Teach Your Daughters To Volunteer Day
There was a Ford-built snow machine that predates Bombardier’s snowmobile patent — the Fordson Snow Devil built by putting a Fordson tractor on an Armstead Snow Motor. This did not catch on and it appears they went two different directions.
The two paths to the invention and development of the modern snowmobile (snow machine, skidoo, snow mobile) went to Carl Eliason and Armand Bombadier. Carl Eliason has to be listed as inventor of the snowmobile, since his patent is 30 years earlier than the other contender for that honor, Joseph Armand Bombardier. Carl Eliason of Sayner Wisconsin built what is basically a motorized toboggan in 1924, which was patented in 1927. The other path to development started when
Joseph Armand Bomdardier of Valcourt, Quebec built his first snow coach in the 1930s. The earliest snowmobiles were modified Ford Model Ts with the undercarriage replaced with tracks and skis. They were popular for rural mail delivery for a time.
Due to a difference in the types of snow between Wisconsin and Quebec, a different type of drive system. Enter Joseph-Armand Bombardier of the small town of Valcourt in Quebec, Canada. He invented different caterpillar track system suitable for all kinds
of snow conditions. His new revolutionary track traction system made up of a toothed wheel covered in rubber, and a rubber and cotton track that wraps around the back wheels.
Bombardier had already made some “metal” tracked vehicles since 1928, but is his first major invention and led him to become an industrialist. He started production of a large, enclosed, seven-passenger snowmobile in 1937, the B-7 and introduced another enclosed twelve-passenger model, the B-12 in 1942. It was only in 1959, when motors became lighter and smaller than before, that Bombardier invented what we know as the modern snowmobile in its open-cockpit one- or two-person form, and started selling it as the “Ski-doo”.
Deuteronomy 28:1-2 New International Version (NIV)
Blessings for Obedience
1 If you fully obey the Lord your God and carefully follow all his commands I give you today, the Lord your God will set you high above all the nations on earth. 2 All these blessings will come on you and accompany you if you obey the Lord your God:
3 You will be blessed in the city and blessed in the country.
4 The fruit of your womb will be blessed, and the crops of your land and the young of your livestock—the calves of your herds and the lambs of your flocks.
5 Your basket and your kneading trough will be blessed.
6 You will be blessed when you come in and blessed when you go out.
7 The Lord will grant that the enemies who rise up against you will be defeated before you. They will come at you from one direction but flee from you in seven.
8 The Lord will send a blessing on your barns and on everything you put your hand to. The Lord your God will bless you in the land he is giving you.
9 The Lord will establish you as his holy people, as he promised you on oath, if you keep the commands of the Lord your God and walk in obedience to him.10 Then all the peoples on earth will see that you are called by the name of the Lord, and they will fear you. 11 The Lord will grant you abundant prosperity—in the fruit of your womb, the young of your livestock and the crops of your ground—in the land he swore to your ancestors to give you.
12 The Lord will open the heavens, the storehouse of his bounty, to send rain on your land in season and to bless all the work of your hands. You will lend to many nations but will borrow from none.
“You have been instructed from your childhood in the knowledge of your lost state by nature – the absolute necessity of a change of heart and an entire renovation of soul to the image of Jesus Christ – of salvation through His meritorious righteousness only – and the indispensable necessity of personal holiness without which no man shall see the Lord [Hebrews 12:14]. You are well acquainted that the most perfect and consummate doctrinal knowledge is of no avail without it operates on and sincerely affects the heart, changes the practice, and totally influences the will – and that without the almighty power of the Spirit of God enlightening your mind, subduing your will, and continually drawing you to Himself, you can do nothing. . . . And may the God of your parents (for many generations past) seal instruction to your soul and lead you to Himself through the blood of His too greatly despised Son, Who notwithstanding, is still reclaiming the world to God through that blood, not imputing to them their sins. To Him be glory forever!”
A letter of Elias Boudinot to his daughter, Susan Boudinot, on October 30, 1782
“Never give in, never give in, never, never, never, never– in nothing, great or small, large or petty– never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense.”
~ Sir Winston Churchill
Adjective: Very small.
Noun: A very small person.
Created after Lilliput, a fictional island nation in Jonathan Swift’s satirical novel Gulliver’s Travels. Everything was diminutive in Lilliput — its inhabitants were six inches in height.
1178 BC- A solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom after the Trojan War.
73 – Masada, a Jewish fortress, falls to the Romans after several months of siege, ending the Jewish Revolt.
1503 – Christopher Columbus abandoned the garrison at Rio Belen (Panama) and sailed for home (Hispaniola) with three ships. On the way he was shipwrecked in Jamaica.
1521 – Martin Luther’s first appearance before the Diet of Worms to be examined by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the other estates of the empire.
1705 – Queen Anne of England knighted Isaac Newton.
1724 – First Easter observed.
1777 – Revolutionary War: New England’s Minute Men and Green Mountain Boys
routed British regulars at the Battle of Bennington.
1787 – “The first American play” opened, at the John Street Theater in New York City. It was written by 29-year-old Royall Tyler.
1789 – George Washington began the journey from his home at Mount Vernon to New York City, then the nation’s capital, where he would be inaugurated.
1818 – The Senate ratified Rush-Bagot amendment to form an unarmed U.S.-Canada border.
1851 – A lighthouse was swept away in a gale at Minot’s Ledge, MA.
1861 – Civil War: President Lincoln outlawed business with confederate states.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis approved conscription act for white males between 18 and 35.
1862 – Civil War: The Battle at Lee’s Mills in Virginia. This battle took place near the site of the 1781 Siege of Yorktown, the final battle of the Revolutionary War in the east.
1862 – Civil War: A bill ending slavery in the District of Columbia becomes law.
1863 – Civil War: The Siege of Vicksburg – ships led by Union Admiral David Dixon Porter move through heavy Confederate artillery fire on approach to Vicksburg, Mississippi.
1865 – Civil War: The Navy Department directed that on 17 April a gun be fired in honor of the late President Lincoln each half hour, from sunrise to sunset, that all flags be kept at half-mast until after the funeral, and that officers wear mourning crepe for six months.
1881 – In Dodge City, Kansas, Bat Masterson fights his last gun battle. His first gunfight took place in 1876 in Sweetwater, Texas.
1900 – US Post Office issues first books of postage stamps.
1905 – An endowment of a college teachers’ pension fund was established by Andrew Carnegie. He advanced the idea that the rich are merely trustees of wealth and that they have a duty to use their resources to benefit society.
1910 – The oldest existing indoor ice hockey arena still used for the sport in the 21st century, Boston Arena, opens for the first time.
1912 – Harriet Quimby becomes the first woman to fly an airplane across the English Channel.
1922 – Annie Oakley sets record by breaking 100 clay targets in a row. Annie was sixty-two years old at this event.
1922 – Belvin Maynard, better known as the ‘Flying Parson’, gave his first sermon from an airplane. In 1919 in France, Maynard set a world record by completing 318 outside loops in a sopwith Pup.
1926 – The new Book of the Month Club sent out its 1st selection: “Lolly Willows or The Loving Huntsman” by Sylvia Townsend Warner. It went to nearly 5,000 members who had joined the Club.
1929 – Cleveland Indian Earl Averill, becomes first in the American League to hit a homerun on first at bat.
1929 – New York Yankees become first team to use numbers on uniforms.
1935 – First radio broadcast of “Fibber McGee & Molly.” This was a situation comedy radio show that was broadcast from 1935-1959 on the National Broadcasting Company.
1935 – Babe Ruth’s first National League game, for Boston Braves, included a homerun.
1940 – Cleveland Indian Bob Feller hurls an opening day no-hitter vs Chicago.
1941 – Bob Feller of the Cleveland Indians throws the only Opening Day no-hitter in the history of Major League Baseball, beating the Chicago White Sox 1-0.
1943 – Dr. Albert Hofmann discovers the psychedelic effects of LSD.
1944 – World War II: The destroyer USS Laffey survived immense damage from attacks by 22 Japanese aircraft off Okinawa.
1944 – World War II: The Coast Guard-manned destroyer escort (DE) USS Joyce, along with her sister ship USS Peterson and a Navy DE sank the U-550 off New York after the U-boat torpedoed a tanker that was part of a convoy.
1945 – World War II: The United States Army liberates Nazi Sonderlager (high security) Prisoner of War camp Oflag IV-C (better known as Colditz Castle).
