One of the great truths of life is that failure is an integral part of success. Many people try things, fail and then give up. The real tragedy is that they gave up. In every failure there is a lesson to be learned. To be successful then you take the lessons learned and re-apply them to the next attempt to succeed. Winston Churchill grabbed the essence of this when he said, “Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm.” Michael Jordan also grasped this idea and displayed it with this quote, “I’ve failed over and over and over again in my life and that is why I succeed.”
Even, sometimes, you will run into people who do not want you to succeed even though they might not verbally say that to you personally. When the statements get back to you they can often hurt and cause disappointment and discouragement. Do not take these to heart. Dale Carnegie once said, “Develop success from failures. Discouragement and failure are two of the surest stepping stones to success.” Keeping this in mind will certainly help you overcome these two maladies successfully.
What about the people who talked me down or said very demeaning things about me? First, forgive them, not necessarily to their face but certainly in your heart. Unforgivingness will most assuredly drag you down and delay your success. One very good description of unforgivingness is, “lighting yourself on fire and hoping the other person dies of smoke inhalation.” Instead of being unforgiving, practice what David Brinkley believed, “A successful man is one who can lay a firm foundation with the bricks others have thrown at him.”
The final truth is this Malcolm Forbes quote, “Failure is success if we learn from it.”
But that is not really the end of this article. Let’s look at the famous failures below, who are now well-known and their names are synonymous with success. It wasn’t always this way. At one point the idea of these people reaching the heights they have reached would have seemed absurd. Many didn’t just fail, they failed in spectacular fashion.
Abraham Lincoln – He first went into politics at the age of 23 when he campaigned for a seat in the Illinois General Assembly and failed. He then opened a general store which failed after only a few months. Eight more failures in politics and he was the President of the United States.
Robert M Pirsig – His well known book ‘Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance’ was rejected by 121 publishers. Since finally being published in 1974 it has gone on to sell millions of copies in 27 languages.
Michael Jordan – The most famous name in basketball was actually cut from his high school basketball team. He, himself, says he lost almost 300 games (that’s more games than many NBA players have court time in), missed over 9000 shots at goal (again more shots than an average NBA player even takes) and 26 times he was given the ball to take the game winning shot and MISSED. He is considered one of the most successful basketball players ever.
John Wayne – Before his successful acting career he was rejected from the United States Naval Academy and then went on to only receive one Oscar in his whole acting career.
Steven Spielberg – Dropped out of high school and applied to attend film school three times but was unsuccessful due to his C grade average.
Beethoven – His music teacher once told him that he was a hopeless composer.
Harry S. Truman – This former US President was rejected by the US Military & Naval Academies due to his poor eyesight. At one point he was a clerk in a newspaper mailroom, and also an usher in a movie theater.
Babe Ruth – This baseball legend struck out 1,330 times.
Henry Ford – While Ford is today known for his innovative assembly line and American-made cars, he wasn’t an instant success. In fact, his first two businesses failed and left him broke five times before he founded the successful Ford Motor Company.
Winston Churchill – This former British Prime Minister did poorly in school and had a speech impediment in his early years.
Marilyn Monroe – She spent much of her younger years in foster homes. One of her first jobs, during the Second World War, was inspecting parachutes.
Walt Disney – He was fired by the editor of a newspaper for lacking in ideas.
Soichiro Honda – The founder of Honda was turned down for an engineering job by Toyota after World War Two.
Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita – These two were the founders of Sony, but one of their first products was an electric rice cooker. They only sold 100 or so of these cookers because they tended to burn rice rather than cook it.
Albert Einstein – He learned to speak at age four and, some say, he performed poorly in school. That contention is disputed by the Albert Einstein Archives. Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works. His great intelligence and originality have made the word “Einstein” synonymous with genius.
Thomas Edison – As a boy he was told by his teacher that he was too stupid to learn anything.
John Grisham – This best selling novelist’s first novel was rejected by sixteen agents and twelve publishing houses.
Isaac Newton – He failed at running the family farm and did poorly in school.
Emily Dickinson – She was told by a magazine editor that he could not publish her poems because they failed to rhyme.
F.W. Woolworth – Some may not know this name today, but Woolworth was once one of the biggest names in department stores in the U.S. Before starting his own business, young Woolworth worked at a dry goods store and was not allowed to wait on customers because his boss said he lacked the sense needed to do so.
Most of these people are now household names and there is no reason that you can’t be as well. It is simply a matter of your commitment to your success.
“I have always been delighted at the prospect of a new day, a fresh try, one more start, with perhaps a bit of magic waiting somewhere behind the morning.”
~ J. B. Priestley
ab ovo \ab-OH-voh\, adverb:
Ab ovo is from Latin, literally, “from the egg.”
From the beginning.
1532 – The Inca Empire fell to Spain. Pizarro first encountered Incan emperor Atahualpa at Cajamarca, who declined conversion to Christianity. Pizzaro and 167 fellow Spaniards, armored and on horseback, killed or wounded some 6,000 to 7,000 natives and captured emperor Atahualpa.
1620 – The first corn (maize) found in the U.S. by British settlers was discovered in Provincetown, Mass., by sixteen desperately hungry Pilgrims led by Myles Standish, William Bradford, Stephen Hopkins, and Edward Tilley at a place they named Corn Hill.
1676 – The first U.S. jail was established on Nantucket island on Vestal Street in response to its emerging status as an international seaport, which brought with it an increase in the number of transient visitors.
1766 – Indians surrendered to British in Indian War of Chief Pontiac.
1776 – Revolutionary War: British troops captured Fort Washington at the north end of Manhattan.
1776 – Revolutionary War: The United Provinces (The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands) recognize the independence of the United States, the first country in the world to do so. [This is a controversial statement, because other sources say that the Kingdom of Morocco was the first to extend diplomatic recognition to the new United States.)
1798 – The British boarded the U.S. frigate Baltimore and seized a number of crewmen as alleged deserters, a contributor to the War of 1812.
1798 – Kentucky became the first state to nullify an act of Congress. The Kentucky Resolution was passed in opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts by the Kentucky legislature and written by Thomas Jefferson.
1811 – The New Madrid earthquake in Missouri caused the Mississippi River to flow backwards. These earthquakes remain the most powerful earthquakes ever to hit the eastern United States in recorded history.
1813 – War of 1812: The British announced a blockade of Long Island Sound, leaving only the New England coast open to shipping.
1821 – Trader William Becknell reached Santa Fe, New Mexico, via the route that will become known as the Santa Fe Trail.
1824 – New York City’s Fifth Avenue opened for business.
1841 – Napoleon Guerin of New York City patented the cork life preserver.
1846 – Mexican-American War: General Zachary Taylor took Saltillo, Mexico. “General”, cried Brig. Gen. John Wool in despair, “we are whipped!” ” I know it”, replied Maj. Gen. Zachary Taylor”, but the volunteers don’t know it. Let them alone; we’ll see what they do.”
1856 – Marines participated in the Battle of Barrier Forts in China.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Campbell’s Station near Knoxville, Tennessee. Confederate troops unsuccessfully attack Union forces.
1863 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Monongahela escorted Army transports and covered the landing of more than a thousand troops on Mustang Island, Arkansas Pass, Texas.
1864 – Civil War: Union General William Sherman and his troops began their March to the Sea during the Civil War.
1873 – Richard T. Greener, first Black graduate of Harvard University, named professor of metaphysics at the University of South Carolina.
1875 – William Bonwill patented dental mallet to impact gold into cavities.
1889 – The Oahu Railway and Land Company began operating in Hawaii.
1892 – University of Chicago, a founding member of the Big 10 Conference, won its first football game, beating Illinois, 10-4.
1899 – Marines from the USS Castine and the USS Manila captured Zamboanga, Philippines.
1901 – The first American electric car was the “Torpedo Racer” and it broke the world’s speed record by going down a one-mile straight track in just 63 seconds or at about 57 m.p.h. The feat was accomplished by A.C. Bostwick on the Ocean Parkway racetrack in Brooklyn, New York. Today’s world speed record is “The Buckeye Bullet 1” which holds the distinction of being the world’s fastest electric car with a top recorded speed of 321.834 mph.
1902 – A cartoon appeared in the Washington Star on this date, prompting the Teddy Bear Craze, after President Teddy Roosevelt refused to kill a captive bear tied up for him to shoot during a hunting trip to Mississippi.
1904 – John Ambrose Fleming invents the vacuum tube.
1906 – Opera star Enrico Caruso is charged with an indecent act after allegedly pinching a woman’s bottom in the monkey house of New York’s Central Park Zoo.
1907 – Oklahoma became the 46th state of the Union.
1907 – The Gila Cliff Dwellings in New Mexico was established as a national monument. People of the Mogollon culture lived in these cliff dwellings from the 1280s through the early 1300s.
1914 – The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States officially opens.
1915 – Coca-Cola had its prototype for a contoured bottle patented.
1920 – Metered mail was born in Stamford, Connecticut with the first Pitney-Bowes postage meter.
1926 – NY Rangers first game, beat Montreal Maroons 1-0.
1932 – The Palace in New York City, the most famous vaudeville theatre in America, closed its doors. Technology spelled its end with the start of radio and talking pictures in 1927.
1933 – The United States and the Soviet Union established diplomatic relations.
1935 – Richard Rodgers’ and Lorenz Hart’s musical “Jumbo,” premiered in New York City.
1937 – Bob Crosby and his orchestra recorded “South Rampart Street Parade”.
1939 – Al Capone was freed from Alcatraz.
1940 – World War II: In response to Germany’s leveling of Coventry, England two days before, the Royal Air Force bombs Hamburg, Germany.
1940 – Holocaust: In occupied Poland, German Nazis close off the Warsaw Ghetto from the outside world.
1940 – New York City’s Mad Bomber places his first bomb at a Manhattan office building used by Consolidated Edison.
1942 – World War II: Navy’s first Night Fighter squadron (VMF(N)-531) established at Cherry Point, NC.
1943 – World War II: American bombers strike a hydro-electric power facility and heavy water factory in German-controlled Vermork, Norway.
1944 – World War II: Allied air strikes support offensives of US 9th and 1st Armies; about 10,000 tons of bombs are dropped by some 1200 US 8th Air Force planes and 1100 RAF bombers.
1945 – Cold War: The United States Army secretly admits 88 German scientists & engineers to help in the production of rocket technology.
1946 – Television Screen Magazine launches. The show, one of NBC’s first network series, included a collection of features on news, lifestyles, fashion, and other topics. The show ran until 1949.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Wish I Didn’t Love You So” by Vaughn Monroe, “Near You” by The Francis Craig Orchestra (vocal: Bob Lamm), “You Do” by Dinah Shore and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 – Operation Magic Carpet began with the first plane from Yemen carrying Jews to Israel.
1950 – The largest single disaster suffered by the US Coast Guard in World War II occurred on the night of 29 January 1945 when the USS Serpens was destroyed off Lunga Beach, Guadalcanal. On this day a monument was erected in Arlington National Cemetery on the gravesite of those who lost their lives.
1950 – President Harry Truman proclaimed an emergency crisis caused by communist threat.
1952 – In the Peanuts comic strip, Lucy first held a football for Charlie Brown.
1955 – “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford became the fastest-selling record in history. The song was originally written in 1947 by the Country & Western guitarist and songwriter Merle Travis and it was about his dad.
1955 – First speed-boat to exceed 200 mph (Don Campbell on Lake Mead, NV)
1956 – “Love Me Tender,” the first Elvis Presley film, premiered in New York City.
1957 – Notre Dame beats Oklahoma 7-0, ending the Sooners’ 47-game, 1,512-day college football winning streak. The game also marked the first time in more than 120 games that Oklahoma didn’t score a single point.
1957 – Jim Brown (Cleveland Browns) set an NFL season rushing record of 1163 yards after only eight games.
1957 – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1958 – Tucson, AZ received 6.4 inches of snow across the metro area causing auto accidents, stranded people, dropped power lines, knocked out telephone service, closed highways and paralyzing air travel.
1959 – Rodgers and Hammerstein’s “The Sound of Music” opened on Broadway at Lunt Fontanne Theater, New York City, for 1443 performances. It starred Mary Martin and Theodore Bikel.
1959 – “Mr. Blue” by the Fleetwoods topped the charts.
1960 – After the integration of two all white schools, 2,000 rioted in the streets of New Orleans.
1961 – President John F. Kennedy decides to increase military aid to South Vietnam without committing U.S. combat troops.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Deep Purple” by Nino Tempo & April Stevens, “Washington Square” by The Village Stompers, “I’m Leaving It Up to You” by Dale & Grace, “Love’s Gonna Live Here” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1963 – President John F. Kennedy on USS Observation Island witnesses launch of Polaris A-2 missile by USS Andrew Jackson (SSBN-619).
1963 – Touch-tone telephone was introduced.
1966 – Dr. Samuel H. Sheppard was acquitted in his second trial of charges he had murdered his pregnant wife, Marilyn, in 1954. He had served 9 years.
1967 – Vietnam War: Haiphong shipyard in North Vietnam was hit by U.S. planes for the first time.
1968 – “Hey Jude” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1969 – Lieutenant William Calley, Jr., faced a court martial for directing his platoon in the massacre of at least 400 unarmed peasants in the Vietnamese village of My Lai.
1970 – Anne Murray received a gold record for “Snowbird“.
1971 – Vietnam War: In support of the Cambodian government. U.S. helicopter gunships struck at North Vietnamese emplacements at Tuol Leap, 10 miles north of Phnom Penh.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves” by Cher, “Theme from Shaft” by Isaac Hayes, “Imagine” by John Lennon Plastic Ono Band and “Lead Me On” by Conway Twitty & Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1972 – National Guard mobilized after officers killed two students during Southern University demonstrations.
1973 – Skylab 4, under the command of Lt. Colonel Gerald P. Carr, USMC, launched from Cape Canaveral for an 84-day mission. This was the last of the Skylab missions.
1973 – The Alaska Pipeline was signed into law by President Richard M. Nixon.
1973 – David Bowie appeared in his first TV special, “1980 Floor Show,” broadcast on NBC’s “Midnight Special.”
1974 – First intentional interstellar radio message sent. The Arecibo message was a radio message that was beamed into space at a ceremony to mark the remodeling of the Arecibo radio telescope.
1974 – John Lennon’s #1 solo “Whatever Gets You Through the Night“.
1975 – Walter Payton of the Chicago Bears rushed for 105 yards in a game against the San Francisco 49ers. It was Payton’s first game of 100 plus yards.
1976 – Rick Barry (San Francisco), ends then longest NBA free throw streak of 60.
1977 – Steven Spielberg’s “Close Encounters of the Third Kind” opens in theaters.
1978 – The movie version of “Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band” opens. The Bee Gees, Peter Frampton and Billy Preston made their acting debuts in the movie.
1979 – Paul McCartney releases “Wonderful Christmas”
1981 – Luke and Laura marry on the U.S. soap opera General Hospital; it is the highest-rated hour in daytime television history.
1981 – A vaccine for hepatitis B was approved. The vaccine had been developed at Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research.
1982 – The Space Shuttle Columbia completed its first operational flight. STS-5, the first operational mission, also carried the largest crew up to that time — four astronauts.
1982 – An agreement was announced, ending a 57-day strike by the National Football League players.
1984 – Space shuttle Discovery returned to Earth with the first two satellites ever plucked from space.
1985 – “We Built This City” by Starship topped the charts.
1985 – Colonel Oliver North was put in charge of the shipment of HAWK anti-aircraft missiles to Iran.
1986 – Gerber Products announced intentions to produce baby food in plastic jars, instead of glass — a first for the industry.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Think We’re Alone Now” by Tiffany, “Mony Mony “Live“” by Billy Idol, “(I’ve Had) The Time of My Life” by Bill Medley & Jennifer Warnes and “Maybe Your Baby’s Got the Blues” by The Judds all topped the charts.
1991 – Former Louisiana Gov. Edwin Edwards won a landslide victory in his bid to return to office, defeating state representative David Duke, a former Ku Klux Klan leader.
1993 – The US Congress enacted the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. It instructed government officials to bend the rules for persons whose actions are based on their religion.
1994 – A US federal judge issued a temporary restraining order prohibiting the state of California from implementing most provisions of Proposition 187.
1996 – Mother Teresa receives honorary US citizenship.
1996 – “Head Over Feet” by Alanis Morissette topped the charts.
1997 – Six-hundred protestors at Fort Benning, Ga., called for the closing of the Army’s School of the Americas, which trains Latin American soldiers.
1998 – In Burlington, Wisconsin, five high school students, aged 15 to 16, were arrested in an alleged plot to kill a carefully selected group of teachers and students.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court said that union members could file discrimination lawsuits against employers even when labor contracts require arbitration.
1999 – Nathaniel Abraham, at 13, is one of the youngest murder defendants in US history. He was convicted in Pontiac, Michigan, of second-degree murder for shooting a stranger outside a convenience store with a rifle when he was eleven. Nathaniel was sentenced to juvenile detention. He will be released Jan. 13, 2007, when he turns 21.
2000 – President Bill Clinton becomes the first serving U.S. President to visit Vietnam.
2000 – Amtrak christened its new bullet train, the Acela Express, with an inaugural run from Washington DC to New York City and Boston.
2000 – A US Air Force F-16 collided with a small plane near Sarasota, Fla. The pilot of the Cessna was killed, the fighter pilot ejected safely.
2000 – The Internet Corp. for Assigned Names and Numbers adopted 7 new domains: .aero for airports, .biz for businesses, .coop for business cooperatives, .info for general use, .museum for accredited museums, .name for individuals, and .pro for professionals.
2001 – The first Harry Potter movie, “ Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone (Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone in the United States)”, released in theatres in the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada.
2001 – A letter containing anthrax was found at the Capitol in Washington, addressed to Sen. Patrick Leahy, D-Vt.
2003 – A 7.5 magnitude earthquake in the Aleutian Islands in Alaska triggers tsunami warnings.
2004 – X-43A scramjet becomes the fastest air-breathing jet flying at nearly Mach 10 at approximately 7,000 mph.
2004 – President George W. Bush picked National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice to be his new Secretary of State, succeeding Colin Powell.
2004 – In Iraq a blindfolded woman, believed to be aid worker Margaret Hassan (59), was the shown being shot in the head by a hooded militant on a video obtained but not aired by Al-Jazeera television.
2005 – Vice President Dick Cheney joined the chorus of Republican criticism of Democrats who contended the Bush administration had manipulated intelligence on Iraq, an accusation Cheney called “one of the most dishonest and reprehensible charges ever aired in this city.”
2005 – The US House passed a bill authorizing up to $38 million in federal funds to preserve and restore 10 WW II internment camps, including Tule Lake and Manzanar in California, as well as 17 assembly centers. Nonprofits would need to come up with 75% of the money for the projects.
2006 – Minnesota Twins ace Johan Santana won the American League Cy Young Award.
2006 – Nancy Pelosi was unanimously named speaker-elect by US House Democrats, the first woman set to take the post that is third in line of succession to the presidency, but then selected Steny Hoyer as majority leader against her wishes.
2006 – In North Carolina a tornado struck Riegelwood, a tiny riverside community, killing eight people as thunderstorms continued a path of destruction across the South.
2007 – Marchers surrounded the Justice Department headquarters to demand federal intervention in the Jena Six case in Louisiana.
2008 – Jimmie Johnson wins NASCAR’s 2008 Sprint Cup Series championship, becoming the second driver to win three in a row.
2009 – US federal prosecutors said the Kuwait logistics firm, Public Warehousing co., had inflated prices and defrauded the US government under its multi-billion dollar contract to feed American troops. The contract was set to expire in December 2010.
2009 – NASA’s shuttle Atlantis lifted off from Cape Canaveral with six astronauts on a mission to supply the International Space Station with spare parts and experimental equipment.
2010 – Republican Party Senators adopt a ban on earmarking, or setting aside money in bills for specific purposes specified by legislators.
2011- America hurled over the $15,000,000,000,000 (trillion) debt mark. Since President Obama took office, the debt has risen almost $4.5 trillion (41.5%), and Congress’s solution is leaving spending rates (including stimulus dollars) untouched!
2011 – An investigation by the Government Accountability Office (GAO), into the Obama Administration’s use of $18 million in taxpayer funds to provide funding for a group pushing legalized abortion in Kenya finds the administration broke the law.
2012 – Failing to persuade striking employees to return to work, Hostess Brands disclosed plans on Friday to liquidate its assets and lay off most of its 18,500 workers, bringing the 82-year-old maker of Wonder Bread and Twinkies to the end of its line. The company will now be forced to close its 33 bakeries, 565 distribution centers, 5,500 delivery routes and 570 bakery outlet stores throughout the U.S. thanks to the actions of the Bakery, Confectionery, Tobacco Workers and Grain Millers International Union.
2014- Peter Kassig, former Army Ranger and aid worker becomes the third American to be beheaded by the Muslim group ISIS.
2015 – Paris relights the Eiffel Tower following the murderous attacks on Friday the 13th.
42 B.C. – Tiberius, Roman emperor.
1873 – W.C. Handy, American composer. He was an African-American blues composer and musician, often known as “the Father of the Blues.”
1889 – George S. Kaufman, American playwright.
1896 – Fibber McGee (Jim Jordan), American actor He was a part of the team ofFibber McGee and Molly.1907 – Burgess Meredith, American actor.
1961 – Sam Rayburn, U.S. Speaker of the House (b. 1882)
HORNER, FREEMAN V.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company K, 119th Infantry, 30th Infantry Division. Place and date: Wurselen, Germany, November 16th, 1944. Entered service at: Shamokin, Pa. Birth: Mount Carmel, Pa. G.O. No.: 95, 30 October 1945. Citation: S/Sgt. Horner and other members of his company were attacking Wurselen, Germany, against stubborn resistance on 16 November 1944, when machinegun fire from houses on the edge of the town pinned the attackers in flat, open terrain 100 yards from their objective. As they lay in the field, enemy artillery observers directed fire upon them, causing serious casualties. Realizing that the machineguns must be eliminated in order to permit the company to advance from its precarious position, S/Sgt. Horner voluntarily stood up with his submachine gun and rushed into the teeth of concentrated fire, burdened by a heavy load of ammunition and hand grenades. Just as he reached a position of seeming safety, he was fired on by a machinegun which had remained silent up until that time. He coolly wheeled in his fully exposed position while bullets barely missed him and killed two hostile gunners with a single, devastating burst. He turned to face the fire of the other two machineguns, and dodging fire as he ran, charged the two positions fifty yards away. Demoralized by their inability to hit the intrepid infantryman, the enemy abandoned their guns and took cover in the cellar of the house they occupied. S/Sgt. Horner burst into the building, hurled two grenades down the cellar stairs, and called for the Germans to surrender. Four men gave up to him. By his extraordinary courage, S/Sgt. Horner destroyed three enemy machinegun positions, killed or captured seven enemy, and cleared the path for his company’s successful assault on Wurselen.
LINDSEY, JAKE W.
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Hamich, Germany, November 16th, 1944. Entered service at: Lucedale, Miss. Birth: Isney, Ala. G.O. No.: 43, 30 May 1945. Citation: For gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on 16 November 1944, in Germany. T/Sgt. Lindsey assumed a position about ten yards to the front of his platoon during an intense enemy infantry-tank counterattack, and by his unerringly accurate fire destroyed two enemy machinegun nests, forced the withdrawal of two tanks, and effectively halted enemy flanking patrols. Later, although painfully wounded, he engaged eight Germans, who were reestablishing machinegun positions, in hand-to-hand combat, killing three, capturing three, and causing the other two to flee. By his gallantry, T/Sgt. Lindsey secured his unit’s position, and reflected great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 377th Infantry, 95th Infantry Division. Place and date: From Woippy, France, through Metz to Kerprich Hemmersdorf, Germany, November 16th to – November 29th, 1944. Entered service at: Two Rivers, Wis. Birth: Manitowoc, Wis. G.O. No.: 74, 1 September 1945. Citation: For performing a series of heroic deeds from 1629 November 1944, during his company’s relentless drive from Woippy, France, through Metz to Kerprich Hemmersdorf, Germany. As he led a rifle squad on 16 November at Woippy, a crossfire from enemy machineguns pinned down his unit. Ordering his men to remain under cover, he went forward alone, entered a building housing one of the guns and forced five Germans to surrender at bayonet point. He then took the second gun single-handedly by hurling grenades into the enemy position, killing two, wounding three more, and taking two additional prisoners. At the outskirts of Metz the next day, when his platoon, confused by heavy explosions and the withdrawal of friendly tanks, retired, he fearlessly remained behind armed with an automatic rifle and exchanged bursts with a German machinegun until he silenced the enemy weapon. His quick action in covering his comrades gave the platoon time to regroup and carry on the fight. On 19 November S/Sgt. Miller led an attack on large enemy barracks. Covered by his squad, he crawled to a barracks window, climbed in and captured six riflemen occupying the room. His men, and then the entire company, followed through the window, scoured the building, and took seventy-five prisoners. S/Sgt. Miller volunteered, with three comrades, to capture Gestapo officers who were preventing the surrender of German troops in another building. He ran a gauntlet of machinegun fire and was lifted through a window. Inside, he found himself covered by a machine pistol, but he persuaded the four Gestapo agents confronting him to surrender. Early the next morning, when strong hostile forces punished his company with heavy fire, S/Sgt. Miller assumed the task of destroying a well-placed machinegun. He was knocked down by a rifle grenade as he climbed an open stairway in a house, but pressed on with a bazooka to find an advantageous spot from which to launch his rocket. He discovered that he could fire only from the roof, a position where he would draw tremendous enemy fire. Facing the risk, he moved into the open, coolly took aim and scored a direct hit on the hostile emplacement, wreaking such havoc that the enemy troops became completely demoralized and began surrendering by the score. The following day, in Metz, he captured twelve more prisoners and silenced an enemy machinegun after volunteering for a hazardous mission in advance of his company’s position. On 29 November, as Company G climbed a hill overlooking Kerprich Hemmersdorf, enemy fire pinned the unit to the ground. S/Sgt. Miller, on his own initiative, pressed ahead with his squad past the company’s leading element to meet the surprise resistance. His men stood up and advanced deliberately, firing as they went. Inspired by S/Sgt. Miller’s leadership, the platoon followed, and then another platoon arose and grimly closed with the Germans. The enemy action was smothered, but at the cost of S/Sgt. Miller’s life. His tenacious devotion to the attack, his gallant choice to expose himself to enemy action rather than endanger his men, his limitless bravery, assured the success of Company G.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Ship’s Corporal U.S. Navy. Born: 1853, Ireland. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For rescuing from drowning a boy serving with him on the U.S.S. Constitution, at the Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va., November 16th, 1879.
BRANDLE, JOSEPH E.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 17th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Lenoire, Tenn., November 16th, 1863. Entered service at: Colon, Mich. Born: 1839, Seneca County, Ohio. Date of issue: 20 July 1897. Citation: While color bearer of his regiment, having been twice wounded and the sight of one eye destroyed, still held to the colors until ordered to the rear by his regimental commander.
GILE, FRANK S.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845, Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Lehigh, Charleston Harbor, November 16th, 1863, during the hazardous task of freeing the Lehigh, which had been grounded, and was under heavy enemy fire from Fort Moultrie. After several previous attempts had been made, Gile succeeded in passing in a small boat from the Lehigh to the Nahant with a line bent on a hawser. This courageous action while under severe enemy fire enabled the Lehigh to be freed from her helpless position.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Lehigh, Charleston Harbor, November 16th, 1863, during the hazardous task of freeing the Lehigh, which had grounded, and was under heavy enemy fire from Fort Moultrie. Rowing the small boat which was used in the hazardous task of transferring hawsers from the Lehigh to the Nahant. Irving twice succeeded in making the trip, while under severe fire from the enemy, only to find that each had been in vain when the hawsers were cut by hostile fire and chaffing.
LELAND, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1834, Savannah, Ga. Accredited to: Georgia. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Lehigh, Charleston Harbor, 16 November 1863, during the hazardous task, of freeing the Lehigh, which had grounded, and was under heavy enemy fire from Fort Moultrie. Rowing the small boat which was used in the hazardous task of transferring hawsers from the Lehigh to the Nahant, Leland twice succeeded in making the trip, only to find that each had been in vain when the hawsers were cut by enemy fire and chaffing.
STARKINS, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, 34th New York Battery. Place and date: At Campbell Station, Tenn., November 16th, 1863. Entered service at:——. Birth: Great Neck, N.Y. Date of issue: 30 July 1896. Citation; Brought off his piece without losing a man.
SWIFT, FREDERIC W.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 17th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Lenoire Station, Tenn., November 16th, 1863. Entered service at: Michigan. Born: 30 January 1831, Mansfield Center, Conn. Date of issue: 15 February 1897. Citation: Gallantly seized the colors and rallied the regiment after 3 color bearers had been shot and the regiment, having become demoralized, was in imminent danger of capture.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Ireland. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Lehigh, Charleston Harbor, November 16th, 1863, during the hazardous task of freeing the Lehigh, which had been grounded, and was under heavy enemy fire from Fort Moultrie. After several previous attempts had been made, Williams succeeded in passing in a small boat from the Lehigh to the Nahant with a line bent on a hawser. This courageous action while under severe enemy fire enabled the Lehigh to be freed from her helpless position.
YOUNG, HORATIO N.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 July 1845, Calaise, Maine. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Lehigh, Charleston Harbor, November 16th, 1863, during the hazardous task of freeing the Lehigh, which had grounded, and was under heavy enemy fire from Fort Moultrie. After several previous attempts had been made, Young succeeded in passing in a small boat from the Lehigh to the Nahant with a line bent on a hawser. This courageous action while under severe enemy fire enabled the Lehigh to be freed from her helpless position.
National Clean Out Your Refrigerator Day
I Love to Write Day
“The role of a writer is not to say what we all can say, but what we are unable to say.” ~Anaïs Nin
“And by the way, everything in life is writable about if you have the outgoing guts to do it, and the imagination to improvise. The worst enemy to creativity is self-doubt.” ~Sylvia Plath
Writing is the visible recording of language peculiar to the human species. Writing enables the transmission of ideas over vast distances of time and is a prerequisite of complex civilization. Where and by whom writing was first developed remains unknown but scholars place the beginning of writing at 6000 years ago or , roughly, 4000 B.C. The norm of writing is phonemic, i.e., it attempts to symbolize all the significant sounds of the language and no others. When the goal is established as one for one phoneme, the result is a complete alphabet. Few alphabets attain this phonemic goal but some ancient ones (e.g. Sanskrit) and a few modern ones (e.g., Finnish) have been very successful.
The contemporary important writing not of the alphabetic type is that in Chinese characters, in which thousands of characters are used, each representing a word or concept, and Japanese, where each character represents a syllable. The Chinese system is so distant from the language that the same characters are used in writing mutually unintelligible dialects, e.g., Cantonese and Mandarin. In some languages, as in English and French the modern freezing of spelling has removed the writing more and more from pronunciation and has resulted in the need to teach spelling and the growth of fallacies like the silent letter (a letter is really either the symbolic sound or it is unnecessary).
Writing was developed independently in Egypt (hieroglyphics), Mesopotamia (Cuneiform), China and among the Maya in Central America. There are some areas where the question as to where writing was adopted or independently developed is in doubt, as atEaster Island. Ancient writing, pictographic in nature, is best known from stone and clay inscriptions, but the use of perishable materials, palm leaf, papyrus, and paper, began in ancient times.
That, they do say, is the technically historical part. Writing, though, is so much more. Writing is a love affair. Most times it is really intense and it is easy to express your feelings and what you are seeing, Like that affair, though, there are times of disillusionment, times of sheer boredom, times when nothing seems to happen. Then it all sparks again with a different look, with a different idea, doing something different and exciting together (you and your writing), reading something in a different light. Then you have to take it dancing and see what develops.
One of my favorite descriptions of something was in a book called, “This Present Darkness.” A gentleman had spent his entire career at the New York Times. He had started working as a copyboy (pre-computer), moved up step by step to reporter, Assistant Editor and finally Editor–In-Chief. His days were long and hard with fantastic stresses. When he decided to retire, he knew he could not stop cold. The stress of going from fulltime in-charge to nothing would have brought on major physical stresses. Instead he had bought a small-town community newspaper where he could “slow down” until it would be safe to stop.
He was on the train to this small town, thinking about what he had done and what he was about to do and the thought came to him: he was on this hurtling train going at breakneck speed very similar to his time at the Times. He was headed to a two person newspaper and his description was ”like jumping off a speeding train into a wall of half set Jello.”
