The Day After The World Went Crazy
The 8th of December – Wall Street
This editorial appeared on the front page of The Wall Street Journal, Dec. 8, 1941:
We Have a Duty
The business and financial discussion which customarily appears on this page in Monday morning’s issue of The Wall Street Journal was written Saturday evening and given to the compositors yesterday. As the galley proof reached the editorial room, press association wires carried the flash that the Japanese had attacked Hawaii.
In that moment, the events of last week seemed suddenly to have been removed to some remote era of antiquity. The things that business and finance discussed last week seem now to have no relation to tomorrow nor to the many days to come after tomorrow.
There is a stark, horrible reality that American territory has been attacked. Japan has declared a state of war exists between her and the United States
Every citizen has and knows his duty. It will be heavy for all. The sacrifices will be particularly heavy for the business and financial community of America.
We say that the sacrifices will be made. The duty will be performed.
The 8th of December – Recruiting Offices
Monday, December 8, recruiting offices all over the country were overwhelmed with men trying to enlist. The FBI sent out guards in New York to protect the reservoirs, Kensico and Croton and the Brooklyn Navy Yard, where the battleships Iowa and Missouri were under construction. About 6,000 people signed up to be air raid wardens and in Times Square, crowds watched bulletins anxiously.
Fiorella LaGuardia, the flamboyant mayor of New York, said, “It has come and we are ready. I want to assure all the people who have been sneering and jeering at the necessary precautions of civilian defense that we will protect them now.”
One song, which by today’s standards sounds politically incorrect, began with the words, “You’re a sap, Mr. Jap, to make a Yankee cranky. You’re a sap, Mr. Jap, Uncle Sam is gonna spank ye …”
The 8th of December – In Washington
To the Congress of the United States:
Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 – a date which will live in infamy – the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. The United States was at peace with that nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with the government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific.
Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States and his colleagues delivered to the Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. While this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack. It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time, the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace.
The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. Very many American lives have been lost. In addition, American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.
Yesterday, the Japanese government also launched an attack against Malaya.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.
Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island.
This morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island.
Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation.
As commander in chief of the Army and Navy, I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense. Always will we remember the character of the onslaught against us. No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory. I believe I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost, but will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again.
Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory and our interests are in grave danger. With confidence in our armed forces – with the unbounding determination of our people – we will gain the inevitable triumph – so help us God.
I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, Dec. 7, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire.
December 8th, 1941
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
“ Yesterday, December 7th, 1941- A date which will live in infamy- the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.”
militate MIL-ih-tayt, intransitive verb:
To have force or influence.
Militate comes from Latin militatus, past participle of militare, “to serve as a soldier,” frommiles, milit-, “a soldier.”
1541 – Thomas Culpeper and Francis Dereham are executed for having affairs with Catherine Howard, Queen of England and wife of Henry VIII.
1609 – Biblioteca Ambrosiana opens its reading room, the second public library of Europe.
1776 – George Washington’s retreating army in the American Revolution crossed the Delaware River from New Jersey to Pennsylvania.
1777 – Britain’s Gen. Howe withdrew to Philadelphia following a failed attempt on American forces encamped at Whitemarsh.
1792 – First cremation in US, Henry Laurens.
1812 – A major earthquake struck Southern California, destroying the church at Mission San Juan Capistrano and damaging the San Gabriel Mission.
1861 – Civil War: The American Bible Society announced that it would distribute 7,000 Bibles a day to Union soldiers.
1861 – Civil War: CSS Sumter captured the whaler Eben Dodge in the Atlantic. The war began affecting the Northern whaling industry.
1863 – Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln announced his Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction. Lincoln declared that as soon as any seceded state formed a accepted presidential decisions on the subject of slavery and took oaths of allegiance to the Constitution, they would be readmitted to the Union.
1863 – Civil War: The disabled merchant steamer Henry Von Phul was shelled by a Confederate shore battery near Morganza, Louisiana. The U.S.S. Neosho and the U.S.S. Signal moved up to defend the ship and silenced the battery.
1873 – J. R. Toberman, Mayor of Los Angeles approved a franchise for a street railway which have a run “commencing at Temple and Spring Streets.”
1874 – The Jesse James gang robbed another train, the Kansas Pacific Railroad near Muncie, Kansas.
1879 – Louisiana ratified a new state constitution and moved the capital from New Orleans to Baton Rouge.
1882 – Atmosphere of Venus detected during transit.
1886 – The American Federation of Labor is founded by Samuel Gompers in Columbus, Ohio.
1902 – Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. became Associate Justice on Supreme Court.
1903 – Samuel P. Langley’s man-carrying Great Aerodrome collapsed right after takeoff from a houseboat on the Potomac River.
1904 – An Executive Order extended the jurisdiction of the Lighthouse Service to the noncontiguous territory of the Midway Islands.
1914 – World War I: Battle of the Falkland Islands – The Kaiserliche Marine under the command of Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee is engaged by the Royal Navy.
1914 – Connie Mack sells Eddie Collins to the White Sox. Eddie Collins, generally regarded as the game’s finest position player, went to the White Sox for $50,000. Collins signs a 5-year contract worth $75,000 and gets $15,000 as a signing bonus.
1914 – “Watch Your Step” opened in New York. It was the first musical revue to feature a score completely by Irving Berlin.
1920 – President Wilson declined to send a representative to the League of Nations in Geneva.
1931 – Coaxial cable patented. Described as a “concentric conducting system,” the patent was assigned to the American Telegraph and Telephone Co. of New York City. The application was television, for which a wide range of transmission frequencies is required.
1933 – Secretary of the Navy Claude A. Swanson issued General Order 241 defining the Fleet Marine, integrating a ready-to-deploy Marine force with own aircraft into Fleet organization.
1936 – NAACP files suit to equalize the salaries of black & white teachers. Gibbs v Board of Education in Montgomery County, Md., was the first of a succession of suits that eliminated wage differentials between Black and white teachers.
1936 – Spingarn Medal presented to John Hope posthumously for his achievement as president of Morehouse College and for his creative leadership in the founding of the Atlanta University Center.
1940 – First NFL championship on national radio; Bears beat Redskins 73-0. The game, which was the most decisive victory in NFL history, popularized the Bears’ T-formation with a man-in-motion.
1940 – World War II: During the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe (German air force) launched a massive attack on London.
1941 – Ray Eberle and The Modernaires and Glenn Miller Orchestra record “Moonlight Cocktail.”
1941 – World War II: Pacific War – After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor the U.S. Congress passes a declaration of war against Japan. Drawing the Lines (14:11)
1941 – World War II: Pacific War – The Netherlands issues a proclamation in which it declares war against Japan, after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
1941 – World War II: Pacific War – The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in China issues a proclamation which declared war against Japan and Germany on behalf of Korean people, who were under Japanese occupation since 1910.
1941 – World War II: Pacific War – Japanese aircraft attacked Wake Island within hours of the attack on Pearl Harbor. Marines of the 1st Defense Battalion and Marine Fighting Squadron 211 resisted Japanese invasion attempts for over two weeks before finally succumbing to an overwhelming force.
1941 – World War II: Japanese General Yamashita began his attack against the British army at Singapore. General Tomoyuki Yamashita earned the name “Tiger of Malaya” for his masterful capture of Singapore and the whole Malay Peninsula from the British, who had a superior number of troops.
1941 – World War II: Pacific War – the Republic of China officially declares war against Japan, after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
1941 – World War II: Battle of Hong Kong – The Japanese invade the British Crown Colony of Hong Kong less than 8 hours after the attack on Pearl Harbour.
1941 – USS Wake (PR-3), a river gunboat moored at Shanghai, is only U.S. vessel to surrender during World War II.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust – The Nazi Chelmno extermination camp opened in Poland. Gas vans are first used as a means of execution, at this extermination camp near Łódź.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: in Ternopil, western Ukraine, German SS organize the last deportation of Ternopil Jews to death camp in Belzec, when 1,400 Jews were sent there. The chief of the Gestapo, SS-Sturmbannführer Hermann Müller, bore overall responsibility for the mass murder of the Jews of Ternopil and Berezhany county.
1942 – World War II: Pacific War- Eight PT boats (PT 36, PT 37, PT 40, PT 43, PT 44, PT 48, PT 59, and PT 109) turn back eight Japanese destroyers attempting to reinforce Japanese forces on Guadalcanal.
1943 – John Van Druten’s “Voice of the Turtle,” premiered in New York City.
1943- World War II: Pacific War – U.S. carriers sank two Japanese cruisers and down 72 Japanese aircraft in the Marshall Islands.
1943 – World War II: Pacific- Kwajalein is bombarded by an American force consisting of five battleships and twelve destroyers commanded by Admiral Lee. One Japanese destroyer is damaged.
1943 – World War II: Europe- In Italy, the US 5th Army continues attacking but little progress is achieved. To the east, the British 8th Army operations continue as well. The Canadian 1st Division begins attacking over the Moro River, a few miles from the east coast.
1944 – World War II: Europe- US 3rd Army reports the establishment of four additional crossing of the Saar river on both sides of Sarreguemines and inside the town. American tanks are reported to be approaching the town of Rohrbach to the southeast.
1944- World War II: Pacific- An American naval force, commanded by Admiral Smith and consisting of three heavy cruisers and a destroyer escort, bombard Iwo Jima.
1944 - World War II: Pacific- On Leyte, the US 77th Division advances from its beachhead to within one mile of Ormoc. Attacks by the Japanese 26th Division, near Buri, are repulsed by other US forces.
1944 – American Olivia De Havilland won a California court of Appeal victory against Warner Bros. She had sued the studio using a California law, which limited the right of an employer to enforce a contract against an employee for more than seven years.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Been a Long, Long Time “ by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “That’s for Me” by Dick Haymes, “It Might as Well Be Spring” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Billy Williams) and “It’s Been So Long Darling” by Ernest Tubb “ all topped the charts.
1945 – The Toyota Motor Company received permission from the occupation government to start production of buses and trucks–vehicles necessary to keep Japan running.
1949 – Jule Styne’s “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes” premieres at Ziegfeld Theater New York City.
1949 – Chinese Civil War: The capital of the Republic of China is moved from Nanjing to Taipei, Taiwan.
1951 – “Tree Grows in Brooklyn” closes at Alvin Theater New York City after 267 performances.
1951 – “Sin (It’s No Sin)” by Eddy Howard topped the charts.
1952 – First TV acknowledgement of pregnancy (I Love Lucy). After eleven years of marriage, Lucy discovers that she is pregnant. She finally tells him during a show at the Tropicana.
1953 – Pres. Eisenhower delivered his “Atoms for Peace” address to the UN. He called on both the US and Soviet Union to abandon their nuclear arsenals. The “Atoms for Peace” program spread nuclear technology to nations that agreed not to use it for military purposes.
1953 – Los Angeles became the third largest city in the U.S. The City of Angels slid past Philadelphia for the distinction in a special census.
1956 – First test firing of the Vanguard satellite program.
1956 – Guy Mitchell’s “Singing the Blues” single goes #1 for 10 weeks.
1961 – Larry Costello of the Syracuse Nationals scores 32 consecutive points without a miss (NBA record).
1961 – “Surfin’,” the Beach Boys first recording, was released.
1962 – “Big Girls Don’t Cry” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1962 – 114-day newspaper strike begins in New York, NY. The 1962-63 strike began as pressroom workers walked off the job to protest automation. Union leaders struck a deal that would promise their current members lifetime job security.
1963 – Florence Henderson and Jose Ferrer co-starred in “The Girl Who Came to Supper” on Broadway.
1965 – Vietnam: 150 U.S. Air Force and Navy planes launch Operation Tiger Hound to interdict the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
1967 – Vietnam: In the biggest battle yet in the Mekong Delta, 365 Vietcong were killed.
1968 – NLS (a system for which hypertext and the computer mouse were developed) is publicly demonstrated for the first time in San Francisco.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Na Na Hey Hey Kiss Him Goodbye” by Steam, “Leaving on a Jet Plane” by Peter, Paul & Mary, “Down on the Corner/Fortunate Son” by Creedence Clearwater Revival and “Okie from Muskogee” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1969 – President Richard Nixon says that the Vietnam War is coming to a “conclusion as a result of the plan that we have instituted.”
1970 – Count Chocula was trademark registered.
1972 – United Airlines Flight 533 crashes near Chicago Midway Airport, killing 45 people.
1973 – “Top of the World” by the Carpenters topped the charts.
1976 – The Eagles release the album Hotel California.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Light Up My Life” by Debby Boone, “Don’t It Make My Brown Eyes Blue” by Crystal Gayle, “How Deep is Your Love” by the Bee Gees and “Here You Come Again” by Dolly Parton all topped the charts.
1979 – “Babe” by Styx topped the charts.
1980 – John Lennon, musician and one of the Beatles, was shot and killed by Mark David Chapman outside his New York City apartment building. Chapman was a schizophrenic with the delusion that he himself was John.
1982 – Norman D. Mayer demanding an end to nuclear weapons held the Washington Monument hostage. He threatened to blow it up with explosives he claimed were inside a van. Ten hours later he was shot to death by police.
1983 – Grenada: Four Coast Guard cutters arrived off of the island of Grenada to replace U.S. Navy surface forces. The cutters involved were the Cape Gull, Cape Fox, Cape Shoalwater, and the Sagebrush.
1984 – “Out of Touch” by Daryl Hall & John Oates topped the charts.
1984 – Indiana Hoosier’s basketball coach, Bobby Knight, got career win #400.
1984 – Robert Matthews (b.1953), co-founder for the neo-Nazi called The Order, was shot and killed by FBI agents on Whidbey Island, Washington.
1987 – President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev signed the first treaty to reduce the nuclear arsenals of the two superpowers.
1987 – Kurt Lidell Schmoke was inaugurated as the first Black mayor of Baltimore, Maryland. He was a Rhodes scholar and Harvard Law School graduate. He served 3 terms and was appointed Dean of the Howard University School of Law on January 1, 2003.
1990 – Galileo Earth-1 Flyby.
1990 – “Because I Love You” by Stevie B topped the charts.
1991 – AIDS patient Kimberly Bergalis, who had contracted the disease from her dentist, died in Fort Pierce, Fla., at age 23.
1992 – Galileo’s nearest approach to Earth.
1992 – San Francisco Giants renege on $43 million pact with Barry Bonds.
1992 – Americans got to see live television coverage of U.S. troops landing on the beaches of Somalia during Operation Restore Hope. (Due to the time difference, it was December 9 in Somalia.)
1993 – The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is signed into law by President Bill Clinton.
1994 – US President Bill Clinton signs a bill enacting United States participation in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
1995 – In New York, an arsonist killed seven workers and himself at a Harlem clothing store that had been the target of a racially charged lease dispute.
1995 – Four months after the death of founder Jerry Garcia, The Grateful Dead announced it was breaking up after 30 years of making music.
1998 – In Chechnya the severed heads of Darren Hickey, Rudolf Petschi, Stanley Shaw and Peter Kennedy were found lined up along a highway outside of Grozny. The U.S. mobile phone workers had been kidnapped Oct 3.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that police could not search a person or their cars after ticketing for a routine traffic violation.
1998 – The White House opened its defense against the impeachment of President Clinton. A 184-page defense, written by White House lawyers, held that Clinton’s actions were “immoral” and “misleading” but did not amount to impeachable offenses.
1998 – Paul Edward Hindelang Jr. agreed to forfeit to the US government $50 million that he had acquired dealing drugs in the 1970s. He had helped pioneer the “mother ship” smuggling technique.
1998 – In the San Francisco Bay Area an electrician’s error in San Mateo caused a power outage along the northern peninsula that lasted more than seven hours before electricity was fully restored.
1998 – In Greeley, Colo., state transportation worker, Robert S. Helfer (50), killed one person during a disciplinary hearing and wounded another.
1998 – The FBI opened its files on Frank Sinatra to the public. The file contained over 1,300 pages.
1999 – In Memphis, TN, a jury found that Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. had been the victim of a vast murder conspiracy, not a lone assassin.
1999 – US federal investigators arrested eight alleged terrorist who they plotted attacks in Northern California and Nevada on public utilities, an abortion clinic and a synagogue.
2000 – The Florida Supreme Court ordered, four to three, an immediate hand count of about 45,000 disputed ballots and put Democrat Al Gore within 154 votes of George W. Bush.
2001 – Nebraska quarterback Eric Crouch was awarded the Heisman Trophy.
2003 – Afghanistan: The US military launched its largest postwar offensive against Taliban and al-Qaida insurgents, sending 2,000 soldiers into a lawless swath of Afghanistan to put down a wave of attacks.
2003 – Pres. Bush signed into law the biggest expansion of Medicare since its creation in 1965. The $400 billion Medicare overhaul bill included a provision to put away pre-tax money into interest bearing accounts to save for medical expenses.
2003 – Congress approved legislation to stem the flood of unwanted junk e-mail known as “spam.”
2003 – In Abbeville, S.C., Arthur Bixby and his son Stephen (36) killed two police officers during a 13-hour standoff. They refused to give up some of their land for a highway. Sentencing did not occur until 2007.
2004 – Afghanistan:18,000 US troops in Afghanistan began Operation Lightning Freedom, a new offensive to hunt Taliban and al-Qaida militants through the country’s harsh winter.
2005 – Southwest Airlines Flight 1248 slides off the runway at Chicago Midway Airport, killing a 6-year-old boy and injuring 11 other people.
2005 – The US Supreme Court ruled that the government can seize part of a person’s monthly Social Security benefit to pay off old student loans.
2006 – Heelys, a company that produced wheeled footwear, went public. Roger Adams (b.1954) founded the company following an inspired idea in 1998.
2007 – Talk show host Oprah Winfrey publicly endorsed Barack Obama for president during appearances in Des Moines and Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
2007 – Florida quarterback Tim Tebow became the first sophomore to win the Heisman Trophy.
2010 – The Senate voted unanimously to convict U.S. District Judge G. Thomas Porteous of Louisiana on the first of four impeachment charges, removing him from the federal bench.
2011 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Police at Virginia Tech investigate scene of shooting that left at least two people dead — including a police officer — as authorities search campus for what appears to be a lone gunman.
2011 – A senior U.S. official has confirmed to Fox News that images aired by Iranian state television do, in fact, show the secret U.S. drone that went down last week in eastern Iran.
2012 – Denver Broncos punter Matt Prater kicked an NFL record field goal at 64 yards. He kicked it against the Tennessee Titans.
2012 – Football player Josh Brent of the Dallas Cowboys is arrested for driving while intoxicated and vehicular manslaughter in relation to the death of teammate Jerry Brown.
2012 – Texas A&M University quarterback Johnny Manziel becomes the first freshman ever to win the Heisman Trophy as the most outstanding player in college football.
2013 – Nearly 100 legislators from 32 states met in Mount Vernon, Va to discuss the possibility of adding amendments to the U.S. Constitution through a convention of the states. Such a convention, as outlined in article five of the Constitution, would allow state legislatures to vote on amendments to add.
2014 – A massive fire in downtown Los Angeles engulfed an apartment tower under construction, damaged two other buildings. It closed the 110 and 101 freeways for hours. More than 250 firefighters battled the blaze in the 900 block of Fremont Avenue,
65 BC – Horace, Roman poet (d. 8 BC)
1542 – Mary Queen of Scots (d. 1587)
1765 – Eli Whitney, American inventor (d. 1825)
1861 – William C. Durant, American automobile pioneer (d. 1947)
1874 – Ernst Moro, Austrian physician (d. 1951) He was an Austrian physician and pediatrician who discovered the infant reflex which was named after him (Moro reflex).
1894 – James Thurber, American writer (d. 1961)
1911 – Lee J. Cobb, American actor (d. 1976)
1925 – Sammy Davis Jr., American actor and singer (d. 1990)
1933 – Flip Wilson, American comedian (d. 1998)
1961 – Ann Coulter, American author, political commentator, and attorney
*COOK, DONALD GILBERT
Rank and organization: Colonel, United States Marine Corps, Prisoner of War by the Viet Cong in the Republic of Vietnam. Place and date: Prisoner of War by the Viet Cong in the Republic of Vietnam during the period December 31st, 1964 to December 8th,1967. Entered Service at: Brooklyn, New York. Date and Place of birth: 9 August 1934, Brooklyn New York. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while interned as a Prisoner of War by the Viet Cong in the Republic of Vietnam during the period 31 December 1964 to 8 December 1967. Despite the fact that by so doing he would bring about harsher treatment for himself, Colonel (then Captain) Cook established himself as the senior prisoner, even though in actuality he was not. Repeatedly assuming more than his share of their health, Colonel Cook willingly and unselfishly put the interests of his comrades before that of his own well-being and, eventually, his life. Giving more needy men his medicine and drug allowance while constantly nursing them, he risked infection from contagious diseases while in a rapidly deteriorating state of health. This unselfish and exemplary conduct, coupled with his refusal to stray even the slightest from the Code of Conduct, earned him the deepest respect from not only his fellow prisoners, but his captors as well. Rather than negotiate for his own release or better treatment, he steadfastly frustrated attempts by the Viet Cong to break his indomitable spirit. and passed this same resolve on to the men whose well-being he so closely associated himself. Knowing his refusals would prevent his release prior to the end of the war, and also knowing his chances for prolonged survival would be small in the event of continued refusal, he chose nevertheless to adhere to a Code of Conduct far above that which could be expected. His personal valor and exceptional spirit of loyalty in the face of almost certain death reflected the highest credit upon Colonel Cook, the Marine Corps, and the United States Naval Service. He was 33 years old when he died.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 1st Battalion, 1st Brigade, 1st Infantry Division . Place and date: Lai Khe, Republic of Vietnam, December 8th,1968. Born: February 26, 1944, Corsicana, TX, Entered Service at: Texas, Departed: Yes (01/10/2013)
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Sergeant Candelario Garcia distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an acting Team Leader for Company B, 1st Battalion, 2d Infantry, 1st Brigade,1st Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Lai Khe, Republic of Vietnam on December 8, 1968. On that day, while conducting reconnaissance, Sergeant Garcia and his platoon discovered communication wire and other signs of an enemy base camp leading into a densely vegetated area. As the men advanced, they came under intense fire. Several men were hit and trapped in the open. Ignoring a hail of hostile bullets, Sergeant Garcia crawled to within ten meters of a machinegun bunker, leaped to his feet and ran directly at the fortification, firing his rifle as he charged. Sergeant Garcia jammed two hand grenades into the gun port and then placed the muzzle of his weapon inside, killing all four occupants. Continuing to expose himself to intense enemy fire, Sergeant Garcia raced fifteen meters to another bunker and killed its three defenders with hand grenades and rifle fire. After again braving the enemies’ barrage in order to rescue two casualties, he joined his company in an assault which overran the remaining enemy positions. Sergeant Garcia’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Troop B, 7th Squadron (Airmobile), 17th Cavalry. Place and date: Near Song Mao, Republic of Vietnam, December 8th, 1968. Entered service at: Atlanta, Ga. Born: 27 October 1945. Felton, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty, Sgt. McKibben distinguished himself in action while serving as team leader of the point element of a reconnaissance patrol of Troop B, operating in enemy territory. Sgt. McKibben was leading his point element in a movement to contact along a well-traveled trail when the lead element came under heavy automatic weapons fire from a fortified bunker position, forcing the patrol to take cover. Sgt. McKibben, appraising the situation and without regard for his own safety, charged through bamboo and heavy brush to the fortified position, killed the enemy gunner, secured the weapon and directed his patrol element forward. As the patrol moved out, Sgt. McKibben observed enemy movement to the flank of the patrol. Fire support from helicopter gunships was requested and the area was effectively neutralized. The patrol again continued its mission and as the lead element rounded the bend of a river it came under heavy automatic weapons fire from camouflaged bunkers. As Sgt. McKibben was deploying his men to covered positions, he observed one of his men fall wounded. Although bullets were hitting all around the wounded man, Sgt. McKibben, with complete disregard for his safety, sprang to his comrade’s side and under heavy enemy fire pulled him to safety behind the cover of a rock emplacement where he administered hasty first aid. Sgt. McKibben, seeing that his comrades were pinned down and were unable to deliver effective fire against the enemy bunkers, again undertook a single-handed assault of the enemy defenses. He charged through the brush and hail of automatic weapons fire closing on the first bunker, killing the enemy with accurate rifle fire and securing the enemy’s weapon. He continued his assault against the next bunker, firing his rifle as he charged. As he approached the second bunker his rifle ran out of ammunition; however, he used the captured enemy weapon until it too was empty, at that time he silenced the bunker with well placed hand grenades. He reloaded his weapon and covered the advance of his men as they moved forward. Observing the fire of another bunker impeding the patrol’s advance, Sgt. McKibben again single-handedly assaulted the new position. As he neared the bunker he was mortally wounded but was able to fire a final burst from his weapon killing the enemy and enabling the patrol to continue the assault. Sgt. McKibben’s indomitable courage, extraordinary heroism, profound concern for the welfare of his fellow soldiers and disregard for his personal safety saved the lives of his comrades and enabled the patrol to accomplish its mission. Sgt. McKibben’s gallantry in action at the cost of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*TAYLOR, KARL G., SR.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company 1, 3d Battalion, 26th Marine Regiment, 3d Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, December 8th, 1968. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Born: 14 July 1939, Laurel, Md. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving at night as a company gunnery sergeant during Operation MEADE RIVER. Informed that the commander of the lead platoon had been mortally wounded when his unit was pinned down by a heavy volume of enemy fire, S/Sgt. Taylor along with another Marine, crawled forward to the beleaguered unit through a hail of hostile fire, shouted encouragement and instructions to the men, and deployed them to covered positions. With his companion, he then repeatedly maneuvered across an open area to rescue those Marines who were too seriously wounded to move by themselves. Upon learning that there were still other seriously wounded men lying in another open area, in proximity to an enemy machinegun position, S/Sgt. Taylor, accompanied by four comrades, led his men forward across the fire-swept terrain in an attempt to rescue the Marines. When his group was halted by devastating fire, he directed his companions to return to the company command post; whereupon he took his grenade launcher and in full view of the enemy, charged across the open rice paddy toward the machinegun position, firing his weapon as he ran. Although wounded several times, he succeeded in reaching the machinegun bunker and silencing the fire from that sector, moments before he was mortally wounded. Directly instrumental in saving the lives of several of his fellow Marines, S/Sgt. Taylor, by his indomitable courage, inspiring leadership, and selfless dedication, upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and of the U.S. Naval Service.
*FRYAR, ELMER E.
Rank and organization: Private, U .S. Army, Company E, 511th Parachute Infantry, 11th Airborne Division. Place and date: Leyte, Philippine Islands, December 8th, 1944. Entered service at: Denver, Colo. Birth: Denver, Colo. G.O. No.: 35, 9 May 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Pvt. Fryar’s battalion encountered the enemy strongly entrenched in a position supported by mortars and automatic weapons. The battalion attacked, but in spite of repeated efforts was unable to take the position. Pvt. Fryar’s company was ordered to cover the battalion’s withdrawal to a more suitable point from which to attack, but the enemy launched a strong counterattack which threatened to cut off the company. Seeing an enemy platoon moving to outflank his company, he moved to higher ground and opened heavy and accurate fire. He was hit, and wounded, but continuing his attack he drove the enemy back with a loss of twenty-seven killed. While withdrawing to overtake his squad, he found a seriously wounded comrade, helped him to the rear, and soon overtook his platoon leader, who was assisting another wounded. While these four were moving to rejoin their platoon, an enemy sniper appeared and aimed his weapon at the platoon leader. Pvt. Fryar instantly sprang forward, received the full burst of automatic fire in his own body and fell mortally wounded. With his remaining strength he threw a hand grenade and killed the sniper. Pvt. Fryar’s indomitable fighting spirit and extraordinary gallantry above and beyond the call of duty contributed outstandingly to the success of the battalion’s withdrawal and its subsequent attack and defeat of the enemy. His heroic action in unhesitatingly giving his own life for his comrade in arms exemplifies the highest tradition of the U.S. Armed Forces.
*KELLEY, OVA A.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company A, 382d Infantry, 96th Infantry Division. Place and date: Leyte, Philippine Islands, December 8th, 1944. Entered service at: Norwood, Mo. Birth: Norwood, Mo. G.O. No.: 89 19 October 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Before dawn, near the edge of the enemy-held Buri airstrip, the company was immobilized by heavy, accurate rifle and machinegun fire from hostile troops entrenched in bomb craters and a ditch less than 100 yards distant. The company commander ordered a mortar concentration which destroyed onemachinegun but failed to dislodge the main body of the enemy. At this critical moment Pvt. Kelley, on his own initiative, left his shallow foxhole with an armload of hand grenades and began a one-man assault on the foe. Throwing his missiles with great accuracy, he moved forward, killed or wounded five men, and forced the remainder to flee in a disorganized route. He picked up a M-1 rifle and emptied its clip at the running Japanese, killing three. Discarding this weapon, he took a carbine and killed three more of the enemy. Inspired by his example, his comrades followed him in a charge which destroyed the entire enemy force of thirty-four enlisted men and two officers and captured two heavy and one light machineguns. Pvt. Kelley continued to press the attack on to an airstrip, where sniper fire wounded him so grievously that he died two days later. His outstanding courage, aggressiveness, and initiative in the face of grave danger was an inspiration to his entire company and led to the success of the attack.
Rank and organization: Private, Band, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Staked Plains, Tex., December 8th, 1874. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Sweden. Date of issue: 13 October 1875. Citation: Gallantry in a long chase after Indians.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Staked Plains, Tex., December 8th, 1874. Entered service at New York, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 13 October 1875. Citation: Gallantry in a long chase after Indians.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Muchague Valley, Tex., December 8th, 1874. Entered service at Washington, D.C. Birth: Washington, D.C. Date of issue: 12 Aprii 1875. Citation: Gallantry in a combat with five Indians.
Pearl Harbor Day
International Civil Aviation Day
“December 7th, 1941, A Day That Shall Live In Infamy.”
The Attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise aerial attack largely on Pearl Harbor, Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi, and the US launched by the 1st Air Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy of the task force Carrier Striking Task Force on the morning of Sunday, December 7, 1941 (Hawaii time). It was aimed at the Pacific Fleet of the United States Navy and its defending Army Air Corps and Marine defensive squadrons as preemptive war intended to neutralize the American forces in the Pacific in an impending World War II. Pearl Harbor was actually only one of a number of military and naval installations which were attacked, including those on the other side of island.
Of eight First Street battleships in the harbor, the attack resulted in one destroyed, two sunk at their moorings, one capsized, one beached and three damaged but afloat. With the exception of the Arizona (destroyed), all the others were refloated or righted and six (Nevada, West Virginia, Tennessee, Maryland, California and Pennsylvania) were repaired and returned to service. While the Oklahoma, which had capsized, was righted, she was never repaired. Additionally, the attack severely damaged nine other warships, destroyed 188 aircraft, killed 2,403 American servicemen, and 68 civilians. However, the Pacific Fleet’s three aircraft carriers were not in port and were left undamaged, as were the base’s vital oil tank farms, Navy Yard and machine shops, submarine base, and power station, as well as the Headquarters Building (home to the intelligence unit HYPO). These provided the basis for the Pacific Fleet’s campaign during the rest of the war.
When it was over, the U.S. losses were as follows:
U.S. Army – Killed in Action- 278 Wounded in Action – 364
U.S. Navy – Killed in Action- 2008 Wounded in Action – 710
U.S. Marine Corps – Killed in Action- 109 Wounded in Action – 69
Civilians – Killed in Action- 68 Wounded in Action – 35
U.S.S. Arizona (BB-39) Total loss when a bomb hit her magazine.
U.S.S. Oklahoma (BB-37) Total loss when she capsized and sank in the harbor.
U.S.S. California (BB-44) Sank at her berth. Later raised and repaired.
U.S.S. West Virginia (BB-48) Sank at her berth. Later raised and repaired.