1945 – World War II: More than 7,000 die when the German refugee ship Goya is sunk by a Soviet submarine torpedo.
1945 – World War II: American troops entered Nuremberg, Germany.
1945 – World War II: US troops landed on He Shima, Okinawa.
1945 – World War II: American forces land on Fort Frank and find it abandoned. This completes the capture of the islands in Manila Bay.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh, What It Seemed to Be” by The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Marjorie Hughes), “You Won’t Be Satisfied” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day), “Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief” by Betty Hutton and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1946 – First US launch of captured V-2 rocket, White Sands NM; 5 miles altitude.
1946 – On Opening Day in Boston with the Braves vs. the Brooklyn Dodgers, the newly painted seats had not yet dried when guests seated themselves. The Braves management picked up the cleaning tab for all.
1947 – In Texas City, TX, the French ship Grandcamp, carrying ammonium nitrate fertilizer, caught fire and blew up. The explosions and resulting fires killed 576 people.
1947 – Bernard Baruch coins the term “Cold War” to describe the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union.
1947 – Act of Congress gives Navy Nurse Corps members commissioned rank.
1948 – First televised baseball game, WGN-TV, (White Sox vs Cubs exhibition).
1949 – “Cruising Down the River“ by Blue Barron topped the charts.
1951 – General and Mrs. MacArthur departed Haneda Airport for the United States. Nearly 500,000 Japanese turned out to say goodbye.
1953 – During the Battle of Pork Chop Hill, the 17th and 31st Infantry Regiments of the 7th Infantry Division were hit hard by the Communist Chinese and sustained heavy casualties.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wanted” by Perry Como, “Cross Over the Bridge” by Patti Page, “Here” by Tony Martin and “Slowly” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1955 – “Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes topped the charts.
1956 – ABC premiered the TV show “Rhythm on Parade.”
1956 – Buddy Holly released his first single, “Blue Days, Black Nights.”
1956 – First solar powered radios go on sale. The $60 radio was small (about 3 x 9 x 10 in.) and weighed only 5.25 pounds. The $185 auxiliary Sun Power Pak provided electrical power from sunlight using a silicon “solar cell element.”
1958 – Arnold Palmer won his first Masters golf tournament.
1959 – New York Yankees unveil their first message scoreboard.
1960 – Theme from “A Summer Place“ by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1961 – In a nationally broadcast speech, Cuban leader Fidel Castro declares that he is a Marxist–Leninist and that Cuba is going to adopt Communism.
1961- Pres. Kennedy called off the CIA air strikes in Cuba. The message did not reach the 1,511 commandos headed for the Bay of Pigs.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Johnny Angel” by Shelley Fabares, “Good Luck Charm” by Elvis Presley, “Slow Twistin’ “ by Chubby Checker and “She’s Got You” by Patsy Cline all topped the charts.
1962 – Walter Cronkite succeeded Douglas Edwards as anchorman of “The CBS Evening News.” During this time he became “the most trusted man in America”.
1963 – Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. pens his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail while incarcerated in Birmingham, Alabama for protesting against segregation.
1964 – Great Train Robbery – Twelve men are sentenced to a total of 307 years.
1965 – The Hollies opened their first tour of the U.S. at the Brooklyn Paramount theater in New York.
1966 – “(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration“ by the Righteous Brothers topped the charts.
1968 – Baseball’s longest night game to date was completed. The Astros score an unearned run in the 24th inning to squeeze by the Mets 1-0 after six hours and six minutes.
1968 – Vietnam War: The Pentagon announced that troops would begin coming home from Vietnam.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Let It Be” by The Beatles, “ABC” by The Jackson 5, “Spirit in the Sky” by Norman Greenbaum and “Tennessee Bird Walk” by Jack Blanchard & Misty Morgan all topped the charts.
1972 – Apollo program: The launch of Apollo 16 from Cape Canaveral, Florida.
1972 – Vietnam War: Nguyen Hue Offensive – prompted by the North Vietnamese offensive, the United States resumes the bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong.
1977 – “Don’t Give Up on Us” by David Soul topped the charts.
1977 – The ban on women attending West Point was lifted.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Night Fever” by the Bee Gees, “Stayin’ Alive” by the Bee Gees, “Lay Down Sally” by Eric Clapton and “Someone Loves You Honey” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1980 – Arthur Ashe retires from professional tennis following quadruple bypass surgery.
1983 – Steve Garvey sets National League record by playing in 1,118 consecutive games.
1983 – “Billie Jean” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1985 – Mickey Mantle was reinstated after being banned from baseball for several years.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Me Amadeus” by Falco, “Kiss” by Prince & The Revolution, “Manic Monday” by Bangles and “She and I” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1987 – The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) sternly warned U.S. radio stations to watch the use of indecent language on the airwaves.
1987 – Michael Jordan, becomes 2nd NBA to score 3000 points in a season. Wilt Chamberlain was first in 1963.
1988 – “Get Outta My Dreams, Get Into My Car” by Billy Ocean topped the charts.
1990 – The “Doctor of Death”, Jack Kevorkian, goes through with his first assisted suicide.
1990 – The Supreme Court rejected appeals by Dalton Prejean, a nearly retarded man, who was condemned to die for the 1977 murder of a Louisiana state trooper. Prejean was executed the following month.
1990 – The Supreme Court let stand a ban on school dances in the Bible Belt town of Purdy, Mo.
1991 – President Bush announced that US forces would be sent into northern Iraq to assist Kurdish refugees.
1992 – The House Ethics Committee listed 303 current and former lawmakers who had overdrawn their House bank accounts.
1993 – A jury reached guilty verdict in the Federal case against cop who beat Rodney King, but the verdict was not read until April 17th.
1995 – George W. Bush names April 16 as Selena Day in Texas, after she was killed two weeks earlier.
1996 – Oprah Winfrey hosted her evening show and included a segment on mad cow disease. A group of Texas cattle ranchers later sued her for her comments.
1998 – Paula Jones announced she would ask an appeals court to reinstate her sexual harassment lawsuit against President Clinton after it was thrown out by a federal judge.
1998 – Tornadoes claimed eleven lives in Arkansas, Tennessee and Kentucky.
1999 – Shania Twain became the first woman to be named as songwriter/artist of the year by the Nashville Songwriters Association International.
1999 – Wayne Gretzky, hockey star of the New York Rangers, announced his retirement.
2002 – The U.S. Supreme Court overturned major parts of a 1996 child pornography law based on rights to free speech.
2003 – Michael Jordan played his last NBA game with the Washington Wizards, who lost to the Philadelphia 76ers, 107-87.
2003 – In the 29th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom Shooting in Mosul killed three people and wounded at least 11 and some Iraqis blamed US troops. War casualties totaled 121 US soldiers with sixteen from friendly fire.
2003 – Colorado Republican Gov. Bill Owens signed a law that established the first state school voucher program.
2004 – The super liner Queen Mary 2 embarks on her first Trans-Atlantic crossing, linking the golden age of ocean travel to the modern age of ocean travel.
2004 – Videotape broadcast on the Arab TV station Al-Jazeera showed Army Pvt. 1st Class Keith M. Maupin, abducted during an attack on a fuel truck convoy near Baghdad a week earlier. Arab television reported June 29, 2004, that Maupin had been killed; he is listed as missing by the U.S. military.
2005 – Authorities in Hillsborough County, Fla., found the body of missing 13-year-old Sarah Michelle Lunde. A suspect, David Lee Onstott, was later charged with her murder.
2007 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: The deadliest mass shooting in modern American history in a dorm and classroom at Virginia Tech left 32 people dead. Two people died in a dorm room, and 31 others were killed in Norris Hall, including the gunman, who put a bullet in his head. At least fifteen people were hurt, some seriously. The gunman was Seung-Hui Cho.
2007 – The board overseeing operations at the Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport ruled that taxi drivers who refuse service to travelers carrying alcohol face tougher penalties despite protests from Muslim cabbies who sought a compromise for religious reasons.
2008 – Start of Papal Journey of Pope Benedict XVI to the United States.
2008 – The US government reported plans to begin collecting DNA samples from anyone arrested by a federal law enforcement agency.
2008 – The US Supreme Court ruled that the combination of drugs used in the death chambers of most states does not create a substantial risk of severe pain and therefore is constitutional.
