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Daniel Shays’ parents emigrated from Ireland to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the 1730s. Patrick and Margaret (Dempsey) Shays married in 1744 and set up housekeeping in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. In 1747, Margaret gave birth to Daniel, the second of what would be a family of six children.
Little is known of Daniel’s early life, but a few fragments of surviving information are suggestive in light of his later career and reputation. We know that, in common with other young men without land of their own, Daniel Shays hired himself out to work. According to a contemporary, by the early 1770s, Shays was living on a farm in Brookfield, where he was paid above the going rate for a laborer in recognition of his performance as a “smart, active” man. The same resident recalled that the young Daniel Shays “had much taste for the military.” When young men assembled for militia training days, some armed only with wooden guns and swords, Shays enthusiastically drilled them.
Hard worker or not, men like Daniel Shays without a trade or land to farm, generally delayed marriage until their mid-twenties. At the age of 25, Daniel Shays appeared in the town records in 1772 with Abigail Gilbert when the couple published their intention to wed. Their first child, Daniel junior, was born in 1773. Other children followed, including two daughters. It is not known how many children were born to Daniel and Abigail, although an elderly Daniel Shays would refer to the difficulty of maintaining a “large and Expensive family.”
As war with England seemed ever more likely, the old militia exercises assumed a more serious character. Daniel seems never to have faltered in his commitment to the American, or Patriot, cause. He did not remain a member of the Brookfield militia, however. At some point between 1774 and 1775, Daniel and Abigail moved west to Shutesbury, where Shays joined militia from Shutesbury, Amherst and Leverett. His experience in drilling may explain why he appeared on the company roll as Sergeant Daniel Shays. When Captain Reuben Dickinson’s company marched to Cambridge in 1775 following the fighting at Lexington and Concord, Shays received 18 shillings, 10 pence for 11 days of service.
Captain Shays was not the only Massachusetts resident suffering financial hardship during the recession that had followed a brief post-war boom. The determined attempt by the Massachusetts Legislature to pay off the state’s war debt through an aggressive taxation policy despite the hard times proved disastrous. The government’s insistence that people pay their taxes in hard money rather than in goods or paper currency made a bad situation worse. The little gold and silver in circulation was not in the hands of farmers, whose assets were tied up in land, livestock and produce. Pelham joined dozens of towns across the Commonwealth in petitioning for debtor relief, and for laws lowering judicial court fees and government salaries.
A wave of farm foreclosures in western Massachusetts swept the young republic to its first episode in class struggle. Demonstrators and rioters protested high taxation, the governor’s high salary, high court costs and the assembly’s refusal to issue paper money (an inflationary measure highly favored by the debtor class).
Opposition had coalesced around Daniel Shays, a Revolutionary Warveteran. At first, the activity was limited to meetings and petitions to Massachusetts government in Boston. The matter escalated when the Massachusetts Supreme Court indicated eleven leaders of the movement as disorderly, riotous, and seditious. Shays responded by raising a militia of 700 men, many unpaid veterans of the Continental Army. They marched first for Worcester where they closed down the commonwealth’s supreme court, then turned west to Springfield where they broke into the jail to free imprisoned debtors. The barns of some government officials were burned. Wealthy Bostonians, who feared the rebellion in the west, contributed money for soldiers under the command of General Benjamin Lincoln.
The rebels were routed in a skirmish in January 1787. Shays escaped toVermont and was later pardoned. Others were not so fortunate – 150 were captured and several sentenced to death. George Washington and others urged compassionate treatment of the rebels and pardons were eventually granted.
It is interesting to note the role reversal of such people as Samuel Adams. In early revolutionary times, Adams was among the most vocal and radical critics of the existing government. By the 1780s, however, Adams had become an establishment figure and urged death sentences for the leading Shays rebels.
Abigail Adams also had no compunctions with regard to the rebels. In a letter to Thomas Jefferson, while she was in London late 1787 and he was in Paris, she described the uprising: “Ignorant, restless deperadoes, without conscience or principles, have led a deluded multitude to follow their standard, under pretense of grievances which have no existence but in their imaginations.” She lauded the firm steps taken to put down the rebellion.