U.S.S. Nevada (BB-36) Beached to prevent sinking. Later repaired.
U.S.S. Pennsylvania (BB-38) Light Damage
U.S.S. Maryland (BB-46) Light Damage
U.S.S. Tennessee (BB-43) Light Damage
U.S.S. Utah (AG-16) (former battleship used as a target) Sunk.
U.S.S. New Orleans (CA-32) Light Damage
U.S.S. San Francisco (CA-38) Light Damage
U.S.S. Detroit (CL-8) Light Damage
U.S.S. Raleigh (CL-7) Heavily damaged but later repaired
U.S.S. Helena (CL-50) Light Damage
U.S.S. Honolulu (CL-48) Light Damage
U.S.S. Downes (DD-375) Destroyed. Parts salvaged
U.S.S. Cassin (DD-372) Destroyed. Parts Salvaged
U.S.S. Shaw (DD-373) Very heavy damage
U.S.S. Helm (DD-388) Light damage
U.S.S. Ogala (CM4) Sunk but later raised and repaired
U.S.S. Curtiss (AV-4) Severely damaged but later repaired
U.S.S. Vestal (AR-4) Severely damaged but later repaired
U.S.S. Sotoyomo (YT-9) Sunk but later raised and repaired
188 Aircraft destroyed (92 Navy, 92 Army Air Force, 4 Other)
Tora! Tora! Tora! – The True Story of Pearl Harbor (1:32:13)
On the Mainland
As the bombs were falling and as the ships were blowing up and sinking, life continued as normal. Some of the events that were occurring included three football games. Scheduled NFL games were under way at 12:55 p.m. Eastern time when the Japanese first attacked. The games being played included Chicago Bears 34, vs.CHICAGO CARDINALS 24; Brooklyn Dodgers 21 vs. NEW YORK GIANTS 7; WASHINGTON REDSKINS 20 vs. Philadelphia Eagles 14.
The public address announcer at New York’s Polo Grounds, where fans were celebrating “Tuffy Leemans‘ Day” in honor of their star running back, interrupted his commentary to tell all servicemen to report to their units. The same was done at Chicago’s Comiskey Park. At Washington’s Griffith Stadium, the announcer paged high-ranking government and military personnel who were in attendance, but did not mention the attack. Reporters were told to check with their offices.
On Monday, December 8, the United States of America officially entered World War II.
“Chance favors the prepared mind.”
This is one of my favorite quotes since I heard it in a Steven Seagal movie, Dark Territory. I later found out it was said first by the father of pasteurization.
- Firefighters counter flood With Counter-Fire. Since water puts out fire, firefighters attempt to extinguish the oncoming flood with flamethrowers. …
- To “fight fire with fire” in the context of debate or political speech.
0043 BC – Marcus Tullius Cicero is assassinated on the orders of Marcus Antonius. Cicero was best known for his philosophy of social interaction: “Always do the right thing… that which is legal… that which is honest, open and fair…keeping your word… telling the truth… and treating everyone alike.
1776 – Marquis de Lafayette attempts to enter the American military as a Major General.
1787 – Delaware becomes the first state to ratify the US Constitution.
1796 – Electors chose John Adams to be the second President of the United States of America.
1805 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark begin building the small fort on the south side of the Columbia River that would be their winter home. They had spotted the Pacific Ocean for the first time a couple of weeks before.
1808 – James Madison was elected President of the United States of America, succeeding Thomas Jefferson.
1817 – William Bligh (63), British naval officer of “Mutiny on the Bounty” infamy, died.
1836 – Martin Van Buren was elected the eighth President of the United States of America. He was the first “natural-born” President.
1842 – The New York Philharmonic gave its first concert. The first conductor on this concert was the orchestra’s founder, American-born Ureli Corelli Hill (1802-1875).
1861 – Civil War: USS Santiago de Cuba halted the British schooner Eugenia Smith and captured J.W. Zacharie, a New Orleans merchant and Confederate purchasing agent.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of Prairie Grove, Arkansas.
1868 – Shortly after noon Frank and Jesse James walked into the Daviess County Savings Association in Gallatin, Missouri. During the robbery Jesse shot and killed the cashier.
1877 – Thomas A Edison demonstrates the gramophone.
1888 – John Boyd Dunlop (1840-1921), Scotland-born inventor, patented a pneumatic tire. It was later defaulted based on another man’s artwork.
1891 – First Congress to appropriate $1 billion (52nd) holds first session.
1907 – Eugene Corri becomes first referee in a boxing ring.
1907 – While experimenting to find a substitute for shellac, Leo Baekeland produced the first thermoset plastic, a synthetic substance he called Bakelite.
1907 – The first Christmas Seals to help the fight against tuberculosis were sold, in Wilmington, Del. Some sources say it was December 9th.
1917 – World War I: The US declares war on Austria-Hungary. With only one dissenting vote in Congress it became the 13th country to do so.
1925 – Swimmer Johnny Weissmuller set a world record in the 150-yard freestyle. His time was 1 minute, 25 and 2/5 seconds at the meet in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Weissmuller won five gold medals as a swimmer at the 1924 and 1928 Olympics, setting many free-style records.
1926 – First U.S. patent for a household refrigerator, operating on gas, was issued to The Electrolux Servel Corporation. The gas-heat driven absorption refrigerator was invented by Swedish engineering students Carl G. Munters and Baltzar von Platen.
1926 – Keebler was trademark registered.
1931 – A report indicated that Nazis would ensure “Nordic dominance” by sterilizing certain races.
1932 – The first gyro-stabilized vessel to cross the Atlantic, the Conte di Savoia of the Italian Line, arrived in New York City. The ship had 48,502 gross tons, overall length 814.6ft x beam 96.1ft, two funnels, two masts, four screws and a speed of 27 knots.
1934 – Wiley Post discovers the jet stream and creates a pressure suit for pilots.
1935 – Byron Haines, a halfback for the University of Washington, scored all the points as the Huskies defeated Southern California, 6-2. He scored all the points for his team — and the other team as well. He was responsible for Washington’s touchdown and he was pushed over the goal line giving USC a safety.
1937 – Red Sox acquire the contract of 19-year-old Ted Williams.
1938 – Philip Barry’s “Here Come the Clowns” premieres in New York NY.
1939 – Lou Gehrig, 36, was elected to Baseball’s Hall of Fame.
1941 – World War II: Canada declared war on Finland, Hungary, Romania, and Japan.
1941 – World War II: Attack On Pearl Harbor – The Imperial Japanese Navy attacks the US Pacific Fleet and its defending Army Air Forces and Marine air forces at Pearl Harbor. Hawaii. At 7:55 a.m. Hawaii time a swarm of 360 Japanese warplanes descending on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in a ferocious assault. The surprise attack struck a critical blow against the U.S. Pacific fleet and drew the United States irrevocably into World War II.
1941 – Evidence arose in 1999 that one of five Japanese mini submarines penetrated Pearl Harbor and hit at least one ship with torpedoes.
1941 – World War II: First Japanese submarine sunk by a US ship (USS Ward).
1941 – World War II: Washington, D.C. – The last part of the Japanese signal, stating specifically that relations are being broken is intercepted and decoded by the Americans. Delays in decoding of the message and difficulty in securing an appointment with Secretary Hull ensure that the Japanese delegation do not meet their country’s deadline for presentation of official note breaking of diplomatic ties until after the attack upon Pearl Harbor is launched.
1941 ; World War II: Japanese forces bomb Guam. Wake and Midway are bombarded by Japanese destroyers.
1941 – World War II: The eight month German siege of Tobruk ended.
1941 – World War II: Dorie Miller of Waco, Texas, messman on USS Arizona, manned machine gun during Pearl Harbor attacks and downed four planes. He was awarded the Navy Cross.
1941 – World War II: Wall Street ran for cover, as panicked traders looked to dump their holdings. After a day of frantic action, the Dow Jones Industrial Average had dropped 4.08 points to close at 112.52.
1942 – World War II: American PT Boats force a Japanese supply convoy to turn back before landing their supplies on Guadalcanal.
1942 – World War II: U.S. Navy launched USS New Jersey, the largest battleship ever built.
1943 – World War II-Europe: The US 5th Army secures the Mignano Gap and expands its offensive. The US 2nd and 6th Corps attack Monte Sammucro and San Pietro.
1944 – The U.S. formally announced that all six Japanese aircraft carriers involved in the attack on Pearl Harbor were sunk.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Trolley Song” by The Pied Pipers, “Dance with the Dolly” by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: Al Jennings), “I’m Making Believe” by Ella Fitzgerald & The Ink Spots and “Smoke on the Water” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1945 – The microwave oven was patented. It had to be “people-proof.” The task of designing and building the new oven went to Marvin Bock, a young Raytheon engineer.
1946 – A fire at the Winecoff Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia kills 119 people.
1948 – NBC presented the “Horace Heidt Youth Opportunity Program” for the first time. The talent show earned Dick Contino, an accordionist, the $5,000 prize as the program’s first national winner.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Glow Worm” by The Mills Brothers, “Because You’re Mine” by Mario Lanza, “Why Don’t You Believe Me “ by Toni James and “Back Street Affair” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1952 – “My Little Margie,” made its debut on CBS radio. Starring Gale Storm and Charles Farrell, “My Little Margie” presented 21 year-old Margie Albright, who lived with her widowed father Vernon in a New York City penthouse.
1953 – Audrey Hepburn was featured on the cover of Life Magazine.
1957 – “April Love” by Pat Boone topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force F-86 Sabre jet pilots report seven of 32 enemy fighters destroyed, one damaged and one probably destroyed. Largest one-day tally of enemy losses.
1963 – “Dominique” by Singing Nun topped the charts.
1963 – Instant replay was used for the first time during the Army-Navy game.
1964 – Brian Wilson, of the Beach Boys, suffered a nervous breakdown on a flight from L.A. to Houston. The event led Wilson to stop touring with the group.
1964 – Vietnam: The situation worsens in South Vietnam, as the Viet Cong attack and capture the district headquarters at An Lao and much of the surrounding valley 300 miles northeast of Saigon.
1965 – Vietnam: Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara states that U.S. troop strength must be substantially augmented “if we are to avoid being defeated there.”
1967 – Otis Redding records “Sittin’ on the Dock of the Bay.”
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Child” by Diana Ross & the Supremes, “For Once in My Life” by Stevie Wonder, “I Heard It Through the Grapevine” by Marvin Gaye and “Stand By Your Man” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1968 – Richard Dodd returns a library book his great grandfather borrowed in 1823. It was from the University of Cincinnati Medical Library. The fine, $22,646, was waived.
1968 – The Rolling Stones released their album “Beggar’s Banquet” (40:56) in the U.S.
1972 – Apollo 17, the last Apollo moon mission, is launched. The crew takes the photograph known as “The Blue Marble” as they leave the Earth.
1972 – Black American W. Sterling Cary elected president of the Nation Council of Churches.
1974 – “Kung Fu Fighting” by Carl Douglas topped the charts.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)” by Rod Stewart, “The Rubberband Man” by the Spinners, “You Don’t Have to Be a Star (To Be in My Show)” by Marilyn McCoo & Billy Davis, Jr. and “Good Woman Blues” by Mel Tillis all topped the charts.
1978 – Black football player Billy Sims is awarded the Heisman trophy.
1981 – The Reagan Administration predicted a record deficit in 1982 of $109 billion.
1982 – In Texas, Charles Brooks, Jr. becomes the first person to be executed by lethal injection in the US.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go” by Wham!, “Out of Touch” by Daryl Hall & John Oates, “Better Be Good to Me” by Tina Turner and “Your Heart’s Not in It” by Janie Fricke all topped the charts.
1985 – “Broken Wings” by Mr. Mister topped the charts.
1986 – Los Angeles Lakes coach Pat Riley got coaching victory number 300. Riley was hailed as a legend after his nine seasons on the West Coast. He added two more championships in 1987 and 1989.
1986 – Huey Lewis and the News sang the U.S. national anthem acapella before a San Francisco 49ers-New York Jets NFL football game at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, CA.
1987 – Pacific Southwest Airlines Flight 1771 crashes near Paso Robles, California, killing all 43 on board, after a disgruntled passenger shoots his ex-boss on the flight, then shoots both pilots and himself. Investigations determined that an angry USAir employee, Dave Burke, recently fired for theft, had armed himself and boarded the flight, which was carrying his former manager.
1988 – Rangers sign free-agent pitcher Nolan Ryan to a one-year contract.
1989 – In their third and final fight, Sugar Ray Leonard retains the WBC Super-Middleweight Championship of the World, defeating Roberto Duran.
1989 – C Coleman & D Zippel’s musical “City of Angels” premieres in New York City.
1991 – “Black or White” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1991 – Fifty years after Japan’s sneak attack on Pearl Harbor, a visibly moved President H.W. Bush led the nation in services commemorating the anniversary.
1992 – The Supreme Court rejected a challenge to a Mississippi abortion law that required women to get counseling and then wait 24 hours before terminating their pregnancies.
1993 – MASS SHOOTING: The Long Island Rail Road Massacre: Colin Ferguson murders six people and injures 19 others on the LIRR in Nassau County, New York.
1993 – Energy Secretary Hazel O’Leary revealed that the U.S. government had conducted more than 200 nuclear weapons tests in secret at its Nevada test site.
1995 – The Galileo spacecraft arrives at Jupiter, a little more than six years after it was launched by Space Shuttle Atlantis during Mission STS-34. It stayed in orbit sending information back for eight more years.
1995 – NBA settles strike of referees, referees to return on December 12th.
1995 – Bill Gates announced Microsoft’s Internet counterattack on Netscape and the browser market.
1996 – Toni Braxton’s “Unbreak My Heart” was #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.
1996 – The space shuttle Columbia returned from the longest-ever shuttle flight of 17 days, 15 hours and 54 minutes. It was shortened by a jammed hatch that prevented two planned spacewalks.
1996 – Jerry Lewis’ white and red pinstriped devil suit was stolen from his dressing room at Shea’s Performing Arts Center in Buffalo, NY. Lewis needed the costume, valued at $9,000, to play the role of Satan in the musical “Damn Yankees”.
1997 – Three skydivers, 2 Americans and an Austrian, died while jumping to the South Pole on a trip organized by Adventure Network Int’l.
1997 – A new Presidential Decision Directive was reported to replace one put into place by President Ronald Reagan in 1981. It reset the guidelines for the use of nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons would still be maintained as a deterrent.
1998 – Republicans threatened Attorney General Janet Reno with contempt of Congress over her decision to decline to seek an independent counsel investigation of President Clinton over 1996 campaign financing.
1998 – South Carolina ended its participation in the antitrust case against Microsoft.
1999 – A U.S. federal grand jury indicted a former convict, David Roland Waters, in the 1995 disappearance of atheist leader Madalyn Murray O’Hair. Her body was not found until January.
1999 – Daniel S. Goldin, NASA administrator, acknowledged the failure of the Mars Polar Lander and planned to appoint an independent committee of experts to examine the Mars program. In 2000 it was determined that a computer signal was misread and caused breaking to stop at 130 feet above the surface.
2000 – In Texas Claude Howard Jones was executed for the Nov 14, 1989, slaying of Allen Hilzendager in Point Blank. DNA analysis later found the strand of hair used to convict him did not belong to Jones.
2001 – The space shuttle Endeavour docked with the international space station, delivering a new three-member crew to relieve a crew in place since August.
2001 – In New Jersey nearly 230 teachers were ordered freed from jail after their union agreed to end the 9-day strike and go into mediation.
2002 – Space shuttle Endeavour returned to Earth along with space station voyagers Peggy Whitsun, Valery Korzun and Sergei Treschev.
2005 – Rigoberto Alpizar, a passenger on American Airlines Flight 924 who allegedly claimed to have a bomb, is shot and killed by a team of US federal air marshals at Miami International Airport.No bomb was found and no connection to terrorism. His wife tried to plead that he was bipolar and off his medicine.
2005 – US Congress voted to add nearly 5,000 acres of Rancho Corral de Tiera, an area between Half Moon Bay and Pacifica, to California’s Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Congress still needed to appropriate $15 million to buy the land from the Peninsula Open Space Trust.
2006 – Moses Hardy (January 6, 1893/1894 – December 7, 2006) was, at age 112 or 113, the last surviving black veteran of World War I and one of the last surviving American veterans of that war. He was the son of former slaves.
2006 – Scientists at MIT reported the development of a strain of baker’s yeast that can speed ethanol production by about 50%.
2006 – The US military transferred the first group of Guantanamo Bay detainees to a new maximum-security prison on the naval base.
2007 – Former Alaska House Speaker Pete Kott was sentenced to six years in a federal prison for accepting $9,000 in bribes from the founder of an oil field services company.
2007 – In New York City two window washers fell 47 stories from a Manhattan skyscraper when their scaffolding failed; Edgar Moreno was killed, but his brother, Alcides, miraculously survived.
2007 – China said it will not consider mandatory cuts on greenhouse gases, saying the United States and other industrialized countries should take the lead in fighting climate change by living less-extravagant lifestyles.
2007 – US federal officials outlined a new plan on how to allocate water to California, Arizona and Nevada from the Colorado River in case of shortages.
2008 – New York City police officers escorted a drunken Gap designer (29) to her East Village apartment. In 2011 a Manhattan jury acquitted two officers of rape, but found them guilty of misconduct for three unauthorized post midnight visits to her apartment.
2009 – In New York a federal jury convicted Joseph Bruno, a former NY state Senate leader, on two counts of corruption.
2009 – Virgin Galactic unveiled its first commercial spaceship, the VSS Enterprise, at the Mohave Air and Space Port in California. Initial trips to the edge of space were expected to cost $200,000 per person.
2009 – In Utah Susan Powell (28) went missing as her husband, Josh Powell, took their two boys (ages 2 and 4) on a camping trip.
2010 – The U.S. government “declares war” on the WikiLeaks website.
2010 – U.S. senator Joe Lieberman tells Fox News that The New York Times and other news organizations may be investigated in the WikiLeaks scandal.
2010 – . A U.S. judge dismisses a lawsuit over the U.S. government putting American citizens on “capture or kill” lists.
2011 – Judge sentences former Illinois Gov. Rod Blagojevich to 14 years in prison on political corruption charges.
2011 – In a speech delivered at Osawatomie High School in Osawatomie, Kansas, President Barack Obama argued that while a limited government that preserves free markets “speaks to our rugged individualism” as Americans, such a system “doesn’t work” and “has never worked” and that Americans must look to a more activist government that taxes more, spends more and regulates more if they want to preserve the middle class.
2012 – U.S. District Court Judge James C. Fox ruled today that North Carolina’s anti-abortion “Choose Life” license plates violated the First Amendment of the United States Constitution. While refusing to offer a pro-choice alternative “constitutes viewpoint discrimination in violation of the First Amendment.”
1863 – Richard Sears, American department store founder (d. 1914)
1873 – Willa Cather, American novelist (d. 1947)
1879 – Rudolf Friml, American composer (d. 1972)
1888 – Hamilton Fish III, American politician (d. 1991)
1911 – Louis Prima -musician: trumpet, bandleader: Louis Prima and His New Orleans Gang, Gleeby Rhythm Orchestra;
1915 – Eli Wallach, American actor
1923 – Ted Knight, American actor (d. 1986)
1932 – Ellen Burstyn, American actress
1942 – Harry Chapin, American singer and songwriter (d. 1981)
1943 – Bernard C. Parks, Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department
1947 – Johnny Bench, American baseball player
1954 – Mark Hofmann, American forger and bomber
1954 – Mary Fallin, American politician
1956 – Larry Bird, American basketball player
1966 – C. Thomas Howell, American actor
1979 – Jennifer Carpenter, American actress
*BENNION, MERVYN SHARP
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Navy. Place and date: U.S.S. Arizona , Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, December 7th, 1941. Born: 5 May 1887, Vernon, Utah. Appointed from: Utah. Citation: For conspicuous devotion to duty, extraordinary courage, and complete disregard of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor, by Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. As Commanding Officer of the U.S.S. West Virginia, after being mortally wounded, Capt. Bennion evidenced apparent concern only in fighting and saving his ship, and strongly protested against being carried from the bridge.
*CANNON, GEORGE HAM
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Sand Island, Midway Islands, December 7th, 1941. Born: S November 1915, Webster Groves, Mo. Entered service at: Michigan. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the line of his profession, extraordinary courage and disregard of his own condition during the bombardment of Sand Island, Midway Islands, by Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. 1st Lt. Cannon, Battery Commander of Battery H, 6th Defense Battalion, Fleet Marine Force, U.S. Marine Corps, was at his command post when he was mortally wounded by enemy shellfire. He refused to be evacuated from his post until after his men who had been wounded by the same shell were evacuated, and directed the reorganization of his command post until forcibly removed. As a result of his utter disregard of his own condition he died from loss of blood.
FINN, JOHN WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Naval Air Station, Kaneohe Bay, Territory of Hawaii, December 7th, 1941. Entered service at: California. Born: 23 July 1909, Los Angeles, Calif. Citation: For extraordinary heroism distinguished service, and devotion above and beyond the call of duty. During the first attack by Japanese airplanes on the Naval Air Station, Kaneohe Bay, on 7 December 1941, Lt. Finn promptly secured and manned a .50-caliber machinegun mounted on an instruction stand in a completely exposed section of the parking ramp, which was under heavy enemy machinegun strafing fire. Although painfully wounded many times, he continued to man this gun and to return the enemy’s fire vigorously and with telling effect throughout the enemy strafing and bombing attacks and with complete disregard for his own personal safety. It was only by specific orders that he was persuaded to leave his post to seek medical attention. Following first aid treatment, although obviously suffering much pain and moving with great difficulty, he returned to the squadron area and actively supervised the rearming of returning planes. His extraordinary heroism and conduct in this action were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
*FLAHERTY, FRANCIS C.
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve. Place and date: U.S.S. Oklahoma, Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, December 7th, 1941. Born: 15 March 1919, Charlotte, Mich. Accredited to: Michigan. Citation: For conspicuous devotion to duty and extraordinary courage and complete disregard of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor, by Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. When it was seen that the U.S.S. Oklahoma was going to capsize and the order was given to abandon ship, Ens. Flaherty remained in a turret, holding a flashlight so the remainder of the turret crew could see to escape, thereby sacrificing his own life.
FUQUA, SAMUEL GLENN
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Navy. Place and date: U.S.S. Arizona , Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, December 7th, 1941. Entered service at: Laddonia, Mo. Born: 15 October 1899, Laddonia Mo. Citation: For distinguished conduct in action, outstanding heroism, and utter disregard of his own safety above and beyond the call of duty during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor, by Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. Upon the commencement of the attack, Lt. Comdr. Fuqua rushed to the quarterdeck of the U.S.S. Arizona to which he was attached where he was stunned and knocked down by the explosion of a large bomb which hit the guarterdeck, penetrated several decks, and started a severe fire. Upon regaining consciousness, he began to direct the fighting of the fire and the rescue of wounded and injured personnel. Almost immediately there was a tremendous explosion forward, which made the ship appear to rise out of the water, shudder, and settle down by the bow rapidly. The whole forward part of the ship was enveloped in flames which were spreading rapidly, and wounded and burned men were pouring out of the ship to the quarterdeck. Despite these conditions, his harrowing experience, and severe enemy bombing and strafing, at the time, Lt. Comdr. Fuqua continued to direct the fighting of fires in order to check them while the wounded and burned could be taken from the ship and supervised the rescue of these men in such an amazingly calm and cool manner and with such excellent judgment that it inspired everyone who saw him and undoubtedly resulted in the saving of many lives. After realizing the ship could not be saved and that he was the senior surviving officer aboard, he directed it to be abandoned, but continued to remain on the quarterdeck and directed abandoning ship and rescue of personnel until satisfied that all personnel that could be had been saved, after which he left his ship with the boatload. The conduct of Lt. Comdr. Fuqua was not only in keeping with the highest traditions of the naval service but characterizes him as an outstanding leader of men.
*HILL, EDWIN JOSEPH
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain, U.S. Navy. Place and date: U.S.S. Nevada , Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, December 7th, 1941. Born: 4 October 1894, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the line of his profession, extraordinary courage, and disregard of his own safety during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor, by Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. During the height of the strafing and bombing, Chief Boatswain Hill led his men of the linehandling details of the U.S.S. Nevada to the quays, cast off the lines and swam back to his ship. Later, while on the forecastle, attempting to let go the anchors, he was blown overboard and killed by the explosion of several bombs.
*JONES, HERBERT CHARPOIT
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve. Place and date: U.S.S. California , Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, December 7th, 1941. Born: 1 December 1918, Los Angeles, Calif. Accredited to: California. Citation: For conspicuous devotion to duty, extraordinary courage, and complete disregard of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor, by Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. Ens. Jones organized and led a party, which was supplying ammunition to the antiaircraft battery of the U.S.S. California after the mechanical hoists were put out of action when he was fatally wounded by a bomb explosion. When two men attempted to take him from the area which was on fire, he refused to let them do so, saying in words to the effect, “Leave me alone! I am done for. Get out of here before the magazines go off.”
*KIDD, ISAAC CAMPBELL
Rank and organization: Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. Place and date: U.S.S. Arizona, Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, December 7th, 1941. Born: 26 March 1884, Cleveland, Ohio. Appointed from: Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous devotion to duty, extraordinary courage and complete disregard of his own life, during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor, by Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. Rear Adm. Kidd immediately went to the bridge and, as Commander Battleship Division One, courageously discharged his duties as Senior Officer Present Afloat until the U.S.S. Arizona, his Flagship, blew up from magazine explosions and a direct bomb hit on the bridge which resulted in the loss of his life.
PHARRIS, JACKSON CHARLES
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy, Place and date: U.S.S. California , Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, December 7th, 1941. Entered service at: California. Born: 26 June 1912, Columbus, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while attached to the U.S.S. California during the surprise enemy Japanese aerial attack on Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, 7 December 1941. In charge of the ordnance repair party on the third deck when the first Japanese torpedo struck almost directly under his station, Lt. (then Gunner) Pharris was stunned and severely injured by the concussion which hurled him to the overhead and back to the deck. Quickly recovering, he acted on his own initiative to set up a hand-supply ammunition train for the antiaircraft guns. With water and oil rushing in where the port bulkhead had been torn up from the deck, with many of the remaining crewmembers overcome by oil fumes, and the ship without power and listing heavily to port as a result of a second torpedo hit, Lt. Pharris ordered the shipfitters to counterflood. Twice rendered unconscious by the nauseous fumes and handicapped by his painful injuries, he persisted in his desperate efforts to speed up the supply of ammunition and at the same time repeatedly risked his life to enter flooding compartments and drag to safety unconscious shipmates who were gradually being submerged in oil. By his inspiring leadership, his valiant efforts and his extreme loyalty to his ship and her crew, he saved many of his shipmates from death and was largely responsible for keeping the California in action during the attack. His heroic conduct throughout this first eventful engagement of World War II reflects the highest credit upon Lt. Pharris and enhances the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
*REEVES, THOMAS JAMES
Rank and organization: Radio Electrician (Warrant Officer) U.S. Navy. Place and date: U.S.S. California , Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, December 7th, 1941. Born: 9 December 1895, Thomaston, Conn. Accredited to: Connecticut. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the line of his profession, extraordinary courage and disregard of his own safety during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor, by Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. After the mechanized ammunition hoists were put out of action in the U.S.S. California, Reeves, on his own initiative, in a burning passageway, assisted in the maintenance of an ammunition supply by hand to the antiaircraft guns until he was overcome by smoke and fire, which resulted in his death.
ROSS, DONALD KIRBY
Rank and organization: Machinist, U.S. Navy. Place and date: U.S.S. Nevada , Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, December 7th, 1941. Entered service at: Denver, Colo. Born: 8 December 1910, Beverly, Kans. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the line of his profession, extraordinary courage and disregard of his own life during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, by Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. When his station in the forward dynamo room of the U.S.S. Nevada became almost untenable due to smoke, steam, and heat, Machinist Ross forced his men to leave that station and performed all the duties himself until blinded and unconscious. Upon being rescued and resuscitated, he returned and secured the forward dynamo room and proceeded to the after dynamo room where he was later again rendered unconscious by exhaustion. Again recovering consciousness he returned to his station where he remained until directed to abandon it.
*SCOTT, ROBERT R .
Rank and organization: Machinist’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: U.S.S. California, Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, December 7th, 1941. Born: 13 July 1915, Massillon, Ohio. Accredited to Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous devotion to duty, extraordinary courage and complete disregard of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor by Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. The compartment, in the U.S.S. California, in which the air compressor, to which Scott was assigned as his battle station, was flooded as the result of a torpedo hit. The remainder of the personnel evacuated that compartment but Scott refused to leave, saying words to the effect “This is my station and I will stay and give them air as long as the guns are going.”
Rank and organization: Chief Watertender, U.S. Navy. Place and date: U.S.S. Utah , Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, December 7th, 1941. Born: 3 June 1893, Prolog, Austria. Accredited to: New Jersey. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the line of his profession, and extraordinary courage and disregard of his own safety, during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor by the Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. Although realizing that the ship was capsizing, as a result of enemy bombing and torpedoing, Tomich remained at his post in the engineering plant of the U.S.S. Utah, until he saw that all boilers were secured and all fireroom personnel had left their stations, and by so doing lost his own life .
*VAN VALKENBURGH, FRANKLIN
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Navy. Place and date: U.S.S. Arizona , Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, December 7th, 1941. Born: 5 April 1888, Minneapolis, Minn. Appointed from: Wisconsin. Citation: For conspicuous devotion to duty, extraordinary courage and complete disregard of his own life, during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor T.H., by Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. As commanding officer of the U.S.S. Arizona, Capt. Van Valkenburgh gallantly fought his ship until the U.S.S. Arizona blew up from magazine explosions and a direct bomb hit on the bridge which resulted in the loss of his life.
*WARD, JAMES RICHARD
Rank and organization: Seaman First Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: U.S.S. Oklahoma , Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, December 7th, 1941. Born: 10 September 1921, Springfield, Ohio. Entered service at: Springfield, Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous devotion to duty, extraordinary courage and complete disregard of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor by Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. When it was seen that the U.S.S. Oklahoma was going to capsize and the order was given to abandon ship, Ward remained in a turret holding a flashlight so the remainder of the turret crew could see to escape, thereby sacrificing his own life.
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Place and date: U.S.S. Vestal , Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, December 7th, 1941. Born: 6 March 1894, Washington, D.C. Appointed from: Wisconsin. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in action, outstanding heroism and utter disregard of his own safety, above and beyond the call of duty, as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Vestal, during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, by enemy Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. Comdr. Young proceeded to the bridge and later took personal command of the 3-inch antiaircraft gun. When blown overboard by the blast of the forward magazine explosion of the U.S.S. Arizona, to which the U.S.S. Vestal was moored, he swam back to his ship. The entire forward part of the U.S.S. Arizona was a blazing inferno with oil afire on the water between the two ships; as a result of several bomb hits, the U.S.S. Vestal was afire in several places, was settling and taking on a list. Despite severe enemy bombing and strafing at the time, and his shocking experience of having been blown overboard, Comdr. Young, with extreme coolness and calmness, moved his ship to an anchorage distant from the U.S.S. Arizona, and subsequently beached the U.S.S. Vestal upon determining that such action was required to save his ship.
BLACK, JOHN C.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 37th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Prairie Grove, Ark., December 7th, 1862. Entered service at: Danville, III. Born: 27 January 1839, Lexington, Holmes County, Miss. Date of issue: 31 October 1893. Citation: Gallantly charged the position of the enemy at the head of his regiment, after two other regiments had been repulsed and driven down the hill, and captured a battery; was severely wounded.
Japan will attack Pearl Harbor tomorrow – 1941!!!
Hannukah 2015: December 6 -December 14
December 6th, 1941, war clouds were gathering. The events in Europe only gave Americans a short hope that they would not get involved but life went on as normal in the Territory. It was a Saturday morning so everything that normally happened in a tropic paradise continued to happen. Children played outside, families went to the beach, they visited friends and family, completely oblivious to what was happening thousands of miles away.
