to have been something of an absent-minded professor. He once invited a faculty member to tea “to welcome our new archaeology Fellow.”
“But, sir,” the man replied, “I am our new archaeology Fellow.”
“Never mind,” Spooner said, “Come all the same.”

Spooner was no featherbrain. In fact his mind was so nimble his tongue couldn’t keep up. The Greeks had a word for this type of impediment long before Spooner was born: metathesis. It means the act of switching things around.

Reverend Spooner’s tendency to get words and sounds crossed up could happen at any time, but especially when he was agitated. He reprimanded one student for “fighting a liar in the quadrangle” and another who “hissed my mystery lecture.” To the latter he added in disgust, “You have tasted two worms.”

Patriotic fervour excited Spooner as well. He raised his toast to Her Highness Victoria: “Three cheers for our queer old dean!” During WWI he reassured his students, “When our boys come home from France, we will have the hags flung out.” And he lionised Britain’s farmers as “noble tons of soil.”

His goofs at chapel were legendary. “Our Lord is a shoving leopard,” he once intoned. He quoted 1 Corinthians 13:12 as, “For now we see through a dark, glassly…” Officiating at a wedding, he prompted a hesitant bridegroom, “Son, it is now kisstomary to cuss the bride.” And to a stranger seated in the wrong place: “I believe you’re occupewing my pie. May I sew you to another sheet?”

Here are some other example of spoonerisms:

  • Tease my ears (Ease my tears)
  • A lack of pies (A pack of lies)
  • It’s roaring with pain (It’s pouring with rain)
  • Wave the sails (Save the whales)
  • Chipping the flannel (Flipping the channel)
  • At the lead of spite (At the speed of light)
  • Go and shake a tower (Go and take a shower)


Scripture of the Day

Psalm 37:5 King James Version (KJV)

Commit thy way unto the Lord; trust also in him; and he shall bring it to pass.

Founders Thoughts


John JayJohn Jay, President of Congress; Diplomat; Author of the Federalist Papers; Original Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court; Governor of New York:

“Condescend, merciful Father! to grant as far as proper these imperfect petitions, to accept these inadequate thanksgivings, and to pardon whatever of sin hath mingled in them for the sake of Jesus Christ, our blessed Lord and Savior; unto Whom, with Thee, and the blessed Spirit, ever one God, be rendered all honor and glory, now and forever.”

“Unto Him who is the author and giver of all good, I render sincere and humble thanks for His manifold and unmerited blessings, and especially for our redemption and salvation by His beloved Son. . . . Blessed be His holy name.”


“Inaction breeds doubt and fear. Action breeds confidence and courage. If you want to conquer fear, do not sit at home and think about it. Go out and get busy.”

~ Dale Carnegie


copious KOH-pee-uhs, adjective:

1. Affording an abundant supply; plentifully furnished; lavish.
2. Large in quantity; plentiful, profuse; abundant.


1637 – King Charles of England handed over the American colony of Massachusetts to Sir Fernando Gorges, one of the founders of the Council of New England.

1664 – Four British ships arrived in Boston to drive the Dutch out of New York.

1715 – The first lighthouse in America was authorized for construction. It was constructed at Little Brewster Island, Massachusetts. Boston Light, located on that island to mark the entrance to Boston harbor.

1827 – Francis Leiber opened the first swim school in America in Boston, MA.

1829 – William Austin Burt patents the “typographer”, a precursor to the typewriter.

1836 – A band of Seminole Indians attacked and burned the Cape Florida lighthouse.  The Seminoles massacred the family of William Cooley at their coontie plantation on the New River, in what is now Fort Lauderdale.

1846 – Henry David Thoreau jailed for tax resistance. He refused to pay a poll tax as a symbol in protest against the Mexican War and the extension of slavery; he spent a night in jail.

1850 – French priest Jean-Baptiste Lamy (1814-1888) received notice of his appointment as bishop of the recently created Vicariate of New Mexico. He was dispatched by Rome to bring order and discipline to the New Mexico territory.

1851 – Sioux Indians and the US signed the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux.

1862 – Civil War: Henry W. Halleck takes command of the Union Army. His title was General-in-Chief.

1863 – Civil War: Bill Anderson and his Confederate Bushwackers gutted the railway station at Renick, Missouri. Bushwhackers were men who performed the art of guerrilla warfare in the Civil War. This style of fighting was in stark contrast to the normal way armies fought each other.

1864 – Civil War: Army transport B.M. Runyan sank in the Mississippi River near Skipwith’s Landing, Mississippi. The U.S.S. Prairie Bird rescued 350 survivors of the 500 on board and salvaged part of the cargo.

1865 – William Booth founded the Salvation Army.

1866 – Cincinnati Baseball club (The Reds) established.

1868 – The 14th Amendment was ratified, granting citizenship to African Americans. It gave freed slaves full citizenship and equal protection under the laws of the United States.

1877 – First US municipal railroad, Cincinnati Southern, begins passenger service. The CSR was a 336 mile railway begun in 1869; it passed from the Ohio River city of Cincinnati south through the undeveloped highlands of eastern Kentucky and Tennessee to Chattanooga, rail hub of the South.

1880 – First commercial hydroelectric power plant began in Grand Rapids, Mich.

1885 – Ulysses S. Grant, commander of the Union forces at the end of the Civil War and the 18th president of the United States, died in Mount McGregor, N.Y., at age 63. He had just completed the final revisions to his memoirs, which were published as a two-volume set by Mark Twain. His tomb was placed in the largest mausoleum in the US on a bluff over the Hudson River.

1886 – Steve Brodie supposedly survives plunge from Brooklyn Bridge. There is significant question as to whether the jump actually occurred.

1903 – The Ford Motor Company sells its first car, the Model A.

1904 – Ice cream cone created by Charles E Menches during La Purchase Expo in St. Louis.

1906 – “America the Beautiful” was registered by Katharine Lee Bates.

1914 – World War I: Austria-Hungary issues an ultimatum to Serbia demanding Serbia to allow the Austrians to determine who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Serbia rejects those demands and Austria declares war on July 28.

1925 – New York Yankee Lou Gehrig hits his first of 23 career grand slammers.

1926 – Fox Film buys the patents of the Movietone sound system for recording sound onto film.

1934 – The program “Home Sweet Home” debuted on the NBC Red radio network. The principal characters were Fred, Lucy, Dick Kent and Uncle Will.

1938 – The first federal game preserve was approved by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The area was 2,000 acres in Utah.

1940 – World War II: Europe: German bombers began the “Blitz,” the all-night air raids on London.

1941 – “Memories of You” was recorded by Sonny Dunham and his orchestra. It was Bluebird record #11289.

1942 – Harry James and his Orchestra recorded “I Had the Craziest Dream” in Hollywood for Columbia Records.

1942 – World War II: The Holocaust: The second Treblinka extermination camp is opened. Nearly 750,000 people died in the gas chambers of Treblinka.

1942 – World War II: Operation Edelweiss begins. It was named after the mountain flower, was a German plan to gain control over the Caucasus and capture the oil fields of Baku.

1943 – World War II: General Patton’s attack continues as his spearheads turn toward Messina along the northern coastal road. His forces reach Termini Imerese. Other 7th Army forces capture Trapani and Marsala.

1944 – On Guam, US Marines on the northern beachhead reach Point Adelup. On the southern beachhead, the Marines cross the neck of the Orote Peninsula, thereby cutting off the main Japanese airfield on the island.

1945 – The first passenger train observation car was placed in service by the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy RR.

1947 – First Navy all jet squadron (VF-17A) receives its first aircraft with the initial delivery of 2 – FD-1 Phantoms at NAS Quonset Point, RI.

1947 – U.S. President Harry S Truman made the first Presidential surprise visit to Capitol Hill since 1789. “Give Em Hell Harry.”

1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Can’t Be True, Dear” by The Ken Griffin Orchestra (vocal: Jerry Wayne), “Woody Woodpecker Song” by The Kay Kaiser Orchestra (Gloria Wood & The Campus Kids), “It’s Magic” by Doris Day and “Bouquet of Roses” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1948 – USS Putnum (DD-757) evacuates U.N. team from Haifa, Israel and becomes first U.S. Navy ship to fly the U.N. flag.

1949 – “Riders in the Sky” by Vaughan Monroe topped the “Billboard “charts.

1950 – TV viewers were treated to the premiere of “The Gene Autry Show.” The show lasted from 1950 to 1956 with 91 successful episodes. The theme song was “Back in the Saddle Again“.

1950 – USS Boxer sets record crossing of Pacific to bring aircraft, troops, and supplies to Korea at start of the war. Units from the 2d Marine Division prepared to move from Camp Lejeune, N.C., to Camp Pendleton, Calif., to join the 1st Marine Division.

1954 – A law was passed that states : “The Secretary of the Navy is authorized to repair, equip, and restore the United States Ship Constitution, as far as may be practicable, to her original appearance, but not for active service, and thereafter to maintain the United States Ship Constitution at Boston, Massachusetts.”

1955 – Bill Haley & Comets’ “Rock Around the Clock” tops “Billboards” chart.

1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Wayward Wind” by Gogi Grant, “Hound Dog/Don’t Be Cruel” by Elvis Presley, “Whatever Will Be Will Be (Que Sera Sera)” by Doris Day and “I Walk the Line” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.

1956 – Bell X-2 rocket plane sets world aircraft speed record of 1895 mph. Lt. Col. Frank “Pete” Everest piloted this ninth powered flight and reached Mach 2.87.

1958 – The submarine Nautilus departed from Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, under orders to conduct “Operation Sunshine.” The mission was to be the first vessel to cross the North Pole by ship. The Nautilus achieved the goal on August 3, 1958.

1960 – “I’m Sorry” by Brenda Lee topped the charts.

1962 – Baseball great Jackie Robinson was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.

1962 – Telstar relays the first live trans-Atlantic television signal.

1964 – CHART TOPPERS -“Rag Doll” by The 4 Seasons, “Can’t You See that She’s Mine” by The Dave Clark Five, “The Girl from Ipanema” by Stan Getz/Astrud Gilberto and “Dang Me” by Roger Miller all topped the charts.

1966 – Frank Sinatra hit the top of the pop album chart with his “Strangers in the Night.”

1966 – “Hanky Panky” by Tommy James & the Shondells topped the charts.

1966 – Napoleon XIV releases “They’re Coming to Take Me Away, Ha! Ha!

1966 – The Hough Riots were race riots in the predominantly Black community of Hough in Cleveland, Ohio that took place over a six-night period from July 18 to July 23, 1966.

1967 – 12th Street Riot: In Detroit, Michigan, one of the worst riots in United States history begins on 12th Street in the predominantly African-American inner city (43 killed, 342 injured and 1,400 buildings burned).

1968 – Glenville Shootout: In Cleveland, Ohio, a violent shootout between a Black Militant organization led by Ahmed Evans and the Cleveland Police Department occurs. During the shootout, a riot begins that lasted for five days.

1969 – Three Dog Night received a gold record for the single, “One“.

1972 – CHART TOPPERS -“Lean on Me” by Bill Withers, “Too Late to Turn Back Now by Cornelius Brothers & Sister Rose “Alone Again (Naturally)” by Gilbert O’Sullivan and “It’s Gonna Take a Little Bit Longer” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.

1972 – The United States launches Landsat 1, the first Earth-resources satellite.

1973 – Pres Nixon refused to release Watergate tapes of conversations in the White House relevant to the Watergate investigation.

1977 – “Looks Like We Made It” by Barry Manilow topped the charts.

1977 – Foreigner’s “Cold As Ice” was released.

1977 – A jury in Washington, DC, convicted twelve Hanafi Muslims of charges stemming from the hostage siege at three buildings the previous March.

1979 – A Miami jury convicted Theodore Bundy of first-degree murder in the slayings of Florida State University sorority sisters Margaret Bowman and Lisa Levy.

1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Still Rock & Roll to Me” by Billy Joel, “Little Jeannie” by Elton John, “Cupid/I’ve Loved You for a Long Time” by Spinners and “True Love Ways” by Mickey Gilley all topped the charts.

1980 – River of No Return Wilderness Area designated by President Jimmy Carter. The Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is a protected wilderness area located in Idaho.

1980 – The US Senate Judiciary Committee was reported to be officially joining those investigating allegations of misconduct in Billy Carter’s relationship with Libya.

1982 – The International Whaling Commission decides to end commercial whaling by 1985-86.

1982 – Actor Vic Morrow and two child actors were killed when a helicopter crashed on top of them during filming of a Vietnam War scene for “Twilight Zone: The Movie.”

1983 – Every Breath You Take” by The Police topped the charts.

1984 – Vanessa Williams becomes the first Miss America to resign when she surrenders her crown after nude photos of her appeared in Penthouse magazine.

1987 – Billy Williams, Catfish Hunter and Ray Dandridge were inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York.

1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hold on to the Nights” by Richard Marx, “Pour Some Sugar on Me” by Def Lappard, “New Sensation” by INXS and “Set ’Em Up Joe” by Vern Gosdin all topped the charts.

1989 – FOX-TV tops ABC, NBC & CBS for first time (America’s Most Wanted).

1990 – Production began on the film, “Falling From Grace.” The film marked John Mellencamp’s acting and directing debut.

1990 – President George H.W. Bush announced his choice of Judge David Souter of New Hampshire to succeed retiring Justice William J.  Brennan on the US Supreme Court.

1993 – U.S. Marine Corps pilot Lt. Col. Sarah Deal becomes first female Marine selected for naval aviation training.

1993 – Army Chief of Staff authorizes 10th Mountain Division soldiers to wear the combat patch, shoulder sleeve insignia-former wartime service and overseas service bar for service in Somalia.

1993 – In Lumberton, NC, Larry Demery and Daniel Green came upon James Jordan sleeping in his car and proceeded to rob him. As Jordan awoke Green shot and killed Jordan, the 56-year-old father of basketball star Michael Jordan.

1994 – Space shuttle Columbia returned to Earth after a 15-day mission which included experiments on the effects of weightlessness on aquatic animals.

1995 – Comet Hale-Bopp is discovered and becomes visible to the naked eye nearly a year later.

1997 – Digital Equipment Company files antitrust charges against chipmaker Intel.

1997 – Police in Miami Beach, FL, found the body of Andrew Cunanan. He was the suspected killer of Gianni Versace.

1997 – The US and Venezuela signed an agreement to allow authorities of both countries to board boats of each other’s flags if suspected of carrying drugs.

1998 – It was reported that Congress made the Air Force buy more C-130 transport aircraft against its wishes. Since 1978 only 5 of 256 C-130s sent to the Air National Guard and Air Reserve were requested by the Air Force. The planes were built in Georgia.

1998 – The US Senate voted to shut down the online gambling industry.

1999 – The 3-day Woodstock ’99 music festival began at the decommissioned Griffiss Air Force Base in Rome, NY, with some 225,000 people. The $35-38 million production ended in chaos with hundreds of concertgoers burning fires, looting and vandalizing.

2000 – Tiger Woods, at age 24, became the youngest golfer to win the career Grand Slam with a record-breaking performance in the British Open.

2000 – Lance Armstrong won his second Tour de France.

2001 – The US Pentagon shut down public access to its web sites due to a computer worm called the Code Red worm. It defaced web sites with the words “Hacked by Chinese.”

2002 – Bush signed legislation designating Nevada’s Yucca Mountain as the nation’s nuclear waste repository.

2002 – In California a growing fire in Sequoia Nat’l. Park consumed 48,200 acres in 3 days.

2006 – Tiger Woods won his 2nd consecutive British Open golf title.

2007 – Jennifer Hawke-Petit and her two daughters were killed during a violent home invasion in Cheshire, Conn. Dr. William Petit, was badly beaten but escaped.

2007 – Comic Drew Carey was tapped to replace the legendary Bob Barker on the CBS daytime game show “The Price is Right.”

2007 – A wildfire in southern Idaho had covered more than 880 square miles, growing by about 200 square miles in just 24 hours during the weekend.

2008 – In Louisiana an oil tanker and an oil barge collided near New Orleans creating a 12-mile oil slick and closing almost 100 miles of the Mississippi River.

2008 – US Presidential hopeful Barack Obama donned a Jewish yarmulke at Israel’s Holocaust memorial and vowed to preserve America’s close ties with Israel in a dramatic visit to the Holy Land in which he also promised the Palestinians to push vigorously to win them a state.

2008 – Hurricane Dolly makes landfall on South Padre Island, Texas, with sustained winds of 95 mph.

2009 – Border Patrol Agent Robert Rosas, 30, was killed by unidentified assailants while responding to suspicious activity in a known smuggling corridor near Campo, CA.

2009 – In Michigan, the last edition of The Ann Arbor News rolled off the presses After 174 years, with a three-word headline: “Farewell, Ann Arbor.”

2009 – Chicago White Sox pitcher Mark Buehrle completes a perfect game against the Tampa Bay Rays.

2010 – Alarms on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig are found to have been disabled before the explosion and subsequent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

2010 – An Arizona judge heard federal government arguments aimed at halting a law targeting illegal immigrants (SB1070). The justice department says immigration is a federal issue, and that Arizona has exceeded its powers in framing the law, to be implemented next week.

2011 – MASS  SHOOTING: A shooter opened fire at a skating rink during a private family event Saturday night, killing five and wounding four before fatally shooting himself. Tan Do, 35, was attending a private birthday party for one of his two children at the Forum Roller World in Grand Prairie, Texas. He pulled a pistol and started shooting after getting into an argument with his estranged wife, Trini Do, 29.

2011 – Nearly 4,000 employees of the US Federal Aviation Administration are furloughed due to Congressional authorization for its programs lapsing.

2012 – James Eagan Holmes, the suspect of the 2012 Aurora CO Movie shooting, makes his first court appearance.

2012 – Sally Ride, the first American female astronaut, dies of pancreatic cancer at the age of 61.

2013 – A Silicon Valley power substation was damaged after rifle shots were fired at it  leading the California grid operator to call for electricity conservation. Investigators later determined a high-powered rifle had been used. About a quarter of an hour before the shots, someone cut fiber optic cables belonging to AT&T in the same area.

2015 – Five people are killed and a girl is wounded in a stabbing at a home in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma, U.S. that occurred the previous day. Two teenage suspects are arrested.

2015 – Seven people are wounded, and three are dead (including the shooter) after a 58-year-old gunman opens fire at the Grand 16 Movie Theater in Lafayette, Louisiana  during a showing of Trainwreck.