The next statewide election in Massachusetts altered the assembly’s complexion and led to passage of a number of measures designed to improve the farmers’ conditions. However, conservative forces were deeply disturbed by the anarchy in the west and became increasingly committed to strengthening the central government.
“The average pencil is seven inches long, with just a half-inch eraser – in case you thought optimism was dead.”
~ Robert Brault, software developer, writer (1972- )
pugnacious \puhg-NAY-shuhs\, adjective:
Inclined to fight; combative; quarrelsome.
Pugnacious comes from Latin pugnare, “to fight,” from pugnus, ”fist.”
1521 – Cortes captured the city of Tenochtitlan, Mexico, and set it on fire. Mexico-Tenochtitlan, was the capital of the Aztec empire, which was built on an island in Lake Texcoco in what is now central Mexico. The city was largely destroyed in the 1520s by Spanish conquistadors, Mexico City was erected on top of the ruins and, over the ensuing centuries, most of Lake Texcoco has gradually been drained.
1688 – Death in London of John Bunyan, English author of The Pilgrim’s Progress.
1777 – Samuel Mason, a captain in command of Fort Henry on the Ohio frontier, survives a devastating Indian attack only to become one of the young nation’s first western desperados.
1778 – Revolutionary War: British killed 17 Stockbridge Indians in Bronx during Revolution.
1786 - Shays’ Rebellion began in Massachusetts.Captain Daniel Shays led an armed mob and prevented the Northampton Court from holding a session in order to prevent debtors, mostly poor farmers, from being tried and put in prison.
1802 - Captain Meriwether Lewis left Pittsburgh to meet up with Captain William Clark and begin their trek to the Pacific Ocean.
1819 – The cutters Alabama and Louisiana captured the privateer Bravo in the Gulf of Mexico. The master, Jean Le Farges — a lieutenant of Jean Lafitte — was later hanged from the Louisiana’s yardarm on the Mississippi River.
1835 – An angry mob in Charleston, South Carolina, seized U.S. mail containing abolitionist literature and burned it in public.
1842 – US Naval Observatory authorized by an act of Congress. James Melville Gilliss was put in charge of the project and is credited with its founding.
1842 - Micah Rugg patented a nuts & bolts machine.
1852 – The United States Congress passed legislation creating the first prestamped envelopes.
1852 - The Lighthouse Board was created and charged with administering the Lighthouse Service, as the Revenue Cutter Service was again decentralized.
1864 – Civil War: General William T. Sherman launches the attack that finally secures Atlanta, Georgia, for the Union, and seals the fate of Confederate General John Bell Hood’s army, which is forced to evacuate the area. Battle of Jonesboro, Georgia, 1900 casualties.
1864 – At the Democratic convention in Chicago, General George B. McClellan was nominated for president. McClellan ran on a Copperhead platform claiming the war had been a failure and was hopelessly lost.
1865 – The US Federal government estimated the American Civil War had cost about eight-billion dollars. Human costs have been estimated at more than one-million killed or wounded.
1881 – First US tennis championships were held. The event was at the Newport Casino in Rhode Island, where it remained for 34 years.
1886 – First major earthquake recorded in eastern US, at Charleston, SC. It was one of the largest historic earthquakes in eastern North America, and by far the largest earthquake in the southeastern United States.110 people were killed.
1887 – Thomas Edison patented the Kinetoscope, the forerunner of the motion picture camera.
1888 – The body of Mary Ann “Polly” Nichols, the first victim of Jack the Ripper, was found mutilated in Buck’s Row, London.
1894 – Phillies “Sliding Billy” Hamilton steals seven bases in a single game.
1895 – John Brallier is paid US$10 plus expenses to play football for the Latrobe, Pennsylvania YMCA, making him the first professional football player. His team won 12-0.