On this Saturday, Naval personnel and their families enjoyed romping around the pool down at the submariners barracks.
That night the movie “A Girl, A Guy and A Gob” opened on its World Premiere. It starred George Murphy, Lucille Ball and Edmund O’Brien.
In Washington, D.C., December 6, 1941 Franklin D. Roosevelt makes a personal peace appeal to Emperor Hirohito of Japan. At a White House dinner Roosevelt was given the first thirteen parts of a fifteen part decoded Japanese diplomatic declaration of war and said, “This means War (Toland 318).”
Tokyo, Japan, November 3, Nagano explained in detail the Pearl Harbor attack plan to the Emperor (Hirohito). On November 5, Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito) approved in imperial conference the operations plan for a war against the Occident and had many meetings with the military and Tōjō until the end of the month. On December 1, an imperial conference sanctioned the “War against the United States, United Kingdom and the Kingdom of the Netherlands.” The die was cast, war was coming.
Washington D.C., Later that night, Roosevelt along with top advisor Harry Hopkins, Henry Stimson, George Marshall, Secretary of the Navy Knox, with aides John McCrea and Frank Beatty deliberately sat through the night waiting for the Japanese to strike Pear Harbor (Toland 320). Soon Paradise would come to an end for, at least, five years but innocence once lost never returns.
Hawaii, the morning of 7 December 1941 at 7:55 Hawaii Time, Japan deliberately and forcefully attack the United States at Pearl Harbor, finally ending disillusioned isolationist ideas of an only European War. United States countrymen immediately ran to recruiting offices after the news of the attack, to join the armed forces and fight against the Japanese and Hitler.
Beyond a doubt Pearl Harbor was President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s back door into the European War. Roosevelt’s decisions and actions were very much so, deliberate and calculated, in order to lead a victorious Allied Powers in World War II.
“Today is your day! Your mountain is waiting. So… get on your way.”
~ Dr. Seuss
re‧con‧noi‧ter /[ree-kuh-noi-ter, rek-uh-] –verb (used with object)
1. to inspect, observe, or survey (the enemy, the enemy’s strength or position, a region, etc.) in order to gain information for military purposes.
2. to examine or survey (a region, area, etc.) for engineering, geological, or other purposes.
3. to make a reconnaissance.
[Origin: 1700–10; < F reconnoître (now obs.) to explore, MF reconoistre. See recognize]
1421 – Henry VI, the youngest king of England, was born. He acceded the throne at 269 days of age.
1492 – Christopher Columbus landed at Mole St. Nicholas in Haiti’s north.
1631 – The first predicted transit of Venus took place. It had been predicted by Kepler, but he died a year before the event.
1648 – Pride’s Purge: Thomas Pride prevented ninety-six Presbyterians from sitting in English Parliament.
1732 – First play in American colonies acted by professional players, New York NY.
1768 – The first edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica is published.
1776 – The naval base at Newport, Rhode Island, is captured by the British.
1790 – The U.S. Congress moves from New York City to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Residence Act passed in July 1790 required Congress to move to Philadelphia after its second session. Residents of New York City were furious and castigated Congress.
1820 – James Monroe, the 5th US president, was re-elected for a 2nd term.
1825 – President John Adams suggests establishment of a US observatory.
1830 – Naval Observatory, the first U.S. national observatory, established at Washington, DC, under commander of Lieutenant Louis Malesherbes.
1845 – Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternity is founded at Yale College.
1846 – Mexican-American War: The Battle of San Pasqual was a military encounter that occurred in what is now the San Pasqual Valley community, San Diego, California.
1849 – American abolitionist and slave Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery. She was the best known conductor of the “Underground Railroad”, Tubman made at least 19 trips to the South between 1850 and 1860, leading around 300 people to freedom.
1861 – Civil War: Union General George G. Meade led a foraging expedition to Gunnell’s farm near Dranesville, Va.
1862 – Civil War: President Lincoln ordered the hanging of 39 of the 303 convicted Indians who participated in the Sioux Uprising in Minnesota.
1863 – Civil War: The monitor U.S.S. Weehawken sank in the Charleston Harbor.
1864 – Civil War: Five Federal monitors fought against strong shore batteries at Howlett’s, James River, Virginia. The U.S.S. Saugus received a disabling shot to her turret.
1864 – Civil War: Three small steamers, U.S.S. Fairplay, Silver Lake, and Moose, and several army transports in company, moved down the Cumberland River from Nashville and engaged Confederate batteries near Bell’s Mills, Tennessee.
1865 – SLAVERY BANNED: The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, banning slavery. “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” All Republicans in Congress voted for the 13th Amendment, while nearly all Democrats voted against it.
1866 – Chicago water supply tunnel into Lake Michigan 10,588 feet was completed. In the late 1800s the city reversed the water flow of the Chicago River so that it flowed in from Lake Michigan and carry pollution out to drain into the Mississippi.
1870 – Joseph H. Rainey, first Black in the House of Representatives, sworn in as congressman from South Carolina.
1873 – America’s first international soccer game was played in New Haven, CT.
1876 – First crematorium in US begins operation, Washington PA.
1876 – US Electoral College picks Representative Hayes as President. A questionable vote count in Florida ended and Hayes was ahead by 924 votes.
1876 – Jack McCall was convicted for the murder of Wild Bill Hickok and sentenced to hang.
1877 – The Washington Post newspaper is first published.
1877 – Thomas Edison made the first sound recording, of “Mary Had a Little Lamb,” on the phonograph he invented.
1883 – “Ladies’ Home Journal” was published for the first time.
1884 – The Washington Monument in Washington D.C. is completed. To complete the obelisk, the aluminum capstone weighing 100 ounces, the largest single piece of aluminum cast to that time, was placed atop the pyramid . This project took 34 years. In 1884, the Washington Monument was the tallest structure in the world.
1889 – Jefferson Davis died in New Orleans. He was the first and only president of the Confederate States of America.
1890 – Black American Sgt. Thomas Shaw earned Congressional Medal of Honor.
1902 – The 8¢ Martha Washington stamp was issued. The stamp was the first U.S. commemorative stamp to feature a woman.
1904 – Theodore Roosevelt confirms Monroe-doctrine (Roosevelt Corollary.) His assertive approach to Latin America and the Caribbean has often been characterized as the “Big Stick.”
1906 – Lt. Thomas E. Selfridge flew a powered, man-carrying kite that carried him 168 feet in the air for seven minutes at Baddeck, Nova Scotia.
1907 – Worst mining disaster in American History occurred in the community of Monongah, West Virginia. 362 men and boys lost their lives.
1917 – World War I: German submarine torpedoes sink USS Jacob Jones (DD-61) off England.
1920 – In Boston, Mass., a dog with spectacles was shown at the annual fair of the Animal Rescue League.
1921 – James Showan, a wealthy NY shipbuilder, was arrested after his palatial yacht was seized off the California coast with more than 100 cases of whiskey.
1922 – First electric power line commercial carrier in US, Utica NY.
1923 – The first presidential address to be broadcast on radio was given by President Calvin Coolidge to a joint session of Congress.
1925 – Pro football a hit in NYC; Grange & Bears beat Giants 19-7 before more than 65,000 fans.
1928 – Nicaragua: A small detail of Marines under Captain Maurice G. Holmes defeated Nicaraguan bandits near Chuyelite. Gunnery Sargent Charles Williams was mortally wounded during the fighting. Capt Holmes was later awarded the Navy Cross for gallantry, and a posthumous award was given to Gunnery Sargent Williams.
1933 – U.S. federal judge John M. Woolsey rules that the James Joyce novel Ulysses is not obscene.
1939 – Cole Porter’s musical “Du Barry was a Lady” premieres in New York.
1941 – New York City Council agrees to build Idlewild (Kennedy) Airport in Queens.
1941 – First ever Evergreen Bowl!! The game was between the Washington State Cougars and Texas A&M. The game was played at Stadium High Field before 30,000 fans. The final score was WSC – 0 Texas – 7. The players in this game found out about the attack on Pearl Harbor the next morning on the bus trip back to Pulliam, WA.
1941- U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt makes a final appeal to the Emperor of Japan for peace. There is no reply.
1944 – “Red Bank Boogie“, Count Basie’s salute to his hometown, was recorded.
1944 – World War II: US 95th Infantry division reached Westwall.
1947 – Everglades National Park in Florida is dedicated by President Harry S. Truman today. It is the largest subtropical wilderness in the United States. It contains the southern 20% of the Everglades which was established as a National Park in 1934.
1948 – The “Pumpkin Papers” were found on the Maryland farm of Whittaker Chambers and became evidence that State Department employee Alger Hiss was spying for the Soviet Union.
1948 – “Arthur Godfrey’s Talent Scouts” debuted on CBS-TV.
1950 – Korean War: Fifth Air Force jets and Australian F-51 Mustangs were credited with killing 2,500 enemy troops in an attack near Pyongyang. This did not, however, prevent the Chinese communists for occupying the North Korean capitol.
1950 – Korean War: Far East Air Forces’ 27th Fighter-Escort Wing F-84 Thunderjets flew their first combat mission of the Korean War.
1952 – “The Glow-Worm” by Mills Brothers topped the charts.
1955 – Volkswagen was trademark registered. Literally, the word “volkswagen” means “people’s car.”
1955 – New York psychologist Joyce Brothers won “$64,000 Question” on boxing.
1957 – Project Vanguard: A launchpad explosion thwarts the first United States attempt to launch a satellite. The Vanguard TV3 rose only about four feet off a Cape Canaveral, Fla., launch pad before crashing back down and exploding.
1958 – “To Know Him Is To Love Him” by The Teddy Bears topped the charts.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mack the Knife” by Bobby Darin, “Don’t You Know” by Della Reese, “In the Mood” by Ernie Field’s Orchestra and “Country Girl” by Faron Young all topped the charts.
1960 – American League grants Gene Autry and Bob Reynolds, a franchise for the Los Angeles Angels.
1960 – In Tucson, AZ , 500 store owners sign pledges of nondiscrimination.
1964 – “Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer” first airs on TV. The special originally premiered on the “General Electric Fantasy Hour” on NBC and G.E. sponsored the show for the first three broadcasts.
1965 – Pakistan’s Islamic Ideology Advisory Committee recommends that Islamic Studies be made a compulsory subject for Muslim students from primary to graduation level.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Daydream Believer” by The Monkees, “The Rain, the Park & Other Things” by The Cowsills, “I Say a Little Prayer” by Dionne Warwick and “It’s the Little Things” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1967 – Dr. Adrian Kantrowitz performed the first US human heart transplant on a baby in Brooklyn, NY. The baby died six hours later.
1968 – Vietnam: Operation Giant Slingshot began in Mekong Delta.
1969 – Meredith Hunter is killed by Hell’s Angels during The Rolling Stones’s concert at the Altamont Speedway in California. He was stabbed to death by Hells Angel Alan Passaro.
1969 – Musician Cab Calloway turned actor as he was seen in the “Hallmark Hall of Fame” presentation of “The Littlest Angel” on NBC.
1969 – “Na Na Hey Hey Kiss Him Goodbye” by Steam topped the charts. This was later used at the end of the movie, “Remember the Titans.”
1970 – “I Think I Love You” by the Partridge Family topped the charts.
1970 – “Gimme Shelter,” the documentary film about the Rolling Stones’ 1969 tour of the U.S. including the Altamont free Concert with 300,000 fans, debuted.
1971 – Lewis Franklin Powell confirmed as Supreme Court justice despite opposition of civil rights organizations.
1973 – The Twenty-fifth Amendment: The United States House of Representatives votes 387 to 35 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President of the United States (on November 27, the Senate confirmed him 92 to 3). He succeeded Spiro T. Agnew.
1975 – Paul Simon’s album, “Still Crazy After All These Years“, U.S. #1.
1976 – Democrat Tip O’Neill was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives. He went on to serve the longest consecutive term as Speaker.
1980 – “Lady” by Kenny Rogers topped the charts.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “All Night Long (All Night)” by Lionel Richie, “Say Say Say” by Paul McCartney & Michael Jackson, “Uptown Girl” by Billy Joel and “A Little Good News” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.
1984 – Martina Navratilova’s 74-game winning streak ends.
1985 – Congressional negotiators reached an agreement on a deficit-cutting proposal that later became the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings law.
1986 – “The Next Time I Fall” by Peter Cetera with Amy Grant topped the charts.
1986 – University of Miami quarterback Vinny Testaverde won the Heisman Trophy on this day.
1988 – STS-27 Atlantis lands in California after secret mission.
1989 – École Polytechnique Massacre: Marc Lépine kills 14 young women in Montreal, Quebec.
1990 – Vice President Dan Quayle was enshrined in the Little League Museum’s Hall of Excellence.
1990 – Shoeless Joe Jackson’s signature was sold for $23,100.
1990 – Sanctions and diplomacy were tried with Iraq its dictator, Saddam Hussein, but he remained defiant. The Bush government threatened to forcibly throw Iraq out of Kuwait by January 15 if it did not leave peacefully. Saddam anounces release of all foreign hostages. This was about a month prior to the start of Operation Desert Storm.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Set Adrift on Memory Bliss” by PM Dawn, “Black or White” by Michael Jackson, “Blowing Kisses in the Wind” by Paula Abdul and “Forever Together” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.
1991 – “Star Trek VI-The Undiscovered Country” premieres.
1992 – San Francisco 49er Jerry Rice catches NFL record 101st touchdown.
1994 – Maltese Falcon auctioned for $398,590. The Maltese Falcon was a movie prop, from the 1941 movie of the same name starring Humphrey Bogart. It was an Egyptian basalt statue of the falcon Horus, Late Period, Dynasty XXX.
1994 – Orange County, CA, filed for bankruptcy protection due to investment losses of about $2 billion. The county is one of the richest in the U.S. and became to largest municipality to file for bankruptcy.
1994 – US Treasury Secretary Lloyd Bentsen announced his resignation.
1995 – Michael Jackson was hospitalized after collapsing in a New York theater while rehearsing for a TV special.
1995 – President Clinton vetoed a seven-year Republican budget-balancing plan.
1997 – An asteroid was discovered by J.V. Scotti at the Univ. of Arizona. It was recognized as one of 108 potentially hazardous asteroids.
1997 – Grambling coach,Eddie Robinson who is the winniest coach in college football history, coaches his last game.
1997 – Lee Brown became Houston’s first African American mayor narrowly defeating businessman Rob Mosbacher.
1998 – Endeavour’s astronauts connected the first two building blocks of the International Space Station in the shuttle cargo bay.
1999 – The Supreme Court, reconsidering its landmark Miranda ruling, agreed to decide whether police still must warn criminal suspects that they have a “right to remain silent.” The justices upheld that right the following June.
1999 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Oklahoma a boy (13) opened fire with his father’s semiautomatic handgun and injured four classmates at Fort Gibson Middle School.
2000 – A Pentagon investigation concluded in a 168-page report that 3 top Army Corps of Engineers officials manipulated a study to justify a construction binge on the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.
2001 – President George W. Bush dedicated the national Christmas tree to those who died on Sept. 11 and to GIs who died in the line of duty.
2001 – Anthrax tainted mail turned up at a sorting site outside the Federal building in Washington DC.
2001 – WORKPLACE SHOOTING: In Indiana Robert L. Wissman, an employee of the Nu-Wood Decorative Millwork plant on the edge of Goshen killed manager Greg Oswald, wounded 6 others, and then killed himself.
2002 – President Bush pushed Treasury Secretary Paul O’Neill and economic adviser Larry Lindsey from their jobs in a Cabinet shakeup as the unemployment rate hit 6%.
2002 – Actress Winona Ryder was sentenced to community service as part of a probationary term for stealing more than $5,500 worth of merchandise from a Saks Fifth Avenue store in Beverly Hills, Calif.
2003 – Army became the first team to finish 0-13 in major college history after a 34-6 loss to Navy.
2004 – Al Qaida struck the U.S. Consulate in Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, with explosives and machine guns, killing nine people
2004 – Ohio certified President Bush’s victory over John Kerry, even as the Kerry campaign and third-party candidates prepared to demand a statewide recount. Bush won Ohio by 118,600 votes.
2004 – Arson fires hit a new housing development in Charles County, Md., 25 miles south of Washington, DC. 14 homes, priced from $400-500k, were damaged. A security guard and five others were later arrested on arson charges.
2005 – Philadelphia won the first NHL scoreless game that was decided by a shootout, beating Calgary 1-0.
2005 – In San Francisco police officer Andrew Cohen (39) was suspended for producing department videos that mocked minorities. Twenty-four other officers were soon suspended for their involvement in the video productions. In 2006 18 officers filed a $20 million lawsuit against San Francisco for defamation and discrimination.
2005 – In Spokane, Wash., voters said Mayor James E. West (1951-2006) must leave office this month in a special election sparked by allegations he used a city computer to woo gay men over the Internet.
2006 – The US Senate confirmed Robert Gates as the new Secretary of Defense by 95-2.
2006 – NASA scientists reported evidence of water at two Martian craters.
2006 – A large explosion occurs near downtown Milwaukee, killing 3, injuring 37 others and leveling a factory compound.
2006 – Clint Eastwood’s “Letters from Iwo Jima” has won one of the first major prizes of the film award season. The movie received first place in the National Board of Review (NBR) best film category.
2006 – In California the inaugural class to the state Hall of Fame included: Ronald Reagan, Cesar Chavez, Walt Disney, Amelia Earhart, Clint Eastwood, Frank Gehry, David D. Ho, M.D., Billie Jean King, John Muir, Sally K. Ride, Ph.D., Alice Walker and the Hearst and Packard Families.
2007 – IBM reported that it has made a breakthrough in converting electrical signals into light pulses that brings closer the day when supercomputing, which now requires huge machines, will be done on a single chip.
2007 – The launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis‘s STS-122 mission, which will deliver ESA’s Columbus module to the International Space Station, is delayed for one day due to a sensor malfunction.
2007 – The Central Intelligence Agency has destroyed at least two of the videotapes that documenting the interrogation of two al-Qaeda operatives in the agency’s custody. It took this step in the middle of Congressional and legal scrutiny about the agency’s secret detention program.
2008 – A Montana state judge ruled that doctor assisted suicides are legal in the state.
2008 – Indicted Democratic US Rep. William Jefferson was ousted from his New Orleans area district.
2008 – Martha “Sunny” von Bulow (b.1932), daughter of utilities tycoon George Crawford, died in New York. The heiress spent the last 28 years of her life in oblivion after what prosecutors alleged in a pair of sensational trials were two murder attempts by her husband.
2008 – President-elect Barack Obama nominates General Eric Shinseki to be the next Secretary of Veterans Affairs.
2009 – In Pennsylvania parolee Ronald Robinson (32) fatally shot a man in Penn Hills over a $500 drug debt and then shot and killed police officer Michael Crawshaw (32).
2010 – The Washington Post reports that an FBI informant so frightened Muslim worshippers by referring to violent jihad while spying on an Islamic community centre in Irvine, California, that they reported him to the authorities.
2010 – President Barack Obama says that a deal has been reached with the Republican Party to extend the Bush era tax cuts.
2012 – In an eye-opening 397-0 vote — the U.S. House of Representatives voted today to approve a resolution pushing the U.S. government to fight the United Nations in its bid to control and change the Internet.
2012 – Republican Tea Party Senator Jim DeMint from South Carolina announced that he would resign from his office in order to take a job leading a conservative think tank.
2013 – The US Department of Health and Human Services put a solicitation notice on the Federal Business Opportunities (FBO) website for 14 million 65 mg doses of Potassium Iodide, the standard treatment protocol for someone exposed to high levels of radiation. Normal thought says this is in preparation for radiation coming to American shores from the Fukishima reactor in Japan.
2014 – American hostage Luke Somers died during a joint rescue mission by the U.S. and Yemen. Luke Somers was still alive, but badly injured when the team reached him said a Yemeni national security official. The official said Somers was shot by militants.
2014 – At 8:13 pm the Courtland, Mississippi Fire Department responded to a call for a car fire. The arrived to find the car fully inflamed and they found a 19-year-old Jessica Chambers burned and barely alive. She had been doused with lighter fluid and forced to swallow it before the burning. She was burned over 98% of her body.
1421 – King Henry VI of England (d. 1471)
1586 – Niccolo Zucchi, Italian astronomer (d. 1670) He invented the concave reflecting telescope, and on May 17, 1630 was the first person to discover two belts on the surface of Jupiter. Zucchius crater on the moon is named in his honor.
1833 – John Singleton Mosby, also known as the “Gray Ghost,” was a Confederate partisan ranger (guerrilla fighter) in the American Civil War. (d. 1916)
1863 – Charles Martin Hall, American chemist (d. 1914) He is best known for his discovery in 1886 of an inexpensive method for producing aluminum, which became the first metal to attain widespread use since the prehistoric discovery of iron
1872 – William S. Hart, American actor (d. 1946)
1900 – Agnes Moorehead, American actress (d. 1974)
1905 – James J. Braddock, American boxer (d. 1974)
1924 – Wally Cox, American actor (d. 1973)
1952 – Craig Newmark, Founder of craigslist
1993 – Elián González, Cuban subject of child custody battle
LITEKY, ANGELO J.
Rank and organization: Chaplain (Capt.), U.S. Army, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 199th Infantry Brigade. Place and date: Near Phuoc-Lac, Bien Hoa province, Republic of Vietnam, December 6th, 1967 . Entered service at: Fort Hamilton, N.Y. Born: 14 February 1931, Washington, D.C. Citation: Chaplain Liteky distinguished himself by exceptional heroism while serving with Company A, 4th Battalion, 12th Infantry, 199th Light Infantry Brigade. He was participating in a search and destroy operation when Company A came under intense fire from a battalion size enemy force. Momentarily stunned from the immediate encounter that ensued, the men hugged the ground for cover. Observing two wounded men, Chaplain Liteky moved to within fifteen meters of an enemy machine gun position to reach them, placing himself between the enemy and the wounded men. When there was a brief respite in the fighting, he managed to drag them to the relative safety of the landing zone. Inspired by his courageous actions, the company rallied and began placing a heavy volume of fire upon the enemy’s positions. In a magnificent display of courage and leadership, Chaplain Liteky began moving upright through the enemy fire, administering last rites to the dying and evacuating the wounded. Noticing another trapped and seriously wounded man, Chaplain Liteky crawled to his aid. Realizing that the wounded man was too heavy to carry, he rolled on his back, placed the man on his chest and through sheer determination and fortitude crawled back to the landing zone using his elbows and heels to push himself along. pausing for breath momentarily, he returned to the action and came upon a man entangled in the dense, thorny underbrush. Once more intense enemy fire was directed at him, but Chaplain Liteky stood his ground and calmly broke the vines and carried the man to the landing zone for evacuation. On several occasions when the landing zone was under small arms and rocket fire, Chaplain Liteky stood up in the face of hostile fire and personally directed the medivac helicopters into and out of the area. With the wounded safely evacuated, Chaplain Liteky returned to the perimeter, constantly encouraging and inspiring the men. Upon the unit’s relief on the morning of 7 December 1967, it was discovered that despite painful wounds in the neck and foot, Chaplain Liteky had personally carried over twenty men to the landing zone for evacuation during the savage fighting. Through his indomitable inspiration and heroic actions, Chaplain Liteky saved the lives of a number of his comrades and enabled the company to repulse the enemy. Chaplain Liteky’s actions reflect great credit upon himself and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1828, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: Indiana. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served on board the U.S. Monitor Neosho during the engagement with enemy batteries at Bells Mills, Cumberland River, near Nashville, Tenn., December 6th, 1864. Carrying out his duties courageously during the engagement, Ditzenback gallantly left the pilot house after the flag and signal staffs of that vessel had been shot away and, taking the flag which was drooping over the wheelhouse, made it fast to the stump of the highest mast remaining, although the ship was still under a heavy fire from the enemy.
FERRELL, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Ships’ Pilot, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Illinois. Born: 15 April 1823, Tennessee. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served on board the U.S. Monitor Neosho during the engagement with enemy batteries at Bells Mills, Cumberland River, near Nashville, Tenn., December 6th, 1864. Carrying out his duties courageously during the engagement, Ferrell gallantly left the pilothouse after the flag and signal staffs of that vessel had been shot away and, taking the flag which was drooping over the wheelhouse, make it fast to the stump of the highest mast remaining although the ship was still under a heavy fire from the enemy.
Pearl Harbor Attack 4 days away – 1941
The Engagement Ring
In Western tradition, an engagement ring is a ring worn by a woman on her left-hand ring finger indicating her engagement to be married. By modern convention, the ring is usually presented as a betrothal gift by a man to his prospective bride while or directly after she accepts his marriage proposal. It represents a formal agreement to future marriage.
A Victorian tradition was the Regards ring, in which the initials of the precious gems used spelled out the word “regards”. Another Victorian tradition was the Dearest Ring, which spelled the word “dearest” using the first letter of each jewel.Similar traditions purportedly date to classical times, dating back from an early usage reportedly referring to the fourth finger of the left hand as containing the vena amoris or “vein of love”.
The inception of the engagement ring itself can be tied to the Fourth Lateran Council presided over by Pope Innocent III in 1215. Innocent declared a longer waiting period between betrothal and marriage; plain rings of gold, silver or iron were used earliest. Gems were important and reassuring status symbols to the aristocracy. Laws were passed to preserve a visible division of social rank, ensuring only the privileged wore florid jewels. As time passed and laws relaxed, diamonds and other gems became available to the middle class.
At one time, engagement rings mounted sets of stones. One traditional sentimental pattern mounted six to celebrate the joining of two families: The birthstones of the bride’s parents and the bride (on the left), and the birth stones of the groom and his parents (on the right). The parents’ stones were mounted with the mother to the left of the father. The bride and groom’s birthstones would be adjacent in the center. Another similar pattern, for four stones, mounted the birthstone of the parents’ marriages, and the birthstones of the bride and groom. These token rings often disassembled, to expose a channel in which a lock of the suitor’s hair could be treasured.
The origin of our custom to use diamonds in rings, and more recently, in
engagement rings, can be traced back to the Middle Ages and even the Romans. The Romans valued the diamond entirely on account of its supernatural powers. Pliny wrote that a diamond baffles poison, keeps off insanity and dispels vain fears.
The more you love, the more you can love—
And the more intensely you love.
~ Robert Heinlien
When you realize
You want to spend
The rest of your life with somebody,
You want the rest of your life
To start as soon as possible.
When Harry Met Sally (Movie)
1. the act of engaging or the state of being engaged.
2.betrothal: They announced their engagement.
3. a pledge; an obligation or agreement
1110 – First Crusade: The Crusaders conquer Sidon.
1259 – Kings Louis IX of France and Henry III of England agree to the Treaty of Paris, in which Henry renounces his claims to French-controlled territory on continental Europe (including Normandy) in exchange for Louis withdrawing his support for English rebels.
1563 – The final session of the Council of Trent is held (it opened on December 13, 1545).
1619 – Thirty-eight colonists from Berkeley Parish in England disembark in Virginia and give thanks to God (this is considered by many to be the first Thanksgiving in the Americas).
1639 – Jeremiah Horrocks made the first observation of a transit of Venus. (November 24 under the Julian calendar.)
1674 – Father Jacques Marquette founds a mission on the shores of Lake Michigan to minister to the Illiniwek (the mission would later grow into the city of Chicago, Illinois).
1783 – At Fraunces Tavern in New York City, US General George Washington formally bids his officers farewell. The tavern played a significant role in pre-Revolutionary War activities and later housed early U.S. government offices of the Departments of War, Treasury and Foreign Affairs (today’s State Department).
1791 – The first issue of The Observer, the world’s first Sunday newspaper, is published.
1812 – Peter Gaillard of Lancaster, Pa., patented a horse-drawn mower.
1816 – James Monroe of Virginia was elected the 5th President of the United States of America. He defeated Federalist Rufus King.
1833 – American Anti-Slavery Society was formed by Arthur Tappan in Philadelphia.
1839 – Whig party holds its first national convention, Harrisburg, PA and nominates William Henry Harrison (OH) and John Tyler (VA). They won against Martin VanBuren and No one for VP.
1843 – Manila paper (made from sails, canvas & rope) patented, Massachusetts.
1844 – James K. Polk was elected 11th president of US. His wife, Sarah, recognized that James was insufficiently impressive to draw attention on appearance and therefore began the tradition of having “Hail to the Chief” played when he made a public showing.
1861 – The Federal Senate, voting 36 to 0, expelled Senator John C. Breckenridge of Kentucky because he joined the Confederate Army.
1862 – Civil War: Winchester, Va., fell into Union hands, resulting in the capture of 145 Southern soldiers.
1864 – Civil War: Sherman’s March to the Sea – At Waynesboro, Georgia, forces under Union General Judson Kilpatrick prevent troops led by Confederate General Joseph Wheeler from interfering with Union General William T. Sherman’s campaign destroying a wide swath of the South on his march to the Atlantic Ocean from Atlanta (Union forces did suffer more than three times the Confederate casualties, however).
1864 – Civil War: Battle at Bell’s Mills, Tennessee.
1867 – Former Minnesota farmer Oliver Hudson Kelley founds the Order of the Patrons of Husbandry (better known today as the Grange movement).
1872 – The crewless American ship Mary Celeste is found by the British brig Dei Gratia (the ship was abandoned for 9 days but was only slightly damaged). It was found deserted with its cargo intact.
1875 – Notorious New York City politician Boss Tweed escapes from prison and flees to Cuba, then Spain.
1881 – The Los Angeles Times is first published.
1895 – Marines in Tientsin, China, were awarded the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal for the period 4 December 1894 – May 1895.
1899 – Webb Hayes son of President Rutherford Hayes receives Medal of Honor. Hayes arrived in Manila in late November of 1899. Within hours after landing, Hayes led a rescue party to free the U.S. soldiers garrisoned at Virgin Island. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for this act of heroism. Colonel Hayes also participated in the Boxer Rebellion, the China Relief Expedition, and the Russo-Japanese War.
1906 – Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Inc., the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity in the United States established for men of African descent, was founded at Cornell University.
1911 – The US Supreme Court in Grigbsy v. Russell established the policy owner’s right to transfer an insurance policy.
1915 – Panama-Pacific International Exposition closes in San Francisco CA.
1915 – F F Fletcher is first admiral to receive Congressional Medal of Honor.
1918 – US President Woodrow Wilson sails for the World War I peace talks in Versailles, becoming the first US president to travel to Europe while in office. He went to Versailles where he headed the American delegation to the peace conference seeking an official end to World War I.
1920 – First Pro football playoff game Buffalo-7, Canton-3 at Polo Grounds.
1921 – The Virginia Rappe manslaughter trial against Roscoe ‘Fatty’ Arbuckle ends in a hung jury.
1923 – Cecil B DeMille’s first version of “Ten Commandments” premieres.
1923 – WEAF radio begins broadcasting Eveready Hour (variety show). Entertainers performing on the show included Will Rogers and Wendell Hall “The Red Headed Music Maker“.
1927 – Duke Ellington opens at the Cotton Club in Harlem.
1928 – Walter Donaldson & Gus Kahn’s musical “Whoopee” premieres in NYC. This wildly campy and hilarious hi-jinks-filled satire of the Wild West of the 1920’s included a delicious score of hit songs including “Love Me or LeaveMe”; “Yes Sir, That’s my Baby” and the title song “Makin’ Whoopee!”
1930 – Vatican approved the rhythm method for birth control.
1931 – “Frankenstein” opens at Mayfair Theater in New York City.
1932 – “The Walter Winchell Show” was first heard on the NBC Blue network. Winchell kept the gossip show going on the radio for 23 years.
1933 – A historical day in network broadcasting. At 3:00 PM on NBC’s Red Network, the first episode of OXYDOL’S OWN MA PERKINS was presented. This was more than the debut of a program. It was the first daytime serial on network radio sponsored by a Procter & Gamble product— and more importantly, a Procter & Gamble SOAP product.