That is writing, drawing pictures with words. Putting ideas and concepts into understandable descriptions.
“On plenty of days the writer can write three or four pages, and on plenty of other days he concludes he must throw them away.” ~ Annie Dillard
“Fill your paper with the breathings of your heart.” ~ William Wordsworth
“I try to leave out the parts that people skip.” ~ Elmore Leonard
“To dream anything that you want to dream, that is the beauty of the human mind. To do anything that you want to do, that is the strength of the human will. To trust yourself, to test your limits, that is the courage to succeed.”
~ Bernard Edmonds
gauche GOHSH, adjective:
Lacking social polish; tactless; awkward; clumsy.
Gauche is from the French for left, awkward.
1533 – Francisco Pizarro arrives in Cuzco, Peru.
1626 – The Pilgrim Fathers, who settled in New Plymouth, bought out their London investors.
1763 – Charles Mason & Jeremiah Dixon begin surveying Mason-Dixon Line. They surveyed 233 miles by October 9, 1767 when indigenous Indians of the area told them they could not proceed any further west.
1777 – The Continental Congress approved the Articles of Confederation, a precursor to the Constitution of the United States of America, after 16 months of debate.
1791 – The first U.S Catholic college, Georgetown University, opens its doors.
1805 – Meriwether Lewis, William Clark and their party reached the mouth of the Columbia River, completing their trek to the Pacific.
1806 – Pike expedition: Lieutenant Zebulon Pike sees a distant mountain peak while near the Colorado foothills of the Rocky Mountains (it was later named Pikes Peak).
1806 – First US college magazine, Yale Literary Government, published its first issue.
1827 – Creek Indians lost all their property in US. The Creek Indians consisted of more than one tribe of Indians.
1835 – HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin reached Tahiti.
1837 – Isaac Pitman’s system of shorthand was published, under the title “Stenographic Sound-Hand.”
1856 – The clipper ship Neptune’s Car arrived in SF after sailing 136 days from NYC. Mary Ann Patten (1837-1861), the pregnant 19-year-old wife of Captain Joshua Patten (d.1857), commanded the ship for much of its voyage after the captain fell ill.
1862 – President Lincoln, with Secretaries Seward and Chase, drove to the Washington Navy Yard to view the trial of the Hyde rocket.
1863 – Civil War: Fort Moultrie opened a heavy, evening bombardment on Union Army positions at Cumming’s Point, Morris Island.
1864 – Civil War: Union General William Tecumseh Sherman burns Atlanta, Georgia and starts Sherman’s March to the Sea.
1872 – In California the 115-foot Pigeon Point Light Station near Pescadero started operation. It was built due to a series of shipwrecks in the area.
1881 – The Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions of the United States and Canada was founded which in 1886 became The American Federation of Labor (AFL.)
1884 – Samuel Sidney McClure of New York City started the first literary syndicate — the McClure Syndicate. It bought authors’ works and then sold the right to print them to various newspapers across the U.S.
1896 – Power plant at Niagara Falls begins operation. It was the first long-distance transmission of hydroelectricity from the Niagara Falls Power Company to Buffalo, N.Y., 26 miles away. The generators were built by Westinghouse and the transformers by General Electric.
1898 – Lyda A. Newman (New York City, NY) patented a hair brush which permitted easy cleaning by having a detachable unit which carried the brush and bristles.
1899 – Winston Churchill (24), war correspondent for London’s Morning Post, was captured by Boers in Natal, South Africa. He escaped prison in Pretoria on Dec 12 and after some days reached the English colony in Durban, Natal.
1901 – Miller Reese patented an electrical hearing aid.
1904 – A patent was granted to King C. Gillette for a safety ‘razor’.
1904 – Ethel Barrymore, appearing in the play, “Sunday”, first spoke her trademark line, “That’s all there is. There isn’t any more.”
1919 – Senate first invokes cloture to end a filibuster (Versailles Treaty). The cloture was adopted by a vote of 78-16, leading to a rejection of the treaty.
1922 – Dr. Alexis Carrel reported the discovery of white corpuscles.
1926 – National Broadcasting Company (NBC) debuted its 24-station radio network.
1932 – Walt Disney Art School created.
1933 – Marines at Quantico, Virginia, began work on a new field operations manual, the Tentative Landing Operations Manual.
1936 – Nazi Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Komintern pact. The Anti-Komintern, ostensibly a defensive treaty opposed to Communism, would define the Axis powers.
1937 – Al Capp, cartoonist of Lil’ Abner creates Sadie Hawkins Day. Sadie Hawkins was “the homeliest gal in the hills” who grew tired of waiting for the fellows to come a courtin’. Sadie Hawkins Day was a foot race in which the unmarried gals pursued the town’s bachelors, with matrimony the consequence. Sadie Hawkins Day can be celebrated any day between today and November 29th.
1937 – The first US congressional session in air-conditioned chambers took place.
1938 – Television’s first on-the-scene program took place. A fire on Ward’s Island, New York was seen by the cameras of NBC’s W2XBT. The cameras caught the unexpected fire as it broke out.
1939 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt laid the cornerstone of the Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C.
1939 – World War II (Europe): Nazis began their mass murder of Warsaw Jews.
1939 – The New York Giants, formerly opposed to night baseball, made plans for a lighting system at the Polo Grounds for the 1940 season.
1940 – “One Night in the Tropics” released. It was a comedy film which is noteworthy for being the film debut of Abbott and Costello. The team play minor roles but steal the picture with five classic routines, including an abbreviated version of “Who’s On First?.”
1940 – The first 75,000 men were called to armed forces duty in the United States under peacetime conscription.
1940 – World War II: US flying boats begin patrols from bases in Bermuda.
1941 – World War II: SS chief Heinrich Himmler orders the arrest and deportation to concentration camps of all homosexuals in Germany, with the exception of certain top Nazi officials.
1942 – World War II: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal ends in a decisive Allied victory. U.S. lost several ships in naval battle of Guadalcanal, naval norce under Rear Admiral Willlis Lee, USS Washington (BB-56), turns back Japanese transports trying to reinforce Guadalcanal. The Japanese never again try to send large naval forces to Guadalcanal. The five Sullivan brothers, onboard USS Juneau, were all killed in the action.
1942 – World War II: thirty-three C-47 transports dropped three hundred men of the 2nd Battalion, 509th Parachute Regiment on Youks-les-Bains airfield in central Tunisia near Tebessa, Algeria.
1943 – World War II: HOLOCAUST: German SS leader Heinrich Himmler orders that Gypsies were to be put “on the same level as Jews and placed in concentration camps.”
1944 – World War II: Forces of the US 3rd Army advance around Metz. To the south of the city, the Metz-Sarrebourg rail line is cut. To the right, the US 7th Army advances along the line north of St. Die.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rumors are Flying” by Frankie Carle, “South America, Take It Away” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “You Keep Coming Back like a Song” by Dinah Shore and “Divorce Me C.O.D.” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1950 – First Negro player in organized hockey-Arthur Dorrington signed with the Atlantic City Seagulls of the Eastern Amateur Division.
1952 – The Bugs Bunny Cartoon Rabbit’s Kin is released in theaters, it introduces Pete Puma and Buster Rabbit.
1952 – “I Went to Your Wedding” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1954 – First regularly scheduled commercial flights over North Pole begins. The “Helge Viking” (OY-KMI) took off in Copenhagen for the first commercial flight over the North Pole. Final destination was Los Angeles (LAX).
1954 – “Studio One” on CBS-TV featured Joan Weber singing “Let Me Go, Lover.”
1956 – The first film starring Elvis Presley, “Love Me Tender”, opens. The music for “Love Me Tender” is based on a 1861 Classical piece called “Aura Lee.”
1956 – “Li’l Abner” opened at St James Theater NYC for 693 performances.
1957 – US sentences Soviet spy Rudolf Ivanovich Abel to 30 years & $3,000. He later became the exchange for Francis Gary Powers, the U2 pilot held by the Russians.
1957 – Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev claims that the Soviet Union has missile superiority over the United States and challenges America to a missile “shooting match” to prove it.
1958 – “It’s Only Make Believe” by Conway Twitty topped the charts.
1960 – The first submarine with nuclear missiles, USS George Washington, went to sea.
1960 – The Polaris missile is test launched.
1962 – Cuba threatened to down U.S. planes on reconnaissance flights over its territory.
1965 – Craig Breedlove sets land speed record (600.601 mph).
1965 – The Rolling Stones made their debut on NBC-TV’s “Hullabaloo” television show. The band performed “Get Off My Cloud.”
1966 – Gemini program: Gemini 12 splashes down safely in the Atlantic Ocean with astronauts James A. Lovell and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin Jr. on board.
1968 – RMS Queen Elizabeth, in its day the largest ocean liner ever built, retired from service.
1969 – The first album featuring Karen and Richard Carpenter was released by A&M Records.
1969 – A quarter of a million anti-Vietnam War demonstrators staged a peaceful march in Washington, D.C.
1969 – The Soviet submarine K-19 collides with the American submarine USS Gato in the Barents Sea.
1969 – Dave Thomas opens the first Wendy’s fast food restaurant in Dublin, Ohio.
1969 – “Wedding Bell Blues” by 5th Dimension topped the charts.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be There” by The Jackson 5, “We’ve Only Just Begun” by the Carpenters, “I Think I Love You” by The Partridge Family and “I Can’t Believe That You’ve Stopped Loving Me” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1971 – Intel advertised its 4004-processor.
1972 – Small Astronomy Satellite Explorer 48 launched to study gamma rays. Its purpose was to measure the spatial and energy distribution of primary galactic and extragalactic gamma radiation.
1975 – “Island Girl” by Elton John topped the charts.
1979 – ABC-TV announces it would broadcast nightly specials on Iran hostages.
1979 – Nobel Prize in economics awarded to Professor Arthur Lewis of Princeton. He was the first Black cited in a category other than peace.
1979 – Spingarn Medal awarded to Rosa L. Parks, who was the catalyst in the Montgomery bus boycott of 1955-56.
1979 – A package from the Unabomber Ted Kaczynski begins smoking in the cargo hold of a flight from Chicago to Washington, forcing the plane to make an emergency landing. Twelve American Airlines passengers suffered from smoke inhalation.
1980 – “Lady” by Kenny Rogers topped the charts.
1983 – U.S. Navy CAPT George Tsantes was shot and killed while on his way to work in Athens. His chauffeur also died in the attack. The Greek terrorist organization “November 17” subsequently took credit for the killings.
1984 – Baby Fae died 20 days after receiving a baboon heart transplant in Loma Linda, California.
1985 – A research assistant is injured as a package from the Unabomber addressed to a University of Michigan professor explodes.
1986 – Ivan F. Boesky faced penalties of $100 million for insider stock trading. It was the highest penalty ever imposed by the Securities & Exchange Commission.
1987 – Twenty-eight of 82 people aboard a Continental Airlines DC-9 enroute to Boise, ID, including the pilot and co-pilot, were killed when the jetliner crashed seconds after taking off from Denver’s Stapleton International Airport in an early snowstorm.
1989 – “Batman” is released on video tape.
1990 – President George H.W. Bush signed the Clear Air Act of 1990.
1990 – Space Shuttle program: Space Shuttle Atlantis launches with flight STS-38.
1990 – Producers confirm that Milli Vanilli didn’t sing on their album. As a result of American media pressure, Milli Vanilli’s Grammy was withdrawn four days later.
1990 – Members of the so-called Keating Five — Sens. Alan Cranston, D-Calif.; Dennis DeConcini, D-Ariz.; John Glenn, D-Ohio; John McCain, R-Ariz.; and Donald Riegle, D-Mich. — were accused of influence peddling on behalf of savings and loan kingpin Charles Keating. John McCain was later completely exonerated of the charges.
1990 – The US Golf Association bans racial & gender discrimination.
1991 – Ricky Pierce (Seattle) begins NBA free throw streak of 75 games.
1991 – A federal appeals panel threw out former National Security Adviser John M. Poindexter’s felony convictions in the Iran-Contra affair, saying his immunized testimony to Congress was improperly used against him.
1992 – After 200 victories and 7 championships, Richard Petty retires from NASCAR. Today he drove his last lap.
1993 – A judge in Mineola, NY, sentenced Joey Buttafuoco to six months in jail for the statutory rape of Amy Fisher. Fisher was serving a prison sentence for shooting and wounding Buttafuoco’s wife, Mary Jo.
1995 – Texaco agreed to pay $176 million to settle a race-discrimination lawsuit.
1995 – The space shuttle “Atlantis” docked with the orbiting Russian space station “Mir.”
1995 – On the second day of a government shutdown Monica Lewinsky and Pres. Clinton began a sexual relationship at the White House. The relationship lasted about eighteen months.
1996 – Miami black commissioner, Miller Dawkins, pleaded guilty to bribery, corruption and conspiracy in attempting to shake down Unisys Corp. for $200,000.
1996 – Singer Michael Jackson married the woman carrying his baby — his plastic surgeon’s nurse, Debbie Rowe.
1996 – In San Francisco a Vietnamese gang leader, Conga Tran, and his lawyer, Dennis Natali, were shot to death in separate incidents.
1999 – Transit of Mercury visible in North America.
2000 – Al Gore made a surprise proposal for a statewide hand recount of Florida’s 6 million ballots.
2001 – Investigators in Florida said anthrax was found throughout the 68,000-square-foot America Media building in Boca Raton, where the first case of anthrax poisoning was identified.
2001 – Two al-Qaeda computers were acquired by a Wall Street journalist in Kabul for $1,100 following US bombing. They were found to contain over 1,750 text and video files of al Qaeda activities including weapons programs.
2001 – United Airlines announced that it would put stun guns into the cockpits of each of its 500 planes.
2001 – Henry Ossawa Tanner, painter of biblical, landscape and genre subjects, was the first African-American artist elected to full membership in the National Academy.
2003 – The city of Augusta, GA, announced that it planned to construct a statue of James Brown and rename a music festival in his honor.
2003 – Two US Army Black Hawk helicopters collided under fire and crashed in the northern Iraqi city of Mosul, killing at least 17 soldiers.
2004 – Iran announced it would suspend its uranium enrichment program when, faced with the possibility of U.N. sanctions.
2004 – Top CIA officials, Stephen Kappes and Michael Sulick announced their resignations after reported disputes with new Director Peter J. Goss.
2004 – President George W. Bush accepts the resignation of Secretary of State Colin Powell. He is the sixth Cabinet member to resign since the re-election of President Bush.
2004 – New Jersey Gov. James E. McGreevey stepped down from office amid rumors of that he was about to be sued for sexual harassment. Upon publicly revealing his homosexuality on August 12, 2004, McGreevey became the first and, to date, the only openly gay state governor in United States history.
2005 – Albert Pujols of the St. Louis Cardinals won the National League MVP award.
2005 – A tornado outbreak stretching from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico occurred. Many of the tornadoes (at least 50 confirmed) happened during the afternoon and evening across the country.
2005 – The US government declared the Puget Sound orcas an endangered species.
2005 – The Mega Millions lottery reached $315 million and was won by a group of 7 employees at the Kaiser Permanente medical center at Garden Grove, Ca.
2006 – O.J. Simpson caused an uproar with plans for a TV interview and book titled “If I Did It,” in which Simpson describes how he would have committed the 1994 slayings of his ex-wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend Ronald Goldman.
2006 – Researchers said heart valves were grown from stem cells filtered from amniotic fluid.
2006 – Senator Mitch McConnell becomes the leader of the Republicans in the United States Senate.
2007 – During a feisty Democratic debate in Las Vegas, Hillary Rodham Clinton accused her closest rivals, Barack Obama and John Edwards, of slinging mud “right out of the Republican playbook” and sharply criticized their records.
2007 – Barry Bonds, former San Francisco Giant, was indicted on four counts of perjury and one count of obstruction of justice related to a December, 2003, grand jury investigation on the BALCO steroid ring.
2007 – Actress Lindsay Lohan completed her jail sentence for drunken driving in a swift 84 minutes.
2008 – Mission STS-126 starts with the launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour. The Shuttle will deliver equipment required to increase the crew capacity of the International Space Station from three to six members.
2008 – In Southern California the Triangle Complex Fire broke out in Corona and Orange counties. The fire soon covered 10,475 acres and damaged or destroyed 119 residences.
2008 – In North Carolina tornado outbreak killed two people and injured six others.
2008 – Over 1 million people in 300 cities protest the passing of California’s Proposition 8.
2009 – President Barack Obama becomes the first U.S. President to meet with Burma’s military government, calling for the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and other political prisoners.
2010 – US diplomat Richard Holbrooke says the US has a transition plan for Afghanistan, not an exit strategy, and that there will be some drawdown of American troops in Afghanistan next year but the U.S. combat mission will not end there until 2014.
2010 – Scientists exhume the remains of 16th century astronomer Tycho Brahe in Prague to try to solve the mystery of his sudden death.
2011 – The New York Police Department clears Occupy Wall Street protesters from Zuccotti Park.
2011 – Negotiators from the United States Senate and House of Representatives reach a partial budget agreement.
2012 – BP announces it will plead guilty to charges of manslaughter and obstruction of Congress, and will pay a total of US$4.5 billion to the US Department of Justice and Securities and Exchange Commission.
2012 – The two highest-ranking BP supervisors on board the Deepwater Horizon on the day of the explosion have been indicted on 23 criminal counts.
2012 – Four people are killed and 17 others are injured in the Midland train wreck after a Union Pacific train struck a parade float in Midland, Texas.
2013 – A Georgia restaurant owner received a fine from the city of McDonough code enforcement on Friday for flying nine patriotic flags atop his business, CJ’s Hot Dogs.
1708 – William Pitt, the Elder, British statesman.
1738 – William Herschel, English astronomer. He was a German-born British astronomer and composer who became famous for discovering the planet Uranus. He also discovered infrared radiation and made many other astronomical discoveries.
1882 – Felix Frankfurter, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1965)
1887 – Georgia O’Keeffe, American artist.
1891 – W. Averell Harriman, American diplomat.
1891 – Erwin Rommel, German field marshal (d. 1944)
1906 – Curtis LeMay, U.S. Air Force general (d. 1990)
1925 – Howard Baker, U.S. Senator and White House Chief of Staff
1934 – Petula Clark, British singer and actress.
1957 – Kevin Eubanks, American jazz guitarist who has been the leader of the Tonight Show band since 1995.
*BALDANADO, JOE R.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company B, 187 Airborne Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Kangdong, Korea, November 15th, 1950. Entered service at: Santa Clara, Calif. Born: 28 August 1930, Colorado Date of Issue: 18 March 2014 Departed: Yes (11/25/1950)
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Corporal Joe R. Baldonado distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an acting machinegunner in 3d Squad, 2d Platoon, Company B, 187th Airborne Infantry Regiment during combat operations against an armed enemy in Kangdong, Korea on November 25, 1950. On that morning, the enemy launched a strong attack in an effort to seize the hill occupied by Corporal Baldonado and his company. The platoon had expended most of its ammunition in repelling the enemy attack and the platoon leader decided to commit his 3d Squad, with its supply of ammunition, in the defensive action. Since there was no time to dig in because of the proximity of the enemy, who had advanced to within twenty-five yards of the platoon position, Corporal Baldonado emplaced his weapon in an exposed position and delivered a withering stream of fire on the advancing enemy, causing them to fall back in disorder. The enemy then concentrated all their fire on Corporal Baldonado’s gun and attempted to knock it out by rushing the position in small groups and hurling hand grenades. Several times, grenades exploded extremely close to Corporal Baldonado but failed to interrupt his continuous firing. The hostile troops made repeated attempts to storm his position and were driven back each time with appalling casualties. The enemy finally withdrew after making a final assault on Corporal Baldonado’s position during which a grenade landed near his gun, killing him instantly. Corporal Baldonado’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
*JORDAN, MACK A.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company K 21st Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kumsong, Korea, November 15th, 1951. Entered service at: Collins, Miss Born: 8 December 1928, Collins, Miss. G.O. No.: 3, 8 January 1953 Citation: Pfc. Jordan, a member of Company K, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. As a squad leader of the 3d Platoon, he was participating in a night attack on key terrain against a fanatical hostile force when the advance was halted by intense small-arms and automatic-weapons fire and a vicious barrage of hand grenades. Upon orders for the platoon to withdraw and reorganize, Pfc. Jordan voluntarily remained behind to provide covering fire. Crawling toward an enemy machine gun emplacement, he threw three grenades and neutralized the gun. He then rushed the position delivering a devastating hail of fire, killing several of the enemy and forcing the remainder to fall back to new positions. He courageously attempted to move forward to silence another machine gun but, before he could leave his position, the ruthless foe hurled explosives down the hill and in the ensuing blast both legs were severed. Despite mortal wounds, he continued to deliver deadly fire and held off the assailants until the platoon returned. Pfc. Jordan’s unflinching courage and gallant self-sacrifice reflect lasting glory upon himself and uphold the noble traditions of the infantry and the military service.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date: Over Borneo and Leyte, 10 October to November 15th, 1944. Entered service at: Poplar, Wis. Birth: Poplar, Wis. G.O. No.: 90, 8 December 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty in the Southwest Pacific area from 10 October to 15 November 1944. While he was assigned to duty as gunnery instructor and neither required nor expected to perform combat duty. Maj. Bong voluntarily, and at his own urgent request, engaged in repeated combat missions, including unusually hazardous sorties over Balikpapan, Borneo, and in the Leyte area of the Philippines. His aggressiveness and daring resulted in his shooting down eight enemy airplanes during this period.
Loosen Up- Lighten Up Day
National Teddy Bear Day
In 1902 President Theodore Roosevelt was on a hunting trip in Mississippi. As reported in the Washington Post, the presidential hunting party trailed and lassoed a lean, black bear, then tied it to a tree. The president was summoned, but when he arrived on the scene he refused to shoot the tied and exhausted bear, considering it to be unsportsmanlike.
The following day, November 16, Clifford Barryman, Washington Post editorial cartoonist, immortalized the incident as part of a front-page cartoon montage. Barryman pictured Roosevelt, his gun before him with the butt resting on the ground and his back to the animal, gesturing his refusal to take the trophy shot. Written across the lower part of the cartoon were the words “Drawing the Line in Mississippi,” which coupled the hunting incident to a political dispute.
The cartoon drew immediate attention. In Brooklyn,NY, shopkeeper Morris Michtom displayed two toy bears in the window of his Stationary and novelty store. The bears had been made by his wife, Rose from plush stuffed excelsior and finished with black shoe button eyes. Michtom recognized the immediate popularity of the new toy, requested and received permission from Roosevelt himself to call them “Teddy’s Bears.”
The little stuffed bears were a success. As demand for them increased, Michtom moved his business to a loft, under the name of the Ideal Novelty and Toy Corporation.
At the same time as it was born in The United States, the Teddy Bear was also born in Germany. The Steiff Company of Giengen produced it’s first jointed stuffed bears during the same 1902-1903 period. The company had made toys for a number of years and had produced small wool-felt pincushion type animals of many varieties. The animals were the creation of Margaret Steiff. Steiff bears were first introduced at the 1903 Leipzig Fair, where an American buyer saw them and ordered several thousand for shipment to theUS.
While other stories have been told regarding the birth of this wonderful toy, the simultaneous births in Brooklyn and Giengen are the best substantiated.
“Be ready when opportunity comes. Luck is the time when preparation and opportunity meet.”
~ Roy D. Chapin Jr.
First water (furst WA-tuhr) noun
1. The highest degree of quality in a precious stone,
especially a diamond.
2. The best grade or quality.
[Transparency is highly desirable in diamonds, and when they are
nearly as transparent as water, they are known as diamonds of the
first water. As the transparency decreases, we get second or third
water. Hence figuratively, something or someone of the first water
is first grade, first class, or of the best in its class.]
1666 – First blood transfusion took place (between dogs); it was performed by Dr. Croone in England.
1732 – The Library Company of Philadelphia, founded by Benjamin Franklin, signed a contract with its first librarian. The Library Company served as the de facto Library of Congress until 1800. First professional librarian’s name was Louis Timothee.
1770 – Scottish explorer James Bruce discovered the source of the Blue Nile in Ethiopia.
1792 – Captain George Vancouver is first Englishman to enter San Francisco Bay.
1832 – The first streetcar — a horse-drawn vehicle called the John Mason — went into operation in New York City on 4th Avenue between Prince & 14th. There was room for 30 people and the fare was 12 cents.
1839 – First US anti-slavery party, Liberty Party, convenes in NY.
1846 – US Naval forces capture Tampico, Mexico. This will be a staging point for the coming action against Vera Cruz.
1851 – Herman Melville’s novel Moby-Dick is published in the U.S. by Harper & Brothers, New York – after it was first published on October 18, 1851 by Richard Bentley, London.
1862 – Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln approves General Ambrose Burnside’s plan to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia, leading to the Battle of Fredericksburg.
1881 – Charles J. Guiteau went on trial for assassinating President Garfield. Guiteau was convicted and hanged the following year.
1882 – Billy Clairborne, a survivor of the gunfight at the O.K. Corral, lost his life in a shoot-out with Buckskin Frank Leslie.
1888 – USC Trojans (then Methodists) play their first football game. The game against the Alliance Athletic Club ended in a 16-0 victory for the Methodists.
1889 – Newspaper reporter Nellie Bly set off to attempt to break Jules Verne’s imaginary hero Phileas Fogg’s record of voyaging around the world in 80 days. She beat the record, needing just over 72 days for the trip.
1904 – First stadium built specifically for football opens. The Harvard Stadium opens for its first athletic event, the Harvard-Dartmouth football game. Dartmouth wins, 11-0.
1906 – Roosevelt becomes first US President to visit a foreign country (Panama).
1910 – Aviation pioneer Eugene Ely performs the first take-off from a ship inHampton Roads, VA. He took off from a makeshift deck on the light cruiser USS Birmingham in a Curtiss pusher.
1921 – The Cherokee Indians asked the U.S. Supreme Court to review their claim to 1 million acres of land in Texas.
1922 – The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) began its first radio broadcasts.
1935 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed the Philippines a free commonwealth. The Tydings-McDuffie Act planned for the Phillipines to be completely independent by July 4, 1946.
1940 – World War II: German Luftwaffe bombers virtually destroyed the industrial town of Coventry, England.
1941 – The order to withdraw Marines at Shanghai, Peiping, and Tientsin, China was issued.
1942 – World War II: Off the coast of Guadalcanal, Admiral Tanaka turns south with his destroyers and transports and comes under heavy air attack from both Henderson Field and planes from the USS Enterprise.
1943 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Secretary of State Cordell Hull, and all of America’s top military brass, narrowly escaped disaster aboard the U.S. battleship Iowa, when a live torpedo is accidentally fired at them from the U.S. destroyer William D. Porter.
1943 – World War II: On Bougainville the American divisions push back the Japanese along the jungle tracks.
1943 – Chicago Bear Sid Luckman passes for seven touchdowns vs NY Giants (56-7).
1943 – Ernie Nevers of the St. Louis Cardinals became the first professional football player to score six touchdowns in a single game and kicking four extra points, racking up 40 points against the crosstown rival Chicago Bears.
1944 – Tommy Dorsey and orchestra records “Opus No. 1.”
1945 – Captain Eddie Rickenbacker sold the historic Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Former Indy winner Wilbur Shaw became the new president and manager of the speedway. The track was purchased by the Tony Holman family a short time later.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Been a Long, Long Time” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “Till the End of Time” by Perry Como, “I’ll Buy that Dream” by The Pied Pipers and “With Tears in My Eyes” by Wesley Tuttle all topped the charts.
1951 – The first world lightweight title fight was telecast coast to coast. Jimmy Carter beat Art Aragon in Los Angeles.
1952 – Korean War – Thirty-seven service members returning from rest and recuperation leave in Japan and seven crew members were killed in the crash of a C-119 transport near Seoul.
1953 – “St. George and the Dragonet” by Stan Freberg topped the Billboard charts.
1959 – Kilauea’s most spectacular eruption (in Hawaii).
1959 – “Mack the Knife” by Bobby Darin topped the charts.
1960 – “Georgia on My Mind” by Ray Charles topped the charts.
1960 – President Dwight Eisenhower ordered U.S. naval units into the Caribbean after Guatemala and Nicaragua charged Castro with starting uprisings.
1960 – U.S. marshals and parents escorted four Black girls to two New Orleans schools.
1961 – President Kennedy increased the number of American advisors in Vietnam from 1,000 to 16,000.
1964 – “Baby Love” by the Supremes topped the charts.
1964 – “Oliver!” closed at Imperial Theater NYC after 774 performances.
1965 – Vietnam War: Battle of the Ia Drang begins – the first major engagement between regular American and North Vietnamese forces.
1965 – Vietnam War: US government sent 90,000 soldiers to Vietnam.
1966 – Boxing’s largest indoor crowd assembled in the Houston Astrodome to see Cassius Clay (later Muhammad Ali) defeat Cleveland Williams — by a TKO.
1967 The Monkees received a gold record for “Daydream Believer.”
1967 – Vietnam War: Maj. Gen. Bruno Hochmuth, commander of the 3rd Marine Division, is killed when the helicopter in which he is travelling is shot down. He was the most senior U.S. officer to be killed in action in the war to date.
1968 – Yale University announced that it will become co-ed.
1969 – Apollo 12, the second manned mission to the surface of the moon, was launched, with astronauts Charles Conrad, Jr., Richard F. Gordon, Jr., and Alan L. Bean aboard. They landed within walking distance of Surveyor III spacecraft which had landed on the Moon in April of 1967.
1970 – “I’ll Be There” by the Jackson 5 topped the charts.
1970 – On a rainy hill side in Wayne County, West Virginia, the lives of 75 people were lost in the worst single air tragedy in NCAA sports history. Among the losses were nearly the entire Marshall University football team, coaches, flight crew, numerous fans, and supporters. 75 people wer killed. See the movie, “We Are
1971 – Mariner program: Mariner 9 reaches Mars, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit another planet.
1972 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed above the 1,000 (1003.6) level for the first time.
1972 – Blue Ribbon Sports became Nike.
1973 – Patsy Sherman & Samuel Smith obtained a patent for a method for treating carpets, known as Scotchguard. 3M.
1975 – “They Just Can’t Stop It (The Games People Play)” became a gold record for the Spinners.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Light Up My Life” by Debby Boone, “Boogie Nights” by Heatwave, “It’s Ecstasy When You Lay Down Next to Me” by Barry White and “More to Me” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1979 – Iran hostage crisis: US President Jimmy Carter issues Executive order12170, freezing all Iranian assets in the United States in response to the hostage crisis.
1981 – Paul ‘Bear’ Bryant tied the record of Amos Alonzo Stagg for most football wins. The Alabama Crimson Tide put up win #314 for Coach Bryant.
1981 – “Private Eyes” by Daryl Hall and John Oates topped the charts.
1982 – Solidarity leader Lech Walesa was released from prison after 11 months.
1984 – Astronauts aboard “Discovery” pluck a 2-second satellite from orbit.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Miami Vice Theme” by Jan Hammer, “Head over Heels” by Tears For Fears, “You Belong to the City” by Glenn Frey and “Can’t Keep a Good Man Down” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1986 – The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission imposed a record $100 million penalty against Ivan F. Boesky for insider-trading and barred him from working again in the securities industry.
1986 – White House acknowledges CIA role in secretly shipping weapons to Iran.
1987 – “I Think We’re Alone Now” by Tiffany topped the charts.
1987 – The “Dirty Dancing” movie soundtrack was the number one album in the US.
1988 – The TV series “Murphy Brown” featured Candice Bergen working as an investigative journalist and producer of a TV news magazine. The show continued to 1998.
1990 – Simon and Schuster announced it had dropped plans to publish Bret Easton Ellis novel “American Psycho.” Vintage Books purchased the rights to the novel and published the book after the customary editing process. Interestingly, the book was never published in hardcover form in the United States.
1990 – Iraq War: PSU 302, staffed by Coast Guard reservists from Cleveland, Ohio, arrived in the Persian Gulf in support of operation Desert Shield. They were stationed in Bahrain.
1991 – WORKPLACE VIOLENCE – Thomas McIlvane fatally shot four workers at the Royal Oak, MI, Post Office before killing himself. He had been fired from the location.
1993 – Don Shula became the winningest coach in NFL history.
1995 – A budget standoff between Democrats and Republicans in the U.S. Congress forces the federal government to temporarily close national parks and museums and to run most government offices with skeleton staffs.
1996 – The first General Motors electric automobile, the EV1, was produced in Lansing, Mich. Its range was estimated at 70-90 miles before recharge.
