Unerased History – July 18th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 18, 2016 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Toss Away the “Could Haves” and “Should Haves” Day




Roller Coasters

Roller Coasters first started as large slides in Russia during the 1800’s. The structures were made from wood with a sheet of ice several inches thick covering the surface. People would climb up the structure and then ride down the slide at a fifty degree drop. They rapidly became popular throughout the Russian aristocracy. The problem with these slides was that they were limited to winter times, much like U.S. toboggan slides. The second half of the 1800’s saw tremendous advances and changes in roller coasters.


The first American roller coaster was not built at an amusement park or city, but in the mountains of Pennsylvania. The Mauch Chunk Switchback Railway, which was more like a runaway train than a modern coaster, is considered the forefather of today’s Roller Coaster.

La Marcus Adna Thompson, the father of the American roller coaster, was a creative man who helped bring the American roller coaster to commercial fruition. During the early sixties (’63-’64) I worked at Geauga Lake Park in, then, Geauga Lake, Ohio. The roller coaster there was called the “Clipper” and was a 2,650 foot wooden coaster. The roller coaster is still standing even though the park closed in 2007.

The fastest steel roller coaster in the U.S. is Kingda Ka at Six Flags Great Adventure, Jackson, New Jersey. In 2005 it was clocked at 128 mph. It is also the tallest coaster at 456 feet and has the highest drop at 418 feet.

The longest steel coaster is Millennium Force at Cedar Point in Sandusky, Ohio. It is over a mile long at 6, 595 feet.
To see more records visit:  More Coasters

Scripture of the Day

1 Corinthians 10:13 KJV

There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it.


Founders Thoughts

Benjamin Franklin“Democracy is two wolves and a lamb voting on what to have for lunch. Liberty is a well-armed lamb contesting the vote!” Ben Franklin




“Power is the ability to do good things for others.”

~ Brooke Astor


yenta (YEN-tuh) noun

A busybody or a gossip. [From Yiddish yente, originally a female name.]


64 B.C – The Great Fire of Rome started; in 9 days, two-thirds of the city was destroyed.

1743 – “The New York Weekly Journal” published the first half-page newspaper ad.

1775 – Continental Congress resolves that each colony provide armed vessels.

1779 – Continental Marines attacked British forces in Maine.

1792 – American naval hero John Paul Jones died in Paris at age 45. His body was preserved in rum in case the American government wished him back. In 1905 his body was transported to the US and placed in a crypt in Annapolis.

1813 – War of 1812: U.S. Frigate President captures British ships Daphne, Eliza Swan, Alert and Lion.

1818 – The Revenue Cutter Active captured the pirate vessel India Libre in the Chesapeake Bay.

1853 – Completion of Grand Trunk Line, America’s first international railroad. Trains begin running over the first North American international railroad between Portland, Maine and Montreal, Quebec.

1861 – Civil War: Union and Confederate troops skirmished at Blackburn’s Ford, Virginia.

1864 – Civil War: President Lincoln asked for 500,000 volunteers for military service.

1872 – Britain introduced the concept of voting by secret ballot.

1877 – Inventor Thomas Edison recorded the human voice for the first time. He shouted “Haloo” into a mouthpiece and played back a moving tape.

1897 – Klondike gold rush begins when first successful prospectors arrive in Seattle, Washington.

1898- Spanish-American War: Battle of Santiago Bay – Troops under US General William R. Shafter take the city of Santiago de Cuba from the Spanish.

1913 – After 68 straight innings Christy Mathewson gives up a walk. The record stands until Bill Fischer, in 1962.

1914 – US army air service first comes into being with six planes and is assigned to the in the Signal Corps.

1918 – World War I: US & French forces launched the Aisne-Marne offensive. After the attack Paris was mostly in Allied control.

1918 – World War I: The 4th Brigade of Marines began an attack near Soissons, France.

1920 – Naval aircraft sink ex-German cruiser Frankfurt in target practice.

1921 – The prosecution gave its opening remarks in the trial of the Chicago Black Sox, accused of throwing the 1919 World Series.

1925 – Adolf Hitler published the first volume of his personal manifesto, “Mein Kampf.” It became the bible for the Nazi Party. The book is filled with anti-Semitic writings, a disdain for morality, worship of power, and the blueprints for world domination.

1927 – Ty Cobb recorded his 4,000th career hit.

1928 – Clarence Samuels assumed command of Coast Guard Patrol Boat AB-15. He became the second African-American to command a Coast Guard vessel, the first being Michael Healy.

1931 – First air-conditioned ship called the Mariposa, is launched. The Mariposa was used on the San Francisco – Honolulu – Sydney service and in 1941 entered service as a US Navy transport.

1932 – The United States and Canada signed a treaty to develop the St. Lawrence Seaway.

1936 – Carl Mayer, nephew of Oscar Mayer, invents the Oscar Mayer Wienermobile. It was built by the General Body Company’s factory in Chicago, IL.

1938 – Douglas “Wrong Way” Corrigan arrives in Ireland.

1939 – Edwin H. Armstrong, US radio engineer, started the first FM radio station in Alpine, NJ.

1940 – The Democratic national convention in Chicago nominated President Roosevelt for an unprecedented third term in office.

1940 – The first successful helicopter flight was made at Stratford, CT.

1941 – Joe DiMaggio’s baseball hitting streak ends at 56 games, by Cleveland Indian pitchers, Al Smith & Jim Bagby.

1942 – First legal NJ horse race in 50 years; Garden State Park track opens. Legendary horses that raced here included Whirlaway, Citation, and Secretariat.

1942 – World War II:  Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe, Germany’s first operational jet fighter, takes first flight. The Me262 surprised the Allies with its speed advantage – around 100 or more miles per hour.

1943 – World War II: An aircraft carrying the Commander of the Japanese Combined Fleet, Admiral Yamamoto, is shot down by P-38 Lighting fighters over Bougainville. Yamamoto is killed.

1944 – World War II: Hideki Tojo was removed as Japanese premier and war minister due to setbacks suffered by his country in World War II.

1945 – World War II: Captured German mines explode accidentally, destroying an American Red Cross club in Italy and killing 36 people.

1945 – World War II: Aircraft from the aircraft carrier Wasp attack Japanese positions on Wake Island.

1947- Harry Truman signed the Presidential Succession Act, which placed the speaker of the House of Representatives and the Senate president pro tempore next in the line of succession after the vice president.

1950 – Korean War: The U.S. 1st Cavalry and 25th Infantry Divisions reached Korea from Japan.

1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Too Young” by Nat King Cole, “Mister and Mississippi” by Patti Page, “The Loveliest Night of the Year” by Mario Lanza and  I Wanna Play House with You”  by  Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1953 – Elvis Presley recorded “My Happiness” as a gift for his mother. It was his first recording.

1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka, “Waterloo” by Stonewall Jackson, “Tiger” by Fabian and “The Battle of New Orleans”  by  Johnny Horton all topped the charts.

1960 – “I’m Sorry” by Brenda Lee topped the charts.

1960 – Elvis Presley’s It’s Now Or Never was released.

1960 – Hank Ballard and the Midnighters released “The Twist.” The song didn’t become a hit until later in the year when Chubby Checker covered it.

1960 – Baseball’s National League votes to add Houston and New York franchises.

1964 – “Rag Doll” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.

1964 – The Beatles album “A Hard Day’s Night” (30:14) was released.

1964 – Pete Rose of the Cincinnati Reds hit the only grand slam home run of his career.

1964 – Riots erupted in the African American communities of New York City and Rochester, NY. The New York City race riot began in Harlem and spread to Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn.

1965 – Jeremiah A. Denton’s A6 Intruder he was piloting while leading an attack squadron of 28 airplanes off the deck of the carrier USS Independence – was shot down while targeting the heavily defended Thanh Hoa Bridge about 75 miles south of Hanoi.

1966 – Launch of Gemini 10 with LCDR John W. Young, USN as Command Pilot. Mission involved 43 orbits at an altitude of 412.2 nautical miles and lasted 2 days, 22 hours, and 46 minutes.

1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Windy”  by  The Association, “Little Bit o’ Soul”  by  The Music Explosion, “Can’t Take My Eyes Off You”  by  Frankie Valli and “All the Time”  by  Jack Greene all topped the charts.

1968 – The Intel Corporation, inventor of the microchip, was incorporated as N M Electronics (the letters standing for Noyce and Moore). It quickly changed its name.

1969 – Commissioner Pete Rozelle told ‘Broadway’ Joe Namath to sell his share in an East Side bar, Bachelors III, because gamblers frequented it. If Namath didn’t, he would be suspended.

1969 – A car driven by Senator Edward M. Kennedy (D-MA) plunged off a bridge on Chappaquiddick Island near Martha’s Vineyard; passenger Mary Jo Kopechne died. The senator did not report the fatal car accident for 10 hours.

1970 – San Francisco’s Willie Mays hits a single off Montreal’s Mike Wegener for his 3,000th hit.

1970 – Ron Hunt of the San Francisco Giants was hit by a pitch for the 119th time in his career. He still holds the record of being hit by a pitch at 234 times in his career.

1970 – “Mama Told Me (Not to Come)” by Three Dog Night topped the charts.

1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Will Keep Us Together” by The Captain & Tennille,The Hustle” by Van McCoy & The Soul City Symphony, “Listen to What the Man Said” by Wings and “Movin’ On” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.

1975 – An American Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft dock with each other in orbit marking the first such link-up between spacecraft from the two nations.

1976 – Nadia Comaneci, the 14-year-old star gymnast from Romania, stunned those watching the Olympic Games by executing perfect form to collect a perfect score of ‘10’ from the judges. This was the first perfect score ever recorded on the uneven parallel bars.

1980 – A US Federal court voided the Selective Service Act as it didn’t include women.

1981 – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes topped the charts.

1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Every Breath You Take” by The Police, “Electric Avenue” by Eddy Grant, “Never Gonna Let You Go” by Sergio Mendez and “The Closer You Get” by Alabama all topped the charts.

1984 – MASS SHOOTING: A gunman opened fire at a McDonald’s fast-food restaurant in San Ysidro, CA. James Huberty killed 21 people and injured another 19 before being shot dead by police. This shooting was the deadliest mass murder committed in the United States until the 1991 Luby’s shooting.

1985 – Jack Nicklaus II, at age 23 years old, made his playing debut on the pro golf tour at the Quad Cities Open in Coal Valley, IL.

1987 – “Alone” by Heart topped the charts.

1989 – Actress Rebecca Schaeffer (21) was shot to death at her Los Angeles home by obsessed fan Robert Bardo, who was later sentenced to life in prison.

1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rush, Rush”  by  Paula Abdul, “Unbelievable”  by  EMF,Right Here, Right Now”  by  Jesus Jones and “Don’t Rock the Jukebox”  by  Alan Jackson all topped the charts.

1993 – FBI Director William Sessions continued to resist White House suggestions he step down, saying he would resign only if President Clinton asked him to. Sessions was fired by Clinton the next day.

1994 – Crayola announced the introduction of scented crayons.

1995 – The oldest known musical instrument in the world was found in the Indrijca River Valley in Slovenia. The 45,000 year-old relic was a bear bone with four artificial holes along its length.

1995 – Selena’s “Dreaming of You” was posthumously released.

1997 – Federal agents in California arrested eight seafood importers accused of smuggling contaminated seafood by bribing customs brokers and FDA inspectors.

1997 – German businessman Thomas Kramer was slapped with a record $323,000 penalty by the Federal Election Commission for making illegal U.S. political contributions.

1999 – David Cone of the New York Yankees pitched a perfect game against the Montreal Expos, leading his team to a 6-to-0 victory.

2000 – Shrugging off a veto threat from President Clinton, the Senate voted 61-to-38 in favor of eliminating the so-called “marriage penalty” by cutting taxes for virtually every married couple.

2001 –  A train derailed, involving sixty cars, in a Baltimore train tunnel. The fire that resulted lasted for six days and virtually closed down downtown Baltimore for several days. Fifty-four cars burned and phone cables were melted. The last burning car was pulled out July 23.

2002 – Accused Sept. 11 conspirator Zacarias Moussaoui tried to plead guilty to charges that could have brought the death penalty, but a federal judge in Alexandria, Va., insisted he take time to think about it.

2002 – It was reported that drought in western US states was causing the biggest grasshopper invasion in 50 years. Nebraska was among the hardest hit.

2004 – Iraq: American jets hit a position in Fallujah used by foreign militants, demolishing a house and killing 14 insurgents.

2006 – Space Shuttle Discovery  lands successfully on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility of the Kennedy Space Center, ending a 13-day mission to the International Space Station.

2007 – A massive geyser of steam and debris erupted through a midtown Manhattan street near Grand Central Terminal when an 83-year-old steam pipe ruptured.

2008 – The Batman sequel “The Dark Knight” opened and set a single-day box office record by taking in $66.4 million.

2008 – In Houston, Texas, one of the nation’s largest mobile cranes collapsed at Lyondell Basell refinery, killing four workers.

2008 – A report by the Civil Rights Division of the United States Department of Justice finds that the Cook County Jail, which houses 9,800 people, systematically violated the constitutional rights of its inmates.

2009 – Forty-seven people are injured in a collision between two Muni Metro light rail cars at the West Portal Station i in San Francisco.

2010 –  A ten-year manhunt orchestrated by the FBI ends with the capture of José Figueroa Agosto in San Juan, Puerto Rico. He was a drug trafficker who escaped from prison in Puerto Rico, where he was serving a 209-year sentence for murder and illegal weapon possession.

2011 – Phoenix, Arizona, is hit by a haboob.

2011 – The San Francisco County Superior Court announces plans to cut 200 jobs and close 25 out of 63 court rooms due to budget problems.

2011 -The Dawn spacecraft takes its first photo of the asteroid 4 Vesta. Launched on September 27, 2007, Dawn entered orbit around Vesta on July 16, 2011, and will explore it until August 26, 2012. Thereafter, the spacecraft will head to Ceres, which it is scheduled to reach in February 2015.Dawn is NASA’s first purely exploratory mission to use ion propulsion.

2013 – The city of Detroit filed for Chapter 9 bankruptcy protection in federal court. This  laid the groundwork for a historic effort to bail out a city that is sinking under billions of dollars in debt and decades of mismanagement, population flight and loss of tax revenue. The bankruptcy filing makes Detroit the largest city in U.S. history to do so.

2015 – Navy Petty Officer Randall Smith died of his injuries sustained in the Chattanooga‬ shooting – making him the fifth service member killed in the attack. Rest easy sailor. “Fair winds and following seas.”




1635 – Robert Hooke, English scientist (d. 1703) Hooke is known principally for his law of elasticity (Hooke’s Law). He is also remembered for his work as “the father of microscopy” — it was Hooke who coined the term “cell” to describe the basic unit of life.

1867 – Margaret Brown, American activist, philanthropist, and RMS Titanic passenger (d. 1932) She became known after her death as The Unsinkable Molly Brown, although she was never called Molly during her life.
1895 – George Machine Gun Kelly, (d. 1954) was a notorious American criminal during the prohibition era. His crimes included bootlegging, armed robbery and, most prominently, kidnapping.
1903 – Chill Wills, American actor (d. 1978) One of his more memorable roles was that of the distinctive voice of Francis the Mule in a series of popular films.

1906 – S.I. Hayakawa, U.S. senator, college administrator, writer. He was an English professor and academic who served as a US Senator (1977 to 1983) from California.
1909 – Harriet Nelson, American singer and actress (d. 1994)
1913 – Red Skelton, American comedian. He was an entertainer, born in Vincennes, Indiana, USA. As a child he toured the Midwest in a medicine show, and later gained fame as a variety performer of stage, radio, television, and films. He was voted the outstanding new radio star in 1941, and is remembered for the NBC television program The Red Skelton Show (1951–71). He gave a farewell performance at Carnegie Hall in 1990.
1921 – John Glenn Jr., American astronaut and politician, b. Cambridge, Ohio. On Feb. 20, 1962, he became the first American and the third person to orbit the earth, circling the globe three times in a vehicle launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla. After leaving the space program, Glenn entered Ohio politics and was elected to the U.S. Senate as a Democrat in 1974. Known for his work on military issues, he campaigned unsuccessfully for the Democratic Presidential nomination in 1984. In Oct., 1998, Glenn went into orbit again, on a space shuttle mission, to test effects of space on the elderly. In 1999 he retired from the Senate.
1929 – Dick Button, is an American figure skater and a well-known long-time skating television analyst.
1947 – Steve Forbes, is the son of Malcolm Forbes and the editor-in-chief of business magazine Forbes as well as president and chief executive officer of its publisher, Forbes Inc. He was a Republican candidate in the U.S. Presidential primaries in 1996 and 2000.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 1st Battalion, 12th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Tay Ninh Province, Republic of Vietnam, July 18th,  1969. Entered service at: Montgomery, Ala. Born: 17 July 1948, Chelsea, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Evans distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism while serving as a squad leader in a reconnaissance sweep through heavy vegetation to reconnoiter a strong enemy position. As the force approached a well-defined trail, the platoon scout warned that the trail was booby-trapped. Sgt. Evans led his squad on a route parallel to the trail. The force had started to move forward when a nearby squad was hit by the blast of a concealed mine. Looking to his right Sgt. Evans saw a second enemy device. With complete disregard for his safety he shouted a warning to his men, dived to the ground and crawled toward the mine. Just as he reached it an enemy soldier detonated the explosive and Sgt. Evans absorbed the full impact with his body. His gallant and selfless action saved his comrades from probable death or injury and served as an inspiration to his entire unit. Sgt. Evans’ gallantry in action at the cost of his life were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.





Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant (then S/Sgt.), U.S. Marine Corps, Company K, 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, 3d Marine Division, Fleet Marine Force. Place and Date: Republic of Vietnam, July 18th, 1966. Entered service at: Laurel Bay, S.C. Born: 21 January 1940, Boston, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. 2d Lt. McGinty’s platoon, which was providing rear security to protect the withdrawal of the battalion from a position which had been under attack for three days, came under heavy small arms, automatic weapons and mortar fire from an estimated enemy regiment. With each successive human wave which assaulted his 32-man platoon during the four-hour battle, 2d Lt. McGinty rallied his men to beat off the enemy. In one bitter assault, two of the squads became separated from the remainder of the platoon. With complete disregard for his safety, 2d Lt. McGinty charged through intense automatic weapons and mortar fire to their position. Finding twenty men wounded and the medical corpsman killed, he quickly reloaded ammunition magazines and weapons for the wounded men and directed their fire upon the enemy. Although he was painfully wounded as he moved to care for the disabled men, he continued to shout encouragement to his troops and to direct their fire so effectively that the attacking hordes were beaten off. When the enemy tried to out-flank his position, he killed five of them at point-blank range with his pistol. When they again seemed on the verge of overrunning the small force, he skillfully adjusted artillery and air strikes within fifty yards of his position. This destructive firepower routed the enemy, who left an estimated 500 bodies on the battlefield. 2d Lt. McGinty’s personal heroism, indomitable leadership, selfless devotion to duty, and bold fighting spirit inspired his men to resist the repeated attacks by a fanatical enemy, reflected great credit upon himself, and upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service.



Rank and organization: Major (then Capt.), U.S. Marine Corps, Company K, 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, 3d Marine Division, FMF. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, July 15th to July 18th, 1966. Entered service at: Milwaukee, Wis. Born: 3 July 1934, Milwaukee, Wis. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 15 July, during Operation HASTINGS, Company K was landed in an enemy-infested jungle area to establish a blocking position at a major enemy trail network. Shortly after landing, the company encountered a reinforced enemy platoon in a well-organized, defensive position. Maj. Modrzejewski led his men in the successful seizure of the enemy redoubt, which contained large quantities of ammunition and supplies. That evening, a numerically superior enemy force counterattacked in an effort to retake the vital supply area, thus setting the pattern of activity for the next 2 1/2 days. In the first series of attacks, the enemy assaulted repeatedly in overwhelming numbers but each time was repulsed by the gallant marines. The second night, the enemy struck in battalion strength, and Maj. Modrzejewski was wounded in this intensive action which was fought at close quarters. Although exposed to enemy fire, and despite his painful wounds, he crawled 200 meters to provide critically needed ammunition to an exposed element of his command and was constantly present wherever the fighting was heaviest, despite numerous casualties, a dwindling supply of ammunition and the knowledge that they were surrounded, he skillfully directed artillery fire to within a few meter* of his position and courageously inspired the efforts of his company in repelling the aggressive enemy attack. On 18 July, Company K was attacked by a regimental-size enemy force. Although his unit was vastly outnumbered and weakened by the previous fighting, Maj. Modrzejewski reorganized his men and calmly moved among them to encourage and direct their efforts to heroic limits as they fought to overcome the vicious enemy onslaught. Again he called in air and artillery strikes at close range with devastating effect on the enemy, which together with the bold and determined fighting of the men of Company K, repulsed the fanatical attack of the larger North Vietnamese force. His unparalleled personal heroism and indomitable leadership inspired his men to a significant victory over the enemy force and reflected great credit upon himself, the Marine Corps, and the U.S. Naval Service.


(Army Medal)


Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 66th Company, 5th Regiment. Place and date: Near Villers-Cotterets, France, July 18th, 1918. Entered service at: Minneapolis, Minn. Born: 1 May 1888, Sebenes, Austria. G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919. (Also received Navy Medal of Honor.) Citation: When his company, advancing through a wood, met with strong resistance from an enemy strong point, Sgt. Cukela crawled out from the flank and made his way toward the German lines in the face of heavy fire, disregarding the warnings of his comrades. He succeeded in getting behind the enemy position and rushed a machinegun emplacement, killing or driving off the crew with his bayonet. With German handgrenades he then bombed out the remaining portion of the strong point, capturing 4 men and 2 damaged machineguns.

(Navy Medal)


Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 66th Company, 5th Regiment. Born: 1 May 1888, Sebenes, Austria. Accredited to: Minnesota. (Also received Army Medal of Honor.) Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving with the 66th Company, 5th Regiment, during action in the Forest de Retz, near Viller-Cottertes, France, July 18th, 1918. Sgt. Cukela advanced alone against an enemy strong point that was holding up his line. Disregarding the warnings of his comrades, he crawled out from the flank in the face of heavy fire and worked his way to the rear of the enemy position. Rushing a machinegun emplacement, he killed or drove off the crew with his bayonet, bombed out the remaining part of the strong point with German handgrenades and captured two machineguns and four men.



Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company H, 103d Infantry, 26th Division. Place and date: Near Belleau, France, July 18th, 1918. Entered service at: Keene, N.H. Birth: Greece. G.O. No.: 13, W.D., 1919. Citation: After his platoon had gained its objective along a railroad embankment, Pfc. Dilboy, accompanying his platoon leader to reconnoiter the ground beyond, was suddenly fired upon by an enemy machinegun from 100 yards. From a standing position on the railroad track, fully exposed to view, he opened fire at once, but failing to silence the gun, rushed forward with his bayonet fixed, through a wheat field toward the gun emplacement, falling within 25 yards of the gun with his right leg nearly severed above the knee and with several bullet holes in his body. With undaunted courage he continued to fire into the emplacement from a prone position, killing 2 of the enemy and dispersing the rest of the crew.



Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 3d Machine Gun Battalion, 1st Division. Place and date: Near Soissons, France, July 18th, 1918. Entered service at: Bruceville, Tex. Born: 9 April 1897, Moorville, Tex. G.O. No.: 14, W.D., 1923. Citation: Reporting for duty from hospital where he had been for several weeks under treatment for numerous and serious wounds and although suffering intense pain from a shattered arm, he crawled alone into an enemy trench for the purpose of capturing or killing enemy soldiers known to be concealed therein. He killed four of the men and took the remaining four men prisoners; while conducting them to the rear one of the enemy was killed by a high explosive enemy shell which also completely shattered one of Pfc. Edwards’ legs, causing him to be immediately evacuated to the hospital. The bravery of Pfc. Edwards, now a tradition in his battalion because of his previous gallant acts, again caused the morale of his comrades to be raised to high pitch.

(Army Medal)

Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 66th Company, 5th Regiment, 2d Division. Place and date: Near Soissons, France, July 18th, 1918. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 31 December 1882, Gbely (Slovakia), Austria. G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919. (Also received Navy Medal of Honor.) Citation: When the advance of his battalion was checked by a hidden machinegun nest, he went forward alone, unprotected by covering fire from his own men, and worked in between the German positions in the face of fire from enemy covering detachments. Locating the machinegun nest, he rushed it and with his bayonet drove off the crew. Shortly after this he organized 25 French colonial soldiers who had become separated from their company and led them in attacking another machinegun nest, which was also put out of action.

(Navy Medal)

Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 31 December 1882, Gbely (Slovakia), Austria. Accredited to: New York. ( Also received Army Medal of Honor. ) Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving with the 66th Company, 5th Regiment, 2d Division, in action in the Viller-Cottertes section, south of Soissons, France, July 18th, 1918. When a hidden machinegun nest halted the advance of his battalion, Sgt. Kocak went forward alone unprotected by covering fire and worked his way in between the German positions in the face of heavy enemy fire. Rushing the enemy position with his bayonet, he drove off the crew. Later the same day, Sgt. Kocak organized French colonial soldiers who had become separated from their company and led them in an attack on another machinegun nest which was also put out of action.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 54th Massachusetts Colored Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Wagner, S.C., July 18th, 1863. Entered service at: New Bedford, Mass. Birth: Norfolk, Va. Date of issue: 23 May 1900. Citation: When the color sergeant was shot down, this soldier grasped the flag, led the way to the parapet, and planted the colors thereon. When the troops fell back he brought off the flag, under a fierce fire in which he was twice severely wounded.





Rank and organization: Corporal, Company K, 12th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Blackburns Ford, Va., July 18th,  1861. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Darien, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: With a companion, refused to retreat when the part of the regiment to which he was attached was driven back in disorder, but remained upon the skirmish line for some time thereafter, firing upon the enemy.




Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 48th New York Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 13 July 1863, Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 14 July 1863; Near Fort Wagner, S.C., July 18th,  1863. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: England. Date of issue: 23 October 1897. Citation: While voluntarily performing picket duty under fire on 13 July 1863, was attacked and his surrender demanded, but he killed his assailant. The day following responded to a call for a volunteer to reconnoiter the enemy’s position, and went within the enemy’s lines under fire and was exposed to great danger. On 18 July voluntarily exposed himself with great gallantry during an assault, and received three wounds that permanently disabled him for active service.



Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 12th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Blackburns Ford, Va., July 18th, 1861. Entered service at: Batavia, N.Y. Birth: Batavia, N.Y. Date of issue: 23 October 1897. Citation: Remained in action when a part of his regiment broke in disorder, joined another company, and fought with it through the remainder of the engagement.



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Unerased History – July 17th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 17, 2016 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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“Wrong Way” Corrigan Day

Wrong-Way Corrigan








In 1935, Corrigan applied to the federal government for permission to make a non-stop flight from New York to Ireland. Officials denied his application, however, because they claimed that his plane was not sound enough to make a non-stop transatlantic trip. Nevertheless, they did certify it for cross-country journeys. In an attempt to get full certification, Corrigan made several modifications to his aircraft over the next two years, but each time he reapplied for permission, officials turned him down.

By 1937, Corrigan had grown tired of “red tape” and decided to try the flight without official sanction (although he never publicly acknowledged such a decision during his lifetime). His plan was to land in New York late at night, after airport officials had already left for the day, fill his gas tanks, and then leave for Ireland. But various mechanical problems while in route to New York caused him to lose his “safe weather window” over the Atlantic, and Corrigan decided not to risk the flight just then. He returned to California to wait for another opportunity the next year.

On 17 July 1938, Douglas Corrigan took off from Brooklyn’s Floyd Bennett airfield in a tiny single-engine plane. Corrigan had filed a flight plan for California, but 29 hours later he arrived in Ireland, claiming his compasses had failed and that he had accidentally flown the wrong way. Although Corrigan never quite admitted it, his ‘mistake’ was surely a ruse to circumvent aviation authorities who had turned down his request to make a trans-Atlantic flight. Corrigan’s stunt caught the public fancy; he was given a hero’s welcome on his return to New York, and “Wrong-Way Corrigan” became a popular nickname for anyone who made a big blunder or did things backwards.


Scripture of the Day

2 Timothy 2:19  King James Version (KJV)

19 Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his. And, let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity.


Founders Thoughts

James MadisonAn elective despotism was not the government we fought for; but one in which the powers of government should be so divided and balanced among the several bodies of magistracy as that no one could transcend their legal limits without being effectually checked and restrained by the others. – James Madison, Federalist 84, 1788



Watch your thoughts; they become words. Watch your words; they become actions. Watch your actions; they become habits. Watch your habits; they become character. Watch your character; it becomes your destiny.”

 ~Frank Outlaw

penchant PEN-chunt, noun:Inclination; decided taste; a strong liking.

Penchant comes from the present participle of French pencher, “to incline, to bend,” from (assumed) Late Latin pendicare, “to lean,” from Latin pendere, “to weigh.”

 180 – Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa are executed for being Christians. This is the earliest record of Christianity in that part of the world.

1212 – The Moslems were crushed in the Spanish crusade.

1754 – King’s College opened in New York City; the Anglican academy would later become Columbia University.

1771 – Bloody Falls Massacre: Chipewyan chief Matonabbee, traveling as the guide to Samuel Hearne on his Arctic overland journey, massacres a group of unsuspecting Inuit.

1801 – The U.S. fleet arrived in Tripoli after Pasha Yusuf Karamanli declared war for being refused tribute.

1821 – Spain ceded Florida to the United States. Andrew Jackson became the governor of that area.

1850 – Harvard Observatory takes first photograph of a star (Vega)

1850 – Statesman Daniel Webster said: “I was born an American; I will live an American; I shall die an American.”

1856 – The Great Train Wreck of 1856 occurs in Fort Washington, Pennsylvania killing over 60 people.

1861 – Congress authorizes the U.S. Treasury to issue paper money for the first time in the form of non-interest bearing treasury notes called demand notes.

1861 – Civil War: At Manassas, VA, Gen Beauregard requested reinforcements for his 22,000 men and Gen Johnston was ordered to Manassas.

1862 – Congress passed an act which established that “every officer, seaman, or Marine, disabled in the line of duty, shall be entitled to receive for life, or during his disability, a pension from the United States.”

1862 – Civil War: US army was authorized to accept blacks as laborers.

1862 – National cemeteries were authorized by the U.S. government.

1864 – Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis replaced General Joseph E. Johnston with General John Bell Hood in hopes of defeating Union General William T. Sherman outside Atlanta. Strikes started against the Baltimore & Ohio, and quickly spread west.

1866 – Authorization was given to build a tunnel beneath the Chicago River. Completed January 1, 1869, the tunnel was 1605 feet long and cost over $512,000.

1867 –  Harvard School of Dental Medicine was established in Boston, Massachusetts — the first dental school in the U.S.

1870 – A drunken brawl turns deadly when “Wild Bill” Hickok shoots two soldiers in self-defense, mortally wounding one of them.

1877 – Riots and violence erupted in several major American cities stemming from strikes against railroads in protest of wage cuts.

1888 – Granville Woods received a patent for the “tunnel construction for electric railways”.

1888 – Miriam E. Benjamin (School teacher) patented a gong and signal chair for motels.

1897 – The Steamer “Portland” arrived into Seattle from Alaska with 68 prospectors carrying more than a ton of gold. The Seattle Post-Intelligencer announced that men with gold from Alaska were landing.

1898 – U.S. troops under General William R. Shafter took Santiago de Cuba during the Spanish-American War.

1899 – NEC Corporation is organized as the first Japanese joint venture with foreign capital.

1901 – Dr. Willis Carrier installed a commerical air conditioning system at a Brooklyn, NY printing plant.

