Administrative Professionals Day
Red Hat Society
“The Red Hat Society began as a result of a few women deciding to greet middle age with verve, humor and elan. We believe silliness is the comedy relief of life, and since we are all in it together, we might as well join red-gloved hands and go for the gusto together. Underneath the frivolity, we share a bond of affection, forged by common life experiences and a genuine enthusiasm for wherever life takes us next.”– Sue Ellen Cooper,
Oh! there is danger in thrift stores and at yard sales but sometimes, yes, sometimes some really good ideas happen. The story behind the Red Hat Society goes something like this: While visiting a friend in Tucson, Sue Ellen Cooper impulsively bought a bright red fedora at a thrift shop and for no other reason than that it was cheap, she thought it was quite dashing. A year or two later she read the poem “Warning” by Jenny Joseph, which depicts an older woman in purple clothing with a red hat. Sue Ellen felt an immediate kinship with Ms. Joseph. She decided that her birthday gift to her dear friend, Linda Murphy, would be a vintage red hat and a copy of the poem. She has always enjoyed whimsical decorating ideas, so she thought the hat would look nice hanging on a hook next to the framed poem. Linda got so much enjoyment out of the hat and the poem that Sue Ellen gave the same gift to another friend, then another, then another.
One day it occurred to these friends that they were becoming a sort of “Red Hat Society” and that perhaps they should go out to tea… in full regalia. They decided they would find purple dresses which didn’t go with their red hats to complete the poem’s image.
The tea was a smashing success.
Soon, each of them thought of another woman or two she wanted to include, and they bought more red hats. Their group swelled to 18, and they began to encourage other interested people to start their own chapters (18 women don’t fit well around a tea table). One of their members passed along the idea to a friend of hers in Florida, and their first “sibling” group was born.
Sue Ellen’s fondest hope is that these societies will proliferate far and wide. We have now held three successful Red Hat Society conventions entire hotels filled with women of a certain age wearing red hats and purple outfits! Could world domination be far behind?
If you access from here, please tell them you heard about them from Unerased History!!
2 Corinthians 4:8-11 King James Version (KJV)
8 We are troubled on every side, yet not distressed; we are perplexed, but not in despair; 9 Persecuted, but not forsaken; cast down, but not destroyed; 10 Always bearing about in the body the dying of the Lord Jesus, that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our body. 11 For we which live are always delivered unto death for Jesus’ sake, that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our mortal flesh.
“A wise and frugal government, which shall restrain men from injuring one another, which shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned. This is the sum of good government, and this is necessary to close the circle of our felicity.”
Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address.
“Only as high as I reach, can I grow, only as far as I seek can I go, only as deep as I look can I see, only as much as I dream can I be.”
~ Karen Ravn
absquatulate (ab-SKWOCH-uh-layt) verb intransitive
To leave in a hurry; to flee.
A Mock-Latinate formation, from ab- (away) + squat + -ulate (as in congratulate). First cited from the late 1830s.
1507 – Martin Waldseemuller, a German geographer working at a small college in Eastern France, labeled the New World “America,” for the first time in his book “Cosmographiae Introductio,” and gave Amerigo Vespucci (d.1512) credit for discovering it.
1684 – A patent was granted for the thimble. The earliest known thimble was Roman and was found at Pompeii. This was the first patent.
1719 – Daniel Defoes publishes “Robinson Crusoe.”
1781 – Gen. Nathanael Greene engaged British forces at Hobkirk’s Hill, South Carolina, and was forced to retreat.
1792 – Highwayman Nicolas J. Pelletier becomes the first person under French law executed by guillotine.
1819 – The Revenue cutter Active captured the pirate vessel Irresistible in the Chesapeake Bay.
1831 – The New York and Harlem Railway was incorporated in New York City.
1846 – The Mexican-American War ignited as a result of disputes over claims to Texas boundaries. It was called the Thornton Affair. The outcome of the war fixed Texas’ southern boundary at the Rio Grande River.
1847 – The last survivors of the Donner Party are out of the wilderness.
1854 – The Gadsden Purchase was ratified in the US.
1860 – The first Japanese ambassador to the US, Niimi Buzennokami, and his 74-man staff arrived in Washington to present their credentials to President James Buchanan.
1861 – Civil War: The Union Army arrives in Washington, D.C.
1862 – Civil War: Forces under Union Admiral David Farragut capture the Confederate city of New Orleans, Louisiana.
1864 – Civil War: The Battle of Marks’ Mills.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate force captures a Union wagon train trying to supply the Federal force at Camden, Arkansas.
1864 – Civil War: After facing defeat in the Red River Campaign, Union General Nathaniel Bank returned to Alexandria, LA.
1865 – Four of the five Lincoln assassination suspects arrested on the 17th were imprisoned on the monitors U.S.S. Montauk and Saugus which had been prepared for this purpose on the 15th and were anchored off the Washington Navy Yard in the Anacostia River.
1873 – The Beaumaris Castle, an English sailing ship was shipwrecked on the Mills Breakers in the Bermuda coral reefs.
1876 – The first major league team in Chicago was the Cubs, who played in the inaugural National League season of 1876 and were known as the White Stockings at that time.
1891 – President Benjamin Harrison visited San Francisco. This was just 41 years after it became a city.
1896 – A fight at the Central Dance Hall in the red light district knocked over a kerosene lamp and started a fire that burned down a good part of Cripple Creek, CO.
1896 – In Kansas a tornado swept through several counties killing at least nine people in Clay County. Twenty-seven farms were destroyed.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The U.S. Congress recognizes that a state of war exists between the United States and Spain as of this date. Spain had declared war on the U.S. on the 24th.
1901 – New York becomes the first U.S. state to require automobile license plates. The “fee” was $1 and the motorists was required to make their own.
1901 – In last of 9th, Detroit Tigers, trailing by 13-4, score 10 runs to win one of the greatest comebacks in baseball (1st game in Detroit).
1913 – The formal charter of the Marine Corps Association was established.
1914 – First combat observation mission by Navy plane, at Veracruz, Mexico.
1928 – Buddy, a German Shepherd, becomes first guide dog for the blind. He was originally trained in Switzerland, then he was placed with Morris Frank in the United States.
1933 – US & Canada drop Gold Standard. The use of gold came to an end in 1933 when President Franklin D. Roosevelt outlawed private gold ownership (except for the purposes of jewelry).
1938 – U.S. Supreme Court delivers opinion in Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins and overturns almost a century of federal civil procedure case law, and established the foundation of what remains the modern law of diversity jurisdiction as it applies to United States federal courts.
1938 – “Your Family and Mine,” a radio serial, was first broadcast.
1939 – DC Comics publishes its second major superhero in Detective Comics #27; he is Batman.
1940 – W2XBS (now WCBS-TV) in New York City presented the first circus on TV.
1943 – World War II: American bombers raid an airfield around Bari, Italy in the south.
1944 – The United Negro College Fund is incorporated.
1945 – World War II : Elbe Day: United States and Russian troops meet in Torgau along the River Elbe, cutting the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany in two, a milestone in the approaching end of World War II in Europe.
1945 – World War II: The Nazi occupation army leaves Northern Italy after a general partisan insurrection by the Italian resistance movement. This day is taken as symbolic of the Liberation of Italy.
1945 – World War II: Soviet forces complete the encirclement of Berlin near Ketzin.
1945 – World War II: American planes strike Skoda Works near Pilsen, Czechoslovakia.
1945 – World War II: Last B-17 attack against Nazi Germany.
1946 – Jimmie Lunceford Orchestra recorded “Cement Mixer” for Majestic records.
1946 – A train crash at Naperville, Illinois, killed 45-48 and injured 125 people. The “Exposition Flyer” rammed into the “Advance Flyer”, which had made an unscheduled stop to check its running gear.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Heartaches” by The Ted Weems Orchestra (whistler: Elmo Tanner), “The Anniversary Song” by Dinah Shore, “Linda” by Buddy Clark with the Ray Noble Orchestra and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1950 – Chuck Cooper becomes the first Black to play in the NBA. The 6’5″ Cooper attended Duquesne University and was one of the first Black All-Americans. Cooper broke the color barrier in the National Basketball Association (NBA) by being drafted by the Boston Celtics.
1951 – Korean War: Eighth Army was pushed back twenty miles. The volunteer battalion from Belgium and Luxembourg was cut off but fought its way to safety after a 20-hour siege. Members of the battalion had high praise for the support provided by U.S. Marine Corsairs.
1952 – Korean War: After a three-day fight against Chinese Communist Forces, the Gloucestershire Regiment was annihilated on “Gloucester Hill,” in Korea. The regiment was awarded the South Korean Distinguished Unit Citation and United States Distinguished Unit Citation, the regiment gained the nickname “The Glorious Glosters”, for its heroic last stand against overwhelming Chinese forces.
1952 – American Bowling Congress approves use of an automatic pinsetter.
1953 – “The Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1953 – NBC-TV presented “Ethel and Albert“, the video version of the popular radio show. Peg Lynch and Alan Bunce starred in the program. Ethel & Albert – Duck Hunting.
1953 – U.S. Senator Wayne Morse ended the longest speech in U.S. Senate history. The speech on the Offshore Oil Bill lasted 22 hours and 26 minutes.
1953 – Francis Crick and James D. Watson identify DNA They publish “Molecular structure of nucleic acids: a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid” describing the double helix structure of DNA.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes, “Unchained Melody” by Les Baxter, “Unchained Melody” by Al Hibler and “In the Jailhouse Now” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1955 – The first cases of polio in children who received a vaccine were reported. It was later found that two batches of vaccine made by Cutter Laboratories of Berkeley, Ca., contained live polio virus.
1956 – John W. Powell (1919-2008), former editor of the China Weekly Review, was indicted by a federal grand jury in San Francisco on charges of sedition. Powell had published articles about alleged military use of germ warfare during the Korean War.
1957 – The Santa Susana Sodium Reactor Experimental (SRE) was a small sodium-cooled experimental reactor built by Southern California Edison and Atomics International at Santa Susana, near Moorpark in Ventura County. The reactor operated from 1957 to 1964.
1959 – The St. Lawrence Seaway, linking the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean, officially opens to shipping. The official opening ceremonies were held three months later on June 26th in presence of Queen Elizabeth II (representing Canada) and President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
1959 “Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods topped the charts.
1960 “Stuck on You” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1960 – Consent judgment in Memphis federal court ended restrictions barring voters in Fayette County, Tennessee. This was the first voting rights case under the Civil Rights Act.
1960 – The U.S. Navy submarine USS Triton completes the first submerged circumnavigation of the globe.
1961 – Elvis Presley made his last stage appearance for nearly eight years at Bloch Arena, HI.
1961 – Robert Noyce is granted a patent for an integrated circuit.
1961 – Mercury-Atlas rocket lifted off with an electronic mannequin. An unmanned Mercury test exploded on launch pad.
1962 – The U.S. spacecraft, Ranger, crashed on the Moon.
1962 – Operation Dominic began with a test blast on Christmas Island. The operation was a series of 105 nuclear test explosions conducted in 1962 and 1963 by the United States.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “He’s So Fine” by The Chiffons, “Can’t Get Used to Losing You” by Andy Williams, “I Will Follow Him” by Little Peggy March and “Still” by Bill Anderson all topped the charts.
1964 – “Can’t Buy Me Love” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1965 – MASS SHOOTING: Teenage sniper Michael Andrew Clark kills three and wounds six others shooting from a hilltop along Highway 101 just south of Santa Maria, California.
1967 – Colorado Governor John Love signed the first law legalizing abortion in the U.S. The law was limited to therapeutic abortions when agreed to, unanimously, by a panel of three physicians.
1970 – The band Pacific Gas and Electric was shot at while leaving a club in Raleigh, NC.
1970 – “ABC” by the Jackson 5 topped the charts.
1970 – Freda Payne releases “Band of Gold“.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Joy to the World” by Three Dog Night, “Put Your Hand in the Hand” by Ocean, “Never Can Say Goodbye” by The Jackson 5 and “Empty Arms” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1972 – Major General Frederick E. Davidson first African American to lead an Army division.
1972 – Vietnam War: Nguyen Hue Offensive – The North Vietnamese 320th Division forces 5,000 South Vietnamese troops to retreat and traps about 2,500 others northwest of Kontum.
1973 – “The Sweet”, received a gold record for the hit “Little Willy“.
1974 – NFL moves the goal posts & adopts sudden-death playoff.
1976 – Cub centerfielder Rick Monday rescues US flag from two fans trying to set it on fire. William Thomas and his 11-year-old son, ran into the outfield and tried to set fire to an American flag they had brought with them. Ricky Monday, then playing with the Cubs, noticed they had placed the flag on the ground and were fumbling with matches and lighter fluid; he then dashed over and grabbed the flag from the ground to thunderous cheers. He handed the flag to Los Angeles pitcher Doug Rau, after which the ballpark police officers arrested the two intruders.
1977 – Elvis Presley recorded a concert in Saginaw, Michigan. Three of the songs later appeared on the album “Moody Blue,” which was released posthumously.
1978- William Clinton (31), attorney general of Arkansas and candidate for governor, sexually assaulted Juanita Broaddrick at the Camelot Inn in Little Rock. Broaddrick made the story public on national TV in 1999.
1978 – The US Supreme Court ruled pension plans can’t require women to pay more.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Knock on Wood” by Amii Stewart, “Heart of Glass” by Blondie, “Music Box Dancer” by Frank Mills and “All I Ever Need is You” by Kenny Rogers & Dottie West all topped the charts.
1980 – President Jimmy Carter announced the hostage rescue disaster in Iran.
1981 – “Kiss on My List” by Daryl Hall & John Oates topped the charts.
1983 – American schoolgirl Samantha Smith is invited to visit the Soviet Union by its leader Yuri Andropov after he read her letter in which she expressed fears about nuclear war.
1983 – May 19th Communist Organization responsible for a bombing at the National War College at Fort McNair in Washington, D.C.
1983 – Pioneer 10 travels beyond Pluto’s orbit.
1985 – “Big River (The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn)” opened at the Eugene O’Neill Theatre on Broadway in New York City.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Knew You Were Waiting (For Me)” by Aretha Franklin & George Michael, “Don’t Dream It’s Over” by Crowded House, “Sign ’o’ the Times” by Prince, “Rose in Paradise” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts .
1990 – The Hubble Telescope is deployed into orbit from the Space Shuttle Discovery.
1992 – “Jump” by Kris Kross topped the charts.
1992 – The Ms. Foundation began its “Take Our Daughters to Work Day.”
1992 – An earthquake measuring 7.1 on the Richter scale shook northern California.
1995 – Baseball season begins after lengthy strike.
1996 – Ford Motor Co. announced a recall of about eight- million cars, minivans and pickups because of an ignition switch fire hazard.
1997 – The Clinton administration extended the area over which the northwest coast silvery Coho salmon is considered a “threatened” species.
1997 – In the US a federal judge ruled that cigarettes are drug delivery systems and that the FDA has the right to regulate cigarettes and other tobacco products — but said it couldn’t restrict cigarette advertising.
1998 – “Too Close” by Next topped the charts.
1998 – U.S. First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton on was questioned by Whitewater prosecutors on videotape about her work as a private lawyer for the failed savings and loan at the center of the investigation.
1998 – In Millbrae, Ca., motorcycle Patrolman David Chetcuti (43) was shot and killed by Marvin Patrick Sullivan (43) during a routine traffic stop. Sullivan, a paranoid schizophrenic, was found to be carrying a cache of pipe bombs and rifles. Sullivan was later found to be incompetent to stand trial.
1999 – More than 70,000 mourners gathered in Littleton, Colo., to remember the victims of the Columbine High School massacre.
2000 – The Ohio state motto, “With God, all things are possible,” was declared unconstitutional by a federal appeals court. The ACLU lost this battle and the motto survived this challenge.
2001 – A rescue plane flew out of the South Pole with ailing American doctor Ronald S. Shemenski in the most daring airlift ever from the pole.
2002 – The US House voted 405-9 to abolish the embattled Immigration and Naturalization Service.
2003 – Georgia lawmakers reached a compromise over the controversial state flag that bears the Confederate symbol, and redesigned the banner to display a less divisive symbol.
2005 – In Chicago 11 reputed mob figures were indicted on charges of plotting at least 18 murders including the 1986 hit on Tony Spilotro.
2007 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 13,000 for the first time closing at 13,089.89.
2007 – The House on Wednesday narrowly approved a $124 billion war spending bill that would require American troops to begin withdrawing from Iraq by Oct. 1, setting the stage for the first veto fight between President Bush and majority Democrats.
2008 – Wachovia Corp. agreed to pay as much as $144 million to settle an 18-month government investigation into its relationships with telemarketers that allegedly harmed 350,000 to 500,000 consumers.
2008 – In San Diego a bomb exploded at the FedEx building. The fire department found a second bomb in the parking lot and detonated it. On August 6 authorities indicted three people: Rachelle Carlock, Ella Louise Sanders and Eric Reginald Robinson.
2008 – Near San Diego, Ca., a shark killed triathlete David Martin (66) at Solano Beach.
2008 – Two people are killed and more than a dozen injured after a semitrailer crashes into a Chicago Transit Authority station during rush hour.
2009 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: University of Georgia Professor George Zinkhan allegedly kills three people in Athens, Georgia.
2010 – Nearly 100,000 people rally in Okinawa, Japan, demanding the removal of an American base from the island.
2011 – At least 300 people killed in deadliest tornado outbreak in the Southern United States since the 1974 Super Outbreak.
2011 – The Governor of Arkansas Mike Beebe declares a state of emergency following heavy storms including tornadoes hit the US state of Arkansas with at least two people dead and 100,000 without power.
2011 – The Governor of Kentucky Steve Beshear declares a state of emergency due to rising flood waters from the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
2012 – A judge on the Cook County Circuit Court rules that the Amazon tax levied on Internet businesses by the US state of Illinois is unconstitutional.
2013 – In the aftermath of the Boston Marathon bombings, Michael Bloomberg, mayor of New York City, claims that the FBI briefed him that suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev said that the bombers intended to attack New York City next.
2013 – The George W. Bush Presidential Center in Dallas, Texas, is dedicated in the presence of President Barack Obama, former president George W. Bush and all living former presidents. The complex will be opened to the public on May 1.
2014 – Bullets flew between a security guard and two armed robbers at a San Diego medical marijuana dispensary. Just yesterday the city had begun the process of issuing permits for medical marijuana dispensaries. One robber was killed, the security officer wounded and the second suspect on the run, according to a report by CBS 8 News.
2015 – The Hubble Space Telescope marks 25 years in orbit today. Hubble blasted off aboard the space shuttle Discovery on April 24, 1990, embarking upon an incredible mission filled with disappointment, drama, redemption and innumerable discoveries.
2015 – Riots started in Baltimore, MD after a citizen, Freddie Gray, who had been arrested died in police custody. The rioters wanted legal prosecution of those responsible for Gray’s death and an end to police brutality. After the final stage of the official protest event, some people became violent and damaged at least five police vehicles, and pelted police with rocks.
1599 – Oliver Cromwell, English statesman (d. 1658)
1710 – James Ferguson, Scottish astronomer (d. 1776)
1868 – John Bevins Moisant, pioneer aviator, first to cross English Channel with passenger and a cat, killed in New Orleans whose present day airport was originally name for him. (D. 1910)
1874 – Guglielmo Marconi, Italian inventor, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics (d. 1937)
1906 – William J. Brennan, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1997)
1917 – Ella Fitzgerald, American singer (d. 1996)
1932 – Meadowlark Lemon, American basketball player
1940 – Al Pacino, American actor
1969 – Joe Buck, American sports broadcaster
1969 – Renée Zellweger, American actress
SPRAYBERRY, JAMES M
Rank and organization: Captain (then 1st Lt.), U.S. Army, Company D, 5th Battalion, 7th Cavalry , 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, April 25th, 1968. Entered service at: Montgomery, Ala. Born: 24 April 1947, LaGrange, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Sprayberry, Armor, U.S. Army, distinguished himself by exceptional bravery while serving as executive officer of Company D. His company commander and a great number of the men were wounded and separated from the main body of the company. A daylight attempt to rescue them was driven back by the well entrenched enemy’s heavy fire. Capt. Sprayberry then organized and led a volunteer night patrol to eliminate the intervening enemy bunkers and to relieve the surrounded element. The patrol soon began receiving enemy machinegun fire. Capt. Sprayberry quickly moved the men to protective cover and without regard for his own safety, crawled within close range of the bunker from which the fire was coming. He silenced the machinegun with a hand grenade. Identifying several l-man enemy positions nearby, Capt. Sprayberry immediately attacked them with the rest of his grenades. He crawled back for more grenades and when two grenades were thrown at his men from a position to the front, Capt. Sprayberry, without hesitation, again exposed himself and charged the enemy-held bunker killing its occupants with a grenade. Placing two men to cover his advance, he crawled forward and neutralized three more bunkers with grenades. Immediately thereafter, Capt. Sprayberry was surprised by an enemy soldier who charged from a concealed position. He killed the soldier with his pistol and with continuing disregard for the danger neutralized another enemy emplacement. Capt. Sprayberry then established radio contact with the isolated men, directing them toward his position. When the two elements made contact he organized his men into litter parties to evacuate the wounded. As the evacuation was nearing completion, he observed an enemy machinegun position which he silenced with a grenade. Capt. Sprayberry returned to the rescue party, established security, and moved to friendly lines with the wounded. This rescue operation, which lasted approximately 7-1/2 hours, saved the lives of many of his fellow soldiers. Capt. Sprayberry personally killed twelve enemy soldiers, eliminated two machineguns, and destroyed numerous enemy bunkers. Capt. Sprayberry’s indomitable spirit and gallant action at great personal risk to his life are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
STUMPF, KENNETH E.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant (then Sp4c.), U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 35th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Duc Pho, Republic of Vietnam, April 25th, 1967. Entered service at: Milwaukee, Wis. Born: 28 September 1944, Neenah, Wis. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. S/Sgt. Stumpf distinguished himself while serving as a squad leader of the 3d Platoon, Company C, on a search and destroy mission. As S/Sgt. Stumpf’s company approached a village, it encountered a North Vietnamese rifle company occupying a well fortified bunker complex. During the initial contact, three men from his squad fell wounded in front of a hostile machinegun emplacement. The enemy’s heavy volume of fire prevented the unit from moving to the aid of the injured men, but S/Sgt. Stumpf left his secure position in a deep trench and ran through the barrage of incoming rounds to reach his wounded comrades. He picked up one of the men and carried him back to the safety of the trench. Twice more S/Sgt. Stumpf dashed forward while the enemy turned automatic weapons and machineguns upon him, yet he managed to rescue the remaining two wounded squad members. He then organized his squad and led an assault against several enemy bunkers from which continuously heavy fire was being received He and his squad successfully eliminated two of the bunker positions, but one to the front of the advancing platoon remained a serious threat. Arming himself with extra hand grenades, S/Sgt. Stumpf ran over open ground, through a volley of fire directed at him by a determined enemy, toward the machinegun position. As he reached the bunker, he threw a hand grenade through the aperture. It was immediately returned by the occupants, forcing S/Sgt. Stumpf to take cover. Undaunted, he pulled the pins on two more grenades, held them for a few seconds after activation, then hurled them into the position, this time successfully destroying the emplacement. With the elimination of this key position, his unit was able to assault and overrun the enemy. S/Sgt. Stumpf’s relentless spirit of aggressiveness, intrepidity, and ultimate concern for the lives of his men, are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
*ESSEBAGGER, JOHN, JR.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company A, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Popsudong, Korea, April 25th, 1951. Entered service at: Holland, Mich. Born: 29 October 1928, Holland, Mich. G.O. No.: 61, 24 April 1952. Citation: Cpl. Essebagger, a member of Company A, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. Committed to effect a delaying action to cover the 3d Battalion’s withdrawal through Company A, Cpl. Essebagger, a member of one of two squads maintaining defensive positions in key terrain and defending the company’s right flank, had participated in repulsing numerous attacks. In a frenzied banzai charge the numerically superior enemy seriously threatened the security of the planned route of withdrawal and isolation of the small force. Badly shaken, the grossly outnumbered detachment started to fall back and Cpl. Essebagger, realizing the impending danger, voluntarily remained to provide security for the withdrawal. Gallantly maintaining a l-man stand, Cpl. Essebagger raked the menacing hordes with crippling fire and, with the foe closing on the position, left the comparative safety of his shelter and advanced in the face of overwhelming odds, firing his weapon and hurling grenades to disconcert the enemy and afford time for displacement of friendly elements to more tenable positions. Scorning the withering fire and bursting shells, Cpl. Essebagger continued to move forward, inflicting destruction upon the fanatical foe until he was mortally wounded. Cpl. Essebagger’s intrepid action and supreme sacrifice exacted a heavy toll in enemy dead and wounded, stemmed the onslaught, and enabled the retiring squads to reach safety. His valorous conduct and devotion to duty reflected lasting glory upon himself and was in keeping with the noblest traditions of the infantry and the U.S. Army.
GILLILAND, CHARLES L.
Rank and organization: Corporal (then Pfc.), U.S. Army, Company I, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Tongmang-ni, Korea, April 25th, 1951. Entered service at: Yellville (Marion County), Ark. Born: 24 May 1933, Mountain Home, Ark. G.O. No.: 2, 11 January 1955. Citation: Cpl. Gilliland, a member of Company I, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. A numerically superior hostile force launched a coordinated assault against his company perimeter, the brunt of which was directed up a defile covered by his automatic rifle. His assistant was killed by enemy fire but Cpl. Gilliland, facing the full force of the assault, poured a steady fire into the foe which stemmed the onslaught. When two enemy soldiers escaped his raking fire and infiltrated the sector, he leaped from his foxhole, overtook and killed them both with his pistol. Sustaining a serious head wound in this daring exploit, he refused medical attention and returned to his emplacement to continue his defense of the vital defile. His unit was ordered back to new defensive positions but Cpl. Gilliland volunteered to remain to cover the withdrawal and hold the enemy at bay. His heroic actions and indomitable devotion to duty prevented the enemy from completely overrunning his company positions. Cpl. Gilliland’s incredible valor and supreme sacrifice reflect lasting glory upon himself and are in keeping with the honored traditions of the military service.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company D, 7th Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Near Popsu-dong, Korea, 24th and April 25th, 1951. Entered service at: Burnham, Maine. Born: 18 September 1929, Fort Kent, Maine. G.O. No.: 14, 1 February 1952. Citation: Cpl. Goodblood, a member of Company D, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against an armed enemy of the United Nations. Cpl. Goodblood, a machine gunner, was attached to Company B in defensive positions on thickly wooded key terrain under attack by a ruthless foe. In bitter fighting which ensued, the numerically superior enemy infiltrated the perimeter, rendering the friendly positions untenable. Upon order to move back, Cpl. Goodblood voluntarily remained to cover the withdrawal and, constantly vulnerable to heavy fire, inflicted withering destruction on the assaulting force. Seeing a grenade lobbed at his position, he shoved his assistant to the ground and flinging himself upon the soldier attempted to shield him. Despite his valorous act both men were wounded. Rejecting aid for himself, he ordered the ammunition bearer to evacuate the injured man for medical treatment. He fearlessly maintained his l-man defense, sweeping the onrushing assailants with fire until an enemy banzai charge carried the hill and silenced his gun. When friendly elements regained the commanding ground, Cpl. Goodblood’s body was found lying beside his gun and approximately one-hundred hostile dead lay in the wake of his field of fire. Through his unflinching courage and willing self-sacrifice the onslaught was retarded, enabling his unit to withdraw, regroup, and resecure the strongpoint. Cpl. Goodblood’s inspirational conduct and devotion to duty reflect lasting glory on himself and are in keeping with the noble traditions of the military service.
MIYAMURA, HIROSHI H.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company H, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Taejon-ni, Korea, 24th and April 25th, 1951. Entered service at: Gallup, N. Mex. Birth: Gallup, N. Mex. G.O. No.: 85, 4 November 1953. Citation: Cpl. Miyamura, a member of Company H, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. On the night of 24 April, Company H was occupying a defensive position when the enemy fanatically attacked threatening to overrun the position. Cpl. Miyamura, a machine gun squad leader, aware of the imminent danger to his men unhesitatingly jumped from his shelter wielding his bayonet in close hand-to-hand combat killing approximately ten of the enemy. Returning to his position, he administered first aid to the wounded and directed their evacuation. As another savage assault hit the line, he manned his machine gun and delivered withering fire until his ammunition was expended. He ordered the squad to withdraw while he stayed behind to render the gun inoperative. He then bayoneted his way through infiltrated enemy soldiers to a second gun emplacement and assisted in its operation. When the intensity of the attack necessitated the withdrawal of the company Cpl. Miyamura ordered his men to fall back while he remained to cover their movement. He killed more than fifty of the enemy before his ammunition was depleted and he was severely wounded. He maintained his magnificent stand despite his painful wounds, continuing to repel the attack until his position was overrun. When last seen he was fighting ferociously against an overwhelming number of enemy soldiers. Cpl. Miyamura’s indomitable heroism and consummate devotion to duty reflect the utmost glory on himself and uphold the illustrious traditions on the military service.