1888 – Raymond Chandler, American-born author (d. 1959)
1894 – Vincent Sardi, American restaurateur.
1894 – Arthur Treacher, English character actor (d. 1975)
1918 – Pee Wee Reese, American baseball player (d. 1999)
1933 – Bert Convy, American game show host and performer (d. 1991)
1936 – Don Drysdale, American baseball player (d. 1993)
1936 – Anthony Kennedy, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
1961 – Woody Harrelson, American actor
1961 – Michael Durant, American Helicopter pilot, shot down and held captive in Mogadishu, Somalia
1973 – Monica Lewinsky, American White House intern






Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, 2d Battalion, 506th Infantry, 101st Airborne Division. Place and date: Fire Support Base Ripcord, Republic of Vietnam, July 1st to July 23rd,  1970. Entered service at: West Point, N.Y. Born: 2 October 1930, Washington D.C. Citation: Lt. Col. Lucas distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism while serving as the commanding officer of the 2d Battalion. Although the fire base was constantly subjected to heavy attacks by a numerically superior enemy force throughout this period, Lt. Col. Lucas, forsaking his own safety, performed numerous acts of extraordinary valor in directing the defense of the allied position. On one occasion, he flew in a helicopter at treetop level above an entrenched enemy directing the fire of one of his companies for over three hours. Even though his helicopter was heavily damaged by enemy fire, he remained in an exposed position until the company expended its supply of grenades. He then transferred to another helicopter, dropped critically needed grenades to the troops, and resumed his perilous mission of directing fire on the enemy. These courageous actions by Lt. Col. Lucas prevented the company from being encircled and destroyed by a larger enemy force. On another occasion, Lt. Col. Lucas attempted to rescue a crewman trapped in a burning helicopter. As the flames in the aircraft spread, and enemy fire became intense, Lt. Col. Lucas ordered all members of the rescue party to safety. Then, at great personal risk, he continued the rescue effort amid concentrated enemy mortar fire, intense heat, and exploding ammunition until the aircraft was completely engulfed in flames. Lt. Col. Lucas was mortally wounded while directing the successful withdrawal of his battalion from the fire base. His actions throughout this extended period inspired his men to heroic efforts, and were instrumental in saving the lives of many of his fellow soldiers while inflicting heavy casualties on the enemy. Lt. Col. Lucas’ conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action, at the cost of his own life, were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit and the U.S. Army.




Rank and Organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company I, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Republic of Korea, July 23rd, 1950-20 April 1953. Corporal Tibor Rubin distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism during the period from July 23, 1950, to April 20, 1953, while serving as a rifleman with Company I, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division in the Republic of Korea. While his unit was retreating to the Pusan Perimeter, Corporal Rubin was assigned to stay behind to keep open the vital Taegu-Pusan Road link used by his withdrawing unit. During the ensuing battle, overwhelming numbers of North Korean troops assaulted a hill defended solely by Corporal Rubin. He inflicted a staggering number of casualties on the attacking force during his personal 24-hour battle, single-handedly slowing the enemy advance and allowing the 8th Cavalry Regiment to complete its withdrawal successfully. Following the breakout from the Pusan Perimeter, the 8th Cavalry Regiment proceeded northward and advanced into North Korea. During the advance, he helped capture several hundred North Korean soldiers. On October 30, 1950, Chinese forces attacked his unit at Unsan, North Korea, during a massive nighttime assault. That night and throughout the next day, he manned a .30 caliber machine gun at the south end of the unit’s line after three previous gunners became casualties. He continued to man his machine gun until his ammunition was exhausted. His determined stand slowed the pace of the enemy advance in his sector, permitting the remnants of his unit to retreat southward. As the battle raged, Corporal Rubin was severely wounded and captured by the Chinese. Choosing to remain in the prison camp despite offers from the Chinese to return him to his native Hungary, Corporal Rubin disregarded his own personal safety and immediately began sneaking out of the camp at night in search of food for his comrades. Breaking into enemy food storehouses and gardens, he risked certain torture or death if caught. Corporal Rubin provided not only food to the starving soldiers, but also desperately needed medical care and moral support for the sick and wounded of the POW camp. His brave, selfless efforts were directly attributed to saving the lives of as many as forty of his fellow prisoners. Corporal Rubin’s gallant actions in close contact with the enemy and unyielding courage and bravery while a prisoner of war are in the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the United States Army.

Rubin Tibor is a Hungarian-born Holocaust survivor who immigrated to the United States in 1948 and received the Medal of Honor for his actions in the Korean War by President George W. Bush on September 23, 2005. Rubin is a resident of Garden Grove, California.




Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 112th Cavalry Regimental Combat Team. Place and date. Near Afua, New Guinea, July 23rd,   1944. Entered service at: Town of Cornwall, Orange County, N.Y. Birth: New York City, N.Y. G.O. No.: 25, 7 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty near Afua, New Guinea, on 23 July 1944. 2d Lt. Boyce’s troop, having been ordered to the relief of another unit surrounded by superior enemy forces, moved out, and upon gaining contact with the enemy, the two leading platoons deployed and built up a firing line. 2d Lt. Boyce was ordered to attack with his platoon and make the main effort on the right of the troop. He launched his attack but after a short advance encountered such intense rifle, machinegun, and mortar fire that the forward movement of his platoon was temporarily halted. A shallow depression offered a route of advance and he worked his squad up this avenue of approach in order to close with the enemy. He was promptly met by a volley of hand grenades, one falling between himself and the men immediately following. Realizing at once that the explosion would kill or wound several of his men, he promptly threw himself upon the grenade and smothered the blast with his own body. By thus deliberately sacrificing his life to save those of his men, this officer exemplified the highest traditions of the U.S. Armed Forces.




Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 503d Parachute Infantry. Place and date: At Noemfoor Island, Dutch New Guinea, July 23rd,   1944. Entered service at: LaGrange, N.C. Born: 6 February 1922, Snow Hill, N.C. G.O. No.: 20, 29 March 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty at Noemfoor Island, Dutch New Guinea, 23 July 1944. While moving to the relief of a platoon isolated by the enemy, his company encountered a strong enemy position supported by machinegun, rifle, and mortar fire. Sgt. Eubanks was ordered to make an attack with one squad to neutralize the enemy by fire in order to assist the advance of his company. He maneuvered his squad to within thirty yards of the enemy where heavy fire checked his advance. Directing his men to maintain their fire, he and two scouts worked their way forward up a shallow depression to within twenty-five yards of the enemy. Directing the scouts to remain in place, Sgt. Eubanks armed himself with an automatic rifle and worked himself forward over terrain swept by intense fire to within fifteen yards of the enemy position when he opened fire with telling effect. The enemy, having located his position, concentrated their fire with the result that he was wounded and a bullet rendered his rifle useless. In spite of his painful wounds, he immediately charged the enemy and using his weapon as a club killed four of the enemy before he was himself again hit and killed. Sgt. Eubanks’ heroic action, courage, and example in leadership so inspired his men that their advance was successful. They killed forty-five of the enemy and drove the remainder from the position, thus effecting the relief of our beleaguered troops.




Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 28 June 1884, Ransomville, N.Y. Appointed from: North Dakota. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty while serving on the U.S.S. Pittsburgh, at the time of an accidental explosion of ammunition on that vessel. On July 23rd,   1917, some saluting cartridge cases were being reloaded in the after casemate: through an accident an explosion occurred. Comdr. Bradley (then Lieutenant), who was about to enter the casemate, was blown back by the explosion and rendered momentarily unconscious, but while still dazed, crawled into the casemate to extinguish burning materials in dangerous proximity to a considerable amount of powder, thus preventing further explosions.




Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 26 July 1896, Los Animas, Colo. Accredited to: Nebraska. G.O. No.: 366, 1918. Citation: For extraordinary heroism on July 23rd, 1917, while the U.S.S. Pittsburgh was proceeding to Buenos Aires, Argentina. A 3-inch saluting charge exploded, causing the death of C. T. Lyles, seaman. Upon the explosion, Graves was blown to the deck, but soon recovered and discovered burning waste on the deck. He put out the burning waste while the casemate was filled with clouds of smoke, knowing that there was more powder there which might explode.




Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Mouth of Manimani River, west of Bahia Honda, Cuba, July 23rd,  1898. Entered service at: Mississippi. Birth: Mississippi. r)ate of issue: 21 June 1899. Citation: After 2 men had been shot down by Spaniards while transmitting orders to the engine-room on the Wanderer, the ship having become disabled, this officer took the position held by them and personally transmitted the orders, remaining at his post until the ship was out of danger.

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Unerased History – July 22nd

Posted by Wayne Church on July 22, 2017 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Rat-Catchers Day

Spooners Day



Don’t Trip Over the Threshold – In the olden days, the groom carried the bride over the threshold to protect her from evil demons  that might try to pull her under. A lot of superstitions come from evil spirits trying to kidnap the bride.
If you cut an apple in half and count how many seeds are inside, you will also know how many children you will have.

It’s bad luck to walk under a ladder. This came from the early Christian belief that a leaning ladder formed a triangle with the wall and ground. You must never violate the Holy Trinity by walking through a triangle, lest you be considered in league with the devil.

Skin Of Your Teeth. This saying means to barely escape from a harrowing situation. It comes from Job 19:20 (KJV), where God inflicts all sorts of terrible things on one of those who love him. Poor Job had all his animals stolen, his children die, his house collapse and his body covered with sores. Job has this to say; “My bone cleaveth to my skin and to my flesh, and I am escaped with the skin of my teeth.”

Knocking on wood was supposed to keep the evil spirits that lived in the wood from coming out to spoil our good fortune. Men believed that the gods lived in trees and if you wanted a favor from the gods, you would “knock on wood.” To thank the gods if your request were to come to fruition, you would “knock on wood.”


Good Luck Charms. Horseshoes – In ancient Greece, horses were considered sacred animals. If a horse’s shoe was hung over the door of a house, it was believed it would attract good luck. The open end of the horseshoe had to point up though, making it look like a roundish ‘U’, so that it would hold the good luck in. If it pointed downwards, the good luck was believed to have spilled out.


The number ‘13’

Both the sixth day of the week and the number 13 both have foreboding reputations said to date from ancient times, and their inevitable conjunction from one to three times a year portends more misfortune than some credulous minds can bear. Some people won’t go to work on Friday the 13th; some won’t eat in restaurants; many wouldn’t think of setting a wedding on the date. Of special interest to the student of history is the number of times the number ‘13’ shows up in the United States documents and symbols. It should be very clear that our Founding Fathers had no fear of this number.

Marriage customs

Why do so many people get married in June? For one thing June has been known to be the luckiest month for weddings since the days of ancient Rome. The goddess Juno, after whom the month has been named, was the guardian of happy marriages. June also has the longest day of the year. A wedding in June therefore was supposed to materialize into a long and happy marriage.

Why do all engaged or married people wear a ring around their finger? The wedding ring comes to us from ancient Egypt. A circle is an uninterrupted and unbroken continuous ring – the sign of a lasting marriage. If the ring broke, it meant bad luck. If it were taken off, love might escape from the heart. Additionally, the Egyptians believed that a vein ran from the third finger of the left hand to the heart. That is how the third finger of left hand became the ring finger.

The custom of showering rice, now illegal in most of the US,  comes from Pakistan, India and China. Rice is considered as one of the main diets in these countries. It stands for health and wealth. People throw rice on newlyweds so that the couple would have many children. This wasted or thrown away rice is also a gift for any evil spirits who might be lurking around so that they get busy in collecting and eating it leaving the couple in peace.

Finally, why is a diamond a ‘girl’s best friend’? Its sparkle was believed to come from the fires of love. Wearing a diamond was supposed to bring love and faithfulness.


Scripture of the Day

Exodus 6:

And I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a God: and ye shall know that I am the Lord your God, which bringeth you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.

And I will bring you in unto the land, concerning the which I did swear to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it you for an heritage: I am the Lord.

And Moses spake so unto the children of Israel: but they hearkened not unto Moses for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage.


Founders Thoughts


Elias BoudinotLet us enter on this important business under the idea that we are Christians on whom the eyes of the world are now turned… [L]et us earnestly call and beseech Him, for Christ’s sake, to preside in our councils. . . . We can only depend on the all powerful influence of the Spirit of God, Whose Divine aid and assistance it becomes us as a Christian people most devoutly to implore. Therefore I move that some minister of the Gospel be requested to attend this Congress every morning . . . in order to open the meeting with prayer.

Elias Boudinout

“In the long run the pessimist may be proved right, but the optimist has a better time on the trip.”

~ Daniel L. Reardon


valediction val-uh-DIK-shuhn, noun:

the action of bidding farewell; a farewell

In use by 1614, from Latin valedicere “bid farewell,” from vale, imperative form of valere “be well” + dicere “to say”

1099 – First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon elected first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Jerusalem.

1298 – Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of Falkirk – King Edward I of England and his longbowmen defeats William Wallace and his Scottish schiltrons outside the town.

1298- Jews were massacred at Wurzburg, Germany.

1376 – The legend of the Pied Piper of Hamelin leading rats out of town is said to have occurred on this date.

1587 – Colony of Roanoke:A second English colony of 114-150 people under John White, financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, was established on Roanoke Island off North Carolina. The colony included 17 women and 9 children. Croatoan Indians informed them that Roanoke Indians had killed the men from the previous expedition.

1620The Pilgrims set out from Holland destined for the New World. The Speedwell sailed to England from the Netherlands with members of the English Separatist congregation that had been living in Leiden, Holland.

1637 – King Charles of England handed over the American colony of Massachusetts to Sir Fernando Gorges, one of the founders of the Council of New England.

1686 – Albany, New York formally chartered as a municipality by Governor Thomas Dongan.

1789 – Thomas Jefferson became the first head of the U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs.

1793 – Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Pacific Ocean becoming the first Euro-American to complete a transcontinental crossing north of Mexico.

1796 – Surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company name an area in Ohio “Cleveland” after Gen. Moses Cleaveland, the superintendent of the surveying party.

1802 – Frigate Constellation defeats nine Corsair gunboats off Tripoli.

1814 – Five Indian tribes in Ohio made peace with the United States and declared war on Britain.

1823 – US Marines attack pirates near Cape Cruz, Cuba.

1829 – William Austin Burt of Mount Vernon, Mich., received a patent for his “typographer,” a forerunner of the typewriter.

1862 – Civil War: U.S.S. Essex and ram Queen of the West attacked C.S.S. Arkansas while it was at anchor with a disabled engine at Vicksburg.

1864 – Civil War: Battle of Atlanta – Outside of Atlanta, Georgia, Confederate General John Bell Hood leads an unsuccessful attack on Union troops under General William T. Sherman on Bald Hill.

1864 – Civil War: A landing party from U.S.S. Oneida conducted a daring expedition that resulted in the capture of a Confederate cavalry patrol near Fort Morgan, Mobile Bay.

1873 – Louis Pasteur received a patent for the manufacture of beer and treatment of yeast.

1881 – The first volume of “The War of the Rebellion,” a compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, was published.

1893 – Katherine Lee Bates (1819-1910), Wellesley professor, wrote the words to the song “America the Beautiful,” while atop Pike’s Peak during a trip to Colorado. It appeared in print on July 4, 1895.

1905 – Body of John Paul Jones moved to Annapolis, MD for reburial.

1916 – In San Francisco, California, a bomb explodes on Market Street during a Preparedness Day parade killing 10 and injuring 40.

1918 – 1918 Flu Pandemic: Public health officials in Philadelphia issue a bulletin about the so-called Spanish influenza.

1919 – Two companies of Quantico Marines helped civil authorities restore order after race riots in Washington, DC.

1923 – Walter Johnson becomes the first to strikeout 3,000 batters.

1926 – Babe Ruth caught a baseball that was dropped from an airplane. The plane was at 250 feet and traveling at about 100 miles-per-hour. Ruth was knocked flat during the first two attempts.

1933 – Wiley Post becomes first person to fly solo around the world traveling 15,596 miles in 7 days, 18 hours and 49 minutes. in his single-engine Lockheed Vega 5B aircraft “Winnie Mae.”

1933 – Caterina Jarboro became the first African American prima donna of an opera company. The singer performed “Aida” with the Chicago Opera Company at the Hippodrome in New York City.

1934 – Outside Chicago’s Biograph Theatre, “Public Enemy No. 1” John Dillinger is mortally wounded by FBI agents.

1937 – Senate rejects FDR proposal to enlarge the Supreme Court.

1937 – Hal Kemp and his orchestra recorded, “Got a Date with an Angel.” The distinctive vocal on the tune is provided by Skinnay Ennis.

1942 – World War II: The United States government begins compulsory civilian gasoline rationing due to the wartime demands.

1942 – World War II: Holocaust: The systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto to Treblinka begins.

1942 – World War II: Gasoline rationing involving the use of coupons began along the Atlantic seaboard.

1943 – World War II: American forces led by Gen. George S. Patton captured Palermo, Sicily.

1943 – World War II: US naval forces including two battleships and four cruisers as well as lighter units bombard Japanese-held Kiska Island.

1944 – World War II: On Guam, Marines of US 3rd Amphibious Corps attempt to link up their two beachheads with converging attacks. The American forces only  advance about one mile against heavy Japanese resistance.

1946 – Jewish extremists, that included Menachem Begin and Yitzhak Shamir, blew up a wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, which housed British administrative offices.

1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Peg o’ My Heart” by The Harmonicats, “I Wonder, I Wonder, I Wonder” by Eddy Howard, “Chi-Baba, Chi-Baba” by Perry Como and “Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)” by Tex Williams all topped the charts.

1950 – “Mona Lisa” by Nat ‘King’ Cole topped the charts.

1953 – Korean War: Major John H. Glenn, future astronaut and U.S. senator, claimed his third MiG kill in the last aerial victory of the war by a Marine pilot.

1953 – Korea War: First Lieutenant Sam P. Young, 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, was credited with the final MiG kill of the Korean War.

1954 – Governor Gordon Persons declares martial law in Russell County after a key witness in an upcoming grand jury inquiry is murdered to prevent his testimony about local corruption and vote fraud. One hundred fifty Alabama Guardsmen move in to “clean up.”

1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Around the Clock” by Bill Haley & His Comets,Honey-Babe” by Art Mooney, “The House of Blue Lights” by Chuck Miller and  “I Don’t Care” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.

1955 – Vice President Richard M. Nixon chaired a cabinet meeting in Washington, D.C. It was the first time that a Vice President had carried out this task.

1957 – The Frisbee aka ‘Pluto Plater’ patented (Design patent 183,626). It was invented by a Los Angeles building inspector named Walter Frederick Morrison.

1957 – In El Segundo, CA, two police officers were shot and killed after pulling over a car for running a red light. Gerald Mason (68) was arrested in 2003 following fingerprint ID from a new FBI database.

1960 – Cuba nationalized all US owned sugar factories.

1961 – “Tossin’ & Turnin” by Bobby Lewis topped the charts.

1962 – Mariner program: Mariner 1 spacecraft flies erratically several minutes after launch and has to be destroyed.