1918 – Chicago Cubs and Philadelphia Phillies set a new Major League record for longest game (twenty-one innings) without a single error.

1918 – On the orders of the Bolshevik Party carried out by Cheka, Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, his immediate family and retainers are murdered at the Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg, Russia.

1918 – World War I: The RMS Carpathia, the ship that rescued the 705 survivors from the RMS Titanic, is sunk off Ireland by the German submatine U-55; only 5 lives are lost.

1920 – Sinclair Lewis finished the now-famous novel, “Main Street”.

1927 – First organized dive bombing attack in combat by Marine Corps pilots against Nicaraguan bandits who were surrounding U.S. Marine garrison at Ocotal, Nicaragua.

1930 – A natural gas explosion in the Mitchell ravine tunnel of the Hetch Hetchy water project in California killed 12 men. 35 other workers quit charging that carelessness and lack of equipment was responsible for the tragedy.

1935 – The entertainment trade publication Variety ran its famous headline, “Sticks Nix Hick Pix,” which might be translated as “rural America dislikes rural-themed movies.”

1938 – Douglas Corrigan takes off to fly the “wrong way” to Ireland and becomes known as “Wrong Way” Corrigan. Upon his return to America, “Wrong-Way” Corrigan was greeted as a hero. More than a million people lined New York’s Broadway for a ticker-tape parade honoring the man who had flown in the face of authority.

1939 – Charlie Barnet and his orchestra recorded Cherokee for Bluebird Records.

1941 – The longest hitting streak in baseball history ended when the Cleveland Indians pitchers held New York Yankee Joe DiMaggio hitless for the first time in 57 games.

1941 – Brigadier General Soervell directed Architect G. Edwin Bergstrom to have basic plans and architectural perspectives for an office building that could house 40,000 War Department employees on his desk by the following Monday morning. The building became known as the Pentagon.

1943 –  World War II: Americans conduct a large air raid on Bougainville. Shipping offshore and airfields between Buin and Faisi are targeted. One Japanese destroyer is sunk.

1944 – World War II: Near the San Francisco Bay, two ships laden with ammunition for the war explode in Port Chicago, California, killing 320 seamen, 202 of the victims were African-American enlisted men. Those that survived and refused to continue loading were convicted of mutiny.

1944 – World War II: Napalm incendiary bombs were dropped for the first time by American P-38 pilots on a fuel depot at Coutances, near St. Lô, France.

1945 – World War II: Potsdam Conference – at Potsdam, President Harry Truman, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, the three main Allied leaders, begin their final summit of the war. The meeting would end on August 2.

1948 – Southern Democrats opposed to the nomination of President Truman met in Birmingham, AL, to endorse South Carolina Gov. Strom Thurmond.

1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bewitched” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Mary Lou Williams), “My Foolish Heart” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Eileen Wilson), “Mona Lisa” by Nat King Cole and “Mississippi” by Red Foley all topped the charts.

1950 – The television show “The Colgate Comedy Hour” debuted featuring Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis.

1951 – Western New England College in Springfield, Massachusetts is chartered.
1952 – Korean War : The U.S. 2nd Infantry Division’s 23rd Infantry Regiment sustained heavy casualties, including 39 killed and 84 missing in action, during the Battle for Old Baldy.

1953 – Lieutenant Guy P. “Lucky Pierre” Bordelon scored his fifth aerial victory and qualified as the only U.S. Navy ace of the Korean War and the only Korean War ace who did not fly an F-86 Sabre jet.

1954 – The Brooklyn Dodgers were the first major league game where majority of team is African-American.

1954 – Gen. Joseph Swing, appointed by Pres. Eisenhower to head the INS, began “Operation Wetback.” Because political resistance was lower in California and Arizona, the roundup of aliens began there.

1955 – Disneyland televises its grand opening in Anaheim, California.
Part 1   (9:56)                 Part 2   (10:05)

1955 – Arco, Idaho becomes first US city lit by nuclear power.

1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Purple People Eater” by Sheb Wooley, “Hard Headed Woman” by Elvis Presley, “Poor Little Fool” by Ricky Nelson and “Guess Things Happen that Way” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.

1959 – Dr Leakey discovers oldest human skull (600,000 years old).

1960 – Francis Gary Powers pled guilty to spying charges in a Moscow court after his U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union.

1961 – Motown Records released The Supremes’ first single, “Buttered Popcorn.”

1961 – John Chancellor becomes news anchor of the Today Show.

1962 – Nuclear testing: The “Small Boy” test shot Little Feller I becomes the last atmospheric test detonation at the Nevada Test Site.

1962 – Robert White in X-15 sets altitude record of 354,300 ft.

1964 – Don Campbell sets record for turbine vehicle, 429.31 mph. His Bluebird-Proteus CN7 reached this average speed using a gas turbine engine.

1965 – “I Can’t Get No Satisfaction” by the Rolling Stones topped the charts.

1965 – The Miracles’ “Tracks of My Tears” was released.

1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hanky Panky” by Tommy James & The Shondells, “Wild Thing” by The Troggs, “You Don’t Have to Say You Love Me” by Dusty Springfield and “Think of Me” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1967 – Race riots took place in Cairo, Illinois. The incident began with the alleged jailhouse suicide of Private Robert Hunt, a young African-American soldier on leave in his hometown of Cairo.

1970 – Jimi Hendrix, Steppenwolf, and Grand Funk Railroad played at the three-day Randall’s Island Rock Festival, New York City.

1971 – “It’s Too Late” by Carole King topped the charts.

1972 – First two women begin training since the 1920’s as FBI agents at Quantico, VA. The first two  women FBI agents were Joanne Pierce, a former nun, and Susan Roley, a Marine 1st lieutenant.

1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Your Baby” by George McCrae, “Annie’s Song” by John Denver, “On and Onby Gladys Knight & The Pips and “He Thinks I Still Care” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.

1974 – Bob Gibson becomes second pitcher to strike-out 3,000 batters.

1975 – Apollo-Soyuz Test Project: An American Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft dock with each other in orbit marking the first such link-up between spacecraft from the two nations.

1976 – Heart’s “Magic Man” was released.

1976 – ABA merges into the NBA/

1976 – The opening of the Summer Olympics is marred by 25 African teams boycotting the New Zealand team.

1980 – Ronald Reagan formally accepted the Republican nomination for president.

1981 – A walkway at the Hyatt Regency (45:54) in Kansas City, Missouri collapses killing 114 people and injuring more than 200 caused by structural failure. Five years later two design engineers were convicted for their negligence.

1981 – Fulton County (Atlanta) grand jury indicted Wayne B. Williams, a twenty-three-year-old photographer, for the murder of two of the twenty-eight Black youths killed in a series of slayings and disappearances in Atlanta. William denied the charges but was convicted in February, 1982.

1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t You Want Me” by The Human League, “Rosanna” by Toto, “Hurts So Good” by John Cougar and “’Till You’re Gone” by Barbara Mandrell all topped the charts.

1986 – The largest bankruptcy filing in U.S. history took place when LTV Corporation asked for court protection from more than 20,000 creditors. LTV Corp. had debts in excess of $4 billion.

1987 – Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North and rear Admiral John Poindexter begin testifying to Congress at the “Iran-Contra” hearings.

1987 – Ten teen-agers were killed when raging floodwaters from the Guadalupe River near Comfort, Texas, swept away a church bus and van holding 43 people.

1989 – First flight of the B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber completed at Edwards Air Force Base in California.

1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Step By Step” by New Kids on the Block, “She Ain’t Worth It” by Glenn Medeiros featuring Bobby Brown, “Hold On” by En Vogue and “The Dance” by Garth Brooks all topped the charts.

1991 – The US Senate voted 53-to-45 to give itself a $23,200 pay raise while at the same time banning outside speaking fees. Great deal for senators no one wants to listen to.

1994 – CGC Polar Sea departed from Victoria, British Columbia on operation Arctic Ocean Section 1994 and became the first U.S. surface vessel to reach the North Pole.

1994 – Fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy continued to smash into Jupiter, sending up towering fireballs.

1995 – The Nasdaq composite stock index rose above 1,000 for the first time.

1996 – TWA Flight 800: Off the coast of Long Island, New York, a Paris-bound TWA Boeing 747 explodes, killing all 230 on board.

1996 – Scientists discovered that the earth’s solid-iron core rotates 12 miles a year faster than the liquid-iron outer core. The inner core grows about an inch in radius every 50 years. A report was published in Nature.

1997 – The F.W. Woolworth Company closes its last 400 stores after 117 years in business.

1997 – The Columbia space shuttle and it crew of 7 returned after a 16-day mission.

1998 – A diplomatic conference adopts the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, establishing a permanent international court to prosecute individuals for genocide, crime against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression.

1998 – The Clinton administration sought approval to use funds for covert operations against Iraqi Pres. Saddam Hussein.

1998 – Biologists reported that they had deciphered the genome (genetic map) of the syphilis bacterium.

2001 – John Ashcroft, US Attorney General reported that 184 FBI laptops and nearly 450 guns were stolen or lost over the last decade.

2001 – A USAF F-16 crashed in northeast San Bernadino County, Ca. Maj. Aaron George, pilot, and Judson Brohmer, photographer, were killed.

2003 – President Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair forcefully defended their decision to topple Saddam Hussein during a joint White House news conference.

2003The US combat death toll in Iraq hit a milestone as the Pentagon acknowledged its casualties from hostile fire reached 147.

2004 – California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger mockingly used the term “girlie men” during a rally as he claimed Democrats were delaying the state budget by catering to special interests.

2005 – Tiger Woods closed with a 2-under 70 to win the British Open for his tenth career major.

2008 – Kay Ryan (b.1945) of Fairfax, CA, was named the 16th poet laureate of the US. She was selected by James Billington, the Librarian of Congress.

2008 – California became the first US state to approve green building standards.

2010 – The   National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) claims 2010 could be the warmest year on record since 1880.

2010 –  An unmanned solar-powered plane Zephyr, reaches its seventh consecutive day of flight.

2011 –  At least two people are killed and 35 injured due to a bus crash on Interstate 390 near  Bath, New York.

2011 –  Crowds gather outside the jail in Orange County, Florida for the release of Casey Anthony who was recently cleared of murdering her daughter Caylee.

1239 – Edward Longshanks, English king (d. 1307)
1674 – Isaac Watts, English hymnwriter (d. 1748)
1744 – Elbridge Gerry, 5th Vice President of the United States (d. 1814)
1763 – John Jacob Astor, American businessman (d. 1848)
1839 – Ephraim Shay, American inventor who designed the first Shay locomotive and patented the type. (d. 1916)
1889 – Erle Stanley Gardner, American lawyer and author (Perry Mason) (d. 1970)
1898 – George Robert Vincent, American sound recording pioneer (d. 1985)
1899 – James Cagney, American actor (d. 1986)
1913 – Bertrand Goldberg, American architect (d. 1997)
1917 – Phyllis Diller, American comedian
1917 – Red Sovine, American country music singer (d. 1980)
1920 – Gordon Gould, inventor of the laser (d. 2005)
1935 – Diahann Carroll, American actor
1935 – Donald Sutherland, Canadian actor
1951 – Lucie Arnaz, American actress
1952 – David Hasselhoff, American actor and musician
1960 – Nancy Giles, American actress
1968 – Beth Littleford, American comedian
1977 – Tiffany Taylor, American model
1978 – Katharine Towne, American actress
1979 – Mike Vogel, American actor




Rank and organization: Corporal. U.S. Army, Company D, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Choo Gung-Dong, Korea, July 16th and  July 17th, 1953. Entered service at: Fort Worth, Tex. Born: 26 September 1931, Camden, Tenn. Citation: Cpl. Pendleton, a machine gunner with Company D, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. After consolidating and establishing a defensive perimeter on a key terrain feature, friendly elements were attacked by a large hostile force. Cpl. Pendleton delivered deadly accurate fire into the approaching troops, killing approximately fifteen and disorganizing the remainder with grenades. Unable to protect the flanks because of the narrow confines of the trench, he removed the machine gun from the tripod and, exposed to enemy observation, positioned it on his knee to improve his firing vantage. Observing a hostile infantryman jumping into the position, intent on throwing a grenade at his comrades, he whirled about and killed the attacker, then inflicted such heavy casualties on the enemy force that they retreated to regroup. After reorganizing, a second wave of hostile soldiers moved forward in an attempt to overrun the position and, later, when a hostile grenade landed nearby, Cpl. Pendleton quickly retrieved and hurled it back at the foe. Although he was burned by the hot shells ejecting from his weapon, and he was wounded by a grenade, he refused evacuation and continued to fire on the assaulting force. As enemy action increased in tempo, his machine gun was destroyed by a grenade but, undaunted, he grabbed a carbine and continued his heroic defense until mortally wounded by a mortar burst. Cpl. Pendleton’s unflinching courage, gallant self-sacrifice, and consummate devotion to duty reflect lasting glory upon himself and uphold the finest traditions of the military service.



Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 3d Reconnaissance Troop, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Agrigento, Sicily, July 17th, 1943. Entered service at: Piedmont, Calif. Birth: Oakland, Calif. G.O. No.: 69, 21 October 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in action involving actual conflict with the enemy. Commander of a reconnaissance platoon, 1st Lt. Waybur volunteered to lead a three vehicle patrol into enemy-held territory to locate an isolated Ranger unit. Proceeding under cover of darkness, over roads known to be heavily mined, and strongly defended by road blocks and machinegun positions, the patrol’s progress was halted at a bridge which had been destroyed by enemy troops and was suddenly cut off from its supporting vehicles by four enemy tanks. Although hopelessly outnumbered and out-gunned, and himself and his men completely exposed, he quickly dispersed his vehicles and ordered his gunners to open fire with their .30 and .50 caliber machineguns. Then, with ammunition exhausted, three of his men hit and himself seriously wounded, he seized his .45 caliber Thompson submachinegun and standing in the bright moonlight directly in the line of fire, alone engaged the leading tank at thirty yards and succeeded in killing the crewmembers, causing the tank to run onto the bridge and crash into the stream bed. After dispatching one of the men for aid he rallied the rest to cover and withstood the continued fire of the tanks till the arrival of aid the following morning.



Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Big Dry Fork, Ariz., July 17th, 1882. Entered service at: Owensboro, Ky. Birth: Owensboro, Ky. Date of issue: 12 July 1892. Citation: Gallantly charged hostile Indians, and with his carbine compelled a party of them to keep under cover of their breastworks, thus being enabled to recover a severely wounded soldier.



Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Big Dry Fork, Ariz., July 17th, 1882. Entered service at: Minneapolis, Minn. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 15 July 1892. Citation: Gallantly held his ground at a critical moment and fired upon the advancing enemy (hostile Indians) until he was disabled by a shot.



Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company D, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Big Dry Wash, Ariz., July 17th, 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Baltimore, Md. Date of issue: 16 December 1882. Citation: Gallantry in action.




Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Big Dry Wash, Ariz., July 17th, 1882. Entered service at: Mohawk, N.Y. Birth: Mohawk, N.Y. Date of issue: 12 July 1892. Citation: Rallied his command and led it in the advance against the enemy’s fortifled position.


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Unerased History – July 16th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 16, 2016 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Get to Know Your Customers Day
Hot Dog Night





A Billion and a Trillion

This is too true to be very funny. The next time you hear a politician use the word “billion” in a casual manner, think about whether you want the “politicians” spending YOUR tax money. A billion is a difficult number to comprehend, but one advertising agency did a good job of putting that figure into some perspective in one of its releases. Now we can look at how a trillion compares and see some interesting comparisons.

A. A billion seconds ago it was 1959.
AA. A trillion seconds ago it was 29,701 B.C.

B. A billion minutes ago Jesus was alive.
BB. A trillion minutes ago is approximately the time of the Big Bang.

C. A billion hours ago our ancestors were  living in the Stone Age.
CC. A trillion hours ago only God knows

D. A billion days ago no-one walked on the earth on two feet.
DD. A trillion days ago, again, only God knows but certainly may predate time.

E. A billion dollars ago was only 8 hours and 20 minutes, at the rate our government is spending it.
EE. In 2009 the government is spending $8.2 billion dollars a day, 342 million dollars a minute, 5.7 million dollars a second.


While this thought is still fresh in our brain, let’s take a look at New Orleans It’s amazing what you can learn with some simple division . .

Louisiana Senator, Mary Landrieu (D), once asked the Congress for $250 BILLION (one quarter of a trillion) to rebuild New Orleans.  Interesting number, what does it mean?

A. Well, if you are one of 484,674 residents of New Orleans (every man, woman, child), you each get $516,528.

B. Or, if you have one of the 188,251 homes in New Orleans , your home gets $1,329,787.

C. Or, if you are a family of four, your family gets $2,066,012.

Washington , D.C .. HELLO!!! … Are all your calculators broken??

2011 UPDATE: The Obama Administration has managed to increase our national debt to 14 Trillion dollars. How much is that? Well, a dollar bill is six inches long so one mile of dollar bills contains 10, 560 dollar bills. Fourteen trillion dollars would stretch one billion, three hundred twenty-five million, 757 thousand, five hundred seventy-five miles. Light travels at 186,000 miles per second and that means that to go from one end of this money to the other would take 7,128 light-seconds or 119 light-minutes or almost two light hours. Yes it is the time it takes to go from one end of that money to the other at the speed of light.

The total of our government’s unfunded obligations is approximately $61 Trillion. Using the previous numbers means that to travel from one end of that money to the other would take 2,248 light hours or 93.7 light-days.


Scripture of the Day

1 Thessalonians 5: 5 – 11 . .

5 For you are all children of light, children of the day. We are not of the night or of the darkness. 6 So then let us not sleep, as others do, but let us keep awake and be sober. 7 For those who sleep, sleep at night, and those who get drunk, are drunk at night. 8 But since we belong to the day, let us be sober, having put on the breastplate of faith and love, and for a helmet the hope of salvation. 9 For God has not destined us for wrath, but to obtain salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ, 10 who died for us so that whether we are awake or asleep we might live with him. 11 Therefore encourage one another and build one another up, just as you are doing.


Founders Thoughts

Benjamin FranklinDemocracies always self-destruct when the non-productive majority realizes that it can vote itself handouts from the productive minority by electing the candidate promising the most benefits from the public treasury. To maintain their power, these candidates must adopt an ever-increasing tax and spend policy to satisfy the ever-increasing desires of the majority. As taxes increase, incentives to produce decrease, causing many of the once productive to drop out and join the non-productive. When there are no longer enough producers to fund the legitimate functions of government and the socialist programs, the democracy will collapse, always to be followed by a Dictatorship.

Benjamin Franklin

“When we walk to the edge of all the light we have and take the step into the darkness of the unknown, we must believe that one of two things will happen. There will be something solid for us to stand on or we will be taught to fly.”

~ Frank Outlaw

“I think I’ve discovered the secret of life — you just hang around until you get used to it.”

~ Charles M. Schulz


horripilation haw-rip-uh-LAY-shuhn; ho-, noun:

the act or process of the hair bristling on the skin, as from cold or fear; goose flesh

Used first by 1623, from Latin horripilatio, from horripilare “to bristle” + pilus “hair”


622 – The beginning of the Islamic calendar.

1439 – Kissing is banned in England to stop the spread of disease.

1769 – Father Junipero Serra founds Mission San Diego de Alcalá, the first mission in California. The mission later evolves into the city of San Diego. The Franciscan friars soon planted cuttings of olive trees.

1775 – John Adams graduated from Harvard.

1779 – American troops under General Anthony Wayne capture Stony Point, NY.

1782 – First performance of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s opera The Abduction from the Seraglio.

1790 – The signing of the Residence Bill establishes a site along the Potomac River as the District of Columbia (seat of government). The United States Congress approved the creation of a capital district as permitted by the U.S. Constitution. The District is therefore not a part of any U.S. state.”

1798 – US Public Health Service established & US Marine Hospital authorized. The Marine Hospitals were a Federal government program to provide health care to merchant seamen.

1845 – The New York Yacht Club hosted the first American boating regatta.

1862 –  Civil War: Flag Officer David Farragut becomes the first United States Navy rear admiral. It was given to him for his impressive victory at New Orleans.

1862 – Civil War: Two Union soldiers and their servant: Private Louis Sorg, Private Louis P. Troest, and Jerry Spades, a black servant of Wiedrich’s; wandered out of camp and ended up a few miles away at the home of a widow whose name was recorded only as “Mrs. Swindler.”  There they ransacked a house and raped a slave in Sperryville, VA.

1862 – Civil War: David G. Farragut became the first rear admiral in the U.S. Navy.

1863 – The draft riot enters its fourth day in New York City in response to the Enrollment Act, which was enacted on March 3, 1863.

1866 – Republican Congress overrides Democrat President Andrew Johnson’s veto of Freedman’s Bureau Act, which protected former slaves from “black codes” denying their rights.

1878 – Thaddeus Hyatt was granted a patent for reinforced concrete.

1882 – Mary Todd Lincoln, the widow of Abraham Lincoln, dies of a stroke.

1909 – At Bennett Field, Detroit and Washington play the longest scoreless game in American League history,18 innings.

1912 – Naval torpedo launched from an airplane patented by Rear Admiral B.A. Fiske.

1912 – New York gambler Herman Rosenthal, set to testify before a grand jury about police corruption, was gunned down by members of the Lennox Avenue Gang.

1915 – First Navy ships, battleships Ohio, Missouri, and Wisconsin transit Panama Canal.

1916 – Captain Raynal Bolling commanded the 1st Aero Squadron, New York National Guard, when it was mobilized during the Mexican Border Crisis.

1920 – Gen. Amos Fries was appointed first US army chemical warfare chief.

1926 – The first underwater color photographs appeared in “National Geographic” magazine. The pictures had been taken near the Florida Keys.

1929 – Col. Charles Lindbergh was extremely angry when he realized a sound-camera man had recorded a private conversation using a concealed microphone.

1934 – The NBC Red radio network premiered the musical drama, “Dreams Come True.”

1934 – The nation’s first general strike was called in San Francisco in response to violence and disregard of worker’s rights in the waterfront strike.

1935 – First automatic parking meter in US installed in Oklahoma City, OK.

1936 – The movie, “Green Pastures”, premieres in New York’s Radio City Music Hall.

1940 – World War II: Adolf Hitler ordered the preparations to begin on the invasion of England, known as Operation Sea Lion.

1942 – World War II: Holocaust:  The Vichy France government orders French police officers to round up 13,000-20,000 Jews and imprison them in the Winter Velodrome. Germany had agreed to not deport French Jews if France arrested foreign Jews.

1942 – World War II: Holocaust: Jews were transported from Holland to an extermination camp.

1943 – World War II: Roosevelt and Churchill issue a joint statement calling for an Italian surrender and the overthrow of Mussolini.

1945 – The Atomic Age begins when the United States successfully detonates a plutonium-based test nuclear weapon at the Trinity site near Alamogordo, New Mexico. The mushroom-shaped cloud rose to a height of 41,000 feet above the New Mexico desert.

1945 – World War II: A force of 500 B-29 Superfortress bombers strike targets on Honshu and Kyushu. In total, over 1500 American planes attack raid various objectives on the Japanese home islands during the day.

1945 – World War II: Cruiser USS Indianapolis left San Francisco with an atom bomb.

1946 – World War II: US court martial in Dachau condemned 46 SS to hang for the Malmedy massacre of disarmed GIs.

1948 – The city of Nazareth, hometown of Jesus, capitulates to Israeli troops during Operation Dekel led by Ben Dunkelman, after little more than token resistance, during 1948 Arab-Israeli War.

1949 -– CHART TOPPERS – “Some Enchanted Evening” by Perry Como, “Bali Ha’Iby Perry Como, “Again” by Gordon Jenkins and “One Kiss Too Many” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1949 – “Riders in the Sky” by Vaughan Monroe topped the charts.

1950 – U.S. Army Chaplain Herman G. Felhoelter became the first chaplain to receive an award for heroism and the first to lose his life in the Korean War. He was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.

1951 – J.D. Salinger’s novel, “The Catcher in the Rye,” was first published.

1953 – “I’m Walking Behind You” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.

1953 – F-86 Sabre sets world aircraft speed record of 716 mph.

1955 – Disneyland opens in Anaheim, California.

1955 – Bill Haley & Comets’ “Rock Around the Clock” tops billboards chart.

1956 – Last Ringling Bros, Barnum & Bailey Circus under a canvas tent.

1957 -– CHART TOPPERS – “Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley, “Searchin’/Young Blood by The Coasters, “Valley of Tears/It’s You I Love” by Fats Domino and “Bye Bye Love” by The Everly Brothers all topped the charts.

1957 – United States Marine Major John Glenn flies a F8U Crusader supersonic jet from California to New York in 3 hours, 23 minutes and 8 seconds setting a new transcontinental speed record.


1958 – The science-fiction film “The Fly” opened in San Francisco.

1959 – The Coasters recorded “Poison Ivy.”

1960 – “Alley Oop” by The Hollywood Argyles topped the charts.

1962 – NASA civilian test pilot Joseph A Walker takes X-15 to 106,961 feet.

1963 – Congressman Carl Vinson of Georgia broke House Speaker Sam Rayburn’s record of service in the U.S. Congress, as he celebrated serving 48 years, 8 months and 13 days.

1964 – Barry M. Goldwater, as he accepted the Republican presidential nomination in San Francisco, declared that “extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice” and that “moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue.”

1964 – Little League Baseball Incorporated was granted a Federal Charter unanimously by the United States Senate and House of Representatives.

1965 -– CHART TOPPERS – “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” by The Rolling Stones, Wonderful World” by Herman’s Hermits, Yes, I’m Ready” by Barbara Mason and “Before You Go” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1966 – “Hanky Panky” by Tommy James & the Shondells topped the charts.

1966 – “Half a Sixpence” closed at Broadhurst Theater in New York City after 512 performances.

1966 – The Lovin’ Spoonful’s “Summer In The City” was released.

1969 – Apollo program: Apollo 11 is launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida and will become the first manned space mission to land on the moon. Astronauts – Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and Michael Collins.

1969 –  The Who’s “I’m Free” was released.

1970 – Pittsburgh Pirates replaces Forbes Field with Three Rivers Stadium and play their first game.

1973 -– CHART TOPPERS – “Will It Go Round in Circles” by Billy Preston, Kodachrome” by Paul Simon, “Bad, Bad Leroy Brown” by Jim Croce and “Love is the Foundation” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.

1973 – Former White House aide Alexander P. Butterfield informs the US Senate during the Watergate scandal that President Richard Nixon had secretly recorded potentially incriminating conversations.

1977 – “Da Doo Ron Ron” by Shaun Cassidy topped the charts.

1979 – Iraqi President Hasan al-Bakr resigns and is replaced by Saddam Hussein.

1979 – Jeffrey MacDonald stands trial in North Carolina for the murder of his wife and children nearly 10 years before.

1980 -Ronald Reagan won the Republican presidential nomination at the party’s convention in Detroit.

1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes, “All Those Years Ago by George Harrison, “The One That You Love” by Air Supply and “Fire & Smoke” by Earl Thomas Conley all topped the charts.

1981 – After 23 years with the name Datsun, executives of Nissan changed the name of their cars to Nissan.

1981 – Singer Harry Chapin (38) was killed when his car was struck by a tractor-trailer on New York’s Long Island Expressway while he was on his way to a benefit concert. Cat’s In the Cradle

1982 – NASA launches Landsat 4 to thematic map the Earth.

1983 – Sikorsky S-61 disaster: A helicopter crashes off the Isles of Scilly, causing 20 fatalities.

1983 – “Every Breath You Take” by The Police topped the charts.

1985 – The All-Star Game, televised on NBC-TV, was the first program broadcast in stereo by a TV network.

1988 – “The Flame” by Cheap Trick topped the charts.

1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Satisfied” by Richard Marx, “Buffalo Stance” by Neneh Cherry, “Baby Don’t Forget My Number” by Milli Vanilli and “I Don’t Want to Spoil the Party” by Roseanne Cash all topped the charts.

1990 – New York City’s Empire State Building caught fire, but there were no fatalities.

1991 – In Paris, jazz trumpeter Miles Davis was named a Knight in the (French) Legion of Honor, one of that nation’s highest cultural honors.

1993 – The Mississippi River charged through a levee at West Quincy, Mo., closing the Bayview Bridge, the only bridge across the river to Illinois for more than 200 miles.

1994 – Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collides with Jupiter. Impacts continue until July 22nd.

1995 – William Barloon and David Daliberti, the two Americans who were imprisoned in Iraq for crossing the border from Kuwait four months earlier, were released.

1995 – Amazon.com went live on the Internet. The first book sold on the site was “Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought.”

1997 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 8,000 for the first time closing at 8,038.88.

1998 – The US FDA approved the use of thalidomide as a treatment for leprosy.

1999 – John F. Kennedy Jr., his wife Carolyn Bessette Kennedy, and sister-in-law Lauren Bessette are killed in a plane crash off the coast of Martha’s Vineyard. The Piper Saratoga aircraft was piloted by Kennedy.

1999 – Stanley Kubrick’s final film, “Eyes Wide Shut” starring Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman, made its debut.

2003 – House passage of Project Bioshield to help prevent and inoculate for bio-terror attack.

2003 – In Santa Monica, Ca., 10 people were killed and over 70 injured when a car driven by George Russell Weller (87) plowed through a crowded street market in an apparent accident.

2004 – Millennium Park, considered the first and most ambitious architectural project in the early 21st century for Chicago, is opened to the public by Mayor Richard M. Daley.

2004 – Martha Stewart was sentenced to five months in prison for lying about a stock sale. She was also ordered to spend five months confined to her home and fined $30,000. She was allowed to remain free pending her appeal.

2005 – “Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince” by J.K. Rowling is published, selling 6.9 million copies in the first 24 hours after release.

2007 – A man carrying a gun and declaring “I am the emperor” was shot and killed by security outside the offices of Colorado Gov. Bill Ritter.

2008 – The US Postal Service released a series of stamps honoring black cinema.

2008 – The United States Senate agrees to triple funding for the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief to $48 billion.

2008 – Ben Bernanke, the Chairman of the Federal Reserve, assures the United States House of Representatives Financial Services Committee that giant mortgage companies Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are in “no danger of failing.”

2009 – The 110-story Sears Tower in Chicago, IL is renamed the Willis Tower. The name comes from the new owners, Willis Group Holdings, a London-based insurance brokerage.

2010 –  Goldman Sachs pays a record $550 million (US) fine to settle civil fraud charges.

2010 – The United States places U.S.-born Muslim cleric Anwar al-Awlaki on its “terror blacklist”.

2010 –  Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen pledges the majority of his estimated $13.5 billion fortune to philanthropy after his death.

2012 –  NBCUniversal buys full control of the US news website MSNBC.com which is rebranded as NBCNews.com.

2015 – Four United States Marines shot in a mass shooting in Chattanooga, TN have died. In addition to the Marines,the assailant wounded two other service members and one Chattanooga police officer was shot in the ankle . The shooter also was killed. Law enforcement sources told CBS News that the shooting suspect was identified as 24-year-old Mohammod Youssuf Abdulazeez from Kuwait.