*GONZALES, DAVID M.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 127th Infantry, 32d Infantry Division. Place and date: Villa Verde Trail, Luzon, Philippine Islands, April 25th, 1945. Entered service at: Pacoima, Calif. Birth: Pacoima, Calif. G.O. No.: 115, 8 December 1945. Citation: He was pinned down with his company. As enemy fire swept the area, making any movement extremely hazardous, a 500-pound bomb smashed into the company’s perimeter, burying five men with its explosion. Pfc. Gonzales, without hesitation, seized an entrenching tool and under a hail of fire crawled fifteen yards to his entombed comrades, where his commanding officer, who had also rushed forward, was beginning to dig the men out. Nearing his goal, he saw the officer struck and instantly killed by machinegun fire. Undismayed, he set to work swiftly and surely with his hands and the entrenching tool while enemy sniper and machinegun bullets struck all about him. He succeeded in digging one of the men out of the pile of rock and sand. To dig faster he stood up regardless of the greater danger from so exposing himself. He extricated a second man, and then another. As he completed the liberation of the third, he was hit and mortally wounded, but the comrades for whom he so gallantly gave his life were safely evacuated. Pfc. Gonzales’ valiant and intrepid conduct exemplifies the highest tradition of the military service.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date: In Northern Po Valley, Italy, 24th- April 25th, 1945. Entered service at: Houston, Tex. Birth: Texas. G.O. No.: 81, 24 September 1945. Citation: He piloted a fighter-bomber aircraft in a series of low-level strafing missions, destroying fourteen grounded enemy aircraft and leading attacks which wrecked ten others during a critical period of the Allied drive in northern Italy. On the morning of 24 April, he volunteered to lead two other aircraft against the strongly defended enemy airdrome at Ghedi. Ordering his fellow pilots to remain aloft, he skimmed the ground through a deadly curtain of antiaircraft fire to reconnoiter the field, locating eight German aircraft hidden beneath heavy camouflage. He rejoined his flight, briefed them by radio, and then led them with consummate skill through the hail of enemy fire in a low-level attack, destroying five aircraft, while his flight accounted for two others. Returning to his base, he volunteered to lead three other aircraft in reconnaissance of Bergamo airfield, an enemy base near Ghedi and one known to be equally well defended. Again ordering his flight to remain out of range of antiaircraft fire, 1st Lt. Knight flew through an exceptionally intense barrage, which heavily damaged his Thunderbolt, to observe the field at minimum altitude. He discovered a squadron of enemy aircraft under heavy camouflage and led his flight to the assault. Returning alone after this strafing, he made ten deliberate passes against the field despite being hit by antiaircraft fire twice more, destroying six fully loaded enemy twin-engine aircraft and two fighters. His skillfully led attack enabled his flight to destroy four other twin-engine aircraft and a fighter plane. He then returned to his base in his seriously damaged plane. Early the next morning, when he again attacked Bergamo, he sighted an enemy plane on the runway. Again he led three other American pilots in a blistering low-level sweep through vicious antiaircraft fire that damaged his plane so severely that it was virtually nonflyable. Three of the few remaining enemy twin-engine aircraft at that base were destroyed. Realizing the critical need for aircraft in his unit, he declined to parachute to safety over friendly territory and unhesitatingly attempted to return his shattered plane to his home field. With great skill and strength, he flew homeward until caught by treacherous air conditions in the Appennines Mountains, where he crashed and was killed. The gallant action of 1st Lt. Knight eliminated the German aircraft which were poised to wreak havoc on Allied forces pressing to establish the first firm bridgehead across the Po River; his fearless daring and voluntary self-sacrifice averted possible heavy casualties among ground forces and the resultant slowing on the German drive culminated in the collapse of enemy resistance in Italy.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Indian Scouts. Place and date: At Pecos River, Tex., April 25th, 1875. Entered service at:——. Birth: Arkansas. Date of issue: 28 May 1875. Citation: With three other men, he participated in a charge against twenty-five hostiles while on a scouting patrol.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Trumpeter, Indian Scouts. Place and date: At Pecos River, Tex., April 25th, 1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Mexico. Date of issue: 28 May 1875. Citation: With three other men, he participated in a charge against twenty-five hostiles while on a scouting patrol.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, 24th U.S. Infantry Indian Scouts Place and date: At Pecos River, Tex., April 25th, 1875. Entered service at. Fort Duncan, Tex. Birth: Arkansas. Date of issue: 28 May 1875. Citation. With three other men, he participated in a charge against twenty-five hostiles while on a scouting patrol.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1832, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Mississippi during attacks on Forts Jackson and St. Philip and during the taking of New Orleans, 24th-April 25th, 1862. Taking part in the actions which resulted in the damaging of the Mississippi and several casualties on it, Brennan showed skill and courage throughout the entire engagements which resulted in the taking of St. Philip and Jackson and in the surrender of New Orleans.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1808, Baltimore, Md. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Brooklyn in the attack upon Forts Jackson and St. Philip and at the taking of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. Although severely wounded by a heavy splinter, Buck continued to perform his duty until positively ordered below. Later stealing back to his post, he steered the ship for 8 hours despite his critical condition. His bravery was typical of the type which resulted in the taking of the Forts Jackson and St. Philip and in the capture of New Orleans.
Rank and organization: Boy, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Pensacola in the attack on Forts Jackson and St. Philip and at the taking of new Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. Swept from the bridge by a shell which wounded the signal quartermaster, Flood returned to the bridge after assisting the wounded man below and taking over his duties, “Performed them with coolness, exactitude and the fidelity of a veteran seaman. His intelligence and character cannot be spoken of too warmly.”
Rank and organization: Captain of the Foretop, U.S. Navy. Born: Scotland. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Captain of foretop, and a volunteer from the Colorado, McLeod served on board the U.S.S. Pensacola during the attack upon Forts Jackson and St. Philip and the taking of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. Acting as gun captain of the rifled howitzer aft which was much exposed, he served this piece with great ability and activity, although no officer superintended it.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Afterguard, U.S. Navy. Birth: Boston, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: At the wheel on board the U.S.S. Cayuga during the capture of Forts St. Philip and Jackson, and New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. As his ship led the advance column toward the barrier and both forts opened fire simultaneously, striking the vessel from stem to stern, Parker conscientiously performed his duties throughout the action in which attempts by three rebel steamers to butt and board were thwarted, and the ships driven off. Eleven gunboats were successfully engaged and the enemy garrisons forced to surrender during this battle in which the Cayuga sustained forty-six hits.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Richards served as quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Pensacola in the attack upon Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and at the taking of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. Through all the din and roar of battle, he steered the ship through the narrow opening of the barricade, and his attention to orders contributed to the successful passage of the ship without once fouling the shore or the obstacles of the barricade.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Forecastle, U.S. Navy. Born: 1804, Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 71, 15 January 1866. Citation: Served as captain of the forecastle on board the U.S.S. Wissahickon during the battle of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862; and in the engagement at Fort McAllister, 27 February 1863. Going on board the U.S.S. Wissahickon from the U.S.S. Don where his seamanlike qualities as gunner’s mate were outstanding, Shutes performed his duties with skill and courage. Showing a presence of mind and prompt action when a shot from Fort McAllister penetrated the Wissahickon below the water line and entered the powder magazine, Shutes contributed materially to the preservation of the powder and safety of the ship.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1829, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Cayuga during the capture of Forts St. Philip and Jackson and the taking of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. As his ship led the advance column toward the barrier and both forts opened fire simultaneously, striking the vessel from stem to stern Wright conscientiously performed his duties throughout the action in which attempts by three rebel steamers to butt and board were repelled, and the ships driven off or forced to surrender. Eleven gunboats were successfully engaged and the enemy garrisons captured during this battle in which the Cayuga sustained forty-six hits.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Cayuga during the capture of Forts St. Philip and Jackson and the taking of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. As his ship led the advance column toward the barrier and both forts opened fire simultaneously, striking the vessel from stem to stern, Young calmly manned a Parrot gun throughout the action in which attempts by three rebel steamers to butt and board were thwarted and the ships driven off or captured, eleven gunboats were successfully engaged and garrisons forced to surrender. During the battle, the Cayuga sustained forty-six hits.
“In God We Trust” and the Constitution
The argument brought forward by the anti-motto group is that it promotes a theistic religion or one that believes in a single, male diety that is followed by the main Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam). It should not be allowed because Buddhists don’t believe in a personal diety, religions that believe in two deities include Zorastrianism (Iran) and Wiccans (a Neopagan, Earth-centered religion). Hindus believe in many dieties. Due to those differences, it would appear that the motto violates the principle of separation of Church and state. Some of the groups that take offense to our national motto include agnostics (those that question whether there really is a God), atheists (Belief in no God, or no belief in God), Buddhists, Hindus, Wiccans and other neopagans.
The religiousity of the national motto has been challenged by three lawsuits and, in each case, it has been found to be constitutional. Basically, the courts have ruled that the motto does not endorse religion. The decisions from latest to earliest:
1994 -The Freedom From Religion Foundation, Inc. conducted a national survey which showed that “In God We Trust” was regarded as religious by an overwhelming percentage of U.S. citizens. The actual results are said to be that sixty-one percent consider “In God We Trust” religious, and 71% believe it endorses a belief in God. A majority also regard the motto as preferring religion over nonreligion. (Chamberlain Research, poll of 900 adults, conducted May 18-23, 1994). Neither the polling group nor the questions asked are available.
They initiated a lawsuit on June 8th, 1994 in Denver CO to have it removed from U.S. paper currency and coins. They also wanted it to be discontinued as the national motto. Their lawsuit was dismissed by the district Court without trial, on the grounds that “In God We Trust” is not a religious phrase! The Tenth-Circuit federal judge confirmed the dismissal, stating in part:
“…we find that a reasonable observer, aware of the purpose, context, and history of the phrase ‘In God we trust,’ would not consider its use or its reproduction on U.S. currency to be an endorsement of religion.”
1979 – “Madalyn Murray O’Hair, et al. v. W. Michael Blumenthal, Secretary of Treasury, et al.” 588 F.2d 1144 (1979) in the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. Ms. O’Hair is infamous for successfully challenging compulsory prayer in U.S. public schools. The United States District Court, Western District of Texas, referring to the wording of the Ninth Circuit below, ruled that:
“From this it is easy to deduce that the Court concluded that the primary purpose of the slogan was secular; it served as secular ceremonial purpose in the obviously secular function of providing a medium of exchange. As such it is equally clear that the use of the motto on the currency or otherwise does not have a primary effect of advancing religion.”
1970 – “Aronow v. United States,” 432 F.2d 242 (1970) in the United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit The court ruled that:
“It is quite obvious that the national motto and the slogan on coinage and currency ‘In God We Trust’ has nothing whatsoever to do with the establishment of religion. Its use is of patriotic or ceremonial character and bears no true resemblance to a governmental sponsorship of a religious exercise.”
This ruling was sustained by the Fifth Circuit court.
In the end, the motto is constitutional and patriotic and used for a secular ceremonial purpose. It does not “establish a religion.”
Matthew 5:44 King James Version (KJV)
44 But I say unto you, “Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you”;
“Are we at last brought to such humiliating and debasing degradation that we cannot be trusted with arms for our defense? Where is the difference between having our arms in possession and under our direction, and having them under the management of Congress? If our defense be the real object of having those arms, in whose hands can they be trusted with more propriety, or equal safety to us, as in our own hands?”
“A good deed is never lost: he who sows courtesy reaps friendship; and he who plants kindness gathers love.”
verb intr.: To leave hurriedly.
First noticed during the Civil War in 1861. Perhaps from northern England dialect.
303 – St. George, dragon-slaying knight, died. He was made the patron saint of England in the 14th century.
1597 – William Shakespeare’s “The Merry Wives of Windsor” is first performed, with Queen Elizabeth I of England in attendance.
1635 – First public school in the United States, Boston Latin School, is founded in Boston, Massachusetts.
1662 – Connecticut was chartered as an English colony.
1775 – The Provincial Congress in Massachusetts orders 13,600 American soldiers to be mobilized. Colonial volunteers from all over New England assemble and head for Boston, then establish camps around the city and begin a year long siege of British-held Boston.
1778 – Revolutionary War: Captain John Paul Jones attempted to kidnap the Earl of Selkirk, but he only got Lady Selkirk’s silverware.
1789 – President-elect George Washington moves into Franklin House, New York. This was the first executive mansion. Two days previous George Washington was inaugurated at Federal Hall and formerly lived at 3 Cherry Street in New York City. That area is now the New Way Deli and Public School 126.
1790 – Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton asked Congress for authorization to build a “system of cutters” for “securing the collection of the revenue.” The request was for ten cutters.
1856 – Free Stater J.N. Mace in Westport, Kansas shot pro-slavery Sheriff Samuel Jones in the back.
1860 – The Pony Express rider missed the boat at Benicia, Ca. Thomas Bedford, a 34-year-old stable keeper, was hired on the spot and boarded the ferry Carquinez with his horse.
1860 – Democratic convention in Charleston, SC, divided over slavery.
1861 – Civil War: Arkansas troops seized Fort Smith.
1861 – Civil War: Battle of San Antonio, TX.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Cane River, LA (Red River Expedition, Monett’s Ferry).
1865 – Civil War: Union cavalry units continued to skirmish with Confederate forces in Henderson, North Carolina and Munsford Station, Alabama.
1865 – Dedicated Massachusetts abolitionist Silas Soule (b.1838) was shot and killed near his home in Colorado by a soldier named Charles Squires.
1867 – William Lincoln patents the zoetrope, a machine which shows animated pictures by mounting a strip of drawings in a wheel.
1872 – Charlotte E. Ray became the first Black female lawyer.
1896 – Vitascope system of movie projection first demonstrated at Koster and Bial’s Music Hall in New York City.
1899 – In Georgia some 2000 people gathered to watch the lynching Sam Hose, a black man questionably accused of murdering a white planter and raping his wife. His ears, fingers, and genitals were cut off and his face was skinned before he was burned in kerosene soaked wood.
1900 – Hillbilly, the word, has been used in American print since April 23, 1900. On that day the New York Journal reported that “a Hill-Billie is a free and untrammelled white citizen of Alabama, who lives in the hills, has no means to speak of, dresses as he can, talks as he pleases, drinks whiskey when he gets it, and fires off his revolver as the fancy takes him.”
1903 – New York Highlanders (Yankees) win their first game beating Washington Senators 7-2.
1908 – President Theodore Roosevelt signed an act creating the U.S. Army Medical Reserve Corps.Reserve officers could be ordered to active duty during time of emergency. In June 1908, the first 160 Reserve medical officers received their commissions. This number grew to about 360 by 1909, to 1,900 by 1916, and to 9,223 by 1917.
1912 – Eagle Scout Scout Rank earned by Arthur Eldred in Troop 1 in Oceanside, New York.
1915 – The A.C.A. became the National Advisory Council on Aeronautics (NACA).
1918 – USS Stewart destroys German submarine off France.
1919 – Major leagues open a reduced 140-game season. The season opened in Washington with General March, Army Chief of Staff, throwing out the first ball. Walter Johnson wins a 1-0, 13-inning duel with the Philadelphia A’s Scott Perry.
1921 – Charles Paddock set a record time in the 300-meter track event when he posted a time of 33.2 seconds.
1924 – The U.S. Senate passed the Soldiers Bonus Bill. Veterans’ advocates argued that their members deserved a cash award to balance out the difference between their modest military pay and the high wages enjoyed by civilian war workers.
1934 – In first U.S. Navy movement through Panama Canal over 100 ships went through.
1940 – The Rhythm Night Club fire (1:53:32) at a dance hall in Natchez, Mississippi, kills 198 people.
1941 – World War II: Greek government and King George II evacuate Athens before the attacking Wehrmacht.
1942 – World War II: Baedeker Blitz – German bombers hit Exeter, Bath and York in retaliation for the British raid on Lübeck.
1944 – World War II: US forces capture Hollandia, New Guinea, without a fight.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Candy” by Johnny Mercer & Jo Stafford, “I’m Beginning to See the Light” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “My Dreams are Getting Better All the Time” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day)and “Smoke on the Water” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: Advance units of both US 5th and British 8th Armies reach the Po River in northern Italy. US 5th Army units manage to cross the river south of Mantua.
1945 – World War II: Hitler receives a message from Goering, offering to take over the leadership of the country should Hitler be unable to continue with that task while besieged in Berlin. Hitler is infuriated and orders Goering arrested.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, the attacks of US 24th Corps begin to achieve some gains, notably by US 96th Division.
1945 – World War II: Units of US 37th Division reach the outskirts of Baguio.
1945 – World War II: In only U.S. use of guided missiles in WW II, 2 BAT missiles release at Balikiapan, Borneo.
1945 – World War II: The concentration camp at Flossenburg was liberated.
1947 – James Baskett(1904-1948 )was given a Special Academy Award for his part in Disney’s “Song Of The South“. He was the second Black to receive an Academy Award. Baskett was also the first African American hired by Disney. Unfortunately Baskett was unable to attend the premiere in Atlanta because he was unable to get accommodations.
1948 – Johnny Longden became the first race jockey to ride 3,000 career winners.
1949 – “Cruising Down the River” by Blue Barron topped the charts.
1950 – First major league day game completed under lights. In a double-header, the Phillies dropped the opener 4-3. Behind the pitching of Robin Roberts, the Phillies defeated the Braves 6-5.
1951 – The Associated Press began use of a new service, teletypesetting.
1952 – New York Giant Hoyt Wilhelm wins his first relief game & hits his only homerun in 1,070 games.
1954 – Hank Aaron hits first of his 755 homers, a solo shot off Vic Raschi of St. Louis.
1954 – “Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes topped the charts.
1956 – Project Vanguard, earth satellite launching program, assigned to Deputy Chief Naval Operations (Air).
1956 – US Supreme Court ended race segregation on buses.
1958 – Gil Hodges hits his 300th homerun & Pee Wee Reese plays in 2,000th game.
1960 – Theme from “A Summer Place“by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1960 – The first lunch counters were integrated in San Antonio, Texas.
1962 – New York Mets win their first game in team history.
1962 – Ranger 4, first US satellite to reach Moon launched from Cape Canaveral.
1963 – Jan & Dean recorded “Surf City.”
1963 – Pete Rose of the Cincinnati Reds got his first hit in the major leagues. It was a triple off the Pirates’ Bob Friend.
1964 – Houston’s Ken Johnson becomes the first pitcher ever to hurl a 9-inning no-hitter and lose as Cincinnati wins 1-0. Two errors in the ninth inning allows Pete Rose to score the only run.
1965 – The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. leads thousands of people on a 54 mile march from Selma to Montgomery Alabama to call for voting rights for African Americans.
1966 – “(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration” by the Righteous Brothers topped the charts.
1968 – Vietnam War: Student protesters at Columbia University in New York City take over administration buildings and shut down the university.
1968 – The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church merged to form the United Methodist Church.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Aquarius/Let the Sun Shine In” by The 5th Dimension, “You’ve Made Me So Very Happy” by Blood, Sweat & Tears, “It’s Your Thing” by The Isley Brothers and “Galveston” by Glen Campbell all topped the charts.
1969 – Sirhan Sirhan was sentenced to death for assassinating New York Senator Robert F. Kennedy. The sentence was later reduced to life imprisonment.
1971 – In the final event of Operation Dewey Canyon III, nearly 1,000 Vietnam War veterans threw their combat ribbons, helmets, and uniforms on the Capitol steps.
1975 – President Gerald Ford says the Vietnam War is finished as far as America is concerned. “Today, Americans can regain the sense of pride that existed before Vietnam. But it cannot be achieved by re-fighting a war.”
1982 – The Unabomber mailed a pipe bomb from Provo, Utah, to Pennsylvania State University. It was forwarded to Vanderbilt Univ. scientist Patrick C. Fisher.
1982 – The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that consumer prices declined the previous month (March). It was the first decline in almost 17 years.
1982 – Key West, Fla., under Mayor Dennis Wardlow declared that it was seceding from the US and would rename itself the Conch Republic. The move was in response to a state roadblock and inspection on all cars heading out of the Florida Keys and protest against what they view as an “unresponsive” central government taking action without considering all of the implications.
1983 – “Come On Eileen” by Dexy’s Midnight Runners topped the charts.
1985 – Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke. (The response is overwhelmingly negative, and the original formula is back on the market in less than 3 months.)
1985 – Liberace appeared on the TV soap opera “Another World”.
1987 – Twenty-eight construction workers die when the L’Ambiance Plaza apartment building collapses while under construction in Bridgeport, Connecticut.
1988 – “Where Do Broken Hearts Go?” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1988 – Pink Floyd’s album “Dark Side of the Moon” (42:56) leaves the charts for its first time after spending a record of 741 consecutive weeks (over 14 years) on the Billboard 200.
1988 – In Martinez, CA, a drain valve was left open at the Shell Marsh. More than 10,000 barrels of oil poured into the marsh adjoining Peyton Slough Marsh Complex.
1988 – Federal smoking ban during domestic airline flights of 2 hours or less.
1989 – Kareem Abdul-Jabbar played his last regular season game in the NBA.
1989 – Troy Aikman of UCLA became the first player chosen in the NFL draft in New York City as he was selected by the Dallas Cowboys.
1990 – Freed American hostage Robert Polhill, released in Lebanon the day before, enjoyed his first full day of freedom in nearly 39 months.
1991 – President Bush welcomed General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the just-returned Gulf War commander, at the White House.
1991 – NASA scrubbed the launch of the space shuttle “Discovery” after a sensor on one of the main engines failed during fueling.
1995 – President Bill Clinton declares a national day of mourning for Oklahoma City bombing victims.
1996 – A New York civil-court jury ordered Bernhard Goetz to pay $43 million to Darrell Cabey. Cabey was paralyzed when he was shot in subway car in 1984.
1997 – The military confirmed that two pieces of wreckage found on a snowy Rocky Mountain peak were from the Air Force warplane that vanished on a training mission over Arizona.
1997 – An infertility doctor in California announced that a 63-year-old woman had given birth in late 1996. The child was from a donor egg. The woman is the oldest known woman to give birth.
1997 – Golfer Fuzzy Zoeller, again apologizing for racial comments about Masters winner Tiger Woods, withdrew from the Greater Greensboro Chrysler Classic.
1998 – James Earl Ray died, at age 70, while serving a life sentence for the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
1998 – Two New Jersey troopers fired 11 shots into a van carrying African American and Latino men from the Bronx. They admitted to racial profiling and pleaded guilty to misdemeanor charges in 2002.
2000 – Elian Gonzalez spent a secluded Easter with his father at Andrews Air Force Base outside Washington, a day after the six-year-old boy was removed from his Miami relatives’ home in a pre-dawn raid by immigration agents.
2001 – A US robot spy plane completed the first unmanned trans-Pacific flight from California to Australia.
2002 – In California the Metrolink Train from Riverside to Orange County collided with a Burlington Northern Santa Fe freight train and two people were killed. Over 260 were injured. The freight train failed to heed line signals.
2003 – President George W. Bush signed legislation that authorized the design change of the 5-cent coin (nickel) for release in 2004. It was the first change to the coin in 65 years.
2003 – American Airlines reported a $1-billion first-quarter loss.
2004 – President George W. Bush eased sanctions against Libya in return for Moammar Gadhafi’s agreement to give up weapons of mass destruction.
2004 – In Illiopolis, Ill.,central Illinois, 4 workers were killed in an explosion at the Formosa Plastics Plant. The entire community was forced to evacuate the area.
2005 – Larry Lasater (35), Pittsburg, Ca., police officer, was shot while chasing 2 robbery suspects. Doctors declared him brain dead the next day.
2005 – The first video was uploaded to YouTube.com.
2006 – Some 10,000 people marched in San Francisco to denounce a bill in the US House of Representatives that would make illegal immigration a felony.
2006 – It was reported that Massachusetts has decided to begin requiring doctors to state the names of anyone testing positive for HIV.
2007 – Congressional Democratic leaders agreed on legislation requiring the first US combat troops to be withdrawn from Iraq by Oct. 1, 2007, with a goal of a complete pullout six months later.
2007 – A US Agriculture Department official said a virus in the Great Lakes, that has killed tens of thousands of fish in recent years, is spreading and poses a threat to inland fish farming.
2008 – The US Supreme Court ruled that police can conduct searches and seize evidence during arrests, even it the arrests turn out to violate state law.
2008 – Officials said the US is scrapping a $20 million virtual fence, developed by Boeing Corp., on the Arizona-Mexico border because the system failed to adequately alert border patrol agents to illegal crossings.
2008 – New York’s Gov. David Paterson signed into law a $1.25 per pack tax hike on top of the state’s $1.50 per pack cigarette tax. New York City has an additional $1.50 per pack tax. By July 1 smokers will be paying an average $9.00 a pack for legal cigarettes. The taxes have encouraged major criminal smuggling.
2010 – Arizona Governor Jan Brewer signs a controversial Immigration Bill. The bill requires the police to ask people about their immigration status if officers have any reason to suspect that they are in the country illegally.
2013 – The United States stock market undergoes a flash crash of 1 percent when the twitter feed from the Associated Press news agency is hacked and erroneously states that several explosions have injured President Barack Obama.
2013 – HE’S BACK IN CLASS: The West Virginia eighth grader taken out of school last Thursday for refusing to change his NRA shirt returned to school, wearing the same shirt that got him arrested last week.
2014 – U.S. District Judge Robert Dow Jr. dismissed a complaint filed on behalf of a Chicago teacher who was suspended for bringing a household toolbox to class for a lesson about tools. In rejecting the complaint, the judge said officials at Washington Irving Elementary School correctly defined the tools as “weapons.” Chicago teacher Douglas Bartlett was suspended for four days for bringing tools to class as a visual aid.
1621 – William Penn, English admiral (d. 1670)
1791 – James Buchanan, 15th President of the United States. He was the only President to never marry. (d. 1868)
1813 – Stephen A. Douglas, U.S. Senator from Illinois and Presidential candidate (d. 1861)
1893 – Frank Borzage, American film director (d. 1952)
1894 – Cow Cow Davenport, American pianist (d. 1955)
1897 – Lucius Clay, American general (d. 1978)
1907 – Lee Miller, American photographer & model (d. 1977)
1908 – Myron Waldman, American animator (d. 2006)
1921 – Janet Blair, American actress (d. 2007)
1928 – Shirley Temple, American actress and politician
1932 – Jim Fixx, American athlete and writer (d. 1984)
1936 – Roy Orbison, American singer and musician (d. 1988)
1939 – Lee Majors, American actor
1942 – Sandra Dee, American actress (d. 2005)
1949 – Joyce DeWitt, American actress
1960 – Valerie Bertinelli, American actress
1972 – Sonya Smith, American actress
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander (Dental Corps), U.S. Navy. Born: 12 November 1889, Gloucester, Mass. Appointed from: Massachusetts. Other Navy award: Legion of Merit. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty while serving with the 5th Regiment, U.S. Marine Corps. Under heavy shellfire, on April 23rd, 1918, on the French Front, Lt. Comdr. Lyle rushed to the assistance of Cpl. Thomas Regan, who was seriously wounded, and administered such effective surgical aid while bombardment was still continuing, as to save the life of Cpl. Regan.
AYERS, JAMES F.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd, 1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Collinstown, Va. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: Rapid pursuit, gallantry, energy, and enterprise in an engagement with Indians.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Trumpeter, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd, 1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: Gallantry in action.
GARDINER, PETER W.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date. At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd, 1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Carlisle, N.Y. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men, he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd,1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Hendricks County, Ind. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd,1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd,1875. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
ROBBINS, MARCUS M.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd,1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Elba, Wis. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Wagoner, Troop G, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Horseshoe Canyon, N. Mex., April 23rd,1882. Entered service at:——. Birth: Bavaria. Date of issue: 17 August 1896. Citation: Assisted, under a heavy fire, to rescue a wounded comrade.
TEA, RICHARD L.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd,1875. Entered servlce at:——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
WILDER, WILBER E.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Horseshoe Canyon, N. Mex., April 23rd, 1882. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Birth: Atlas, Mich. Date of issue: 17 August 1896. Citation: Assisted, under a heavy fire, to rescue a wounded comrade.
BEEBE, WILLIAM S.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Ordnance Department, U.S. Army. Place and date: At Cane River Crossing, La., April 23rd,1864. Entered service at: Thompson, Conn. Born: 14 February 1841, Ithaca, N.Y. Date of issue: 30 June 1897. Citation: Voluntarily led a successful assault on a fortified position.
National Jelly Bean Day
“E Pluribus Unum” was the original motto of the United States. It is Latin for “One from many parts.” The picture that would be drawn by this is of a sword being wielded by a small group. In this case it would be the federal sword being wielded by a group of colonies and later states. In June of 1782 the new “Great Seal of the United States” was adopted and it included an eagle with a heart-shaped shield, holding arrows and an olive branch in its claws. The motto “E Pluribus Unum” appeared on a scroll held in its beak. That motto was also used on some federal coins in as early as 1795.
During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key, an attorney, became a party to the release of several American prisoners including one Dr. William Beanes. Dr. Beanes was a noted country doctor who was, literally, dragged out of his bed and held hostage. Several of the doctors friends asked Key if he could get Dr. Beanes released. Key got the permission of President James Madison who also sent John Stuart Skinner.He was another attorney and had become the US Prisoner Exchange Agent for the region.
Key, accompanied by Colonel Skinner, dined aboard the British ship HMS Tonnant, as the guests of three British officers: Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane, Rear Admiral Sir George Cockburn, and Major General Robert Ross. Skinner and Key were there to negotiate the release of prisoners. The release was approved but Skinner, Key, and Beanes were not allowed to return to their own sloop: they had become familiar with the strength and position of the British units and with the British intent to attack Baltimore. All Key could do was watch the British attack. As the smoke cleared, one thing was very apparent, the American flag was still flying. On his way back to Baltimore he was inspired to write a poem called, “The Defense of Fort McHenry.”
This is the next major change in this history. The final stanza of that poem reads:
“And this be our motto: ‘In God is our trust.’
And the Star Spangled Banner in triumph shall wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave.”
In 1864, those words were shortened to “In God We Trust” and applied to a newly designed two-cent coin.
In 1956, the nation was suffering through the height of the cold war, and the McCarthy communist witch hunt. The “In God We Trust” motto then spread to more than just our coinage. It spread to our paper money and lots of other places. The change was partly motivated by a desire to differentiate between communism, which promotes Atheism, and Western capitalistic democracies, which were at least nominally Christian. The phrase “Atheistic Communists” has been repeated so many times that the public has linked Atheism with communism; the two are often considered synonymous. Many consider Atheism as unpatriotic and un-American as is communism.
The new motto was first used on paper money in 1957, when it was added to the one-dollar silver certificate. By 1966, “In God we Trust” was added to all paper money, from $1 to $100 denominations. The Freedom from Religion Foundation claimed to have been unable to find any other country in the world which has a religious motto on their money. That is, simply, untrue:
The Dutch have had a religious motto on their money for almost two centuries. It is even now included on the new two-euro coin. It says,” God zij met ons” or “God is with us.”
During the 1980’s under Brazilian president Jose Sarney, the phrase “Deus seja louvado” or God be praised” was added to their paper money.
Although not a motto , British coins have a drawing of the Queen and “Elizabeth II D.G. REG. F.D.”. This is an abbreviation for the Latin phrase, “Elizabeth II by Grace of God Defender of the Faith.”
