Unerased History – July 15th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 15, 2014 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Gummy Worm Day

Saint Swithin’s Day


Gummi Worm Cupcakes

Kids just love digging into these decadent chocolate cupcakes, oozing with chocolate frosting and gummi worms. They make the perfect touch for a backyard birthday bash or Halloween party.


  • 1 (18.25 ounce) package chocolate cake mix
  • 1 (16 ounce) package prepared chocolate frosting
  • 3 cups chocolate cookie crumbs
  • 1 (16 ounce) package gummi worms

Cooking Instructions


Prepare cake mix according to package directions. Pour batter into cupcake pans and bake as directed on cake mix box. Let cupcakes cool thoroughly before frosting.

Spread cupcakes lightly with chocolate icing. Sprinkle cookie crumbs on top to make it look like “dirt”.

Cut gummi worms in half (as many as you like). Put icing onto cut end of the worms and stick to the top of cupcakes. You can use as few or as many as will fit on each cupcake. Let icing set for 10 minutes and then enjoy.

The goal is to make it look as though the worms are coming from the ground. Another way is to fill small (8oz) cups with chocolate pudding, cover the pudding with ground chocolate cookies and stick the worms in for the same effect.

“The way to get started is to quit talking and begin doing.”

~ Walt Disney

“Life is one grand, sweet song, so start the music.”

~Ronald Reagan


vitiate \VISH-ee-ayt\, transitive verb:

1. To make faulty or imperfect; to render defective; to impair; as, “exaggeration vitiates a style of writing.”
2. To corrupt morally; to debase. 
3. To render ineffective; as, “fraud vitiates a contract.”

Vitiate comes from Latin vitiare, from vitium, fault. It is related to vice (a moral failing orfault), which comes from vitium via French.


1099 – Christian soldiers take Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after a difficult siege during this First Crusade.
1381 – John Ball, a leader in the Peasants’ Revolt, hanged, drawn and quartered in the presence of Richard II of England.
1799 – Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta, by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard.
1806 – Near St. Louis, Missouri, United States Army Lieutenant Zebulon Pike begins an expedition from Fort Belle Fountaine to explore the west.
1830 – Three Indian tribes, Sioux, Sak & Fox, signed a treaty giving the US most of Minnesota, Iowa & Missouri.
1838 -  Ralph Waldo Emerson delivers the Divinity School Address at Harvard Divinity School, discounting Biblical miracles and declaring Jesus a great man, but not God. The Protestant community reacts with outrage.

1862 – Civil War: The Confederate ironclad Arkansas breaks naval blockade of Vicksburg, Mississippi.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate raider Bill Anderson and his Bushwhackers attacked Huntsville, MO, where they stole $45,000 from the local bank.
1863 – Civil War: Boat crews from U.S.S. Stars and Stripe and Somerset landed at Marsh’s Island, Florida, and destroyed nearly 60 bushels of salt and 50 salt boilers.
1868 – “The Torrent” sank in Alaska’s Cook Inlet after tidal currents, among the world’s most powerful, rammed it into a reef south of the Kenai Peninsula.
1869 – Margarine is patented by Hippolyte Mège Mouriés in Paris. He won a contest held by Emperor Napoleon III to find a suitable substitute for butter used by the French Navy. He named his product after the Greek word for pearl – margaritari.
1870 – Georgia becomes the last of the former Confederate states to be readmitted to the Union.
1870 – Act of Congress establishes Navy Pay Corps, which later becomes the Navy Supply Corps.
1876 – George Washington Bradley was the first man to pitch an official no-hit, no-run game in major league history. He pitched for St. Louis against Hartford. The score was 2-0 without a single hit being allowed.
1888 – “Printers’ Ink” was first sold.
1897 – The gold-laden ship Excelsior from Alaska landed in San Francisco.
1897 – W. Sheldon of NY patented a seed counter for retail seed sales.
1901 – Over 74,000 Pittsburgh steel workers went on strike.
1912 – Jim Thorpe won the decathlon in the Olympic games in Stockholm, Sweden.
1913 - Augustus Bacon of Georgia becomes the first senator elected by popular vote (before the Seventeenth Amendment, senators were elected by state legislators).

1916 – In Seattle, Washington, William Boeing and George Conrad Westervelt incorporate Pacific Aero Products (later renamed Boeing).
1918 – World War I: Second Battle of the Marne – The battle begins near the River Marne with a German attack.
1920 – Babe Ruth ties his record of 29 home runs in a season.
1922 – First duck-billed platypus publicly exhibited in the US at the New York Zoo.
1933 – Wiley Post began first solo flight around the world.
1940 – Robert Wadlow died at the age of 22. At that time he was 8 feet, 11inches tall and weighed 439 pounds.
1941 – Master spy Juan Pujol Garcia, nicknamed “Garbo,” sends his first communique to Germany from Britain.
1942 – Glenn Miller and his band recorded the classic “Jukebox Saturday Night.”

1943 – World War II: An air battle takes place over Rendova in which the Americans lose three aircraft and claim to shoot down more than forty Japanese planes.
1945 – World War II: President Harry Truman disembarks the heavy cruiser the USS Augusta (CA-31) in Antwerp en route to Potsdam for the Potsdam Conference.
1945 – World War II: American naval vessels bombard Muroran, the second biggest steel center in Japan, lying in Volcano Bay on the east side of the island of Hokkaido.
1945 – World War II: American B-29 Superfortress bombers, based in the Marianna Islands, raided an oil refinery at Kudamatsu on Honshu Island while fighters and bombers from Okinawa attacked objectives on Kyushu and southern Honshu.
1948 – President Truman was nominated for another term of office by the Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Woody Woodpecker Song” by The Kay Kaiser Orchestra (vocal: Gloria Wood & The Campus Kids), “You Can’t Be True, Dear” by  The Ken Griffin Orchestra (vocal: Jerry Wayne), “Little White Lies” by Dick Haymes and “Bouquet of Roses” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1950 – “Mona Lisa” by Nat ‘King’ Cole topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: F-80s accounted for 85 percent of the enemy’s losses to air attack. 
1952 – Two U.S. Air Force Sikorsky H-19s traveled from the U.S. to Wiesbaden, Germany with stops in Labrador, Greenland, Iceland, Scotland, and the Netherlands on their way. Total flight time was about 52 hours, but because of stops the trip took 21 days.

1952 – Singer Patti Page made her TV debut in a summer replacement series for Perry Como.
1953 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Captain James Jabara, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, qualified as the second and last “triple ace” of the war — 15 kills.
1954 – The Boeing “Dash 80,” a prototype of the 707, made its first test flight. It was the first American jet passenger airliner.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Wayward Wind” by Gogi Grant, “My Prayer” by The Platters, “Hound Dog/Don’t Be Cruel” by Elvis Presley and “I Want You, I Need You, I Love You” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.
1957 – Full-scale production of the Edsel automobile begins.
1958 – In Lebanon, 5,000 United States Marines land in the capital Beirut in order to provide military support to the pro-Western government there.
1959 – The steel strike of 1959 begins, leading to significant importation of foreign steel for the first time in United States history.
1960 – “The New York World-Telegram” reported that the average white-collar worker would earn a lifetime income of $200,000 (forty years at $5,000 per year.)
1960 – John F. Kennedy accepted the Democratic nomination for president of the United States.
1961 – “Tossin’ & Turnin‘” by Bobby Lewis topped the charts.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Get Around” by The Beach Boys, “Memphis” by Johnny Rivers, “Rag Doll” by The Four Seasons and “My Heart Skips a Beat” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1964 – Barry M Goldwater (Sen-R-Az) nominated for president by Republicans. His nomination was challenged by more moderate Republicans who thought his hard-line foreign policy stances would come back to haunt him. He lost to Lyndon Johnson in a landslide, and the Republican Party suffered a significant setback nationally, losing many seats in both houses of Congress.
1965 – US scientists display close-up photos of Mars from Mariner IV.
1966 – Singer Percy Sledge earned a gold record for “When a Man Loves a Woman.
1967 – “Windy” by the Association topped the charts.
1967 – In Alaska a major blizzard caught twelve climbers high on Mount McKinley (Denali). Five of twelve climbers managed to reach safety, but seven were caught and froze to death.
1968 – Soap opera “One Life To Live” premiers.
1968 – Intel was founded.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lean on Me” by Bill Withers, “Too Late to Turn Back Now” by Cornelius Brothers & Sister Rose, “Brandy (You’re a Fine Girl)” by Looking Glass and “Made in Japan by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1974 – Christine Chubbuck becomes the first person to commit suicide on-air.
1975 –  Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft take off for U.S.-Soviet link-up in space.
1975 – Virginia records state record high temperature of 110° in Balcony Falls.Johnny Bench
1976 – A 36-hour kidnap ordeal began for 26 schoolchildren and their bus driver when they were abducted by three gunmen near Chowchilla, CA. All of the captives escaped unharmed.
1978 – “Shadow Dancing” by Andy Gibb topped the charts.
1979 – President Jimmy Carter gives his famous “malaise” speech, where he characterizes the greatest threat to the country as “this crisis in the growing doubt about the meaning of our own lives and in the loss of a unity of purpose for our nation.”
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Coming Up” by Paul McCartney & Wings, It’s Still Rock & Roll to Me” by – Billy Joel, “Little Jeannie” by Elton John and “You Win Again” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1980 – Johnny Bench hits his 314th HR as a catcher and breaks Yogi Berra’s record.
1980 – Linda Ronstadt made her dramatic debut in “The Pirates Of Penzance” at the New York Shakespeare Festival in Central Park.
1980 - A massive storm tears through western Wisconsin, causing $160 million dollars in damage.
1983 – The US Supreme Court struck down state & local restrictions on abortion.
1985 – Baseball players voted to strike on August 6th if no contract was reached with baseball owners. The strike turned out to be just one-day.
1985 – Aldus PageMaker, the first desktop publishing program, was first shipped for sale to consumers. The new software created by Paul Brainard began the era of desktop publishing.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Flame” by Cheap Trick, “Mercedes Boy” by Pebbles, “Pour Some Sugar on Me” by Def Leppard and “Fallin’ Again” by Alabama.
1988 - The premiere of the film blockbuster, “Die Hard.”
1989 – “If You Don’t Know Me by Now” by Simply Red topped the charts.
1993 – Los Angeles Police announced eight arrests in connection with an alleged plot by white supremacists to ignite a race war by bombing a black church and killing prominent black Americans.
1994 -Microsoft Corp. reached a settlement with the Justice Department, promising to end practices it used to corner the market for personal computer software programs.
1995 – Connecticut sets a record high temperature of 106° in Danbury.

1995 – First item sold on Amazon.com.
1996 – MSNBC, a 24-hour all-news network, made its debut on cable and the Internet.
1996 – Arkansas Gov. Guy Tucker stepped down following a felony conviction in the Whitewater scandal. Lt. Gov. Mike Huckabee became governor.
1997 – In Miami, Florida, serial killer Andrew Phillip Cunanan guns down Gianni Versace outside his home.
1998 – The Congressional Budget Office estimated federal surpluses of $1.55 trillion over the next decade.
1999 – The Seattle Mariners played their first game in their new home, Safeco Field, losing to the San Diego Padres, 3-to-2.
1999 – The US House voted to give Congress a pay raise of $4,600 in January and to double the next president’s salary to $400,000.
1999 – The Religious Liberty Protection Act was signed by 107 House Democrats and 199 Republicans. It said local and state officials must bend their rules to accommodate religious claims.
2002 – “American Taliban” John Walker Lindh pleads guilty to supplying aid to the enemy and for the possession of explosives during the commission of a felony.
2002 – Osama bin Laden is alive and planning another attack on the United States, said an Arab journalist with close ties to the militant’s associates. This ‘new’ attack has not yet materialized.
2002 – Anti-Terrorism Court of Pakistan awarded death sentence to British born Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh and life term to three other suspects in murdering Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.
2003 – AOL Time Warner disbands Netscape Communications Corporation. The Mozilla Foundation is established on the same day.
2003 – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention removed its SARS-related travel advisory for Taiwan, the last area to have such a travel alert.
2004 – Monorail service begins in Las Vegas.
2004 – President Bush signed into law a measure imposing mandatory prison terms for criminals who use identity theft in committing terrorist acts and other offenses.
2004 - The House of Representatives passes a resolution condemning the International Court of Justice ruling on the Israeli West Bank barrier.
2005 – Jack Nicklaus plays his last hole of competitive golf during The Open Championship at Hole 18 at St Andrews, finishing with a birdie.
2006 – The space shuttle Discovery undocked from the international space station.
2007 – The Los Angeles Times reported that about 45 percent of all foreign militants targeting US troops and Iraqi security forces were from Saudi Arabia, 15 percent from Syria and Lebanon, and 10 percent from North Africa.
2008 – Mei Ling Chen (46) of Taiwan was arrested in Sunnyvale, Ca., after customs inspectors at SF Int’l. Airport found $380,000 in counterfeit $100 bills in a package of dried seafood.
2008 – Volkswagen announced that it would build a $1 billion car plant in Chattanooga, Tenn., and expected to open it as soon as 2011.
2009 – The National Education Association has thrown its full support behind homosexual “marriage.”
2009 – Space shuttle Endeavour rocketed toward the international space station as engineers on Earth pored over launch pictures that showed debris breaking off the fuel tank and striking the craft.
2010 - BP reports that no oil is leaking into the Gulf of Mexico from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill for the first time since it began in April.
2010 - World Trade Center site workers in the US excavate a 32 foot-long ship hull said to have been buried in the 18th century.
2010 - Two major US TV networks, CBS and NBC, censor the “Kill the Ground Zero Mosque” advertisement by conservative group National Republican Trust which calls plans to erect a mosque near New York City’s Ground Zero a “monstrosity.”
2011 –  President Barack Obama makes a phone call to the International Space Station (ISS) and jokes with astronauts about pizza.


1606 – Rembrandt, Dutch artist (d. 1669)
1779 – Clement Clarke Moore, American educator, author, and poet (d. 1863)
1796 – Thomas Bulfinch, American mythologist (d. 1867)
1921 – Robert Bruce Merrifield, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2006)
1922 – Leon M. Lederman, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
1930 – Stephen Smale, American mathematician
1935 – Alex Karras, American football player and actor
1936 – George Voinovich, American politician, senior senator of Ohio
1938 – Barry Goldwater Jr., American politician
1944 – Jan-Michael Vincent, American actor
1946 – Linda Ronstadt, American singer
1958 – Mac Thornberry, American politician
1960 – Kim Alexis, American supermodel and actress
1961 – Scott Ritter, UN weapons inspector in Iraq
1961 – Forest Whitaker, American actor
1972 – Scott Foley, American actor


Rank and organization: Major (then Capt.), U.S. Marine Corps, Company K, 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, 3d Marine Division, FMF. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, 15 to 18 July 1966. Entered service at: Milwaukee, Wis. Born: 3 July 1934, Milwaukee, Wis. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 15 July, during Operation HASTINGS, Company K was landed in an enemy-infested jungle area to establish a blocking position at a major enemy trail network. Shortly after landing, the company encountered a reinforced enemy platoon in a well-organized, defensive position. Maj. Modrzejewski led his men in the successful seizure of the enemy redoubt, which contained large quantities of ammunition and supplies. That evening, a numerically superior enemy force counterattacked in an effort to retake the vital supply area, thus setting the pattern of activity for the next 2 1/2 days. In the first series of attacks, the enemy assaulted repeatedly in overwhelming numbers but each time was repulsed by the gallant Marines. The second night, the enemy struck in battalion strength, and Maj. Modrzejewski was wounded in this intensive action which was fought at close quarters. Although exposed to enemy fire, and despite his painful wounds, he crawled two hundred meters to provide critically needed ammunition to an exposed element of his command and was constantly present wherever the fighting was heaviest, despite numerous casualties, a dwindling supply of ammunition and the knowledge that they were surrounded, he skillfully directed artillery fire to within a few meter* of his position and courageously inspired the efforts of his company in repelling the aggressive enemy attack. On 18 July, Company K was attacked by a regimental-size enemy force. Although his unit was vastly outnumbered and weakened by the previous fighting, Maj. Modrzejewski reorganized his men and calmly moved among them to encourage and direct their efforts to heroic limits as they fought to overcome the vicious enemy onslaught. Again he called in air and artillery strikes at close range with devastating effect on the enemy, which together with the bold and determined fighting of the men of Company K, repulsed the fanatical attack of the larger North Vietnamese force. His unparalleled personal heroism and indomitable leadership inspired his men to a significant victory over the enemy force and reflected great credit upon himself, the Marine Corps, and the U.S. Naval Service.




Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 442nd Infantry. Place and date: Pieve di S. Luce, Italy, 15 July 1944. Born: Visalia, Calif.  Entered service at: Rivers Relocation Center, Ariz. Citation: Staff Sergeant Kazuo Otani distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on 15 July 1944, near Pieve Di S. Luce, Italy. Advancing to attack a hill objective, Staff Sergeant Otani’s platoon became pinned down in a wheat field by concentrated fire from enemy machine gun and sniper positions. Realizing the danger confronting his platoon, Staff Sergeant Otani left his cover and shot and killed a sniper who was firing with deadly effect upon the platoon. Followed by a steady stream of machine gun bullets, Staff Sergeant Otani then dashed across the open wheat field toward the foot of a cliff, and directed his men to crawl to the cover of the cliff. When the movement of the platoon drew heavy enemy fire, he dashed along the cliff toward the left flank, exposing himself to enemy fire. By attracting the attention of the enemy, he enabled the men closest to the cliff to reach cover. Organizing these men to guard against possible enemy counterattack, Staff Sergeant Otani again made his way across the open field, shouting instructions to the stranded men while continuing to draw enemy fire. Reaching the rear of the platoon position, he took partial cover in a shallow ditch and directed covering fire for the men who had begun to move forward. At this point, one of his men became seriously wounded. Ordering his men to remain under cover, Staff Sergeant Otani crawled to the wounded soldier who was lying on open ground in full view of the enemy. Dragging the wounded soldier to a shallow ditch, Staff Sergeant Otani proceeded to render first aid treatment, but was mortally wounded by machine gun fire. Staff Sergeant Otani’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.



Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army 10th Field Artillery, 3d Division. Place and date: Near Greves Farm, France, 14-15 July 1918. Entered service at: Okarche, Oklahoma. Born: 27 September 1892, China. G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919. Citation: At the very outset of the unprecedented artillery bombardment by the enemy, his line of communication was destroyed beyond repair. Despite the hazard attached to the mission of runner, he immediately set out to establish contact with the neighboring post of command and further establish liaison with two French batteries, visiting their position so frequently that he was mainly responsible for the accurate fire therefrom. While thus engaged, seven horses were shot under him and he was severely wounded. His activity under most severe fire was an important factor in checking the advance of the enemy.


INTERIM 1871- 1898

Rank and organization: Apprentice, U.S. Navy. Born: 1862, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 246, 22 July 1879. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Saratoga off Battery, New York Harbor, 15 July 1879. On the morning of this date, Robert Lee Robey, apprentice, fell overboard from the after part of the ship into the tide which was running strong ebb at the time and, not being an expert swimmer, was in danger of drowning. Instantly springing over the rail after him, Buchanan never hesitated for an instant to remove even a portion of his clothing. Both men were picked up by the ship’s boat following this act of heroism.


INTERIM 1871- 1898

Rank and organization: Apprentice, U.S. Navy. Born: 1863, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: Washington, D.C. G.O. No.: 246, 22 July 1879. Citation: On board the U.S. Training Ship Saratoga. On the morning of 15 July 1879, while the Saratoga was anchored off the Battery, in New York Harbor, R. L. Robey, apprentice, fell overboard. As the tide was running strong ebb, the man, not being an expert swimmer, was in danger of drowning. David M. Buchanan, apprentice, instantly, without removing any of his clothing, jumped after him. Stripping himself, Hayden stood coolly watching the two in the water, and when he thought his services were required, made a dive from the rail and came up alongside them and rendered assistance until all three were picked up by a boat from the ship.


INTERIM 1866- 1870

Rank and organizarion: Captain of the Afterguard, U.S. Navy. Born: 17 May 1837, Norway. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 77, 1 August 1866. Citation: For heroic efforts to save from drowning Wellington Brocar, landsman, of the Tallapoosa, off New Orleans, 15 July 1866.



Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Lansingburg, N.Y. Born: 3 November 1842, Ireland G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Serving as coxswain on board the U.S.S. Carondelet, Morrison was commended for meritorious conduct in general and especially for his heroic conduct and his inspiring example to the crew in the engagement with the rebel ram Arkansas, Yazoo River, 15 July 1862. When the Carondelet was badly cut up, several of her crew killed, many wounded and others almost suffocated from the effects of escaped steam, Morrison was the leader when boarders were called on deck, and the first to return to the guns and give the ram a broadside as she passed. His presence of mind in time of battle or trial is reported as always conspicuous and encouraging.


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Unerased History – July 14th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 14, 2014 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Comedy Celebration Day





Condiments are food substances used to heighten the natural flavors of foods, stimulate the appetite, aid digestion, or preserve certain foods; the word comes from Latin condire “to preserve.” The custom of using condiments is as ancient as cookery itself, the first ones being mainly of vegetable origin and used as a means of preserving. In the U.S., large quantities of bottled sauces and condiments are used to accompany salads, meats, vegetables, etc. The familiar packets of condiments in the United States are ubiquitous.

Mustard – At first, mustard was considered a medicinal plant rather than a culinary one. In the sixth century B.C., Greek scientist Pythagoras used mustard as a remedy for scorpion stings. One hundred years later, Hippocrates used mustard in a variety of medicines and poultices. Mustard plasters were applied to “cure” toothaches and a number of other ailments.

Prepared mustard dates back thousands of years to the early Romans, who used to grind mustard seeds and mix them with wine into a paste not much different from the prepared mustards we know today.

The mustard seed is a prominent reference for those of the Christian faith, exemplifying something which is small and insignificant, which when planted, grows in strength and power.



Many variations of ketchup have been created, but the tomato-based version did not appear until about a century after other types were invented. By 1801, a recipe for tomato ketchup was created by Sandy Addison and was later printed in an American cookbook, the Sugar House Book.

  1. Get [the tomatoes] quite ripe on a dry day, squeeze them with your hands till reduced to a pulp, then put half a pound of fine salt to one hundred tomatoes, and boil them for two hours.
  2. Stir them to prevent burning.
  3. While hot press them through a fine sieve, with a silver spoon till nought but the skin remains, then add a little mace, 3 nutmegs, allspice, cloves, cinnamon, ginger, and pepper to taste.
  4. Boil over a slow fire till quite thick, stir all the time.
  5. Bottle when cold.
  6. One hundred tomatoes will make four or five bottles and keep good for two or three years.”‘

The salt in this recipe, which served as a preservative, yields an extremely salty taste. This recipe is important because tomato was not widely accepted by people in North America in the early 1800s. Many believed tomatoes were poisonous.


Most authorities believe the first batch of this mixture we now call Mayonaisse was a combination of egg yolks, oil and seasonings and was whipped up to celebrate the 1756 French capture of Mahon. The Duke (duc de Richelieu) who is credited with that capture, or his personal chef, is credited with inventing mayonnaise. The motivation of the chef was to  create a victory feast that was to include a sauce made of cream and eggs. Realizing that there was no cream in the kitchen, the chef substituted olive oil for the cream and a new culinary creation was born. Supposedly the chef named the new sauce “Mahonnaise” in honor of the Duc’s victory. Besides enjoying a reputation as a skillful military leader, the Duke was also widely known as a bon vivant. Early French immigrant cooks that originally lived in Fort Mahon brought the original recipe to Minnesota.

Two other stories include one where he Duke brought back a local sauce from Les Mayons, capital of Minorque in the Balearic Islands, based on lemon juice key and egg yolk, olive oil, raised of a little black pepper and marine salt, garlic or fresh grass.

The second is about Bayonne, a resort town on the Aquitaine/Basque coast in southwest France. It is thought that mayonnaise could be an alteration and corruption of bayonnaise sauce. Nowdays, bayonnaise refers to a mayonnaise flavored with the Espelette chiles.

In 1910, Nina Hellman, a German immigrant from New York City, made a dressing that her husband, Richard Hellman, used on the sandwiches and salads he served in his New York delicatessen. He started selling the spread in “wooden boats” that were used for weighing butter. Initially he sold two versions of the recipe, and to differentiate between the two, he put a blue ribbon around one. In 1912, there was such a great demand for the  “ribbon” version, that Hellmann designed a “Blue Ribbon” label, which he placed on larger glass jars. He did so well that he started a distribution business, purchased a fleet of trucks, and in 1912 built a manufacturing plant. Also Best Foods, Inc. in California did the same. Hellman and Best Foods later merged and account for about 45% of all bottled mayonnaise sole in the United States.


“Slow down and enjoy life. It’s not only the scenery you miss by going to fast — you also miss the sense of where you are going and why.”

~Eddie Cantor

imbroglio im-BROHL-yoh, noun:

1. A complicated and embarrassing state of things.
2. A confused or complicated disagreement or misunderstanding.
3. An intricate, complicated plot, as of a drama or work of fiction.
4. A confused mass; a tangle.

Imbroglio derives from Italian, from Old Italian imbrogliare, “to tangle, to confuse,” fromin-, “in” + brogliare, “to mix, to stir.” It is related to embroil, “to entangle in conflict or argument.”


1520 – Hernando Cortes fought the Aztecs at the Battle of Otumba, Mexico.

1754 – King’s College opened in New York City; the Anglican academy would later become Columbia University.
1769 – The de Portolá Expedition establishes a base in California, and sets out to find the Port of Monterey (now Monterey, California).
1771 – Father Junipero Serra founded the Mission San Antonio de Padua in California.
1776 – Jemima Boone (13), the daughter of Daniel Boone, and two friends were kidnapped by a group of five Shawnee and Cherokee Indians near Boonesborough, Kentucky.
1798 – First direct federal tax on the states-on dwellings, land & slaves. 1 Stat. 597 created the first property tax of its citizens. The purpose of the tax was to raise a war chest for the threatened conflict with France. The amount to be raised was 2 million dollars.
1798 – The Sedition Act becomes United States law making it a federal crime to write, publish, or utter false or malicious statements about the US President and the United States government.
1813 – LT John M. Gamble was the first Marine to command a ship in battle (prize vessel Greenwich in capture of British whaler Seringapatam).
1821 – Spain ceded Florida to the United States.
1825 – The Jefferson Literary and Debating Society was founded at the University of Virginia.
1850 – First public demonstration of ice made by refrigeration.
1853 – President Franklin Pierce opens the first-ever American World’s Fair in the Crystal Palace, in New York.
1861 – Civil War: Union troops tried to force a crossing at Seneca Falls on the Potomac, northwest of Washington but were repulsed by the Confederates. A company of the Louisiana Tiger Rifles helped defend the line.
1861 – Civil War: Gen McDowell advanced toward Fairfax Courthouse, VA, with 40,000 troops.
1861  Civil War: Naval Engagement at Wilmington, NC. USS Daylight establishes a blockade.
1862 – Congress passed an act stating that: ” . . . the spirit ration in the Navy of the United States shall forever cease, and . . . no distilled spiritous liquors shall be admitted on board vessels of war, except as medical stores . . .
1863 – Civil War:Naval forces captured Fort Powhatan on the James River, VA.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest suffers his biggest defeat when Union General Andrew J. Smith routs his force in Tupelo, Mississippi.
1864 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Paul Jones was captured while making an attempt in Ossabaw Sound, Georgia to destroy C.S.S. Water Witch.
1864 – Gold was discovered in Helena, Mont. Four prospectors discovered gold in a small stream they called “Last Chance.”

1867 – Harvard School of Dental Medicine was established in Boston, Massachusetts — the first dental school in the U.S.
1867 – Nobel demonstrates dynamite.
1868 – Alvin J. Fellows of New Haven, Connecticut recieved the first U.S. patent for a spring tape measure. The tape measure was enclosed in a circular case with a spring click lock to hold the tape at any desired point.
1877 – The Baltimore rail workers’ walked off the job to agitate for higher pay and fairer work conditions.
1881 – Billy the Kid was killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett in Fort Sumner, New Mexico.

1882 – Sailors and Marines from four U.S. ships land to help restore order at Alexandria, Egypt.
1882 – Johnny Ringo, a fast draw gunman, was found dead in Tombstone, Az.
1885 – Sarah Goode became the first African-American woman to receive a U.S. patent. Goode invented a Folding Cabinet Bed. The Cabinet Bed when folded up resembled a desk which included compartments for stationary and writing instruments.
1891 – The primacy of Thomas Edison’s lamp patents was upheld in the court decision Electric Light Company vs. U.S. Electric Lighting Company.
1891 – J Standard, awarded patent for making the refrigerator.
1891 - Inventor John T. Smith patented corkboard.
1898 – During the Spanish-American War, Spanish troops in Santiago, Cuba, surrendered to U.S. forces.
1908 – “The Adventures of Dolly” opened at the Union Square Theatre in New York City.
1911 – For the first time, a pilot flew an airplane onto the lawn of the White House. Harry N. Atwood flew in to accept an award from President William Taft.
1913 -  A future President was born as Leslie Lynch King Jr., Gerald Ford’s mother’s second husband, Gerald R. Ford, adopted him and renamed him.

1914 – Robert Hutchins Goddard patents a liquid-fuel rocket motor.
1921 – Italian anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were convicted for the May 5, 1920 killing of a paymaster and guard at a shoe factory in South Braintree, Massachusetts.
1926The first radio-beacon established in Alaska, at Cape Spencer, was placed in commission.

1933 –  In Germany, Gleichschaltung is enforced against all political parties and they are outlawed except the Nazi Party.
1934 – The New York Times erronously declares that Babe Ruth’s 700 HR record will stand for all time.
1938 – Howard Hughes landed at Floyd Bennet Field in New York with a crew of four after flying around the world in 3 days, 19 hours, and 17 min., a new record.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: 6,000 Lithuanian Jews were exterminated at Viszalsyan Camp.
1942 – Helen O’Connell and Bob Eberly recorded “Brazil” with the Jimmy Dorsey band.
1943 – World War II: The main British and American forces continue to advance evenly along the entire front. American units in Italy capture Biscani airfield and Niscemi. British units capture Vizzini.
1943 – In Joplin, Missouri, George Washington Carver National Monument becomes the first United States National Monument in honor of an African-American.
1944 – World War II: In the Pacific, Task Force 74 (Commodore Collins) bombards Japanese positions near Aitape, between Yakamul and But.
1945 – World War II: Over 1000 US naval aircraft raid Hokkaido and the port of Kamaishi. The force included the American battleships South Dakota, Indiana and Massachusetts, as well as two heavy cruisers and four destroyers.
1945 – President Harry Truman, Soviet leader Josef Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill began meeting at Potsdam in the final Allied summit of World War II.
1946 – Heart Mountain, Wyoming: Japanese-American draft resisters were released from McNeil Island.
1946 – Dr. Benjamin Spock’s “The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care” was first published.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS –  “Peg o’ My Heart”  by  The Harmonicats, “I Wonder, I Wonder, I Wonder”  by  Eddy Howard, “Chi- Baba, Chi – Baba”  by  Perry Como and “Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)”  by  Tex Williams all topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: U.S. Marines sail from San Diego for Korean Conflict.
1950 – Korean War: The U.S. 555th Field Artillery Battalion (“Triple Nickel”) was overrun and lost 300 soldiers.
1951 – The first sports event to be shown in color, on CBS-TV, was the Molly Pitcher Handicap at Oceanport, NJ.
1951 – Citation becomes first horse to win $1,000,000 in races.
1951 – “Too Young” by Nat ‘King’ Cole topped the charts.
1952 – Laying of keel for the USS Forrestal, the first 59,900 ton aircraft carrier.
1953 – First national monument dedicated to an African-American – George Washington Carver.
1953 – The freighter Jacob Luckenbach from San Francisco rammed the Matson freighter Hawaiian Pilot near Point Montara, 17 miles from the Golden Gate.
1954 – The central region of the United States suffers extremely hot weather, with the temperature reaching 118° F in Warsaw and Union, Missouri, and 117° F in East St. Louis, Illinois, setting new all-time state record high temperatures.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS –  “Rock Around the Clock”  by  Bill Haley & His Comets,Learnin’ the Blues”  by  Frank Sinatra, “Hard to Get  by”  Giselle Mackenzie and “A Satisfied Mind”  by  Porter Wagoner all topped the charts.
1956 – “The Wayward Wind” by Gogi Grant topped the charts.