1821 – Mary Baker Eddy, American religious leader (d. 1910)
1862 – Ida B. Wells, American civil rights activist. An early leader in the civil rights movement, she documented the extent of lynching in the United States. (d. 1931)
1883 – Charles Sheeler, American photographer and artist is recognized as one of the master photographers of the 20th century. (d. 1965)
1888 – “Shoeless” Joe Jackson, American baseball player . He is remembered for his performance on the field and for his association with the Black Sox Scandal, when members of the 1919 Chicago White Sox participated in a conspiracy to fix the World Series.  (d. 1951)
1907 – Orville Redenbacher, American farmer and businessman (d. 1995)

1907 – Barbara Stanwyck, American actress (d. 1990)
1911 – Ginger Rogers, American actress and dancer (d. 1995)
1923 – Chris Argyris, American educator
1924 – Bess Myerson, Miss America-1945
1932 – Dick Thornburgh, American politician
1934 – Don Payne, American politician
1936 – Buddy Merrill, American musician (The Lawrence Welk Show)
1956 – Jerry Doyle is an American talk radio host, conservative political commentator, and television actor. His nationally-syndicated talk show, The Jerry Doyle Show, airs throughout the United States on Talk Radio Network.
1968 – Barry Sanders is a former American football running back who spent all of his professional career with the Detroit Lions in the NFL.
1968 – Larry Sanger, American co-founder of Wikipedia



Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Hartford, Philadelphia, Pa., July 16th, 1876. Born: 1850, Rouses Point, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 214, 27 July 1876. Citation: Showing gallantry, Costello rescued from drowning a landsman of that vessel.



Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Katbalogan, Samar, Philippine Islands, July 16th, 1900. Born: 29 August 18,9, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy during the battle of Katbalogan.



Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Katbalogan, Samar, Philippine Islands, July 16th, 1900. Born: Boto, Norway. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 55, 29 July 1899. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy in battle at Katbalogan.


Boxer Rebellion

(9:42) Clip with Charleston Heston

Beginning in 1898, groups of peasants in northern China began to band together into a secret society known as “Righteous and Harmonious Fists”, and called the “Boxers” by Western press. Members of the secret society practiced boxing and calisthenic rituals (hence the nickname, the “Boxers”) which they believed would make them impervious to bullets. By late 1899, bands of Boxers were massacring Christian missionaries, Chinese Christians and foreigners. On June 18, 1900, the Empress Dowager ordered all foreigners to be killed. Several foreign ministers and their families were killed before the international force could protect them. The battle started on July 13th and on August 14, 1900, the international force took Peking and subdued the rebellion.



Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Peking, China,  June 20th to  July 16th, 1900 Born: 14 September 1872, Kahliwar, Sweden. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China, Dahlgren distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.





Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Peking, China,  June 20th to July 16th,1900 Born: 20 October 1874, McKeesport, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: Served in the presence of the enemy at the battle of Peking, China. Assisting in the erection of barricades during the action, Fisher was killed by the heavy fire of the enemy.



Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Peking, China,  June 20th to July 16th,1900 Born: 9 July 1873, County of Mayo, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China, Hunt distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Peking, China,  June 20th to July 16th, 1900. Born: 2 October 1864, Huntley, Scotland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China. Throughout this period, Walker distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.



Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Peking, China,  June 20th to July 16th, 1900 Born: 22 June 1876, Milwaukee, Wis. Accredited to: Wisconsin. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China.  Throughout this period, Young distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.


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Unerased History – July 15th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 15, 2016 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Gummy Worm Day

Saint Swithin’s Day


Gummi Worm Cupcakes

Kids just love digging into these decadent chocolate cupcakes, oozing with chocolate frosting and gummi worms. They make the perfect touch for a backyard birthday bash or Halloween party.


  • 1 (18.25 ounce) package chocolate cake mix
  • 1 (16 ounce) package prepared chocolate frosting
  • 3 cups chocolate cookie crumbs
  • 1 (16 ounce) package gummi worms

Cooking Instructions


Prepare cake mix according to package directions. Pour batter into cupcake pans and bake as directed on cake mix box. Let cupcakes cool thoroughly before frosting.

Spread cupcakes lightly with chocolate icing. Sprinkle cookie crumbs on top to make it look like “dirt”.

Cut gummi worms in half (as many as you like). Put icing onto cut end of the worms and stick to the top of cupcakes. You can use as few or as many as will fit on each cupcake. Let icing set for 10 minutes and then enjoy.

The goal is to make it look as though the worms are coming from the ground. Another way is to fill small (8oz) cups with chocolate pudding, cover the pudding with ground chocolate cookies and stick the worms in for the same effect.

Scripture of the Day

Ecclesiastes 3:11

11 He hath made every thing beautiful in His time: also He hath set the world in their heart, so that no man can find out the work that God maketh from the beginning to the end.

Founders Thoughts

Benjamin FranklinBenjamin Franklin

Emblematical Representations — 1774

The ordaining of laws in favor of one part of the nation, to the prejudice and oppression of another, is certainly the most erroneous and mistaken policy. An equal dispensation of protection, rights, privileges, and advantages, is what every part is entitled to, and ought to enjoy.

“The way to get started is to quit talking and begin doing.”

~ Walt Disney

“Life is one grand, sweet song, so start the music.”

~Ronald Reagan


vitiate \VISH-ee-ayt\, transitive verb:

1. To make faulty or imperfect; to render defective; to impair; as, “exaggeration vitiates a style of writing.”
2. To corrupt morally; to debase. 
3. To render ineffective; as, “fraud vitiates a contract.”

Vitiate comes from Latin vitiare, from vitium, fault. It is related to vice (a moral failing orfault), which comes from vitium via French.


1099 – Christian soldiers take Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after a difficult siege during this First Crusade.

1381 – John Ball, a leader in the Peasants’ Revolt, hanged, drawn and quartered in the presence of Richard II of England.

1799 – Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta, by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard.

1806 – Near St. Louis, Missouri, United States Army Lieutenant Zebulon Pike begins an expedition from Fort Belle Fountaine to explore the west.

1830 – Three Indian tribes, Sioux, Sak & Fox, signed a treaty giving the US most of Minnesota, Iowa & Missouri.

1838 –  Ralph Waldo Emerson delivers the Divinity School Address at Harvard Divinity School, discounting Biblical miracles and declaring Jesus a great man, but not God. The Protestant community reacts with outrage.

1862 – Civil War: The Confederate ironclad Arkansas breaks naval blockade of Vicksburg, Mississippi.

1863 – Civil War: Confederate raider Bill Anderson and his Bushwhackers attacked Huntsville, MO, where they stole $45,000 from the local bank.

1863 – Civil War: Boat crews from U.S.S. Stars and Stripe and Somerset landed at Marsh’s Island, Florida, and destroyed nearly 60 bushels of salt and 50 salt boilers.

1868 – “The Torrent” sank in Alaska’s Cook Inlet after tidal currents, among the world’s most powerful, rammed it into a reef south of the Kenai Peninsula.

1869 – Margarine is patented by Hippolyte Mège Mouriés in Paris. He won a contest held by Emperor Napoleon III to find a suitable substitute for butter used by the French Navy. He named his product after the Greek word for pearl – margaritari.

1870 – Georgia becomes the last of the former Confederate states to be readmitted to the Union.

1870 – Act of Congress establishes Navy Pay Corps, which later becomes the Navy Supply Corps.

1876 – George Washington Bradley was the first man to pitch an official no-hit, no-run game in major league history. He pitched for St. Louis against Hartford. The score was 2-0 without a single hit being allowed.

1888 – “Printers’ Ink” was first sold.

1897 – The gold-laden ship Excelsior from Alaska landed in San Francisco.

1897 – W. Sheldon of NY patented a seed counter for retail seed sales.

1901 – Over 74,000 Pittsburgh steel workers went on strike.

1912 – Jim Thorpe won the decathlon in the Olympic games in Stockholm, Sweden.

1913 – Augustus Bacon of Georgia becomes the first senator elected by popular vote (before the Seventeenth Amendment, senators were elected by state legislators).

1916 – In Seattle, Washington, William Boeing and George Conrad Westervelt incorporate Pacific Aero Products (later renamed Boeing).

1918 – World War I: Second Battle of the Marne – The battle begins near the River Marne with a German attack.

1920 – Babe Ruth ties his record of 29 home runs in a season.

1922 – First duck-billed platypus publicly exhibited in the US at the New York Zoo.

1933 – Wiley Post began first solo flight around the world.

1940 – Robert Wadlow died at the age of 22. At that time he was 8 feet, 11inches tall and weighed 439 pounds.

1941 – Master spy Juan Pujol Garcia, nicknamed “Garbo,” sends his first communique to Germany from Britain.

1942 – Glenn Miller and his band recorded the classic “Jukebox Saturday Night.

1943 – World War II: An air battle takes place over Rendova in which the Americans lose three aircraft and claim to shoot down more than forty Japanese planes.

1945 – World War II: President Harry Truman disembarks the heavy cruiser the USS Augusta (CA-31) in Antwerp en route to Potsdam for the Potsdam Conference.

1945 – World War II: American naval vessels bombard Muroran, the second biggest steel center in Japan, lying in Volcano Bay on the east side of the island of Hokkaido.

1945 – World War II: American B-29 Superfortress bombers, based in the Marianna Islands, raided an oil refinery at Kudamatsu on Honshu Island while fighters and bombers from Okinawa attacked objectives on Kyushu and southern Honshu.

1948 – President Truman was nominated for another term of office by the Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia.

1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Woody Woodpecker Song” by The Kay Kaiser Orchestra (vocal: Gloria Wood & The Campus Kids), “You Can’t Be True, Dear” by  The Ken Griffin Orchestra (vocal: Jerry Wayne), “Little White Lies” by Dick Haymes and “Bouquet of Roses” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1950 – “Mona Lisa” by Nat ‘King’ Cole topped the charts.

1950 – Korean War: F-80s accounted for 85 percent of the enemy’s losses to air attack.

1952 – Two U.S. Air Force Sikorsky H-19s traveled from the U.S. to Wiesbaden, Germany with stops in Labrador, Greenland, Iceland, Scotland, and the Netherlands on their way. Total flight time was about 52 hours, but because of stops the trip took 21 days.

1952 – Singer Patti Page made her TV debut in a summer replacement series for Perry Como.

1953 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Captain James Jabara, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, qualified as the second and last “triple ace” of the war — 15 kills.

1954 – The Boeing “Dash 80,” a prototype of the 707, made its first test flight. It was the first American jet passenger airliner.

1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Wayward Wind” by Gogi Grant, “My Prayer” by The Platters, “Hound Dog/Don’t Be Cruel” by Elvis Presley and “I Want You, I Need You, I Love You” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.

1957 – Full-scale production of the Edsel automobile begins.

1958 – In Lebanon, 5,000 United States Marines land in the capital Beirut in order to provide military support to the pro-Western government there.

1959 – The steel strike of 1959 begins, leading to significant importation of foreign steel for the first time in United States history.

1960 – “The New York World-Telegram” reported that the average white-collar worker would earn a lifetime income of $200,000 (forty years at $5,000 per year.)

1960 – John F. Kennedy accepted the Democratic nomination for president of the United States.

1961 – “Tossin’ & Turnin‘” by Bobby Lewis topped the charts.

1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Get Around” by The Beach Boys, “Memphis” by Johnny Rivers, “Rag Doll” by The Four Seasons and “My Heart Skips a Beat” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1964 – Barry M Goldwater (Sen-R-Az) nominated for president by Republicans. His nomination was challenged by more moderate Republicans who thought his hard-line foreign policy stances would come back to haunt him. He lost to Lyndon Johnson in a landslide, and the Republican Party suffered a significant setback nationally, losing many seats in both houses of Congress.

1965 – US scientists display close-up photos of Mars from Mariner IV.

1966 – Singer Percy Sledge earned a gold record for “When a Man Loves a Woman.

1967 – “Windy” by the Association topped the charts.

1967 – In Alaska a major blizzard caught twelve climbers high on Mount McKinley (Denali). Five of twelve climbers managed to reach safety, but seven were caught and froze to death.

1968 – Soap opera “One Life To Live” premiers.

1968 – Intel was founded.

1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lean on Me” by Bill Withers, “Too Late to Turn Back Now” by Cornelius Brothers & Sister Rose, “Brandy (You’re a Fine Girl)” by Looking Glass and “Made in Japan by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1974 – Christine Chubbuck becomes the first person to commit suicide on-air.

1975 –  Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft take off for U.S.-Soviet link-up in space.

1975 – Virginia records state record high temperature of 110° in Balcony Falls.

1976 – A 36-hour kidnap ordeal began for 26 schoolchildren and their bus driver when they were abducted by three gunmen near Chowchilla, CA. All of the captives escaped unharmed.

1978 – “Shadow Dancing” by Andy Gibb topped the charts.

1979 – President Jimmy Carter gives his famous “malaise” speech, where he characterizes the greatest threat to the country as “this crisis in the growing doubt about the meaning of our own lives and in the loss of a unity of purpose for our nation.”

1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Coming Up” by Paul McCartney & Wings, It’s Still Rock & Roll to Me” by – Billy Joel, “Little Jeannie” by Elton John and “You Win Again” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.

1980 – Johnny Bench hits his 314th HR as a catcher and breaks Yogi Berra’s record.

1980 – Linda Ronstadt made her dramatic debut in “The Pirates Of Penzance” at the New York Shakespeare Festival in Central Park.

1980 – A massive storm tears through western Wisconsin, causing $160 million dollars in damage.

1983 – The US Supreme Court struck down state & local restrictions on abortion.

1985 – Baseball players voted to strike on August 6th if no contract was reached with baseball owners. The strike turned out to be just one-day.

1985 – Aldus PageMaker, the first desktop publishing program, was first shipped for sale to consumers. The new software created by Paul Brainard began the era of desktop publishing.

1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Flame” by Cheap Trick, “Mercedes Boy” by Pebbles, “Pour Some Sugar on Me” by Def Leppard and “Fallin’ Again” by Alabama.

1988 – The premiere of the film blockbuster, “Die Hard.”

1989 – “If You Don’t Know Me by Now” by Simply Red topped the charts.

1993 – Los Angeles Police announced eight arrests in connection with an alleged plot by white supremacists to ignite a race war by bombing a black church and killing prominent black Americans.

1994 -Microsoft Corp. reached a settlement with the Justice Department, promising to end practices it used to corner the market for personal computer software programs.

1995 – Connecticut sets a record high temperature of 106° in Danbury.

1995 – First item sold on Amazon.com.

1996 – MSNBC, a 24-hour all-news network, made its debut on cable and the Internet.

1996 – Arkansas Gov. Guy Tucker stepped down following a felony conviction in the Whitewater scandal. Lt. Gov. Mike Huckabee became governor.

1997 – In Miami, Florida, serial killer Andrew Phillip Cunanan guns down Gianni Versace outside his home.

1998 – The Congressional Budget Office estimated federal surpluses of $1.55 trillion over the next decade.

1999 – The Seattle Mariners played their first game in their new home, Safeco Field, losing to the San Diego Padres, 3-to-2.

1999 – The US House voted to give Congress a pay raise of $4,600 in January and to double the next president’s salary to $400,000.

1999 – The Religious Liberty Protection Act was signed by 107 House Democrats and 199 Republicans. It said local and state officials must bend their rules to accommodate religious claims.

2002 – “American Taliban” John Walker Lindh pleads guilty to supplying aid to the enemy and for the possession of explosives during the commission of a felony.

2002 – Osama bin Laden is alive and planning another attack on the United States, said an Arab journalist with close ties to the militant’s associates. This ‘new’ attack has not yet materialized.

2002 – Anti-Terrorism Court of Pakistan awarded death sentence to British born Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh and life term to three other suspects in murdering Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.

2003 – AOL Time Warner disbands Netscape Communications Corporation. The Mozilla Foundation is established on the same day.

2003 – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention removed its SARS-related travel advisory for Taiwan, the last area to have such a travel alert.

2004 – Monorail service begins in Las Vegas.

2004 – President Bush signed into law a measure imposing mandatory prison terms for criminals who use identity theft in committing terrorist acts and other offenses.

2004 – The House of Representatives passes a resolution condemning the International Court of Justice ruling on the Israeli West Bank barrier.

2005 – Jack Nicklaus plays his last hole of competitive golf during The Open Championship at Hole 18 at St Andrews, finishing with a birdie.

2006 – The space shuttle Discovery undocked from the international space station.

2007 – The Los Angeles Times reported that about 45 percent of all foreign militants targeting US troops and Iraqi security forces were from Saudi Arabia, 15 percent from Syria and Lebanon, and 10 percent from North Africa.

2008 – Mei Ling Chen (46) of Taiwan was arrested in Sunnyvale, Ca., after customs inspectors at SF Int’l. Airport found $380,000 in counterfeit $100 bills in a package of dried seafood.

2008 – Volkswagen announced that it would build a $1 billion car plant in Chattanooga, Tenn., and expected to open it as soon as 2011.

2009 – The National Education Association has thrown its full support behind homosexual “marriage.”

2009 – Space shuttle Endeavour rocketed toward the international space station as engineers on Earth pored over launch pictures that showed debris breaking off the fuel tank and striking the craft.

2010 – BP reports that no oil is leaking into the Gulf of Mexico from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill for the first time since it began in April.

2010 – World Trade Center site workers in the US excavate a 32 foot-long ship hull said to have been buried in the 18th century.

2010 – Two major US TV networks, CBS and NBC, censor the “Kill the Ground Zero Mosque” advertisement by conservative group National Republican Trust which calls plans to erect a mosque near New York City’s Ground Zero a “monstrosity.”

2011 –  President Barack Obama makes a phone call to the International Space Station (ISS) and jokes with astronauts about pizza.

2014 – The 2014 Major League Baseball All-Star Game was the 85th edition of the game, held at Target Field in Minneapolis, Minnesota, The American League won 5-3 over the National League.

2015 – Pabst Brewing Company announces plans to brew again at their historic brewery located in Milwaukee.

2016 – NICE TERRORIST ATTACK death toll increased to 84 dead and at least 50 critically injured,


1606 – Rembrandt, Dutch artist (d. 1669)
1779 – Clement Clarke Moore, American educator, author, and poet (d. 1863)
1796 – Thomas Bulfinch, American mythologist (d. 1867)
1921 – Robert Bruce Merrifield, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2006)
1922 – Leon M. Lederman, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
1930 – Stephen Smale, American mathematician
1935 – Alex Karras, American football player and actor
1936 – George Voinovich, American politician, senior senator of Ohio
1938 – Barry Goldwater Jr., American politician
1944 – Jan-Michael Vincent, American actor
1946 – Linda Ronstadt, American singer
1958 – Mac Thornberry, American politician
1960 – Kim Alexis, American supermodel and actress
1961 – Scott Ritter, UN weapons inspector in Iraq
1961 – Forest Whitaker, American actor
1972 – Scott Foley, American actor


Rank and organization: Major (then Capt.), U.S. Marine Corps, Company K, 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, 3d Marine Division, FMF. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, July 15th to July 18th, 1966. Entered service at: Milwaukee, Wis. Born: 3 July 1934, Milwaukee, Wis. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 15 July, during Operation HASTINGS, Company K was landed in an enemy-infested jungle area to establish a blocking position at a major enemy trail network. Shortly after landing, the company encountered a reinforced enemy platoon in a well-organized, defensive position. Maj. Modrzejewski led his men in the successful seizure of the enemy redoubt, which contained large quantities of ammunition and supplies. That evening, a numerically superior enemy force counterattacked in an effort to retake the vital supply area, thus setting the pattern of activity for the next 2 1/2 days. In the first series of attacks, the enemy assaulted repeatedly in overwhelming numbers but each time was repulsed by the gallant Marines. The second night, the enemy struck in battalion strength, and Maj. Modrzejewski was wounded in this intensive action which was fought at close quarters. Although exposed to enemy fire, and despite his painful wounds, he crawled two hundred meters to provide critically needed ammunition to an exposed element of his command and was constantly present wherever the fighting was heaviest, despite numerous casualties, a dwindling supply of ammunition and the knowledge that they were surrounded, he skillfully directed artillery fire to within a few meter of his position and courageously inspired the efforts of his company in repelling the aggressive enemy attack. On 18 July, Company K was attacked by a regimental-size enemy force. Although his unit was vastly outnumbered and weakened by the previous fighting, Maj. Modrzejewski reorganized his men and calmly moved among them to encourage and direct their efforts to heroic limits as they fought to overcome the vicious enemy onslaught. Again he called in air and artillery strikes at close range with devastating effect on the enemy, which together with the bold and determined fighting of the men of Company K, repulsed the fanatical attack of the larger North Vietnamese force. His unparalleled personal heroism and indomitable leadership inspired his men to a significant victory over the enemy force and reflected great credit upon himself, the Marine Corps, and the U.S. Naval Service.




Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 442nd Infantry. Place and date: Pieve di S. Luce, Italy,  July 15th, 1944. Born: Visalia, Calif.  Entered service at: Rivers Relocation Center, Ariz. Citation: Staff Sergeant Kazuo Otani distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on 15 July 1944, near Pieve Di S. Luce, Italy. Advancing to attack a hill objective, Staff Sergeant Otani’s platoon became pinned down in a wheat field by concentrated fire from enemy machine gun and sniper positions. Realizing the danger confronting his platoon, Staff Sergeant Otani left his cover and shot and killed a sniper who was firing with deadly effect upon the platoon. Followed by a steady stream of machine gun bullets, Staff Sergeant Otani then dashed across the open wheat field toward the foot of a cliff, and directed his men to crawl to the cover of the cliff. When the movement of the platoon drew heavy enemy fire, he dashed along the cliff toward the left flank, exposing himself to enemy fire. By attracting the attention of the enemy, he enabled the men closest to the cliff to reach cover. Organizing these men to guard against possible enemy counterattack, Staff Sergeant Otani again made his way across the open field, shouting instructions to the stranded men while continuing to draw enemy fire. Reaching the rear of the platoon position, he took partial cover in a shallow ditch and directed covering fire for the men who had begun to move forward. At this point, one of his men became seriously wounded. Ordering his men to remain under cover, Staff Sergeant Otani crawled to the wounded soldier who was lying on open ground in full view of the enemy. Dragging the wounded soldier to a shallow ditch, Staff Sergeant Otani proceeded to render first aid treatment, but was mortally wounded by machine gun fire. Staff Sergeant Otani’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.



Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army 10th Field Artillery, 3d Division. Place and date: Near Greves Farm, France, July 14th – July 15th, 1918. Entered service at: Okarche, Oklahoma. Born: 27 September 1892, China. G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919. Citation: At the very outset of the unprecedented artillery bombardment by the enemy, his line of communication was destroyed beyond repair. Despite the hazard attached to the mission of runner, he immediately set out to establish contact with the neighboring post of command and further establish liaison with two French batteries, visiting their position so frequently that he was mainly responsible for the accurate fire therefrom. While thus engaged, seven horses were shot under him and he was severely wounded. His activity under most severe fire was an important factor in checking the advance of the enemy.


INTERIM 1871- 1898

Rank and organization: Apprentice, U.S. Navy. Born: 1862, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 246, 22 July 1879. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Saratoga off Battery, New York Harbor,  July 15th, 1879. On the morning of this date, Robert Lee Robey, apprentice, fell overboard from the after part of the ship into the tide which was running strong ebb at the time and, not being an expert swimmer, was in danger of drowning. Instantly springing over the rail after him, Buchanan never hesitated for an instant to remove even a portion of his clothing. Both men were picked up by the ship’s boat following this act of heroism.


INTERIM 1871- 1898

Rank and organization: Apprentice, U.S. Navy. Born: 1863, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: Washington, D.C. G.O. No.: 246, 22 July 1879. Citation: On board the U.S. Training Ship Saratoga. On the morning of July 15th, 1879, while the Saratoga was anchored off the Battery, in New York Harbor, R. L. Robey, apprentice, fell overboard. As the tide was running strong ebb, the man, not being an expert swimmer, was in danger of drowning. David M. Buchanan, apprentice, instantly, without removing any of his clothing, jumped after him. Stripping himself, Hayden stood coolly watching the two in the water, and when he thought his services were required, made a dive from the rail and came up alongside them and rendered assistance until all three were picked up by a boat from the ship.


INTERIM 1866- 1870

Rank and organizarion: Captain of the Afterguard, U.S. Navy. Born: 17 May 1837, Norway. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 77, 1 August 1866. Citation: For heroic efforts to save from drowning Wellington Brocar, landsman, of the Tallapoosa, off New Orleans,  July 15th, 1866.



Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Lansingburg, N.Y. Born: 3 November 1842, Ireland G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Serving as coxswain on board the U.S.S. Carondelet, Morrison was commended for meritorious conduct in general and especially for his heroic conduct and his inspiring example to the crew in the engagement with the rebel ram Arkansas, Yazoo River,  July 15, 1862. When the Carondelet was badly cut up, several of her crew killed, many wounded and others almost suffocated from the effects of escaped steam, Morrison was the leader when boarders were called on deck, and the first to return to the guns and give the ram a broadside as she passed. His presence of mind in time of battle or trial is reported as always conspicuous and encouraging.


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Unerased History – July 14th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 14, 2016 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Comedy Celebration Day





Condiments are food substances used to heighten the natural flavors of foods, stimulate the appetite, aid digestion, or preserve certain foods; the word comes from Latin condire “to preserve.” The custom of using condiments is as ancient as cookery itself, the first ones being mainly of vegetable origin and used as a means of preserving. In the U.S., large quantities of bottled sauces and condiments are used to accompany salads, meats, vegetables, etc. The familiar packets of condiments in the United States are ubiquitous.

Mustard – At first, mustard was considered a medicinal plant rather than a culinary one. In the sixth century B.C., Greek scientist Pythagoras used mustard as a remedy for scorpion stings. One hundred years later, Hippocrates used mustard in a variety of medicines and poultices. Mustard plasters were applied to “cure” toothaches and a number of other ailments.

Prepared mustard dates back thousands of years to the early Romans, who used to grind mustard seeds and mix them with wine into a paste not much different from the prepared mustards we know today.

The mustard seed is a prominent reference for those of the Christian faith, exemplifying something which is small and insignificant, which when planted, grows in strength and power.



Many variations of ketchup have been created, but the tomato-based version did not appear until about a century after other types were invented. By 1801, a recipe for tomato ketchup was created by Sandy Addison and was later printed in an American cookbook, the Sugar House Book.

  1. Get [the tomatoes] quite ripe on a dry day, squeeze them with your hands till reduced to a pulp, then put half a pound of fine salt to one hundred tomatoes, and boil them for two hours.
  2. Stir them to prevent burning.
  3. While hot press them through a fine sieve, with a silver spoon till nought but the skin remains, then add a little mace, 3 nutmegs, allspice, cloves, cinnamon, ginger, and pepper to taste.
  4. Boil over a slow fire till quite thick, stir all the time.
  5. Bottle when cold.
  6. One hundred tomatoes will make four or five bottles and keep good for two or three years.”‘

The salt in this recipe, which served as a preservative, yields an extremely salty taste. This recipe is important because tomato was not widely accepted by people in North America in the early 1800s. Many believed tomatoes were poisonous.


Most authorities believe the first batch of this mixture we now call Mayonaisse was a combination of egg yolks, oil and seasonings and was whipped up to celebrate the 1756 French capture of Mahon. The Duke (duc de Richelieu) who is credited with that capture, or his personal chef, is credited with inventing mayonnaise. The motivation of the chef was to  create a victory feast that was to include a sauce made of cream and eggs. Realizing that there was no cream in the kitchen, the chef substituted olive oil for the cream and a new culinary creation was born. Supposedly the chef named the new sauce “Mahonnaise” in honor of the Duc’s victory. Besides enjoying a reputation as a skillful military leader, the Duke was also widely known as a bon vivant. Early French immigrant cooks that originally lived in Fort Mahon brought the original recipe to Minnesota.

Two other stories include one where he Duke brought back a local sauce from Les Mayons, capital of Minorque in the Balearic Islands, based on lemon juice key and egg yolk, olive oil, raised of a little black pepper and marine salt, garlic or fresh grass.

The second is about Bayonne, a resort town on the Aquitaine/Basque coast in southwest France. It is thought that mayonnaise could be an alteration and corruption of bayonnaise sauce. Nowdays, bayonnaise refers to a mayonnaise flavored with the Espelette chiles.

In 1910, Nina Hellman, a German immigrant from New York City, made a dressing that her husband, Richard Hellman, used on the sandwiches and salads he served in his New York delicatessen. He started selling the spread in “wooden boats” that were used for weighing butter. Initially he sold two versions of the recipe, and to differentiate between the two, he put a blue ribbon around one. In 1912, there was such a great demand for the  “ribbon” version, that Hellmann designed a “Blue Ribbon” label, which he placed on larger glass jars. He did so well that he started a distribution business, purchased a fleet of trucks, and in 1912 built a manufacturing plant. Also Best Foods, Inc. in California did the same. Hellman and Best Foods later merged and account for about 45% of all bottled mayonnaise solely in the United States.


Scripture of the Day

Psalm 18:2 King James Version (KJV)

The Lord is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer; my God, my strength, in whom I will trust; my buckler, and the horn of my salvation, and my high tower.

Founders Thoughts

Thomas JeffersonI consider the foundation of the Constitution as laid on this ground that ‘all powers not delegated to the United States, by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states or to the people.’ To take a single step beyond the boundaries thus specially drawn around the powers of Congress, is to take possession of a boundless field of power, not longer susceptible of any definition. – Thomas Jefferson, Opinion on the Constitutionality of a National Bank, 1791


“Slow down and enjoy life. It’s not only the scenery you miss by going to fast — you also miss the sense of where you are going and why.”

~Eddie Cantor

imbroglio im-BROHL-yoh, noun:

1. A complicated and embarrassing state of things.
2. A confused or complicated disagreement or misunderstanding.
3. An intricate, complicated plot, as of a drama or work of fiction.
4. A confused mass; a tangle.

Imbroglio derives from Italian, from Old Italian imbrogliare, “to tangle, to confuse,” fromin-, “in” + brogliare, “to mix, to stir.” It is related to embroil, “to entangle in conflict or argument.”


1520 – Hernando Cortes fought the Aztecs at the Battle of Otumba, Mexico.

1754 – King’s College opened in New York City; the Anglican academy would later become Columbia University.|

1769 – The de Portolá Expedition establishes a base in California, and sets out to find the Port of Monterey (now Monterey, California).

1771 – Father Junipero Serra founded the Mission San Antonio de Padua in California.

1776 – Jemima Boone (13), the daughter of Daniel Boone, and two friends were kidnapped by a group of five Shawnee and Cherokee Indians near Boonesborough, Kentucky.

1798 – First direct federal tax on the states-on dwellings, land & slaves. 1 Stat. 597 created the first property tax of its citizens. The purpose of the tax was to raise a war chest for the threatened conflict with France. The amount to be raised was 2 million dollars.

1798 – The Sedition Act becomes United States law making it a federal crime to write, publish, or utter false or malicious statements about the US President and the United States government.

1813 – LT John M. Gamble was the first Marine to command a ship in battle (prize vessel Greenwich in capture of British whaler Seringapatam).

1821 – Spain ceded Florida to the United States.

1825 – The Jefferson Literary and Debating Society was founded at the University of Virginia.

1850 – First public demonstration of ice made by refrigeration.

1853 – President Franklin Pierce opens the first-ever American World’s Fair in the Crystal Palace, in New York.

1861 – Civil War: Union troops tried to force a crossing at Seneca Falls on the Potomac, northwest of Washington but were repulsed by the Confederates. A company of the Louisiana Tiger Rifles helped defend the line.

1861 – Civil War: Gen McDowell advanced toward Fairfax Courthouse, VA, with 40,000 troops.

1861  Civil War: Naval Engagement at Wilmington, NC. USS Daylight establishes a blockade.

1862 – Congress passed an act stating that: ” . . . the spirit ration in the Navy of the United States shall forever cease, and . . . no distilled spiritous liquors shall be admitted on board vessels of war, except as medical stores . . .

1863 – Civil War:Naval forces captured Fort Powhatan on the James River, VA.

1864 – Civil War: Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest suffers his biggest defeat when Union General Andrew J. Smith routs his force in Tupelo, Mississippi.