2008 – Computer consultant John Schiefer (26) pleaded guilty in Los Angeles to raiding hundreds of thousands of computers with spyware to steal users’ identities and commit fraud.
2008 – In Oklahoma, Custer County Sheriff Mike Burgess (56) resigned just as state prosecutors filed thirty-five felony charges against him, including fourteen counts of second-degree rape, seven counts of forcible oral sodomy and five counts of bribery by a public official.
2009 – In Sacramento, Ca., a tent city of some 150 homeless people was closed. It had been around for close to a decade on a strip of land between the American River and a power company.
2009 – President Barack Obama announced his decision not to prosecute CIA operatives who used interrogation practices described by many as torture. He condemned the aggressive techniques, including waterboarding, shackling and stripping, used on terror suspects while promising not to legally pursue the perpetrators.
2009 – In California pharmacy worker Mario Ramirez (50) showed up at the Long Beach Memorial Medical Center and shot Hugo Bustamante (46) and Kelly Hales (56) before turning the gun on himself and pulling the trigger.
2009 – In Middletown, Maryland, Christopher Alan Wood (34) killed his wife (33) and 3 children, then himself, in their home, leaving a gruesome scene that authorities said was found by the children’s’ grandfather on April 18.
2010 – Gary Jackson, former president of the US private security firm, Blackwater Worldwide (Xe Services LLC), and four other former workers are indicted on federal weapons charges.
2010 – The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission charges Goldman Sachs with defrauding investors.
2011 – Tornadoes kill several people in North Carolina and South Carolina with storms killing at least 20 people over the past few days.
2012 – Jeff Neeley, the General Services Administration official at the center of a scandal over lavish government spending declined to answer questions at a congressional hearing today invoking the Fifth Amendment.
2013 – In 1942 the 80 men of Doolittle’s Raiders bombed Tokyo in death-defying mission, retaliation for Pearl Harbor. Today, the last four will toast the raid. A case of 80 goblets is brought to their annual reunions. When a Raider dies a cup is upended. This year, there are four left. They’ll toast the Raiders with aged cognac, and end reunions.
2013 – Mail to the US Senate is suspended after letter sent to U.S. Senator Roger Wicker (R-MS) tests positive for the poisonous substance ricin at an offsite Congressional mail facility. The letter is being sent to the FBI Laboratory in Quantico, Virginia, for further testing.
2013 – Gospel singer George Beverly Shea died at the age of 104, following a brief illness.
2013 – A team of well-coordinated snipers attacked a PG&E Corp’s Metcalf substation located near Silicon Valley in California. For 19 minutes, they fired strategically placed shots that ended in 17 major transformers becoming non-functional.
2151 – Today in StarTrek future History: In 2151, USS Enterprise NX-01 will launch from Warp 5 Complex in Bozeman, Montana.
1495 – Petrus Apianus, German mathematician (d. 1557) was a German humanist, famous for his works in mathematics, astronomy and cartography. The crater Apianus on the Moon is named in his honor.
1867 – Wilbur Wright, American aviation pioneer (d. 1912)
1886 – Margaret Woodrow Wilson, American daughter of Woodrow Wilson (d. 1944)
1889 – Charlie Chaplin, English actor, director, producer, screenwriter, and composer (d. 1977)
1907 – Joseph-Armand Bombardier, French-Canadian inventor of the snowmobile and businessman (Bombardier) (d. 1964)
1924 – Henry Mancini, American composer (d. 1994)
1924 – Rudy Pompilli, American saxophonist (Bill Haley & His Comets) (d. 1976)
1927 – Edie Adams, American actress
1935 – Bobby Vinton, American singer
1939 – Dusty Springfield, English singer and producer (The Lana Sisters and The Springfields) (d. 1999)
1947 – Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, American basketball player
1952 – Bill Belichick, American football coach
1956 – David McDowell Brown, American captain, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2003)
1965 – Martin Lawrence, American actor
1971 – Peter Billingsley, American actor
1971 – Selena (Quintanilla), American singer ( murdered at age 23 on March 31, 1995)
1981 – Jake Scott, American football player
*INGALLS, GEORGE ALAN
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 5th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and date: Near Duc Pho, Republic of Vietnam, April 16th, 1967. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif. Born: 9 March 1946, Hanford, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Ingalls, a member of Company A, accompanied his squad on a night ambush mission. Shortly after the ambush was established, an enemy soldier entered the killing zone and was shot when he tried to evade capture. Other enemy soldiers were expected to enter the area, and the ambush was maintained in the same location. Two quiet hours passed without incident, then suddenly a hand grenade was thrown from the nearby dense undergrowth into the center of the squad’s position. The grenade did not explode, but shortly thereafter a second grenade landed directly between Sp4c. Ingalls and a nearby comrade. Although he could have jumped to a safe position, Sp4c. Ingalls, in a spontaneous act of great courage, threw himself on the grenade and absorbed its full blast. The explosion mortally wounded Sp4c. Ingalls, but his heroic action saved the lives of the remaining members of his squad. His gallantry and selfless devotion to his comrades are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflects great credit upon Sp4c. Ingalls, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
DEWEY, DUANE E.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Company E, 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Near Panmunjon, Korea, April 16th, 1952. Entered service at: Muskegon, Mich. Born: 16 November 1931, Grand Rapids, Mich. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a gunner in a machine gun platoon of Company E, in action against enemy aggressor forces. When an enemy grenade landed close to his position while he and his assistant gunner were receiving medical attention for their wounds during a fierce night attack by numerically superior hostile forces, Cpl. Dewey, although suffering intense pain, immediately pulled the Corpsman to the ground and, shouting a warning to the other Marines around him. bravely smothered the deadly missile with his body, personally absorbing the full force of the explosion to save his fellow Marines from possible injury or death. His indomitable courage, outstanding initiative, and valiant efforts in behalf of others in the face of almost certain death reflect the highest credit upon Cpl. Dewey and enhance the finest traditions of the United States Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service.
BUSH, RICHARD EARL
Rank and organization: Corporal, U .S. Marine Corps Reserve, 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, 6th Marine Division. Place and date: Mount Yaetake on Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, April 16th, 1945. Entered service at: Kentucky. Born: 23 December 1923, Glasgow, Ky. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a squad leader serving with the 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, 6th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces, during the final assault against Mount Yaetake on Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 16 April 1945. Rallying his men forward with indomitable determination, Cpl. Bush boldly defied the slashing fury of concentrated Japanese artillery fire pouring down from the gun-studded mountain fortress to lead his squad up the face of the rocky precipice, sweep over the ridge, and drive the defending troops from their deeply entrenched position. With his unit, the first to break through to the inner defense of Mount Yaetake, he fought relentlessly in the forefront of the action until seriously wounded and evacuated with others under protecting rocks. Although prostrate under medical treatment when a Japanese hand grenade landed in the midst of the group, Cpl. Bush, alert and courageous in extremity as in battle, unhesitatingly pulled the deadly missile to himself and absorbed the shattering violence of the exploding charge in his body, thereby saving his fellow Marines from severe injury or death despite the certain peril to his own life. By his valiant leadership and aggressive tactics in the face of savage opposition, Cpl. Bush contributed materially to the success of the sustained drive toward the conquest of this fiercely defended outpost of the Japanese Empire. His constant concern for the welfare of his men, his resolute spirit of self-sacrifice, and his unwavering devotion to duty throughout the bitter conflict enhance and sustain the highest traditions of the United States Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service.
BATES, NORMAN F.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 4th Iowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Vermont. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and bearer.
BEBB, EDWARD J.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 4th Iowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Henry County, Iowa. Birth: Butler County, Ohio. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
BIRDSALL, HORATIO L.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 3d Iowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Keokuk, Lee County, Iowa. Birth: Monroe County, N.Y. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and bearer.
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 4th lowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Wapello, Louisa County, lowa. Birth: Dunkirk County, N.Y. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag in a personal encounter with its bearer.
HAYS, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 4th lowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Oskaloosa, Mahaska County, lowa. Birth: Jefferson County, Ohio. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and bearer Austin’s Battery (C.S.A.).
HOLTON, EDWARD A.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company I, 6th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Lees Mills, Va., April 16th, 1862. Entered service at: Williston, Vt. Birth: Westminster, Vt. Date of issue: 9 July 1892. Citation: Rescued the colors of his regiment under heavy fire, the color bearer having been shot down while the troops were in retreat.