1997 – A jury in Fairfax, Va., decided that Pakistani national Mir Aimal Kasi should get the death penalty for gunning down two CIA employees outside agency headquarters. Kasi was sentenced to death in January 1998 and was then executed by lethal injection on November 14, 2002, at Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt, Virginia
1997 – Sara Lister, assistant secretary of the Army for manpower and reserve affairs, resigned in the wake of political pressure after she called Marines “extremists” and made fun of their uniforms as “checkerboard fancy.”
1998 – “Doo Wop” by Lauryn Hill topped the charts.
1998 – The US tobacco industry agreed to a $260 billion settlement of state’s claims for public health costs due to smoking.
2000 – Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris certified George W. Bush’s fragile 300-vote lead over Al Gore, hours after a judge refused to lift a 5 p.m. deadline; however, the judge gave Harris the authority to accept or reject follow-up manual recount totals.
2001 – The Microsoft Xbox, a video game player, went on sale for $299.
2001 – Attorney General Ashcroft unveiled an overhaul of the INS. Law enforcement and service operations would be split.
2002 – The US House of Representatives votes to not create an independent commission to investigate the September 11 attacks.
2002 – Nancy Pelosi of California was elected to succeed Richard Gephardt, who chose to step down, as leader of the Democratic Party in the U.S. House of Representatives; she was the first woman to be named leader of either party in either house of Congress. Robert Menendez of New Jersey was elected as caucus chairman, the highest post ever held by an Hispanic.
2003 – The Bush administration announced that it intends to hand over sovereignty to the Iraqis by June 30, 2004.
2003 – John Kerry became the second Democratic hopeful to opt out of public financing for his presidential run, following the example of rival Howard Dean.
2003 – In Pittsburgh, Pa., a third person died from an outbreak of hepatitis A that infected nearly 600 people. They all had recently eaten at a Chi-Chi’s Mexican mall restaurant. Green onions were blamed for the outbreak.
2004 – Iraq War – The US military occupied Fallujah after six days of fighting. The military said thirty-one Americans have been killed in the siege. US Marines found the mutilated body of what they believe was a Western woman during a sweep of a street in central Fallujah.
2004 – It was reported that since 2002 the dollar has lost about 20% against a broad basket of currencies and over 40% against the euro.
2005 – Alex Rodriguez of the New York Yankees won his second American League Most Valuable Player award in three seasons.
2005 – AOL and Warner Bros. announced plans to create a broadband network called In2TV to streamcast old TV shows beginning in early 2006. They planned 2 minutes of advertising for each half hour.
2005 – Marriott Corp. said it had agreed to pay about $4 billion to acquire a portfolio of 38 luxury and upscale hotels from Starwood Hotels and Resorts Worldwide Inc.
2006 – Intel launched its first computer chips with four processing cores.
2006 – Brandon Webb of the Arizona Diamondbacks won a wide-open race for the NL Cy Young Award.
2006 – Honda unveiled the hydrogen powered Honda FCX in Monterey, Ca. Hondo planned to produce fuel cell cars within two years.
2006 – Sen. Harry Reid, a liberal Nevada Democrat, was elected by colleagues as US Senate majority leader for the 110th Congress that will convene in January.
2007 – A justice of the peace ordered O.J. Simpson to stand trial on kidnapping and armed robbery charges stemming from a confrontation with memorabilia dealers in a Las Vegas casino hotel room. Simpson and a co-defendant were convicted in October, 2008.
2007 – A US congressional advisory panel said that Chinese espionage posed “the single greatest risk” to US technology, and called for efforts to protect industrial secrets and computer networks.
2007 – In Texas Joe Horn (62) shot and killed two suspected burglars, with bags in hand, crawling out of windows from his neighbor’s home in the Houston suburb of Pasadena. In 2008 a jury acquitted Horn of murder.
2008 – The US Army promoted its first woman, Ann Dunwoody, to the rank of four-star general.
2008 – Space shuttle Endeavour and seven astronauts made a night time launch and raced toward the International Space Station for a home makeover job.
2008 – In California firefighters and a squadron of aircraft launched a desperate daylight attack to push back a wind-whipped wildfire that destroyed 210 homes and forced thousands to evacuate near Santa Barbara. The fire was later traced to a bonfire out at a tea garden by a group of young adults, who thought they had put the fire.
2009 – In Lassen County, Ca., a medical Aerospatiale AS350 helicopter crashed near the Nevada state line killing all three crew members. They were returning to Susanville after dropping off a patient in Reno.
2009 – Evangelist Tony Alamo is sentenced to 175 years in prison for taking underage girls across several states for sexual intercourse.
2010 – The United States, under President Obama, offered Israel 20 F-35s and opposition to anti-Israel resolutions in the UN if Israel agrees to a partial 90-day freeze in building in the West Bank, excluding east Jerusalem.
2011 – Riot police shut down the “Occupy Portland” and “Occupy Oakland” rallies. Dozens of people are arrested.
2013 – Rep. Pete Olson (R-TX) has introduced an Articles of Impeachment resolution against Attorney General Eric Holder for his role in Operation Fast and Furious and other scandals of President Barack Obama’s administration.
2013 – OBAMACARE: Under fire after insurers canceled plans that didn’t meet the law’s requirements, the White House instructs states to let individuals keep their policies for another year.
2014 – The National Cathedral in Washington, D.C., hosted its very first Muslim call to prayer.
1765 – Robert Fulton, American builder of first profitable steamboat.
1828 – James B. McPherson, American Civil War general (d. 1864)
1840 – Claude Monet, French Impressionist artist.
1896 – Mamie Eisenhower, First Lady of 34th U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower.
1904 – Dick Powell, American actor (d. 1963)
1935 – Jordan’s King Hussein.
1947 – P. J. O’Rourke, American political satirist, journalist, and writer.
1948 – Charles, Prince of Wales, heir to the British throne.
1954 – Former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.
1966 – Curt Schilling, baseball player
CRANDALL, BRUCE P.
Rank and Organization: Major, U.S. Army, Company A, 229th Assault Helicopter Battalion, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and date: La Drang Valley, Republic of Vietnam, November 14th, 1965. Birth: Olympia, Washington, 1933. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Major Bruce P. Crandall distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism as a Flight Commander in the Republic of Vietnam, while serving with Company A, 229th Assault Helicopter Battalion, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). On 14 November 1965, his flight of sixteen helicopters was lifting troops for a search and destroy mission from Plei Me, Vietnam, to Landing Zone X-Ray in the La Drang Valley. On the fourth troop lift, the airlift began to take enemy fire, and by the time the aircraft had refueled and returned for the next troop lift, the enemy had Landing Zone X-Ray targeted. As Major Crandall and the first eight helicopters landed to discharge troops on his fifth troop lift, his unarmed helicopter came under such intense enemy fire that the ground commander ordered the second flight of eight aircraft to abort their mission. As Major Crandall flew back to Plei Me, his base of operations, he determined that the ground commander of the besieged infantry batallion desperately needed more ammunition. Major Crandall then decided to adjust his base of operations to Artillery Firebase Falcon in order to shorten the flight distance to deliver ammunition and evacuate wounded soldiers. While medical evacuation was not his mission, he immediately sought volunteers and with complete disregard for his own personal safety, led the two aircraft to Landing Zone X-Ray. Despite the fact that the landing zone was still under relentless enemy fire, Major Crandall landed and proceeded to supervise the loading of seriously wounded soldiers aboard his aircraft. Major Crandall’s voluntary decision to land under the most extreme fire instilled in the other pilots the will and spirit to continue to land their own aircraft, and in the ground forces the realization that they would be resupplied and that friendly wounded would be promptly evacuated. This greatly enhanced morale and the will to fight at a critical time. After his first medical evacuation, Major Crandall continued to fly into and out of the landing zone throughout the day and into the evening. That day he completed a total of 22 flights, most under intense enemy fire, retiring from the battlefield only after all possible service had been rendered to the Infantry battalion. His actions provided critical resupply of ammunition and evacuation of the wounded. Major Crandall’s daring acts of bravery and courage in the face of an overwhelming and determined enemy are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.
FREEMAN, ED W.
Rank and Organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Company A, 229th Assault Helicopter Battalion, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) Place and date: La Drang Valley, Republic of Vietnam, November 14th, 1965. Birth: Neely, Perry County, Mississippi Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Captain Ed W. Freeman, United States Army, distinguished himself by numerous acts of conspicuous gallantry and extraordinary intrepidity on 14 November 1965 while serving with Company A, 229th Assault Helicopter Battalion, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). As a flight leader and second in command of a 16-helicopter lift unit, he supported a heavily engaged American infantry battalion at Landing Zone X-Ray in the Ia Drang Valley, Republic of Vietnam. The unit was almost out of ammunition after taking some of the heaviest casualties of the war, fighting off a relentless attack from a highly motivated, heavily armed enemy force. When the infantry commander closed the helicopter landing zone due to intense direct enemy fire, Captain Freeman risked his own life by flying his unarmed helicopter through a gauntlet of enemy fire time after time, delivering critically needed ammunition, water and medical supplies to the besieged battalion. His flights had a direct impact on the battle’s outcome by providing the engaged units with timely supplies of ammunition critical to their survival, without which they would almost surely have gone down, with much greater loss of life. After medical evacuation helicopters refused to fly into the area due to intense enemy fire, Captain Freeman flew fourteen separate rescue missions, providing life-saving evacuation of an estimated thirty seriously wounded soldiers — some of whom would not have survived had he not acted. All flights were made into a small emergency landing zone within 100 to 200 meters of the defensive perimeter where heavily committed units were perilously holding off the attacking elements. Captain Freeman’s selfless acts of great valor, extraordinary perseverance and intrepidity were far above and beyond the call of duty or mission and set a superb example of leadership and courage for all of his peers. Captain Freeman’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
MARM, WALTER JOSEPH, JR.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant (then 2d Lt.), U.S. Army, Company A, 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and Date: Vicinity of La Drang Valley, Republic of Vietnam, November 14th, 1965. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, PA. Born: 20 November 1941, Washington, PA. G.O. No.: 7, 15 February 1967. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. As a platoon leader in the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), 1st Lt. Marm demonstrated indomitable courage during a combat operation. His company was moving through the valley to relieve a friendly unit surrounded by an enemy force of estimated regimental size. 1st Lt. Marm led his platoon through withering fire until they were finally forced to take cover. Realizing that his platoon could not hold very long, and seeing four enemy soldiers moving into his position, he moved quickly under heavy fire and annihilated all four. Then, seeing that his platoon was receiving intense fire from a concealed machine gun, he deliberately exposed himself to draw its fire. Thus locating its position, he attempted to destroy it with an antitank weapon. Although he inflicted casualties, the weapon did not silence the enemy fire. Quickly, disregarding the intense fire directed on him and his platoon, he charged thirty meters across open ground, and hurled grenades into the enemy position, killing some of the eight insurgents manning it. Although severely wounded, when his grenades were expended, armed with only a rifle, he continued the momentum of his assault on the position and killed the remainder of the enemy. 1st Lt. Marm’s selfless actions reduced the fire on his platoon, broke the enemy assault, and rallied his unit to continue toward the accomplishment of this mission. 1st Lt. Marm’s gallantry on the battlefield and his extraordinary intrepidity at the risk of his life are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
BAUER, HAROLD WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 20 November 1908. Woodruff, Kans. Appointed from: Nebraska. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous courage as Squadron Commander of Marine Fighting Squadron 212 in the South Pacific Area during the period 10 May to November 14th,1942. Volunteering to pilot a fighter plane in defense of our positions on Guadalcanal, Lt. Col. Bauer participated in two air battles against enemy bombers and fighters outnumbering our force more than two to one, boldly engaged the enemy and destroyed one Japanese bomber in the engagement of 28 September and shot down four enemy fighter planes in flames on 3 October, leaving a fifth smoking badly. After successfully leading twenty-six planes on an over-water ferry flight of more than 600 miles on 16 October, Lt. Col. Bauer, while circling to land, sighted a squadron of enemy planes attacking the U.S.S. McFarland. Undaunted by the formidable opposition and with valor above and beyond the call of duty, he engaged the entire squadron and, although alone and his fuel supply nearly exhausted, fought his plane so brilliantly that four of the Japanese planes were destroyed before he was forced down by lack of fuel. His intrepid fighting spirit and distinctive ability as a leader and an airman, exemplified in his splendid record of combat achievement, were vital factors in the successful operations in the South Pacific Area.
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
Rank and organization: Fireman First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 May 1869, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 503, 12 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Potomac during the passage of that vessel from Cat Island to Nassau, November 14th, 1898. Volunteering to enter the fireroom which was filled with steam, Cavanaugh, after repeated attempts, succeeded in reaching the auxiliary valve and opening it, thereby relieving the vessel from further danger.
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
Rank and organization: Fireman First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 March 1873, Inverness, Scotland. Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 503, 13 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Potomac during the passage of that vessel from Cat Island to Nassau, November 14th, 1898. Volunteering to enter the fireroom which was filled with steam, Jardine, after repeated attempts, succeeded in reaching the auxiliary valve and opening it, thereby relieving the vessel from further danger.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Cooper, U.S. Navy. Born: 1855, St. Vincent West Indies. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Adams at the Navy Yard, Mare Island, Calif., November 14th, 1879, Johnson rescued Daniel W. Kloppen, a workman, from drowning.
International Tongue Twisters Day
World Kindness Day
Speaking with a Twist
I am a public speaker and I enjoy creative thinking and improving, constantly, my skills. Tongue twisters are great for improving speaking skills and NOT getting your tang all tongueled up!!! To be an excellent speaker you must exercise your memory, your voice, your creativity and your mouth. These twisters are to exercise the mouth, to loosen the parts that actually move. Try each of these first few at least five times and increase your speed each time through. Stop each time you make a mistake and start over,.
Something in a thirty-acre thermal thicket of thorns and thistles thumped and thundered threatening the three-D thoughts of Matthew the thug – although, theatrically, it was only the thirteen-thousand thistles and thorns through the underneath of his thigh that the thirty year old thug thought of that morning.
To sit in solemn silence in a dull, dark dock,
In a pestilential prison, with a life-long lock,
Awaiting the sensation of a short, sharp shock,
From a cheap and chippy chopper on a big black block!
To sit in solemn silence in a dull, dark dock,
In a pestilential prison, with a life-long lock,
Awaiting the sensation of a short, sharp shock,
From a cheap and chippy chopper on a big black block!
A dull, dark dock, a life-long lock,
A short, sharp shock, a big black block!
To sit in solemn silence in a pestilential prison,
And awaiting the sensation
From a cheap and chippy chopper on a big black block!
I wish to wish the wish you wish to wish, but if you wish the wish the witch wishes, I won’t wish the wish you wish to wish.
Picky people pick Peter Pan Peanut-Butter, ’tis the peanut-butter picky people pick.
Through three cheese trees three free fleas flew.
While these fleas flew, freezy breeze blew.
Freezy breeze made these three trees freeze.
Freezy trees made these trees’ cheese freeze.
That’s what made these three free fleas sneeze.
from Fox in Sox by Dr. Seuss
I thought a thought, but the thought I thought was not the thought I thought I thought.
Then you can do this one:
“I think I thought that a thought that I thought was not the thought that I think that I thought though the thought that I thought was the thought that I thought and not the thought that I thought that I thought.”
Here are a few that you do at least eight times faster with each repetition:
Mommala Poppala Mommala Poppala
A box of biscuits, a box of mixed biscuits and a biscuit mixer
Get Grandma Great Greek Grapes
Eleven benevolent elephants
Honorificabilitudinatibus (From Shakespeare’s Love’s Labours Lost)
Choose orange shoes
A proper pot of coffee in a proper pot of coffee pot
Big black bug bit a big black bear and the big black bear bled black blood.
Knit kilts for nasty cold nights.
The more you practice these, the easier it will to speak and these are excellent exercises for extemporaneous speech.
[Romans 7:14-20] Bible tongue twister
14 We know that the law is spiritual; but I am unspiritual, sold as a slave to sin. 15 I do not understand what I do. For what I want to do I do not do, but what I hate I do. 16 And if I do what I do not want to do, I agree that the law is good. 17 As it is, it is no longer I myself who do it, but it is sin living in me. 18 For I know that good itself does not dwell in me, that is, in my sinful nature. For I have the desire to do what is good, but I cannot carry it out. 19For I do not do the good I want to do, but the evil I do not want to dothis I keep on doing. 20 Now if I do what I do not want to do, it is no longer I who do it, but it is sin living in me that does it.
“The reality of life is that your perceptions — right or wrong — influence everything else you do. When you get a proper perspective of your perceptions, you may be surprised how many other things fall into place.”
~ Roger Birkman
fillip FIL-uhp, noun:
1. A snap of the finger forced suddenly from the thumb; a smart blow.
2. Something serving to rouse or excite; a stimulus.
3. A trivial addition; an embellishment.
4. To strike with the nail of the finger, first placed against the ball of the thumb, and forced from that position with a sudden spring; to snap with the finger.
5. To snap; to project quickly.
6. To urge on; to provide a stimulus, by or as if by a fillip.
Fillip is probably of imitative origin.
1775 – U.S. forces under General Richard Montgomery captured Montreal in the American Revolution.
1776 – Captain John Paul Jones in Alfred with brig Providence captures British transport Mellish, carrying winter uniforms later used by Washington’s troops.
1789 – George Washington, inaugurated as the first president of the United States in April, returns to Washington at the end of his first presidential tour. For four weeks, Washington traveled by stagecoach through New England,
1789 – Benjamin Franklin wrote his “death and taxes” quote. He wrote it in a letter to French scientist and author Jean-Baptiste Leroy. Franklin noted that “Our new Constitution is now established, and has an appearance that promises permanency; but in this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.”
1805 – Johann George Lehner, a Viennese butcher, invented a recipe and called it the “frankfurter.”
1830 – Oliver Wendell Holmes publishes “Old Ironsides.” It was his first important poem and was a protest against the scrapping of the fighting ship Constitution.
1835 – Texans officially proclaimed independence from Mexico and called it the Lone Star Republic.
1841 – James Braid first sees a demonstration of animal magnetism, which leads to his study of the subject he eventually calls hypnosis.
1843 – Mt Rainier in Washington State erupts. Written by Brevet Captain J.C. Fremont: “… Wherever we came in contact with the rocks of these mountains, we found them volcanic, which is probably the character of the range; and at the time, two of the great snowy cones, Mount Regnier and St. Helens, were in action.”
1851 – The telegraph service between London and Paris started operations.
1851 – The Denny Party lands at Alki Point, the first settlers of what will become Seattle, Washington.
1860 – South Carolina’s legislature called a special convention to discuss secession from the Union.
1861 – President Lincoln pays a late night visit to General George McClellan, who Lincoln had recently named general in chief of the Union army. The general retired to his chambers before speaking with the president. This was the most famous example of McClellan’s cavalier disregard for the president’s authority.
1865 – US issues first gold certificates.
1875 – Harvard-Yale game is first college football contest with uniforms. Yale wore dark trousers, blue shirts, and yellow caps. Not to be outdone in sartorial splendor any more than in the score, Harvard showed up in crimson shirts, stockings, and knee breeches.
1875 – National Bowling Association organized in New York City.
1878 – New Mexico Governor Lew Wallace offered amnesty to many participants of the Lincoln County War, but not to gunfighter Billy the Kid.
1895 – First shipment of canned pineapple from Hawaii.
1900 – Baltimore Orioles (now NY Yankees) enter baseball’s American League.
1909 – Collier’s magazine accuses U.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger of questionable dealings in Alaskan coal fields. It was, in fact, a fight about differing ideas on how to best use and conserve western natural resources.
1909 – Two hundred fifty miners were killed in a fire and explosion at the St. Paul Mine at Cherry, IL.
1921 – “The Sheik,” starring Rudolph Valentino, is released. “The Sheik” proved extremely popular with female movie goers and helped established Valentino as the top male movie star and sex symbol of the day.
1927 – The Holland Tunnel opened to the public, connecting New York City and New Jersey beneath the Hudson River. It was the first to do so.
1930 – First revolving milk platform used. This was a 50-stall revolving platform that enabled the milking of 1,680 cows in seven hours by rotating them into position with the milking machines. A Rotolactor was displayed at the 1939 New York World’s Fair as part of the “Dairy World of Tomorrow,” exhibit in the Borden building.
1933 – In Minnesota, the first sit-down strike in American history was held by workers at the packing plant of George A. Hormel and Company.
1937 – NBC forms first full-sized symphony orchestra exclusively for radio. The NBC Symphony Orchestra made many recordings of symphonies, choral music, and operas. The conductor for its first seventeen years was Arturo Toscanini.
1940 – “Fantasia,” the Walt Disney animated movie, premiered in New York.
1941 – Congress amends the Neutrality Act of 1935 to allow American merchant ships access to war zones. This put U.S. vessels in the line of fire.
1941 – World War II: Europe: The aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal is torpedoed by U-81, sinking the following day.
1942 – World War II: Naval Battle of Guadalcanal – Off the coast of Guadalcanal, a Japanese convoy of 11 transports carrying 11,000 men and equipment escorted by Admiral Tanaka’s “Tokyo Express” approaches the island.
1942 – World War II: The minimum U.S. draft age was lowered to 18 from 21.
1942 – World War II: Five Sullivan brothers lost in Japanese raid. The five Sullivan Brothers from Waterloo, Iowa, were lost in the sinking of the cruiser USS Juneau by a Japanese torpedo off Guadalcanal during World War II in the Pacific. Following their deaths, the U.S. Navy changed regulations to prohibit close relatives from serving on the same ship.
1943 – World War II: Fifth Fleet carriers begin long range night bombing attacks on Japanese positions in Gilberts and Marshalls in preparation for landings. American B-17 Flying Fortresses bomb Tarawa atoll in preparation for the coming landings.
1943 – World War II: On Bougainville, the third wave of the US landing force comes ashore. This includes the rest of the US 37th Infantry Division and the 21st Marine Division.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dance with the Dolly” by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: Al Jennings), “I’ll Walk Alone” by Dinah Shore, “The Trolley Song” by The Pied Pipers and “Smoke on the Water” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: The Coast Guard-manned frigate USS Rockford, in concert with the Navy minesweeper USS Ardent, attacked and sank the Japanese Navy submarine I-12 mid-way between Hawaii and California. There were no survivors.
1944 – German U-978 sinks three Liberty ships in the English Channel.
1944 – Aircraft from US Task Force 38 (McCain) attack shipping and land targets on Luzon. American planes claim a Japanese cruiser and four destroyers sunk.
1946 – An aircraft flew over Mount Greylock in western Massachusetts and seeded the clouds with super-cooled ice crystals. This action produced the first artificial snow produced from a natural cloud. The snow, however, melted before it hit the slopes.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Belong to Me” by Jo Stafford, “Wish You Were Here” by Eddie Fisher, “Because You’re Mine” by Mario Lanza and “Jambalaya (On the Bayou)” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – A member of the Indiana Textbook Commission called for the removal of references to the book, “Robin Hood” from textbooks used by the state’s schools. She claimed that Robin Hood was a communist because he robbed the rich and gave it to the poor.
1954 – “I Need You Now” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.
1955 – FBI agents search the home of John Graham, a chief suspect in the United Airlines plane explosion that killed all 44 people on board on November 1.
1956 – US Supreme Court declared Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses illegal; this ended the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Save the Last Dance for Me” by The Drifters, “Poetry in Motion” by Johnny Tillotson, “Georgia on My Mind” by Ray Charles and “Wings of a Dove” by Ferlin Husky all topped the charts.
1961 – The Tokens’ “The Lion Sleeps Tonight” was released.
1964 – Bob Petit (St Louis Hawks) becomes first NBAer to score 20,000 points.
1965 – “Get Off My Cloud” by the Rolling Stones topped the charts.
1965 – “Fever” by the McCoys’ was released.
1965 – The SS Yarmouth Castle caught fire and burned on a trip from New York to the Bahamas. The fire was started by a mattress stored too close to a lighting circuit in a storage room, Room 610 and it caught fire. The room was filled with mattresses and paint cans, which fed the flames. Fourteen critically injured people were taken by helicopter from Bahama Star to Nassau hospitals. Bahama Star rescued 240 passengers and 133 crewmen. The Finnpulp rescued 51 passengers and 41 crewmen. Both ships arrived in Nassau on November 13. Eighty-seven people went down with the ship, and three of the rescued passengers later died at hospitals, bringing the final death toll to 90. Of the dead, only two were crewmembers: stewardess Phyllis Hall and Dr. Lisardo Diaz-Toorens, the ship’s physician. While some bodies were recovered, most were lost with the ship.
1967 – Carl Stokes became the first Black mayor in the U.S., elected mayor of Cleveland, OH.
1968 – The Beatles’ animated movie “Yellow Submarine” premiered in the U.S.
1969 – Vietnam War: Anti-war protesters in Washington, DC stage a symbolic “March Against Death.”
1969 – Vice President Spiro T Agnew accused network TV news depths of bias & distortion.
1970 – Vice President Spiro Agnew calls TV executives “impudent snobs.”
1971 – “Gypsys, Tramps, & Thieves” by Cher topped the charts.
1971 – Three Dog Night’s “Old Fashioned Love Song” was released.
1971 – The American space probe, Mariner 9, has become the first spacecraft to orbit another planet, swinging into its planned trajectory around Mars without a hitch.
1973 – Jerry Lee Lewis, Jr. was killed in a highway accident near Hernando, MS.
1974 – Nuclear activist Karen Silkwood is killed in a car crash while she is travelling to an interview with New York Times reporter David Burnham.
1974 – Ronald DeFeo, Jr. murders his entire family in Amityville, Long Island in the house that would become known as The Amityville Horror.
1975 – “Feelings” by Morris Albert, went gold.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)” by Rod Stewart, “The Wreck of the Edmond Fitzgerald” by Gordon Lightfoot, “Love So Right” by Bee Gees and “Somebody Somewhere (Don’t Know What He’s Missin’ Tonight)” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1977 – Al Capp’s “Li’l Abner” comic strip ended its newspaper run after 43 years.
1979 – Robert Jarvik was granted a patent for an artificial heart.
1979 – Ronald Reagan in New York announces his candidacy for President.
1982 – “Up Where We Belong” by Joe Cocker & Jennifer Warnes topped the charts.
1982 – A boxing match held in Las Vegas, Nevada ends when Ray Mancini defeats Kim Duk Koo. Kim’s died as a result of injuries on November 17. His death led to significant changes in the sport.
1982 – The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is dedicated in Washington D.C. after a march to its site by thousands of Vietnam War veterans. From August 5, 1964 through March 28, 1973, our Veteran brothers and sisters were among the 8,744,000 active duty U.S. military personnel who proudly served our Nation during the war in Vietnam, with 2,594,000 serving within the borders of South Vietnam, some deployed as early as 1954 and leaving as late as 1975. The Vietnam Era also includes all Veterans who served in the Republic of Vietnam as early as February 28, 1961.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Caribbean Queen (No More Love on the Run)” by Billy Ocean, “Purple Rain” by Prince & The Revolution, “Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go” by Wham! And “I’ve Been Around Enough to Know” by John Schneider all topped the charts.
1985 – Dwight Gooden, youngest 20-game winner, wins Cy Young award.
1986 – The state of California put Fricot City on the auction block for $8.8 million. The California town, about 60 miles southeast of Sacramento, featured a motel, 20 homes, and two swimming pools to the buyer.
1986 – President Ronald Reagan publicly acknowledged that the U.S. had sent “defensive weapons and spare parts” to Iran. He denied that the shipments were sent to free hostages, but that they had been sent to improve relations.
1990 – The World Wide Web first began.
1991 – Roger Clemens won his third Cy Young Award for the American League.
1994 – In San Francisco, CA, a heavily armed gunman traded fire with police, hitting two police officers, a paramedic and another person before being killed.
1995 – Greg Maddox (Atlanta Braves) became the first major league pitcher to win four consecutive Cy Young Awards.
1995 – Seven people, including five Americans are killed in a car bomb attack at a U.S. military headquarters in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
1996 – Sgt. Loren B. Taylor, a drill sergeant who’d had sex with three women recruits at Fort Leonard Wood, Mo., was given five months in prison and a bad-conduct discharge in the first sentencing of a growing Army sex scandal.
1996 – A grand jury in St. Petersburg, Fla., declined to indict a white policeman, Jim Knight, who had shot black motorist TyRon Lewis to death the previous month; the decision prompted angry mobs to return to the streets.
1997 – The musical “The Lion King” opened.
1998 – President Bill Clinton agreed to pay Paula Jones $850,000 — with no apology or admission of guilt — to settle her sexual harassment suit.
1998 – Monica Lewinsky signed a deal with St. Martin’s Press for the North American rights to her story about her affair with President Bill Clinton.
1998 – “The Wizard of Oz” was released on the big screen by Warner Bros. 59 years after its original release.
1999 – Lennox Lewis became the undisputed heavyweight champion of the world, winning a unanimous decision over Evander Holyfield in Las Vegas.
1999 – The Navy recovered the cockpit voice recorder from EgyptAir Flight 990, which crashed into the Atlantic Ocean October 31st with the loss of all 217 people aboard.
2000 – Two US F-16 military jets collided over waters off of northern Japan. One pilot was rescued and the other was missing.
2000 – Joe Mullen and Denis Savard were among those inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame.
2001 – Afghanistan’s ruling Taliban relinquished the capital of Kabul without a fight, allowing the U.S.-backed northern alliance to take over the city.
2001 – President George W. Bush signs an executive order allowing military tribunals against any foreigners suspected of having connections to terrorist acts or planned acts on the United States.This was the first time since World War II.
2002 – Irv Rubin (57), Jewish Defense League leader, died nine days after what federal authorities said was a suicide attempt in jail.
2003 – Eric Gagne of the Los Angeles Dodgers won the National League Cy Young Award.
2003 – Alabama Chief Justice Roy Moore, who had refused to remove his granite Ten Commandments monument from the state courthouse, was thrown off the bench by a judicial ethics panel for having “placed himself above the law.”
2005 – It was reported that within days after Hurricane Katrina hit, Lily Duke managed to do what other relief agencies couldn’t: get food and water to her neighbors in New Orleans.
2005 – Chicago Bears cornerback Nathan Vasher returns a missed field goal 108 yards against the San Francisco 49ers, the longest play in NFL history.
2006 – The Bush administration said illegal immigrants arrested in the US may be held indefinitely on suspicion of terrorism and may not challenge their imprisonment in civilian courts.
2007 – CC Sabathia won the AL Cy Young Award to become the first Cleveland pitcher in 35 years to earn the honor.
2007 – Officials said New York Gov. Eliot Spitzer has decided to abandon a plan to issue driver’s licenses to illegal immigrants.
2007 – In Las Vegas the New Frontier casino, opened in 1942, was imploded to make way for a $5 billion megaresort. It earned historical notations by becoming the Strip’s first theme casino and hosting Elvis Presley’s debut in the city.
2008 – The US Mint was scheduled to issue the Van Buren dollar coin, the eighth of its presidential dollar series.
2008 – The US government said the number of newly laid-off individuals seeking unemployment benefits has jumped to a seven-year high.
2009 – NASA announced that water had been discovered on the moon. The discovery came from the planned impact on the moon of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS).
2009 – Ohio became the first US state to adopt a procedure for lethal injections that uses just one drug, thiopental sodium.
2009 – The United States’ first marijuana cafe opened in Portland, Oregon, posing an early test of the Obama administration’s move to relax policing of medical use of the drug.
2010 – In California a gold Honda Accord tried to pass a group of motorcycles and caused a Dodge car to lose control on two-lane Route 98, a desert highway near Ocotillo, triggering a crash that killed five people and injured six others.
2011 – Police in the city of Portland, Oregon close down the Occupy Portland site resulting in 50 arrests.
2013 – One World Trade Center becomes the tallest building in the United States.
2013 – Four members of the United States Marine Corps are killed after ordnance accidentally explodes after a training exercise at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton.
2015 – Muslim terrorists conduct a series of terrorist attacks including mass shootings, suicide bombings, and hostage-taking in Paris, France, and its northern suburb, Saint-Denis. Three suicide bombings occurred outside the Stade de France, along with mass shootings and another suicide bombing at four locations near central Paris. The attacks killed 129 people, 89 of whom were at the Bataclan theatre. An additional 433 people were admitted to hospital with injuries sustained in the attacks. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) claimed responsibility for the attacks.
354 – Saint Augustine, Christian theologian and philosopher.