1864 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Paul Jones was captured while making an attempt in Ossabaw Sound, Georgia to destroy C.S.S. Water Witch.

1864 – Gold was discovered in Helena, Mont. Four prospectors discovered gold in a small stream they called “Last Chance.”

1867 – Harvard School of Dental Medicine was established in Boston, Massachusetts — the first dental school in the U.S.

1867 – Nobel demonstrates dynamite.

1868 – Alvin J. Fellows of New Haven, Connecticut recieved the first U.S. patent for a spring tape measure. The tape measure was enclosed in a circular case with a spring click lock to hold the tape at any desired point.

1877 – The Baltimore rail workers’ walked off the job to agitate for higher pay and fairer work conditions.

1881 – Billy the Kid was killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett in Fort Sumner, New Mexico.

1882 – Sailors and Marines from four U.S. ships land to help restore order at Alexandria, Egypt. To protect American citizens and their property within the city, three United States Navy ships were sent to Egypt with orders to observe the conflict ashore and make a landing if necessary.

1882 – Johnny Ringo, a fast draw gunman, was found dead in Tombstone, Az.

1885 – Sarah Goode became the first African-American woman to receive a U.S. patent. Goode invented a Folding Cabinet Bed. The Cabinet Bed when folded up resembled a desk which included compartments for stationary and writing instruments.

1891 – The primacy of Thomas Edison’s lamp patents was upheld in the court decision Electric Light Company vs. U.S. Electric Lighting Company.

1891 – J Standard, awarded patent for making the refrigerator.

1891 – Inventor John T. Smith patented corkboard.

1898 – During the Spanish-American War, Spanish troops in Santiago, Cuba, surrendered to U.S. forces.

1908 – “The Adventures of Dolly” opened at the Union Square Theatre in New York City.

1911 – For the first time, a pilot flew an airplane onto the lawn of the White House. Harry N. Atwood flew in to accept an award from President William Taft.

1913 –  A future President was born as Leslie Lynch King Jr., Gerald Ford’s mother’s second husband, Gerald R. Ford, adopted him and renamed him.

1914 – Robert Hutchins Goddard patents a liquid-fuel rocket motor.

1921 – Italian anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were convicted for the May 5, 1920 killing of a paymaster and guard at a shoe factory in South Braintree, Massachusetts.

1926The first radio-beacon established in Alaska, at Cape Spencer, was placed in commission.

1933 –  In Germany, Gleichschaltung is enforced against all political parties and they are outlawed except the Nazi Party.

1934 – The New York Times erronously declares that Babe Ruth’s 700 HR record will stand for all time.

1938 – Howard Hughes landed at Floyd Bennet Field in New York with a crew of four after flying around the world in 3 days, 19 hours, and 17 min., a new record.

1941 – World War II: Holocaust: 6,000 Lithuanian Jews were exterminated at Viszalsyan Camp.

1942 – Helen O’Connell and Bob Eberly recorded “Brazil” with the Jimmy Dorsey band.

1943 – World War II: The main British and American forces continue to advance evenly along the entire front. American units in Italy capture Biscani airfield and Niscemi. British units capture Vizzini.

1943 – In Joplin, Missouri, George Washington Carver National Monument becomes the first United States National Monument in honor of an African-American.

1944 – World War II: In the Pacific, Task Force 74 (Commodore Collins) bombards Japanese positions near Aitape, between Yakamul and But on the north shore of Papau New Guineau.

1945 – World War II: Over 1000 US naval aircraft raid Hokkaido and the port of Kamaishi. The force included the American battleships South Dakota, Indiana and Massachusetts, as well as two heavy cruisers and four destroyers.

1945 – President Harry Truman, Soviet leader Josef Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill began meeting at Potsdam in the final Allied summit of World War II.

1946 – Heart Mountain, Wyoming: Japanese-American draft resisters were released from McNeil Island. McNeil Island is an island in western Puget Sound, located just west of Steilacoom, Washington.

1946 – Dr. Benjamin Spock’s “The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care” was first published.

1947 – CHART TOPPERS –  “Peg o’ My Heart”  by  The Harmonicats, “I Wonder, I Wonder, I Wonder”  by  Eddy Howard, “Chi- Baba, Chi – Baba”  by  Perry Como and “Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)”  by  Tex Williams all topped the charts.

1950 – Korean War: U.S. Marines sail from San Diego for Korean Conflict.

1950 – Korean War: The U.S. 555th Field Artillery Battalion (“Triple Nickel”) was overrun and lost 300 soldiers.

1951 – The first sports event to be shown in color, on CBS-TV, was the Molly Pitcher Handicap at Oceanport, NJ.

1951 – Citation becomes first horse to win $1,000,000 in races.

1951 – “Too Young” by Nat ‘King’ Cole topped the charts.

1952 – Laying of keel for the USS Forrestal, the first 59,900 ton aircraft carrier.|

1953 – First national monument dedicated to an African-American – George Washington Carver.

1953 – The freighter Jacob Luckenbach from San Francisco rammed the Matson freighter Hawaiian Pilot near Point Montara, 17 miles from the Golden Gate.

1954 – The central region of the United States suffers extremely hot weather, with the temperature reaching 118° F in Warsaw and Union, Missouri, and 117° F in East St. Louis, Illinois, setting new all-time state record high temperatures.

1955 – CHART TOPPERS –  “Rock Around the Clock”  by  Bill Haley & His Comets,Learnin’ the Blues”  by  Frank Sinatra, “Hard to Get  by”  Giselle Mackenzie and “A Satisfied Mind”  by  Porter Wagoner all topped the charts.

1956 – “The Wayward Wind” by Gogi Grant topped the charts.


1958 – In Iraq the monarchy is overthrown by Arab nationalists and Abdul Karim Kassem becomes the nation’s new leader.

1959 – First atomic powered cruiser, the Long Beach, Quincy, Massachusetts. She was the first nuclear powered surface warship in the world and the first large combatant in the US Navy with its main battery consisting of guided missiles. She was also the first American cruiser since the end of World War II to built entirely new from the keel up, and, when completed, boasted the highest bridge in the world. She was also the last warship to be fitted with teakwood decks.

1962 – “Roses Are Red (My Love)” by Bobby Vinton topped the charts.

1963 – CHART TOPPERS –  “Easier Said Than Done”  by  The Essex, “Surf City”  by  Jan & Dean, “Tie Me Kangaroo Down, Sport”  by  Rolf Harris and “Act Naturally”  by  Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1965 – Mariner 4 flyby of Mars takes the first close-up photos of another planet.

1966 – In Chicago, Richard Speck murders eight student nurses in their dormitory. He made a videotape in prison and admitted to the killings.

1967 – Eddie Mathews becomes the seventh member of the 500 Home Run Club with a home run at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California.

1968 – Hank Aaron becomes the eighth member of the 500 Home Run Club with a home run off Mike McCormick of the San Francisco Giants at Fulton County Stadium.

1969 – Large denominations of United States currency, namely the $500, $1,000, $5,000 and $10,000 bills, are officially withdrawn from circulation by the Federal Reserve System due to “lack of use,” leaving the $100 bill as the largest unit of circulating United States currency. Another side effect was that it made large drug deals much more difficult because of the volume of money that had to change hands increased significantly.

1971 – CHART TOPPERS –  It’s Too Late I Feel the Earth Move”  by  Carole King,Indian Reservation”  by  Raiders, “You’ve Got a Friend”  by  James Taylor and “When You’re Hot, You’re Hot  by  Jerry Reed all topped the charts.

1972 – Vietnam War: The State Department criticized actress Jane Fonda for making antiwar radio broadcasts in Hanoi, calling them “distressing.”

1973 – “Will It Go Round in Circles” by Billy Preston topped the charts.

1974 – Bundy victims Janice Ott and Denise Naslund disappeared at Lake Sammamish, WA.

1975 – The U.S. spacecraft Apollo 18 and the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz 19 docked in space.

1979 – CHART TOPPERS –  “Ring My Bell”  by  Anita Ward, “Bad Girls  by  Donna Summer, “Chuck E.’s in Love”  by  Rickie Lee Jones and “Amanda”  by  Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.

1981 – The All-Star Game was postponed because of a 33-day-old baseball players strike. The game was held on August 9.

1985 – Baltimore defeated Oakland, 28-24, to clinch their second consecutive United States Football League championship. This ended up being the end of the league.

1986 – Richard W Miller became first FBI agent convicted of espionage.

1986 – An expedition from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute filmed the wreck of the Titanic for the first time.

1987 – CHART TOPPERS –  “I Wanna Dance with Somebody (Who Loves Me)”  by  Whitney Houston, “Shakedown”  by  Bob Seger, “Songbird”  by  Kenny G and “All My Ex’s Live in Texas”  by  George Strait all topped the charts.

1987 – Greyhound Bus buys Trailways Bus for $80 million.

1987 – The National League took thirteen innings to defeat the American League, 2-0, in the 58th All-Star Game in Oakland, CA.

1988 – Nashville radio WYHY offered to pay $1 million to anyone who could provide proof that Elvis Presley (1935 – 1977) was still alive.

1989 – The 16th James Bond movies “License to Kill“.

1990 – “Step by Step” by New Kids on the Block topped the charts.

1991 – In California a Southern Pacific tanker car derailed near Dunsmuir and spilled 18,000 gallons of pesticides (19k gallons of metam sodium) into the Sacramento River. This killed every living thing in the river for 40 miles downstream including 250,000 trout.

1992 – The American League won the All-Star game, defeating the National League team 13-6 at Jack Murphy Stadium in San Diego.

1993 – The USS IWO JIMA was decommissioned after over 30 years of service in a ceremony at Norfolk Naval Base, Virginia.

1996 – Shortly after takeoff from New York’s Kennedy International Airport, a TWA Boeing 747 jetliner bound for Paris exploded over the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 230 people aboard. Investigators concluded that the explosion resulted from mechanical failure.

1996 – Fire crews battled blazes covering more than 16,000 acres in California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon and Utah.

1997 – After 117 years, the Woolworth Corporation closed its last 400 five-and-dime stores.

1997 – O.J. Simpson’s California mansion was auctioned off for $2.6 million.

1998 – Los Angeles sued fifteen tobacco companies for $2.5 billion over the dangers of secondhand smoke.

2000 – In Waco, Texas, a federal jury decided that federal agents were not responsible for the deaths of 80 Branch Davidians in 1993.

2001 – The Pentagon scored a hit with a missile interceptor that soared into space from a tiny Pacific isle and destroyed its target, a mock nuclear warhead.

2001 – NASA launched an unmanned solar-powered plane named Helios over Hawaii.

2003 – Columnist Robert Novak identified Valerie Plame as a CIA employee.

2005A US appeals court overturned the 2003 “mad cow” ban on beef imports from Canada. The USDA said it would lift restrictions within days.

2006 – Hezbollah declares war on Israel.

2008 – Bush lifted the presidential moratorium on offshore drilling, however Congress has renewed its ban on drilling every year since 1981 and top Democrats said it will do so again this year.

2009 – Boeing to slash about 1,000 jobs because of funding cuts by the Pentagon.

2009 – U.S. House Democrats unveiled a health care plan Tuesday that creates a government-run health system that will operate in addition to private insurance.

2009 – President Barack Obama unveiled a $12 billion initiative to boost community colleges and propel the United States toward his goal of having the highest proportion of college graduates in the world by 2020.

2010 –  The US discusses the arrest of Bradley Manning, accused of providing secret information about US military corruption to Wikileaks.

2010 –  Boeing unveils Phantom Eye, its unmanned hydrogen-powered spy plane capable of flying for up to four consecutive days.

2010 –  An 18th-Century wood-hulled ship is discovered at the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City.

2011 – The FBI is investigating reports that News Corporation sought to hack the phones of victims of the September 11 terrorist attacks.

2011 – U.S. district court judge Reggie Walton declares a mistrial in the perjury trial of former baseball star Roger Clemens after prosecutors present evidence that Walton had previously ruled inadmissible.

2011 – President Barack Obama, gives Congressional leaders 24 to 36 hours to reach an agreement on debt reduction as credit agency Standard & Poor’s places the US on a downgrade watch.

2014 – Police in Spokane, Washington, say a corrections officer fired a gun at Deaconess Hospital early Monday when a prisoner waiting for a surgical procedure tried to escape.

2015 – Two people are dead and six are missing due to flash flooding in Kentucky.

2015 – NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft completes a historic flyby of the dwarf planet Pluto and its five moons.

2015 – Major League Baseball All-Star Game, the American League defeats the National League 6-3 to win home-field advantage in the 2015 World Series.

2016- A terrorist attack an attack in Nice, France. The incident happened at around 10:30 p.m. local Paris time when a truck drove into a crowd at the Promenade des Anglais, where fireworks were taking place. Bastille Day – formally known as La fête nationale – is celebrated on July 14 and marks France’s National Day similar to our Independence Day. Reports stated with 30 killed and 100 injured. Later reports increased the death toll to sixty including 10 children.

1785 – Mordecai Manuel Noah was an American playwright, diplomat, journalist, and utopian. (d. 1851)
1834 – James McNeil Whistler, American painter. He is probably best known for his most famous painting is the iconic Whistler’s Mother. (d. 1903)
1860 – Owen Wister, was an American writer and “Father” of western fiction. (d. 1938)
1889 – Erle Stanley Gardner, American detective writer, creator of the character Perry Mason.
1898 – A. B. “Happy” Chandler was twice governor of Kentucky, a U.S. Senator, the 2nd Commissioner of Major League Baseball, and a member of the Baseball Hall of Fame. His jovial attitude earned him the nickname “Happy,” which stuck for the remainder of his life. (d. 1991)
1899 – James Cagney was an American film star. Although he won acclaim and major awards for a wide variety of roles, he is best remembered for playing “tough guys.”
1903 – Irving Stone was an American writer known for his biographical novels of famous historical personalities. (d. 1989)
1906 – Tom Carvel, Greek-born businessman and inventor,  known for the invention and promotion of soft ice cream in the northeastern United States.  (d. 1990)
1910 – William Hanna, American animator (d. 2001)
1912 – Art Linkletter, American television host.
1912 – Woody Guthrie, American folk musician (d. 1967)
1913 – Gerald Ford, 38th President of the United States (d. 2006)
1918 – Ingmar Bergman, Swedish film and theatre director (d. 2007)
1922 – Robin Olds, American World War II and Vietnam War ace fighter pilot (d. 2007)
1923 – Dale Robertson, American actor
1927 – John Chancellor, American television commentator (d. 1996)
1932 – Roosevelt Grier, American football player and actor
1947 – Claudia Kennedy, U.S. Army officer
1952 – Franklin Graham, American evangelist
1960 – Jane Lynch, American actress
1963 – Phil Rosenthal, American newspaper columnist
1973 – Adam Quinn, American bagpipe player




Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 48th New York Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 13 July 1863, Near Fort Wagner, S.C.,  July 14th, 1863; Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 18 July 1863. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: England. Date of issue: 23 October 1897. Citation: While voluntarily performing picket duty under fire on 13 July 1863, was attacked and his surrender demanded, but he killed his assailant. The day following responded to a call for a volunteer to reconnoiter the enemy’s position, and went within the enemy’s lines under fire and was exposed to great danger. On 18 July voluntarily exposed himself with great gallantry during an assault, and received three wounds that permanently disabled him for active service.



Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company A, 7th Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At Falling Waters, Va., July 14th, 1863. Entered service at: Battle Creek, Mich. Born: 25 May 1838, Potter, N.Y. Date of issue: 21 March 1889. Citation: Capture of flag of 55th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.). In the midst of the battle with foot soldiers he dismounted to capture the flag.


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Unerased History – July 13th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 13, 2016 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Embrace Your Geekness Day
Gruntled Workers Day




James T. Kirk

I am certainly dating myself but I remember hurrying home from work to watch the first episode of this great new show. It was in September 1966 and I was just three months out of high school. This is just a smattering of a very few facts but the link at the bottom is probably everything you needed about “our” captain. Some Star Trek Facts.

The original name for the starship in Star Trek was “Yorktown” not “Enterprise”.


 JTKPrequel01  JTKOriginal  JTKCompare01

James Tiberius (“Jim”) Kirk was a Human born on March 22nd, 2233 (stardate 1277.1), the son of George and Winona Kirk. His parents named him after his maternal grandfather James and his paternal grandfather Tiberius. Kirk was a descendant of European settlers on Earth’s American continent, who pioneered the western frontiers of the United States of America in 19th century.

By 2250, Kirk returned to Earth to start his training at Starfleet Academy. He would later credit his father as his inspiration for joining Starfleet (Star Trek).

Kirk was commissioned as an officer in the Federation Starfleet with the serial number SC937-0176CEC. In the early 2250s, he served as an ensign, along with his friend Lt. Ben Finney, aboard the USS Republic.

Kirk famously commanded the Enterprise and her namesake over the course of three decades, but it was her historic five-year mission from 2265 to 2270 that made him a legend in space exploration.

Kirk’s living quarters aboard the Enterprise were on Deck 5, room “3F 121”


Timeline of Star Trek’s History of the Future!!


Scripture of the Day

2 Peter 1:5-8 NIV

For this very reason, make every effort to add to your faith goodness; and to goodness, knowledge; and to knowledge, self-control; and to self-control, perseverance; and to perseverance, godliness; and to godliness, mutual affection; and to mutual affection, love. For if you possess these qualities in increasing measure, they will keep you from being ineffective and unproductive in your knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Founders Thoughts

 James MadisonThe powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined. Those which are to remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite. – James Madison, Federalist 45, 1788



One must be drenched in words, literally soaked in them, to have the right ones form themselves into the proper patterns at the right moment.”

~ Hart Crane, poet (1899-1932)


Armed to the teeth (phrase)

To be heavily armed.Armed toTeeth

This is a pirate phrase originating in Port Royal Jamaica in the 1600’s. Having only single shot black powder weapons and cutlasses, they would carry many of these weapons at once to keep up the fight. In addition they carried a knife in their teeth for maximum arms capability.


1099 – The Crusaders launched their final assault on Muslims in Jerusalem.

1568 – Dean of St Paul’s Cathedral perfects a way to bottle beer.

1585 – A group of 108 English colonists, led by Sir Richard Grenville, reached Roanoke Island, NC.

1754 – At the beginning of the French and Indian War, George Washington surrendered the small, circular Fort Necessity in southwestern Pennsylvania to the French, leaving them in control of the Ohio Valley.

1769 – The de Portolá Expedition establishes a base in California, and sets out to find the Port of Monterey (now Monterey, California.)

1772 – Capt James Cook began a second trip on the ship Resolution to South Seas.

1774 – Rhode Island becomes first colony to prohibit importation of slaves.Rhode Island had the third highest head count of slaves at  3,761.

1777 – Marquis de Lafayette lands in US. He was at the beginning of one of the most illustrious military careers in American history. Six weeks earlier the idealistic young officer had ignored his relatives and defied the king of France by setting sail to participate in the American Revolution.

1787 – The Continental Congress enacts the Northwest Ordinance establishing governing rules for the Northwest Territory. It also establishes procedures for the admission of new states and limits the expansion of slavery.

1789 – Mrs Alexander Hamilton (Elizabeth) serves ice cream for dessert to Washington. He obviously enjoyed it, for he spent $200 on ice cream during the next summer. Four years later, an item in Washington’s expense ledger indicates he bought a “cream machine for ice” so his staff could make ice cream whenever necessary.

1812 – The first pawnbroking ordinance was passed in New York City.

1832 – U.S. Indian agent and explorer Henry Schoolcraft discovered the source of the Mississippi River in Minnesota, the lake where the Mississippi starts. It is currently named Lake Itasca.

1836 – John Ruggles of Thomaston, Maine received patent Number 1 from the U.S. Patent Office, under a new system for numbering patents. Before Ruggles, there had been 9,957 non-numbered patents issued. Ruggles received his patent for a traction wheel used in locomotive steam engines.

1854 – US forces shelled and burned San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua.

1861 – Civil War: Union General George B. McClellan distinguishes himself by routing Confederates under General Robert Garnett at Corrick’s Ford in western Virginia.

1862 – Civil War: Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest defeated a Union army at Murfreesboro, Tennessee.

1863 – Civil War: In New York City, opponents of conscription (the draft) begin three days of rioting which will be later regarded as the worst in United States history. It resulted in more than 1,000 casualties. Antiabolitionist Irish longshoremen rampaged against blacks in the deadly riots.

1863 – USS Wyoming battled Japanese warlord’s forces. It was a  wooden-hulled screw sloop that fought on the Union side during the American Civil War.

1864 – Civil War: Confederate General Jubal Early retreated from the outskirts of Washington back to Shenandoah Valley.

1865 – P. T. Barnum’s American Museum, which had featured Tom Thumb and the original Siamese twins Chang and Eng, was destroyed by fire.

1865 – Horace Greeley advises his readers to “Go west, young man.”

1866 – Great Eastern began a two-week voyage to complete a twelve-year effort to lay telegraph cable across the Atlantic between Britain and the United States.

1866 – Colonel Henry Carrington begins construction on Fort Phil Kearny, the most important army outpost guarding the Bozeman Trail.

1875 – David Brown of Lebanon, New Jersey patented the first cash-carrier system. It was a basket moved by a wire, a pail and pulleys, the forerunner of the pneumatic tube.

1886 – Colonel Henry Carrington begins construction on Fort Phil Kearny, the most important army outpost guarding the Bozeman Trail.

1888 – Congress creates the Department of Labor. It was established in the Department of the Interior by the Bureau of Labor Act on June 27, 1884 to collect information about employment and labor. It became an independent (sub-Cabinet) department by the Department of Labor Act on June 13, 1888.

1890 John C. “Pathfinder” Fremont (76), US explorer, governor (Ariz), died. He was buried in obscurity in Sparkill, NY. Fremont (b.1830) in 1856, was the first Republican presidential candidate.

1896 – Philadelphia’s Ed Delahanty became the second major-league player to hit four home runs in a single game.

1898 – Guglielmo Marconi patents the radio.

1899 – Vincent van Gogh painted “Moonrise.” The exact date was determined in 2003 by a physicist using a computer and moon data from the painting.

1900 – Boxer Rebellion: In China, Tientsin is retaken by European Allies from the rebelling Boxers.

1910 – Pilot Charles Hamilton makes the first one-day round-trip from New York City to Philadelphia.

1911 – Nan Aspinwall is the first woman to make a solo transcontinental trip by horse. The trip was from San Francisco to New York.

1916 – The first aero Company, New York National Guard, was called to Federal service during the border crisis with Mexico. This was the first time a National Guard aviation unit was mobilized. The unit was commanded by Capt. Raynal C. Bolling.

1916 –  Guardsmen of the 4th South Dakota Infantry prepare to leave for San Benito, Texas, to take up their station as part of the partial mobilization to protect the Mexican border against bandit raids lead by Pancho Villa.

1919 – The British airship R34 lands in Norfolk, England, completing the first airship return journey across the Atlantic in 182 hours of flight.

1919 – Race riots, Longview and Gregg counties, Texas. Martial law declared. There were twenty-six riots during the “Red Summer” of 1919.

1921 –  Babe Ruth hits and pitches the New York Yankees to victory. He pitched for the first time in a year  in their 1921 series with Detroit.

1921 – Major Sheldon H. Wheeler, the former commander of Luke Field on Ford Island, died when his plane crashed during a demonstration. Wheeler Army Airfield, Hawaii, was named in his honor.

1923 – The Hollywood Sign is officially dedicated in the hills above Hollywood, Los Angeles. It originally read “Hollywoodland ” but the four last letters were dropped after renovation in 1949.

1925 – Will Rogers, an Oklahoma cowboy, stands in for W.C. Fields in the “Ziegfeld Follies”. He was an American cowboy, vaudeville performer, humorist, newspaper columnist, social commentator, and stage and motion picture actor.

1927 – Ticker-tape parade welcomed Charles A Lindbergh to New York City.

1930 – David Sarnoff reported in the New York Times that “TV would be a theater in every home.”

1933 – First sodium vapor lamps installed in Schenectady NY. The lamps were an experimental installation on Balltown Road. The GE 10,000-lumen Sodium-vapor Lamp consisted of a long, evacuated bulb of special glass.

1933 – Federal Home Owners Loan Corporation was authorized. Its purpose was to refinance homes to prevent foreclosure. It was usually used to extend loans from shorter, expensive payments of 15-year loans to lower payments of 30-year loans. Through its work, it granted long-term mortgages to over a million people facing the loss of their homes.

1934 – Babe Ruth hits his 700th HR to win the game at Detroit’s Navin Field and put the Yankees back in first place.

1937 – Joe DiMaggio hits three consecutive HRs against St Louis Browns.

1938 – Spectators paid 25 cents to witness the first television theatre. The demonstration was arranged at 568 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts by Porter H Evans of the Massachusetts Television Institute at that address.

1939 – Bandleader and trumpet player Harry James heard Sinatra on the radio. James hired Sinatra and the two recorded together for the first time. In his recording debut, Sinatra sang “From the Bottom of My Heart“.

1939 –  Lionel Hampton and his band recorded “Memories of You” for Victor Records.

1939 – Rear Admiral Richard Byrd is appointed as commanding officer of the  Antarctic Expedition.(1939-1941)

1941 – World War II: Montenegrins start a popular uprising against the Axis Powers. (Trinaestojulski ustanak). They are a nation and South Slavic people mainly living in the Balkans, primarily inhabiting Montenegro.

1943 – World War II: The Battle of Kursk, the largest tank battle in history—involving some 6,000 tanks, 2,000,000 troops, and 4,000 aircraft—ended in German defeat.

1943 – World War II: The 10th Mountain Division came into being at Camp Hale, Colorado as the 10th Light Division (Alpine).

1943 – World War II: During Battle of Kolombangara in Solomon Islands, U.S. lost USS Gwin. (DD-433) while Japanese lost light cruiser Jintsu.

1943 – First All-Star night game (AL beats NL 5-4 at Shribe Park, Philadelphia, PA).

1944 – A patent was obtained by Marvin Camras for the magnetic tape recorder.

1945 –  World War II: In Berlin, the municipal council officially confiscates all property held by members of the NSDAP, the Nazi Party.

1945The American government admits responsibility for sinking the Japanese relief ship Awa Maru in error.

1945 – World War II: In Berlin, the municipal council officially confiscates all property held by members of the NSDAP, the Nazi Party. Meanwhile, on the eve of the dissolution of SHAEF, General Eisenhower issues a farewell message to all members of the Allied Expeditionary Force. “No praise is too high,” says the message, “for the manner in which you surmounted every obstacle.”

1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “They Say It’s Wonderful”  by  Frank Sinatra, “The Gypsy  by  The Ink Spots, I Don’t Know Enough About You”  by  The Mills Brothers and “New Spanish Two Step”  by  Bob Wills all topped the charts.

1946 – First transcontinental round-trip flight in one-day, California to Maryland and return.

1947 – The first night game at Fenway Park (Red Sox 5, White Sox 3).

1948 – Babe Ruth’s final farewell at Yankee Stadium, he dies August 16th.

1950 – Lieutenant General Walton H. Walker, Commander of the Eighth Army, assumed command of all ground forces in Korea, establishing his headquarters at Taegu.

1950 – Korean War: The newly arrived 22nd and 92nd Bombardment Groups launched a radar-directed attack against the marshaling yards and oil refinery at Wonsan. This mission marked the groups’ entry into combat and the first combat mission flown by Far East Air Forces Bomber Command.

1953 – Korean War: The final communist offensive of the war began.

1954 – CHART TOPPERS -“Little Things Mean a Lot”  by  Kitty Kallen, “Hernando’s Hideaway”  by  Archie Bleyer, “The Little Shoemaker”  by  The Gaylords and “Even Tho”  by  Webb Pierce all topped the charts.

1954 – In Geneva, the United States, Great Britain, and France reached an accord on Indochina which divided Vietnam into two countries, North and South, along the 17th parallel.

1957 – “Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.

1957 – Ted Williams becomes first in the AL to have 2, 3-HR games in a season.

1959 – “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka topped the charts.

1959 – “Dedicated to the One I Love“, by The Shirelles, was released.

1959 –  “Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton topped the charts.

1960 – “Cathy’s Clown” by The Everly Brothers topped the charts.

1960 – Democratic National convention nominates Sen. John F Kennedy for president.

1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Stripper”  by  David Rose, “Roses are Red”  by  Bobby Vinton, “Al Di La’”  by  Emilio Pericoli and “Wolverton Mountain”  by  Claude King all topped the charts.

1963 – “Easier Said Than Done” by Essex topped the charts.

1964 – “Chapel of Love” by the Dixie Cups topped the charts.

1964 –  The Supremes made the studio recording of “Come See About Me.”

1965 – The first Black solicitor general of the US was appointed, Thurgood Marshall.

1966 – Supreme Court’s Miranda decision; suspect must be informed of rights.The Miranda decision was a landmark 5-4 decision.

1967 – Thurgood Marshall nominated as first black Supreme Court justice.

1967 – Race-related rioting broke out in Newark, N.J.; by the time the violence ended four days later, 27 people had been killed.

1968 – “This Guy’s in Love with You” by Herb Alpert topped the charts.

1968 –  Steppenwolf’s “Born To Be Wild” was released.

1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mama Told Me (Not to Come)”  by  Three Dog Night, Ball of Confusion”  by  The Temptations, “Ride Captain Ride “ by  Blues Image and “He Loves Me All the Way”  by  Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.

1970 – Beatles’ “Let It Be,” album goes #1 & stays #1 for 4 weeks.

1970 – The song “Make It with You“, by David Gates and Bread, was released.

1970 – Beatles’ “Long & Winding Road,” single goes #1 & stays #1 for 2 weeks.

1971 – The New York Times began publishing “The Pentagon Papers.”

1971 – Reggie Jackson hits a home run run off a light tower in the 1971 All-Star Game.

1972 – Shirley Chisholm became the first Black Presidential nominee, with 151 votes from the delegates polled.

1972 – Carroll Rosenbloom (owner of the Baltimore Colts) and Robert Irsay (owner of the Los Angeles Rams) traded teams.

1973 – Alexander Butterfield reveals the existence of the Nixon tapes to the special Senate committee investigating the Watergate break-in.

1974 – “Rock Your Baby” by George McRae topped the charts.

1974 –  Eric Clapton’s “I Shot The Sheriff” was released.

1977 – New York City experiences a twenty-five-hour black-out. Responding to the tension of the times, mobs set fires, smashed windows and hauled away food, clothing and appliances. Approximately 4,500 people were arrested during the riots, which resulted in damage estimated at $61 million.

1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Shadow Dancing”  by  Andy Gibb, “Baker Street”  by  Gerry Rafferty, “Take a Chance on Me”  by  Abba and “I Believe in You”  by  Mel Tillis all topped the charts.

1978 – Walter Poenisch was seen off by Fidel Castro as he plunged into the Straits of Florida. Thirty-three and a half hours and 128.8 miles later, he staggered ashore at Little Duck Key, near Marathon, FL.

1978 – Lee Iacocca, responsible of the Ford Mustang, was fired as president of Ford Motor Co. by chairman Henry Ford II.

1981 – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes topped the charts.

1982 – The All-Star Game was played outside the United States for the first time. They played in Montreal, Canada.

1983 – Pioneer 10 becomes first man-made object to leave Solar System.

1983 – Chrysler under Lee Iacocca paid off the last of its guaranteed loans totaling $1.2 billion, seven years ahead of schedule.

1984 – In Arkansas, Terry Wallis was injured in a car accident and was left comatose. He came out of the coma in June of 2003.

1985 – Vice President George H.W. Bush became the Acting President for the day when President Ronald Reagan underwent surgery to remove polyps from his colon.