1933 – Jack Kirkland’s “Tobacco Road” premieres in New York City.
1934 – Ethel Merman recorded “I Get a Kick Out of You“, from “Anything Goes”.
1935 – Twelve hundred students enrolled in an anticommunism class at St Joseph’s College, Philadelphia.
1937 – The first issue of the children’s comic, The Dandy Comic, is published, one of the first to use speech balloons.
1941 – The Chicago Tribune and the Washington Herald published FDR’s top secret plan to invade Europe in 1943.
1941 – In Yreka, Ca, the new state of Jefferson elected John C. Childs (71) as its first governor. The state of Jefferson was an attempt to form a state from Northern CA and southern OR. It did not survive the patriotism formed on December 7, 1941.
1941 – World War II: Nazi ordinances placed the Jews of Poland outside protection of courts.
1942 – World War II: U.S. planes made the first air raids on mainland Italy.
1942 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the dismantling of the Works Progress Administration. The program had been created in order to provide jobs during the Great Depression.
1942 – US President Roosevelt receives a petition from 244 Congressman in support of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
1942 – World War II: Carlson’s patrol during the Guadalcanal Campaign ends. It was an operation by the 2nd Marine Raider Battalion under the command of Evans Carlson during the Guadalcanal Campaign against the Imperial Japanese Army from 6 November to 4 December
1943 – Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis announces any baseball club may sign Black Americans.
1943 – World War II: In Yugoslavia, resistance leader Marshal Tito proclaims a provisional democratic Yugoslav government in-exile.
1943 – World War II: The Japanese escort carrier Chuyo is sunk by the US submarine Sailfish in Japanese home waters.
1943 – US President Franklin D. Roosevelt closes down the Works Progress Administration, because of the high levels of wartime employment in the United States.
1944 – World War II: USS Flasher (SS-249) sinks Japanese destroyer Kishinami and damages a merchant ship in South China Sea. Flasher is only U.S. submarine to sink over 100,000 tons of enemy shipping in World War II.
1945 – By a vote of 65 to 7, the United States Senate approves United States participation in the United Nations (the UN was established on October 24, 1945).
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Cry, Joe” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Betty Brewer), “I Can Dream, Can’t I?” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Jack Leonard), “That Lucky Old Sun” by Frankie Laine and “Slipping Around” by Margaret Whiting & Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1950 – University of Tennessee defied court rulings by rejecting five Black applicants.
1950 – Korean War: Marines rescued over 300 soldiers of the U.S. 7th Infantry Division, survivors of a communist ambush on the shores of the Chosin/Changjin Reservoir.
1951 – Copland-Robbins’ “Pied Piper,” premiered in New York City.
1952 – The Grumman XS2F-1 made its first flight.
1952 – Great Smog of 1952: A cold fog descends upon London, combining with air pollution and killing at least 12,000 in the weeks and months that follow.
1953 – “Rags to Riches” by Tony Bennett topped the charts.
1954 – The first Burger King is opened in Miami, Florida.
1954 – Supreme Court Justice denies Disc-Jockey Alan Freed, to use the nickname “Moon Dog”.
1954 – “Mr. Sandman” by the Chordettes topped the charts.
1955 – On a NBC-TV special, mime artist Marcel Marceau appears on TV for the first time.
1956 – During a Carl Perkins recording session also involving Jerry Lee Lewis and Johnny Cash at Sun Records in Memphis, Tennessee, Elvis Presley visits the studio and jams with Perkins and Lewis extensively with the tape recorders rolling. (Cash reportedly participates briefly in the jam before leaving the studio with his wife and daughter.) The four men become known as the Million Dollar Quartet, and the complete tape from this legendary session was eventually released on compact disc (CD) in 1987.
1959 – A monkey returns to Earth safely, after being launched 55 miles high into outer space by the United States space program.
1961 – Gene Chandler’s “Duke of Earl” was released.
1961 – Henri Matisse’s painting Le Bateau hung upside down in New York’s Museum of Modern Art. It remained upside down for forty-one days until someone noticed. It’s estimated nearly 116,000 people passed in front of the painting before the artist’s son noticed that the error. An upside down painting in an upside down year (1961).
1962 – James Caan made his TV acting debut on “The Untouchables”.
1964 – Beatles release “Beatles For Sale” album.
1964 – Major League Baseball finally approved a free-agent draft system that mimicked the one used in professional football.
1965 – The U.S. launched Gemini 7 with Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Frank Borman and Navy Commander James A. Lovell aboard.
1966 – Vietnam War: A Viet Cong unit penetrates the 13-mile defense perimeter around Saigon’s Tan Son Nhut airport and shells the field for over four hours. South Vietnamese and U.S. security guards finally drove off the attackers, killing 18 of them in the process.
1967 – Vietnam War: US and South Vietnamese forces engage Viet Cong troops in the Mekong Delta. (But this happened all the time.)
1968 – The US stock market began a 18 month decline of 44%.
1969 – Black Panther Party members Fred Hampton and Mark Clark are shot and killed in their sleep during a raid by fourteen Chicago police officers.
1969 – Surfer Greg Noll rides a 65-foot high wave off the North Shore of Oahu, still the highest ocean surfing ever recorded.
1970 – Unemployment in US increases to 5.8%.
1971 – The Montreux Casino in Switzerland is set ablaze by someone wielding a flare gun during a Frank Zappa concert; the incident would be noted in the Deep Purple song “Smoke on the Water“.
1971 – “Family Affair” by Sly & the Family Stone topped the charts.
1972 – Billy Paul receives a gold record for “Me and Mrs. Jones“.
1974 – Pioneer II made its closest approach to Jupiter.
1976 – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)” by Rod Stewart topped the charts.
1977 – NFL’s 5,000th game, Cincinnati beats Kansas City 27-7.
1978 – Following the murder of Mayor George Moscone, Dianne Feinstein becomes San Francisco, California’s first woman mayor (she served until January 8, 1988).
1978 – Pioneer Venus 1 goes into orbit around Venus.
1979 – The Jeremiah O’Brien Liberty ship was guided into dry dock at the Bethlehem Yard in San Francisco for a $1 million project to memorialize it as one of the last WW II Liberty Ships.
1980 – The rock group Led Zeppelin formally announces its breakup.
1981 – “Falcon Crest” premieres on CBS-TV.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Physical” by Olivia Newton-John, “Waiting for a Girl like You” by Foreigner, “Every Little Thing She Does is Magic” by The Police and “My Favorite Memory” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1981 – President Reagan allows CIA to engage in domestic counter-intelligence. Executive Order 12333.
1982 – “Truly” by Lionel Richie topped the charts.
1982 – Running back Herschel Walker of the University of Georgia received the Heisman Trophy as the nation’s finest college football player. Walker was only the seventh junior to receive the award.
1983 – U.S. jet fighters struck Syrian anti-aircraft positions in Lebanon in retaliation for attacks directed at American reconnaissance planes. Navy Lt. Robert O. Goodman Jr. was shot down and captured by Syria.
1984 – A five-day hijack drama began as four men seized a Kuwaiti airliner en route to Pakistan and forced it to land in Tehran. Two American passengers were killed by the hijackers.
1985 – Dallas, Texas became the largest city in the United States to pass a no smoking law for restaurants.
1987 – Cuban inmates at a federal prison in Atlanta freed their 89 hostages, peacefully ending an 11-day uprising.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS -“Blame It on the Rain” by Milli Vanilli, “We Didn’t Start the Fire” by Billy Joel, “(It’s Just) The Way That You Love Me” by Paula Abdul and “It’s Just a Matter of Time” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.
1990 – Thomas Nielson was granted a patent to for a “key-ring” pocket pen.
1990 – Due to Persian Gulf crisis gas prices hit $1.60 per gallon in New York City.
1991 – Journalist Terry Anderson, the last and longest-held American hostage in Lebanon, was freed by his Hezbollah captors after being held for 2,455 days.
1991 – Charles Keating, Arizona land developer and chairman of Lincoln Savings and Loan Association, was convicted on 17 counts of securities fraud in state court. Keating was one of the most controversial figures in the savings and loan scandals of the late 1980s.
1991 – US airline Pan Am ends operations.Captain Mark Pyle pilots Clipper Goodwill, a Pan American World Airways Boeing 727-221ADV, to Miami International Airport ending 64 years of Pan Am operations.
1992 – Somalia: President George H. W. Bush orders 28,000 US troops to Somalia, east Africa.
1993 – Astronauts aboard space shuttle Endeavour captured the near-sighted Hubble Space Telescope for repairs.
1993 – Authorities found the body of 12-year-old kidnap victim Polly Klaas in a wooded area of Cloverdale, Calif.
1996 – Mars Pathfinder lifted off from Cape Canaveral and embarked on a successful 310 million-mile trip to explore the Red Planet’s surface.
1997 – “Diary of Anne Frank” opens at Music Box Theater in New York City.
1998 – The remake of Alfred Hitchcock’s classic “Psycho” opened in U.S. theatres. Vince Vaughn and Anne Heche starred. Trailer 1998 Shower Scene
1998 – The shuttle Endeavour was launched with a crew of 6 from Cape Canaveral. It contained the 2nd component of the new International Space Station.
1998 – The first PC for the car, made by Clarion Co., went on sale for $1,299.
1999 – In New Mexico 13 people were killed when a van carrying 17 crashed into a tractor-trailer on an icy stretch of I-40 35 miles east of Albuquerque. The victims were illegal aliens from Mexico.
2001 – The United States froze the financial assets of organizations allegedly linked to the terrorist group Hamas (“Islamic Resistance Movement”).
2001 – Lisa Beamer, wife of Todd Beamer, through the Todd M. Beamer Foundation, registers the trademark “Let’s Roll” with the United States Patent and Trademark Office less than three months after his death in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States.
2001 – The US Postal Service reported a $1.7 billion loss for fiscal 2001.
2002 – US Supreme Court justices heard arguments on whether federal laws intended to combat organized crime and corruption could be used against anti-abortion demonstrators.
2002 – The governor of Mississippi signed legislation capping punitive damage awards at $20 million.
2003 – Hourly productivity of U.S. employees increased in the third quarter of 2003 at an annual rate of 9.2%, the highest since the Reagan years (Q2 of 1983).
2004 – Colombian drug kingpin Gilberto Rodriguez Orejuela was flown to the US, becoming the most powerful Colombian trafficker ever extradited to face US justice.
2006 – The Jena Six were six black teenagers convicted in the beating of Justin Barker, a white student at Jena High School in Jena, Louisiana. Barker was punched, kicked, and stomped on while at school by a group of black students who at first claimed he had made a racist joke only to recant their statement leaving some to say their actions were in response to the three nooses found on a tree on school grounds..
2006 – NASA announces plans to build a base on either the north pole or south pole of the Moon.
2006 – John R. Bolton will resign as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations when his recess appointment expires in January 2007.
2009 – The U.S. Office of Thrift Supervision closes down the Cleveland based AmTrust Bank.
2009 – Afghanistan: US Marines and Afghan troops launch Operation Cobra’s Anger in northern Helmand province.
2011 – Golfer Tiger Woods wins the Chevron World Challenge, his first tournament win in over two years.
2012 – Rep. John Boehner (R-Ohio) lit the U.S. Capitol Christmas Tree. The 65-foot Engelmann Spruce is from Colorado and was decorated with 10,000 lights and thousands of ornaments made by the people of that state.
2012 – White House Press Secretary Jay Carney reiterated President Barack Obama’s statements that there will be no deal to avert the “fiscal cliff” unless Republicans drop their opposition to raising tax rates on the wealthiest Americans.
2013 – Iowa Governor Terry Branstad signed an executive order on Wednesday rejecting federal intrusion into the state’s education system. The order, Number 83, declares that the state, “not the federal government or any other organization, shall determine the content of Iowa’s state academic standards”.
1555 – Heinrich Meibom, German historian and poet (d. 1625)
1580 – Samuel Argall, English adventurer and naval officer (d. 1626)
1585 – John Cotton, American Puritan leader (d. 1652)
1612 – Samuel Butler, English poet (d. 1680)
1795 – Thomas Carlyle, British writer and historian (d. 1881)
1835 – Samuel Butler, British writer (d. 1902)
1840 – Crazy Horse, Oglala Sioux chief (d. 1877)
1861 – Lillian Russell, American singer and actress (d. 1922)
1908 – Alfred Hershey, American bacteriologist, Nobel laureate (d. 1997)
1912 – Pappy Boyington, American pilot (d. 1988)
1934 – Wink Martindale, American game show host
1937 – Max Baer, Jr., American actor
1944 – Dennis Wilson, American musician (The Beach Boys) (d. 1983)
1973 – Tyra Banks, American supermodel
*McGINNIS, ROSS A.
Rank and Organization: Private First Class, United States Army. Place and date: Adhamiyah, Northeast Baghdad, Iraq, on December 4th, 2006. Born: Knox, PA June 14, 1987.For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Private First Class Ross A. McGinnis distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an M2 .50-caliber machine gunner, 1st Platoon, C Company, 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry Regiment, in connection with combat operations against an armed enemy .That afternoon his platoon was conducting combat control operations in an effort to reduce and control sectarian violence in the area. While Private McGinnis was manning the M2 .50-caliber machine mun, a fragmentation grenade thrown by an insurgent fell through the gunner’s hatch into the vehicle. Reacting quickly, he yelled “grenade,” allowing all four members of his crew to prepare for the grenade’s blast. Then, rather than leaping from the gunner’s hatch to safety, Private McGinnis made the courageous decision to protect his crew. In a selfless act of bravery, in which he was mortally wounded, Private McGinnis covered the live grenade, pinning it between his body and the vehicle and absorbing most of the explosion. Private McGinnis’ gallant action directly saved four men from certain serious injury or death. Private First Class McGinnis’ extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.
DAVIS, RAYMOND G.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps commanding officer, 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Vicinity Hagaru-ri, Korea, 1 through December 4th, 1950. Entered service at: Atlanta, Ga. Born: 13 January 1915, Fitzgerald, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of the 1st Battalion, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Although keenly aware that the operation involved breaking through a surrounding enemy and advancing eight miles along primitive icy trails in the bitter cold with every passage disputed by a savage and determined foe, Lt. Col. Davis boldly led his battalion into the attack in a daring attempt to relieve a beleaguered rifle company and to seize, hold, and defend a vital mountain pass controlling the only route available for two Marine regiments in danger of being cut off by numerically superior hostile forces during their re-deployment to the port of Hungnam. When the battalion immediately encountered strong opposition from entrenched enemy forces commanding high ground in the path of the advance, he promptly spearheaded his unit in a fierce attack up the steep, ice-covered slopes in the face of withering fire and, personally leading the assault groups in a hand-to-hand encounter, drove the hostile troops from their positions, rested his men, and reconnoitered the area under enemy fire to determine the best route for continuing the mission. Always in the thick of the fighting Lt. Col. Davis led his battalion over three successive ridges in the deep snow in continuous attacks against the enemy and, constantly inspiring and encouraging his men throughout the night, brought his unit to a point within 1,500 yards of the surrounded rifle company by daybreak. Although knocked to the ground when a shell fragment struck his helmet and two bullets pierced his clothing, he arose and fought his way forward at the head of his men until he reached the isolated Marines. On the following morning, he bravely led his battalion in securing the vital mountain pass from a strongly entrenched and numerically superior hostile force, carrying all his wounded with him, including twenty-two litter cases and numerous ambulatory patients. Despite repeated savage and heavy assaults by the enemy, he stubbornly held the vital terrain until the two regiments of the division had deployed through the pass and, on the morning of 4 December, led his battalion into Hagaru-ri intact. By his superb leadership, outstanding courage, and brilliant tactical ability, Lt. Col. Davis was directly instrumental in saving the beleaguered rifle company from complete annihilation and enabled the two Marine regiments to escape possible destruction. His valiant devotion to duty and unyielding fighting spirit in the face of almost insurmountable odds enhance and sustain the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
HUDNER, THOMAS JEROME, JR.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant (J.G.) U.S. Navy, pilot in Fighter Squadron 32, attached to U.S.S. Leyte. Place and date: Chosin Reservoir area of Korea, December 4th, 1950. Entered service at: Fall River, Mass. Born: 31 August 1924, Fall River, Mass. Citation. For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a pilot in Fighter Squadron 32, while attempting to rescue a squadron mate whose plane struck by antiaircraft fire and trailing smoke, was forced down behind enemy lines. Quickly maneuvering to circle the downed pilot and protect him from enemy troops infesting the area, Lt. (J.G.) Hudner risked his life to save the injured flier who was trapped alive in the burning wreckage. Fully aware of the extreme danger in landing on the rough mountainous terrain and the scant hope of escape or survival in subzero temperature, he put his plane down skillfully in a deliberate wheels-up landing in the presence of enemy troops. With his bare hands, he packed the fuselage with snow to keep the flames away from the pilot and struggled to pull him free. Unsuccessful in this, he returned to his crashed aircraft and radioed other airborne planes, requesting that a helicopter be dispatched with an ax and fire extinguisher. He then remained on the spot despite the continuing danger from enemy action and, with the assistance of the rescue pilot, renewed a desperate but unavailing battle against time, cold, and flames. Lt. (J.G.) Hudner’s exceptionally valiant action and selfless devotion to a shipmate sustain and enhance the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
EPPS, JOSEPH L.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 33d Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Vigan Luzon, Philippine Islands, December 4th, 1899. Entered service at: Oklahoma Indian Territory. Birth: Jamestown, Mo. Date of issue: 7 February 1902. Citation: Discovered a party of insurgents inside a wall, climbed to the top of the wall, covered them with his gun, and forced them to stack arms and surrender.
HAYES, WEBB C.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 31st Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Vigan, Luzon, Philippine Islands, December 4th, 1899. Entered service at: Fremont, Ohio. Born: 20 March 1856, Cincinnati, Ohio. Date of issue: 17 December 1902. Citation: Pushed through the enemy’s lines alone, during the night, from the beach to the beleaguered force at Vigan, and returned the following morning to report the condition of affairs to the Navy and secure assistance.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 33d Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Vigan, Luzon, Philippine Islands, December 4th, 1899. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Birth: Syracuse, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 October 1902. Citation: Fought for hours Iying between two dead comrades, notwithstanding his hat was pierced, his clothing plowed through by bullets, and his face cut and bruised by flying gravel.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 45th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Vigan, Luzon, Philippine Islands, December 4th, 1899. Entered service at: Newark, N.J. Birth: Newark, N.J. Date of issue: 8 March 1902. Citation: While in command of a small garrison repulsed a savage night attack by overwhelming numbers of the enemy, fighting at close quarters in the dark for several hours.
COCKLEY, DAVID L.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company L, 10th Ohio Cavalry. Place and date: At Waynesboro, Ga., December 4th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Born: 8 June 1843, Lexington, Ohio. Date of issue: 2 August 1897. Citation: While acting as aide-de-camp to a general officer, he three times asked permission to join his regiment in a proposed charge upon the enemy, and in response to the last request, having obtained such permission, joined his regiment and fought bravely at its head throughout the action.
Cookie Cutter Week
National Roof-Over-Your-Head Day
Pearl Harbor Attack 5 days away – 1941
The First Jet Propelled Aircraft
The Coandă-1910 was the first jet-propelled aircraft ever built. It was constructed by Romanian inventor Henri Coanda and exhibited by him at the Second International Aeronautical Exhibition in Paris around October 1910 .
Coandă did not pursue this line of development of the jet engine. However, years later, the Italian Campini Caproni CC.2 aircraft would fly with a similar type of engine, and Japanese engineers would develop another such engine to power kamikaze aircraft. However, practical jet engines depended on the development of the turbojet to become a reality.The aircraft was quite unconventional in design, and its most striking feature was its powerplant, since it featured a kind of thermo jet, a hybrid of jet engines and piston engine technology. This used an ordinary internal combustion engine to drive a compressor instead of a propeller. The compressed air was mixed with fuel and ignited in two combustion chambers before being exhausted along the sides of the aircraft. This was intended to provide a reactive force that would push the aircraft along.
Unfortunately during a ground test of the engine on December 16, 1910, Coandă was caught unaware by the power of the engine and found himself briefly airborne. He lost control of the machine, and it crashed, burning, to the ground. Coandă was thrown clear of the crash.
During the machine’s short flight, Coandă was able to observe that the burning gases from the engine seemed to hug the sides of the aircraft very closely and this is what seemed to cause the fire. He (and other scientists) spent many years researching this effect, which is now known as the Coanda effect in his honor.
Powerplant Four-cylinder, In-line, Water-cooled engine developing 50 hp (37 kW) at 1,000 rpm driving a compressor designed to produce a thrust of approximately 450 ft-lb.
In Jet Age Airlanes of 1956, Coandă himself published an article entitled “The First Jet Flight”. He submitted the same text that Caidin had written for Flying in May:
Henri Coandă in 1967
“In December, we brought the airplane out of its hangar at Issy-les-Moulineaux and, after a bit of coaxing, started the motor. I must admit that I was never a very outstanding pilot. I always seemed unable to shake off a vague apprehension and, that morning, in addition to my usual uneasiness, I was rather excited. I climbed into the cockpit, accelerated the motor, and felt the power from the jet thrust straining the plane forward. I gave the signal to remove the wheel blocks, and the plane started moving slowly ahead. I had anticipated that I would not attempt to fly today, but would make only ground tests on the small field at Issy-les-Moulineaux. The controls seemed too loose to me, so I injected fuel into the turbine. Too much! In a moment I was surrounded by flames! I had to cut back and reduce my power quickly. I worked the throttle and the flames subsided. Only then did I have opportunity to lift my head. I saw that the plane had gained speed, and that the walls of the ancient fortifications bordering the field were lunging toward me. I pulled back on the stick, only much too hard. In a moment the plane was airborne, lunging upward at a steep angle. I was flying—I felt the plane tipping—then slipping down on one wing. Instinctively, I cut the gas with my left hand and the jet fuel with my right. The next thing I knew, I found myself thrown free of the plane, which slowly came down, and burst into flames. It was impossible to determine from the wreckage whether the celluloid or the fuel was the cause of the fire. But the test was over. I had flown the first jet airplane.”
“The difference between what we do and what we are capable of doing would solve most of the world’s problems.”
“phantom double,” to confuse and make mischief for him. Many words, or pairs of words, act as doppelgangers to each other. When they are misused or misspelled, it is most often under the shadows cast by their phantom doubles.
“At the mall today I saw someone who could be yourdoppelgänger.”
1621 – Galileo invented the telescope.
1762 – France ceded to Spain all lands west of the Mississippi- the territory known as Upper Louisiana.
1800 – US state electors met and cast their ballots for the presidency. A tie resulted between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
1805 – Lewis and Clark Expedition mark their explorations from the Missouri River overland to the Columbia River on a pine tree.
1818 – Illinois becomes the 21st U.S. state. The name comes from an American Indian word meaning ‘tribe of superior men’.
1828 – Andrew Jackson was elected President of the United States.
1834 – First US dental society organized (New York).
1833 – Oberlin College in Ohio opened as the first truly coeducational school of higher education in the United States.
1835 – First US mutual fire insurance company issues first policy (Rhode Island).
1847 – Frederick Douglass publishes first issue of his newspaper “North Star”. It got its name because slaves escaping at night followed the North Star in the sky to freedom.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate rebels attacked a Federal forage train on the Hardin Pike near Nashville, Tenn.
1863 – Confederate General Longstreet abandoned his siege at Knoxville, Ten., and moved his army east and north toward Greeneville.
1901 – US President Theodore Roosevelt delivers a 20,000-word speech to the House of Representatives asking the Congress to curb the power of trusts “within reasonable limits”.
1901 – The Milwaukee Brewers franchise, charter members of the American League, moved to St. Louis and became the Browns – a name that recalled the glorious history of Chris von der Ahe’s Brown Stockings.
1904 – The Jovian moon Himalia is discovered by Charles Dillon Perrine at California’s Lick Observatory.
1907 – George M. Cohan’s musical “Talk of the Town” premieres in New York.
1915 – The U.S. expelled German attaches on spy charges.
1922 – First successful technicolor movie (Toll of the Sea), shown in New York. It starred Anna Mae Wong who was cast as Lotus Flower.
1923 – First Congressional open session broadcast via radio (Washington DC).
1924 – The New York State Boxing Commission revoked Prizefighter Jack Sharkey boxing card after Sharkey knocked down referee Eddie Purdy during a match.
1925 – “Concerto in F,” (33:56) by George Gershwin, had its world premiere at New York’s Carnegie Hall. Gershwin himself played the piano.
1929 – Great Depression: US President Herbert Hoover announces to the U.S. Congress that the worst effects of the recent stock market crash are behind the nation and the American people have regained faith in the economy.
1931 – Alka-Seltzer was introduced in 1931 by Miles Laboratories (purchased by Bayer in 1979). The product was originally used by some consumers as a remedy for hangovers.
1933 – Joe Lilliard quarterbacks the Chicago Cardinals; last NFL African-American until 1946.
1943 – World War II: Elements of US 5th Army reach the summit of Monte Camino and capture Monte Maggiore.
1943 – World War II: Battle of Monte Cassino, Italy began. It was a series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign.
1944 – World War II: Elements of US 13th Corps (part of US 9th Army) reach the Roer River. Elements of the US 20th Corps (part of US 3rd Army) cross the Saar River near Patchen, in assault boats. They secure the main bridge of the Saar.
1944 – World War II: US 5th Armored Division occupied Brandenburg, Hertzgenwald.
1944 – World War II: Hungarian death march of Jews ended.
1944 – Frank Sinatra recorded “Old Man River” in the Columbia Records studio.
1947 – Tennessee Williams play “A Streetcar Named Desire” premieres in New York NY with Marlon Brando as Stanley Kowalski and Jessica Tandy as Blanche DuBois and Kim Hunter as Stella Kowalski.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS -“Buttons and Bows” by Dinah Shore, “On a Slow Boat to China” by The Kay Kaiser, “Orchestra (vocal: Harry Babbitt & Gloria Wood), “You Were Only Fooling” by Kay Starr and “One Has My Name (The Other Has My Heart)” by Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1948 – First US woman army officer not in medical corps sworn-in. The director of the WACs, Colonel Mary A. Hallaren, became the first commissioned female officer in the U.S. Army.
1949 – “Slipping Around” by Margaret Whiting & Jimmy Wakely topped the charts.
1950 – Paul Harvey began his national radio broadcast. Excerpts from John F. Kennedy’s assassination 1963
1950 – Korean War: In the east, the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division began withdrawal into the Wonsan-Hamhung area. The U.S. 7th Infantry Division’s 17th Infantry Regiment withdrew from the Yalu River area toward Hungnam.
1950 – The Chinese closed in on Pyongyang, Korea and UN forces withdrew southward.
1950 – Cleveland Browns last NFL team with no-pass game (beat Philadelphia 13-7).
1951 – President Truman named committee to monitor compliance with anti-discrimination provisions in U.S. government contracts and sub-contracts.
1953 – Eisenhower criticizes McCarthy for saying communists are in Republican party.
1955 – “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford topped the charts.
1956 – Wilt Chamberlain’s first collegiate basketball game (scores 52).
1960 – “Camelot” opened at the Majestic Theatre in New York City. Julie Andrews played the leading roles in the musical written by Lerner and Loewe. Robert Goulet also got rave reviews. “Camelot” had a run of 873 performances.
1960 – “Are You Lonesome Tonight?” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1961 – George Blanda of Houston Oilers kicks 55-yard field goal, AFL record.
1964 – Police arrest over 800 students at the University of California, Berkeley, following their takeover and sit-in at the administration building in protest at the UC Regents’ decision to forbid protests on UC property.
1964 – J. Raymond Jones elected leader of New York Democratic organization (Tammany Hall).
1964 – “Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer” first aired on television.
1966 – “Winchester Cathedral” by the New Vaudeville Band topped the charts.
1966 – The first Monkees concert was held, in Honolulu, HI.
1967 – At Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, a transplant team headed by Christiaan Barnard carries out the first heart transplant on a human (53-year-old Louis Washkansky).
1967 – The luxury train 20th Century Limited completes its last run from New York City to Chicago (the train was inaugurated on June 15, 1902).
1968 – The O’Kaysions received a gold record for “Girl Watcher“.
1968 – Elvis Presley’s NBC-TV special “Elvis” was aired.
1968 – The rules committee of Major League Baseball (MLB) announced that in 1969 the pitcher’s mound would be lowered from 15 to 10 inches. This was done in order to “get more batting action.”
1970 – The first Black Miss World was Jennifer Josephine Hosten who won the honor on this day.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS -“Papa Was a Rollin’ Stone” by The Temptations, “I Am Woman” by Helen Reddy, “If You Don’t Know Me by Now” by Harold Melvin & The Bluenotes and “She’s Too Good to Be True” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1973 – Pioneer program: Pioneer 10 sends back the first close-up images of Jupiter. It reached its closest point to Jupiter, 130,000 Km above ten Jovian cloud tops.
1973 – Ringo Starr released the song “You’re Sixteen.” It was his second straight number one single.
1976 – Fidel Castro was elected president of Cuba.
1977 – “You Light Up My Life” by Debbie Boone topped the charts.
1977 – “Simple Dreams“, sung by Linda Ronstadt captures #1 spot.
1977 – The State Department proposed the admission of 10,000 more Vietnamese refugees to the United States.
1979 – In Cincinnati, Ohio, eleven fans are killed during a stampede for seats before a Who concert at Riverfront Coliseum.
1979 – The last AMC Pacer rolled off the assembly line at American Motors in Kenosha, WI.
1979 – Shadow Traffic begins broadcasting in the New York City metropolitan area. Shadow Broadcast Services is a traffic reporting service owned by Westwood One.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS -“Woman in Love” by Barbra Streisand, “Another One Bites the Dust” by Queen, “He’s So Shy” by Pointer Sisters and “If You Ever Change Your Mind” by Crystal Gayle all topped the charts.
1980 – U.S. Representatives Frank Thompson, Jr. (D-NJ) and John Murphy (D-NY) were convicted on Abscam charges. Abscam (sometimes ABSCAM) was a FBI sting operation run in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The operation initially targeted trafficking in stolen property but was converted to a public corruption investigation.
1980 – Bernadine Dohrn, a former leader of the radical Weather Underground, surrendered to authorities in Chicago after more than a decade as a fugitive.
1982 – A soil sample is taken from Times Beach, Missouri that will be found to contain 300 times the safe level of dioxin.
1983 – In his last season as basketball coach of DePaul, Ray Meyer won game #700.
1983 – “All Night Long (All Night)” by Lionel Richie topped the charts.
1983 – Three-foot-high concrete barriers were installed at two White House entrances.
1984 – Bhopal Disaster: A methyl isocyanate leak from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, kills more than 3,800 people outright and injures 150,000-600,000 others (some 6,000 of whom would later die from their injuries) in one of the worst industrial disasters in history.
1984 – Oldest groom – Harry Stevens, 103, weds Thelma Lucas, 83, in Wisconsin.
1988 – Barry Sanders of Oklahoma State University won the Heisman Trophy.
1989 – Cold War: In a meeting off the coast of Malta, US President George H. W. Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev release statements indicating that the cold war between their nations may be coming to an end (some commentators from both nations exaggerated the wording and independently declared the Cold War over).
1990 – At Detroit Metropolitan Airport, Northwest Airlines Flight 1482 collides with Northwest Airlines Flight 299 on the runway, killing eight passengers and four crew members aboard flight 1482.
1994 – “On Bended Knee” by Boyz II Men topped the charts.
1996 – The Justice Department barred 16 Japanese army veterans suspected of World War II atrocities from entering the United States.
1997 – President Clinton hosted his first town hall meeting on America’s race relations in Akron, Ohio.
1997 – Latrell Sprewell will live in infamy as the player who attacked and threatened to kill his coach. During a Golden State Warriors practice in 1997, Sprewell snapped, choking P.J. Carlesimo before returning about 20 minutes later to continue the assault.