1312 – Edward III, father of Edward the Black Prince and John of Gaunt.
1732 – John Dickinson, American lawyer and Governor of Delaware and Pennsylvania (d. 1808)
1814 – Joseph Hooker, American General (d. 1879)
1850 – Robert Louis Stevenson, Scottish writer (d. 1894)
1856 – Louis Brandeis, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
1918 – Jack Elam, American actor (d. 2003)
1950 – Mary Lou Metzger, American singer, The Lawrence Welk Show
1955 – Whoopi Goldberg, American comic actress.
Rank and organization: Captain (then 1st Lt.), U.S. Army, Company A, 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, November 13th, 1966. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Born: 28 March 1940, Cambridge, Mass. G.O. No.: 4, 29 January 1968. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Company A was participating in a search and destroy operation when the leading platoon made contact with the enemy and a fierce fire-fight ensued. Capt. Grant was ordered to disengage the two remaining platoons and to maneuver them to envelop and destroy the enemy. After beginning their movement, the platoons encountered intense enemy automatic weapons and mortar fire from the front and flank. Capt. Grant was ordered to deploy the platoons in a defensive position. As this action was underway, the enemy attacked, using “human wave” assaults, in an attempt to literally overwhelm Capt. Grant’s force. In a magnificent display of courage and leadership, Capt. Grant moved under intense fire along the hastily formed defensive line repositioning soldiers to fill gaps created by the mounting casualties and inspiring and directing the efforts of his men to successfully repel the determined enemy onslaught. Seeing a platoon leader wounded, Capt. Grant hastened to his aid, in the face of the mass of fire of the entire enemy force, and moved him to a more secure position. During this action, Capt. Grant was wounded in the shoulder. Refusing medical treatment, he returned to the forward part of the perimeter, where he continued to lead and to inspire his men by his own indomitable example. While attempting to evacuate a wounded soldier, he was pinned down by fire from an enemy machine gun. With a supply of hand grenades, he crawled forward under a withering hail of fire and knocked out the machine gun, killing the crew, after which he moved the wounded man to safety. Learning that several other wounded men were pinned down by enemy fire forward of his position, Capt. Grant disregarded his painful wound and led 5 men across the fire-swept open ground to effect a rescue. Following return of the wounded men to the perimeter, a concentration of mortar fire landed in their midst and Capt. Grant was killed instantly. His heroic actions saved the lives of a number of his comrades and enabled the task force to repulse the vicious assaults and defeat the enemy. Capt. Grant’s actions reflect great credit upon himself and were in keeping with the finest traditions of the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, 74th Infantry Detachment (Long Range Patrol), 173d Airborne Brigade. Place and Date: Binh Dinh Province, Republic of Vietnam, November 13th, 1968. Entered service at: Minneapolis, Minn. Born: 21 September 1939, Budapest, Hungary. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. S/Sgt. Rabel distinguished himself while serving as leader of Team Delta, 74th Infantry Detachment. At 1000 hours on this date, Team Delta was in a defensive perimeter conducting reconnaissance of enemy trail networks when a member of the team detected enemy movement to the front. As S/Sgt. Rabel and a comrade prepared to clear the area, he heard an incoming grenade as it landed in the midst of the team’s perimeter. With complete disregard for his life, S/Sgt. Rabel threw himself on the grenade and, covering it with his body, received the complete impact of the immediate explosion. Through his indomitable courage, complete disregard for his safety and profound concern for his fellow soldiers, S/Sgt. Rabel averted the loss of life and injury to the other members of Team Delta. By his gallantry at the cost of his life in the highest traditions of the military service, S/Sgt. Rabel has reflected great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. Born: 26 July 1892, San Francisco, Calif. Appointed from: California. Entered service at: Oakland, Calif. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty during action against enemy Japanese forces off Savo Island on the night of November 12th-November 13th, 1942. Although out-balanced in strength and numbers by a desperate and determined enemy, Rear Adm. Callaghan, with ingenious tactical skill and superb coordination of the units under his command, led his forces into battle against tremendous odds, thereby contributing decisively to the rout of a powerful invasion fleet, and to the consequent frustration of a formidable Japanese offensive. While faithfully directing close-range operations in the face of furious bombardment by superior enemy fire power, he was killed on the bridge of his flagship. His courageous initiative, inspiring leadership, and judicious foresight in a crisis of grave responsibility were in keeping with the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the defense of his country.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 January 1918, Ralston, Wash. Accredited to: Washington. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and distinguished courage above and beyond the call of duty while serving aboard the U.S.S. San Francisco during action against enemy Japanese forces in the Solomon Islands, November 12th-November 13th,1942. When a hostile torpedo plane, during a daylight air raid, crashed on the after machine-gun platform, Keppler promptly assisted in removal of the dead and, by his capable supervision of the wounded, undoubtedly helped save the lives of several shipmates who otherwise might have perished. That night, when the ship’s hangar was set afire during the great battle off Savo Island, he bravely led a hose into the starboard side of the stricken area and there, without assistance and despite frequent hits from terrific enemy bombardment, eventually brought the fire under control. Later, although mortally wounded, he labored valiantly in the midst of bursting shells, persistently directing fire-fighting operations and administering to wounded personnel until he finally collapsed from loss of blood. His great personal valor, maintained with utter disregard of personal safety, was in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. San Francisco. Place and date: Battle off Savo Island, November 12th-November 13th, 1942. Entered service at: Colorado. Born: 12 August 1911, Washington, D.C. Other Navy award: Silver Star. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and exceptionally distinguished service above and beyond the call of duty as communication officer of the U.S.S. San Francisco in combat with enemy Japanese forces in the battle off Savo Island, 12-13 November 1942. In the midst of a violent night engagement, the fire of a determined and desperate enemy seriously wounded Lt. Comdr. McCandless and rendered him unconscious, killed or wounded the admiral in command, his staff, the captain of the ship, the navigator, and all other personnel on the navigating and signal bridges. Faced with the lack of superior command upon his recovery, and displaying superb initiative, he promptly assumed command of the ship and ordered her course and gunfire against an overwhelmingly powerful force. With his superiors in other vessels unaware of the loss of their admiral, and challenged by his great responsibility, Lt. Comdr. McCandless boldly continued to engage the enemy and to lead our column of following vessels to a great victory. Largely through his brilliant seamanship and great courage, the San Francisco was brought back to port, saved to fight again in the service of her country.
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. San Francisco Place and date: Savo Island, November 12th-November 13th, 1943. Entered service at. Maine. Born: 7 September 1900, Portland, Maine. Citation: For extreme heroism and courage above and beyond the call of duty as damage control officer of the U.S.S. San Francisco in action against greatly superior enemy forces in the battle off Savo Island, 12-13 November 1942. In the same violent night engagement in which all of his superior officers were killed or wounded, Lt. Comdr. Schonland was fighting valiantly to free the San Francisco of large quantities of water flooding the second deck compartments through numerous shell holes caused by enemy fire. Upon being informed that he was commanding officer, he ascertained that the conning of the ship was being efficiently handled, then directed the officer who had taken over that task to continue while he himself resumed the vitally important work of maintaining the stability of the ship. In water waist deep, he carried on his efforts in darkness illuminated only by hand lanterns until water in flooded compartments had been drained or pumped off and watertight integrity had again been restored to the San Francisco. His great personal valor and gallant devotion to duty at great peril to his own life were instrumental in bringing his ship back to port under her own power, saved to fight again in the service of her country.
Rank and organization: Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 August 1889, Indianapolis, Ind. Appointed from: Indiana. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty during action against enemy Japanese forces off Savo Island on the night of 11-12 October and again on the night of November 12th-November 13th, 1942. In the earlier action, intercepting a Japanese Task Force intent upon storming our island positions and landing reinforcements at Guadalcanal, Rear Adm. Scott, with courageous skill and superb coordination of the units under his command, destroyed eight hostile vessels and put the others to flight. Again challenged, a month later, by the return of a stubborn and persistent foe, he led his force into a desperate battle against tremendous odds, directing close-range operations against the invading enemy until he himself was killed in the furious bombardment by their superior firepower. On each of these occasions his dauntless initiative, inspiring leadership and judicious foresight in a crisis of grave responsibility contributed decisively to the rout of a powerful invasion fleet and to the consequent frustration of a formidable Japanese offensive. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 134th Infantry, 35th Infantry Division. Place and date: Achain, France, November 13th, 1944. Entered service at: Riggs, Ky. Birth: Russell County, Ky. G.O. No.: 18, 15 March 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy at Achain, France, on 13 November 1944. At 2 p.m., Company G attacked the village of Achain from the east. S/Sgt. Spurrier armed with a BAR passed around the village and advanced alone. Attacking from the west, he immediately killed three Germans. From this time until dark, S/Sgt. Spurrier, using at different times his BAR and Ml rifle, American and German rocket launchers, a German automatic pistol, and hand grenades, continued his solitary attack against the enemy regardless of all types of small-arms and automatic-weapons fire. As a result of his heroic actions he killed an officer and twenty-four enlisted men and captured two officers and two enlisted men. His valor has shed fresh honor on the U.S. Armed Forces.
Today’s fact was going to be about the Loch Ness Monster until this picture came across my desktop. It is not a real photo, if it were it would be the most amazing example of precision flying I have seen in my life. This would, however, be a great way to show the world the true American spirit. To save you counting, it is 32 aircraft (two are assumed to be behind the spire). There is no doubt in my mind that our aircraft could do this and is there no doubt our pilots could do this. However the expenditure to pull this off could only be justified by a huge event.
Other Famed Fakes
This is one of the creepiest fakes ever. It was this shot of Hungarian tourist, Péter Guzli, apparently standing on top of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 as one of the hijacked planes approaches.
This image did the rounds after the attacks with the claim that it was found in a camera pulled out of the rubble. In fact, Guzli had taken the picture in 1997 and made the edit for friends. Other people then made further edits placing him at every disaster from the sinking of the Titanic to the destruction of the White House by aliens on Independence Day.
John Kerry And Jane Fonda
This fake cutting that circulated during the 2004 Presidential primaries. This cut ‘n paste was a dirty trick designed to derail John Kerry’s presidential campaign. The shot of John Kerry was taken by Ken Light at the Register for Peace Rally in June 1971. Jane Fonda was photographed by Owen Franken as at a political rally in Miami Beach, Florida, in August 1972.
And finally, Oprah….
Oprah Winfrey might not have complained about this August 1989 cover of TV Guide either. It’s Oprah’s head all right but according to CNet.com the body belongs to actress Ann-Margret. Ann-Margret’s fashion designer recognized the dress and spotted the fakery.
And now-a-days, you just never know for sure……..
“There’s only one corner of the universe you can be certain of improving, and that’s your own self.”
~ Aldous Huxley
wangle (WANG-guhl) verb
To achieve something by scheming or manipulating.
[Of uncertain origin, apparently a blend of wag and dangle.]
1439 – Plymouth, England, becomes the first town incorporated by the English Parliament.
1602 – The Vizcaino expedition held Mass on the feast day of San Diego de Alcala. He named the California landing port after the saint.
1775 – Revolutionary War: Gen. Montgomery began his siege of St. John’s and brought about the surrender of 600 British troops.
1775 – Revolutionary War: General Washington forbade the enlistment of blacks.
1799 – Andrew Ellicott Douglass, an early American astronomer, reported witnessing the Leonids meteor shower from a ship off the Florida Keys — the first meteor shower on record in the US.
1813 – J. H. St. John de Crevecouer, French explorer and writer, died. He had spent more than half of his life in the New World and contributed two important concepts to the American consciousness. The first is the idea of the “American Adam,” that there is something different, unique, special, or new about these people called “Americans.” The second idea is that of the “melting pot,” that people’s “American-ness” transcends their ethnic, cultural, or religious backgrounds.
1833 – Leonid Meteors observed.
1859 – Jules Léotard, the daring young Frenchman on the flying trapeze, made his debut at the Cirque Napoléon. He was also the designer of the garment that is named after him.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate General James Longstreet arrived at Loudon, Tennessee to assist the attack on Union General Ambrose Burnside’s troops at Knoxville.
1864 – Civil War: A boat expedition attempted to destroy Confederate salt works on a reconnaissance near Tampa Bay, Florida, but the sailors were driven back to their boats by Southern cavalry.
1864 – Civil War : Union General William T. Sherman orders the business district of Atlanta destroyed before he embarks on his famous March to the Sea.
1892 – William Pudge Heffelfinger receives $500, becomes first pro football player. He participated in his first paid game for the Allegheny Athletic Association.
1894 – Lawrence Hargrave, the Australian inventor of the box kite, linked four huge box kites together, added a sling seat, and flew – attached to the ground by piano wire.
1900 – Black painter Henry O. Tanner was one of the 6,916 American exhibitors at the Paris Exposition which closed its gates on this day. Tanner won a silver medal for his entry.
1910 – First movie stunt: man jumps into Hudson river from a burning balloon.
1911 – In Chicago two people froze to death. The temperature had dropped 61 degrees overnight.
1912 – The remains of English explorer Robert Scott and his companion travelers were found in Antarctica.
1912 – LT Theodore Ellyson makes first successful launching of an airplane (A-3) by catapult at the Washington Navy Yard.
1915 – Theodore W. Richards, of Harvard University, became the first American to be awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry.
1920 – Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis was elected the first commissioner of Major League Baseball.
1925 – Louis Armstrong recorded “My Heart“.
1927 – The Holland Tunnel opens to traffic as the first Hudson River vehicular tunnel linking New Jersey to New York City.
1927 – Notre Dame’s Fighting Irish changes blue jerseys for green.
1928 – The SS Vestris sinks approximately 200 miles off Hampton Roads, Virginia, killing at least 110 passengers, mostly women and children who die after the vessel is abandoned.
1933 – Hugh Gray takes the first known photos of the Loch Ness Monster.
1933 – First Sunday football game in Philadelphia (previously illegal).
1936 – In California, the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge opened. It cost $78 million and was the longest bridge ever attempted. 23 men died during its construction.
1936 – American League OKs night baseball for St Louis.
1938 – Hermann Göring announces Nazi Germany plans to make Madagascar the “Jewish homeland”, an idea that actually was first considered by 19th century journalist Theodor Herzl.
1939 – Jews in Lodz Poland were ordered to wear yellow star of David.
1940 – BATMAN was trademark registered.
1940 – Walt Disney released “Fantasia.” The Sorcerers Apprentice (9:18)
1940 – Blizzard struck the Midwest. 154 died including 69 on a boat on the Great Lakes.
1941 – Hot Lips Page performed the vocal for Artie Shaw’s very long and very slow version of “St. James Infirmary” on RCA Victor.
1941 – Madame Lillian Evanti and Mary Cardwell Dawson established the National Negro Opera Company.
1942 – World War II: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal between Japanese and American forces begins near Guadalcanal, will last for three days.
1943 – World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt embarks on USS Iowa (BB-61) to go to the Allied conferences at Teheran, Iran, and Cairo, Egypt.
1943 – World War II: The Japanese carrier aircraft stationed at Rabaul on New Britain are withdrawn. Of the 173 planes committed, 121 were lost, with many pilots.
1944 – World War II: The German battleship “Tirpitz” was sunk off the coast of Norway.
1944 – World War II: U.S. fighters wiped out a Japanese convoy near Leyte, consisting of six destroyers, four transports, and 8,000 troops.
1946 – A branch of the Exchange National Bank in Chicago opens the first ten drive-up teller windows.
1946 – Walt Disney’s “Song Of The South” released.
1948 – Former Japanese premier Hideki Tojo and several other Japanese leaders were sentenced to death by a World War II crimes tribunal.
1949 – “That Lucky Old Sam” by Frankie Laine topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: The U.S. Eighth Army in Korea was ordered to cease offensive operations and begin an active defense.
1951 – “Paint Your Wagon” (2:37:48) opened at Shubert Theater in New York City for 289 performances.
1953 – US district Judge Grim of the U.S. District Court in Philadelphia rules NFL can black out TV home games.
1954 – Ellis Island closed after processing more than 20 million immigrants since opening in the New York Harbor in 1892.
1955 – Date Marty McFly returned to in “Back to the Future” & “Back to the Future II”.
1955 – “Autumn Leaves” by Roger Williams topped the charts.
1956 – Largest observed iceberg, 208 by 60 miles, first sighted. It was sighted by the USS Glacier, a U. S. Navy icebreaker, about 150 miles west of Scott Island in the Southern Hemisphere. It was roughly the size of Belgium.
1958 – Warren Harding, Wayne Merry and George Whitmore scaled the “nose” of El Capitan in California’s Yosemite Valley.
1960 – “Save the Last Dance For Me” by The Drifters topped the charts.
1960 – Discoverer XVII was launched into orbit from California’s Vandenberg AFB. The Discoverer Program (1959-1962) was a ruse to conceal the Corona Program, a series of photoreconnaissance spy satellites.
1964 – Paula Murphy sets female land speed record 226.37 MPH.
1965 – Heaviest single piece of freight carried by rail, a 549.2 tons hydrocraker reactor hauled from Birmingham, Alabama to Toledo, Ohio.
1966 – “Poor Side of Town” by Johnny Rivers topped the charts.
1967 – Pearl Bailey took over the lead in the Broadway musical, “Hello Dolly!”
1968 – U.S. Supreme Court voided an Arkansas law banning the teaching of evolution in public schools.
1969 – Vietnam War: My Lai Massacre – Independent investigative journalist Seymour Hersh breaks the My Lai story. The US Army admitted to the 1968 Vietnam massacre of civilians at My Lai and announced an investigation of Lt William Calley for massacre of civilians at the Vietnamese village on March 16, 1968.
1970 – The Oregon Highway Division attempts to destroy a rotting beached Gray whale with explosives, leading to the now -infamous exploding whale incident.
1971 – Vietnam War: As part of Vietnamization, US President Richard M. Nixon sets February 1, 1972 as the deadline for the removal of another 45,000 American troops from Vietnam.
1971 – Arches National Park was established in Moab, Utah.
1975 – Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas retired due to failing health, after more than 36 years on the Court.
1977 – “You Light Up My Life” by Debbie Boone topped the charts.
1977 – Ernest Nathan Morial was elected the first Black mayor of New Orleans, Louisiana.
1977 – Spingarn Medal awarded to Alexander P. Haley “for his unsurpassed effective in portraying the legendary story of an American of African descent.” The Spingarn Medal is awarded annually by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for outstanding achievement by a black American.
1979 – In response to the hostage situation in Tehran, US President Jimmy Carter orders a halt to all petroleum imports into the US from Iran. Executive Order 12170 halted oil imports from Iran.
1980 – More than three years after its launch, the U.S. planetary probe Voyager 1 edges within 77,000 miles of Saturn, the second-largest planet in the solar system.
1980 – John Lennon’s “Starting Over“, was released.
1981 – First balloon crossing of the Pacific is completed (Double Eagle V). It landed in California 84 hours and 31 minutes following its Nov 10 launch in Japan. It was the first balloon to cross the Pacific ocean. Rocky Aoki, founder of the Benihana steakhouse (1964), was part of the crew.
1981 – Second shuttle mission-first time spacecraft launched twice (Columbia 2).
1982 – Space shuttle Columbia launched for its first operational flight. The crew successfully used a remote manipulator arm.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “All Night Long (All Night)” by Lionel Richie, “Islands in the Stream” by Kenny Rogers & Dolly Parton, “One Thing Leads to Another” by The Fixx and “Somebody’s Gonna Love You” by Lee Greenwood all topped the charts.
1984 – Space shuttle astronauts snared a wandering satellite – first space salvage.
1985 – In Norfolk, VA, Arthur James Walker was sentenced to life in prison for his role in a spy ring run by his brother, John A. Walker Jr.
1985 – Xavier Suarez was elected Miami’s first Cuban-American mayor (1985-1993).
1985 – The Unabomber mailed a pipe bomb to Prof. James V. McConnell of Ann Arbor, Mich. Two people were injured three days later when the package was opened, but not McConnell. McConnell and research ass’t. Nick Suing were injured when the bomb exploded.
1986 – First time in NBA history, both head coaches were absent from the game. K.C. Jones and Don Nelson were both too sick to coach the Boston-Milwaukee game. It became the 44th straight home victory for the Boston Celtics, as they beat the Milwaukee Bucks 124-116.
1987 – The American Medical Association issued a policy statement saying it was unethical for a doctor to refuse to treat someone solely because that person had AIDS or was HIV-positive.
1988 – “Wild Wild West” by Escape Club topped the charts.
1988 – “Rattle and Hum“, )1:34:34) the album by U2, topped the album charts.
1989 – The Broadway musical “Grand Hotel,” written by George Forrest and Robert Wright, opened at the Martin Beck Theater for 1018 performances.
1989 – A triple conjunction of Neptune and Saturn took place. These are fairly common and unspectacular but they help amateur astronomers find these dim planets.
1990 – Two years after his father’s death, Crown Prince Akihito was enthroned, becoming the 125th Japanese monarch.
1990 – Tim Berners-Lee publishes a formal proposal for the World Wide Web.
1991 – Robert Gates was sworn in as CIA director.
1992 – In his first formal post-election news conference, President-elect Clinton presented a detailed blueprint for action once he took office, and promised his administration would have the strictest ethical guidelines in history.
1993 – Singer Michael Jackson canceled a world tour, citing a dependence on painkillers.
1995 – The Space Shuttle “Atlantis” blasted off on a mission to dock with the Russian space station “Mir.”
1996 – In Pontiac, Mich., Jonathan Schmitz, a guest on “The Jenny Jones Show,” was convicted of second-degree murder for shooting Scott Amedure, a gay man who’d revealed a crush on Schmitz during a taping of the program. Schmitz was later sentenced to up to 50 years in prison.
1997 – Jury selection began in Sacramento, Calif., in the trial of accused Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski.
1997 – In Denver policeman Bruce VanderJagt was killed in a shootout with a member of the Denver Skins. The suspect then killed himself with the officer’s gun.
1997 – Four Americans and their Pakistani driver were shot to death in Karachi, Pakistan. The Americans were oil company employees.
1997 – Ramzi Yousef was found guilty of masterminding the 1993 bombing of New York’s World Trade Center.
1998 – Daimler-Benz completes a merger with Chrysler to form Daimler-Chrysler.
1998 – Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley filed a $433 million lawsuit against the firearms industry, declaring that it had created a public nuisance by flooding the streets with weapons deliberately marketed to criminals. A judge dismissed the lawsuit in 2000; an appeals court ruled in 2002 that the city of Chicago could proceed; but the Illinois Supreme Court dismissed the lawsuit in 2004.
2001 – American Airlines flight 587 crashed just minutes after takeoff from Kennedy Airport in New York. The Airbus A300 crashed into the Rockaway Beach section of Queens. All 260 people aboard were killed as well as five people on the ground.
2002 – Stan Lee filed a lawsuit against Marvel Entertainment Inc. that claimed the company had cheated him out of millions of dollars in movie profits related to the 2002 movie “Spider-Man.” Lee was the creator of Spider-Man, the Incredible Hulk and Daredevil.
2002 – An Arab TV station broadcast an audiotape of Osama bin Laden, a voice that U.S. counter terrorism officials said is probably authentic.
2003 – Imelda Ortiz, a former Mexican consul to Lebanon, was arrested on charges of helping a smuggling ring move Arab migrants into the United States from Mexico.
2003 – US Senators began a forty-hour marathon session over the Democrat’s refusal to confirm several of Presidents Bush’s judicial nominees.
2004 – John McLaughlin, deputy director of the CIA, resigned after a series of confrontations over the past week between senior operations officials and Patrick Murray, the CIA Director Porter J. Goss’s new chief of staff.
2004 – A jury in Redwood City, Ca., convicted Scott Peterson (32) of first degree murder of his pregnant wife and dumping her body in San Francisco Bay in Dec 2002 in what prosecutors portrayed as a cold-blooded attempt to escape marriage and fatherhood for the bachelor life. He was also convicted of second degree murder for the unborn child.
2004 – Former President Gerald R. Ford attended groundbreaking ceremonies at the Univ. of Michigan for the new home of the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy.
2004 – The military reported that insurgents in Falluja, Iraq, are trapped. Hundreds of insurgents, 18 U.S. soldiers and five members of the Iraqi security forces have been killed in four days of fighting.
2005 – Tornadoes hit central Iowa and left one person dead.
2005 – In Iraq two U.S. Marines were killed in combat and an American soldier died in a vehicle accident.
2005 – US premiere of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire at the Ziegfeld Theatre in New York City.
2006 – Gerald R. Ford surpassed Ronald Reagan as the longest-lived US president at 93 years and 121 days.
2007 – The Dow Jones industrial average closed below 13,000 for first time since August 2007.
2007 – It was reported that a donor had given a staggering $100 million to the Erie Community Foundation in Pennsylvania, and all of the charities would receive a share.
2009 – Army charges accused Fort Hood shooter, United States Army Major Nidal Malik Hasan with 13 murder counts.
2009 – US prosecutors filed a civil complaint in federal court against the Alavi Foundation, the Muslim nonprofit organization, suspected to have Iranian links, seeking the forfeiture of more than $500 million in assets.
2009 – The Atlantic seaboard was drenched in rain from Tropical Storm Ida. 3 deaths were reported in Virginia and one in North Carolina.
2009 – The discovery of two sunken World War II Japanese submarines off Oahu, Hawaii, is announced.
2010 – The US Supreme Court refuses to rescind the country’s ban on openly gay soldiers.
2010 – President Barack Obama’s administration announces plans to nominate Joseph Smith to head the Federal Housing Finance Agency. Smith has been the banks commissioner in North Carolina since 2002.
2010 – A student who guessed the answers to former Governor of Alaska Sarah Palin’s security questions in 2008 is convicted of hacking and sentenced to one year in state custody.
2011 – Secretary of State Hillary Clinton demands that Iran respond soon to the “serious concerns” raised by the International Atomic Energy Agency report that Iran appeared to be working on nuclear bomb technology.
2011 – At a Republican party presidential primary debate, US Presidential candidates Mitt Romney and Newt Gingrich say they would go to war to stop Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons.
2013 – The date and time expressed with military time as 11/12/13 14:15.
1815 – Elizabeth Cady Stanton, American social reformer, founder Women’s Rights Convention
1840 – Auguste Rodin, French sculptor.
1854 – J.D. Eisenstein, American Hebraist who translated the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution into Hebrew and Yiddish.
1889 – DeWitt Wallace, American author, the founder of “Reader’s Digest.”
1890 – Charles de Gaulle, French general and first president of the Fifth Republic.
1908 – Harry Blackmun, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1999)
1929 – Grace Kelly, American actress and, later, Princess of Monaco.
1936 – Mills Lane, American judge and boxing referee
1945 – Neil Young, Canadian singer-songwriter.
1961 – Nadia Comaneci, Romanian gymnast
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 503d Infantry 173d Airborne Brigade. Place and date: Dak To, Republic of Vietnam, November 12th, 1967. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Born: 16 April 1945, Boston, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Barnes distinguished himself by exceptional heroism while engaged in combat against hostile forces. Pfc. Barnes was serving as a grenadier when his unit was attacked by a North Vietnamese force, estimated to be a battalion. Upon seeing the crew of a machine gun team killed, Pfc. Barnes, without hesitation, dashed through the bullet swept area, manned the machine gun, and killed 9 enemy soldiers as they assaulted his position. While pausing just long enough to retrieve more ammunition, Pfc. Barnes observed an enemy grenade thrown into the midst of some severely wounded personnel close to his position. Realizing that the grenade could further injure or kill the majority of the wounded personnel, he sacrificed his life by throwing himself directly onto the hand grenade as it exploded. Through his indomitable courage, complete disregard for his own safety, and profound concern for his fellow soldiers, he averted a probable loss of life and injury to the wounded members of his unit. Pfc. Barnes’ extraordinary heroism, and intrepidity at the cost of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, 3d Platoon, Company D, 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein) FMF. Place and date: Que Son Mountains, Republic of Vietnam, November 12th, 1969. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa. Born: 15 July 1950, Shelocta, Indiana County, Pa. Citation: As a member of a reaction force which was pinned down by enemy fire while assisting a platoon in the same circumstance, Pfc. Dias, observing that both units were sustaining casualties, initiated an aggressive assault against an enemy machine gun bunker which was the principal source of hostile fire. Severely wounded by enemy snipers while charging across the open area, he pulled himself to the shelter of a nearby rock. Braving enemy fire for a second time, Pfc. Dias was again wounded. Unable to walk, he crawled fifteen meters to the protection of a rock located near his objective and, repeatedly exposing himself to intense hostile fire, unsuccessfully threw several hand grenades at the machine gun emplacement. Still determined to destroy the emplacement, Pfc. Dias again moved into the open and was wounded a third time by sniper fire. As he threw a last grenade which destroyed the enemy position, he was mortally wounded by another enemy round. Pfc. Dias’ indomitable courage, dynamic initiative, and selfless devotion to duty upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service to his country.
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company H, 359th Infantry, 90th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kerling, France, November 12th, 1944. Entered service at: Texas City, Tex. Birth: Bainbridge, Ohio. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He commanded a platoon that bore the brunt of a desperate enemy counterattack near Korling, France, before dawn on 12 November 1944. When German tanks and self-propelled guns penetrated his left flank and overwhelming infantry forces threatened to overrun the one remaining machinegun in that section, he ran 400 yards through woods churned by artillery and mortar concentrations to strengthen the defense. With the one remaining gunner, he directed furious fire into the advancing hordes until they swarmed close to the position. He left the gun, boldly charged the attackers and, after a fifteen-minute exchange of hand grenades, forced them to withdraw leaving thirty dead behind. He re-crossed the fire-swept terrain to his then threatened right flank, exhorted his men and directed murderous fire from the single machinegun at that position. There, in the light of bursting mortar shells, he again closed with the enemy in a hand grenade duel and, after a fierce thirty-minute battle, forced the Germans to withdraw leaving another twenty dead. The gallantry and intrepidity of T/Sgt. Everhart in rallying his men and refusing to fall back in the face of terrible odds were highly instrumental in repelling the fanatical enemy counterattack directed at the American bridgehead across the Moselle River.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company L, 357th Infantry, 90th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Thionville, France, November 12th, 1944. Entered service at: Howard, Pa. Birth: Marsh Creek, Pa. G.O. No.: 89, 19 October 1945. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry above and beyond the call of duty in combat on 12 November 1944, near Thionville, France. During an attack on strong hostile forces entrenched on a hill he fearlessly ran up the steep approach toward his objective and set up his machinegun twenty yards from the enemy. Realizing it would be necessary to attract full attention of the dug-in Germans while his company crossed an open area and flanked the enemy, he picked up his gun, charged through withering machinegun and rifle fire to the very edge of the emplacement, and there killed twelve German soldiers with devastating close-range fire. He took up a position behind a log and engaged the hostile infantry from the flank in an heroic attempt to distract their attention while his comrades attained their objective at the crest of the hill. He was killed by the very heavy concentration of return fire; but his fearless assault enabled his company to sweep the hill with minimum of casualties, killing or capturing every enemy soldier on it. Pfc. Sayers’ indomitable fighting spirit, aggressiveness, and supreme devotion to duty live on as an example of the highest traditions of the military service.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 1st West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Nineveh, Va., November 12th, 1864. Birth: Cabell County, Va. Date of issue: 26 November 1864. Citation: Capture of State flag of 14th Virginia Cavalry (C.S.A.)
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 1st West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Nineveh, Va., November 12th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Monongalia County, W. Va. Date of issue: 26 November 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 22d Virginia Cavalry (C.S.A.).
Armistice Day Becomes Veterans Day
World War I officially ended on June 28, 1919, with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. The actual fighting between the Allies and Germany, however, had ended seven months earlier with the armistice, which went into effect on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month in 1918.
In November 1919, President Wilson proclaimed November 11 as the first commemoration of Armistice Day with the following words: “To us in America, the reflections of Armistice Day will be filled with solemn pride in the heroism of those who died in the country’s service and with gratitude for the victory, both because of the thing from which it has freed us and because of the opportunity it has given America to show her sympathy with peace and justice in the councils of the nations…”
The original concept for the celebration was for a day observed with parades and public meetings and a brief suspension of business beginning at 11:00 a.m.
Armistice Day, as November 11 became known, officially became a holiday in the United States in 1926, and a national holiday 12 years later. On June 1, 1954, the name was changed to Veterans Day to honor all U.S. veterans.
Official, national ceremonies for Veterans Day center around the Tomb of the Unknowns.