1985 – Yankees retire Roger Maris (#9) & Elston Howard (#32) uniforms.

1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Holding Back the Years”  by  Simply Red, “Invisible Touch”  by  Genesis, “Nasty”  by  Janet Jackson and “Hearts Aren’t Made to Break (They’re Made to Love)”  by  Lee Greenwood all topped the charts.

1987 – Jury selection began in Washington for the perjury trial of President Reagan’s former aide and longtime confidant, Michael K. Deaver.

1987 – “Always” by Atlantic Starr topped the charts.

1993 – The American League defeated the National League in the All-Star Game, 9-3, in Baltimore.

1993 – Race car driver Davey Allison died in Birmingham, Ala., of injuries suffered in a helicopter crash.

1994 – Jeff Gillooly, Tonya Harding’s ex-husband, was sentenced in Portland, OR, to two years in prison for his role in the attack on Nancy Kerrigan.

1995 – Six days after the space shuttle “Atlantis” returned, the shuttle “Discovery” blasted off on a nine-day mission.

1995 – Spacecraft Galileo released a probe towards Jupiter that is to become the first Earth emissary ever to penetrate the atmosphere of any of the outer gas giants.

1995 – In Michigan, six union locals, representing some 2,500 workers of the Detroit Free Press, Detroit News and Detroit newspapers Inc., went on a strike that lasted 19 months.

1998 – “Image of an Assassination” went on sale. The video documentary is of Abraham Zapruder’s home video of U.S. President Kennedy’s assassination in Dallas. (1:31:44) in its entirety.

1998 – A jury in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., ruled that the Rev. Al Sharpton and two others had defamed a former prosecutor by accusing him of raping Tawana Brawley.

1998 – Four young cousins in Gallup, N.M., died after becoming trapped in a car trunk.

1999 – The American League won the All-Star game for the third straight time, defeating the National League 4-to-1 at Boston’s Fenway Park.

2001 – Coast Guard Cutter Sherman became the second cutter to circumnavigate the globe when she returned to the United States from a six-month deployment to the Arabian Gulf in support of U.N. operations.

2002 – A unanimous UN Security Council vote to exempt American peacekeepers from prosecution by the new war crimes tribunal for a year ended a U.S. threat to halt U.N. peacekeeping but angered many court supporters.

2004 – The American League cruised past the National League 9-4 in the All-Star game.

2004 – Ken Jennings (30), a software engineer from Salt Lake City, crossed the $1 million mark in a 30-game winning streak on the game-show Jeopardy.

2005 – NASA’s planned launch of STS-114, Space Shuttle Discovery from pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center at 3:51pm EDT (1951 UTC) is delayed due to a problem with the fuel level sensors. This would have been the first manned space launch by NASA since the loss of Columbia over 2 years ago.

2005 – Bernie Ebbers (63), former CEO of WorldCom, was sentenced to 25 years in prison for his role in fraud orchestrating the biggest corporate accounting fraud in US history.

2005 – The American Family Association, a Christian conservative activist group, announces an international boycott of Nike. In adding Nike to its ongoing boycotts of Kmart and the book One of the Guys by Robert Clark Young, the AFA argues that Nike promotes “a back door move to legalise homosexual marriage.”

2005 – In Virginia a federal judge sentenced Ali Timini (41), a prominent Muslim spiritual leader, to life in prison for inciting his followers for violent jihad against the US.

2006 – Hazleton, Pa., passed Mayor Louis Barletta’s Illegal Immigration Relief Act in an effort to get rid of undocumented immigrants. In August federal lawsuits were filed against Hazleton and other local governments for attempting to regulate immigration.

2008 – Terry Childs (43), a San Francisco computer engineer, was arrested on felony charges for allegedly plotting to hijack the city’s computer system.

2009 – U.S. Senate confirmation hearings for United States Supreme Court nominee Sonia Sotomayor begin.

2010 – Six more New Orleans, Louisiana police officers are charged with: shooting dead two civilians, injuries caused to four other civilians, and conspiracy to cover up the incidents on a bridge in the aftermath of the deadly Hurricane Katrina in 2005.

2010 – The US 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals in New York City strikes down the Federal Communications Commission’s “fleeting expletives” policy that gave it power to fine broadcasters who air a single expletive on air.

2010 – President Barack Obama unveils his country’s first national strategy to cut HIV/AIDS infections and improve care for those with the disease.

2011 –  Moody’s threatens to cut the debt rating of the United States. (President Obama)

2011 –  President Barack Obama walks out of negotiations with Republican Party leaders on tackling debt and deficits as Moody’s Investor Services warns of a potential loss of a AAA credit rating.

2012 – Obama at campaign event in Roanoke VA said, “If you were successful, somebody along the line gave you some help. There was a great teacher somewhere in your life. Somebody helped to create this unbelievable American system that we have that allowed you to thrive. Somebody invested in roads and bridges. If you’ve got a business — you didn’t build that. Somebody else made that happen.”

2013 – George Zimmerman is acquitted of murder in the death of Travone Martin in Florida. The jury of six women unanimously voted for acquittal in the  second degree murder and manslaughter trial ending one of the most controversial trials in recent memory.The jury deliberated for sixteen hours before reaching a verdict at 9:50 on Saturday evening.

2013 – Fifty-five drive-thru customers became a part of a ‘Pay It Forward’ chain at an Amesbury, MA donut shop. A gesture by a customer at Heav’nly Donuts in Amesbury triggered a chain reaction that presumably led to a lot of smiles. According to the drive-thru clerk, 55 customers rolled through the drive-thru back-to-back, each one paying for the next order. Only in America!!!




100 BC – Julius Caesar, Roman military and political leader (d. 44 BC) (born either July 12 or July 13)
1858 – Stewart Culin, American ethnographer (d. 1929)
1864 – John Jacob Astor IV, American entrepreneur (d. 1912)
1905 – Alfredo M. Santos, First Four-star General of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, World War II hero (d. 1990)
1913 – Dave Garroway, American television host (d. 1982)
1928 – Bob Crane, American actor (d. 1978)
1935 – Jack Kemp, American football player and politician
1942 – Harrison Ford, American actor
1946 – Cheech Marin, American actor
1950 – George “Pinky” Nelson, American astronaut
1956 – Michael Spinks, American former boxer
1967 – Dean Barnett, American Conservative blogger
1968 – Robert Gant, American actor
1977 – Ashley Scott, American actress


United States ArmyPITTS, RYAN M.State of New Hampshire


Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Forward Observer, 2d Platoon, Chosen Company, 2d Battalion (Airborne), 503d Infantry Regiment, 173d Airborne Brigade . Born: 1985, Nashua, NH. Entered Service: Boston, MA January 2003. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Place/ Date: July 13, 2008, Wanat ViIlage, Kunar Province, Afghanistan Citation: Sergeant Ryan M. Pitts distinguished himself by extraordinary acts of heroism at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Forward Observer in 2d Platoon, Chosen Company, 2d Battalion (Airborne), 503d Infantry Regiment, 173d Airborne Brigade during combat operations against an armed enemy at Vehicle Patrol Base Kahler in the vicinity of Wanat Village, Kunar Province, Afghanistan on July 13, 2008. Early that morning, while Sergeant Pitts was providing perimeter security at Observation Post Topside, a well-organized Anti-Afghan Force consisting of over 200 members initiated a close proximity sustained and complex assault using accurate and intense rocket-propelled grenade, machine gun and small arms fire on Wanat Vehicle Patrol Base. An immediate wave of rocket-propelled grenade rounds engulfed the Observation Post wounding Sergeant Pitts and inflicting heavy casualties. Sergeant Pitts had been knocked to the ground and was bleeding heavily from shrapnel wounds to his arm and legs, but with incredible toughness and resolve, he subsequently took control of the Observation Post and returned fire on the enemy. As the enemy drew nearer, Sergeant Pitts threw grenades, holding them after the pin was pulled and the safety lever was released to allow a nearly immediate detonation on the hostile forces. Unable to stand on his own and near death because of the severity of his wounds and blood loss, Sergeant Pitts continued to lay suppressive fire until a two-man reinforcement team arrived. Sergeant Pitts quickly assisted them by giving up his main weapon and gathering ammunition all while continually lobbing fragmentary grenades until these were expended. At this point, Sergeant Pitts crawled to the northern position radio and described the situation to the Command Post as the enemy continued to try and isolate the Observation Post from the main Patrol Base. With the enemy close enough for him to hear their voices and with total disregard for his own life, Sergeant Pitts whispered in the radio situation reports and conveyed information that the Command Post used to provide indirect fire support. Sergeant Pitts’ courage, steadfast commitment to the defense of his unit and ability to fight while seriously wounded prevented the enemy from overrunning the Observation Post and capturing fallen American soldiers, and ultimately prevented the enemy from gaining fortified positions on higher ground from which to attack Wanat Vehicle Patrol Base. Sergeant Ryan M. Pitts’ extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, Company C, 2d Battalion (Airborne), 503d Infantry Regiment, 173d Airborne Brigade and the United States Army.

Boxer Rebellion

(9:42) Clip with Charleston Heston

Beginning in 1898, groups of peasants in northern China began to band together into a secret society known as “Righteous and Harmonious Fists”, and called the “Boxers” by Western press. Members of the secret society practiced boxing and calisthenic rituals (hence the nickname, the “Boxers”) which they believed would make them impervious to bullets. By late 1899, bands of Boxers were massacring Christian missionaries, Chinese Christians and foreigners. On June 18, 1900, the Empress Dowager ordered all foreigners to be killed. Several foreign ministers and their families were killed before the international force could protect them. The battle started on July 13th and on August 14, 1900, the international force took Peking and subdued the rebellion.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 11 October 1871, Haverhill, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle near Tientsin, China,  July 13th, 1900, Adams distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.(November 1899 to September 7, 1901)





Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 27 October 1864, Oswego, N.Y. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle near Tientsin, China, July 13th, 1900, Adriance distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.





Rank and organization: Captain, 9th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Tientsin, China, July 13th, 1900. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Hoboken, N.J. Date of issue: 15 September 1903. Citation: While under fire rescued two of his men from drowning.





Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 27 July 1860, Limerick, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle near Tientsin, China, July 13th, 1900, Cooney distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 19 February 1866, Heckersville, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy in the battle near Tientsin, China, July 13th, 1900, Foley distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.





Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 9th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Tientsin, China, July 13th, 1900.Entered service at: Auburn, N.Y. Birth: Independence, Iowa. Date of issue: 11 March 1902. Citation: Carried a message and guided reinforcements across a wide and fireswept space, during which he was thrice wounded.






Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 12 December 1876, Royalton, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the advance on Tientsin, China, July 13th, 1900, Mathias distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 18 February 1871, Middlesex County, Va. Accredited to: Washington, D.C. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In action during the battle near Tientsin, China, July 13th, 1900. Although under heavy fire from the enemy, Sutton assisted in carrying a wounded officer from the field of battle.




 Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 9th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Tientsin, China, July 13th, 1900. Entered service at: San Francisco, Calif. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Although previously wounded while carrying a wounded comrade to a place of safety, rejoined his command, which partly occupied an exposed position upon a dike, remaining there after his command had been withdrawn, singly keeping up the fire, and obliviously presenting himself as a conspicuous target until he was literally shot off his position by the enemy.



Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Whetstone Mountains, Ariz., July 13th, 1872. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 4 December 1874. Citation: Drove off, singlehanded, eight hostile Indians, killing and wounding five.



Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company F, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Whetstone Mountains, Ariz., July 13th, 1872. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 4 December 1874. Citation: He and two companions covered the withdrawal of wounded comrades from the fire of an Apache band well concealed among rocks.





Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Whetstone Mountains, Ariz., July 13th, 1872. Entered service at: Brooklyn, N.Y. Born: 1850, Ireland. Date of issue: 4 December 1874. Citation: Fought and defeated four hostile Apaches located between him and his comrades.





Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 48th New York Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Wagner, S.C., July 13th, 1863, Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 14 July 1863; Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 18 July 1863. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: England. Date of issue: 23 October 1897. Citation: While voluntarily performing picket duty under fire on 13 July 1863, was attacked and his surrender demanded, but he killed his assailant. The day following responded to a call for a volunteer to reconnoiter the enemy’s position, and went within the enemy’s lines under fire and was exposed to great danger. On 18 July voluntarily exposed himself with great gallantry during an assault, and received three wounds that permanently disabled him for active service.

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Unerased History – July 12th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 12, 2016 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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International Town-Criers Day
National Pecan Pie Day 




 An amazing “toy” that took the country by storm and created a new type of art. It has a silver-gray surface and a bright red frame and it has not lost its popularity. Meet Etch-A-Sketch. It is not showing any signs of age. It is still, after 40 years, only 9.5 inches wide.  It seems like only yesterday when the first Etch A Sketch® toys were produced on July 12, 1960.  Here’s the story…


In the late 1950’s, a man by the name of Arthur Granjean invented something he called “L’Ecran Magique”, the magic screen, in his garage.  In 1959, he took his drawing toy to the International Toy Fair in Nuremburg,Germany.  The Ohio Art Company saw it but had no interest in the toy.  When Ohio Art saw the toy a second time, they decided to take a chance on the product.  The L’Ecran Magique was soon renamed the Etch A Sketch® and became the most popular drawing toy in the business. In the 1960, Ohio Art used television to advertise the Etch A Sketch®.

The inner workings have remained exactly the same.  The screen’s reverse side is coated with a mixture of aluminum powder and plastic beads.  The left and right knobs control the horizontal and vertical rods, moving the stylus where the two meet.  When the stylus moves, it scrapes the screen leaving the line you see. The knobs have changed slightly over the years. The new shape has a different edge for easier handling and turning.

Since that beginning it has produced a type of artist who can draw amazingly complex “pieces of art” using a singular line. That is the magic, not brushes, not multiple styluses just a single line. It required ingenuity, perseverance and an artist’s eye.  Here are a few and don’t forget it’s all a single line:

New York Yankees Etch-A-Sketch


Scripture of the Day

Isaiah 43:1b-2 (NIV)

“‘Do not fear, for I have redeemed you; I have summoned you by name; you are mine. When you pass through the waters, I will be with you; and when you pass through the rivers, they will not sweep over you. When you walk through the fire, you will not be burned; the flames will not set you ablaze.’”

Founders Thoughts

John Adams

Liberty must at all hazards be supported. We have a right to it, derived from our Maker. But if we had not, our fathers have earned and bought it for us, at the expense of their ease, their estates, their pleasure, and their blood.

– John Adams


Start by doing what’s necessary, then do what’s possible, and suddenly you are doing the impossible.”

-Francis of Assisi

footless \FOOT-lihs\, adjective:
1. without a foot or feet
2. figuratively, without support; not substantial
3.inept, awkward

1290 – Jews were expelled from England by order of King Edward I.

1580 – Ostrog Bible, the first printed Bible in a Slavic language, is published.

1630 – New Amsterdam’s governor bought Gull Island from Indians for cargo and renamed it Oyster Island. It later became Ellis Island.

1774 – Citizens of Carlisle, Penn., passed a declaration of independence.

1804 – Alexander Hamilton (47), US Sec. of Treasury, died of wounds from a pistol duel with Vice President Aaron Burr.

1812 – War of 1812: The United States invades Canada at Windsor, Ontario.

1836 – Narcissa Whitman and Eliza Spalding were the first two white women to cross the Continental Divide.

1843 – Mormon leader Joseph Smith said God encourages polygamy.

1844 – Captain J.N. Taylor of the Royal Navy first demonstrated the fog horn. At the time, it was called a telephone – to mean far-signalling, thus an instrument like a fog-horn, used on ships, railway trains, etc., for signalling by loud sounds or notes.

1852 – Dr. John Hudson Wayman camped at the City of Rocks in Idaho and called it “one of the finest places of its kind in the world.” US Congress named the area a national reserve in 1988.

1859 – Paper bag manufacturing machine patented by William Goodale, Massachusetts.

1861 – Civil War: Attorney, Confederate officer, writer, and Freemason Albert Pike completes treaties with the members of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Tribes, giving the new Confederate States of America several allies in Indian Territory.

1862 – Civil War: The Medal of Honor is authorized by the United States Congress. President Abraham Lincoln signed into law a measure calling for the awarding of a U.S. Army Medal of Honor, in the name of Congress, “to such noncommissioned officers and privates as shall most distinguish themselves by their gallantry in action, and other soldier-like qualities during the present insurrection.”

1862 – Civil War:  Federal troops occupied Helena, Arkansas.

1864 – Civil War: U.S. President Abraham Lincoln witnessed the battle where Union forces repelled Jubal Early’s army on the outskirts of Washington, DC.

1864 – Civil War: U.S.S. Whitehead and U.S.S. Ceres in company with transport steamer Ella May, conducted a joint expedition up the Scuppernong River to Columbia, North Carolina.

1878 – A Yellow Fever epidemic began in New Orleans. It killed 4,500.

1882 – Charles S. Horn Sr. bought two building lots and in 1882 built a pier and pavilion. He sold souvenirs and eventually opened a movie theater in the city. The pier washed away during a hurricane in 1914.

1909 – The sixteenth Amendment is approved (power to tax incomes). The text of the Amendment makes it clear that though the categories of direct and indirect taxation still exist, any determination that income tax is a direct tax will be irrelevant, because taxes on incomes are explicitly to be treated as indirect.

1916 – Battleship USS North Carolina is the first Navy ship to carry and operate aircraft.

1917 – The Bisbee Deportation occurs as vigilantes kidnap and deport nearly 1,300 striking miners and others from Bisbee, Arizona.

1921 – Congress creates Bureau of Aeronautics to be in charge of all matter pertaining to naval aeronautics.

1928 – First televised tennis match.

1931 – Chicago Cubs and the St. Louis Cardinals hit a record 23 doubles in a game (second game of a double header).

1933- Congress passes first minimum wage law. A minimum wage of 40 cents an hour was established. In Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, the United States Supreme Court declared the act unconstitutional.

1935 – Benny Goodman and his band recorded the “King Porter Stomp.

1940 – Rufus Robinson and Earl Cooley jumped out of a Travelair plane to fight the a forest fire in Idaho’s Nez Perce national Forest. They were the first smoke-jumpers.

1943 – World War II: Battle of Prokhorovka – German and Soviet forces engage in largest tank engagement of all time.

1943 – World War II: The Panzer Division “Hermann Goring” resumes attacks on American positions in the morning but withdraws to face the more threatening British advance in the afternoon.

1943 – World War II: Off Kolombangara, Admiral Ainsworth’s Task Force (3 cruisers and 10 destroyers) encounter a Japanese squadron (1 cruiser and 9 destroyers) under the command of Admiral Izaki. The Japanese cruiser obliterated by the radar-directed gunfire of the American cruisers but the Japanese sink one destroyer and damage two cruisers with torpedo attacks.

1943 – The US submarine Pampanito was christened in New Hampshire.

1944 – World War II: Allied air attacks against the Po bridges begin. Elements of the US 5th Army advance. The US 88th Division takes Lajatico.

1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dream”  by  The Pied Pipers, “The More I See You”  by
Dick Haymes, “Bell Bottom Trousers”  by  Tony Pastor and “Stars and Stripes on Iwo Jima”  by  Bob Wills all topped the charts.

1945 – World War II: Targets on the Japanese home islands of Shikoku and Honshu are heavily bombed.

1946 – “The Adventures of Sam Spade” (25:06) debuts on ABC radio.

1949 – Jones, Frederick M. –  Air Conditioning Unit patented.  Patent No. 2475841
1949 – Jones, Frederick M. –  Starter Generator patented.  Patent No. 2475842

1949 – Football quarterback Norm Van Brocklin leaves college for the Los Angeles Rams. He left the University of Oregon, where he still had a year’s eligibility remaining, to join the Rams.

1950 – Korean War: In a series of desperate battles, the 21st Infantry Regiment fought delaying actions from Chonui to Chochiwon. They turned in the best battle performance of U.S. troops in the war to that date.

1950 – Korean War: The first Distinguished Service Cross of the Korean War was awarded posthumously to Colonel Robert R. Martin who single-handedly attacked an enemy tank with a rocket launcher.

1950 – Korean War: Photographs of seven American soldiers found shot through the head by the communists shocked the world.

1951 – Governor Adlai Stevenson, called out National Guard to stop rioting in Cicero, Illinois. Mob of 3,500 tried to keep an African-American family from moving into the all-white city.

1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Song from Moulin Rouge”  by  The Percy Faith Orchestra,Ruby”  by  Richard Hayman, “I’m Walking Behind You” by  Eddie Fisher and “It’s Been So Long” by  Webb Pierce all topped the charts.

1954 –  Elvis Presley signed his first recording contract and quit his job as a truck driver. The contract was with Sun Records.

1954 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower proposed a highway modernization program, with costs to be shared by federal and state governments. (See October 3rd)

1954 – The Major League Baseball Players Association was organized in Cleveland, OH.

1956 – Elvis Presley appeared on “The Steve Allen Show.” He was told not to dance and Allen had him sing “Hound Dog” to a real basset hound wearing tails.

1957 – Dwight Eisenhower is the first President to fly in helicopter.

1957 – The U.S. surgeon general, Leroy E. Burney, reported that there was a direct link between smoking and lung cancer.

1957 – Santa Susana in Los Angeles County began receiving the nation’s first commercial electricity from a small, civilian-owned, nuclear reactor. It was shut down in 1964. PG&E had teamed with General Electric to establish the Vallecitos atomic energy plant, the world’s 1st privately owned and operated nuclear facility.

1958 – “Yakety Yak“, by The Coasters, shared #1 with “Purple People Eater” by Sheb Wooley.

1959 – Alan Freed began a 13-week Rock & Roll show on ABC-TV.

1960 – The first Etch-A-Sketch went on sale.

1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tossin’ and Turnin’”  by  Bobby Lewis, “The Boll Weevil Song”  by  Brook Benton, “Every Beat of My Heart”  by  Pips, “Heartbreak U.S.A.”  by  Kitty Wells all topped the charts.

1962 – The Rolling Stones perform their first ever concert, at the Marquee Club in London.

1963 – “She Loves You” and “I’ll Get You” were recorded by the Beatles.

1966 – Most rain that ever fell in one day in Ohio, 10.5″ in Sandusky.

1966 – US Treasury announces it will buy mutilated silver coins at silver bullion price.

1966 – “In the Year 2525 (Exordium and Terminus)” by Zager & Evans topped the charts.

1966 – Race riots occurred in Chicago. National Guard mobilized.

1967 – Race Riot: The Newark Riot of 1967 began with the arrest of a cab driver named John Smith, who allegedly drove around a double-parked police car at the corner of 7th St. and 15th Avenue. He was subsequently stopped, interrogated, arrested and transported to the 4th precinct headquarters, during which time he was severely beaten by the arresting officers. Twenty-six were killed, 1500 injured and over 1000 arrested.

1969 – CHART TOPPERS  – “In the Year 2525”  by  Zager & Evans, “Spinning Wheel” by  Blood, Sweat & Tears, “Good Morning Starshine”  by  Oliver and “Statue of a Fool”  by  Jack Greene all topped the charts.

1973 – Jesus Christ Superstar” closed in New York City after 720 performances on Broadway.

1973 – A fire destroys the entire 6th floor of the National Personnel Records Center and destroys approximately 16-18 million Official Military Personnel Files (OMPF). Records destroyed are Army – Personnel discharged 1Nov1912 to 1Jan1960 and Air Force personnel discharged 25Sep1947 to 1Jan1964 with names alphabetically after Hubbard, James E.

1974 – President Richard Nixon’s aides G. Gordon Liddy, John Ehrlichman and two others were convicted of conspiracy and perjury in connection with the Watergate scandal  conspiring to violate the civil rights of Daniel Ellsberg’s former psychiatrist.

1974 – The US Budget Control Act was signed into law. It stripped away from the president the power to withhold appropriated spending, and placed it in the hands of Congress. The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) was formed.

1975 – “Love Will Keep Us Together” by Captain & Tennille topped the charts.

1976 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Edward Charles Allaway, a campus janitor, killed seven people in a library at California State Univ. at Fullerton. He was found not guilty by reason of insanity and was confined at a state mental hospital.

1977 – CHART TOPPERS  – “Undercover Angel”  by  Alan O’Day, “Da Do Run Run”  by  Shaun Cassidy, “Looks like We Made It”  by  Barry Manilow and “I’ll Be Leaving Alone” by  Charley Pride all topped the charts.

1977 – President Carter defended Supreme Court decisions limiting government payments for poor women’s abortions, saying, “There are many things in life that are not fair.”

1980 – “Coming Up” by Paul McCartney topped the charts.

1981 – John Morey (Steppenwolf) died in a car accident at the age of 32.

1982 – The last of the distinctive-looking Checker taxicabs rolled off the assembly
line in Kalamazoo, MI. The company had produced those cabs since 1922.

1982 – “E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial” broke all box-office records. It surpassed the $100-million mark of ticket sales in the first 31 days of its opening.

1984 – Democratic presidential candidate Walter F. Mondale named U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro of New York to be his running mate. Ferraro was the first woman to run for vice president on a major party ticket.

1984 – Madonna’s “Like a Virgin” video premiered on MTV and became an instant hit.

1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sussudio”  by  Phil Collins, “A View to a Kill” by Duran Duran, “Raspberry Beret”  by  Prince & The Revolution and “She’s a Miracle” by Exile all topped the charts.

1985 – Doctors discovered what turned out to be a cancerous growth in President Reagan’s large intestine, prompting surgery the following day.

1986 – “Holding Back the Years” by Simply Red topped the charts.

1987 – Phillies Kent Tekulve pitches his 900th game in relief. Until Jesse Orosco broke his record in 1999, Tekulve was the all-time major league leader in relief appearances with 1,050.

1988 – The American League beat the National League 2-1 in the All-Star game played in Cincinnati.

1988 – The PHOBOS 2 Flyby and lander failed within 480 miles of Mar’s moon Phobos.

1988 – Democratic presidential candidate Michael S. Dukakis tapped Texas Sen. Lloyd Bentsen as his running mate.

1990 – CBS introduced the TV saga “Northern Exposure.” The show ran to 1995.

1990 – Commander Rosemary B. Mariner becomes first woman to command an operational Naval aviation squadron (VAQ-34).

1992 – A memorial to Buddy Holly was unveiled in Dallas, TX.

1993 – Somalia: Seventeen US helicopters conduct an attack on Aidid compound-at least 13 Somalis are killed.

1994 – The Rolling Stones’ “Voodoo Lounge” (1:01:50) album was released.

1994 – The National League won the All-Star Game defeating the American League 8-7.

1994 – US confirmation hearings began for Supreme Court nominee Stephen G. Breyer.

1994 – The shareholders and employees of United Airlines approved a deal giving the majority ownership to the employees (76,000+).

1995 – President Clinton spelled out school-prayer guidelines, asserting the First Amendment already guaranteed adequate freedom of religion.

1995 – US public debt said by the Treasury to be $4.93 trillion.

1996 – The House voted overwhelmingly to define marriage in federal law as a legal union of one man and one woman, no matter what states might say.

1996 – Hurricane Bertha hit North Carolina’s Cape Fear near Wilmington, then moved on to batter a string of coastal towns.

1996 – Lee Guthrie Jr., a member of the Aryan Republican Army, was found dead of an apparent suicide in a county jail in Kentucky. The group advocated killing Jews, deporting African-Americans and setting up a Bible-based nation.

1999 – Walt Disney Co. announced that it was merging all of its Internet operations together with Infoseek into Go.com.

1999 – President Clinton and Republican congressional leaders held their first face-to-face budget meeting of the year; the talk was described afterward as positive.

1999 – In St. Louis several hundred workers and activists of MO-KAN blocked I-70 to demand that more minorities be hired for state construction jobs.

2000 – The movie “X-Men” premiered in New York.

2000 – The New Hampshire House of Representatives voted to impeach Chief Justice David A. Brock for perpetuating misconduct and a culture of secrecy.

2000 – In Philadelphia a WPVI News camera showed city police beat and kick Thomas Jones (30) over nationwide TV. Jones had stolen a patrol car and shot at an officer.

2001 – The US Space Shuttle Atlantis took off with a crew of five to deliver a portal for spacewalks to the Int’l. Space Station.

2001 – In Virginia a woman delivered five boys and two girls by C-section. This was only the third set of septuplets known to have survived birth.

2002 – The Biscuit Fire was a wildfire that burned nearly 500,000 acres in the Siskiyou National Forest in the states of Oregon and California. It was named after Biscuit Creek in southern Oregon.

2002 – The US Senate adopted a ban on personal loans from companies to their top officials, a practice that had benefited executives from Enron to WorldCom.

2003 – Barry Bonds ties the 63-year-old record of Jimmie Foxx by homering against the Arizona Diamondbacks’ Curt Schilling, becoming the second player in Major League Baseball to hit at least 30 home runs in 12 consecutive seasons.

2003 – The USS Ronald Reagan, the first carrier named for a living president, was commissioned in Norfolk, Va.

2003 – Former White House press secretary Ari Fleischer leaked the identity of a CIA operative (Valerie Plame) to Washington Post reporter Walter Pincus during a phone call.

2004 – The United States Department of Homeland Security asks the Justice Department’s office of legal counsel to research on the legal requirements for postponing the November elections, stating that they are concerned that terrorists might disrupt the elections.

2004 – The Bush administration announced a new rule to allow the nation’s governors to help decide whether roadless areas in their states should be opened for logging or other commercial activity.

2004 – A foot or more of rain fell in parts of the Northeast. No injuries had been reported in the stricken areas of New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Maryland.

2005 – The American League to a 7-5 win over the National League in Detroit for the AL’s eighth straight All-Star victory.

2005 –  BP said it has sent teams to fix its ‘Thunder Horse’ oil platform, which has been listing since Hurricane Dennis hit the Gulf of Mexico.

2006 – An experimental spacecraft bankrolled by real estate magnate Robert Bigelow successfully inflated in orbit, testing a technology that could be used to fulfill his dream of building a commercial space station.

2006 – U.S. broadcaster Robert Novak says Deputy Chief of Staff Karl Rove was not the primary source for the Plame leak.

2007 – A false alarm causes the diversion of American Airlines Flight 136. The plane crew was concerned that a passenger of Middle Eastern descent might have bypassed security controls.

2007 – Defying a White House veto threat, the US House of Representatives approved legislation to bring combat troops out of Iraq by April 1, 2008.

2007 – A US government report was released saying undercover investigators, working for a fake firm, had obtained a license to buy enough radioactive material to build a “dirty bomb,” amid little scrutiny from federal regulators.

2008 – Tony Snow (53), a conservative writer and commentator who cheerfully sparred with reporters in the White House briefing room during a stint as President Bush’s press secretary, died of colon cancer.

2009 – Head of the CIA Leon Panetta accuses former United States Vice President Dick Cheney of hiding an intelligence program from Congress.

2010 – TERRORIST ATTACK: A gunman opens fire at a fiber optics plant in Albuquerque, New Mexico, killing two and wounding four before committing suicide.

2010 –  Police in Los Angeles County discovered thousands of pounds of marijuana in a railroad car that entered this month from Mexico.

2010 –  BP Engineers worked to replace a cap over a gushing oil well in the Gulf of Mexico after reporting good progress in attempts to contain the worst environmental disaster in US history.

2011 –  The US Coast Guard ends aerial searches for seven Americans still missing after a charter fishing boat sank in the Sea of Cortez off Mexico on July 3.

2011 –  A three judge panel of the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals rules that Jared Lee Loughner, the suspect in the 2011 Tucson shooting, has the right to refuse antipsychotic medication while he appeals the treatment prescribed by prison mental health authorities.

2011 – Operation Fast and Furious: CNN reports that the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives has lost track of 1,400 guns involved in  and aimed at tracing the flow of weapons to Mexican drug cartels.