1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Surf City” by Jan & Dean, “So Much in Love” by The Tymes,Memphis” by Lonnie Mack and “Act Naturally” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1963 – World Heavyweight Champion Sonny Liston hung on to his boxing title by knocking out challenger Floyd Patterson in the first round of a bout in Las Vegas, NV.

1964 – Four Navy Divers (LCDR Robert Thompson, MC; Gunners Mate First Class Lester Anderson, Chief Quartermaster Robert A. Barth, and Chief Hospital Corpsman Sanders Manning) submerge in Sealab I for 10 days at a depth of 192 feet, 39 miles off Hamilton, Bermuda.

1966 – Vietnam War: B-52 bombers hit the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Vietnam for the first time.

1967 – “Windy“, by The Association topped the “Billboard” charts.

1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Too Late/I Feel the Earth Move” by Carole King,You’ve Got a Friend” by James Taylor, “Don’t Pull Your Love” by Hamilton, Joe Frank & Reynolds and “When You’re Hot, You’re Hot” by Jerry Reed all topped the charts.

1972 – Venera 8 makes soft landing on Venus. The spacecraft took 117 days to reach Venus, entering the atmosphere today. Venera 8 transmitted data during the descent and continued to send back data for 50 minutes after landing.

1972 – “Lean On Me” by Bill Withers topped the “Billboard”charts.

1975 – Confederate General Robert E. Lee had his U.S. citizenship restored by the U.S. Congress.

1977 – Tony Orlando announced his retirement from show business.

1978 – “Shadow Dancing” by Andy Gibb topped the “Billboard” charts.

1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bad Girls” by Donna Summer, “Good Times” by Chic,Makin’ It by David Naughton and “Shadows in the Moonlight” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.

1986 – The US House of Representatives impeached Judge Harry E. Claiborne. He was later convicted by the Senate of tax evasion and bringing disrepute on the federal courts.

1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Alone” by Heart, “Shakedown by Bob Seger, “Don’t Disturb This Groove” by The System and “I Know Where I’m Going” by The Judds all topped the charts.

1987 – The US began its policy of escorting re-flagged Kuwaiti tankers up and down the Persian Gulf to protect them from possible attack by Iran.

1990 – Greg LeMond won his third Tour de France.

1991 – Desiree Washington, a Miss Black America contestant, charged she’d been raped by boxer Mike Tyson in an Indianapolis hotel room. Tyson was later convicted of rape and served 3 years in prison.

1991 – Police arrested Jeffrey Dahmer after finding the remains of 11 victims in his apartment in Milwaukee. Dahmer confessed to 17 murders and was sentenced to life in prison. He was murdered while in prison in 1994.

1992 – Near Medellín, Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar escapes from his luxury prison fearing extradition to the United States.

1994 – Last of the large fragments of the comet Shoemaker-Levy strikes Jupiter.

1994 – O.J. Simpson pleaded innocent to the slaying of his ex-wife, Nicole, and her friend, Ronald Goldman.

1995 – Susan Smith was convicted by a jury in Union, South Carolina, of first-degree murder for drowning her two sons. She was later sentenced to life in prison.

1997 – The second Blue Water Bridge opens between Port Huron, Michigan and Sarnia, Ontario.

1997 – In Michigan some 2,800 UAW workers went on strike at a GM plant in Warren.

1999 – The first version of MSN Messenger was released by Microsoft.

1999 – The ashes of John F. Kennedy Junior, his wife, Carolyn, and her sister, Lauren Bessette, were cast into the sea off Martha’s Vineyard, consigned to the depths where they died.

1999 – In Waverly, Iowa, the Cedar River crested at 21 feet and flooded 65 city blocks forcing some 1500 people out of their homes.

2000 – Astronomers at the University of Arizona announced that they had found a 17th moon orbiting Jupiter.

2000 – Mack Metcalf (42) of Kentucky and his wife Virginia Metcalf Merida (46) won $34.1 million in the Powerball Lottery. They planned to split their winnings 60/40.

2002 – The Bush administration said it would not contribute to a UN program that it contends provides aid to the Chinese government to coerce women in getting abortions.

2003 – Members of 101st Airborne, aided by Special Forces, attack a compound in Iraq, killing Saddam Hussein’s sons Uday and Qusay, along with Mustapha Hussein, Qusay’s 14-year old son, and a bodyguard.

2003 – Months after her prisoner-of-war ordeal, Pvt. 1st Class Jessica Lynch returned home to a hero’s welcome in Elizabeth, W.Va.

2004 – The USS John F. Kennedy aircraft carrier collided with a dhow in the Arabian Gulf while running night flights in support of U.S. operations in Iraq. The crew of the small boat was missing.

2004 – The 567-page 9/11 Commission Report was made public.

2005 – In Irving, Texas, Kimberly-Clark Corp., maker of Kleenex tissues and Huggies diapers, said it plans to cut about 6,000 jobs and sell or close up to 20 manufacturing plants.

2008 – North Carolina-based Wachovia Corp., the 4th largest US bank, lost $8.86 billion in the 2nd quarter, and said it was slashing its dividend and cutting 6,350 jobs after losses tied to mortgages soared.

2009 – In Lynn, Massachusetts, 6 boys, aged 7-15, used bricks to severely beat Damien Merida (30), a Guatemalan immigrant, as he slept near railroad tracks.

2010 – Tornado strikes Battle Creek, Michigan.

2010 – U.S. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack Wednesday apologizes to Shirley Sherrod for firing her over a heavily-edited video tape of a speech, circulated by Tea Party activists, which alleged that Sherrod’s actions were the result of racism, and offers her an official job.

2011 – Democratically controlled Senate tables, effectively killing, the House Republicans’ “cut, cap and balance” deficit reduction bill.

2011 –  Debt negotiations between President Barack Obama and Speaker of the House  John Boehner collapse.

2012 – The US Marine Corps has created its first law enforcement battalions – a lean, specialized force of military police officers that it hopes can quickly deploy.The Corps activated three such battalions last month. Each is made up of roughly 500 military police officers and dozens of dogs.

2013 – Southwest Flight 345 crash-landed at LaGuardia Airport. The plane’s front-landing gear collapsed shortly after the plane touched down. Six passengers were taken to the hospital with minor injuries and 10 passengers were treated at the crash scene. New York Port Authority Acting Director of Aviation Thomas Bosco told the Associated Press that there was no warning signal leading up to the plane landing.

2015 – From the Charleston church shooting, Dylann Roof, the suspect in the murder of nine people in the American city of Charleston, South Carolina, is indicted on dozens of federal offenses including hate crimes.

2016 – Donald J. Trump accepts the nomination from the Republican Party for President of the United States.

2017 – Eight people in San Antonio, TX were found dead in a tractor-trailer loaded with at least 30 others outside a Walmart store in Texas’ stifling summer heat in what police are calling a horrific human trafficking case. The driver was arrested.


1844 – William Archibald Spooner, English priest and scholar (d. 1930)
1849 – Emma Lazarus, American poet, was born of Sephardic Jewish parents in New York City. Her poem, “The New Colossus,” is inscribed on the base of the Statue of Liberty.
1882 – Edward Hopper, American painter (d. 1967)
1890 – Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy, American Kennedy family matriarch (d. 1995)
1898 – Stephen Vincent Benét, American author (d. 1943)
1908 – Amy Vanderbilt, American author (d. 1974)
1923 – Bob Dole, American politician
1928 – Orson Bean, American film actor
1936 – Tom Robbins, American author
1955 – Willem Dafoe, American actor
1964 – David Spade, American comedian
1992 – Selena Gomez, American actress



Rank and organization: Private, U .S. Army, 127th Infantry, 32d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Afua, New Guinea,  July 22nd, 1944. Entered service at: Freeport, Pa. Birth: Freeport, Pa. G.O. No.: 31, 17 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty near Afua, New Guinea, on 22 July 1944. While Pvt. Lobaugh’s company was withdrawing from its position on 21 July, the enemy attacked and cut off approximately one platoon of our troops. The platoon immediately occupied, organized, and defended a position, which it held throughout the night. Early on 22 July, an attempt was made to effect its withdrawal, but during the preparation therefor, the enemy emplaced a machinegun, protected by the fire of rifles and automatic weapons, which blocked the only route over which the platoon could move. Knowing that it was the key to the enemy position, Pfc. Lobaugh volunteered to attempt to destroy this weapon, even though in order to reach it he would be forced to work his way about thirty yards over ground devoid of cover. When part way across this open space he threw a hand grenade, but exposed himself in the act and was wounded. Heedless of his wound, he boldly rushed the emplacement, firing as he advanced. The enemy concentrated their fire on him, and he was struck repeatedly, but he continued his attack and killed two more before he was himself slain. Pfc. Lobaugh’s heroic actions inspired his comrades to press the attack, and to drive the enemy from the position with heavy losses. His fighting determination and intrepidity in battle exemplify the highest traditions of the U.S. Armed Forces.




Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Asan-Adelup Beachhead, Guam, Marianas Islands on  July 22nd, 1944. Born: 2 February 1920, Middleborough, Ky. Accredited to: Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as an automatic rifleman serving with the 2d Battalion, 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on the Asan-Adelup Beachhead. Suddenly taken under fire by two enemy machineguns not more than fifteen yards away while clearing out hostile positions holding up the advance of his platoon through a narrow gully, Pfc. Mason, alone and entirely on his own initiative, climbed out of the gully and moved parallel to it toward the rear of the enemy position. Although fired upon immediately by hostile riflemen from a higher position and wounded repeatedly in the arm and shoulder, Pfc. Mason grimly pressed forward and had just reached his objective when hit again by a burst of enemy machinegun fire, causing a critical wound to which he later succumbed. With valiant disregard for his own peril, he persevered, clearing out the hostile position, killing five Japanese, wounding another and then rejoining his platoon to report the results of his action before consenting to be evacuated. His exceptionally heroic act in the face of almost certain death enabled his platoon to accomplish its mission and reflects the highest credit upon Pfc. Mason and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.





Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, 3d Battalion, 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Asan-Adelup beachhead, Guam, Marianas Islands, July 21st – July 22nd, 1944. Entered service at: Kentucky. Born: 3 March 1923, Henderson, Ky. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as squad leader with a mortar section of a rifle company in the 3d Battalion, 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division, during action against enemy Japanese forces on the Asan-Adelup beachhead, Guam, Marianas Islands, 21 -22 July 1944. When the section leader became a casualty under a heavy mortar barrage shortly after landing, Pfc. Skaggs promptly assumed command and led the section through intense fire for a distance of 200 yards to a position from which to deliver effective coverage of the assault on a strategic cliff. Valiantly defending this vital position against strong enemy counterattacks during the night, Pfc. Skaggs was critically wounded when a Japanese grenade lodged in his foxhole and exploded, shattering the lower part of one leg. Quick to act, he applied an improvised tourniquet and, while propped up in his foxhole, gallantly returned the enemy’s fire with his rifle and handgrenades for a period of 8 hours, later crawling unassisted to the rear to continue the fight until the Japanese had been annihilated. Uncomplaining and calm throughout this critical period, Pfc. Skaggs served as a heroic example of courage and fortitude to other wounded men and, by his courageous leadership and inspiring devotion to duty, upheld the high traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.




Rank and organization: Brigadier General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Atlanta, Ga.,  July 22nd, 1864. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Born: Washington, D.C. 17 December 1824. Date of issue: 31 March 1892. Citation: Charged upon the enemy’s works, and after their capture defended his position against assaults of the enemy until he was severely wounded.




Rank and organization: Chaplain, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Atlanta, Ga.,  July 22nd, 1864. Entered service at: Bushnell, Ill. Birth: Ohio. Date of issue: 3 November 1896. Citation: Voluntarily carried a musket in the ranks of his regiment and rendered heroic service in retaking the Federal works which had been captured by the enemy.




Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 15th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Atlanta, Ga.,  July 22nd,1864. Entered service at: Monroe, Mich. Born: 1840, Monroe, Mich. Date of issue: 25 July 1892. Citation: Voluntarily scaled the enemy’s breastworks and signaled to his commanding officer in charge; also in single combat captured the colors of the 5th Texas Regiment (C.S.A.).




Rank and organization: Colonel, 63d Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Decatur, Ga.,  July 22nd, 1862. Entered service at: Sandusky, Ohio Born: 4 April 1817, White Creek, N.Y. Date of issue: 18 January 1894. Citation: With a small command defeated an overwhelming force of the enemy and saved the trains of the corps.


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Unerased History – July 21st

Posted by Wayne Church on July 21, 2017 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Legal Drinking Age Day
Monkeying Around Day




Just Interesting (Strange and Weird but useless)

Months that begin with a Sunday will always have a “Friday the 13th.”

The dial tone of a normal telephone is in the key of “F”.

The Earth orbits the Sun at a speed of about 67,000 miles per hour or 18.6 miles per second (1/10000 of the speed of light.)

Non-dairy creamer is flammable.

The reason firehouses have circular stairways is from the days of yore when the engines were pulled by horses. The horses were stabled on the ground floor and figured out how to walk up straight staircases. They could not, however, walk back down.

There are at least a half-million more automobiles in Los Angeles than there are people.

Money isn’t made out of paper; it’s made out of cotton.

The oceans contain enough salt to cover all the continents to a depth of nearly 500 feet.

The “57” on Heinz ketchup bottle represents the number of varieties of pickles the company once had.

Your stomach has to produce a new layer of mucus every two weeks otherwise it will digest itself.

A duck’s quack doesn’t echo. No one knows why.

At any particular time, there are approximately 1,800 thunderstorms occurring in the Earth’s atmosphere.

A 2×4 is 1 1/2″ x 3 1/2″.

Chocolate kills dogs! True, chocolate affects a dog’s heart and nervous system. A few ounces are enough to kill a small sized dog.

Most lipstick contains fish scales.

During the California Gold Rush of 1849 miners sent their laundry to Honolulu for washing and pressing. Due to the extremely high costs in California during these boom years it was deemed more feasible to send the shirts to Hawaii for servicing.

There are no clocks in Las Vegas gambling casinos.

The capital of Burkina Faso is Ouagadougou. This is just in case you want to bamboozle someone.

There are no words in the dictionary that rhyme with: orange, purple, and silver!

The original name for the butterfly was ‘flutterby’!

By raising your legs slowly and lying on your back, you can’t sink in quicksand.

Celery has negative calories! It takes more calories to eat a piece of celery than the celery has in it to begin with.

In Gulliver’s Travels, Jonathan Swift described the two moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos, giving their exact size and speeds of rotation. He did this more than 100 years before either moon was discovered.

At the equator the Earth spins at about 1,038 miles per hour.

The name Wendy was made up for the book Peter Pan, there was never a recorded Wendy before!

Venus is the only planet that rotates clockwise.

Guinness Book of Records holds the record for being the book most often stolen from Public Libraries.

There are more than 250,000 rivers in the United States, which amounts to 3.5 million miles of rivers.

Scripture of the Day

Deuteronomy 1: 15-17

15 So I took the chief of your tribes, wise men, and known, and made them heads over you, captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, and captains over fifties, and captains over tens, and officers among your tribes.

16 And I charged your judges at that time, saying, Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge righteously between every man and his brother, and the stranger that is with him.

17 Ye shall not respect persons in judgment; but ye shall hear the small as well as the great; ye shall not be afraid of the face of man; for the judgment is God’s: and the cause that is too hard for you, bring it unto me, and I will hear it.


Founders Thoughts

Thomas PaineA nation under a well-regulated government, should permit none to remain uninstructed. It is monarchical and aristocratical government only that requires ignorance for its support.

Thomas Paine, Rights of Man, 1792


“If there are a hundred steps

In your path to success

And you have not reached it

In ninety-nine of them

Do not conclude

That the journey is a failure.”

~ Sir Lancelot



caveat \KAY-vee-at; KAV-ee-; KAH-vee-aht\, noun:

1.    (Law) A notice given by an interested party to some officer not to do a certain act until the opposition has a hearing.

2.    A warning or caution; also, a cautionary qualification or explanation to prevent misunderstanding


1669 – John Locke’s Constitution of the English colony of Carolina was approved.

1733 – John Winthrop was granted the first honorary Doctor of Law degree in the U.S., by Harvard College.

1823 – After pirate attack, LT David G. Farragut leads landing party to destroy the pirate stronghold in Cuba.

1846 – Mormons founded the first English settlement in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

1861 – Civil War: The first Battle of Bull Run was fought at Manassas, Virginia — a Confederate victory. Many folks, dressed in their Sunday best, came to watch and picnic as 60,000 men fought for over ten hours. When a shell destroyed a wagon blocking the main road of retreat, panic sent Union troops and picnickers scurrying back to Washington D.C.

1862 – U.S. steamers Clara Dolsen and Rob Roy and tug with troops,  embarked, arrived from Cairo, IL to protect Evansville, IN, at the request of Governor Morton.

1865 -Wild Bill Hickok killed gunman Dave Tutt in Springfield, Illinois, in the first formal quick-draw duel.

1873 – A  train robbery, mistakenly called the first, in America was pulled off by Jesse James and his gang. They took $3,000 from the Rock Island Express after derailing it at Adair, IA.

1875 –  Mark Twain’s “The Adventure of Tom Sawyer” was registered.

1877 – The Baltimore and Ohio railroad strike turned bloody: the Maryland militia opened fire on the rail workers, leaving nine strikers dead and touching off a round of riots that engulfed Baltimore. The US Army & Marines broke the strike.

1896 – Mary Church Terrell founded the National Association of Colored Women in Washington, D.C.

1898 – Spain ceded Guam to US.

1904 – Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson arrived in Cleveland with his mechanic Sewell Croker escorted by a fleet of new Winton automobiles. They were enroute to New York City from San Francisco.

1904 – In a Gobron-Brilli, Louis Rigolly set a new land speed record of 103.58 mph at Ostend, Belgium. Built explicitly for land speed racing, it was the first vehicle to set record over 100 mph.

1918 – World War I: The German U-boat, U-156, fired at an American tug and four barges just off shore of Orleans, Massachusetts.

1919 – A dirigible crashed through a bank skylight killing 13 in Chicago.

1921 – Gen. Billy Mitchell flew off with a payload of makeshift aerial bombs and sank the former German battle ship Ostfriesland off Hampton Roads, Virginia; the first time a battleship was ever sunk by an airplane.

1925 – John T. Scopes was convicted of violating state law for teaching Darwin’s Theory of Evolution (later overturned).

1930 – The U.S. Veterans Administration was established by an executive order of President Herbert Hoover.

1931 – Ted Husing was master of ceremonies for the very first CBS-TV program. The first broadcast included Mayor James J. Walker, Kate Smith, and George Gershwin.

1941 – Roosevelt asks Congress to extend the draft period from one year to 30 months and to make similar increases in the terms of service for the National Guard.

1941 – World War II: Holocaust – Himmler ordered the building of the Majdanek concentration camp. The camp was built in eastern Poland as a principal site to exterminate Jews. It contained seven gas chambers.