LEONARD, WILLIAM E.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 85th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Deep Bottom, Va., April 16th, 1864. Entered service at: Jacksonville, Pa. Birth: Greene County, Pa. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag.
MORGAN, RICHARD H.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 4th lowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Taylor, Freemont County, lowa. Birth: Dubois County, Ind. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag inside the enemy’s works, contesting for its possession with its bearer.
PINGREE, SAMUEL E.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company F, 3d Vermont Infantry Place and date: Lees Mills, Va., April 16th, 1862. Entered service at. Hartford, Vt. Birth: Salisbury, N.H. Date of issue: 17 August 1891. Citation: Gallantly led his company across a wide, deep creek, drove the enemy from the rifle pits, which were within two yards of the farther bank, and remained at the head of his men until a second time severely wounded.
SCOTT, JULIAN A.
Rank and organization: Drummer, Company E, 3d Vermont Infantry. Place and date. At Lees Mills, Va., April 16th, 1862. Entered service at. Johnson, Vt. Birth: Johnson, Vt. Date of issue: February 1865. Citation: Crossed the creek under a terrific fire of musketry several times to assist in bringing off the wounded.
TIBBETS, ANDREW W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 3d lowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Appanoose County, lowa. Birth: Clark County, Ind. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and bearer, Austin’s Battery (C.S.A.).
The Short History ot the Income Tax
From its very infancy this nation had very few taxes. They had just come out of a very long and bad time where the Britishm taxed the colonists excessively and finally started using those taxes as a weapon. The Constitution passed in 1789 and from 1791 to 1802, the government was supported by internal taxes on items such as distilled spirits, carriages, refined sugar, tobacco and snuff, property sold at auction, corporate bonds, and slaves. The huge cost of the War of 1812 added to that list our first official sales taxes and it was on gold, silverware, jewelry, and watches. That worked so well tha by 1817 Congress did away with all internal taxesand they relied only upon tariffs on imported goods to provide the necessary funds to run the government. The first income tax law was not passed until 1862 to support the CIVIL WAR. Its design was later used by Progressives to make this a permanent part of our government’s tax structure. It had all the parts that we now see. It had the principles of graduated, or progressive, taxation and of withholding income at the source. It was the Act of 1862 that formed this first tax collection and appointed a government official to head it. The Commissioner of Internal Revenue was given the power “to assess, levy, and collect taxes, and the right to enforce the tax laws through seizure of property and income and through prosecution.” The powers and authority remain very much the same today. It was never designed to be taxpayer or citizen friendly. The income tax was eliminated in 1872 and Congress focused on tobacco and distilled spirits. It did have a short revival in 1894 and 1895. In 1895, though, the U.S. Supreme Court decided that the income tax was unconstitutional because it was not apportioned among the states in conformity with the Constitution. The country then entered a time of being controlled by Progressives and as a result, in 1913, the 16th Amendment to the Constitution was passed The amendment gave Congress legal authority to tax income and resulted in a revenue law that taxed incomes of both individuals and corporations. The withholding tax on wages was introduced in 1943 prior to this the tax was “voluntary.” The Tax Reform Act of 1986 was passed on Oct. 22, 1986 by President Ronald Reagan and it was one of the most far-reaching reforms of the United States tax system since it was adopted. The top tax rate on individual income was lowered from 50% to 28%, the lowest it had been since 1916. Tax preferences were eliminated to make up most of the revenue. Following was an almost a yearly tradition of new tax acts that began in 1986. We saw tax acts passed in 1987, 1988, 1989 and then the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990 was signed into law. With a Democrat House and Senate, the emphasis of the 1990 act was increased taxes on the wealthy. In 1993, President Clinton signed the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1993. The act’s purpose was to reduce by approximately $496 billion the federal deficit that would otherwise accumulate in fiscal years 1994 through 1998. The joke of the day was that President Clinton’s 1040 asked only one question, “How much did you make?’ followed by one instruction: “Send it in.”
President George W. Bush signed a series of tax cuts into law. The largest was the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001. It was estimated to save taxpayers $1.3 trillion over ten years, making it the third largest tax cut since World War II. The Bush tax cut created a new lowest rate, 10% for the first several thousand dollars earned. It also established a slow schedule of incremental tax cuts that would eventually double the child tax credit from $500 to $1,000, adjust brackets so that middle-income couples owed the same tax as comparable singles, cut the top four tax rates (28% to 25%; 31% to 28%; 36% to 33%; and 39.6% to 35%). Two tax bills signed in 2005 and 2006 extended through 2010 the favorable rates on capital gains and dividends that had been enacted in 2003, raised the exemption levels for the Alternative Minimum Tax, and enacted new tax incentives designed to persuade individuals to save more for retirement. Our tax laws have become a convoluted mess and no one really knows what it says anymore. There is a strong voice among the citizenry to eliminate this for of taxation.
Joshua 1:7-8 New International Version (NIV)
7 “Be strong and very courageous. Be careful to obey all the law my servant Moses gave you; do not turn from it to the right or to the left, that you may be successful wherever you go. 8 Keep this Book of the Law always on your lips;meditate on it day and night, so that you may be careful to do everything written in it. Then you will be prosperous and successful.
“But you must remember, my fellow-citizens, that eternal vigilance by the people is the price of liberty, and that you must pay the price if you wish to secure the blessing. It behooves you, therefore, to be watchful in your States as well as in the Federal Government.”
— Andrew Jackson, Farewell Address, March 4, 1837
“Have great hopes and dare to go all out for them. Have great dreams and dare to live for them. Have tremendous expectations and believe in them.”
~ Norman Vincent Peale
bifurcate BY-fur-kayt; by-FUR-kayt,transitive verb: To divide into two branches or parts. intransitive verb: To branch or separate into two parts. adjective: 1. Divided into two branches or parts; forked. Bifurcate comes from the past participle of Medieval Latin bifurcare, “to divide,” from Latin bifurcus, “two-pronged,” from bi- + furca, “fork.”
1493-Columbus meets with King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella. When he arrived at Barcelona, seven of the natives Columbus took with him were baptized before Isabella and Ferdinand.
1715 – Pocotaligo Massacre triggers the start of the Yamasee War in colonial South Carolina.
1738 – Bottle opener invented.
1755 – Samuel Johnson’s A Dictionary of the English Language published in London. After 9 years of work, the first edition had 42,773 entries. This was the dictionary in use by our Founding Fathers.
1783 – Preliminary articles of peace ending Revolutionary War ratified.
1791 – Surveyor General Andrew Ellicott consecrated the southern tip of the triangular District of Columbia at Jones Point.
1794 – “Courrier Francais” became the first French daily newspaper to be published in the U.S.
1802 – William Wordsworth and his sister, Dorothy see a “long belt” of daffodils, inspiring the former to pen I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud.
1813 – War of 1812 – U.S. troops under James Wilkinson sieged the Spanish-held city of Mobile in future state of Alabama.
1817 – First American school for the deaf opens in Hartford CT. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc founded the American School for the Deaf.
1850 – The city of San Francisco was incorporated.
1854 – The immigrant steamer ship “Powchattan” (Powhattan) struck Brigantine Shoals and sank off Long Beach, NY. Over 300 people died.
1861 – Civil War: Three days after the attack on Fort Sumter, S.C., President Lincoln declared a state of insurrection and called out 75,000 Union troops.
1864 – Civil War: General Steele’s Union troops occupied Camden, Arkansas.
1865 – Civil War: Abraham Lincoln dies after being shot the previous evening by John Wilkes Booth with a .44 caliber derringer. Andrew Johnson is then sworn in as the 17th President of the United States.
1871 – “Wild Bill” Hickok became the marshal of Abilene, Kansas.
1874 – New York legislature passes compulsory education law. All children between the ages of 8 and 14 must be educated in spelling, reading, writing, English grammar, geography and arithmetic at least 14 weeks a year.
1877 – First telephone installed Boston-Somerville MA.
1878 – Harley Procter introduces Ivory Soap.
1885 – Naval forces land at Panama to protect American interests during revolution.
1889 – A marshal’s posse killed and captured a group of Sooners, settlers who stole onto the Public Domain territory in Oklahoma in hopes of claiming it legally, just nine days before the official start of the land rush.
1892 – The General Electric Company is formed.
1896 – First Olympic games close at Athens, Greece.
1899 – Thomas Edison organized the Edison Portland Cement Company.