2013 – After being forced of the shelves by greedy union leaders, Twinkies are back!! Twinkies are making an early comeback at Wal-Mart stores, and they won’t be frozen beforehand.The world’s largest retailer says it is selling the snack cakes at about 1,600 stores starting today and that about 3,000 of its 4,000 U.S. stores should have them by Sunday morning, a day before Hostess had said the spongy yellow cakes would start hitting shelves nationwide.


100 BC – Julius Caesar, Roman military and political leader (d. 44 BC) (born either July 12 or July 13)
1730 – Josiah Wedgwood, English potter (d. 1795)
1817 – Henry David Thoreau, American writer and philosopher (d. 1862)
1824 – Eugène Boudin, French painter (d. 1898)
1854 – George Eastman, American inventor (d. 1932)
1864 – George Washington Carver, American botanist (d. 1943)
1895 – Buckminster Fuller, American architect (d. 1983)
1895 – Oscar Hammerstein II, American lyricist (d. 1960)
1908 – Milton Berle, American comedian (d. 2002)
1909 – Curly Joe DeRita, American actor and comedian (d. 1993)
1913 – Willis Lamb, American physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 2008)
1917 – Andrew Wyeth, American artist
1920 – Beah Richards, American actress (d. 2000)
1925 – Roger Bonham Smith, former chairman and CEO of General Motors (d. 2007)
1932 – Otis Davis, American runner
1933 – Donald E. Westlake, American author
1934 – Van Cliburn, American pianist
1937 – Bill Cosby, American comedian and actor
1941 – Benny Parsons, American NASCAR driver (d. 2007)
1943 – Paul Silas, American basketball player and head coach
1948 – Richard Simmons, American fitness trainer
1951 – Jamey Sheridan, American actor
1956 – Sandi Patty, American singer
1957 – Richard Douglas Husband, American astronaut (d. 2003)
1975 – Cheyenne Jackson, American actor and singer
1976 – Tracie Spencer, American singer and songwriter





Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company A, 3d Reconnaissance Battalion, 3d Marine Division. Place and Date: near Da Nang, Republic of Vietnam,  July 12th, 1965. Entered service at: Kellogg, Idaho. Born: 16 September 1937, Spokane, Wash. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. The reconnaissance patrol led by 1st Lt. Reasoner had deeply penetrated heavily controlled enemy territory when it came under extremely heavy fire from an estimated 50 to 100 Viet Cong insurgents. Accompanying the advance party and the point that consisted of five men, he immediately deployed his men for an assault after the Viet Cong had opened fire from numerous concealed positions. Boldly shouting encouragement, and virtually isolated from the main body, he organized a base of fire for an assault on the enemy positions. The slashing fury of the Viet Cong machinegun and automatic weapons fire made it impossible for the main body to move forward. Repeatedly exposing himself to the devastating attack he skillfully provided covering fire, killing at least two Viet Cong and effectively silencing an automatic weapons position in a valiant attempt to effect evacuation of a wounded man. As casualties began to mount his radio operator was wounded and 1st Lt. Reasoner immediately moved to his side and tended his wounds. When the radio operator was hit a second time while attempting to reach a covered position, 1st Lt. Reasoner courageously running to his aid through the grazing machinegun fire fell mortally wounded. His indomitable fighting spirit, valiant leadership and unflinching devotion to duty provided the inspiration that was to enable the patrol to complete its mission without further casualties. In the face of almost certain death he gallantly gave his life in the service of his country. His actions upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 362d Infantry, 91st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Casaglia, Italy, July 12th, 1944. Entered service at: Pixley, Calif. Birth: Talala, Okla. G.O. No.: 83, 2 October 1945. Citation: He was an acting squad leader when heavy machinegun fire from enemy positions, well dug in on commanding ground and camouflaged by haystacks, stopped his company’s advance and pinned down one platoon where it was exposed to almost certain annihilation. Ordered to rescue the beleaguered platoon by neutralizing the German automatic fire, he led his squad forward along a draw to the right of the trapped unit against three key positions which poured murderous fire into his helpless comrades. When within range, his squad fired tracer bullets in an attempt to set fire to the three haystacks which were strung out in a loose line directly to the front, 75, 150, and 250 yards away. Realizing that this attack was ineffective, Sgt. Harmon ordered his squad to hold their position and voluntarily began a one-man assault. Carrying white phosphorus grenades and a submachine gun, he skillfully took advantage of what little cover the terrain afforded and crept to within twenty-five yards of the first position. He set the haystack afire with a grenade, and when two of the enemy attempted to flee from the inferno, he killed them with his submachine gun. Crawling toward the second machinegun emplacement, he attracted fire and was wounded; but he continued to advance and destroyed the position with hand grenades, killing the occupants. He then attacked the third machinegun, running to a small knoll, then crawling over ground which offered no concealment or cover. About halfway to his objective, he was again wounded. But he struggled ahead until within twenty yards of the machinegun nest, where he raised himself to his knees to throw a grenade. He was knocked down by direct enemy fire. With a final, magnificent effort, he again arose, hurled the grenade and fell dead, riddled by bullets. His missile fired the third position, destroying it. Sgt. Harmon’s extraordinary heroism, gallantry, and self-sacrifice saved a platoon from being wiped out, and made it possible for his company to advance against powerful enemy resistance.




Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 27 November 1876, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China, July 12th, 1900, Mitchell distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.




Rank and organization: Hospital Apprentice, U.S. Navy. Place and date: China, 13, 20, 21, and 22 June 1900. Entered service: Aboard U.S.S. Vermont. Born: 2 May 1881, Brooklyn N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy in volunteering and carrying messages under fire at Peking, China, July 12th, 1900.


Wichita River, Texas July 12th,  1870
From the posts of Fort Richardson, Texas 1866-1878

Brevette Major C. B. Mc..ellau Capt. 6 Cav left the post with a detachment of 2 ….. officers 1 A. A. Surgeon and 53 enlisted men of Company’s A, B, D, H, K, and L 6 Cav on July 7, 1870 for an Indian scout. On the 12 July at the north fork Little Wichita River, Texas they had an encounter with Indians resulting in the killing of 2 enlisted men, wounding one A. A. surgeon and ten enlisted men. Indians 13 killed and a large number wounded. They rejoined the post on July 16, 1870. Distance marched 200 miles. The following received the Medal of Honor in this action:


Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., July 12th, 1870. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., July 12th, 1870. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Sacketts Harbor, N.Y. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.




Rank and organization: Corporal, Company K, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., July 12th, 1870. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Birth: Daviess County, Ky. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Bravery in action.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., July 12th, 1870. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company L, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., July 12th, 1870. Entered service at: ——. Birth: York, Pa. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company L, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., July 12th, 1870. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., July 12th, 1870. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Hanover, N.H. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Farrier, Company L, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., July 12th, 1870. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Montgomery County, Md. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., July 12th, 1870. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Auburn, N.Y. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., July 12th, 1870. Entered service at:——. Birth: Logan County, Ohio. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I., 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., July 12th, 1870. Entered service at. ——. Birth: Cochecton, N.Y. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.


WINDUS, CLARON A.wisconsinlg

Rank and organization: Bugler, Company L, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., July 12th, 1870. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Janesville, Wis. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., July 12th, 1870. Entered service at: ——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.




Rank and organization: Captain, Company D, 19th Michigan Infantry; First Lieutenant, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Peach Tree Creek, Ga., July 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Constantine, Mich. Birth: Michigan. Date of issue: 3 December 1891. Second award. Citation: Led his company in a countercharge at Peach Tree Creek, Ga., 12 July 1864, under a galling fire ahead of his own men, and singly entered the enemy’s line, capturing and bringing back two commissioned officers, fully armed, besides a guidon of a Georgia regiment.

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Unerased History – July 11th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 11, 2016 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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International Chicken Wing Week
Bowdler’s Day
7-11 Day





Way back in 1927, an employee of the Southland Ice Company in Dallas, Texas, starting selling such grocery items as eggs, milk and bread, from the company’s ice dock. In less time than it takes to say 7-11, the convenience store was born, and named for the hours it was open: 7a.m. to 11p.m. When its “convenience” was noted, the idea took off and competitors sprung up by the dozens. But 7-Eleven forged on, extending their actual hours to 24 a day, but keeping the original name 7-Eleven.

Today, 7-Eleven is a worldwide chain of convenience stores and is part of an international chain of convenience stores, operating under Seven-Eleven Japan Co. Ltd, which in turn is owned by Seven & I Holdings Co. of Japan.

7-Eleven, primarily operating as a franchise, is the world’s largest operator, franchisor and licensor of convenience stores, with more than 46,000 outlets. Since March 2007, it is the largest chain store in any category, beating McDonald’s by 1,000 stores. It has stores located in sixteen countries. Its largest markets being Japan, the United States, Canada, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia and Thailand.

The American subsidiary of the Japanese firm has its headquarters in the One Arts Plaza building in downtown Dallas, Texas.

Among 7-Eleven’s offerings are private label products, including Slurpee, a partially frozen beverage introduced in 1967, and the Big Gulp introduced in 1980.

 Scripture of the Day

Proverbs 19:17  King James Version (KJV)

17 He that hath pity upon the poor lendeth unto the Lord; and that which he hath given will he pay him again.

Founders Thoughts

wilsonjames150“Illustrious examples are displayed to our view, that we may imitate as well as admire. Before we can be distinguished by the same honors, we must be distinguished by the same virtues. What are those virtues? They are chiefly the same virtues, which we have already seen to be descriptive of the American character — the love of liberty, and the love of law.”

James Wilson, Of the Study of the Law in the United States, Circa 1790


That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons that history has to teach.”

~ Aldous Huxley


 gloaming   GLOH-ming, noun:

Twilight; dusk.

1576 – Martin Frobisher sights Greenland. He was an English seaman from Wakefield, Yorkshire  who made three voyages to the New World to look for the Northwest Passage. All landed in northeastern Canada, around today’s Resolution Island and Frobisher Bay.

1578 – England granted Sir Humphrey Gilbert a patent to explore and colonize the future US. He was known as “Father of American colonization.”

1656 – Ann Austin and Mary Fisher, two Englishwomen, become the first Quakers to immigrate to the American colonies when the ship carrying them lands at Boston in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

1735 – Mathematical calculations suggest that it was on this day that Pluto moved from the ninth to the eighth most distant planet from the Sun for the last time before 1979.

1740 – A violent mob attacks Jews and expels them from Little Russia.

1742 – Benjamin Franklin invented his Franklin stove.

1776 – Captain James Cook begins his third voyage. Cook died in Hawaii in a fight with Hawaiians during this voyage in the Pacific in 1779.

1781 – Thomas Hutchins designated Geographer of the US. Prior to the American Revolution, Hutchins served in the British army and participated in the French and Indian War. Refusing to fight against his fellow colonists during the Revolution, Hutchins resigned his commission in 1780.

1786 – Morocco (muslims) agreed to stop attacking American ships in the Mediterranean for a payment of $10,000.

1796 – The United States takes possession of Detroit from Great Britain under terms of the Jay Treaty.Captain Moses Porter led a party of American troops into Detroit. At noon, the Union Jack came down, and the flag of the United States was raised over Detroit for the first time.

1798 -The U.S. Marine Corps was formally re-established by “An Act for Establishing a Marine Corps” passed by the U.S. Congress. The act also created the U.S. Marine Band.  “The President’s Own” US Marine Band  is America’s oldest professional musical organization. The band was comprised of one Drum Major, one Fife Major, 32 drums and fifes.

1804 – Vice President Aaron Burr mortally wounded Alexander Hamilton (47), former first Treasury Secretary, in a pistol duel near Weehawken, N.J. A warrant for Burr’s arrest was soon issued in New Jersey and New York, where Hamilton died.

1816 – Gas Light Co. of Baltimore was founded.

1818 – The Revenue Cutter Dallas seized and libeled the Venezuelan privateer Cerony off Savannah for having violated the nation’s neutrality laws.

1836 – President Jackson issued the Specie Circular shortly before leaving office. This order commanded the Treasury to no longer accept paper notes as payment for public land purchases. This led to the financial panic of 1837.

1846 – The “Grizzly Bear” flag proclaiming the “California Republic” is lowered to be replaced by the United States flag as the former Mexican colony comes under American control.

1859 – A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens is published.

1861 – Civil War: Union troops under General George B. McClellan score another major victory in the struggle for western Virginia at the Battle of Rich Mountain.

1862 – Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln appointed General Henry Halleck as general in chief of the Federal army.

1863 – Civil War: Rear Admiral Hiram Paulding, Commandant of the New York Navy Yard, stationed gunboats around Manhattan to assist in maintaining order during the Draft Riots.

1863 – Civil War: The Battle of Fort Wager began as Union forces assaulted the Confederate battery on Morris Island at the southern approach to Charleston Harbor.

1864 – Civil War: Confederate General Jubal Early’s army arrived in Silver Spring, Maryland, on the outskirts of Washington, D.C., and began to probe the Union line. Confederate forces led by Gen. Jubal Early began an invasion of Washington, D.C., turning back the next day.

1864 – Civil War: Landing party from U.S.S. James L. Davis, Acting Master Griswold, destroyed Confederate salt works near Tampa, Florida. The works were capable of producing some 150 bushels of salt per day.

1864 – Civil War: Battle of Trevillian Station, VA (Central Railroad).

1875 – General Albert M. Winn, a Virginian who came to California during Gold Rush days and who was deeply impressed with the fortitude of the men and women of the period, organized the Native Sons of the Golden West in San Francisco.

1877 – Los Angeles, CA recorded a temperature of 112 degrees, but it was not recorded as an all-time-high because official recording only began 20 days later.

1888 – State record high temperature of 118° in Bennett, CO.

1892 -The U.S. Patent Office decided that Joseph Wilson Swan in England, not Thomas Edison, was the inventor of the electric light carbon for the incandescent lamp.

1893 – The first cultured pearl is obtained by Kokichi Mikimoto.

1895 – The Lumière brothers demonstrate film technology to scientists.

1906 – The Gillette-Brown murder inspires Theodore Dreiser’s An American Tragedy.

1914 – Babe Ruth debuted in the major leagues with the Boston Red Sox. In his rookie year he earned $2900.

1916 – “Dan Patch” (b.1896), a record-breaking, Indiana-born, harness race horse was the celebrated horse that had never lost a race, died and was buried in Minnesota. He was the first harness race horse to break the 2-minute mile.

1916 – Congress passed the first formal highway policy with a regular appropriation of funding to the states. By this time, the number of automobile registrations in the country had reached 2.3 million.

1918 – Enrico Caruso joined the war effort and recorded “Over There“, the patriotic song written by George M. Cohan.

1921 – Former President William Howard Taft is sworn in as 10th Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, becoming the only person to ever be both President and Chief Justice.

1922 – The Hollywood Bowl opens. The Hollywood Bowl is a famous modern amphitheatre in the Hollywood area of Los Angeles, California.  It’s use is primarily for music performances. It has a seating capacity 17,376.

1924 – After 103 roll calls the Democrats bypassed New York governor Alfred E. Smith and William G. McAdoo of California and nominated John W. Davis of West Virginia and Charles Bryan, brother of William Jennings, to run against Calvin Coolidge. The Democrats won just 29% of the popular vote in a 3-way race with Coolidge and Senator Robert “Fighting Bob” LaFolette of Wisconsin who led the Progressive Party.

1934 – FDR became first president to travel through Panama Canal.

1934 – The first appointments to the newly created Federal Communications Commission were made.

1936 – The Triborough Bridge in New York City is opened to traffic. It is officially renamed the Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge on June 4th, 2008 and is a complex of three bridges connecting the New York City boroughs of the Bronx, Manhattan, and Queens, using what were two islands.

1939 – New York Yankees hosted the 7th All-Star Game. The American League won 3-1.

1940 – World War II: Vichy France regime is formally established. Henri Philippe Pétain becomes Prime Minister of France. Vichy France, or the Vichy regime are the common terms used to describe the government of France from July 1940 to August 1944. Pétain and the Vichy regime willfully collaborated with the German occupation to a high degree.  They were actively complicit with finding French Jews to be sent to extermination.

1941 – World War II: Europe: Holocaust – The second great roundup of Jews of Amsterdam took place.

1941 – Congress reconfirmed the military “status” of the Coast Guard, stating: “The Coast Guard shall be a military service and constitute a branch of the land and naval forces of the United States.

1941 –  Roosevelt appoints William Donovan to head a new civilian intelligence agency with the title “coordinator of defense information.” This appointment will lead to the creation of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) which in turn will develop into the modern CIA.

1942 – World War II: In the longest bombing raid of World War II, 1,750 British Lancaster bombers attacked the Polish port of Danzig. The Polish submarine Orzel escaped from internment and went on to fight the Germans against long odds.

1942 – World War II: Marine Corps Air Station El Centro, California activated. It was decommissioned in 1999.

1942 – World War II: U .S. Maritime Service was transferred back to the War Shipping Administration after being under Coast Guard administration since February 28, 1942.

1943 – World War II: Holocaust: Massacres of Poles in Volhynia. It was a massive ethnic cleansing operation ordered by Heinrich Himmler in German-occupied Volhynia and Eastern Galicia that took part during World War II, between 1942 and 1945.

1943 – World War II: Allied invasion of Sicily – German and Italian troops launch a counter-attack on Allied forces in Sicily.

1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be Seeing You” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Frank Sinatra), “Long Ago and Far Away by Helen Forrest & Dick Haymes, I’ll Get By” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Dick Haymes) and “Straighten Up and Fly Right” by King Cole Trio all topped the charts.

1944 – World War II:  German forces counterattack the US 1st Army. The German Panzerlehr Division spearheads the assault against US 9th Division southwest of St. Jean de Daye. US forces hold.

1944 –  World War II: American forces around Aitape pull back from the Driniumor River under pressure from Japanese forces.

1944 – World War II: President Roosevelt recognizes the French Provisional government under Charles DeGaulle. They were the de facto authority for the civil administration of liberated territory in France.

1944 – Franklin D. Roosevelt announces that he will run for a fourth term as President of the United States.

1945 – The redeployment of 2118 4-engined bombers of the US Eighth Air Force, to the USA (en route for the Pacific theater) begins. It is completed in 51 days.

1945 – Napalm was first used. On Luzon, Americans forces drop thousands of napalm bombs on Japanese pockets on the Sierra Madre and in the Kiangan area.

1950 – Korean War:  A ten-man demolition party of sailors and Marines led by Commander William B. Porter conducted the first naval commando operation of the Korean War.

1950 – Red Sox slugger Ted Williams suffered a broken elbow during the All-Star game. He crashed into the scoreboard at Comiskey Park in Chicago.

1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss of Fire” by Georgia Gibbs, I’m Yours” by Eddie Fisher, “Delicado” by The Percy Faith Orchestra and “That Heart Belongs to Me” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.

1952 – The Republican National Convention, meeting in Chicago, nominated Dwight D. Eisenhower for president and Richard M. Nixon for vice president. Theodore Roosevelt McKeldin (1900-1974), the governor of Maryland (1951-1959), gave the nominating speech.

1952 – Far East Air Force established a one-day record by flying 1,330 sorties.

1953 – “I’m Walking Behind You” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.

1953 – Lieutenant Colonel John F. Bolt became the 37th Korean War ace and the only U.S. Marine Corps pilot to qualify as an ace during the Korea War. He also has the distinction of being the only jet ace in Marine Corps history and the only U.S. Marine to become an ace in two wars (World War II and Korea). Bolt was flying an F-86 Sabre, “Darling Dottie,” attached to the Air Force’s 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing.

1953 –  “Amos ‘n Andy,” TV Comedy and a radio program from 1929; last aired on CBS.

1955 – The phrase In God We Trust is added to all U.S. currency. In God We Trust is the official national motto of the United States and the State of Florida. The motto first appeared on a United States coin in 1864, but In God We Trust did not become the official U.S. national motto until after the passage of an Act of Congress in 1956.

1955 – New USAF Academy dedicated at Lowry AFB in Colorado. It graduated its first class of 306 cadets. They were sworn in to The Air Force Academy which  was charged with training and educating officers capable of meeting the challenges of the nuclear age.

1958 – Monument Valley, crossing the Arizona-Utah border, became the first Navajo Tribal Park.

1959 – “Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton topped the charts.

1959 – Joan Baez made her first recording, “Virgin Mary Had One Son“. It was a duet with Bob Gibson which was recorded live at the Newport Folk Festival.

1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Alley-Oop” by Hollywood Argyles, “I’m Sorry” by Brenda Lee, “Mule Skinner Blues” by The Fendermen and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling” by Hank Locklin all topped the charts.

1960 – In Honolulu, HI, the first tournament held outside the continental U.S., sanctioned by the U.S. Golf Association, began.

1960- To Kill a Mockingbird is a Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Harper Lee published in 1960. It was instantly successful and has become a classic of modern American fiction. The novel is loosely based on the author’s observations of her family and neighbors, as well as on an event that occurred near her hometown in the year 1936, when she was 10 years old.

1962 – The Telstar I satellite carried the first transatlantic TV transmission. It picked up broadcast signals from France and bounced them down to an antenna in Maine, delivering the first live television picture from Europe to America.

1964 – “My Boy Lollipop” by Millie Small was riding high on the pop charts.

1964 – “I Get Around” by the Beach Boys topped the charts.

1964 – The Supremes’ “Where Did Our Love Go?” was released.

1966 – “I Am A Rock” by Simon & Garfunkel peaked at #3.

1967 – Kenny Rogers formed “The First Edition”. Rogers, along with Thelma Camacho, Mike Settle and Terry Williams left The New Christy Minstrels. Hits made popular by the group include: Just Dropped In (To See What Condition My Condition Was In), But You Know I Love You, Ruby, Don’t Take Your Love to Town, Ruben James, and Something’s Burning.

1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “This Guy’s in Love with You” by Herb Alpert, “The Horse” by Cliff Nobles & Co., “Jumpin’ Jack Flash” by The Rolling Stones and “D-I-V-O-R-C-E” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.

1969 – The Rolling Stones released “Honky Tonk Women” to Radio.

1969 – David Bowie released his single “Space Oddity.”

1970 – “Mama Told Me (Not to Come)” by Three Dog Night topped the charts.

1970 – The Who’s “Summertime Blues” was released.

1972 – Vietnam War:  U.S. forces broke the 95-day siege at An Loc in Vietnam.

1973 – Tennis stars Billie Jean King and Bobby Riggs announced their “Battle of the Sexes.” The winner would take home $100,000. The event would be staged at the Houston Astrodome in Texas before 30,472 spectators, as it turned out; the largest crowd ever for a tennis match.

1974 –  John W. Dean testified before the US House Judiciary Committee in the impeachment inquiry of President Richard Nixon.

1974 – House Judiciary Committee released evidence on the Watergate inquiry.

1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Afternoon Delight” by Starland Vocal Band, “Kiss and Say Goodbye” by Manhattans, “I’ll Be Good to You” by The Brothers Johnson and “The Door is Always Open” by Dave & Sugar all topped the charts.

1977 – Martin Luther King Jr. is posthumously awarded the Medal of Freedom. The Presidential Medal of Freedom is a decoration bestowed by the President of the United States and is, along with the equivalent Congressional Gold Medal bestowed by an act of Congress, the highest civilian award in the United States.

1979 – The abandoned space station Skylab reenters the Earths atmosphere. Skylab was the first space station the United States launched into orbit, and the second space station ever visited by a human crew. The crews of Skylab spent more than 700 hours observing the sun and brought home more than 175,000 solar pictures. They also provided important information about the biological effects of living in space for prolonged periods of time.

1979 – Neil Young’s concert film, “Rust Never Sleeps,” (38:28) debuted at the Bruin Theatre in Westwood, CA. The album of the same name was released simultaneously.

1980 –  American hostage Richard I. Queen, freed by Iran after eight months of captivity because of poor health, left Tehran for Switzerland. He passed away in 1995.

1981 – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes topped the charts.

1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “When Doves Cry” by Prince, “Jump (For My Love)” by Pointer Sisters, “Eyes Without a Face” by Billy Idol and “Somebody’s Needin’ Somebody” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.

1985 – Nolan Ryan becomes the first pitcher to record 4,000 strikeouts, throwing out Danny Heep in the 6th inning of Houston’s 4-3 win over the Mets.

1985 – Zippers for stitches were announced by Dr. H. Harlan Stone. The surgeon had used zippers on 28 patients, on whom he thought he might have to re-operate, because of internal bleeding following initial operations.

1986 – President Bill Clinton establishes full diplomatic relations with Vietnam, citing Vietnamese cooperation in accounting for the 2,238 Americans still listed as missing in the Vietnam War.

1987 – The “Alone,” by Heart went #1 for 3 weeks.

1987 – Bo Jackson signed a contract to play football for the L.A. Raiders for 5 years. He was also continued to play baseball for the Kansas City Royals.

1987 – According to the United Nations, the world population crosses the 5,000,000,000 (5 billion) mark. The world population is the total number of living humans on Earth at a given time. As of September 2008, the world’s population is estimated to be just over 6.725 billion. In summer of 2010, it is estimated at 6.852 billion.

1989 -President Ronald Reagan sportscasts the 60th All Star Game. Just after Bo Jackson and Wade Boggs opened the first inning for the American League with back-to-back homers over the center-field fence, former President Ronald Reagan sounded relaxed for the first time in his one-inning appearance. The American League won the defeating the National League 5-3 in Anaheim, Calif.

1991 – A solar eclipse cast a blanket of darkness stretching 9,000 miles from Hawaii to South America, lasting nearly seven minutes in some places.

1992 – Undeclared presidential hopeful Ross Perot, addressing the NAACP convention in Nashville, Tenn., startled and offended his listeners by referring to the predominantly black audience as “you people.”

1993 – In Des Moines, Iowa, severe flooding shut down a water system serving 250,000 residents.

1994 – Shawn Eckardt was sentenced in Portland, Ore., to 18 months in prison for his role in the attack on figure skater Nancy Kerrigan.

1995 – Full diplomatic relations are established between the United States and Vietnam.

1996 – An Air Force F-16 jet trying to make an emergency landing slammed into a house in Pensacola, Fla., setting the home on fire, killing a 4-year-old boy and badly burning his mother. The pilot ejected safely.

1998 – Air Force Lt. Michael Blassie, a casualty of the Vietnam War, was laid to rest near his Missouri home after the positive identification of his remains, which had been enshrined at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington, Va.

1999 –  A U.S. Air Force jet flew over the Antarctic and dropped off emergency medical supplies for Dr. Jerri Nelson after she had discovered a lump in her breast. Nelso was at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Research Center.

1999 – In London two Egyptian associates of Osama bin Laden were arrested. The fingerprints of Ibrahim Hussein Abdel Hadi Eidarous (42) and Adel Abdel-Meguid Abdel-Bary (39) were found on statements taking responsibility for the attacks against US embassies in Africa last August.

2000 – The American League defeated the National League 6-to-3 in the All-Star Game.

2000 – A Middle East summit hosted by President Clinton opened at Camp David between Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat.

2001 – The Democratic-led Senate voted to bar coal mining and oil and gas drilling on pristine federally protected land in the West, dealing a fresh blow to President Bush’s energy production plans.

2001 –  A wildfire in Washington state killed two male and two female firefighters in the Chewuch River Valley of the north Cascade Mountains.

2002 – Lawmakers balked at moving the Coast Guard and the Federal Emergency Management Agency into a new Homeland Security Department despite pleas from senior Cabinet officials to stick to President Bush’s blueprint. Both agencies did end up being included in the new department.

2003 – Spain, a leading U.S. ally during the war to oust Saddam Hussein, agreed to send 1,300 soldiers to Iraq.

2005 – Frances Langford (b.1913), singer and entertainer, died. The 1935 song “I’m in the Mood for Love” by Dorothy Fields and Jimmy McHugh was her signature piece.

2005 – Doctors in the Mayo Clinic says some drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease may cause addiction to gambling and sex.

2006 – The American League edged the National League 3-2 in the All-Star Game in Pittsburgh.

2006 –  In Chicago, a Blue Line train derailed and started a fire during the evening rush hour, filling a subway tunnel with smoke and forcing dozens of soot-covered commuters to evacuate.

2006 – U.S. broadcaster Bob Novak reveals his involvement in the Plame leak, stating “I learned Valerie Plame’s name from Joe Wilson’s entry in Who’s Who in America.”

2006 – A three ton concrete ceiling tile falls on a car in a tunnel in Boston, killing one female passenger and closing the tunnel. The Governor of Massachusetts, Mitt Romney, announces that the Massachusetts Government will be taking legal action to remove the Chairman of the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority, Matt Amorello.

2007 – Lady Bird Johnson (b.1912), widow of former US Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969), died in Austin, Texas.

2007 – South Dakota executes Elijah Page for murder, the first execution in the state in 60 years.

2008 – Wildfires force 10,000 Californians to evacuate their houses in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, with one man dying in Butte County after refusing to evacuate.

2008 – US banking regulators seized IndyMac Bancorp Inc., Pasadena-based mortgage lender, after withdrawals by panicked depositors led to the second-largest banking failure in US history.

2008 –  Apple released the iPhone 3G.

2008 –  Gregg Bergersen (51), a former US Defense Department analyst, was sentenced in Virginia to 57 months in prison for passing classified information about Taiwan to a Chinese government agent.

2008 – Dr. Michael DeBakey (b.1908), the world-famous cardiovascular surgeon, died. He pioneered such now-common procedures as bypass surgery and invented a host of devices to help heart patients.

2010 – Avid Radiopharmaceuticals presented a study that demonstrated a new brain scan to detect the brain plaques in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

2010 –  A total solar eclipse drew a 6,800-mile arc over the Pacific, plunging remote territories into darkness.

2011 –  In Maine an Amtrak train smashed into a tractor-trailer killing the truck driver and injuring several others. 200 feet of skid marks were left on the road to the tracks.

2011 –  Heavy thunderstorms with 75 mph winds, in  Chicago, Illinois, cut power and disrupted transport.

2011 –  Robinson Canó of the New York Yankees wins the 2011 Major League Baseball Home Run Derby.

2012 –  The House voted to repeal the 2010 healthcare law. It is unlikely the Senate will take up the bill. Members approved the bill in a 244-185 vote, after five hours of debate that stretched over two days.

2012 – A single mother of two was fatally shot by someone riding in a car she confronted about speeding through her neighborhood. Wendy Fisher, 40, ran across a Mobile, Ala., street to get her dog. A car was speeding through the neighborhood. She yelled them to slow down. The car stopped, and a man got out, and fired three shots. Fisher was struck in the chest and taken to University of South Alabama Medical Center, where she died shortly after.

2012 – US federal prosecutors said 42 people connected to the Outlaws motorcycle gang were arrested during raids in Indianapolis. They faced charges that included drug trafficking and extortion.

2013 – Eight people are injured (three seriously) in Lower Manhattan as a result of an explosion and partial collapse, of as-yet unknown cause, in a five-story building, in ChinatownNew York City, on Pike Street.