1998 – Republicans jettisoned campaign fund-raising from their inquiry of President Clinton, clearing the way for a historic House Judiciary Committee vote on articles of impeachment over President Clinton’s relationship with Monica Lewinsky and his effort to cover it up.
1998 – The movie “Shakespeare in Love” premiered.
1998 – Digital MP3 file-squishing technology was reported as a threat to recording industry. MPEG Layer 3 was a compression technology that allowed CD quality music to be sent over the Internet.
1998 – A scientific report from the Multispecies Monitoring Committee said that the cod fishing in the Gulf of Maine has collapsed due to overfishing.
1999 – NASA loses radio contact with the Mars Polar Lander moments before the spacecraft enters the Martian atmosphere.
1999 – In Worcester, Mass., six firefighters died after four tried to rescue two who were in trouble in a burning warehouse.
1999 – Tori Murden became the first woman to row across the Atlantic Ocean alone. It took her 81 days to row 2,962 miles to reach the French Caribbean island of Guadeloupe from the Canary Islands.
1999 – The Mars Polar Lander touched down at the Martian South Pole. Two probes burrowed into the polar surface to test for water and carbon dioxide. NASA failed to make contact with the $165 million lander following setdown.
2000 – Space shuttle Endeavour’s astronauts attached the world’s largest, most powerful set of solar panels to the international space station.
2000 – Sandra Baldwin was elected the first female president of the U.S. Olympic Committee. Baldwin resigned in May 2002 after she admitted lying about her academic credentials.
2001 – Tom Ridge, Director of Homeland Security, ordered a state of high alert across the US to at least the end of Ramadan in two weeks.
2001 – Dean Kamen, inventor, unveiled his battery-powered, 12 mph Segway Human Transporter in New York City.
2001 – A test US anti-missile launched from Kwajalein atoll in the Marshall Islands successfully hit a dummy warhead from Vandenberg Air Base in California, 4,800 miles away.
2001 – In New Jersey Judge Clarkson S. Fisher began jailing striking teachers, who defied his back-to-work order.
2002 – Thousands of personnel files released under a court order showed that the Archdiocese of Boston went to great lengths to hide priests accused of abuse, including clergy who allegedly snorted cocaine and had sex with girls aspiring to be nuns.
2003 – A California state commission denied a Texas company’s plan to sell GloFish, genetically-altered glow-in-the-dark fish.
2003 – US federal authorities arrested 57 Hells Angels Motorcycle club members in five Western states on drugs, firearms and racketeering charges. The charges stemmed from a casino brawl in Laughlin, Nev., in Apr. 2002 that left three dead.
2003 – A Colorado state judge in Denver declared a new school voucher plan to be unconstitutional.
2004 – Tommy G. Thompson (63), US Secretary of Health and Human services, announced his resignation and expressed concern over the threat of global flu and the possibility of a terrorist attack on the nation’s food supply.
2005 – Retired Navy vice admiral Frederick L. “Dick” Ashworth, the weaponeer aboard the B-29 that dropped the atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan, died in Phoenix at age 93.
2005 – XCOR Aerospace makes first manned rocket aircraft delivery of US Mail in Mojave, California.
2007 – US Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson proposed a freeze on interest rates on loans made to millions of risky borrowers. Resistance by the mortgage industry was expected.
2007 – Devastating winter storms caused the Chehalis River to flood many cities in Lewis County, Washington, also closing a twenty-mile portion of Interstate 5 for several days. At least eight deaths and billions of dollars of damaged are blamed on the floods.
2007 – The US national debt was reported to be expanding by about $1.4 billion a day, or nearly $1 million a minute.
2007 – Former commissioner Bowie Kuhn was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame; former Dodgers owner Walter O’Malley, managers Dick Williams and Billy Southworth and ex-Pirates owner Barney Dreyfuss also were elected.
2007 – AT&T said that it planned to leave the rapidly shrinking pay-phone business.
2008 – In Puerto Rico a Rockwell International 690B plane slammed into El Yunque mountain, killing Caribbean pilot Ken Webster and two US tourists on board. A spokesman for the Medical Mutual of Ohio health insurance company later identified the two Americans as Kent W. Clapp, the firm’s chief executive, and his fiancee, Tracy Turner.
2009 – The IRS auctioned 7,100 acres of Crow creek Sioux tribal land near Pierre, South Dakota to help pay off over $3 million in back taxes. The land sold for $2.6 million.
2009 – Wisconsin police found the bodies of two women and their two young daughters shot to death in Madison. Police searched for Tyrone Adair (38), the father linked to the deaths of his two young daughters and their mothers. Adair was found dead of suspected suicide in his SUV on Dec 7.
2010 – In response to the WikiLeaks release, U.S. Congressman Ron Paul of Texas calls for WikiLeaks to receive similar protections to mainstream media, saying when “truth becomes treason, then we’re in big trouble”.
2010 – Spokesperson for WikiLeaks, Julian Assange, calls for Canadian prime minister Stephen Harper’s former chief of staff Tom Flanagan to be charged with “incitement to commit murder” after Flanagan urged Barack Obama to “put out a contract” and “assassinate” Assange.
2010 – The Boeing X-37B, an Air Force unmanned spaceplane, lands at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, at 1:16am PST (0916 UTC) after 7 1/2 months in space.
2012 – State police resumed moving millions of pounds of explosives that had been haphazardly stashed in warehouses in Louisiana, prompting hundreds to evacuate from harm’s way in case any of it exploded.
2013 – The House of Representatives have approved a bill that will extend the Undetectable Firearms Act (UFA) ban on manufacturing plastic guns because they are not detectable by security-screening devices.
1755 – Gilbert Stuart, (d. 1828) was an American painter from Rhode Island.
1826 – George B. McClellan, American CIVIL WAR general (d. 1885)
1838 – Cleveland Abbe, (d. 1916) was a famous American meteorologist and advocate of time zones.
1842 – Charles Alfred Pillsbury, American industrialist (d. 1899) was a U.S. flour industrialist and the founder & namesake of the Pillsbury Company.
1927 – Andy Williams, is an American pop singer. Andy Williams has recorded 18 gold and three platinum certified albums.
1937 – Bobby Allison, is a former NASCAR Winston Cup driver and was named one of NASCAR’s 50 greatest drivers.
1951 – Rick Mears, is a retired American race car driver. He is the third of three men to have won the Indianapolis 500-Mile Race four times
1952 – Benny Hinn, a televangelist, best known for his regular “Miracle Crusades” – revival meeting/faith healing summits that are usually held in large stadiums in major cities, which are later broadcast worldwide on his television program,
1963 – Terri Schiavo, center of right to die case (d. 2005) The Terri Schiavo case was an attempt by the parents of Terri Schiavo to intervene and nullify the will of Terri Schiavo’s husband, Michael Schiavo, and later the State authority as it determined what Terri’s will was, to end her biological life.
*HOLCOMB, JOHN NOBLE
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 2d Battalion, 7th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Near Quan Loi, Republic of Vietnam, December 3rd, 1968. Entered service at: Corvallis, Oreg. Born: 11 June 1946, Baker, Oreg. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Holcomb distinguished himself while serving as a squad leader in Company D during a combat assault mission. Sgt. Holcomb’s company assault had landed by helicopter and deployed into a hasty defensive position to organize for a reconnaissance-in-force mission when it was attacked from three sides by an estimated battalion-size enemy force. Sgt. Holcomb’s squad was directly in the path of the main enemy attack. With complete disregard for the heavy fire, Sgt. Holcomb moved among his men giving encouragement and directing fire on the assaulting enemy. When his machine gunner was knocked out, Sgt. Holcomb seized the weapon, ran to a forward edge of the position, and placed withering fire on the enemy. His gallant actions caused the enemy to withdraw. Sgt. Holcomb treated and carried his wounded to a position of safety and reorganized his defensive sector despite a raging grass fire ignited by the incoming enemy mortar and rocket rounds. When the enemy assaulted the position a second time, Sgt. Holcomb again manned the forward machine gun, devastating the enemy attack and forcing the enemy to again break contact and withdraw. During the enemy withdrawal an enemy rocket hit Sgt. Holcomb’s position, destroying his machine gun and severely wounding him. Despite his painful wounds, Sgt. Holcomb crawled through the grass fire and exploding mortar and rocket rounds to move the members of his squad, everyone of whom had been wounded, to more secure positions. Although grievously wounded and sustained solely by his indomitable will and courage, Sgt. Holcomb as the last surviving leader of his platoon organized his men to repel the enemy, crawled to the platoon radio and reported the third enemy assault on his position. His report brought friendly supporting fires on the charging enemy and broke the enemy attack. Sgt. Holcomb’s inspiring leadership, fighting spirit, in action at the cost of his life were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
PAGE, JOHN U. D.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, X Corps Artillery, while attached to the 52d Transportation Truck Battalion. Place and date: Near Chosin Reservoir, Korea, 29 November to 10 December 1950. Entered service at: St. Paul, Minn. Born: 8 February 1904, Malahi Island, Luzon, Philippine Islands. G.O. No.: 21, 25 April 1957. Citation: Lt. Col. Page, a member of X Corps Artillery, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty in a series of exploits. On 29 November, Lt. Col. Page left X Corps Headquarters at Hamhung with the mission of establishing traffic control on the main supply route to 1st Marine Division positions and those of some Army elements on the Chosin Reservoir plateau. Having completed his mission Lt. Col. Page was free to return to the safety of Hamhung but chose to remain on the plateau to aid an isolated signal station, thus being cut off with elements of the Marine division. After rescuing his jeep driver by breaking up an ambush near a destroyed bridge Lt. Col. Page reached the lines of a surrounded Marine garrison at Koto-ri. He then voluntarily developed and trained a reserve force of assorted army troops trapped with the Marines. By exemplary leadership and tireless devotion he made an effective tactical unit available. In order that casualties might be evacuated, an airstrip was improvised on frozen ground partly outside of the Koto-ri defense perimeter which was continually under enemy attack. During two such attacks, Lt. Col. Page exposed himself on the airstrip to direct fire on the enemy, and twice mounted the rear deck of a tank, manning the machine gun on the turret to drive the enemy back into a no man’s land. On December 3rd, while being flown low over enemy lines in a light observation plane, Lt. Col. Page dropped handgrenades on Chinese positions and sprayed foxholes with automatic fire from his carbine. After 10 days of constant fighting the Marine and Army units in the vicinity of the Chosin Reservoir had succeeded in gathering at the edge of the plateau and Lt. Col. Page was flown to Hamhung to arrange for artillery support of the beleaguered troops attempting to break out. Again Lt. Col. Page refused an opportunity to remain in safety and returned to give every assistance to his comrades. As the column slowly moved south Lt. Col. Page joined the rear guard. When it neared the entrance to a narrow pass it came under frequent attacks on both flanks. Mounting an abandoned tank Lt. Col. Page manned the machine gun, braved heavy return fire, and covered the passing vehicles until the danger diminished. Later when another attack threatened his section of the convoy, then in the middle of the pass, Lt. Col. Page took a machine gun to the hillside and delivered effective counterfire, remaining exposed while men and vehicles passed through the ambuscade. On the night of 10 December the convoy reached the bottom of the pass but was halted by a strong enemy force at the front and on both flanks. Deadly small-arms fire poured into the column. Realizing the danger to the column as it lay motionless, Lt. Col. Page fought his way to the head of the column and plunged forward into the heart of the hostile position. His intrepid action so surprised the enemy that their ranks became disordered and suffered heavy casualties. Heedless of his safety, as he had been throughout the preceding ten days, Lt. Col. Page remained forward, fiercely engaging the enemy single-handed until mortally wounded. By his valiant and aggressive spirit Lt. Col. Page enabled friendly forces to stand off the enemy. His outstanding courage, unswerving devotion to duty, and supreme self-sacrifice reflect great credit upon Lt. Col. Page and are in the highest tradition of the military service.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company C, 4th US Infantry. Place and date: December 2nd to December 3rd, 1944, Schevenhutte, Germany. Entered service at: Texas. Born: June 19, 1920, La Morita, Mexico Departed: 6/24/1952 Date of Issue: 3/18/2014
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Private Pedro Cano distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving with Company C, 8th Infantry Regiment, 4th Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Schevenhutte, Germany on December 2 and 3, 1944. On the afternoon of the 2nd, American infantrymen launched an attack against German emplacements but were repulsed by enemy machinegun fire. Armed with a rocket launcher, Private Cano crawled through a densely mined area under heavy enemy fire and successfully reached a point within ten yards of the nearest emplacement. He quickly fired a rocket into the position, killing the two gunners and five supporting riflemen. Without hesitating, he fired into a second position, killing two more gunners, and proceeded to assault the position with hand grenades, killing several others and dispersing the rest. Then, when an adjacent company encountered heavy fire, Private Cano crossed his company front, crept to within fifteen yards of the nearest enemy emplacement and killed the two machinegunners with a rocket. With another round he killed two more gunners and destroyed a second gun. On the following day, his company renewed the attack and again encountered heavy machinegun fire. Private Cano, armed with his rocket launcher, again moved across fire-swept terrain and destroyed three enemy machineguns in succession, killing the six gunners. Private Cano’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
HENRY, ROBERT T.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Luchem, Germany, December 3rd, 1944. Entered service at: Greenville, Miss. Birth: Greenville, Miss. G.O. No.: 45, 12 June 1945. Citation: Near Luchem, Germany, he volunteered to attempt the destruction of a nest of five enemy machineguns located in a bunker 150 yards to the flank which had stopped the advance of his platoon. Stripping off his pack, overshoes, helmet, and overcoat, he sprinted alone with his rifle and hand grenades across the open terrain toward the enemy emplacement. Before he had gone half the distance he was hit by a burst of machinegun fire. Dropping his rifle, he continued to stagger forward until he fell mortally wounded only ten yards from the enemy emplacement. His single-handed attack forced the enemy to leave the machineguns. During this break in hostile fire the platoon moved forward and overran the position. Pvt. Henry, by his gallantry and intrepidity and utter disregard for his own life, enabled his company to reach its objective, capturing this key defense and seventy German prisoners.
WEICHT, ELLIS R.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company F, 142d Infantry, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date St. Hippolyte, France, December 3rd, 1944. Entered service at: Bedford, Pa. Birth: Clearville, Pa. G.O. No.: 58, 19 July 1945. Citation: For commanding an assault squad in Company F’s attack against the strategically important Alsatian town of St. Hippolyte on 3 December 1944. He aggressively led his men down a winding street, clearing the houses of opposition as he advanced. Upon rounding a bend, the group was suddenly brought under the fire of two machineguns emplaced in the door and window of a house 100 yards distant. While his squad members took cover, Sgt. Weicht moved rapidly forward to a high rock wall and, fearlessly exposing himself to the enemy action, fired two clips of ammunition from his rifle. His fire proving ineffective, he entered a house opposite the enemy gun position, and, firing from a window, killed the two hostile gunners. Continuing the attack, the advance was again halted when two 20-mm. guns opened fire on the company. An artillery observer ordered friendly troops to evacuate the area and then directed artillery fire upon the gun positions. Sgt. Weicht remained in the shelled area and continued to fire on the hostile weapons. When the barrage lifted and the enemy soldiers attempted to remove their gun, he killed two crewmembers and forced the others to flee. Sgt. Weicht continued to lead his squad forward until he spotted a road block approximate one-hundred twenty-five yards away. Moving to the second floor of a nearby house and firing from a window, he killed three and wounded several of the enemy. Instantly becoming a target for heavy and direct fire, he disregarded personal safety to continue his fire, with unusual effectiveness, until he was killed by a direct hit from an antitank gun.
Pearl Harbor Attack 5 days away – 1941
It wasn’t until 1952 that Eduard Haas introduced his product to the United States. Tto make their product more appealing to Americans. They placed heads on the dispensers and marketed it for children. It is unknown which dispenser was first but it was either the Full Body Robot or Full Body Santa. Then in 1955 PEZ started with different flavors and different dispensers. The major change to the dispenser was the placing of heads on the dispensers and marketed them for children. Santa Claus and Mickey Mouse were among the first character dispensers. Since 1950, over 1500 Pez dispensers, including the original character dispensers have been created.
With great tasting flavors and collectable dispensers, PEZ is more than just a candy…it’s the pioneer of “interactive candy” that is both enjoyable to eat and fun to play with. PEZ Dispensers are a hot collectable for adults and children alike as well as being a staple and part of American pop culture. New character dispensers are introduced regularly to capitalize on current trends. Available around the world in more than 60 countries, PEZ Candy and Dispensers truly have universal appeal. Today, over 3 billion PEZ Candies are consumed annually in the U.S.A. alone.
“When you get into a tight place and everything goes against you, till it seems as though you could not hang on a minute longer, never give up then, for that is just the place and time that the tide will turn.”
~Harriet Beecher Stowe
tirade \TY-raid; tih-RAID\, noun:
A long angry speech; a violent denunciation; a prolonged outburst full of censure or abuse.
1763 – Dedication of the Touro Synagogue, in Newport, Rhode Island, the first synagogue in what became the United States.
1775 – Congress orders first Navy officers commissions printed.
1775 – The USS Alfred becomes the first vessel to fly the Grand Union Flag (the precursor to the Stars and Stripes); the flag is hoisted by John Paul Jones.
1776 – George Washington’s army began retreating across the Delaware River from New Jersey to Pennsylvania.
1777 – British officers under Gen. Howe met in the Philadelphia home of Lydia Darragh to discuss plans to the attack American forces on December 5, just prior to Gen. Washington’s planned move to Valley Forge. Mrs. Darragh, a woman much like Betsy Ross, listened in on the plans and sent word to White-marsh of the impending attack. She was a firm, devout Quaker who did not let her religion keep her from protecting her country and loved ones.
1812 – James Madison was re-elected president of US; Elbridge Gerry was vice-president.
1816 – The first savings bank in the U.S., the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society, opened for business.
1823 – Monroe Doctrine: US President James Monroe delivers a speech establishing American neutrality in future European conflicts.
1840 – William Henry Harrison was elected president of US. Whig candidate William Henry Harrison, Old Buckeye, and his running mate John Tyler ran and won in a landslide against Democrat President Martin Van Buren.
1845 – Manifest Destiny: US President James K. Polk announces to Congress that the United States should aggressively expand into the West.
1859 – Militant abolitionist leader John Brown is hanged for his October 16th raid on Harper’s Ferry. He was executed on charges of charges of treason, murder, and insurrection.
1861 – The small Oregon town of Champoeg is flooded by the Willamette River. No deaths occurred. Champoeg (Sham poo) is best known as the site of a series of meetings held in the town during the 1840s. On February 7, 1841 Willamette Valley settlers convened there for the first time. They selected Oregon missionary Jason Lee as their chairman and considered measures to deal with problem of wolves menacing their settlements. It was to be the first in a series of “Wolf meetings” at the town site that would establish the basis of civil codes.
1864 – Civil War: Major General Grenville M. Dodge was named to replace General Rosecrans as Commander of the Department of Missouri.
1864 – Civil War: Skirmish at Rocky Creek Church, Georgia.
1867 – In a New York City theater, British author Charles Dickens gives his first public reading in the United States. The effort and passion he put into these readings with individual character voices is also thought to have contributed to his death.
1899 – Philippine-American War: The Battle of Tirad Pass, termed “The Filipino Thermopylae”, is fought. The Philippine–American War (1899 – 1902/1913) was an armed military conflict between the United States and the Philippines, which arose from the First Philippine Republic struggle against U.S. annexation of the Islands. This conflict is also known as the Philippine Insurrection.
1901 – King Camp Gillette begins selling safety razor blades. Gillette and Nickerson formed the American Safety Razor Company (soon thereafter renamed for Gillette himself). For the first time, razor blades would be sold in multiple packages, with the razor handle a one-time purchase. Prior to this he was a bottle-cap salesman.
1916 – Baseball players who are injured now get full pay for duration of contract.
1917 – World War I: Hostilities were suspended on the eastern front.
1920 – The Blanch King, a schooner, was ship wrecked on the coral reefs just southwest of Bermuda.
1926 – The first aluminum streetcars were put in service in Cleveland, Ohio.
1927 – Following 19 years of Ford Model T production, the Ford Motor Company unveils the Ford Model A as its new automobile. The price of a Model A roadster was $395.
1930 – Great Depression: US President Herbert Hoover goes before Congress and asks for a $150 million public works program to help generate jobs and stimulate the economy.
1932 – “Adventures of Charlie Chan” (26:19) first heard on NBC-Blue radio network.
1933 – The first transatlantic wedding took place. The groom was in Michigan. The bride was in Sweden. The ceremony took seven minutes and cost $47.50. Cheap wedding!
1933 – Fred Astaire’s first film, “Dancing Lady” is released. To Live In The 20’s
1939 – New York City’s La Guardia Airport opens.
1941 – Largest roller skating rink (outside of New York City) opens in Peekskill NY.
1941 – Naval Intelligence ended the bugging of the Japanese consul.
1941 – World War II: Yamamoto ordered his fleet to Pearl Harbor. A special code order “Climb Mount Niitaka” is transmitted by Japanese naval headquarters to their carrier force bound for Hawaii.
1942 – Manhattan Project: A team, led by Enrico Fermi, initiate the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction at a laboratory below the stands at the University of Chicago football stadium.
1943 – “Carmen Jones” opened on Broadway.
1943 – World War II: During the night (December 2-3) German bombers raid Bari, Italy. An ammunition ship in the harbor is hit and explodes, sinking 18 transports of 70,000 tons and 38,000 tons of supplies.
1944 – World War II: Elements of the US 3rd Army reach Saarlautern. To the south, the US 7th Army advances to the Rhine river after the Germans have withdrawn across it at Kehl.
1944 – Two-day destroyer Battle of Ormoc Bay begins.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Near You” by The Francis Craig Orchestra (vocal: Bob Lamm), “You Do” By Dinah Shore, “And Mimi” by Art Lund and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1947 – The thirteenth Heisman Trophy Award was awarded to John Lujack, Notre Dame (QB).
1950 – “The Thing” by Phil Harris topped the charts.
1950 – In the Chosin/Changjin Reservoir Area, 1st Marine Division elements began the fighting withdrawal from Yudam-ni to Hagaru-ri. The subzero weather earned the area the title “Frozen Chosin” from the Marines and soldiers who fought there.
Film: With The Marines/Chosin to Hungnam
1951 – Philadelphia sets NFL record of 25 first-downs rushing.
1952 – First human birth televised to public (KOA-TV Denver CO) It was a part of the program, “The March of Medicine”.
1952 – PEZ Candies issued Patent: 2,620,061.
1954 – Red Scare: The United States Senate votes 65 to 22 to condemn Joseph McCarthy for “conduct that tends to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute.” The condemnation, which was equivalent to a censure, related to McCarthy’s controversial investigation of allegedly suspected communists in the U.S. government, military and civilian society.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford, “I Hear You Knocking” by Gale Storm, “Memories are Made of This” by Dean Martin and , ”Love, Love, Love” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1956 – The Granma yacht reaches the shores of Cuba’s Oriente province and Fidel Castro, Che Guevara and 80 other members of the 26th of July Movement disembark to initiate the Cuban Revolution.
1957 – The first large-scale nuclear power plant in the world began operating in Shippingport, Pennsylvania exactly 15 years after Enrico Fermi demonstrated the first sustained nuclear reaction. The Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh built and operated the Shippingport plant.
1957 – Sam Cooke’s “You Send Me” reaches #1.
1959 – “Behind the Great Wall”, a truly stinking motion picture, was seen at the Mayfair Theatre in New York City. A somewhat noxious scent was piped through the ceiling vents during certain portions of the show. The effect was called Aromarama. It didn’t catch on…
1961 – In a nationally-broadcast speech, Cuban leader Fidel Castro declares that he is a Marxist-Leninist and that Cuba is going to adopt Communism.
1961 – “Big Bad John” by Jimmy Dean topped the charts
1962 – Vietnam War: After a trip to Vietnam at the request of US President John F. Kennedy, US Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield becomes the first American official to not make an optimistic public comment on the war’s progress.
1963 –CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Leaving It Up to You” by Dale & Grace, “Dominique “ by The Singing Nun in English in French, “Everybody” by Tommy Roe and “Love’s Gonna Live Here “ by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1963 – The USS Josephus Daniels was launched from the Bath Iron Works in Maine.The Destroyer is named for the North Carolina-born Secretary of the Navy, Josephus Daniels, who served between 1913 and 1921.
1965 – USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) and USS Bainbridge (DLGN-25) become first nuclear-powered task unit used in combat operations with launch of air strikes near Bien Hoa, Vietnam.
1967 – “Daydream Believer” by the Monkees topped the charts.
1967 – Singer Jimmie Rodgers (“Honeycomb“, “Kisses Sweeter Than Wine“) was found in a car in Los Angeles, near death, suffering from a fractured skull. He had been the victim of a “mysterious assault”.
1969 – Boeing 747 jumbo jet first public preview (Seattle WA to New York NY).
1969 – A patent was granted to Marie V.B. Brown for a television-based home security system.
1970 – The United States Environmental Protection Agency begins operations. The first director was William Ruckelshaus.
1970 – The US Senate voted to give 48,000 acres of New Mexico back to the Taos Indians.
1971 – Imus began broadcasting on WNBC/New York and while there, he gained national recognition.
1972 – A large sinkhole developed near Calera in Shelby County, Alabama in a matter of seconds. It has been called the “December Giant”.The sink is about 300 feet in diameter and 100 feet deep. This sinkhole occurred during a drought when the water table was much lower than normal.
1972 – “Papa Was a Rolling Stone” by the Temptations topped the charts.
1975 – Ohio State running back Archie Griffin becomes the first person ever to win the Heisman Trophy twice. He will play for the Cincinnati Bengals and be elected to the National Football Hall of Fame in 1986.
1976 – Fidel Castro becomes President of Cuba replacing Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado. He was a Cuban politician who served as President of Cuba from 17 July 1959 until 2 December 1976.
1978 – Neil Diamond & Barbra Streisand’s “You Don’t Bring Me Flowers” hits #1.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS -“No More Tears (Enough is Enough)” by Barbra Streisand/Donna Summer, “Babe” by Styx, “Please Don’t Go” by K.C. & The Sunshine Band and “Broken Hearted Me” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.
1979 – Libyans ransacked the US embassy at Tripoli, Libya, chanting support for the radical Islamic regime that took power in Iran earlier in the year.
1980 – Four U.S. nuns and churchwomen, Ita Ford, Maura Clarke, Jean Donovan, and Dorothy Kazel, are murdered by a death squad in El Salvador.
1980 – Pres. Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act and protected 104 million acres of wilderness. The size of Denali National Park was tripled to 6.2 million acres.
1982 -Barney Clark, a 62-year-old retired dentist, became the first person to receive a permanent artificial heart. He survived 112 days.
1985 – The highest-rated “Monday Night Football” telecast was seen this night on ABC-TV. The Miami Dolphins beat the Chicago Bears, 38-24. The Miami win snapped the Bears’ 12-game winning streak.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “(I’ve Had) The Time of My Life” by Bill Medley & Jennifer Warnes, “Heaven is a Place on Earth” by Belinda Carlisle, “Should’ve Known Better” by Richard Marx and “Lynda” by Steve Wariner all topped the charts.
1988 – STS-27 Atlantis launched (Secret military mission)
1988 – “Naked Gun” premieres, a movie based on TV’s “Police Squad”.
1989 – “Blame It on the Rain” by Milli Vanilli topped the charts.
1989 – Andre Ware of the University of Houston becomes the first African American quarterback to win the Heisman Trophy.
1990 – The Midwest section of the U.S. prepared for a massive earthquake predicted to occur around New Madrid, MO by Iben Browning. Nothing happened. As late as this year (2013) the prediction includes a massive earthquake along the New Madrid Fault. It kills or injures 60,000 people in Tennessee. A quarter of a million people are homeless. The Memphis airport — the country’s largest air terminal for packages —shuts down. Major oil and gas pipelines across Tennessee rupture, causing shortages in the Northeast.
1991 – Apple releases the first version of QuickTime.
1991 – American hostage Joseph Cicippio was released by his kidnappers. He had been held captive in Lebanon for over five years.
1993 – Colombian drug trafficker Pablo Escobar was killed in a shoot-out with police and soldiers in the Colombian city of Medellin.
1993 – An unemployed man opened fire at an unemployment agency in Oxnard, CA. He killed three workers at the location and a police officer during a chase.
1993 – Space Shuttle program: STS-61 – NASA launches the Space Shuttle Endeavour on a mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope.
1994 – The U.S. government agreed not to seek a recall of allegedly fire-prone General Motors pickup trucks. Instead a deal was made with GM under which the company would spend more than $51 million on safety and research.
1994 – In Pensacola, FL, Paul Hill was given two life sentences for murdering a doctor and security guard outside an abortion clinic in July 1994.
1995 – “One Sweet Day” by Mariah Carey & Boyz II Men topped the charts.
1997 – The US FDA approved irradiation as a safe way to rid meat of bacteria.
2001 – Enron, the giant Houston energy trading company, its stock nearly worthless, became the largest firm to file for bankruptcy.
2001 – U.S. forces in Afghanistan captured John Walker Lindh, 20, a U.S. citizen from San Anselmo, Calif., found fighting with the Taliban.
2002 – The US Supreme Court agreed to decide whether minorities can be given a boost to get into universities. In June, a divided Court allowed the nation’s colleges and universities to select students based in part on race, but emphasized that race could not be the over-riding factor.
2003 – The Supreme Court ruled unanimously that after knocking, police don’t have to wait longer than 20 seconds before breaking into the home of a drug suspect.
2003 – GIMPS has confirmed that 220996011-1 is prime. At 6320430 decimal digits, it is easily the largest known prime number. 220996011-1 is the 40th known Mersenne prime and the 6th Mersenne prime discovered by GIMPS. This would be the equivalent of a 1 followed by 2.4 miles of 12-point zeros.
2004 – The U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary requests Ohio Secretary of State Ken Blackwell to respond to alleged voting irregularities.
2005 – Iraq: Ten U.S. Marines are killed following an insurgent roadside bomb attack in Falluja.
2005 – Kenneth Boyd becomes the 1,000th person to be executed in the United States since capital punishment was reinstated in 1976. Kenneth Lee Boyd (January 19, 1948 – December 2, 2005) was executed by the State of North Carolina. He was convicted of the March 4, 1988 murder in Stoneville of his wife, Julie Curry Boyd and her father Thomas Dillard Curry.
2006 – A sport utility vehicle driven by actor Lane Garrison (Prison Break) hit a tree in Beverly Hills, killing a 17-year-old passenger; Garrison was later sentenced to three years and four months in prison for drunken driving.
2008 – Detroit’s Big Three auto makers presented turnaround plans to Congress and sought $34 billion in aid.
2008 – The new Washington, DC, Capitol Visitor Center opened to the public. The 580,000 square-foot structure ended up costing $621 million, over twice the budgeted amount.
2008 – In Chicago federal prosecutors unveiled a series of elaborate sting operations aimed at officers who hired out to ride shotgun for drug deals and other criminal activities.
2009-The New York State Senate votes down gay marriage bill, 38-24.
2009 – Cocktail waitress Jaimee Grubbs provides evidence to reporters that she had an affair with golf legend Tiger Woods.
2010 – In the US diplomatic cables leak case, Amazon.com cuts off its access to the WikiLeaks website following “heavy political pressure” applied by Senator Joe Lieberman.
2010 – The House of Representatives voted to formally censure Representative Charlie Rangel of New York for financial misconduct despite pleas from the New York Democratic lawmaker and some of his colleagues for a reprimand, which is a lesser punishment. The House first voted against downgrading the punishment to reprimand 146 to 267.
2011 – In the U.S., the Agriculture Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives votes to issue a subpoena to Jon Corzine, former Governor of New Jersey, in connection with the collapse of MF Global and the disappearance of customer funds.