1896 - Announcement of gold in the Yukon. George Washington Carmack, Skookum Jim and Tagish Charlie, with their “Bonanza” gold discovery on Rabbit Creek, charted a new course for life in the Yukon.
1897 – Thomas Edison patented a kinetographic camera. Edison had actually invented and built his motion picture camera by 1891 but it took six years for the patent to be approved.
1902 – Mrs. Adolph Landenburg introduces the split skirt for horseback riding in Saratoga Springs, NY.
1903 - The first automobile trip from San Francisco to New York City was completed. Most roads were little more than muddy wagon paths, and when those stopped the travellers could only follow along railroad tracks or trust in their sense of direction as they set out across the vast plains and desert.
1909 - The A.J. Reach Co. patented the cork-centered baseball.
1919 - John Reed formed the Communist Labor Party in Chicago, with the motto, “Workers of the World unite!”
1920 – The first radio news program was broadcast August 31, 1920 by station 8MK in Detroit, Michigan.
1934 – First football all star game-Bears tie collegians 0-0 in Chicago.The College All-Star Game was a preseason American football game played annually (except in 1974) from 1934 to 1976 between the National Football League champions and a team of star college seniors from the previous year.
1935 – President Roosevelt (FDR) signs an act prohibiting export of US arms to belligerents.
1935 - First national skeet championship (Indianapolis). L.S. Pratt of Indianapolis was the winner. A 14-year-old boy, Dick Shaughnessy of St. Louis, captured the second title with a score of 248 out of a possible 250. During World War II, skeet played an important role in training aerial gunners since skeet targets closely resembled the flight paths of enemy planes and shooting at them taught “lead”.
1939 – Frank Sinatra recorded “All or Nothing at All” with the Harry James Band.
1939 – World War II: Europe: There was a staged “Polish” assault on radio station in Gleiwitz by Nazis dressed as Poles to “provoke” war, an excuse for Germany to invade Poland the next day to start World War II.
1939 – World War II: Europe: Nazi leader Adolf Hitler signed an order to attack Poland, and German forces moved to the frontier.
1940 - US National Guard assembled. They will be mobilized for one year, extended to two, to train and assist in war games to test new tactics.
1940 – The FBI created a Disaster Squad to assist civilian authorities in identifying persons who died in a Virginia plane crash. FBI personnel were among the victims.
1941 – Great Gildersleeve, a spin-off of Fibber McGee & Molly debuts on NBC.
1941 – World War II: US Agricultural Secretary Claude Wickard announces that meat rationing will probably be necessary.
1942 – World War II: The Battle of Guadalcanal. Japanese General Kawaguchi lands 1200 troops on the island.
1943 – World War II: American carrier based aircraft strike Marcus island. The Independence, Essex and Yorktown are involved. These ships are part of the newly formed Fast Carrier Task Force.
1943 – The USS Harmon, the first U.S. Navy ship to be named for am African-American person, is commissioned.
1944 – World War II: US 4th Corps (part of US 5th Army) advances after German forces conduct withdrawals from some positions along the Arno River.
1944 – World War II: Carrier task group begins three-day attack on Iwo Jima and Bonin Islands.
1945 – World War II: General MacArthur establishes the supreme allied command at the main port of Tokyo, as the first foreigner to take charge of Japan in 1000 years.
1945 – World War II: The remaining Japanese troops in the Philippines formally surrender.The Japanese garrison on Marcus Island surrenders to the American Admiral Whiting.
1946 - Superman returned to radio on the Mutual Broadcasting System after being dropped earlier in the year. Bud Collyer, later of TV’s “Beat the Clock”, played Clark Kent aka Superman on the radio series.
1949 – Six of the 16 surviving Union veterans of the Civil War attended the last-ever encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic, held in Indianapolis, Indiana.
1950 -CHART TOPPERS - “Mona Lisa” by Nat King Cole, “Play a Simple Melody” by Bing Crosby,“Sam’s Song” by Bing & Gary Crosby and “Goodnight Irene” by Red Foley-Ernest Tubb all topped the charts.