1900 – Philippine–American War: Filipino guerrillas launch a surprise attack on U.S. infantry and begin a four-day siege of Catubig, Philippines.
1907 – Triangle Fraternity was founded at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. It was a social fraternity, limiting its recruitment of members to male students majoring in engineering, architecture, and the physical, mathematical, biological, and computer sciences.
1910 – Jolly Trixie, aka Miss Kitty Plunkett, was arrested for allegedly violating the Penal Code. She was accused of being deformed and exhibiting her deformity in a Fillmore Street show house. Plunkett said she weighed only 585 pounds as opposed to the alleged 685 pounds. Two physicians testified that she was perfectly symmetrical.
1911 – Walter Johnson pitches a record-tying four strike outs in an inning.
1912 – The British passenger liner, the RMS Titanic, sinks in the North Atlantic, after hitting an iceberg two and a half hours earlier, the previous day. It sank at 2:27 AM in North Atlantic as the band played on. 1,517 people died and more than 700 people survived.
1918 – First Marine Aviation Force formed at Marine Flying Field, Miami, FL.
1919 – Jane Arminda Delano (b.1862), founder of the American Red Cross Nursing Service, died in France while on a Red Cross mission and was buried there. She was posthumously awarded the US Distinguished Service Medal, the first female recipient.
1920 – Two security guards are killed during a mid-afternoon armed robbery of a shoe company in South Braintree, Massachusetts. Anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti were convicted and both were executed in August 1927.
1922 – Wall Street Journal reported an unprecedented secret arrangement in which the Secretary of the Interior, John B. Kendrick of Wyoming introduces a resolution calling for an investigation of secret land deal without competitive bidding, had leased the U.S. naval petroleum reserve at Wyoming’s Teapot Dome to a private oil company.
1922 – Insulin is discovered by Frederick Banting, John MacLeod & Charles Best.
1923 – Insulin becomes generally available for use by diabetics.
1923 – Dr. Lee DeForest demonstrates Phonofilm. The first Phonofilm, sound-on-sound film, motion picture, was demonstrated for a by-invitation-only audience at the Rivoli Theatre in New York City.
1924 – Rand McNally publishes its first road atlas.
1927 – The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, the most destructive river flood in U.S. history, begins. The flood began when heavy rains pounded the central basin of the Mississippi in the summer of 1926. By September, the Mississippi’s tributaries in Kansas and Iowa were swollen to capacity. The flood affected Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas. Arkansas was hardest hit, with 14% of its territory covered by floodwaters.
1931 – The first walk across America backwards began. Plennie L. Wingo walked backwards from Santa Monica, California to Istanbul, Turkey (about 8,000 miles) from April 15, 1931 to October 24, 1932, approximately 8,000 miles.
1934 – Dagwood and Blondie Bumstead welcomed a baby boy, Alexander.
1940 – World War II:The Allies begin their attack on the Norwegian town of Narvik which is occupied by Nazi Germany.
1941 – First helicopter flight of one hour duration, Stratford CT.
1941 – World War II: In the Belfast Blitz, two-hundred bombers of the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) attack Belfast, Northern Ireland killing one thousand people.
1942 – World War II:The George Cross is awarded to “to the island fortress of Malta – its people and defenders” by King George VI. It is the highest civil decoration of the United Kingdom, and also holds, or has held, that status in many other countries.
1943 – World War II: An Allied bomber attack misses the Minerva automobile factory and hits the Belgian town of Mortsel instead, killing 936 civilians.
1943 – World War II: US forces prepare for an invasion of the Aleutian Island, Attu, held by the Japanese. The US 7th Division, preparing for deployment in North Africa, is earmarked for the operation.
1944 – U.S. plans Operation Wedlock, an invasion of the Kurile Islands of northern Japan. There was no invasion–or a Ninth Fleet. It was all a ruse to divert Japanese attention away from the Marianas Islands, the Allies’ true target.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Dreams are Getting Better All the Time” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day), “I’m Beginning to See the Light” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “Candy” by Johnny Mercer & Jo Stafford and “Smoke on the Water” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: The Bergen-Belsen concentration camp is liberated.
1945 – World War II: US troops occupied the concentration camp at Colditz.
1945 – World War II: Commenting on the death of American President Franklin Roosevelt in his Order of the Day, Adolf Hitler proclaimed: “Now that fate has removed from the earth the greatest war criminal of all time, the turning point of this war will be decided.”
1945 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt was buried on the grounds of his Hyde Park home.
1946 – Manager Mel Ott of Giants hits 511th & final homerun.
1947 – Jackie Robinson debuts for the Brooklyn Dodgers, breaking baseball’s color line. He goes hitless in his first game.
1950 – “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton topped the charts.
1951 – The first episode of the “Adventures of Wild Bill Hickok” (24:35) radio show aired.
1952 – President Harry Truman signed the official Japanese peace treaty.
1952 – The maiden flight of the B-52 Stratofortress. History
1952 – Franklin National Bank issues first bank credit card. This followed two other banking innovations such as Junior savings accounts (1947) and the drive up teller window (1950). Following these the bank instituted a no-smoking policy on banking floors (1958) and installed outdoor teller machines at branch banks (1968).
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Believe” by Frankie Laine, “Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page, “Till I Waltz Again with You” by Teresa Brewer and “Your Cheatin’ Heart” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – Charlie Chaplin surrendered his U.S. re-entry permit rather than face proceedings by the U.S. Justice Department. Chaplin was accused of sympathizing with Communist groups.
1954 – Orioles first game in Baltimore; beat White Sox 3-1.
1955 – Ray Kroc opens his first franchise of McDonald’s restaurant in Des Plaines, Illinois.
1956 – The worlds’ first, all-color TV station was dedicated. It was WNBQ-TV in Chicago and is now WMAQ-TV.
1957 – Saturday mail delivery restored after Congress gives Post Office $41 million.
1958 – First MLB baseball game in California. The San Francisco Giants defeat the Los Angeles Dodgers in Seals Stadium, with Ruben Gomez pitching an 8-0 shutout.
1958 – Buddy Holly’s Fender Stratocaster guitar was stolen at a St. Louis concert.
1959 – Cuban leader Fidel Castro began a U.S. goodwill tour.
1960 – At Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina, Ella Baker leads a conference that results in the creation of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, one of the principal organizations of the African-American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.
1961 – Launching of first nuclear-powered frigate, USS Bainbridge, at Quincy, MA.
1961 – “Music Man” closed at Majestic Theater in New York City after 1,375 performances.
1964 – The first Ford Mustang rolls off the show room floor, two days before it is set to go on sale nationwide.
1964 – Chesapeake Bay Bridge opens. Following its opening the Bridge-Tunnel was selected “One of the Seven Engineering Wonders of the Modern World.”
1966 – Buffalo Springfield performed for the first time as the opening act for The Byrds in San Bernadino, CA.
1967 – “Somethin’ Stupid” by Nancy & Frank Sinatra topped the charts.
1967 – Richard Speck was found guilty of murdering eight student nurses.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Aquarius/Let the Sun Shine In” by The 5th Dimension, “You’ve Made Me So Very Happy” by Blood, Sweat & Tears, “Galveston” by Glen Campbell and “Woman of the World (Leave My World Alone)” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1969 – Archie Bell of the Drells was released from military service after a tour of Vietnam.
1969 – North Korea shot down a US airplane above the Sea of Japan. All 31 men aboard the plane were believed dead.
1971 – Vietnam War: North Vietnamese troops ambushed a company of Delta Raiders from the 101st Airborne Division near Fire Support Base Bastogne in Vietnam. The American troops were on a rescue mission.
1972 – “The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face” by Roberta Flack topped the charts.
1974 – SLA members including Patty Hearst robbed the Sunset Branch of the Hibernia Bank in San Francisco of more than $10,000. While fleeing they wounded two people passing by.
1975 – First appearance of the San Diego Chicken. The Chicken was born when Ted Giannoulas, a 5-foot 3-inch college student majoring in journalism in San Diego State took a job for a radio station in 1974 to dress up as a chicken and deliver Easter eggs at the San Diego Zoo.
1975 – Karen Ann Quinlan went into a coma after drinking several gin-and-tonics on top of a mild tranquilizer. She lived in a coma for over 10 more years.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dancing Queen” by Abba, “Don’t Give Up on Us” by David Soul, “Don’t Leave Me This Way” by Thelma Houston and “Lucille” by Kenny Rogers all topped the charts.