1958 – In Iraq the monarchy is overthrown by Arab nationalists and Abdul Karim Kassem becomes the nation’s new leader.
1959 – First atomic powered cruiser, the Long Beach, Quincy, Massachusetts. She was the first nuclear powered surface warship in the world and the first large combatant in the US Navy with its main battery consisting of guided missiles. She was also the first American cruiser since the end of World War II to built entirely new from the keel up, and, when completed, boasted the highest bridge in the world. She was also the last warship to be fitted with teakwood decks.
1962 – “Roses Are Red (My Love)” by Bobby Vinton topped the charts.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS –  “Easier Said Than Done”  by  The Essex, “Surf City”  by  Jan & Dean, “Tie Me Kangaroo Down, Sport”  by  Rolf Harris and “Act Naturally”  by  Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 – Mariner 4 flyby of Mars takes the first close-up photos of another planet.
1966 – In Chicago, Richard Speck murders eight student nurses in their dormitory. He made a videotape in prison and admitted to the killings.
1967 – Eddie Mathews becomes the seventh member of the 500 Home Run Club with a home run at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California.
1968 – Hank Aaron becomes the eighth member of the 500 Home Run Club with a home run off Mike McCormick of the San Francisco Giants at Fulton County Stadium.
1969 – Large denominations of United States currency, namely the $500, $1,000, $5,000 and $10,000 bills, are officially withdrawn from circulation by the Federal Reserve System due to “lack of use,” leaving the $100 bill as the largest unit of circulating United States currency. Another side effect was that it made large drug deals much more difficult because of the volume of money that had to change hands increased significantly.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS –  It’s Too Late - I Feel the Earth Move”  by  Carole King,Indian Reservation”  by  Raiders, “You’ve Got a Friend”  by  James Taylor and “When You’re Hot, You’re Hot  by  Jerry Reed all topped the charts.
1972 – Vietnam War: The State Department criticized actress Jane Fonda for making antiwar radio broadcasts in Hanoi, calling them “distressing.”
1973 – “Will It Go Round in Circles” by Billy Preston topped the charts.
1974 – Bundy victims Janice Ott and Denise Naslund disappeared at Lake Sammamish, WA.
1975 – The U.S. spacecraft Apollo 18 and the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz 19 docked in space.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS –  “Ring My Bell”  by  Anita Ward, “Bad Girls  by  Donna Summer, “Chuck E.’s in Love”  by  Rickie Lee Jones and “Amanda”  by  Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1981 – The All-Star Game was postponed because of a 33-day-old baseball players strike. The game was held on August 9.
1985 – Baltimore defeated Oakland, 28-24, to clinch their second consecutive United States Football League championship. This ended up being the end of the league.
1986 – Richard W Miller became first FBI agent convicted of espionage.
1986 – An expedition from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute filmed the wreck of the Titanic for the first time.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS –  “I Wanna Dance with Somebody (Who Loves Me)”  by  Whitney Houston, “Shakedown”  by  Bob Seger, “Songbird”  by  Kenny G and “All My Ex’s Live in Texas”  by  George Strait all topped the charts.
1987 – Greyhound Bus buys Trailways Bus for $80 million.
1987 – The National League took thirteen innings to defeat the American League, 2-0, in the 58th All-Star Game in Oakland, CA.
1988 - Nashville radio WYHY offered to pay $1 million to anyone who could provide proof that Elvis Presley (1935 – 1977) was still alive.
1989 – The 16th James Bond movies “License to Kill“.
1990 – “Step by Step” by New Kids on the Block topped the charts.
1991 – In California a Southern Pacific tanker car derailed near Dunsmuir and spilled 18,000 gallons of pesticides (19k gallons of metam sodium) into the Sacramento River. This killed every living thing in the river for 40 miles downstream including 250,000 trout.
1992 – The American League won the All-Star game, defeating the National League team 13-6 at Jack Murphy Stadium in San Diego.
1993 – The USS IWO JIMA was decommissioned after over 30 years of service in a ceremony at Norfolk Naval Base, Virginia. 
1996 – Shortly after takeoff from New York’s Kennedy International Airport, a TWA Boeing 747 jetliner bound for Paris exploded over the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 230 people aboard. Investigators concluded that the explosion resulted from mechanical failure.
1996 – Fire crews battled blazes covering more than 16,000 acres in California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon and Utah.
1997 – After 117 years, the Woolworth Corporation closed its last 400 five-and-dime stores.
1997 – O.J. Simpson’s California mansion was auctioned off for $2.6 million.
1998 – Los Angeles sued 15 tobacco companies for $2.5 billion over the dangers of secondhand smoke.
2000 – In Waco, Texas, a federal jury decided that federal agents were not responsible for the deaths of 80 Branch Davidians in 1993.
2001 – The Pentagon scored a hit with a missile interceptor that soared into space from a tiny Pacific isle and destroyed its target, a mock nuclear warhead.
2001 – NASA launched an unmanned solar-powered plane named Helios over Hawaii.
2003 – Columnist Robert Novak identified Valerie Plame as a CIA employee.
2005A US appeals court overturned the 2003 “mad cow” ban on beef imports from Canada. The USDA said it would lift restrictions within days.
2006 – Hezbollah declares war on Israel.

2008 – Bush lifted the presidential moratorium on offshore drilling, however Congress has renewed its ban on drilling every year since 1981 and top Democrats said it will do so again this year.
2009 – Boeing to slash about 1,000 jobs because of funding cuts by the Pentagon.
2009 – U.S. House Democrats unveiled a health care plan Tuesday that creates a government-run health system that will operate in addition to private insurance.
2009 – President Barack Obama unveiled a $12 billion initiative to boost community colleges and propel the United States toward his goal of having the highest proportion of college graduates in the world by 2020.
2010 –  The US discusses the arrest of Bradley Manning, accused of providing secret information about US military corruption to Wikileaks.
2010 –  Boeing unveils Phantom Eye, its unmanned hydrogen-powered spy plane capable of flying for up to four consecutive days.
2010 –  An 18th-Century wood-hulled ship is discovered at the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City.
2011 – The FBI is investigating reports that News Corporation sought to hack the phones of victims of the September 11 terrorist attacks.
2011 – U.S. district court judge Reggie Walton declares a mistrial in the perjury trial of former baseball star Roger Clemens after prosecutors present evidence that Walton had previously ruled inadmissible.
2011 – President Barack Obama, gives Congressional leaders 24 to 36 hours to reach an agreement on debt reduction as credit agency Standard & Poor’s places the US on a downgrade watch.
2014 - Police in Spokane, Washington, say a corrections officer fired a gun at Deaconess Hospital early Monday when a prisoner waiting for a surgical procedure tried to escape.

1785 – Mordecai Manuel Noah was an American playwright, diplomat, journalist, and utopian. (d. 1851)
1834 – James McNeil Whistler, American painter. He is probably best known for his most famous painting is the iconic Whistler’s Mother. (d. 1903)
1860 – Owen Wister, was an American writer and “Father” of western fiction. (d. 1938)
1889 – Erle Stanley Gardner, American detective writer, creator of the character Perry Mason.
1898 – A. B. “Happy” Chandler was twice governor of Kentucky, a U.S. Senator, the 2nd Commissioner of Major League Baseball, and a member of the Baseball Hall of Fame. His jovial attitude earned him the nickname “Happy,” which stuck for the remainder of his life. (d. 1991)
1899 – James Cagney was an American film star. Although he won acclaim and major awards for a wide variety of roles, he is best remembered for playing “tough guys.”
1903 – Irving Stone was an American writer known for his biographical novels of famous historical personalities. (d. 1989)
1906 – Tom Carvel, Greek-born businessman and inventor,  known for the invention and promotion of soft ice cream in the northeastern United States.  (d. 1990)
1910 – William Hanna, American animator (d. 2001)
1912 – Art Linkletter, American television host.
1912 – Woody Guthrie, American folk musician (d. 1967)
1913 – Gerald Ford, 38th President of the United States (d. 2006)
1918 – Ingmar Bergman, Swedish film and theatre director (d. 2007)
1922 – Robin Olds, American World War II and Vietnam War ace fighter pilot (d. 2007)
1923 – Dale Robertson, American actor
1927 – John Chancellor, American television commentator (d. 1996)
1932 – Roosevelt Grier, American football player and actor
1947 – Claudia Kennedy, U.S. Army officer
1952 – Franklin Graham, American evangelist
1960 – Jane Lynch, American actress
1963 – Phil Rosenthal, American newspaper columnist
1973 – Adam Quinn, American bagpipe player




Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 48th New York Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 13 July 1863, Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 14 July 1863; Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 18 July 1863. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: England. Date of issue: 23 October 1897. Citation: While voluntarily performing picket duty under fire on 13 July 1863, was attacked and his surrender demanded, but he killed his assailant. The day following responded to a call for a volunteer to reconnoiter the enemy’s position, and went within the enemy’s lines under fire and was exposed to great danger. On 18 July voluntarily exposed himself with great gallantry during an assault, and received three wounds that permanently disabled him for active service.



Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company A, 7th Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At Falling Waters, Va., 14 July 1863. Entered service at: Battle Creek, Mich. Born: 25 May 1838, Potter, N.Y. Date of issue: 21 March 1889. Citation: Capture of flag of 55th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.). In the midst of the battle with foot soldiers he dismounted to capture the flag.


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Unerased History – July 13th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 13, 2014 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Embrace Your Geekness Day
Gruntled Workers Day




James T. Kirk

I am certainly dating myself but I remember hurrying home from work to watch the first episode of this great new show. It was in September 1966 and I was just three months out of high school. This is just a smattering of a very few facts but the link at the bottom is probably everything you needed about “our” captain. Some Star Trek Facts.

The original name for the starship in Star Trek was “Yorktown” not “Enterprise”.


 JTKPrequel01  JTKOriginal  JTKCompare01

James Tiberius (“Jim”) Kirk was a Human born on March 22nd, 2233 (stardate 1277.1), the son of George and Winona Kirk. His parents named him after his maternal grandfather James and his paternal grandfather Tiberius. Kirk was a descendant of European settlers on Earth’s American continent, who pioneered the western frontiers of the United States of America in 19th century.

By 2250, Kirk returned to Earth to start his training at Starfleet Academy. He would later credit his father as his inspiration for joining Starfleet (Star Trek).

Kirk was commissioned as an officer in the Federation Starfleet with the serial number SC937-0176CEC. In the early 2250s, he served as an ensign, along with his friend Lt. Ben Finney, aboard the USS Republic.

Kirk famously commanded the Enterprise and her namesake over the course of three decades, but it was her historic five-year mission from 2265 to 2270 that made him a legend in space exploration.

Kirk’s living quarters aboard the Enterprise were on Deck 5, room “3F 121″


Timeline of Star Trek’s History of the Future!!



“One must be drenched in words, literally soaked in them, to have the right ones form themselves into the proper patterns at the right moment.”

~ Hart Crane, poet (1899-1932)


Armed to the teeth (phrase)

To be heavily armed.Armed toTeeth

This is a pirate phrase originating in Port Royal Jamaica in the 1600′s. Having only single shot black powder weapons and cutlasses, they would carry many of these weapons at once to keep up the fight. In addition they carried a knife in their teeth for maximum arms capability.


1099 – The Crusaders launched their final assault on Muslims in Jerusalem.
1568 – Dean of St Paul’s Cathedral perfects a way to bottle beer.
1585 – A group of 108 English colonists, led by Sir Richard Grenville, reached Roanoke Island, NC.
1754 – At the beginning of the French and Indian War, George Washington surrendered the small, circular Fort Necessity in southwestern Pennsylvania to the French, leaving them in control of the Ohio Valley.
1769 – The de Portolá Expedition establishes a base in California, and sets out to find the Port of Monterey (now Monterey, California.)
1772 – Capt James Cook began a 2nd trip on the ship Resolution to South Seas.
1774 - Rhode Island becomes first colony to prohibit importation of slaves.Rhode Island had the third highest head count of slaves at  3,761.
1777 - Marquis de Lafayette lands in US. He was at the beginning of one of the most illustrious military careers in American history. Six weeks earlier the idealistic young officer had ignored his relatives and defied the king of France by setting sail to participate in the American Revolution.
1787 – The Continental Congress enacts the Northwest Ordinance establishing governing rules for the Northwest Territory. It also establishes procedures for the admission of new states and limits the expansion of slavery.
1789 - Mrs Alexander Hamilton (Elizabeth) serves ice cream for dessert to Washington. He obviously enjoyed it, for he spent $200 on ice cream during the next summer. Four years later, an item in Washington’s expense ledger indicates he bought a “cream machine for ice” so his staff could make ice cream whenever necessary.
1812 – The first pawnbroking ordinance was passed in New York City.
1832 – U.S. Indian agent and explorer Henry Schoolcraft discovered the source of the Mississippi River in Minnesota, the lake where the Mississippi starts.
1836 – John Ruggles of Thomaston, Maine received patent Number 1 from the U.S. Patent Office, under a new system for numbering patents. Before Ruggles, there had been 9,957 non-numbered patents issued. Ruggles received his patent for a traction wheel used in locomotive steam engines.
1854 – US forces shelled and burned San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua.
1861 – Civil War: Union General George B. McClellan distinguishes himself by routing Confederates under General Robert Garnett at Corrick’s Ford in western Virginia.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest defeated a Union army at Murfreesboro, Tennessee.
1863 – Civil War: In New York City, opponents of conscription (the draft) begin three days of rioting which will be later regarded as the worst in United States history. It resulted in more than 1,000 casualties. Antiabolitionist Irish longshoremen rampaged against blacks in the deadly riots.
1863 - USS Wyoming battled Japanese warlord’s forces.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate General Jubal Early retreated from the outskirts of Washington back to Shenandoah Valley.
1865 – P. T. Barnum’s American Museum, which had featured Tom Thumb and the original Siamese twins Chang and Eng, was destroyed by fire.
1865 – Horace Greeley advises his readers to “Go west young man.”
1866 – Great Eastern began a two week voyage to complete a twelve-year effort to lay telegraph cable across the Atlantic between Britain and the United States.
1866 - Colonel Henry Carrington begins construction on Fort Phil Kearny, the most important army outpost guarding the Bozeman Trail.
1875 – David Brown of Lebanon, New Jersey patented the first cash-carrier system. It was a basket moved by a wire, a pail and pulleys, the forerunner of the pneumatic tube.

1886 – Colonel Henry Carrington begins construction on Fort Phil Kearny, the most important army outpost guarding the Bozeman Trail.
1888 - Congress creates the Department of Labor.was established in the Department of the Interior by the Bureau of Labor Act on June 27, 1884 to collect information about employment and labor. It became an independent (sub-Cabinet) department by the Department of Labor Act on June 13, 1888.
1890 - John C. “Pathfinder” Fremont (76), US explorer, governor (Ariz), died. He was buried in obscurity in Sparkill, NY. Fremont (b.1830) in 1856, was the first Republican presidential candidate.
1896 – Philadelpia’s Ed Delahanty became the second major-league player to hit four home runs in a single game.
1898 – Guglielmo Marconi patents the radio.

1899 – Vincent van Gogh painted “Moonrise.” The exact date was determined in 2003 by a physicist using a computer and moon data from the painting.
1900 – Boxer Rebellion: In China, Tientsin is retaken by European Allies from the rebelling Boxers.
1910 - Pilot Charles Hamilton makes first one-day round-trip from New York City to Philadelphia
1911 – Nan Aspinwall is first woman to make solo transcontinental trip by horse. The trip was from San Francisco to New York.
1916 – The first aero Company, New York National Guard, was called to Federal service during the border crisis with Mexico. This was the first time a National Guard aviation unit was mobilized. The unit was commanded by Capt. Raynal C. Bolling.
1916 -  Guardsmen of the 4th South Dakota Infantry prepare to leave for San Benito, Texas, to take up their station as part of the partial mobilization to protect the Mexican border against bandit raids lead by Pancho Villa.
1919 – The British airship R34 lands in Norfolk, England, completing the first airship return journey across the Atlantic in 182 hours of flight.
1919 – Race riots, Longview and Gregg counties, Texas. Martial law declared. There were twenty-six riots during the “Red Summer” of 1919.
1921 -  Babe Ruth hits and pitches the New York Yankees to victory. He pitched for the first time in a year  in their 1921 series with Detroit.
1921 – Major Sheldon H. Wheeler, former commander of Luke Field on Ford Island, died when his plane crashed during a demonstration. Wheeler Army Airfield, Hawaii, was named in his honor.
1923 – The Hollywood Sign is officially dedicated in the hills above Hollywood, Los Angeles. It originally reads “Hollywoodland ” but the four last letters were dropped after renovation in 1949.
1925 – Will Rogers, an Oklahoma cowboy, stands in for W.C. Fields in the “Ziegfeld Follies”.
1927 - Ticker-tape parade welcomed Charles A Lindbergh to New York City.
1930 – David Sarnoff reported in the New York Times that “TV would be a theater in every home.”
1933 - First sodium vapor lamps installed in Schenectady NY. The lamps were an experimental installation on Balltown Road. The GE 10,000-lumen Sodium-vapor Lamp consisted of a long, evacuated bulb of special glass.
1933 - Federal Home Owners Loan Corporation was authorized. Its purpose was to refinance homes to prevent foreclosure. It was usually used to extend loans from shorter, expensive payments of 15 year loans to lower payments of 30 year loans. Through its work it granted long term mortgages to over a million people facing the loss of their homes.
1934 – Babe Ruth hits his 700th HR to win the game at Detroit’s Navin Field and put the Yankees back in first place.
1937 - Joe DiMaggio hits three consecutive HRs against St Louis Browns.
1938 – Spectators paid 25 cents to witness the first television theatre. The demonstration was arranged at 568 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts by Porter H Evans of the Massachusetts Television Institute at that address.
1939 – Bandleader and trumpet player Harry James heard Sinatra on the radio. James hired Sinatra and the two recorded together for the first time. In his recording debut, Sinatra sang “From the Bottom of My Heart“.
1939 -  Lionel Hampton and his band recorded “Memories of You” for Victor Records.
1939 – Rear Admiral Richard Byrd is appointed as commanding officer of the  Antarctic Expedition.(1939-1941)
1941 – World War II: Montenegrins start popular uprising against the Axis Powers. (Trinaestojulski ustanak).
1943 – World War II: The Battle of Kursk, the largest tank battle in history—involving some 6,000 tanks, 2,000,000 troops, and 4,000 aircraft—ended in German defeat.
1943 – World War II: The 10th Mountain Division came into being at Camp Hale, Colorado as the 10th Light Division (Alpine).
1943 – World War II: During Battle of Kolombangara in Solomon Islands, U.S. lost USS Gwin. (DD-433) while Japanese lost light cruiser Jintsu.
1943 – First All Star night game (AL beats NL 5-4 at Shribe Park, Philadelphia, PA).

1944 - A patent was obtained by Marvin Camras for the magnetic tape recorder
1945 -  World War II: In Berlin, the municipal council officially confiscates all property held by members of the NSDAP, the Nazi Party.
1945The American government admits responsibility for sinking the Japanese relief ship Awa Maru in error.

1945 – World War II: In Berlin, the municipal council officially confiscates all property held by members of the NSDAP, the Nazi Party. Meanwhile, on the eve of the dissolution of SHAEF, General Eisenhower issues a farewell message to all members of the Allied Expeditionary Force. “No praise is too high,” says the message, “for the manner in which you surmounted every obstacle.”
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “They Say It’s Wonderful”  by  Frank Sinatra, “The Gypsy  by  The Ink Spots, I Don’t Know Enough About You”  by  The Mills Brothers and “New Spanish Two Step”  by  Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1946 - First transcontinental round-trip flight in one-day, California to Maryland and return.
1947 – First night game at Fenway Park (Red Sox 5, White Sox 3)
1948 - Babe Ruth’s final farewell at Yankee Stadium, he dies August 16th.
1950 – Lieutenant General Walton H. Walker, commander of Eighth Army, assumed command of all ground forces in Korea, establishing his headquarters at Taegu.
1950 – Korean War: The newly arrived 22nd and 92nd Bombardment Groups launched a radar-directed attack against the marshaling yards and oil refinery at Wonsan. This mission marked the groups’ entry into combat and the first combat mission flown by Far East Air Forces Bomber Command.
1953 – Korean War: The final communist offensive of the war began.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS -“Little Things Mean a Lot”  by  Kitty Kallen, “Hernando’s Hideaway”  by  Archie Bleyer, “The Little Shoemaker”  by  The Gaylords and “Even Tho”  by  Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1954 – In Geneva, the United States, Great Britain and France reached an accord on Indochina which divided Vietnam into two countries, North and South, along the 17th parallel.
1957 – “Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1957 - Ted Williams becomes first in AL to have 2, 3-HR games in a season.
1959 – “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka topped the charts.
1959 – “Dedicated to the One I Love“, by The Shirelles, was released.
1959 -  “Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton topped the charts
1960 - “Cathy’s Clown” by The Everly Brothers topped the charts
1960 – Democratic National convention nominates Sen. John F Kennedy for president.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Stripper”  by  David Rose, “Roses are Red”  by  Bobby Vinton, “Al Di La’”  by  Emilio Pericoli and “Wolverton Mountain”  by  Claude King all topped the charts.

1963 – “Easier Said Than Done” by Essex topped the charts.
1964 - “Chapel of Love” by the Dixie Cups topped the charts
1964 -  The Supremes made the studio recording of “Come See About Me.”
1965 – The first Black solicitor general of the US was appointed, Thurgood Marshall.
1966 - Supreme Court’s Miranda decision; suspect must be informed of rights.The Miranda decision was a landmark 5-4 decision.
1967 - Thurgood Marshall nominated as first black Supreme Court justice.
1967 – Race-related rioting broke out in Newark, N.J.; by the time the violence ended four days later, 27 people had been killed.
1968 – “This Guy’s in Love with You” by Herb Alpert topped the charts.
1968 -  Steppenwolf’s “Born To Be Wild” was released.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mama Told Me (Not to Come)”  by  Three Dog Night, Ball of Confusion”  by  The Temptations, “Ride Captain Ride “ by  Blues Image and “He Loves Me All the Way”  by  Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1970 - Beatles’ “Let It Be,” album goes #1 & stays #1 for 4 weeks.
1970 - The song “Make It with You“, by David Gates and Bread, was released.
1970 - Beatles’ “Long & Winding Road,” single goes #1 & stays #1 for 2 weeks
1971 – The New York Times began publishing “The Pentagon Papers.”
1971 – Reggie Jackson hits a home run run off a light tower in the 1971 All-Star Game.
1972 – Shirley Chisholm became the first Black Presidential nominee, with 151 votes from the delegates polled.
1972 - Carroll Rosenbloom (owner of the Baltimore Colts) and Robert Irsay (owner of the Los Angeles Rams) traded teams.
1973 – Alexander Butterfield reveals the existence of the Nixon tapes to the special Senate committee investigating the Watergate break in.
1974 – “Rock Your Baby” by George McRae topped the charts.
1974 -  Eric Clapton’s “I Shot The Sheriff” was released.
1977 – New York City experiences a twenty-five hour black-out. Responding to the tension of the times, mobs set fires, smashed windows and hauled away food, clothing and appliances. Approximately 4,500 people were arrested during the riots, which resulted in damage estimated at $61 million.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Shadow Dancing”  by  Andy Gibb, “Baker Street”  by  Gerry Rafferty, “Take a Chance on Me”  by  Abba and “I Believe in You”  by  Mel Tillis all topped the charts.
1978 – Walter Poenisch was seen off by Fidel Castro as he plunged into the Straits of Florida. Thirty-three and a half hours and 128.8 miles later, he staggered ashore at Little Duck Key, near Marathon, FL.
1978 – Lee Iacocca, responsible of the Ford Mustang, was fired as president of Ford Motor Co. by chairman Henry Ford II.
1981 - “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes topped the charts.
1982 - The All-Star Game was played outside the United States for the first time. They played in Montreal, Canada.
1983 - Pioneer 10 becomes first man-made object to leave Solar System.
1983 – Chrysler under Lee Iacocca paid off the last of its guaranteed loans totaling $1.2 billion, seven years ahead of schedule.
1984 – In Arkansas, Terry Wallis was injured in a car accident and was left comatose. He came out of the coma in June of 2003.
1985 – Vice President George H.W. Bush became the Acting President for the day when President Ronald Reagan underwent surgery to remove polyps from his colon.
1985 – Yankees retire Roger Maris (#9) & Elston Howard (#32) uniforms.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Holding Back the Years”  by  Simply Red, “Invisible Touch”  by  Genesis, “Nasty”  by  Janet Jackson and “Hearts Aren’t Made to Break (They’re Made to Love)”  by  Lee Greenwood all topped the charts.
1987 – Jury selection began in Washington for the perjury trial of President Reagan’s former aide and longtime confidant, Michael K. Deaver.
1987 - “Always” by Atlantic Starr topped the charts.
1993 – The American League defeated the National League in the All-Star Game, 9-3, in Baltimore.
1993 – Race car driver Davey Allison died in Birmingham, Ala., of injuries suffered in a helicopter crash.
1994 – Jeff Gillooly, Tonya Harding’s ex-husband, was sentenced in Portland, OR, to two years in prison for his role in the attack on Nancy Kerrigan.
1995 – Six days after the space shuttle “Atlantis” returned, the shuttle “Discovery” blasted off on a nine-day mission.
1995 – Spacecraft Galileo released a probe towards Jupiter that is to become the first Earth emissary ever to penetrate the atmosphere of any of the outer gas giants.
1995 – In Michigan six union locals, representing some 2,500 workers of the Detroit Free Press, Detroit News and Detroit newspapers Inc., went on a strike that lasted 19 months.
1998 – “Image of an Assassination” went on sale. The video documentary is of Abraham Zapruder’s home video of U.S. President Kennedy’s assassination in Dallas. (1:31:44) in its entirety.
1998 – A jury in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., ruled that the Rev. Al Sharpton and two others had defamed a former prosecutor by accusing him of raping Tawana Brawley.
1998 – Four young cousins in Gallup, N.M., died after becoming trapped in a car trunk.
1999 – The American League won the All-Star game for the third straight time, defeating the National League 4-to-1 at Boston’s Fenway Park.
2001 – Coast Guard Cutter Sherman became the second cutter to circumnavigate the globe when she returned to the United States from a six-month deployment to the Arabian Gulf in support of U.N. operations. 
2002 – A unanimous UN Security Council vote to exempt American peacekeepers from prosecution by the new war crimes tribunal for a year ended a U.S. threat to halt U.N. peacekeeping but angered many court supporters.

2004 – The American League cruised past the National League 9-4 in the All-Star game.
2004 – Ken Jennings (30), a software engineer from Salt Lake City, crossed the $1 million mark in a 30-game winning streak on the game-show Jeopardy.
2005 - NASA’s planned launch of STS-114, Space Shuttle Discovery from pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center at 3:51pm EDT (1951 UTC) is delayed due to a problem with the fuel level sensors. This would have been the first manned space launch by NASA since the loss of Columbia over 2 years ago.
2005 – Bernie Ebbers (63), former CEO of WorldCom, was sentenced to 25 years in prison for his role in fraud orchestrating the biggest corporate accounting fraud in US history.
2005 - The American Family Association, a Christian conservative activist group, announces an international boycott of Nike. In adding Nike to its ongoing boycotts of Kmart and the book One of the Guys by Robert Clark Young, the AFA argues that Nike promotes “a back door move to legalise homosexual marriage.”
2005 – In Virginia a federal judge sentenced Ali Timini (41), a prominent Muslim spiritual leader, to life in prison for inciting his followers for violent jihad against the US.
2006 – Hazleton, Pa., passed Mayor Louis Barletta’s Illegal Immigration Relief Act in an effort to get rid of undocumented immigrants. In August federal lawsuits were filed against Hazleton and other local governments for attempting to regulate immigration.
2008 – Terry Childs (43), a San Francisco computer engineer, was arrested on felony charges for allegedly plotting to hijack the city’s computer system.
2009 – U.S. Senate confirmation hearings for United States Supreme Court nominee Sonia Sotomayor begin.
2010 - Six more New Orleans, Louisiana police officers are charged with: shooting dead two civilians, injuries caused to four other civilians, and conspiracy to cover up the incidents on a bridge in the aftermath of the deadly Hurricane Katrina in 2005.
2010 – The US 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals in New York City strikes down the Federal Communications Commission’s “fleeting expletives” policy that gave it power to fine broadcasters who air a single expletive on air.
2010 - President Barack Obama unveils his country’s first national strategy to cut HIV/AIDS infections and improve care for those with the disease.
2011 –  Moody’s threatens to cut the debt rating of the United States.
2011 –  President Barack Obama walks out of negotiations with Republican Party leaders on tackling debt and deficits as Moody’s Investor Services warns of a potential loss of a AAA credit rating.
2012 – Obama at campaign event in Roanoke VA said, “If you were successful, somebody along the line gave you some help. There was a great teacher somewhere in your life. Somebody helped to create this unbelievable American system that we have that allowed you to thrive. Somebody invested in roads and bridges. If you’ve got a business – you didn’t build that. Somebody else made that happen.”
2013 - 
George Zimmerman is acquitted of murder in the death of Travone Martin in Florida. The jury of six women unanimously voted for acquittal in the  second degree murder and manslaughter trial ending one of the most controversial trials in recent memory.The jury deliberated for sixteen hours before reaching a verdict at 9:50 on Saturday evening.
2013 - Fifty-five drive-thru customers became a part of a ‘Pay It Forward’ chain at an Amesbury, MA donut shop. A gesture by a customer at Heav’nly Donuts in Amesbury triggered a chain reaction that presumably led to a lot of smiles. According to the drive-thru clerk, 55 customers rolled through the drive-thru back-to-back, each one paying for the next order. Only in America!!!