1950 – Brooklyn Dodger’s Gil Hodges hits four home runs & a single in a game vs Braves. He drove in 9 runs in the Dodgers 19-3 rout of the Boston Braves at Ebbets Field. He got homers off of Boston Braves pitchers Warren Spahn, Normie Roy, Bob Hall and Johnny Antonelli.
1950 – Korean War: Far East Air Force B-29s completed air strikes on the docks and railway yards at Songjin and the industrial factory at Chinnampo. From Aug. 28-31, aircraft dropped 326 tons of bombs on Songjin and 284 tons on Chinnampo.
1950 – Korean War: The second battle of the Naktong Bulge began as the North Korean I Corps crossed the lower Naktong River in a well-planned attack against the U.S. 2nd and 25th Infantry Divisions.
1951 - The former enemies of World War II reconvened in San Francisco to finalize negotiations on the peace treaty to formally end WW II. Japan agreed to pay the Int’l. Red Cross about $15 per POW while the allies agreed not to bring charges against it.
1951 - Korean War: The last United Nations Command offensive of the war occurred when the 1st Marine Division began its assault against the Punchbowl from Aug. 31 to Sept. 3. The 2nd Infantry Division seized Bloody Ridge at a cost of 2,700 casualties.
1954 – Seventy people were killed when Hurricane Carol hit the northeastern coast of the U.S.
1955 – First microwave TV station operated (Lufkin, TX).
1955 – First sun-powered automobile demonstrated, Chicago, IL.
1957 – “Tammy” by Debbie Reynolds topped the charts.
1958 - CHART TOPPERS - “Nel Blu Dipinto Di Blu (Volare)” by Domenico Modugno, “Little Star” by The Elegants, “My True Love” by Jack Scott and “Blue Blue Day” by Don Gibson all topped the charts.
1959 – Sandy Koufax set a National League record by striking out 18 hitters.
1961 – A concrete wall replaced the barbed wire fence that separated East Germany and West Germany — the Berlin Wall.
1962 – Last flight of a Navy airship made at NAS Lakehurst, NJ.
1963 – “My Boyfriend’s Back” by the Angels topped the charts.
1963 – Walter Cronkite named anchor of the “CBS Evening News”.
1964 – California officially became the most populated state of the United States.
1965 – Congress establishes the Dept of Housing & Urban Development.
1965 – The Aero Spacelines Super Guppy Aircraft makes its first flight.
1965 – President Johnson signs into law a bill making it illegal to destroy or mutilate a U.S. draft card, with penalties of up to five years and a $10,000 fine.
1966 -CHART TOPPERS - “Summer in the City” by The Lovin’ Spoonful, “Sunny” by Bobby Hebb, “See You in September” by The Happenings and “Almost Persuaded” by David Houston all topped the charts.
1968 – “People Got to Be Free” by the Rascals topped the charts.
1969 - Boxer Rocky Marciano died in an airplane crash in Iowa.
1971 – Dave Scott becomes first person to drive a car on the Moon.
1972 – Vietnam War: U.S. weekly casualty figures of five dead and three wounded are the lowest recorded since record keeping began in January 1965.
1972 - At the Munich Summer Olympics American swimmer Mark Spitz won his fourth and fifth gold medals, in the 100-meter butterfly and 800-meter freestyle relay.
1974 - ”The Partridge Family” television show ended.
1974 - In federal court, John Lennon testified the Nixon administration tried to have him deported because of his involvement with the anti-war demonstrations at the 1972 Republican convention in Miami, FL.
1974 - CHART TOPPERS - “(You’re) Having My Baby” by Paul Anka, “I Shot the Sheriff” by Eric Clapton, “Tell Me Something Good” by Rufus and “The Grand Tour” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1974 - Carole King’s “Jazzman” was released.
1976 - George Harrison (1943-2001) was found guilty of plagiarizing “My Sweet Lord.”