To honor these men, symbolic of all Americans who gave their lives in all wars, an Army honor guard, the 3d U.S. Infantry (The Old Guard), keeps day and night vigil.
At 11 a.m.on November 11, a combined color guard representing all military services executes “Present Arms” at the tomb. The nation’s tribute to its war dead is symbolized by the laying of a presidential wreath and the playing of “Taps.”
The United States Congress officially recognized the end of World War I when it passed a concurrent resolution on June 4, 1926, with these words:
Whereas the 11th of November 1918, marked the cessation of the most destructive, sanguinary, and far reaching war in human annals and the resumption by the people of the United States of peaceful relations with other nations, which we hope may never again be severed, and
Whereas it is fitting that the recurring anniversary of this date should be commemorated with thanksgiving and prayer and exercises designed to perpetuate peace through good will and mutual understanding between nations; and
Whereas the legislatures of twenty-seven of our States have already declared November 11 to be a legal holiday: Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), that the President of the United States is requested to issue a proclamation calling upon the officials to display the flag of the United States on all Government buildings on November 11 and inviting the people of the United States to observe the day in schools and churches, or other suitable places, with appropriate ceremonies of friendly relations with all other peoples.
The first Veterans Day under the new law was observed with much confusion on October 25, 1971. It was quite apparent that the commemoration of this day was a matter of historic and patriotic significance to a great number of our citizens, and so on September 20th, 1975, President Gerald R. Ford signed Public Law 94-97 (89 Stat. 479), which returned the annual observance of Veterans Day to its original date of November 11, beginning in 1978. This action supported the desires of the overwhelming majority of state legislatures, all major veterans service organizations and the American people.
“It is easy to take liberty for granted, when you have never had it taken from you”. ~Dick Cheney
“This nation will remain the land of the free only so long as it is the home of the brave.” ~Elmer Davis
“In the beginning of a change, the patriot is a scarce man, and brave, and hated and scorned. When his cause succeeds, the timid join him, for then it costs nothing to be a patriot.” ~Mark Twain, Notebook, 1935
he‧ro /ˈhɪəroʊ/ Pronunciation Key – –noun, plural -roes;
1.a person of distinguished courage or ability, admired for his or her brave deeds and noble qualities
2. a person who, in the opinion of others, has heroic qualities or has performed a heroic act and is regarded as a model or ideal.
1620 – One hundred-two Pilgrims stepped ashore. Forty-one men signed the compact calling themselves Saints and others Strangers. One passenger died enroute and two were born during the passage. The Mayflower anchored in Provincetown Harbor of Massachusetts and drafted and signed the Mayflower Compact. The text of the Compact called for the establishment of a “Civil Body Politick” to enact “just and equal laws” for the governance of the first English colony in New England.
1647 – Massachusetts passes first US compulsory school attendance law.
1778 – British Loyalists (Torries) and Seneca Indian forces led by William Butler attack a fort and village in eastern New York near Cherry Valley, N.Y. during the American Revolutionary War, killed more than forty civilians and soldiers.
1813 – War of 1812: Battle of Crysler’s Farm – British and Canadian forces defeat a larger American force, causing the Americans to abandon their Saint Lawrence campaign.
1831 – In Jerusalem, Virginia, Nat Turner is hanged and skinned in Southampton county after inciting a violent slave uprising.
1839 – The Virginia Military Institute is founded in Lexington, Virginia.
1843 – Hans Christian Andersen’s The Ugly Duckling was first published.
1851 – The telescope was patented by Alvan Clark of Cambridge, MA.
1861 – Civil War: Balloon observation of Confederate forces from Balloon- Boat G.W. Parke Custis anchored in Potomac Riverby Thaddeus Lowe.
1864 – Civil War: Sherman’s troops destroyed Rome, Georgia and continue on toward Atlanta.
1864 – Civil War: Sherman’s March to the Sea – Union General William Tecumseh Sherman begins burning Atlanta, Georgia to the ground in preparation for his march south.
1864 – Civil War: Commander Henry K. Davenport, U.S.S. Lancaster, captured Confederates on board steamer Salvador, bound from Panama to California, after having been informed that they intended to seize the ship at sea and convert her into a raider.
1865 – Mary Edward Walker, first Army female surgeon, awarded Medal of Honor.
1868 – The first indoor amateur track and field meet was held by the New York Athletic Club.
1887 – Labor Activists Albert Parsons, August Spies, Adolph Fisher and George Engel were hanged in Illinois after being convicted of being connected to a bombing that killed eight police officers during the May 4, 1886, Chicago Haymarket riot. As the noose was placed around his neck, Spies shouted out: “There will be a time when our silence will be more powerful than the voices you strangle today.”
1889 – Washington became the 42nd state.
1890 – D. McCree patented a portable fire escape. Basing his model on fire escapes being used by bigger buildings, McCree created a portable version made of wood that could be attached to the windowsill of a home, enabling people within to escape from second and third story levels during a fire.
1901 – NABISCO was trademark registered.
1909 – Construction began on the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.
1911 – Many cities in the U.S. midwest broke their record highs and lows on the same day as a strong cold front rolls through. Called The Great Blue Norther of 11/11/11 was the biggest cold snap in U.S. history. Many cities broke record highs early that afternoon. By nightfall, cities were dealing with single-digit temperatures in the Fahrenheit scale. This is the only day in many midwest cities’ weather bureau jurisdictions where the record highs and lows were broken on the same day.
1918 – World War I (then called the Great War) came to an end with the signing of an Armistice between the Allies and Germany. In all, there were nine million soldiers dead, 21 million wounded, and seven million taken prisoner or missing in action. In addition, some six million civilians died from disease, starvation, or exposure. The War officially stopped at 11:11.
1919 – The first 2-minutes’ silence was observed in Britain to commemorate those who died in the Great War (later called WW i).
1919 – The Centralia Massacre in Centralia, Washington results the deaths of four members of the American Legion and the lynching of a local leader of the IWW. The Centralia massacre was an incident of labor unrest in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The incident happened during a celebration marking the first anniversary of Armistice Day, and resulted in a gunfight between local members of the IWW (Industrial Workers of the World, also called the “Wobblies”) and local members of the American Legion.
1920 – Lenah S. Higbee becomes the first woman to be awarded the Navy Cross. It was awarded for her World War I service.
1921 – President Warren Harding dedicated the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Tomb of the Unknowns) at Arlington National Cemetery.
1922 – Largest US flag displayed (150′ X 90′) expanded in 1939 (270′ X 90′). Ski Demski currently owns the World’s Largest Flag, “Superflag,” as designated by the Guinness Book of World Records. It is an American Flag. It measures 505 feet by 225 feet and weighs 3,000 pounds. It takes 500 people to unfurl. Each star is 17 feet high.
1925 – Louis Armstrong records first of Hot Five & Hot Seven recordings.These recordings are considered the “Rosetta Stone” of jazz music, influencing every singer, songwriter, instrumentalist, and even dancer from that point forward.
1926 – The University of Wisconsin announced that women could get college credit for a dance course offered by the school.
1926 – U.S. Route 66 is established. The highway, which became one of the most famous roads in America, originally ran from Chicago, Illinois, through Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California, before ending at Los Angeles, covering a total of 2,448 miles.
1929 – Andy Kirk and His Twelve Clouds of Joy recorded “Froggy Bottom.”
1930 – Patent number US1781541 was awarded to Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd for their invention, the Einstein refrigerator.
1933 – In South Dakota, a very strong dust storm strips topsoil from desiccated farmlands. This “Great Black Blizzard” was the first great dust storm in the Great Plains.
1935 – Explorer 2 balloon sets altitude record of 72,000 feet over South Dakota.
1938 – In the fall, as war was again threatening Europe, Irving Berlin decided to write a “peace” song. He recalled his “God Bless America” from twenty years earlier and made some alterations to reflect the different state of the world. Singer Kate Smith introduced the revised “God Bless America“ during her radio broadcast on Armistice Day. The song was an immediate sensation.
1940 – “Mandrake the Magician” debuted on WOR radio in New York City.
1940 – World War II: Battle of Taranto – The Royal Navy launches the first aircraft carrier strike in history, on the Italian fleet at Taranto.
1940 – The Willys-Overland Company came out with a four-wheel drive vehicle for the U.S. Army, named “jeep” after GP, or “(general purpose.”)
1940 – Armistice Day Blizzard: An unexpected blizzard kills 144 in U.S. Midwest.
1942 – World War II: On Guadalcanal, the American attacks to the west are halted when news of Japanese supply convoys comes in.
1942 – World War II: Congress approves lowering the draft age to 18 and raising the upper limit to age 37.
1942 – World War II: Initially, African-Americans were passed over for the draft because of racist assumptions about their abilities and the viability of a mixed-race military.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: 745 French Jews were deported to Auschwitz.
1943 – World War II: Two separate carrier task forces come together in an attack on the Japanese base at Rabaul on New Britain Island. Five carriers and 185 planes are involved.
1943 – World War II: On Bougainville, the Japanese 23rd Regiment is push back by the US 3rd Marine Division.
1943 – World War II: An Allied convoy east of Oran is attacked by about fifty German aircraft. It loses three transports and one tanker.
1944 – World War II: Private Eddie Slovik was convicted of desertion and sentenced to death for refusing to join his unit in the European Theater of Operations.
1944 – World War II: Aircraft from eight carriers of US Task Force 38 attack a Japanese convoy off Leyte, near Ormoc. Four destroyers, one minesweeper and five transports (carrying nearly 10,000 troops) are sunk.
1944 – World War II: An American cruiser and destroyer task force, commanded by Admiral Smith, shells the island of Iwo Jima during the night.
1944 – Frank Sinatra began a long and successful career with Columbia Records.
1944 – NY Rangers set a dubious NHL record of 25 games without a win (0-21-4).
1946 – New York Knicks’ first game at Madison Square Garden loses 78-68 to the Chicago Stags.
1952 – The first video recorder was demonstrated in California, by its inventors John Mullin and Wayne Johnson.
1953 – The Polio virus was identified and photographed for the first time in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Only Make Believe” by Conway Twitty, “Tom Dooley” by The Kingston Trio, “To Know Him, is to Love Him” by The Teddy Bears and “City Lights” by Ray Price all topped the charts.
1958 – Hank Ballard and the Midnighters record “The Twist.”
1959 – The first episode of “Rocky & His Friends” aired on TV.
1961 – “Big Bad John” by Jimmy Dean topped the charts.
1963 – Gordie Howe ties Rocket Richard’s lifetime 544-goal record.
1966 – Gemini 12 launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida, with astronauts James A. Lovell and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin aboard. The craft circled the Earth 59 times before returning.
1966 – Methodist Church and Evangelical United Brethren Church united as United Methodist Church.
1967 – “To Sir with Love” by Lulu topped the charts.
1967 – The Supremes’ “In And Out Of Love” was released.
1967 – Vietnam War: In a propaganda ceremony in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, three American prisoners of war are released by the Viet Cong and turned over to “new left” antiwar activist Tom Hayden.
1968 – Vietnam War: U.S. joint-service Operation Commando Hunt is launched. This operation was designed to interdict Communist routes of infiltration along the Ho Chi Minh Trail, through Laos into South Vietnam.
1970 – Stevie Wonder sang “Heaven Help Us All” on the Johnny Cash show.
1971 – Neil Simon’s “Prisoner of Second Avenue,” premiered in New York City.
1972 – Vietnam War: The U.S. turned over its massive military base at Long Binh to the South Vietnamese, symbolizing the end of direct American military participation in the Vietnam War.
1972 – “I Can See Clearly Now” by Johnny Nash topped the charts.
1972 – Berry Oakley, of the Allman Brothers, was killed in a motorcycle accident. He was 24 years old.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Ain’t Seen Nothing Yet/Free Wheelin’” by Bachman-Turner Overdrive, “Jazzman” by Carole King, “Whatever Gets You Thru the Night” by John Lennon with The Plastic Ono Nuclear Band and “Love is like a Butterfly” by Dolly Parton all topped the charts.
1978 – “MacArthur Park” by Donna Summer topped the charts.
1978 – Veteran’s Day, originally known as Armistice Day, became a national US holiday in 1938. It was changed back by Congress in this year to this day rather than the 4th Monday of October, which had been set in 1968.
1981 – The first rookie baseball player to win the coveted Cy Young Award was honored. Fernando Valenzuela edges the Reds Tom Seaver 70-67 for National League honors.
1981 – Stuntman Dan Goodwin scaled the outside of the 100-story John Hancock Center in Chicago in about six hours.
1981 – The U.S.S. Ohio was commissioned at the Electric Boat Division in Groton, CT. It was the first Trident class submarine.
1982 – Fifth space shuttle mission-Columbia 5-launched first commercial flight. STS-5 deployed two commercial communications satellites, ANIK C-3 for TELESAT Canada and SitS- C for Satellite Business Systems.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS -“Up Where We Belong” by Joe Cocker & Jennifer Warnes, “Heart Attack” by Olivia Newton-John, “I Keep Forgettin’ (Every Time You’re Near)” by Michael McDonald and “You’re So Good When You’re Bad” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1984 – President Ronald Reagan accepted the Vietnam Veterans Memorial as a gift to the nation from the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund.
1984 – The Reverend Martin Luther King Sr. died in Atlanta at age 84.
1984 – Gary Coleman, at age 13, underwent his second kidney transplant in Los Angeles. He had his first transplant at age 5.
1986 – Sperry Rand and Burroughs merged to form “Unisys,” becoming the second largest computer company.
1987 – An unidentified person bought Vincent Van Gogh’s painting “Irises” from the estate of Joan Whitney Payson for $53.9 million at Sotheby’s in New York.
1988 – Police in Sacramento, CA, found the first of seven bodies buried on the grounds of a boardinghouse. Dorothea Puente was later charged in the deaths of nine people, convicted of three murders and sentenced to life in prison.
1989 – “When I See You Smile” by Bad English topped the charts.
1990 – Stormie Jones, the world’s first heart-liver transplant recipient, died at a Pittsburgh hospital at age 13.
1993 – A bronze sculpture was dedicated in Washington, D.C. to the 11,500 U.S. women who served in the Vietnam War.
1993 – Walt Disney Co. announced plans to build a U.S. history theme park in a Virginia suburb of Washington. The plan was halted later due to local opposition.
1996 – The Army reported getting nearly 2,000 calls to a hot line set up after revelations of a sex scandal at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. Meanwhile, a Pentagon official said the Army was ready to take action in another case of alleged sexual misconduct at Fort Leonard Wood, Mo.
1996 – Phan Thi Kim Phuc laid a wreath at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington. John Plummer, Vietnam era helicopter pilot, met with Phan Thi Kim at the Vietnam Memorial in Washington in reconciliation. Phan Thi Kim had suffered severe napalm burns after a napalm bombing of her village in Jun 1972.
1996 – An explosion occurred at the Texaco oil refinery near Los Angeles harbor. No injuries were reported.
1997 – The Eastman Kodak Company announced that they were laying off 10,000 employees because of fierce competition from Japan’s Fuji Photo Film Co.
1997 – Roger Clemens (Toronto Blue Jays) became the third major league player to win the Cy Young Award four times.
1997 – In Pakistan four American oil company employees and their driver were shot dead in Karachi. It was believed to be in retaliation for the conviction of Amil Kasi for the 1993 murder of two CIA employees.
1998 – Jay Cochrane set a record for the longest blindfolded skywalk. He walked on a tightrope between the towers of the Flamingo Hilton in Las Vegas, NV. The towers are 600 feet apart.
1998 – President Clinton ordered warships, planes and troops to the Persian Gulf as he laid out his case for a possible attack on Iraq.
1999 – The computer virus dubbed Bubbleboy was reported to spread through electronic mail without attachments.
2000 – Pres. Clinton led groundbreaking ceremonies in Washington DC for the National WW II Memorial.
2000 – Lennox Lewis won a unanimous 12-round decision over David Tua in Las Vegas to retain his WBC and IBF heavyweight titles.
2003 – Toronto’s Roy Halladay won the American League Cy Young Award.
2003 – George Soros pledges $15.5 million to help defeat President George W. Bush in 2004. Soros says a “supremacist ideology” guides the White House and describes the US under the Bush administration as a danger to the world.
2004 – Delta Air Line pilots accepted over $1 billion in annual pay cuts and agreed to forgo raises through 2009.
2005 – Students in Kalamazoo, Mich., learned that an anonymous group of benefactors will offer scholarships for at least the next 13 years to nearly all Kalamazoo high school graduates, good at any of Michigan’s public universities or colleges.
2005 – It was reported that a rare 1,400-pound meteorite was recently discovered seven feet underground in southern Kansas by Steve Arnold of Kingston, Ark., in an area long known for producing prized space rocks.
2006 – President Bush marked Veterans Day at Arlington National Cemetery by praising US troops who had fought oppression around the world, yet spoke only briefly about Iraq, where US commanders were re-evaluating strategy.
2007 – The new War Memorial Community Center at 6655 Mission St. in Daly City, Ca., held its grand opening. The structure included the new John Daly Library.
2008 – Tim Lincecum, pitcher for the SF Giants, was named winner of the Cy Young Award.
2009 – The classic Yahoo homepage retired today.
2009 – Hewlett-Packard Co. said it will acquire 3Com Corp. in a $2.7 billion deal that would put HP in direct competition with Cisco Systems in networking technology.
2009 – Raymond Jessup is sentenced to ten years in prison for sexual assault of an underage girl after the April 2008 raid of the YFZ Ranch in Eldorado, Texas.
2010 – The crippled Carnival Cruise liner Carnival Splendor is towed to port in San Diego, California.
2011 – In Major League Baseball, the Florida Marlins officially change their name to the Miami Marlins.
2011 – The Corduroy Appreciation Club celebrates today as the date (11-11-11) as the one that most resembles corduroy.
2014 – Dr. Craig Spencer, a Doctors Without Borders volunteer, was declared free of the Ebola virus and released from a New York City hospital. His was the last Ebola case being treated in the United States.
1729 – Louis Antoine de Bougainville, French navigator.
1744 – Abigail Smith Adams, First Lady of 2nd President of the United States of America, John Adams.
1792 – Mary Anne Evans, English wife of Benjamin Disraeli (d. 1872)
1821 – Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Russian political revolutionary, author.
1885 – George Smith Patton, Jr., World War I and World War II American Army General.
1904 – Alger Hiss, American government official and spy (d. 1994)
1922 – Kurt Vonnegut, American novelist.
1925 – Jonathan Winters, American comic actor.
1974 – Leonardo DiCaprio, American actor.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Mignano, Italy, November 11th, 1943. Entered service at: Colorado Springs, Colo. Birth: Holdredge, Nebr. G.O. No.: 32, 20 April 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. On 11 November 1943, this soldier’s platoon was furnishing machinegun support for a rifle company attacking a hill near Mignano, Italy, when the enemy counterattacked, forcing the riflemen and half the machinegun platoon to retire to a defensive position. Pfc. Lindstrom saw that his small section was alone and outnumbered five to one, yet he immediately deployed the few remaining men into position and opened fire with his single gun. The enemy centered fire on him with machinegun, machine pistols, and grenades. Unable to knock out the enemy nest from his original position, Pfc. Lindstrom picked up his own heavy machinegun and staggered fifteen yards up the barren, rocky hillside to a new position, completely ignoring enemy small arms fire which was striking all around him. From this new site, only ten yards from the enemy machinegun, he engaged it in an intense duel. Realizing that he could not hit the hostile gunners because they were behind a large rock, he charged uphill under a steady stream of fire, killed both gunners with his pistol and dragged their gun down to his own men, directing them to employ it against the enemy. Disregarding heavy rifle fire, he returned to the enemy machinegun nest for two boxes of ammunition, came back and resumed withering fire from his own gun. His spectacular performance completely broke up the German counterattack. Pfc. Lindstrom demonstrated aggressive spirit and complete fearlessness in the face of almost certain death.
Rank and organization: Major, 33d Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At San Jacinto, Philippine Islands, November 11th, 1899. Entered service at: Youngstown, Ohio. Born: 24 July 1865, Carbondale, Ill. Date of issue: 3 May 1902. Citation: For most distinguished gallantry in leading his battalion upon the entrenchments of the enemy, on which occasion he fell mortally wounded.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 20 March 1878, Richmond, Ill. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 537, 8 January 1900. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Texas during the coaling of that vessel at Hampton Roads, Va., November 11th, 1899. Jumping overboard while wearing a pair of heavy rubber boots and at great risk to himself, Mullin rescued Alfred Kosminski, apprentice, second class, who fell overboard, by supporting him until he was safely hauled from the water.
Rank and organization: Saddler, Company L, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Cienaga Springs, Utah, November 11th, 1868. Entered service at:——. Birth: Switzerland. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS BIRTHDAY
The Marine Corps Hymn (original)
Since 1941 the fourth verse says in air, on land and sea
Original words of the Marine Corps Hymn. The fourth verse added “In the air” during WWII.
From the Halls of Montezuma
To the Shores of Tripoli;
We fight our country’s battles
On the land as on the sea;
First to fight for right and freedom
And to keep our honor clean;
We are proud to claim the title
of United States Marine.
“Our flag’s unfurled to every breeze
From dawn to setting sun;
We have fought in ev’ry clime and place
Where we could take a gun;
In the snow of far-off Northern lands
And in sunny tropic scenes;
You will find us always on the job–
The United States Marines.
“Here’s health to you and to our Corps
Which we are proud to serve
In many a strife we’ve fought for life
And never lost our nerve;
If the Army and the Navy
Ever look on Heaven’s scenes;
They will find the streets are guarded
By United States Marines.”
“All right, they’re on our left, they’re on our right, they’re in front of
us, they’re behind us…they can’t get away this time”
~ Lewis B. “Chesty” Puller, USMC at Chosin Resevoir
snip·pet (snĭp‘ĭt) n.
- A bit, scrap, or morsel: “sparkling black bass … strewn with snippets of coriander and basil” (Gael Greene).
- Informal. A small or mischievous person.
Origin: 1655–65; snip + -et
1493 – Christopher Columbus discovered Antigua during his second expedition.
1775 -The Continental Congress passed a resolution stating that “two battalions of Marines be raised.” This marked the birth of the United States Marine Corps. The United States Marine Corps traces its institutional roots to the Continental Marines of the Revolutionary War.This date is regarded and celebrated as the birthday of the Marine Corps. Congress commissioned Samuel Nicholas to raise two Battalions of Marines. That very day, Nicholas set up shop in Philadelphia’s Tun Tavern. He appointed Robert Mullan, then the proprietor of the tavern, to the job of chief Marine Recruiter serving, of course, from his place of business at Tun Tavern.
1782 – In the last battle of the American Revolution, George Rodgers Clark attacked Indians and Loyalists at Chillicothe, in Ohio Territory.
1801 – Tennessee became the first U.S. state to outlaw dueling.
1808 – Osage Indians agree to abandon their lands in Missouri and Arkansas in exchange for a reservation in Oklahoma. The Osage were the largest tribe of the Southern Sioux Indians occupying what would later become the states of Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska.
1864 – Civil War: Kingston, Ga., was burned as the first act of Sherman’s March to Sea. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman had made the city his headquarters as he planned to lay waste the south over the next six weeks.
1865 – Civil War: Henry Wirz, a Swiss immigrant and the commander of Andersonville prison in Georgia, is hanged for the murder of soldiers incarcerated at his prison. Wirz was the only person executed for crimes committed during the war.
1871 – American Journalist-explorer Henry M. Stanley found missing Scottish missionary David Livingstone in Central Africa at Ujiji near Unyanyembe on Lake Tanganyika. Stanley delivered his famous greeting: “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” Livingstone replied: “Yes, and I feel thankful that I am here to welcome you.”
1885 – Paul Daimler, son of German engineer Gottlieb Daimler, became the first motorcyclist when he rode his father’s new invention for six miles.
1891 – The first Woman’s Christian Temperance Union meeting was held in Boston.
1891 – Granville T. Woods patented an electric railway.
1898 – A sexually-charged race riot in Wilmington, NC, left eight blacks killed. The Wilmington race riot claimed the lives of over twenty Black Americans.
1900 – First national automobile show opens at Madison Square Garden, New York City.
1911 – President Taft ended a 15,000-mile, 57-day speaking tour.
1911 – Andrew Carnegie formed the Carnegie Corporation. for scholarly & charitable works.
1915 – WW I – Great fire at Bethlehem Steel Co in Machine Shop No. 6 temporarily reduced military weapons production., German incendiaries were suspected. Many guns, especially those in Machine Shop No.4 were destroyed.
1917 – Forty-one US suffragettes were arrested for picketing in front of the White House.
1918 – World War I: Marines completed successful reconnaissance against Germans. The 5th Marines made a night crossing of the Meuse River against German resistance.
1919 – The American Legion held its first national convention, in Minneapolis.
1920 – George Bernard Shaw’s “Heartbreak House,” premiered in New York City.
1928 – Knute Rockne delivered his ‘Win One for the Gipper’ pregame speech.
1928 – Emperor Hirohito took the throne of Japan as the 124th Japanese monarch.
1933 – Black Blizzard snow-dust storm raged from South Dakota to Atlantic. This massive dust storm created sand drifts as high as six feet in areas of the country, burying roads and vehicles. The worst drought in American history continues to turn over-farmed soil into dust.
1938 – Kate Smith sang the first performance on radio of “God Bless America.”
1939 – Muggsy Spanier and his band recorded “Dipper Mouth Blues” on Bluebird Records.
1939 – The US consulate advises Americans to leave the Netherlands.
1940 – Pittsburgh & Philadelphia play a penalty free NFL game.
1941 – Churchill promised to join the U.S. “within the hour” in the event of war with Japan.
1942 – World War II: German troops occupy Vichy France, which had previously been free of an Axis military presence.
1942 – World War II: Churchill comments on Montgomery’s victory at El Alamein. Minister Churchill stated, “This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.”
1942 – World War II: Churchill delivered a speech in London in which he said, “I have not become the King’s First Minister to preside over the liquidation of the British Empire.”
1942 – World War II: Troops under General Patton begin to move into Oran and the city falls.
1942 – World War II: On Guadalcanal, the Japanese forces around Koli Point are scattered by the American attacks. American attacks to the west are renewed.
1944 – World War II: On Leyte, heavy fighting is reported near Carigara. Elements of the US 24th Division.
1944 – World War II: Forces of US 3rd Army continue to advance beyond the Moselle River to the south of Thionville and farther south beyond Metz.
1945 – College football’s #1 Army beats #2 Notre Dame 48-0.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “That Lucky Old Sun” by Frankie Laine, “Don’t Cry, Joe” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Betty Brewer), “I Can Dream, Can’t I?” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Jack Leonard) and “Slipping Around” by Margaret Whiting & Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1950 – The evening dress uniform for Marine Corps women officers was introduced for the first time by Colonel Katherine A. Towle at the Marine Corps birthday ball at the Sail Loft, Naval Gun Factory, Washington, D. C. The uniform was patterned after the full dress uniform of Marine officers. It will be worn by women Marine officers at all state and diplomatic functions.
1951 – Direct-dial, coast-to-coast telephone service began as Mayor M. Leslie Denning of Englewood, New Jersey, called his counterpart in Alameda, California. The 10-digit North American Numbering Plan for area codes was introduced.
1951 – “Sin” by Eddy Howard topped the charts.
1952 – U.S. Supreme Court upheld the decision barring segregation on interstate railways.
1952 – San Francisco columnist Stanton Delaplane introduced Irish coffee to America at the Buena Vista Cafe at the end of the Hyde St. cable line.
1954 – The US Marine Corps Memorial, depicting the raising of the American flag on Iwo Jima in 1945, was dedicated by President Eisenhower in Arlington, Va.
1954 – Air Force Lt. Col. John Strapp traveled 632 MPH in a rocket sled.
1956 – Gene de Paul’s and John Meyer’s musical “Li’l Abner,” premiered in New York City.
1956 – Billie Holiday returned to the New York City stage at Carnegie Hall after a three-year absence.
1956 – “Love Me Tender” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1956 – Kaye Starr’s “Rock and Roll Waltz” was voted Billboard’s top record.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley, “You Send Me” by Sam Cooke, “Little Bitty Pretty One” by Thurston Harris and “Wake Up Little Susie” by The Everly Brothers all topped the charts.
1957 – NFL record crowd (102,368), ’49ers vs Rams in LA.
1958 – “It’s Only Make Believe” by Conway Twitty topped the charts.
1958 – Sam Cooke and Lou Rawls, both American recording artists, were injured in an auto accident near Marion, AR. Sam Cooke’s driver was killed in the accident.
1958 – First domestic (New York-Miami) passenger jet flight-National 707.
1960 – President-Elect John F. Kennedy named Pierre Salinger (35), a former San Francisco Chronicle reporter, to be his White House Press Secretary and Andrew T. Hatcher (37), a Black former editor of the San Francisco Sun-Reporter, as associate press secretary.
1962 – “He’s a Rebel” by the Crystals topped the charts.
1963 – Gordie Howe takes over NHL career goal lead at 545.
1964 – At a news conference, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara says that the United States has no plans to send combat troops into Vietnam.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Get Off of My Cloud” by The Rolling Stones, “A Lover’s Concerto” by The Toys, “Everybody Loves a Clown” by Gary Lewis & The Playboys and “Hello Vietnam” by Johnny Wright all topped the charts.
1967 – The Moody Blues released “Nights in White Satin.”
1969 – “Sesame Street” debuted on PBS television.
1969 – Twenty years after its release “Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer” earns a gold record.
1969 – The San Francisco Chronicle received a letter from the Zodiac killer containing detailed plans for a “death machine” to blow up a school bus.
1970 – For the first time in five years, no U.S. combat fatalities in Southeast Asia are reported for the previous week.
1970 – The Great Wall of China, created in the third century BC, was opened to visitors.
1972 – Three black men successfully hijack a Southern Airways DC-9 after a stopover in Birmingham, Ala., and flew to multiple locations in the United States and one Canadian city and finally to Cuba with $10 million and 10 parachutes. They threatened to crash the plane into the Oak Ridge nuclear installation. Two are sentenced in Cuba to 20 years and one was sentenced to 15 years.
1975 – The freighter Edmund Fitzgerald broke in half and sank during a storm at the eastern end of Lake Superior and its crew of 29 perished. 1976 Tribute
1978 – The Badlands National Monument was established as a national park and preserve.
1979 – “Heartache Tonight” by the Eagles topped the charts.
1980 – CBS News anchor Dan Rather claimed he had been kidnapped in a cab. It turned out that Rather had refused to pay the cab fare.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Private Eyes” by Daryl Hall & John Oates, “Start Me Up” by The Rolling Stones, “Tryin’ to Live My Life Without You” by Bob Seger and “Fancy Free” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1981 – The board game “Trivial Pursuit” was registered.
1982 – In Washington, DC, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was opened to visitors.
1983 – The US Federal government shut down.
1983 – Microsoft released Windows, an extension of MS-DOS with a graphical user interface.
1983 – First computer virus. U.S. student Fred Cohen presented to a security seminar the results of his test – the first documented virus, created as an experiment in computer security.
1984 – “Caribbean Queen (No More Love on the Run)” by Billy Ocean topped the charts.
1984 – The U.S. Postal Service issued a commemorative stamp of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.
1988 – The U.S. Department of Energy announced that Texas would be the home of the atom-smashing super-collider. The project was cancelled by a vote of the U.S. Congress in Oct. 1993.
1989 – Bulldozers began demolishing the 28-year-old Berlin Wall.
1990 – “Love Takes Time” by Mariah Carey topped the charts.
1990 – Secretary of State James A. Baker the Third returned to Washington, claiming success in his weeklong diplomatic tour aimed at shoring up the anti-Iraq coalition.
1991 – Marty Glickman broadcasts his 1,000th football game.
1993 – The musical revival of “Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat” opened at Minskoff Theater New York City for 223 performances.
1993 – John Wayne Bobbitt was acquitted on the charge of marital sexual assault against his wife who sexually mutilated him. Lorena Bobbitt was later acquitted of malicious wounding her husband.
1993 – The U.S. House of Representatives passed the Brady Bill, which called for a five-day waiting period for handgun purchases.
1994 – The “Codex Leicester”, the only Leonardo da Vinci manuscript owned in the United States and the only one in the world still in private hands, was sold at auction. Microsoft chairman Bill Gates paid $30.8 million for it.
1996 – Dan Marino (Miami Dolphins) became the first quarterback in NFL history to pass for more than 50,000 yards.
1996 – In Miami the “Carnival Destiny” from Carnival Cruise Lines will debut. The ship, at 102,000 tons, will be the largest ever made. It will be able to carry 3,350 passengers.