100 BC – Julius Caesar, Roman military and political leader (d. 44 BC) (born either July 12 or July 13)
1858 – Stewart Culin, American ethnographer (d. 1929)
1864 – John Jacob Astor IV, American entrepreneur (d. 1912)
1905 – Alfredo M. Santos, First Four-star General of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, World War II hero (d. 1990)
1913 – Dave Garroway, American television host (d. 1982)
1928 – Bob Crane, American actor (d. 1978)
1935 – Jack Kemp, American football player and politician
1942 – Harrison Ford, American actor
1946 – Cheech Marin, American actor
1950 – George “Pinky” Nelson, American astronaut
1956 – Michael Spinks, American former boxer
1967 – Dean Barnett, American Conservative blogger
1968 – Robert Gant, American actor
1977 – Ashley Scott, American actress


Boxer Rebellion

(9:42) Clip with Charleston Heston

Beginning in 1898, groups of peasants in northern China began to band together into a secret society known as “Righteous and Harmonious Fists”, and called the “Boxers” by Western press. Members of the secret society practiced boxing and calisthenic rituals (hence the nickname, the “Boxers”) which they believed would make them impervious to bullets. By late 1899, bands of Boxers were massacring Christian missionaries, Chinese Christians and foreigners. On June 18, 1900, the Empress Dowager ordered all foreigners to be killed. Several foreign ministers and their families were killed before the international force could protect them. The battle started on July 13th and on August 14, 1900, the international force took Peking and subdued the rebellion.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 11 October 1871, Haverhill, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle near Tientsin, China, 13 July 1900, Adams distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.(November 1899 to September 7, 1901)





Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 27 October 1864, Oswego, N.Y. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle near Tientsin, China, 13 July 1900, Adriance distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.





Rank and organization: Captain, 9th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Tientsin, China, 13 July 1900. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Hoboken, N.J. Date of issue: 15 September 1903. Citation: While under fire rescued two of his men from drowning.





Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 27 July 1860, Limerick, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle near Tientsin, China, 13 July 1900, Cooney distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 19 February 1866, Heckersville, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy in the battle near Tientsin, China, 13 July 1900, Foley distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.





Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 9th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Tientsin, China, 13 July 1900.Entered service at: Auburn, N.Y. Birth: Independence, Iowa. Date of issue: 11 March 1902. Citation: Carried a message and guided reinforcements across a wide and fireswept space, during which he was thrice wounded.






Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 12 December 1876, Royalton, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the advance on Tientsin, China, 13 July 1900, Mathias distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 18 February 1871, Middlesex County, Va. Accredited to: Washington, D.C. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In action during the battle near Tientsin, China, 13 July 1900. Although under heavy fire from the enemy, Sutton assisted in carrying a wounded officer from the field of battle.




 Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 9th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Tientsin, China, 13 July 1900. Entered service at: San Francisco, Calif. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Although previously wounded while carrying a wounded comrade to a place of safety, rejoined his command, which partly occupied an exposed position upon a dike, remaining there after his command had been withdrawn, singly keeping up the fire, and obliviously presenting himself as a conspicuous target until he was literally shot off his position by the enemy.



Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Whetstone Mountains, Ariz., 13 July 1872. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 4 December 1874. Citation: Drove off, singlehanded, eight hostile Indians, killing and wounding five.



Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company F, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Whetstone Mountains, Ariz., 13 July 1872. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 4 December 1874. Citation: He and two companions covered the withdrawal of wounded comrades from the fire of an Apache band well concealed among rocks.





Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Whetstone Mountains, Ariz., 13 July 1872. Entered service at: Brooklyn, N.Y. Born: 1850, Ireland. Date of issue: 4 December 1874. Citation: Fought and defeated four hostile Apaches located between him and his comrades.





Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 48th New York Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 13 July 1863, Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 14 July 1863; Near Fort Wagner, S.C., 18 July 1863. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: England. Date of issue: 23 October 1897. Citation: While voluntarily performing picket duty under fire on 13 July 1863, was attacked and his surrender demanded, but he killed his assailant. The day following responded to a call for a volunteer to reconnoiter the enemy’s position, and went within the enemy’s lines under fire and was exposed to great danger. On 18 July voluntarily exposed himself with great gallantry during an assault, and received three wounds that permanently disabled him for active service.

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Unerased History – July 12th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 12, 2014 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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International Town-Criers Day
National Pecan Pie Day 




 An amazing “toy” that took the country by storm and created a new type of art. It has a silver-gray surface and a bright red frame and it has not lost its popularity. Meet Etch-A-Sketch. It is not showing any signs of age. It is still, after 40 years, only 9.5 inches wide.  It seems like only yesterday when the first Etch A Sketch® toys were produced on July 12, 1960.  Here’s the story…


In the late 1950′s, a man by the name of Arthur Granjean invented something he called “L’Ecran Magique”, the magic screen, in his garage.  In 1959, he took his drawing toy to the International Toy Fair in Nuremburg,Germany.  The Ohio Art Company saw it but had no interest in the toy.  When Ohio Art saw the toy a second time, they decided to take a chance on the product.  The L’Ecran Magique was soon renamed the Etch A Sketch® and became the most popular drawing toy in the business. In the 1960, Ohio Art used television to advertise the Etch A Sketch®.

The inner workings have remained exactly the same.  The screen’s reverse side is coated with a mixture of aluminum powder and plastic beads.  The left and right knobs control the horizontal and vertical rods, moving the stylus where the two meet.  When the stylus moves, it scrapes the screen leaving the line you see. The knobs have changed slightly over the years. The new shape has a different edge for easier handling and turning.

Since that beginning it has produced a type of artist who can draw amazingly complex “pieces of art” using a singular line. That is the magic, not brushes, not multiple styluses just a single line. It required ingenuity, perseverance and an artist’s eye.  Here are a few and don’t forget it’s all a single line:

New York Yankees Etch-A-Sketch


“Start by doing what’s necessary, then do what’s possible, and suddenly you are doing the impossible.”

-Francis of Assisi

footless \FOOT-lihs\, adjective:
1. without a foot or feet
2. figuratively, without support; not substantial
3.inept, awkward

1290 – Jews were expelled from England by order of King Edward I.
1580 – Ostrog Bible, the first printed Bible in a Slavic language, is published.
1630 – New Amsterdam’s governor bought Gull Island from Indians for cargo and renamed it Oyster Island. It later became Ellis Island.
1774 - Citizens of Carlisle, Penn., passed a declaration of independence.
1804 – Alexander Hamilton (47), US Sec. of Treasury, died of wounds from a pistol duel with Vice President Aaron Burr.
1812 – War of 1812: The United States invades Canada at Windsor, Ontario.
1836 – Narcissa Whitman and Eliza Spalding were the first two white women to cross the Continental Divide.
1843 – Mormon leader Joseph Smith said God encourages polygamy.
1844 – Captain J.N. Taylor of the Royal Navy first demonstrated the fog horn. At the time, it was called a telephone – to mean far-signalling, thus an instrument like a fog-horn, used on ships, railway trains, etc., for signalling by loud sounds or notes.
1852 – Dr. John Hudson Wayman camped at the City of Rocks in Idaho and called it “one of the finest places of its kind in the world.” US Congress named the area a national reserve in 1988.
1859 – Paper bag manufacturing machine patented by William Goodale, Massachusetts.
1861 - Civil War: Attorney, Confederate officer, writer, and Freemason Albert Pike completes treaties with the members of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Tribes, giving the new Confederate States of America several allies in Indian Territory.
1862 – Civil War: The Medal of Honor is authorized by the United States Congress. President Abraham Lincoln signed into law a measure calling for the awarding of a U.S. Army Medal of Honor, in the name of Congress, “to such noncommissioned officers and privates as shall most distinguish themselves by their gallantry in action, and other soldier-like qualities during the present insurrection.”
1862 – Civil War:  Federal troops occupied Helena, Arkansas.
1864 – Civil War: U.S. President Abraham Lincoln witnessed the battle where Union forces repelled Jubal Early’s army on the outskirts of Washington, DC.

1864 – Civil War: U.S.S. Whitehead and U.S.S. Ceres in company with transport steamer Ella May, conducted a joint expedition up the Scuppernong River to Columbia, North Carolina.
1878 - A Yellow Fever epidemic began in New Orleans. It killed 4,500.
1882 – Charles S. Horn Sr. bought two building lots and in 1882 built a pier and pavilion. He sold souvenirs and eventually opened a movie theater in the city. The pier washed away during a hurricane in 1914.
1909 – The sixteenth Amendment is approved (power to tax incomes). The text of the Amendment makes it clear that though the categories of direct and indirect taxation still exist, any determination that income tax is a direct tax will be irrelevant, because taxes on incomes are explicitly to be treated as indirect.
1916 – Battleship USS North Carolina is the first Navy ship to carry and operate aircraft.
1917 – The Bisbee Deportation occurs as vigilantes kidnap and deport nearly 1,300 striking miners and others from Bisbee, Arizona.
1921 – Congress creates Bureau of Aeronautics to be in charge of all matter pertaining to naval aeronautics.
1928 – First televised tennis match.
1931 – Chicago Cubs and the St. Louis Cardinals hit a record 23 doubles in a game (second game of a double header).
1933- Congress passes first minimum wage law. A minimum wage of 40 cents an hour was established. In Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, the United States Supreme Court declared the act unconstitutional.
1935 - Benny Goodman and his band recorded the “King Porter Stomp.
1940 – Rufus Robinson and Earl Cooley jumped out of a Travelair plane to fight the a forest fire in Idaho’s Nez Perce national Forest. They were the first smoke-jumpers.
1943 – World War II: Battle of Prokhorovka – German and Soviet forces engage in largest tank engagement of all time.
1943 – World War II: The Panzer Division “Hermann Goring” resumes attacks on American positions in the morning but withdraws to face the more threatening British advance in the afternoon.
1943 – World War II: Off Kolombangara, Admiral Ainsworth’s Task Force (3 cruisers and 10 destroyers) encounter a Japanese squadron (1 cruiser and 9 destroyers) under the command of Admiral Izaki. The Japanese cruiser obliterated by the radar-directed gunfire of the American cruisers but the Japanese sink one destroyer and damage two cruisers with torpedo attacks.
1943 – The US submarine Pampanito was christened in New Hampshire.
1944 – World War II: Allied air attacks against the Po bridges begin. Elements of the US 5th Army advance. The US 88th Division takes Lajatico.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dream”  by  The Pied Pipers, “The More I See You”  by
Dick Haymes, “Bell Bottom Trousers”  by  Tony Pastor and “Stars and Stripes on Iwo Jima”  by  Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: Targets on the Japanese home islands of Shikoku and Honshu are heavily bombed.
1946 – “The Adventures of Sam Spade” (25:06) debuts on ABC radio.
1949 – Jones, Frederick M. –  Air Conditioning Unit patented.  Patent No. 2475841
1949 – Jones, Frederick M. –  Starter Generator patented.  Patent No. 2475842
1949 – Football quarterback Norm Van Brocklin leaves college for the Los Angeles Rams. He left the University of Oregon, where he still had a year’s eligibility remaining, to join the Rams.
1950 – Korean War: In a series of desperate battles, the 21st Infantry Regiment fought delaying actions from Chonui to Chochiwon. They turned in the best battle performance of U.S. troops in the war to that date.
1950 – Korean War: The first Distinguished Service Cross of the Korean War was awarded posthumously to Colonel Robert R. Martin who single-handedly attacked an enemy tank with a rocket launcher.
1950 – Korean War: Photographs of seven American soldiers found shot through the head by the communists shocked the world.
1951 – Governor Adlai Stevenson, called out National Guard to stop rioting in Cicero, Illinois. Mob of 3,500 tried to keep an African-American family from moving into the all-white city.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Song from Moulin Rouge”  by  The Percy Faith Orchestra,Ruby”  by  Richard Hayman, “I’m Walking Behind You” by  Eddie Fisher and “It’s Been So Long” by  Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1954 –  Elvis Presley signed his first recording contract and quit his job as a truck driver. The contract was with Sun Records.
1954 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower proposed a highway modernization program, with costs to be shared by federal and state governments. (See October 3rd)
1954 – The Major League Baseball Players Association was organized in Cleveland, OH.
1956 - Elvis Presley appeared on “The Steve Allen Show.” He was told not to dance and Allen had him sing “Hound Dog” to a real basset hound wearing tails.
1957 – Dwight Eisenhower is the first President to fly in helicopter.
1957 – The U.S. surgeon general, Leroy E. Burney, reported that there was a direct link between smoking and lung cancer.
1957 – Santa Susana in Los Angeles County began receiving the nation’s first commercial electricity from a small, civilian-owned, nuclear reactor. It was shut down in 1964. PG&E had teamed with General Electric to establish the Vallecitos atomic energy plant, the world’s 1st privately owned and operated nuclear facility.
1958 – “Yakety Yak“, by The Coasters, shared #1 with “Purple People Eater” by Sheb Wooley.
1959 – Alan Freed began a 13-week Rock & Roll show on ABC-TV.
1960 – The first Etch-A-Sketch went on sale.
1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tossin’ and Turnin’”  by  Bobby Lewis, “The Boll Weevil Song”  by  Brook Benton, “Every Beat of My Heart”  by  Pips, “Heartbreak U.S.A.”  by  Kitty Wells all topped the charts.
1962 – The Rolling Stones perform their first ever concert, at the Marquee Club in London.
1963 - “She Loves You” and “I’ll Get You” were recorded by the Beatles.
1966 – Most rain that ever fell in one day in Ohio, 10.5″ in Sandusky.
1966 – US Treasury announces it will buy mutilated silver coins at silver bullion price.
1966 – “In the Year 2525 (Exordium and Terminus)” by Zager & Evans topped the charts.
1966 – Race riots occurred in Chicago. National Guard mobilized.
1967 – Race Riot: The Newark Riot of 1967 began with the arrest of a cab driver named John Smith, who allegedly drove around a double-parked police car at the corner of 7th St. and 15th Avenue. He was subsequently stopped, interrogated, arrested and transported to the 4th precinct headquarters, during which time he was severely beaten by the arresting officers. Twenty-six were killed, 1500 injured and over 1000 arrested.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS  - “In the Year 2525”  by  Zager & Evans, “Spinning Wheel” by  Blood, Sweat & Tears, “Good Morning Starshine”  by  Oliver and “Statue of a Fool”  by  Jack Greene all topped the charts.
1973 - Jesus Christ Superstar” closed in New York City after 720 performances on Broadway.
1973 – A fire destroys the entire 6th floor of the National Personnel Records Center and destroys approximately 16-18 million Official Military Personnel Files (OMPF). Records destroyed are Army – Personnel discharged 1Nov1912 to 1Jan1960 and Air Force personnel discharged 25Sep1947 to 1Jan1964 with names alphabetically after Hubbard, James E.
1974 – President Richard Nixon’s aides G. Gordon Liddy, John Ehrlichman and two others were convicted of conspiracy and perjury in connection with the Watergate scandal  conspiring to violate the civil rights of Daniel Ellsberg’s former psychiatrist.
1974 – The US Budget Control Act was signed into law. It stripped away from the president the power to withhold appropriated spending, and placed it in the hands of Congress. The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) was formed.
1975 – “Love Will Keep Us Together” by Captain & Tennille topped the charts.
1976 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Edward Charles Allaway, a campus janitor, killed seven people in a library at California State Univ. at Fullerton. He was found not guilty by reason of insanity and was confined at a state mental hospital.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS  - “Undercover Angel”  by  Alan O’Day, “Da Do Run Run”  by  Shaun Cassidy, “Looks like We Made It”  by  Barry Manilow and “I’ll Be Leaving Alone” by  Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1977 - President Carter defended Supreme Court decisions limiting government payments for poor women’s abortions, saying, “There are many things in life that are not fair.”
1980 – “Coming Up” by Paul McCartney topped the charts.
1981 - John Morey (Steppenwolf) died in a car accident at the age of 32.
1982 – The last of the distinctive-looking Checker taxicabs rolled off the assembly
line in Kalamazoo, MI. The company had produced those cabs since 1922.
1982 – “E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial” broke all box-office records. It surpassed the $100-million mark of ticket sales in the first 31 days of its opening.
1984 – Democratic presidential candidate Walter F. Mondale named U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro of New York to be his running mate. Ferraro was the first woman to run for vice president on a major party ticket.
1984 – Madonna’s “Like a Virgin” video premiered on MTV and became an instant hit.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sussudio”  by  Phil Collins, “A View to a Kill” by Duran Duran, “Raspberry Beret”  by  Prince & The Revolution and “She’s a Miracle” by Exile all topped the charts.

1985 - Doctors discovered what turned out to be a cancerous growth in President Reagan’s large intestine, prompting surgery the following day.
1986 – “Holding Back the Years” by Simply Red topped the charts.
1987 - Phillies Kent Tekulve pitches his 900th game in relief. Until Jesse Orosco broke his record in 1999, Tekulve was the all-time major league leader in relief appearances with 1,050.
1988 – The American League beat the National League 2-1 in the All-Star game played in Cincinnati.
1988 - The PHOBOS 2 Flyby and lander failed within 480 miles of Mar’s moon Phobos.
1988 - Democratic presidential candidate Michael S. Dukakis tapped Texas Sen. Lloyd Bentsen as his running mate.
1990 – CBS introduced the TV saga “Northern Exposure.” The show ran to 1995.
1990 – Commander Rosemary B. Mariner becomes first woman to command an operational aviation squadron (VAQ-34).
1992 – A memorial to Buddy Holly was unveiled in Dallas, TX.
1993 – Somalia: Seventeen US helicopters conduct an attack on Aidid compound-at least 13 Somalis are killed.
1994 – The Rolling Stones’ “Voodoo Lounge” album was released.
1994 – The National League won the All-Star Game defeating the American League 8-7.
1994 – US confirmation hearings began for Supreme Court nominee Stephen G. Breyer.
1994 - The shareholders and employees of United Airlines approved a deal giving the majority ownership to the employees (76,000+).
1995 – President Clinton spelled out school-prayer guidelines, asserting the First Amendment already guaranteed adequate freedom of religion.
1995 – US public debt said by the Treasury to be $4.93 trillion.
1996 – The House voted overwhelmingly to define marriage in federal law as a legal union of one man and one woman, no matter what states might say.
1996 – Hurricane Bertha hit North Carolina’s Cape Fear near Wilmington, then moved on to batter a string of coastal towns.
1996 - Lee Guthrie Jr., a member of the Aryan Republican Army, was found dead of an apparent suicide in a county jail in Kentucky. The group advocated killing Jews, deporting African-Americans and setting up a Bible-based nation.
1999 – Walt Disney Co. announced that it was merging all of its Internet operations together with Infoseek into Go.com.
1999 - President Clinton and Republican congressional leaders held their first face-to-face budget meeting of the year; the talk was described afterward as positive.
1999 – In St. Louis several hundred workers and activists of MO-KAN blocked I-70 to demand that more minorities be hired for state construction jobs.
2000 – The movie “X-Men” premiered in New York.
2000 – The New Hampshire House of Representatives voted to impeach Chief Justice David A. Brock for perpetuating misconduct and a culture of secrecy.
2000 – In Philadelphia a WPVI News camera showed city police beat and kick Thomas Jones (30) over nationwide TV. Jones had stolen a patrol car and shot at an officer.
2001 – The US Space Shuttle Atlantis took off with a crew of five to deliver a portal for spacewalks to the Int’l. Space Station.
2001 – In Virginia a woman delivered five boys and two girls by C-section. This was only the third set of septuplets known to have survived birth.
2002 – The Biscuit Fire was a wildfire that burned nearly 500,000 acres in the Siskiyou National Forest in the states of Oregon and California. It was named after Biscuit Creek in southern Oregon.
2002 - The US Senate adopted a ban on personal loans from companies to their top officials, a practice that had benefited executives from Enron to WorldCom.
2003 - Barry Bonds ties the 63-year-old record of Jimmie Foxx by homering against the Arizona Diamondbacks’ Curt Schilling, becoming the second player in Major League Baseball to hit at least 30 home runs in 12 consecutive seasons.
2003 – The USS Ronald Reagan, the first carrier named for a living president, was commissioned in Norfolk, Va.
2003 – Former White House press secretary Ari Fleischer leaked the identity of a CIA operative (Valerie Plame) to Washington Post reporter Walter Pincus during a phone call.
2004 - The United States Department of Homeland Security asks the Justice Department’s office of legal counsel to research on the legal requirements for postponing the November elections, stating that they are concerned that terrorists might disrupt the elections.
2004 - The Bush administration announced a new rule to allow the nation’s governors to help decide whether roadless areas in their states should be opened for logging or other commercial activity.
2004 - A foot or more of rain fell in parts of the Northeast. No injuries had been reported in the stricken areas of New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Maryland.
2005 – The American League to a 7-5 win over the National League in Detroit for the AL’s eighth straight All-Star victory.
2005 -  BP said it has sent teams to fix its ‘Thunder Horse’ oil platform, which has been listing since Hurricane Dennis hit the Gulf of Mexico.
2006 - An experimental spacecraft bankrolled by real estate magnate Robert Bigelow successfully inflated in orbit, testing a technology that could be used to fulfill his dream of building a commercial space station.
2006 - U.S. broadcaster Robert Novak says Deputy Chief of Staff Karl Rove was not the primary source for the Plame leak.
2007 – A false alarm causes the diversion of American Airlines Flight 136. The plane crew was concerned that a passenger of Middle Eastern descent might have bypassed security controls.
2007 - Defying a White House veto threat, the US House of Representatives approved legislation to bring combat troops out of Iraq by April 1, 2008.
2007 - A US government report was released saying undercover investigators, working for a fake firm, had obtained a license to buy enough radioactive material to build a “dirty bomb,” amid little scrutiny from federal regulators.
2008 - Tony Snow (53), a conservative writer and commentator who cheerfully sparred with reporters in the White House briefing room during a stint as President Bush’s press secretary, died of colon cancer.
2009 – Head of the CIA Leon Panetta accuses former United States Vice President Dick Cheney of hiding an intelligence program from Congress.
2010 – A gunman opens fire at a fiber optics plant in Albuquerque, New Mexico, killing two and wounding four before committing suicide.
2010 –  Police in Los Angeles County discovered thousands of pounds of marijuana in a railroad car that entered this month from Mexico.
2010 –  BP Engineers worked to replace a cap over a gushing oil well in the Gulf of Mexico after reporting good progress in attempts to contain the worst environmental disaster in US history.
2011 –  The US Coast Guard ends aerial searches for seven Americans still missing after a charter fishing boat sank in the Sea of Cortez off Mexico on July 3.
2011 –  A three judge panel of the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals rules that Jared Lee Loughner, the suspect in the 2011 Tucson shooting, has the right to refuse antipsychotic medication while he appeals the treatment prescribed by prison mental health authorities.
2011 – CNN reports that the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives has lost track of 1,400 guns involved in Operation Fast and Furious aimed at tracing the flow of weapons to Mexican drug cartels.
2013 – After being forced of the shelves by greedy union leaders, Twinkies are back!! Twinkies are making an early comeback at Wal-Mart stores, and they won’t be frozen beforehand.The world’s largest retailer says it is selling the snack cakes at about 1,600 stores starting today and that about 3,000 of its 4,000 U.S. stores should have them by Sunday morning, a day before Hostess had said the spongy yellow cakes would start hitting shelves nationwide.


100 BC – Julius Caesar, Roman military and political leader (d. 44 BC) (born either July 12 or July 13)
1730 – Josiah Wedgwood, English potter (d. 1795)
1817 – Henry David Thoreau, American writer and philosopher (d. 1862)
1824 – Eugène Boudin, French painter (d. 1898)
1854 – George Eastman, American inventor (d. 1932)
1864 – George Washington Carver, American botanist (d. 1943)
1895 – Buckminster Fuller, American architect (d. 1983)
1895 – Oscar Hammerstein II, American lyricist (d. 1960)
1908 – Milton Berle, American comedian (d. 2002)
1909 – Curly Joe DeRita, American actor and comedian (d. 1993)
1913 – Willis Lamb, American physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 2008)
1917 – Andrew Wyeth, American artist
1920 – Beah Richards, American actress (d. 2000)
1925 – Roger Bonham Smith, former chairman and CEO of General Motors (d. 2007)
1932 – Otis Davis, American runner
1933 – Donald E. Westlake, American author
1934 – Van Cliburn, American pianist
1937 – Bill Cosby, American comedian and actor
1941 – Benny Parsons, American NASCAR driver (d. 2007)
1943 – Paul Silas, American basketball player and head coach
1948 – Richard Simmons, American fitness trainer
1951 – Jamey Sheridan, American actor
1956 – Sandi Patty, American singer
1957 – Richard Douglas Husband, American astronaut (d. 2003)
1975 – Cheyenne Jackson, American actor and singer
1976 – Tracie Spencer, American singer and songwriter





Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company A, 3d Reconnaissance Battalion, 3d Marine Division. Place and Date: near Da Nang, Republic of Vietnam, 12 July 1965. Entered service at: Kellogg, Idaho. Born: 16 September 1937, Spokane, Wash. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. The reconnaissance patrol led by 1st Lt. Reasoner had deeply penetrated heavily controlled enemy territory when it came under extremely heavy fire from an estimated 50 to 100 Viet Cong insurgents. Accompanying the advance party and the point that consisted of five men, he immediately deployed his men for an assault after the Viet Cong had opened fire from numerous concealed positions. Boldly shouting encouragement, and virtually isolated from the main body, he organized a base of fire for an assault on the enemy positions. The slashing fury of the Viet Cong machinegun and automatic weapons fire made it impossible for the main body to move forward. Repeatedly exposing himself to the devastating attack he skillfully provided covering fire, killing at least two Viet Cong and effectively silencing an automatic weapons position in a valiant attempt to effect evacuation of a wounded man. As casualties began to mount his radio operator was wounded and 1st Lt. Reasoner immediately moved to his side and tended his wounds. When the radio operator was hit a second time while attempting to reach a covered position, 1st Lt. Reasoner courageously running to his aid through the grazing machinegun fire fell mortally wounded. His indomitable fighting spirit, valiant leadership and unflinching devotion to duty provided the inspiration that was to enable the patrol to complete its mission without further casualties. In the face of almost certain death he gallantly gave his life in the service of his country. His actions upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 362d Infantry, 91st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Casaglia, Italy, 12 July 1944. Entered service at: Pixley, Calif. Birth: Talala, Okla. G.O. No.: 83, 2 October 1945. Citation: He was an acting squad leader when heavy machinegun fire from enemy positions, well dug in on commanding ground and camouflaged by haystacks, stopped his company’s advance and pinned down one platoon where it was exposed to almost certain annihilation. Ordered to rescue the beleaguered platoon by neutralizing the German automatic fire, he led his squad forward along a draw to the right of the trapped unit against three key positions which poured murderous fire into his helpless comrades. When within range, his squad fired tracer bullets in an attempt to set fire to the three haystacks which were strung out in a loose line directly to the front, 75, 150, and 250 yards away. Realizing that this attack was ineffective, Sgt. Harmon ordered his squad to hold their position and voluntarily began a one-man assault. Carrying white phosphorus grenades and a submachine gun, he skillfully took advantage of what little cover the terrain afforded and crept to within twenty-five yards of the first position. He set the haystack afire with a grenade, and when two of the enemy attempted to flee from the inferno, he killed them with his submachine gun. Crawling toward the second machinegun emplacement, he attracted fire and was wounded; but he continued to advance and destroyed the position with hand grenades, killing the occupants. He then attacked the third machinegun, running to a small knoll, then crawling over ground which offered no concealment or cover. About halfway to his objective, he was again wounded. But he struggled ahead until within twenty yards of the machinegun nest, where he raised himself to his knees to throw a grenade. He was knocked down by direct enemy fire. With a final, magnificent effort, he again arose, hurled the grenade and fell dead, riddled by bullets. His missile fired the third position, destroying it. Sgt. Harmon’s extraordinary heroism, gallantry, and self-sacrifice saved a platoon from being wiped out, and made it possible for his company to advance against powerful enemy resistance.




Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 27 November 1876, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: In the presence of the enemy during the battle of Peking, China, 12 July 1900, Mitchell distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.




Rank and organization: Hospital Apprentice, U.S. Navy. Place and date: China, 13, 20, 21, and 22 June 1900. Entered service: Aboard U.S.S. Vermont. Born: 2 May 1881, Brooklyn N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy in volunteering and carrying messages under fire at Peking, China, 12 July 1900.


Wichita River, Texas  12 July 1870
From the posts of Fort Richardson, Texas 1866-1878

Brevette Major C. B. Mc..ellau Capt. 6 Cav left the post with a detachment of 2 ….. officers 1 A. A. Surgeon and 53 enlisted men of Company’s A, B, D, H, K, and L 6 Cav on July 7, 1870 for an Indian scout. On the 12 July at the north fork Little Wichita River, Texas they had an encounter with Indians resulting in the killing of 2 enlisted men, wounding one A. A. surgeon and ten enlisted men. Indians 13 killed and a large number wounded. They rejoined the post on July 16, 1870. Distance marched 200 miles. The following received the Medal of Honor in this action:


Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., 12 July 1870. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., 12 July 1870. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Sacketts Harbor, N.Y. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.




Rank and organization: Corporal, Company K, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., 12 July 1870. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Birth: Daviess County, Ky. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Bravery in action.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., 12 July 1870. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company L, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., 12 July 1870. Entered service at: ——. Birth: York, Pa. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company L, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., 12 July 1870. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., 12 July 1870. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Hanover, N.H. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Farrier, Company L, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., 12 July 1870. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Montgomery County, Md. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., 12 July 1870. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Auburn, N.Y. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., 12 July 1870. Entered service at:——. Birth: Logan County, Ohio. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I., 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., 12 July 1870. Entered service at. ——. Birth: Cochecton, N.Y. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.


WINDUS, CLARON A.wisconsinlg

Rank and organization: Bugler, Company L, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., 12 July 1870. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Janesville, Wis. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wichita River, Tex., 12 July 1870. Entered service at: ——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 25 August 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.




Rank and organization: Captain, Company D, 19th Michigan Infantry; First Lieutenant, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Peach Tree Creek, Ga., 12 July 1864. Entered service at: Constantine, Mich. Birth: Michigan. Date of issue: 3 December 1891. Second award. Citation: Led his company in a countercharge at Peach Tree Creek, Ga., 12 July 1864, under a galling fire ahead of his own men, and singly entered the enemy’s line, capturing and bringing back two commissioned officers, fully armed, besides a guidon of a Georgia regiment.

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Unerased History – July 11th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 11, 2014 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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International Chicken Wing Week
Bowdler’s Day
7-11 Day





Way back in 1927, an employee of the Southland Ice Company in Dallas, Texas, starting selling such grocery items as eggs, milk and bread, from the company’s ice dock. In less time than it takes to say 7-11, the convenience store was born, and named for the hours it was open: 7a.m. to 11p.m. When its “convenience” was noted, the idea took off and competitors sprung up by the dozens. But 7-Eleven forged on, extending their actual hours to 24 a day, but keeping the original name 7-Eleven.

Today, 7-Eleven is a worldwide chain of convenience stores and is part of an international chain of convenience stores, operating under Seven-Eleven Japan Co. Ltd, which in turn is owned by Seven & I Holdings Co. of Japan.