1978 - Emily and William Harris, founding members of the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA), pleaded guilty to four charges related to the 1974 kidnapping of Patty Hearst.
1979 – Comet Howard-Koomur-Michels collides with the Sun.
1980 – The Polish trade union Solidarity was formed in Gdansk.
1981 – $100 tickets went on sale for the highest-priced play in Broadway history. The popularity of Nicholas Nickleby gained unexpected momentum in the 1980s with the success of the Royal Shakespeare Company’s eight-and-a-half-hour stage production. It came with dinner.
1981 - The 30-year contract between ‘Mr. Television’, Milton Berle, and NBC-TV expired.
1982 - CHART TOPPERS - “Eye of the Tiger” by Survivor, “Hurts So Good” by John Cougar, “Abra-ca-dabra” by The Steve Miller Band and “Fool Hearted Memory” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1985 – “The Power of Love” by Huey Lewis & the News topped the charts.
1985 – The “Night Stalker” killer, Richard Ramirez, was captured by residents in Los Angeles.
1986 - Eighty-two people were killed when a small private plane collided with a Aeromexico DC-9 over Cerritos, CA.
1987 - The US Justice Department challenged the constitutionality of the 1978 Ethics in Government Act, which provided for the appointment of independent counsels. The Supreme Court upheld the law.
1988 – Five-day power blackout of downtown Seattle begins.
1988 - A Delta Boeing 727 crashed during takeoff at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport in Texas. Fourteen people were killed in the accident that was later blamed on the crew’s failure to set the wing flaps in their proper position.
1989 - The Rolling Stones began their first concert tour in eight years at JFK Stadium in Philadelphia, PA.
1990 – Ken Griffey Sr. & Jr. were the first father-and-son combo to play on same baseball team.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS - “Vision of Love” by Mariah Carey, “Come Back to Me” by Janet Jackson, “If Wishes Came True” by Sweet Sensation and “Next to You, Next to Me” by Shenandoah all topped the charts.
1990 – East Germany and West Germany signed a reunification treaty.
1991 - In a “Solidarity Day” protest hundreds of thousands of union members marched in Washington, DC.
1992 – Randy Weaver, a white separatist, surrendered to authorities after an eleven day siege at his cabin in Naples, ID.
1993 - Hurricane Emily hit North Carolina’s Outer Banks, killing three people.
1995 - Judge Lance Ito ruled that only two tapes of racist comments by Mark Fuhrman could be played in the trial of O.J. Simpson.
1996 – Iraq: More than 100 members of the Iraqi National Congress in Irbil were captured by Iraqi secret police and apparently executed. The Congress was set up by the US in 1992 as an alternative to Saddam Hussein.
1996 - Three adults and four children drowned at John D. Long Lake in Union, South Carolina when their car rolled into the lake by accident. They had gone to see a monument to the sons of Susan Smith, who drowned her two sons on Oct 25, 1994 when she let her car roll into the lake.
1997 – Princess Diana of Wales died at age 36 in a car crash in Paris. Her companion, Dodi Fayed, and their chauffeur were also killed.
1997 - In Phoenix, Az., bounty hunters in search of a bail jumper killed a couple that apparently knew nothing about the sought bail jumper.
1998 – “Titanic” became the first movie in North America to earn more than $600 million.
1998 - In Gaithersburg, Md., boxer Mike Tyson assaulted two motorists following a minor chain-reaction collision. In 1999 he was convicted of assault and sentenced to one year in jail.
1998 - Madonna filed suit against the YMCA to prevent it from building a high-rise residential tower near Lincoln Center in New York City, NY.
1999 - Detroit’s teachers went on strike, wiping out the first day of class for 172-thousand students in one of the largest teachers’ strikes in years. The walkout lasted nine days.
2000 - President Clinton vetoed a bill that would have gradually repealed inheritance taxes, saying it would have benefited the wealthiest Americans while threatening the nation’s financial well-being.
2001 - In Montana a helicopter assigned to the 25,500-acre Fridley fire crashed and 3 crewmen were killed.