1997 – WorldCom Inc. acquired MCI Communication Corporation. It was the largest merger in US history valued at $37 billion.
1997 – A jury in Virginia convicted Mir Aimal Kasi of the murder of two CIA employees in 1993.
1997 – A judge in Cambridge, MA, reduced Louise Woodward’s murder conviction to manslaughter and sentenced the English au pair to time served. She had served 279 days in the death of 8-month-old Matthew Eappen.
1997 – It was reported that the 1997 Pentagon budget was around $250 billion.
1997 – It was reported that IBM has a new 16.8-gigabyte disk drive for $895. It surpassed the recently unveiled 12-gigabyte drive by Quantum.
1998 – The US military moved warships into the Persian Gulf in anticipation of a possible attack on Iraq over cancellation of weapons inspections.
1998 – In St. Joseph, Mo., police officer Bradley Thomas Arn (27) was killed and three others were wounded by a gunman who was then killed by other officers. The gunman was later identified as William Lattin Jr. (33) of St. Joseph.
1999 – In Flint, Michigan, a boiler exploded at the Clara Barton Convalescence Center. five people were killed and over tenty injured.
2000 – The battle over Florida’s disputed presidential election continued, with George W. Bush’s camp pressing Al Gore to concede without pursuing multiple recounts, and Democrats pressing ahead with protests, determined to find enough votes to erase Bush’s razor-thin lead in initial counting.
2000 – The US Nasdaq market fell 171 points to 3,028.99, its lowest reading since Nov 3, 1999.
2001 – Traces of anthrax were reported in offices of the Hart and Longworth government buildings in Washington DC.
2002 – U.S. warplanes flying from an aircraft carrier in the Gulf struck missile sites in southern Iraq in response to hostile acts.
2002 – A series of massive storms roared through more than six US states including Tennessee, Ohio, Alabama, Mississippi and Pennsylvania, killing at least 36 people. More than 100 were injured.
2003 – Federal regulators allowed customers to switch home phone numbers to their cell phones.
2004 – President George Bush named Alberto Gonzales, White House Counsel, to be attorney general.
2004 – A Shell gas station in northeast Washington DC became the first in North America to have a hydrogen dispensing pump.
2005 – The US Postal Service honored four Marine heroes with commemorative stamps. They included Lt. Gen. Lewis “Chesty” Puller (1898-1971), Lt. Gen. John Lejeune (1867-1942), Sgt. Maj. Dan Daly (1873-1937) and Gunnery Sgt. John Basilone (1916-1945). The release coincided with the Marine Corps’ 230th anniversary.
2005 – The US Commerce Department reported that the deficit jumped to $66.1 billion in September, 11.4 percent higher than the $59.3 billion imbalance recorded in August.
2005 – Chris Carpenter of the St. Louis Cardinals won the National League Cy Young Award.
2006 – Pres. Bush dedicated the new National Museum of the Marine Corps in Quantico, Virginia.
2006 – The Los Angeles Police Department holds an investigation after a video showing police officers beating a man is posted on YouTube.
2006 – NASA’s Cassini spacecraft records a hurricane-like storm on the south pole of Saturn which is the first time such an event has been observed on another planet.
2007 – Miami ended its 70-year stay at the famed Orange Bowl with the biggest shutout loss in the stadium’s history, a 48-0 rout to Virginia.
2007 – A stagehands strike shut down most Broadway shows, with curtains rising again 19 days later.
2008 – Circuit City Stores Inc., the second-biggest electronics retailer in the US, filed for bankruptcy protection.
2008 – Deutsche Post AG said it will close all of its DHL Express service centers, cut 9,500 jobs in the United States and eliminate US-only domestic express shipping by land and air, citing heavy losses and fierce competition.
2008 – Reports surface that a United States nuclear weapon was lost somewhere in the ice after the January 21, 1968 crash of a B-52 Stratofortress outside Thule Air Base, Greenland.
2008 – The United States government announces a second bailout of American International Group (AIG); the total value of the new plan, roughly $150 billion, represents the largest government support package extended to a private company in US history.
2009 – In Virginia sniper John Allen Muhammad (48) refused to utter any last words as he was executed, taking to the grave answers about why and how he plotted the killings of 10 people that terrorized the Washington, D.C., area for three weeks.
2010 – Brad Paisley wins Entertainer of the Year at the 2010 CMA Awards held in Nashville, TN.
2010 – President Barack Obama gives a speech in Indonesia during which he says more needs to be done to repair the relationship between the United States and the Muslim world.
2011 – Obama snubs VA on gas & oil exploration, costing state ‘thousands of new jobs,’ Gov. McDonnell says.
2012 – A Miami-Dade Circuit Court judge recently approved a class action lawsuit over Porsche’s headlight design. Tthieves have recently begun harvesting xenon bulb for a decidedly different purpose: growing marijuana. The xenon bulbs used in Porsche’s lighting systems coincidentally deliver a just-right blend of light and heat for budding amateur horticulturists, and they offer the side benefit of being energy-efficient, too. Nothing says “grow house” to the police quite like a tripling of the electric bill from month to month.
2012 – An earthquake centered in Kentucky also rattled at least three other states. The USGS says the epicenter of the 4.3 magnitude earthquake was about 10 miles west of Whitesburg, KY. Residents in eastern Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia and Tennessee reported feeling the temblor.
2012 -Residents in northern New Jersey awoke to a small earthquake early Monday. The temblor, with a magnitude of 2.0, struck at 1:19 a.m. and was centered in Ringwood. The quake was 3 miles below ground and could also be felt in Mahwah, Wanaque, Oakland, Franklin Lakes, West Milford and Paterson.
1484 – Martin Luther, German religious leader, founder of Protestantism.
1730 – Oliver Goldsmith, Irish-born British playwright.
1925 – Richard Burton (Jenkins), British stage and movie actor.
BRITT, MAURICE L.
Rank and organization: Captain (then Lieutenant), U.S. Army, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: North of Mignano, Italy, November 10th, 1943. Entered service at: Lonoke, Ark. Born: 29 June 1919, Carlisle, Ark. G.O. No.: 23, 24 March 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Disdaining enemy hand grenades and close-range machine pistol, machinegun, and rifle, Lt. Britt inspired and led a handful of his men in repelling a bitter counterattack by approximately one-hundred Germans against his company positions north of Mignano, Italy, the morning of 10 November 1943. During the intense fire fight, Lt. Britt’s canteen and field glasses were shattered; a bullet pierced his side; his chest, face, and hands were covered with grenade wounds. Despite his wounds, for which he refused to accept medical attention until ordered to do so by his battalion commander following the battle, he personally killed five and wounded an unknown number of Germans, wiped out one enemy machinegun crew, fired five clips of carbine and an undetermined amount of Ml rifle ammunition, and threw thirty-two fragmentation grenades. His bold, aggressive actions, utterly disregarding superior enemy numbers, resulted in capture of four Germans, two of them wounded, and enabled several captured Americans to escape. Lt. Britt’s undaunted courage and prowess in arms were largely responsible for repulsing a German counterattack which, if successful, would have isolated his battalion and destroyed his company.
Kristallnacht or “Crystal Night”
Chaos Never Dies Day
Beef on Weck Day
Beef On Weck Sandwich
© copyright 2004-2007 by Linda Stradley – United States Copyright TX 5-900-517- All rights reserved.
web site What’s Cooking America.
Some people consider Beef on Weck – thinly sliced rare roast beef (piled high as 6 inches) on a freshly baked kummelweck roll – the best roast beef sandwich in America. This sandwich is a staple of Buffalo, New York. Few, if any, restaurants outside the Buffalo area serve this sandwich or even know what it is. Also called Beef on Wick, an alternative spelling usually used by older people from Buffalo and eastern suburbanites. It is a roast beef sandwich on a salty kimmelweck roll. In fact, it is this roll that makes the sandwich unique.
1901 – The following family history of the origin of the Beef on Weck sandwich was shared with me by John Guenther, great grandson of Joe Gohn, originator of the Beef on Weck Sandwich. Some of the information also comes from the Buffalo Courier Express newspaper, April 6, 1980:
Just before the start of the 1901 Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, NY, Joe Gohn (1862-1949) purchased a small saloon which he called the Delaware house, located at Delaware and Delavan Streets. The Delaware House was located on the northwest corner across the street from one of the exposition’s main entrances. He enlarged the house to offer hotel-style rooms for the exposition travelers. It was never called a hotel, but in order to have a whiskey license, he had to have ten bedrooms and provide sitting rooms for his customers.
According to family history, street trolleys loaded with people headed for the exposition were let off near the veranda of the John Gohn’s Delaware House. Since Joe had turned his house into a hotel and tavern to house and feed the hungry people, he decided that a roast beef sandwich and a cold beer would taste good to these travelers. Joe had a German baker working for him who was already making the rolls for the Delaware House. This baker, name unknown, suggested adding the caraway seeds and salt to the top of the rolls as they did in Germany. In Germany, this type of roll was called a kummelweck with nickname of weck. These sandwiches soon became very popular, and of course, the kummelweck helped to create extra thirsty patrons for selling a lot of beer.
The original Delaware House was purchased by the Standard Oil Company in 1931. It was later razed and a has a gas station on the site. Joe Gohn then purchased the building next door and converted it into a tavern, called Gohn’s Tavern. He continued serving his now famous Beef on Weck sandwiches. In later years, he sold the tavern and it became Meyer’s Tavern, which for many years continued selling the Beef on Weck sandwich with great popularity.
It is commonly believed by some historians that William Wahr, a German baker, brought the kummelweck to Buffalo from the Black Forest. There is no historical evidence to back this claim up, but could this be the name of the baker who worked for Joe Gohn at the Delaware House?
Beef on Weck Sandwich – Beef on Wick Sandwich
Recipe Type: Sandwich, Beef, History
Cuisine: Mid-Atlantic (Buffalo, NY)
Yields: 8 sandwiches
Prep time: 15 min
Cook time: 50 minutes
1 (3- to 4-pound) beef roast (tenderloin, Prime Rib, or eye of round)
1/4 cup extra-virgin olive oil
Salt and coarsely-ground black pepper
Cornstarch Glaze (see recipe below)
8 Kimmelweck or Kaiser rolls
2 tablespoons caraway seeds
2 tablespoons coarse salt
* Kimmelweck roll is a salty roll that is similar to a Kaiser roll.
Preheat oven to 425 degrees F.
Rub roast with olive oil, salt, and pepper. Place roast on rack in a shallow baking pan, tucking the thin end under to make it as thick as the rest of the roast. Bake, uncovered, 40 to 45 minutes or until thermometer registers 130 to 135 degrees F. Remove from oven and transfer to a cutting board; let stand 15 minutes before carving. Reserve meat juice, and carve meat into very thin slices.
Reduce oven temperature to 350 degrees F.
Brush the prepared Cornstarch Glaze on the top of each kimmelweck or Kaiser roll; sprinkle equal amounts of caraway seeds and heat in the oven for 3 minutes or until tops of the rolls get crusty and the caraway seeds and salt begin to stick. Remove from oven and cut each roll in half lengthwise.
To assemble sandwiches, divide sliced beef on the bottom half of each roll, spoon with reserved beef juice, and top with the top half of each roll. Serve with horseradish on the side.
Makes 8 sandwiches.
“To be a great champion you must believe you are the best. If you’re not, pretend you are.”
obfuscate OB-fuh-skayt, transitive verb:
1. To darken or render indistinct or dim.
2. To make obscure or difficult to understand or make sense of.
3. To confuse or bewilder.
Obfuscate comes from Late Latin obfuscatus, past participle of obfuscare, “to darken,” from Latin ob- + fuscare, “to darken,” from fuscus, “dark.” The noun form is obfuscation.
1799 – Napoleon Bonaparte pulled off a coup and declared himself dictator of France.
1821 – The first US pharmacy college held its first classes in Philadelphia.
1842 – George Bruce received the first Design Patent for printing type faces. This new form of patent was authorized by Act of Congress on August 29, 1842.
1848 – The first U.S. Post Office in California opened in San Francisco at Clay and Pike streets. At that time there were only about 15,000 European settlers living in the state.
1851 – Kentucky marshals abduct abolitionist minister Calvin Fairbank from Jeffersonville, Indiana, and take him to Kentucky to stand trial for helping a slave escape.
1853 – Origin of Carrington rotation numbers for rotation of the Sun. A Carrington Rotation is a period of 27.3 days, representing one full rotation of the Sun as seen from the Earth. The use of the numbers began on this day and continues.
1857 – “Atlantic Monthly” first published. It featured the first installment of “The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table” by Oliver Wendell Holmes.
1858 – New York Symphony Orchestra made its first performance.
1861 – Civil War: Gunboats of Flag Officer Du Pont’s force took possession of Beaufort, South Carolina, and, by blocking the mouth of Broad River, cut off this communication link between Charleston and Savannah.
1861 – Civil War: Soldiers of the Illinois 11th, 18th, and 29th Regiments, after forcing the Confederates south, set up camp in Bloomfield, Missouri. Upon finding the newspaper office empty, they decided to print a newspaper for their expedition, relating the troop’s activities. They called it the “Stars and Stripes.”
1862 – Civil War: Union General Ambrose Burnside assumes command of the Army of the Potomac, after George McClellan was removed.
1862 – Civil War: General US Grant issued orders to bar Jews from serving under him. The order was quickly rescinded.
1864 – Sherman designed his “March to the Sea.”
1872 – The Great Boston Fire started. The fire started in a dry-goods warehouse then spread rapidly in windy weather, destroying nearly 800 buildings. Damage was estimated at more than $75 million. The fire’s bright red glare could be seen in the sky for nearly 100 miles.
1875 – Indian Inspector E.C. Watkins submits a report to Washington, D.C., stating that hundreds of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians associated with Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse are hostile to the United States. In so doing, Watkins set into motion a series of events that led to the Battle of the Little Big Born in Montana the following year.
1887 – The United States receives rights to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
1904 – First airplane flight to last more than five minutes. The Wrights made 105 flights in 1904, but racked up only 45 minutes in total flight time. The two best flights, today and December 1, exceeded five minutes and about three miles in length.
1906 – U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt departed for Panama aboard the battleship Louisiana, on the first official foreign trip in history by a U.S. president.
1912 – Carlisle defeats Army 27-6. Pop Warner was a legendary coach of the Carlisle School for Indians in Pennsylvania (Jim Thorpe played for Warner at Carlisle). On this day, Carlisle hammered Army 27-6. Playing right halfback on the Army team was a future U.S. war hero and president: Dwight D. Eisenhower.
1913 – Storm “Freshwater Fury” sank eight ore-carriers on the Great Lakes. “The Great Lakes Storm of 1913” was a blizzard with hurricane-force winds that devastated the Great Lakes Basin. The worst day of the storm was today. The Storm killed more than 250 people, destroyed 19 ships, and stranded 19 others.
1918 – Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm II announced he would abdicate, then fled to the Netherlands just two days before the signing of the Armistice.
1921 – USS Olympia arrives at the Washington Navy Yard from France carrying the body of the Unknown Soldier for internment at Arlington National Cemetery.
1921 – Albert Einstein awarded Nobel Prize in Physics for his work with the photoelectric effect.
1923 – The Beer Hall Putsch was crushed by German troops that were loyal to the democratic government. The event began the evening before when Adolf Hitler took control of a beer hall full of Bavarian government leaders at gunpoint.
1925 – The SS (Schutzstaffel or “Protection Squad)” was formed in Germany.
1935 – United Mine Workers president John L. Lewis and other labor leaders formed the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO).
1938 – The kids’ magazine, “Jack and Jill”, was published.
1938 – Mary Martin made her Broadway stage debut.
1938 – Bands of Nazis destroyed Jewish shops, synagogues, and beat, or arrested thousands of Jews (and kill 35) in Germany, Austria, and other Nazi-controlled areas. The attack became known as Kristallnacht or “Crystal Night” for all the broken glass in the streets. Herman Goering’s report said, “…815 shops destroyed, 171 dwelling houses set on fire or destroyed…119 synagogues were set on fire, and another 76 completely destroyed…20,000 Jews were arrested, 36 deaths were reported and those seriously injured were also numbered at 36….”
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: Transport #44 departed with French Jews to Nazi Germany.
1943 – World War II: On Bougainville, the US 3rd Marine Division advances inland from their beachhead at Cape Tarokina, in Empress Augusta Bay.
1944 – The 455-foot Red Oak Victory ship was launched from Richmond, Ca. It was named after an Iowa town with the highest number of casualties per capita in WW II. The Victory ships were successors of the Liberty ships.
1945 – FBI agents staked out a house in Berkeley, Ca., to watch George Eltenton, a suspected Soviet spy. In 1946 Eltenton admitted that he had tried to obtain secret data on Berkeley’s radiation lab. Eltenton moved to Britain in 1947.
1946 – President Truman ended a wage and price freeze.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Buttons and Bows” by Dinah Shore, “Hair of Gold, Eyes of Blue” by Gordon MacRae, “On a Slow Boat to China” by The Kay Kaiser Orchestra (vocal: Harry Babbitt & Gloria Wood and “One Has My Name (The Other Has My Heart)” by Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1948 – “This is Your Life” debuted on NBC radio. It was the creation of host Ralph Edwards, who was also the host of radio’s popular “Truth or Consequences.” It became a live television program in 1952, running on the NBC network until 1961.
1950 – Korean War: Task Force 77 makes first attack on the Yalu River bridges. In first engagement between a MIG-15 and F9F jets (USS Philippine Sea), LCDR William T. Amen (VF-111) shoots down a MIG and becomes first Navy pilot to shoot down a jet aircraft.
1953 – The U.S. Supreme Court upheld a 1922 ruling that major league baseball did not come within the scope of federal antitrust laws.
1953 – Maurice Richard set a National Hockey League record (up to that time) by scoring his 325th career goal.
1955 – Michael Gazzo’s “Hatful of Rain,” premiered in New York City.
1957 – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley topped the charts
1960 – Robert McNamara is named president of Ford Motor Co., the first non-Ford to serve in that post — quitting a month later to join the newly-elected John F. Kennedy administration.
1961 – PGA eliminates Caucasians only rule.
1961 – Neil Armstrong records a world record speed in a rocket plane, flying 6,587km/h in an X-15. In addition, USAF Major Robert M White took the X-15 to 101,600 feet.
1962 – Motown Records released “You’ve Really Got a Hold on Me,” by the Miracles.
1963 – “Sugar Shack” by Jimmy Gilmer & the Fireballs topped the charts.
1963 – “Louie, Louie” was released by the Kingsmen.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “Baby Love” by The Supremes, “Last Kiss” by J. Frank Wilson & The Cavaliers, “Leader of the Pack” by The Shangri-Las and “I Don’t Care (Just as Long as You Love Me)” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 – The Great Northeast Blackout took place at 5:16 pm in all of New York State, portions of seven (New York, Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont and New Hampshire )neighboring states, and parts of eastern Canada, as they were hit by a series of power failures lasting up to 13.5 hours.
1965 – Catholic Worker member Roger Allen LaPorte, protesting against the Vietnam War, sets himself on fire in front of the United Nations building.
1967 – NASA launches the unmanned Apollo 4 test spacecraft from Cape Kennedy.
1967 – The first issue of “Rolling Stone” was published. John Lennon was on the cover.
1967 – David Crosby left the Byrds. In 1968, Crosby, Stills, and Nash was formed.
1968 – “Hey Jude” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1970 – Vietnam War: The Supreme Court of the United States votes 6 to 3 against hearing a case to allow Massachusetts to enforce its law granting residents the right to refuse military service in an undeclared war.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Can See Clearly Now” by Johnny Nash, “Nights in White Satin” by The Moody Blues, “Freddie’s Dead (Theme from “Superfly”)” by Curtis Mayfield and “It’s Not Love (But It’s Not Bad)” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1973 – Cat Stevens made his national TV debut on ABC’s “In Concert.” “Cat’s In The Cradle”
1973 – The album “Piano Man” (43:34) was released by Billy Joel.
1974 – “You Ain’t Seen Nothing Yet” by Bachman-Turner Overdrive topped the charts.
1976 – Smokey the Bear (26) died at the Washington DC National Zoo.
1982 – Sugar Ray Leonard retired from boxing, five months after having retinal surgery on his left eye.
1983 – Alfred Heineken, beer brewer from Amsterdam, was kidnapped and held for a ransom of more than $10 million.
1984 – A bronze statue titled “Three Servicemen,” by Frederick Hart, was unveiled at the site of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, DC.The soldiers are purposefully identifiable as White American, Black American, and Hispanic. The statue and the Wall appear to interact with each other, with the soldiers looking on in solemn tribute at the names of their dead comrades. It has been suggested that the sculpture was positioned especially for that effect.
1985 – “Miami Vice Theme” by Jan Hammer topped the charts.
1987 – Senate Minority Leader Bob Dole formally announced a bid for the Republican presidential nomination during a visit to his hometown of Russell, KS.
1988 – Gary Kasparov became world chess champion after beating Anatoly Karpov, the titleholder for 10 years, in Moscow.
1989 – East Germany opened it borders to West Germany and allowed thousands of its citizens to pass freely through the Berlin Wall. The next day, East German troops began dismantling the wall, and less than a year later, East Germany and West Germany were formally reunited.
1991 – “Cream” by Prince & the N.P.G. topped the charts.
1996 – “No Diggity” by Blackstreet topped the charts.
1996 – Evander Holyfield upset Mike Tyson to win the WBA heavyweight title in an 11-round fight in Las Vegas.
1997 – Barry Sanders (Detroit Lions) became the first player in NFL history to rush for over 1,000 yards in nine straight seasons. In the same game Sanders passed former Dallas Cowboy Tony Dorsett for third place on the all-time rushing list.
1997 – A Boeing 707 jetliner carrying First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton was forced to return to Andrews Air Force Base outside Washington after a sensor indicated an engine fire, which turned out to be a false alarm. Mrs. Clinton left the following day for a tour of Central Asia.
1998 – Singer Billy Preston, his manager Merle Otis Greene and Greene’s wife Sandra were indicted on twenty-two charges of fraud in collecting $1 million in insurance claims.
1998 – Michael Jackson settled a lawsuit over stories and pictures in the London Daily Mirror that said his face had been disfigured by cosmetic surgery.
1998 – The age of digital and interactive TV opened with a PBS documentary special, “Chihuly Over Venice.” This was the first high definition digital TV broadcast.
1999 – The flight data recorder from EgyptAir Flight 990 was recovered from the Atlantic Ocean and shipped to a National Transportation Safety Board laboratory in Washington.
2000 – Pres. Clinton established the 293,000-acre Vermillion Cliffs in northern Arizona as a national monument. He also ordered 661,000 acres of federal land added to the 54,400-acre craters of the Moon National Monument in central Idaho.
2000 – William Leonard Pickard (55) and Clyde Apperson (45) of California were indicted by a grand jury in Kansas City for running a massive LSD laboratory inside a decommissioned nuclear missile silo in Wamego, KS.
2001 – The US Federal Election Committee voted 6-0 to recognize the Green Party as a national committee.
2002 – Allan Chu (17) of Saratoga, CA., won top honors in a Siemens Westinghouse competition for his work on a new algorithm to compress Internet data.
2003 – Art Carney (85) died in Chester, Conn. He played Jackie Gleason’s sewer worker pal Ed Norton in the TV classic “The Honeymooners” and went on to win the 1974 Oscar for best actor in “Harry and Tonto.”
2004 – Kenny Chesney won the US Country Music Association album of the year award for “When The Sun Goes Down” as well as entertainer of the year.
2004 – Houston Astros pitcher Roger Clemens won his record seventh Cy Young award.
2004 – John Ashcroft and Don Evans resign their posts as U.S. Attorney General and U.S. Secretary of Commerce respectively.
2004 – U.S. First Lady Laura Bush officially reopened Pennsylvania Avenue in front of the White House to pedestrians.
2005 – Carolina’s Erik Cole became the first player in NHL history to be awarded two penalty shots in one game. Cole scored on the first, helping the Hurricanes defeat Buffalo 5-3.
2006 – Champion figure skater Michelle Kwan was appointed America’s first public diplomacy envoy by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.
2006 – The Nevada Supreme Court upheld a Las Vegas city regulation barring erotic dancers from raunchy physical contact with their customers, in a ruling that runs counter to the gambling city’s sinful reputation.
2007 – Michael Mukasey, a retired federal judge, was sworn in as the 81st US Attorney General.
2007 – Former New York City police commissioner Bernard Kerik (52) surrendered to face federal corruption charges, in what could prove to be an ongoing embarrassment for presidential hopeful Rudy Giuliani.
2008 – In Louisiana Raymond “Chuck” Foster, 44, shot and killed an Oklahoma woman, who was lured over the Internet to take part in a Ku Klux Klan initiation. The group tried to cover it up by dumping her body on a rural roadside and setting her belongings aflame.
2009 – US giant Kraft Foods launched a hostile 9.8-billion-pound takeover bid for Cadbury which the British confectioner rejected.
2010 – Anwar al-Awlaki, a Yemeni cleric affiliated with al-Queda, tells Muslims in a new video posting that they are free to kill American at will, in retaliation for the killing of civilians in Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere.
2010 – Construction of a factory for the first fleet of commercial spaceships begins at the Mojave Air and Space Port in Mojave, CA.
2011 – A U.S. Federal investigation finds gross mismanagement of the remains of servicemen and women at the Charles C. Carson Center for Mortuary Affairs at Dover Air Force Base.
2011 – The trustees of Pennsylvania State University sack the coach of the Penn State Nittany Lions football team, Joe Paterno, and the University president, Graham Spanier, following allegations of a coverup of alleged sexual abuse by assistant coach Jerry Sandusky.
2012 – CIA Director David Petraeus today submitted his letter of resignation to President Obama. The move was announced in a statement by Director of National Intelligence James Clapper. The excuse he has cited is an extra-marital affair.
2012 – Hillary Clinton intends to step down as secretary of state. That will take place likely “days” after President Barack Obama’s second inauguration in January.
2013 – Newport News Shipbuilding christened the nation’s newest aircraft carrier Gerald R. Ford (CVN 78) during a ceremony on-site where the ship is being built. The President’s daughter, Susan Ford Bales, served as the ship’s sponsor, performing the traditional honor of breaking a bottle of American sparkling wine across the ship’s bow.
2013 – The US Air Force hosted the famed Doolittle Tokyo Raiders final toast to their fallen comrades. It was held at the National Museum of the Air Force and three of the final four were present, one could not make it for health reasons. (See April 18, 1942)
1731 – Benjamin Banneker, American mathematician, clockmaker, surveyor, almanac author, and astronomer.
1841 – Edward VII, King of England, who succeeded his mother Victoria in 1901.
1853 – Stanford White, American architect of Madison Square Garden and Washington Arch.
1886 – Ed Wynn, American Emmy Award-winning actor.
1889 – Claude Rains, British actor.
1891 – Clifton Webb (Webb Hollenbeck), American actor.
1905 – J. William Fulbright, U.S. Senator and creator of Fulbright scholarships.
1913 – Hedy Lamarr (Hedwig Kiessler), Austrian-born actress.
1918 – Spiro Agnew, Vice President of the United States (d. 1996)
1934 – Carl Sagan, American Pulitzer Prize-winning author and astronomer.
1951 – Lou Ferrigno, American bodybuilder
WHITE, KYLE J.
Rank and organization: Specialist, U.S, Army, radio telephone operator with Company C, 2d Battalion (Airborne), 503d Infantry Regiment, 173d Airborne Brigade. Place and date: Nuristan Province, Afghanistan , November 9th, 2007. Entered service at: Seattle, WA Born: 1987, Seattle, WA Citation: Specialist Kyle J. White distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a , during combat operations against an armed enemy in Nuristan Province, Afghanistan on November 9, 2007. On that day, Specialist White and his comrades were returning to Bella Outpost from a shura with Aranas Village elders. As the soldiers traversed a narrow path surrounded by mountainous, rocky terrain, they were ambushed by enemy forces from elevated positions. Pinned against a steep mountain face, Specialist White and his fellow soldiers were completely exposed to enemy fire. Specialist White returned fire and was briefly knocked unconscious when a rocket-propelled grenade impacted near him. When he regained consciousness, another round impacted near him, embedding small pieces of shrapnel in his face. Shaking off his wounds, Specialist White noticed one of his comrades lying wounded nearby. Without hesitation, Specialist White exposed himself to enemy fire in order to reach the soldier and provide medical aid. After applying a tourniquet, Specialist White moved to an injured Marine, similarly providing aid and comfort until the Marine succumbed to his wounds. Specialist White then returned to the soldier and discovered that he had been wounded again. Applying his own belt as an additional tourniquet, Specialist White was able to stem the flow of blood and save the soldier’s life. Noticing that his and the other soldier’s radios were inoperative, Specialist White exposed himself to enemy fire yet again in order to secure a radio from a deceased comrade. He then provided information and updates to friendly forces, allowing precision airstrikes to stifle the enemy’s attack and ultimately permitting medical evacuation aircraft to rescue him, his fellow soldiers, Marines and Afghan Army soldiers. Specialist Kyle J. White’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, Company C, 2d Battalion (Airborne), 503d Infantry Regiment, 173d Airborne Brigade and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Air Force, 4th Allied POW Wing, Pilot of an F-4C aircraft. Place and date: North Vietnam, November 9th, 1967. Entered service at: Milwaukee, Wis. Born: 13 April 1942, Milwaukee, Wis. Citation: While on a flight over North Vietnam, Capt. Sijan ejected from his disabled aircraft and successfully evaded capture for more than six weeks. During this time, he was seriously injured and suffered from shock and extreme weight loss due to lack of food. After being captured by North Vietnamese soldiers, Capt. Sijan was taken to a holding point for subsequent transfer to a prisoner of war camp. In his emaciated and crippled condition, he overpowered one of his guards and crawled into the jungle, only to be recaptured after several hours. He was then transferred to another prison camp where he was kept in solitary confinement and interrogated at length. During interrogation, he was severely tortured; however, he did not divulge any information to his captors. Capt. Sijan lapsed into delirium and was placed in the care of another prisoner. During his intermittent periods of consciousness until his death, he never complained of his physical condition and, on several occasions, spoke of future escape attempts. Capt. Sijan’s extraordinary heroism and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty at the cost of his life are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Air Force and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Armed Forces.