7-Eleven, primarily operating as a franchise, is the world’s largest operator, franchisor and licensor of convenience stores, with more than 46,000 outlets. Since March 2007, it is the largest chain store in any category, beating McDonald’s by 1,000 stores. It has stores located in sixteen countries. Its largest markets being Japan, the United States, Canada, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia and Thailand.

The American subsidiary of the Japanese firm has its headquarters in the One Arts Plaza building in downtown Dallas, Texas.

Among 7-Eleven’s offerings are private label products, including Slurpee, a partially frozen beverage introduced in 1967, and the Big Gulp introduced in 1980.


That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons that history has to teach.”

~ Aldous Huxley


 gloaming   GLOH-ming, noun:

Twilight; dusk.

1576 – Martin Frobisher sights Greenland. He was an English seaman from Wakefield, Yorkshire  who made three voyages to the New World to look for the Northwest Passage. All landed in northeastern Canada, around today’s Resolution Island and Frobisher Bay.
1578 - England granted Sir Humphrey Gilbert a patent to explore and colonize US.

1656 - Ann Austin and Mary Fisher, two Englishwomen, become the first Quakers to immigrate to the American colonies when the ship carrying them lands at Boston in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1735 – Mathematical calculations suggest that it was on this day that Pluto moved from the ninth to the eighth most distant planet from the Sun for the last time before 1979.
1740 – A violent mob attacks Jews and expels them from Little Russia.
1742 -
 Benjamin Franklin invented his Franklin stove.
1776 – Captain James Cook begins his third voyage. Cook died in Hawaii in a fight with Hawaiians during this voyage in the Pacific in 1779.
1781 - Thomas Hutchins designated Geographer of the US. Prior to the American Revolution, Hutchins served in the British army and participated in the French and Indian War. Refusing to fight against his fellow colonists during the Revolution, Hutchins resigned his commission in 1780.
1786 - Morocco agreed to stop attacking American ships in the Mediterranean for a payment of $10,000.
1796 – The United States takes possession of Detroit from Great Britain under terms of the Jay Treaty.Captain Moses Porter led a party of American troops into Detroit. At noon, the Union Jack came down, and the flag of the United States was raised over Detroit for the first time.
1798 -The U.S. Marine Corps was formally re-established by “An Act for Establishing a Marine Corps” passed by the U.S. Congress. The act also created the U.S. Marine Band.  “The President’s Own” US Marine Band  is America’s oldest professional musical organization. The band was comprised of one Drum Major, one Fife Major, 32 drums and fifes.
1804 - Vice President Aaron Burr mortally wounded Alexander Hamilton (47), former first Treasury Secretary, in a pistol duel near Weehawken, N.J. A warrant for Burr’s arrest was soon issued in New Jersey and New York, where Hamilton died.
1816 - Gas Light Co. of Baltimore was founded.
1818 - The Revenue Cutter Dallas seized and libeled the Venezuelan privateer Cerony off Savannah for having violated the nation’s neutrality laws.
1836 – President Jackson
 issued the Specie Circular shortly before leaving office. This order commanded the Treasury to no longer accept paper notes as payment for public land purchases. This led to the financial panic of 1837.
1846 - The “Grizzly Bear” flag proclaiming the “California Republic” is lowered to be replaced by the United States flag as the former Mexican colony comes under American control.
1859 – A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens is published.
1861 – Civil War: Union troops under General George B. McClellan score another major victory in the struggle for western Virginia at the Battle of Rich Mountain.
1862 – Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln appointed General Henry Halleck as general in chief of the Federal army.
1863 – Civil War: Rear Admiral Hiram Paulding, Commandant of the New York Navy Yard, stationed gunboats around Manhattan to assist in maintaining order during the Draft Riots.
1863 – Civil War: The Battle of Fort Wager began as Union forces assaulted the Confederate battery on Morris Island at the southern approach to Charleston Harbor.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate General Jubal Early’s army arrived in Silver Spring, Maryland, on the outskirts of Washington, D.C., and began to probe the Union line. Confederate forces led by Gen. Jubal Early began an invasion of Washington, D.C., turning back the next day.
1864 – Civil War: Landing party from U.S.S. James L. Davis, Acting Master Griswold, destroyed Confederate salt works near Tampa, Florida. The works were capable of producing some 150 bushels of salt per day.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Trevillian Station, VA (Central Railroad).
1875 - General Albert M. Winn, a Virginian who came to California during Gold Rush days and who was deeply impressed with the fortitude of the men and women of the period, organized the Native Sons of the Golden West in San Francisco.
1877 - Los Angeles, CA recorded a temperature of 112 degrees, but it was not recorded as an all-time-high because official recording only began 20 days later.
1888 - State record high temperature of 118° in Bennett, CO.
1892 -The U.S. Patent Office decided that Joseph Wilson Swan in England, not Thomas Edison, was the inventor of the electric light carbon for the incandescent lamp.
1893 – The first cultured pearl is obtained by Kokichi Mikimoto.
1895 – The Lumière brothers demonstrate film technology to scientists.
1906 – The Gillette-Brown murder inspires Theodore Dreiser’s An American Tragedy.
1914 - Babe Ruth debuted in the major leagues with the Boston Red Sox. In his rookie year he earned $2900.
1916 - Dan Patch (b.1896), a record-breaking, Indiana-born, harness race horse was the celebrated horse that had never lost a race, died and was buried in Minnesota. He was the first harness race horse to break the 2-minute mile.
1916 - Congress passed the first formal highway policy with a regular appropriation of funding to the states. By this time, the number of automobile registrations in the country had reached 2.3 million.
1918 - Enrico Caruso joined the war effort and recorded “Over There“, the patriotic song written by George M. Cohan.
1921 – Former President William Howard Taft is sworn in as 10th Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, becoming the only person to ever be both President and Chief Justice.
1922 – The Hollywood Bowl opens. The Hollywood Bowl is a famous modern amphitheatre in the Hollywood area of Los Angeles, California.  It’s use is primarily for music performances. It has a seating capacity 17,376.
1924 - After 103 roll calls the Democrats bypassed New York governor Alfred E. Smith and William G. McAdoo of California and nominated John W. Davis of West Virginia and Charles Bryan, brother of William Jennings, to run against Calvin Coolidge. The Democrats won just 29% of the popular vote in a 3-way race with Coolidge and Senator Robert “Fighting Bob” LaFolette of Wisconsin who led the Progressive Party.
1934 – FDR became first president to travel through Panama Canal.
1934 - The first appointments to the newly created Federal Communications Commission were made.
1936 – The Triborough Bridge in New York City is opened to traffic. It is officially renamed the Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge on June 4th, 2008 and is a complex of three bridges connecting the New York City boroughs of the Bronx, Manhattan, and Queens, using what were two islands.
1939 – New York Yankees hosted the 7th All Star Game. The American League won 3-1.
1940 – World War II: Vichy France regime is formally established. Henri Philippe Pétain becomes Prime Minister of France. Vichy France, or the Vichy regime are the common terms used to describe the government of France from July 1940 to August 1944. Pétain and the Vichy regime willfully collaborated with the German occupation to a high degree.  They were actively complicit with finding French Jews to be sent to extermination. 
1941 – World War II: Europe: Holocaust - The second great roundup of Jews of Amsterdam took place.
1941 - Congress reconfirmed the military “status” of the Coast Guard, stating: “The Coast Guard shall be a military service and constitute a branch of the land and naval forces of the United States.
1941 –  Roosevelt appoints William Donovan to head a new civilian intelligence agency with the title “coordinator of defense information.” This appointment will lead to the creation of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) which in turn will develop into the modern CIA.
1942 – World War II: In the longest bombing raid of World War II, 1,750 British Lancaster bombers attacked the Polish port of Danzig. The Polish submarine Orzel escaped from internment and went on to fight the Germans against long odds.
1942 – World War II: Marine Corps Air Station El Centro, California activated.
1942 - World War II: U .S. Maritime Service was transferred back to the War Shipping Administration after being under Coast Guard administration since February 28, 1942.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust: Massacres of Poles in Volhynia. It was a massive ethnic cleansing operation ordered by Heinrich Himmler in German-occupied Volhynia and Eastern Galicia that took part during World War II, between 1942 and 1945.
1943 – World War II: Allied invasion of Sicily – German and Italian troops launch a counter-attack on Allied forces in Sicily.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be Seeing You” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Frank Sinatra), “Long Ago and Far Away by Helen Forrest & Dick Haymes, I’ll Get By” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Dick Haymes) and “Straighten Up and Fly Right” by King Cole Trio all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II:  German forces counterattack the US 1st Army. The German Panzerlehr Division spearheads the assault against US 9th Division southwest of St. Jean de Daye. US forces hold.
1944 –  World War II: American forces around Aitape pull back from the Driniumor River under pressure from Japanese forces.
1944 – World War II: President Roosevelt recognizes the French Provisional government under Charles DeGaulle. They were the de facto authority for the civil administration of liberated territory in France.
1944 – Franklin D. Roosevelt announces that he will run for a fourth term as President of the United States.
1945 - The redeployment of 2118 4-engined bombers of the US Eighth Air Force, to the USA (en route for the Pacific theater) begins. It is completed in 51 days.
1945 - Napalm was first used. On Luzon, Americans forces drop thousands of napalm bombs on Japanese pockets on the Sierra Madre and in the Kiangan area.
1950 – Korean War:  A ten-man demolition party of sailors and Marines led by Commander William B. Porter conducted the first naval commando operation of the Korean War.
1950 - Red Sox slugger Ted Williams suffered a broken elbow during the All-Star game. He crashed into the scoreboard at Comiskey Park in Chicago.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss of Fire” by Georgia Gibbs, I’m Yours” by Eddie Fisher, “Delicado” by The Percy Faith Orchestra and “That Heart Belongs to Me” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1952 -
 The Republican National Convention, meeting in Chicago, nominated Dwight D. Eisenhower for president and Richard M. Nixon for vice president. Theodore Roosevelt McKeldin (1900-1974), the governor of Maryland (1951-1959), gave the nominating speech.
1952 - Far East Air Force established a one-day record by flying 1,330 sorties.
1952 - The Republican National Convention, meeting in Chicago, nominated Dwight D. Eisenhower for president and Richard M. Nixon for vice president. Theodore Roosevelt McKeldin (1900-1974), the governor of Maryland (1951-1959), gave the nominating speech.
1953 - “I’m Walking Behind You” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.

1953 - Lieutenant Colonel John F. Bolt became the 37th Korean War ace and the only U.S. Marine Corps pilot to qualify as an ace during the Korea War. He also has the distinction of being the only jet ace in Marine Corps history and the only U.S. Marine to become an ace in two wars (World War II and Korea). Bolt was flying an F-86 Sabre, “Darling Dottie,” attached to the Air Force’s 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing.
1953 -  “Amos ‘n Andy,” TV Comedy and a radio program from 1929; last aired on CBS.
1955 – The phrase In God We Trust is added to all U.S. currency. In God We Trust is the official national motto of the United States and the State of Florida. The motto first appeared on a United States coin in 1864, but In God We Trust did not become the official U.S. national motto until after the passage of an Act of Congress in 1956.
1955 – New USAF Academy dedicated at Lowry AFB in Colorado. It graduated its first class of 306 cadets. They were sworn in to The Air Force Academy which  was charged with training and educating officers capable of meeting the challenges of the nuclear age.
1958 - Monument Valley, crossing the Arizona-Utah border, became the first Navajo Tribal Park.

1959 – “Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton topped the charts.
1959 - Joan Baez made her first recording, “Virgin Mary Had One Son“. It was a duet with Bob Gibson which was recorded live at the Newport Folk Festival.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Alley-Oop” by Hollywood Argyles, “I’m Sorry” by Brenda Lee, “Mule Skinner Blues” by The Fendermen and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling” by Hank Locklin all topped the charts.
1960 - In Honolulu, HI, the first tournament held outside the continental U.S., sanctioned by the U.S. Golf Association, began.
1960- To Kill a Mockingbird is a Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Harper Lee published in 1960. It was instantly successful and has become a classic of modern American fiction. The novel is loosely based on the author’s observations of her family and neighbors, as well as on an event that occurred near her hometown in the year 1936, when she was 10 years old.
1962 - The Telstar I satellite carried the first transatlantic TV transmission. It picked up broadcast signals from France and bounced them down to an antenna in Maine, delivering the first live television picture from Europe to America.
1964 - “My Boy Lollipop” by Millie Small was riding high on the pop charts.
1964 - “I Get Around” by the Beach Boys topped the charts.
1964 - The Supremes’ “Where Did Our Love Go?” was released.
1966 - “I Am A Rock” by Simon & Garfunkel peaked at #3.
1967 - Kenny Rogers formed The First Edition. Rogers, along with Thelma Camacho, Mike Settle and Terry Williams left The New Christy Minstrels. Hits made popular by the group include: Just Dropped In (To See What Condition My Condition Was In), But You Know I Love You, Ruby, Don’t Take Your Love to Town, Ruben James, and Something’s Burning.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “This Guy’s in Love with You” by Herb Alpert, “The Horse” by Cliff Nobles & Co., “Jumpin’ Jack Flash” by The Rolling Stones and “D-I-V-O-R-C-E” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1969 - The Rolling Stones released “Honky Tonk Women” to Radio.
1969 - David Bowie released his single “Space Oddity.”
1970 – “Mama Told Me (Not to Come)” by Three Dog Night topped the charts.
1970 - The Who’s “Summertime Blues” was released.
1972 – Vietnam War:  U.S. forces broke the 95-day siege at An Loc in Vietnam.
1973 - Tennis stars Billie Jean King and Bobby Riggs announced their “Battle of the Sexes.” The winner would take home $100,000. The event would be staged at the Houston Astrodome in Texas before 30,472 spectators, as it turned out; the largest crowd ever for a tennis match.
1974 -  John W. Dean testified before the US House Judiciary Committee in the impeachment inquiry of President Richard Nixon.
1974 – House Judiciary Committee released evidence on the Watergate inquiry.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Afternoon Delight” by Starland Vocal Band, “Kiss and Say Goodbye” by Manhattans, “I’ll Be Good to You” by The Brothers Johnson and “The Door is Always Open” by Dave & Sugar all topped the charts.
1977 – Martin Luther King Jr. is posthumously awarded the Medal of Freedom. The Presidential Medal of Freedom is a decoration bestowed by the President of the United States and is, along with the equivalent Congressional Gold Medal bestowed by an act of Congress, the highest civilian award in the United States.
1979 – The abandoned space station Skylab reenters the Earths atmosphere. Skylab was the first space station the United States launched into orbit, and the second space station ever visited by a human crew. The crews of Skylab spent more than 700 hours observing the sun and brought home more than 175,000 solar pictures. They also provided important information about the biological effects of living in space for prolonged periods of time.
1979 - Neil Young’s concert film, “Rust Never Sleeps,” (38:28) debuted at the Bruin Theatre in Westwood, CA. The album of the same name was released simultaneously.
1980 –  American hostage Richard I. Queen, freed by Iran after eight months of captivity because of poor health, left Tehran for Switzerland.
1981 - “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes topped the charts.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “When Doves Cry” by Prince, “Jump (For My Love)” by Pointer Sisters, “Eyes Without a Face” by Billy Idol and “Somebody’s Needin’ Somebody” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1985 – Nolan Ryan becomes the first pitcher to record 4,000 strikeouts, throwing out Danny Heep in the 6th inning of Houston’s 4-3 win over the Mets.
1985 - Zippers for stitches were announced by Dr. H. Harlan Stone. The surgeon had used zippers on 28 patients, on whom he thought he might have to re-operate, because of internal bleeding following initial operations.
1986 – President Bill Clinton establishes full diplomatic relations with Vietnam, citing Vietnamese cooperation in accounting for the 2,238 Americans still listed as missing in the Vietnam War.
1987 - The “Alone,” by Heart went #1 for 3 weeks.
1987 - Bo Jackson signed a contract to play football for the L.A. Raiders for 5 years. He was also continued to play baseball for the Kansas City Royals.
1987 – According to the United Nations, the world population crosses the 5,000,000,000 (5 billion) mark. The world population is the total number of living humans on Earth at a given time. As of September 2008, the world’s population is estimated to be just over 6.725 billion. In summer of 2010, it is estimated at 6.852 billion.
1989 -President Ronald Reagan sportscasts the 60th All Star Game. Just after Bo Jackson and Wade Boggs opened the first inning for the American League with back-to-back homers over the center-field fence, former President Ronald Reagan sounded relaxed for the first time in his one-inning appearance. The American League won the defeating the National League 5-3 in Anaheim, Calif. 
1991 - A solar eclipse cast a blanket of darkness stretching 9,000 miles from Hawaii to South America, lasting nearly seven minutes in some places.
1992 -
 Undeclared presidential hopeful Ross Perot, addressing the NAACP convention in Nashville, Tenn., startled and offended his listeners by referring to the predominantly black audience as “you people.”
1993 - In Des Moines, Iowa, severe flooding shut down a water system serving 250,000 residents.
1994 -
 Shawn Eckardt was sentenced in Portland, Ore., to 18 months in prison for his role in the attack on figure skater Nancy Kerrigan. 
1995 – Full diplomatic relations are established between the United States and Vietnam.
1996 – An Air Force F-16 jet trying to make an emergency landing slammed into a house in Pensacola, Fla., setting the home on fire, killing a 4-year-old boy and badly burning his mother. The pilot ejected safely.
1998 -
 Air Force Lt. Michael Blassie, a casualty of the Vietnam War, was laid to rest near his Missouri home after the positive identification of his remains, which had been enshrined at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington, Va. 
1999 –  A U.S. Air Force jet flew over the Antarctic and dropped off emergency medical supplies for Dr. Jerri Nelson after she had discovered a lump in her breast. Nelso was at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Research Center.
1999 - In London two Egyptian associates of Osama bin Laden were arrested. The fingerprints of Ibrahim Hussein Abdel Hadi Eidarous (42) and Adel Abdel-Meguid Abdel-Bary (39) were found on statements taking responsibility for the attacks against US embassies in Africa last August.
2000 - The American League defeated the National League 6-to-3 in the All-Star Game.
2000 -
 A Middle East summit hosted by President Clinton opened at Camp David between Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat.
2001 - The Democratic-led Senate voted to bar coal mining and oil and gas drilling on pristine federally protected land in the West, dealing a fresh blow to President Bush’s energy production plans.
2001 -  A wildfire in Washington state killed two male and two female firefighters in the Chewuch River Valley of the north Cascade Mountains.
2002 - Lawmakers balked at moving the Coast Guard and the Federal Emergency Management Agency into a new Homeland Security Department despite pleas from senior Cabinet officials to stick to President Bush’s blueprint. Both agencies did end up being included in the new department.
2003 - Spain, a leading U.S. ally during the war to oust Saddam Hussein, agreed to send 1,300 soldiers to Iraq.
2005 - Frances Langford (b.1913), singer and entertainer, died. The 1935 song “I’m in the Mood for Love” by Dorothy Fields and Jimmy McHugh was her signature piece.
2005 - Doctors in the Mayo Clinic says some drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease may cause addiction to gambling and sex.
2006 - The American League edged the National League 3-2 in the All-Star Game in Pittsburgh.
2006 -  In Chicago, a Blue Line train derailed and started a fire during the evening rush hour, filling a subway tunnel with smoke and forcing dozens of soot-covered commuters to evacuate.
2006 - U.S. broadcaster Bob Novak reveals his involvement in the Plame leak, stating “I learned Valerie Plame’s name from Joe Wilson’s entry in Who’s Who in America.”
2006 - A three ton concrete ceiling tile falls on a car in a tunnel in Boston, United States, killing one female passenger and closing the tunnel. The Governor of Massachusetts, Mitt Romney, announces that the Massachusetts Government will be taking legal action to remove the Chairman of the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority, Matt Amorello.
2007 - Lady Bird Johnson (b.1912), widow of former US Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969), died in Austin, Texas.

2007 - South Dakota executes Elijah Page for murder, the first execution in the state in 60 years.
2008 - Wildfires force 10,000 Californians to evacuate their houses in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, with one man dying in Butte County after refusing to evacuate.
2008 - US banking regulators seized IndyMac Bancorp Inc., Pasadena-based mortgage lender, after withdrawals by panicked depositors led to the second-largest banking failure in US history.
2008 –  Apple released the iPhone 3G.
2008 –  Gregg Bergersen (51), a former US Defense Department analyst, was sentenced in Virginia to 57 months in prison for passing classified information about Taiwan to a Chinese government agent.
2008 – Dr. Michael DeBakey (b.1908), the world-famous cardiovascular surgeon, died. He pioneered such now-common procedures as bypass surgery and invented a host of devices to help heart patients.
2010 – Avid Radiopharmaceuticals presented a study that demonstrated a new brain scan to detect the brain plaques in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
2010 –  A total solar eclipse drew a 6,800-mile arc over the Pacific, plunging remote territories into darkness.
2011 -  In Maine an Amtrak train smashed into a tractor-trailer killing the truck driver and injuring several others. 200 feet of skid marks were left on the road to the tracks.
2011 –  Heavy thunderstorms with 75 mph winds, in  Chicago, Illinois, cut power and disrupt transport.
2011 –  Robinson Canó of the New York Yankees wins the 2011 Major League Baseball Home Run Derby.
2012 –  The House voted to repeal the 2010 healthcare law. It is unlikely the Senate will take up the bill. Members approved the bill in a 244-185 vote, after five hours of debate that stretched over two days.
2012 - A single mother of two was fatally shot by someone riding in a car she confronted about speeding through her neighborhood. Wendy Fisher, 40, ran across a Mobile, Ala., street to get her dog. A car was speeding through the neighborhood. She yelled them to slow down. The car stopped, and a man got out, and fired three shots. Fisher was struck in the chest and taken to University of South Alabama Medical Center, where she died shortly after.
2012 - US federal prosecutors said 42 people connected to the Outlaws motorcycle gang were arrested during raids in Indianapolis. They faced charges that included drug trafficking and extortion.
2013 - Eight people are injured (three seriously) in Lower Manhattan as a result of an explosion and partial collapse, of as-yet unknown cause, in a five-story building, in ChinatownNew York City, on Pike Street.




1274 - Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland (d. 1329)
1850 – Annie Armstrong, American missionary leader (d. 1938)
1754 – Thomas Bowdler, (d. 1825) was an English physician who published an expurgated edition of William Shakespeare’s work that he considered to be more appropriate for women and children than the original. He similarly edited Edward Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
1767 – John Quincy Adams, President of the United States (d. 1848)

1851 – Millie and Christine McCoy, (d. 1912)  Conjoined twins who went by the stage names “The Two-Headed Nightingale” and “The Eighth Wonder of the World”.
1892 – Thomas Mitchell, American film actor and screenwriter (d. 1962)
1897 – Bull Connor, American law enforcement official (d. 1973) As the Public Safety Commissioner of Birmingham, Alabama, in the 1960s, Connor became a symbol of bigotry. He infamously fought against integration by using fire hoses and police attack dogs against protest marchers. The spectacle of this being broadcast on national television served as one of the catalysts for major social and legal change in the South and helped in large measure to assure the passage by the United States Congress of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; thus Connor’s tactics dramatically backfired into helping to bring about the very change that he was opposing.
1910 – Irene Hervey, American actress (d. 1998)
1920 – Yul Brynner, Russian-born actor (d. 1985) perhaps best known for his portrayal of the Siamese king in the Rodgers & Hammerstein musical The King and I on the stage and on the screen, as well as Rameses II in the 1956 Cecil B. DeMille film The Ten Commandments and as Chris Adams in The Magnificent Seven.
1924 – Brett Somers, (d. 2007) was a Canadian-born American actress, singer, and comedienne. She was best known as a panelist on the 1970s game show, Match Game.
1931 – Tab Hunter, is an American actor and singer who appeared in more than 40 major feature films.
1934 – Giorgio Armani, is an Italian fashion designer, particularly noted for his menswear. He is known today for his clean, tailored lines. He formed his company, Armani, in 1974, and by 2001 was acclaimed as the most successful designer to come out of Italy, with an annual turnover of $1.691 billion, and a personal fortune of $5 billion.
1950 – Bonnie Pointer, American singer (Pointer Sisters)
1953 – Leon Spinks, American former boxer. He made history in only his eighth fight, on February 15, 1978, when he beat an aged and out-of-shape Muhammad Ali in a 15-round decision in Las Vegas.
1959 – Suzanne Vega, American singer
1967 – Jeff Corwin, American naturalist and TV personality
1971 – Leisha Hailey, American actress and musician (Uh Huh Her)
1983 – Evan Roberts, American radio broadcaster





Rank and organization: Sergeant (then Sp4c.), U.S. Army, Company B, 1st Battalion, 506th Infantry, 101st Airborne Division. Place and date: Thua Thien Province, Republic of Vietnam, 11 July 1969. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Born: 14 June 1950, Middletown, Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Roberts distinguished himself while serving as a rifleman in Company B, during combat operations. Sgt. Roberts’ platoon was maneuvering along a ridge to attack heavily fortified enemy bunker positions which had pinned down an adjoining friendly company. As the platoon approached the enemy positions, it was suddenly pinned down by heavy automatic weapons and grenade fire from camouflaged enemy fortifications atop the overlooking hill. Seeing his platoon immobilized and in danger of failing in its mission, Sgt. Roberts crawled rapidly toward the closest enemy bunker. With complete disregard for his safety, he leaped to his feet and charged the bunker, firing as he ran. Despite the intense enemy fire directed at him, Sgt. Roberts silenced the two-man bunker. Without hesitation, Sgt. Roberts continued his one-man assault on a second bunker. As he neared the second bunker, a burst of enemy fire knocked his rifle from his hands. Sgt. Roberts picked up a rifle dropped by a comrade and continued his assault, silencing the bunker. He continued his charge against a third bunker and destroyed it with well-thrown hand grenades. Although Sgt. Roberts was now cut off from his platoon, he continued his assault against a fourth enemy emplacement. He fought through a heavy hail of fire to join elements of the adjoining company which had been pinned down by the enemy fire. Although continually exposed to hostile fire, he assisted in moving wounded personnel from exposed positions on the hilltop to an evacuation area before returning to his unit. By his gallant and selfless actions, Sgt. Roberts contributed directly to saving the lives of his comrades and served as an inspiration to his fellow soldiers in the defeat of the enemy force. Sgt. Roberts’ extraordinary heroism in action at the risk of his life were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.




Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 15th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Favoratta, Sicily, 11 July 1943. Entered service at: Toledo, Ohio. Birth: Scotland. G.O. No.: 41, 26 May 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life, above and beyond the call of duty, on 11 July 1943 at Favoratta, Sicily. 2d Lt. Craig voluntarily undertook the perilous task of locating and destroying a hidden enemy machinegun which had halted the advance of his company. Attempts by three other officers to locate the weapon had resulted in failure, with each officer receiving wounds. 2d Lt. Craig located the gun and snaked his way to a point within 35 yards of the hostile position before being discovered. Charging headlong into the furious automatic fire, he reached the gun, stood over it, and killed the three crew members with his carbine. With this obstacle removed, his company continued its advance. Shortly thereafter while advancing down the forward slope of a ridge, 2d Lt. Craig and his platoon, in a position devoid of cover and concealment, encountered the fire of approximately 100 enemy soldiers. Electing to sacrifice himself so that his platoon might carry on the battle, he ordered his men to withdraw to the cover of the crest while he drew the enemy fire to himself. With no hope of survival, he charged toward the enemy until he was within 25 yards of them. Assuming a kneeling position, he killed five and wounded three enemy soldiers. While the hostile force concentrated fire on him, his platoon reached the cover of the crest. 2d Lt. Craig was killed by enemy fire, but his intrepid action so inspired his men that they drove the enemy from the area, inflicting heavy casualties on the hostile force.




Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U S. Army, 32d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Anamo, New Guinea, 11 July 1944. Entered service at: Janesville, Wis. Birth: Ft. Atkinson, Wis. G.O. No.: 17, 13 March 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty near Anamo, New Guinea, on 11 July 1944. S/Sgt. Endl was at the head of the leading platoon of his company advancing along a jungle trail when enemy troops were encountered and a fire fight developed. The enemy attacked in force under heavy rifle, machinegun, and grenade fire. His platoon leader wounded, S/Sgt. Endl immediately assumed command and deployed his platoon on a firing line at the fork in the trail toward which the enemy attack was directed. The dense jungle terrain greatly restricted vision and movement, and he endeavored to penetrate down the trail toward an open clearing of Kunai grass. As he advanced, he detected the enemy, supported by at least six light and two heavy machineguns, attempting an enveloping movement around both flanks. His commanding officer sent a second platoon to move up on the left flank of the position, but the enemy closed in rapidly, placing our force in imminent danger of being isolated and annihilated. Twelve members of his platoon were wounded, seven being cut off by the enemy. Realizing that if his platoon were forced farther back, these seven men would be hopelessly trapped and at the mercy of a vicious enemy, he resolved to advance at all cost, knowing it meant almost certain death, in an effort to rescue his comrades. In the face of extremely heavy fire he went forward alone and for a period of approximately ten minutes engaged the enemy in a heroic close-range fight, holding them off while his men crawled forward under cover to evacuate the wounded and to withdraw. Courageously refusing to abandon four more wounded men who were Iying along the trail, one by one he brought them back to safety. As he was carrying the last man in his arms he was struck by a heavy burst of automatic fire and was killed. By his persistent and daring self-sacrifice and on behalf of his comrades, S/Sgt. Endl made possible the successful evacuation of all but one man, and enabled the two platoons to withdraw with their wounded and to reorganize with the rest of the company.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Fort Selden, N. Mex., 8-11 July 1873. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 12 August 1875. Citation: Services against hostile Indians.



Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 4th U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At Clearwater, Idaho, 11 July 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 2 March 1897. Citation: Voluntarily and successfully conducted, in the face of a withering fire, a party which recovered possession of an abandoned howitzer and two Gatling guns Iying between the lines a few yards from the Indians.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Fort Selden, N. Mex., 8-11 July 1873. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Warren County, Pa. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Services against hostile Indians.



Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company C, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Fort Selden, N. Mex., 8-11 July 1873. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 12 August 1875. Citation: Services against hostile Indians.



Rank and organization: Blacksmith, Company C, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Fort Selden, N. Mex., 8-11 July 1873. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Camden County, N.J. Date of issue: 12 August 1875. Citation: Services against hostile Indians.



Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Fort Selden, N. Mex., 8-11 July 1873. Entered service at. Pennsylvania. Birth: Gracon, Pa. Date of issue: 12 August 1875. Citation: Services against hostile Indians.



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Unerased History – July 10th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 10, 2014 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Don’t Step On A Bee Day





The Great Pacific Garbage Patch


Note the boat with the man in it, in the picture

A little-known island continent of floating toxic plastic garbage, TWICE the size of Texas and almost the size of Alaska (663,267 square miles), is growing. Officially known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. This enormous stew of trash apparently has been growing tenfold each decade since the 1950′s, and now consists of 80% plastic and weighs some 3.5 million tons. Oceanographers say that it floats where few people ever travel, in a no-man’s land between San Francisco and Hawaii. In t­he broad expanse of the northern Pacific Ocean. There exists the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, a slowly moving, clockwise spiral of currents created by a high-pressure system of air currents.