2011 – In Santa Clara, Ca., city officials announced that they have secured $850 million in funding for a new 49ers football stadium now estimated to cost $1.02 billion.
2012 – In southern California a smuggling vessel rammed a small US Coast Guard boat killing Terrell Horne III (34) near the Channel Islands west of Malibu. Two Mexican suspects were detained.
1694 – William Shirley, Colonial Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1771)
1738 – Richard Montgomery (d. 1775) was an Irish-American soldier who served as a major general in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War.
1754 – William Cooper, American judge, was the founder of Cooperstown, New York.
1760 – John Breckinridge, American politician (d. 1806) was a United States Senator and Attorney General.
1863 – Charles Ringling, American circus owner (d. 1926)
1885 – George Richards Minot, American physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize (d. 1950)
1902 – Howard Koch, (d. 1995) was an American screenwriter who was blacklisted by the Hollywood movie studio bosses in the 1950s.
1923 – Maria Callas, (d. 1977) was an American-born Greek soprano and perhaps the most renowned opera singer of the twentieth century.
1924 – Alexander M. Haig, Jr., is a retired four-star general in the United States Army
1925 – Julie Harris, is a American stage, screen, and television actress.
1931 – Edwin Meese, American politician served as the seventy-fifth Attorney General of the United States (1985-1988).
1968 – Lucy Liu, is an American actress. She became known for her role in the television series Ally McBeal (1998–2002)
*LEISY, ROBERT RONALD
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Infantry, Company B, 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Phuoc Long province, Republic of Vietnam, December 2nd, 1969. Entered service at: Seattle, Wash. Born: 1 March 1945, Stockton, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. 2d Lt. Leisy, Infantry, Company B, distinguished himself while serving as platoon leader during a reconnaissance mission. One of his patrols became heavily engaged by fire from a numerically superior enemy force located in a well-entrenched bunker complex. As 2d Lt. Leisy deployed the remainder of his platoon to rescue the beleaguered patrol, the platoon also came under intense enemy fire from the front and both flanks. In complete disregard for his safety, 2d Lt. Leisy moved from position to position deploying his men to effectively engage the enemy. Accompanied by his radio operator he moved to the front and spotted an enemy sniper in a tree in the act of firing a rocket-propelled grenade at them. Realizing there was neither time to escape the grenade nor shout a warning, 2d Lt. Leisy unhesitatingly, and with full knowledge of the consequences, shielded the radio operator with his body and absorbed the full impact of the explosion. This valorous act saved the life of the radio operator and protected other men of his platoon who were nearby from serious injury. Despite his mortal wounds, 2d Lt. Leisy calmly and confidently continued to direct the platoon’s fire. When medical aid arrived, 2d Lt. Leisy valiantly refused attention until the other seriously wounded were treated. His display of extraordinary courage and exemplary devotion to duty provided the inspiration and leadership that enabled his platoon to successfully withdraw without further casualties. 2d Lt. Leisy’s gallantry at the cost of his life are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
BARBER, WILLIAM E.
Rank and organization: Captain U.S. Marine Corps, commanding officer, Company F, 2d Battalion 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Chosin Reservoir area, Korea, 28 November to December 2nd, 1950. Entered service at: West Liberty, Ky. Born: 30 November 1919, Dehart, Ky. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of Company F in action against enemy aggressor forces. Assigned to defend a three-mile mountain pass along the division’s main supply line and commanding the only route of approach in the march from Yudam-ni to Hagaru-ri, Capt. Barber took position with his battle-weary troops and, before nightfall, had dug in and set up a defense along the frozen, snow-covered hillside. When a force of estimated regimental strength savagely attacked during the night, inflicting heavy casualties and finally surrounding his position following a bitterly fought seven-hour conflict, Capt. Barber, after repulsing the enemy gave assurance that he could hold if supplied by airdrops and requested permission to stand fast when orders were received by radio to fight his way back to a relieving force after two reinforcing units had been driven back under fierce resistance in their attempts to reach the isolated troops. Aware that leaving the position would sever contact with the 8,000 marines trapped at Yudam-ni and jeopardize their chances of joining the 3,000 more awaiting their arrival in Hagaru-ri for the continued drive to the sea, he chose to risk loss of his command rather than sacrifice more men if the enemy seized control and forced a renewed battle to regain the position, or abandon his many wounded who were unable to walk. Although severely wounded in the leg in the early morning of the 29th, Capt. Barber continued to maintain personal control, often moving up and down the lines on a stretcher to direct the defense and consistently encouraging and inspiring his men to supreme efforts despite the staggering opposition. Waging desperate battle throughout five days and six nights of repeated onslaughts launched by the fanatical aggressors, he and his heroic command accounted for approximately 1,000 enemy dead in this epic stand in bitter subzero weather, and when the company was relieved only eighty-two of his original two-hundred twenty men were able to walk away from the position so valiantly defended against insuperable odds. His profound faith and courage, great personal valor, and unwavering fortitude were decisive factors in the successful withdrawal of the division from the deathtrap in the Chosin Reservoir sector and reflect the highest credit upon Capt. Barber, his intrepid officers and men, and the U.S. Naval Service.
*JOHNSON, JAMES E.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company J, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Yudam-ni, Korea, December 2nd, 1950 (declared missing in action on 2 December 1950, and killed in action as of 2 November 1953). Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Born: 1 January 1926, Pocatello, Idaho. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a squad leader in a provisional rifle platoon composed of artillerymen and attached to Company J, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Vastly outnumbered by a well-entrenched and cleverly concealed enemy force wearing the uniforms of friendly troops and attacking his platoon’s open and unconcealed positions, Sgt. Johnson unhesitatingly took charge of his platoon in the absence of the leader and, exhibiting great personal valor in the face of a heavy barrage of hostile fire, coolly proceeded to move about among his men, shouting words of encouragement and inspiration and skillfully directing their fire. Ordered to displace his platoon during the fire fight, he immediately placed himself in an extremely hazardous position from which he could provide covering fire for his men. Fully aware that his voluntary action meant either certain death or capture to himself, he courageously continued to provide effective cover for his men and was last observed in a wounded condition single-handedly engaging enemy troops in close hand grenade and hand-to-hand fighting. By his valiant and inspiring leadership, Sgt. Johnson was directly responsible for the successful completion of the platoon’s displacement and the saving of many lives. His dauntless fighting spirit and unfaltering devotion to duty in the face of terrific odds reflect the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company I, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Gageby Creek, Indian Territory, December 2nd, 1874. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 23 April 1875. Citation: Courage while in command of a detachment.
BRUNER, LOUIS J.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 5th Indiana Cavalry. Place and date: At Walkers Ford, Tenn., December 2nd, 1863. Entered service at: Clifty Brumer, Ind. Birth: Monroe County, Ind. Date of issue: 9 March 1896. Citation: Voluntarily passed through the enemy’s lines under fire and conveyed to a battalion, then in a perilous position and liable to capture, information which enabled it to reach a point of safety.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1833, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Agawam as one of a volunteer crew of a powder boat which was exploded near Fort Fisher, December 2nd, 1864. The powder boat, towed in by the Wilderness to prevent detection by the enemy, cast off and slowly steamed to within 300 yards of the beach. After fuses and fires had been lit and a second anchor with short scope let go to assure the boat’s tailing inshore, the crew boarded the Wilderness and proceeded a distance of twelve miles from shore. Less than two hours later the explosion took place, and the following day fires were observed still burning at the forts.
National Awareness Day of Awareness Days To Be Aware of Events
Rosa Parks Day
Pearl Harbor Attack – 7 days away – 1941
Rosa McCauley was born in Tuskegee, Alabama, on 4th February, 1913. When Rosa was a child her mother, Leona McCauley, separated from her husband and moved to Montgomery. McCauley was a school teacher and encouraged her daughter to be active in the struggle for civil rights.
In 1932 Rosa married a barber, Raymond Parks. Both were members of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and Rosa served as the secretary of the Montgomery chapter.
During this period she became close friends with Philip Randolph, Edgar Nixon and Ella Baker. These activists worked within a range of different organizations. This included the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Established in 1942, by a group of students in Chicago, members were mainly pacifists who had been deeply influenced by Henry David Thoreau and the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi and the nonviolent civil disobedience campaign that he used successfully against British rule in India. The students became convinced that the same methods could be employed by blacks to obtain civil rights in America.
In early 1947, CORE announced plans to send eight white and eight black men into the Deep South to test the Supreme Court ruling that declared segregation in interstate travel unconstitutional. organized by George Houser and Bayard Rustin, the Journey of Reconciliation was to be a two week pilgrimage through Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Kentucky.
The Journey of Reconciliation began on 9th April, 1947. The team included George Houser, Bayard Rustin, James Peck, Igal Roodenko, Nathan Wright, Conrad Lynn, Wallace Nelson, Andrew Johnson, Eugene Stanley, Dennis Banks, William Worthy, Louis Adams, Joseph Felmet, Worth Randle and Homer Jack.
Members of the Journey of Reconciliation team were arrested several times. In North Carolina, two of the African Americans, Bayard Rustin and Andrew Johnson, were found guilty of violating the state’s Jim Crow bus statute and were sentenced to thirty days on a chain gang. However, Judge Henry Whitfield made it clear he found that behavior of the white men even more objectionable. He told Igal Roodenko and Joseph Felmet: “It’s about time you Jews from New York learned that you can’t come down her bringing your niggers with you to upset the customs of the South. Just to teach you a lesson, I gave your black boys thirty days, and I give you ninety.”
In Montgomery, like most towns in the Deep South, buses were segregated. Rosa Parks and other civil rights activists considered using these tactics in Montgomery. However, under pressure from the NAACP, this never took place. Thurgood Marshall, head of the NAACP’s legal department, was strongly against these tactics and warned that a “disobedience movement on the part of Negroes and their white allies, if employed in the South, would result in wholesale slaughter with no good achieved.”
In early 1955, Claudette Colvin, a 15-year-old African-American girl was dragged off a bus in Montgomery and arrested for not giving up her seat to a white person which was in keeping with the segregation laws of the time. Enraged by this treatment of African-Americans, the NAACP agreed to take up the Colvin incident as a test case. It believed that this would result in a similar outcome to the 1954 Supreme Court decision on segregation in education. However, the NAACP decided to drop the idea when they discovered that Colvin was pregnant. They knew that the authorities in Montgomery would use this against them in the propaganda war that would inevitably take place during this legal battle.
On the evening of December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested.
“I did not get on the bus to get arrested; I got on the bus to go home.”
But that is not what happened instead the headlines in the newspaper said,”
Woman Fingerprinted. Mrs. Rosa Parks, Negro Seamstress, whose Refusal to Move to the Back of a Bus.
New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection.
Rosa Parks: “Why do you push us around?”
Officer: “I don’t know but the law is the law and you’re under arrest.”
Rosa Parks, an African American, was arrested for disobeying an Alabama law requiring African-American passengers to relinquish seats to white passengers when the bus was full. Blacks also were required to sit at the back of the bus.
It was only at this stage, after consulting friends and family, that she decided to approach the NAACP and volunteer to become a test case. This was a brave decision as she knew it would result in persecution by the white authorities. For example, Parks was immediately fired from her tailoring job with Montgomery Fair.
A young, energetic pastor at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church by the name of Martin Luther King, Jr, agreed to help organize protests against bus segregation. It was decided that from 5th December, black people in Montgomery would refuse to use the buses until passengers were completely integrated. King was arrested and his house was fire-bombed. Edgar Nixon suffered the same fate. Others involved in the Montgomery Bus Boycott also had to endure harassment and intimidation, but the protest continued.
For thirteen months the 17,000 black people in Montgomery walked to work or obtained lifts from the small car-owning black population of the city. Eventually, the loss of revenue and a decision by the Supreme Court forced the Montgomery Bus Company to accept integration, and the boycott came to an end on 20th December, 1956. After the success of this campaign, Parks became known as the “mother of the Civil Rights Movement”.
“The ability to deal with people is as purchasable a commodity as sugar or coffee and I will pay more for that ability than any other under the sun.”
~ John D. Rockefeller
gundygut (GUHN-di-guht) noun
A voracious eater; a greedy person.
[From gundy, of unexplained origin + gut (belly).]
1641 – Massachusetts became the first colony to give statutory recognition to slavery. It was followed by Connecticut in 1650 and Virginia in 1661.
1814 – The shallow-draft steamboat Enterprise, completed in Pittsburgh under the direction of keelboat captain Henry Miller Shreve, left for New Orleans to deliver guns and ammunition to Gen. Jackson.
1824 – Since no candidate received a majority of the total Electoral College votes in the election. The presidential election was turned over to the U.S. House of Representatives. A deadlock developed among John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, William H. Crawford and Henry Clay with Jackson 32 votes shy of a majority. The House of Representatives is given the task to decide the winner (as stipulated by the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution). John Quincy Adams ended up the winner. He was reportedly the only bald-headed president.
1835 – Hans Christian Andersen publishes first book of fairy tales.
1842 – The first US naval officer condemned for mutiny, was hanged. Midshipman Philip Spencer (18) on the brig-of-war Somers was the officer in question.
1860 – Charles Dickens publishes the first installment of Great Expectations in his magazine All the Year Round.
1861 – Civil War: The U.S. gunboat Penguin seized the Confederate blockade runner Albion carrying supplies worth almost $100,000.
1862 – Civil War: In his State of the Union Address President Abraham Lincoln reaffirms the necessity of ending slavery as ordered ten weeks earlier in the Emancipation Proclamation.
1863 – Civil War: Belle Boyd, a Confederate spy, was released from prison in Washington.
1864 – Civil War: Skirmish at Millen Brutal, Georgia.
1864 – Civil War: Raid at Stoneman: Knoxville, Ten., to Saltville, Va.
1879 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s operetta, “H.M.S. Pinafore”, opened. Arthur Sullivan conducted the orchestra while William Gilbert played the role of a sailor in the chorus and in the Queen’s Nay-vee.
1881 – Virgil, Wyatt and Morgan Earp were exonerated in court for their action in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Ariz.
1885 – Although the exact date is unknown, the US Patent Office acknowledges Today as the first day Dr Pepper was served.
1887 – Sherlock Holmes first appeared in print: “Study in Scarlet.” Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s first story about the detective he named Sherlock Holmes was published in Beeton’s Christmas Annual.
1891 – The Canadian, Dr. James B. Naismith, sports figure, inventor, teacher, invented the game of basketball at the YMCA in Springfield, Mass. A janitor provided peach baskets instead of the requested boxes.
1896 – First certified public accountants received certificates in NY.
1897 – Strongman Louis Cyr withstands the pull of 4 horses.
1903 – First western movie released – “The Great Train Robbery.” Moviegoers screamed when the scene of an outlaw shooting directly into the camera was shown.
1904 – The Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis closed after seven months and twenty million visitors. Fingerprints were introduced to law enforcement for identity verification.
1908 – The US Department of Agriculture as of this day restricted opium imports to the US based on morphine content. Opium with under 3% morphine, which included opium for smoking, was restricted.
1913 – Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving assembly line.
1913 – The first drive-in automobile service station, built by Gulf Refining Co., opened in Pittsburgh.
1917 – Boys Town founded by Father Edward Flanagan west of Omaha Nebraska. In 1938, Spencer Tracy portrayed Father Flanagan in the movie, “Boys Town”, and won himself an Oscar.
1918 – US breweries shut down due to a September directive from President Wilson.
1918 – World War I: An American army of occupation entered Germany.
1919 – Lady Astor becomes first female member of the British Parliament to take her seat (she had been elected to that position on November 28).
1921 – The US Navy flew the first non-rigid dirigible to use helium; the C-7 traveled from Hampton Roads, Va., to Washington.
1922 – First skywriting over US-“Hello USA”-by Capt Turner, RAF.
1924 – “Lady Be Good” opened in New York City. Music by George Gershwin, Lyrics by Ira Gershwin, the play ran for 330 shows.
1925 – World War I aftermath: – The final Locarno Treaty is signed in London, establishing post-war territorial settlements.
1929 – Game of Bingo was invented by Edwin S. Lowe.
1933 – Rudolf Hess and Earnest Roehm became ministers in Hitler govt. Nazi storm troops become an official organ of the Reich.
1936 – Bell Labs tested coaxial cable for TV use.
1939 – Holocaust: Reichsfuhrer-SS Heinrich Himmler ordered the deportation of Polish Jews. In addition they were forced to wear Star of David armbands.
1941 – World War II: The first Civil Air Patrol in the U.S. was organized. CAP was created with Administrative Order 9, signed by New York Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia today. (www.CAP.gov).
1941 – World War II: Japanese emperor Hirohito signed a declaration of war. Japan’s Tojo rejected U.S. proposals for a Pacific settlement as fantastic and unrealistic.
1942 – World War II: Nationwide gasoline rationing went into effect in the United States.
1943 – World War II: President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin concluded their Tehran conference and agreed to Operation Overlord (D-Day).
1944 – Edward Stettinius Jr. becomes the last United States Secretary of State of the Roosevelt administration.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ole Buttermilk Sky” by The Kay Kyser Orchestra (vocal: Mike Douglas & The Campus Kids), “The Whole World is Singing My Song” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day), “Five Minutes More” by Tex Beneke and “Divorce Me C.O.D.” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1950 – In North Korea a US company of soldiers encountered a swarming Chinese assault near Kunu-ri. Army Sgt. Richard Desautels was among those captured and taken to a POW compound, known as Camp 5, near Pyoktong.
1951 – Gusting winds reached 69 miles per hour and closed the Golden Gate Bridge for about four hours it was the first-ever weather closure.
1952 – The New York Daily News reports the first successful sexual reassignment operation.
1953 – Walter Alston was named manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers He retired in 1976..
1953 – Playboy Magazine first published.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mr. Sandman” by The Chordettes, “Teach Me Tonight” by The De Castro Sisters, “The Naughty Lady of Shady Lane” by The Ames Brothers and “More and More” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1955 – In Montgomery, Alabama, seamstress Rosa Parks refuses to give her bus seat to a white man and is arrested for violating the city’s racial segregation laws, an incident which leads to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
1958 – Our Lady of the Angels School fire in Chicago, Illinois kills 92 children and three nuns when smoke, heat, fire, and toxic gasses cut off their normal means of escape through corridors and stairways.
1958 – The Rodgers and Hammerstein musical “Flower Drum Song” opened on Broadway.
1959 – Antarctic Treaty signed , which sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve and bans military activity on that continent.
1959 – The first color photograph of Earth was received from outer space. Photos had been taken of space and earth from space since 1949. This was the first color one.
1964 – Vietnam War: US President Lyndon B. Johnson and his top-ranking advisers meet to discuss plans to bomb North Vietnam.
1964 – Martin Luther King, Jr. spoke to J. Edgar Hoover about his slander campaign.
1968 – “Promises, Promises” opened on Broadway. The play ran for 1,281 performances.
1969 – Vietnam War: The first draft lottery in the United States is held since World War II.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Think I Love You “ by The Partridge Family, “The Tears of a Clown” by Smokey Robinson & The Miracles, “Montego Bay” by Bobby Bloom and “Endlessly” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1974 – A Boeing 727 carrying TWA Flight 514 crashes northwest of Dulles International Airport, killing all 92 people on-board.
1974 – The L.A. Skid Row slasher killed Charles Jackson (46), an alcoholic drifter. In 1975 police arrested Vaughn Greenwood, a black loner and homosexual, who had drifted back and forth between Chicago and California.
1975 – The long-running soap opera The Edge of Night switches networks to ABC after 19 years on CBS.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “MacArthur Park” by Donna Summer, “How Much I Feel” by Ambrosia, “You Don’t Bring Me Flowers” by Barbra Streisand & Neil Diamond and “Sweet Desire” by The Kendalls all topped the charts.
1980 – IBM delivered its first prototype PC to Microsoft. IBM selected Microsoft to create MS-DOS, the operating system for its first PC.
1980 – The US Justice Dept sued Yonkers, NY, citing racial discrimination.
1980 – IBM delivered its first prototype PC to Microsoft. IBM selected Microsoft to create MS-DOS, the operating system for its first PC.
1982 – At the University of Utah, Barney Clark becomes the first person to receive a permanent artificial heart.
1984 – Just eight days after his miracle pass to lead Boston College over Miami, Doug Flutie was named Heisman Trophy winner for the year.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Give Love a Bad Name” by Bon Jovi, “The Next Time I Fall” by Peter Cetera with Amy Grant, “Hip to Be Square” by Huey Lewis & The News and “Touch Me When We’re Dancing” by Alabama all topped the chart.
1986 – Lt. Col. Oliver North pleaded the fifth amendment before a Senate panel investigating the Iran Contra arms sale.
1987 – NASA announced that four companies — Boeing Aerospace, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics, General Electric’s Astro-Space Division and Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International — had been awarded contracts to help build a space station.
1991 – The space shuttle Atlantis safely returned from a shortened military mission.
1992 – In Mineola, N.Y., Amy Fisher was sentenced to five to 15 years in prison for shooting and seriously wounding Mary Jo Buttafuoco. Fisher was released in 1999 after serving 7 years.
1993 – US Navy Ensign George Smith shot and killed his ex-fiancée and a friend and then himself. In Oct. he had passed a Navy screening test to gauge his psychological fitness for nuclear submarine duty.
1993 – Eighteen people were killed when a Northwest Airlink commuter plane crashed in Minnesota.
1997 – President Clinton signed the 50 States Commemorative Coin Program Act into law.
1997 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Michael Carneal (14), student of the Heath High School in West Paducah, Kentucky, shot and killed Nicole Hadley (14), Jessica James (17) and Kayce Steger (15) – fellow students, who were attending a morning prayer. Five other students were wounded. He later pled guilty but mentally ill to murder charges and is serving life in prison. He is eligible for parole in 2023.
1997 – In California Latrell Sprewell, guard for the Golden State Warriors, choked and threatened coach P.J. Carlesimo. The Warriors quickly terminated Sprewell’s multi-million contract and the NBA then banned him from basketball for one year.
1997 – Westinghouse formally changed its name to CBS.
1998 – A nation-wide gun-buyer database was due to go into service.
1998 – Exxon announces a US$73.7 billion deal to buy Mobil, thus creating Exxon-Mobil, the largest company on the planet.
1998 – In Chicago a fire destroyed the historic Pullman building. The fire was set by an arsonist and it was the last building remaining in the Pullman Works factory.
1998 – WORD-LOVERS!!! Dutch and Flemish lexicographers unveiled a 40-tome dictionary with 45,000 pages that documented words back to 1500. It took 147 years to complete and compilers stopped at 1976.
1999 – An international team of scientists announced that they had virtually mapped all 34 million chemical letters of the number 22 human chromosome, the second smallest of the 23 pairs.
2000 – Vicente Fox is sworn-in as President of Mexico, ending the 75 year control of the PRI.
2001 – Trans World Airlines (TWA) flies its last flight, after being bought by American Airlines.
2002 – The US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) began rounding up over 2,650 wild horses in Nevada to prevent starving and rangeland destruction.
2003 – Boeing Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Phil Condit resigns, a week after the aviation giant fires its Chief Financial Officer in an ethics scandal.
2003 – US Rep. Bill Janklow went on trial in Flandreau, S.D., charged with manslaughter in the death of a motorcyclist who’d collided with his automobile. Janklow was convicted and served 100 days in jail.
2003 – Alfonso Rodriguez Jr. (50), described by authorities as a predatory sex offender was arrested in Crookston, Minn., and charged with kidnapping in the disappearance of Dru Sjodin, a North Dakota college student.
2004 – Tom Brokaw anchors his last broadcast of NBC Nightly News after 21 years. He was succeeded by Brian Williams.
2004 – The Pentagon said it will boost US troops in Iraq to 150,000.
2005 – A dog and its owner found the bodies of Sarah and Philip Gehring, two children who’d been fatally shot by their father and buried in rural Ohio.
2006 – In Berkeley, Ca., protesters began sitting in trees near Memorial Stadium which US Berkeley officials planned to cut in order to build an athletic training center. The last four protesters came down on December 9, 2008.
2006 – The United States warns of a possible al-Qaeda attack to disrupt the stock market and other financial institutions with a cyber attack.
2006 – US companies will need to keep track of all the e-mails, instant messages and other electronic documents generated by their employees thanks to new federal rules that go into effect today.
2007 – Roger Lee Dillon (22) and his girlfriend, Nicole N. Boyd (24), were arrested in Pipestem, West Virginia for the disappearance of $7 million in cash and checks from an Ohio armored car company, AT Systems, Youngstown. The disappearance of the money was discovered Nov 26. They face up to 25 years in prison on charges of conspiracy to steal money from a bank; conspiracy to transport stolen property across state lines; and transporting and aiding and abetting in that transportation.
2007 – The United States wins its first Davis Cup since 1995 taking an unbeatable 3-0 lead over Russia in the final in Portland, Oregon.
2007 – Police in Wichita, Kan., identified a body found days earlier as that of Emily Sander, a missing college student whose disappearance drew nationwide attention.
2007 – Cheryl Dunlap, a nurse from Crawfordsville, Florida, went missing. On Dec 16 her decapitated body was found in the Apalachicola National Forest.
2008 – President-elect Barack Obama announced that Robert Gates would remain as defense secretary. Obama picked former campaign rival Hillary Rodham Clinton as Secretary of State.
2008 – In Alabama mayor Larry Langford of Birmingham was arrested on charges of steering millions of dollars of bond work to a friend in exchange for over $230,000 in bribes. The 101-count indictment also charged Montgomery banker Bill Blount and lobbyist Al LaPierre.
2009 – California Governor Schwarzenegger and Maria Shriver inducted the latest nominees to the California Hall of Fame. They included: Carol Burnett, Andy Grove, Hiram Johnson, Rafer Johnson, Henry J. Kaiser, Joan Kroc, George Lucas, John Madden, Harvey Milk, Fritz Scholder, Danielle Steel, Joe Weider and General Chuck Yeager.
2009 – A Baltimore jury convicted Mayor Sheila Dixon of one count of embezzlement for stealing gift cards meant for poor residents. She was acquitted of other charges.
2009 – President Barack Obama announces that he will send 30,000 extra American troops to Afghanistan within the next six months and start withdrawal in 19 months.
2011 – A shooting occurred at a mobile home in Bay City, Texas about 65 miles southwest of downtown Houston. Police responded at 3:18 p.m. (4:18 p.m. ET) Wednesday to a call that a woman had been shot. When they arrived, they also discovered four dead children, ages 2,3,4 and 5, and the apparent shooter, who died at the scene from a single gunshot to the head.
2012 – The USS Enterprise, the world’s first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, is officially inactivated in ceremonies held at Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia, completing a 51-year career in the United States Navy. It was announced that the U.S. Navy’s third Gerald R. Ford-class aircraft carrier, CVN-80, will be named Enterprise.
2013 – OBAMACARE: A “fixed” healthcare.gov is relaunched.
1761 – Marie Tussaud, French creator of wax sculptures (Madame Tussauds) (d. 1850)
1886 – Rex Stout, American author (d. 1975)
1911 – Walter Alston, American baseball manager (d. 1984)
1913 – Mary Martin, American actor and singer (d. 1990)
1923 – Stansfield Turner, American admiral and CIA director
1931 – Jim Nesbitt, singer (d. 2007)
1933 – Lou Rawls, American singer (d. 2006)
1935 – Woody Allen, American film director, actor, and comedian
1939 – Lee Trevino, American golfer
1940 – Richard Pryor, American actor, comedian (d. 2005)
1944 – Michael W. Hagee, 33rd Commandant of the United States Marine Corps 1945 – Bette Midler, American actress and singer
1958 – Charlene Tilton, American actress
1977 – Jared Fogle, American spokesperson for Subway
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 5th Battalion (Airmobile), 7th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, December 1st, 1966. Entered service at: Seattle, Wash. Born: 27 April 1946, Venice, Italy. G.O. No.: 12, 3 April 1968. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Albanese’s platoon, while advancing through densely covered terrain to establish a blocking position, received intense automatic weapons fire from close range. As other members maneuvered to assault the enemy position, Pfc. Albanese was ordered to provide security for the left flank of the platoon. Suddenly, the left flank received fire from enemy located in a well-concealed ditch. Realizing the imminent danger to his comrades from this fire, Pfc. Albanese fixed his bayonet and moved aggressively into the ditch. His action silenced the sniper fire, enabling the platoon to resume movement toward the main enemy position. As the platoon continued to advance, the sound of heavy firing emanated from the left flank from a pitched battle that ensued in the ditch which Pfc. Albanese had entered. The ditch was actually a well-organized complex of enemy defenses designed to bring devastating flanking fire on the forces attacking the main position. Pfc. Albanese, disregarding the danger to himself, advanced one-hundred meters along the trench and killed six of the snipers, who were armed with automatic weapons. Having exhausted his ammunition, Pfc. Albanese was mortally wounded when he engaged and killed two more enemy soldiers in fierce hand-to-hand combat. His unparalleled actions saved the lives of many members of his platoon who otherwise would have fallen to the sniper fire from the ditch, and enabled his platoon to successfully advance against an enemy force of overwhelming numerical superiority. Pfc. Albanese’s extraordinary heroism and supreme dedication to his comrades were commensurate with the finest traditions of the military service and remain a tribute to himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*FAITH, DON C., JR.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, commanding officer, 1st Battalion, 32d Infantry Regiment, 7th Infantry Division. Place and date: Vicinity Hagaru-ri, Northern Korea, 27 November to December 1st,1950. Entered service at: Washington, Ind. Born: 26 August 1918, Washington, Ind. G.O. No.: 59, 2 August 1951. Citation: Lt. Col. Faith, commanding 1st Battalion, distinguished himself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty in the area of the Chosin Reservoir. When the enemy launched a fanatical attack against his battalion, Lt. Col. Faith unhesitatingly exposed himself to heavy enemy fire as he moved about directing the action. When the enemy penetrated the positions, Lt. Col. Faith personally led counterattacks to restore the position. During an attack by his battalion to effect a junction with another U.S. unit, Lt. Col. Faith reconnoitered the route for, and personally directed, the first elements of his command across the ice-covered reservoir and then directed the movement of his vehicles which were loaded with wounded until all of his command had passed through the enemy fire. Having completed this he crossed the reservoir himself. Assuming command of the force his unit had joined he was given the mission of attacking to join friendly elements to the south. Lt. Col. Faith, although physically exhausted in the bitter cold, organized and launched an attack which was soon stopped by enemy fire. He ran forward under enemy small-arms and automatic weapons fire, got his men on their feet and personally led the fire attack as it blasted its way through the enemy ring. As they came to a hairpin curve, enemy fire from a roadblock again pinned the column down. Lt. Col. Faith organized a group of men and directed their attack on the enemy positions on the right flank. He then placed himself at the head of another group of men and in the face of direct enemy fire led an attack on the enemy roadblock, firing his pistol and throwing grenades. When he had reached a position approximately thirty yards from the roadblock he was mortally wounded, but continued to direct the attack until the roadblock was overrun. Throughout the five days of action Lt. Col. Faith gave no thought to his safety and did not spare himself. His presence each time in the position of greatest danger was an inspiration to his men. Also, the damage he personally inflicted firing from his position at the head of his men was of material assistance on several occasions. Lt. Col. Faith’s outstanding gallantry and noble self-sacrifice above and beyond the call of duty reflect the highest honor on him and are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army. (This award supersedes the prior award of the Silver Star (First Oak Leaf Cluster) as announced in G.O. No. 32, Headquarters X Corps, dated 23 February 1951, for gallantry in action on 27 November 1950.)