Rank and organization: Captain (then 1st Lt.), U.S. Army, Troop B, 1st Cavalry, Americal Division. Place and date: West of Que Son, Republic of Vietnam, November 9th, 1967. Entered service at: San Francisco, Calif. Born: 31 December 1937, Arcata, Calif. Citation: Capt. Taylor, Armor, was serving as executive officer of Troop B, 1st Squadron. His troop was engaged in an attack on a fortified position west of Que Son when it came under intense enemy recoilless rifle, mortar, and automatic weapons fire from an enemy strong point located immediately to its front. One armored cavalry assault vehicle was hit immediately by recoilless rifle fire and all five crewmembers were wounded. Aware that the stricken vehicle was in grave danger of exploding, Capt. Taylor rushed forward and personally extracted the wounded to safety despite the hail of enemy fire and exploding ammunition. Within minutes a second armored cavalry assault vehicle was hit by multiple recoilless rifle rounds. Despite the continuing intense enemy fire, Capt. Taylor moved forward on foot to rescue the wounded men from the burning vehicle and personally removed all the crewmen to the safety of a nearby dike. Moments later the vehicle exploded. As he was returning to his vehicle, a bursting mortar round painfully wounded Capt. Taylor, yet he valiantly returned to his vehicle to relocate the medical evacuation landing zone to an area closer to the front lines. As he was moving his vehicle, it came under machinegun fire from an enemy position not fifty yards away. Capt. Taylor engaged the position with his machinegun, killing the three-man crew. Upon arrival at the new evacuation site, still another vehicle was struck. Once again Capt. Taylor rushed forward and pulled the wounded from the vehicle, loaded them aboard his vehicle, and returned them safely to the evacuation site. His actions of unsurpassed valor were a source of inspiration to his entire troop, contributed significantly to the success of the overall assault on the enemy position, and were directly responsible for saving the lives of a number of his fellow soldiers. His actions were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military profession and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Air Force, 37th ARS Da Nang AFB, Republic of Vietnam. Place and date: KheSanh, November 9th, 1967. Entered service at: Colorado Springs, Colo. Born: 9 May 1930, Chicago, Ill. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Young distinguished himself while serving as a helicopter rescue crew commander. Capt. Young was flying escort for another helicopter attempting the night rescue of an Army ground reconnaissance team in imminent danger of death or capture. Previous attempts had resulted in the loss of two helicopters to hostile ground fire. The endangered team was positioned on the side of a steep slope which required unusual airmanship on the part of Capt. Young to effect pickup. Heavy automatic weapons fire from the surrounding enemy severely damaged one rescue helicopter, but it was able to extract three of the team. The commander of this aircraft recommended to Capt. Young that further rescue attempts be abandoned because it was not possible to suppress the concentrated fire from enemy automatic weapons. With full knowledge of the danger involved, and the fact that supporting helicopter gunships were low on fuel and ordnance, Capt. Young hovered under intense fire until the remaining survivors were aboard. As he maneuvered the aircraft for takeoff, the enemy appeared at point-blank range and raked the aircraft with automatic weapons fire. The aircraft crashed, inverted, and burst into flames. Capt. Young escaped through a window of the burning aircraft. Disregarding serious burns, Capt. Young aided one of the wounded men and attempted to lead the hostile forces away from his position. Later, despite intense pain from his burns, he declined to accept rescue because he had observed hostile forces setting up automatic weapons positions to entrap any rescue aircraft. For more than seventeen hours he evaded the enemy until rescue aircraft could be brought into the area. Through his extraordinary heroism, aggressiveness, and concern for his fellow man, Capt. Young reflected the highest credit upon himself, the U.S. Air Force, and the Armed Forces of his country.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 729th Bomber Squadron, 452d Bombardment Group. Place and date: Saarbrucken, Germany, November 9th,1944. Entered service at: Arnett, Okla. Born: 3 June 1923, Arnett, Okla. G.O. No.: 38, 16 May 1945. Citation: On a bombing run upon the marshaling yards at Saarbrucken a B-17 aircraft piloted by 1st. Lt. Gott was seriously damaged by antiaircraft fire. Three of the aircraft’s engines were damaged beyond control and on fire; dangerous flames from the No. 4 engine were leaping back as far as the tail assembly. Flares in the cockpit were ignited and a fire raged therein, which was further increased by free-flowing fluid from damaged hydraulic lines. The interphone system was rendered useless. In addition to these serious mechanical difficulties the engineer was wounded in the leg and the radio operator’s arm was severed below the elbow. Suffering from intense pain, despite the application of a tourniquet, the radio operator fell unconscious. Faced with the imminent explosion of his aircraft, and death to his entire crew, mere seconds before bombs away on the target, 1st. Lt. Gott and his copilot conferred. Something had to be done immediately to save the life of the wounded radio operator. The lack of a static line and the thought that his unconscious body striking the ground in unknown territory would not bring immediate medical attention forced a quick decision. 1st. Lt. Gott and his copilot decided to fly the flaming aircraft to friendly territory and then attempt to crash land. Bombs were released on the target and the crippled aircraft proceeded alone to Allied-controlled territory. When that had been reached, 1st. Lt. Gott had the copilot personally inform all crewmembers to bail out. The copilot chose to remain with 1st. Lt. Gott in order to assist in landing the bomber. With only one normally functioning engine, and with the danger of explosion much greater, the aircraft banked into an open field, and when it was at an altitude of 100 feet it exploded, crashed, exploded again and then disintegrated. All three crewmembers were instantly killed. 1st. Lt. Gott’s loyalty to his crew, his determination to accomplish the task set forth to him, and his deed of knowingly performing what may have been his last service to his country was an example of valor at its highest.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 6 November 1922, Neche, N. Dak. Accredited to: North Dakota. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and courage above and beyond the call of duty while attached to the 3d Marine Raider Battalion during action against enemy Japanese forces in the Solomon Islands area on November 9th,1943. While his platoon was engaged in the defense of a vital road block near Empress Augusta Bay on Bougainville Island. Pfc. Gurke, in company with another Marine, was delivering a fierce stream of fire against the main vanguard of the Japanese. Concluding from the increasing ferocity of grenade barrages that the enemy was determined to annihilate their small, two-man foxhole, he resorted to a bold and desperate measure for holding out despite the torrential hail of shells. When a Japanese grenade dropped squarely into the foxhole, Pfc. Gurke, mindful that his companion manned an automatic weapon of superior fire power and therefore could provide more effective resistance, thrust him roughly aside and flung his own body over the missile to smother the explosion. With unswerving devotion to duty and superb valor, Pfc. Gurke sacrificed himself in order that his comrade might live to carry on the fight. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 729th Bomber Squadron 452d Bombardment Group. Place and date: Saarbrucken, Germany, November 9th, 1944. Entered service at: Lima, Ohio. Born: 9 February 1922, Lima, Ohio. G.O. No.: 38, 16 May 1945. Citation: On a bombing run upon the marshaling yards at Saarbrucken, Germany, on 9 November 1944, a B17 aircraft on which 2d Lt. Metzger was serving as copilot was seriously damaged by antiaircraft fire. Three of the aircraft’s engines were damaged beyond control and on fire; dangerous flames from the No. 4 engine were leaping back as far as the tail assembly. Flares in the cockpit were ignited and a fire roared therein which was further increased by free-flowing fluid from damaged hydraulic lines. The interphone system was rendered useless. In addition to these serious mechanical difficulties the engineer was wounded in the leg and the radio operator’s arm was severed below the elbow. Suffering from intense pain, despite the application of a tourniquet, the radio operator fell unconscious. Faced with the imminent explosion of his aircraft and death to his entire crew, mere seconds before bombs away on the target, 2d Lt. Metzger and his pilot conferred. Something had to be done immediately to save the life of the wounded radio operator. The lack of a static line and the thought that his unconscious body striking the ground in unknown territory would not bring immediate medical attention forced a quick decision. 2d Lt. Metzger and his pilot decided to fly the flaming aircraft to friendly territory and then attempt to crash land. Bombs were released on the target and the crippled aircraft proceeded along to Allied-controlled territory. When that had been reached 2d Lt. Metzger personally informed all crewmembers to bail out upon the suggestion of the pilot. 2d Lt. Metzger chose to remain with the pilot for the crash landing in order to assist him in this emergency. With only one normally functioning engine and with the danger of explosion much greater, the aircraft banked into an open field, and when it was at an altitude of 100 feet it exploded, crashed, exploded again, and then disintegrated. All three crewmembers were instantly killed. 2d Lt. Metzger’s loyalty to his crew, his determination to accomplish the task set forth to him, and his deed of knowingly performing what may have been his last service to his country was an example of valor at its highest.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company A, 356th Infantry, 89th Division. Place and date: Near Pouilly, France, November 9th, 1918. Entered service at: San Antonio, Tex. Birth: Laredo, Tex. G.O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919. Citation: When information was desired as to the enemy’s position on the opposite side of the Meuse River, Pvt. Barkeley, with another soldier, volunteered without hesitation and swam the river to reconnoiter the exact location. He succeeded in reaching the opposite bank, despite the evident determination of the enemy to prevent a crossing. Having obtained his information, he again entered the water for his return, but before his goal was reached, he was seized with cramps and drowned.
Rank and organization: Sergeant (then Private First Class), U.S. Army, Company A, 356th Infantry, 89th Division. Place and date: Near Pouilly, France, November 9th, 1918. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Kendell, Kans. C O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919. Citation: When information was desired as to the enemy’s position on the opposite side of the Meuse River, Sgt. Johnston, with another soldier, volunteered without hesitation and swam the river to reconnoiter the exact location of the enemy. He succeeded in reaching the opposite bank, despite the evident determination of the enemy to prevent a crossing. Having obtained his information, he again entered the water for his return. This was accomplished after a severe struggle which so exhausted him that he had to be assisted from the water, after which he rendered his report of the exploit.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 9th Infantry, 2d Division. Place and date: At Mouzon, France, November 9th, 1918. Entered service at: Glen Rock, N.J. Birth: Holland. G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919. Citation: While a member of the reconnaissance patrol, sent out at night to ascertain the condition of a damaged bridge, Sgt. Van Iersel volunteered to lead a party across the bridge in the face of heavy machinegun and rifle fire from a range of only seventy-five yards. Crawling alone along the debris of the ruined bridge he came upon a trap, which gave away and precipitated him into the water. In spite of the swift current he succeeded in swimming across the stream and found a lodging place among the timbers on the opposite bank. Disregarding the enemy fire, he made a careful investigation of the hostile position by which the bridge was defended and then returned to the other bank of the river, reporting this valuable information to the battalion commander.
Rank and organization: Artificer, Company F, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Bamban, Luzon, Philippine Islands, November 9th, 1899. Entered service at: Pawneytown, Md. Birth: Pawneytown, Md. Date of issue: 30 April 1902. Citation: Distinguished bravery and conspicuous gallantry in action against insurgents.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Bamban, Luzon, Philippine Islands, November 9th, 1899. Entered service at: Lawrence, Kans. Birth: Oskaloosa County, lowa. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: For distinguished bravery and conspicuous gallantry in action against insurgents.
The Hughes H-4 Hercules (“Spruce Goose“) is an aircraft that has been called “The Edsel of Aviation” designed and built by Howard Hughes‘s Hughes Aircraft company. Hughes himself detested the nickname “Spruce Goose”. The nickname arose as a way of mocking the Hercules project due to Hughes’ alleged misuse of government funding to build the aircraft. The Hercules is the largest flying boat, and has the largest wingspan of any aircraft in existence. Only one was ever built.
Due to wartime restrictions on the availability of metals, the H-4 was built almost entirely of laminated birch, not spruce as its nickname suggests. The aircraft was a marvel in its time. It married a soon-to-be outdated technology — flying boats — to a massive airframe that required some truly ingenious engineering innovations.
On the day……………..
It was a wonderful smell, the smell of new fresh wood; the aircraft was huge by anyone’s stretch of the imagination. There was hardly any movement even though the blue water of Long Beach Harbor was a little choppy. No one would probably notice until the plane got “light” in the water. This aircraft was amazing. It has a wing span of 319 feet, largest ever in the world. It is almost eighty feet high and the tallest aircraft ever. Just looking around, it was completely amazing. Today, November 2nd, 1947 was the day it was going to fly.
Standing inside this behemoth was humbling. One person standing in an area designed to hold 750 fully equipped troops is the only one who could appreciate that and the silence was deafening. It was similar to sensory deprivation. The quiet did not last long. When Mr. Hughes and his staff came aboard the noise level went up, of course, but not as loud as it got when the eight P&W 4360 reciprocating engines were started.
The Spruce Goose was originally conceived by Henry J. Kaiser, an American industrialist who became known as the father of modern American shipbuilding. He was the builder of the Liberty ships used by us in WW II. The vision was Kaiser’s but the aircraft was designed, constructed, and engineered by Howard Hughes and his staff. The ribs and frame of the Spruce Goose were made out of birch wood, the plane was covered with duramold , a new concept developed by Fairchild. The Spruce Goose had almost no nails or screws. The duramold process used layers of 1/32 inch wood veneer, laid in alternating grain direction, bonded with glue and steam-shaped. Duramold was what made the Spruce Goose both strong and light-weight for its size. It’s maximum takeoff weight was 400,000 lbs.
According to the Fairchild Corporation , “In the mid-1930s, Fairchild pioneered the application of composite structures to airframe design and production – duramold. The adhesive bonding processes and techniques are still followed in the manufacture of composite structures today. In 1947, Millionaire Howard Hughes became the first and only person to pilot the eight-engine flying boat called the Spruce Goose.
On this morning as the test flight came together the sky was a clear blue and there was a light wind. It was creating a light chop across the harbor but not anything that a good pilot like Mr. Hughes couldn’t handle. As the aircraft was taxied to the takeoff run it moved heavily in the water. They moved the Goose to its takeoff point gir to up to 40 m.p.h., dialed in 15% flaps then spun the aircraft 1800.
Mr. Hughes asked his engineer, “How does it sound Odie?” Odie responded and said, “Sounds pretty good Howard, Power up!!” Mr. Hughes started advancing the master throttle and the Goose moved forward. As it approached 25 mph, Mr. Hughes asked for the speeds to be called out. Thirty mph…., 35, 40, 45, 50. The aircraft was still in contact with the water but it was getting ready to break free. The choppy harbor was starting to cause some trouble but 55 mph, 60. 65, 70 and at 75 mph she broke free. The elation was palpable. The Spruce Goose stayed in the air for one mile and they took her back down again. Long Beach Harbor would never see the likes of what it saw that day.
The aircraft was stored from 1947 to 1992 at Long Beach nearby to the Queen Mary, also on display. In 1992 the HK-1 Flying Boat, nicknamed the Spruce Goose, was moved from a storage hangar to the new Michael King Smith Evergreen Aviation Educational Institute. Evergreen acquired the display rights, took it apart and barged it to Oregon in pieces. The pieces sailed up the Willamette River in January 1993. That February, a parade welcomed trucks carting the Spruce Goose into McMinnville from a landing near Dayton.
The aircraft can be seen at 460 NE Captain Michael King Smith Way
McMinnville, OR 97128
You can also call: 503-434-4185
“You can get everything in life you want if you will just help enough other people get what they want.”
askance uh-SKANS, adverb:
1. With suspicion, mistrust, or disapproval.
2. With a side glance; sidewise; obliquely.
The origin of askance has not been verifiably determined. It is possibly a variant of the Old Norse word askew meaning “to one side.”
392 – Theodosius of Rome passed legislation prohibiting all pagan worship in the empire and declared Christianity the state religion.
1519 – Cortez marched to the Aztec capital and captured Montezuma. Cortez and his men were welcomed by the last of the Motecuhzomas, who had come out to meet them in the belief that the white men must be Quetzalcoatll and other gods, returning at last from across the waters now known as the Gulf of Mexico.
1731 – Benjamin Franklin opened the first US library. The first circulating library in America, the Library Company of Philadelphia, was founded by Benjamin Franklin and others.
1789 – Bourbon Whiskey was first distilled from corn by Elijah Craig in Bourbon KY.
1793 – In Paris, the French Revolutionary government opens the Louvre to the public as a museum. Originally, it was constructed as a fortress in the early thirteenth century.
1805 – Meriwether Lewis and William Clark reached the Pacific coast after setting out from St. Louis over a year earlier. This is the day they set their eyes on the Pacific Ocean.
1837 – Mary Lyon founds Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, which would later become Mount Holyoke College.
1861 – Civil War: Union Captain Charles Wilkes of the sloop San Jacinto seized Confederate commissioners John Slidell and James M. Mason from the British mail ship Trent. Lincoln’s response to uproar: “One war at a time.” The incident turned into a major diplomatic crisis between Great Britain and the United States until the diplomats were released nearly two months later.
1864 – Abraham Lincoln is reelected to a second term in an overwhelming victory over George McClellan.
1864 – Acting Master Francis Josselyn, U.S.S. Commodore Hull, landed with a party of sailors at Edenton, North Carolina, under orders from Commander Macomb to break up a court session being held there.
1869 – The transcontinental railway arrived in Oakland, Ca. The Mariposa pulled six coaches into Oakland at 7th and Broadway.
1880 – Sarah Bernhardt made her American stage debut. She appeared in “Adrienne Lecouvreur” in New York City.
1887 – Doc Holliday died at the age of 35. The gun fighting dentist died from tuberculosis in a sanitarium in Glenwood Springs, CO. It is said that he awakened from a 57-day delirium, downed a glass of whiskey and said: “I’ll be damned!” and died.
1889 – Montana is admitted as the 41st U.S. state.
1892 – Grover Cleveland is elected over Benjamin Harrison and James B. Weaver to win the second of his non-consecutive terms. He is the first (and, to date, only) president to win non-consecutive terms in the White House.
1895 – While experimenting with electricity Wilhelm Röntgen discovers x-rays.
1899 – The Bronx Zoo opens.
1904 – Theodore Roosevelt (R) defeated Alton B. Parker (D) in US presidential elections. Roosevelt had succeeded the assassinated William McKinley.
1910 – William H. Frost of Spokane, Washington patented the insect exterminator.
1916 – World War I: U.S.S. “Columbian” sunk by German submarine near Cape Finisterre.
1923 – Adolf Hitler made his first attempt at seizing power in Germany with a failed coup in Munich that later came to be known as the “Beer-Hall Putsch.”
1926 – George Gershwin’s musical “Oh, Kay,” premiered in New York City.
1932 – Franklin D. Roosevelt elected President for first time by defeating Herbert Hoover in a landslide victory.
1932 – “Make Mine Music” debuted on Broadway. The show ran for 342 performances.
1933 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt unveils the Civil Works Administration, an organization designed to create jobs for more than four million of the unemployed.
1934 – Ford C Frick becomes president of baseball’s National League. One of Frick’s first acts as NL President was an enthusiastic endorsement of the proposed National Baseball Museum and a suggestion to include a Hall of Fame to honor the game’s greats.
1935 – A dozen labor leaders come together to announce the creation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), an organization charged with pushing the cause for industrial unionism.
1938 – Crystal Bird Fauset of Pennsylvania became the first Black woman to be elected to a state legislature. Fauset was a Philadelphia public school teacher from 1914 to 1918 before taking the position as a field secretary for the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA).
1939 – “Life with Father” longest running Broadway drama opens (closes 1947).
1939 – World War II: Assassination attempt on Adolph Hitler using a time bomb placed by Johann Georg Elser.
1940 – The first National Football League championship was aired on national radio. The Chicago Bears beat the Washington Redskins, 73-0.
1940 – The USS City of Rayville, an American freighter carrying a cargo of lead, wool and copper from Australia to New York, sank in the Bass Strait after striking a German mine, a year before the United States entered the war. One seaman drowned while trying to recover personal items from the sinking vessel but 37 other crew survived. She was the first ship lost in WW II.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: In Ternopil, western Ukraine, German SS deport about 2,400 Jews from Ternopil ghetto to the Belzec death camp, so called “Second Aktion”. When the Germans captured Ternopil, about 18,000 Jews lived in the city.
1942 – World War II: Operation Torch – United States and United Kingdom forces land in French North Africa. It was an invasion during the North African Campaign of WWII.
1942 – World War II: French resistance coup in Algiers, by which 400 Civil French patriots neutralized Vichyst XIXth Army Corps during 15 hours, arrested vichyst generals (Juin, Darlan, etc.), and so allowed the immediate success of Operation Torch in Algiers, then, from there, to the whole French North Africa.
1944 – World War II: The US 3rd Army begins a new offensive around Metz and to the south. During the day, the Seille River is crossed, and Nomony captured.
1944 – Twenty-five thousand Hungarian Jews were “loaned” to Nazis for forced labor.
1944 – In Hungary Peter Balazs (18) was fatally beaten to death for failing to wear a yellow star marking him as a Jew.
1945 – With the end of WWII, America needed to convert its economy back to peacetime conditions. The passage of the Revenue Act of 1945 was a key step in rolling back the heavy taxes which had been implemented to help wage the war. Along with cutting $6 billion in taxes, the Revenue Act initiated an extensive post-war revision of the nation’s entire tax system.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Near You” by The Francis Craig Orchestra (vocal: Bob Lamm), “You Do” by Dinah Shore, “And Mimi” by Art Lund and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: United States Air Force Lt. Russell J. Brown shoots down two North Korean MiG-15s in the first jet aircraft-to-jet aircraft dogfight in history.
1950 – Korean War: President Truman lifted the ban on bombing within five miles of the Yalu River, and the bridges at Sinuiju were struck. Seventy-nine B-29s along with naval aircraft carried out the mission.
1950 – Korean War: The Korean Service Medal was authorized by Executive Order 10179. Some 1.7 million U.S. service members were eventually awarded this medal for service in Korea and its contiguous waters between June 27, 1950, to July 27, 1954.
1952 – “I Went to Your Wedding” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1954 – American League approves Philadelphia A’s to move to Kansas City.
1956 – Cecile B. Demille’s “The Ten Commandments” was copyright registered.
1956 – After turning down 18,000 names, the Ford Motor Company decided to name their new car the “Edsel,” after Henry Ford’s only son.
1957 – Pan Am Flight 7, a Pan Am luxury airliner (Boeing 377 registration N90944) named “Romance of the Skies”, on its final leg of a “around-the-world-trip to Hawaii from San Francisco, crashed in the Pacific Ocean. Very little was found, a few bodies and some wreckage. A crew of 6 and 38 passengers had been booked on the flight.
1958 – “It’s All In The Game” by Tommy Edwards topped the charts.
1959 – Elgin Baylor of the Minneapolis Lakers, scored 64 points and set a National Basketball Association scoring record.
1960 – John F. Kennedy is elected President over Richard M. Nixon, becoming the youngest man elected to that office. Kennedy later said that he had been elected by just a ½ vote per precinct plurality across the country. Popular legend later held that the political machine of Richard Daley in Chicago provided the necessary votes for Kennedy to win Illinois (27 electoral votes) and the elections.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sugar Shack” by Jimmy Gilmer & The Fireballs, “Deep Purple” by Nino Tempo & April Stevens, “Washington Square” by The Village Stompers and “Love’s Gonna Live Here” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1964 – Mickey Wright shoots a 62, lowest golf score for a female professional golfer.
1965 – The US Higher Education Act became law. Its intention was to strengthen the educational resources of US colleges and universities and to provide financial assistance to students in postsecondary and higher education. The student loan system was part of Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society program.
1965 – Vietnam War: The 173rd Airborne is ambushed by over 1,200 Viet Cong in Operation Hump.
1965 – The American television soap opera “Days of Our Lives” premiered with Frances Reid (1914-2010) as Alice Horton. Reid spent over 40 years playing Alice Horton on the daytime soap.
1966 – Former Massachusetts Attorney General Edward Brooke becomes the first Black elected to the United States Senate.
1966 – Movie actor Ronald Reagan elected governor of California. He defeated Pat Brown. Reagan had defeated former San Francisco Mayor George Christopher in the primary.
1966 – President Johnson signs anti-trust immunity to AFL-NFL merger.
1969 – “Wedding Bell Blues” by 5th Dimension topped the charts.
1970 – Tom Dempsey of New Orleans Saints kicks NFL record 63-yard field goal. It was the record until Denver Broncos kicker Matt Prater broke the NFL record with a 64-yard field goal to draw within one point of the Tennessee Titans at halftime in this game. Prior to this Dempsey shared the 63 yard record with Jason Elam, Sebastian Janikowski and David Akers.
1973 – The right ear of John Paul Getty III is delivered to a newspaper together with a ransom note, convincing his father to pay 2.9 million USD.
1973 – Walt Disney’s “Robin Hood” (Mac Davis?)is released.
1974 – Charges were dropped against eight Ohio National Guardsmen for their role in the deaths of four anti-war protestors at Kent State University. A federal grand jury had indicted eight National Guardsmen for the May 4, 1970 Kent State shootings.
1974 – Singer Connie Francis (b.1938) was raped in her hotel room at the Jericho Turnpike Howard Johnson’s Lodge after a concert at the Westbury Music Fair on Long Island, NY. She subsequently sued the motel chain for failing to provide adequate security. She reportedly won a $2.5 million judgment, her rapist was never found.
1974 – Debi Kent disappeared in Salt Lake City, Utah. She was later identified as another victim of Theodore “Ted” Bundy.
1975 – Elton John’s album, “Rock of the Westies”, debuted at #1 on US album charts.
1975 – “Island Girl” by Elton John topped the charts.
1978 – Norman Rockwell (b.1894), American artist, died. He had created nearly 4,000 illustrations that included 321 covers for the Saturday Evening Post.
1979 – The program, “The Iran Crisis: America Held Hostage”, premiered on ABC-TV. The show was planned to be temporary, but it evolved into “Nightline” in March of 1980.
1979 – U.S. Senators John Warner (R-VA) and Mac Mathias (R-MD) introduced legislation to provide a site on the National Mall for the building of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.
1980 – Bruce Springsteen’s album, “The River“, hit #1.
1980 – Voyager 1 space probe discovers 15th moon of Saturn.
1980 – “Woman in Love” by Barbra Streisand topped the charts.
1983 – W Wilson Goode (D) elected first Black mayor of Philadelphia.
1984 – Anna Fisher becomes the first “mom” to go into orbit. Dr. Fisher was a mission specialist on STS-51A, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, FL. The first attempt to rescue two crippled satellites scheduled on Discovery’s mission.
1986 – “Amanda” by Boston topped the charts.
1988 – George H. W. Bush is elected over Michael Dukakis.
1990 – In Iraq Saddam Hussein fired his army chief and threatened to destroy the Arabian peninsula.
1991 – The “Carol Burnette Show” premieres on CBS-TV.
1992 – Volunteers began reading aloud the 58,183 names on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C., as part of a tribute marking the 10th anniversary of the monument.
1994 – For the first time in 40 years the Republican Party takes control of both the House of Representatives and the Senate in midterm congressional elections.
1994 – In Oregon, “Measure 16,” which permitted euthanasia in regulated circumstances for the terminally ill, was voted in.
1994 – California voters approved Proposition 187, designed to bar illegal aliens from education, social services and non-emergency health care. The courts later struck down the law.
1996 – Cheyenne Pyle, the youngest heart transplant patient (90 mins old), was born in Miami and flown to California for surgery. The infant did not survive.
1998 – Four Navy fliers were lost at sea and presumed dead after their EA-6B Prowler struck an S-3 Viking aircraft on the carrier Enterprise during nighttime landing practice off of Virginia. Two crewmen landed safely on the deck.
1999 – Former President Bush was honored in Germany for his role in the fall of the Berlin Wall ten years earlier.
2000 – A statewide recount began in Florida, which emerged as critical in deciding the winner of the 2000 presidential election.
2000 – Waco special counsel John C. Danforth released his final report that absolved the government of wrongdoing in the 1993 seige of the Branch Davidian compound in Texas.
2000 – Joey Chestnut won the Martorano’s Masters Meatball Eating Championship in Las Vegas gobbling 50 meatballs in 10 minutes. The 6.25 pounds was a world record and earned him $1500.
2001 – In a prime-time address, President called on Americans to defy acts of terror by strengthening their communities, comforting their neighbors and remaining vigilant in the face of further threats.
2002 -UN Security Council Resolution 1441 – The United Nations Security Council unanimously approves a resolution on Iraq, forcing Saddam Hussein to disarm or face “serious consequences”.
2002 – The California State Medical Board moved to suspend the licenses of Dr. Chae Hyun Moon and Dr. Fidel Realyvasquez of Redding Medical Center for performing needless heart surgeries from 1992-2002.
2003 – Democrat Howard Dean announced he would opt out of the system for publicly financing elections, and its imposed limits, to better compete against President Bush.
2003 – The new $188 million Carquinez Bridge in Vallejo, Ca., was dedicated. Costs reached $340 million with the approaches. Traffic began with massive tie-ups on Nov 11.
2004 – Jason Bay became the first Pittsburgh Pirates player to win the National League Rookie of the Year award, while Oakland shortstop Bobby Crosby took the American League honor.
2004 – More than 10,000 U.S. troops and a small number of Iraqi army units participate in a siege on the insurgent stronghold of Fallujah.
2004 – The U.S. dollar was eliminated from circulation in Cuba.
2005 – The original “Guitar Hero” game was released in North America.
2005 – The Kansas Board of Education voted 6-4 that students will be expected to study doubts about Darwinian evolutionary theory.
2005 – In Hillsdale, Michigan, unofficial results showed that Michael Sessions (18) got 732 votes, compared with 668 for Mayor Doug Ingles (51). Once the victory is certified and Sessions is sworn in he will join two other 18-year old mayors Christopher Seeley of Linesville, Pennsylvania (also born in September 1987) and Sam Juhl of Roland, Iowa (born in November 1987).
2005 – Pennsylvania voters came down hard on school board members who backed a statement on intelligent design being read in biology class, ousting eight Republicans and replacing them with Democrats who want the concept stripped from the science curriculum.
2005 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Jacksboro, Tennessee, Ken Bartley Jr. (15) shot to death assistant principal Ken Bruce and wounded two other school officials with a handgun at Campbell County Comprehensive High School.
2006 – Nancy Pelosi, Representative of San Francisco becomes the first woman and the first Californian to serve as speaker of the House. Pelosi promised a six-pronged action plan including a new direction for America, to be enacted within 100 hours of becoming speaker.
2007 – California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, joined by 14 other states, sued the Bush administration over its refusal to let them enforce bigger auto emissions cuts than those required by the federal government.
2007 – A US Army UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter crashed in northern Italy, killing at least four people on board and injuring six. Two more soon died in a hospital.
2008 – On Long Island, NY, seven students from Patchogue-Medford High School attacked Marcelo Lucero (38), an immigrant from Ecuador. Jeffrey Conroy (17) stabbed and killed Lucero as he struggled to defend himself. Police soon arrested the 7 teens.
2010 – The Obama administration bans cargo shipments from Somalia in the wake of the Yemen bomb attacks.
2011 – NASA observes the asteroid YU55 as it makes a close Earth flyby, passing within 0.85 lunar distances (about 201,700 miles) of the Earth. YU55 is approximately 1,300 ft across, and is the largest asteroid to make a close pass since 1976.
2012 – A Key West resident who police say was distraught over the presidential election results and worried about his business has apparently killed himself. Police found Henry Hamilton’s body in his bedroom, along with a living will with handwritten words “Do not revive! (expletive) Obama!” Two empty prescription empty pill bottles were in the dining room.
2014 – North Korea releases American detainees Kenneth Bae and Matthew Todd Miller.
2015 – At the University of Missouri, head football coach Gary Pinkel tweets his support for the 30 black football players who, because of racial tensions on campus, are boycotting team activities until the president of the University of Missouri System, Tim Wolfe, is removed. Pinkel and athletics director Mack Rhoades issue a statement that the Tigers will not resume football activities until Missouri student Jonathan Butler ends his hunger strike against Wolfe.
2015 – Mysterious lights from an unidentified flying object spook people in Arizona, California, and Nevada. It was later confirmed as a test flight of a UGM-133 Trident II missile.
1656 (N.S.) – Edmond Halley, British astronomer and mathematician (d. 1742)
1723 – John Byron, British naval officer (d. 1786)
1836 – Milton Bradley, American lithographer and game manufacturer (d. 1911)
1866 – Herbert Austin, English automobile pioneer (d. 1941)
1884 – Hermann Rorschach, Swiss psychiatrist (d. 1922) inventor of the inkblot test (Rorshach Test).
1900 – Margaret Mitchell, American author (d. 1949)
1922 – Christiaan Barnard, South African heart surgeon (d. 2001)
1927 – Patti Page, American singer
1931 – Morley Safer, reporter and correspondent for CBS News.
1949 – Bonnie Raitt, American singer
1950 – Mary Hart, American television personality
Rank and organization: Specialist Sixth Class (then Sp5c), U.S. Army, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion (Airborne), 503d Infantry, 173d Airborne Brigade. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, November 8th, 1965. Entered service at: New York City, N.Y. G.O. No.: 15, 5 April 1967. Born: 22 February 1928, Winston-Salem, N.C. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp6c. Joel demonstrated indomitable courage, determination, and professional skill when a numerically superior and well-concealed Viet Cong element launched a vicious attack which wounded or killed nearly every man in the lead squad of the company. After treating the men wounded by the initial burst of gunfire, he bravely moved forward to assist others who were wounded while proceeding to their objective. While moving from man to man, he was struck in the right leg by machine gun fire. Although painfully wounded his desire to aid his fellow soldiers transcended all personal feeling. He bandaged his own wound and self-administered morphine to deaden the pain enabling him to continue his dangerous undertaking. Through this period of time, he constantly shouted words of encouragement to all around him. Then, completely ignoring the warnings of others, and his pain, he continued his search for wounded, exposing himself to hostile fire; and, as bullets dug up the dirt around him, he held plasma bottles high while kneeling completely engrossed in his life saving mission. Then, after being struck a second time and with a bullet lodged in his thigh, he dragged himself over the battlefield and succeeded in treating thirteen more men before his medical supplies ran out. Displaying resourcefulness, he saved the life of one man by placing a plastic bag over a severe chest wound to congeal the blood. As one of the platoons pursued the Viet Cong, an insurgent force in concealed positions opened fire on the platoon and wounded many more soldiers. With a new stock of medical supplies, Sp6c. Joel again shouted words of encouragement as he crawled through an intense hail of gunfire to the wounded men. After the twenty-four hour battle subsided and the Viet Cong dead numbered 410, snipers continued to harass the company. Throughout the long battle, Sp6c. Joel never lost sight of his mission as a medical aidman and continued to comfort and treat the wounded until his own evacuation was ordered. His meticulous attention to duty saved a large number of lives and his unselfish, daring example under most adverse conditions was an inspiration to all. Sp6c. Joel’s profound concern for his fellow soldiers, at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 28th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division, RVN. Place and date: Tay Ninh Province, Republic of Vietnam, November 8th, 1966. Entered service at: Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico. Born: 1 March 1938, Ponce, Puerto Rico. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Rubio, Infantry, was serving as communications officer, 1st Battalion, when a numerically superior enemy force launched a massive attack against the battalion defense position. Intense enemy machinegun fire raked the area while mortar rounds and rifle grenades exploded within the perimeter. Leaving the relative safety of his post, Capt. Rubio received two serious wounds as he braved the withering fire to go to the area of most intense action where he distributed ammunition, re-established positions and rendered aid to the wounded. Disregarding the painful wounds, he unhesitatingly assumed command when a rifle company commander was medically evacuated. Capt. Rubio was wounded a third time as he selflessly exposed himself to the devastating enemy fire to move among his men to encourage them to fight with renewed effort. While aiding the evacuation of wounded personnel, he noted that a smoke grenade which was intended to mark the Viet Cong position for air strikes had fallen dangerously close to the friendly lines. Capt. Rubio ran to reposition the grenade but was immediately struck to his knees by enemy fire. Despite his several wounds, Capt. Rubio scooped up the grenade, ran through the deadly hail of fire to within twenty meters of the enemy position and hurled the already smoking grenade into the midst of the enemy before he fell for the final time. Using the repositioned grenade as a marker, friendly air strikes were directed to destroy the hostile positions. Capt. Rubio’s singularly heroic act turned the tide of battle, and his extraordinary leadership and valor were a magnificent inspiration to his men. His remarkable bravery and selfless concern for his men are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on Capt. Rubio and the U.S. Army.