1943 – World War II: The Allied advances continue. The British capture Gerbini, the Canadians take Leonforte and the Americans occupy Corleone and Castelvetrano.

1944 – World War II: Guam, in the western Pacific Ocean, which had been under Japanese occupation since Dec 1941, was retaken by U.S. Marines. The 3rd Marine Division establishes a beachhead at Asan, west of Agana. The 1st Marine Division comes ashore at Agat.

1944 – Harry S Truman accepted the Democratic party’s nomination for vice president.

1945 – World War II: American radio broadcasts call on Japan to surrender or face destruction.

1946  – CHART TOPPERS – “The Gypsy” by The Ink Spots, “They Say It’s Wonderful” by Frank Sinatra, “Surrender” by Perry Como and “New Spanish Two Step” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.

1946 – In first U.S. test of adaptability of jet aircraft to shipboard operations, XFD-1 Phantom makes landings and takeoffs without catapults from the USS Franklin D. Roosevelt.(CVB/CVA/CV-42)

1947 – Loren MacIver’s portrait of Emmett Kelly as Willie the Clown appeared on the cover of “LIFE” magazine.

1949 – The U.S. Senate ratified the North Atlantic Treaty.

1950 – Korean War: Major General William F. Dean was reported missing in action as his 24th Infantry Division fought its way out of Taejon. During that action, he set the example by single-handedly attacking a T-34 tank with a grenade and directing the fire of others from an exposed position.

1951 – “Too Young” by Nat ‘King’ Cole topped the charts.

1952 – A quake in the Tehachapi-Bakersfield area 50 miles north of Los Angeles, California, registers 7.7.

1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Little Things Mean a Lot” by Kitty Kallen, “Sh-Boom” by The Crew Cuts, “Goodnight, Sweetheart, Goodnight” by The McGuire Sisters and  “Even Tho” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.

1954 – Construction for Disneyland began. The spot was in the rural Anaheim, California area with a purchase of a 160-acre orange grove near the junction of the Santa Ana Freeway (I-5) and Harbor Boulevard.

1954 – France surrendered North Vietnam to the Communists.

1955 – First sub powered by liquid metal cooled reactor launched-Seawolf.

1956 – “The Wayward Wind” by Gogi Grant topped the charts.

1957 – First Black to win a major US tennis tournament (Althea Gibson). She won the Women’s National clay-court singles competition.

1958 – “Hard Headed Woman” by Elvis Presley shares #1 with “Yakety Yak” by the Coasters. “Hard Headed Woman” became the first rock and roll single to earn the RIAA designation of “Gold Record.”

1958 – The last of “Arthur Godfrey’s Talent Scouts” programs aired on CBS-TV.

1959 – First atomic powered merchant ship, Savannah, is christened in Camden NJ. The NS Savannah served until 1971.

1959 – A U.S. District Court judge in New York City ruled that “Lady Chatterley’s Lover” was not a dirty book.

1961 – Captain Virgil “Gus” Grissom became the second American to go into space on the final suborbital Mercury test flight aboard the Liberty Bell 7.

1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Roses are Red” by Bobby Vinton, “The Wah Watusi” by The Orlons, “Johnny Get Angry” by Joanie Sommers and “Wolverton Mountain” by Claude King all topped the charts.

1962 – One hundred-sixty civil right activists were jailed after demonstration in Albany, Ga.

1965 – Gemini 5 launched atop Titan V with Cooper & Conrad.

1966 – Gemini X returned to Earth.

1968 – Arnold Palmer became the first golfer to earn a million dollars.

1969 – Neil Armstrong steps on the Moon at 2:56:15 AM (GMT).

1969 – Just one day after Neil Armstrong set foot on the moon, Duke Ellington and a portion of his band performed a 10-minute composition on ABC-TV titled “Moon Maiden“. The work featured piano, drums, bass and vocals.

1969 – Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin blasted off from the moon aboard the lunar module.

1969 – President Richard Nixon called our astronauts from the White House radio-telephone. Nixon called it the most historic telephone ever made from the White House.

1969 – Riots in York, Pa., left 2 people dead, Lillie Belle Allen (27) along with rookie officer Henry Schaad (22). Schaad was mortally wounded 3 days before Allen was killed.

1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mama Told Me (Not to Come)” by Three Dog Night, “They Long to Be) Close to You” by Carpenters, “Band of Gold” by Freda Payne and “He Loves Me All the Way( by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.

1973 – Hank Aaron becomes second major leaguer to hit 700 HRs.

1973 – “Bad, Bad Leroy Brown” by Jim Croce topped the “Billboard” pop-singles chart. Jim Croce died September 20th.

1974 – US House Judiciary approved two Articles of Impeachment against Pres. Nixon.

1976 – “Legionnaire’s Disease” struck in Philadelphia, Pa. 29 people died from the disease. The disease was first identified after an outbreak at the Bellevue Stratford Hotel in Philadelphia.

1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Shadow Dancing” by Andy Gibb, “Baker Street” by Gerry Rafferty, “Miss You by” The Rolling Stones and “Only One Love in My Life” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.

1979 – “Bad Girls” by Donna Summer topped the charts.

1979 – National Women’s Hall of Fame (Seneca Falls, NY) dedicated.

1980 – Jean-Claude Droyer climbs the Eiffel Tower in 2 hrs 18 mins.

1980 – Draft registration began for 19 and 20-year-old men.

1983 – The coldest temperature ever measured on Earth was -129 at Vostok, Antarctica.

1984 – “When Doves Cry” by Prince topped the charts.

1984 – In Jackson, Michigan, a male die-cast operator (34) was pinned by a hydraulic Unimate robot. He died after 5 days. This was the first documented case of a robot killing a human in US.

1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Invisible Touch” by Genesis, “Sledgehammer” by Peter Gabriel, “Nasty” by Janet Jackson and “Until I Met You” by Judy Rodman all topped the charts.

1989 – The State Department confirmed an ABC News report that Felix S. Bloch, a veteran U.S. diplomat, was being investigated as a possible Soviet spy. Bloch was never charged with espionage, but was fired from his job in 1990.

1990 – “She Ain’t Worth It” by Glenn Medeiros featuring Bobby Brown topped the charts.

1996 – At the Atlanta Olympics, swimmer Tom Dolan gave the United States its first gold, in the 400-meter individual medley.

1997 – The U.S.S. Constitution, which defended the United States during the War of 1812, set sail under its own power for the first time in 116 years.

1998 – Astronaut Alan Shepard, the first American in space, died in Monterey, Calif., at age 74.

1998 – The Pentagon said it found no evidence to support allegations in a CNN report that U.S. troops had used nerve gas against American defectors in Laos.

1998 – In New York City a 48-story elevator scaffold collapsed at the construction site of the Conde Nast building on West 43rd St.

1999 – The missing plane of John F. Kennedy Jr. was found off of the coast of Martha’s Vineyard, MA. The bodies of Kennedy, his wife Carolyn Bessette and her sister Lauren Bessette were found on board. The plane had crashed on July 16, 1999.

2000 – NBC announced that they had found nearly all of Milton Berle’s kinescopes. The filmed recordings of Berle’s early TV shows had been the subject of a $30 million lawsuit filed by Berle the previous May.

2000 – Norm Mineta, the first Asian American to serve in a president’s cabinet, was sworn in as the 33rd US Secretary of Commerce.

2002 – Telecommunications giant WorldCom, Inc. filed for bankruptcy protection, shortly after disclosing it had inflated profits by nearly $4 billion through deceptive accounting.

2004 – The September 11 panel was harshly critical of the U.S. government in its voluminous report released after a 19-month investigation. The report called for sweeping changes in American intelligence agencies.

2005 – The House voted to extend the USA Patriot Act.

2005 – US and Canadian authorities reported the shutdown of a newly completed 100-yard border crossing tunnel outside Lynden, Wa., intended for smuggling marijuana.

2005 – In Phoenix, Az., a blistering heat wave was blamed for the deaths of eighteen people. Fourteen were thought to be homeless; three were elderly women.

2006 – Four men joined a conspiracy and executed a robbery of an armored car which was off-loading money at Casino Arizona on the Salt River Indian Reservation. Ismar Kabaklic, armed with a simulated AK-47 assault rifle, and one of his co-defendants, Adnan Alisic, approached the armored car drivers as they were off-loading money. Alisic sprayed the armored car guard with pepper spray. No one was killed, every one was captured.

2008 – Former Bosnian Serb president Radovan Karadzic arrested after more than a decade on the run as one of the world’s most wanted war crimes fugitives for his role in atrocities committed during the 1990s Balkans conflict.

2008 – The US FDA issued an advisory for consumers to avoid eating uncooked jalapeno peppers after it found a jalapeno grown in Mexico tested positive for salmonella.

2008 – A US B-52 bomber that was due to fly in a Liberation Day parade in the US territory of Guam crashed into the Pacific Ocean soon after take-off. All of the bomber’s six-man crew was killed.

2009 – The US Senate voted to stop production of the F-22 fighter plane, handing President Barack Obama a victory as he tries to reduce the size of the military.

2009 -The Ninth US Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco ruled that police who tell investigators about alleged corruption in their departments have no constitutional protection for their statements and can be fired.

2010 – President Obama signed major financial overhaul legislation named after Senator Chris Dodd (D-Conn) and Representative Barney Frank (D-Mass).

2010 –  Scientists said a huge ball of brightly burning gas in a neighboring galaxy may be the heaviest star ever discovered, hundreds of times more massive than the sun after working out its weight for the first time.

2010 –  A US federal jury found Beau Diamond of Sarasota, Fla., guilty of 18 counts of fraud and money laundering crimes in association with a $37 million Ponzi scheme between 2006 and 2009.

2011 –  Two dozen people have died this week in a heat wave in the United States.

2011 –  Space Shuttle Atlantis lands at the Kennedy Space Center, concluding its final mission and marking the end of the 30-year Space Shuttle program.

2011 –  Team owners in the National Football League have voted to approve a 10- year deal with the NFL Players Association and to end a lockout if players approve.

2013 – Golfer Phil Mickelson wins the 2013 Open Championship at Muirfield in Scotland for the first time.

2015 – Authorities in Waller County, Texas announce that the death of activist Sandra Bland in police custody will be treated as a murder investigation.

2016 – Donald Trump accepts the nomination of the Republican Party in the 2016 US Presidential election.


1864 – Frances Cleveland (Folsom) – Wife of 22nd U.S. President Grover Cleveland; (d. Oct 29, 1947)
1899 – Ernest Hemingway, American Pulitzer Prize and Nobel Prize-winning author.
1920 – Isaac Stern, American concert violin impresario.
1922 – Kay Starr (Katherine Starks) (singer: Rock and Roll Waltz, My Heart Reminds Me, Wheel of Fortune, Side By Side)
1924 – Don Knotts  American comedian, Emmy Award-winning actor: The Andy Griffith Show [1960-1967], Matlock, Three’s Company, The Don Knotts Show, The Steve Allen Show; died Feb 24, 2006)
1951 – Robin Williams (Academy Award-winning actor: Good Will Hunting [1997]; comedian and/or actor:






Rank and organization: Major General, U.S. Army, commanding general, 24th Infantry Division. Place and date: Taejon, Korea, July 20th and July 21st, 1950. Entered service at: California. Born: 1 August 1899, Carlyle, Ill. G.O. No.: 7, 16 February 1951. Citation: Maj. Gen. Dean distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the repeated risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. In command of a unit suddenly relieved from occupation duties in Japan and as yet untried in combat, faced with a ruthless and determined enemy, highly trained and overwhelmingly superior in numbers, he felt it his duty to take action which to a man of his military experience and knowledge was clearly apt to result in his death. He personally and alone attacked an enemy tank while armed only with a hand grenade. He also directed the fire of his tanks from an exposed position with neither cover nor concealment while under observed artillery and small-arm fire. When the town of Taejon was finally overrun he refused to insure his own safety by leaving with the leading elements but remained behind organizing his retreating forces, directing stragglers, and was last seen assisting the wounded to a place of safety. These actions indicate that Maj. Gen. Dean felt it necessary to sustain the courage and resolution of his troops by examples of excessive gallantry committed always at the threatened portions of his frontlines. The magnificent response of his unit to this willing and cheerful sacrifice, made with full knowledge of its certain cost, is history. The success of this phase of the campaign is in large measure due to Maj. Gen. Dean’s heroic leadership, courageous and loyal devotion to his men, and his complete disregard for personal safety.


Boiler Explosion on USS Bennington, 21 July 1905


At about 10:30 a.m. on 21 July 1905 the gunboat Bennington suffered one of the Navy’s worst peacetime disasters. She had arrived at San Diego, California, just two days earlier, after a difficult seventeen-day voyage from the Hawaiian Islands. Though both the ship and her men could have used a rest, they were soon ordered back to sea to assist the monitor “Wyoming“, which had broken down and needed a tow.

While steam was being raised, much of Bennington‘s crew, having completing the hard and dirty job of coaling, were cleaning their ship and themselves. Below decks, an improperly closed steam line valve, oily feed water and a malfunctioning safety valve conspired to generate steam pressures far beyond the boilers’ tolerance. Suddenly, one of them exploded. Men and equipment were hurled into the air, living compartments and deck space filled with scalding steam, and the ship’s hull was opened to the sea. But for quick work by the tug Santa Fe, which beached Bennington in relatively shallow water, the gunboat would probably have sunk. As it was, she was so badly damaged as to be not worth repairing. Even worse, more than sixty of her crew had been killed outright or were so severely injured that they did not long survive.

The number of casualties overhelmed the then-small city of San Diego’s hospitals, and badly burned Sailors had to be cared for in improvised facilities largely staffed by volunteers. Local morticians were hard pressed to prepare the Bennington‘s dead for burial. On the 23rd of July, the great majority were interred at the Army’s Fort Rosecrans, located on the Point Loma heights overlooking the entrance to San Diego Harbor and what would, years later, become the North Island Naval Air Station.

Despite the awful death toll, which far exceeded that sustained by the Navy in the Spanish-American War, and sometimes lurid rumors of misconduct on the part of some members of Bennington‘s engineering force, official investigations concluded that the tragedy had not resulted from negligence. Eleven surviving crewmen were awarded the Medal of Honor for ” extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion”. USS Bennington was raised, but remained inactive and unrepaired until sold in 1910.

WASHINGTON DC 20374-5060


INTERIM 1901- 1911

Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 March 1884, Cincinnati, Ohio. Accredited to: Kentucky. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Bennington, July 21st, 1905. Following the explosion of a boiler of that vessel, Boers displayed extraordinary heroism in the resulting action.


INTERIM 1901- 1911


Rank and organization: Carpenter’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 18 October 1872, Cleveland, Ohio. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Bennington for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., July 21st,1905.


INTERIM 1901- 1911

Rank and organization: Chief Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 16 May 1875, San Francisco, Calif. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Bennington for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., July 21st, 1905.


INTERIM 1901- 1911

Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 23 October 1883, Chicago, Ill. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Bennington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., July 21st, 1905.


INTERIM 1901- 1911

Rank and organization: Quartermaster Third Class U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Bennington, 21 July i905. Entered service at: Puget Sound, Wash. Born: 19 September 1885, Mankato, Minn. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Bennington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., July 21st,1905.


INTERIM 1901- 1911

Rank and organization: Watertender, U.S. Navy. (Biography not available.) G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Benington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., July 21st,1905.


INTERIM 1901- 1911


Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 24 December 1870, Austria. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Bennington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., July 21st, 1905.


INTERIM 1901- 1911

Rank and organization: Ship’s Cook First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 31 July 1880, La Grange, Ind. Accredited to: Indiana. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Bennington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., July 21st, 1905.


INTERIM 1901- 1911

Rank and organization: Machinist’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 5 November 1881, Minneapolis, Minn. Accredited to: Minnesota. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Bennington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., July 21st, 1905.


INTERIM 1901- 1911

Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 August 1884, Blair, Nebr. Accredited to: Nebraska. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: While serving on board the U.S.S. Bennington for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., July 21st,1905.


INTERIM 1901- 1911


Rank and organization: Hospital Steward, U.S. Navy. Born: 17 May 1880, Delaplane, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving on the U.S.S. Bennington at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., July 21st, 1905.



First Bull Run, Manassas, VA

In July, 1861, Abraham Lincoln sent Major General Irvin McDowell and the Union Army to take Richmond, the new base the Confederate government. On 21st July McDowell attacked the forces of Pierre T. Beauregard near the stone bridge over Bull Run at Manassas Junction, Virginia. The advance was blocked by Thomas Stonewall Jackson, who was described as standing like a “stone wall” against the enemy.

With the arrival of Confederate troops led by E. Kirby Smith, the inexperienced Union Army retreated. Attacked by armies led by Joseph E. Johnston, James Jeb Stuart, Jubal Early, and Braxton Bragg, the Union forces rushed back North. The South had won the first great battle of the war and the Northern casualties totaled 1,492 with another 1,216 missing. Nine men were given the Medal of Honor.


  First Bull Run, Va.21 July 1861



Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 5th U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., July 21st, 1861. Entered service at: Rockland, Maine. Birth: East Thomaston, Maine. Date of issue: 22 June 1894. Citation: remained upon the field in command of a section of Griffin’s Battery, directing its fire after being severely wounded and refusing to leave the field until too weak to sit upon the caisson where he had been placed by men of his command.



Rank and organization: Captain, Company K, 4th Pennsylvania Infantry Militia. Place and date. At Bull Run, Va., July 21st,1861. Entered service at:——. Birth: Norristown, Pa. Date of issue: 19 May 1887. Citation: Voluntarily served as an aide on the staff of Col. David Hunter and participated in the battle, his term of service having expired on the previous day.



Rank and organization: Colonel, 4th Pennsylvania Militia. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., July 21st, 1861. Entered service at: Norristown, Pa. Born: 16 December 1830, New Hanover Township, Montgomery County, Pa. Date of issue: 26 August 1886. Citation: Voluntarily served as an aide and participated in the battle after expiration of his term of service, distinguishing himself in rallying several regiments which had been thrown into confusion.



Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 2d Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., July 21st, 1861, Entered service at: ——. Born: 15 March 1830, LaGrange, Maine. Date of issue: 27 December 1894. Citation: Removed dead and wounded under heavy fire.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 1st Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., July 21st,1861. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 1 April 1880. Citation: Gallantry in action; was wounded while capturing flag in advance of his regiment.



Rank and organization: First Lieutenant and Quartermaster, 38th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., July 21st, 1861. Entered service at:——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: Took a rifle and voluntarily fought with his regiment in the ranks; when the regiment was forced back, voluntarily remained on the field caring for the wounded, and was there taken prisoner.



Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 2d Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., July 21st, 1861. Entered service at: Bangor, Maine. Born: 1842, Fort Smith, Ark. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: Voluntarily accompanied his commanding officer and assisted in removing the dead and wounded from the field under a heavy fire of artillery and musketry.



Rank and organization: Colonel, 1st Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., July 21st, 1861. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Birth: Detroit, Mich. Date of issue: 2 March 1895. Citation: Led repeated charges until wounded and taken prisoner.



Rank and organization: Captain, Company B, 1st Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., July 21st, 1861. Entered service at: Jackson, Mich. Born: 1 February 1835, Dorchester, Mass. Date of issue: 7 January 1895. Citation: Remained on the field under heavy fire to succor his superior officer.




Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 12th Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: Near Atlanta, Ga., July 21st, 1864. Entered service at: Mauston, Wis. Birth: Lowell, Mass. Date of issue: 11 March 1870. Citation: Although severely wounded in a charge, he remained with the regiment until again severely wounded, losing his leg.



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Unerased History – July 20th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 20, 2017 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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National Get Out of the Dog House Day
National Hug Your Child Day




Migratory Birds

 God, in the amazing intricacy of His Creation, has shown His level of concern for all in the example of migratory birds.

Hummingbirds, in their migration of 600 miles, cross the Gulf of Mexico, beating their tiny wings up to 75 times a second for 25 hours, over six million wing-beats without stopping.


The migration of the black-poll warbles is marvelous, it weighs only three-quarters of a ounce, its final destination is South America, but it first heads toward Africa, out over the Atlantic Ocean, it picks up to some 20,000 feet, and the prevailing wind turns it toward South America.


Arctic terns are the long-distance champions, they complete an annual migration of about 22,000 miles, nesting north of the Arctic Circle, at summer’s end they fly south to spend the Antarctic summer near the South Pole, before heading north to return to the Arctic they may circle the entire continent of Antarctic.

Sandpipers migrate a thousand miles beyond the pampas to the tip of South America. The golden Plover travels from the arctic tundra to the Pampas in Argentina. Young long tailed cuckoos of New Zealand travel 4,000 miles to pacific islands to join their parents who had gone earlier.

Manx Shearwaters migrate from Wales to Brazil, leaving their chicks, which follow them as soon as they can fly. The penguins when removed 1,200 miles from their rookeries and released, they quickly oriented themselves and set out in a straight line for the open sea and food, they spend the dark winters at sea.

Science experiments indicate that birds may use the sun and the stars for the navigation. They appear to have internal clocks to compensate for the movement of these heavenly bodies. Some birds appear to have built-in magnetic compasses and some appear to have a map in their heads, with both starting and destination point on it. But to science, these are only effects and do not answer the concept of cause.

Scripture of the Day


Proverbs 1: 10 – 16 Living Bible

10 If young toughs tell you, “Come and join us”—turn your back on them!11 “We’ll hide and rob and kill,” they say. 12 “Good or bad, we’ll treat them all alike. 13 And the loot we’ll get! All kinds of stuff! 14 Come on, throw in your lot with us; we’ll split with you in equal shares.”

15 Don’t do it, son! Stay far from men like that, 16 for crime is their way of life, and murder is their specialty.


Founders Thoughts

John AdamsAs good government is an empire of laws, how shall your laws be made? In a large society, inhabiting an extensive country, it is impossible that the whole should assemble to make laws. The first necessary step, then, is to depute power from the many to a few of the most wise and good.


–John Adams, Thoughts on Government, 1776


Learn everything you can, anytime you can, from anyone you can – there will always come a time when you will be grateful you did.”

~ Sarah Caldwell


innocuous ih-NOK-yoo-uhs, adjective:
1. Harmless; producing no ill effect.
2.Not likely to offend or provoke; as, “an innocuous remark.”

1715 – The Riot Act took effect in England. The Act said … “If a dozen or more persons were disturbing the peace, an authority was required to command silence and read the statute. Any persons who failed to obey within one hour were to be arrested.”
Has anyone ever been “read the Riot Act?”

1801 – President Thomas Jefferson becomes “The Big Cheese”. A mammoth cheese was delivered to the White House by the itinerant Baptist preacher John Leland. The cheese was distilled from the single day’s milk production of nine hundred or more “Republican” cows. It measured more than four feet in diameter, thirteen feet in circumference, and seventeen inches in height; once cured, it weighed 1,235 pounds.

1846 – First visit of U.S. warships (USS Columbus and USS Vincennes) to Japan is unsuccessful in negotiating a treaty.

1858 – First baseball game where a fee was charged to watch the game. New York beats Brooklyn 22-18. It cost $.50 to get in and the players on the field did not receive a salary (until 1863).

1861 – Civil War: The Congress of the Confederate States began holding sessions in Richmond, Virginia.

1861 – Civil War: The New York Tribune compared Peace Democrats to the venomous Copperhead snake, which strikes without warning.

1861 – Civil War: First major battle. The battle becomes known by the Confederates as Manassas, while the Union called it Bull Run. It was fought on Judith Carter Henry’s farm.

1862 – Civil War: A guerrilla campaign in GA (Porter’s & Poindexter’s) The battle left 580 Union causalities and 2,866 Confederate casualties.

1864 – Civil War: Battle of Peachtree Creek – Near Atlanta, Georgia, Confederate forces led by General John Bell Hood unsuccessfully attack Union troops under General William T. Sherman.

1868 – First use of tax stamps on tobacco products.

1871 – British Columbia entered Confederation as a Canadian province.

1872 – The United States Patent Office awards the first patent for wireless telegraphy to Mahlon Loomis.

1881 – Sioux Indian leader Sitting Bull, a fugitive since the Battle of the Little Big Horn, surrendered to federal troops. This was five years after General George A. Custer’s infamous defeat.

1894Two thousand federal troops were recalled from Chicago with the end of the Pullman strike.

1903 – Ford Motor Company shipped its first car.

1912 – Philadelphia Phillies Sherry Magee steals home twice in one game.

1917 – The draft lottery in World War I went into operation. Secretary of War Baker drew the first draft number (#258) from a large bowl. About 10 million men registered for first draft registration day.

1934 – Iowa sets its state record high temperature of 118° in Keokuk.

1935 – NBC radio debuted “G-men”. It was sponsored by Chevrolet. The title was changed to “Gang Busters” on January 15, 1936, and the show had a 21-year run through November 20, 1957.

1940 – Billboard magazine publishes its first “Music Popularity Chart”; the first number one song is Frank Sinatra’s “I’ll Never Smile Again“.

1942 – The first detachment of the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) began basic training at Fort Des Moines, Iowa.

1942 – Legion of Merit Medal authorized by Congress. (Public Law 671 – 77th Congress, Chapter 508, 2d Session)

1944 – World War II:An attempt by a group of German officials to assassinate Adolf Hitler with a bomb failed as the explosion at Hitler’s Rastenburg headquarters only wounded the Nazi leader.

1944 – World War II: US invaded Japanese occupied Guam. Japanese aircraft carrier Hijo was sunk by US air attack.

1944 – World War II: Holocaust: The death march of 1,200 Jews from Lipcani, Moldavia, began.

1944 – The Democratic Party nominates Franklin D. Roosevelt for a fourth term as president.

1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dream” by The Pied Pipers, “The More I See You” by Dick Haymes, “Sentimental Journey” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day) and “Stars and Stripes on Iwo Jima” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.

1947 – The National Football League ruled that no professional team could sign a player who had college eligibility remaining.

1948 – William Forster, US Communist Party chairman, was arrested.

1950 – “Arthur Murray Party” (10:00) premiers on ABC TV.

1950 – Black troops win first US Victory in Korea, the 24th Infantry Regiment.

1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Song from Moulin Rouge” by The Percy Faith Orchestra,April in Portugal” by The Les Baxter Orchestra, “I’m Walking Behind You” by Eddie Fisher and “It’s Been So Long” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.

1957 – “Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.

1960 – First submerged submarine to fire Polaris missile (George Washington).

1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tossin’ and Turnin” by Bobby Lewis, “The Boll Weevil Song” by Brook Benton, “Yellow Bird” by Arthur Lyman Group and “Heartbreak U.S.A.” by Kitty Wells all topped the charts.

1963 – First surfin’ record to go #1-Jan & Dean’s “Surf City“.

1963 – Ray Conniff received two gold-record awards one for the albums, “Concert in Rhythm” and the other for “Memories are Made of This“, on Columbia Records.

1964- Four Navy divers enter Project SEALAB I capsule moored 192 feet on the ocean floor off Bermuda for 11-day experiment.

1967 – Race riots took place in Memphis, Tenn.

1968 – “Grazing in the Grass” by Hugh Masekela topped the charts.

1968 – During a BBC radio interview, actress Jane Asher announced that her engagement to Beatle Paul McCartney was off; he was not the first to find out.

1969 – CHART TOPPERS –In the Year 2525 by Zager & Evans, “Spinning Wheel” by Blood, Sweat & Tears, “Good Morning Starshine” by Oliver and “I Love You More Today” by Conway Twitty  all topped the charts.

1969 – Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin became the first men to walk on the Moon. Armstrong stepped on the lunar surface at 10:56 ET and proclaimed, “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.

1969 – “Buzz: Aldrin” became the first person to take Communion on any extraterrestrial body. It occurred just after his public statement. His own account says: “In the radio blackout, I opened the little plastic packages which
contained the bread and the wine.  I poured the wine into the
chalice our church had given me.  In the one-sixth gravity of the
moon, the wine slowly curled and gracefully came up the side of the
cup.  Then I read the scripture, ‘I am the vine, you are the branches.
Whosoever abides in me will bring forth much fruit..
Apart from me you can do nothing.’

“I had intended to read my communion passage back to earth,
but at the last minute [they] had requested that I not do this.
NASA was already embroiled in a legal battle with Madelyn Murray
O’Hare, the celebrated opponent of religion, over the Apollo 8 crew
reading from Genesis while orbiting the moon at Christmas. I agreed

“I ate the tiny Host and swallowed the wine. I gave thanks for
the intelligence and spirit that had brought two young pilots
to the Sea of Tranquility.  It was interesting for me to think: the
very first liquid ever poured on the moon, and the very first food
eaten there, were the communion elements.”

1974 – “Rock Your Baby” by George McRae topped the charts.

1976 – America’s Viking I robot spacecraft made a successful, first-ever landing on Mars. This was the seventh anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing.

1976Hank Aaron hit his 755th and final home run off the California Angels’ Dick Drago at Milwaukee County Stadium. October 3rd was his final Major League game.

1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Da Doo Ron Ron” by Shaun Cassidy, “Looks Like We Made It by Barry Manilow, “I Just Want to Be Your Everything” by Andy Gibb and “It Was Almost like a Song” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.

1977 –  Flash flood hits Johnstown, PA, kills 80 & causing $350 million damage.

1981 –  David Allen Kirwan, a 24-year-old, died from third-degree burns after attempting to rescue a friend’s dog from the 200°F (93°C) water in Celestine Pool, a hot spring at Yellowstone National Park.

1982 – President Ronald Reagan pulled the U.S. out of comprehensive test ban negotiations indefinitely.

1983 – The US House censured Reps. Gerry Studds of Massachusetts and Daniel B. Crane of Illinois for having sexual relations with pages.

1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “A View to a Kill” by Duran Duran, “Raspberry Beret by Prince & The Revolution, “Everytime You Go Away” by Paul Young and “Dixie Road” by Lee Greenwood all topped the charts.

1985 – US divers found the wreck of Spanish galleon Atocha. The divers began hauling up $400 million in coins and silver ingots from the sea floor in the biggest underwater jackpot in history.

1987 – Don Mattingly ties ML record as he makes 22 putouts in the Yankees 7-1 win over the Twins. The feat was last accomplished in the American League by Hal Chase in 1906.

1989 – President Bush called for a long-range space program to build an orbiting space station, establish a base on the moon and send a manned mission to the planet Mars.

1990 – William J. Brennan (1906-1997), US Supreme Court Justice, one of the court’s most liberal voices, left office after serving over 33 years.

1991 – “Unbelievable” by EMF topped the charts.

1993 – White House deputy counsel Vincent Foster Jr. was found shot to death, a suicide, in a park near Washington, DC.

1998 – A smoky fire aboard the cruise ship Ecstasy just two miles from the Florida shore forcing its return to port.

1999 – After 38 years at the bottom of the Atlantic, astronaut Gus Grissom’s “Liberty Bell Seven” Mercury capsule was lifted to the surface.

2000 – A federal grand jury indicted two former Utah Olympic officials for their alleged roles in paying one million dollars in cash and gifts to help bring the 2002 games to Salt Lake City.

2001 – Ira Einhorn, convicted in absentia of killing his girlfriend, was flown from France and handed over to Philadelphia police.

2003 – Golf rookie Ben Curtis, ranked 396th in the world, wins the British Open, the first golfer to win a major golf tournament on his first try in more than ninety years.

2003 – The sons of Saddam Hussein, Uday and Qusay, are killed in an engagement with US forces in Baghdad.

2004 – Microsoft said it would make a one-time dividend payment of $32 billion and buy back up to $30 billion in company stock over the next 4 years.

2004 – In Saudi Arabia the head of slain American hostage Paul M. Johnson Jr., who was kidnapped and decapitated by militants last month, was found by security forces during a raid that targeted the hideout of the Saudi al-Qaida chief. Two militants were killed.

2005 – Eastman Kodak Co. said it is cutting as many as 10,000 more jobs as the company that turned picture-taking into a hobby for the masses navigates a tough transition from film to digital photography.

2005 – Actor James Doohan (85), who transported the crew of “Star Trek” through space on the command “Beam me up, Scotty,” died. He has asked that his ashes be blasted into space. Houston-based Space Services Inc., which specializes in space memorials, sent a few grams of Doohan’s ashes aboard a rocket this year. Remains are sealed in an aluminum capsule that stays in orbit up to several hundred years before falling and vaporizing in the Earth’s atmosphere

2006 – President Bush delivered his first address to the 97th annual NAACP convention after having declining invitations for five years in a row.

2006 – The US Senate voted 98-0 to renew the landmark 1965 Voting Rights Act for another quarter-century.

2006 – The US Postal Service released new postage stamps featuring Batman, Superman, Wonder Woman, Supergirl and a half dozen other superheroes.

2007 – A 4.2 earthquake jolted San Francisco Bay area residents awake, breaking glass and rattling nerves, although there were no immediate reports of injuries.

2007 – In Ohio an ambulance heading to a hospital was broadsided by a car in Crane Township and five people were killed including three EMT technicians and two patients.

2007 –  President Bush signed an executive order prohibiting cruel and inhuman treatment, including humiliation or denigration of religious beliefs, in the detention and interrogation of terrorism suspects.

2008 –  Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama pledged steadfast aid to Afghanistan in talks with its Western-backed leader and vowed to pursue the war on terror “with vigor” if he is elected.

2010 –  The Oakland, Ca., City Council adopted regulations permitting industrial-scale marijuana farms.

2010 –  Actress Lindsay Lohan starts a 90-day sentence for breaking her parole for a 2007 conviction for drunk driving in California.

2011 –  The Supreme Court of the state of Georgia has agreed to the execution of Cobb County killer Andrew Grant DeYoung to be videotaped.

2013 – American veteran journalist Helen Thomas, who covered the White House for nearly fifty years, dies at age 92.



356 BC – Alexander the Great, Macedonian-Greek king and military leader (d. 323 BC)
1591 – Anne Hutchinson, religious liberal, one of the founders of Rhode Island.
1822 – Gregor Mendel was an Augustinian priest and scientist, and is often called the father of genetics for his study of the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants.
1824 – Alexander Schimmelfennig, born in Prussia, Brigadier General Union volunteers
1836 – Thomas C Allbutt, English physiologist, Diseases of the Heart
1919 – Sir Edmund Hillary, New Zealand-born explorer, first to climb Mt. Everest.
1920 – Elliot L. Richardson, Attorney General, 1973, Secretary of Defense, 1973
1921 – Frederick Schroeder, Jr., tennis champ, U.S. Open-1942
1930 – Chuck Daly, American basketball coach. He led the Detroit Pistons to consecutive National Basketball Association (NBA) Championships in 1989 and 1990, and the Dream Team to the men’s basketball gold medal at the 1992 Summer Olympics.
1933 – Nelson Doubleday, publisher, Doubleday, owner for the New York Mets
1933 – Buddy Knox was an American singer and songwriter best known for his 1957 rockabilly hit song, “Party Doll”.
1938 – Natalie Wood was a successful child actor in Miracle on 34th Street as well as Rebel Without a Cause with James Dean.
1938 – Diana Rigg, born in Doncaster, England, actress, Emma Peel-Avengers, Hospital
1947 – Carlos Santana, born in Mexico, rock guitarist, Santana-Black Magic Woman
1957 – Nancy Cruzan was a figure in the right-to-die movement. After an auto accident left her in a persistent vegetative state, her family petitioned in courts for three years, as far as the U.S. Supreme Court (Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health), to have her feeding tube removed.
1964 – Terri Irwin, American naturalist; widow of Steve Irwin.
1968 – Chris Kennedy, actor, Bill and Ted’s Excellent Adventure
1971 Charles Johnson, born in Fort Pierce, Florida, catcher, U.S. Olympics 1992, Marlins.



Rank and organization: Sergeant (then Cpl.), U.S. Army, Company F, 223d Infantry Regiment, 40th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Tutayon, Korea, July 19th- July 20th, 1953. Entered service at: Tichnor Ark. Born: 30 December 1930, Hunter, Ark. G.O. No.: 3, 12 January 1955. Citation: Sgt. Collier, a member of Company F, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. Sgt. Collier was pointman and assistant leader of a combat patrol committed to make contact with the enemy. As the patrol moved forward through the darkness, he and his commanding officer slipped and fell from a steep, 60-foot cliff and were injured. Incapacitated by a badly sprained ankle which prevented immediate movement, the officer ordered the patrol to return to the safety of friendly lines. Although suffering from a painful back injury, Sgt. Collier elected to remain with his leader, and before daylight they managed to crawl back up and over the mountainous terrain to the opposite valley where they concealed themselves in the brush until nightfall, then edged toward their company positions. Shortly after leaving the daylight retreat they were ambushed and, in the ensuing fire fight, Sgt. Collier killed two hostile soldiers, received painful wounds, and was separated from his companion. Then, ammunition expended, he closed in hand-to-hand combat with four attacking hostile infantrymen, killing, wounding, and routing the foe with his bayonet. He was mortally wounded during this action, but made a valiant attempt to reach and assist his leader in a desperate effort to save his comrade’s life without regard for his own personal safety. Sgt. Collier’s unflinching courage, consummate devotion to duty, and gallant self-sacrifice reflect lasting glory upon himself and uphold the noble traditions of the military service.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 3d Engineer Combat Battalion, 24th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Taejon, Korea, July 20th, 1950. Entered service at: Waterbury, Conn. Birth: Bridgton, Maine. G.O. No.: 62, 2 August 1951. Citation: Sgt. Libby distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. While breaking through an enemy encirclement, the vehicle in which he was riding approached an enemy roadblock and encountered devastating fire which disabled the truck, killing or wounding all the passengers except Sgt. Libby. Taking cover in a ditch Sgt. Libby engaged the enemy and despite the heavy fire crossed the road twice to administer aid to his wounded comrades. He then hailed a passing M-5 artillery tractor and helped the wounded aboard. The enemy directed intense small-arms fire at the driver, and Sgt. Libby, realizing that no one else could operate the vehicle, placed himself between the driver and the enemy thereby shielding him while he returned the fire. During this action he received several wounds in the arms and body. Continuing through the town the tractor made frequent stops and Sgt. Libby helped more wounded aboard. Refusing first aid, he continued to shield the driver and return the fire of the enemy when another roadblock was encountered. Sgt. Libby received additional wounds but held his position until he lost consciousness. Sgt. Libby’s sustained, heroic actions enabled his comrades to reach friendly lines. His dauntless courage and gallant self-sacrifice reflect the highest credit upon himself and uphold the esteemed traditions of the U.S. Army.