The area is an oceanic desert, filled with tiny phytoplankton but not many big fish or mammals. Its lack of large fish and gentle breezes give way to fishermen and­ s­ailors rarely traveling through the gyre. But the area is filled with something besides plankton: trash, millions of pounds of it, most of it plastic. It’s the largest landfill in the world, and it floats in the middle of the ocean. There is another one that has formed east of Japan and west of Hawaii. Each swirling mass of refuse is massive and collects trash from all over the world. The patches are connected by a thin 6,000-mile long current called the Subtropical Convergence Zone. Research flights showed that significant amounts of trash also accumulate in the Convergence Zone.

The biggest part of the problem is plastic. In the 1950’s and 1960’s most of the flotsam was biodegradable. Since the late ‘60’s the plastic bottle has become ubiquitous and as a result the flotsam in these mini-continents is 90% plastic. In 2006 the UN estimated that there were 46,000 pieces of floating plastic per square mile. Seventy percent  of this plastic sinks to the ocean floor. The remainder floats, usually within fifteen feet  of the surface, and is carried into stable circular currents similar to a sink drain as water goes out. Once inside these currents, the plastic is drawn by wind and surface currents towards the center, where it steadily accumulates. The world’s major oceans now all have these areas, and all are gathering trash. The North Pacific – bordering California, Japan and China is the biggest. There are also increasingly prominent circular currents in the South Pacific, the North and South Atlantic and the Indian Oceans. Our problems with plastics are only just beginning.

As you look at the map and then consider the debris from the Japanese earthquake hitting our west coast, you can now see how it is getting here. It took a year and a half for that to get here but some of the lighter debris will ultimately end of in this floating garbage heap.



“If you have a talent, use it in every way possible. Don’t hoard it.  Don’t dole it out like a miser. Spend it lavishly like a millionaire intent on going broke.”

 ~ Brendan Francis

execrable EK-sih-kruh-buhl, adjective:

1. Deserving to be execrated; detestable; abominable.
2. Extremely bad; of very poor quality; very inferior.

48 BC – Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia.

988 – The city of Dublin is founded on the banks of the river Liffey.
1212 – The most severe of several early fires of London burns most of the city to the ground.
1679 - The British crown claimed New Hampshire as a royal colony.
1706 - In Virginia Grace Sherwood (d.1740), aka the Witch of Pungo, was forced to undergo a trial by water under accusations of being a witch. She floated, a sign of guilt, and was imprisoned for nearly eight years.
1775 - General Horatio Gates, issued an order excluding blacks from Continental Army.
1778 – Revolutionary War: Louis XVI of France declares war on the Kingdom of Great Britain.
1796 – Carl Friedrich Gauss discovers that every positive integer is representable as a sum of at most three triangular numbers.
1820 - The Revenue cutter Gallatin captured nineteen men illegally recruited for the Columbian privateer Wilson and chased that vessel and her Spanish prize, Santiago, to sea from the harbor at Charleston, South Carolina.
1820 - Captain Jairus of the US Revenue Cutter Louisiana captured four pirate ships off Belize.
1821 – The United States takes possession of its newly-bought territory of Florida from Spain.
1832 – President Andrew Jackson vetoes a bill that would re-charter the Second Bank of the United States.
1850 – Millard Fillmore is inaugurated as the 13th President of the United States upon the death of President Zachary Taylor, 16 months into his term.
1861 – Civil War: The new Confederate States of America and the Creek Indians conclude a treaty, one of several such alliances made during the war.
1863 - Civil War: Union troops land on Morris Island near Charleston, South Carolina, and prepare for a siege on Battery Wagner, a massive sand fortress on the island.
1863 – Civil War: In the Battle of Jackson, MS, federals captured Jackson with 1000 casualties against 1339 casualties for the Confederates.
1864 - Civil War: During the siege of Petersburg, General Ulysses S. Grant established a huge supply center, called City Point, at the confluence of the James and Appomattox rivers.
1866 – Indelible pencil patented by Edson P Clark, Northampton, Mass.
1890 – Wyoming is admitted as the 44th state.
1892 – First concrete-paved street built (Bellefontaine, Ohio).
1898 - The First Marine Battalion, commanded by LtCol Robert W. Huntington, landed on the eastern side of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. The next day, Lt Herbert L. Draper hoisted the American flag on a flag pole at Camp McCalla where it flew during the next eleven days.
1900 - ‘His Master’s Voice’, was registered with the U.S. Patent Office. The logo of the Victor Recording Company, and later, RCA Victor, shows the dog, Nipper, looking into the horn of a gramophone machine.
1908 - William Jennings Bryan was nominated for president by the Democratic National Convention in Denver.
1910 - W.R. Brookins became the first to fly an airplane at an altitude of 5300′.
1911 - State record high temperature of 105° in N. Bridgton, Maine
1913 – Death Valley, CA hits 134 °F (~56.7 °C), which is the highest temperature 
recorded in the United States. It is also the official highest temperature in the Western Hemisphere. The highest temperature recorded anywhere was 136.0F in Aziziya, Libya on 9/13/1922.

1919 - The Treaty of Versailles was hand delivered to the U.S. Senate by President Wilson.
1919 - A submarine chaser was turned over to the Marine Corps with the first all-Marine crew.
1920 – “Man o’ War” defeated “John P. Grier” in a world-record time.
1925 – In Dayton, Tennessee, the Scopes “Monkey Trial,” started. It was the result of a conspiracy hatched at Robinson’s Drug Store in Dayton, Tenn. John Scopes, a young high-school teacher, was to become the test case on the legality of Tennessee’s anti-evolution law. An aging William Jennings Bryan, Nebraska fundamentalist and politician, was the prosecutor and Clarence Darrow was Scopes’ defense attorney.He was accused of teaching evolution in violation of the Butler Act.
1928 –  George Eastman first demonstrated color motion pictures.
1929 - In a game between the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Philadelphia Phillies nine HRs were hit, one in each inning.
1929 – US issues newer, smaller-sized paper currency. The new notes were about 25% smaller than previous issues.
1933 - First police radio system began operations at Eastchester Township, NY.
1934 -  Carl Hubbell stars in the 1934 All-Star game. Hubbell threw three strikeouts in the first inning at New York’s Polo Grounds.He faced the American League’s best power hitters: Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig and Jimmy Fox. In the second inning, Hubbell remained strong, fanning Al Simmons, Joe Cronin and Lefty Gomez.
1936 – It was a very hot summer. Numerous records were hit today:
1936 State record high temperature of 112° in Martinsburg, WV
1936 State record high temperature of 111° in Phoenixville, PA
1936 State record high temperature of 110° in Runyon, NJ
1936 State record high temperature of 109° in Cumberland and Frederick, MD
1936 - Phillies Chuck Klein becomes the fourth to hit four HRs in a single game.
1936 – Billie Holiday recorded “Billie’s Blues“.
1938 – Howard Hughes and the “Yankee Clipper” began the first passenger flight around the world flight from New York City.
1940 – World War II: Europe: Vichy France government is established.
1940 – World War II: Europe: Battle of Britain – The German Luftwaffe begin to hit British convoys in the English Channel thus starting the battle (this start date is contested, though). This battle would last 114 days.
1941 – World War II: Europe:Holocaust: Jedwabne Pogrom is a massacre of at least 340 Polish Jews of all ages. They were Jewish people living in and near the village of Jedwabne in Poland.
1942 – World War II: Himmler ordered the sterilization of all Jewish woman in Ravensbruck Camp.
1942 - World War II: An American pilot spots a downed, intact Mitsubishi A6M Zero on Akutan Island (the “Akutan Zero”) that the US Navy uses to learn the aircraft’s flight characteristics.
1943 – World War II: The launching of Operation Husky begins the Italian Campaign.
1943 - World War II: The American attack on New Georgia is held by the Japanese. American troops are having difficulty receiving supplies.
1944 – “The Man Called X”  starring Herbert Marshall, debuted on CBS radio. It was an espionage radio drama which aired on CBS and NBC from today to May 20, 1952.
1945 - World War II: The German submarine U-530, missing since the end of April, surfaces at Mar del Plata, south of Buenos Aires, sparking off speculation that it ferried high-ranking Nazi officials to sanctuary in South America.
1945 - World War II: US Task Force 38 aircraft, 1022 in all, raid 70 air bases in the Tokyo area, destroying 173 Japanese planes.
1949 – The first practical rectangular television picture tube was presented and sold for $12.00.
1950 – “Your Hit Parade” premiers on NBC (later CBS) TV.
1950 – Korean War: The first engagement between U.S. and North Korean tanks occurred near Chonui. One enemy T-34 was destroyed while two outclassed U.S. M-24 Chafee light tanks were lost.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Too Young” by Nat King Cole,“Mister and Mississippiby Patti Page,“On Top of Old Smokey” by The Weavers (vocal: Terry Gilkyson) and “I Want to Be with You Always” by Lefty Frizzell all topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: At Kaesong, armistice negotiations begin.
1951 –  In San Francisco Dashiell Hammett, mystery writer, was sentenced to six months in prison for refusing to tell where the Communist party got its bail money. Hammett was a Pinkerton detective for eight years and served in the Ambulance Corps in World War I before he began his writing career.
1951 - Sugar Ray Robinson was defeated for only the second time in 133 fights as Randy Turpin took the middleweight crown.
1953 – Korean War: American forces withdraw from Pork Chop Hill in Korea after heavy fighting.
1953 –  In San Francisco, the Chronicle newspaper began calling itself “The Voice of the West” on its editorial pages.
1954 -  “Little Things Mean a Lot” by Kitty Kallen topped the charts.
1954 – President Eisenhower signed Public Law 480, the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, which later became known as the “Food for Peace” program.
1958 – Alaska, highest tsunami wave ever recorded at Lituya Bay, at 1720 high.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka  Complete with 1950’s teens  (24:48), “Dream Lover” by Bobby Darin, “Bobby Sox to Stockings” by Frankie Avalon and “The Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton all topped the charts.
1961 – “Tossin’ and Turnin‘” by Bobby Lewis topped the charts.
1962 – First transatlantic satellite television transmission. The 171-pound (77-kilogram) Telstar, which was 34 inches in diameter, was launched into orbit from Cape Canaveral, Florida.
1962 - Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested during a demonstration in Georgia.
1964 - The Four Tops released “Baby I Need Your Loving” on the Motown label. Three years later Johnny Rivers also recorded a hit version.
1965 – Beatles’ “Beatles’ “VI,” album goes #1 & stays #1 for 6 weeks .
1965 – Rolling Stones score their first #1, “I Can’t Get No Satisfaction.”

1965 - Wilson Pickett’s “In The Midnight Hour” was released.
1965 – Vietnam War: U.S. planes continue heavy raids in South Vietnam and claim to have killed 580 guerrillas.
1966 - The Chicago Freedom Movement, led by Martin Luther King, Jr., holds a rally at Soldier Field in Chicago, Illinois. As many as 60,000 people came to hear Dr. King as well as Mahalia Jackson, Stevie Wonder, and Peter Paul and Mary.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Windy” by The Association, “Little Bit o’ Soul” by The Music Explosion, “Can’t Take My Eyes Off You” by Frankie Valli, “All the Time” by Jack Greene all topped the charts.
1967 - Bobbie Gentry recorded “Ode to Billie Joe.”
1967 – Vietnam War: Outnumbered South Vietnamese troops repel an attack by two battalions of the 141st North Vietnamese Regiment on a military camp five miles east of An Loc, 60 miles north of Saigon.Twenty-six Americans were killed and forty-nine were wounded. In the second area clash, thirty-five soldiers of the U.S. 4th Infantry Division were killed and thirty-one were wounded in fighting.
1969 –  National League votes to split into two divisions.
1971 –  “It’s Too Late” by Carole King topped the charts.
1971 - Three Dog Night’s “Liar” was released.
1973 -  John Paul Getty III, grandson of oil magnate J. Paul Getty, is kidnapped in Rome, Italy.
1974 –  The World Football League played its first games.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Will Keep Us Together” by The Captain & Tennille,The Hustle” by Van McCoy & The Soul City Symphony, “Listen to What the Man Said” by Wings, “Lizzie and the Rainman” by Tanya Tucker all topped the charts.
1975 - The “Gladys Knight & the Pips” summer series premiered on NBC-TV.
1976 –  “Afternoon Delight” by the Starland Vocal Band topped the charts.
1978 - ABC-TV premiered “World News Tonight” with anchors Frank Reynolds, Peter Jennings and Max Robinson.
1980 –  “True West” by Sam Shepard premiered in SF and became a stage hit. It was a comic drama of fraternal rivalry and family angst.
1980 - Walt Disney’s “The Fox & The Hound” is released.
1982 – “Don’t You Want Me” by The Human League topped the charts.
1982 - Miguel Vasquez makes the first public quadruple backward somersault on a trapeze. He did it in Tucson, AZ and was caught by his brother Juan.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Every Breath You Take” by The Police, “Never Gonna Let You Go” by Sergio Mendez, “Too Shy” by Kajagoogoo and “Highway 40 Blues” by Ricky Skaggs all topped the charts.
1984 – Dwight ‘Doc’ Gooden of the Mets became the youngest pitcher to appear in an All-Star game. He was 19 years, 7 months, and 24 days old.
1985 – Coca-Cola Co announces it will resume selling old formula Coke. It was returned just eighty-seven days after the new Coke was introduced.
1988 -Lester Garnier (30), an off-duty San Francisco vice cop, was shot and killed in a Walnut Creek, Ca., parking lot. His murder remained unsolved and a new investigation was begun in 1998.
1989 - Mel Blanc, the “man of a thousand voices,” died at age 81. He was known for such cartoon characters as Daffy Duck, Bugs Bunny and Porky Pig.
1990 – The American League shut out the National League, 2-to-0, in the 61st All-Star game.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rush, Rush” by Paula Abdul, “Unbelievable” by EMF, Right Here, Right Now” by Jesus Jones and “Don’t Rock the Jukebox” by Alan Jackson all topped the charts.
1992 – In Miami, Florida, former Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega is sentenced to 40 years in prison for drug and racketeering violations.
1992 – A New York jury found Pan Am responsible for allowing a terrorist bomb to destroy Flight 103 in 1988, killing 270 people.
1993 - “Weak” by SWV topped the charts.
1995 –  President Clinton embraced mandatory ratings for TV programs and legislation to put parental-control chips in new sets.
1995 – The defense opened its case at the O.J. Simpson murder trial in Los Angeles.
1997 - Scientists in London said DNA from a Neanderthal skeleton supported a theory that all humanity descended from an “African Eve” 100,000 to 200,000 years ago.
1997 –  RJR Nabisco Holdings said it would phase out the Joe Camel cartoon character used for advertising their cigarettes.
1998 – Roman Catholic sex abuse cases: The Diocese of Dallas agrees to pay $23.4 million to nine former altar boys who claimed they were sexually abused by former priest Rudolph Kos.
1998 - The U.S. military delivered the remains of Air Force 1st Lt. Michael Blassie to his family in St. Louis. He had been placed in Arlington Cemetery’s Tomb of the Unknown in 1984. His identity had been confirmed with DNA tests.
1999 – The United States women’s national soccer team team wins the FIFA Women’s World Cup in Pasadena, California at The Rose Bowl.
2000 –  Texas Governor George W. Bush, facing a skeptical audience, told the NAACP convention in Baltimore that “the party of Lincoln has not always carried the mantle of Lincoln,” and promised to work to improve relations.
2001 –  In Seattle the American League beat the National League 4:1 in the annual All-Star game at Safeco Field.
2001 – The White House backed off a plan to let religious groups that receive federal money, such as the Salvation Army, ignore local laws that ban discrimination against gays and lesbians.
2001 – George Tenet, director of the CIA, allegedly met with Condoleeza Rice and warned her of an imminent al-Qaida attack. News of the meeting was only made public in 2006.
2001 - Kenneth Williams, an FBI agent in Phoenix, Arizona, issued a memorandum that requested detailed examination of US flight schools for al Qaeda terrorists. Mid-level officials rejected the request. Just 62 days later we experienced 911.
2001 - In North Carolina three Marines were killed in a helicopter crash near Camp Lejeune, NC.
2002 - The House approved, 310-113, a measure to allow pilots to carry guns in the cockpit to defend their planes against terrorists. President George W. Bush later signed the measure into law.
2003 - NASA reports the discovery of PSR B1620-26 b (unofficially dubbed Methuselah), the oldest extrasolar planet yet discovered. The planet, which is estimated to be 12.7 billion years old, is orbiting the pulsar PSR B1620-26 in the core of the ancient globular star cluster M4, located 5,600 light-years away in the summer constellation Scorpius.
2004 - NASCAR driver Justin Labonte, who was sponsored by the Coast Guard and the Coast Guard Recruiting Command, won his first Busch Series victory in his stock car Coast Guard #44 at the Tropicana 300 in Joliet, Illinois.
2004 - Four U.S. Marines were killed in a vehicle accident while conducting security operations in Anbar, an area of western Iraq.
2005 – Hurricane Dennis it hurtled into northwest Florida at Santa Rosa Island, between Pensacola, Florida, and Navarre Beach, Florida and Alabama with 120-mph winds at 2:25 p.m. CDT causing 4 billion dollars in damage.
2006 - Chief Judge Thomas F. Hogan rules that a FBI investigation raid on the Capitol Hill office of Representative William J. Jefferson was legal.
2006 –  Colorado Gov. Bill Owens cut a deal with Democratic leaders on a package of bills to deny some state services to illegal immigrants and to punish employers who hire them.
2006 –  Falling concrete slabs crushed a car inside one of Boston’s troubled Big Dig tunnels, killing Milena Delvalle (38) and tying up traffic with another shutdown in the massive building project that has become a central route through the city.
2007 –  In Baseball’s All-Star game the American League beat the National League 5-4  at AT&T Park in San Francisco.
2007 –  In Florida a small plane trying to make an emergency landing crashed into a suburban Orlando neighborhood, killing both people aboard and starting two house fires that seriously burned two adults and a ten-year-old boy.
2008 –  The American Medical Association issued a formal apology for more than a century of discriminatory policies that excluded blacks from participating in a group long considered the voice of US doctors.
2008 - The US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice warns Iran that it should have no doubt that the United States will defend its allies including Israel.
2009 –  General Motors emerged from bankruptcy protection. CEO Fritz Henderson said the new GM will be far faster and more responsive to customers than the old one, and it will make money and repay government loans faster than required.
2009 – Police in Illinois closed a black cemetery in Alsip and declared it a crime scene after former employees were accused of dumping hundreds of unearthed corpses in a scheme to resell their plots.
2010 – In the Gulf of Mexico hundreds of thousands of gallons of oil were allowed to spew into the fouled waters while BP engineers prepared to install a new, larger cap as part of the containment system.
2012 – The rotor blades of a helicopter struck a California Highway Patrol officer, severely wounding him as he worked to rescue an injured hiker stranded in rugged, remote terrain. In an unlikely twist, the Highway Patrol on Monday credited the hiker, a military doctor who suffered a broken leg in a fall, with helping to save Officer Tony Stanley’s life.
2013 – The US Navy successfully conducted take-offs and landings from the nuclear aircraft carrier, the USS George W. Bush, with a new stealth jet called the X-47B.


1509 – John Calvin, French religious reformer (d. 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology.
1723 – William Blackstone, (d. 1780) was an English jurist and professor who produced the historical and analytic treatise on the common law called Commentaries on the Laws of England, first published in four volumes over 1765–1769. It had an extraordinary success, reportedly bringing the author £14,000, and still remains an important source on classical views of the common law and its principles.
1792 – George Mifflin Dallas, U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania and the 11th Vice President of the United States serving under James K. Polk. (d. 1864)
1832 – Alvan Graham Clark, American telescope maker and astronomer (d. 1897) 1839 – Adolphus Busch, German-born brewer (d. 1913) was the co-founder of Anheuser-Busch with his father-in-law, Eberhard Anheuser. His great-great-grandson, August Busch IV is now president and CEO of Anheuser-Busch.
1856 - Nikola Tesla, (d. 1943) was an inventor, physicist, mechanical and electrical engineer. Tesla’s patents and theoretical work formed the basis of modernalternating current electric power (AC) systems, including the AC motor, with which he helped usher in the Second Industrial Revolution.
1900 – Mitchell Parish, American lyricist (d. 1993) His best known works include the songs “Star Dust,” “Sweet Lorraine,” “Deep Purple,” “Stars Fell on Alabama,” “Sophisticated Lady,” “Volare” (English lyrics), “Moonlight Serenade,” “Sleigh Ride,” “One Morning in May,” and “Louisiana Fairy Tale”, which was the first theme song used in the PBS Production of This Old House.
1920 – David Brinkley, (d. 2003) was a popular American television newscaster for NBC and later ABC in an unprecedented broadcast career from 1956-1997.

1921 – Harvey Ball, American inventor (d. 2001) is the earliest known designer of the Smiley.
1921 – Jake LaMotta, American boxer nicknamed “The Bronx Bull” and “The Raging Bull”, is a former boxing middleweight champion who was portrayed by Robert De Niro in the film Raging Bull.
1921 – Eunice Kennedy Shriver, American activist is a member of the Kennedy family and helped to found the Special Olympics as a national event.
1923 – John Bradley, United States Navy corpsman, one of six who raised flag on top of Mt. Suribachi (Iwo Jima) (d. 1994) .
1947 – Arlo Guthrie, American musician. Arlo Guthrie’s most famous work is “Alice’s Restaurant Massacree”, a talking blues song that lasts for 18 minutes. For the words go to http://www.arlo.net/resources/lyrics/alices.shtml



Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company A, 13th Engineer Combat Battalion, 7th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Sokkogae, Korea, 8 to 10 July 1953. Entered service at: Boise, Idaho. Born: 8 October 1933, Boise, Idaho. G.O. No.: 5, 14 January 1955. Citation: Cpl. Schoonover, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. He was in charge of an engineer demolition squad attached to an infantry company which was committed to dislodge the enemy from a vital hill. Realizing that the heavy fighting and intense enemy fire made it impossible to carry out his mission, he voluntarily employed his unit as a rifle squad and, forging up the steep barren slope, participated in the assault on hostile positions. When an artillery round exploded on the roof of an enemy bunker, he courageously ran forward and leaped into the position, killing one hostile infantryman and taking another prisoner. Later in the action, when friendly forces were pinned down by vicious fire from another enemy bunker, he dashed through the hail of fire, hurled grenades in the nearest aperture, then ran to the doorway and emptied his pistol, killing the remainder of the enemy. His brave action neutralized the position and enabled friendly troops to continue their advance to the crest of the hill. When the enemy counterattacked he constantly exposed himself to the heavy bombardment to direct the fire of his men and to call in an effective artillery barrage on hostile forces. Although the company was relieved early the following morning, he voluntarily remained in the area, manned a machine gun for several hours, and subsequently joined another assault on enemy emplacements. When last seen he was operating an automatic rifle with devastating effect until mortally wounded by artillery fire. Cpl. Schoonover’s heroic leadership during two days of heavy fighting, superb personal bravery, and willing self-sacrifice inspired his comrades and saved many lives, reflecting lasting glory upon himself and upholding the honored traditions of the military service.



 Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve. Born: 26 May 1920, Omaha, Nebr. Accredited to: Nebraska. Citation: For valor and courage above and beyond the call of duty as Officer-in-Charge of Small Boats in the U.S.S. LST 375 during the amphibious assault on the island of Sicily, 9-10 July 1943. Realizing that a detonation of explosives would prematurely disclose to the enemy the assault about to be carried out, and with full knowledge of the peril involved, Ens. Parle unhesitatingly risked his life to extinguish a smoke pot accidentally ignited in a boat carrying charges of high explosives, detonating fuses and ammunition. Undaunted by fire and blinding smoke, he entered the craft, quickly snuffed out a burning fuse, and after failing in his desperate efforts to extinguish the fire pot, finally seized it with both hands and threw it over the side. Although he succumbed a week later from smoke and fumes inhaled, Ens. Parle’s heroic self-sacrifice prevented grave damage to the ship and personnel and insured the security of a vital mission. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.



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Unerased History – July 9th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 9, 2014 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Air-Conditioning Appreciation Days



Gibbs Rules

NCIS: Naval Criminal Investigative Service, is an American police procedural drama television series revolving around a fictional team of special agents from the Naval Criminal Investigative Service, which conducts criminal investigations involving the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps. The major characters are Leroy Jethro Gibbs, Anthony DiNozzo, Ziva David, Abigail “Abby” Sciuto, Timothy McGee, Leon Vance, Donald “Ducky” Mallard,  Jimmy Palmer and  Tobias Fornell .

At the beginning of her tenure with NCIS, Gibbs informed Ziva David that there were approximately fifty rules that were his job to teach her.  Some years later, Gibbs added the fifty-first rule to the tin he kept the rules in. According to Tony Dinozzo, seven of the rules directly concern lawyers, and that the eighth rule was inspired by a lawyer.  Rule forty and above are not rules necessary for everyday life, they are for emergencies. Note: Look below at Duplication for info about rules # 1-3

The rules
Note: This is quoted by McGee in “Need To Know” to be Gibbs’ Number One, but the other Rule One is quoted in other episodes to be his.

Rule #1: Never let suspects stay together.
Rule #1: Never screw over your partner.
Rule #2: Always wear gloves at a crime scene.

Rule #3: Don’t believe what you’re told. Double check.
Rule #3: Never be unreachable. (*Most likely one of Mike Franks’ “Golden Rules” as opposed to Gibbs, because Gibbs has been known to intentionally be unreachable.*) This was a rule quoted by Tony regarding Ziva or Tim
Rule #4: The best way to keep a secret? Keep it to yourself. Second best? Tell one other person – if you must. There is no third best.
Rule #5: You don’t waste good.

Rule #6: Never say “You’re Sorry.” It’s a sign of weakness.
Rule #7: Always be specific when you lie.
Rule #8: Never take anything for granted.

Rule #9: Never go anywhere without a knife.

Sometimes listed as “Never leave home without a knife.”

Rule #10: Never get personally involved in a case.

Said by the SecNav to be Rule #1 in Washington politics, in Nature of the Beast, Season 9, Episode 1.

Rule #11: When the job is done, walk away.
Rule #12: Never date a co-worker.
Rule #13: Never, ever involve a lawyer.
Rule #14: Not mentioned yet!!

Rule #15: Always work as a team.
Rule #16: If someone thinks they have the upper hand, break it.
Rule #18: It’s better to seek forgiveness than ask permission.

Rule #22: Never, ever bother Gibbs in interrogation.

Rule #23: Never mess with a Marine’s coffee… if you want to live.

Rule #27: There are two ways to follow someone. First way, they never notice you. Second way, they only notice you.

Rule #35: Always watch the watchers.

Rule #36: If you feel like you are being played, you probably are.

Rule #38: Your case, your lead.

Rule #39: There is no such thing as coincidence.

Rule #40: If it seems someone is out to get you, they are.

Rule #42: Never accept an apology from someone who just sucker punched you.
Rule #44: First things first, hide the women and children.

Rule #45: Clean up the mess that you make.  Also stated as, “Never leave behind loose ends.”

Rule #51: Sometimes – you’re wrong.

Rule #69: Never trust a woman who doesn’t trust her man.

Unnumbered  Rules

In my country, on my team, working my cases, my people don’t bypass the chain of command.

The “Unspoken Rule” (Franks): You do what you have to do for family. (Season 8 Episode 1)

Don’t work the system when you can work the people.

Don’t stop checking and rechecking evidence until you are satisfied.

If you want to find something, you follow it. (Said by Gibbs to Mike Franks in “Deliverance,” Episode 6.15. Gibbs then added, “I learned that one from you, Mike.”)

Besides Rule 13, Gibbs has 6 other rules involving lawyers, but, according to DiNozzo, “You only need to know number 13; it’s the umbrella one.”

Abigail Borin, Gibbs’ counterpart at CGIS, also has a set of rules. The only one currently known is her Rule #1: Never Make Excuses (Ships in the Night).

Never second guess yourself in a relationship and life.

McGee has formed his own set of rules; #1 is Never Lie to Gibbs.
Finally, Jimmy (Ducky’s assistant) has one: “There is no such thing as a pipette that is too clean.” This is usually used when it is clear that he should not be a part of a conversation.



Although Gibbs has his list of rules to live by, he does not always adhere to them. One example is Rule #3. When Gibbs does not wish to be reached, he has been known to leave his cell phone behind. Except that many believe that to be one of Frank’s rules since there are two Rule #3′s.


The other being ‘Don’t believe what you’re told. Double check.’ .. Which sounds MORE like Gibbs.  Also, on the anniversary of his last marriage, he unplugged his home phone and dropped his cell phone in paint thinner after his ex-wife began harassing him with phone calls. Gibbs also admits that rule number 10 is the one that he has had the most “trouble with.”


Gibbs broke Rule #1 (Never let suspects stay together) on “Ships in the Night” (Season 8) in order to get a confession. He put the suspects together. This also occurred in “Caught on Tape”, but the suspects turned out to be innocent. Additionally, Gibbs broke the rule in “A Man Walks into a Bar… “, but the suspects were only guilty of covering up suicide, not murder.

Gibbs broke rule #13 (Never involve a lawyer) in “Mother’s Day”. Gibbs ex-mother in law becomes a suspect in a murder of a Navy officer. Gibbs contacted Allison Hart, a lawyer, to represent her.

Gibbs also broke Rule #12 with former NCIS Director and partner in Europe, Jenny Shepard. Jenny was Gibbs’ probie in their Europe missions and became romantically involved, which was ended by Jenny so she could lead her own team in Madrid. Although, since the relationship ended badly, some people suspect that this rule was created because of this relationship.

Another exception that Gibbs sometimes makes concerns Rule #6. Though Gibbs constantly tells people around him never apologize, that it is a sign of weakness, he himself has apologized on five occasions: In “Smoked” Gibbs tells Dr. Mallard that rule 6 doesn’t apply to friends.

1. To Kate Todd for being late to her funeral. (“Kill Ari Part 2″)

2. To Ducky following his return from Mexico.

3. To Joann Fielding for not being able to protect Shannon and Kelly. (“Mother’s Day”)

4. To Abby for frightening her and not being able to tell her what she wants to hear.

5. To the victim’s lover for her loss, although he originally believes that she was being selfish (“A Man Walks Into A Bar…)

While not shown, in “Semper Fidelis” ICE Agent Julia Foster-Yates claims that Gibbs and Fornell apologized to her for accusing her of murdering a coworker. McGee is shocked at the idea that either of them would apologize.

Gibbs also almost never accepts an apology from someone, preferring to simply offer correction to whomever made an error in an attempt to teach a lesson. One exception to this aspect of the rule was when McGee apologized concerning the situation with his sister, Sarah (“Twisted Sister”). Gibbs has also accepted some apologies because they are covered by rule #18: “It’s better to seek forgiveness, than ask permission.”

Also an apology isn’t a sign of weakness if it’s between friends.

Although not strictly an exception, Gibbs DID add a sort of corollary to Rule 39 concerning coincidences. In Episode 3.15, “Head Case ,” when Tony says, “We don’t believe in coincidences around here,” Gibbs added, “However, we do believe in bad luck.”