*WINDRICH, WILLIAM G.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company I, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Vicinity of Yudam-ni, Korea, December 1st, 1950. Entered service at: Hammond, Ind. Born: 14 May 1921, Chicago, Ill. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a platoon sergeant of Company I, in action against enemy aggressor forces the night of 1 December 1950. Promptly organizing a squad of men when the enemy launched a sudden, vicious counterattack against the forward elements of his company’s position, rendering it untenable, S/Sgt. Windrich, armed with a carbine, spearheaded the assault to the top of the knoll immediately confronting the overwhelming forces and, under shattering hostile automatic-weapons, mortar, and grenade fire, directed effective fire to hold back the attackers and cover the withdrawal of our troops to commanding ground. With seven of his men struck down during the furious action and himself wounded in the head by a bursting grenade, he made his way to his company’s position and, organizing a small group of volunteers, returned with them to evacuate the wounded and dying from the frozen hillside, staunchly refusing medical attention himself. Immediately redeploying the remainder of his troops, S/Sgt. Windrich placed them on the left flank of the defensive sector before the enemy again attacked in force. Wounded in the leg during the bitter fight that followed, he bravely fought on with his men, shouting words of encouragement and directing their fire until the attack was repelled. Refusing evacuation although unable to stand, he still continued to direct his platoon in setting up defensive positions until weakened by the bitter cold, excessive loss of blood, and severe pain, he lapsed into unconsciousness and died. His valiant leadership, fortitude, and courageous fighting spirit against tremendous odds served to inspire others to heroic endeavor in holding the objective and reflect the highest credit upon S/Sgt. Windrich and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1851, Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 201, 18 January 1876. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Swatara at Para, Brazil, December 1st, 1875. Displaying gallant conduct, Deneef jumped overboard and rescued one of the crew of that vessel from drowning.
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Stony Creek Station, Va., December 1st, 1864. Entered service at: Allegheny County, Pa. Born: 14 September 1844, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, Pa. Date of issue: 16 February 1897. Citation: His horse having been shot from under him he voluntarily and on foot participated in the cavalry charge made upon one of the forts, conducting himself throughout with great personal bravery.
COMPUTER SECURITY DAY
STAY HOME BECAUSE YOU’RE WELL DAY
Pearl Harbor Attack- 8 days away – 1941
The Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree Lighting
This is an annual Christmas tree lighting that takes place in New York City’s Rockefeller Center, in mid-town Manhattan. The 2014 lighting will be on December 3rd. The tree is erected and lit in early December or late-November. In recent years, the lighting has been broadcast live nationwide on NBC’s Christmas in Rockefeller Center show.
The tradition actually started in December 1931. It was the beginning of the Great Depression and America needed two great things, jobs and hope. In 1931 construction was started on Rockefeller Center and it was a project that provide both. On December 24th, 1931 the workers erected a 20 ft balsam fir tree with “strings of cranberries, garlands of paper, and even a few tin cans.” Daniel Okrent, in his history of Rockefeller Center, recounts that the tree was decorated with the tin foil ends of blasting caps. There was no Rockefeller Center Christmas tree in 1932. The official tradition started in 1933. During the construction of the Center, it provided 75.000 jobs.
The tree, usually a Norway spruce 69 to 100 ft tall, has been put up every year since 1933. In 2010, the tree was lit on November 30, and remained illuminated until the first week of January, 2011. The tallest Christmas tree at Rockefeller Center was a 100 ft foot spruce erected on November 11, 1999 that was being cared for by Cathy and Jim Thomson. The tree is erected and lit and the lighting has been broadcast live nationwide on NBC’s Christmas in Rockefeller Center show.
Many Rockefeller trees were given to Rockefeller Center by donors. The late David
Murbach, Manager of the Gardens Division of Rockefeller Center, scouted in a helicopter for the desired tree in areas including Connecticut, Vermont, Ohio, upstate New York, New Jersey, and even Ottawa, Canada. Once a suitable tree is located it is transported by a special truck to 30 Rockefeller. It is supported by a crane while it is cut and then it is placed on a custom telescoping trailer that can transport trees up to 125 ft tall. The maximum that can actually be transported is 110 feet because of the widths of the streets in New York.
Once at the Rockefeller Center, the tree is supported by four guy-wires attached at its midpoint, and by a steel spike at its base. Scaffolding is put up around the tree to assist workers in putting up 30,000 lights attached to 5 miles of wiring. The star that has topped the tree since 2004 is 9.5 ft in diameter and weighs 550 pounds. This star called the “Swarovski Star” was created by German artist Michael Hammers.
The decorated Christmas tree remains lit at Rockefeller Center until the week after New Year’s Day, when it is removed and recycled for a variety of uses. In 2007, the tree went “green,” employing LED lights. After being taken down, the tree was used to furnish lumber for Habitat for Humanity house construction.
Records are incomplete about where the trees come from but here is the partial list from Wikipedia:
|Year||Original Location||Tree Type||Height|
|2014||Bloomsburg, PA||Norway Spruce||85 ft|
|2013||Shelton, CT||Norway Spruce||76 ft|
|2012||Flanders, NJ||Norway Spruce||80 ft|
|2011||Mifflinville, PA||Norway Spruce||74 ft|
|2010||Mahopac, NY||Norway Spruce||74 ft|
|2009||Easton, CT||Norway Spruce||76 ft|
|2008||Hamilton, NJ||Norway Spruce||72 ft|
|2007||Shelton, CT||Norway Spruce||84 ft|
|2006||Ridgefield, CT||Norway Spruce||88 ft|
|2005||Wayne, NJ||Norway Spruce||74 ft|
|2004||Suffern, NY||Norway Spruce||71 ft|
|2003||Manchester, CT||Norway Spruce||79 ft|
|2002||Bloomsbury, NJ||Norway Spruce||76 ft|
|2001||Wayne, NJ||Norway Spruce||81 ft|
|2000||Buchanan, NY||Norway Spruce||80 ft|
|1999||Killingworth, CT||Norway Spruce||100 ft|
|1998||Richfield, OH||Norway Spruce||75 ft|
|1997||Stony Point, NY||Norway Spruce||70 ft|
|1996||Armonk, NY||Norway Spruce||90 ft|
|1995||Mendham, NJ||Norway Spruce||75 ft|
|1994||Ridgefield, CT||Norway Spruce||85 ft|
|1986||Nanuet, NY||Norway Spruce||68 ft|
|1963||Rockaway, NJ||Bruce Fir||84 ft|
|1957||Brighton, VT||White Spruce||67 ft|
“The idea is to make decisions and act on them — to decide what is important to accomplish, to decide how something can best be accomplished, to find time to work at it and to get it done.”
~ Karen Kakascik
Ixnay /’IksnEI/ Pig Latin
This word is best known in the US, as the type of wordplay It’s Pig Latin, or igpay atinlay, as Pig Latinists would name it, sometimes instead called Hog Latin. Originally a children’s word game that had been around since at least the 1890s, it became fashionable among adults in the 1920s and 1930s. The first known appearance of “ixnay” in print is in the film script for the early talkie Broadway Melody in 1929.
The Pig Latin rules are simple: if a word starts with a vowel, then add “ay” to the end; otherwise move the first letter (or pair of letters if they represent one sound) to the end and add “ay” to it.
So “imay oingay ootay ostonbay” is Pig Latin for “I’m going to Boston”. The film The Lion King included “ixnay on the upidstay” – “nix on the stupid” or “don’t be stupid”.
1776 – Captain Cook began his third and last trip to the Pacific South Seas.
1777 – San Jose, California, was founded by the Spanish as El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadeloupe, California’s first town.
1782 – American Revolutionary War: This was the actual end of the war, In Paris, representatives from the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain signed preliminary peace articles (later, September 3,1783) formalized in the 1783 Treaty of Paris.
1785 – A.J. Ehrrichson of Akron, OH patented the oat-crushing machine.
1803 – In New Orleans, Spanish representatives officially transfer Louisiana Territory to a French representative. Just 20 days later, France transfers the same land to the United States as the Louisiana Purchase.
1804 – The Jeffersonian Republican-controlled United States Senate begins an impeachment trial against Federalist-partisan Supreme Court of the United States Justice Samuel Chase. They later acquit him.
1858 – John Mason patented the screw neck bottle — the Mason Jar.
1861 – Harper’s Weekly publishes Ethel Lynn Beers “All quiet along the Potomac.” Also known as “The Picket.”
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Franklin — The Army of Tennessee led by General John Bell Hood mounts a dramatically unsuccessful frontal assault on Union positions around Franklin, Tennessee (Hood lost six generals and almost a third of his troops).
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Honey Hill, SC, (Broad River). Ninety-six men were killed and 665 wounded.
1866 – Work began on the first traffic tunnel under a river in the U.S. – the Washington Street Tunnel in Chicago, Ill, under the Chicago River.
1886 – The Folies Bergère stages its first revue. It featured women in sensational costumes, debuted in Paris.
1886 – The first commercially successful U.S. alternating current power plant was opened at Buffalo, N.Y.
1887 – The first softball game was played — in Chicago, IL. The game was really called indoor baseball; it used a broomstick for a bat and a boxing glove for a ball.
1889 – S.R. Scratton patents curtain rod.
1897 – Thomas Edison’s own motion picture projector had its first commercial exhibition.
1902 – Second-in-command of Butch Cassidy’s Wild Bunch gang, Kid Curry Logan, is sentenced to 20 years imprisonment with hard labor.
1906 – President Theodore Roosevelt denounced segregation of Japanese schoolchildren in San Francisco.
1908 – A mine explosion in the mining town of Marianna, Pennsylvania kills 154.
1908 – San Francisco Police Chief William J. Biggy disappeared off a police boat in the San Francisco Bay. The chief was last seen vomiting over the side of the launch. He had been under pressure since the shooting of prosecutor Francis J. Heney two weeks earlier. Biggy’s body was pulled from the bay two weeks later.
1914 – Charlie Chaplin made his film debut in “Making a Living,” a one-reel film.
1920 – The Navy minesweeper USS Swan ran aground on Duxbury Beach, MA. Coast Guardsmen from three nearby stations rescued the minesweeper’s crew with a breeches buoy.
1924 – First photo facsimile transmitted across Atlantic by radio. Pictures of officials were accompanied by a photo of the Oxford team winning in a relay race at Cambridge, a steamship aground on the banks of the Thames, and an image of the written proverb, “One picture is worth a thousand words.”
1936 – In London, the Crystal Palace is destroyed by fire.
1936 – First coaxial cable installed between New York and Philadelphia made available for multi-channel telephone tests.
1939 – Harry James and his big band recorded “Concerto for Trumpet” — on Columbia 78s.
1940 – Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz are married in Greenwich, Connecticut.
1941 – The 101 year old Nyack-Tarrytown (NY) ferry makes it’s last run.
1942 – World War II: A U.S. warship force is defeated by a smaller Japanese warship force in the Battle of Tassafaronga during the Guadalcanal Campaign. This was an American attempt to stop the regular night supply run of the “Tokyo Express”.
1943 – World War II: Tehran Conference — U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet leader Josef Stalin establish an agreement concerning a planned June 1944 invasion of Europe code named Operation Overlord.
1943 – Nat ‘King’ Cole and his trio recorded “Straighten Up and Fly Right” on Capitol Records. It was the first recording for the King Cole trio.
1944 – World War II: To the north and south of Aachen, the US 9th and 1st Armies continue attacks. Southern elements of US 3rd Army reach the Saar River.
1944 – A US Navy reconnaissance plane crashed into the south face of Mount Tamalpais, in Marin County, Ca. 8 Navy fliers were killed.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Been a Long, Long Time” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “That’s for Me” by Dick Haymes, “I’ll Buy that Dream” by The Pied Pipers and “Shame on You” by The Lawrence Welk Orchestra (vocal: Red Foley) all topped the charts.
1948 – Baseball’s Negro National League disbands with many of its players signing with Organized Baseball.
1951 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Major George A. Davis shot down three Tupolev TU-2s and a MiG jet fighter to become the fifth ace of the war.
1952 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Winton W. Marshall destroyed one TU-2 and a LA-9 and was officially credited as the sixth ace of the war.
1954 – In Sylacauga, Alabama, United States, an 8.5 lb (3.4 kg) sulfide meteorite crashes through a roof and hits Mrs. Elizabeth Hodges in her living room after bouncing off her radio, giving her a bad bruise, in the only unequivocally known case of a human being hit by a space rock.
1956 – Archie Moore was defeated by Floyd Patterson. Patterson won the heavyweight boxing title vacated by the retired Rocky Marciano.
1956 – CBS replayed the program “Douglas Edward and the News” three hours after it was received on the West Coast. It was the world’s first broadcast via videotape.
1957 – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1958 – First guided missile destroyer launched. It was the USS Dewey ((DLG-14/DDG-45), launched from the Bath Iron Works, Bath, ME.
1959 – Joe Foss was named American Football League commissioner.
1960 – Production of the DeSoto automobile brand ceases.
1963 – “I’m Leaving it up to You” by Dale & Grace topped the charts.
1965 – The Colorado State government declared this day to be “Rolling Stones Day”.
1968 – “Love Child” by Diana Ross & the Supremes topped the charts.
1968 – Sly & The Family Stone’s “Everyday People” was released.
1968 – Montesino Sanchez, a Cuban, hijacked a Boeing 720 from Miami to Cuba.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Come Together/Something” by The Beatles, “And When I Die” by Blood, Sweat & Tears,”Na Na Hey Hey Kiss Him Goodbye” by Steam and “Okie from Muskogee” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1969 – Simon & Garfunkel’s first TV special, “Songs of America,” (52:03) aired.
1971 – ABC-TV presented “Brian’s Song” as the “ABC Movie of the Week”. The touching story was about Chicago Bears running back Brian Piccolo and his friendship with football great Gayle Sayers. Trailer | Full Movie | Song by Henry Mancini.
1972 – Vietnam War: White House Press Secretary Ron Ziegler tells the press that there will be no more public announcements concerning American troop withdrawals from Vietnam due to the fact that troop levels are now down to 27,000.
1973 – John Dean (b.1938), White House counsel, pleaded guilty to one count of conspiring to obstruct justice in the Watergate scandal and served 3 months in jail.
1974 – The Eagles hit, “Best of My Love“, was released.
1974 – “I Can Help” by Billy Swan topped the charts.
1974 – Pioneer 11 sent photos back to NASA as it neared Jupiter. Pioneer 11 was launched on 5 April 1973.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Light Up My Life” by Debby Boone, “Don’t It Make My Brown Eyes Blue” by Crystal Gayle, “How Deep is Your Love” by Bee Gees and “The Wurlitzer Prize (I Don’t Want to Get over You)” by Waylon Jennings.
1977 – Eric Sevareid retired from CBS-TV. He left CBS after 38 years of working with famous names in the TV news biz.
1979 – Pink Floyd release the album “The Wall”.
1981 – Cold War: In Geneva, representatives from the United States and the Soviet Union begin to negotiate intermediate-range nuclear weapon reductions in Europe (the meetings ended inconclusively on December 17).
1981 – President Reagan signs first memorandum on Strategic Cooperation with Israel.
1981 – Spingarn Medal awarded to Coleman A. Young “in recognition of his singular accomplishments as mayor of the City of Detroit.”
1982 – Michael Jackson (1958-2009) released “Thriller,” his sixth studio album. It became the best-selling album of all time.
1982 – British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher receives a parcel bomb at 10 Downing Street.
1982 – US submarine Thomas Edison collided with a US Navy destroyer in the South China Sea.
1983 – Radio Shack announced the Tandy Model 2000 computer (80186 chip).
1986 – Ivan Lendl became the first tennis player in the world to gain career earnings exceeding $10 million.
1988 – Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. buys RJR Nabisco for $25.07 billion.
1989 – PLO leader Yasser Arafat was refused a visa to enter the United States in order to address the U.N. General Assembly in New York City.
1990 – President Bush announced that Secretary of State James Baker the Third would go to Iraq in a last-ditch diplomatic peace effort. This was also the event where the Secretary, quite purposely, showed Saddam the bottom of his shoe, a great insult in Islam.
1991 – “Set Adrift on Memory Bliss” by P.M. Dawn topped the charts.
1992 – The U.S. Supreme Court sustained women’s basic right to abortion, voting 6-3 against reviving a 1990 Guam law that would have prohibited nearly all such procedures.
1993 – U.S. President Bill Clinton signs the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (the Brady Bill) into law.
1993 – Richard Allen Davis was arrested by authorities in California. Davis confessed to abducting and slaying 12-year-old Polly Klaas of Petaluma.
1994 – Hip-hop artist Tupac Shakur is robbed of $40,000 in jewelry and survives being shot five times in a New York music studio.
1994 – Two passengers died and nearly 1,000 others and crew members fled the cruise ship “Achille Lauro” after it caught fire off the coast of Somalia; the ship sank two days later. The Achille Lauro had gained notoriety in 1985 when it was hijacked by Palestinian extremists and a handicapped American guest was thrown overboard.
1995 – Bill Clinton became the first U.S. president to visit Northern Ireland.
1995 – It was reported that global warming over the last 100 years was measured to be one degree Fahrenheit.
1995 – Official end of Operation Desert Storm.
1997 – Composer and guitarist Michael Hedges (43) died in an auto accident in Mendocino County, Ca. His albums included “Breakfast in the Field” (1983), “Aerial Boundaries” (1984), “Taproot” (1990), and “The Road to Return” (1994).
1998 – Exxon and Mobil sign a $73.7 billion USD agreement to merge, thus creating Exxon-Mobil, the world’s largest company.
1998 – In Los Angeles, three people were left dead following a drive-by shooting, carjacking and police chase. Officer Brian Brown (27) was killed.
1998 – The new US computerized instant-check on gun sales began. After one week 951 sales were disqualified out of a total of 177,391.
1999 – In Seattle, Washington, United States, protests against the WTO meeting by anti-globalization protesters catch police unprepared and force the cancellation of opening ceremonies.
2000 – The space shuttle Endeavour (STS-97) took off to the International Space Station with a crew of 5 to install new solar panels.
2000 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell to 10,414 and the Nasdaq fell 109 points to 2,597.
2000 – David Spade was assaulted with a stun gun by his longtime personal assistant, David Warren Malloy. Malloy attacked Spade during a burglary of Spade’s home in Beverly Hills.
2001 – For the first time in its history, McDonald’s teamed up with a retail partner on its Happy Meal promotions. Toys R Us provided plush figures from its Animal Alley.
2001 – Gary Leon Ridgway (b.1949) was arrested in connection with four of seven Green River serial killings in Washington state. Four murders were linked to him through DNA and three through paint he used at his job.
2001 – In Georgia, former DeKalb County Sheriff Sidney Dorsey and two other men were arrested and charged with murder in the slaying of Sheriff-elect Derwin Brown, who had defeated Dorsey in a bitter runoff election.
2001 – Robert Tools, the first person to receive a self-contained artificial heart survived with the device for 151 days, and died today of other health problems. (See July 21, 2001)
2001 – Iraq War: US warplanes continued airstrikes around Kandahar. US Marine and Navy increased to around 1,200.
2003 – Walt Disney Company vice chairman Roy E. Disney stepped down from the board of directors.
2003 – In Cincinnati, Ohio, a 350-pound black man died after being clubbed by police. An autopsy showed that Nathaniel Jones (41) had an enlarged heart and that his blood contained cocaine and PCP.
2004 – U.S. Department of Homeland Security Secretary Tom Ridge resigns. This is the latest in a string of resignations after the 2004 presidential election.
2004 – Longtime Jeopardy champion Ken Jennings finally loses, leaving him with $2,520,700, television’s all-time biggest game show haul.
2004 – The U.S. Department of Commerce imposes heavy tariffs against shrimp imported to the U.S. from China and Vietnam.
2005 – The US Military has been covertly paying to run news stories written by US Military “information operations” troops. The stories, usually praising the work of the U.S. Military, appeared in Baghdad newspapers.
2005 – The Atlantic storm season ended with a record 26 as Tropical Storm Epsilon formed without posing a risk.
2005 – After almost a year of research into data from the space probe Huygens, scientists reported that Saturn’s moon Titan resembles Earth in many ways but is unlikely to support life.
2006 – Microsoft Corp. released Windows Vista for businesses. This was the 1st major upgrade to its operating system in five years.
2006 – The 2006 Atlantic hurricane season officially ends with a total of nine storms having formed.
2007 – Leeland Eisenberg (46) of Somersworth, NH, carrying what appeared to be a bomb,he had a package strapped to his chest, took hostages at a Clinton campaign office in Rochester, NH, before surrendering after a 6-hour standoff.
2007 – Scientists at Duke Univ. reported the creation of the first map of genes that are inherited as “silenced genes.” The Duke map verified 40 and identified another 156.
2007 -Amtrak Pere Marquette train #371 en route from Grand Rapids, Michigan, to Chicago, Illinois, collides with a parked freight train on the south side of Chicago, seriously or critically injuring five Amtrak employees and slightly injuring 100 to 150 of the 187 passengers on board.
2007 – The Miami-Dade County Police Department arrests four people in relation to the killing of Washington Redskins player Sean Taylor.
2008 – The US space shuttle Endeavour ended a 16-day trip to the int’l. space station landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California after storms hit the main landing site in Florida.
2009 – The US Dept. of Agriculture designated the Big Island of Hawaii a primary natural disaster area because of losses farmers suffered from volcanic emissions this year.
2009 – Police in Seattle report that Maurice Clemmons, shot in the murder of four police officers in Parkland, Washington, is on the run. After two days following the shooting, Clemmons was shot and killed by a police officer in Seattle.
2010 – US Secretary of Defense Robert Gates urges the United States Senate to abolish “don’t ask don’t tell” for gays and lesbians serving in the US military and releases a report showing that ending the policy would have little impact.
2011 – Researchers at Washington State University develop an artificial bone “scaffold” which can be produced using 3D printers, potentially allowing doctors to quickly print replacement bone tissue for injured patients.
2012 – A railway bridge collapses over a creek in Paulsboro in southern New Jersey, causing a Conrail freight train to derail and spill hazardous chemicals into the air and water.
2012 – A New Hampshire federal grand jury indicts David Kwiatkowski, 33, a former employee of Exeter Hospital in Exeter, New Hampshire, on fraud and product-tampering charges in connection with an outbreak of hepatitis C that sickened more than 30 people and caused concern in seven states.
2013 – Black Friday: A woman was arrested today for stabbing to death three shoppers at a Chicago-area Wal-Mart in order to secure the store’s last X-Box One.
2014 – African-Americans screamed “kill the white people” before the brutal murder of Bosnian Immigrant Zemir Begic by hammers in St. Louis, MO. As of 12/2 two suspects were taken into custody, while two others, a black teen and a Hispanic teen, are still on the loose.
1466 – Andrea Doria, Italian naval leader (d. 1560)
1667 – Jonathan Swift, Irish writer and satirist (d.1745)
1723 – William Livingston, revolutionary Governor of New Jersey (d. 1790)
1810 – Oliver Winchester, American gunsmith (d. 1880)
1835 – Samuel Clemens (aka Mark Twain), American writer (d. 1910)
1874 – Sir Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1965)
1898 – Firpo Marberry, American baseball player (d. 1976) He was an American right-handed starting and relief pitcher in Major League Baseball from 1923 to 1936, most notably with the Washington Senators.
1918 – Efrem Zimbalist Jr., American actor is an American actor best known for his roles in the television series 77 Sunset Strip and The F.B.I. and for several appearances as “Dandy Jim Buckley” on TV’s Maverick. He later became an active part of Trinity Broadcasting Network (TBN) and a born-again Christian.
1924 – Shirley Chisholm, American politician (d. 2005)
1926 – Richard Crenna, American actor (d. 2003)
1929 – Dick Clark, American television host
1930 – G. Gordon Liddy, Watergate operative
1936 – Abbie Hoffman, American activist (d. 1989)
1953 – June Pointer, American singer (Pointer Sisters)
1962 – Bo Jackson, American football and baseball player
1965 – Ben Stiller, American actor and writer
1978 – Clay Aiken, American singer
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 179th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Songnae-dong, Korea, November 30th, 1952. Entered service at: Whittier, N.C. Born: 23 August 1932, Cherokee, N.C. G.O. NO.: 19, 18 March 1954. Citation: Pfc. George, a member of Company C, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy on the night of 30 November 1952. He was a member of a raiding party committed to engage the enemy and capture a prisoner for interrogation. Forging up the rugged slope of the key terrain feature, the group was subjected to intense mortar and machine gun fire and suffered several casualties. Throughout the advance, he fought valiantly and, upon reaching the crest of the hill, leaped into the trenches and closed with the enemy in hand-to-hand combat. When friendly troops were ordered to move back upon completion of the assignment, he and two comrades remained to cover the withdrawal. While in the process of leaving the trenches a hostile soldier hurled a grenade into their midst. Pfc. George shouted a warning to one comrade, pushed the other soldier out of danger, and, with full knowledge of the consequences, unhesitatingly threw himself upon the grenade, absorbing the full blast of the explosion. Although seriously wounded in this display of valor, he refrained from any outcry which would divulge the position of his companions. The two soldiers evacuated him to the forward aid station and shortly thereafter he succumbed to his wound. Pfc. George’s indomitable courage, consummate devotion to duty, and willing self-sacrifice reflect the highest credit upon himself and uphold the finest traditions of the military service.
SITTER, CARL L.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps, Company G, 3d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Hagaru-ri, Korea, November 29 and November 30th, 1950. Entered service at: Pueblo, Colo. Born: 2 December 1921, Syracuse, Mo. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of Company G, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Ordered to break through enemy-infested territory to reinforce his battalion the morning of 29 November, Capt. Sitter continuously exposed himself to enemy fire as he led his company forward and, despite twenty-five percent casualties suffered in the furious action, succeeded in driving through to his objective. Assuming the responsibility of attempting to seize and occupy a strategic area occupied by a hostile force of regiment strength deeply entrenched on a snow-covered hill commanding the entire valley southeast of the town, as well as the line of march of friendly troops withdrawing to the south, he reorganized his depleted units the following morning and boldly led them up the steep, frozen hillside under blistering fire, encouraging and redeploying his troops as casualties occurred and directing forward platoons as they continued the drive to the top of the ridge. During the night when a vastly outnumbering enemy launched a sudden, vicious counterattack, setting the hill ablaze with mortar, machine gun, and automatic-weapons fire and taking a heavy toll in troops, Capt. Sitter visited each foxhole and gun position, coolly deploying and integrating reinforcing units consisting of service personnel unfamiliar with infantry tactics into a coordinated combat team and instilling in every man the will and determination to hold his position at all costs. With the enemy penetrating his lines in repeated counterattacks which often required hand-to-hand combat, and, on one occasion infiltrating to the command post with hand grenades, he fought gallantly with his men in repulsing and killing the fanatic attackers in each encounter. Painfully wounded in the face, arms, and chest by bursting grenades, he staunchly refused to be evacuated and continued to fight on until a successful defense of the area was assured with a loss to the enemy of more than fifty percent dead, wounded, and captured. His valiant leadership, superb tactics, and great personal valor throughout thirty-six hours of bitter combat reflect the highest credit upon Capt. Sitter and the U.S. Naval Service.
*OHATA, ALLAN M.
Rank and organization:Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 100th Infantry Battalion (Separate) Entered service at: Schofield Barracks, Hawaii Born:September 13, 1918, Honolulu, Hawaii Place and date:Cerasuolo, Italy, November 30th, 1943 Citation: Sergeant Allan M. Ohata distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on 29 and 30 November 1943, near Cerasuolo, Italy. Sergeant Ohata, his squad leader, and three men were ordered to protect his platoon’s left flank against an attacking enemy force of forty men, armed with machine guns, machine pistols, and rifles. He posted one of his men, an automatic rifleman, on the extreme left, fifteen yards from his own position. Taking his position, Sergeant Ohata delivered effective fire against the advancing enemy. The man to his left called for assistance when his automatic rifle was shot and damaged. With utter disregard for his personal safety, Sergeant Ohata left his position and advanced fifteen yards through heavy machine gun fire. Reaching his comrade’s position, he immediately fired upon the enemy, killing ten enemy soldiers and successfully covering his comrade’s withdrawal to replace his damaged weapon. Sergeant Ohata and the automatic rifleman held their position and killed thirty-seven enemy soldiers. Both men then charged the three remaining soldiers and captured them. Later, Sergeant Ohata and the automatic rifleman stopped another attacking force of fourteen, killing four and wounding three while the others fled. The following day he and the automatic rifleman held their flank with grim determination and staved off all attacks. Staff Sergeant Ohata’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
BENNETT, ORSON W.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company A, 102d U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Honey Hill, S.C., November 30th, 1864. Entered service at: Michigan. Born: 17 November 1841, Union City Branch County, Mich. Date of issue: 9 March 1887. Citation: After several unsuccessful efforts to recover three pieces of abandoned artillery, this officer gallantly led a small force fully one-hundred yards in advance of the Union lines and brought in the guns, preventing their capture.
BROWN, JOHN HARTIES
Rank and organization: Captain, Company D, 12th Kentucky Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th, 1864. Entered service at: Charlestown, Mass. Born: 1834, Canada. Date of issue: 13 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 104th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Wales. Date of issue: 4 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
ELLSWORTH, THOMAS F.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company B, Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Honey Hill, S.C., November 30th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth:, Mass. Date of issue: 18 November 1895. Citation: Under a heavy fire carried his wounded commanding officer from the field.
GAUNT, JOHN C.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 104th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th, 1864. Entered service at: Damascoville, Ohio. Birth: Columbiana County, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
GOURAUD, GEORGE E.
Rank and organization: Captain and aide-de-camp, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Honey Hill, S.C., November 30th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 21 August 1893. Citation: While under severe fire of the enemy, which drove back the command, rendered valuable assistance in rallying the men.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 104th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th, 1864. Entered service at: Salem, Ohio. Birth: Montgomery County, Pa. Date of issue: 13 February 1865. Citation: Capture of corps headquarters flag (C.S.A.).
HALL, NEWTON H.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 104th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Portage County, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag, believed to have belonged to Steward’s Corps (C.S.A.).
KELLEY, GEORGE V.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company A, 104th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th, 1864. Entered service at: Massillon, Ohio. Born: 23 March 1843, Massillon, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag supposed to be of Cheatham’s Corps (C.S.A.).
MERRIFIELD, JAMES K.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 88th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th, 1864. Entered service at: Manlius, Bureau County, Ill. Birth: Pennsylvania. Date of issue: 28 March 1896. Citation: Captured two battle flags from the enemy and returned with them to his own lines.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company K, 97th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Delaware County, Ohio. Date of issue: 24 February 1865. Citation: Captured the flag of the 2d Mississippi Infantry (C.S.A.), in a hand-to-hand fight with the color bearer.
RICKSECKER, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 104th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Springfield, Ohio. Date of issue: 3 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 16th Alabama Artillery (C.S.A.).
SMITH, ANDREW JACKSON
Rank and Organization: Color Sergeant , United States Army, Union Army, 55th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, Entered service: Smithland, KY Born: Clinton, IL
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Corporal Andrew Jackson Smith, of Clinton, Illinois, a member of the 55th Massachusetts Voluntary Infantry, distinguished himself on November 30th, 1864 by saving his regimental colors, after the color bearer was killed during al bloody charge called the Battle of Honey Hill, South Carolina. In the late afternoon, as the 55th Regiment pursued enemy skirmishers and conducted a running fight, they ran into a swampy area backed by a rise where the Confederate Army awaited. The surrounding woods and thick underbrush impeded infantry movement and artillery support. The 55th and 34th regiments formed columns to advance on the enemy position in a flanking movement. As the Confederates repelled other units, the 55th and 54th regiments continued to move into tanking positions. Forced into a narrow gorge crossing a swamp in the face of the enemy position, the 55th’s Color-Sergeant was killed by an exploding shell, and Corporal Smith took the Regimental Colors from his hand and carried them through heavy grape and canister fire. Although half of the officers and a third of the enlisted men engaged in the fight were killed or wounded, Corporal Smith continued to expose himself to enemy fire by carrying the colors throughout the battle. Through his actions, the Regimental Colors of the 55th Infantry Regiment were not lost to the enemy. Corporal Andrew Jackson Smith’s extraordinary valor in the face of deadly enemy fire is in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon him, the 55th Regiment, and the United States Army.