Rank and organization: Coppersmith, U.S. Navy. Born: 4 September 1875, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: District of Columbia. G.O. No.: 501, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Iowa off Santiago de Cuba, July 20th, 1898. Following the blow-out of a manhole gasket of that vessel which caused the fireroom to be filled with live steam and the floor plates to be covered with boiling water, Keefer showed courageous and zealous conduct in hauling fires from two furnaces of boiler B.



Rank and organization: Fireman First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 October 1872, City Point, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 501, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Iowa off Santiago de Cuba, July 20th, 1898. Performing his duty at the risk of serious scalding at the time of the blowing out of the manhole gasket on board the vessel, Penn hauled the fire while standing on a board thrown across a coal bucket one foot above the boiling water which was still blowing from the boiler.



Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 136th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 20th, 1864. Entered service at: Avon, N.Y. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 7 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 31st Mississippi (C.S.A.).



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 20th, 1864. Entered service at: Skaneateles, N.Y. Birth: Skaneateles, N.Y. Date of issue: 12 January 1892. Citation: Severely wounded and ambushed by the enemy, he stripped the colors from the staff and brought them back into the line.



Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 104th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 20th, 1864. Entered service at: Ottawa, Ill. Born: 15 January 1839, Ephratah, Fulton County, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: With conspicuous coolness and bravery rallied his men under a severe attack, re-formed the broken ranks, and repulsed the attack.



Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 14th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Carters Farm, Va., July 20th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Monomgalis County, W.Va. Date of issue: 31 January 1896. Citation: Charged upon a Confederate fieldpiece in advance of his comrades and by his individual exertions silenced the piece.


Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 82d Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 20th, 1864. Entered service at: Miami County, Ohio. Birth: Hancock County, Ohio. Date of issue: 19 June 1894. Citation: Voluntarily went beyond the lines to observe the enemy; also aided a wounded comrade.



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Unerased History – July 19th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 19, 2017 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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National Flitch Day




The Presidential Succession Act establishes the line of succession to the powers and duties of the office of President of the United States in the event that neither a President nor Vice President is able to “discharge the powers and duties of the office.” The current Presidential Succession Act was adopted in 1947 and is codified at 3 U.S.C. § 19.

The original Presidential Succession Act  designated the Senate president pro tempore as the first in line to succeed the president should he and the vice president die unexpectedly while in office. The reason there was even one ogf these was because of the early mortality rates in the early 1800’s. If the Vice President  for some reason could not take over the duties, the speaker of the house was placed next in the line of succession. In 1886, during Grover Cleveland’s administration, Congress removed both the Senate president and the speaker of the house from the line of succession.

From1886 until 1947, two cabinet officials, (their order in line depended on the order in which the agencies were created) became the next in line to succeed a president should the vice president also become incapacitated or die. The decision was controversial. Many members of Congress felt that those in a position to succeed the president should be elected officials. They were concerned that cabinet members were political appointees, thereby giving both Republican and Democratic parties a chance at controlling the White House.

After  Franklin Roosevelt died of a stroke during his fourth term, the new  president, Harry Truman, advanced the view that the speaker of the house, as an elected official, should be next in line to be president after the vice president. Also remember that this was the beginning of the atomic age and now they were going to have consider high mortality rates. On July 18, 1947, he signed an act that resurrected the original 1792 law, but placed the speaker ahead of the Senate president pro tempore in the hierarchy.

In the event neither a House Speaker nor a President pro tem of the Senate decided to accept the acting presidency, section 19(d) of the act provides that the Cabinet member who is highest on a specified list shall act as President, provided that the Cabinet member has been confirmed by the Senate. The order of succession proceeds down this list in the event that a Cabinet position is vacant or its incumbent is unable or unwilling to assume the acting presidency.


Now there is a need to re-assess the succession act in light of 9/11/2001.  It has raised concerns about the need for continuity in the Executive Branch in the event of a mass terrorist attack on the leadership of the United States. A major change that needs immediate attention is the Office of Homeland Security is not currently in the Secession Plan and another problem is that (2011) the Attorney General has never been approved by Congress and so cannot serve.


Scripture of the Day

1 Corinthians 13:4-7

Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It does not dishonor others, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres.

Founders Thoughts

Alexander HamilitonA feeble executive implies a feeble execution of the government. A feeble execution is but another phrase for a bad execution; and a government ill executed, whatever may be its theory, must be, in practice, a bad government.

Alexander Hamilton, Federalist No. 70, 1788

“The important thing to remember is that if you don’t have that inspired enthusiasm that is contagious whatever you do have is also contagious.”

~Danny Cox


Maven ( MAY-vuhn) noun

An expert, connoisseur, or enthusiast. [From Yiddish meyvn, from Hebrew mebhin (one who understands).]


64 – Great fire of Rome: A fire begins to burn in The Circus Maximus in Rome and quickly spread in in the merchant area. It soon burns completely out of control while Emperor Nero reportedly plays his lyre and sings while watching the blaze from a safe distance.

1553 –  Lady Jane Grey is replaced by Mary I of England as Queen of England after only nine days on the throne.

1779 – Three-hundred Continental Marines attacked the British at Fort George, Penobscot Bay.

1799 – During Napoleon Bonaparte’s Egyptian campaign, a French soldier discovered the Rosetta Stone, a black basalt slab inscribed with ancient writing, about 35 miles north of Alexandria.

1812 – War of 1812: USS Constitution escapes from British squadron after three-day chase off New Jersey.

1821 – The Coronation of King George the IVth. He was also he Prince Reagant of England during he reign of King George IIL and the American Revolution.

1848 – In Seneca Falls, New York, a women’s rights convention called by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia C. Mott — the first ever held in the U.S. — convened. Bloomers were introduced at the convention.

1862 – Civil War: Naval court martial meeting in Richmond acquitted Flag Officer Tattnall with honor for ordering the destruction of C.S.S. Virginia on 11 May after the evacuation of Norfolk.

1863 – Civil War: Battle of Fort Wagner/Morris Island – The first formal African American military unit, the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, unsuccessfully assaults Confederate-held Battery Wagner but their valiant fighting still proves the worth of African-American soldiers during the war.

1863 – Civil War: Confederate General John Hunt Morgan’s raid on the North is dealt a serious blow when a large part of his force is captured as they try to escape across the Ohio River at Buffington Island, Ohio.

1864 – Civil War: Second day of the Battle of Winchester, VA (Stephenson’s Depot).

1867The US enacted Reconstruction.

1877 –  First Wimbledon tennis championships held. The winner of the very first Lawn Tennis Championship was Spencer Gore.

1886 – “Atlanta”, the first steel-hulled American cruiser armed with breechloading rifled guns, is commissioned.

1897 – LT Robert E. Peary departs on year long Arctic Expedition which makes many important discoveries, including one of the largest meteorites, Cape York.

1909 – First unassisted triple play in major-league baseball by Cleveland Indians shortstop Neal Ball in a game against Boston.

1913 – Billboard publishes earliest known “Last Week’s 10 Best Sellers”.

1914 – Boston Braves begin drive from last to first place in the National League. They won the pennant and the World Series as well.

1916 – World War I – Battle at Fromelles, France, German machine guns and artillery left over 5,500 Australians and over 1,500 British killed, wounded or missing in less than 24 hours.

1917 – “Bastille Day spells prison for sixteen suffragettes who picketed the White House.”

1918 – World War I: Armored cruiser USS San Diego sunk off Fire Island, NY by a mine laid by U-156, six lost.

1926 – Walter Hagen scored a 132 for 36 holes of golf at the Eastern Open tournament. He set a world’s record low tourney score in the process.

1935 – First parking meters installed in Oklahoma City.

1938 – Douglas “Wrong Way” Corrigan arrives in Ireland.

1939 – Dr. Roy P. Scholz became the first surgeon to use fiberglass sutures.

1939 – Jack Teagarden and his orchestra recorded “Aunt Hagar’s Blues.

1940 – President Roosevelt signs the “Two-Ocean Navy Expansion Act.” Including the existing ships, the fleet will comprise 35 battleships, 20 carriers and 88 cruisers.

1940 – World War II: Hitler ordered Great Britain to surrender.

1941 – British Prime Minister Winston Churchill launched his “V for Victory” campaign in Europe.

1941 – First US Army flying school for black cadets dedicated (Tuskegee AL).

1942 – World War II: The Germans test fly the Messerschmitt Me-262 using only its jets for the first time.

1942 – World War II: German U-boats were withdrawn from positions off the U.S. Atlantic coast due to effective American anti-submarine countermeasures.

1943 – World War II: During World War II, more than 150 B-17 and 112 B-24 bombers attacked Rome for the first time.

1943 – World War II: The United States bombs railway yards in Rome in an attempt to break the will of the Italian people to resist.

1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be Seeing You” by Bing Crosby, “Long Ago and Far Away” by Helen Forrest & Dick Haymes, “Amor” by Bing Crosby and “Straighten Up and Fly Right by King Cole Trio all topped the charts.

1944 – World War II: Approximately 1,200 8th Air Force bombers bombed targets in SW Germany. Some 500 15th Air Force Liberators (Flying Fortresses) bombed the Munich vicinity.

1945 – World War II: The USAAF struck the cities of Choshi, Hitachi, Fukui and Okazaki with 600 B-29 Superfortress bombers dropping some 4000 tons of bombs. It is largest employment of the bomber type yet.

1946 – Marilyn Monroe acted in her first screen test. The first two movies she appeared in were minor roles : “Scudda Hoo! Scudda Hay!” and “Dangerous Years.”

1947 – President Harry S Truman signs the Presidential Succession Act into law which places the Speaker of the House and the Senate President Pro Tempore next in the line of succession after the Vice President.

1948 – “Our Miss Brooks“, starring Eve Arden and Gale Gordon, debuted on CBS radio. The program stayed on radio until 1957, running simultaneously on TV from 1952 to 1956.

1951 – Thoroughbred race horse “Citation” retired from racing. For his performances, Citation was voted Horse of the Year honors. Citation was the first horse to win  $1 million dollars.

1951 – In Omaha, Neb., a trenching machine sliced through the main transcontinental telephone cable and disrupted coast-to-coast communication.

1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Yours” by Eddie Fisher, “Kiss of Fire” by Georgia
Gibbs, “Walkin’ My Baby Back Home” by Johnnie Ray and “Are You Teasing Me” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.

1952 – The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were opened in Helsinki, Finland.

1953 – Korean War: The communists communicated a willingness to conclude an armistice on the existing agreed terms.

1953 – Korean War: Air Force Captain Ronnie L. Moore and Lieutenant Colonel Vermont Garrison, both of the 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, qualified as the ninth and 10th “double aces” of the Korean War, with 10 kills each.

1954Elvis Presley’s first single was released by Sun Records. It was “That’s All Right b/w “Blue Moon of Kentucky.

1956 – Secretary of State John Foster Dulles announces that the United States is withdrawing its offer of financial aid to Egypt to help with the construction of the Aswan Dam on the Nile River.

1957 – First rocket with nuclear warhead fired, Yucca Flat, NV.

1958 – “Purple People Eater” by Sheb Wooley topped the charts.

1960 – Juan Marichal of the San Francisco Giants became the first pitcher to get a one-hitter in his major league debut.

1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Sorry” by  Brenda Lee, “Only the Lonely” by  Roy gramophone12Orbison, “That’s All You Gotta Do” by  Brenda Lee and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling” by  Hank Locklin all topped the charts.

1961 – First “in-flight movie” shown (TWA).

1963 – NASA civilian test pilot Joe Walker in X-15 reaches 344,500 feet. This qualifies as a human spaceflight because of the height reached.

1965 – Shooting begins on Star Trek second pilot “Where No Man Has Gone Before“.

1966 – Fifty year-old singer Frank Sinatra married 21-year-old actress Mia Farrow.

1966 – Gov. James Rhodes declared a state of emergency in Cleveland due to a race riot.The Hough Riots were in the predominantly Black community of Hough in Cleveland, Ohio that took place over a six-night period from July 18 to July 23. During the riots, four Blacks were killed and 30 people were critically injured. In addition, there were 275 arrests, while more than 240 fires were reported.

1966 – Gemini 10 launched.

1967 – US launches Explorer 35 for lunar orbit.

1967 – Race riots took place in Durham, NC.

1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “This Guy’s in Love with You” by Herb Alpert, “The Horse” gramophone12by  Cliff Nobles & Co., “Jumpin’ Jack Flash” by  The Rolling Stones and “D- I- V- O- R- C- E” by  Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.

1969 – Apollo 11 and its astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin, and Michael Collins, went into orbit around the Moon.

1969 – “In the Year 2525 (Exordium and Terminus) by Zager & Evans topped the charts.

1969 –  The Rolling Stones’ “Honky Tonk Women” was released.

1969 – After a party on Chappaquiddick Island, Senator Ted Kennedy from Massachusetts drives an Oldsmobile off a wooden bridge into a tide-swept pond and his passenger, Mary Jo Kopechne, dies.

1974 – The House Judiciary Committee recommended that U.S. President Richard Nixon should stand trial in the Senate for any of the five impeachment charges against him.

1975 – Orleans’ “Dance With Me” was released.

1975 – “Listen to What the Man Said” by the Wings topped the charts.

1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Afternoon Delight” by Starland Vocal Band, “Kiss and Say  gramophone12Goodbye” by Manhattans “I’ll Be Good to You” by The Brothers Johnson and “Teddy Bear” by Red Sovine all topped the charts.

1980 – “It’s Still Rock and Roll to Me by Billy Joel topped the charts.

1980 – Moscow Summer Olympics begin, US & others boycott. They were boycotting the games because of the Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan.

1982 – David Dodge, president of the American University of Beirut, was kidnapped.

1982 – The U.S. Census Bureau reported that 14% of the population had an income below the official poverty level in 1981.

1983 – David Dodge, president of the American University of Beirut, was released.

1983 – The first three-dimensional reconstruction of a human head in a CT is published.

1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “When Doves Cry” by Prince, “Dancing in the Dark” by Bruce Springsteen, “Eyes Without a Face” by Billy Idol and “I Don’t Want to Be a Memory” by Exile all topped the charts.

1984 – Geraldine Ferraro was nominated by the Democratic Party to become the first woman from a major political party to run for the office of U.S. Vice-President.

1984 – McDonald’s massacre in San Ysidro, California: In a fast-food restaurant, James Oliver Huberty opens fire, killing 21 people and injuring 19 others before being shot dead by police. Later McDonalds bulldozed the store.

1984 – First female to captain a 747 across the Atlantic (Lynn Rippelmeyer).

1985 – Two years after its initial release, “E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial” grossed an additional $8.8 million in its first three days in rerelease.

1985 – Christa McAuliffe is chosen as the first schoolteacher to fly the space shuttle. She died with six others when the Challenger exploded the following year.

1985 – George Bell won first place in a biggest feet contest with a shoe size of 28-1/2. Bell, at age 26, stood 7 feet 10 inches tall.

1986 – Caroline Kennedy, daughter of President John F. Kennedy, married Edwin A. Schlossberg in Centerville, Massachusetts.

1986 – “Invisible Touch” by Genesis topped the charts.

1989 – One hundred-twelve people were killed when a United Airline DC-10 airplane crashed in Sioux City, Iowa. 184 people did survive the accident.

1990 – Richard Nixon library opens in Yorba Linda, CA.

1990 – Baseball’s all-time hits leader Pete Rose was sentenced in Cincinnati to five months in prison for tax evasion.

1993 – President Clinton announced the “Don’t ask, don’t tell” policy regarding gays in the military.

1993 – Somolia : Two US MP’s are hit by sniper fire.

1996 – The Centennial Olympics opened in Atlanta, Georgia. In the biggest Olympics staged in the 100-year history of the Games, 197 nations marched in the opening ceremonies. Beach volleyball was inaugurated as an Olympic sport at these games.

1998 – Workers for Saturn Corp., a division of GM in Tennessee, authorized union leaders to call their first-ever strike.

1999 – David Cone of the New York Yankees pitches the 16th perfect game in baseball history against the Expos at Yankee Stadium.

1999 – Federal officials said radar data showed the plane piloted by John F. Kennedy Jr. dropped 11,000 feet in just 14 seconds.

1999 – Carleton “Carly” Fiorina (44) was named the new president and CEO of Hewlett Packard Co. She was brought over from Lucent Tech. and became the 3rd woman running a Fortune 500 company.

2001 – The first set of the newly authorized Helicopter Rescue Swimmer insignia, or ‘wings’, were presented to the senior rescue swimmer in the Coast Guard, Master Chief Aviation Survival Technician (AST) Keith Jensen, at Coast Guard headquarters in Washington, D.C.

2002 – ConAgra Beef Co. began recalling 19 million pounds of beef, manufactured in Greeley, Colo., over the last 3 months, due to possible E. coli contamination.

2003 – In Spinboldak, Afghanistan, US forces, backed by helicopter gunships, killed up to 24 suspected Taliban insurgents after their convoy came under attack.
2005 – President Bush announced his choice of Federal Appeals Court Judge John G. Roberts Jr. (50) to replace Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor. Roberts ended up succeeding Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist, who died in September 2005.

2005 – In Phoenix, Az., a blistering 4-day heat wave was blamed for the deaths of 13 people. 11 were homeless; the other two were elderly women, one of whom did not have her cooling system on.

2006 – President Bush used his first veto to underscore his politically risky stand against federal funding for the embryonic stem cell research that most Americans support.

2006 – Chicago prosecutors reported that local police tortured scores of black suspects from the 1970s to the 1980s to extract confessions, but that the cases were too old or too weak to prosecute.