1978 – “Night Fever” by The Bee Gees topped the charts.
1980 – The Mariel boatlift officially began. When it ended on Oct 31, some 207,000 refugees entered the US of which 125,000 were Cubans.
1981 – Janet Cooke said her Pulitzer awardwinning story about an 8-year-old heroin addict was a lie. The Washington Post returned the Pulitzer Prize over the fabricated story.
1982 – Billy Joel was seriously hurt in a motorcycle accident on Long Island, New York.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “We are the World” by USA for Africa, “Crazy for You” by Madonna, “Nightshift” by the Commodores and “Honor Bound” by Earl Thomas Conley all topped the charts.
1986 – The United States launches Operation El Dorado Canyon against Libya. The United States bombing of Libya comprised of joint United States Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps air-strikes. The attack was in response to the bombing of a discotheque in Berlin on April 5, 1986.
1987 – Alfred Uhry’s “Driving Miss Daisy,” premieres in New York City.
1989 – “She Drives Me Crazy” by Fine Young Cannibals topped the charts.
1991 – Magic Johnson sets NBA record for career assists with 9,898.
1992 – Hotel magnate Leona Helmsley began serving a prison sentence for tax evasion. She was released from prison after 18 months.
1995 – “This is How We Do It” by Montell Jordan topped the charts.
1996 – Funeral services were held in Pescadero, Calif., for Jessica Dubroff, the 7-year-old girl who died trying to become the youngest person to fly across America.
1997 – Baseball honors Jackie Robinson by retiring #42 for all teams.
1998 – In San Francisco a Superior Court judge ordered the immediate closure of the Cannabis Cultivator’s Club, the nation’s largest dispenser of medicinal pot. 1999 – Astronomers announced that three planets had been detected orbiting the star Upsilon Andromedae some 44 light-years away.
1999 – MASS SHOOTING: In Salt Lake City, Utah, Sergei Babarin (70) entered the Mormon Church’s Family History Library and opened fire. He killed two people, Patricia Frengs of Pleasant Hill, Ca. and security guard Donald Thomas (62). He wounded four others and was shot dead by police.
2000 – In California Pres. Clinton created Giant Sequoia National Monument in Sequoia National Park. It protected 328,000 acres and 34 groves of Sequoias from timber harvest.
2000 – Cal Ripken of the Baltimore Orioles became the 24th player to reach three-thousand hits when he lined a clean single to center off Twins reliever Hector Carrasco. The Orioles won the game, 6-to-4.
2002 – In Washington DC thousands of Jews and supporters of Israel gathered for a “National Solidarity Rally.”
2003 – In the 28th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom selected Iraqi leaders met with retired US Lt. Gen. Jay Garner to shape a new government with 13 goals, the 1st being “Iraq must be democratic.”
2003 – Seven Iraqis died when American troops opened fire to keep an angry crowd from storming a government complex in Mosul. US troops in Baghdad arrested Abu Abbas, head of the Palestinian terrorist group that attacked the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro in 1985.
2007 – Scientists unveiled the world’s tiniest eyedropper, capable of squeezing out zeptoliter droplets. A zeptoliter is one billionth of one trillionth of a liter and contains about 10,000 atoms.
2009 – Pres. Obama directed the US Treasury Dept. to seize assets of three Mexican drug cartels including the Sinaloa cartel, the Los Zetas cartel and the La Familia Michoacan group.
2009 – In Washington, DC, the FBI arrested Walter Kendall Myers (72) and his wife, Gwendolyn (71), for spying. For three decades, Myers and his wife had shuffled secrets to their Cuban contacts.
2010 – A federal district court in Wisconsin ruled on Thursday that the National Day of Prayer is unconstitutional, a decision that has angered a constitutional law firm that filed an amicus brief defending the National Day of Prayer.
2011 – US health officials report that 21 players on 13 National Basketball Association teams were sickened with the novovirus stomach virus last fall including Dwight Howard of the Orlando Magic.
2011 – Wildfires in Texas, United States destroy dozens of homes and kill a firefighter.
2012 – Events and ceremonies are held around the world marking the 100th anniversary of the sinking of the RMS Titanic.
2012 – The U.S. Secret Service announces it has put eleven agents on leave while it investigates alleged “inappropriate conduct” in Cartagena, Colombia.
2013 – TERRORIST ATTACK: Two explosions rocked the finish line of the Boston Marathon. There were two booms heard from near the finish line inside the Fairmount Copley Plaza Hotel. “It happened around 2:45 p.m. outside Marathon Sports on Boylston Street, according to WBZ-TV’s Lisa Hughes, who was near the scene covering the marathon.” More than 120 people were injured, three dead and 15 of the injured have missing limbs. Of the 23,326 runners who started the race on Monday, 17,584 finished before the blast, marathon officials said. The runners were diverted before officials brought the marathon to a halt.
2014 – A total lunar eclipse occurs, producing a Blood Moon.
1452 – Leonardo da Vinci, Italian Renaissance polymath (d. 1519)
1741 – Charles Willson Peale, American painter, soldier and naturalist (d. 1827) 1841 – Joseph E. Seagram, Canadian distillery founder (d. 1919)
1875 – James J. Jeffries, American heavyweight boxer (d. 1953)
1894 – Bessie Smith, American blues singer (d. 1937)
1916 – Alfred S. Bloomingdale, American businessman (d. 1982)
1933 – Elizabeth Montgomery, American actress (d. 1995)
1942 – Kenneth Lay, American businessman (d. 2006)
1951 – Heloise, American newspaper columnist
1963 – Bobby Pepper, American journalist
GONSALVES, HAROLD WW II
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Place and date: Okinawa Shima in the Ryukyu Chain, April 15th, 1945 Born: 28 January 1926, Alameda, Calif. Accredited to: California. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as Acting Scout Sergeant with the 4th Battalion, 15th Marines, 6th Marine Division, during action against enemy Japanese forces. Undaunted by the powerfully organized opposition encountered on Motobu Peninsula during the fierce assault waged by his battalion against the Japanese stronghold at Mount Yaetake, Pfc. Gonsalves repeatedly braved the terrific enemy bombardment to aid his forward observation team in directing well-placed artillery fire. When his commanding officer determined to move into the front lines in order to register a more effective bombardment in the enemy’s defensive position, he unhesitatingly advanced uphill with the officer and another Marine despite a slashing barrage of enemy mortar and rifle fire. As they reached the front and a Japanese grenade fell close within the group, instantly Pfc. Gonsalves dived on the deadly missile, absorbing the exploding charge in his own body and thereby protecting the others from serious and perhaps fatal wounds. Stouthearted and indomitable, Pfc. Gonsalves readily yielded his own chances of survival that his fellow marines might carry on the relentless battle against a fanatic enemy and his cool decision, prompt action and valiant spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of certain death reflect the highest credit upon himself and upon the U.S. Naval Service.
BARRELL, CHARLES L.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company C, 102d U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: Near Camden, S.C., April 15th, 1865. Entered service at: Leighton, Allegan County, Mich. Birth:——. Date of issue: 14 May 1891. Citation: Hazardous service in marching through the enemy’s country to bring relief to his command. (Exact day is unknown).