In our states and territories we see mottos that include references to God:
Arizona is “Ditat Deus” – “God enriches”
American Samoais “Samoa, Muamua Le Atua” – “Samoa, let God be first”
Colorado is “Nil sine numine” – “Nothing without the Deity”
Connecticut is “Qui transtulit sustinet” – “He who transplanted sustains”
Florida is “In God We Trust”
Kentucky is “Deo gratiam habeamus” – “Let us be grateful to God”
Ohio is “With God, all things are possible”
South Dakota is “Under God the people rule”
This motto is under constant attack. It must be a priority to protect it from those that want to change or eliminate it.
Tomorrow, “Is it Constitutional?”
Ephesians 1: 3-5
Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ: According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love: Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will,
“Religion is of general and public concern, and on its support depend, in great measure, the peace and good order of government, the safety and happiness of the people.”
“In times of great stress or adversity, it is always best to keep busy, to plow your anger and your energy in to something positive.”
~ Lee Iaccoca
Countermand KOWN-tuhr-mand; kown-tuhr-MAND, transitive verb:
To revoke (a former command); to cancel or rescind by giving an order contrary to one previously given.
To recall or order back by a contrary order.
A contrary order.
Revocation of a former order or command.
1145 – 19th recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet.
1526 – The first American slave revolt occurred in South Carolina.
1692 – Edward Bishop is jailed for proposing flogging as cure for witchcraft. He and and his wife were thrown into prison. His wife, Bridget, was later convicted as being a witch.
1692 -In Salem, Massachusetts, Mary Black, a slave, was convicted of sorcery and jailed after a trial.
1778 – Captain John Paul Jones of Ranger led landing party raid on Whitehaven, England.Whitehaven was an English seaport on the Irish Sea.
1790 – Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, submitted a bill to Congress to create a “system of cutters” to enforce tariff and customs laws along the nation’s coastline. Congress passed his bill on 4 August of the same year. This would be the early version of the Coast Guard.
1792 – President George Washington proclaimed American neutrality in the war in Europe.
1793 – President George Washington attends the opening of Rickett’s, first circus in US.
1836 – Texas Revolution: A day after the Battle of San Jacinto forces under Texas General Sam Houston capture Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.
1861 – Civil War: Robert E. Lee was named commander of Virginia forces.
1861 – Civil War: Captain Franklin Buchanan, Commandant Washington Navy Yard, submitted his resignation and was relieved by Commander John A. Dahlgren; Buchanan joined the Confederate Navy and was promoted to Admiral, CSN. on 26 August 1862.
1863 – Civil War: Grierson’s Raid begins – troops under Union Colonel Benjamin Grierson attack central Mississippi.
1864 – The U.S. Congress passes the Coinage Act which mandates that the inscription “In God We Trust” be placed on all coins minted as United States currency. 2¢ coin is the first appearance of “In God We Trust”.
1876 – First National League game. Boston defeated Philadelphia at Athletic Park 6-5. Jim O’Rourke makes the first hit and Joseph Borden, pitching under the name of Josephs, is the winning pitcher. Philadelphia Athletics Wes Fisler scores baseball’s first run.
1878 – The first Egg Roll was held on the grounds of the White House.
1889 – At high noon, thousands rush to claim land in the Land Run of 1889. Within hours the cities of Oklahoma City and Guthrie are formed with populations of at least 10,000.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The United States Navy begins a blockade of Cuban ports and the USS Nashville captures a Spanish merchant ship.
1897 – New York City Jewish newspaper “Forward” began publishing.
1898 – Congress authorized creation of the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, popularly known as the “Rough Riders.”
1906 – A new baseball rule put the umpire in sole charge of all game balls.
1915 – World War I: The use of poison gas in World War I escalates when chlorine gas is released as a chemical weapon in the Second Battle of Ypres by the Germans.
1915 – The New York Yankees wore pinstripes and the hat-in-the-ring logo for the first time.
1930 – The United Kingdom, Japan and the United States sign the London Naval Treaty regulating submarine warfare and limiting shipbuilding.
1931 – James G. Ray landed an autogyro on the lawn of the White House.
1938 – In Virginia 45 workers were killed in a coal mine explosion at Keen Mountain in Buchanan County.
1940 – Rear Adm. Joseph Taussig testified before US Senate Naval Affairs Committee that war with Japan is inevitable.
1943 – World War II: A series of Allied attacks are launched against the Axis positions in the Tunisian hills. The US 2nd Corps, commanded by General Bradley, attacks Hill 609 in “Mousetrap Valley,” with the objective of advancing to Mateur.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Love, Love, Love” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Skip Nelson), ‘I Love You” by Bing Crosby, “Poinciana” by Bing Crosby and “Too Late to Worry, Too Blue to Cry” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: Operation Persecution initiated – Allied forces land in the Hollandia (currently known as Jayapura) area of New Guinea.
1945 – World War II: Prisoners at the Jasenovac concentration camp revolt. 520 are killed and 80 escape. Jasenovac was a complex of five subcamps [ spread over 93 sq mi on the banks of the Sava river.
1945 – World War II: Adolf Hitler, learning from one of his generals that no German defense was offered to the Russian assault at Eberswalde, admits to all in his underground bunker that the war is lost and that suicide is his only recourse.
1945 – World War II: Himmler meets Count Bernadotte of the Swedish Red Cross and gives him a message to pass to the western Allies, offering a German surrender to the British and Americans but not to the Soviets. The message is passed to the Allies on the 24th.
1945 – World War II: In Europe, US 7th Army units cross the Danube at Dillingen and Baldingen. Units of 2nd and 4th US Corps (parts of US 5th Army) reach the Penaro River in their advance to the Po River. On the left flank Modena is taken.
1951 – Korean War: The Chinese launched their spring offensive with a heavy artillery barrage northeast of Yonchon. The Battle of the Imjin River began.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr, “Any Time” by Eddie Fisher, “Be My Life’s Companion” by The Mills Brothers and “(When You Feel like You’re in Love) Don’t Just Stand There” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1952 – An atomic test conducted in Nevada was the first nuclear explosion shown on live network television.
1954 – Senator Joseph McCarthy begins hearings investigating the United States Army, which he charges with being “soft” on communism.
1956 – Elvis Presley made his Las Vegas debut at the Frontier Hotel.
1959 – The movie “Go Johnny Go” premiered.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith, “Greenfields” by The Brothers Four, “Sweet Nothin’s” by Brenda Lee and “He’ll Have to Go” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1962 – Jerry Lee Lewis’s 3-year-old son drowned.
1964 – The 1964-1965 New York World’s Fair opens for its first season. New York police arrested 294 demonstrators at the opening.
1965 – Vietnam War: USCG and US Navy agree on the deployment of 82-foot patrol and 40-foot utility boats to support Operation Market Time in Vietnam.
1967 – Randy Matson set a new world record with a shot put toss of 71 feet, and 5 1/2 inches in College Station, TX.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro, “Cry like a Baby” by The Box Tops, “Lady Madonna” by The Beatles and “Fist City” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1968 – Herb Alpert debuted “This Guy’s in Love With You” on his CBS-TV special.
1968 – Defense Secretary Clark Clifford declares that the South Vietnamese have “acquired the capacity to begin to insure their own security [and] they are going to take over more and more of the fighting.”
1969 – The first human eye transplant was performed for John Madden in Houston.
1970 – First Earth Day celebrated. President Nixon signed an executive order creating the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
1970 – African American students protest at Yale University in support of the Black panthers.
1971 – Former US Navy Lieutenant John Kerry (27) testified before the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee and talked about alleged war crimes and atrocities committed in Vietnam by US forces.
1972 – Vietnam War: Increased American bombing in Vietnam prompts antiwar protests in New York City, San Francisco, and Los Angeles.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Disco Lady” by Johnnie Taylor, “Let Your Love Flow” by The Bellamy Brothers, “Right Back Where We Started From” by Maxine Nightingale and “Drinkin’ My Baby (Off My Mind)” by Eddie Rabbitt all topped the charts.
1976 – Barbara Walters became first female nightly network news anchor.
1978 – John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd made their first appearance as The Blues Brothers on NBC’s “Saturday Night Live.”
1981 – In the largest US bank robbery, more than $3.3 million was stolen in Tucson Ariz. four men were later arrested for the robbery. The cash vault manager , Bud Grainger, was told that his wife was being held hostage at his home.
1981 – Joint Center for Political Studies reported that 2,991 Blacks held elective offices in 45 states and the District of Columbia, compared with 2,621 in April, 1973, and 1,185 in 1969. The Center reported 108 Black mayors. Michigan had the largest number of Black elected officials (194), followed by Mississippi (191).
1983 – The German magazine, Der Stern claims that Adolf Hitler’s diaries were found in wreckage in East Germany. Later found to be untrue.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)” by Phil Collins, “Hello” by Lionel Richie, “Hold Me Now” by The Thompson Twins and “The Yellow Rose” by Johnny Lee with Lane Brody all topped the charts.
1985 – Prince released the album “Around The World In a Day.” It was his first release after “Purple Rain.” No link, Prince does not want his music on YouTube.
1987 – The American Physical Society said that the “Star Wars” missile system was “highly questionable” and would take ten years to research.
1990 – Pro-Iranian kidnappers in Lebanon freed American hostage Robert Polhill after nearly 39 months of captivity.
1991 – Intel released 486SX chip.
1992 – The Supreme Court heard arguments on Pennsylvania’s restrictive abortion law. The court upheld most of the law’s provisions the following June, but also reaffirmed a woman’s basic right to an abortion.
1992 – A 6.0 Joshua Tree earthquake hit California.
1993 – The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum was dedicated in Washington, D.C., to honor the victims of Nazi extermination.
1994 – Richard M. Nixon (81), the 37th president of the United States (1969-1975), died at New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, four days after suffering a stroke.
1997 – A jury of seven men and five women was chosen in Denver to hear the Oklahoma City bombing trial of Timothy McVeigh.
1998 – Disney’s Animal Kingdom opens at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida, United States.
1998 – National TV Turnoff Week began.
1999 – In Kentucky an Army Black Hawk helicopter crashed during training at Fort Campbell and 7 people were killed and 4 injured.
2000 – In a pre-dawn raid, federal agents seize six-year-old Elián González from his relatives’ home in Miami, Florida. Riots erupted in Little Havana and 290 protesters were arrested.
2001 – Two spacewalking astronauts, including Canadian Chris Hadfield, installed a massive Canadian-built robot arm on the international space station.
2003 – American soldiers in Baghdad found $112 million sealed inside 7 animal kennels.
2003 – The world’s first native 64-bit x86 processor, the AMD Opteron processor, is launched.
2003 – President Bush announced he would nominate Alan Greenspan for a fifth term as Federal Reserve chairman.
2004 – Pat Tillman former safety for the Arizona Cardinals, was killed in an friendly-fire incident in Afghanistan. He had walked away from millions of dollars to join the Army Rangers and serve his country.
2004 – The Evangelical Lutheran Church is ordered to pay the largest per capita settlement in a church sexual abuse case in the United States by a jury in Marshall, Texas.
2005 – Zacarias Moussaoui pleads guilty to terror charges in U.S. federal court. He is a French citizen who was convicted of conspiring to kill citizens of the US as part of the September 11 attacks. As a result of his conviction, he is serving a life sentence without parole at the Federal ADX Supermax prison in Florence, Colorado.
2008 – A U.S. federal grand jury in Las Vegas, Nevada, indicts a man on charges of possessing the toxin ricin and on weapons charges.
2008 – Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice says that former President of the United States Jimmy Carter was advised not to hold talks with Hamas.
2008 – A US district Court in Manhattan charged Ben-ami Kadish (84), a former US Army mechanical engineer, with four counts of conspiracy. He was charged of spying for Israel and sending classified documents on nuclear weapons to an employee of the Israeli consulate.
2008 – In California a grizzly bear named Rocky (5) killed trainer Stephan Miller (39) at the Randy Miller’s Predators in Action center in San Bernadino County.
2010 – President Barack Obama calls on Wall Street to join him in his efforts to reform the financial sector in a visit to Manhattan.
2010 – The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers honours The Killers for “their impact in shaping American music”.
2010 – An episode of the American television series South Park is censored after a threat of fatwā from a New York-based group over the depiction of Muhammad in a bear costume.
2012 – White House lawyers launch an internal investigation into the role its advance staff may have played in the U.S. Secret Service sex scandal in Colombia, though no evidence has been found to implicate anyone in the scandal.
2012 – Officials in Florida refuse to allow Bill Lee, the police chief who did not arrest George Zimmerman after he shot and killed unarmed black teenager Trayvon Martin, to resign.
2012 – The North Carolina trial of former U.S. Senator and presidential hopeful John Edwards, concerning the use of illegal campaign donations to cover up an affair with a mistress, begins.
2013 – News Corporation agrees to pay $139 million to American shareholders due to the phone hacking scandal.
1711 – Eleazar Wheelock, American founder of Dartmouth College (d. 1779)
1724 – Immanuel Kant, German philosopher (d. 1804)
1832 – Julius Sterling Morton, Arbor Day founder (d. 1902 )
1844 – Lewis Thornton Powell, would-be assassin of Secretary of State William H. Seward (d. 1865)
1873 – Ellen Glasgow, American author (d. 1945)
1891 – Nicola Sacco, American anarchist (d. 1927)
1892 – Vernon Johns, American civil rights activist (d. 1965)
1904 – Robert Oppenheimer, American physicist (d. 1967)
1906 – Eddie Albert, American actor (d. 2005)
1916 – Yehudi Menuhin, American-born violinist (d. 1999)
1923 – Bettie Page, American model
1923 – Aaron Spelling, American television producer (d. 2006)
1926 – Charlotte Rae, American actress
1936 – Glen Campbell, American musician
1937 – Jack Nicholson, American actor
1939 – Mel Carter, American singer
1946 – Steven L. Bennett, USAF Congressional Medal of Honor Recipient (d. 1972)
1959 – Catherine Mary Stewart, Canadian actress
*LITTLETON, HERBERT A.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Company C, 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Chungchon, Korea, April 22nd, 1951. Entered service at: Blackhawk, S. Dak. Born: 1 July 1930, Mena, Ark. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a radio operator with an artillery forward observation team of Company C, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Standing watch when a well-concealed and numerically superior enemy force launched a violent night attack from nearby positions against his company, Pfc. Littleton quickly alerted the forward observation team and immediately moved into an advantageous position to assist in calling down artillery fire on the hostile force. When an enemy hand grenade was thrown into his vantage point shortly after the arrival of the remainder of the team, he unhesitatingly hurled himself on the deadly missile, absorbing its full, shattering impact in his body. By his prompt action and heroic spirit of self-sacrifice, he saved the other members of his team from serious injury or death and enabled them to carry on the vital mission which culminated in the repulse of the hostile attack. His indomitable valor in the face of almost certain death reflects the highest credit upon Pfc. Littleton and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and Organization: Sergeant (posthumous), U.S. Army, 442nd Regimental Combat Team – Born: August 14, 1920 in Salinas, California. Citation: Private Joe Hayashi distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on April 20th and April 22nd,1945, near Tendola, Italy. On 20 April 1945, ordered to attack a strongly defended hill that commanded all approaches to the village of Tendola, Private Hayashi skillfully led his men to a point within 75 yards of enemy positions before they were detected and fired upon. After dragging his wounded comrades to safety, he returned alone and exposed himself to small arms fire in order to direct and adjust mortar fire against hostile emplacements. Boldly attacking the hill with the remaining men of his squad, he attained his objective and discovered that the mortars had neutralized three machine guns, killed twenty-seven men, and wounded many others. On 22 April 1945, attacking the village of Tendola, Private Hayashi maneuvered his squad up a steep, terraced hill to within 100 yards of the enemy. Crawling under intense fire to a hostile machine gun position, he threw a grenade, killing one enemy soldier and forcing the other members of the gun crew to surrender. Seeing four enemy machine guns delivering deadly fire upon other elements of his platoon, he threw another grenade, destroying a machine gun nest. He then crawled to the right flank of another machine gun position where he killed four enemy soldiers and forced the others to flee. Attempting to pursue the enemy, he was mortally wounded by a burst of machine pistol fire. The dauntless courage and exemplary leadership of Private Hayashi enabled his company to attain its objective. Private Hayashi’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
*THOMAS, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 149th Infantry, 38th Infantry Division. Place and date: Zambales Mountains Luzon, Philippine Islands, April 22nd, 1945. Entered service at: Ypsilanti, Mich. Birth. Wynne, Ark. G.O. No.: 81, 24 September 1945. Citation: He was a member of the leading squad of Company B, which was attacking along a narrow, wooded ridge. The enemy strongly entrenched in camouflaged emplacements on the hill beyond directed heavy fire and hurled explosive charges on the attacking riflemen. Pfc. Thomas, an automatic rifleman, was struck by oneof these charges, which blew off both his legs below the knees. He refused medical aid and evacuation, and continued to fire at the enemy until his weapon was put out of action by an enemy bullet. Still refusing aid, he threw his last two grenades. He destroyed three of the enemy after suffering the wounds from which he died later that day. The effective fire of Pfc. Thomas prevented the repulse of his platoon and assured the capture of the hostile position. His magnificent courage and heroic devotion to duty provided a lasting inspiration for his comrades.
The Battle of Veracruz was a 20-day siege of the key Mexican beachhead seaport of Veracruz, during the Mexican-American War. Lasting from 9–29 March 1847, it began with the first large-scale amphibious assault conducted by United States military forces, and ended with the surrender and occupation of the city. U.S. forces then marched inland to Mexico City.
ANDERSON, EDWIN A.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Navy. Born: 16 July 1860, Wilmington N.C. Accredited to: North Carolina. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz,April 22nd, 1914, in command of the 2d Seaman Regiment. Marching his regiment across the open space in front of the Naval Academy and other buildings, Capt. Anderson unexpectedly met a heavy fire from riflemen, machineguns and l_pounders, which caused part of his command to break and fall back, many casualties occurring among them at the time. His indifference to the heavy fire, to which he himself was exposed at the head of his regiment, showed him to be fearless and courageous in battle.
BADGER, OSCAR CHARLES
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Born: 26 June 1890, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: District of Columbia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy Award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Ens. Badger was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
BERKELEY, RANDOLPH CARTER
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 9 January 1875, Staunton, Va. Appointed from: Washington, D.C. G.O. No.: 177 4 December 1915. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Maj. Berkeley was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion; was in the fighting of both days, and exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through action. His cool judgment and courage, and his skill in handling his men in encountering and overcoming the machinegun and rifle fire down Cinco de Mayo and parallel streets account for the small percentage of the losses of marines under his command.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 December 1876, Evansville, Ind. Accredited to: Indiana. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. In command of the 1st Seaman Regiment, Lt. Cmdr. Buchanan was in both days’ fighting and almost continually under fire from soon after landing, about noon of the 21st, until we were in possession of the city, about noon of the 22d. His duties required him to be at points of great danger in directing his officers and men, and he exhibited conspicuous courage, coolness, and skill in his conduct of the fighting. Upon his courage and skill depended, in great measure, success or Failure. His responsibilities were great, and he met them in a manner worthy of commendation.
BUTLER, SMEDLEY DARLINGTON
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 30 July 1881, West Chester, Pa. Appointed from: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy awards: Second Medal of Honor, Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Maj. Butler was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22d and in the final occupation of the city.
CASTLE, GUY WILKINSON STUART
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 8 February 1880. Appointed from: Wisconsin. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion, Lt. Castle was in the fighting of both days, and exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through action. In seizing the customhouse, he encountered for many hours the heaviest and most pernicious concealed fire of the entire day, but his courage and coolness under trying conditions were marked.
CATLIN, ALBERTUS WRIGHT
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1 December 1868, Gowanda, N.Y. Appointed from: Minnesota. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion, Maj. Catlin exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22nd and in the final occupation of the city.
COURTS, GEORGE McCALL
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Junior Grade, U.S. Navy. Born: 16 February 1888, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: District of Columbia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. Under fire, Lt.(j.g.) Courts was eminent and conspicuous in the performance of his duties. He had well qualified himself by thorough study during his years of duty in Mexico to deal with the conditions of this engagement, and his services were of great value. He twice volunteered and passed in an open boat through the zone of fire to convey important orders to the Chester, then under a severe fire.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Utah. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Entered service at: Wisconsin. Birth: Milwaukee, Wis. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Utah, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and 22 April 1914.
DYER, JESSE FARLEY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 2 December 1877, St. Paul, Minn. Appointed from: Minnesota. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914; was in both days fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
Rank and organization: Surgeon, U.S. Navy. Born: 16 October 1872, Beaufort, S.C. Accredited to: South Carolina. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Surg. Elliott was eminent and conspicuous in the efficient establishment and operation of the base hospital, and in his cool judgment and courage in supervising first aid stations on the firing line and removing the wounded.
FLETCHER, FRANK FRIDAY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. Born: 23 November 1855, Oskaloosa, lowa. Accredited to: lowa. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Under fire, Rear Adm. Fletcher was eminent and conspicuous in the performance of his duties; was senior officer present at Vera Cruz, and the landing and the operations of the landing force were carried out under his orders and directions. In connection with these operations, he was at times on shore and under fire.
FLETCHER, FRANK JACK
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Entered service at: Iowa. Born: 29 April 1885, Marshalltown, lowa. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and 22 April 1914. Under fire, Lt. Fletcher was eminent and conspicuous in performance of his duties. He was in charge of the Esperanze and succeeded in getting on board over 350 refugees, many of them after the conflict had commenced. Although the ship was under fire, being struck more than thirty times, he succeeded in getting all the refugees placed in safety. Lt. Fletcher was later placed in charge of the train conveying refugees under a flag of truce. This was hazardous duty, as it was believed that the track was mined, and a small error in dealing with the Mexican guard of soldiers might readily have caused a conflict, such a conflict at one time being narrowly averted. It was greatly due to his efforts in establishing friendly relations with the Mexican soldiers that so many refugees succeeded in reaching Vera Cruz from the interior.
FOSTER, PAUL FREDERICK
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd,1914. Entered service at: Kansas. Birth: Wichita, Kans. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and 22 April 1914. In both days’ fighting at the head of his company, Ens. Foster was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
FRAZER, HUGH CARROLL
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 22nd, 1914. Entered service at: West Virginia. Birth: Martinsburg, W. Va. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, 22 April 1914. During this engagement, Ens. Frazer ran forward to rescue a wounded man, exposing himself to hostile fire and that of his own men. Having accomplished the mission, he returned at once to his position in line.
FRYER, ELI THOMPSON
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 22 August 1878, Hightstown, N.J. Appointed from: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. In both days’ fighting at the head of his company, Captain Fryer was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
GISBURNE, EDWARD A.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Electrician Third Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 14 June 1892, Providence, R.l. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd,1914, and for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during this action.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 25 December 1872, Canada. Appointed from: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd,1914. During the second day’s fighting, the service performed by Lt. Grady, in command of the 2d Regiment, Artillery, was eminent and conspicuous. From necessarily exposed positions, he shelled the enemy from the strongest position.
HARRISON, WILLIAM KELLY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 30 July 1870, Waco, Tex. Accredited to: Texas. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. During this period, Comdr. Harrison brought his ship into the inner harbor during the nights of the 21st and 22d without the assistance of a pilot or navigational lights, and was in a position on the morning of the 22nd to use his guns with telling effect at a critical time.
HARTIGAN, CHARLES CONWAY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 September 1882, Norwich, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd,1914. During the second day’s fighting the service performed by him was eminent and conspicuous. He was conspicuous for the skillful handling of his company under heavy rifle and machinegun fire, for which conduct he was commended by his battalion commander.
HILL, WALTER NEWELL
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 29 September 1881, Haverhill, Mass. Appointed from: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Capt. Hill was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
HUGHES, JOHN ARTHUR
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 2 November 1880, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Capt. Hughes was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
HUSE, HENRY McLAREN PINCKNEY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Navy. Born: 8 December 1858, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y. Appointed from: New York. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Under fire, Capt. Huse was eminent and conspicuous in the performance of his duties; was indefatigable in his labors of a most important character, both with the division commander in directing affairs and in his efforts on shore to get in communication with the Mexican authorities to avoid needlessly prolonging the conflict.
INGRAM, JONAS HOWARD
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Junior Grade, U.S. Navy. Born: 15 October 1886, Jeffersonville, Ind. Accredited to: Indiana. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Distinguished Service Medal with gold stars in lieu of two additional DSM’s. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd,1914. During the second day’s fighting the service performed by him was eminent and conspicuous. He was conspicuous for skillful and efficient handling of the artillery and machineguns of the Arkansas battalion, for which he was specially commended in reports.
JOHNSTON, RUFUS ZENAS
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 7 June 1874, Lincolnton, N.C. Accredited to: North Carolina. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914; was regimental adjutant, and eminent and conspicuous in his conduct. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22d and in the final occupation of the city.
LANGHORNE, CARY DeVALL
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Surgeon, U.S. Navy. Born: 14 May 1873, Lynchburg, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Surg. Langhorne carried a wounded man from the front of the Naval Academy while under heavy fire.
LANNON, JAMES PATRICK
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 12 October 1878, Alexandria, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd,1914. Lt. Lannon assisted a wounded man under heavy fire, and after returning to his battalion was himself desperately wounded.
LOWRY, GEORGE MAUS
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 & April 22nd,1914. Entered service at: Pennsylvania. Birth: Eve, Pa. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21_22 April 1914; Ens. Lowry was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 3 January 1876, Brewster, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy awards: Second Medal of Honor, Navy Cross. Citation: For heroism in leading three picket launches along Vera Cruz sea front, drawing Mexican fire and enabling cruisers to save our men on shore, April 22nd,1914. Though wounded, he gallantly remained at his post.
McDONNELL, EDWARD ORRICK
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 November 1891, Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Posted on the roof of the Terminal Hotel and landing, Ens. McDonnell established a signal station there day and night, maintaining communication between troops and ships. At this exposed post he was continually under fire. One man was killed and three wounded at his side during the two days’ fighting. He showed extraordinary heroism and striking courage and maintained his station in the highest degree of efficiency. All signals got through, largely due to his heroic devotion to duty.
McNAlR, FREDERICK VALLETTE, JR.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 March, 1882, Maryland. Appointed at large. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Lt. McNair was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22nd and in the final occupation of the city.
MOFFETT, WILLIAM A.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Charleston, S.C. Born: 31 October 1869, Charleston, S.C. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. Comdr. Moffett brought his ship into the inner harbor during the nights of the 21st and 22nd without the assistance of a pilot or navigational lights, and was in a position on the morning of the 22nd to use his guns at a critical time with telling effect. His skill in mooring his ship at night was especially noticeable. He placed her nearest to the enemy and did most of the firing and received most of the hits.
NEVILLE, WENDELL CUSHING
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 12 May 1870, Portsmouth, Va. Appointed from: Virginia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz 21 and April 22nd, 1914. In command of the 2d Regiment Marines, Lt. Col. Neville was in both days’ fighting and almost continually under fire from soon after landing, about noon on the 21st, until we were in possession of the city, about noon of the 22d. His duties required him to be at points of great danger in directing his officers and men, and he exhibited conspicuous courage, coolness, and skill in his conduct of the fighting. Upon his courage and skill depended, in great measure, success or failure. His responsibilities were great and he met them in a manner worthy of commendation.
NORDSIEK, CHARLES LUERS
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 April 1896, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, Nordsiek showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914.
REID, GEORGE CROGHAN
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 9 December 1876, Lorain, Ohio. Appointed from: Ohio. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914; was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion; was in the righting of both days and exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through action. His cool judgment and courage and his skill in handling his men in encountering and overcoming the machinegun and rifle fire down Cinco de Mayo and parallel streets account for the small percentage of the losses of Marines under his command.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 September 1857, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. In command of the naval brigade, Capt. Rush was in both days’ fighting and almost continually under fire from soon after landing, about noon on the 21st, until we were in possession of the city, about noon of the 22nd. His duties required him to be at points of great danger in directing his officers and men, and he exhibited conspicuous courage, coolness and skill in his conduct of the fighting. Upon his courage and skill depended in great measure success or failure. His responsibilities were great, and he met them in a manner worthy of commendation.
SCHNEPEL, FRED JURGEN
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 24 February 1892, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, Schnepel showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 22nd, 1914. Entered service at: North Carolina. Born: 28 August 1879, Tarboro, N.C. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz, 22 April 1914; was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22nd and in the final occupation of the city.
STICKNEY, HERMAN OSMAN
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 December 1867, Pepperell, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Comdr. Stickney covered the landing of the 21st with the guns of the Prairie, and throughout the attack and occupation, rendered important assistance to our forces on shore with his three-inch battery.
TOWNSEND, JULIUS CURTIS
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 February 1881, Athens, Mo. Entered service at: Athens, Mo. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Lt. Townsend was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22nd and in the final occupation of the city.
WAINWRIGHT, RICHARD, JR.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 15 September 1881, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: District of Columbia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Lt. Wainwright was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion; was in the fighting of both days, and exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through action. In seizing the customhouse, he encountered for many hours the heaviest and most pernicious concealed fire of the entire day, but his courage and coolness under trying conditions were marked.
WALSH, JAMES A.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 24 July 1897 New York, N.Y. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida; for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914.
WILKINSON, THEODORE STARK, JR.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 December 1888, Annapolis, Md. Appointed from: Louisiana. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal with gold stars in lieu of 2 additional DSM’s. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. Ens. Wilkinson was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 20th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., April 22nd,1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Fayette County, Pa., Date of issue: 23 September 1897. Citation: Voluntarily served as one of the crew of a transport that passed the forts under a heavy fire.
NIBBE, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, Germany. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served as quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Peterel during its capture in Yazoo River, April 22nd, 1864. Standing his ground when a shot came through the stern, raking the gundeck and entering and exploding the boilers, when all the others had deserted the flag, Nibbe assisted in getting the wounded off the guard and proceeded to get ready to fire the ship despite the escaping steam from the boilers at which time he was surrounded on all sides by the rebels and forced to surrender.
VERNAY, JAMES D.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company B, 11th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg Miss., April 22nd, 1863. Entered service at: Lacon, Marshall County, Ill. Birth: Lacon, Ill. Date of issue: 1 April 1898. Citation: Served gallantly as a volunteer with the crew of the steamer Horizon that, under a heavy fire, passed the Confederate batteries.