2002 - The Los Angeles Sparks beat the New York Liberty 69-66 to defend their WNBA championship.
2003 - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency declassifies carbon dioxide as a pollutant, a move seen as leading to the elimination of restrictions on industrial emissions of the controversial gas.
2004 - US astronomers reported finding 2 planets orbiting distant stars. One was near 55 Cancri, 41 light-years away; the other was near Gliese 436, 33 light-years away.
2004 – Iraq: A video purporting to show the methodical, grisly killings of twelve Nepalese construction workers kidnapped in Iraq was posted on a Web site linked to a militant group operating in Iraq.
2004 - Tropical Storm Gaston flooded Richmond and other parts of central Virginia with a foot or more of rain. Five people were killed.
2005 - The Bush administration said it will release oil from federal petroleum reserves to help refiners affected by Hurricane Katrina.
2005 – New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin announced that the planned sandbagging of the 17th Street Canal levee breach had failed. At the time, 85% of the city was underwater.
2005 - At least 25,000 of Hurricane Katrina’s refugees, a majority of them at the New Orleans Superdome, began traveling in a bus convoy to Houston and will be sheltered at the 40-year-old Astrodome.
2006 - President George Bush, speaking in Salt Lake City, predicted victory in the war on terror, likening the struggle against Islamic fundamentalism with the fight against Nazis and communists.
2006 - NASA awarded a multibillion contract to Lockheed Martin Corp. to send astronauts to the moon and maybe on to Mars. The projected Orion crew exploration vehicle program will cost an estimated $7.5 billion through 2019.
2007- The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco denied an appeal from the Teamsters, the Sierra Club and other groups on Aug. 31, to allow Mexican trucks to cross or borders with no controls.
2007 – Mike Nifong, the disgraced former district attorney of Durham County, N.C., was sentenced to a day in jail after being held in criminal contempt of court for lying to a judge when pursuing rape charges against three falsely accused Duke University lacrosse players.
2007 - Democratic Party fundraiser Norman Hsu surrenders to the San Mateo County sheriff’s office on a 15-year-old felony warrant.
2007 – A federal appeals court allowed the US Navy to resume underwater sonar blasts in anti-submarine warfare tests off of Southern California, saying military needs come before whales.
2008 - New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin orders the mandatory evacuation of the city ahead of Hurricane Gustav.
2009 – In southern California a massive fire in the Angeles National Forest nearly doubled in size overnight, threatening 12,000 homes in a 20-mile-long swath of flame and smoke and surging toward a mountaintop broadcasting complex.
2009 – Florida’s Gov. Crist signed a 20-year gambling pact with the Seminole Indian tribe, which agreed to pay Florida $12.5 million a month for 30 months for running, currently illegal, slot machines and blackjack games.
2009 – The Walt Disney Co. said it is buying Marvel Entertainment Inc. for $4 billion in cash and stock, bringing such characters as Iron Man and Spider-Man into the family of Mickey Mouse and WALL-E.
2010 - President Barack Obama marked the symbolic end of US combat operations in Iraq. Vice President Joe Biden presided over the formal end to US combat operations in Iraq.
2010 – In Arkansas a medical helicopter crashed in Van Burn County killing three crew members trying to reach a person injured in a traffic accident.
2010 – Senator Lisa Murkowski concedes defeat in the Alaskan Republican primary election to challenger to Joe Miller.
2011- Wildfires severely damage homes and infrastructure in the US states of Texas and Oklahoma.
1880 – Wilhelmina, Dutch queen (1890-1948).
1897 – Fredric March (Ernest Frederick McIntyre Bickel), American Academy Award-winning actor.
1903 – Arthur Godfrey, American television host (d. 1983)
1908 – William Saroyan, American Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright.
1918 – Alan Jay Lerner, American songwriter, lyricist.
1935 – Eldridge Cleaver, American black activist.
1945 – Itzhak Perlman, Israeli violinist.