2007 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 14,000 for the first time closing at 14,010.41

2007 – A federal judge dismissed a lawsuit brought by former CIA operative Valerie Plame, who was demanding money from Bush administration officials she blamed for leaking her agency identity.

2008 – Democratic presidential contender Barack Obama started a campaign-season tour of combat zones and foreign capitals, visiting with US forces in Kuwait and then Afghanistan — the scene of a war he says deserves more attention and more troops.

2009 – MASS SHOOTING – A man entered a Golden Market in Virginia  and began firing a gun. He shot and wounded the clerk and then began firing at patrons inside. He ran out of ammo and was attempting to reload when he was shot, wounded, and then subdued by a permit holder who happened to be in the store.

2010 –  Retired United States Coast Guard Admiral Thad Allen, the person in charge of cleaning up the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico states that the cap is leaking but it is not a major concern so far.

2010 – Executive Order 13547 –Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes is issued by President Obama.  This order adopts the recommendations of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force, except where otherwise provided in this order, and directs executive agencies to implement those recommendations under the guidance of a National Ocean Council.

2010 –  A two-year “Top Secret America” investigation by The Washington Post concludes that United States intelligence gathering has grown so much since the September 11 attacks that neither its true cost, size nor effectiveness in keeping the country safe is actually known.

2011 –  The FBI arrests an alleged agent of Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence in Virginia for making illegal campaign contributions.

2011 – The US House of Representatives votes to approve the “Cut, Cap and Balance Act” by 234-190 but it is unlikely to pass the US Senate.

2011 –  The Space Shuttle Atlantis undocks from the International Space Station for the final time in the history of the space shuttle program.


2012 – Six people are killed and one is injured in Antwerp, New York when a tractor trailer carrying yogurt rear-ends a vehicle that had slowed for construction work.

 2014 – Russia bans 13 Americans including Congressman Jim Moran, Rear Adm. Richard Butler and Lynndie England in response to the United States banning Russians for human rights abuses.

2014  – A Florida court awards $23.6 billion in punitive damages against R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in a case of a longtime smoker who died in 1996.

2016 – Chicago Tribune identified a wounded Kansas City police officer as Capt. Robert Melton. The Tribune reports that he was shot while still in his car. Attempts to resuscitate him at the hospital did not succeed. He was pronounced dead at the University of Kansas Hospital.


1814 – Samuel Colt, American inventor of the revolver.

1834 – Edgar Degas, French artist. was a French artist famous for his work in painting, sculpture, printmaking and drawing. He is regarded as one of the founders of Impressionism although he rejected the term, and preferred to be called a realist.[
1846 – Edward Charles Pickering, American physicist and astronomer.
1860 –  Lizzie Borden, American accused murderer (d. 1927)
1865 – Charles Mayo, American surgeon, founded Mayo Clinic / Mayo Foundation with his brother.
1904 – Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith, last Lincoln descendant (d.1985)
1917 – William Scranton, American politician
1922 – Harold Camping, American evangelist, founder of Family Radio .
1922 – George McGovern, American politician
1923 – William A. Rusher, American columnist is an American lawyer and conservative columnist. In 1957, William F. Buckley, Jr. hired Rusher as publisher of National Review. Rusher was an early mentor of Young Americans for Freedom and was active in the campaigns of Barry Goldwater and Ronald Reagan.
1924 – Stanley K. Hathaway, American politician (d. 2005) was a U.S. Republican politician who served as Governor of Wyoming from 1967 to 1975. Thereafter, he served four months as the United States Secretary of the Interior.




Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S.. Army, Company E, 1st Battalion, 327th Infantry, 101st Airborne Division. Place and date: A Shau Valley, Republic of Vietnam, July 15th to July 19th, 1969. Entered service at: Buffalo, N.Y. Born: 29 September 1944, Jersey City, N.J.: Citation: S/Sgt. Gertsch distinguished himself while serving as a platoon sergeant and platoon leader during combat operations in the A Shau Valley. During the initial phase of an operation to seize a strongly defended enemy position, S/Sgt. Gertsch’s platoon leader was seriously wounded and lay exposed to intense enemy fire. Forsaking his own safety, without hesitation S/Sgt. Gertsch rushed to aid his fallen leader and dragged him to a sheltered position. He then assumed command of the heavily engaged platoon and led his men in a fierce counterattack that forced the enemy to withdraw. Later, a small element of S/Sgt. Gertsch’s unit was reconnoitering when attacked again by the enemy. S/Sgt. Gertsch moved forward to his besieged element and immediately charged, firing as he advanced. His determined assault forced the enemy troops to withdraw in confusion and made possible the recovery of two wounded men who had been exposed to heavy enemy fire. Sometime later his platoon came under attack by an enemy force employing automatic weapons, grenade, and rocket fire. S/Sgt. Gertsch was severely wounded during the onslaught but continued to command his platoon despite his painful wound. While moving under fire and encouraging his men he sighted an aidman treating a wounded officer from an adjacent unit. Realizing that both men were in imminent danger of being killed, he rushed forward and positioned himself between them and the enemy nearby. While the wounded officer was being moved to safety S/Sgt. Gertsch was mortally wounded by enemy fire. Without S/Sgt. Gertsch’s courage, ability to inspire others, and profound concern for the welfare of his men, the loss of life among his fellow soldiers would have been significantly greater. His conspicuous gallantry, extraordinary heroism, and intrepidity at the cost of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit on him and the Armed Forces of his country.



Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Troop E, 112th Cavalry Regiment. Place and date: Driniumor River, New Guinea, July 16th- July 19th, 1944. Entered service at: Gray, Iowa. Birth: Cameron Township, Iowa. G.O. No.: 36, 10 May 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty along the Driniumor River, New Guinea, from 16-19 July 1944. 2d Lt. Christensen repeatedly distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry above and beyond the call of duty in the continuous heavy fighting which occurred in this area from 16-19 July. On 16 July, his platoon engaged in a savage fire fight in which much damage was caused by one enemy machinegun effectively placed. 2d Lt. Christensen ordered his men to remain under cover, crept forward under fire, and at a range of fifteen yards put the gun out of action with hand grenades. Again, on 19 July, while attacking an enemy position strong in mortars and machineguns, his platoon was pinned to the ground by intense fire. Ordering his men to remain under cover, he crept forward alone to locate definitely the enemy automatic weapons and the best direction from which to attack. Although his rifle was struck by enemy fire and knocked from his hands he continued his reconnaissance, located five enemy machineguns, destroyed one with hand grenades, and rejoined his platoon. He then led his men to the point selected for launching the attack and, calling encouragement, led the charge. This assault was successful and the enemy was driven from the positions with a loss of four mortars and ten machineguns and leaving many dead on the field. On 4 August 1944, near Afua, Dutch New Guinea, 2d Lt. Christensen was killed in action about two yards from his objective while leading his platoon in an attack on an enemy machinegun position. 2d Lt. Christensen’s leadership, intrepidity, and repeatedly demonstrated gallantry in action at the risk of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, exemplify the highest traditions of the U.S. Armed Forces.



Rank and organization: Pharmacist’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vierzy, France, and Somme-Py, France, July 19th, and October 15th, 1918. Entered service at: Kansas City, Mo. Born: 2 January 1896, Edgerton, Kans. Citation: For gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty, with the 6th Regiment, U.S. Marines, in action at Vierzy, on July 19th, 1918. Balch unhesitatingly and fearlessly exposed himself to terrific machinegun and high-explosive fire to succor the wounded as they fell in the attack, leaving his dressing station voluntarily and keeping up the work all day and late into the night unceasingly for 16 hours. Also in the action at Somme-Py on 5 October 1918, he exhibited exceptional bravery in establishing an advanced dressing station under heavy shellfire.



Rank and organization: Lieutenant (Medical Corps), U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vicinity Vierzy, France, July 19th, 1918. Entered service at: St. Clair, Pa. Born: 2 August 1889, St. Clair, Pa. Citation: For extraordinary heroism, conspicuous gallantry, and intrepidity while serving with the 6th Regiment, U.S. Marines, in actual conflict with the enemy. With absolute disregard for personal safety, ever conscious and mindful of the suffering fallen, Surg. Boone, leaving the shelter of a ravine, went forward onto the open field where there was no protection and despite the extreme enemy fire of all calibers, through a heavy mist of gas, applied dressings and first aid to wounded Marines. This occurred southeast of Vierzy, near the cemetery, and on the road south from that town. When the dressings and supplies had been exhausted, he went through a heavy barrage of large-caliber shells, both high explosive and gas, to replenish these supplies, returning quickly with a sidecar load, and administered them in saving the lives of the wounded. A second trip, under the same conditions and for the same purpose, was made by Surg. Boone later that day.



Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company K, 28th Infantry, 1st Division. Place and date: Near Soissons, France,  July 18th- July 19th, 1918. Entered service at: Monroe, N.C. Birth: Monroe, N.C. G.O. No.: 1, W.D. 1937. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty. During the attack the 2d and 3d Battalions of the 28th Infantry were merged, and after several hours of severe fighting, successfully established a frontline position. In so doing, a gap was left between the right flank of the French 153d Division on their left and the left flank of the 28th Infantry, exposing the left flank to a terrific enfilade fire from several enemy machineguns located in a rock quarry on high ground. 2d Lt. Parker, observing this serious situation, ordered his depleted platoon to follow him in an attack upon the strong point. Meeting a disorganized group of French Colonials wandering leaderlessly about, he persuaded them to join his platoon. This consolidated group followed 2d Lt. Parker through direct enemy rifle and machinegun fire to the crest of the hill, and rushing forward, took the quarry by storm, capturing six machineguns and about forty prisoners. The next day when the assault was continued, 2d Lt. Parker in command of the merged 2d and 3d Battalions was in support of the 1st Battalion. Although painfully wounded in the foot, he refused to be evacuated and continued to lead his command until the objective was reached. Seeing that the assault battalion was subjected to heavy enfilade fire due to a gap between it and the French on its left, 2d Lt. Parker led his battalion through this heavy fire up on the line to the left of the 1st Battalion and thereby closed the gap, remaining in command of his battalion until the newly established lines of the 28th Infantry were thoroughly consolidated. In supervising the consolidation of the new position, 2d Lt. Parker was compelled to crawl about on his hands and knees on account of his painful wound. His conspicuous gallantry and spirit of self-sacrifice were a source of great inspiration to the members of the entire command.




Rank and organization: Captain, 6th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Bobong, Negros, Philippine Islands, July 19th, 1899. Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Birth: Newport Barracks, Va. Date of issue: 15 July 1902. Citation: Most distinguished gallantry in rallying his men on the bridge after the line had been broken and pushed back.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 21st New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Ashbys Gap, Va., July 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Rochester, N.Y. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 11 June 1896. Citation: At great personal risk rescued his wounded captain and carried him from the field to a place of safety.




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Unerased History – July 18th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 18, 2017 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Toss Away the “Could Haves” and “Should Haves” Day




Roller Coasters

Roller Coasters first started as large slides in Russia during the 1800’s. The structures were made from wood with a sheet of ice several inches thick covering the surface. People would climb up the structure and then ride down the slide at a fifty degree drop. They rapidly became popular throughout the Russian aristocracy. The problem with these slides was that they were limited to winter times, much like U.S. toboggan slides. The second half of the 1800’s saw tremendous advances and changes in roller coasters.


The first American roller coaster was not built at an amusement park or city, but in the mountains of Pennsylvania. The Mauch Chunk Switchback Railway, which was more like a runaway train than a modern coaster, is considered the forefather of today’s Roller Coaster.

La Marcus Adna Thompson, the father of the American roller coaster, was a creative man who helped bring the American roller coaster to commercial fruition. During the early sixties (’63-’64) I worked at Geauga Lake Park in, then, Geauga Lake, Ohio. The roller coaster there was called the “Clipper” and was a 2,650 foot wooden coaster. The roller coaster is still standing even though the park closed in 2007.

The fastest steel roller coaster in the U.S. is Kingda Ka at Six Flags Great Adventure, Jackson, New Jersey. In 2005 it was clocked at 128 mph. It is also the tallest coaster at 456 feet and has the highest drop at 418 feet.

The longest steel coaster is Millennium Force at Cedar Point in Sandusky, Ohio. It is over a mile long at 6, 595 feet.
To see more records visit:  More Coasters

Scripture of the Day

1 Corinthians 10:13 KJV

There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it.


Founders Thoughts

Benjamin Franklin“Democracy is two wolves and a lamb voting on what to have for lunch. Liberty is a well-armed lamb contesting the vote!” Ben Franklin




“Power is the ability to do good things for others.”

~ Brooke Astor


yenta (YEN-tuh) noun

A busybody or a gossip. [From Yiddish yente, originally a female name.]


64 B.C – The Great Fire of Rome started; in 9 days, two-thirds of the city was destroyed.

1743 – “The New York Weekly Journal” published the first half-page newspaper ad.

1775 – Continental Congress resolves that each colony provide armed vessels.

1779 – Continental Marines attacked British forces in Maine.

1792 – American naval hero John Paul Jones died in Paris at age 45. His body was preserved in rum in case the American government wished him back. In 1905 his body was transported to the US and placed in a crypt in Annapolis.

1813 – War of 1812: U.S. Frigate President captures British ships Daphne, Eliza Swan, Alert and Lion.

1818 – The Revenue Cutter Active captured the pirate vessel India Libre in the Chesapeake Bay.

1853 – Completion of Grand Trunk Line, America’s first international railroad. Trains begin running over the first North American international railroad between Portland, Maine and Montreal, Quebec.

1861 – Civil War: Union and Confederate troops skirmished at Blackburn’s Ford, Virginia.

1864 – Civil War: President Lincoln asked for 500,000 volunteers for military service.

1872 – Britain introduced the concept of voting by secret ballot.

1877 – Inventor Thomas Edison recorded the human voice for the first time. He shouted “Haloo” into a mouthpiece and played back a moving tape.

1897 – Klondike gold rush begins when first successful prospectors arrive in Seattle, Washington.

1898- Spanish-American War: Battle of Santiago Bay – Troops under US General William R. Shafter take the city of Santiago de Cuba from the Spanish.

1913 – After 68 straight innings Christy Mathewson gives up a walk. The record stands until Bill Fischer, in 1962.

1914 – US army air service first comes into being with six planes and is assigned to the in the Signal Corps.

1918 – World War I: US & French forces launched the Aisne-Marne offensive. After the attack Paris was mostly in Allied control.

1918 – World War I: The 4th Brigade of Marines began an attack near Soissons, France.

1920 – Naval aircraft sink ex-German cruiser Frankfurt in target practice.

1921 – The prosecution gave its opening remarks in the trial of the Chicago Black Sox, accused of throwing the 1919 World Series.

1925 – Adolf Hitler published the first volume of his personal manifesto, “Mein Kampf.” It became the bible for the Nazi Party. The book is filled with anti-Semitic writings, a disdain for morality, worship of power, and the blueprints for world domination.

1927 – Ty Cobb recorded his 4,000th career hit.

1928 – Clarence Samuels assumed command of Coast Guard Patrol Boat AB-15. He became the second African-American to command a Coast Guard vessel, the first being Michael Healy.

1931 – First air-conditioned ship called the Mariposa, is launched. The Mariposa was used on the San Francisco – Honolulu – Sydney service and in 1941 entered service as a US Navy transport.

1932 – The United States and Canada signed a treaty to develop the St. Lawrence Seaway.

1936 – Carl Mayer, nephew of Oscar Mayer, invents the Oscar Mayer Wienermobile. It was built by the General Body Company’s factory in Chicago, IL.

1938 – Douglas “Wrong Way” Corrigan arrives in Ireland.

1939 – Edwin H. Armstrong, US radio engineer, started the first FM radio station in Alpine, NJ.

1940 – The Democratic national convention in Chicago nominated President Roosevelt for an unprecedented third term in office.

1940 – The first successful helicopter flight was made at Stratford, CT.

1941 – Joe DiMaggio’s baseball hitting streak ends at 56 games, by Cleveland Indian pitchers, Al Smith & Jim Bagby.

1942 – First legal NJ horse race in 50 years; Garden State Park track opens. Legendary horses that raced here included Whirlaway, Citation, and Secretariat.

1942 – World War II:  Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe, Germany’s first operational jet fighter, takes first flight. The Me262 surprised the Allies with its speed advantage – around 100 or more miles per hour.

1943 – World War II: An aircraft carrying the Commander of the Japanese Combined Fleet, Admiral Yamamoto, is shot down by P-38 Lighting fighters over Bougainville. Yamamoto is killed.

1944 – World War II: Hideki Tojo was removed as Japanese premier and war minister due to setbacks suffered by his country in World War II.

1945 – World War II: Captured German mines explode accidentally, destroying an American Red Cross club in Italy and killing 36 people.

1945 – World War II: Aircraft from the aircraft carrier Wasp attack Japanese positions on Wake Island.

1947- Harry Truman signed the Presidential Succession Act, which placed the speaker of the House of Representatives and the Senate president pro tempore next in the line of succession after the vice president.

1950 – Korean War: The U.S. 1st Cavalry and 25th Infantry Divisions reached Korea from Japan.

1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Too Young” by Nat King Cole, “Mister and Mississippi” by Patti Page, “The Loveliest Night of the Year” by Mario Lanza and  I Wanna Play House with You”  by  Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1953 – Elvis Presley recorded “My Happiness” as a gift for his mother. It was his first recording.

1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka, “Waterloo” by Stonewall Jackson, “Tiger” by Fabian and “The Battle of New Orleans”  by  Johnny Horton all topped the charts.

1960 – “I’m Sorry” by Brenda Lee topped the charts.

1960 – Elvis Presley’s It’s Now Or Never was released.

1960 – Hank Ballard and the Midnighters released “The Twist.” The song didn’t become a hit until later in the year when Chubby Checker covered it.

1960 – Baseball’s National League votes to add Houston and New York franchises.

1964 – “Rag Doll” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.

1964 – The Beatles album “A Hard Day’s Night” (30:14) was released.

1964 – Pete Rose of the Cincinnati Reds hit the only grand slam home run of his career.

1964 – Riots erupted in the African American communities of New York City and Rochester, NY. The New York City race riot began in Harlem and spread to Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn.

1965 – Jeremiah A. Denton’s A6 Intruder he was piloting while leading an attack squadron of 28 airplanes off the deck of the carrier USS Independence – was shot down while targeting the heavily defended Thanh Hoa Bridge about 75 miles south of Hanoi.

1966 – Launch of Gemini 10 with LCDR John W. Young, USN as Command Pilot. Mission involved 43 orbits at an altitude of 412.2 nautical miles and lasted 2 days, 22 hours, and 46 minutes.

1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Windy”  by  The Association, “Little Bit o’ Soul”  by  The Music Explosion, “Can’t Take My Eyes Off You”  by  Frankie Valli and “All the Time”  by  Jack Greene all topped the charts.