Born on November 30th 1835 was a young man named Samuel Clemens who would later become “Mark Twain”. He was born in Florida, MO. Florida is a village in Monroe County, Missouri. The population was 9 at the 2000 census and zero at the 2010 census. He is closely tied to Halley’s Comet. It is believed that was born the same month as the passing of Halley’s comet in November 1835. Halley’s Comet passed on November 10th 1835 and Twain was born on the 30th. Twain vowed he would “go out”with the passing of the comet. It passes in 75 year cycles. Halley’s comet passed again April 20th 1910, Twain passed April 21st 1910.
During different times in his life he held many different jobs among them a riverboat pilot, a reporter and a publisher. These and many other jobs gave him a good education and varied experiences with many kinds of people. In 1862 Sam began writing for many magazines and newspapers under his pen name. Twain was a great writer, his three best books were Roughing It, The adventures of Tom Sawyer, and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.Twain was a very interesting character. He took his writing name from a process that was in use by the riverboats of his day. It is well-known that the Mississippi River changes daily. Sandbars come and go, silt moves with the river and what was not there yesterday was there today. As the boats move up and down the river or as they dock, men would throw forward a weight attached to a long string marked by fathoms (six feet). They could feel when the weight was on the bottom, they would look at the string and yell out, “Mark Twine, 6 fathoms.” That told the pilot they were in 36 feet of water.
Several things made Mark Twain great even during his lifetime. Besides the jobs he had and the people he came to know, he was a determined individual. For example, he was a great goal-setter. He would set goals on writing his books, magazine and newspaper articles and other articles. A third thing that helped him achieve greatness was that he had perseverance. He did not give up. It carried him well in all his writings.
Finally, Mark Twain learned from his experiences. He learned early on that his readers liked different writing styles. He didn’t disappoint them when he wrote his humor, satire, and adventure. He wrote as if he were telling his stories to his best friend and he was able to make his audience feel that.That feeling comes forward to today’s readers as well. His characteristics of integrity, sense-of-humor, and initiative came through. Mark Twain’s personality was funny, out-going, and cooperative. His humorous and insightful remarks were often quoted around the world, both then and now. Mark Twain will be remembered and quoted for a long time.
Halley’s Comet passed over Redding, CT on April 20th, 1910. He died the next day; April 21st, 1910, at 6:30 p.m. Mark Twain just stopped breathing.
Listen to the word of the LORD, O sons of Israel, For the LORD has a case against the inhabitants of the land, Because there is no faithfulness or kindness Or knowledge of God in the land. There is swearing, deception, murder, stealing and adultery. They employ violence, so that bloodshed follows bloodshed. Therefore the land mourns, And everyone who lives in it languishes.
“The Americans combine the notions of Christianity and of liberty so intimately in their minds, that it is impossible to make them conceive the one without the other; and with them this conviction does not spring from that barren traditionary faith which seems to vegetate in the soul rather than to live., Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, (New York: A. S. Barnes & Co., 1851), pp. 331, 332, 335, 336-7, 337.
“Kindness is the life’s blood, the elixir of marriage. Kindness makes the difference between passion and caring. Kindness is tenderness. Kindness is love, but perhaps greater than love … Kindness is good will. Kindness says, “I want you to be happy.” Kindness comes very close to the benevolence of God.”
~ Randolph Ray
gundygut (GUHN-di-guht) noun
A voracious eater; a greedy person.
From gundy, of unexplained origin + gut (belly).]
753 BC – Romulus and Remus found Rome (traditional date).
43 BC – Battle of Mutina: Mark Antony is again defeated in battle by Aulus Hirtius, who is killed. Although Antony fails to capture Mutina, Decimus Brutus is murdered shortly afterwards.
1649 – The Maryland Toleration Act passed by the Maryland assembly. This law was issued by Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baron of Baltimore ( Lord Baltimore), the governor of the colony, banning criticism of various forms of Christianity and allowing people to practice their Christian religion freely. It was the first law establishing freedom of religion (or at least, Christianity) in North America.
1789 – John Adams was sworn in as the first U.S. Vice President.
1794 – New York City formally declares coast of Ellis Island publicly owned. In its history Ellis Island was also known as Dyre’s Island, Bucking Island, and Gibbet Island before permanently acquiring the name of Ellis Island from Samuel Ellis.
1828 – Noah Webster published the first American dictionary. It took him nearly 20 years to complete his two-volume dictionary of more than 35,000 entries.
1832 – Abraham Lincoln (23) assembled with his New Salem neighbors for the Black Hawk War on the Western frontier.
1836 – Texas Revolution: The Battle of San Jacinto – Republic of Texas forces under Sam Houston defeat troops under Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.
1856 – First railroad bridge across Mississippi River. The first bridge across the Mississippi was built at Rock Island,IL to Davenport IA.
1857 – Alexander Douglas patents the bustle.
1861 – Civil War: U.S.S. Saratoga, commanded by Commander Alfred Taylor, captured slave ship Nightingale with 961 slaves on board.
1862 – Congress establishes US Mint in Denver CO.
1863 – Civil War: Union Colonel Abel Streight begins a raid into northern Alabama and Georgia with the goal of cutting the Western and Atlantic Railroad between Chattanooga and Atlanta.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate guns at Vicksburg opened fire on Union Army steamers attempting a night passage of the batteries. Tigress was sunk and Empire City was totally disabled; Moderator was badly damaged, but J. W. Cheeseman, Anglo Saxon, and Horizon passed safely.
1864 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Petrel , the U.S.S. Prairie Bird and the transport Freestone steamed up the Yazoo River to operate with Union troops attacking Yazoo City.
1864 – Civil War: Boat crews from U.S.S. Howquah, Fort Jackson, and Niphon destroyed Confederate salt works on Masonboro Sound, North Carolina.
1864 – Civil War: Boat crews from the U.S.S. Ethan Allan landed at Cane Patch, near Murrell’s Inlet, South Carolina, and destroyed a salt work.
1864 – Boat expedition commanded by Acting Master John K. Crosby from U.S.S. Cimarron destroyed a rice mill and 5,000 bushels of rice stored at Winyah Bay, South Carolina.
1865 – Abraham Lincoln’s funeral train leaves Washington. The train would essentially retrace the 1,654 mile route Mr. Lincoln had traveled as President-elect.
1878 – New York installs first firehouse pole.
1878 – Ship Azor left Charleston with 206 blacks for Liberia.
1884 – Potters Field reopened as Madison Square Park in New York City.
1892 – The first Buffalo was born in Golden Gate Park.
1895 – Woodville Latham demonstrated the first use of a moving picture.
1898 – Spanish-American War: Volunteer African-American army units, including the 3rd Alabama, 3rd North Carolina, 6th Virginia, 9th Ohio, 9th Illinois, 23rd Kansas and 10th Cavalry regiments, some units with African-American officers, took part in the Spanish-American War on Cuban soil. Some of these veterans, upon return to the United States, were treated with parades and speeches. Others were assaulted and even lynched.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The U.S. Congress, on April 25, recognizes that a state of war exists between the United States and Spain as of this date.
1910 – Halley’s Comet was visible in the night sky. Entrepreneurs peddled “comet gas masks” for people worried about the Earth’s passage through poisonous cyanogen gas in the comet’s tail.
1910 – Author Mark Twain (b.1835), born as Samuel Langhorne Clemens, died in Redding, Conn.
1914 – U.S. Marines occupied Vera Cruz, Mexico. The troops stayed for six months.
1916 – Bill Carlisle, the infamous ‘last train robber,’ robbed a train in Hanna, WY.
1918 – World War I: German fighter ace Manfred von Richthofen, known as “The Red Baron”, is shot down and killed over Vaux sur Somme in France.
1922 – The first Aggie Muster is held as a remembrance for fellow Aggies who had died in the previous year.
1934 – Moe Berg, Senators catcher (and later US spy), played an American League record 117th consecutive, errorless game. He was sent to Japan with an All-Star baseball team where he took home movies of the Tokyo skyline that were used in the planning of General Jimmy Doolittle’s 1942 bombing raids on the Japanese capital.
1939 – In Texas the new San Jacinto Monument was dedicated following three years of construction. It stood over fourteen feet taller than the Washington Monument.
1940 – First $64 Question, “Take It or Leave It”, on CBS Radio.
1942 – World War II: The most famous (and first international) Aggie Muster is held on the Philippine island of Corregidor, by Brigadier General George F. Moore (with 25 fellow Aggies who were under his command), while 1.8 million pounds of shells pounded the island over a 5 hour attack.
1943 – World War II: President Franklin Roosevelt announced that several Doolittle pilots had been executed by the Japanese.
1944 – US Task Force 58 (Admiral Mitscher) attacks Wakde Island, Sawar, Sarmi and Hollandia. The American force includes twelve carriers and cruisers. Aircraft strike during the day and cruisers bombard the Japanese positions at night.
1945 – World War II: The Soviet Union forces south of Berlin at Zossen attack the German High Command headquarters.
1945 – The US 77th Infantry Division completes the occupation of He Shima, Okinawa. The island and its airfield have been secured after six days of heavy fighting. Approximately 5000 Japanese troops were killed. The division was then ferried to Okinawa to join in the battle in the south.
1945 – World War II: Allied troops occupy German nuclear laboratory.
1948 – The first Polaroid camera was sold in US.
1949 – The prestigious George Foster Peabody Award for Broadcasting was presented to “You Bet Your Life” star, “The one, the only, Groucho Marx.” This was the first time the honor had been awarded to a comedian.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “If” by Perry Como, “Mockingbird Hill” by Les Paul & Mary Ford, “Would I Love You” by Patti Page and “The Rhumba Boogie” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: Carrier-based Marine aircraft downed three Yaks in the first air-to-air contact of Marine pilots with the North Korean Air Force.
1951 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Captain Robert J. Love, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, scored his fifth and sixth aerial victories in his F-86 Sabre “Bernie’s Bo” to become the 11th ace of the Korean War.
1952 – Korean War: A huge blast from gun turret one rocked the cruiser USS Saint Paul, killing 30 sailors. This gunpowder fire of unknown origin caused the U.S. Navy’s greatest single loss of life during the war.
1952 – Secretary’s Day (now Administrative Professionals’ Day) is first celebrated.
1955 – Jerome Lawrence & Robert E Lee’s “Inherit the Wind“, premieres in New York City.
1956 – Elvis Presley’s first hit record, “Heartbreak Hotel“, becomes #1.
1956 – Leonard Ross, age 10, became the youngest prizewinner on a big time quiz program. The youngster won $100,000 on “The Big Surprise” for knowing about his specialty: stocks!
1958 – “Twilight Time” by Platters topped the charts.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods, “I Need Your Love Tonight” by Elvis Presley, “(Now and Then There’s) A Fool Such as I” by Elvis Presley and “White Lightning” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1961 – USAF Major Robert M White takes X-15 to an altitude of 104,960 feet.
1962 – “Good Luck Charm” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1962 – The Seattle World’s Fair (Century 21 Exposition) opens. It is the first World’s Fair in the United States since World War II.
1963 – Dr Michael Ellis De Bakey performs first successful heart implant.
1965 – The Beach Boys appeared on ABC-TV’s “Shindig!” and performed “Do You Wanna Dance?“
1965 – The 1964-1965 New York World’s Fair opens for its second and final season.
1966 – Vietnam War: “GEORGIA” operation southwest of DaNang started (21 Apr – 10 May).
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Somethin’ Stupid” by Nancy Sinatra & Frank Sinatra, “This is My Song” by Petula Clark, “A Little Bit Me, A Little Bit You” by The Monkees and “Lonely Again” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1967 – Josef Stalin’s daughter, Svetlana Alliluyeva (Lana Peters), defected to the US. She was born February 28, 1926 and became a naturalized citizen.
1967 – Northern Illinois was struck by 17 tornadoes, including several in the Chicago metropolitan area. One violent tornado moved through Belvidere (east of Rockford), killing 24 people and injuring another 450, including 13 deaths at the local high school.
1970 – Sportscaster Curt Gowdy was the recipient of the coveted George Foster Peabody Award for achievement in radio and television.
1975 – Vietnam War: President of South Vietnam Nguyen Van Thieu flees Saigon, as Xuan Loc, the last South Vietnamese outpost blocking a direct North Vietnamese assault on Saigon, falls.
1967 – Los Angeles Dodgers first rain out in Los Angeles (after 737 consecutive games).
1972 – Apollo 16 astronauts John Young and Charles Duke explored the surface of the moon. Thet returned with 213 lbs. of lunar material that they had collected.
1973 -“Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree” by Tony Orlando & Dawn topped the charts.
1974 – Lee Elder becomes the first African-American professional golfer to qualify for the Masters Tournament.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Philadelphia Freedom” by The Elton John Band, “(Hey Won’t You Play) Another Somebody Done Somebody Wrong Song” by B.J. Thomas, “He Don’t Love You (Like I Love You)” by Tony Orlando & Dawn and “Always Wanting You” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1975 – Bill Rodgers won the Boston Marathon, the first local winner in 30 years.
1975 – Members of the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) robbed the Carmichael Bank in suburban Sacramento, CA. Myrna Opsahl, a mother (42) of four, was shot dead. Patty Hearst drove the getaway car.
1975 – Vietnam War: Xuan Loc, the last South Vietnamese outpost blocking a direct North Vietnamese assault on Saigon, falls to the communists.
1976 – A Cadillac convertible, the ‘last’ American-made rag-top automobile, rolled off the assembly line at GM’s Cadillac production facility in Detroit, MI. The “last” didn’t last long when Lee Iococca brought them back.
1977 – Billy Martin pulls Yankee line-up out of a hat, beats Blue Jays 8-6.
1977 – The musical “Annie” opened at the Alvin Theatre in New York City for 2,377 performances .
1979 – “Knock on Wood” by Amii Stewart topped the charts.
1980 – Boats with Cuban migrants on board began departing Mariel, Cuba. Thousands of Cubans escaped Castro’s rule. It was later determined that a significant nuber of these people were known criminals.
1982 – Rollie Fingers of the Milwaukee Brewers becomes the first pitcher to record 300 saves.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Billy Jean” by Michael Jackson, “Come on Eileen” by Dexys Midnight Runners, “Mr. Roboto” by Styx and “Dixieland Delight” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1984 – After 37 weeks, “Thriller” is knocked off as top album by “Footloose”.
1984 – “Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)” by Phil Collins hits #1.
1986 – Geraldo Rivera opens Al Capone’s vault on TV & finds nothing.
1987 – Special occasion stamps were offered for the first time by the U.S. Postal Service. “Happy Birthday” and “Get Well” were among the first to be offered.
1989 – In the Philippines there was a communist guerrilla ambush on U.S. Army Col. James Nicolas Rowe. His car was raked with bullets near his office in the Manila suburb of Quezon City, killing him and wounding his driver. Years later, the New People’s Army eventually claimed responsibility for his assassination.
1989 – Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989: In Beijing, around 100,000 students gather in Tiananmen Square to commemorate Chinese reform leader Hu Yaobang.
1990 – “Nothing Compares 2U” by Sinead O’Connor topped the charts.
1990 – Pete Rose pleads guilty to hiding $300,000 in income.
1990 – Bob Engel, a National League umpire was arrested in Bakersfield, Ca., for stealing baseball cards.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “You’re in Love” by Wilson Phillips, “Baby Baby” by Amy Grant, “Joyride” by Roxette and “Down Home” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1991 – Gulf War: US Marines in northern Iraq began building the first safe-haven settlement for Kurdish refugees.
1992- Robert Alton Harris is put to death in the California Gas Chamber for murdering two teenage boys.
1993 – An 11-day siege at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility near Lucasville, Ohio, ended after rioting inmates reached an agreement with prison officials. One guard and nine inmates were killed during the siege.
1994 – The first discoveries of extrasolar planets are announced by astronomer Alexander Wolszczan.
1994 – The U.S. House of Representatives passed a $28 billion get-tough-on-crime bill.
1994 – Jackie Parker became the first woman to qualify to fly an F-16 combat aircraft.
1995 – The FBI arrested former soldier Timothy McVeigh at an Oklahoma jail where he had spent two days on minor traffic and weapons charges; he was charged in connection with the Oklahoma City bombing two days earlier.
1995 – Boston Celtics final game at Boston Gardens, New York Knicks win 98-92.
1996 – Chicago Bulls win NBA record 72 games (72-8).
1997 – Ashes of Timothy Leary & Gene Roddenberry launched into orbit.
1997 – Police in Franklin, N.J., arrested 2 teen-agers they say lured two pizza deliverymen on April 19 to an abandoned house before opening fire, killing both men.
1997 – The swollen Red River, which had flooded 75 percent of Grand Forks, N.D., reached a projected crest of 54 feet — or 26 feet above flood stage.
1999 – A day after the mass killing at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colo., investigators continued their work, while memorial services were held across the city and dozens of counselors offered support to grieving students, parents, friends and family.
1999 – The National Rifle Association scaled back its annual meeting in Denver from 3 days to one in response to the Columbine killings.
2000 – In Sinking Spring, PA, a man chased his estranged girlfriend through town and then forced her car into the path of an oncoming train. The woman and her 3 passengers were killed.
2000 – The 1998 Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act went into effect.
2001 – The Los Angeles Xtreme beat the San Francisco Demons 38-to-6 in the first and last XFL championship game.
2004 – Iraqi Freedom: U.S Marines backed by tanks and helicopter gunships battled insurgents in northern Fallujah, killing nine insurgents.
2004 – A grand jury indicts Michael Jackson on charges of child molestation.
2005 – Army Sgt. Hasan Akbar was convicted by a military jury at Fort Bragg, N.C., of premeditated murder and attempted murder in an attack that killed two of his comrades and wounded 14 others in Kuwait.
2005 – A commercial helicopter contracted by the US Defense Department was shot down by missile fire north of Baghdad. Eleven people aboard, including six American bodyguards, were killed.
2005 – Anna Ayala, the woman who claimed she found a finger in her bowl of Wendy’s chili on Mar 22 in San Jose, Ca., was arrested at her home in Las Vegas.
2006 – The US Justice Dept. gave assent to a Georgia law requiring photo IDs to vote.
2007 – The United States issues travel advisories warning not to go to the Philippines due to a potentially imminent terrorist threat.
2007 – A US Navy Blue Angel jet went down during an air show in Beaufort, South Carolina, plunging into a neighborhood of small homes and trailers, killing the pilot and injuring eight people on the ground.
2007 – Police in Las Vegas raided illegal brothels as part of “Operation Dollhouse,” a sting aimed at prostitution and human trafficking with suspected links to Asia. Prostitution is legal in most counties of Nevada, but not in Clark County, which includes Las Vegas.
2008 – The United States Air Force retires the F-117 Nighthawk.
2009 – U.S. Education Dept. partners with communist re-educators.
2009 – Twelve navies from the Americas begin annual UNITAS Gold exercises near Florida.
2009 – President Barack Obama signed a $5.7 billion national service bill to foster and fulfill people’s desire to make a difference, such as by mentoring children, cleaning up parks or building and weatherizing homes for the poor. Under the bill the AmeriCorps program started by President Bill Clinton will triple in size over the next eight years.
2009 – Daniel Andreas San Diego (31), a computer specialist from Berkeley, Ca., was added to the FBI’s list of “Most Wanted” terror suspects. Authorities described him as an animal rights activist who had turned to bomb attacks.
2010 – US Treasury officials unveiled a new $100 bill.
2010 – In Mississippi Richard Barrett (67), a white supremacist lawyer, was fatally stabbed and beaten at his home in Pearl. The next morning the house was set on fire and Vincent McGee (22), a black neighbor, was charged with murder.
2010 – Justice Department reports 60 percent increase in number of drug-smuggling tunnels at U.S.-Mexican Border.
2011 – U.S. Congressman Ed Markey (D-Mass.) sends Apple chief executive Steve Jobs a letter asking him to explain the purpose of a file embedded on iPhones and iPads that keeps a detailed log of the devices’ location. The controversy escalates as some governments announce an intent to investigate any violation of privacy laws.
2011 – U.S. Senator John Ensign, a Nevada Republican, announces his resignation from his Senate seat effective May 3, due to allegations he had an affair with the wife of a member of his staff.
2013 – A man approached a security officer at the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant and opened fire. The officer returned fire, and the assailant escaped. The security officer was unhurt in the exchange. Later in the day, helicopters and surveillance aircraft could be seen over the plant for several hours.
1555 – Ludovico Carracci, Italian painter (d. 1619)
1671 – John Law, Scottish economist (d. 1729)
1810 – John Putnam Chapin, American politician (d. 1864)
1811 – Alson Sherman, American politician (d. 1903)
1838 – John Muir, American environmentalist (d. 1914)
1882 – Percy Williams Bridgman, American physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1961)
1887 – Joe McCarthy, American baseball manager (d. 1978)
1915 – Anthony Quinn, Mexican-born actor (d. 2001)
1926 – Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
1936 – James Dobson, American evangelist
1951 – Tony Danza, American actor and comedian
1958 – Andie MacDowell, American actress
1980 – Tony Romo, American football player
*MARTINI, GARY W.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company F, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and Date: Binh Son, Republic of Vietnam, April 21st, 1967. Entered service at: Portland, OR Born: 21 September 1948, Lexington, Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 21 April 1967, during Operation UNION*, elements of Company F, conducting offensive operations at Binh Son, encountered a firmly entrenched enemy force and immediately deployed to engage them. The Marines in Pfc. Martini’s platoon assaulted across an open rice paddy to within twenty meters of the enemy trench line where they were suddenly struck by hand grenades, intense small arms, automatic weapons, and mortar fire. The enemy onslaught killed fourteen and wounded eighteen Marines, pinning the remainder of the platoon down behind a low paddy dike. In the face of imminent danger, Pfc. Martini immediately crawled over the dike to a forward open area within fifteen meters of the enemy position where, continuously exposed to the hostile fire. He hurled hand grenades, killing several of the enemy. Crawling back through the intense fire, he rejoined his platoon which had moved to the relative safety of a trench line. From this position he observed several of his wounded comrades lying helpless in the fire-swept paddy. Although he knew that one man had been killed attempting to assist the wounded, Pfc. Martini raced through the open area and dragged a comrade back to a friendly position. In spite of a serious wound received during this first daring rescue, he again braved the unrelenting fury of the enemy fire to aid another companion Lying wounded only twenty meters in front of the enemy trench line. As he reached the fallen Marine, he received a mortal wound, but disregarding his own condition, he began to drag the Marine toward his platoon’s position. Observing men from his unit attempting to leave the security of their position to aid him, concerned only for their safety, he called to them to remain under cover, and through a final supreme effort, moved his injured comrade to where he could be pulled to safety, before he fell, succumbing to his wounds. Stouthearted and indomitable, Pfc. Martini unhesitatingly yielded his life to save two of his comrades and insure the safety of the remainder of his platoon. His outstanding courage, valiant fighting spirit and selfless devotion to duty reflected the highest credit upon himself, the Marine Corps, and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
INOUYE, DANIEL K.
Rank and organization: United States Army, Nisei 442nd Regimental Combat Team. Entered Service: 1943, Honolulu, Hawaii. Born: September 7, 1924 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Citation: Second Lieutenant Daniel K. Inouye distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on April 21st, 1945, in the vicinity of San Terenzo, Italy. While attacking a defended ridge guarding an important road junction, Second Lieutenant Inouye skillfully directed his platoon through a hail of automatic weapon and small arms fire, in a swift enveloping movement that resulted in the capture of an artillery and mortar post and brought his men to within forty yards of the hostile force. Emplaced in bunkers and rock formations, the enemy halted the advance with crossfire from three machine guns. With complete disregard for his personal safety, Second Lieutenant Inouye crawled up the treacherous slope to within five yards of the nearest machine gun and hurled two grenades, destroying the emplacement. Before the enemy could retaliate, he stood up and neutralized a second machine gun nest. Although wounded by a sniper’s bullet, he continued to engage other hostile positions at close range until an exploding grenade shattered his right arm. Despite the intense pain, he refused evacuation and continued to direct his platoon until enemy resistance was broken and his men were again deployed in defensive positions. In the attack, twenty-five enemy soldiers were killed and eight others captured. By his gallant, aggressive tactics and by his indomitable leadership, Second Lieutenant Inouye enabled his platoon to advance through formidable resistance, and was instrumental in the capture of the ridge. Second Lieutenant Inouye’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
*MAY, MARTIN O.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 307th Infantry, 77th Infantry Division. Place and date: legusuku-Yama, Ie Shima, Ryukyu Islands, 19th -April 21st, 1945. Entered service at: Phillipsburg, N.J. Birth: Phillipsburg, N.J. G.O. No: 9, 25 January 1946. Citation: He gallantly maintained a three-day stand in the face of terrible odds when American troops fought for possession of the rugged slopes of legusuku-Yama on Ie Shima, Ryukyu Islands. After placing his heavy machinegun in an advantageous yet vulnerable position on a ridge to support riflemen, he became the target of fierce mortar and small arms fire from counterattacking Japanese. He repulsed this assault by sweeping the enemy with accurate bursts while explosions and ricocheting bullets threw blinding dust and dirt about him. He broke up a second counterattack by hurling grenades into the midst of the enemy forces, and then refused to withdraw, volunteering to maintain his post and cover the movement of American riflemen as they reorganized to meet any further hostile action. The major effort of the enemy did not develop until the morning of 21 April. It found Pfc. May still supporting the rifle company in the face of devastating rifle, machinegun, and mortar fire. While many of the friendly troops about him became casualties, he continued to fire his machinegun until he was severely wounded and his gun rendered useless by the burst of a mortar shell. Refusing to withdraw from the violent action, he blasted fanatical Japanese troops with hand grenades until wounded again, this time mortally. By his intrepidity and the extreme tenacity with which he held firm until death against overwhelming forces, Pfc. May killed at least sixteen Japanese, was largely responsible for maintaining the American lines, and inspired his comrades to efforts which later resulted in complete victory and seizure of the mountain stronghold.
BEASLEY, HARRY C.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1 November 1888 Ohio. Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914.
BISHOP, CHARLES FRANCIS
Rank and organization: Quartermaster Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 2 August 1898, Pittsburgh, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Florida, at Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914. Entered service at: New York. Born: 11 December 1885, New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 April 1914. Cregan was ashore when he volunteered for an assault detail under Ens. George Maus Lowry on the Vera Cruz Customhouse under enemy fire both in the alley between the customhouse and warehouse and the assault over objective’s walls. During the move up the alley, he tended a wounded comrade, J. F. Schumaker, holding a compress with one hand and firing with the other.
DECKER, PERCY A.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 4 August 1890, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914; for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 17 October 1876, Denmark. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 131, 17 July 1924. Citation: For meritorious service under fire on the occasion of landing of the naval forces at Vera Cruz, Mexico, on April 21st,1914. For several hours Lt. Drustrup was in charge of an advanced barricade under a heavy fire, and not only displayed utmost ability as a leader of men but also exerted a great steadying influence on the men around him. Lt. Drustrup was then attached to the U.S.S. Utah as a chief turret captain.
HARNER, JOSEPH GABRIEL
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 February 1889, Louisville, Ohio. Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914.
JARRETT, BERRIE H.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 June 1894 Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 116, 19 August 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida Jarrett displayed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st,1914.
NICKERSON, HENRY NEHEMIAH
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy U.S.S. Utah. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st,1914. Entered service at: West Virginia. Birth: Edgewood, W. Va. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Utah, Nickerson showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 April 1914.
Rank and organization: Chief Gunner, U.S. Navy. Born: 18 August 1887, Pittsburgh, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 120, 10 January 1924. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For meritorious service under fire on the occasion of the landing of the American naval forces at Vera Cruz on April 21st, 1914. C.G. Semple was then attached to the U.S.S. Florida as a chief turret captain.
SINNETT, LAWRENCE C.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 4 April 1888, Burnt House, W. Va. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, Sinnett showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914.
Rank and organization: Hospital Apprentice First Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st,1914. Entered service at: Michigan. Birth: Michigan. G.O. No.: 116, 9 August 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, Zuiderveld showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 April 1914.
SULLIVAN, JAMES F.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1857, Lowell, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S. Training Ship New Hampshire, at Newport, R.I., April 21st,1882, and rescuing from drowning Francis T. Price, third class boy.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S. Training Ship New Hampshire, at Newport, R.I., April 21st,1882, and rescuing from drowning Francis T. Price, third class boy.
National Look Alike Day
US Park Ranger Roy C. Sullivan from Virginia holds the record for the person most times struck by lightning – and living to tell the tale. Between 1942 and 1983, Roy has the dubious distinction of being struck by lightning seven times. He was known as the Human Lightning Rod.
The first lightning strike in 1942 happened as he was working up in a lookout tower and the lighting bolt shot through his leg and knocked his big toenail off.
In 1969 while he was driving along a mountain road a second strike burned off his eyebrows and knocked him unconscious. Another strike just a year later, while he was walking across his yard to get the mail, left his shoulder seared.
He was standing in the office at the ranger station in 1972 when lightning set his hair on fire and Roy had to throw a bucket of water over his head to cool off. A year later, after his hair had grown back, a lightning bolt ripped through his hat and hit him on the head, setting his hair on fire again. It threw him out of his truck, knocked his left shoe off and seared his legs. A sixth strike hit him in 1976 while he was checking on a campsite, injuring his ankle.
The last lightning bolt to hit Roy in 1977 happened while he was fishing. It sent him to hospital with chest and stomach burns.
Roy Sullivan was never killed by lighting – he committed suicide while in his 70’s in 1983 reportedly distraught over the loss of a woman.
John 6: 44 – 51 . .
44 No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him. And I will raise him up on the last day. 45 It is written in the Prophets, ‘And they will all be taught by God.’ Everyone who has heard and learned from the Father comes to me— 46 not that anyone has seen the Father except he who is from God; he has seen the Father. 47 Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever believes has eternal life. 48 I am the bread of life. 49 Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. 50 This is the bread that comes down from heaven, so that one may eat of it and not die. 51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. And the bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.
“You have rights antecedent to all earthly governments; rights that cannot be repealed or restrained by human laws; rights derived from the Great Legislator of the Universe”
~ John Adams
“The path to success is to take massive, determined action.”
~ Anthony Robbins
A dull or slovenly person.
[From Yiddish shlumperdik (unkempt, sloppy).]
1534 – Jacques Cartier begins his voyage, in which he will discover Canada and Labrador.
1657 – Freedom of religion is granted to the Jews of New Amsterdam (later New York City).