KOUMA, ERNEST R.
Rank and organization: Master Sergeant (then Sfc.) U.S. Army, Company A, 72d Tank Battalion. Place and date: Vicinity of Agok, Korea, 31 August and 1 September 1950. Entered service at: Dwight, Nebr. Born: 23 November 1919, Dwight, Nebr. G.O. No.: 38, 4 June 1951. Citation: M/Sgt. Kouma, a tank commander in Company A, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. His unit was engaged in supporting infantry elements on the Naktong River front. Near midnight on 31 August, a hostile force estimated at five hundred crossed the river and launched a fierce attack against the infantry positions, inflicting heavy casualties. A withdrawal was ordered and his armored unit was given the mission of covering the movement until a secondary position could be established. The enemy assault overran two tanks, destroyed one and forced another to withdraw. Suddenly M/Sgt. Kouma discovered that his tank was the only obstacle in the path of the hostile onslaught. Holding his ground, he gave fire orders to his crew and remained in position throughout the night, fighting off repeated enemy attacks. During one fierce assault, the enemy surrounded his tank and he leaped from the armored turret, exposing himself to a hail of hostile fire, manned the .50 caliber machine gun mounted on the rear deck, and delivered pointblank fire into the fanatical foe. His machine gun emptied, he fired his pistol and threw grenades to keep the enemy from his tank. After more than nine hours of constant combat and close-in fighting, he withdrew his vehicle to friendly lines. During the withdrawal through 8 miles of hostile territory, M/Sgt. Kouma continued to inflict casualties upon the enemy and exhausted his ammunition in destroying three hostile machine gun positions. During this action, M/Sgt. Kouma killed an estimated two-hundred-fifty enemy soldiers. His magnificent stand allowed the infantry sufficient time to reestablish defensive positions. Rejoining his company, although suffering intensely from his wounds, he attempted to resupply his tank and return to the battle area. While being evacuated for medical treatment, his courage was again displayed when he requested to return to the front. M/Sgt. Kouma’s superb leadership, heroism, and intense devotion to duty reflect the highest credit on himself and uphold the esteemed traditions of the U.S. Army.
*LYELL, WILLIAM F.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Chup’a-ri, Korea, 31 August 1951. Entered service at: Old Hickory, Tenn. Birth: Hickman County, Tenn. G.O. No.: 4, 9 January 1953. Citation: Cpl. Lyell, a member of Company F, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. When his platoon leader was killed, Cpl. Lyell assumed command and led his unit in an assault on strongly fortified enemy positions located on commanding terrain. When his platoon came under vicious, raking fire which halted the forward movement, Cpl. Lyell seized a 57mm. recoilless rifle and unhesitatingly moved ahead to a suitable firing position from which he delivered deadly accurate fire completely destroying an enemy bunker, killing its occupants. He then returned to his platoon and was resuming the assault when the unit was again subjected to intense hostile fire from two other bunkers. Disregarding his personal safety, armed with grenades he charged forward hurling grenades into one of the enemy emplacements, and although painfully wounded in this action he pressed on destroying the bunker and killing six of the foe. He then continued his attack against a third enemy position, throwing grenades as he ran forward, annihilating four enemy soldiers. He then led his platoon to the north slope of the hill where positions were occupied from which effective fire was delivered against the enemy in support of friendly troops moving up. Fearlessly exposing himself to enemy fire, he continuously moved about directing and encouraging his men until he was mortally wounded by enemy mortar fire. Cpl. Lyell’s extraordinary heroism, indomitable courage, and aggressive leadership reflect great credit on himself and are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service.
GREBE, M. R. WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Captain, Company F, 4th Missouri Cavalry. Place and date: At Jonesboro, Ga., 31 August 1864. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Born: 4 August 1838, Germany. Date of issue: 24 February 1899. Citation: While acting as aide and carrying orders across a most dangerous part of the battlefield, being hindered by a Confederate advance, seized a rifle, took a place in the ranks and was conspicuous in repulsing the enemy.