BROWN, WILSON W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F., 21st Ohio Infantry. Place and date: Georgia, April 15th, 1862. Entered service at: Wood County, Ohio. Birth: Logan County, Ohio. Date of issue: September 1863. Citation: One of the nineteen of twenty-two men (including two civilians) who, by direction of Gen. Mitchell (or Buell), penetrated nearly 200 miles south into enemy territory and captured a railroad train at Big Shanty, Ga., in an attempt to destroy the bridges and tract between Chattanooga and Atlanta. (Exact day is unknown)
(Third to receive Medal of Honor)
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 21st Ohio Infantry. Place and date: Georgia, April 15th, 1862. Entered service at:——. Birth: Salem, Mass. Date of issue: 25 March 1863. Citation: One of the nineteen of twenty-two men (including two civilians) who, by direction of Gen. Mitchell (or Buell), penetrated nearly 200 miles south into enemy territory and captured a railroad train at Big Shanty, Ga., in an attempt to destroy the bridges and track between Chattanooga and Atlanta. (Exact day is unknown)
Abraham Lincoln Assassinated
It was a cold night on Good Friday 1865 when President Abraham Lincoln and his wife and military bodyguards headed towards Ford’s Theatre. They were to attend Laura Keene’s acclaimed performance of “Our American Cousin.” Lincoln occupied a booth above the stage with his wife; Henry Rathbone, a young army officer; and his fiancee, Clara Harris, daughter of New York Senator Ira Harris.It had been a very good week. Just prior to this night, the South, the Confederacy had finally surrendered. Earlier in the day the President had approved the formation of the Secret Service, a new department that would investigate couterfeit money. Counterfeiters were very prevalent in both the South and the North. Toward the end of the war, the estimate was that half the money in circulation was bogus. The Lincoln’ had arrived late but the President seemed to be enjoying himself. He had an excellent attitude was was laughing throughout the presentation. His attitude toward merryment can be seen best in hisquote, “With the fearful strain that is on me night and day, if I did not laugh I should die.” He knew the powerof laughter. At 10:15, John Wilkes Booth slipped into the Presidential box and fired his .44-caliber single-shot derringer into the back of Lincoln’s head. Rathbone rushed Booth, who stabbed the soldier in the shoulder. Booth then leapt from the president’s box to the stage below, breaking his leg as he landed. He shouted, “Sic semper tyrannis!” (“Thus ever to tyrants!”–the Virginia state motto) and ran from the stage. A 23-year-old doctor named Charles Leale was in the audience and rushed up to the presidential box immediately upon hearing the shot and Mrs. Lincoln’s scream. He found the president slumped in his chair, paralyzed and struggling to breathe. The military quickly took him across the street to the Petersen house. The Surgeon General Brig. Gen. Joseph K. Barnes said the the President would probably not last the night. Vice President Andrew Johnson, members of Lincoln’s cabinet and several of the president’s closest friends stood vigil by Lincoln’s bedside until he was officially pronounced dead at 7:22 am. The first lady lay on a bed in an adjoining room with her eldest son Robert at her side, overwhelmed with shock and grief. The president’s body was placed in a temporary coffin, draped with a flag and escorted by armed cavalry to the White House, where surgeons conducted a thorough autopsy. Edward Curtis, an Army surgeon in attendance, later wrote that, during the autopsy, while he removed Lincoln’s brain, a bullet “dropped out through my fingers” into a basin with a clatter. The doctors stopped to stare at the offending bullet, “the cause of such mighty changes in the world’s history as we may perhaps never realize.” During the autopsy, Mary Lincoln sent the surgeons a note requesting they cut a lock of Lincoln’s hair for her.
Haggai 1:5-11New International Version (NIV)
5 Now this is what the Lord Almighty says: “Give careful thought to your ways.6 You have planted much, but harvested little. You eat, but never have enough.You drink, but never have your fill. You put on clothes, but are not warm. You earn wages, only to put them in a purse with holes in it.”
7 This is what the Lord Almighty says: “Give careful thought to your ways. 8 Go up into the mountains and bring down timber and build my house, so that I may take pleasure in it and be honored,” says the Lord. 9 “You expected much, but see, it turned out to be little. What you brought home, I blew away. Why?” declares the Lord Almighty. “Because of my house, which remains a ruin, while each of you is busy with your own house. 10 Therefore, because of you the heavens have withheld their dew and the earth its crops. 11 I called for a drought on the fields and the mountains, on the grain, the new wine, the olive oil and everything else the ground produces, on people and livestock, and on all the labor of your hands.”
“It is the common fate of the indolent to see their rights become a prey to the active. The condition upon which God hath given liberty to man is eternal vigilance; which condition if he break, servitude is at once the consequence of his crime and the punishment of his guilt.”
— John Philpot Curran: Speech upon the Right of Election, 1790. (Speeches. Dublin, 1808.)
“Effective people are not problem-minded, they are opportunity-minded. They feed opportunities and starve problems.”
~ Stephen Covey
Argus (AHR-guhs) noun
An alert and observant person; a watchful guardian. [After Argus, a giant in Greek mythology who had 100 eyes and was sent to watch over Zeus’s lover Io. He was killed by Hermes and after his death his eyes transformed into spots on the peacock’s tail. Greek argos (bright).]
1543 – Bartoleme Ferrelo returned to Spain after discovering San Francisco Bay in the New World.
1611 – The word “telescope” was first used in public by Prince Federico Cesi at a banquet held by the pioneer scientific society, the Academy of Linceans.
1774 – The first abolition society in North America is established. The “Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage” is organized in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush.
1775 – Gen. Thomas Gage, commander of British forces in North America, received orders from Parliament authorizing him to use aggressive military force against the American rebels.
1777 – NY adopted a new constitution as an independent state. Governeur Morris was the chief writer of the state constitution.
1787 – Rush and Franklin united to lead the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery.
1818 – The new Army Medical Department was founded. It was modeled after the medical corps in use in the War of 1812.
1828 – Noah Webster’s 1828 American Dictionary of the English Language was copyrighted and produced.
1841 – Edgar Allen Poe’s “Murders in the Rue Morgue” published.
1846 – The Donner Party of pioneers departs Springfield, Illinois, for California, on what will become a year-long journey of hardship, cannibalism, and survival.
1859 – Charles Dickens’ “A Tale Of Two Cities” published.
1860 – The first Pony Express rider reaches Sacramento, California.
1861 – Robert E. Lee resigned from Union army.
1865 – President Abraham Lincoln gave the go-ahead to a proposal to create the Secret Service on this day. It was originally started to combat counterfeit money.
1865 – U.S. President Abraham Lincoln is shot in Ford’s Theatre by John Wilkes Booth.
1865 – U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward and his family are attacked in his home by Lewis Powell.
1865 – William Bullock patents continuous-roll printing press.
1881 – The Four Dead in Five Seconds Gunfight erupts in El Paso, Texas.
1890 – The Pan-American Union is founded by the First International Conference of American States in Washington, D.C.
1894 – Thomas Edison demonstrates the kinetoscope, a device for peep-show viewing using photographs that flip in sequence, a precursor to movies.
1896 – John Philip Sousa’s “El Capitan”, premieres in New York City.
1898 – Commissioning of first post Civil War hospital ship, USS Solace.
1900 – An early 50 mile race is won by an electric car in over 2 hours. A gentleman named Andrew Lawrence Riker won the race, traveling the entire distance in 2 hours and 3 1/3 minutes in an electric car.
1902 – James Cash (J.C.) Penney opened his first retail store.
1906 – President Theodore Roosevelt denounces “muckrakers” in US press.
1910 – President William Howard Taft begins tradition of throwing out ball on opening day.
1912 – The British passenger liner RMS Titanic hits an iceberg in the North Atlantic, and sinks the following morning with the loss of 1,503 lives and more than 700 survived.
1912 – Frederick Rodman Law was a stunt man and became the first man to intentionally jump from the Brooklyn Bridge in New York without intending to take his own life. He was OK after the leap.
1914 – Stacy G Carkhuff patents non-skid tire pattern.
1915 – Dr Harry Plotz discovers vaccine against typhoid (New York NY).
1918 – World War I: The U.S. First Aero Squadron engaged in America’s first aerial dogfight with enemy aircraft over Toul, France. |
1925 – First regular-season Cubs game to be broadcast on radio (WGN). |
1935 – “Black Sunday Storm“, the worst dust storm of the U.S. Dust Bowl.
1939 – The John Steinbeck novel “The Grapes of Wrath” was first published.
1940 – World War II: Royal Marines land in Namsos, Norway in preparation for a larger force to arrive two days later.
1940 – RCA demonstrates its new electron microscope in Philadelphia.
1941 – Hildegarde recorded the standard “Darling Je Vous Aime Beaucoup” on Decca Records. Hildegarde was the elegant singer with the long white gloves who was accompanied by the Harry Sosnik Orchestra.
1941 – World War II: The first massive German raid in Paris rounded up 3,600 Jews.
1941 – World War II: The Ustashe, a Croatian far-right organization is put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers after the Axis Operation 25 invasion. In addition, Rommel attacks Tobruk.
1942 – The American destroyer USS Roper sinks German U-boat U-85. This is the first sinking of an German submarine by an American ship.
1943 – Joseph C. Jenkins graduates as ensign in the Coast Guard Reserve, becoming the first commissioned African-American officer in the Coast Guard.