*CRAW, DEMAS T.
Rank and organization: Colonel, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date. Near Port Lyautey, French Morocco, November 8th, 1942. Entered service at: Michigan. Born: 9 April 1900, Traverse City, Mich. G.O. No.: 11, 4 March 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty. On 8 November 1942, near Port Lyautey, French Morocco, Col. Craw volunteered to accompany the leading wave of assault boats to the shore and pass through the enemy lines to locate the French commander with a view to suspending hostilities. This request was first refused as being too dangerous but upon the officer’s insistence that he was qualified to undertake and accomplish the mission he was allowed to go. Encountering heavy fire while in the landing boat and unable to dock in the river because of shell fire from shore batteries, Col. Craw, accompanied by one officer and one soldier, succeeded in landing on the beach at Mehdia Plage under constant low-level strafing from three enemy planes. Riding in a bantam truck toward French headquarters, progress of the party was hindered by fire from our own naval guns. Nearing Port Lyautey, Col. Craw was instantly killed by a sustained burst of machinegun fire at pointblank range from a concealed position near the road.
HAMILTON, PIERPONT M.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date: Near Port Lyautey, French Morocco, November 8th, 1942. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 3 August 1898, Tuxedo Park, N.Y. G.O. No.: 4, 23 January 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty. On 8 November 1942, near Port Lyautey, French Morocco, Lt. Col. Hamilton volunteered to accompany Col. Demas Craw on a dangerous mission to the French commander, designed to bring about a cessation of hostilities. Driven away from the mouth of the Sebou River by heavy shelling from all sides, the landing boat was finally beached at Mehdia Plage despite continuous machinegun fire from three low-flying hostile planes. Driven in a light truck toward French headquarters, this courageous mission encountered intermittent firing, and as it neared Port Lyautey a heavy burst of machinegun fire was delivered upon the truck from pointblank range, killing Col. Craw instantly. Although captured immediately, after this incident, Lt. Col. Hamilton completed the mission .
WILBUR, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Colonel, U.S. Army, Western Task Force, North Africa. Place and date: Fedala, North Africa, November 8th, 1942. Entered service at: Palmer, Mass. Birth: Palmer, Mass. G.O. No.: 2, 13 January 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty. Col. Wilbur prepared the plan for making contact with French commanders in Casablanca and obtaining an armistice to prevent unnecessary bloodshed. On 8 November 1942, he landed at Fedala with the leading assault waves where opposition had developed into a firm and continuous defensive line across his route of advance. Commandeering a vehicle, he was driven toward the hostile defenses under incessant fire, finally locating a French officer who accorded him passage through the forward positions. He then proceeded in total darkness through 16 miles of enemy-occupied country intermittently subjected to heavy bursts of fire, and accomplished his mission by delivering his letters to appropriate French officials in Casablanca. Returning toward his command, Col. Wilbur detected a hostile battery firing effectively on our troops. He took charge of a platoon of American tanks and personally led them in an attack and capture of the battery. From the moment of landing until the cessation of hostile resistance, Col. Wilbur’s conduct was voluntary and exemplary in its coolness and daring.
*WILSON, ALFRED L.
Rank and organization: Technician Fifth Grade, U.S. Army, Medical Detachment, 328th Infantry, 26th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Bezange la Petite, France, November 8th, 1944. Entered service at: Fairchance, Pa. Birth: Fairchance, Pa. G.O. No.: 47, 18 June 1945. Citation: He volunteered to assist as an aid man a company other than his own, which was suffering casualties from constant artillery fire. He administered to the wounded and returned to his own company when a shellburst injured a number of its men. While treating his comrades he was seriously wounded, but refused to be evacuated by litter bearers sent to relieve him. In spite of great pain and loss of blood, he continued to administer first aid until he was too weak to stand. Crawling from one patient to another, he continued his work until excessive loss of blood prevented him from moving. He then verbally directed unskilled enlisted men in continuing the first aid for the wounded. Still refusing assistance himself, he remained to instruct others in dressing the wounds of his comrades until he was unable to speak above a whisper and finally lapsed into unconsciousness. The effects of his injury later caused his death. By steadfastly remaining at the scene without regard for his own safety, Cpl. Wilson through distinguished devotion to duty and personal sacrifice helped to save the lives of at least ten wounded men.
HATLER, M. WALDO
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 356th Infantry, 89th Division. Place and date: Near Pouilly, France, November 8th, 1918. Entered service at: Neosho, Mo. Born: 6 January 1894, Bolivar, Mo. G.O. No.: 74, W.D., 1919. Citation: When volunteers were called for to secure information as to the enemy’s position on the opposite bank of the Meuse River, Sgt. Hatler was the first to offer his services for this dangerous mission. Swimming across the river, he succeeded in reaching the German lines, after another soldier, who had started with him, had been seized with cramps and drowned in midstream. Alone he carefully and courageously reconnoitered the enemy’s positions, which were held in force, and again successfully swam the river, bringing back information of great value.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company D, 19th Michigan Infantry; First Lieutenant, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At McClellans Creek, Tex., November 8th, 1874. Citation: Rescued, with two companies, two white girls by a voluntary attack upon Indians whose superior numbers and strong position would have warranted delay for reinforcements. That delay would have permitted the Indians to escape and kill their captives. First Award- Civil War
National Bittersweet Chocolate with Almonds Day
In a democracy, voting commonly implies election, i.e. a way for an electorate to select among candidates for office. In politics, voting is the method by which the electorate of a democracy appoints representatives in its government.
A vote, or a ballot, is an individual’s act of voting, by which he or she express support or preference for a certain motion (e.g. a proposed resolution), a certain candidate, or a certain selection of candidates. A secret ballot, the standard way to protect voters’ political privacy, generally takes place at a polling station. (Compare postal ballot). The act of voting in most countries is voluntary, however some countries, such as Australia, Belgium and Brazil, have compulsory voting systems.
Though voting is usually recognized as one of the main characteristics of democracy, a country’s having an election featuring the populace casting votes does not necessarily mean the country is democratic. Many authoritarian governments have “elections” but the candidates are pre-chosen and approved by elites, there is no competition, voter qualifications are restrictive, and voting is often a sham. If you watch the elections in any country that has voting and the most vote getter is in the high ninety percent of all votes, you can vbe assured that it was not an American style vote.
Extremely Important Dates In Voting History
1787 – The passage of the U.S. Constitution giving white male property owners age 21 and over the right to vote.
1807 – 1843 – A series of acts that changed voting requirements so that all white men 21 and older could vote.
1870 – The 15th Amendment guaranteed the right to vote to all men that were 21 or older regardless of race or ethnic background.
1920 – The 19th Amendment gave women age 21 and older the right to vote.
1964 – The 24th Amendment made it illegal for states to charge poll tax to voters.
1965 – The Voting Rights Act authorized the federal government to take over registration of voters in areas where state officials had regularly prevented blacks and other minorities from registering to vote or cast their ballots through usage of literacy tests, grandfather clauses, and intimidation tactics. This Act enforced provisions previously guaranteed in the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments almost a century earlier.
1971 – The 26th Amendment lowered the voting age across the nation to 18.
1982 – The Voting Rights Act Amendments extended right to vote guarantees given in the 1965 legislation. Further provisions for Americans with disabilities, voters not able to read and write, and those not fluent in English were added to insure their freedoms.
1993 – The National Voter Registration Act (Motor Voter) expanded the opportunity for convenient voter registration for every person of voting age by increasing the number of active government agencies serving as registries. The departments of Safety, Health, Human Services, Mental Health and Retardation, and Veteran’s Affairs are required to include voter registration applications with their own department’s forms. Other government offices such as libraries, post offices, county clerk offices, and the Registrar of Deeds will also have voter forms available to the public.
1994 – The Tennessee Early Voting Act replaced the previous absentee voting system used for the state. Tennesseans now have a period of 15 days in which to vote early before the actual election day without declaring a reason for this early casting of votes. Voters using this opportunity may vote at their county election office or any one of its satellite locations in that county during their posted hours of operation.
“One important key to success is self-confidence. An important key to self-confidence is preparation.”
~ Arthur Ashe
pococurante (po-ko-koo-RAN-tee, -kyoo-)
as an adjective it is a way to describe a person
Indifferent, apathetic, nonchalant.
As a noun
A careless or indifferent person.
[From Italian poco (little) + curante, present participle of curare,
(to care), from Latin curare (cure, care).]
1492 – The Ensisheim Meteorite, a 250 pound meteorite fell and is the oldest meteorite with a known date of impact. It struck the earth around noon in a wheat field outside the village of Ensisheim, Alsace, France.
1504 – Columbus returned to Spain following his fourth voyage after suffering a shipwreck at Jamaica. Columbus brought back cocoa beans and chocolate drinks soon became a favorite in the Spanish court.
1637 – Anne Hutchinson, the first female religious leader in the American colonies, was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for heresy. She preached that faith alone was sufficient for salvation, and therefore that individuals had no need for the church or church law.
1665 – The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, is first published.
1775 – Lord Dunmore, promises freedom to male slaves who join British army. This was the first mass emancipation of slaves in North America, however, after his retreat he resold these men back into slavery.
1805 – Lewis & Clark first sight Pacific Ocean. Here they establish their winter quarters, named Fort Clatsop for a nearby Indian tribe. Their survival over the winter was attributed to the help of the Nez Perce Indians.
1811 – Tecumseh’s (Shawnee chief) band of followers were defeated in the Battle of the Wabash (or Tippecanoe) by William Henry Harrison, governor of the Indiana Territory.
1814 – Andrew Jackson attacked and captured Pensacola, Florida, without authorization from his superiors. His aim was to end a threat posed by a small British garrison that had caused trouble in the area.
1837 – In Alton, Illinois, abolitionist printer Elijah P. Lovejoy, founder of “The Saint Louis Observer” anti-slavery newspaper, was shot to death by a mob while trying to protect his printing shop.
1848 – Zachary Taylor is elected president in the first US presidential election held in every state on the same day.
1861 – Civil War: Battle of Belmont: In Belmont, Missouri, Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant overrun a Confederate camp but are forced to retreat when Confederate reinforcements arrive.
1861 – Civil War: Naval forces under Flag Officer Du Pont captured Port Royal Sound. While Du Pont’s ships steamed in boldly, the naval gunners poured a withering fire into the defending Forts Walker and Beauregard with extreme accuracy.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Rappahannock Station and Kelly’s Ford, Va.
1864 – Civil War: Learning that Confederate officers were quartered in a house on the Arkansas side of the Mississippi River near Island 68, Acting Lieutenant Frederic S. Hill led an expedition from U.S.S. Tyler to capture them. However, they had departed.
1872 – The Mary Celeste, a 103-foot brigantine, set sail from New York for Genoa on November 7, 1872. She was found abandoned at sea on December 14, 1872, 590 miles west of Gibraltar by the Dei Gratia.
1874 – A cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper’s Weekly, is considered the first important use of an elephant as a symbol for the United States Republican Party.
1876 – Rutherford B. Hayes was elected 19th President of the United States of America.
1876 – Edward Bouchet became the first Black to receive a PhD in US college at Yale.
1876 – The cigarette manufacturing machine was patented by Albert H. Hook.
1881 – Wyatt Earp and Doc Holliday, two participants in Tombstone, Arizona’s, famous Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, were jailed as the hearings on what happened in the fight, grew near.
1893 – Colorado granted women the right to vote.
1895 – Canada’s transcontinental railway was completed.
1910 – The first air freight shipment (from Dayton, Ohio, to Columbus, Ohio) is undertaken by the Wright Brothers and department store owner Max Moorehouse.
1914 – The “New Republic” magazine was printed for the first time.
1916 – Democrat Woodrow Wilson is re-elected President of the United States by defeating Republican Charles Evans Hughes. The race was so close that all votes had to be counted before an outcome could be determined, so the results were not known until November 11.
1916 – Republican Jeannette Rankin of Montana became the first woman elected to Congress. In 1917, she voted against declaring war on Germany. This gave her great unpopularity and she ended up losing her seat in the House in 1918.
1917 – Vladimir Lenin returned from exile and led the Bolshevik Revolution with Leon Trotsky, staging a coup d’etat of the provisional government in Russia.
1918 – The 1918 Influenza Epidemic spreads to Western Samoa, killing 7,542 (about 20% of the population) by the end of the year.
1918 – Goddard demonstrates tube-launched solid propellant rockets.
1919 – US police raided offices of Union of Russian Workers.
1929 – New York’s Museum of Modern Art opened to the public.
1930 – “The Waltz You Save for Me” was released by Wayne King.
1932 – Buck Rogers in the 25th Century airs on radio for the first time.
1933 – Pennsylvania voters overturn blue law, by permitting Sunday sports . The new law permitted baseball and football on Sunday afternoons between 2:00 and 5:30 p.m., if the voters of any locality approved.
1937 – “Dr. Christian” debuted on CBS radio.
1938 – The first broadcast of “This Day is Ours”, was heard on CBS radio.
1940 – The middle section of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, nick-named “Galloping Gertie,” between Seattle and Tacoma, the third-largest suspension bridge in the world, collapsed — just four months after opening.
1941 – The Marine Corps Reserve of 23 battalions completed its mobilization.
1942 – World War II: First US President to broadcast in a foreign language-FDR in French.
1942 – World War II: On Guadalcanal, US Marines, begin attacks to the east toward Koli Point. The Japanese stage landings after dark to the west of American holdings bringing elements of the 38th Infantry Division to shore.
1943 – World War II: US Task Force 38 with the carriers Saratoga and Princeton is attacked by 100 Japanese aircraft. The air attack fails to achieve any hits on the carriers.
1943 – Detroit Lions 0, NY Giants 0; last scoreless tie in NFL.
1944 – Franklin D. Roosevelt won an unprecedented fourth term as President of the United States of America, defeating Thomas E. Dewey.
1944 – On Leyte, the US 96th Division captures Bloody Ridge. Near the north coast, the American advance is held by Japanese defenses.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Five Minutes More” by Frank Sinatra, “South America, Take It Away” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “You Keep Coming Back like a Song” by Dinah Shore and “Divorce Me C.O.D.” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1946 – A coin-operated television receiver was displayed in New York City. It operated when a 25-cent coin was inserted.
1948 – “Studio One” debuted on CBS-TV. It was an adaptation of the mystery play, “The Storm” and became the first production of “Studio One”. Margaret Sullivan starred — for $500. “Studio One” continued until 1958.
1950 – The Hawaii Territory ratified a state constitution, it will not be until 1959 that it will become an American State.
1953 – “St. George and the Dragonet” by Stan Freberg topped the charts.
1954 – “Face the Nation” had its TV premiere.
1954 – A US spy plane was shot down North of Japan.
1956 – Elvis Presley hit the charts with “Love Me Tender.”
1959 – “Mack the Knife” by Bobby Darin topped the charts.
1962 – Republican Richard M. Nixon lost the race to be California’s governor and held what he called his “last press conference,” saying, “You won’t have Nixon to kick around anymore.”
1962 – Glenn Hall set NHL record of 503 consecutive games as goalie.
1962 – Former First Lady (1933-1945) Eleanor Roosevelt (b.1884) died in New York City and was buried near her husband at their estate in Hyde Park, New York.
1963 – The film “It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World” premiered at Hollywood’s new Cinerama Theater in a lengthy 195 minute version.
1963 – First Black American League MVP was Elston Howard, NY Yankees.
1964 – “Baby Love” by the Supremes topped the charts.
1964 – National League keeps Braves in Milwaukee in 1965, can move to Atlanta in 1966.
1964 – Vietnam War: The latest U.S. intelligence analysis claims that Communist forces in South Vietnam now include about 30,000 professional full-time soldiers, many of whom are North Vietnamese.
1965 – The “Pillsbury Dough Boy” debuted in television commercials.
1967 – Carl Stokes was elected the first Black mayor of a major city, Cleveland, Ohio.
1967 – President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, establishing the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.
1967 – The U.S. Selective Service Commission announced that college students arrested in anti-war demonstrations would lose their draft deferments.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be There” by The Jackson 5, “We’ve Only Just Begun” by Carpenters, “Fire and Rain” by James Taylor and “I Can’t Believe That You’ve Stopped Loving Me” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1970 – “Does Anybody Really Know What Time It Is?” was released by Columbia.
1972 – Richard M. Nixon won the Presidency of the United States of America with a landslide victory over Democrat George McGovern.
1972 – Jesse Helms (1921-2008) of North Carolina, who had switched to the Republican Party in 1970, was elected to the US Senate, the first Republican from NC in the 20th century.
1973 – NJ becomes first state to allow girls into the little league.
1973 – Congress overrode President Richard Nixon’s veto of the War Powers Act, which limits a chief executive’s power to wage war without congressional approval.
1975 – “Wonder Woman” debuts on ABC. American war hero Steve Trevor is downed over the Bermuda Triangle and lands on “Paradise Island”, home of the Amazons. The Amazons hold a contest and choose a champion among them – Wonder Woman – who will return with Steve Trevor to America and remain there to fight the Nazi threat.
1976 – “Gone With the Wind” was aired (over two nights) on NBC-TV.
1981 – “Private Eyes” by Daryl Hall & John Oates topped the charts.
1981 – Federal District Judge H. Lee Sarokin overturns Rubin “Hurricane” Carter’s conviction. He was imprisoned for a murder that he did not commit.
1983 – A bomb explodes inside the US Capitol building. On the Monday of November 7, the Senate adjourned at 7:02 p.m. A crowded reception, held near the Senate Chamber, broke up two hours later. At 10:58 p.m. an explosion tore through the second floor of the Capitol’s north wing, the adjacent halls were virtually deserted. Minutes before the blast, a caller claiming to represent the “Armed Resistance Unit” had warned the Capitol switchboard that a bomb had been placed near the Chamber in retaliation for recent U.S. military involvement in Grenada and Lebanon.
1984 – San Francisco’s memorial to the Holocaust was formally dedicated in Lincoln Park. It included a sculpture by George Segal depicting a pile of white bronze corpses.
1986 – The longest high school football winning streak comes to an end. Canyon High of Canyon Country, CA, lost 21-20 to Antelope Valley High of nearby Lancaster. Canyon High had 46 consecutive wins before this loss.
1987 – “I Think We’re Alone Now” by Tiffany topped the charts.
1988 – “Sugar” Ray Leonard knocked out Canadian Donny Londe, completing his collection of world titles at five different weights.
1988 – On the eve of Election Day, Vice President George Bush confidently said the nation was “coming in behind my candidacy” while Democrat Michael Dukakis vowed to pull off a stunning “November surprise.”
1989 – L. Douglas Wilder won the election for governor in Virginia, making him the first African-American governor in U.S. history.
1989 – In New York, former Manhattan borough president David Dinkins, a Democrat, is elected New York City’s first African-American mayor.
1989 – Richard Ramirez, convicted of California’s “Night Stalker” killings, was sentenced to death.
1990 – The musical revival of “Those Were The Days” opened.
1991 – Basketball player Magic Johnson announces he has tested positive for HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) and that he is retiring.
1996 – NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor blasted off from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on a mission to map the surface of the Red Planet. In 2001, it went into orbit around Mars.
1996 – The U.S. liquor industry voted to drop its decades-old voluntary ban on broadcast advertising.
1996 – Michael Norton, chief of Kona Kai Farms in Berkeley, was indicted on charges of money laundering and wire fraud in connection with selling cheaper coffee as Hawaiian Kona Coffee.
1997 – In a rising war of words, the Clinton administration warned it was considering military options, including a cruise missile strike, if Iraq carried out its threat to shoot down U.N. surveillance planes.
1997 – In Concord, Ca., the De La Salle High School football team under coach Bob Ladoucer won their 73rd straight game and broke a 1975 record set by Hudson, Mich., High School.
1998 – The shuttle Discovery landed in Cape Canaveral, Fla. After 9 days in space. 77-year-old John Glenn returned to Earth aboard the space shuttle Discovery, visibly weak but elated after the mission.
1998 – Four years after leading Republicans to glory, House Speaker Newt Gingrich announced he would resign not just his speakership but also his seat in the House.
1999 – Tiger Woods became the first golfer since Ben Hogan in 1953 to win four straight tournaments.
1999 – Relatives of the victims of EgyptAir Flight 990 gathered in Newport, Rhode Island, to bid them a final farewell, a week after the plane crashed into the Atlantic Ocean.
2000 – Republican George W. Bush president won over incumbent Democratic Vice President Al Gore in the U.S. presidential election, but the results were not finalized for more than a month because of a dispute over votes in Florida.
2000 – Hillary Rodham Clinton became the first First Lady to win public office, defeating Republican Rick Lazio for a U.S. Senate seat from New York.
2000 – Missouri’s late Gov. Mel Carnahan won the Senate election over Rep. John Ashcroft. Carnahan’s widow Jean had already agreed to assume the seat if her husband won.
2001 – The new .BIZ domain extension was officially launched.
2001 – Italy pledged an aircraft carrier and 2,700 troops to help the American campaign in Afghanistan.
2001 – Bridgestone/Firestone Inc. agreed to pay $41.5 million to head off lawsuits by states over defective tires.
2002 – In his first news conference since the midterm elections, President Bush, charting an agenda for the new Republican Congress, said that homeland security came first and that an economic-recovery plan with new tax cuts would wait until the next year.
2002 – Representative Dick Gephardt stepped down as House Democratic leader in the wake of his party’s election losses.
2002 – Iran bans advertising of United States products.
2003 – In Tikrit, Iraq, an Army Black Hawk helicopter crashed, apparently shot down by insurgents, killing all six U.S. soldiers aboard. Two other soldiers were killed near Mosul.
2003 – The defending champion US baseball team failed to qualify for the 2004 Athens Olympics, losing to Mexico 2-1 in the quarterfinals of a qualifying tournament in Panama City, Panama.
2004 – The Iraqi government declared a sixty-day state of emergency throughout most of the country, as US and Iraqi forces prepared for an all-out assault on rebels in Fallujah.
2005 – Oakland, CA, pediatrician Zehra Attari went missing. On December 20th she was found in her car as it was pulled out of the Oakland estuary at the end of Grand St.
2006 – In a rout once considered almost inconceivable, Democrats won a 51st seat in the Senate and regained control of Congress after 12 years by the Republican Party.
2006 – Keith Ellison, a Democratic state lawmaker from Minnesota, became the first Muslim elected to Congress.
2006 – Bernard Sanders from Vermont was elected to the U.S. Senate over GOP opponent Richard Tarrant and became the first socialist in the U.S. Senate.
2007 – General Motors posted a record loss of $39 billion, which included a $38.6 billion noncash charge related to accumulated deferred tax credits.
2008 – US President–elect Obama gave his first news conference and vowed to pass a stimulus plan as his first act.
2008 – The US Labor Department said the nation’s employers cut 240,000 jobs in October, hurtling the US unemployment rate to a 14-year high of 6.5 percent.
2008 – General Motors Corp. reported $2.5 billion losses in the third quarter, burning through $6.9 billion in cash and warned that in 2009 it could run out of cash.
2009 – The Democratic-controlled House narrowly passed landmark health care reform legislation (220-215), handing President Barack Obama a hard won victory on his signature domestic priority.
2010 – The Nintendo Wii and Nintendo DSi XL come out in color red celebrating Mario’s 25th anniversary.
2011 – Barnes & Noble, a company best known for its chain of book stores, enters the tablet computer market with the Nook Tablet, an extension of its line of Nook eReaders.
2011 – Conrad Murray is found guilty of involuntary manslaughter in relation to the death of American entertainer Michael Jackson.
2012 – A disturbance broke out on the University of Mississippi’s campus early today, after students angry at the reelection of president Barack Obama took to the streets to vent their displeasure.
1832 – Andrew Dickson White, American co-founder and first president of Cornell University (d. 1918)
1867 – Madame Marie Curie (Marja Sklodowski), German Nobel Prize-winning physicist.
1879 – Leon Trotsky, Russian Communist leader.
1918 – Billy Graham, American evangelist and TV host.
1922 – Al Hirt, American trumpeter (d. 1999)
1937 – Mary Travers, American singer (Peter, Paul and Mary)
1942 – Johnny Rivers, American singer and composer
*STRYKER, ROBERT F.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Loc Ninh, Republic of Vietnam, November 7th, 1967. Entered service at:Throop, N.Y. Born:9 November 1944,Auburn,N.Y. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Stryker, U.S. Army, distinguished himself while serving with Company C. Sp4c. Stryker was serving as a grenadier in a multi-company reconnaissance in force near Loc Ninh. As his unit moved through the dense underbrush, it was suddenly met with a hail of rocket, automatic weapons and small arms fire from enemy forces concealed in fortified bunkers and in the surrounding trees. Reacting quickly, Sp4c. Stryker fired into the enemy positions with his grenade launcher. During the devastating exchange of fire, Sp4c. Stryker detected enemy elements attempting to encircle his company and isolate it from the main body of the friendly force. Undaunted by the enemy machinegun and small-arms fire, Sp4c. Stryker repeatedly fired grenades into the trees, killing enemy snipers and enabling his comrades to sever the attempted encirclement. As the battle continued, Sp4c. Stryker observed several wounded members of his squad in the killing zone of an enemy claymore mine. With complete disregard for his safety, he threw himself upon the mine as it was detonated. He was mortally wounded as his body absorbed the blast and shielded his comrades from the explosion. His unselfish actions were responsible for saving the lives of at least six of his fellow soldiers. Sp4c. Stryker’s great personal bravery was in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflects great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
LEONARD, WILLIAM F.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 30th Infantry Division. Place and date: St. Die, France, November 7th, 1944 Born: August 9th, 1913, Lockport, NJ, Entered Service at: Lockport, NJ Departed: Yes (08/04/1985) Date Issued: 3/18/2014
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Private First Class William F. Leonard distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Squad Leader in Company C, 30th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy near St. Die, France on November 7, 1944. Private First Class Leonard’s platoon was reduced to eight men as a result of blistering artillery, mortar, machinegun, and rifle fire. Private First Class Leonard led the survivors in an assault over a hill covered by trees and shrubs which the enemy continuously swept with automatic weapons fire. Ignoring bullets which pierced his pack, Private First Class Leonard killed two snipers at ranges of fifty and seventy-five yards and engaged and destroyed a machinegun nest with grenades, killing its two-man crew. Though momentarily stunned by an exploding bazooka shell, Private First Class Leonard relentlessly advanced, ultimately knocking out a second machinegun nest and capturing the roadblock objective. Private First Class Leonard’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
*NISHIMOTO, JOE M.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, 442 Regimental Combat Team, United States Army. Place and date: near La Houssiere, France , November 7th, 1944. Entered service at: Arkansas Birth: February 21, 1919; Fresno, California Date of issue: 1998 Citation: Private First Class Joe M. Nishimoto distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on 7 November 1944, near La Houssiere, France. After three days of unsuccessful attempts by his company to dislodge the enemy from a strongly defended ridge, Private First Class Nishimoto, as acting squad leader, boldly crawled forward through a heavily mined and booby-trapped area. Spotting a machine gun nest, he hurled a grenade and destroyed the emplacement. Then, circling to the rear of another machine gun position, he fired his submachine gun at point-blank range, killing one gunner and wounding another. Pursuing two enemy riflemen, Private First Class Nishimoto killed one, while the other hastily retreated. Continuing his determined assault, he drove another machine gun crew from its position. The enemy, with their key strong points taken, were forced to withdraw from this sector. Private First Class Nishimoto’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
*THOMAS, HERBERT JOSEPH
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 8 February 1918, Columbus, Ohio. Accredited to: West Virginia. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous gallantry above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces during the battle at the Koromokina River, Bougainville Islands, Solomon Islands, on November 7th, 1943. Although several of his men were struck by enemy bullets as he led his squad through dense jungle undergrowth in the face of severe hostile machinegun fire, Sgt. Thomas and his group fearlessly pressed forward into the center of the Japanese position and destroyed the crews of two machineguns by accurate rifle fire and grenades. Discovering a third gun more difficult to approach, he carefully placed his men closely around him in strategic positions from which they were to charge after he had thrown a grenade into the emplacement. When the grenade struck vines and fell back into the midst of the group, Sgt. Thomas deliberately flung himself upon it to smother the explosion, valiantly sacrificing his life for his comrades. Inspired by his selfless action, his men unhesitatingly charged the enemy machinegun and, with fierce determination, killed the crew and several other nearby-defenders. The splendid initiative and extremely heroic conduct of Sgt. Thomas in carrying out his prompt decision with full knowledge of his fate reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Afterguard, U.S. Navy. Born: 12 March 1839, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Served as pilot of the U.S.S. Santee when that vessel was engaged in cutting out the rebel armed schooner Royal Yacht from Galveston Bay, November 7th, 1861, and evinced more coolness, in passing the four forts and the rebel steamer General Rusk, than was ever before witnessed by his commanding officer. “Although severely wounded in the encounter, he displayed extraordinary courage under the most painful and trying circumstances.”
HALL, HENRY SEYMOUR
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company G, 27th New York Infantry; and Captain, Company F, 121st New York Infantry. Place and date. At Gaines Mill, Va., 27 June 1862. At Rappallannock Station, Va., November 7th, 1863. Entered service at: New York. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 17 August 1891. Citation: Although wounded at Gaines Mill, Va., he remained on duty and participated in the battle with his company. At Rappahannock Station, Va., while acting as aide, rendered gallant and prompt assistance in reforming the regiments inside the enemy’s works.
MORRILL, WALTER G.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company B, 20th Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7th, 1863. Entered service at: Brownville, Maine. Birth: Brownville, Maine. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: Learning that an assault was to be made upon the enemy’s works by other troops, this officer voluntarily joined the storming party with about fifty men of his regiment, and by his dash and gallantry rendered effective service in the assault.
ROBERTS, OTIS O.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 6th Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Rappanhannock Station, Va., November 7th,1863. Entered service at: Dexter, Maine. Birth: Sangerville, Maine. Date of issue: 28 December 1863. Citation: Capture of flag of 8th Louisiana Infantry (C.S.A.) in a hand_to_hand struggle with the color bearer.
Rank and organization: Signal Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Cape May County, N.J. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: During action of the main squadron of ships against heavily defended Forts Beauregard and Walker on Hilton Head, November 7th, 1861. Serving as signal quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Mohican, Thompson steadfastly steered the ship with a steady and bold heart under the batteries; was wounded by a piece of shell but remained at his station until he fell from loss of blood. Legs since amputated.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Elizabethtown, N.J. G.O. No: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Captain of an 11-inch gun aboard the U.S.S. Mohican during action of the main squadron of ships against the heavily defended Forts Beauregard and Walker on Hilton Head, and against ships of the Confederate Fleet, November 7th, 1861. Cool and courageous at his battle station, Williams maintained steady fire against the enemy while under the fort batteries during a four-hour engagement which resulted in silencing the batteries of the forts and in the rout of the rebel steamers.