Throughout the series, there have been two rules referenced as the first and third of Gibbs’ rules. For some time, it was believed that the duplications were either continuity errors or that the list of rules was meant to be malleable. Eventually, however, Executive Producer Shane Brennan revealed that the duplication was actually intentional:

“Gibbs lives his life by a set of rules that took root from the first day he met Shannon. Over time, Gibbs added to the rules. When he joined NCIS, Mike Franks told him he didn’t need dozens of different rules to be an agent… just three ‘golden rules.’ And this is why we have double ups on rules #1 and #3. Three of them are Gibbs’ rules; three of them are Mike Franks’ rules. We are still to reveal the double-up on rule #2. And it’s up to the fans to guess which of the rules were Mike Franks’ three golden rules and which were Gibbs’.”  In spite of this, however, Franks seems to know Gibbs’ rules as well as anyone, as evidenced in the episode “Patriot Down” when Gibbs passed the message “Rule #44″ (First things first: hide the women and children) to him through Camilla.


The 40s

While most of the rules are for everyday use, Gibbs’ rules 40-49 are considered emergency rules, to be invoked only in the most dire of circumstances.  When Gibbs told Abby that rule 40 was in play, and Abby told Tony, he took it to mean that “something unspeakably bad is going down.”


“No man needs sympathy because he has to work, because he has a burden to carry. Far and away the best prize that life offers is the chance to work hard at work worth doing.” 

~Theodore Roosevelt


corroborate kuh-ROB-uh-rayt, transitive verb:

To strengthen or make more certain with other evidence.

455 – Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed emperor of the Western Roman Empire.
1357 – Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor assists laying the foundation stone of Charles Bridge in Prague. This bridge is still in use today.
1755 – French and Indian War: Braddock Expedition – British troops and colonial militiamen are ambushed and suffer a devastating defeat by French and Native American forces. General Braddock was killed.
1776 - The Declaration of Independence was read aloud to George Washington and his troops in New York City. The crowd gathering there became so excited upon hearing the Declaration that a statue of King George was torn from its pedestal, broken up, sent to Connecticut and melted into 42,000 patriot bullets.
1776 – New York was the 13th colony to ratify the Declaration of Independence.
1795 - James Swan paid off the $2,024,899 US national debt.
1808 – The leather-splitting machine was patented by Samuel Parker of Billerica, MA.
1815 - The first US natural gas well was discovered.
1846 – By an Act of Congress, the Washington, DC area south of the Potomac River is returned to Virginia.
1846 - Captain J.B. Montgomery raised the American flag over San Francisco. Montgomery claimed Yerba Buena (SF) for the US.
1847 -  A 10-hour work day was established for workers in the State of New Hampshire. 
1850 – President Zachary Taylor dies suddenly from an attack of cholera morbus and Millard Fillmore becomes the 13th President of the United States. He had only served 16 months.

1861 – Civil War: Confederate cavalry led by John Morgan captured Tompkinsville, Kentucky. “The Yankees will never take me a prisoner again,” vowed Confederate General John Hunt Morgan.
1863 – Civil War: the Siege of Port Hudson ends.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate General Jubal Early brushes a Union force out of his way as he heads for Washington.
1867 – An unsuccessful expedition led by E.D Young sets out to search for Dr David Livingstone (Scottish missionary and explorer).

1868 – The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified guaranteeing Blacks full citizenship and all persons in the United States due process of law. Until the 14th Amendment, people were “Citizens of each State.” (Article. IV. Section. 2. Paragraph. 1.) The 14th Amendment created a whole new class of persons: “citizens of the United States.” This false notion of “one nation” overturned the Jeffersonian principle that our nation was a confederated republic, a voluntary union of states.
1868 – Francis L. Cardozo installed as secretary of the state of South Carolina and became the first Black cabinet officer on the state level.
1872 – Doughnut cutter patented by John Blondel, Thomaston, ME.
1877 – Alexander Graham Bell, Gardiner Greene Hubbard, Thomas Sanders and Thomas Watson formed the Bell Telephone Company.
1878 – An improved corncob pipe patented by Henry Tibbe, Washington, Mo.
1892 - A stray 500-pound shell from the Sandy Hook, New Jersey, testing range sank the schooner Henry R. Tilton.
1893- Dr. Daniel Hale Williams, at Provident Hospital in Chicago, performed the world’s first successful open heart surgery without using anesthesia by removing a knife from the heart of a bar-fight stabbing victim.
1900 – U.S. Marines helped in the capture of Tientsin Arsenal.
1910 – Walter Brookins becomes first to pilot an airplane to 1 mile altitude.
1914 – Boston Red Sox purchase Babe Ruth from the Baltimore Orioles.
1916 – First cargo submarine to cross the Atlantic arrives in US from Germany.
1918 – US Army’s Distinguished Service Cross authorized.
1918 – Great train wreck of 1918: in Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express killing 101 and injuring 171 people, making it the deadliest rail accident in United States history.
1922 – Johnny Weissmuller swims the 100 meters freestyle in 58.6 seconds breaking the world swimming record and the ‘minute barrier’.
1927 – Atty. William T. Francis named minister to Liberia.
1932 - The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 41.63, down 91% from its level exactly three years earlier. Trading volume for the day was 235,000 shares.
1933 – Frankford Yellowjackets sold, rechristened Philadelphia Eagles.
1935 - Norman Bright ran the two mile event in the record time of 9 minutes, 13.2 seconds at a meet in New York City.
1941 - British cryptologists break the secret code used by the German army to direct ground-to-air operations on the Eastern front.
1942 – World War II: Coast Guard Cutter McLane and the Coast Guard-manned patrol craft USS YP-251 reportedly sank the Japanese submarine RO-32 off Sitka, Alaska.
1943 – World War II: Operation Husky – Allied forces perform an amphibious invasion of Sicily.
1943 – World War II:  On New Georgia American forces attack toward Munda. Heavy Japanese resistance limits the advance. Meanwhile, Americans send reinforcements to Rendova and the Japanese send reinforcements to Kolombangara.
1944 – World War II: Battle of Normandy
1944 – World War II: Battle of Saipan -US forces reach Point Marpi and the last organized Japanese resistance is overcome. An estimated 27,000 Japanese have been killed and 1780 are prisoners, both figures include civilians. US forces have lost 3400 killed and 13,000 wounded.
1945 – American bombers strike two airfields near Tokyo.
1945 –   A third big Tillamook fire occurred near the Salmonberry River, and was joined two days later by a second blaze on the Wilson River, started by a discarded cigarette. This fire burned 180,000 acres before it was put out. The cause of the blaze on the Salmonberry River was mysterious, and many believed it had been set by an incendiary balloon launched by the Japanese, and brought to Oregon by the jet stream.

1946 – Sixteen Coast Guardsmen were killed when their C-54 transport aircraft crashed into Mount Tom, Massachusetts.
1947 – General Dwight D. Eisenhower appoints Florence Blanchfield to be a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Army, making her the first woman in U.S. history to hold permanent military rank.
1949 – “Riders in the Sky” by Vaughan Monroe topped the charts.

1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bewitched” by The Bill Snyder Orchestra, “My Foolish Heart” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Eileen Wilson), “I Wanna Be Loved” by The Andrews Sisters and “Why Don’t You Love Me” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1951 –  U.S. President Truman asked Congress to formally end the state of war between the United States and Germany.
1953 –   New York Airways began the first commuter passenger service by helicopter.
1953 – The Rattlesnake Fire was a wildfire started by an arsonist on this date in Grindstone Canyon in the Mendocino National Forest. One Forest Service employee and 14 volunteer firefighters from New Tribes Mission died. It has become a well-known firefighting textbook case.
1955 –  Bill Haley & Comets’ “Rock Around the Clock” tops billboards chart
1956 – Dick Clark made his debut as host of “Bandstand” on a Philadelphia TV station. The name of the show was changed to “American Bandstand” when it went to ABC-TV.
1957 –  Discovery of element 102 (Nobelium) announced.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – ‘Hard Headed Woman” by Elvis Presley, “Splish Splashby Bobby Darin, “Poor Little Fool” by Ricky Nelson and “Guess Things Happen that Way” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1960 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev trade verbal threats over the future of Cuba.
1960 – The USS Thrasher was launched.
1960 –  “Everybody’s Somebody’s Fool” by Connie Francis topped the charts
1960 - Roger Woodward (7) and his sister, Deanne Woodward (17), were rescued from the Niagara River after being tossed from family friend James Honeycutt’s 12-foot aluminum boat. New Jersey tourists John Hayes and John Quattrochi pulled Deanne Woodward to shore just before the brink. Honeycutt was swept with Roger Woodward over the Horseshoe Falls and died. Roger survived the 162-foot plunge.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Paperback Writer” by The Beatles, “Red Rubber Ball” by The Cyrkle, ‘Hanky Panky” by Tommy James & The Shondells and “Think of Me” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1968 –  A patent for the “Portable Beam Generator,” also known as a hand-held laser ray gun, was granted to the inventor, Frederick R. Schollhammer
1968 –  The first All-Star baseball game to be played indoors took place at the Astrodome in Houston, TX
1971 – The United States turned over complete responsibility of the Demilitarized Zone to South Vietnamese units.
1972 –  First tour of Paul McCartney & Wings (France)
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock the Boat by The Hues Corporation, “Rock Your Baby” by George McCrae, “Hollywood Swinging” by Kool & The Gang and “He Thinks I Still Care” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.
1975 - California’s Governor Jerry Brown signed a bill that reduced the penalty for possession of marijuana to a $100 fine.
1977 –  “Undercover Angel” by Alan O’Day topped the charts
1978  - Nearly 100,000 demonstrators march on Washington DC for the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).
1978 - American Nazi Party held a rally at Marquette Park, Chicago.
1979 –  Voyager 2 flies past Jupiter.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t You Want Me” by The Human League, “Rosannaby Toto, “Hurts So Good” by John Cougar and “Any Day Now” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1982 – A Boeing 727 carrying Pan Am Flight 759 crashes in Kenner, Louisiana killing all 146 people on board and eight others on the ground.
1983 – “Every Breath You Take” by The Police topped the charts.
1985 – Herschel Walker of the New Jersey Generals was named the Most Valuable Player in the United States Football League (USFL).
1985 - Joe Namath signed a five-year pact with ABC-TV to provide commentary for “Monday Night Football”.
1986 - The Attorney General’s Commission on Pornography released the final draft of its 2,000-page report, which linked hard-core porn to sex crimes.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Step By Step” by New Kids on the Block, “She Ain’t Worth It” by Glenn Medeiros featuring Bobby Brown, “Hold On” by En Vogue and “Love Without End, Amen” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1991 - The American League defeated the National League, 4-to-2, in the All-Star Game in Toronto.
1991 -  President George Bush presented a National Medal of Art to Roy Acuff.
1991 - Former CIA officer Alan D. Fiers pleaded guilty to two misdemeanor charges in the Iran-Contra affair.
1992 – The space shuttle Columbia landed at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, ending a two-week mission.
1995 - The Grateful Dead gave their last concert with Jerry Garcia at Chicago’s Soldier Field. Garcia died the next month of a heart attack.
1995 - Pete Sampras won the men’s singles title at Wimbledon by defeating Boris Becker, 6-7 (7-5), 6-2, 6-4, 6-2.
1996 - The National League won the All-Star game, defeating the American League 6-0 in Philadelphia.
1997 – Mike Tyson was banned from the boxing ring and fined $3 million for biting the ear of opponent Evander Holyfield. This was the decision, the event occurred June 28, 1997. The referee officiating the fight was Mills Lane.
1998 - Congress sent President Clinton an election-year bill overhauling the Internal Revenue Service; Clinton said he would sign it.
1998 - Former high school sweethearts Amy Grossberg and Brian Peterson were sentenced in Wilmington, Del., to prison for killing their newborn son at a motel. Grossberg received 2 1/2 years; Peterson, who cooperated with prosecutors, got two years.
1999 - In Los Angeles, a jury ordered GM to pay $4.9 billion to 6 people burned when their 1979 Chevrolet Malibu fuel tank exploded Dec 24, 1993 following a rear end collision.
2000 - Top-seeded Pete Sampras won his seventh Wimbledon title as he defeated Patrick Rafter, 6-7 (10), 7-6 (5), 6-4, 6-2.
2001 - The Bush administration announced that it opposed a UN draft to restrict the sale of small arms. The US was the leading exporter of small arms.
2002 – The All-Star game in Milwaukee finished in a 7-7 tie after 11 innings when both teams ran out of pitchers.
2002 - The US Senate approved a nuclear waste burial site at Yucca Mountain in the Nevada desert. The Senate voted to entomb thousands of tons of radioactive waste inside Yucca Mountain.
2003 - During a visit to the former slave-trading station on Goree Island, off the coast of Dakar, Senegal, U.S. President George W. Bush calls slavery “one of the greatest crimes of history”, but stops short of an official apology.
2004 – A US Senate committee report said that flawed prewar intelligence fueled the Bush administration position that Saddam Hussein’s regime posed a serious threat to the US.
2004 -An appeals court rejected Nevada’s claim against the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, but ordered leak plans beyond 10,000 years.
2005 – Danny Way, a daredevil skateboarder, rolled down a large ramp and jumped across the Great Wall of China. He was the first person to clear the wall without motorized aid.
2005 –  Minnesota Gov. Tim Pawlenty signed a temporary spending plan and lawmakers agreed on the outline of a two-year budget.
2005 – It was reported the world’s 439 nuclear reactors produce about 16% of the world’s electricity. US reactors numbered 103 plants with capacity utilization at over 90%.
2006 – In Missouri, five youths (10-17) including four siblings drowned in the Meramtec River during a church outing at Castlewood State Park. One had become caught in an undertow and the others jumped in to help.
2006 - Twenty-five people are injured on the Son of Beast wooden roller coaster near Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, as it came to a rapid stop. Several rescue units were sent to the scene.
2007 –  President Bush directed former aides to defy congressional subpoenas, claiming executive privilege in resisting Congress’ investigation into the firings of US attorneys.
2007 – Alaska’s former state Rep. Tom Anderson was convicted of taking thousands of dollars from a corrections company consultant in exchange for his help in the Legislature.
2007 - The Governor of Pennsylvania Ed Rendell orders a partial shutdown of state government functions following the failure of state legislators to agree on a budget.
2007 – US Sen. David Vitter, R-La., acknowledged that he was on the list of phone records just released by Deborah Jeane Palfrey, the alleged “D.C. Madam.”
2007 – The NAACP meeting in Detroit held a public burial for the N-word (nigger) racial slur. In 1944 the NAACP held a symbolic funeral in Detroit for Jim Crow.
2008 –  A grand jury in Anchorage indicted Sen. John Cowdery, an Alaska legislator, on bribery and conspiracy counts in a federal investigation of corruption that already has led to convictions against three former state lawmakers.
2008 – The California state Board of Education voted to make algebra mandatory in the eighth grade beginning in 2011, in order to bring the state into compliance with the federal No Child Left Behind program.
2008 –  It was announced that the Abu Dhabi Investment Council had purchased a 90% stake in New York City’s Chrysler Building for $800 million.
2009 –  In Florida, Byrd and Melanie Billings were killed at their sprawling home near Pensacola. The wealthy Florida couple had 4 children and adopted 12 others with developmental disabilities and other problems.
2010 – US regulators shut down two banks in Maryland, bringing to 88 the number of failed US banks this year.
2010 – In California scuba divers began killing invasive Asian clams in Lake Tahoe. Long rubber mats were laid over half an acre in a test effort starve the clams of oxygen.
2010 - Johnson & Johnson recalls three-million bottles of medicines, including Tylenol, Benadryl, and Motrin, because of odors traced to a chemical in pallets used to transport and store the medicines.
2011 –  Derek Jeter, shortstop for the New York Yankees, becomes the 28th member of the 3,000 hit club in Major League Baseball history by means of a home run off David Price of the Tampa Bay Rays.
2012 –  The House Ethics Committee announced it will formally investigate Rep. Shelley Berkley (D-Nev.) over allegations she violated House rules by using her position in Congress to benefit her husband’s medical practice. The decision could have serious repercussions for her Senate bid.
2012 –  Federal authorities today posted a total of $1 million in reward money hoping to bring to justice four men believed to have been involved in the 2010 killing of U.S. Border Patrol Agent Brian Terry. Those suspects at large were identified as Jesus Rosario Favela-Astorga, 31; Ivan Soto-Barraza, 34; Heraclio Osorio-Arellanes, 34; and Lionel Portillo-Meza, said to be in his mid-20s to early 30s.



1686 – Philip Livingston, American politician (d. 1749)
1819 – Elias Howe, American inventor (d. 1867)
1911 – John A. Wheeler, American physicist (d. 2008)
1918 – Jarl Wahlström, the 12th General of The Salvation Army (d. 1999)
1927 – Ed Ames, American singer and actor
1927 – Susan Cabot, American actress (d. 1986)
1928 – Vince Edwards, American actor, director and singer (d. 1996)
1929 – Lee Hazlewood, American country singer, songwriter and producer (d. 2007)
1932 – Donald Rumsfeld, 13th & 21st United States Secretary of Defense
1936 – Floyd Abrams, First Amendment attorney and advocate
1938 – Brian Dennehy, American actor
1942 – Richard Roundtree, American actor
1942 – Edy Williams, American actress
1943 – John Casper, astronaut
1945 – Dean R. Koontz, American author
1947 – O.J. Simpson, American football player and actor
1956 – Tom Hanks, American actor
1964 – Courtney Love, American musician
1971 – Marc Andreessen, American software developer
1982 – Ashly DelGrosso, American ballroom dancer



(Air Mission)

Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 98th , Bombardment Group. Place and date: Ploesti Raid, Rumania, 9 July 1944. Entered service at: Boulder, Colo. Birth: Longmont, Colo. G.O. No.: 48, 23 June 1945. Citation: He took part in a highly effective attack against vital oil installation in Ploesti, Rumania, on 9 July 1944. Just after “bombs away,” the plane received heavy and direct hits from antiaircraft fire. One crewmember was instantly killed and six others severely wounded. The airplane was badly damaged, two were knocked out, the control cables cut, the oxygen system on fire, and the bomb bay flooded with gas and hydraulic fluid. Regaining control of his crippled plane, 1st Lt. Pucket turned its direction over to the copilot. He calmed the crew, administered first aid, and surveyed the damage. Finding the bomb bay doors jammed, he used the hand crank to open them to allow the gas to escape. He jettisoned all guns and equipment but the plane continued to lose altitude rapidly. Realizing that it would be impossible to reach friendly territory he ordered the crew to abandon ship. Three of the crew, uncontrollable from fright or shock, would not leave. 1st Lt. Pucket urged the others to jump. Ignoring their entreaties to follow, he refused to abandon the three hysterical men and was last seen fighting to regain control of the plane. A few moments later the flaming bomber crashed on a mountainside. 1st Lt. Pucket, unhesitatingly and with supreme sacrifice, gave his life in his courageous attempt to save the lives of three others.


INTERIM 1871- 1898


Rank and organization: Second Class Boy, U.S. Navy. Born: 1859, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 214, 27 July 1876. Citation: Displayed heroic conduct while serving on board the U.S. Training Ship Minnesota on the occasion of the burning of Castle Garden at New York, 9 July 1876.






Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 7th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Big Horn, Mont., 9 July 1875. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 2 December 1876. Citation: Carried dispatches to Gen. Crook at the imminent risk of his life.






Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 7th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Big Horn, Mont., 9 July 1876. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 2 December 1876. Citation: Carried dispatches to Brig. Gen. Crook through a country occupied by Sioux.






Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 7th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Big Horn River, Mont., 9 July 1876. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Norfolk, Va. Date of issue: 2 December 1876. Citation: Carried dispatches to Gen. Crook at imminent risk of his life.





Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company D, 10th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Monocacy, Md., 9 July 1864. Entered service at: Burlington, Vt. Birth: Dunstable, Mass. Date of issue: 27 May 1892. Citation: While in command of a small force, held the approaches to the two bridges against repeated assaults of superior numbers, thereby materially delaying Early’s advance on Washington.






Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1836, Delaware. Accredited to: Delaware. G.O. No.: 11 , 3 April 1 863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Ceres in the fight near Hamilton, Roanoke River, 9 July 1862. Fired on by the enemy with small arms, Hand courageously returned the raking enemy fire and was spoken of for “good conduct and cool bravery under enemy fire,” by the commanding officer.






Rank and organization: Second Class Fireman, U.S. Navy. Birth: Ireland. Accredited to: Ireland. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Served as second-class fireman on board the U.S.S. Ceres in the fight near Hamilton, Roanoke River, 9 July 1862. When his ship was fired on by the enemy with small arms, Kelley returned the raking fire, courageously carrying out his duties through the engagement and was spoken of for “good conduct and cool bravery under enemy fires,” by the commanding officer.






Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 10th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Monocacy, Md., 9 July 1864. Entered service at: Winooski, Vt. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 28 September 1897. Citation: Under a very heavy fire of the enemy saved the national flag of his regiment from capture.


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Unerased History – July 8th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 8, 2014 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Freedom Week
First Ice Cream Sundae Day



 Stockpiling In a National Emergency

Have you prepared for a national emergency?  Here is a list of items that should be stockpiled for both personal use and for barter. Barter items are important to get things you do not have. There will be many that do not plan at all. Do not publically discuss your supplies, you could become a target.

1. Generators and the necessary wiring you will need. Choose a room that is internal so that lights cannot be seen from outside.
2. Water Filters/Purifiers, extra containers.
3. Portable Toilets and Chemicals similar to those in campers.
4. Gas grills (2)
5. Lamp Oil, Wicks, Lamps, lanterns, candles  (First Choice: Buy CLEAR oil. If scarce, stockpile ANY!)
6. Coleman Fuel. Impossible to stockpile too much. (Barter item)
7. Guns, Ammunition, Pepper Spray, Knives, Clubs, Bats & Slingshots (include ball bearings.)
8. Hand-can openers, & hand egg beaters, whisks.
9. Honey/Syrups/white, brown sugar,  sealed
10. Rice – Beans – Wheat. Seal in double-locked freezer bags.
11. Vegetable Oil (for cooking) Without it food burns/must be boiled etc.,)
12. Charcoal, Lighter Fluid (Will become scarce suddenly)
13. Water  Containers (Urgent Item to obtain.) Any  size. Small: HARD CLEAR PLASTIC ONLY – note – food grade if for drinking.
16. Propane Cylinders (Urgent: Definite shortages will occur.)
17. Survival Guide Books.
18.  Walkie-Talkies (4). Get as long a distance line-of-sight as possible.
19.  Mantles: Aladdin, Coleman, etc. (Without this item, longer-term lighting is difficult.)
20 Baby Supplies: Diapers/formula. ointments/aspirin, etc.
21. Washboards, Mop Bucket w/wringer (for Laundry)
22. Cook stoves (Propane, Coleman & Kerosene)
23. Vitamins and other regular medicines
24. Propane Cylinder Handle-Holder (Urgent: Small canister use is dangerous without this item)
25 Feminine Hygiene/Hair care/Skin products.
26. Thermal underwear (Tops & Bottoms)
27. Bow saws, axes and hatchets, Wedges (also, honing oil)
28. Aluminum Foil Reg. & Heavy Duty (Great Cooking and Barter Item)
29. Gasoline Containers (Plastic & Metal)
30. Garbage Bags  (Impossible To Have Too Many).
31. Toilet Paper, Kleenex, Paper Towels
32. Milk – Powdered & Condensed (Shake Liquid every 3 to 4 months)
33. Garden Seeds (Non-Hybrid) (A MUST)
34. Clothes pins/line/hangers (A MUST)
35. Coleman’s Pump Repair Kit
36. Tuna Fish (in oil)
37. Fire Extinguishers (or..large box of Baking Soda in every room)
38. First aid kits
39. Batteries (all sizes…buy furthest-out for Expiration Dates)
40. Garlic, spices & vinegar, baking supplies
41. Complete tool kit (hammers, screwdrivers, measuring tapes, etc.)
42. Flour, yeast & salt
43. Matches. {“Strike Anywhere” preferred.) Boxed, wooden matches will go first
44. Writing paper/pads/pencils, solar calculators
45. Insulated ice chests (good for keeping items from freezing in Wintertime.)
46. Workboots, belts, Levis & durable shirts
47. Flashlights/ 24-hour LIGHTSTICKS & torches, “No. 76 Dietz” Lanterns
48. Journals, Diaries & Scrapbooks (Log Book, jot down ideas, feelings, experience; Historic Times)
49. Garbage cans Plastic (great for storage, water, transporting – if with wheels)
50. Men’s Hygiene: Shampoo, Toothbrush/paste, Mouthwash/floss, nail clippers, etc
51. Cast iron cookware (sturdy, efficient)
52. Fishing supplies/tools
53. Mosquito coils/repellent, sprays/creams
54. Duct Tape, twistable wire, bungee cords
55. Tarps/stakes/twine/nails/rope/spikes
56. Candles
57. Laundry Detergent (liquid)
58. Backpacks, Duffel Bags
60. Garden tools & supplies including face masks if the emergency is airborne
61. Scissors, fabrics & sewing supplies
62. Canned Fruits, Veggies, Soups, stews, etc.
63. Bleach (plain, NOT scented: 4 to 6% sodium hypochlorite)
64. Canning supplies, (Jars/lids/wax/recipes)
65. Knives & Sharpening tools: files, stones, steel
66. Bicycles…Tires/ tubes/pumps/chains, etc
67. Sleeping Bags & blankets/pillows/mats/
68 Carbon Monoxide Alarm (battery powered)
69. Board Games, Cards, Dice
70. d-con Rat poison, MOUSE PRUFE II, Roach Killer
71. Mousetraps,  Ant traps & cockroach magnets
72. Paper plates/ cups/utensils (stock up, folks) Strong ones, not weak ones.
73. Baby wipes, oils, waterless & Antibacterial soap (saves a lot of water)
74. Rain gear, rubberized boots, etc.
75. Shaving supplies (razors & creams, talc, after shave)
76. Hand pumps & siphons (for water and for fuels)
77. Soy sauce, vinegar, bullions/gravy/soup base, both chicken and beef.
78. Reading glasses (use Dollar Stores and stock up)
79. Chocolate/Cocoa/Tang/Punch (water enhancers)
80. “Survival-in-a-Can” (Get several. Good for barter)
81. Woolen clothing, scarves/ear-muffs/mittens
82. Boy Scout Handbook, / also Leaders Catalog
83. Food storage bags (gallon, quart and snack sizes, double-locking)
84. Graham crackers, saltines, pretzels, Trail mix/Jerky
85 Popcorn, Peanut Butter, Nuts
86. Socks, Underwear, T-shirts, etc. (extras)
87. Lumber (all types)
88. Wagons & carts, wheelbarrows (for transport to and from)
89. Cots & Inflatable mattress’s
90. Gloves: Work/warming/gardening, etc.
91. Lantern Hangers
92. Screen Patches, glue, nails, screws,, nuts & bolts
93. Teas
94. Coffee (Regular and Decaf) (Good barter item)
95. Wine/Liquors (for bribes, medicinal, etc,)
96. Paraffin wax
97. Glue, nails, nuts, bolts, screws, etc.
98. Chewing gum/hard candies
99. Atomizers (for cooling/bathing)
100. Hats & cotton neckerchiefs. Stock up at yard sales.
101. Save & Clean empty two-liter bottles. Each one can produce a cup, a funnel and an emergency shoe (two for a pair).

“A person without a sense of humor is like a wagon without springs –jolted by every pebble in the road.”

~ Henry Ward Beecher

otiose OH-shee-ohs; OH-tee-, adjective:

1. Ineffective; futile.
2. Being at leisure; lazy; indolent; idle.
3. Of no use.

1099 – First Crusade: 15,000 starving Christian soldiers march in religious procession around Jerusalem as its Muslim defenders mock them.

1497 – Vasco da Gama sets sail on first direct European voyage to India.
1663 – Charles II of England grants John Clarke a Royal Charter to Rhode Island.
1680 – The first confirmed tornado in America kills a servant at Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1693 - Uniforms for police in New York City were authorized.
1775 – The Olive Branch Petition is adopted by the Continental Congress of the Thirteen Colonies.
1776 – The Declaration of Independence is read aloud by Colonel John Nixon to the people in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and the Liberty Bell was famously rung. The citizens of Philadelphia were summoned to the State House Yard by the bells of the city. At 12:00 noon he publicly read the Declaration for the first time. Following the event and continuing long into the night the bells of the city rang in celebration.