1775 – Revolutionary War: The siege of Boston begins, which followed the first battles at Lexington and Concord. Also following these two battles was the Gunpowder Incident or Gunpowder Affair. This was a conflict between Lord Dunmore, the Royal Governor of the Colony of Virginia, and militia led by Patrick Henry. Lord Dunmore ordered the removal of the gunpowder from the magazine in Williamsburg, Virginia to a Royal Navy ship. Dunmore, fearing for his personal safety, later retreated to a naval vessel, ending royal control of the colony.
1777 – New York adopts new constitution as an independent state.
1812 – George Clinton (73), the 4th vice president of the United States, died in Washington, becoming the first vice president to die while in office.
1832 – Hot Springs National Park was established by an act of the U.S. Congress. It was the first national park in the U.S.
1836 – U.S. Congress passes an act creating the Wisconsin Territory.
1841 – First detective story (Poe’s “Murders in the Rue Morgue”) published.
1853 – Harriet Tubman starts Underground Railroad
1861 – Civil War: Robert E. Lee resigns his commission in the United States Army in order to command the forces of the state of Virginia.
1861 – Civil War: Norfolk Navy Yard partially destroyed to prevent Yard facilities from falling into Confederate hands and abandoned by Union forces.
1861 – Civil War: Thaddeus Lowe’s balloon landed in South Carolina only to be surrounded by a group of incredulous Carolinians who believed he was a spy. Lowe managed to persuade the crowd that his 500-mile trip from Cincinnati, Ohio, was merely an innocent aerial journey to test his strange craft.
1862 – Civil War: U.S.S. Itasca commanded by Lieutenant Caldwell and the U.S.S. Pinola commanded by Lieutenant Crosby, under direction of Commander Bell, breached the obstructions below Forts Jackson and St. Philip under heavy fire, opening the way for Flag Officer Farragut’s fleet.
1862 – The first pasteurization test completed by Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard.
1863 – Civil War: A joint Army-Navy attack succeeded in capturing a strong Confederate position at Hill’s Point on the Nansemond River, Virginia, taking 5 howitzers and some 160 prisoners.
1863 – Civil War: U.S.S. Estrella, Lieutenant Commander Cooke, with U.S.S. Clifton, Arina, and Calhoun, engaged and received the surrender of Fort Burton, Butte a’ la Rose, Louisiana.
1865 – Safety matches were first advertised this day.
1871 – Civil Rights Act of 1871 is a federal law in force in the United States. Several of its provisions still exist today as codified statutes, but the most important still-existing provision is 42 U.S.C. § 1983 – Civil action for deprivation of rights.
1871 – Republicans passed the anti-Ku Klux Klan Act outlawing Democratic terrorist groups. Popularly known as the Ku Klux Act, also known as the third Enforcement Act, Congress authorizes President Ulysses S. Grant to declare martial law, impose heavy penalties against terrorist organizations, and use military force to suppress the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).
1871 – Secretary of Treasury authorized to employ crews of experienced surfmen at lifeboat stations at maximum rate of $40 per month, marking the end of the volunteer system. This was the beginning of direct Federal control over life-saving activities.
1896 – First public film showing in US, John Philip Sousa’s “El Capitán” (Part 1), premieres in New York City.
1897 – Simon Lake was granted a patent for an even keel submarine. His Lake Torpedo Boat Company built a total of 33 submarines for the U.S. Navy between 1909 and 1922.
1902 – Marie & Pierre Curie isolate radioactive element radium.
1904 – The World’s Fair of 1904 opens and celebrates the Centennial of the Louisiana Purchase.
1910 – Halley’s Comet passes 29th recorded perihelion at 54 million miles.
1912 – Opening day for Tiger Stadium in Detroit, Michigan.
1912 – Fenway Park officially opens.
1914 – Forty-five men, women, and children die in the Ludlow Massacre during a Colorado coal-miner’s strike.
1914 – In first call to action of naval aviators, detachment on USS Birmingham sailed to Tampico, Mexico.
1916 – Chicago Cubs played their first game at Weeghman Park (later Wrigley Field), defeating the Cincinnati Reds 7-6 in 11 innings.
1918 – World War I: Manfred von Richthofen, aka The Red Baron, shoots down his 79th and 80th victims marking his final victories before his death the following day.
1925 – First regular-season Cubs game to be broadcast.
1926 – Western Electric and Warner Bros. announce Vitaphone, a process to add sound to film.
1926 – First check sent by radio facsimile transmission across the Atlantic.
1930 – Charles and Anne Lindbergh set a transcontinental speed record flying from Los Angeles to New York in 14 hours and 45 minutes.
1931 – Louis Armstrong records “When It’s Sleepy Time Down South.”
1934 – The movie “Stand Up And Cheer” (1:09:00) opened. It was Shirley Temple’s debut.
1935 – “Your Hit Parade”premieres on radio. Every Saturday night, Your Hit Parade presented the top tunes of the week, saving the top three songs for the end of the show.
1940 – First electron microscope demonstrated (RCA). It was able to produce a magnification of 100,000 times, in an apparatus 10 feet high and weighing half a ton.
1941 – Dodgers start to wear protective liners in their caps as a safety precaution.
1944 – NFL legalizes coaching from the bench.
1944 – World War II: The Germans use Neger (in English: Negro) human torpedoes against shipping off Anzio. A total of 37 are launched from beaches and 24 are lost. No results are achieved.
1945 – World War II: Allied bombers in Italy begin a three-day attack on the bridges over the rivers Adige and Brenta to cut off German lines of retreat on the Italian peninsula.
1945 – World War II: US troops capture Leipzig, Germany, only to later cede the city to the Soviet Union.
1945 – World War II: Allied forces took control of the German cities of Nuremberg and Stuttgart.
1945 – World War II: American forces liberated Buchenwald. 350 Americans were imprisoned at Berga, a sub-camp of Buchenwald, following their Dec, 1944, capture at the Battle of the Bulge.
1945 – World War II: Adolf Hitler makes his last trip from Fuehrerbunker to the surface to award Iron Crosses to boy soldiers of the Hitler Youth.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, US 3rd Amphibious Corps completes the capture of the Motobu Peninsula and the whole of the main northern part of the island. The US 24th Corps, on the Shuri Line, continue to attack but the limited gains made cannot be held against the Japanese counterattacks.
1946 – First baseball game telecast was in Chicago with the Cards vs. Cubs.
1947 – Fred Allen censored during his radio broadcast. Allen was telling a joke about a mythical network vice-president when he was suddenly taken off the air.
1947 – Capt L.O. Fox, USN, supported by 80 Marines, accepted the surrender of LT Yamaguchi and 26 Japanese soldiers and sailors, two and one half years after the occupation of Peleliu and nearly 20 months after the surrender of Japan.
1948 – United Auto Workers president Walter P. Reuther was shot and wounded at his home in Detroit.
1949 – Willie Shoemaker wins his first race as a jockey aboard Shafter V at Golden Gate Fields in Albany, CA.
1949 – Scientists at the Mayo Clinic announced they’d succeeded in synthesizing a hormone found to be useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis; the substance was named “cortisone.”
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton, “Music, Music, Music” by Teresa Brewer, “Peter Cottontail” by Gene Autry and “Long Gone Lonesome Blues” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: Operation Little Switch began in Korea. It was the exchange of sick and wounded prisoners of war. Thirty Americans were freed.
1953 – Korean War: USS New Jersey shells Wonsan, Korea from inside the harbor.
1957 – “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “He’s Got the Whole World (In His Hands)” by Laurie London, “Book of Love” by The Monotones, “Don’t You Just Know It” by Huey (Piano) Smith & The Clowns and “Oh Lonesome Me” by Don Gibson all topped the charts.
1958 – The last Key System train left San Francisco for Oakland. Ferry service from the SF Ferry Building ended when the Southern Pacific “Eureka” made its last crossing to Oakland.
1959 – “Desilu Playhouse” on CBS-TV presented a two-part show titled “The Untouchables.”
1961 – American Harold Graham makes first rocket belt flight. The device was three tanks mounted on a form-fitting strapped fiberglas jacket or corset worn by the rocket belt user.
1961 – Failure of the Bay of Pigs Invasion of US troops against Cuba.
1961 – FM stereo broadcasting was approved by the FCC.
1962 – NASA civilian pilot Neil A Armstrong takes X-15 to an altitude of 207,500 feet.
1962 – The New Orleans Citizens’ Council offered a free one-way ride for blacks to move to northern states.
1963 – “He’s So Fine” by the Chiffons topped the charts.
1964 – USS Henry Clay (SSBN-625) launches a Polaris A-2 missile from the surface in first demonstration that Polaris submarines could launch missiles from the surface.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler, “(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration” by The Righteous Brothers, “Daydream” by The Lovin’ Spoonful and “I Want to Go with You” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1967 – Surveyor III bounced and skidded to a halt in a broad crater in eastern Oceanus Procellarum.
1967 – Vietnam War: U.S. planes bombed Haiphong for first time during the Vietnam War.
1968 – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro topped the charts.
1970 – Vietnam War: President Nixon pledges to withdraw 150,000 more U.S. troops over the next year “based entirely on the progress” of the Vietnamization program.
1971 – Barbra Streisand records “We’ve Only Just Begun.”
1971 – The Pentagon releases figures confirming that “fragging incidents” are on the rise. In 1970, 209 such incidents caused the deaths of 34 men; in 1969, 96 such incidents cost 34 men their lives. Fragging was a slang term used to describe U.S. military personnel tossing of fragmentation hand grenades (hence the term “fragging”) usually into sleeping areas to murder fellow soldiers.
1971 – The U.S. Supreme Court in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education,upheld the use of busing to achieve racial desegregation in schools.
1972 – Apollo 16 lands on the Moon.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “TSOP (The Sound of Philadelphia)” by MFSB featuring The Three Degrees, “Best Thing that Ever Happened to Me” by Gladys Knight & The Pips, “The Loco-Motion” by Grand Funk and “A Very Special Love Song” by Charlie Rich all topped the charts.
1974 – Paul McCartney releases “Band on the Run.”
1977 – Woody Allen’s film “Annie Hall” premiered, Diane Keaton starred.
1979 – Howard K. Smith (d.2002) resigned as news analyst for ABC over the curtailment of his commentary.
1979 – President Carter attacked by a rabbit on a canoe trip in Plains, GA.
1980 – The first Cubans sailing to the United States as part of the massive Mariel boatlift reached Florida.
1981 – Final performance of TV show “Soap” airs.
1981 – A spokesman for the U.S. Navy announced that the U.S. was accepting full responsibility for the sinking of the Nissho Maru on April 9.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Love Rock ’N Roll” by Joan Jett & The Blackhearts, “We Got the Beat” by the Go-Go’s, “Chariots of Fire” by Titles – Vangelis and “The Clown” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1983 – President Ronald Reagan signs a $165 billion bail-out for Social Security.
1984 – In Washington, terrorists bombed an officers club at a Navy yard.
1985 – ATF raid on The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord compound in northern Arkansas.
1985 – “We Are the World” by USA for Africa topped the charts.
1986 – Professional basketball player Michael Jordan sets all-time record for points in an NBA playoff game with 63 against the Boston Celtics.
1989 – The case of Oliver North went to the jury in his Iran-Contra trial.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be Your Everything” by Tommy Page, “Don’t Wanna Fall in Love” by Jane Child, “Nothing Compares 2 U” by Sinead O’Connor and “Five Minutes” by Lorrie Morgan all topped the charts.
1990 – Oakland, California hosted the first Bay Area “Black Filmworks Festival.” Sponsored by the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame, the three-day event featured 25 films including a documentary entitled, “Making ‘Do the Right Thing.'”
1990 – Pete Rose pleaded guilty to two felony counts of filing false income tax returns.
1991 – “You’re in Love” by Wilson Phillips topped the charts.
1991 – US Marines landed in northern Iraq to begin building the first center for Kurdish refugees on Iraqi territory.
1993 – President Clinton said he accepted responsibility for the decision to try to end the 51-day siege at the Branch Davidian compound in Texas, yet laid “ultimate responsibility” on David Koresh for the deaths that resulted.
1995 – In the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing, the FBI announced it was looking for two men suspected of renting the truck used to carry the explosive.
1997 – In Atlanta, Ga., African American Timmie Sinclair (27) was beaten by police officers in a scene that was captured on videotape and showed excessive use of force and baton beating.
1998 – A federal jury in Chicago ruled that anti-abortion protest organizers had used threats and violence to shut down clinics. However, the US Supreme Court ruled in February 2003 that federal racketeering and extortion laws were wrongly used to try to stop blockades, harassment and violent protests outside clinics.
1999 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Littleton, Colo., two Columbine High School students, students Eric Harris (18) and Dylan Klebold (17), used guns and explosives to randomly kill twelve other students and one teacher and injuring twenty-four others before killing themselves.
1999 – Jay Scott Ballinger (36), arrested in Feb., was indicted on charges of burning ten churches in Indiana and Georgia.
2001 – In Peru an air force jet shot down a Cessna 185 carrying US missionaries. Veronica Bowers (35) and her infant daughter, Charity, were killed when the plane crash landed in the Amazon River.
2002 – A US Navy F-4 Phantom crashed during an air show at Ventura, Ca., and its two crew members were killed.
2003 – Iraq: U.S. Army forces took control of Baghdad from the Marines in a changing of the guard that thinned the military presence in the capital.
2003 – A bench clearing brawl happens in a baseball game between the Arizona Diamondbacks and the St. Louis Cardinals. Tino Martinez was hit by a 1–0 pitch from Miguel Batista, and took first base. He was then forced out at second base. Martinez charged Batista from behind. Batista turned and threw the ball at him, and players from both teams joined the altercation.
2004 – The US Labor Dept. established new rules on overtime pay. It expanded the range for lower income workers and put a ceiling on overtime for higher income workers.
2004 – The US federal government agreed to settle a civil suit filed by leaders of Earth First following an FBI arrest in Oakland May 24, 1990. Darryl Cherney and the estate of Judi Bari expected to receive $2 million.
2004 Iraq War: Twelve mortars are fired on Abu Ghraib Prison by insurgents, killing 22 detainees and wounding 92.
2004 – The NASA Gravity Probe B satellite, designed by Stanford researchers, was launched to test Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.
2005 – President Bush signed new legislation to make individual bankruptcy more difficult.
2005 – An air tanker Lockheed P-3 Orion crashed in California’s Lassen National Forest killing three crew members during a training run.
2006 – The CIA fired Mary McCarthy, a top intelligence analyst, who admitted leaking classified information about a network of secret CIA prisons.
2006 – Tony Snow is named White House Press Secretary.
2006 – John Negroponte, US National Intelligence Director, said the US employs almost 100,000 people in 16 federal departments and agencies dealing with intelligence.
2006 – Arkansas Republican Governor Mike Huckabee signed a $1.10 state minimum wage increase into law to be effective Oct 1. The previous minimum was at the federal standard of $5.15 per hour.
2006 – Georgia’s Gov. Sonny Perdue signed a bill into law that offered government-sanctioned elective classes on the Bible in public high schools. He also signed a bill permitting the display of the Ten Commandments at courthouses.
2006 – In Columbus, Kansas, five teenage boys were arrested for threatening to carry out a shooting spree at their high school on the anniversary of the Columbine bloodbath.
2007 – Johnson Space Center Shooting: A man with a handgun barricades himself in NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas before killing a male hostage and himself.
2007 – Virginia observes a day of mourning for the victims in the Virginia Tech massacre.
2008- Pope Benedict XVI has Papal Mass in Yankee Stadium in New York City .
2008 – The New York Times publishes an exposé on the Pentagon military analyst program.
2008 – Danica Patrick becomes the first woman to win a race in any top-flight American motor racing series with her victory in IndyCar’s 2008 Indy Japan 300.
2009 – The US commemorate the 10th anniversary of the Columbine High School massacre in 1999 by Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold.
2010 – The Gulf Oil Spill: The Transocean-owned (was BP) oil rig Deepwater Horizon explodes, leaking about 4,900,000 barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. At least seven people were injured and over a dozen were missing at sea.
2010 – The United States and Iraq kill an al-Qaeda leader, Ahmed al-Obeidi, in Nineveh.
2011 – Renowned photographers Tim Hetherington and Chris Hondros are killed and four others injured in Misrata, Libya.
2012 – Marcus Robinson, due to have been executed in 2007, is ordered off death row after North Carolina Superior Court Judge Gregory Weeks rules his trial was tainted by racial bias, grounds for cancellation of a death sentence under the state’s Racial Justice Act.
2013 – Howard Phillips, founder of the Constitution Party, died at 3:50 PM, EST today. Phillips is credited for helping to establish the Moral Majority which was instrumental in Ronald Reagan’s election to the White House in 1980.
2015 – The USS Theodore Roosevelt is heading to the Arabia Sea off the coast of Yemen to join other U.S. warships prepared to intercept any Iranian vessels carrying weapons to rebels, according to the U.S. Navy.
2015 – SS ‘accountant of Auschwitz’ going on trial in Germany. 93-year-old Oskar Groening, tasked with collecting belongings of victims arriving on trains, to go on trial for his part in Nazi crimes during Holocaust.
2016 – Aaron Hicks of the New York Yankees makes a record-breaking throw to home plate. Hicks threw out Danny Valencia at home plate in the fourth inning. The throw was recorded at 105.5 mph, setting a new record, according to MLB’s tracking technology Statcast.
1718 – David Brainerd, American missionary to the Indians (d. 1747)
1723 – Cornelius Harnett, American delegate to the Continental Congress (d. 1781)
1745 – Philippe Pinel, French physician (d. 1826)
1882 – Holland Smith, U.S. General (d. 1967)
1893 – Edna Parker, American supercentenarian , lived in 19th, 20th and 21st centuries.(d. November 26, 2008)
1908 – Lionel Hampton, American musician (d. 2002)
1920 – John Paul Stevens, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
1936 – Pat Roberts, American politician
1937 – George Takei, American actor
1941 – Ryan O’Neal, American actor
1949 – Veronica Cartwright, American actress
1949 – Jessica Lange, American actress
1951 – Luther Vandross, American singer (d. 2005)
Rank and Organization: Corporal, United States Army, Company I, Eighth Regiment, First Cavalry Division. Entered service at Chicago, IL. Born: Pásztó, Hungary, Citation: Corporal Tibor Rubin distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism during the period from July 23rd, 1950, to April 20th, 1953, while serving as a rifleman with Company I, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division in the Republic of Korea. While his unit was retreating to the Pusan Perimeter, Corporal Rubin was assigned to stay behind to keep open the vital Taegu-Pusan Road link used by his withdrawing unit. During the ensuing battle, overwhelming numbers of North Korean troops assaulted a hill defended solely by Corporal Rubin. He inflicted a staggering number of casualties on the attacking force during his personal 24-hour battle, single-handedly slowing the enemy advance and allowing the 8th Cavalry Regiment to complete its withdrawal successfully. Following the breakout from the Pusan Perimeter, the 8th Cavalry Regiment proceeded northward and advanced into North Korea. During the advance, he helped capture several hundred North Korean soldiers. On October 30, 1950, Chinese forces attacked his unit at Unsan, North Korea, during a massive nighttime assault. That night and throughout the next day, he manned a .30 caliber machine gun at the south end of the unit’s line after three previous gunners became casualties. He continued to man his machine gun until his ammunition was exhausted. His determined stand slowed the pace of the enemy advance in his sector, permitting the remnants of his unit to retreat southward. As the battle raged, Corporal Rubin was severely wounded and captured by the Chinese. Choosing to remain in the prison camp despite offers from the Chinese to return him to his native Hungary, Corporal Rubin disregarded his own personal safety and immediately began sneaking out of the camp at night in search of food for his comrades. Breaking into enemy food storehouses and gardens, he risked certain torture or death if caught. Corporal Rubin provided not only food to the starving Soldiers, but also desperately needed medical care and moral support for the sick and wounded of the POW camp. His brave, selfless efforts were directly attributed to saving the lives of as many as forty of his fellow prisoners. Corporal Rubin’s gallant actions in close contact with the enemy and unyielding courage and bravery while a prisoner of war are in the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, United States Army, 442nd Regimental Combat Team. Entered Service: Salinas, CA Born: August 14, 1920, Salinas, CA Citation: Private Joe Hayashi distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on April 20th and April 22nd, 1945, near Tendola, Italy. On 20 April 1945, ordered to attack a strongly defended hill that commanded all approaches to the village of Tendola, Private Hayashi skillfully led his men to a point within 75 yards of enemy positions before they were detected and fired upon. After dragging his wounded comrades to safety, he returned alone and exposed himself to small arms fire in order to direct and adjust mortar fire against hostile emplacements. Boldly attacking the hill with the remaining men of his squad, he attained his objective and discovered that the mortars had neutralized three machine guns, killed twenty-seven men, and wounded many others. On 22 April 1945, attacking the village of Tendola, Private Hayashi maneuvered his squad up a steep, terraced hill to within one-hundred yards of the enemy. Crawling under intense fire to a hostile machine gun position, he threw a grenade, killing one enemy soldier and forcing the other members of the gun crew to surrender. Seeing four enemy machine guns delivering deadly fire upon other elements of his platoon, he threw another grenade, destroying a machine gun nest. He then crawled to the right flank of another machine gun position where he killed four enemy soldiers and forced the others to flee. Attempting to pursue the enemy, he was mortally wounded by a burst of machine pistol fire. The dauntless courage and exemplary leadership of Private Hayashi enabled his company to attain its objective. Private Hayashi’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
TROUT, JAMES M.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Second Class Fireman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1850, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Frolic, Trout displayed gallant conduct in endeavoring to save the life of one of the crew of that vessel who had fallen overboard at Montevideo, April 20th, 1877.
National Auctioneers Day
Four Bad Days
Romans 8:5-8 New International Version (NIV)
5 Those who live according to the flesh have their minds set on what the flesh desires; but those who live in accordance with the Spirit have their minds set on what the Spirit desires. 6 The mind governed by the flesh is death, but the mind governed by the Spirit is life and peace. 7 The mind governed by the flesh is hostile to God; it does not submit to God’s law, nor can it do so. 8 Those who are in the realm of the flesh cannot please God.
“The Christian religion is, above all the religions that ever prevailed or existed in ancient or modern times, the religion of wisdom, virtue, equity and humanity.”
John Adams, Works, Vol. III, p. 421, diary entry for July 26, 1796.
“Success means doing the best we can with what we have. Success is the doing, not the getting; in the trying, not the triumph. Success is a personal standard, reaching for the highest that is in us, being all we can be.”
~ Zig Ziglar
Svengali (sven-GAH-lee) noun
A person who manipulates and exercises excessive control over another for sinister purposes. After Svengali, a musician and hypnotist, in the novel “Trilby” written by George du Maurier (1834-1896). In the story, Trilby is an artist’s model.
607 – Comet 1P/607 H1 (Halley) approaches within 0.0898 astronomical units (AUs) of Earth.
1529 – Beginning of the Protestant Reformation: After the Second Diet of Speyer bans Lutheranism, a group of rulers (German: Fürst) and independent cities (German:Reichsstadt) protests the reinstatement of the Edict of Worm.
1587 – Sir Frances Drake sailed into Cadiz, Spain, and sank the Spanish fleet.
1763 – Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, burned to death while sleeping in his cabin in the Wyoming Valley, Pa. The fire destroyed the whole Indian village. A few days later settlers from Connecticut arrived to resume their construction of a town.
1764 – The English Parliament banned the American colonies from printing paper money.
1770 – Captain James Cook sights the eastern coast of what is now Australia.
1775 – Revolutionary War: The war begins with an alerting by Paul Revere the War began at Lexington Common with the Battle of Lexington-Concord. Capt. John Parker mustered 78 militiamen on the town green of Lexington to send a warning to the 700 British soldiers marching to Concord to seize weapons and gunpowder. Maj. Gen. Thomas Gage sent a force of 700 British troops to Concord, west of Boston, to capture colonial weapons and arrest Patriot leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock. Arriving at Lexington on their way to Concord, the British were met on the town common by about 70 Minutemen. The “shot heard ‘round the world” ignited the American Revolutionary War. No one knows who fired the first shot, but when the smoke cleared, eight Americans lay dead. The British suffered more than 250 casualties as they opposed more than 1,500 Massachusetts men. Isaac Davis was among the first to die at Lexington and Concord.
1778 – Marines participated in the USS Ranger’s capturing and sinking of a British schooner off the coast of Ireland.
1782 – John Adams secures the Dutch Republic’s recognition of the United States as an independent government. The house which he had purchased in The Hague,Netherlands becomes the first American embassy.
1783 – George Washington proclaims end of hostilities.
1802 – Spain reopened the New Orleans port to American merchants.
1813 – Benjamin Rush (67), physician, revolutionary (signed Declaration of Independence), died.
1819 – The USS Alabama and Louisiana destroyed a pirate base at the Patterson’s Town Raid on Breton Island, Louisiana.
1861 – Civil War: President Lincoln ordered the blockade of Confederate ports.
1861 – Civil War: Baltimore riot of 1861: A pro-Secession mob in Baltimore, Maryland, attacks United States Army troops marching through the city. Four Union soldiers, nine civilians killed.
1861 – President Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus and hundreds of secessionist leaders were rounded up.
1864 – Civil War: Naval engagement at Cherbourg, France: USS Kearsarge vs. CSS Alabama.
1865 – Funeral service for Abraham Lincoln is held in the East Room of the White House.
1865 – Lieutenant W. H. Parker, commanding naval escort entrusted with the Confederate archives, treasury, and President Davis’ wife, successfully evaded Federal patrols en route southward from Charlotte and arrived at Washington, Georgia.
1892 – Charles Duryea claims to have driven the first automobile in the United States, in Springfield, Massachusetts.
1897 – Léo Taxil exposes his own fabrications concerning Freemasonry.
1897 – The first Boston Marathon was run from Ashland, Mass., to Boston. Winner John J. McDermott ran the course in 2 hours, 55 minutes and 10 seconds.
1898 – Congress passed a resolution recognizing Cuban independence and demanding that Spain relinquish authority over Cuba. President McKinley was also authorized to use military force to put the resolution into effect.
1913 – California passed the Webb Bill, excluding Japanese from owning land. It was signed into law on May 19, 1913.
1915 – Aviation engineers working for Dutch-born Anthony Fokker develop the mechanical interrupter gear, which allows machine gun bullets to be fired through rotating aircraft propeller blades.
1919 – Leslie Irvin of the United States makes the first successful voluntary free-fall parachute jump using a new kind of self-contained parachute.
1924 – The “National Barn Dance” premiered on WLS in Chicago.
1927 – Mae West is sentenced to ten days in jail for obscenity for her play “Sex.”
1928 – The 125th and final fascicle of the Oxford English Dictionary is published.
1933 – The United States went off the gold standard by presidential proclamation. FDR tied this with orders that 445,000 newly minted gold $20 “Double Eagle” coins be destroyed.
1934 – Shirley Temple appears in her first movie, “Stand Up & Cheer“.
1938 – RCA-NBC launches its first regular TV broadcasts. The programs, broadcast from the Empire State Building, were an experiment and aired only five hours a week. Very few TV sets existed at the time to receive the programs.
1939 – Connecticut finally approved Bill of Rights.
1940 – Jimmy Dorsey and his orchestra record the song “Six Lessons from Madame La Zonga”
1942 – World War II: On Bataan, the Japanese are overwhelmed by thousands of American and Filipino prisoners who assemble in the town of Balanga.
1943 – World War II: In Poland, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins, after German troops enter the Warsaw ghetto to round up the remaining Jews. Young Jews under Mordechai Anielewicz directed the first urban uprising against the Nazis. During World War II, tens of thousands of Jews living in the Warsaw Ghetto began a valiant but futile battle against Nazi forces. SS-Gen Jurgen Stroop led the destruction of the ghetto of Warsaw: “The Warsaw Ghetto is no more!” he wrote proudly to Heinrich Himmler and Adolf Hitler. Stroop was hanged on the site of the Warsaw ghetto after the war.
1944 – World War II: The House of Representatives approves an extension of Lend-Lease legislation.
1945 – World War II: US aircraft carrier Franklin was heavily damaged in Japanese air raid.
1947 – Garvin Smith sets the existing world record for the 25′ rope climb. Smith broke the record at the 1947 AAU competition making the 25′ climb in 4.2 seconds. By 1963 both the 20′ and the 25′ competitions had been discontinued in the AAU and NCAA as well.
1948 – ABC-TV network begins. Known until mid-1944 as “The Blue Network,” the company was re-christened the American Broadcasting Company. One of the starting stations was WXYZ where The Lone Ranger, Sergeant Preston, Sky King and other popular daily serials originated.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cruising Down the River” by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: The Skyliners), “Red Roses for a Blue Lady” by Vaughn Monroe, “Forever and Ever” by Perry Como and “Candy Kisses” by George Morgan all topped the charts.
1951 – General Douglas MacArthur retires from the military. His farewell included quoting a line from a ballad: “Old soldiers never die; they just fade away.”
1951 – “Tree Grows in Brooklyn” opens in New York City.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1956 – Actress Grace Kelly marries Prince Rainier of Monaco. She died in Monaco resulting in injuries from a car crash.
1958 – “Tequila” by the Champs topped the charts.
1958 – The San Francisco Giants defeated the Los Angeles Dodgers 11-4 at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum – their first meeting on the West Coast.
1958 – The last Key System train left Oakland for SF. Ferry service from the Ferry Building ended the next day when the Southern Pacific “Eureka” made its last crossing from SF to Oakland.
1960 – Baseball uniforms began displaying player’s names on their backs.
1961 – Howard Anderson was executed in Cuba after being convicted of arms smuggling to anti-Communist rebels.
1961 – Cuban forces shot down a B-26 bomber piloted by Captain Thomas Ray north of Larga beach, an area they controlled. Ray was flying the bomber from Nicaragua while on contract to the US CIA.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Telling You Now” by Freddie & The Dreamers, “Game of Love” by Wayne Fontana & The Mindbenders, “I Know a Place” by Petula Clark and “King of the Road” by Roger Miller all topped the charts.
1965 – First all news radio station (WINS 1010 AM in NYC) begins operating. Its last record was the Shangri-La’s “Out In The Streets.”
1965 – At a cost of $20,000, the outer Houston Astrodome ceiling was painted because of sun’s glare. This in turn caused the grass to die.