1274 – Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland (d. 1329)
1850 – Annie Armstrong, American missionary leader (d. 1938)
1754 – Thomas Bowdler, (d. 1825) was an English physician who published an expurgated edition of William Shakespeare’s work that he considered to be more appropriate for women and children than the original. He similarly edited Edward Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
1767 – John Quincy Adams, President of the United States (d. 1848)

1851 – Millie and Christine McCoy, (d. 1912)  Conjoined twins who went by the stage names “The Two-Headed Nightingale” and “The Eighth Wonder of the World”.
1892 – Thomas Mitchell, American film actor and screenwriter (d. 1962)
1897 – Bull Connor, American law enforcement official (d. 1973) As the Public Safety Commissioner of Birmingham, Alabama, in the 1960s, Connor became a symbol of bigotry. He infamously fought against integration by using fire hoses and police attack dogs against protest marchers. The spectacle of this being broadcast on national television served as one of the catalysts for major social and legal change in the South and helped in large measure to assure the passage by the United States Congress of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; thus Connor’s tactics dramatically backfired into helping to bring about the very change that he was opposing.
1910 – Irene Hervey, American actress (d. 1998)
1920 – Yul Brynner, Russian-born actor (d. 1985) perhaps best known for his portrayal of the Siamese king in the Rodgers & Hammerstein musical The King and I on the stage and on the screen, as well as Rameses II in the 1956 Cecil B. DeMille film The Ten Commandments and as Chris Adams in The Magnificent Seven.
1924 – Brett Somers, (d. 2007) was a Canadian-born American actress, singer, and comedienne. She was best known as a panelist on the 1970s game show, Match Game.
1931 – Tab Hunter, is an American actor and singer who appeared in more than 40 major feature films.
1934 – Giorgio Armani, is an Italian fashion designer, particularly noted for his menswear. He is known today for his clean, tailored lines. He formed his company, Armani, in 1974, and by 2001 was acclaimed as the most successful designer to come out of Italy, with an annual turnover of $1.691 billion, and a personal fortune of $5 billion.
1950 – Bonnie Pointer, American singer (Pointer Sisters)
1953 – Leon Spinks, American former boxer. He made history in only his eighth fight, on February 15, 1978, when he beat an aged and out-of-shape Muhammad Ali in a 15-round decision in Las Vegas.
1959 – Suzanne Vega, American singer
1967 – Jeff Corwin, American naturalist and TV personality
1971 – Leisha Hailey, American actress and musician (Uh Huh Her)
1983 – Evan Roberts, American radio broadcaster





Rank and organization: Sergeant (then Sp4c.), U.S. Army, Company B, 1st Battalion, 506th Infantry, 101st Airborne Division. Place and date: Thua Thien Province, Republic of Vietnam,  July 11th, 1969. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Born: 14 June 1950, Middletown, Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Roberts distinguished himself while serving as a rifleman in Company B, during combat operations. Sgt. Roberts’ platoon was maneuvering along a ridge to attack heavily fortified enemy bunker positions which had pinned down an adjoining friendly company. As the platoon approached the enemy positions, it was suddenly pinned down by heavy automatic weapons and grenade fire from camouflaged enemy fortifications atop the overlooking hill. Seeing his platoon immobilized and in danger of failing in its mission, Sgt. Roberts crawled rapidly toward the closest enemy bunker. With complete disregard for his safety, he leaped to his feet and charged the bunker, firing as he ran. Despite the intense enemy fire directed at him, Sgt. Roberts silenced the two-man bunker. Without hesitation, Sgt. Roberts continued his one-man assault on a second bunker. As he neared the second bunker, a burst of enemy fire knocked his rifle from his hands. Sgt. Roberts picked up a rifle dropped by a comrade and continued his assault, silencing the bunker. He continued his charge against a third bunker and destroyed it with well-thrown hand grenades. Although Sgt. Roberts was now cut off from his platoon, he continued his assault against a fourth enemy emplacement. He fought through a heavy hail of fire to join elements of the adjoining company which had been pinned down by the enemy fire. Although continually exposed to hostile fire, he assisted in moving wounded personnel from exposed positions on the hilltop to an evacuation area before returning to his unit. By his gallant and selfless actions, Sgt. Roberts contributed directly to saving the lives of his comrades and served as an inspiration to his fellow soldiers in the defeat of the enemy force. Sgt. Roberts’ extraordinary heroism in action at the risk of his life were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.




Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 15th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Favoratta, Sicily,  July 11th, 1943. Entered service at: Toledo, Ohio. Birth: Scotland. G.O. No.: 41, 26 May 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life, above and beyond the call of duty, on 11 July 1943 at Favoratta, Sicily. 2d Lt. Craig voluntarily undertook the perilous task of locating and destroying a hidden enemy machinegun which had halted the advance of his company. Attempts by three other officers to locate the weapon had resulted in failure, with each officer receiving wounds. 2d Lt. Craig located the gun and snaked his way to a point within 35 yards of the hostile position before being discovered. Charging headlong into the furious automatic fire, he reached the gun, stood over it, and killed the three crew members with his carbine. With this obstacle removed, his company continued its advance. Shortly thereafter while advancing down the forward slope of a ridge, 2d Lt. Craig and his platoon, in a position devoid of cover and concealment, encountered the fire of approximately 100 enemy soldiers. Electing to sacrifice himself so that his platoon might carry on the battle, he ordered his men to withdraw to the cover of the crest while he drew the enemy fire to himself. With no hope of survival, he charged toward the enemy until he was within 25 yards of them. Assuming a kneeling position, he killed five and wounded three enemy soldiers. While the hostile force concentrated fire on him, his platoon reached the cover of the crest. 2d Lt. Craig was killed by enemy fire, but his intrepid action so inspired his men that they drove the enemy from the area, inflicting heavy casualties on the hostile force.




Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U S. Army, 32d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Anamo, New Guinea,  July 11th, 1944. Entered service at: Janesville, Wis. Birth: Ft. Atkinson, Wis. G.O. No.: 17, 13 March 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty near Anamo, New Guinea, on 11 July 1944. S/Sgt. Endl was at the head of the leading platoon of his company advancing along a jungle trail when enemy troops were encountered and a fire fight developed. The enemy attacked in force under heavy rifle, machinegun, and grenade fire. His platoon leader wounded, S/Sgt. Endl immediately assumed command and deployed his platoon on a firing line at the fork in the trail toward which the enemy attack was directed. The dense jungle terrain greatly restricted vision and movement, and he endeavored to penetrate down the trail toward an open clearing of Kunai grass. As he advanced, he detected the enemy, supported by at least six light and two heavy machineguns, attempting an enveloping movement around both flanks. His commanding officer sent a second platoon to move up on the left flank of the position, but the enemy closed in rapidly, placing our force in imminent danger of being isolated and annihilated. Twelve members of his platoon were wounded, seven being cut off by the enemy. Realizing that if his platoon were forced farther back, these seven men would be hopelessly trapped and at the mercy of a vicious enemy, he resolved to advance at all cost, knowing it meant almost certain death, in an effort to rescue his comrades. In the face of extremely heavy fire he went forward alone and for a period of approximately ten minutes engaged the enemy in a heroic close-range fight, holding them off while his men crawled forward under cover to evacuate the wounded and to withdraw. Courageously refusing to abandon four more wounded men who were Iying along the trail, one by one he brought them back to safety. As he was carrying the last man in his arms he was struck by a heavy burst of automatic fire and was killed. By his persistent and daring self-sacrifice and on behalf of his comrades, S/Sgt. Endl made possible the successful evacuation of all but one man, and enabled the two platoons to withdraw with their wounded and to reorganize with the rest of the company.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Fort Selden, N. Mex., July 8th – July 11th, 1873. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 12 August 1875. Citation: Services against hostile Indians.



Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 4th U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At Clearwater, Idaho,  July 11th, 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 2 March 1897. Citation: Voluntarily and successfully conducted, in the face of a withering fire, a party which recovered possession of an abandoned howitzer and two Gatling guns Iying between the lines a few yards from the Indians.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Fort Selden, N. Mex., July 8th – July 11th, 1873. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Warren County, Pa. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Services against hostile Indians.



Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company C, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Fort Selden, N. Mex., July 8th – July 11th, 1873. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 12 August 1875. Citation: Services against hostile Indians.



Rank and organization: Blacksmith, Company C, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Fort Selden, N. Mex., July 8th – July 11th, 1873. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Camden County, N.J. Date of issue: 12 August 1875. Citation: Services against hostile Indians.



Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Fort Selden, N. Mex., July 8th – July 11th, 1873. Entered service at. Pennsylvania. Birth: Gracon, Pa. Date of issue: 12 August 1875. Citation: Services against hostile Indians.



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Unerased History – July 10th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 10, 2016 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Don’t Step On A Bee Day





The Great Pacific Garbage Patch


Note the boat with the man in it, in the picture

A little-known island continent of floating toxic plastic garbage, TWICE the size of Texas and almost the size of Alaska (663,267 square miles), is growing. Officially known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. This enormous stew of trash apparently has been growing tenfold each decade since the 1950’s, and now consists of 80% plastic and weighs some 3.5 million tons. Oceanographers say that it floats where few people ever travel, in a no-man’s land between San Francisco and Hawaii. In t­he broad expanse of the northern Pacific Ocean. There exists the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, a slowly moving, clockwise spiral of currents created by a high-pressure system of air currents.

The area is an oceanic desert, filled with tiny phytoplankton but not many big fish or mammals. Its lack of large fish and gentle breezes give way to fishermen and­ s­ailors rarely traveling through the gyre. But the area is filled with something besides plankton: trash, millions of pounds of it, most of it plastic. It’s the largest landfill in the world, and it floats in the middle of the ocean. There is another one that has formed east of Japan and west of Hawaii. Each swirling mass of refuse is massive and collects trash from all over the world. The patches are connected by a thin 6,000-mile long current called the Subtropical Convergence Zone. Research flights showed that significant amounts of trash also accumulate in the Convergence Zone.

The biggest part of the problem is plastic. In the 1950’s and 1960’s most of the flotsam was biodegradable. Since the late ‘60’s the plastic bottle has become ubiquitous and as a result the flotsam in these mini-continents is 90% plastic. In 2006 the UN estimated that there were 46,000 pieces of floating plastic per square mile. Seventy percent  of this plastic sinks to the ocean floor. The remainder floats, usually within fifteen feet  of the surface, and is carried into stable circular currents similar to a sink drain as water goes out. Once inside these currents, the plastic is drawn by wind and surface currents towards the center, where it steadily accumulates. The world’s major oceans now all have these areas, and all are gathering trash. The North Pacific – bordering California, Japan and China is the biggest. There are also increasingly prominent circular currents in the South Pacific, the North and South Atlantic and the Indian Oceans. Our problems with plastics are only just beginning.

As you look at the map and then consider the debris from the Japanese earthquake hitting our west coast, you can now see how it is getting here. It took a year and a half for that to get here but some of the lighter debris will ultimately end of in this floating garbage heap.



Scripture of the Day

John 3: 31 – 36 . .

31 He who comes from above is above all. He who is of the earth belongs to the earth and speaks in an earthly way. He who comes from heaven is above all. 32 He bears witness to what he has seen and heard, yet no one receives his testimony. 33 Whoever receives his testimony sets his seal to this, that God is true. 34 For he whom God has sent utters the words of God, for he gives the Spirit without measure. 35 The Father loves the Son and has given all things into his hand. 36 Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; whoever does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.


Founders Thoughts

Patrick Henry“Is the relinquishment of the trial by jury and the liberty of the press necessary for your liberty? Will the abandonment of your most sacred rights tend to the security of your liberty? Liberty, the greatest of all earthly blessings — give us that precious jewel, and you may take every things else! Guard with jealous attention the public liberty. Suspect every one who approaches that jewel.

Patrick Henry, speech in the Virginia Convention, June 5, 1788



If you have a talent, use it in every way possible. Don’t hoard it.  Don’t dole it out like a miser. Spend it lavishly like a millionaire intent on going broke.”

 ~ Brendan Francis

execrable EK-sih-kruh-buhl, adjective:

1. Deserving to be execrated; detestable; abominable.
2. Extremely bad; of very poor quality; very inferior.

48 BC – Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia.

988 – The city of Dublin is founded on the banks of the river Liffey.

1212 – The most severe of several early fires of London burns most of the city to the ground.

1679 – The British crown claimed New Hampshire as a royal colony.

1706 – In Virginia Grace Sherwood (d.1740), aka the “Witch of Pungo”, was forced to undergo a trial by water under accusations of being a witch. She floated, a sign of guilt, and was imprisoned for nearly eight years.

1775 – General Horatio Gates, issued an order excluding blacks from Continental Army.

1778 – Revolutionary War: Louis XVI of France declares war on the Kingdom of Great Britain.

1796 – Carl Friedrich Gauss discovers that every positive integer is representable as a sum of at most three triangular numbers.

1820 – The Revenue cutter Gallatin captured nineteen men illegally recruited for the Columbian privateer Wilson and chased that vessel and her Spanish prize, Santiago, to sea from the harbor at Charleston, South Carolina.

1820 – Captain Jairus of the US Revenue Cutter Louisiana captured four pirate ships off Belize.

1821 – The United States takes possession of its newly-bought territory of Florida from Spain.

1832 – President Andrew Jackson vetoes a bill that would re-charter the Second Bank of the United States.

1850 – Millard Fillmore is inaugurated as the 13th President of the United States upon the death of President Zachary Taylor, 16 months into his term.

1861 – Civil War: The new Confederate States of America and the Creek Indians conclude a treaty, one of several such alliances made during the war.

1863 – Civil War: Union troops land on Morris Island near Charleston, South Carolina, and prepare for a siege on Battery Wagner, a massive sand fortress on the island.

1863 – Civil War: In the Battle of Jackson, MS, federals captured Jackson with 1000 casualties against 1339 casualties for the Confederates.

1864 – Civil War: During the siege of Petersburg, General Ulysses S. Grant established a huge supply center, called City Point, at the confluence of the James and Appomattox rivers.

1866 – Indelible pencil patented by Edson P Clark, Northampton, Mass.

1890 – Wyoming is admitted as the 44th state.

1892 – First concrete-paved street built (Bellefontaine, Ohio).

1898 – The First Marine Battalion, commanded by LtCol Robert W. Huntington, landed on the eastern side of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. The next day, Lt Herbert L. Draper hoisted the American flag on a flag pole at Camp McCalla where it flew during the next eleven days.

1900 – ‘His Master’s Voice’, was registered with the U.S. Patent Office. The logo of the Victor Recording Company, and later, RCA Victor, shows the dog, Nipper, looking into the horn of a gramophone machine.

1908 – William Jennings Bryan was nominated for president by the Democratic National Convention in Denver.

1910 – W.R. Brookins became the first to fly an airplane at an altitude of 5300′.

1911 – State record high temperature of 105° in N. Bridgton, Maine

1913 – Death Valley, CA hits 134 °F (~56.7 °C), which is the highest temperature 
recorded in the United States. It is also the official highest temperature in the Western Hemisphere. The highest temperature recorded anywhere was 136.0F in Aziziya, Libya on 9/13/1922.

1919 – The Treaty of Versailles was hand delivered to the U.S. Senate by President Wilson.

1919 – A submarine chaser was turned over to the Marine Corps with the first all-Marine crew.

1920 – “Man o’ War” defeated “John P. Grier” in the Dwyer in a world-record time.

1925 – In Dayton, Tennessee, the Scopes “Monkey Trial,” started. It was the result of a conspiracy hatched at Robinson’s Drug Store in Dayton, Tenn. John Scopes, a young high-school teacher, was to become the test case on the legality of Tennessee’s anti-evolution law. An aging William Jennings Bryan, Nebraska fundamentalist and politician, was the prosecutor and Clarence Darrow was Scopes’ defense attorney.He was accused of teaching evolution in violation of the Butler Act.

1928 –  George Eastman first demonstrated color motion pictures.

1929 – In a game between the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Philadelphia Phillies nine HRs were hit, one in each inning.

1929 – US issues newer, smaller-sized paper currency. The new notes were about 25% smaller than previous issues.

1933 – First police radio system began operations at Eastchester Township, NY.

1934 –  Carl Hubbell stars in the 1934 All-Star game. Hubbell threw three strikeouts in the first inning at New York’s Polo Grounds.He faced the American League’s best power hitters: Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig and Jimmy Fox. In the second inning, Hubbell remained strong, fanning Al Simmons, Joe Cronin and Lefty Gomez.

1936 – It was a very hot summer. Numerous records were hit today:
1936 State record high temperature of 112° in Martinsburg, WV
1936 State record high temperature of 111° in Phoenixville, PA
1936 State record high temperature of 110° in Runyon, NJ
1936 State record high temperature of 109° in Cumberland and Frederick, MD

1936 – Phillies Chuck Klein becomes the fourth to hit four home runs in a single game.

1936 – Billie Holiday recorded “Billie’s Blues“.

1938 – Howard Hughes and the “Yankee Clipper” began the first passenger flight around the world flight from New York City.

1940 – World War II: Europe: Vichy France government is established.

1940 – World War II: Europe: Battle of Britain – The German Luftwaffe begin to hit British convoys in the English Channel thus starting the battle (this start date is contested, though). This battle would last 114 days.

1941 – World War II: Europe:Holocaust: Jedwabne Pogrom is a massacre of at least 340 Polish Jews of all ages. They were Jewish people living in and near the village of Jedwabne in Poland.

1942 – World War II: Himmler ordered the sterilization of all Jewish woman in Ravensbruck Camp.

1942 – World War II: An American pilot spots a downed, intact Mitsubishi A6M Zero on Akutan Island (the “Akutan Zero”) that the US Navy uses to learn the aircraft’s flight characteristics.

1943 – World War II: The launching of Operation Husky begins the Italian Campaign.

1943 – World War II: The American attack on New Georgia is held by the Japanese. American troops are having difficulty receiving supplies.

1944 – “The Man Called X”  starring Herbert Marshall, debuted on CBS radio. It was an espionage radio drama which aired on CBS and NBC from today until May 20, 1952.

1945 – World War II: The German submarine U-530, missing since the end of April, surfaces at Mar del Plata, south of Buenos Aires, sparking off speculation that it ferried high-ranking Nazi officials to sanctuary in South America.

1945 – World War II: US Task Force 38 aircraft, 1022 in all, raid 70 air bases in the Tokyo area, destroying 173 Japanese planes.

1949 – The first practical rectangular television picture tube was presented and sold for $12.00.

1950 – “Your Hit Parade” premiers on NBC (later CBS) TV.

1950 – Korean War: The first engagement between U.S. and North Korean tanks occurred near Chonui. One enemy T-34 was destroyed while two outclassed U.S. M-24 Chafee light tanks were lost.

1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Too Young” by Nat King Cole,“Mister and Mississippiby Patti Page,“On Top of Old Smokey” by The Weavers (vocal: Terry Gilkyson) and “I Want to Be with You Always” by Lefty Frizzell all topped the charts.

1951 – Korean War: At Kaesong, armistice negotiations begin.

1951 –  In San Francisco Dashiell Hammett, mystery writer, was sentenced to six months in prison for refusing to tell where the Communist party got its bail money. Hammett was a Pinkerton detective for eight years and served in the Ambulance Corps in World War I before he began his writing career.

1951 – Sugar Ray Robinson was defeated for only the second time in 133 fights as Randy Turpin took the middleweight crown.

1953 – Korean War: American forces withdraw from Pork Chop Hill in Korea after heavy fighting.

1953 –  In San Francisco, the Chronicle newspaper began calling itself “The Voice of the West” on its editorial pages.

1954 –  “Little Things Mean a Lot” by Kitty Kallen topped the charts.

1954 – President Eisenhower signed Public Law 480, the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, which later became known as the “Food for Peace” program.

1958 – Alaska, highest tsunami wave ever recorded at Lituya Bay, at 1720 high.

1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka  Complete with 1950’s teens  (24:48), “Dream Lover” by Bobby Darin, “Bobby Sox to Stockings” by Frankie Avalon and “The Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton all topped the charts.

1961 – “Tossin’ and Turnin‘” by Bobby Lewis topped the charts.

1962 – First transatlantic satellite television transmission. The 171-pound (77-kilogram) Telstar, which was 34 inches in diameter, was launched into orbit from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

1962 – Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested during a demonstration in Georgia.

1964 – The Four Tops released “Baby I Need Your Loving” on the Motown label. Three years later Johnny Rivers also recorded a hit version.

1965 – Beatles’ “Beatles’ “VI,” album goes #1 & stays #1 for 6 weeks .

1965 – Rolling Stones score their first #1, “I Can’t Get No Satisfaction.”

1965 – Wilson Pickett’s “In The Midnight Hour” was released.

1965 – Vietnam War: U.S. planes continue heavy raids in South Vietnam and claim to have killed 580 guerrillas.

1966 – The Chicago Freedom Movement, led by Martin Luther King, Jr., holds a rally at Soldier Field in Chicago, Illinois. As many as 60,000 people came to hear Dr. King as well as Mahalia Jackson, Stevie Wonder, and Peter Paul and Mary.

1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Windy” by The Association, “Little Bit o’ Soul” by The Music Explosion, “Can’t Take My Eyes Off You” by Frankie Valli, “All the Time” by Jack Greene all topped the charts.

1967 – Bobbie Gentry recorded “Ode to Billie Joe.”

1967 – Vietnam War: Outnumbered South Vietnamese troops repel an attack by two battalions of the 141st North Vietnamese Regiment on a military camp five miles east of An Loc, 60 miles north of Saigon.Twenty-six Americans were killed and forty-nine were wounded. In the second area clash, thirty-five soldiers of the U.S. 4th Infantry Division were killed and thirty-one were wounded in fighting.

1969 –  National League votes to split into two divisions.

1971 –  “It’s Too Late” by Carole King topped the charts.

1971 – Three Dog Night’s “Liar” was released.

1973 –  John Paul Getty III, grandson of oil magnate J. Paul Getty, is kidnapped in Rome, Italy.

1974 –  The World Football League played its first games. It only played until mis-season in 1975.The farthest the WFL reached was placing a team – the Hawaiians – in Honolulu, Hawaii.

1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Will Keep Us Together” by The Captain & Tennille,The Hustle” by Van McCoy & The Soul City Symphony, “Listen to What the Man Said” by Wings, “Lizzie and the Rainman” by Tanya Tucker all topped the charts.

1975 – The “Gladys Knight & the Pips” summer series premiered on NBC-TV.

1976 –  “Afternoon Delight” by the Starland Vocal Band topped the charts.

1978 – ABC-TV premiered “World News Tonight” with anchors Frank Reynolds, Peter Jennings and Max Robinson.

1980 –  “True West” by Sam Shepard premiered in SF and became a stage hit. It was a comic drama of fraternal rivalry and family angst.

1980 – Walt Disney’s “The Fox & The Hound” is released.

1982 – “Don’t You Want Me” by The Human League topped the charts.

1982 – Miguel Vasquez makes the first public quadruple backward somersault on a trapeze. He did it in Tucson, AZ and was caught by his brother Juan.

1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Every Breath You Take” by The Police, “Never Gonna Let You Go” by Sergio Mendez, “Too Shy” by Kajagoogoo and “Highway 40 Blues” by Ricky Skaggs all topped the charts.

1984 – Dwight ‘Doc’ Gooden of the Mets became the youngest pitcher to appear in an All-Star game. He was 19 years, 7 months, and 24 days old.

1985 – Coca-Cola Co announces it will resume selling old formula Coke. It was returned just eighty-seven days after the new Coke was introduced.

1988 -Lester Garnier (30), an off-duty San Francisco vice cop, was shot and killed in a Walnut Creek, Ca., parking lot. His murder remained unsolved and a new investigation was begun in 1998.

1989 – Mel Blanc, the “man of a thousand voices,” died at age 81. He was known for such cartoon characters as Daffy Duck, Bugs Bunny and Porky Pig.

1990 – The American League shut out the National League, 2-to-0, in the 61st All-Star game.

1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rush, Rush” by Paula Abdul, “Unbelievable” by EMF, Right Here, Right Now” by Jesus Jones and “Don’t Rock the Jukebox” by Alan Jackson all topped the charts.

1992 – In Miami, Florida, former Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega is sentenced to 40 years in prison for drug and racketeering violations.

1992 – A New York jury found Pan Am responsible for allowing a terrorist bomb to destroy Flight 103 in 1988, killing 270 people.

1993 – “Weak” by SWV topped the charts.

1995 –  President Clinton embraced mandatory ratings for TV programs and legislation to put parental-control chips in new sets.

1995 – The defense opened its case at the O.J. Simpson murder trial in Los Angeles.

1997 – Scientists in London said DNA from a Neanderthal skeleton supported a theory that all humanity descended from an “African Eve” 100,000 to 200,000 years ago.

1997 –  RJR Nabisco Holdings said it would phase out the Joe Camel cartoon character used for advertising their cigarettes.

1998 – Roman Catholic sex abuse cases: The Diocese of Dallas agrees to pay $23.4 million to nine former altar boys who claimed they were sexually abused by former priest Rudolph Kos.

1998 – The U.S. military delivered the remains of Air Force 1st Lt. Michael Blassie to his family in St. Louis. He had been placed in Arlington Cemetery’s Tomb of the Unknown in 1984. His identity had been confirmed with DNA tests.

1999 – The United States women’s national soccer team team wins the FIFA Women’s World Cup in Pasadena, California at The Rose Bowl.

2000 –  Texas Governor George W. Bush, facing a skeptical audience, told the NAACP convention in Baltimore that “the party of Lincoln has not always carried the mantle of Lincoln,” and promised to work to improve relations.

2001 –  In Seattle the American League beat the National League 4:1 in the annual All-Star game at Safeco Field.

2001 – The White House backed off a plan to let religious groups that receive federal money, such as the Salvation Army, ignore local laws that ban discrimination against gays and lesbians.

2001 – George Tenet, director of the CIA, allegedly met with Condoleeza Rice and warned her of an imminent al-Qaida attack. News of the meeting was only made public in 2006.

2001 – Kenneth Williams, an FBI agent in Phoenix, Arizona, issued a memorandum that requested detailed examination of US flight schools for al Qaeda terrorists. Mid-level officials rejected the request. Just 62 days later we experienced 9/11.

2001 – In North Carolina three Marines were killed in a helicopter crash near Camp Lejeune, NC.

2002 – The House approved, 310-113, a measure to allow pilots to carry guns in the cockpit to defend their planes against terrorists. President George W. Bush later signed the measure into law.

2003 – NASA reports the discovery of PSR B1620-26 b (unofficially dubbed Methuselah), the oldest extrasolar planet yet discovered. The planet, which is estimated to be 12.7 billion years old, is orbiting the pulsar PSR B1620-26 in the core of the ancient globular star cluster M4, located 5,600 light-years away in the summer constellation Scorpius.

2004 – NASCAR driver Justin Labonte, who was sponsored by the Coast Guard and the Coast Guard Recruiting Command, won his first Busch Series victory in his stock car Coast Guard #44 at the Tropicana 300 in Joliet, Illinois.

2004 – Four U.S. Marines were killed in a vehicle accident while conducting security operations in Anbar, an area of western Iraq.

2005 – Hurricane Dennis it hurtled into northwest Florida at Santa Rosa Island, between Pensacola, Florida, and Navarre Beach, Florida and Alabama with 120-mph winds at 2:25 p.m. CDT causing 4 billion dollars in damage.

2006 – Chief Judge Thomas F. Hogan rules that a FBI investigation raid on the Capitol Hill office of Representative William J. Jefferson was legal.

2006 –  Colorado Gov. Bill Owens cut a deal with Democratic leaders on a package of bills to deny some state services to illegal immigrants and to punish employers who hire them.

2006 –  Falling concrete slabs crushed a car inside one of Boston’s troubled Big Dig tunnels, killing Milena Delvalle (38) and tying up traffic with another shutdown in the massive building project that has become a central route through the city.

2007 –  In Baseball’s All-Star game the American League beat the National League 5-4  at AT&T Park in San Francisco.

2007 –  In Florida a small plane trying to make an emergency landing crashed into a suburban Orlando neighborhood, killing both people aboard and starting two house fires that seriously burned two adults and a ten-year-old boy.

2008 –  The American Medical Association issued a formal apology for more than a century of discriminatory policies that excluded blacks from participating in a group long considered the voice of US doctors.

2008 – The US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice warns Iran that it should have no doubt that the United States will defend its allies including Israel.

2009 –  General Motors emerged from bankruptcy protection. CEO Fritz Henderson said the new GM will be far faster and more responsive to customers than the old one, and it will make money and repay government loans faster than required.

2009 – Police in Illinois closed a black cemetery in Alsip and declared it a crime scene after former employees were accused of dumping hundreds of unearthed corpses in a scheme to resell their plots.

2010 – In the Gulf of Mexico hundreds of thousands of gallons of oil were allowed to spew into the fouled waters while BP engineers prepared to install a new, larger cap as part of the containment system.

2012 – The rotor blades of a helicopter struck a California Highway Patrol officer, severely wounding him as he worked to rescue an injured hiker stranded in rugged, remote terrain. In an unlikely twist, the Highway Patrol on Monday credited the hiker, a military doctor who suffered a broken leg in a fall, with helping to save Officer Tony Stanley’s life.

2013 – The US Navy successfully conducted take-offs and landings from the nuclear aircraft carrier, the USS George W. Bush, with a new stealth jet called the X-47B.



1509 – John Calvin, French religious reformer (d. 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology.
1723 – William Blackstone, (d. 1780) was an English jurist and professor who produced the historical and analytic treatise on the common law called Commentaries on the Laws of England, first published in four volumes over 1765–1769. It had an extraordinary success, reportedly bringing the author £14,000, and still remains an important source on classical views of the common law and its principles.
1792 – George Mifflin Dallas, U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania and the 11th Vice President of the United States serving under James K. Polk. (d. 1864)
1832 – Alvan Graham Clark, American telescope maker and astronomer (d. 1897) 1839 – Adolphus Busch, German-born brewer (d. 1913) was the co-founder of Anheuser-Busch with his father-in-law, Eberhard Anheuser. His great-great-grandson, August Busch IV is now president and CEO of Anheuser-Busch.
1856 – Nikola Tesla, (d. 1943) was an inventor, physicist, mechanical and electrical engineer. Tesla’s patents and theoretical work formed the basis of modernalternating current electric power (AC) systems, including the AC motor, with which he helped usher in the Second Industrial Revolution.
1900 – Mitchell Parish, American lyricist (d. 1993) His best known works include the songs “Star Dust,” “Sweet Lorraine,” “Deep Purple,” “Stars Fell on Alabama,” “Sophisticated Lady,” “Volare” (English lyrics), “Moonlight Serenade,” “Sleigh Ride,” “One Morning in May,” and “Louisiana Fairy Tale”, which was the first theme song used in the PBS Production of This Old House.
1920 – David Brinkley, (d. 2003) was a popular American television newscaster for NBC and later ABC in an unprecedented broadcast career from 1956-1997.

1921 – Harvey Ball, American inventor (d. 2001) is the earliest known designer of the Smiley.
1921 – Jake LaMotta, American boxer nicknamed “The Bronx Bull” and “The Raging Bull”, is a former boxing middleweight champion who was portrayed by Robert De Niro in the film Raging Bull.
1921 – Eunice Kennedy Shriver, American activist is a member of the Kennedy family and helped to found the Special Olympics as a national event.
1923 – John Bradley, United States Navy corpsman, one of six who raised flag on top of Mt. Suribachi (Iwo Jima) (d. 1994) .
1947 – Arlo Guthrie, American musician. Arlo Guthrie’s most famous work is “Alice’s Restaurant Massacree”, a talking blues song that lasts for 18 minutes. For the words go to http://www.arlo.net/resources/lyrics/alices.shtml



Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company A, 13th Engineer Combat Battalion, 7th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Sokkogae, Korea, July 8th to July 10th, 1953. Entered service at: Boise, Idaho. Born: 8 October 1933, Boise, Idaho. G.O. No.: 5, 14 January 1955. Citation: Cpl. Schoonover, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. He was in charge of an engineer demolition squad attached to an infantry company which was committed to dislodge the enemy from a vital hill. Realizing that the heavy fighting and intense enemy fire made it impossible to carry out his mission, he voluntarily employed his unit as a rifle squad and, forging up the steep barren slope, participated in the assault on hostile positions. When an artillery round exploded on the roof of an enemy bunker, he courageously ran forward and leaped into the position, killing one hostile infantryman and taking another prisoner. Later in the action, when friendly forces were pinned down by vicious fire from another enemy bunker, he dashed through the hail of fire, hurled grenades in the nearest aperture, then ran to the doorway and emptied his pistol, killing the remainder of the enemy. His brave action neutralized the position and enabled friendly troops to continue their advance to the crest of the hill. When the enemy counterattacked he constantly exposed himself to the heavy bombardment to direct the fire of his men and to call in an effective artillery barrage on hostile forces. Although the company was relieved early the following morning, he voluntarily remained in the area, manned a machine gun for several hours, and subsequently joined another assault on enemy emplacements. When last seen he was operating an automatic rifle with devastating effect until mortally wounded by artillery fire. Cpl. Schoonover’s heroic leadership during two days of heavy fighting, superb personal bravery, and willing self-sacrifice inspired his comrades and saved many lives, reflecting lasting glory upon himself and upholding the honored traditions of the military service.



 Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve. Born: 26 May 1920, Omaha, Nebr. Accredited to: Nebraska. Citation: For valor and courage above and beyond the call of duty as Officer-in-Charge of Small Boats in the U.S.S. LST 375 during the amphibious assault on the island of Sicily, July 9th -July 10th, 1943. Realizing that a detonation of explosives would prematurely disclose to the enemy the assault about to be carried out, and with full knowledge of the peril involved, Ens. Parle unhesitatingly risked his life to extinguish a smoke pot accidentally ignited in a boat carrying charges of high explosives, detonating fuses and ammunition. Undaunted by fire and blinding smoke, he entered the craft, quickly snuffed out a burning fuse, and after failing in his desperate efforts to extinguish the fire pot, finally seized it with both hands and threw it over the side. Although he succumbed a week later from smoke and fumes inhaled, Ens. Parle’s heroic self-sacrifice prevented grave damage to the ship and personnel and insured the security of a vital mission. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.



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Unerased History – July 9th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 9, 2016 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Air-Conditioning Appreciation Days



Gibbs Rules

NCIS: Naval Criminal Investigative Service, is an American police procedural drama television series revolving around a fictional team of special agents from the Naval Criminal Investigative Service, which conducts criminal investigations involving the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps. The major characters are Leroy Jethro Gibbs, Anthony DiNozzo, Ziva David, Abigail “Abby” Sciuto, Timothy McGee, Leon Vance, Donald “Ducky” Mallard,  Jimmy Palmer and  Tobias Fornell .

At the beginning of her tenure with NCIS, Gibbs informed Ziva David that there were approximately fifty rules that were his job to teach her.  Some years later, Gibbs added the fifty-first rule to the tin he kept the rules in. According to Tony Dinozzo, seven of the rules directly concern lawyers, and that the eighth rule was inspired by a lawyer.  Rule forty and above are not rules necessary for everyday life, they are for emergencies. Note: Look below at Duplication for info about rules # 1-3

The rules
Note: This is quoted by McGee in “Need To Know” to be Gibbs’ Number One, but the other Rule One is quoted in other episodes to be his.

Rule #1: Never let suspects stay together.
Rule #1: Never screw over your partner.
Rule #2: Always wear gloves at a crime scene.

Rule #3: Don’t believe what you’re told. Double check.
Rule #3: Never be unreachable. (*Most likely one of Mike Franks’ “Golden Rules” as opposed to Gibbs, because Gibbs has been known to intentionally be unreachable.*) This was a rule quoted by Tony regarding Ziva or Tim
Rule #4: The best way to keep a secret? Keep it to yourself. Second best? Tell one other person – if you must. There is no third best.
Rule #5: You don’t waste good.

Rule #6: Never say “You’re Sorry.” It’s a sign of weakness.
Rule #7: Always be specific when you lie.
Rule #8: Never take anything for granted.

Rule #9: Never go anywhere without a knife.

Sometimes listed as “Never leave home without a knife.”

Rule #10: Never get personally involved in a case.

Said by the SecNav to be Rule #1 in Washington politics, in Nature of the Beast, Season 9, Episode 1.

Rule #11: When the job is done, walk away.
Rule #12: Never date a co-worker.
Rule #13: Never, ever involve a lawyer.
Rule #14: Not mentioned yet!!

Rule #15: Always work as a team.
Rule #16: If someone thinks they have the upper hand, break it.
Rule #18: It’s better to seek forgiveness than ask permission.

Rule #22: Never, ever bother Gibbs in interrogation.

Rule #23: Never mess with a Marine’s coffee… if you want to live.

Rule #27: There are two ways to follow someone. First way, they never notice you. Second way, they only notice you.

Rule #35: Always watch the watchers.

Rule #36: If you feel like you are being played, you probably are.

Rule #38: Your case, your lead.

Rule #39: There is no such thing as coincidence.

Rule #40: If it seems someone is out to get you, they are.

Rule #42: Never accept an apology from someone who just sucker punched you.

Rule #44: First things first, hide the women and children.

Rule #45: Clean up the mess that you make.  Also stated as, “Never leave behind loose ends.”

Rule #51: Sometimes – you’re wrong.

Rule #69: Never trust a woman who doesn’t trust her man.

Unnumbered  Rules

In my country, on my team, working my cases, my people don’t bypass the chain of command.

The “Unspoken Rule” (Franks): You do what you have to do for family. (Season 8 Episode 1)

Don’t work the system when you can work the people.

Don’t stop checking and rechecking evidence until you are satisfied.

If you want to find something, you follow it. (Said by Gibbs to Mike Franks in “Deliverance,” Episode 6.15. Gibbs then added, “I learned that one from you, Mike.”)

Besides Rule 13, Gibbs has 6 other rules involving lawyers, but, according to DiNozzo, “You only need to know number 13; it’s the umbrella one.”

Abigail Borin, Gibbs’ counterpart at CGIS, also has a set of rules. The only one currently known is her Rule #1: Never Make Excuses (Ships in the Night).

Never second guess yourself in a relationship and life.

McGee has formed his own set of rules; #1 is Never Lie to Gibbs.
Finally, Jimmy (Ducky’s assistant) has one: “There is no such thing as a pipette that is too clean.” This is usually used when it is clear that he should not be a part of a conversation.



Although Gibbs has his list of rules to live by, he does not always adhere to them. One example is Rule #3. When Gibbs does not wish to be reached, he has been known to leave his cell phone behind. Except that many believe that to be one of Frank’s rules since there are two Rule #3’s.


The other being ‘Don’t believe what you’re told. Double check.’ .. Which sounds MORE like Gibbs.  Also, on the anniversary of his last marriage, he unplugged his home phone and dropped his cell phone in paint thinner after his ex-wife began harassing him with phone calls. Gibbs also admits that rule number 10 is the one that he has had the most “trouble with.”


Gibbs broke Rule #1 (Never let suspects stay together) on “Ships in the Night” (Season 8) in order to get a confession. He put the suspects together. This also occurred in “Caught on Tape”, but the suspects turned out to be innocent. Additionally, Gibbs broke the rule in “A Man Walks into a Bar… “, but the suspects were only guilty of covering up suicide, not murder.

Gibbs broke rule #13 (Never involve a lawyer) in “Mother’s Day”. Gibbs ex-mother in law becomes a suspect in a murder of a Navy officer. Gibbs contacted Allison Hart, a lawyer, to represent her.

Gibbs also broke Rule #12 with former NCIS Director and partner in Europe, Jenny Shepard. Jenny was Gibbs’ “probie” in their Europe missions and became romantically involved, which was ended by Jenny so she could lead her own team in Madrid. Although, since the relationship ended badly, some people suspect that this rule was created because of this relationship.

Another exception that Gibbs sometimes makes concerns Rule #6. Though Gibbs constantly tells people around him never apologize, that it is a sign of weakness, he himself has apologized on five occasions: In “Smoked” Gibbs tells Dr. Mallard that rule 6 doesn’t apply to friends.

1. To Kate Todd for being late to her funeral. (“Kill Ari Part 2”)

2. To Ducky following his return from Mexico.

3. To Joann Fielding for not being able to protect Shannon and Kelly. (“Mother’s Day”)

4. To Abby for frightening her and not being able to tell her what she wants to hear.

5. To the victim’s lover for her loss, although he originally believes that she was being selfish (“A Man Walks Into A Bar…)

While not shown, in “Semper Fidelis” ICE Agent Julia Foster-Yates claims that Gibbs and Fornell apologized to her for accusing her of murdering a coworker. McGee is shocked at the idea that either of them would apologize.

Gibbs also almost never accepts an apology from someone, preferring to simply offer correction to whomever made an error in an attempt to teach a lesson. One exception to this aspect of the rule was when McGee apologized concerning the situation with his sister, Sarah (“Twisted Sister”). Gibbs has also accepted some apologies because they are covered by rule #18: “It’s better to seek forgiveness, than ask permission.”

Also an apology isn’t a sign of weakness if it’s between friends.

Although not strictly an exception, Gibbs DID add a sort of corollary to Rule 39 concerning coincidences. In Episode 3.15, “Head Case ,” when Tony says, “We don’t believe in coincidences around here,” Gibbs added, “However, we do believe in bad luck.”


Throughout the series, there have been two rules referenced as the first and third of Gibbs’ rules. For some time, it was believed that the duplications were either continuity errors or that the list of rules was meant to be malleable. Eventually, however, Executive Producer Shane Brennan revealed that the duplication was actually intentional:

“Gibbs lives his life by a set of rules that took root from the first day he met Shannon. Over time, Gibbs added to the rules. When he joined NCIS, Mike Franks told him he didn’t need dozens of different rules to be an agent… just three ‘golden rules.’ And this is why we have double ups on rules #1 and #3. Three of them are Gibbs’ rules; three of them are Mike Franks’ rules. We are still to reveal the double-up on rule #2. And it’s up to the fans to guess which of the rules were Mike Franks’ three golden rules and which were Gibbs’.”  In spite of this, however, Franks seems to know Gibbs’ rules as well as anyone, as evidenced in the episode “Patriot Down” when Gibbs passed the message “Rule #44” (First things first: hide the women and children) to him through Camilla.


The 40s

While most of the rules are for everyday use, Gibbs’ rules 40-49 are considered emergency rules, to be invoked only in the most dire of circumstances.  When Gibbs told Abby that rule 40 was in play, and Abby told Tony, he took it to mean that “something unspeakably bad is going down.”

 Scripture of the Day

Matthew 24:35  King James Version (KJV)

35 Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.


Founders Thoughts


“It is the duty of parents to maintain their children decently, and according to their circumstances; to protect them according to the dictates of prudence; and to educate them according to the suggestions of a judicious and zealous regard for their usefulness, their respectability and happiness.”

James Wilson, Lectures on Law, 1791


“No man needs sympathy because he has to work, because he has a burden to carry. Far and away the best prize that life offers is the chance to work hard at work worth doing.” 

~Theodore Roosevelt


corroborate kuh-ROB-uh-rayt, transitive verb:

To strengthen or make more certain with other evidence.

455 – Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed emperor of the Western Roman Empire.

1357 – Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor assists laying the foundation stone of Charles Bridge in Prague. This bridge is still in use today.

1755 – French and Indian War: Braddock Expedition – British troops and colonial militiamen are ambushed and suffer a devastating defeat by French and Native American forces. General Braddock was killed.

1776 – The Declaration of Independence was read aloud to George Washington and his troops in New York City. The crowd gathering there became so excited upon hearing the Declaration that a statue of King George was torn from its pedestal, broken up, sent to Connecticut and melted into 42,000 patriot bullets.

1776 – New York was the 13th colony to ratify the Declaration of Independence.

1795 – James Swan paid off the $2,024,899 US national debt. Colonel Swan had been one of the original Tea Partiers  (the early version, the ones who dressed as Indians and got on the boats),  a veteran of Bunker Hill and other life threatening engagements during the revolution, a firm revolutionary from the beginning. 

At age nineteen,  he became a Son of Liberty.  He was also a Freemason and a member of the Scots Charitable Society. He fought on Bunker hill and was made a captain of artillery.

1808 – The leather-splitting machine was patented by Samuel Parker of Billerica, MA.

1815 – The first US natural gas well was discovered.

1846 – By an Act of Congress, the Washington, DC area south of the Potomac River is returned to Virginia.

1846 – Captain J.B. Montgomery raised the American flag over San Francisco. Montgomery claimed Yerba Buena (SF) for the US.

1847 –  A 10-hour work day was established for workers in the State of New Hampshire.

1850 – President Zachary Taylor dies suddenly from an attack of cholera morbus and Millard Fillmore becomes the 13th President of the United States. He had only served 16 months.

1861 – Civil War: Confederate cavalry led by John Morgan captured Tompkinsville, Kentucky. “The Yankees will never take me a prisoner again,” vowed Confederate General John Hunt Morgan.

1863 – Civil War: the Siege of Port Hudson ends.

1864 – Civil War: Confederate General Jubal Early brushes a Union force out of his way as he heads for Washington.

1867 – An unsuccessful expedition led by E.D Young sets out to search for Dr David Livingstone (Scottish missionary and explorer).

1868 – The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified guaranteeing Blacks full citizenship and all persons in the United States due process of law. Until the 14th Amendment, people were “Citizens of each State.” (Article. IV. Section. 2. Paragraph. 1.) The 14th Amendment created a whole new class of persons: “citizens of the United States.” This false notion of “one nation” overturned the Jeffersonian principle that our nation was a confederated republic, a voluntary union of states.

1868 – Francis L. Cardozo installed as secretary of the state of South Carolina and became the first Black cabinet officer on the state level.

1872 – Doughnut cutter patented by John Blondel, Thomaston, ME.

1877 – Alexander Graham Bell, Gardiner Greene Hubbard, Thomas Sanders and Thomas Watson formed the Bell Telephone Company.

1878 – An improved corncob pipe patented by Henry Tibbe, Washington, Mo.

1892 – A stray 500-pound shell from the Sandy Hook, New Jersey, testing range sank the schooner Henry R. Tilton.

1893- Dr. Daniel Hale Williams, at Provident Hospital in Chicago, performed the world’s first successful open heart surgery without using anesthesia by removing a knife from the heart of a bar-fight stabbing victim.

1896 –  William Jennings Bryan delivers his “Cross of Gold”  speech advocating bimetallism at the 1896 Democratic National Convention in Chicago.

1900 – U.S. Marines helped in the capture of Tientsin Arsenal.

1910 – Walter Brookins becomes first to pilot an airplane to an altitude over 5,000 feet.

1914 – Boston Red Sox purchase Babe Ruth from the Baltimore Orioles.

1916 – First cargo submarine to cross the Atlantic arrives in US from Germany.

1918 – US Army’s Distinguished Service Cross authorized.

1918 – Great train wreck of 1918: in Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express killing 101 and injuring 171 people, making it the deadliest rail accident in United States history. Both trains were part of the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway (“NC&StL”),

1922 – Johnny Weissmuller swims the 100 meters freestyle in 58.6 seconds breaking the world swimming record and the ‘minute barrier’.

1927 – Atty. William T. Francis named minister to Liberia. He was an African-American lawyer, politician, and diplomat from Minnesota.

1932 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 41.63, down 91% from its level exactly three years earlier. Trading volume for the day was 235,000 shares.

1933 – Frankford Yellowjackets sold, rechristened Philadelphia Eagles.

1935 – Norman Bright ran the two mile event in the record time of 9 minutes, 13.2 seconds at a meet in New York City. He was an American long distance runner, mountaineer, and teacher. Bright once held the American record in the two-mile run.

1941 British cryptologists break the secret code used by the German army to direct ground-to-air operations on the Eastern front.

1942 – World War II: Coast Guard Cutter McLane and the Coast Guard-manned patrol craft USS YP-251 reportedly sank the Japanese submarine RO-32 off Sitka, Alaska.

1943 – World War II: Operation Husky – Allied forces perform an amphibious invasion of Sicily.

1943 – World War II:  On New Georgia, American forces attack toward Munda. Heavy Japanese resistance limits the advance. Meanwhile, Americans send reinforcements to Rendova and the Japanese send reinforcements to Kolombangara.

1944 – World War II: Battle of Normandy

1944 – World War II: Battle of Saipan -US forces reach Point Marpi and the last organized Japanese resistance is overcome. An estimated 27,000 Japanese have been killed and 1780 are prisoners, both figures include civilians. US forces have lost 3400 killed and 13,000 wounded.

1945 – World War II: American bombers strike two airfields near Tokyo.

1945 –   A third big Tillamook fire occurred near the Salmonberry River, and was joined two days later by a second blaze on the Wilson River, started by a discarded cigarette. This fire burned 180,000 acres before it was put out. The cause of the blaze on the Salmonberry River was mysterious, and many believed it had been set by an incendiary balloon launched by the Japanese, and brought to Oregon by the jet stream.

1946 – Sixteen Coast Guardsmen were killed when their C-54 transport aircraft crashed into Mount Tom, Massachusetts.

1947 – General Dwight D. Eisenhower appoints Florence Blanchfield to be a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Army, making her the first woman in U.S. history to hold permanent military rank.

1949 – “Riders in the Sky” by Vaughan Monroe topped the charts.

1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bewitched” by The Bill Snyder Orchestra, “My Foolish Heart” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Eileen Wilson), “I Wanna Be Loved” by The Andrews Sisters and “Why Don’t You Love Me” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.

1951 –  U.S. President Truman asked Congress to formally end the state of war between the United States and Germany.

1953 –   New York Airways began the first commuter passenger service by helicopter.

1953 – The Rattlesnake Fire was a wildfire started by an arsonist on this date in Grindstone Canyon in the Mendocino National Forest. One Forest Service employee and 14 volunteer firefighters from New Tribes Mission died. It has become a well-known firefighting textbook case.

1955 –  Bill Haley & Comets’ “Rock Around the Clock” tops billboards chart.

1956 – Dick Clark made his debut as host of “Bandstand” on a Philadelphia TV station. The name of the show was changed to “American Bandstand” when it went to ABC-TV.

1957 –  Discovery of element 102 (Nobelium) announced.

1958 – CHART TOPPERS – ‘Hard Headed Woman” by Elvis Presley, “Splish Splashby Bobby Darin, “Poor Little Fool” by Ricky Nelson and “Guess Things Happen that Way” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.

1960 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev trade verbal threats over the future of Cuba.

1960 – The USS Thrasher was launched.

1960 –  “Everybody’s Somebody’s Fool” by Connie Francis topped the charts.

1960 – Roger Woodward (7) and his sister, Deanne Woodward (17), were rescued from the Niagara River after being tossed from family friend James Honeycutt’s 12-foot aluminum boat. New Jersey tourists John Hayes and John Quattrochi pulled Deanne Woodward to shore just before the brink. Honeycutt was swept with Roger Woodward over the Horseshoe Falls and died. Roger survived the 162-foot plunge.

1962 – The Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test is conducted by the United States.

1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Paperback Writer” by The Beatles, “Red Rubber Ball” by The Cyrkle, ‘Hanky Panky” by Tommy James & The Shondells and “Think of Me” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1968 –  A patent for the “Portable Beam Generator,” also known as a hand-held laser ray gun, was granted to the inventor, Frederick R. Schollhammer.

1968 –  The first All-Star baseball game to be played indoors took place at the Astrodome in Houston, TX

1971 – The United States turned over complete responsibility of the Demilitarized Zone to South Vietnamese units.

1972 –  First tour of Paul McCartney & Wings (France)

1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock the Boat by The Hues Corporation, “Rock Your Baby” by George McCrae, “Hollywood Swinging” by Kool & The Gang and “He Thinks I Still Care” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.

1975 – California’s Governor Jerry Brown signed a bill that reduced the penalty for possession of marijuana to a $100 fine.

1977 –  “Undercover Angel” by Alan O’Day topped the charts.

1978  – Nearly 100,000 demonstrators march on Washington DC for the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).

1978 – American Nazi Party held a rally at Marquette Park, Chicago.

1979 –  Voyager 2 flies past Jupiter.

1981 –  Donkey Kong, a video game created by Nintendo, is released. The game marks the debut of Nintendo’s future mascot, Mario.

1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t You Want Me” by The Human League, “Rosannaby Toto, “Hurts So Good” by John Cougar and “Any Day Now” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.

1982 – A Boeing 727 carrying Pan Am Flight 759 crashes in Kenner, Louisiana killing all 146 people on board and eight others on the ground.

1983 – “Every Breath You Take” by The Police topped the charts.

1985 – Herschel Walker of the New Jersey Generals was named the Most Valuable Player in the United States Football League (USFL). He had 1,143 rushing attempts, 5, 562 rushing yards and 54 rushing touchdowns.

1985 – Joe Namath signed a five-year pact with ABC-TV to provide commentary for “Monday Night Football”.

1986 – The Attorney General’s Commission on Pornography released the final draft of its 2,000-page report, which linked hard-core porn to sex crimes.

1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Step By Step” by New Kids on the Block, “She Ain’t Worth It” by Glenn Medeiros featuring Bobby Brown, “Hold On” by En Vogue and “Love Without End, Amen” by George Strait all topped the charts.

1991 – The American League defeated the National League, 4-to-2, in the All-Star Game in Toronto.

1991 –  President George Bush presented a National Medal of Art to Roy Acuff.

1991 – Former CIA officer Alan D. Fiers pleaded guilty to two misdemeanor charges in the Iran-Contra affair.

1992 – The space shuttle Columbia landed at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, ending a two-week mission.

1995 – The Grateful Dead gave their last concert with Jerry Garcia at Chicago’s Soldier Field. Garcia died the next month of a heart attack.

1995 – Pete Sampras won the men’s singles title at Wimbledon by defeating Boris Becker, 6-7 (7-5), 6-2, 6-4, 6-2.

1996 – The National League won the All-Star game, defeating the American League 6-0 in Philadelphia.

1997 – Mike Tyson was banned from the boxing ring and fined $3 million for biting the ear of opponent Evander Holyfield. This was the decision, the event occurred June 28, 1997. The referee officiating the fight was Mills Lane.

1998 – Congress sent President Clinton an election-year bill overhauling the Internal Revenue Service; Clinton said he would sign it.

1998 – Former high school sweethearts Amy Grossberg and Brian Peterson were sentenced in Wilmington, Del., to prison for killing their newborn son at a motel. Grossberg received 2 1/2 years; Peterson, who cooperated with prosecutors, got two years.

1999 – In Los Angeles, a jury ordered GM to pay $4.9 billion to 6 people burned when their 1979 Chevrolet Malibu fuel tank exploded Dec 24, 1993 following a rear end collision.

2000 – Top-seeded Pete Sampras won his seventh Wimbledon title as he defeated Patrick Rafter, 6-7 (10), 7-6 (5), 6-4, 6-2.

2001 – The Bush administration announced that it opposed a UN draft to restrict the sale of small arms. The US was the leading exporter of small arms.

2002 – The All-Star game in Milwaukee finished in a 7-7 tie after 11 innings when both teams ran out of pitchers.

2002 – The US Senate approved a nuclear waste burial site at Yucca Mountain in the Nevada desert. The Senate voted to entomb thousands of tons of radioactive waste inside Yucca Mountain.

2003 – During a visit to the former slave-trading station on Goree Island, off the coast of Dakar, Senegal, U.S. President George W. Bush calls slavery “one of the greatest crimes of history”, but stops short of an official apology.

2004 – A US Senate committee report said that flawed prewar intelligence fueled the Bush administration position that Saddam Hussein’s regime posed a serious threat to the US.

2004 -An appeals court rejected Nevada’s claim against the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, but ordered leak plans beyond 10,000 years.

2005 – Danny Way, a daredevil skateboarder, rolled down a large ramp and jumped across the Great Wall of China. He was the first person to clear the wall without motorized aid.

2005 –  Minnesota Gov. Tim Pawlenty signed a temporary spending plan and lawmakers agreed on the outline of a two-year budget.

2005 – It was reported the world’s 439 nuclear reactors produce about 16% of the world’s electricity. US reactors numbered 103 plants with capacity utilization at over 90%.

2006 – In Missouri, five youths (10-17) including four siblings drowned in the Meramtec River during a church outing at Castlewood State Park. One had become caught in an undertow and the others jumped in to help.

2006 – Twenty-five people are injured on the Son of Beast wooden roller coaster near Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, as it came to a rapid stop. Several rescue units were sent to the scene.

2007 –  President Bush directed former aides to defy congressional subpoenas, claiming executive privilege in resisting Congress’ investigation into the firings of US attorneys.

2007 – Alaska’s former state Rep. Tom Anderson was convicted of taking thousands of dollars from a corrections company consultant in exchange for his help in the Legislature.

2007 – The Governor of Pennsylvania Ed Rendell orders a partial shutdown of state government functions following the failure of state legislators to agree on a budget.

2007 – US Sen. David Vitter, R-La., acknowledged that he was on the list of phone records just released by Deborah Jeane Palfrey, the alleged “D.C. Madam.”

2007 – The NAACP meeting in Detroit held a public burial for the N-word (nigger) racial slur. In 1944 the NAACP held a symbolic funeral in Detroit for Jim Crow.

2008 –  A grand jury in Anchorage indicted Sen. John Cowdery, an Alaska legislator, on bribery and conspiracy counts in a federal investigation of corruption that already has led to convictions against three former state lawmakers.

2008 – The California state Board of Education voted to make algebra mandatory in the eighth grade beginning in 2011, in order to bring the state into compliance with the federal No Child Left Behind program.

2008 –  It was announced that the Abu Dhabi Investment Council had purchased a 90% stake in New York City’s Chrysler Building for $800 million.

2009 –  In Florida, Byrd and Melanie Billings were killed at their sprawling home near Pensacola. The wealthy Florida couple had 4 children and adopted 12 others with developmental disabilities and other problems.

2010 – US regulators shut down two banks in Maryland, bringing to 88 the number of failed US banks this year.

2010 – In California scuba divers began killing invasive Asian clams in Lake Tahoe. Long rubber mats were laid over half an acre in a test effort starve the clams of oxygen.

2010 – Johnson & Johnson recalls three-million bottles of medicines,
including Tylenol, Benadryl, and Motrin, because of odors traced to a chemical in pallets used to transport and store the medicines.

2011 –  Derek Jeter, shortstop for the New York Yankees, becomes the 28th member of the 3,000 hit club in Major League Baseball history by means of a home run off David Price of the Tampa Bay Rays.

2012 –  The House Ethics Committee announced it will formally investigate Rep. Shelley Berkley (D-Nev.) over allegations she violated House rules by using her position in Congress to benefit her husband’s medical practice. The decision could have serious repercussions for her Senate bid.

2012 –  Federal authorities today posted a total of $1 million in reward money hoping to bring to justice four men believed to have been involved in the 2010 killing of U.S. Border Patrol Agent Brian Terry. Those suspects at large were identified as Jesus Rosario Favela-Astorga, 31; Ivan Soto-Barraza, 34; Heraclio Osorio-Arellanes, 34; and Lionel Portillo-Meza, said to be in his mid-20s to early

2014 – Former New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin, a 58-year-old former cable television manager, was sentenced to 10 years in prison  for bribery, money laundering, fraud and tax violations stemming from his two terms as New Orleans’ mayor from 2002-2010.


1686 – Philip Livingston, American politician (d. 1749)
1819 – Elias Howe, American inventor (d. 1867)
1911 – John A. Wheeler, American physicist (d. 2008)
1918 – Jarl Wahlström, the 12th General of The Salvation Army (d. 1999)
1927 – Ed Ames, American singer and actor
1927 – Susan Cabot, American actress (d. 1986)
1928 – Vince Edwards, American actor, director and singer (d. 1996)
1929 – Lee Hazlewood, American country singer, songwriter and producer (d. 2007)
1932 – Donald Rumsfeld, 13th & 21st United States Secretary of Defense
1936 – Floyd Abrams, First Amendment attorney and advocate
1938 – Brian Dennehy, American actor
1942 – Richard Roundtree, American actor
1942 – Edy Williams, American actress
1943 – John Casper, astronaut
1945 – Dean R. Koontz, American author
1947 – O.J. Simpson, American football player and actor
1956 – Tom Hanks, American actor
1964 – Courtney Love, American musician
1971 – Marc Andreessen, American software developer
1982 – Ashly DelGrosso, American ballroom dancer



(Air Mission)

Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 98th , Bombardment Group. Place and date: Ploesti Raid, Rumania, July 9th, 1944. Entered service at: Boulder, Colo. Birth: Longmont, Colo. G.O. No.: 48, 23 June 1945. Citation: He took part in a highly effective attack against vital oil installation in Ploesti, Rumania, on 9 July 1944. Just after “bombs away,” the plane received heavy and direct hits from antiaircraft fire. One crewmember was instantly killed and six others severely wounded. The airplane was badly damaged, two were knocked out, the control cables cut, the oxygen system on fire, and the bomb bay flooded with gas and hydraulic fluid. Regaining control of his crippled plane, 1st Lt. Pucket turned its direction over to the copilot. He calmed the crew, administered first aid, and surveyed the damage. Finding the bomb bay doors jammed, he used the hand crank to open them to allow the gas to escape. He jettisoned all guns and equipment but the plane continued to lose altitude rapidly. Realizing that it would be impossible to reach friendly territory he ordered the crew to abandon ship. Three of the crew, uncontrollable from fright or shock, would not leave. 1st Lt. Pucket urged the others to jump. Ignoring their entreaties to follow, he refused to abandon the three hysterical men and was last seen fighting to regain control of the plane. A few moments later the flaming bomber crashed on a mountainside. 1st Lt. Pucket, unhesitatingly and with supreme sacrifice, gave his life in his courageous attempt to save the lives of three others.


INTERIM 1871- 1898


Rank and organization: Second Class Boy, U.S. Navy. Born: 1859, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 214, 27 July 1876. Citation: Displayed heroic conduct while serving on board the U.S. Training Ship Minnesota on the occasion of the burning of Castle Garden at New York, July 9th, 1876.






Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 7th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Big Horn, Mont., July 9th, 1875. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 2 December 1876. Citation: Carried dispatches to Gen. Crook at the imminent risk of his life.






Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 7th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Big Horn, Mont., July 9th, 1876. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 2 December 1876. Citation: Carried dispatches to Brig. Gen. Crook through a country occupied by Sioux.






Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 7th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Big Horn River, Mont., July 9th, 1876. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Norfolk, Va. Date of issue: 2 December 1876. Citation: Carried dispatches to Gen. Crook at imminent risk of his life.





Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company D, 10th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Monocacy, Md., July 9th, 1864. Entered service at: Burlington, Vt. Birth: Dunstable, Mass. Date of issue: 27 May 1892. Citation: While in command of a small force, held the approaches to the two bridges against repeated assaults of superior numbers, thereby materially delaying Early’s advance on Washington.






Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1836, Delaware. Accredited to: Delaware. G.O. No.: 11 , 3 April 1 863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Ceres in the fight near Hamilton, Roanoke River, July 9th, 1862. Fired on by the enemy with small arms, Hand courageously returned the raking enemy fire and was spoken of for “good conduct and cool bravery under enemy fire,” by the commanding officer.






Rank and organization: Second Class Fireman, U.S. Navy. Birth: Ireland. Accredited to: Ireland. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Served as second-class fireman on board the U.S.S. Ceres in the fight near Hamilton, Roanoke River, July 9th, 1862. When his ship was fired on by the enemy with small arms, Kelley returned the raking fire, courageously carrying out his duties through the engagement and was spoken of for “good conduct and cool bravery under enemy fires,” by the commanding officer.




 Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 10th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Monocacy, Md., July 9th, 1864. Entered service at: Winooski, Vt. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 28 September 1897. Citation: Under a very heavy fire of the enemy saved the national flag of his regiment from capture.


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