1778 - George Washington headquartered his Continental Army at West Point.
1778 - Allied French fleet under Comte d’Estaing arrives in America.
1795 - Kent County Free School changed its name to Washington College. It was the first college to be named after U.S. President George Washington. The school was established by an act of the Maryland Assembly in 1723.
1796 – US State Department issues first American passport. It was a “letter of introduction to U.S. officials abroad and a request for safe conduct to foreign governments.”
1797 – First US senator (William Blount of Tennessee) expelled by impeachment.
1835 – The Liberty Bell cracks when the bell was tolled during the funeral procession of Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, John Marshall. It was never rung again.
1853 – Commodore Perry sails into Tokyo Bay.
1863 – Civil War: Port Hudson, the Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River in Louisiana, falls to Nathaniel Banks’ Union force. Less than a week after the surrender of Vicksburg, Mississippi, the Confederate garrison’s surrender at Port Hudson cleared another obstacle for the Federals on the Mississippi River.
1863 – Civil War: Lieutenant Commander Fitch, U.S.S. Moose, received word at Cincinnati that General Morgan, CSA, was assaulting Union positions and moving up the banks of the Ohio River.
1864 - Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston retreated into Atlanta to prevent being flanked by Union General William T. Sherman.
1865 – C.E. Barnes of Lowell, MA patented a crank operated machine gun.
1870 – Congress authorizes registration of trademarks. This law was soon repealed because it conflicted with Constitutional principles. In 1881, a new law was created, and in 1905, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office was created, whereby all trademark registrations are (to this day) handled.
1873 – Anna Nichols became the first woman patent examiner. A patent provides the exclusive rights to make, use, import, sell and offer for sale an invention for up to 20 years.
1876 – White supremacists kill five Black Republicans in Hamburg, SC.
1879 - The first ship to use electric lights departed from San Francisco, CA.
1879 - The steamship USS Jeannette under Lt. George W. De Long departed San Francisco on an expedition to reach the North Pole.
1881 – The first ice cream sundae was served. A patron came into Edward Berner’s drug store in Two Rivers, Wisconsin, and sat down at the soda-fountain counter. Since it was the Sabbath, the customer couldn’t have the desirable, but scandalous, flavored soda water. Berner compromised by putting ice cream in a dish and poured over it the chocolate syrup that was previously only served as flavoring in ice-cream sodas. That was an ice cream Sunday!
1889 – The first issue of the Wall Street Journal is published.
1889 – John L Sullivan wins by KO in 75 rounds in last bare-knuckle bout.
1892 – American Psychological Association organized, Worcester, Mass.
1896 – William Jennings Bryan delivers his Cross of Gold speech advocating bimetalism at the 1896 Democratic National Convention in Chicago.
1898 – The shooting death of crime boss Soapy Smith releases Skagway, Alaska from his iron grip.
1898 - US battle fleet under Admiral Dewey occupied Isla Grande at Manila.
1907 - Florenz Ziegfeld staged his first “Follies” on the roof of the New York Theater in New York City.
1909 – First pro baseball game (minor league) played “under the lights.”
1918 – World War I: Ernest Hemingway is severely wounded while carrying a companion to safety on the Austro-Italian front. Hemingway, working as a Red Cross ambulance driver, was decorated for his heroism and sent home.
1923 – Harding becomes first sitting president to visit Alaska (Metlakahtla).
1932 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average reaches its lowest level of the Great Depression. It stopped falling at 41.22, with an intra-day low of 40.56, wiping out 36 years of growth.
1941 – World War II: Twenty B-17s flew in their first mission with the Royal Air Force over Wilhelmshaven, Germany.
1941 – World War II: Europe: Holocaust: All Jews living in Baltic States were obligated to wear Star of David.
1943 – World War II: American B-24 bombers struck Japanese-held Wake Island for the first time.
1943 – World War II: On New Georgia, US forces make some gains near the Barike River.
1944 - Japanese kamikaze attacked US lines at Saipan.
1944 - Naval bombardment of Guam begins.
1945 – World War II: At Camp Salina, Utah, an American guard (Clarence V. Bertucci) opens fire on German prisoners of war. During the night, the 23-year-old army private climbed the guard tower with a .30 caliber machine gun. He looked across the tent city where the 250 Germans slept. Then, for the next 15 seconds, he riddled the 43 tents from left to right.
1945 – World War II: On Mindanao, fighting continues in the Sarangani Bay area. Filipino guerrillas under American leadership engage the Japanese.
1947 - The American League defeated the National League, 2-1, in the All-Star game played at Chicago’s Wrigley Field.
1947 - In New Mexico the Roswell Daily Record reported the military’s capture of a flying saucer. It became know as the Roswell Incident.
1948 – Satchel Paige, 42, debuts in majors pitching two scoreless innings for Cleveland.
1948 - The United States Air Force accepts its first female recruits into a program called Women in the Air Force (WAF).
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Some Enchanted Evening” by Perry Como, “Again” by Gordon Jenkins (Doris Day- vocal), “Bali Ha’I” by Perry Como and “One Kiss Too Many” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1949 - Vietta M. Bates became the first enlisted woman sworn into the U.S. Army when legislation was passed making the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps part of the regular Army.
1950 – General Douglas MacArthur was named commander-in-chief of the United Nations forces in Korea by President Harry S Truman.
1950 – “Tales of the Texas Rangers” debuted on NBC radio. Joel McCrea with his trusty steed, Charcoal, starrred as Texas Ranger Jace Pearson in this thirty-minute western adventure series.
1953 - Notre Dame announced that the next five years of its football games would be shown in theatres over closed circuit TV.
1954 - The raft Lehi with five amateur sailors was towed out of San Francisco Bay to attempt a 2,200 drifting voyage to Hawaii. Mormon elder DeVere Baker (38) led the expedition. After radio contact, they were found only twenty miles off the central California coast, waterless and foodless. The freighter Metapan rescued the crew on July 14.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley, “Love Letters in the Sand by Pat Boone, “Over the Mountain; Across the Sea” by Johnnie & Joe and “Four Walls” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1958 - The first gold record album was presented by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). The award went to the soundtrack “Oklahoma!”
1959 – “Nel Blu Dipinto Di Blu (Volare)” won the first Grammy Award for Record Of The Year.
1959 – Vietnam War: Maj. Dale R. Ruis and Master Sgt. Chester M. Ovnand become the first Americans killed in the American phase of the Vietnam War when guerrillas strike a Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) compound in Bien Hoa, 20 miles northeast of Saigon.
1960 – Francis Gary Powers is charged with espionage resulting from his flight over the Soviet Union.
1961 – “Quarter to Three” by Gary “US” Bonds topped the charts.
1963 - Reports were made of Charlie Finley’s intention to move the Kansas City A’s baseball team to Oakland.
1963 - All Cuban-owned assets in the United States were frozen.
1963 - US banned all monetary transactions with Cuba.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – I Can’t Help Myself” by Four Tops, (I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” by The Rolling Stones, “For Your Love” by The Yardbirds and “Before You Go” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 - President Johnson decrees that a Vietnam Service Medal be awarded to Americans serving in Vietnam, even though there had been no official declaration of war.
1966 - A US airline strike began and lasted until Aug 19th. The members of the IAM (International Association of Machinists) walked off the job in the largest strike in airline history to date. For 43 days during the peak summer travel season, 60 percent of the U.S. commercial airline industry was literally inoperative as 35,000 workers stayed out on strike.
1967 – “Windy by the Association topped the charts.
1969 – Thor Heyerdahl & reed raft Ra II land in Barbados 57 days from Morocco.
1969 - The U.S. Patent Office issued a patent for the game “Twister.”
1970 - “The Everly Brothers Show” was launched on ABC-TV as a summer series.
1970 - The San Francisco Giant’s Jim Ray Hart became the first National League player in 59 seasons to collect six runs batted (RBI) during a single inning.
1970 - Richard Nixon delivers a special congressional message enunciating Native American Self-Determination as official US Indian policy, leading to the Indian Self-Determination Act.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Will It Go Round in Circles” by Billy Preston, Kodachrome” by Paul Simon, “Bad, Bad Leroy Brown” by Jim Croce and “Why Me” by Kris Kristofferson all topped the charts.
1978 – “Shadow Dancing” by Andy Gibb topped the charts.
1978 -  Exile’s “Kiss You All Over” was released.
1979 – Voyager 2 takes first ever photo of Jupiter’s satellite Adrastea (J14).
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes, “All Those Years Ago by George Harrison, “The One that You Love” by Air Supply and “I Was Country When Country Wasn’t Cool” by Barbara Mandrell all topped the charts.
1987 - Kiwanis Clubs voted to admit women and ended its men-only tradition.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Satisfied” by Richard Marx, “Buffalo Stance” by Neneh Cherry, “Baby Don’t Forget My Number” by Milli Vanilli and “I Don’t Want to Spoil the Party” by Roseanne Cash all topped the charts.
1990 – 12:34:56 on 7/8/90 (1234567890)
1993 - A jury in Boise, Idaho, acquitted white separatist Randy Weaver and a co-defendant, Kevin Harris,  of slaying a federal marshal in a shootout at Ruby Ridge,  a remote mountain cabin. Ruby Ridge was the site of a deadly confrontation and siege in northern Idaho in 1992. It involved Randy Weaver, his family, Weaver’s friend Kevin Harris, and agents of the United States Marshals Service and Federal Bureau of Investigation. It resulted in the death of Weaver’s son Sammy, his wife Vicki, their family dog “Striker”, and Deputy US Marshal William Francis Degan.
1994 - O.J. Simpson was ordered to stand trial on charges of murdering his ex-wife, Nicole, and her friend, Ronald Goldman.
1994 - The Space Shuttle “Columbia” blasted off on a two-week mission.
1995 – “Waterfalls” by TLC topped the charts.
1995 - A deadly heat wave began in the midsection of the US. It claimed more than 800 lives, more than half of them in Illinois.
1995 - A Marine tactical recovery team from the 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit stationed on board the USS Kearsarge rescued a downed U.S. pilot, Captain Scott O’Grady, USAF, from Bosnian-Serb territory in Bosnia.
1996 - The Shuttle Columbia landed after a record flight of 16 days, 21 hours, 48 minutes and 30 sec.
1996 - A 1975 JetRanger Bell Helicopter crashed in Salem, Ohio and killed all five people onboard.
1997 - The Senate Governmental Affairs Committee opened politically charged hearings into fund-raising abuses, with chairman Fred Thompson accusing China of trying to influence the 1996 U.S. elections.
1997 - The Mayo Clinic and the U.S. government warned that the diet-drug combination known as “fen-phen” could cause serious heart and lung damage.
1997 - A US Army Black Hawk helicopter crashed at Fort Bragg, NC, and killed eight soldiers.
1998 - Two armed men broke into the home of Foxy Brown. Brown and her mother were both in the apartment but suffered no injuries.
1998 - Dow Corning agreed to settle a suit with women claiming injury from silicone breast implants for $3.2 billion.
1999 - An Air Force cargo jet took off from Seattle on a dangerous mission to Antarctica to drop medicine for Dr. Jerri Nielsen, a physician at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Research Center who had discovered a lump in her breast. The mission was successful; Nielsen was evacuated the following October.
1999 – Allen Lee Davis is executed by electrocution by the state of Florida, the last use of the electric chair for capital punishment in Florida.
1999 - Astronaut Charles “Pete” Conrad Junior, the third man to walk on the moon, died after a motorcycle accident near Ojai, California; he was 69.
2000 - Venus Williams beat Lindsay Davenport 6-3, 7-6 (3) for her first Grand Slam title, becoming the first African American women’s champion at Wimbledon since Althea Gibson in 1957-58.
2000 - J.K. Rowling’s “Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire” was released in the U.S. It was the fourth Harry Potter book.
2001 - Venus Williams won her second consecutive Wimbledon title by beating Belgian Justine Henin.
2003 - A worker at a Lockheed Martin aircraft parts factory in Meridian, Mississippi, shoots thirteen co-workers, killing five, before committing suicide. Investigators are unsure of the motive.
2004 - US Marine Corporal Wassef Ali Hassoun appears unharmed at the US Embassy in Beirut. Hassoun disappeared from his unit in Iraq on June 21, and was incorrectly reported as having been beheaded by the group that captured him.
2005 - Florida Governor Jeb Bush closes the inquiry into the case of Terri Schiavo, having been informed by prosecutors that there is no evidence of any crime leading to her 1990 collapse.
2006 - Discovery astronauts Piers Sellers and Michael Fossum went on a 7 1/2-hour spacewalk to test a repair technique for space shuttles.
2007 - In Pennsylvania Gov. Ed Rendell ordered a range of government services shutdown after last minute negotiations failed to break a budget stalemate. The shutdown took about 24,000 workers off the job.
2007 - Boeing unveiled its first fully assembled 787 Dreamliner in Everett, Wash.
2007 - In Oakland, Ca., Odell Roberson Jr., a transient drug addict, was found shot and killed. Police later determined that his killer used an AK-47 assault rifle linked to Your Black Muslim Bakery.
2008 - A report from a US Senate Homeland Security investigations subcommittee said sellers of medical supplies collected as much as $93 million in fraudulent Medicare claims based on prescriptions from doctors who were actually dead.
2008 - In California the Butte Lightning Complex Fire destroyed 41 homes overnight in and around Paradise. The next day 10,000 people were evacuated from the area.
2009 - In San Francisco, Philip Day (63), former head of San Francisco City College, was charged with eight felonies for using public funds for political donations and other banned expenditures.
2009 - Undercover investigators smuggle bomb-making materials into government buildings in the United States, assembling bombs within, on ten occasions.
2010 - US federal judge Joseph Louis Tauro, in two separate cases, rules that a federal ban against gay marriage is unconstitutional, as it interferes with a state’s right to define marriage.
2010 - Republican Party Chairman Michael Steele again resist calls for him to step down after he asserted that the War in Afghanistan was a “war of Obama’s choosing”.
2010 - Los Angeles Police announce that they have arrested Lonnie David Franklin, Jr., suspected to be the serial killer known as the Grim Sleeper, yesterday. He is arraigned on various murder charges.
2011 –  The Space Shuttle Atlantis and four astronauts rocketed into orbit today on NASA’s last space shuttle voyage. NASA’s original shuttle pilot, Robert Crippen, now 73, was among the VIPs. He flew Columbia, along with Apollo 16 moonwalker John Young, on the inaugural test flight in 1981.


1830 – Frederick William Seward, United States Assistant Secretary of State (d. 1915)
1838 – Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin, German inventor was a German general and later aircraft manufacturer, the founder of the Zeppelin Airship company. (d. 1917)
1839 – John D. Rockefeller, American businessman was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. (d. 1937)
1907 – George W. Romney, He was chairman of American Motors Corporation from 1954 to 1962. He then served as the 43rd governor of Michigan from 1963 to 1969 and then the 3rd United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development from 1969 to 1973. (d. 1995)
1908 – Nelson A. Rockefeller, 41st Vice President of the United States (d. 1979)
1914 – Billy Eckstine, American jazz singer (d. 1993)
1935 – Steve Lawrence, American entertainer and singer
1942 – Phil Gramm, American politician
1947 – Kim Darby, American actress
1949 – Wolfgang Puck, Austrian-born celebrity chef
1951 – Anjelica Huston, American actress
1952 – Jack Lambert, American football player
1958 – Kevin Bacon, American actor
1961 – Toby Keith, American singer
1971 – Amanda Peterson, American actress
1974 – Tami Erin, American actress and model
1982 – Joshua Alba, American actor




 Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company A 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Sokkogae, Korea, 6 to 8 July 1953. Entered service at: Portsmouth, Va. Born: 3 January 1927, Portsmouth, Va. G.O. No.: 38, 8 June 1955. Citation: 1st Lt. Shea, executive officer, Company A, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. On the night of 6 July, he was supervising the reinforcement of defensive positions when the enemy attacked with great numerical superiority. Voluntarily proceeding to the area most threatened, he organized and led a counterattack and, in the bitter fighting which ensued, closed with and killed two hostile soldiers with his trench knife. Calmly moving among the men, checking positions, steadying and urging the troops to hold firm, he fought side by side with them throughout the night. Despite heavy losses, the hostile force pressed the assault with determination, and at dawn made an all-out attempt to overrun friendly elements. Charging forward to meet the challenge, 1st Lt. Shea and his gallant men drove back the hostile troops. Elements of Company G joined the defense on the afternoon of 7 July, having lost key personnel through casualties. Immediately integrating these troops into his unit, 1st Lt. Shea rallied a group of twenty men and again charged the enemy. Although wounded in this action, he refused evacuation and continued to lead the counterattack. When the assaulting element was pinned down by heavy machine gun fire, he personally rushed the emplacement and, firing his carbine and lobbing grenades with deadly accuracy, neutralized the weapon and killed three of the enemy. With forceful leadership and by his heroic example, 1st Lt. Shea coordinated and directed a holding action throughout the night and the following morning. On 8 July, the enemy attacked again. Despite additional wounds, he launched a determined counterattack and was last seen in close hand-to-hand combat with the enemy. 1st Lt. Shea’s inspirational leadership and unflinching courage set an illustrious example of valor to the men of his regiment, reflecting lasting glory upon himself and upholding the noble traditions of the military service.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps tank commander serving with the 2d Battalion, 6th Marines, 2d Marine Division. Place and date: Saipan, Marianas Islands, on 8 July 1944. Born: 14 February 1919, Americus, Kans. Accredited to: Kansas. Other Navy award: Bronze Star Medal. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Advancing with his tank a few yards ahead of the infantry in support of a vigorous attack on hostile positions, Sgt. Timmerman maintained steady fire from his antiaircraft sky mount machinegun until progress was impeded by a series of enemy trenches and pillboxes. Observing a target of opportunity, he immediately ordered the tank stopped and, mindful of the danger from the muzzle blast as he prepared to open fire with the 75mm., fearlessly stood up in the exposed turret and ordered the infantry to hit the deck. Quick to act as a grenade, hurled by the Japanese, was about to drop into the open turret hatch, Sgt. Timmerman unhesitatingly blocked the opening with his body holding the grenade against his chest and taking the brunt of the explosion. His exception valor and loyalty in saving his men at the cost of his own life reflect the highest credit upon Sgt. Timmerman and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.


(Mad Bear)


Rank and organization: Sergeant, Pawnee Scouts, U.S. Army. Place and date: At Republican River, Kans., 8 July 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Nebraska. Date of issue: 24 August 1869. Citation: Ran out from the command in pursuit of a dismounted Indian; was shot down and badly wounded by a bullet from his own command.




Rank and organization: Corporal, Company M, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Republican River, Kans., 8 July 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Cincinnati, Ohio. Date of issue: 24 August 1869. Citation: This soldier and two others were attacked by eight Indians, but beat them off and badly wounded two of them.




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Unerased History – July 7th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 7, 2014 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Tell the Truth Day

Father-Daughter Take A Walk Together Day



Mexican- American War

The Mexican-American War was a conflict that occurred as the result of Mexican resentment over the US annexation of Texas and a border dispute. The causes of the Mexican-American War can be traced back to Texas winning its independence from Mexico in 1836. After the end of the war, Mexico refused to acknowledge the new Republic of Texas, but was prevented from taking military action due to the United States, Great Britain, and France conferring diplomatic recognition.

The war was fought primarily in northeastern and central Mexico and resulted in a decisive American victory. As a result of the war, Mexico was forced to cede its northern and western provinces, which today comprise a significant portion of the western United States.

In 1845, following the election of the pro-annexation candidate, James K. Polk, Texas was admitted to the Union. Shortly thereafter, a dispute began with Mexico over the southern border of Texas. Both sides sent troops to the area, and on April 25, 1846, a US cavalry patrol, led by Captain Seth Thornton, was attacked by Mexican troops. Following the “Thornton Affair,” Polk asked Congress for a declaration of war, which was issued on May 13, 1846.

“The energy to get things done comes from knowing that what you’re doing right now is what’s most important.”

 ~ E. Haas

euphonious yoo-FOH-nee-uhs, adjective:

Pleasing or sweet in sound; smooth-sounding.


1456 – A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death.

1534 – European colonization of the Americas: first known exchange between Europeans and natives of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in New Brunswick.
1585 – Treaty of Nemours abolishes tolerance to Protestants in France.
1668 -  Isaac Newton received his M.A. from Trinity College in Cambridge.
1754 – Kings College opened in New York City. It was renamed Columbia College 30 years later.
1776 – Continental Congress resolves “these United Colonies are & of right ought to be Free & Independent States”
1777 – Revolutionary War: Battle of Hubbardton.  British forces, under General Simon Fraser, caught up with the American rear guard of the forces retreating after the withdrawal from Fort Ticonderoga.
1797 – For the first time in U.S. history, the House of Representatives exercises its constitutional power of impeachment and votes to charge Senator William Blount of Tennessee with “a high misdemeanor, entirely inconsistent with his public duty and trust as a Senator.”
1798 – Quasi-War: the U.S. Congress rescinds treaties with France sparking the ‘war.’

1801 - The U.S. fleet arrived in Tripoli after Pasha Yusuf Karamanli declared war for being refused tribute.
1821 - Spain ceded Florida to the United States.
1846 – Mexican-American War: U.S. annexation of California was proclaimed at Monterey after Commodore Sloat reached Monterey and claimed California for the US.
1861 – Civil War: Two floating torpedoes (mines) in the Potomac River were picked up by U. S. S. Resolute- the earliest known use of torpedoes by the Confederates.
1862 – The first railroad post office was tested on the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad in Missouri.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate General Robert E. Lee, in Hagerstown, Maryland, reported his defeat at Gettysburg to President Jefferson Davis.
1863 – Civil War: United States begins first military draft; exemptions cost $100.
1863 – Civil War: Orders barring Jews from serving under US Grant were revoked.
1863 – Lt. Colonel Christopher “Kit” Carson leaves Santa Fe with his troops, beginning his campaign against the Indians of New Mexico and Arizona.
1865 – Civil War: Four conspirators in the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln are hanged. Mary Surratt, Lewis Powell, George Atzerodt, and David Herold were sentenced “to be hanged by the neck until he [or she] be dead.” Mary Surrat was and is the only woman to ever be hanged by the neck.

1885G. Moore Peters of Xenia, OH patented the cartridge-loading machine and incorporated the Peters Cartridge Company. The company developed a round-table loading machine for mechanically loading shotgun shells. These were the first machine-loaded shotgun shells.
1891 – Travelers cheque patented. William Fargo, son of James Fargo, president of American Express, got the first one.
1897 - The Steamer Portland arrived into Seattle from Alaska with 68 prospectors carrying more than a ton of gold. The Seattle Post-Intelligencer announced that men with gold from Alaska were landing.
1898 – President William McKinley signs the Newlands Resolution annexing Hawaii as a territory of the United States.
1905 - The International Workers of the World founded their labor organization in Chicago. The IWW was formed by William Haywood of the Western Federation of Miners, Daniel De Leon of the Socialist Labor Party and Eugene V. Debs of the Socialist Party.
1908 - Great White Fleet leaves San Francisco Bay.
1914 - Robert Goddard was issued a U.S. patent, the first of the 214 he would obtain in his lifetime as a pioneer rocket scientist.This patent was for a “Rocket Apparatus” (U.S. No. 1,102,653) which described the multi-stage rocket concept.
1916 – Thomas A. Edison becomes head of Naval Consulting Board which screens inventions for use by the Navy.
1920 – A device known as the radio compass was used for the first time on a U.S. Navy airplane near Norfolk, VA.
1928 – Sliced bread is sold for the first time by the Chillicothe Baking Company of Chillicothe, Missouri. It is described as “the greatest forward step in the baking industry since bread was wrapped”.
1930 – Industrialist Henry J. Kaiser begins construction of the Boulder Dam (now known as Hoover Dam).  It took the labour of 21,000 men to produce what is now the second-highest dam in the country.
1936 – Several U.S. patents were issued for the Phillips-head screw and screwdriver to its inventor, Henry F. Phillips (Nos. 2,046,343, 2,046,837 -40).  General Motors was convinced to use the screws on its 1936 Cadillac. By 1940 virtually every American automaker had switched to Phillips screws.
1941 – World War II: The neutral United States moves closer to war with Germany when U.S. forces land on Iceland to take over its garrisoning from the British. From there, the U.S. Navy had the responsibility of protecting convoys in the nearby sea routes from attack by German submarines.
1941 – The First Marine Aircraft Wing was commissioned at Quantico, VA.
1942 – World War II: General Spaatz is appointed to command US air forces in Europe.
1942 – World War II: Heinrich Himmler, in league with three others, including a physician, decides to begin experimenting on women in the Auschwitz concentration camps and to investigate extending this experimentation on males.
1943 – World War II: Adolf Hitler made the V-2 missile program a top priority in armament planning.
1944 – World War II: US 5th Army forces advance along the coast. The US 34th Division captures Pignano.
1944 - World War II: The US 1st Army continues its offensive toward Coutances and St. Lo. The US 8th, 7th and 19th Corps attack along a line from La Haye du Puits to Vire. German forces resist effectively.
1944 - World War II: On Saipan, most of the remaining Japanese garrison, about 3000 men, assault American lines south of the village of Makunsha. The Japanese are forced to retreat with heavy losses.
1945 -  World War II: US Navy Privateer patrol bombers (modified B-24 bombers) damage or sink numerous small Japanese vessels in the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea.
1946 – Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini becomes the first American to be canonized. 1946 – Howard Hughes nearly dies when his XF-11 spy plane prototype crashes in a Beverly Hills neighborhood.
1946 – Six female reservists become first women sworn into regular US Navy. The Navy WAVES in Naval Reserve, who were the first to transfer to the Regular Navy, were Kay Louise Langdon, Aviation Storekeeper First Class; Wilma Juanita Marchal, Chief Yeoman; Frances Teresa Dovaney, Storekeeper, Second Class; Edna Earle Young, Yeoman, Second Class; Doris Roberta Robertson, Teleman, Second Class; and Ruth Flora, Hospital Corpsman, First Class.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Can’t Be True, Dear” by The Ken Griffin Orchestra (vocal: Jerry Wayne), “Nature Boy” by Nat King, “Woody Woodpecker Song” by The Kay Kaiser Orchestra (vocal: Gloria Wood & The Campus Kids) and “Bouquet of Roses” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1949 – “Dragnet” premiers on NBC radio; also a TV series in 1951 and in 1967.
1950 – The First Provisional Marine Brigade was activated at Camp Pendleton, Calif.. The brigade, formed around the 5th Marine Regiment, began embarkation for Korea within a week.
1950 – Johnny Cash enlisted in the US Air Force.
1952 - The American ocean liner SS United States, known as “the Big U,” crossed the Atlantic in record 82:40, while on her maiden voyage.
1954 – Elvis Presley made his radio debut. “That’s All Right (Mama),” was heard for the first time on radio station WHBQ in Memphis, Tennessee.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Wayward Wind” by Gogi Grant, “Be-Bop-A-Lula” by Gene Vincent & His Blue Caps, “Born to Be with You” by The Chordettes and “Crazy Arms” by Ray Price all topped the charts.
1956 - Seven Army trucks loaded with dynamite exploded in middle of Cali, Columbia, killing up to 1,200 people and approximately 2000 buildings were destroyed.
1958 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Alaska Statehood Act into United States law.
1959 – 14:28 UT Venus occults the star Regulus. This rare event was used to determine the diameter of Venus and the structure of the Venusian atmosphere.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Get Around” by The Beach Boys, “My Boy Lollipop” by Millie Small, “Memphis” by Johnny Rivers and “Together Again” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 – Otis Redding records “Respect“.
1966 – Vietnam War: The U.S. Marine Corps launched Operation Hasting to drive the North Vietnamese Army back across the Demilitarized Zone in Vietnam.
1966 – Vietnam War:  Female nurses of the 150th Aeromedical Flight, New Jersey Air National Guard, receive men injured or ill from their duty in Vietnam to treat them on their return flights to stateside hospitals for convalesce.
1967 – Beatles’ “All You Need is Love” is released.
1969 - A battalion of the U.S. 9th Infantry Division leaves Saigon in the initial withdrawal of U.S. troops. The 814 soldiers were the first of 25,000 troops that were withdrawn in the first stage of the U.S. disengagement from the war.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “Song Sung Blue” by Neil Diamond, “Outa-Space” by Billy Preston, “Lean on Me” by Bill Withers and “Eleven Roses” by Hank Williams, Jr. all topped the charts.
1973 – “Will It Go Round in Circles” by Billy Preston topped the charts.
1975 – TV soap opera “Ryan’s Hope” premieres.
1976 – For the first time in history, women are enrolled into the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York.
1976 - The US 94th Congress amended the Flag Code.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Coming Up” by Paul McCartney & Wings, “The Rose” by Bette Midler, “It’s Still Rock & Roll to Me” by Billy Joel and “He Stopped Loving Her Today by George Jones all topped the charts.
1980 – Jim King completes riding Miracle Strip Roller coaster 368 hours or 15 days straight.
1981 – U.S. President Reagan announced he was nominating Arizona Judge Sandra Day O’Connor to become the first female justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.
1983 – Cold War: Samantha Smith, a U.S. schoolgirl, flies to the Soviet Union at the invitation of Secretary General Yuri Andropov.
1984 – “When Doves Cry” by Prince topped the charts.
1987 – Lt. Col. Oliver North began his long-awaited public testimony at the Iran-Contra hearing, telling Congress that he had “never carried out a single act, not one,” without authorization.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dirty Diana” by Michael Jackson, “The Flame” by Cheap Trick, “Mercedes Boy” by Pebbles and “If It Don’t Come Easy” by Tanya Tucker all topped the charts.
1990 – “Step by Step” by New Kids on the Block topped the charts.
1995 – The space shuttle “Atlantis” landed at Cape Canaveral, Florida, bringing back American astronaut Norman Thagard, who’d spent three and a-half months aboard the Russian space station “Mir.”

1997 - Three days after landing on Mars, the Pathfinder spacecraft yielded what scientists said was unmistakable photographic evidence that colossal floods scoured the Red Planet’s now-barren landscape more than a billion years ago.
1997 - Montgomery Wards, the nation’s largest privately owned retailer, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.
1998 – A jury in Santa Monica, CA, convicted Mikail Markhasev of murdering Ennis Cosby, Bill Cosby’s only son, during a roadside robbery.
1998 - The American League defeated the National League 13-8 in baseball’s All-Star Game, played in Denver.
1999 – President Clinton became the first president since President Franklin D. Roosevelt to visit an Indian reservation as he toured the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota.
1999 - In the first class-action lawsuit by smokers to go to trial, a jury in Miami held cigarette makers liable for making a defective product that causes emphysema, lung cancer and other illnesses.
2000 – Amazon.com announced that they had sold almost 400,000 copies of “Harry Potter and The Goblet of Fire,” making it the biggest selling book in e-tailing history.
2000 - A $100 million US test missile failed to hit a dummy warhead from another missile. It was the second failure of three tests.
2000 - President Clinton postponed the first federal execution since 1963 so that death row inmate Juan Raul Garza could ask for clemency under guidelines being updated by the government. Garza was executed June 19, 2001.
2002 - Lleyton Hewitt crushed David Nalbandian in straight sets, 6-1, 6-3, 6-2, in the Wimbledon final to win his second Grand Slam title.
2003 - A chunk of foam insulation fired at shuttle wing parts blew open a gaping 16-inch hole, yielding what one member of the Columbia investigation team said was the “smoking gun” proving what brought down the spaceship on Feb 1.
2003 – NASA’s 2nd Mars Lander, named Opportunity, was launched.
2003 - The CDC confirmed the year’s first case of West Nile Virus, which killed 284 in the US in 2002.
2004 - Former Enron chairman Kenneth Lay was indicted on criminal charges related to the energy company’s collapse.
2005 - Morgan Stanley disclosed that Philip Purdell had been given an exit package worth an estimated $113.7 million. 2 days earlier John Mack was signed on as CEO on a contract worth as much as $25 million a year.
2006 - The Arkansas state board barred Dr. Randeep Mann from prescribing narcotics after officials said 10 of his patients died from a lethal mix of drugs or an overdose of prescription medicines.
2007 – Flight from Oregon to Idaho … in a lawn chair! Kent Couch of Bend, OR decided to spend a pleasant day relaxing in his lawn chair. But Kent doesn’t relax like you and I. Attached to the lawn chair were 105 balloons of various colors, each 4 feet around. Nine hours later, 193 miles from home Couch landed in a farmer’s field near Union, ID.
2007 - A Big Mac in the US cost an average $3.41. At current exchange rates the cheapest Big Mac was in China at $1.45, in Germany it was $3.22 and the most expensive in New Zealand at $5.89.
2007 - Wildfires in California consumed 17,000 acres in Inyo National Forest and 7,500 acres in Los Padres National Forest. An 8,000-acre wildfire forced hundreds of people in the town of Winnemucca to leave their homes,
2008 - Tropical storm Bertha strengthened to become the first hurricane of the Atlantic season.
2010 - In Philadelphia, Pa., a 250-foot barge collided on the Delaware River with a stalled amphibious sightseeing boat. 2 visitors from Hungary were killed. In 2011 tug pilot Matt Devlin agreed to plead guilty to involuntary manslaughter following evidence that he was talking on a cell phone during the accident.
2011 – The world’s first artificial organ transplant was achieved. It was an artificial windpipe coated with stem cells.
2012 – In a complete repudiation of American morals, House of Representatives  Barney Frank (D – MA) shocked the nation by becoming the first Congressman in history to enter into a homosexual “marriage.”
2012 - Police in Washington, D.C. raided Mark Witaschek’s home  searching for “firearms and ammunition.” The search came after complaints were made by Mr. Witaschek’s estranged wife that he had threatened her with a gun. A judge later found those claims to be baseless, but apparently it was enough for the police to ransack his home and do an estimated $10,000 in damage.