1966 – Lt. Lee Aaron Adams of Willits, Ca., was killed when his F-105D Thunderchief fighter plane was shot down in North Vietnam. His remains were returned home in 2005.
1967 – “Casino Royale” premieres. It was a 1967 spy comedy film originally produced by Columbia Pictures. It is loosely based on Ian Fleming’s first James Bond novel. The film stars David Niven as the “original” Bond, Sir James Bond 007.
1967 – Katherine Switzer (b.1947) ran in the Boston Marathon registered under the name K. Switzer. Up to this time women were not allowed to register for the race.
1968 – Ralph S. Plaisted, insurance salesman turned explorer, reached the North Pole by snowmobile with three other men. This was the first expedition to indisputably reach the North Pole.
1969 – “Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In” by 5th Dimension topped the charts.
1969 – In Ithaca N.Y. approximately 80 armed, militant black students at Cornell Univ. took over Willard Straight Hall. They demanded a black studies program and cut a deal with frightened administrators for total amnesty.
1969 – The US turns over the first 20 of 60 jet fighter-bombers to the South Vietnamese Air Force.
1971 – Vietnam War: Vietnam Veterans Against the War begin a five-day demonstration in Washington, D.C..
1971 – Charles Manson is sentenced to death (later commuted life imprisonment) for conspiracy to commit the Tate/LaBianca murders.
1972 – US 7th Fleet warships, while bombarding the North Vietnamese coast, are attacked by MiGs and patrol boats as Hanoi begins to challenge US naval presence in The Tonkin Gulf for the first time since 1964. The destroyer USS Higbee is badly damaged.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia” by Vicki Lawrence, “Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree” by Dawn featuring Tony Orlando, “Sing” by the Carpenters and “A Shoulder to Cry On” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1973 – Barbra Streisand records “Between Yesterday & Tomorrow”.
1975 – “Philadelphia Freedom” by Elton John topped the charts.
1977 – Alex Haley received a special Pulitzer Prize for his book “Roots.”
1980 – “Call Me” by Blondie topped the charts.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss on My List” by Daryl Hall & John Oates, “Morning Train (Nine to Five)” by Sheena Easton, “Just the Two of Us” by Grover Washington, Jr./Bill Withers and “Old Flame” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1982 – Astronauts Sally K. Ride and Guion S. Bluford Jr. became the first woman and first African-American to be tapped by NASA for U.S. space missions.
1985 – 16th Space Shuttle Mission (51-D)-Discovery 4 returns to Earth.
1987 – Jacqueline Blanc, sets women’s downhill ski speed record (124.902 mph).
1987 – The Simpsons premieres as a short cartoon on The Tracey Ullman Show.
1988 – Sarah LaChapelle (56) was found murdered at her home in East Oakland. Gregory Tate (21) was arrested later that day in LaChapelle’s stolen Oldsmobile Cutlass. He was convicted in 1992 for her murder and in 1993 was sentenced to death.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “She Drives Me Crazy” by Fine Young Cannibals, “Like a Prayer” by Madonna, “Funky Cold Medina” by Tone Loc and “ I’m No Stranger to the Rain” by Keith Whitley all topped the charts.
1989 – The battleship USS Iowa’s number 2 turret exploded while on maneuvers northeast of Puerto Rico. Forty-seven sailors were killed and a $4 million investigation was launched. The Navy attempted to lay the blame on Clayton Hartwig, a seaman described as gay soldier disappointed in a gay affair.
1991 – Evander Holyfield won a unanimous decision over George Foreman to retain boxing’s heavyweight title in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
1992 – After six days, engineers plugged the tunnel leak under the Chicago River that caused an underground flood that had virtually shut down business in the heart of the city.
1993 – The 51-day siege at the Branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas, ended as fire destroyed the structure after federal agents began smashing their way in; dozens of people, including leader David Koresh (Vernon Howell), were killed. In 1999 the FBI admitted that it used incendiary tear gas canisters but still maintained that it did not start the fire.
1993 – South Dakota governor George Mickelson and seven others are killed when a state-owned aircraft crashes in Iowa.
1994 – A Los Angeles jury awarded $3.8 million to beaten motorist Rodney King.
1994 – The US Supreme Court outlawed the practice of excluding people from juries because of their gender.
1995 – Oklahoma City bombing: The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma is bombed. At 9:02 A.M. Oklahoma City, USA, a large car bomb exploded at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building killing 168 people, and injuring 500 including many children in the building’s day care center. Within a week a suspect, Timothy McVeigh, was caught and charged. Two suspects, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, faced trial. McVeigh was arrested during a routine traffic stop 78 miles from Oklahoma City on weapons charges the same day. Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, were later convicted of charges related to the bombing. Michael Fortier, a key government witness and friend of Nichols and McVeigh, was sentenced to 12 years in prison in 1998 for failing to warn authorities, lying to the FBI, transporting stolen weapons and conspiring to fence stolen weapons.
1996 – On the first anniversary of the Oklahoma City bombing, hundreds of mourners paused for 168 seconds of silence at the site where the federal building once stood.
1997 – San Diego Padres hosted the St. Louis Cardinals in a series at Aloha Stadium, where their star Tony Gwynn used to play for the Islanders. The Cardinals won the game 2-1 behind Alan Benes.
1997 – The Red River Flood of 1997 overwhelms the city of Grand Forks, North Dakota. Fire breaks out and spreads in downtown Grand Forks, but high water levels hamper efforts to reach the fire, leading to the destruction of 11 buildings.
1998 – A small plane crashed on the west side of Detroit. It was reported to have contained cash and marijuana that neighbors quickly picked up. The pilot was believed to be Douglas C. Dufresne (66) of Florida.
1998 – In Arizona grasshoppers by the millions descended on communities along the lower Colorado River.
1999 – In Florida the Everglades fire charred had 130,000 acres and continued to rage.
1999 – In Puerto Rico two US Marine jets in training dropped bombs over the island of Vieques and missed their targets. One civilian, David Sanes Rodriguez, was killed and four people were injured.
2000 – President Clinton knelt among 168 empty chairs memorializing each victim of the Oklahoma City bombing and declared the site “sacred ground” in the soul of America during a fifth-anniversary dedication ceremony.
2000 – In Arizona Richard Glassel (61)(55) killed 2 women and injured 4 others in a retirement community in Peoria.
2000 – In Tennessee Robert Glen Coe, convicted for the 1979 murder and rape of Cary Ann Medlin (8), was executed by injection. This was the state’s first execution in 40 years.
2001 – The space shuttle Endeavour went into orbit with 7 astronauts on an 11-day mission to install a billion-dollar robot arm on the International Space Station.
2001 – A US cargo ship departed from Jacksonville, Fla., for Cuba, the first scheduled ship in forty years. Two days later the ship failed to dock in Cuba.
2002 – The space shuttle Atlantis returned to Earth after installing the first girder in what eventually will be a giant framework at the international space station.
2004 – Jim Cantalupo (60), McDonald’s Corp. Chairman and Chief Executive, died of an apparent heart attack in Florida and the company named Chief Operating Officer Charlie Bell to replace him as CEO.
2007 – US Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid offered a bleak assessment of Iraq, saying the war was “lost,” triggering an angry backlash by Republicans.
2007 – A jury in Selmer, Tenn., convicted Mary Winkler of voluntary manslaughter in the shooting death of her preacher-husband, Matthew. Winkler spent seven months in custody, with two months served in a mental facility.
2009 – In Arizona Doug Georgianni (51) was shot and killed while collecting data from a traffic enforcement camera inside an SUV in Phoenix. The next day police arrested Thomas Patrick Destories (68) on 1st degree murder charges.
2010 – Arizona lawmakers passed a controversial immigration bill requiring police in the state that borders Mexico to determine if people are in the United States illegally, a measure critics say is open to racial profiling.
2010 – In Oregon Jorge Ortiz-Oliva (40), the kingpin of one of the biggest drug organizations in Oregon history, was sentenced to 30 years in prison.
2010 – In Tennessee a man opened fire outside the Parkwest Medical Center in Knoxville killing a woman and injuring two others before committing suicide.
2011 – U.S. serviceman PFC Bradley Manning, pending cort martial for the release of reams of classified documents to the Wikileaks website, is moved by officials from the Marine stockade at Quanitco to a military prison in Kansas.
2012 – One of the first pennies ever produced by the US Mint, a 1792 Silver Center penny, was put up for auction and reportedly sold for more than $1 million.
2013 – Boston Marathon bombings suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev is killed in a shootout with police. His brother Dzhokhar Tsarnaev is captured while hiding in a boat inside a backyard in Watertown, Massachusetts.
2013 – A fishing boat owned by a Louisiana sea food company sank off the Texas Gulf Coast after it was hit by a freak wave. Four fishermen were lost and one was rescued.
2013 – The Boy Scouts of America proposed lifting a ban on gay scouts but maintaining a prohibition on gay adults from leading troops.
2013 – Floodwaters swelled the Mississippi River and other Midwestern rivers following days of torrential rains. In Quiincy, Ill., the river rose nearly 10 feet in 36 hours. Two flood related deaths were in Indiana, a 3rd in Missouri.
1857 – Clarence Darrow, American attorney (d. 1938)
1904 – Pigmeat Markham, American comedian (d. 1981)
1905 – George H. Hitchings, American scientist, Nobel laureate (d. 1998)
1915 – Joy Gresham Lewis, American writer, wife of C. S. Lewis (d. 1960)
1922 – Barbara Hale, American actress
1924 – Henry Hyde, American politician (d. 2007)
1939 – Thomas J. Moyer, American judge
1940 – Joseph L. Goldstein, American scientist, Nobel laureate
1947 – Cindy Pickett, American actress
1947 – James Woods, American actor
1956 – Eric Roberts, American actor
1968 – Mary Birdsong, American actress
1976 – Justin Ross, American politician
THORSNESS, LEO K.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel (then Maj.), U.S. Air Force, 357th Tactical Fighter Squadron. Place and date: Over North Vietnam, April 19th, 1967. Entered service at: Walnut Grove, Minn. Born: 14 February 1932, Walnut Grove, Minn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. As pilot of an F- 105 aircraft, Lt. Col. Thorsness was on a surface-to-air missile suppression mission over North Vietnam. Lt. Col. Thorsness and his wingman attacked and silenced a surface-to-air missile site with air-to-ground missiles, and then destroyed a second surface-to-air missile site with bombs. In tile attack on the second missile site, Lt. Col. Thorsness’ wingman was shot down by intensive antiaircraft fire, and the 2 crewmembers abandoned their aircraft. Lt. Col. Thorsness circled the descending parachutes to keep the crewmembers in sight and relay their position to the Search and Rescue Center. During this maneuver, a MIG-17 was sighted in the area. Lt. Col. Thorsness immediately initiated an attack and destroyed the MIG. Because his aircraft was low on fuel, he was forced to depart the area in search of a tanker. Upon being advised that 2 helicopters were orbiting over the downed crew’s position and that there were hostile MlGs in the area posing a serious threat to the helicopters, Lt. Col. Thorsness, despite his low fuel condition, decided to return alone through a hostile environment of surface-to-air missile and antiaircraft defenses to the downed crew’s position. As he approached the area, he spotted 4 MIG-17 aircraft and immediately initiated an attack on the MlGs, damaging 1 and driving the others away from the rescue scene. When it became apparent that an aircraft in the area was critically low on fuel and the crew would have to abandon the aircraft unless they could reach a tanker, Lt. Col. Thorsness, although critically short on fuel himself, helped to avert further possible loss of life and a friendly aircraft by recovering at a forward operating base, thus allowing the aircraft in emergency fuel condition to refuel safely. Lt. Col. Thorsness’ extraordinary heroism, self-sacrifice, and personal bravery involving conspicuous risk of life were in the highest traditions of the military service, and have reflected great credit upon himself and the U.S. Air Force.
CARSON, ANTHONY J.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 43d Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Catubig, Samar, Philippine Islands, April 15- April 19th, 1900. Entered service at: Malden, Mass. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 4 January 1906. Citation: Assumed command of a detachment of the company which had survived an overwhelming attack of the enemy, and by his bravery and untiring efforts and the exercise of extraordinary good judgment in the handling of his men successfully withstood for 2 days the attacks of a large force of the enemy, thereby saving the lives of the survivors and protecting the wounded until relief came.
BETTS, CHARLES M.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Greensboro, N.C., April 19, 1865. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Bucks County, Pa. Date of issue: 10 October 1892. Citation: With a force of but 75 men, while on a scouting expedition, by a judicious disposition of his men, surprised and captured an entire battalion of the enemy’s cavalry.
ELLIOTT, RUSSELL C.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 3d Massachusetts Cavalry. Place and date: At Natchitoches, La., April 19, 1864. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Concord, N.H. Date of issue: 20 November 1896. Citation: Seeing a Confederate officer in advance of his command, charged on him alone and unaided and captured him.
LANGBEIN, J. C. JULIUS
Rank and organization: Musician, Company B, 9th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Camden, N.C., April 19, 1862. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 29 September 1846, Germany. Date of issue: 7 January 1895. Citation: A drummer boy, 15 years of age, he voluntarily and under a heavy fire went to the aid of a wounded officer, procured medical assistance for him, and aided in carrying him to a place of safety.
Rank and organization: Captain and Assistant Adjutant General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and Date: At Fort Huger, Va., April 19th, 1863. Entered service at: Olympia, Washington Territory. Born: 9 June 1842, Newport, R.I. Date of issue: 13 June 1894. Citation: Gallantly led a party that assaulted and captured the fort.
1906 San Francisco Earthquake
“ONE of the great social events of the opera season in the spring of 1906 was the joint appearance of Enrico Caruso and Olive Fremstad in Carmen. A large and enthusiastic audience filled the house for this gala occasion. it was the night of April 17th. After a quiet supper party with some friends, I walked home and went to bed with the music of Carmen still singing in my ears. It seemed as if I had scarcely been asleep when I was awakened by a terrifying sound–the Chinese porcelains that I had been collecting in the last years had crashed to the floor. (My interest in Chinese porcelains ever since then has been purely platonic.) The whole house was creaking and shaking, the chandelier was swinging like a pendulum, and I felt as if I were on a ship tossed about by a rough sea. “This can’t go on much longer,” I said to myself. “When a house shakes like this, the ceiling is bound to collapse. As soon as the plaster begins to fall, I’ll cover my head and accept what comes.” ~ Arnold Genthe
The previous evening had been the opening night of the Metropolitan Opera Company’s San Francisco engagement. Caruso—already a worldwide sensation—had sung the part of Don José in Bizet’s Carmen at the Mission Opera House. He went to bed that night feeling pleased about his performance. “But what an awakening!” he wrote in the account published later that spring in London’s The Sketch. “I wake up about 5 o’clock, feeling my bed rocking as though I am in a ship on the ocean….I get up and go to the window, raise the shade and look out. And what I see makes me tremble with fear. I see the buildings toppling over, big pieces of masonry falling, and from the street below I hear the cries and screams of men and women and children.”
The 1906 earthquake ranks as one of the worst natural disasters in US history and one of the most significant earthquakes of all times. It affected 375,000 square miles, half of which were in the Pacific Ocean. The ground surface was ruptured along the San Andreas fault for almost 300 miles. The speed at which it ruptured at an estimated 4 to 5 feet per second, while the rupture itself traveled at about 5,900 miles per hour.
Near Point Reyes, just northwest of San Francisco, the surface slippage was 24 feet. The earthquake also devastated northern California areas including Santa Rosa, San Jose, and Santa Cruz. Property damage was estimated at $400 million, or more than $8 billion in today’s dollars.
After the earthquake, over 225,000 of the city’s 400,000 residents were homeless. Fires destroyed about 28,000 buildings and 500 blocks – ¼ of San Francisco. Fires burned for three days and three nights; some were as hot as 2,700°F. The fires were more catastrophic than the earthquake itself.
Psalm 75:4-7 New International Version (NIV)
4 To the arrogant I say, ‘Boast no more,’ and to the wicked, ‘Do not lift up your horns. 5 Do not lift your horns against heaven; I do not speak so defiantly.’”
6 No one from the east or the west or from the desert can exalt themselves.
7 It is God who judges: He brings one down, he exalts another.
“Suppose a nation in some distant region should take the Bible for their only law book and every member should regulate his conduct by the precepts there exhibited. . . . What a Eutopia – what a Paradise would this region be!”
John Adams, Works, Vol. II, pp. 6-7, diary entry for February 22, 17
“Success means doing the best we can with what we have. Success is the doing, not the getting; in the trying, not the triumph. Success is a personal standard, reaching for the highest that is in us, being all we can be.”
~ Zig Ziglar
Svengali (sven-GAH-lee) noun
A person who manipulates and exercises excessive control over another for sinister purposes. After Svengali, a musician and hypnotist, in the novel “Trilby” written by George du Maurier (1834-1896). In the story, Trilby is an artist’s model.
1676 – Sudbury, Massachusetts, was attacked by Indians.
1689 – Bostonians rise up in rebellion against Sir Edmund Andros.
1775 –Revolutionary War: The British planned a surprise attack on Lexington; a storage place for colonial arms. Paul Revere overheard these British plans. Revere, William Dawes and Samuel Prescott rode out in the middle of the night to warn colonial militia of the approaching British.
1775 – Revolutionary War: The British advancement by sea begin; riders warn of impending arrests of Samuel Adams and John Hancock.
1775 – Revolutionary War: In Massachusetts, General Gage orders 700 British soldiers to Concord to destroy the colonists’ weapons depot and to capture Patriot leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock.That night, Paul Revere and William Dawes are sent from Boston to warn colonists. Revere reaches Lexington about midnight and warns both men who are hiding out there.
1778 – Revolutionary War: John Paul Jones attacked the British revenue cutter Husar near the Isle of Man, but it escaped. Soon thereafter he raided Whitehaven and burned one coal ship.
1783 – Fighting ceases in the American Revolution, eight years to the day since it began.
1796 – “The Archers” by Benjamin Carr was performed in New York City. It was the first opera written by an American composer.
1805 – The Revenue cutter Louisiana recaptured the merchant brig Felicity from privateers off the mouth of the Mississippi River.
1806 – Congress passed the Nicholson Act (nee the Non-Importation Act), legislation which effectively shut the door on the importation of numerous British goods to America. The legislation blocked the trade of brass, tin, textiles and other items that could either be produced in the States or imported from other countries.
1818 – A regiment of Indians and blacks were defeated at the Battle of Suwann, in Florida, ending the first Seminole War.
1831 – The University of Alabama is founded.
1846 – The telegraph ticker was patented by R.E. House.
1848 – American victory at the battle of Cerro Gordo opens the way for invasion of Mexico. Robert E. Lee was promoted to brevet major after this battle.
1848 – U.S. Navy expedition to explore the Dead Sea and the River Jordan, commanded by LT William F. Lynch, reaches the Dead Sea.
1861 – Colonel Robert E Lee turns down offer to command Union armies.
1861 – Civil War: Battle of Harpers Ferry, VA.
1862 – Civil War: Union mortar boats, Commander D. D. Porter, began a five day bombardment of Fort Jackson as a part of the Battle of Ft Jackson, Ft St. Philip and New Orleans, LA.
1864 – Civil War: Landing party from U.S.S. Commodore Read, Commander F. A. Parker, destroyed a Confederate base together with a quantity of equipment and supplies at Circus Point on the Rappahannock River, Virginia.
1864 – Civil War: At Poison Springs, Arkansas, Confederate soldiers under the command of General Samuel Maxey capture a Union forage train and slaughter black troops escorting the expedition.
1865 – Civil War: Dr. Samuel A. Mudd originally claimed to have never met Booth during his initial interview with investigating detectives. Presidential assassin John Wilkes Booth, injured and fleeing Ford’s Theatre, had knocked on the door of Dr. Mudd for help.
1865 – Civil War: Confederate Gen Joseph Johnston surrendered to Gen W.T. Sherman in North Carolina.
1876 – Daniel O’Leary completes a 500-mile walk in 139 hours 32 minutes.
1880 – An F4 tornado strikes Marshfield, Missouri, killing 99 people and injuring another one hundred. Its damage path was 800 yards (730 m) wide and 64 miles (103 km) long. All but 15 of its buildings were destroyed.
1881 – Billy the Kid escapes from the Lincoln County jail in Mesilla, New Mexico.
1895 – New York State passed an act that established free public baths!
1906 – The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire destroys much of San Francisco, California. 28,000 buildings were destroyed and 498 blocks leveled. One quarter of the city burned. About 700 people died. SF Mayor Schmitz issued a proclamation that authorized police “to Kill any and all persons found engaged in looting or in the Commission of Any Other Crime.”
1906 – Dennis Sullivan, SF Fire Chief, was severely injured when the chimney of the California Hotel crashed into the adjoining firehouse. Sullivan died of his injuries on April 22.
1906 – San Francisco firefighters, with the assistance of the US Navy, managed to drag a single fire hose from a pumper in the bay, over the shoulder of Telegraph Hill, over a mile to the Jackson Street warehouses. They saved Anson Hotaling’s Whiskey warehouses at 451 and 455 Jackson street.
1906 – The San Francisco earthquake killed 119 people at Agnews State Hospital in San Jose.
1906 – The Los Angeles Times story on the Azusa Street Revival launches Pentecostalism as a worldwide movement.
1907 – The Fairmont Hotel opened in SF, exactly one year after the 1906 earthquake. It was designed by Julia Morgan and named after mining magnate James Graham Fair.
1910 – Walter R. Brookins made the first airplane flight at night.
1912 – The Cunard liner RMS Carpathia brings 705 survivors from the RMS Titanic to New York City.
1916 – Irving Langmuir received a patent for an incandescent gas lamp.
1921 – Junior Achievement incorporated in Colorado Springs CO.
1923 – Yankee Stadium, “The House that Ruth Built”, opens with a crowd of 74,000 (62,281 paid). The Yankees beat the Boston Red Sox 4-1. John Phillip Sousa’s band played the National Anthem.
1924 – Simon & Schuster publishes the first Crossword Puzzle book.
1929 – Red Nichols and his Five Pennies recorded the Glenn Miller arrangement of “Indiana” for Brunswick Records.
1934 – First “Washateria” (laundromat) opens (Fort Worth TX).
1936 – Pan-Am Clipper began regular passenger flights from San Francisco to Honolulu.
1936 – The first Champions Day is celebrated in Detroit, Michigan.
1938 – President Franklin Roosevelt threw out the first ball preceding the season opener between the Washington Senators and the Philadelphia Athletics.
1939 – Gene Autry recorded “Back in the Saddle Again.”
1941 – Dr. Robert Weaver named director of Office of Production Management section charged with integrating Blacks into the National Defense Program.
1942 – “Stars & Stripes” paper for US armed forces starts.
1942 – World War II: The Doolittle Raid on Japan. Tokyo, Yokohama, Kobe and Nagoya were bombed. It was the first air raid by the United States to strike the Japanese Home Islands (specifically Honshu) during World War II. Eighty men took off from an aircraft carrier on this top secret mission. (See November 9, 2013 for the final toast.)
1943 – World War II: Operation Vengeance, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto is killed when his aircraft is shot down by P-38 fighters over Bougainville Island.
1943 – World War II: A massive convoy of 100 transport aircraft leaves Sicily with supplies for the Axis forces. At least half the planes are shot down by Allied fighters.
1945 – World War II:Over 1,000 bombers attack the small island of Heligoland, Germany. Under the German Empire, the islands became a major naval base, and during the First World War the civilian population was evacuated to the mainland. The first naval engagement of the war, the Battle of Heligoland Bight, was fought nearby in the first month of the war.
1945 – World War II: The last German forces resisting in the Ruhr Pocket surrender.
1945 – Airship training for U.S. Coast Guard personnel (nine officers & 30 enlisted men) began at NAVAIRSTA Lakehurst, New Jersey.
1945 – World War II: American war correspondent Ernie Pyle was killed by Japanese gunfire on the Pacific island of Ie Shima, off Okinawa. He was 44 years old.
1946 – Jackie Robinson debuts as a second baseman for the Montreal Royals.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Now is the Hour” by Bing Crosby, “I’m Looking Over a Four Leaf Clover” by The Art Moonie Orchestra, “But Beautiful” by Frank Sinatra and “Anytime” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1949 – The aircraft carrier USS United States (CVA-58) is laid down at Newport News Drydock and Shipbuilding. However, the United States is canceled five days later, resulting in the Revolt of the Admirals.
1950 – First opening night-game, St Louis Cardinals beat Pittsburgh Pirates, 4-2.
1950 – Sam Jethroe is the first Black to play for Boston Braves.
1950 – The first transatlantic jet passenger trip was completed.
1953 – “Pal Joey” closes at Broadhurst Theater New York City after 542 performances.
1953 – “The Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1955 – James B. Parsons named chief judge of the Federal District Court in Chicago and became the first African American to hold that position.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Heartbreak Hotel/I Was the One” by Elvis Presley, “The Poor People of Paris” by Les Baxter, “Long Tall Sally” by Little Richard and “Blue Suede Shoes” by Carl Perkins all topped the charts.
1956 – Eddie Rommel, a baseball umpire, wore eyeglasses, a first for the game. This game was between the NY Yankees and Washington Senators.
1957 – Comedian Johnny Carson turned briefly to TV acting in a role on the “Playhouse 90” production of “Three Men on a Horse” on CBS-TV.
1958 – A United States federal court rules that poet Ezra Pound is to be released from an insane asylum.
1959 – “Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods topped the charts.
1961 – Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev sent a letter to Pres. Kennedy with an “urgent call” to end “aggression” against Cuba.
1964 – Sandy Koufax is first to strike out the side on 9 pitches.
1965 – Marian Anderson ended her 30-year singing career with a concert at Carnegie Hall in New York City.
1966 – Bill Russell became first African American coach in NBA history (Boston Celtics).
1968 – First ABA basketball championship begins. Pittsburgh Pipers beat New Orleans 122- 113.
1968 – London Bridge is sold and erected in Arizona. Robert P. McCulloch of McCulloch Oil was the purchaser for the sum of $2,460,000. The bridge was reconstructed at Lake Havasu City, Arizona, and dedicated on October 10, 1971.
1968 – Some 178,000 employees of US Bell Telephone System went on strike.
1970 – “Let it Be” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1973 – The Neil Young movie “Journey Through the Past” debuted at the Dallas Film Festival.
1974 – James Brown received a gold record for”The Payback.”
1975 – John Lennon releases “Stand by Me.”
1977 – Alex Haley, author of “Roots”, awarded Pulitzer Prize.
1978 – Senate votes to turn Panama Canal over to Panama on Dec 31, 1999.
1979 – The TV show “Real People” premiered.
1981 – Pawtucket & Rochester start a 33-inning baseball game. between the Rochester Red Wings and the Pawtucket Red Sox . The game began just after 8:00 PM local time and continued until 4:07 AM the next morning, when it was paused after 32 innings. Playing time was eight hours and 25 minutes. Thirty-two innings were played starting today at McCoy Stadium in Pawtucket, Rhode Island and the final 33rd inning was played June 23, 1981. Pawtucket won the game, 3–2.
1981 – “Kiss on My List” by Daryl Hall & John Oates topped the charts.
1983 – An Islamic Jihad car bomb destroys the United States embassy in Beirut, Lebanon, killing 63 people.
1985 – Ted Turner filed for a hostile takeover of CBS.
1985 – Tulane University abolished its 72-year-old basketball program. The reason was charges of fixed games, drug abuse, and payments to players.
1985 – Liberace grossed more than $2,000,000 for his engagement at New York City’s Radio City Music Hall. He broke his own record of $1.6 million.
1987 – Mike Schmidt hits 500th home run. Schmidt is the 15th ML player to reach the 500-HR plateau.
1987 – “I Knew You Were Waiting (For Me)” by Aretha Franklin & George Michael topped the charts. This song set the record for longest gap between #1 U.S. singles. The span of time from “Respect” (June 1967) to “I Knew You Were Waiting (For Me)” was 19 years, ten months.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Get Outta My Dreams, Get Into My Car” by Billy Ocean, “Devil Inside” by INXS, “Where Do Broken Hearts Go” by Whitney Houston and “I Wanna Dance with You” by Eddie Rabbitt all topped the charts.
1988 – The United States launches Operation Praying Mantis against Iranian naval forces in the largest naval battle since World War II. Navy destroys two Iranian surveillance platforms, sinks one frigate and one patrol ships, and severely damages a second frigate in retaliation for attack on USS Samuel B. Roberts.
1990 – The US Supreme Court ruled that states may make it a crime to possess or look at child pornography, even in one’s home.
1991 – President Bush unveiled his “America 2000” education strategy, which included a voluntary nationwide exam system and aid pegged to academic results.
1991 – The US Census Bureau estimated its 1990 census had failed to count up to 6.3 million people.
1991 – John Stockton breaks his own NBA season assist record at 1,136. He led the league in steals twice and retired as the all-time leader with 3,265.
1994 – Former President Richard Nixon suffered a stroke at his home in Park Ridge, N.J., and was taken to New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center; he died four days later.
1995 – Quarterback Joe Montana announces his retirement from football.
1995 – The Houston Post closed after 116 years.
1996 – “A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum”, opens at St James Theater New York City for 715 performances.
1997 – President Clinton held a news conference in which he warned Republicans that a balanced-budget deal may not come quickly, while reassuring nervous Democrats that he would not abandon the party’s prized social programs.
1998 – It was reported that Richard Mellon Scaife, 4th generation heir to the Mellon banking fortune, had donated million of dollars over more than 30 years to conservative groups and research centers. He had also supported groups critical of Pres. Clinton.
1999 – Wayne Gretzky (New York Rangers) played his final game in the NHL. He retired as the NHL’s all-time leading scorer and holder of 61 individual records.
2000 – In his first game back following a 12-game suspension for making disparaging remarks about minorities, gays and immigrants, Atlanta’s John Rocker pitched a scoreless ninth inning in a 4-to-3, 12-inning victory over Philadelphia.
2002 – Actor Robert Blake and his bodyguard were arrested in connection with the shooting death of Blake’s wife about a year before.
2003 – Scott Peterson was arrested in San Diego for the death of his wife, Laci, who was eight months pregnant when she vanished on Christmas Eve. DNA testing proved that the bodies found on the shores of San Francisco Bay were those of the missing Laci Peterson and her unborn son.