STANLEY, DAVID S.
Rank and organization: Major General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th, 1864. Entered service at: Congress, Wayne County, Ohio. Born: 1 June 1828, Cedar Valley, Ohio. Date of issue: 29 March 1893. Citation: At a critical moment rode to the front of one of his brigades, reestablished its lines, and gallantly led it In a successful assault.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 24th Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Gallantry in action; voluntarily assisting in working guns of battery near right of the regiment after nearly every man had left them, the fire of the enemy being hotter at this than at any other point on the line.
super – cali – fragil – istic – expee – alee – doe – shus) is a song and a long word from the movie Mary Poppins (and in the musical version) This is a looooooooooooooonnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnggggggggggggggggg word, but a short song. The song describes using the word as a miraculous way to talk oneself out of difficult situations, and even as a way to change one’s mood.
The song appears in the film’s animated sequence where Mary Poppins is harangued by reporters after winning a horse race and responds to one claiming there are not words to describe her feelings of the moment. Mary disagrees with that and begins the song about one word she can use. Ever since the word is used as an adjective referring to “absolutely stunningly fantastic”.
In the West End and Broadway versions, every one runs out of conversations and Mary and the kids head to Mrs. Corry’s shop, where you can buy them. Jane and Michael pick out some letters and spell a few words. Bert and Mrs. Corry use the letters to make up some words too, which Jane doesn’t think they exist. Mary says you could use some letters more than one time and makes the longest word of all.
The word itself has obscure origins, pertaining as to when it was first used, but the roots are fairly clear, as Richard Lederer wrote in his book Crazy English: super- “above,” cali- “beauty,” fragilistic- “delicate,” expiali- “to atone,” and docious- “educable,” the sum meaning roughly “Atoning for extreme and delicate beauty while still being highly educable.” This is the perfect word for Mary Poppins to use, being that she thinks of herself as incredibly beautiful but also extremely intelligent, which makes up for it.
“When your heart is in your dream, no request is too extreme.”
~ Jiminy Cricket
redact\rih-DAKT\, transitive verb:
1. To draw up or frame (a statement, proclamation, etc.); to put in writing.
2. To make ready and put in shape for publication; to edit.
Redact derives from Latin redactus, past participle of redigere, to drive back, from re-, red-, “again, back” + agere, “to put in motion, to drive.”
1758 – England’s John Wesley baptized the first two known Black converts to the Methodism movement.
1775 – Captain John Manley in schooner Lee captures British ordnance ship Nancy with large quantity of munitions.
1775 – The American Congress formed the Committee of Secret Correspondence with the mission of corresponding with friends in Great Britain, Ireland and other parts of the world. It April, 1777, its title was changed to Committee for Foreign Affairs.
1776 – Revolutionary War: The Battle of Fort Cumberland, Nova Scotia comes to an end with the arrival of British reinforcements.
1777 – San Jose, California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe. It is the first civilian settlement, or pueblo, in Alta California.
1780 – After the winter of Valley Forge, Black slaves and free men were welcomed into the American Army. Included in those groups was Lemuel Haynes, Revolutionary War veteran, licensed to preach in the Congregational Church. Black soldiers were in the front lines in most of the big battles of the war. They were at White Plains, Stillwater, Bennington, Bemis Heights, Saratoga, Stony Points, Trenton, Princeton, Eutaw, S.C., and Yorktown. Blacks were critical factors in the battles of Rhode Island, Long Island, Red Bank, Savannah, Monmouth and Fort Griswold.
1781 – The slave ship Zong dumps its 133 African passengers into the sea in order to claim insurance.
1783 – A 5.3 magnitude earthquake strikes New Jersey.
1804 – Lt Presley O’Bannon and seven U.S.Marines landed in Alexandria, Egypt. The group will gather 500 mercenaries and in January 1805 begin an overland march to Tripoli.
1808 – President Jefferson had ordered an embargo against most European imports and exports to protest the harassment of U.S. sailors by warring European powers.
1825 – First Italian opera in US, “Barber of Seville,” premiered in New York City.
1863 – Civil War: The Battle of Fort Sanders, Knoxville, TN., ended in Confederate withdrawal.
1847 – Whitman Massacre was the murder of Oregon missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman, his wife Narcissa, and 15 others. They were killed by Cayuse and Umatilla Indians, causing the Cayuse War.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Spring Hill, TN. (Thomason’s Station). Spring Hill was the prelude to the Battle of Franklin.
1864 – The Sand Creek Massacre occurred in Colorado when a militia led by Colonel John Chivington, killed at least 400 peaceful Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians who had surrendered and had been given permission to camp.
1872 – Indian Wars: The Modoc War begins with the Battle of Lost River. The war was the result of an attempt by the U.S. 1st Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army to force a band of the Modoc tribe to relocate to the Klamath Reservation.
1877 – Thomas Edison demonstrates his hand-cranked phonograph for the first time.
1881 – Francis Blake was granted a patent for the speaking phone.
1887 – US received rights to Pearl Harbor on Oahu, Hawaii.
1890 – In West Point, New York, the United States Naval Academy defeats the United States Military Academy 24-0 in the first Army-Navy football game.
1902 – The Pittsburgh Stars defeated the Philadelphia Athletics, 11-0, at the Pittsburgh Coliseum, to win the first championship associated with a national professional football league.
1910 – The first U.S. patent for a traffic signal was issued to Ernest E. Sirrine for a “Street Traffic System.” Sign arms were mounted crosswise on a post at a road intersection, rotating to showing “Stop” and “Proceed” signs alternately in each direction.
1915 – Fire destroys most of the buildings on Santa Catalina Island in California.
1916 – US declared martial law in Dominican Republic.
1922 – Howard Carter opened the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun to the public.
1927 - In California troops battled 1,200 inmates after Folsom prisoners revolted.
1927 – Genevieve Paddleford arrived as the first woman inmate at the new women’s quarters at San Quentin Prison. She was serving 1 to 10 years for stealing $600 worth of clothing.
1929 – U.S. Admiral Richard Byrd becomes the first American and the first person to fly over the South Pole.
1932 – The Committee on Cost of Medical Care urged socialized medicine in the United States.
1934 – Chicago Bears beat Detroit in first NFL game broadcast nationally. Graham McNamee was the play-by-play announcer.
1935 – The Pan Am China Clipper under Captain Ed Musick landed in Manila Bay in the Philippines. It was Pan Am’s first trans-Pacific flight.
1938 – Tommy Dorsey and his orchestra waxed “Hawaiian War Chant” for Victor Records.
1939 – Fritz Kuhn, the leader of the German-American Bund, is found guilty of grand larceny and forgery.
1941 – The passenger ship Lurline sent a radio signal of sighting Japanese war fleet steaming east across the northern Pacific. This was nine days before Japan’s attack.
1941 – The Japanese government liaison conference decides that the final terms from the United States are unacceptable and that Japan must go to war.
1943 – World War II: Four American destroyers bombard Japanese positions on the south coast of New Britain Island, near Gasmata.
1943 – World War II: US aircraft carrier Hornet was launched.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Trolley Song” by The Pied Pipers, “Dance with the Dolly” by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: Al Jennings), “I’ll Walk Alone” by Dinah Shore and “Smoke on the Water” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1944 – The first surgery (on a human) to correct blue baby syndrome is performed by Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas, a black assistant who perfected the procedure at Johns Hopkins Hospital.
1944 – World War II: USS Archerfish (SS-311) sinks Japanese carrier Shinano, world’s largest warship sunk by any submarine during World War II.
1944 – World War II: Japanese attacks on Kilay Ridge, on Leyte, continue. American forces successfully counterattack. At sea, the battleship USS Maryland and two destroyers are seriously damaged by Kamikaze attacks.
1945 – A Sikorsky R5 helicopter performed the first rescue from a sinking civilian vessel and the first use of a rescue winch. Caught in a violent storm, an oil barge had grounded on Penfield Reef, off the coast at Fairfield, Connecticut in Long Island Sound.
1947 – The United Nations General Assembly votes to partition Palestine.
1948 – The first opera to be televised was broadcast from the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City. “Othello”, by Verdi, was presented over WJZ-TV.
1948 – The popular children’s television show, Kukla, Fran and Ollie, moved to the NBC Midwest network.
1948 – Ninth Marines went to Shanghai to evacuate U. S. nationals.
1949 – U.S. announced it would conduct atomic tests at Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific.
1950 – Korean War: North Korean and Chinese troops force United Nations forces to retreat from North Korea.
1951 – The first U.S. underground atom bomb test – designed “Uncle” – was detonated. The low-yield 1.2 kiloton bomb was buried 17-ft sub-surface at Frenchman Flat, a 123-square-mile dry lake bed at the Nevada Test Site.
1952 – Korean War: U.S. President-elect Dwight D. Eisenhower fulfills a campaign promise by traveling to Korea to find out what can be done to end the conflict.
1952 – John T. Downey (22) and Richard G. Fecteau (25), CIA spies, were shot down over Jilin province and captured by the Chinese. The 2 men spent 20 years in a Chinese prison.
1952 – “Why Don’t You Believe Me” by Joni James topped the charts.
1953 – American Airlines began first regular commercial NY-LA air service.
1956 – The musical “Bells Are Ringing,” starring Judy Holliday, opened at Shubert Theater in New York City for 925 performances.
1958 – “It’s Only Make Believe” by Conway Twitty topped the charts.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Are You Lonesome To-night?” by Elvis Presley, “Last Date” by Floyd Cramer, “A Thousand Stars” by Kathy Young with The Innocents and “Wings of a Dove” by Ferlin Husky all topped the charts.
1961 – The U.S. spacecraft Mercury-Atlas 5 is launched with Enos, a chimpanzee, aboard (the spacecraft orbited the Earth twice and splashed-down off the coast of Puerto Rico).
1961 – Freedom Riders attacked by white mob at bus station in McComb, Miss., November 29-December 2.
1962 – Baseball decides to revert back to one All Star game per year.
1963 – Beatles release “I Want to Hold Your Hand“.
1963 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson establishes the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
1967 – U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara announces his resignation to become president of the World Bank.
1968 – Vietnam: Hanoi Radio broadcasted a National Liberation Front directive calling for a new offensive to “utterly destroy” Allied forces. The broadcast added that the new operation was particularly concerned with eliminating the “Phoenix Organization.”
1969 – Beatles’ “Come Together,” single goes #1.
1971 – Vietnam: The U.S. 23rd Division (Americal) ceases combat operations and begins its withdrawal from South Vietnam.
1972 – Nolan Bushnell (founder of Atari) released Pong (the first commercially successful video game) in Andy Capp’s Tavern in Sunnyvale, Calif.
1975 – The name “Micro-soft” (for “microcomputer software”) is first used in a letter from Bill Gates to Paul Allen.
1975 – Earthquake triggers Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii.
1975 – “Fly, Robin, Fly” by the Silver Convention topped the charts.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)” by Rod Stewart, “The Wreck of the Edmond Fitzgerald” by Gordon Lightfoot, “The Rubberband Man” by Spinners and “Good Woman Blues” by Mel Tillis all topped the charts.
1976 – Jerry Lee Lewis shot his bass player, Norman “Butch” Owens, twice in the chest while trying to hit a soda bottle. Lewis was charged with shooting a firearm within the city limits.
1980 – “Lady” by Kenny Rogers topped the charts.
1981 – Actress Natalie Wood drowns during a boating accident off Santa Catalina Island, California.
1982 – US submarine Thomas Edison collided with a US Navy destroyer in the South China Sea.
1983 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 1287.20 — a new record.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go” by Wham!, “I Feel for You” by Chaka Khan, “Out of Touch” by Daryl Hall & John Oates and “You Could’ve Heard a Heart Break” by Johnny Lee all topped the charts.
1986 – “You Give Love a Bad Name” by Bon Jovi topped the charts.
1987 – Cuban detainees released 26 hostages that they’d been holding for more than a week at the Federal Detention Center in Oakdale, La.
1987 – Joe Montana of the San Francisco 49ers completed a NFL record 22 consecutive passes.
1988 – US Senate Democrats elected George Mitchell of Maine to be majority leader, the post vacated by Robert Byrd of West Virginia.
1988 – Six Kansas City firefighters are killed by two powerful explosions at a construction site. At the scene, only one twisted chassis remained early today as evidence of two fire trucks that arrived with the six firemen before 4 A.M. The wreckage lay near two craters, 30 to 40 feet wide and about seven feet deep.
1988 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the rights of criminal defendants are not violated when police unintentionally fail to preserve potentially vital evidence.
1990 – Gulf War: The United Nations Security Council passes UN Security Council Resolution 678, authorizing military intervention in Iraq if that nation did not withdraw its forces from Kuwait and free all foreign hostages by January 15, 1991.
1991 – Seventeen people were killed in a 164-vehicle wreck during a dust storm near Coalinga, CA, on Interstate 5. Over 250 vehicles were involved and over 100 were injured.
1992 – Dennis Byrd (New York Jets) was paralyzed after a neck injury in a game against the Kansas City Chiefs.
1993 – Kathleen Willey sought assistance from Pres. Clinton, who allegedly made a sexual advance upon her. She was requesting a job due to her husband’s financial difficulties. It was later learned that her husband committed suicide that same day.
1996 – Evidence suggesting that water might be present on the Moon was published in “Science” magazine.
1996 – John C. Salvi III, serving a life sentence for fatally shooting two receptionists at an abortion clinic, hanged himself in his Massachusetts prison cell.
1997 – Coleman Young (b. May 24, 1918 in Tuscaloosa, Ala.- d. Nov 29, 1997), former mayor of Detroit (1973-1993), died. The city’s first black mayor held office for an unprecedented five terms.
1998 – In Dalton, Mich., Seth Stephen Privacky (18) and Steven Wallace (18) shot and killed Privacky’s father (50), mother (49), grandfather (78), brother (19) and brother’s girlfriend, April A. Boss (19). Privacky confessed that he committed the murders because his father had threatened to kick him out of the house.
1999 – Pres. Clinton signed the Satellite Television Home Viewers Act which allowed satellite companies to compete with cable TV.
1999 – In Seattle as many as 50,000 protestors gathered to oppose “the march of corporate globalization.”
1999 – Astronomer reported finding 6 planets orbiting sunlike stars as close as 65 light years from Earth (390,000,000,000,000 miles).
2001 – George Harrison (b.1943), lead guitarist for the Beatles, died of cancer in LA. His ashes were scattered in the Ganges Dec 4.
2001 – American warplanes continued to bomb Taliban positions around Kandahar.
2003 – In Norfolk, Virginia, the USS Cole leaves port on the destroyer’s first overseas deployment since it was bombed in 2000 in Yemen’s port at Aden.
2003 – In Iraq US senators Hillary Rodham Clinton and Jack Reed met with local officials in the oil-rich northern city of Kirkuk.
2004 – Brett Favre Day announced in Wisconsin, in honor of his record-setting 200th consecutive start as an NFL quarterback.
2004 – “Armored car guard shot, killed. Slayer flees on bike after Ahwatukee robbery.” Robert Keith Palomares, 24, was carrying the weekend deposits out of the AMC Ahwatukee 24 theater. Suspect, Jason Derek Brown, who lay in wait near a ticket booth, approached Palomares and fired numerous rounds. But Palomares had a tight grip on the money bag, and at first, his killer couldn’t get it out of his hands.
2004 – The U.S. Supreme Court hears a landmark case to decide the rights of states to overrule federal restrictions on medical marijuana use. This case has important consequences for redefining the separation and limitation of powers between states and the federal government.
2004 – A US Army Black Hawk helicopter crashed near Fort Hood, Texas, and seven soldiers were killed.
2005 – Broad areas of the Dakotas remained shut down by the Plains’ first blizzard of the season, with highways closed by blowing, drifting snow and thousands of people without electricity as temperatures hit the low teens. In Colorado eastbound I-70 was closed.
2005 – Ohio carried out the nation’s 999th execution since 1977, putting to death a man who strangled his mother-in-law while high on cocaine and later killed his 5-year-old stepdaughter to cover up the crime.
2006 – United States District Court judge Richard J. Leon orders the Bush administration to resume making payments to thousands of people who lost their homes as a result of Hurricane Katrina.
2006 – Still losing money after job and factory cuts, Ford Motor Co. said 38,000 workers, almost half of its hourly production force, had accepted buyouts or early retirement offers.
2006 – Brandon Mayfield, wrongly arrested after the 11 March, 2004 Madrid attacks settles a lawsuit against the Federal Bureau of Investigation for $2 million.
2007 – In Richmond County, Georgia, Jeanette Michelle Hawes (22) fatally stabbed her two young children in a Food Mart convenience store bathroom.
2007 – Henry Hyde (b.1924), former Illinois Republican Representative (1975-2007), died. In 1976 he attached an amendment to a spending bill barring the use of federal funds for abortions. In 1998 he led House efforts to impeach Pres. Clinton for allegedly lying about his affair with intern Monica Lewinsky.
2009 – Andrew Conley (17) of Rising Sun, Indiana, strangled his 10-year-old brother as the two wrestled. The teen told investigators he had had fantasies about killing someone since he was in eighth grade, including cutting somebody’s throat, and felt “just like” the serial killer Dexter on the Showtime television series of the same name.
2009 – In Washington state Maurice Clemmons (37) shot and killed four police officers from the Tacoma suburb of Lakewood as they worked on their laptop computers in a coffee house at the beginning of their shifts in Parkland.
2010 – U.S. scrambles to contain WikiLeaks damage. Clinton and other officials shrug off the undiplomatic assessments revealed in the diplomatic cables, saying they won’t affect long-term ties, even as they promise to tighten security and punish the culprits.
2010 – Twenty-three students and a teacher are released after being taken hostage for five hours by an armed 15-year-old student, who then shot and injured himself, at Marinette High School in the town of Marinette, Wisconsin.
2011 – American Airlines, the world’s fourth-largest airline, files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
2011 – Dr. Conrad Murray is sentenced to four years in jail for involuntary manslaughter in Los Angeles in connection to the death of Michael Jackson in 2009.
2011 – Seven people, including a toddler, are shot while recording a music video in Oakland, California.
2012 – Michigan Republican State Senator Rick Jones proposes dissolving the city of Detroit due to financial problems.
2012 – The new species of darter fish are classified and named as Etheostoma obama after President Barack Obama. Darters are small, perch-like fish found in freshwater streams in North America.
1489 – Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England, queen consort of James IV of Scotland (d. 1541)
1690 – Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst, father of Catherine II of Russia (d. 1747)
1752 – Jemima Wilkinson, American preacher (d. 1819) was a charismatic American evangelist who preached total sexual abstinence to her congregation of “Universal Friends.”
1799 – Amos Bronson Alcott, American educator, philosopher of American Transcendentalism, and father of Louisa May Alcott.
1803 – Christian Doppler, Austrian physicist (d. 1853) was an Austrian mathematician and physicist, most famous for the hypothesis of what is now known as the Doppler effect which is the apparent change in frequency and wavelength of a wave that is perceived by an observer moving relative to the source of the waves.
1816 – Morrison Waite, 7th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1888)
1832 – Louisa May Alcott, American novelist (d. 1888)
1876 – Nellie Tayloe Ross, American politician (d. 1977) was the first woman to serve as governor of a U.S. state.
1898 – C. S. Lewis, Irish writer (d. 1963) Examples of Lewis’s allegorical fiction include The Screwtape Letters, The Chronicles of Narnia and The Space Trilogy.
1908 – Adam Clayton Powell Jr., American civil rights leader and politician (d. 1972) who represented Harlem, New York in the United States House of Representatives between 1945 and 1971.
1927 – Vin Scully, baseball announcer
1949 – Garry Shandling, American comedian, actor, writer, producer, and director
1955 – Howie Mandel, Canadian actor, “Deal or No Deal” host.
1973 – Sarah Jones, American playwright, poet and actress
*PRUDEN, ROBERT J.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, 75th Infantry, Americal Division. Place and Date: Quang Ngai Province, Republic of Vietnam, November 29th, 1969. Entered service at: Minneapolis, Minn. Born: 9 September 1949, St. Paul, Minn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. S/Sgt. Pruden, Company G, distinguished himself while serving as a reconnaissance team leader during an ambush mission. The 6-man team was inserted by helicopter into enemy controlled territory to establish an ambush position and to obtain information concerning enemy movements. As the team moved into the preplanned area, S/Sgt. Pruden deployed his men into two groups on the opposite sides of a well used trail. As the groups were establishing their defensive positions, 1 member of the team was trapped in the open by the heavy fire from an enemy squad. Realizing that the ambush position had been compromised, S/Sgt. Pruden directed his team to open fire on the enemy force. Immediately, the team came under heavy fire from a second enemy element. S/Sgt. Pruden, with full knowledge of the extreme danger involved, left his concealed position and, firing as he ran, advanced toward the enemy to draw the hostile fire. He was seriously wounded twice but continued his attack until he fell for a third time, in front of the enemy positions. S/Sgt. Pruden’s actions resulted in several enemy casualties and withdrawal of the remaining enemy force. Although grievously wounded, he directed his men into defensive positions and called for evacuation helicopters, which safely withdrew the members of the team. S/Sgt. Pruden’s outstanding courage, selfless concern for the welfare of his men, and intrepidity in action at the cost of his life were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*BAUGH, WILLIAM B.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company G, 3d Battalion, 1st Marine, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Along road from Koto-ri to Hagaru-ri, Korea, November 29th, 1950. Entered service at: Harrison, Ohio. Born: 7 July 1930, McKinney, Ky. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a member of an antitank assault squad attached to Company G, during a nighttime enemy attack against a motorized column. Acting instantly when a hostile hand grenade landed in his truck as he and his squad prepared to alight and assist in the repulse of an enemy force delivering intense automatic-weapons and grenade fire from deeply entrenched and well-concealed roadside positions, Pfc. Baugh quickly shouted a warning to the other men in the vehicle and, unmindful of his personal safety, hurled himself upon the deadly missile, thereby saving his comrades from serious injury or possible death. Sustaining severe wounds from which he died a short time afterward, Pfc. Baugh, by his superb courage and valiant spirit of self-sacrifice, upheld the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
|MYERS, REGINALD R.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps, 3d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division, (Rein.). Place and date: Near Hagaru-ri, Korea, November 29th, 1950. Entered service at: Boise, Idaho. Born: 26 November 1919, Boise, Idaho. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as executive officer of the 3d Battalion, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Assuming command of a composite unit of Army and Marine service and headquarters elements totaling approximately 250 men, during a critical stage in the vital defense of the strategically important military base at Hagaru-ri, Maj. Myers immediately initiated a determined and aggressive counterattack against a well-entrenched and cleverly concealed enemy force numbering an estimated 4,000. Severely handicapped by a lack of trained personnel and experienced leaders in his valiant efforts to regain maximum ground prior to daylight, he persisted in constantly exposing himself to intense, accurate, and sustained hostile fire in order to direct and supervise the employment of his men and to encourage and spur them on in pressing the attack. Inexorably moving forward up the steep, snow-covered slope with his depleted group in the face of apparently insurmountable odds, he concurrently directed artillery and mortar fire with superb skill and although losing 170 of his men during fourteen hours of raging combat in subzero temperatures, continued to reorganize his unit and spearhead the attack which resulted in 600 enemy killed and 500 wounded. By his exceptional and valorous leadership throughout, Maj. Myers contributed directly to the success of his unit in restoring the perimeter. His resolute spirit of self-sacrifice and unfaltering devotion to duty enhance and sustain the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service .
|SITTER, CARL L.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps, Company G, 3d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Hagaru-ri, Korea, November 29th and 30th November 1950. Entered service at: Pueblo, Colo. Born: 2 December 1921, Syracuse, Mo. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of Company G, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Ordered to break through enemy-infested territory to reinforce his battalion the morning of 29 November, Capt. Sitter continuously exposed himself to enemy fire as he led his company forward and, despite 25 percent casualties suffered m the furious action, succeeded in driving through to his objective. Assuming the responsibility of attempting to seize and occupy a strategic area occupied by a hostile force of regiment strength deeply entrenched on a snow-covered hill commanding the entire valley southeast of the town, as well as the line of march of friendly troops withdrawing to the south, he reorganized his depleted units the following morning and boldly led them up the steep, frozen hillside under blistering fire, encouraging and redeploying his troops as casualties occurred and directing forward platoons as they continued the drive to the top of the ridge. During the night when a vastly outnumbering enemy launched a sudden, vicious counterattack, setting the hill ablaze with mortar, machine gun, and automatic-weapons fire and taking a heavy toll in troops, Capt. Sitter visited each foxhole and gun position, coolly deploying and integrating reinforcing units consisting of service personnel unfamiliar with infantry tactics into a coordinated combat team and instilling in every man the will and determination to hold his position at all costs. With the enemy penetrating his lines in repeated counterattacks which often required hand-to-hand combat, and, on one occasion infiltrating to the command post with handgrenades, he fought gallantly with his men in repulsing and killing the fanatic attackers in each encounter. Painfully wounded in the face, arms, and chest by bursting grenades, he staunchly refused to be evacuated and continued to fight on until a successful defense of the area was assured with a loss to the enemy of more than 50 percent dead, wounded, and captured. His valiant leadership, superb tactics, and great personal valor throughout 36 hours of bitter combat reflect the highest credit upon Capt. Sitter and the U.S. Naval Service.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company B, 100th Infantry Battalion (Separate) Entered service at: Schofield Barracks, Hawaii Born: July 13, 1916, Honolulu, Hawaii Citation: Private Mikio Hasemoto distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on November 29th, 1943, in the vicinity of Cerasuolo, Italy. A force of approximately forty enemy soldiers, armed with machine guns, machine pistols, rifles, and grenades, attacked the left flank of his platoon. Two enemy soldiers with machine guns advanced forward, firing their weapons. Private Hasemoto, an automatic rifleman, challenged these two machine gunners. After firing four magazines at the approaching enemy, his weapon was shot and damaged. Unhesitatingly, he ran ten yards to the rear, secured another automatic rifle and continued to fire until his weapon jammed. At this point, Private Hasemoto and his squad leader had killed approximately twenty enemy soldiers. Again, Private Hasemoto ran through a barrage of enemy machine gun fire to pick up an M-1 rifle. Continuing their fire, Private Hasemoto and his squad leader killed ten more enemy soldiers. With only three enemy soldiers left, he and his squad leader charged courageously forward, killing one, wounding one, and capturing another. The following day, Private Hasemoto continued to repel enemy attacks until he was killed by enemy fire. Private Hasemoto’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
Rank and organization:Private, U.S. Army, Company A, 100th Infantry Battalion (Separate)/ Entered service at:Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, Born:November 28, 1917, Waiakea, Hawaii. Place and date:Cerasuolo, Italy, November 29th, 1943. Private Shizuya Hayashi distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on 29 November 1943, near Cerasuolo, Italy. During a flank assault on high ground held by the enemy, Private Hayashi rose alone in the face of grenade, rifle, and machine gun fire. Firing his automatic rifle from the hip, he charged and overtook an enemy machine gun position, killing seven men in the nest and two more as they fled. After his platoon advanced 200 yards from this point, an enemy antiaircraft gun opened fire on the men. Private Hayashi returned fire at the hostile position, killing nine of the enemy, taking four prisoners, and forcing the remainder of the force to withdraw from the hill. Private Hayashi’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 377th Infantry, 95th Infantry Division. Place and date: From Woippy, France, through Metz to Kerprich Hemmersdorf, Germany, November 16th- November 29th, 1944. Entered service at: Two Rivers, Wis. Birth: Manitowoc, Wis. G.O. No.: 74, 1 September 1945. Citation: For performing a series of heroic deeds from 16 to 29 November 1944, during his company’s relentless drive from Woippy, France, through Metz to Kerprich Hemmersdorf, Germany. As he led a rifle squad on 16 November at Woippy, a crossfire from enemy machineguns pinned down his unit. Ordering his men to remain under cover, he went forward alone, entered a building housing one of the guns and forced five Germans to surrender at bayonet point. He then took the second gun single-handedly by hurling grenades into the enemy position, killing two, wounding three more, and taking two additional prisoners. At the outskirts of Metz the next day, when his platoon, confused by heavy explosions and the withdrawal of friendly tanks, retired, he fearlessly remained behind armed with an automatic rifle and exchanged bursts with a German machinegun until he silenced the enemy weapon. His quick action in covering his comrades gave the platoon time to regroup and carry on the fight. On 19 November S/Sgt. Miller led an attack on large enemy barracks. Covered by his squad, he crawled to a barracks window, climbed in and captured six riflemen occupying the room. His men, and then the entire company, followed through the window, scoured the building, and took seventy-five prisoners. S/Sgt. Miller volunteered, with three comrades, to capture Gestapo officers who were preventing the surrender of German troops in another building. He ran a gauntlet of machinegun fire and was lifted through a window. Inside, he found himself covered by a machine pistol, but he persuaded the four Gestapo agents confronting him to surrender. Early the next morning, when strong hostile forces punished his company with heavy fire, S/Sgt. Miller assumed the task of destroying a well-placed machinegun. He was knocked down by a rifle grenade as he climbed an open stairway in a house, but pressed on with a bazooka to find an advantageous spot from which to launch his rocket. He discovered that he could fire only from the roof, a position where he would draw tremendous enemy fire. Facing the risk, he moved into the open, coolly took aim and scored a direct hit on the hostile emplacement, wreaking such havoc that the enemy troops became completely demoralized and began surrendering by the score. The following day, in Metz, he captured twelve more prisoners and silenced an enemy machinegun after volunteering for a hazardous mission in advance of his company’s position. On 29 November, as Company G climbed a hill overlooking Kerprich Hemmersdorf, enemy fire pinned the unit to the ground. S/Sgt. Miller, on his own initiative, pressed ahead with his squad past the company’s leading element to meet the surprise resistance. His men stood up and advanced deliberately, firing as they went. Inspired by S/Sgt. Miller’s leadership, the platoon followed, and then another platoon arose and grimly closed with the Germans. The enemy action was smothered, but at the cost of S/Sgt. Miller’s life. His tenacious devotion to the attack, his gallant choice to expose himself to enemy action rather than endanger his men, his limitless bravery, assured the success of Company G.
|WILLIAMS, ERNEST CALVIN
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 2 August 1887, Broadwell, Ill. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 289, 27 April 1917. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: In action against hostile forces at San Francisco de Macoris, Dominican Republic, November 29th, 1916. With only a dozen men available, 1st Lt. Williams rushed the gate of the fortress. With eight of his party wounded by rifle fire of the defenders, he pressed on with the four remaining men, threw himself against the door just as it was being closed by the Dominicans and forced an entry. Despite a narrow escape from death at the hands of a rifleman, he and his men disposed of the guards and within a few minutes had gained control of the fort and the hundred prisoners confined there.
|JUDGE, FRANCIS W.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company K, 79th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Sanders, Knoxville, TN., November 29th, 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 2 November 1870. Citation: The color bearer of the 51st Georgia Infantry. (C.S.A.), having planted his flag upon the side of the work, Sgt. Judge leaped from his position of safety, sprang upon the parapet, and in the face of a concentrated fire seized the flag and returned with it in safety to the fort.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 29th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Sanders, Knoxville, TN., November 29th, 1863. Entered service at. Fall River, Mass. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 17th Mississippi Infantry (C.S.A.).
|MANNING, JOSEPH S.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 29th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date. At Fort Sanders, Knoxville, TN., November 29th, 1863. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ipswich, Mass. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 16th Georgia Infantry (C.S.A.).
|STEELE, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: Major and Aide-de-Camp, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Spring Hill, TN., November 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Ohio. Birth: Vermont. Date of issue: 28 September 1897. Citation: During a night attack of the enemy upon the wagon and ammunition train of this officer’s corps, he gathered up a force of stragglers and others, assumed command of it, though himself a staff officer, and attacked and dispersed the enemy’s forces, thus saving the train.