1746 – Giuseppe Piazzi, Italian astronomer (d. 1826)
1752 – Joseph-Marie Jacquard, French inventor (d. 1834)
1851 – Charles Tindley, American gospel music composer (d. 1933)
1891 – Virginia Rappe, Silent Film Actress (d. 1921)
1900 – Earle E. Partridge, United States Air Force general (d. 1990)
1906 – Satchel Paige, American baseball player (d. 1982)
1907 – Robert A. Heinlein, American writer (d. 1988)
1922 – Pierre Cardin, French fashion designer
1924 – Mary Ford, American singer (d. 1977)
1925 – Wally Phillips, American radio personality (d. 2008)
1927 – Doc Severinsen, American composer and musician
1933 – David McCullough, American historian and author
1940 – Ringo Starr, English drummer and singer (The Beatles)
1949 – Shelley Duvall, American actress
1959 – Jessica Hahn, American model
1959 – Ben Linder, American engineer (d. 1987)
1960 – Kevin A. Ford, American astronaut
1967 – Jackie Neal, American singer (d. 2005)
1968 – Amy Carlson, American actress
1968 – Jorja Fox, American actress
1968 – Jeff VanderMeer, American writer
1972 – Lisa Leslie, American basketball player
1980 – Michelle Kwan, American figure skater




Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 29 January 1925, Racine, Wis. Accredited to: Wisconsin. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 4th Battalion, 10th Marines, 2d Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Saipan, Marianas Islands, 7 July 1944. When the enemy launched a fierce, determined counterattack against our positions and overran a neighboring artillery battalion, Pfc. Agerholm immediately volunteered to assist in the efforts to check the hostile attack and evacuate our wounded. Locating and appropriating an abandoned ambulance jeep, he repeatedly made extremely perilous trips under heavy rifle and mortar fire and single-handedly loaded and evacuated approximately forty-five casualties, working tirelessly and with utter disregard for his own safety during a grueling period of more than three hours. Despite intense, persistent enemy fire, he ran out to aid two men whom he believed to be wounded Marines but was himself mortally wounded by a Japanese sniper while carrying out his hazardous mission. Pfc. Agerholm’s brilliant initiative, great personal valor and self-sacrificing efforts in the face of almost certain death reflect the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.




Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 105th Infantry, 27th Infantry Division.  Place and date: Saipan, Mariana Islands, 19 June to 7 July 1944.  Entered service at: Troy, N.Y. Birth: Troy, N.Y. G.O. No.: 35, 9 May 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty . When his entire company was held up by fire from automatic weapons and small-arms fire from strongly fortified enemy positions that commanded the view of the company, Sgt. (then Pvt.) Baker voluntarily took a bazooka and dashed alone to within one hundred yards of the enemy. Through heavy rifle and machinegun fire that was directed at him by the enemy, he knocked out the strong point, enabling his company to assault the ridge. Some days later while his company advanced across the open field flanked with obstructions and places of concealment for the enemy, Sgt. Baker again voluntarily took up a position in the rear to protect the company against surprise attack and came upon two heavily fortified enemy pockets manned by two officers and ten enlisted men which had been bypassed. Without regard for such superior numbers, he unhesitatingly attacked and killed all of them. Five hundred yards farther, he discovered six men of the enemy who had concealed themselves behind our lines and destroyed all of them. On 7 July 1944, the perimeter of which Sgt. Baker was a part was attacked from three sides by from 3,000 to 5,000 Japanese. During the early stages of this attack, Sgt. Baker was seriously wounded but he insisted on remaining in the line and fired at the enemy at ranges sometimes as close as five yards until his ammunition ran out. Without ammunition and with his own weapon battered to uselessness from hand-to-hand combat, he was carried about fifty yards to the rear by a comrade, who was then himself wounded. At this point Sgt. Baker refused to be moved any farther stating that he preferred to be left to die rather than risk the lives of any more of his friends. A short time later, at his request, he was placed in a sitting position against a small tree . Another comrade, withdrawing, offered assistance. Sgt. Baker refused, insisting that he be left alone and be given a soldier’s pistol with its remaining eight rounds of ammunition. When last seen alive, Sgt. Baker was propped against a tree, pistol in hand, calmly facing the foe. Later Sgt. Baker’s body was found in the same position, gun empty, with 8 Japanese lying dead before him. His deeds were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army.



Battalion. Born- April 25, 1917 Makawao , Maui County, Hawaii. Entered service at: Makawao, Maui County, Hawaii. Place and date: 7 July 1944, near Castellina, Italy. Private First Class Kaoru Moto distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action while serving as first scout. Private First Class Moto observed a machine gun nest that was hindering his platoon’s progress. On his own initiative, he made his way to a point ten paces from the hostile position, and killed the enemy machine gunner. Immediately, the enemy assistant gunner opened fire in the direction of Private First Class Moto. Crawling to the rear of the position, Private First Class Moto surprised the enemy soldier, who quickly surrendered. Taking his prisoner with him, Private First Class Moto took a position a few yards from a house to prevent the enemy from using the building as an observation post. While guarding the house and his prisoner, he observed an enemy machine gun team moving into position. He engaged them, and with deadly fire forced the enemy to withdraw. An enemy sniper located in another house fired at Private First Class Moto, severely wounding him. Applying first aid to his wound, he changed position to elude the sniper fire and to advance. Finally relieved of his position, he made his way to the rear for treatment. Crossing a road, he spotted an enemy machine gun nest. Opening fire, he wounded two of the three soldiers occupying the position. Not satisfied with this accomplishment, he then crawled forward to a better position and ordered the enemy soldier to surrender. Receiving no answer, Private First Class Moto fired at the position, and the soldiers surrendered. Private First Class Moto’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.





Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, 1st Battalion, 105th Infantry, 27th Infantry Division. Place and date: At Saipan, Marianas Islands, 20 June through 7 July 1944. Entered service at: Troy, N.Y. Birth: Troy, N.Y. G.O. No.: 35, 9 May 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty at Saipan, Marianas Islands, from 20 June through 7 July 1944. When assault elements of his platoon were held up by intense enemy fire, Lt. Col. O’Brien ordered 3 tanks to precede the assault companies in an attempt to knock out the strongpoint. Due to direct enemy fire the tanks’ turrets were closed, causing the tanks to lose direction and to fire into our own troops. Lt. Col. O’Brien, with complete disregard for his own safety, dashed into full view of the enemy and ran to the leader’s tank, and pounded on the tank with his pistol butt to attract two of the tank’s crew and, mounting the tank fully exposed to enemy fire, Lt. Col. O’Brien personally directed the assault until the enemy strongpoint had been liquidated. On 28 June 1944, while his platoon was attempting to take a bitterly defended high ridge in the vicinity of Donnay, Lt. Col. O’Brien arranged to capture the ridge by a double envelopment movement of two large combat battalions. He personally took control of the maneuver. Lt. Col. O’Brien crossed 1,200 yards of sniper-infested underbrush alone to arrive at a point where one of his platoons was being held up by the enemy. Leaving some men to contain the enemy he personally led four men into a narrow ravine behind, and killed or drove off all the Japanese manning that strongpoint. In this action he captured five machineguns and one 77-mm. fieldpiece. Lt. Col. O’Brien then organized the two platoons for night defense and against repeated counterattacks directed them. Meanwhile he managed to hold ground. On 7 July 1944 his battalion and another battalion were attacked by an overwhelming enemy force estimated at between 3,000 and 5,000 Japanese. With bloody hand-to-hand fighting in progress everywhere, their forward positions were finally overrun by the sheer weight of the enemy numbers. With many casualties and ammunition running low, Lt. Col. O’Brien refused to leave the front lines. Striding up and down the lines, he fired at the enemy with a pistol in each hand and his presence there bolstered the spirits of the men, encouraged them in their fight and sustained them in their heroic stand. Even after he was seriously wounded, Lt. Col. O’Brien refused to be evacuated and after his pistol ammunition was exhausted, he manned a .50 caliber machinegun, mounted on a jeep, and continued firing. When last seen alive he was standing upright firing into the Jap hordes that were then enveloping him. Some time later his body was found surrounded by enemy he had killed His valor was consistent with the highest traditions of the service.




Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company K, 442nd Infantry.Born: Torrance, Calif.Entered service at:Fort MacArthur, Calif.Place and date: Molino A Vento Abbot, Italy 7 July 1944. Technical Sergeant Ted T. Tanouye distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action in leading his platoon in an attack to capture the crest of a strategically important hill that afforded little cover. Observing an enemy machine gun crew placing its gun in position to his left front, Technical Sergeant Tanouye crept forward a few yards and opened fire on the position, killing or wounding three and causing two others to disperse. Immediately, an enemy machine pistol opened fire on him. He returned the fire and killed or wounded three more enemy soldiers. While advancing forward, Technical Sergeant Tanouye was subjected to grenade bursts, which severely wounded his left arm. Sighting an enemy-held trench, he raked the position with fire from his submachine gun and wounded several of the enemy. Running out of ammunition, he crawled twenty yards to obtain several clips from a comrade on his left flank. Next, sighting an enemy machine pistol that had pinned down his men, Technical Sergeant Tanouye crawled forward a few yards and threw a hand grenade into the position, silencing the pistol. He then located another enemy machine gun firing down the slope of the hill, opened fire on it, and silenced that position. Drawing fire from a machine pistol nest located above him, he opened fire on it and wounded three of its occupants. Finally taking his objective, Technical Sergeant Tanouye organized a defensive position on the reverse slope of the hill before accepting first aid treatment and evacuation. Technical Sergeant Tanouye’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.




Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company A, 33d Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Cache River, Ark., 7 July 1862. Entered service at: Bloomington, Ill. Birth: Casce, Maine. Date of issue: 29 March 1899. Citation: While the troops were falling back before a superior force, this soldier, assisted by one companion, and while under severe fire at close range, saved a cannon from capture by the enemy.




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Unerased History – July 6th

Posted by Wayne Church on July 6, 2014 in 07 - July, Blog by month |
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Take Your Webmaster to Lunch Day
World Kiss Day




The Hartford Circus Fire, 1944

It was one of the biggest disasters ever to hit the entertainment industry ever. A small fire started somewhere near the restrooms in the big 19-ton tent and it slow started to climb the canvas. Thousands of women and their children basked in the atmosphere of the circus. The band played and the drums shook the air. The smell of fresh-cooked peanuts filled the nostrils of everyone there. Some of the people even watched the little fire but didn’t think anything of it. Then….

The fire literally exploded as it consumed the tent. It moved up the sides and started across the top and toward the main entrance. All of a sudden there was the sound of thousands of feet trampling across the wooden planks of the stands. Everyone was trying to get out of the stands, trying to breathe in the heated air and the smoke.

The people in the higher bleachers started throwing children down into waiting arms and then they sometimes jumped as well. As the tent burned, large pieces fell on the people setting women’s hair and dresses on fire. And the band played on.. the music was “Stars and Stripes Forever”, a traditional disaster call telling those from the circus that there was a problem inside the tent and to stay out.

In the end, 128 bodies lay out on Army cots. This WAS and IS the worst circus disaster ever.

To read the original Time Magazine account go to: http://www.circusfire1944.com/


“Your only limitations are those you set up in your mind, or permit others to set up for you.”

 ~ Og Mandino


plaudit PLAW-dit, noun:

1. A round or demonstration of applause.

2. Enthusiastic approval; an expression of praise.


781 – The oldest recorded eruption of Mt. Fuji (Traditional Japanese date: July 6, 781).

1189 – Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England. He was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, effectively leading the campaign after the departure of Philip Augustus, and scoring considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, Saladin.
1348 – Papal bull of Pope Clement VI protecting Jews during the Black Death. A Papal bull is a particular type of letters patent or charter issued by a pope. It is named after the bulla that was appended to the end to authenticate it.
1415 – Jan Hus is burned at the stake. Hus was a key contributor to the Protestant movement whose teachings had a strong influence on the states of Europe and on Martin Luther himself.
1699 – Capt William Kidd arrested in Boston and deported back to England.
1775 - The Continental Congress issues a Declaration on the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms detailing the colonists’ reasons for fighting the British and states the Americans are “resolved to die free men rather than live as slaves.”
1776 – Declaration of Independence announced on front page of the “Philadelphia Evening Post”.
1777 – Revolutionary War: Battle of Ticonderoga: Due to a bombardment by British artillery under General John Burgoyne, American forces retreat from Fort Ticonderoga, New York.
1785 – The dollar is unanimously chosen as the monetary unit for the United States. In addition it was decided to use the decimal system for that money.
1853 – William Wells Brown published Clotel, the first novel by a Black American.
1854 – In Jackson, Michigan, the first official convention of the Republican Party is held.
1858 – The shoe manufacturing machine was patented by Lyman Blake of Abington, MA.
1886 – Louis Pasteur successfully tests his vaccine against rabies. The patient is Joseph Meister, a boy who was bitten by a rabid dog.
1887 – Horlick’s of Wisconsin offers first malted milk to public. It was originally created in 1873 as an easily digested infant’s food. It was made from an extract of wheat and malted barley combined with milk and made into a powder called “diastoid” by James and William Horlick of Racine, Wisconsin. “Horlick’s Malted Milk,” was featured by the Walgreen drugstore chain as part of a chocolate milk shake, which itself became known as a “malted” and became one of the most popular soda-fountain drinks.”
1892 – 3,800 striking steelworkers engage in a day-long battle with Pinkerton agents during the Homestead Strike, leaving 10 dead and dozens wounded.
1893 – The small town of Pomeroy, Iowa, is nearly destroyed by a tornado that kills 71 people and injures 200.
1905 – John Walker’s fingerprints were the first ones to be exchanged by police officials in Europe and America.
1908 – Robert Peary sets sail for the Arctic on the expedition on which he later reaches the North Pole.
1912 - Jim Thorpe gained fame as the world’s greatest athlete when the Olympic Games opened in Stockholm, Sweden. Thorpe, a full-blooded Indian, was known as Bright Path, his given Indian name.
1919 – The British dirigible R34 lands in New York, completing the first crossing of the Atlantic Ocean by an airship. The 600-foot-long airship, piloted by Royal Air Force Cmdr. G.H. Scott with a crew of thirty, reached a top speed of 62 mph during the 108-hour trip from Scotland.
1920 –  Radio compass was first used on a U.S. Navy airplane.
1920 - The Democrats ended their convention in San Francisco with the selection James Cox of Ohio for president and running mate Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Cox and FDR were committed internationalists and lost the elections due to the isolationism of the times.
1922 - Vice-president Calvin Coolidge gave a speech at Fredericksburg City Park on behalf of a fund raising campaign to save and restore the Kenmore House, the home of Elizabeth (sister of George Washington) and Fielding Lewis.
1928 – The New York Strand Theatre was the scene of a sneak, midnight preview of the film, “The Lights of New York“. The Warner Bros. film was the first talkie (a talking motion picture).
1932 - The postage rate for first class mail in the U.S. went from 2-cents to 3-cents.
1933 – The first Major League Baseball All-Star Game is played in Chicago’s Comiskey Park. The American League defeats the National League, 4-2.
1937 – The big band classic, “Sing, Sing, Sing” was recorded by Benny Goodman and his band.
1938 - Delegates from thirty-two countries met for nine days at the French resort of Evian to discuss the problem of Jewish refugees from Germany and Austrian.
1939 – Holocaust: The last remaining Jewish enterprises in Germany are closed. 1942 – World War II: Anne Frank and her family went into hiding in the “Secret Annex” above her father’s office in an Amsterdam warehouse.
1943 -  Judy Canova, the ‘Queen of the Hillbillies’, began a weekly comedy show on CBS radio.
1944 – The Hartford Circus Fire, one of America’s worst fire disasters, kills approximately 168 people and injures over 700 in Hartford, Connecticut.
1944 - Lt. Jackie Robinson, U.S. Army, while riding a civilian bus from Camp Hoo, Texas, refused to give up his seat to a white man. Lt. Robinson was court marshaled for refusing the order of a civilian bus driver to move to the back of the bus. He was acquitted.
1945 – World War II: B-29 Superfortress bombers attacked Honshu, Japan, using new fire-bombing techniques.
1945 – World War II: Operation Overcast began in Europe–moving Austrian and German scientists and their equipment to the United States.
1945 – President Truman signs executive order establishing Medal of Freedom.
1945 – Washington Senator Rick Ferrell catches a record 1,722 games.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Peg o’ My Heart” by The Harmonicats, “I Wonder, I Wonder, I Wonder” by Eddy Howard, “Chi-Baba, Chi-Baba” by Perry Como and It’s a Sin” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1947 – The AK-47 goes into production in the Soviet Union.
1947 – “Candid Microphone” hit the airwaves. Following the success of Candid Microphone on the ABC Radio Network, Candid Camera was launched in 1948.
1948 – Frieda Hennok became the first woman to serve as the commissioner of the Federal Communications Commission.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Around the Clock” by Bill Haley & His Comets, Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White” by Perez Prado, “Learnin’ the Blues” by Frank Sinatra and “Live Fast, Love Hard, Die Young” by Faron Young all topped the charts.
1957 – “Love Letters in the Sand by Pat Boone topped the charts.
1957 - Althea Gibson (1927-2003) became the first black tennis player to win a Wimbledon singles title, defeating fellow American Darlene Hard 6-3, 6-2.
1957 – Harry S Truman Library established in Independence, Missouri.
1962 – Nuclear test shot Sedan; part of Operation Plowshare.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sukiyaki” by Kyu Sakamoto, “Blue on Blue” by Bobby Vinton, “Easier Said Than Done” by The Essex and “Act Naturally” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 - The Jefferson Airplane was formed in San Francisco, CA.
1968 – “This Guy’s in Love with You” by Herb Alpert topped the charts.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Too Late/I Feel the Earth Move by Carole King, Indian Reservation” by Raiders, “Treat Her Like a Lady” by Cornelius Brothers & Sister Rose and “When You’re Hot, You’re Hot by Jerry Reed all topped the charts.
1971 - Karen and Richard Carpenter hosted “Make Your Own Kind of Music” on NBC-TV.
1974 – “Rock the Boat” by the Hues Corporation topped the charts.
1976 - US Naval Academy admitted women for the first time in its history with the induction of 81 female midshipmen.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ring My Bell” by Anita Ward, “Bad Girls” by Donna Summer, “Chuck E.’s in Love” by Rickie Lee Jones and “Amanda” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1979 - The B-52s, a New Wave band based in Athens, Georgia, released “Planet Claire.”
1981 – The Dupont Company announced an agreement to purchase Conoco, Inc. (Continental Oil Co.) for $7 billion. At the time it was the largest merger in corporate history.
1983 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that retirement plans could not pay women smaller monthly payments solely because of their gender.
1983 -  Fred Lynn of the California Angels hit the first grand slam in an All-Star game. The American League defeated the National League 13-3.
1984 -  The Jacksons began their Victory Tour in Kansas City, MO.
1985 – Martina Navratilova won her fourth consecutive Wimbledon singles title.
1985 - The submarine Nautilus arrived in Groton, Connecticut. The vessel had been towed from Mare Island Naval Shipyard.
1986 – Davis Phinney became the first American cyclist to win a road stage of the Tour de France.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Wanna Dance with Somebody (Who Loves Me) by Whitney Houston, “Alone” by Heart, “Shakedown” by Bob Seger and “That was a Close One” by Earl Thomas Conley all topped the charts.
1988 – The Piper Alpha drilling platform in the North Sea is destroyed by explosions and fires. 167 oil workers are killed, making it the world’s worst offshore oil disaster.
1988 - Several popular beaches were closed in New York City due to medical waste and other debris began washing up on the seashores.
1989 – The Israeli 405 Bus slaughter in which 14 bus passengers were killed when an Arab assaulted the bus driver as the bus was driving by the edge of a cliff.
1988 – Several popular beaches were closed in New York City due to medical waste and other debris began washing up on the seashores.
1989 – The U.S. Army destroyed its last Pershing 1-A missiles at an ammunition plant in Karnack, TX. The dismantling was under the terms of the 1987 Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty.
1991 - Steffi Graf won the women’s singles title at Wimbledon, defeating Gabriela Sabatini 6-4, 3-6, 8-6.
1994 – On Storm King Mountain, in Colorado, 14 firefighters were killed while fighting a several-day-old fire.
1995 – In Los Angeles, the prosecution rested at the O.J. Simpson murder trial.
1996 – “Killing Me Softly” by the Fugees topped the charts.
1996 -  A Delta MD-88 jetliner’s left engine blew apart during an aborted takeoff from Pensacola, Fla., sending metal pieces ripping into the cabin, killing a mother and her son.
1997 - The rover Sojourner rolled down a ramp from the Mars Pathfinder lander and began mankind’s first mobile exploration of Mars. The first rock targeted for examination was named “Barnacle Bill.”
1998 - It was reported that a planned shipment of nuclear rods was to be transported across Northern California, Nevada and Utah to Idaho for processing before final storage in South Carolina. The federal government had made 154 secret shipments of spent nuclear fuel rods over the last 40 years.
1998 - Roy Rogers (b.1911), singing cowboy, died at age 86 in Apple Valley, Calif. He was born as Leonard Franklin Slye in Cincinnati where his father worked in a shoe factory. Rogers starred in 81 Westerns (87 movies) and 101 episodes for his TV show. Sample Episode  (51:59)
1999 - A third day of heat raised temperatures to 100 degrees in the East and Midwest. Power blackouts and eight deaths were attributed to the heat.
1999 - In Louisiana Gov. Mike Foster signed a polite-student law that required students to address teachers with appropriate titles.
1999 – U.S. Army private Barry Winchell dies from baseball-bat injuries inflicted in his sleep the previous day by fellow soldiers for his relationship with transgendered showgirl and former Navy combat medic, Calpernia Addams.
2000 - Venus Williams beat her younger sister Serena 6-2, 7-6 (3) to reach the Wimbledon final; their singles match was the first between sisters in a Grand Slam semifinal.
2000 - The body of 19-year-old Cory Erving, son of basketball star Julius “Dr. J” Erving, was found in his car at the bottom of a Florida pond; he’d been missing since May 28th.
2001 - Former FBI agent Robert Hanssen pleaded guilty to fifteen criminal counts and agreed to give a full accounting of his spying activities for Moscow.
2001 – US Representative Gary Condit (D-CA) admitted to authorities that he had a sexual relationship with Chandra Levy before she disappeared.
2002 - Serena Williams beat older sister Venus 7-6 (4), 6-3 to win her first Wimbledon title and second straight Grand Slam tournament.
2002 - In Ingleside, CA, police officer Jeremy Morse was caught on video tape beating Donovan Jackson (16), who was already subdued and handcuffed.
2003 - Dennis Schmitt and five companions stepped on a 120-foot-long pile of dirt at 83°42’ latitude, Earth’s farthest north piece of known land.
2003 – The 70-meter Eupatoria Planetary Radar sends a METI message Cosmic Call 2 to 5 stars: Hip 4872, HD 245409, 55 Cancri, HD 10307 and 47 Ursae Majoris that will arrive to these stars in 2036, 2040, 2044, 2044 and 2049 respectively.
2005 - NY Times reporter Judith Miller was jailed for refusing to name her CIA-leak source (2003) for a never-written article on CIA officer Valerie Plame. She was freed after 85 days when Lewis Libby (55), chief of staff for VP Cheney, released her from a claim of confidentiality.
2006 - New York’s highest court ruled that gay marriage is not allowed under state law, rejecting arguments by same-sex couples who said the law violates their constitutional rights.
2006 - Alan Newton (44) of New York City was released from prison after DNA evidence cleared him of a 1985 rape conviction. He had served 20 years of a 40 year sentence.
2006 - The space shuttle Discovery docked with the international space station, bringing with it European Space Agency astronaut Thomas Reiter, who began a six-month stay aboard the station.
2006 - Addressing the death of Kenneth Lay, U.S. President George W. Bush states that he hopes Lay, one of the men convicted in the collapse of Enron, “was right with the Lord”.
2007 - In Las Vegas Steven Zegrean (51) opened fire on gamblers at the New York-New York casino and wounded four people before he was tackled by off-duty military reservists.
2007 – The Milford Flat Fire was the largest wildfire in Utah history. It was started by lightning near Milford, Utah. The fire burned 363,052 acres (567 square miles) and caused large stretches of I-15 to be temporarily closed. Many veteran firefighters had stated this was the fastest moving fire they had ever seen.
2007 - The 6th US Circuit Court of Appeals in Ohio rejects a lawsuit against George W. Bush’s domestic wiretapping program, saying that the plaintiffs did not have the right to sue.
2009 - About 800 pages of the earliest surviving Christian Bible are displayed on the internet.
2009 - Three gunmen open fire at a house in Miami, Florida killing one person and wounding eleven others.
2009 –  In San Francisco crews cleaning a homeless encampment in McLaren Park discovered a body later identified as Ronnie Brown (32), who was last seen in San Leandro on Oct 20, 2007.
2010 –  The Obama administration sued Arizona to throw out the state’s toughest-in-the-nation immigration law and keep other states from copying it.
2010 –  California Gov. Schwarzenegger signed into law a bill extending voter approved mandates for the humane treatment of egg-laying hens in the state.
2010 – In New Orleans, Louisiana, oil from the ruptured well was reported to be seeping into Lake Pontchartrain, threatening another environmental disaster for the huge body of water that was rescued from pollution in 1990s.
2011 –  A Bell UH-1Y Venom helicopter crashes on a training flight at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton near the US city of San Diego with one person dead and five people injured.
2011 -The Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals orders the Obama administration to cease its enforcement of the ban on gay men and women in the military (“Don’t ask, don’t tell”).
2012 –  President Barack Obama signed legislation maintaining jobs on transportation projects and preventing interest rate increases on new loans to millions of college students.
2012 –  A Chicago man who spent more than 30 years behind bars before DNA evidence helped overturn his conviction in the rape and killing of a 3-year-old girl was released from prison late today,  just hours after prosecutors dropped the case against him. Tests found that DNA taken from the scene of the 1980 killing of Brianna Stickle wasn’t his. The girl was attacked in Rantoul, about 20 miles north of Champaign.


1747 – John Paul Jones, American naval commander (d. 1792)
1796 – Tsar Nicholas I of Russia (d. 1855)
1884 – Harold Stirling Vanderbilt, member of the Vanderbilt family (d. 1970)
1904 - Erik Wickberg, Salvation Army general (d. 1996)
1921 – Nancy Reagan, First Lady of the United States
1925 – Merv Griffin, American television show host (d. 2007)
1925 – Bill Haley, American singer (d. 1981)
1927 – Janet Leigh, American actress (d. 2004)
1927 – Pat Paulsen, American comedian (d. 1997)
1931 – Della Reese, American singer
1937 – Ned Beatty, American actor
1945 – Burt Ward, American actor
1946 – George W. Bush, 43rd President of the United States
1946 – Sylvester Stallone, American actor
1954 – Willie Randolph, former New York Mets manager
1955 – Frank Sontag, American radio personality
1975 – 50 Cent, American rapper
1978 – Tia Mowry and Tamera Mowry, American actresses






Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army. Place and date: Near Nam Dong, Republic of Vietnam, 6 July 1964. Entered service at: Fort Chaffee, Ark. Born: 30 January 1934, Saugerties, N.Y. G.O. No.: 41, 17 December 1964. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while defending a U.S. military installation against a fierce attack by hostile forces. Capt. Donlon was serving as the commanding officer of the U.S. Army Special Forces Detachment A-726 at Camp Nam Dong when a reinforced Viet Cong battalion suddenly launched a full-scale, predawn attack on the camp. During the violent battle that ensued, lasting five hours and resulting in heavy casualties on both sides, Capt. Donlon directed the defense operations in the midst of an enemy barrage of mortar shells, falling grenades, and extremely heavy gunfire. Upon the initial onslaught, he swiftly marshaled his forces and ordered the removal of the needed ammunition from a blazing building. He then dashed through a hail of small arms and exploding hand grenades to abort a breach of the main gate. En route to this position he detected an enemy demolition team of three in the proximity of the main gate and quickly annihilated them. Although exposed to the intense grenade attack, he then succeeded in reaching a 60mm mortar position despite sustaining a severe stomach wound as he was within five yards of the gun pit. When he discovered that most of the men in this gunpit were also wounded, he completely disregarded his own injury, directed their withdrawal to a location thirty meters away, and again risked his life by remaining behind and covering the movement with the utmost effectiveness. Noticing that his team sergeant was unable to evacuate the gun pit he crawled toward him and, while dragging the fallen soldier out of the gunpit, an enemy mortar exploded and inflicted a wound in Capt. Donlon’s left shoulder. Although suffering from multiple wounds, he carried the abandoned 60mm mortar weapon to a new location 30 meters away where he found three wounded defenders. After administering first aid and encouragement to these men, he left the weapon with them, headed toward another position, and retrieved a 57mm recoilless rifle. Then with great courage and coolness under fire, he returned to the abandoned gun pit, evacuated ammunition for the two weapons, and while crawling and dragging the urgently needed ammunition, received a third wound on his leg by an enemy hand grenade. Despite his critical physical condition, he again crawled 175 meters to an 81mm mortar position and directed firing operations which protected the seriously threatened east sector of the camp. He then moved to an eastern 60mm mortar position and upon determining that the vicious enemy assault had weakened, crawled back to the gun pit with the 60mm mortar, set it up for defensive operations, and turned it over to two defenders with minor wounds. Without hesitation, he left this sheltered position, and moved from position to position around the beleaguered perimeter while hurling hand grenades at the enemy and inspiring his men to superhuman effort. As he bravely continued to move around the perimeter, a mortar shell exploded, wounding him in the face and body. As the long awaited daylight brought defeat to the enemy forces and their retreat back to the jungle leaving behind fifty-four of their dead, many weapons, and grenades, Capt. Donlon immediately reorganized his defenses and administered first aid to the wounded. His dynamic leadership, fortitude, and valiant efforts inspired not only the American personnel but the friendly Vietnamese defenders as well and resulted in the successful defense of the camp. Capt. Donlon’s extraordinary heroism, at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.





Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 29 January 1908, Aberdeen, Wash. Appointed from: Nevada. Place and date: Greenwich Island during the battle of the Solomon Islands, 6 July 1943.Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as Squadron Commander of Bombing Squadron 102 and as Plane Commander of a PB4Y-I Patrol Bomber operating against the enemy on Japanese-held Greenwich Island during the battle of the Solomon Islands, 6 July 1943. Fully aware of the limited chance of surviving an urgent mission, voluntarily undertaken to prevent a surprise Japanese attack against our forces, Lt. Comdr. Van Voorhis took off in total darkness on a perilous 700-mile flight without escort or support. Successful in reaching his objective despite treacherous and varying winds, low visibility and difficult terrain, he fought a lone but relentless battle under fierce antiaircraft fire and overwhelming aerial opposition. Forced lower and lower by pursuing planes, he coolly persisted in his mission of destruction. Abandoning all chance of a safe return he executed six bold ground-level attacks to demolish the enemy’s vital radio station, installations, antiaircraft guns and crews with bombs and machinegun fire, and to destroy one fighter plane in the air and three on the water. Caught in his own bomb blast, Lt. Comdr. Van Voorhis crashed into the lagoon off the beach, sacrificing himself in a single-handed fight against almost insuperable odds, to make a distinctive contribution to our continued offensive in driving the Japanese from the Solomons and, by his superb daring, courage and resoluteness of purpose, enhanced the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.


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