2003 – Burt Rutan, aircraft designer, unveiled SpaceShipOne, a rocket-powered spacecraft. He hoped to win the $10 million 1996 X Prize, offered for the first private launch of 3-people to an altitude of 62.5 miles twice in 2 weeks.
2003 – In the Florida Keys at least 28 pilot whales stranded themselves and 5 were reported dead.
2003 – North Korea said it was ready to begin reprocessing more than 8,000 spent nuclear fuel rods. US experts said it will give the communist state enough plutonium to make several atomic bombs.
2005 -The largest moving object on Earth, the iceberg B15A in Antarctica has collided with the Drygalski ice tongue, a feature large enough to be included in Antarctic maps. During the collision, a three mile long section of the ice tongue was broken off.
2005 – Black smoke signals no new Pope is chosen in the first ballot in the Papal conclave, 2005.
2006 – Today marks the 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Events marking the centennial will be held today and will continue through the end of the year.
2006 – Two Duke University lacrosse players were arrested on charges of raping and kidnapping a stripper hired to dance at an off-campus party on March 13.
2006 – Josephine Crawford (84), a Galloway Township widow, hit a $10 million jackpot, the biggest in the history of casino gambling in Atlantic City, NJ.
2007 – SCHOOL SHOOTING – Authorities announce that Seung-Hui Cho, the gunman who killed more than 30 people on Monday at Virginia Tech, has sent a package that contained disturbing images and video to NBC during the two-hour period between the shootings at the West Ambler Johnston Hall dormitory and the shootings at Norris Hall. The new evidence is sent to the FBI for more analysis.
2007 – Liviu Librescu, the Jewish Romanian engineering professor who was shot five times while holding off the gunman at his classroom entrance so his students could escape, is posthumously awarded the Star of Romania by the Romanian government.
2007 – The US Supreme Court upholds the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act (Pub.L. 108-105, 117 Stat. 1201, enacted November 5, 2003, 18 U.S.C. § 1531, PBA Ban) in a 5-4 decision.
2007 – US research found that Ethanol-fueled vehicles could contribute to more illnesses and deaths from respiratory disease than gasoline-powered cars and trucks.
2008 – A magnitude 5.2 earthquake hit southern Illinois, six miles from West Salem, IL in the Ozark Dome region and was felt across the Midwest. Effects were felt as far off as Evansville, St. Louis, Indianapolis, Detroit and Cleveland.
2008 – CNN news anchor Richard Quest is arrested for possession of methamphetamine in New York’s Central Park.
2008 – A Texas judge rules that 418 children taken from the YFZ Ranch should remain in state custody for 60 days.
2009 – In Texas five Houston children died after their sedan slid into a rain-swollen ditch when driver Chanton Jenkins (32) lost control while trying to answer a cell phone. Police the next day filed intoxication manslaughter charges against Jenkins, the father of three of the victims.
2010 – US Secretary of Defense Robert Gates says in a secret memo to the White House that the United States would be unable to cope with a nuclear threat from Iran.
2010 – The New York Daily News reported that former President George Washington owes $300,000 for overdue library books he borrowed from New York Society Library five months into his presidency and which he failed to return. Can anybody say, “statute of limitations?”
2011 – AZ Governor Jan Brewer signs bill to establish the State Volunteer Militia, separate from the AZ National Guard.
2012 – For the first time, two Lockheed Martin F-35C Lightning II carrier variant test aircraft launched together and conducted formation flying at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Md.
2012 – Television personality and producer Dick Clark dies of a heart attack at the age of 82.
2012 – Pat Summitt resigns as head coach of the Tennessee Lady Volunteers basketball team and is appointed head coach emeritus. She is the all-time winningest coach in NCAA basketball history of either a men’s or women’s team in any division.
2013 – Fifteen people are confirmed dead after the Texas fertilizer plant explosion in West, Texas
2013 – One Islamic bomber dead, the other is on the run; Boston suburbs locked down. The two suspects in the Boston Marathon bombing killed an MIT police officer, injured a transit officer in a firefight and threw explosive devices at police during their getaway attempt in a long night of violence that left one of them dead and another still at large Friday, authorities said as the manhunt intensified for a young man described as a dangerous terrorist.
2014 – Arts and crafts retailer Michaels announces that 3 million customers were affected by the 8-month long security breach that resulted in the theft of their customers’ personal information.
2015 – Bales Memorial Wesleyan Church in Jamestown, N.C., was the first Christian house of worship to be targeted by militant LGBT advocates, who destroyed the church’s sign, broke windows and pulled parking signs out of the ground. Not stopping there, the homosexual activists tore up flowers in the parking lot and vandalized the church bus by scratching up its hood and jamming a sign through its front grill,
2016 – Los Angeles police find 12 white female bodies in a garage freezer tagged with ‘Black Lives Matter’. The frozen bodies were within 6 freezers in the man’s garage. The bodies had several things in common – they were all white women in their mid-20s, blonde hair and all had the writings marked on them which read “Black Lives Matter” and “BLM.”
1857 – Clarence Darrow, American attorney (d. 1938)
1904 – Pigmeat Markham, American comedian (d. 1981)
1905 – George H. Hitchings, American scientist, Nobel laureate (d. 1998)
1915 – Joy Gresham Lewis, American writer, wife of C. S. Lewis (d. 1960)
1922 – Barbara Hale, American actress
1924 – Henry Hyde, American politician (d. 2007)
1939 – Thomas J. Moyer, American judge
1940 – Joseph L. Goldstein, American scientist, Nobel laureate
1947 – Cindy Pickett, American actress
1947 – James Woods, American actor
1956 – Eric Roberts, American actor
1968 – Mary Birdsong, American actress
1976 – Justin Ross, American politician
DALY, MICHAEL J.
Rank and organization: Captain (then Lieutenant), U.S. Army, Company A, 15th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Nuremberg, Germany, April 18th, 1945. Entered service at: Southport, Conn. Born: 15 September 1924, New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: Early in the morning of 18 April 1945, he led his company through the shell-battered, sniper-infested wreckage of Nuremberg, Germany. When blistering machinegun fire caught his unit in an exposed position, he ordered his men to take cover, dashed forward alone, and, as bullets whined about him, shot the three-man guncrew with his carbine. Continuing the advance at the head of his company, he located an enemy patrol armed with rocket launchers which threatened friendly armor. He again went forward alone, secured a vantage point and opened fire on the Germans. Immediately he became the target for concentrated machine pistol and rocket fire, which blasted the rubble about him. Calmly, he continued to shoot at the patrol until he had killed all six enemy infantrymen. Continuing boldly far in front of his company, he entered a park, where as his men advanced, a German machinegun opened up on them without warning. With his carbine, he killed the gunner; and then, from a completely exposed position, he directed machinegun fire on the remainder of the crew until all were dead. In a final duel, he wiped out a third machinegun emplacement with rifle fire at a range of ten yards. By fearlessly engaging in four single-handed fire fights with a desperate, powerfully armed enemy, Lt. Daly, voluntarily taking all major risks himself and protecting his men at every opportunity, killed fifteen Germans, silenced three enemy machineguns and wiped out an entire enemy patrol. His heroism during the lone bitter struggle with fanatical enemy forces was an inspiration to the valiant Americans who took Nuremberg.
*MERRELL, JOSEPH F.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company I, 15th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Lohe, Germany, April 18th,1945. Entered service at: Staten Island, N.Y. Birth: Staten Island, N.Y. G.O. No.: 21, 26 February 1946. Citation: He made a gallant, one-man attack against vastly superior enemy forces near Lohe, Germany. His unit, attempting a quick conquest of hostile hill positions that would open the route to Nuremberg before the enemy could organize his defense of that city, was pinned down by brutal fire from rifles, machine pistols, and two heavy machineguns. Entirely on his own initiative, Pvt. Merrell began a single-handed assault. He ran 100 yards through concentrated fire, barely escaping death at each stride, and at pointblank range engaged four German machine pistolmen with his rifle, killing all of them while their bullets ripped his uniform. As he started forward again, his rifle was smashed by a sniper’s bullet, leaving him armed only with three grenades. But he did not hesitate. He zigzagged 200 yards through a hail of bullets to within ten yards of the first machinegun, where he hurled two grenades and then rushed the position ready to fight with his bare hands if necessary. In the emplacement he seized a Luger pistol and killed what Germans had survived the grenade blast. Rearmed, he crawled toward the second machinegun located 30 yards away, killing four Germans in camouflaged foxholes on the way, but himself receiving a critical wound in the abdomen. And yet he went on, staggering, bleeding, disregarding bullets which tore through the folds of his clothing and glanced off his helmet. He threw his last grenade into the machinegun nest and stumbled on to wipe out the crew. He had completed this self-appointed task when a machine pistol burst killed him instantly. In his spectacular one-man attack Pvt. Merrell killed six Germans in the first machinegun emplacement, seven in the next, and an additional ten infantrymen who were astride his path to the weapons which would have decimated his unit had he not assumed the burden of the assault and stormed the enemy positions with utter fearlessness, intrepidity of the highest order, and a willingness to sacrifice his own life so that his comrades could go on to victory.
The brainchild of Lee Iococca, the Ford Mustang debuted on April 17, 1964 and sold for only $2,368. Ford expected annual sales of only a 100,000 units but 22,000 orders taken on the first day and Ford quickly realized it had something special. They eventually sold 417,000 Mustangs over the next 12 months shaking up the car world. In addition to this, 93,000 pedal-powered children’s Mustangs were purchased during the 1964 Christmas season. A winner was loose.
Dealers were swamped with requests for the car. In Garland, Texas, 15 customers bid on the same Mustang, and the winner insisted on sleeping in the car overnight to guarantee that it wouldn’t get sold from under him before his check cleared the next day.
Not much more than a month after its introduction, Ford’s new Mustang was on the racetrack as the pace car for the 1964 Indianapolis 500 race.
The early Mustangs have figured prominently in hundreds of notable films to date, beginning in 1964 with the James Bond movie Goldfinger, in which Bond’s Aston Martin DB5 chased a white Mustang convertible.
Mustangs were selling like hotcakes but the best was yet to come. n 1965, the Shelby GT350 was introduced, with a 306 horsepower V-8 engine, giving the Mustang performance credibility. When this happened Mustang Mania took over. The Shelby GT350 for Sports Car Club of America (SCCA) competition, and the GT350 went on to win three straight SCCA national championships.
At the Barrett-Jackson auto auction in 2011 I watched as a beautiful 1969 Super Cobra Mustang sell for $91,000.
The history of the Ford Mustang is much more than can even be touched here and it makes for excellent reading. “Google” Ford Mustang History.
Obedience to God includes the right attitude toward work, promotion, and financial gain.
Matthew 6:33 New International Version (NIV)
33 But seek first His kingdom and His righteousness, and all these things will be given to you as well.
“The name of the Lord (says the Scripture) is a strong tower; thither the righteous flee and are safe [Proverbs 18:10]. Let us secure His favor and He will lead us through the journey of this life and at length receive us to a better.”
Samuel Adams to Elizabeth Adams on December 26, 1776
“I have found that being honest is the best technique I can use. Right up front, tell people what you are trying to accomplish and what you are willing to sacrifice to accomplish it.”
~ Lee Iaccoca
umbrage UHM-brij, noun:
1. Shade; shadow; hence, something that affords a shade, as a screen of trees or foliage.
2. a. A vague or indistinct indication or suggestion; a hint.
3. b. Reason for doubt; suspicion.
4. Suspicion of injury or wrong; offense; resentment.Umbrage is derived from Latin umbra, “shade.”
6 B.C. – Jupiter was in a rare alignment with the constellation Aries and marked an important date for ancient astrologers. Jesus was believed to have been born in this year.
1054 – Supernova Crab nebula last seen by the naked eye. On July 4, 1054, a bright star appeared in the sky. For 23 days, it was bright enough to be seen in the daytime. It gradually dimmed, until it was no longer visible on April 17, 1056.
1397 – Geoffrey Chaucer tells the Canterbury Tales for the first time at the court of Richard II. Chaucer scholars have also identified this date (in 1387) as when the book’s pilgrimage to Canterbury starts.
1492 – Spain and Christopher Columbus sign a contract for him to sail to Asia to get spices.
1521 – Martin Luther speaks to the assembly at the Diet of Worms, refusing to recant his teachings. He then went into hiding for eight months and during that time he translated the NewTestament into German.
1524 – Giovanni da Verrazzano reaches New York harbor.
1629 – Horses were first imported into the colonies by the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1758 – Francis Williams, first Black college graduate, publishes a poem book in Latin.
1778 – Revolutionary War: Sloop-of-war Ranger captures a British brig.
1790 – Benjamin Franklin , American statesman, printer, scientist, and writer, dies in Philadelphia at age 84.
1797 – Sir Ralph Abercromby attacks San Juan, Puerto Rico in what would be one of the largest invasions to Spanish territories in America.
1808 – Bayonne Decree by Napoleon I of France ordered the seizure of U.S. ships.
1810 – Lewis Norton of Troy, PA., introduced his pineapple cheese.
1824 – Russia abandoned all North American claims south of 54′ 40′.
1849 – The USS Preeble weighed anchor at Nagasaki without Japanese permission. It’s mission was to rescue American merchant marine sailors who were being held in a Japanese prison as spies.
1860 – The Common Council of New York passed an ordinance compelling the placing of fire escapes on all tenements.
1860 – English boxer Tom Sayers fought John Heenan of the US for 37 rounds in an international bare-knuckle match at Farnborough, Hampshire, that was called a draw. Heenan was later acclaimed as the “World Boxing Champion.”
1861 – Civil War: Virginia secedes from the United States.
1861 – Civil War: U.S.S. Powhatan, commanded by Lieutenant D. D. Porter, arrived off Pensacola. He protected Fort Pickens until it was reinforced. It remained in Union hands for the whole war.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Plymouth begins – Confederate forces attack Plymouth, North Carolina.
1864 – Civil War: General Grant banned the trading of prisoners.
1864 – Civil War: There was a bread revolt in Savannah, Georgia.
1865 – Civil War: The Confederate ironclad Jackson (previously Muscogee) was destroyed at Columbus, Georgia.
1865 – Mary Surratt is arrested as a conspirator in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.
1869 – First pro baseball games (Cincinnati).
1892 – Cincinnati beat St. Louis, 5-1, in the National League’s first Sunday game. The league had prohibited play on Sunday before merging with the American Association.
1905 – The US Supreme Court decides Lochner v. New York that a law limiting bakery workers to a ten-hour day was unconstitutional, because such a measure bore no relation to the workers’ health or safety.
1907 – The Ellis Island immigration center processes 11,747 people, more than any other day. The record for this year was 1,285,349.
1908 – “Hail, Hail the Gangs All Here“, the song, was copyrighted. This is the copy right to a tune originally written by Arthur Sullivan for the 1879 comic opera The Pirates of Penzance. The lyrics were written by Robert Baden Powell of Scouting fame in 1917.
1909 – In San Francisco five bodies were recovered and probably eight or ten others buried in the ruins of an early morning fire which destroyed the St. George hotel, a lodging house for laborers at Howard and Eighth streets.
1912 – Al Jolson’s “Ragging The Baby To Sleep” becomes a national hit.
1916 – The American Academy of Arts and Letters obtained a charter from the U.S. Congress.
1917 – A bill in Congress to establish Daylight Saving Time was defeated. It was passed a couple of months later.
1923 – In the longest National League opener to date, Brooklyn and Philadelphia battle to a fourteen-inning 5-5 tie.
1924 – Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios is formed from a merger of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, and the Louis B. Mayer Company.
1933 – “Call for Philip Morris” heard for the first time on radio. The music was the “On the Trail” portion of the magnificent “Grand Canyon Suite.”
1934 – The new Fenway Park opens.
1935 – “Lights Out” , the ultimate horror show, premiered on NBC radio.
1937 – Cartoon characters Daffy Duck, Elmer J Fudd & Petunia Pig, debut.
1941 – Office of Price Administration established to handle rationing.
1941 – Igor Sikorsky accomplishes the first helicopter lift-off from water.
1941 – World War II: The Kingdom of Yugoslavia surrenders to Germany.
1943 – World War II: The US 8th Air Force carries out a daylight bombing raid on aircraft factories in Bremen. Of 115 B-17 bombers employed, 16 are lost on the mission.
1943 – World War II: Lieutenant Ross P. Bullard and Boatswain’s Mate First Class C. S. “Mike” Hall boarded the U-175 at sea after their cutter, the CGC Spencer, blasted the U-boat to the surface with depth charges. They became the first American servicemen to board an enemy warship underway at sea since the War of 1812.
1944 – World War II: US B-17 and B-24 bombers attack Sofia, Bulgaria.
1944 – World War II: US B-17 and B-24 bombers attack Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
1945 – World War II: In Stassfurt, Germany, US Lieutenant Colonel Boris T. Pash seizes half a ton of uranium, in an attempt to foil Soviet Union plans to build an atomic bomb.
1945 – World War II: Assault units from the US 24th Infantry Division; US 10th Corps (General Sibert) Landed in Moro Gulf at Cotabatu.
1945 – World War II: Mussolini fled to Milan.
1945 – World War II: Hannie Schaft (24), Dutch resistance fighter who lived in Haarlem, known as the “Girl with red hair,” was executed by the Germans just one month before the war ended. She delivered ration coupons, newspapers, secret information and weapons on her bicycle.
1945 – One-armed outfielder, St Louis Brown Pete Gray make MLB debut. He played his Major League debut game with the St. Louis Browns.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Anniversary Song” by Dinah Shore, “Heartaches” by The Ted Weems Orchestra (whistler: Elmo Tanner), “How are Things in Glocca Morra” by Buddy Clark and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1947 – Jackie Robinson bunts for his first major league hit.
1951 – New York Yankee Mickey Mantle’s first game. Making his debut before 44,860, he has one hit and scores a run.
1953 – Mickey Mantle hits a 565′ homerun in Washington DC’s Griffith Stadium. The ball went over the centerfield fence and dented a house.
1954 – “Wanted” by Perry Como topped the charts.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes, “The Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Fess Parker, “Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White” by Perez Prado and “In the Jailhouse Now” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1956 – Willie Mosconi sinks 150 consecutive balls in a billiard tournament.
1959 – A nationwide US air raid drill suspended most television and radio programs for a half hour.
1961 – Bay of Pigs Invasion: A group of CIA finances and trains Cuban refugees lands at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba with the aim of ousting Fidel Castro.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “He’s So Fine” by The Chiffons, “Can’t Get Used to Losing You” by Andy Williams, “South Street” by The Orlons and “Still” by Bill Anderson all topped the charts.
1964 – The Ford Motor Company unveils the Ford Mustang at the New York World’s Fair. The Mustang was a mid-year model that set sales records that have yet to be broken.
1964 – Jerrie Mock, a 38-year-old mother of three, jumped in the family Cessna 180 and departed Port Columbus (OH) Airport. Just over 23,000 miles later she became the first woman to circumnavigate the world by air. She completed the trip in 29 days, 11 hours and 59 minutes.
1964 – Shea Stadium opens.
1964 – The FBI lab reported that it could not determine the lyrics to “Louie Louie.”
1965 – “I’m Telling You Now” by Freddie & the Dreamers topped the charts.
1965 – The Beach Boys’ “Help Me Rhonda” was released.
1965 – Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) held its first anti-Vietnam war protest rally in Washington DC.
1965 – A stretch of the Mississippi River near Minneapolis crested at a record high. Flooding caused $100 million in damages and left 12 people dead.
1967 – “The Joey Bishop Show” debuted on ABC-TV.
1967 – The U.S. Supreme Court barred Muhammad Ali’s request to be blocked from induction into the U.S. Army.
1969 – Sirhan Sirhan is convicted of assassinating Robert F. Kennedy.
1970 – Apollo program: The ill-fated Apollo 13 spacecraft returns to Earth safely. Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the American Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon. The mission stretched the capabilities of astronauts Jim Lovell, Jack Swigert and Fred Haise and the people at Mission Control.
1970 – Johnny Cash performed at the White House at the invitation of President Richard M. Nixon. He played “A Boy Named Sue.”
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Joy to the World” by Three Dog Night, “Another Day/Oh Woman Oh Why” by Paul McCartney, “Put Your Hand in the Hand” by Ocean and “Empty Arms” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1972 – “Betcha by Golly, Wow“, by The Stylistics from Philadelphia, earned a gold record .
1972 – First Boston Women’s Marathon won by Nina Kuscsik. Her winning time was 3:10:26.
1973 – Federal Express delivers its first package.
1976 – The greatest comeback National League history was between the Phillies and the Cubs. At the end of three innings the Cubs were ahead 12-1. With some fantastic play from Mike Schmidt the Phillies beat the Cubs 18-16 in 10 innings.
1976 – “Disco Lady” by Johnny Taylor topped the charts.
1977 – “I Love My Wife” opens at Barrymore Theater New York City for 864 performances.
1978 – A record 63,500,000 shares traded on the New York stock exchange.
1978 – Carl Sagan (1934-1996) received the non-fiction Pulitzer Prize for “Dragons of Eden” (1977).
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “What a Fool Believes” by The Doobie Brothers, “Knock on Wood” by Amii Stewart, “Music Box Dancer” by Frank Mills and “(If Loving You is Wrong) I Don’t Want to Be Right” by Barbara Mandrell all topped the charts.
1982 – “I Love Rock ‘n’ Roll” by Joan Jett & the Blackhearts topped the charts.
1983 – Nolan Ryan strikes out his 3,500th batter. It happened with 9,334 fans watching in a 6-3 Houston win.
1983 – In New York, a transit strike that began on March 7 ended.
1985 – The U.S. Postal Service unveiled its new 22-cent “LOVE” stamp.
1986 – IBM produces first megabit-chip.
1986 – The bodies of American librarian Peter Kilburn and two British were found near Beirut; the three hostages had been slain in apparent retaliation for the U.S. raid on Libya.
1986 – Pulitzer prize awarded to Larry McMurtry for “Lonesome Dove.”
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Nothing’s Gonna Stop Us Now” by Starship, “I Knew You Were Waiting (For Me)” by Aretha Franklin & George Michael, “Don’t Dream It’s Over” by Crowded House and “”You’ve Got” the Touch” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1987 – President Reagan slapped $300 million in punitive duties on imported Japanese computers, television sets and power tools, in retaliation for Japan’s alleged violation of a computer chip trade agreement.
1987 – Julius Erving becomes the 3rd NBA player to score 30,000 points.
1987 – LT Tom McClay received a direct commission as a flight officer for duty with the Coast Guard’s E2C Hawkeyes. LT McClay was the first Coast Guard flight officer.
1989 – The US House Ethics Committee released its report accusing Speaker Jim Wright of violating House rules on the acceptance of gifts and outside income — charges denied by the Texas Democrat.
1990 – African American playwright August Wilson won his second Pulitzer Prize for drama with the play “The Piano Lesson.”
1991 – Congress voted to put a quick end to a day-old nationwide strike by 235,000 rail workers. President Bush signed the legislation early the next day.
1991 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 3,000 for the first time ever gaining 17.58 to 3,004.46.
1993 – A federal jury in Los Angeles convicted two former police officers of violating the civil rights of beaten motorist Rodney King. Two other officers were acquitted.
1995 – President Clinton signed an executive order stripping the classified label from most national security documents that were at least 25 years old.
1995 – An Air Force jet exploded and crashed in a wooded area in eastern Alabama, killing eight people, including an assistant Air Force secretary and a two-star general.
1996 – Erik and Lyle Menendez were sentenced to life in prison without parole for killing their parents.
1997 – The Red River in Fargo, North Dakota, was to have crested at 39.5 feet, surpassing the 1897 record. The Weather Service said that it crested on Apr 21 at 54 feet.
1998 – The Space Shuttle Columbia blasted off with seven astronauts and a host of creatures to test the effects of space travel on the nervous system.
1999 – The US launched the 505-foot Navy destroyer Winston S. Churchill at the Bath Iron Works in Maine.
1999 – In Iraq US fighter planes bombed anti-aircraft sites in the northern no-fly zone.
2000 – In Spokane, Wa., Robert L. Yates Jr., a National Guardsman and the father of 5, was arrested for the murder of a 16-year-old prostitute and suspected in the murder of as many as 13 others all of whom were prostitutes working on Spokane’s “Skid Row” on E. Sprague Avenue.
2001 – San Francisco Giants slugger Barry Bonds became the 17th major leaguer ever to reach 500 career home runs.
2001 – Mississippi residents vote to keep the Confederate emblem on their state flag by a margin of 65 to 35%.
2001 – Internet access (www.ellisislandrecords.org) to Ellis Island records became available.
2002 – Tammy Wynette’s four daughters reached a confidential agreement with Wynette’s doctor over her death. Wynette’s daughters filed a lawsuit that claimed the Pittsburgh doctor had contributed to Wynette’s death in 1998.
2002 – US District Judge Robert Jones upheld Oregon’s assisted-suicide law and said that Attorney General John Ashcroft should not “determine the legitimacy” of medical acts.
2003 – Michael Jordan retired from professional basketball while playing for the Washington Wizards.
2003 – In the 30th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom American forces released more than 900 Iraqi prisoners, beginning the process of sorting through the thousands detained in the month-old war. Coalition forces still held 6,850 prisoners.
2003 – A riot broke out at a Baghdad bank after thieves blew a hole in the vault and dropped children in to bring out fistfuls of cash.
2003 – Denver police reached an agreement with the ACLU to end the practice of keeping files on protesters.
2003 – The Bechtel Corporation is awarded a $680 million contract for the rebuilding of parts of Iraqs electricity system, water supplies and other key infrastructures.
2004 – 15th Annual Thunder Over Louisville is held. Thunder Over Louisville is the annual kickoff event of the Kentucky Derby Festival and is an airshow and fireworks display held in mid April in Louisville, Kentucky.
2005 – Students at the University at Albany in Albany, New York set the record for the world’s largest pillow fight with 3,648 participants, observed by Guinness Records officials.
2005 – Registered sex offender David Lee Onstott was charged with first-degree murder in the death of Sarah Michelle Lunde, the 13-year-old Florida girl whose body had been found the day before.
2006 – Oil closed at a record $70.40 per barrel in NY trading. This was the first time it had closed above $70 in NY.
2006 – Georgia’s Gov. Sonny Perdue signed a sweeping immigration bill that supporters and critics say gives the state some of the toughest measures against illegal immigrants in the nation.
2006 – In Chicago a jury convicted former Gov. George Ryan of steering state contracts and leases to political insiders during his term as secretary of state in the 1990s and then governor for one term. He was later sentenced to 6 1/2 years in prison,
2007 – Seung-hui Cho is identified as the spree shooter in the attacks at Virginia Tech.
2007 – A new survey said US household with a net worth of $5 million, excluding primary home, totaled one million in 2006, up from 250,000 in 1996.
2008 – In Fresno, Ca., Jesus Carrizales (17), a Roosevelt High School sophomore, attacked a campus police officer with a baseball bat. Officer Junus Perry received a 2-inch gash in the head before shooting and killing Carrizales.
2009 – American Sterling Bank in Sugar Creek, Missouri, is closed.
2009 – The US EPA declared that greenhouse gases endanger public health paving the way for new federal regulations on pollutants. The Obama administration declared that carbon dioxide and 5 other industrial emissions threaten the planet. Carbon dioxide is a major element in the growth of green plants.
2009 – A US federal judge sentenced John Philip Hernandez of Houston to 8 years in prison for buying military-style firearms and that ended up in the hands of Mexico’s drug cartels. Prosecutors said Hernandez led a group that purchased 339 weapons over 15 months.
2010 – Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran, describes the United States as an “atomic criminal”, saying that religion prohibits the use of nuclear weapons (haram) and calls for the US to be expelled from the international nuclear system.
2011 – More than forty people die in the Mid-April 2011 Southern United States tornado outbreak, with North Carolina being the worst affected state.
2012 – The Space Shuttle Discovery landed at Washington-Dulles Airport attached to its 747 transport aircraft.. The Discovery was the most traveled and most used used of the shuttles. It traveled more than 149 million miles. It spent a total of 354 days in space. It was the third one constructed, the one that flew first after both the Challenger and Columbia disasters and it was the one that took John Glenn into space the second time at age 77.
2013 – The FBI has confirmed that a letter addressed to President Obama has “preliminarily tested positive” for ricin.
2013 – Boston Marathon Bombing yesterday FOLLOWUP: Three died and at least 176 were injured when two bombs went off just before 3 p.m., shattering a festive atmosphere several hours after the legendary race began on the city’s 238th annual Patriots’ Day. The FBI recovers forensic evidence suggesting the two explosive devices which exploded near the finish line of the 2013 Boston Marathon were pressure cooker bombs, placed inside heavy black nylon bags containing shrapnel.
2013 – An ammonium nitrate explosion occurred at the West Fertilizer Company storage and distribution facility in West, Texas, 18 miles north of Waco while emergency services personnel were responding to a fire at the facility. At least 15 people were killed, more than 160 were injured and more than 150 buildings were damaged or destroyed.
2016 – A Russian fighter Jet Intercepted US aircraft in ‘Unprofessional Manner,’ officials say. The U.S. reconnaissance plane was flying in international airspace over the Baltic Sea Thursday when the Russian plane flew within 50 feet of it.