1968 – The Intel Corporation, inventor of the microchip, was incorporated as N M Electronics (the letters standing for Noyce and Moore). It quickly changed its name.

1969 – Commissioner Pete Rozelle told ‘Broadway’ Joe Namath to sell his share in an East Side bar, Bachelors III, because gamblers frequented it. If Namath didn’t, he would be suspended.

1969 – A car driven by Senator Edward M. Kennedy (D-MA) plunged off a bridge on Chappaquiddick Island near Martha’s Vineyard; passenger Mary Jo Kopechne died. The senator did not report the fatal car accident for 10 hours.

1970 – San Francisco’s Willie Mays hits a single off Montreal’s Mike Wegener for his 3,000th hit.

1970 – Ron Hunt of the San Francisco Giants was hit by a pitch for the 119th time in his career. He still holds the record of being hit by a pitch at 234 times in his career.

1970 – “Mama Told Me (Not to Come)” by Three Dog Night topped the charts.

1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Will Keep Us Together” by The Captain & Tennille,The Hustle” by Van McCoy & The Soul City Symphony, “Listen to What the Man Said” by Wings and “Movin’ On” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.

1975 – An American Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft dock with each other in orbit marking the first such link-up between spacecraft from the two nations.

1976 – Nadia Comaneci, the 14-year-old star gymnast from Romania, stunned those watching the Olympic Games by executing perfect form to collect a perfect score of ‘10’ from the judges. This was the first perfect score ever recorded on the uneven parallel bars.

1980 – A US Federal court voided the Selective Service Act as it didn’t include women.

1981 – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes topped the charts.

1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Every Breath You Take” by The Police, “Electric Avenue” by Eddy Grant, “Never Gonna Let You Go” by Sergio Mendez and “The Closer You Get” by Alabama all topped the charts.

1984 – MASS SHOOTING: A gunman opened fire at a McDonald’s fast-food restaurant in San Ysidro, CA. James Huberty killed 21 people and injured another 19 before being shot dead by police. This shooting was the deadliest mass murder committed in the United States until the 1991 Luby’s shooting.

1985 – Jack Nicklaus II, at age 23 years old, made his playing debut on the pro golf tour at the Quad Cities Open in Coal Valley, IL.

1987 – “Alone” by Heart topped the charts.

1989 – Actress Rebecca Schaeffer (21) was shot to death at her Los Angeles home by obsessed fan Robert Bardo, who was later sentenced to life in prison.

1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rush, Rush”  by  Paula Abdul, “Unbelievable”  by  EMF,Right Here, Right Now”  by  Jesus Jones and “Don’t Rock the Jukebox”  by  Alan Jackson all topped the charts.

1993 – FBI Director William Sessions continued to resist White House suggestions he step down, saying he would resign only if President Clinton asked him to. Sessions was fired by Clinton the next day.

1994 – Crayola announced the introduction of scented crayons.

1995 – The oldest known musical instrument in the world was found in the Indrijca River Valley in Slovenia. The 45,000 year-old relic was a bear bone with four artificial holes along its length.

1995 – Selena’s “Dreaming of You” was posthumously released.

1997 – Federal agents in California arrested eight seafood importers accused of smuggling contaminated seafood by bribing customs brokers and FDA inspectors.

1997 – German businessman Thomas Kramer was slapped with a record $323,000 penalty by the Federal Election Commission for making illegal U.S. political contributions.

1999 – David Cone of the New York Yankees pitched a perfect game against the Montreal Expos, leading his team to a 6-to-0 victory.

2000 – Shrugging off a veto threat from President Clinton, the Senate voted 61-to-38 in favor of eliminating the so-called “marriage penalty” by cutting taxes for virtually every married couple.

2001 –  A train derailed, involving sixty cars, in a Baltimore train tunnel. The fire that resulted lasted for six days and virtually closed down downtown Baltimore for several days. Fifty-four cars burned and phone cables were melted. The last burning car was pulled out July 23.

2002 – Accused Sept. 11 conspirator Zacarias Moussaoui tried to plead guilty to charges that could have brought the death penalty, but a federal judge in Alexandria, Va., insisted he take time to think about it.

2002 – It was reported that drought in western US states was causing the biggest grasshopper invasion in 50 years. Nebraska was among the hardest hit.

2004 – Iraq: American jets hit a position in Fallujah used by foreign militants, demolishing a house and killing 14 insurgents.

2006 – Space Shuttle Discovery  lands successfully on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility of the Kennedy Space Center, ending a 13-day mission to the International Space Station.

2007 – A massive geyser of steam and debris erupted through a midtown Manhattan street near Grand Central Terminal when an 83-year-old steam pipe ruptured.

2008 – The Batman sequel “The Dark Knight” opened and set a single-day box office record by taking in $66.4 million.

2008 – In Houston, Texas, one of the nation’s largest mobile cranes collapsed at Lyondell Basell refinery, killing four workers.

2008 – A report by the Civil Rights Division of the United States Department of Justice finds that the Cook County Jail, which houses 9,800 people, systematically violated the constitutional rights of its inmates.

2009 – Forty-seven people are injured in a collision between two Muni Metro light rail cars at the West Portal Station i in San Francisco.

2010 –  A ten-year manhunt orchestrated by the FBI ends with the capture of José Figueroa Agosto in San Juan, Puerto Rico. He was a drug trafficker who escaped from prison in Puerto Rico, where he was serving a 209-year sentence for murder and illegal weapon possession.

2011 – Phoenix, Arizona, is hit by a haboob.

2011 – The San Francisco County Superior Court announces plans to cut 200 jobs and close 25 out of 63 court rooms due to budget problems.

2011 -The Dawn spacecraft takes its first photo of the asteroid 4 Vesta. Launched on September 27, 2007, Dawn entered orbit around Vesta on July 16, 2011, and will explore it until August 26, 2012. Thereafter, the spacecraft will head to Ceres, which it is scheduled to reach in February 2015.Dawn is NASA’s first purely exploratory mission to use ion propulsion.

2013 – The city of Detroit filed for Chapter 9 bankruptcy protection in federal court. This  laid the groundwork for a historic effort to bail out a city that is sinking under billions of dollars in debt and decades of mismanagement, population flight and loss of tax revenue. The bankruptcy filing makes Detroit the largest city in U.S. history to do so.

2015 – Navy Petty Officer Randall Smith died of his injuries sustained in the Chattanooga‬ shooting – making him the fifth service member killed in the attack. Rest easy sailor. “Fair winds and following seas.”




1635 – Robert Hooke, English scientist (d. 1703) Hooke is known principally for his law of elasticity (Hooke’s Law). He is also remembered for his work as “the father of microscopy” — it was Hooke who coined the term “cell” to describe the basic unit of life.

1867 – Margaret Brown, American activist, philanthropist, and RMS Titanic passenger (d. 1932) She became known after her death as The Unsinkable Molly Brown, although she was never called Molly during her life.
1895 – George Machine Gun Kelly, (d. 1954) was a notorious American criminal during the prohibition era. His crimes included bootlegging, armed robbery and, most prominently, kidnapping.
1903 – Chill Wills, American actor (d. 1978) One of his more memorable roles was that of the distinctive voice of Francis the Mule in a series of popular films.

1906 – S.I. Hayakawa, U.S. senator, college administrator, writer. He was an English professor and academic who served as a US Senator (1977 to 1983) from California.
1909 – Harriet Nelson, American singer and actress (d. 1994)
1913 – Red Skelton, American comedian. He was an entertainer, born in Vincennes, Indiana, USA. As a child he toured the Midwest in a medicine show, and later gained fame as a variety performer of stage, radio, television, and films. He was voted the outstanding new radio star in 1941, and is remembered for the NBC television program The Red Skelton Show (1951–71). He gave a farewell performance at Carnegie Hall in 1990.
1921 – John Glenn Jr., American astronaut and politician, b. Cambridge, Ohio. On Feb. 20, 1962, he became the first American and the third person to orbit the earth, circling the globe three times in a vehicle launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla. After leaving the space program, Glenn entered Ohio politics and was elected to the U.S. Senate as a Democrat in 1974. Known for his work on military issues, he campaigned unsuccessfully for the Democratic Presidential nomination in 1984. In Oct., 1998, Glenn went into orbit again, on a space shuttle mission, to test effects of space on the elderly. In 1999 he retired from the Senate.
1929 – Dick Button, is an American figure skater and a well-known long-time skating television analyst.
1947 – Steve Forbes, is the son of Malcolm Forbes and the editor-in-chief of business magazine Forbes as well as president and chief executive officer of its publisher, Forbes Inc. He was a Republican candidate in the U.S. Presidential primaries in 1996 and 2000.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 1st Battalion, 12th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Tay Ninh Province, Republic of Vietnam, July 18th,  1969. Entered service at: Montgomery, Ala. Born: 17 July 1948, Chelsea, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Evans distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism while serving as a squad leader in a reconnaissance sweep through heavy vegetation to reconnoiter a strong enemy position. As the force approached a well-defined trail, the platoon scout warned that the trail was booby-trapped. Sgt. Evans led his squad on a route parallel to the trail. The force had started to move forward when a nearby squad was hit by the blast of a concealed mine. Looking to his right Sgt. Evans saw a second enemy device. With complete disregard for his safety he shouted a warning to his men, dived to the ground and crawled toward the mine. Just as he reached it an enemy soldier detonated the explosive and Sgt. Evans absorbed the full impact with his body. His gallant and selfless action saved his comrades from probable death or injury and served as an inspiration to his entire unit. Sgt. Evans’ gallantry in action at the cost of his life were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.





Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant (then S/Sgt.), U.S. Marine Corps, Company K, 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, 3d Marine Division, Fleet Marine Force. Place and Date: Republic of Vietnam, July 18th, 1966. Entered service at: Laurel Bay, S.C. Born: 21 January 1940, Boston, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. 2d Lt. McGinty’s platoon, which was providing rear security to protect the withdrawal of the battalion from a position which had been under attack for three days, came under heavy small arms, automatic weapons and mortar fire from an estimated enemy regiment. With each successive human wave which assaulted his 32-man platoon during the four-hour battle, 2d Lt. McGinty rallied his men to beat off the enemy. In one bitter assault, two of the squads became separated from the remainder of the platoon. With complete disregard for his safety, 2d Lt. McGinty charged through intense automatic weapons and mortar fire to their position. Finding twenty men wounded and the medical corpsman killed, he quickly reloaded ammunition magazines and weapons for the wounded men and directed their fire upon the enemy. Although he was painfully wounded as he moved to care for the disabled men, he continued to shout encouragement to his troops and to direct their fire so effectively that the attacking hordes were beaten off. When the enemy tried to out-flank his position, he killed five of them at point-blank range with his pistol. When they again seemed on the verge of overrunning the small force, he skillfully adjusted artillery and air strikes within fifty yards of his position. This destructive firepower routed the enemy, who left an estimated 500 bodies on the battlefield. 2d Lt. McGinty’s personal heroism, indomitable leadership, selfless devotion to duty, and bold fighting spirit inspired his men to resist the repeated attacks by a fanatical enemy, reflected great credit upon himself, and upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service.



Rank and organization: Major (then Capt.), U.S. Marine Corps, Company K, 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, 3d Marine Division, FMF. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, July 15th to July 18th, 1966. Entered service at: Milwaukee, Wis. Born: 3 July 1934, Milwaukee, Wis. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 15 July, during Operation HASTINGS, Company K was landed in an enemy-infested jungle area to establish a blocking position at a major enemy trail network. Shortly after landing, the company encountered a reinforced enemy platoon in a well-organized, defensive position. Maj. Modrzejewski led his men in the successful seizure of the enemy redoubt, which contained large quantities of ammunition and supplies. That evening, a numerically superior enemy force counterattacked in an effort to retake the vital supply area, thus setting the pattern of activity for the next 2 1/2 days. In the first series of attacks, the enemy assaulted repeatedly in overwhelming numbers but each time was repulsed by the gallant marines. The second night, the enemy struck in battalion strength, and Maj. Modrzejewski was wounded in this intensive action which was fought at close quarters. Although exposed to enemy fire, and despite his painful wounds, he crawled 200 meters to provide critically needed ammunition to an exposed element of his command and was constantly present wherever the fighting was heaviest, despite numerous casualties, a dwindling supply of ammunition and the knowledge that they were surrounded, he skillfully directed artillery fire to within a few meter* of his position and courageously inspired the efforts of his company in repelling the aggressive enemy attack. On 18 July, Company K was attacked by a regimental-size enemy force. Although his unit was vastly outnumbered and weakened by the previous fighting, Maj. Modrzejewski reorganized his men and calmly moved among them to encourage and direct their efforts to heroic limits as they fought to overcome the vicious enemy onslaught. Again he called in air and artillery strikes at close range with devastating effect on the enemy, which together with the bold and determined fighting of the men of Company K, repulsed the fanatical attack of the larger North Vietnamese force. His unparalleled personal heroism and indomitable leadership inspired his men to a significant victory over the enemy force and reflected great credit upon himself, the Marine Corps, and the U.S. Naval Service.


(Army Medal)


Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 66th Company, 5th Regiment. Place and date: Near Villers-Cotterets, France, July 18th, 1918. Entered service at: Minneapolis, Minn. Born: 1 May 1888, Sebenes, Austria. G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919. (Also received Navy Medal of Honor.) Citation: When his company, advancing through a wood, met with strong resistance from an enemy strong point, Sgt. Cukela crawled out from the flank and made his way toward the German lines in the face of heavy fire, disregarding the warnings of his comrades. He succeeded in getting behind the enemy position and rushed a machinegun emplacement, killing or driving off the crew with his bayonet. With German handgrenades he then bombed out the remaining portion of the strong point, capturing 4 men and 2 damaged machineguns.

(Navy Medal)


Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 66th Company, 5th Regiment. Born: 1 May 1888, Sebenes, Austria. Accredited to: Minnesota. (Also received Army Medal of Honor.) Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving with the 66th Company, 5th Regiment, during action in the Forest de Retz, near Viller-Cottertes, France, July 18th, 1918. Sgt. Cukela advanced alone against an enemy strong point that was holding up his line. Disregarding the warnings of his comrades, he crawled out from the flank in the face of heavy fire and worked his way to the rear of the enemy position. Rushing a machinegun emplacement, he killed or drove off the crew with his bayonet, bombed out the remaining part of the strong point with German handgrenades and captured two machineguns and four men.



Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company H, 103d Infantry, 26th Division. Place and date: Near Belleau, France, July 18th, 1918. Entered service at: Keene, N.H. Birth: Greece. G.O. No.: 13, W.D., 1919. Citation: After his platoon had gained its objective along a railroad embankment, Pfc. Dilboy, accompanying his platoon leader to reconnoiter the ground beyond, was suddenly fired upon by an enemy machinegun from 100 yards. From a standing position on the railroad track, fully exposed to view, he opened fire at once, but failing to silence the gun, rushed forward with his bayonet fixed, through a wheat field toward the gun emplacement, falling within 25 yards of the gun with his right leg nearly severed above the knee and with several bullet holes in his body. With undaunted courage he continued to fire into the emplacement from a prone position, killing 2 of the enemy and dispersing the rest of the crew.



Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 3d Machine Gun Battalion, 1st Division. Place and date: Near Soissons, France, July 18th, 1918. Entered service at: Bruceville, Tex. Born: 9 April 1897, Moorville, Tex. G.O. No.: 14, W.D., 1923. Citation: Reporting for duty from hospital where he had been for several weeks under treatment for numerous and serious wounds and although suffering intense pain from a shattered arm, he crawled alone into an enemy trench for the purpose of capturing or killing enemy soldiers known to be concealed therein. He killed four of the men and took the remaining four men prisoners; while conducting them to the rear one of the enemy was killed by a high explosive enemy shell which also completely shattered one of Pfc. Edwards’ legs, causing him to be immediately evacuated to the hospital. The bravery of Pfc. Edwards, now a tradition in his battalion because of his previous gallant acts, again caused the morale of his comrades to be raised to high pitch.

(Army Medal)

Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 66th Company, 5th Regiment, 2d Division. Place and date: Near Soissons, France, July 18th, 1918. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 31 December 1882, Gbely (Slovakia), Austria. G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919. (Also received Navy Medal of Honor.) Citation: When the advance of his battalion was checked by a hidden machinegun nest, he went forward alone, unprotected by covering fire from his own men, and worked in between the German positions in the face of fire from enemy covering detachments. Locating the machinegun nest, he rushed it and with his bayonet drove off the crew. Shortly after this he organized 25 French colonial soldiers who had become separated from their company and led them in attacking another machinegun nest, which was also put out of action.

(Navy Medal)

Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 31 December 1882, Gbely (Slovakia), Austria. Accredited to: New York. ( Also received Army Medal of Honor. ) Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving with the 66th Company, 5th Regiment, 2d Division, in action in the Viller-Cottertes section, south of Soissons, France, July 18th, 1918. When a hidden machinegun nest halted the advance of his battalion, Sgt. Kocak went forward alone unprotected by covering fire and worked his way in between the German positions in the face of heavy enemy fire. Rushing the enemy position with his bayonet, he drove off the crew. Later the same day, Sgt. Kocak organized French colonial soldiers who had become separated from their company and led them in an attack on another machinegun nest which was also put out of action.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 54th Massachusetts Colored Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Wagner, S.C., July 18th, 1863. Entered service at: New Bedford, Mass. Birth: Norfolk, Va. Date of issue: 23 May 1900. Citation: When the color sergeant was shot down, this soldier grasped the flag, led the way to the parapet, and planted the colors thereon. When the troops fell back he brought off the flag, under a fierce fire in which he was twice severely wounded.





Rank and organization: Corporal, Company K, 12th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Blackburns Ford, Va., July 18th,  1861. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Darien, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: With a companion, refused to retreat when the part of the regiment to which he was attached was driven back in disorder, but remained upon the skirmish line for some time thereafter, firing upon the enemy.




Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 48th New York Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 13 July 1863, Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 14 July 1863; Near Fort Wagner, S.C., July 18th,  1863. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: England. Date of issue: 23 October 1897. Citation: While voluntarily performing picket duty under fire on 13 July 1863, was attacked and his surrender demanded, but he killed his assailant. The day following responded to a call for a volunteer to reconnoiter the enemy’s position, and went within the enemy’s lines under fire and was exposed to great danger. On 18 July voluntarily exposed himself with great gallantry during an assault, and received three wounds that permanently disabled him for active service.



Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 12th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Blackburns Ford, Va., July 18th, 1861. Entered service at: Batavia, N.Y. Birth: Batavia, N.Y. Date of issue: 23 October 1897. Citation: Remained in action when a part of his regiment broke in disorder, joined another company, and fought with it through the remainder of the engagement.


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