1741 – Samuel Chase, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1811)
1837 – J.P. Morgan, American financier (d. 1913)
1849 – William R. Day, American diplomat and Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1923)
1897 – Thornton Wilder, American dramatist (d. 1975)
1905 – Arthur Lake, American actor (d. 1987)
1906 – Sidney R. Garfield, American physician (d. 1984)
1915 – Joe Foss, American soldier and politician, Medal of Honor recipient (d. 2003)
1918 – William Holden, American actor (d. 1981)
1923 – Harry Reasoner, American journalist (d. 1991)
1950 – L. Scott Caldwell, American actress
1967 – Kimberly Elise, American actress
(also known as FRANCIS X. BURKE)
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 15th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Nuremberg, Germany, April 17th, 1945. Entered service at: Jersey City, N.J. Born: 29 September 1918, New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 4, 9 January 1946. Citation: He fought with extreme gallantry in the streets of war-torn Nuremberg, Germany, where the 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry, was engaged in rooting out fanatical defenders of the citadel of Nazism. As battalion transportation officer he had gone forward to select a motor-pool site, when, in a desire to perform more than his assigned duties and participate in the fight, he advanced beyond the lines of the forward riflemen. Detecting a group of about ten Germans making preparations for a local counterattack, he rushed back to a nearby American company, secured a light machinegun with ammunition, and daringly opened fire on this superior force, which deployed and returned his fire with machine pistols, rifles, and rocket launchers. From another angle a German machinegun tried to blast him from his emplacement, but 1st Lt. Burke killed this gun crew and drove off the survivors of the unit he had originally attacked. Giving his next attention to enemy infantrymen in ruined buildings, he picked up a rifle dashed more than one-hundred yards through intense fire and engaged the Germans from behind an abandoned tank. A sniper nearly hit him from a cellar only twenty yards away, but he dispatched this adversary by running directly to the basement window, firing a full clip into it and then plunging through the darkened aperture to complete the job. He withdrew from the fight only long enough to replace his jammed rifle and secure grenades, then re-engaged the Germans. Finding his shots ineffective, he pulled the pins from two grenades, and, holding one in each hand, rushed the enemy-held building, hurling his missiles just as the enemy threw a potato masher grenade at him. In the triple explosion the Germans were wiped out and 1st Lt. Burke was dazed; but he emerged from the shower of debris that engulfed him, recovered his rifle, and went on to kill three more Germans and meet the charge of a machine pistolman, whom he cut down with three calmly delivered shots. He then retired toward the American lines and there assisted a platoon in a raging, thirty-minute fight against formidable armed hostile forces. This enemy group was repulsed, and the intrepid fighter moved to another friendly group which broke the power of a German unit armed with a 20-mm. gun in a fierce fire fight. In four hours of heroic action, 1st Lt. Burke single-handedly killed eleven and wounded three enemy soldiers and took a leading role in engagements in which an additional twenty-nine enemy were killed or wounded. His extraordinary bravery and superb fighting skill were an inspiration to his comrades, and his entirely voluntary mission into extremely dangerous territory hastened the fall of Nuremberg, in his battalion’s sector.
CRILLEY, FRANK WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Chief Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 September 1883, Trenton, N.J. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. (19 November 1928). Citation: For display of extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession above and beyond the call of duty during the diving operations in connection with the sinking in a depth of water 304 feet, of the U.S.S. F-4 with all on board, as a result of loss of depth control, which occurred off Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii, on 25 March 1915. On April 17th, 1915, William F. Loughman, chief gunner’s mate, U.S. Navy, who had descended to the wreck and had examined one of the wire hawsers attached to it, upon starting his ascent, and when at a depth of 250 feet beneath the surface of the water, had his lifeline and air hose so badly fouled by this hawser that he was unable to free himself; he could neither ascend nor descend. On account of the length of time that Loughman had already been subjected to the great pressure due to the depth of water, and of the uncertainty of the additional time he would have to be subjected to this pressure before he could be brought to the surface, it was imperative that steps be taken at once to clear him. Instantly, realizing the desperate case of his comrade, Crilley volunteered to go to his aid, immediately donned a diving suit and descended. After a lapse of time of 2 hours and 11 minutes, Crilley was brought to the surface, having by a superb exhibition of skill, coolness, endurance and fortitude, untangled the snarl of lines and cleared his imperiled comrade, so that he was brought, still alive, to the surface.
COVINGTON, JESSE WHITFIELD
Rank and organization: Ship’s Cook Third Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: At sea aboard the U.S.S. Stewart, April 17th, 1918. Entered service at: California. Born: 16 September 1889, Haywood, Tenn. G.O. No.: 403, 1918. Citation: For extraordinary heroism following internal explosion of the Florence H. The sea in the vicinity of wreckage was covered by a mass of boxes of smokeless powder, which were repeatedly exploding. Jesse W. Covington, of the U.S.S. Stewart, plunged overboard to rescue a survivor who was surrounded by powder boxes and too exhausted to help himself, fully realizing that similar powder boxes in the vicinity were continually exploding and that he was thereby risking his life in saving the life of this man.
UPTON, FRANK MONROE
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 29 April 1896, Loveland, Colo. Accredited to: Colorado. G.O. No.: 403, 1918. Citation: For extraordinary heroism following internal explosion of the Florence H, on April 17th, 1918. The sea in the vicinity of wreckage was covered by a mass of boxes of smokeless powder, which were repeatedly exploding. Frank M. Upton, of the U.S.S. Stewart, plunged overboard to rescue a survivor who was surrounded by powder boxes and too exhausted to help himself. Fully realizing the danger from continual explosion of similar powder boxes in the vicinity, he risked his life to save the life of this man.
Teach Your Daughters To Volunteer Day
There was a Ford-built snow machine that predates Bombardier’s snowmobile patent — the Fordson Snow Devil built by putting a Fordson tractor on an Armstead Snow Motor. This did not catch on and it appears they went two different directions.
The two paths to the invention and development of the modern snowmobile (snow machine, skidoo, snow mobile) went to Carl Eliason and Armand Bombadier. Carl Eliason has to be listed as inventor of the snowmobile, since his patent is 30 years earlier than the other contender for that honor, Joseph Armand Bombardier. Carl Eliason of Sayner Wisconsin built what is basically a motorized toboggan in 1924, which was patented in 1927. The other path to development started when
Joseph Armand Bomdardier of Valcourt, Quebec built his first snow coach in the 1930s. The earliest snowmobiles were modified Ford Model Ts with the undercarriage replaced with tracks and skis. They were popular for rural mail delivery for a time.
Due to a difference in the types of snow between Wisconsin and Quebec, a different type of drive system. Enter Joseph-Armand Bombardier of the small town of Valcourt in Quebec, Canada. He invented different caterpillar track system suitable for all kinds
of snow conditions. His new revolutionary track traction system made up of a toothed wheel covered in rubber, and a rubber and cotton track that wraps around the back wheels.
Bombardier had already made some “metal” tracked vehicles since 1928, but is his first major invention and led him to become an industrialist. He started production of a large, enclosed, seven-passenger snowmobile in 1937, the B-7 and introduced another enclosed twelve-passenger model, the B-12 in 1942. It was only in 1959, when motors became lighter and smaller than before, that Bombardier invented what we know as the modern snowmobile in its open-cockpit one- or two-person form, and started selling it as the “Ski-doo”.
Deuteronomy 28:1-2 New International Version (NIV)
Blessings for Obedience
1 If you fully obey the Lord your God and carefully follow all his commands I give you today, the Lord your God will set you high above all the nations on earth. 2 All these blessings will come on you and accompany you if you obey the Lord your God:
3 You will be blessed in the city and blessed in the country.
4 The fruit of your womb will be blessed, and the crops of your land and the young of your livestock—the calves of your herds and the lambs of your flocks.
5 Your basket and your kneading trough will be blessed.
6 You will be blessed when you come in and blessed when you go out.
7 The Lord will grant that the enemies who rise up against you will be defeated before you. They will come at you from one direction but flee from you in seven.
8 The Lord will send a blessing on your barns and on everything you put your hand to. The Lord your God will bless you in the land he is giving you.
9 The Lord will establish you as his holy people, as he promised you on oath, if you keep the commands of the Lord your God and walk in obedience to him.10 Then all the peoples on earth will see that you are called by the name of the Lord, and they will fear you. 11 The Lord will grant you abundant prosperity—in the fruit of your womb, the young of your livestock and the crops of your ground—in the land he swore to your ancestors to give you.
12 The Lord will open the heavens, the storehouse of his bounty, to send rain on your land in season and to bless all the work of your hands. You will lend to many nations but will borrow from none.
“You have been instructed from your childhood in the knowledge of your lost state by nature – the absolute necessity of a change of heart and an entire renovation of soul to the image of Jesus Christ – of salvation through His meritorious righteousness only – and the indispensable necessity of personal holiness without which no man shall see the Lord [Hebrews 12:14]. You are well acquainted that the most perfect and consummate doctrinal knowledge is of no avail without it operates on and sincerely affects the heart, changes the practice, and totally influences the will – and that without the almighty power of the Spirit of God enlightening your mind, subduing your will, and continually drawing you to Himself, you can do nothing. . . . And may the God of your parents (for many generations past) seal instruction to your soul and lead you to Himself through the blood of His too greatly despised Son, Who notwithstanding, is still reclaiming the world to God through that blood, not imputing to them their sins. To Him be glory forever!”
A letter of Elias Boudinot to his daughter, Susan Boudinot, on October 30, 1782
“Never give in, never give in, never, never, never, never– in nothing, great or small, large or petty– never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense.”
~ Sir Winston Churchill
Adjective: Very small.
Noun: A very small person.
Created after Lilliput, a fictional island nation in Jonathan Swift’s satirical novel Gulliver’s Travels. Everything was diminutive in Lilliput — its inhabitants were six inches in height.
1178 BC- A solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom after the Trojan War.
73 – Masada, a Jewish fortress, falls to the Romans after several months of siege, ending the Jewish Revolt.
1503 – Christopher Columbus abandoned the garrison at Rio Belen (Panama) and sailed for home (Hispaniola) with three ships. On the way he was shipwrecked in Jamaica.
1521 – Martin Luther’s first appearance before the Diet of Worms to be examined by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the other estates of the empire.
1705 – Queen Anne of England knighted Isaac Newton.
1724 – First Easter observed.
1777 – Revolutionary War: New England’s Minute Men and Green Mountain Boys
routed British regulars at the Battle of Bennington.
1787 – “The first American play” opened, at the John Street Theater in New York City. It was written by 29-year-old Royall Tyler.
1789 – George Washington began the journey from his home at Mount Vernon to New York City, then the nation’s capital, where he would be inaugurated.
1818 – The Senate ratified Rush-Bagot amendment to form an unarmed U.S.-Canada border.
1851 – A lighthouse was swept away in a gale at Minot’s Ledge, MA.
1861 – Civil War: President Lincoln outlawed business with confederate states.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis approved conscription act for white males between 18 and 35.
1862 – Civil War: The Battle at Lee’s Mills in Virginia. This battle took place near the site of the 1781 Siege of Yorktown, the final battle of the Revolutionary War in the east.
1862 – Civil War: A bill ending slavery in the District of Columbia becomes law.
1863 – Civil War: The Siege of Vicksburg – ships led by Union Admiral David Dixon Porter move through heavy Confederate artillery fire on approach to Vicksburg, Mississippi.
1865 – Civil War: The Navy Department directed that on 17 April a gun be fired in honor of the late President Lincoln each half hour, from sunrise to sunset, that all flags be kept at half-mast until after the funeral, and that officers wear mourning crepe for six months.
1881 – In Dodge City, Kansas, Bat Masterson fights his last gun battle. His first gunfight took place in 1876 in Sweetwater, Texas.
1900 – US Post Office issues first books of postage stamps.
1905 – An endowment of a college teachers’ pension fund was established by Andrew Carnegie. He advanced the idea that the rich are merely trustees of wealth and that they have a duty to use their resources to benefit society.
1910 – The oldest existing indoor ice hockey arena still used for the sport in the 21st century, Boston Arena, opens for the first time.
1912 – Harriet Quimby, an American pilot, becomes the first woman to fly an airplane across the English Channel. She took off from Dover, England, en route to Calais, France and made the flight in 59 minutes, landing about 25 miles from Calais on a beach.
1922 – Annie Oakley sets record by breaking 100 clay targets in a row. Annie was sixty-two years old at this event.
1922 – Belvin Maynard, better known as the ‘Flying Parson’, gave his first sermon from an airplane. In 1919 in France, Maynard set a world record by completing 318 outside loops in a sopwith Pup.
1926 – The new Book of the Month Club sent out its 1st selection: “Lolly Willows or The Loving Huntsman” by Sylvia Townsend Warner. It went to nearly 5,000 members who had joined the Club.
1929 – Cleveland Indian Earl Averill, becomes first in the American League to hit a homerun on first at bat.
1929 – New York Yankees become first team to use numbers on uniforms.
1935 – First radio broadcast of “Fibber McGee & Molly.” This was a situation comedy radio show that was broadcast from 1935-1959 on the National Broadcasting Company.
1935 – Babe Ruth’s first National League game, for Boston Braves, included a homerun.
1940 – Cleveland Indian Bob Feller hurls an opening day no-hitter vs Chicago.
1941 – Bob Feller of the Cleveland Indians throws the only Opening Day no-hitter in the history of Major League Baseball, beating the Chicago White Sox 1-0.
1943 – Dr. Albert Hofmann discovers the psychedelic effects of LSD.
1944 – World War II: The destroyer USS Laffey survived immense damage from attacks by 22 Japanese aircraft off Okinawa.
1944 – World War II: The Coast Guard-manned destroyer escort (DE) USS Joyce, along with her sister ship USS Peterson and a Navy DE sank the U-550 off New York after the U-boat torpedoed a tanker that was part of a convoy.
1945 – World War II: The United States Army liberates Nazi Sonderlager (high security) Prisoner of War camp Oflag IV-C (better known as Colditz Castle).
1945 – World War II: More than 7,000 die when the German refugee ship Goya is sunk by a Soviet submarine torpedo.
1945 – World War II: American troops entered Nuremberg, Germany.
1945 – World War II: US troops landed on He Shima, Okinawa.
1945 – World War II: American forces land on Fort Frank and find it abandoned. This completes the capture of the islands in Manila Bay.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh, What It Seemed to Be” by The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Marjorie Hughes), “You Won’t Be Satisfied” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day), “Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief” by Betty Hutton and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1946 – First US launch of captured V-2 rocket, White Sands NM; 5 miles altitude.
1946 – On Opening Day in Boston with the Braves vs. the Brooklyn Dodgers, the newly painted seats had not yet dried when guests seated themselves. The Braves management picked up the cleaning tab for all.
1947 – In Texas City, TX, the French ship Grandcamp, carrying ammonium nitrate fertilizer, caught fire and blew up. The explosions and resulting fires killed 576 people.
1947 – Bernard Baruch coins the term “Cold War” to describe the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union.
1947 – Act of Congress gives Navy Nurse Corps members commissioned rank.
1948 – First televised baseball game, WGN-TV, (White Sox vs Cubs exhibition).
1949 – “Cruising Down the River“ by Blue Barron topped the charts.
1951 – General and Mrs. MacArthur departed Haneda Airport for the United States. Nearly 500,000 Japanese turned out to say goodbye.
1953 – During the Battle of Pork Chop Hill, the 17th and 31st Infantry Regiments of the 7th Infantry Division were hit hard by the Communist Chinese and sustained heavy casualties.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wanted” by Perry Como, “Cross Over the Bridge” by Patti Page, “Here” by Tony Martin and “Slowly” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1955 – “Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes topped the charts.
1956 – ABC premiered the TV show “Rhythm on Parade.”
1956 – Buddy Holly released his first single, “Blue Days, Black Nights.”
1956 – First solar powered radios go on sale. The $60 radio was small (about 3 x 9 x 10 in.) and weighed only 5.25 pounds. The $185 auxiliary Sun Power Pak provided electrical power from sunlight using a silicon “solar cell element.”
1958 – Arnold Palmer won his first Masters golf tournament.
1959 – New York Yankees unveil their first message scoreboard.
1960 – Theme from “A Summer Place“ by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1961 – In a nationally broadcast speech, Cuban leader Fidel Castro declares that he is a Marxist–Leninist and that Cuba is going to adopt Communism.
1961- Pres. Kennedy called off the CIA air strikes in Cuba. The message did not reach the 1,511 commandos headed for the Bay of Pigs.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Johnny Angel” by Shelley Fabares, “Good Luck Charm” by Elvis Presley, “Slow Twistin’ “ by Chubby Checker and “She’s Got You” by Patsy Cline all topped the charts.
1962 – Walter Cronkite succeeded Douglas Edwards as anchorman of “The CBS Evening News.” During this time he became “the most trusted man in America”.
1963 – Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. pens his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail while incarcerated in Birmingham, Alabama for protesting against segregation.
1964 – Great Train Robbery – Twelve men are sentenced to a total of 307 years.
1965 – The Hollies opened their first tour of the U.S. at the Brooklyn Paramount theater in New York.
1966 – “(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration“ by the Righteous Brothers topped the charts.
1968 – Baseball’s longest night game to date was completed. The Astros score an unearned run in the 24th inning to squeeze by the Mets 1-0 after six hours and six minutes.
1968 – Vietnam War: The Pentagon announced that troops would begin coming home from Vietnam.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Let It Be” by The Beatles, “ABC” by The Jackson 5, “Spirit in the Sky” by Norman Greenbaum and “Tennessee Bird Walk” by Jack Blanchard & Misty Morgan all topped the charts.
1972 – Apollo program: The launch of Apollo 16 from Cape Canaveral, Florida.
1972 – Vietnam War: Nguyen Hue Offensive – prompted by the North Vietnamese offensive, the United States resumes the bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong.
1977 – “Don’t Give Up on Us” by David Soul topped the charts.
1977 – The ban on women attending West Point was lifted.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Night Fever” by the Bee Gees, “Stayin’ Alive” by the Bee Gees, “Lay Down Sally” by Eric Clapton and “Someone Loves You Honey” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1980 – Arthur Ashe retires from professional tennis following quadruple bypass surgery.
1983 – Steve Garvey sets National League record by playing in 1,118 consecutive games.
1983 – “Billie Jean” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1985 – Mickey Mantle was reinstated after being banned from baseball for several years.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Me Amadeus” by Falco, “Kiss” by Prince & The Revolution, “Manic Monday” by Bangles and “She and I” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1987 – The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) sternly warned U.S. radio stations to watch the use of indecent language on the airwaves.
1987 – Michael Jordan, becomes 2nd NBA to score 3000 points in a season. Wilt Chamberlain was first in 1963.
1988 – “Get Outta My Dreams, Get Into My Car” by Billy Ocean topped the charts.
1990 – The “Doctor of Death”, Jack Kevorkian, goes through with his first assisted suicide.
1990 – The Supreme Court rejected appeals by Dalton Prejean, a nearly retarded man, who was condemned to die for the 1977 murder of a Louisiana state trooper. Prejean was executed the following month.
1990 – The Supreme Court let stand a ban on school dances in the Bible Belt town of Purdy, Mo.
1991 – President Bush announced that US forces would be sent into northern Iraq to assist Kurdish refugees.
1992 – The House Ethics Committee listed 303 current and former lawmakers who had overdrawn their House bank accounts.
1993 – A jury reached guilty verdict in the Federal case against cop who beat Rodney King, but the verdict was not read until April 17th.
1995 – George W. Bush names April 16 as Selena Day in Texas, after she was killed two weeks earlier.
1996 – Oprah Winfrey hosted her evening show and included a segment on mad cow disease. A group of Texas cattle ranchers later sued her for her comments.
1998 – Paula Jones announced she would ask an appeals court to reinstate her sexual harassment lawsuit against President Clinton after it was thrown out by a federal judge.
1998 – Tornadoes claimed eleven lives in Arkansas, Tennessee and Kentucky.
1999 – Shania Twain became the first woman to be named as songwriter/artist of the year by the Nashville Songwriters Association International.
1999 – Wayne Gretzky, hockey star of the New York Rangers, announced his retirement.
2002 – The U.S. Supreme Court overturned major parts of a 1996 child pornography law based on rights to free speech.
2003 – Michael Jordan played his last NBA game with the Washington Wizards, who lost to the Philadelphia 76ers, 107-87.
2003 – In the 29th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom Shooting in Mosul killed three people and wounded at least 11 and some Iraqis blamed US troops. War casualties totaled 121 US soldiers with sixteen from friendly fire.
2003 – Colorado Republican Gov. Bill Owens signed a law that established the first state school voucher program.
2004 – The super liner Queen Mary 2 embarks on her first Trans-Atlantic crossing, linking the golden age of ocean travel to the modern age of ocean travel.
2004 – Videotape broadcast on the Arab TV station Al-Jazeera showed Army Pvt. 1st Class Keith M. Maupin, abducted during an attack on a fuel truck convoy near Baghdad a week earlier. Arab television reported June 29, 2004, that Maupin had been killed; he is listed as missing by the U.S. military.
2005 – Authorities in Hillsborough County, Fla., found the body of missing 13-year-old Sarah Michelle Lunde. A suspect, David Lee Onstott, was later charged with her murder.
2007 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: The deadliest mass shooting in modern American history in a dorm and classroom at Virginia Tech left 32 people dead. Two people died in a dorm room, and 31 others were killed in Norris Hall, including the gunman, who put a bullet in his own head. Seventeen people were hurt, some seriously. The gunman was Seung-Hui Cho. He was born in South Korea in 1984 and became a permanent U.S. resident in 1992.
2007 – The board overseeing operations at the Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport ruled that taxi drivers who refuse service to travelers carrying alcohol face tougher penalties despite protests from Muslim cabbies who sought a compromise for religious reasons.
2008 – Start of Papal Journey of Pope Benedict XVI to the United States.
2008 – The US government reported plans to begin collecting DNA samples from anyone arrested by a federal law enforcement agency.
2008 – The US Supreme Court ruled that the combination of drugs used in the death chambers of most states does not create a substantial risk of severe pain and therefore is constitutional.
2008 – Computer consultant John Schiefer (26) pleaded guilty in Los Angeles to raiding hundreds of thousands of computers with spyware to steal users’ identities and commit fraud.
2008 – In Oklahoma, Custer County Sheriff Mike Burgess (56) resigned just as state prosecutors filed thirty-five felony charges against him, including fourteen counts of second-degree rape, seven counts of forcible oral sodomy and five counts of bribery by a public official.
2009 – In Sacramento, Ca., a tent city of some 150 homeless people was closed. It had been around for close to a decade on a strip of land between the American River and a power company.
2009 – President Barack Obama announced his decision not to prosecute CIA operatives who used interrogation practices described by many as torture. He condemned the aggressive techniques, including waterboarding, shackling and stripping, used on terror suspects while promising not to legally pursue the perpetrators.
2009 – In California pharmacy worker Mario Ramirez (50) showed up at the Long Beach Memorial Medical Center and shot Hugo Bustamante (46) and Kelly Hales (56) before turning the gun on himself and pulling the trigger.
2009 – In Middletown, Maryland, Christopher Alan Wood (34) killed his wife (33) and 3 children, then himself, in their home, leaving a gruesome scene that authorities said was found by the children’s’ grandfather on April 18.
2010 – Gary Jackson, former president of the US private security firm, Blackwater Worldwide (Xe Services LLC), and four other former workers are indicted on federal weapons charges.
2010 – The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission charges Goldman Sachs with defrauding investors.
2011 – Tornadoes kill several people in North Carolina and South Carolina with storms killing at least 20 people over the past few days.
2012 – Jeff Neeley, the General Services Administration official at the center of a scandal over lavish government spending declined to answer questions at a congressional hearing today invoking the Fifth Amendment.
2013 – In 1942 the 80 men of Doolittle’s Raiders bombed Tokyo in death-defying mission, retaliation for Pearl Harbor. Today, the last four will toast the raid. A case of 80 goblets is brought to their annual reunions. When a Raider dies a cup is upended. This year, there are four left. They’ll toast the Raiders with aged cognac, and end reunions.
2013 – Mail to the US Senate is suspended after letter sent to U.S. Senator Roger Wicker (R-MS) tests positive for the poisonous substance ricin at an offsite Congressional mail facility. The letter is being sent to the FBI Laboratory in Quantico, Virginia, for further testing.
2013 – Gospel singer George Beverly Shea died at the age of 104, following a brief illness.
2013 – A team of well-coordinated snipers attacked a PG&E Corp’s Metcalf substation located near Silicon Valley in California. For 19 minutes, they fired strategically placed shots that ended in 17 major transformers becoming non-functional.
2151 – Today in StarTrek future History: In 2151, USS Enterprise NX-01 will launch from Warp 5 Complex in Bozeman, Montana.
1495 – Petrus Apianus, German mathematician (d. 1557) was a German humanist, famous for his works in mathematics, astronomy and cartography. The crater Apianus on the Moon is named in his honor.
1867 – Wilbur Wright, American aviation pioneer (d. 1912)
1886 – Margaret Woodrow Wilson, American daughter of Woodrow Wilson (d. 1944)
1889 – Charlie Chaplin, English actor, director, producer, screenwriter, and composer (d. 1977)
1907 – Joseph-Armand Bombardier, French-Canadian inventor of the snowmobile and businessman (Bombardier) (d. 1964)
1924 – Henry Mancini, American composer (d. 1994)
1924 – Rudy Pompilli, American saxophonist (Bill Haley & His Comets) (d. 1976)
1927 – Edie Adams, American actress
1935 – Bobby Vinton, American singer
1939 – Dusty Springfield, English singer and producer (The Lana Sisters and The Springfields) (d. 1999)
1947 – Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, American basketball player
1952 – Bill Belichick, American football coach
1956 – David McDowell Brown, American captain, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2003)
1965 – Martin Lawrence, American actor
1971 – Peter Billingsley, American actor
1971 – Selena (Quintanilla), American singer ( murdered at age 23 on March 31, 1995)
1981 – Jake Scott, American football player
*INGALLS, GEORGE ALAN
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 5th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and date: Near Duc Pho, Republic of Vietnam, April 16th, 1967. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif. Born: 9 March 1946, Hanford, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Ingalls, a member of Company A, accompanied his squad on a night ambush mission. Shortly after the ambush was established, an enemy soldier entered the killing zone and was shot when he tried to evade capture. Other enemy soldiers were expected to enter the area, and the ambush was maintained in the same location. Two quiet hours passed without incident, then suddenly a hand grenade was thrown from the nearby dense undergrowth into the center of the squad’s position. The grenade did not explode, but shortly thereafter a second grenade landed directly between Sp4c. Ingalls and a nearby comrade. Although he could have jumped to a safe position, Sp4c. Ingalls, in a spontaneous act of great courage, threw himself on the grenade and absorbed its full blast. The explosion mortally wounded Sp4c. Ingalls, but his heroic action saved the lives of the remaining members of his squad. His gallantry and selfless devotion to his comrades are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflects great credit upon Sp4c. Ingalls, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
DEWEY, DUANE E.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Company E, 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Near Panmunjon, Korea, April 16th, 1952. Entered service at: Muskegon, Mich. Born: 16 November 1931, Grand Rapids, Mich. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a gunner in a machine gun platoon of Company E, in action against enemy aggressor forces. When an enemy grenade landed close to his position while he and his assistant gunner were receiving medical attention for their wounds during a fierce night attack by numerically superior hostile forces, Cpl. Dewey, although suffering intense pain, immediately pulled the Corpsman to the ground and, shouting a warning to the other Marines around him. bravely smothered the deadly missile with his body, personally absorbing the full force of the explosion to save his fellow Marines from possible injury or death. His indomitable courage, outstanding initiative, and valiant efforts in behalf of others in the face of almost certain death reflect the highest credit upon Cpl. Dewey and enhance the finest traditions of the United States Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service.
BUSH, RICHARD EARL
Rank and organization: Corporal, U .S. Marine Corps Reserve, 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, 6th Marine Division. Place and date: Mount Yaetake on Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, April 16th, 1945. Entered service at: Kentucky. Born: 23 December 1923, Glasgow, Ky. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a squad leader serving with the 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, 6th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces, during the final assault against Mount Yaetake on Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 16 April 1945. Rallying his men forward with indomitable determination, Cpl. Bush boldly defied the slashing fury of concentrated Japanese artillery fire pouring down from the gun-studded mountain fortress to lead his squad up the face of the rocky precipice, sweep over the ridge, and drive the defending troops from their deeply entrenched position. With his unit, the first to break through to the inner defense of Mount Yaetake, he fought relentlessly in the forefront of the action until seriously wounded and evacuated with others under protecting rocks. Although prostrate under medical treatment when a Japanese hand grenade landed in the midst of the group, Cpl. Bush, alert and courageous in extremity as in battle, unhesitatingly pulled the deadly missile to himself and absorbed the shattering violence of the exploding charge in his body, thereby saving his fellow Marines from severe injury or death despite the certain peril to his own life. By his valiant leadership and aggressive tactics in the face of savage opposition, Cpl. Bush contributed materially to the success of the sustained drive toward the conquest of this fiercely defended outpost of the Japanese Empire. His constant concern for the welfare of his men, his resolute spirit of self-sacrifice, and his unwavering devotion to duty throughout the bitter conflict enhance and sustain the highest traditions of the United States Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service.
BATES, NORMAN F.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 4th Iowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Vermont. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and bearer.
BEBB, EDWARD J.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 4th Iowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Henry County, Iowa. Birth: Butler County, Ohio. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
BIRDSALL, HORATIO L.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 3d Iowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Keokuk, Lee County, Iowa. Birth: Monroe County, N.Y. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and bearer.
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 4th lowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Wapello, Louisa County, lowa. Birth: Dunkirk County, N.Y. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag in a personal encounter with its bearer.
HAYS, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 4th lowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Oskaloosa, Mahaska County, lowa. Birth: Jefferson County, Ohio. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and bearer Austin’s Battery (C.S.A.).
HOLTON, EDWARD A.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company I, 6th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Lees Mills, Va., April 16th, 1862. Entered service at: Williston, Vt. Birth: Westminster, Vt. Date of issue: 9 July 1892. Citation: Rescued the colors of his regiment under heavy fire, the color bearer having been shot down while the troops were in retreat.
LEONARD, WILLIAM E.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 85th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Deep Bottom, Va., April 16th, 1864. Entered service at: Jacksonville, Pa. Birth: Greene County, Pa. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag.
MORGAN, RICHARD H.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 4th lowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Taylor, Freemont County, lowa. Birth: Dubois County, Ind. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag inside the enemy’s works, contesting for its possession with its bearer.
PINGREE, SAMUEL E.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company F, 3d Vermont Infantry Place and date: Lees Mills, Va., April 16th, 1862. Entered service at. Hartford, Vt. Birth: Salisbury, N.H. Date of issue: 17 August 1891. Citation: Gallantly led his company across a wide, deep creek, drove the enemy from the rifle pits, which were within two yards of the farther bank, and remained at the head of his men until a second time severely wounded.
SCOTT, JULIAN A.
Rank and organization: Drummer, Company E, 3d Vermont Infantry. Place and date. At Lees Mills, Va., April 16th, 1862. Entered service at. Johnson, Vt. Birth: Johnson, Vt. Date of issue: February 1865. Citation: Crossed the creek under a terrific fire of musketry several times to assist in bringing off the wounded.
TIBBETS, ANDREW W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 3d lowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Appanoose County, lowa. Birth: Clark County, Ind. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and bearer, Austin’s Battery (C.S.A.).