1943 – James Boarman, Fred Hunter, Harold Brest and Floyd G. Hamilton take part in an Alcatraz escape attempt. Shots were fired at Boarman, Brest, and Hamilton, who were swimming away from the island. Hunter and Brest were both apprehended. Boarman was hit by gunfire and sank below the water before officers were able to reach him; his body was never recovered. Hamilton was initially presumed drowned but found two days later.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Love, Love, Love” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra
(vocal: Skip Nelson), “I Love You” by Bing Crosby, “Besame Mucho” by The Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Bob Eberly & Kitty Kallen) and “Too Late to Worry, Too Blue to Cry” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: General Eisenhower becomes head commander of allied air fleet.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust: First Jews transported from Athens arrived at Auschwitz.
1945 – World War II: Robert Dole, later US senator and 1996 presidential candidate, was severely crippled by an artillery shell. During World War II, Robert Dole served in the 85th Regiment of the 10th Mountain Division.
1945 – World War II: Allied forces conduct Operation Teardrop. Two carrier task groups carry out an extensive search for Seewolf U-boats suspected of transporting V2 rockets to be launched against New York City.
1945 – World War II: US 7th Army and allies forces captured Nuremberg and Stuttgart, Germany. The US 3rd Army captures Bayreuth.
1945 – World War II: Reichsfuhrer SS Himmler orders that no prisoners at Dachau “shall be allowed to fall into the hands of the enemy alive.”
1945 – World War II: Japanese Kamikaze attacks damage the battleship USS New York. On Okinawa, American forces attack strong Japanese defenses in the hilly Motobu Peninsula in the north.
1945 – World War II: B-29’s damaged the Imperial Palace during firebombing raid over Tokyo.
1948 – New York City subway fares jump from 5¢ to 10¢. |
1951 – Korean War: U.N. Forces reached the Kansas Line as Operation DAUNTLESS continued to push the communists northward.
1951 – Korean War: Since Dec. 15, Bomber Command B-29s had destroyed 48 out of 60 assigned bridges and 27 of 39 listed marshaling yards under Interdiction Campaign No. 4, but at a loss of eight bombers and their crews from combat and operational causes.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr, “Anytime” by Eddie
Fisher, “Tell Me Why” by The Four Aces and “(When You Feel like You’re in Love) Don’t Just Stand There” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1953 – First home game for the Milwaukee Braves. In a 3-2 victory over St. Louis, Braves OutFielder Billy Bruton hits the first Major League Home Run in Milwaukee’s County Stadium.
1955 – Elston Howard becomes the first Black to wear the Yankee uniform.
1955 – Fats Domino’s “Ain’t That A Shame” was released.
1956 – “The Poor People of Paris” by Les Baxter topped the charts.
1956 – Ampex Corp demonstrates the first commercial videotape recorder, VRX-1000, was demonstrated at the National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters Convention. The VRX-1000 was renamed the Mark IV and sold briskly at $50,000.
1958 – “He’s Got the Whole World in His Hands” by Laurie London topped the charts.
1959 – The Taft Memorial Bell Tower was dedicated in Washington, DC.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Theme from “A Summer Place” “ by Percy Faith,
“Greenfields” by The Brothers Four, “Mama” by Connie Francis and “He’ll Have to Go” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1960 – The first underwater launching of Polaris missile.
1961 – US element 103 (Lawrencium) discovered.
1962 – “Johnny Angel” by Shelley Fabares topped the charts.
1964 – Paul Winchell was granted a patent for an “inverted novelty mask”.
1964 – Sandy Koufax throws his 9th complete game without allowing a walk.
1965 – Millie Small appeared on ABC-TV’s “Shindig!” and performed her song “My Boy Lollipop.”
1967 – Herman’s Hermits went gold with the single, “There’s a Kind of Hush“.
1967 – The final “Where the Action Is” aired on ABC-TV.
1967 – Vietnam War: In the Vietnam War, US planes bombed Haiphong for first time.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro, “Young Girl” by The Union
Gap, “Cry like a Baby” by The Box Tops and “You are My Treasure” by Jack Greene all topped the charts.
1968 – At the Academy Awards, a tie for the Academy Award for Best Actress is achieved by Katharine Hepburn and Barbra Streisand.
1969 – In New York City the student Afro-American Society seized Columbia College.
1969 – North Korean aircraft shoots down a Navy EC-121 reconnaissance aircraft from VQ-1 over the Sea of Japan.
1973 – “The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia” by Vicki Lawrence topped the charts.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Disco Lady” by Johnnie Taylor, “Let Your Love Flow” by Bellamy Brothers, “Right Back Where We Started From” by Maxine Nightingale and “’Til I Can Make It on My Own” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1977 – Supreme Court says people may refuse to display state motto on license.
1977 – Computer enthusiasts gathered for the first West Coast Computer Faire at the SF Civic Auditorium. An estimated 20-30 thousand American homes had computers.
1979 – “What a Fool Believes” by Doobie Brothers topped the charts.
1980 – A New Jersey state assemblyman introduced a resolution to make Bruce Springsteen’s “Born to Run” the official state song.
1980 – Stan Mikita retired after 21 years with the Chicago Black Hawks of the NHL. His #21 jersey became the first Blackhawks number to be retired.
1981 – STS-1 – The first operational space shuttle, Columbia (OV-102) completes its first test flight.
1984 –CHART TOPPERS – “Footloose” by Kenny Loggins, “Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)” by Phil Collins, “Hello” by Lionel Richie and “Thank God for the Radio” by The Kendalls all topped the charts.
1984 – The Texas Board of Education began requiring that the state’s public school textbooks describe the evolution of human beings as “theory rather than fact”.
1986 – In retaliation for the April 5 bombing in West Berlin that killed two U.S. servicemen, U.S. president Ronald Reagan orders major bombing raids against Libya, killing 60 people.
1988 – The USS Samuel B. Roberts strikes a mine in the Persian Gulf during Operation Earnest Will.
1988 – In New York, real estate tycoons Harry and Leona Helmsley were indicted for income tax evasion.
1990 – “I’ll Be Your Everything” by Tommy Page topped the charts.
1990 – Cal Ripken of the Baltimore Orioles began a streak of 95 errorless games and 431 total chances by a shortstop.
1991 – The final withdrawal of American combat troops from southern Iraq began, 88 days after the United States launched its massive offensive to drive Saddam Hussein’s forces from Kuwait.
1992 – “Guys & Dolls” opens at Martin Beck Theater NYC on Broadway for 1143 performances.
1994 – In a U.S. friendly fire incident during Operation Provide Comfort in northern Iraq, two United States Air Force aircraft mistakenly shoot-down two United States Army helicopters, killing twenty-six people.
1996 – A tornado struck in Arkansas and killed seven people and injured thirty in the Ozarks.
1997 – Clyde Barrow’s bullet-ridden shirt was auctioned off to a Nevada casino for $85,000.
1997 – Some 500 black demonstrators marched in the Grays Ferry section of Philadelphia in response to a Feb 23 beating of Annette Williams, her son and nephew by a mob of white men.
1998 – The state of Virginia ignored the requests from the World Court and executed a Paraguayan for the murder of a U.S. woman.
1998 – FMC Corp. was hit with a $125 million verdict for misleading the US Army about the safety of its Bradley Fighting Vehicle.
2000 – Metallica drummer Lars Ulrich files a lawsuit against P2P sharing phenomenon Napster. This lawsuit eventually leads the movement against file-sharing programs.
2001 – The twenty-one men and three women crew of the US spy plane who were held in China for eleven days landed at their home base, Whidbey Island Naval Air Station in Washington, where they were greeted by thousands of friends, family members and other well-wishers.
2002 – Tiger Woods became only the third player to win back-to-back Masters titles; he closed with a 1-under 71 to claim a three-stroke victory over Retief Goosen.
2003 – The Human Genome Project is completed with 99% of the human genome sequenced to an accuracy of 99.99%.
2003 – In the 27th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US troops poured into Saddam Hussein’s hometown of Tikrit and fought pockets of hard-core defenders. Iraqis and US troops began jointly patrolling the streets of Baghdad to quell the lawlessness.
2003 – U.S. troops in Baghdad capture Abu Abbas, leader of the Palestinian group that killed an American on the hijacked cruise liner the Achille Lauro in 1985.
2003 – In New Orleans a gunman with an AK-47 shot a killed one boy (15) at the John McDonough High School. three teenage girls were wounded. Four suspects were arrested in the gang-related shooting.
2003 – The bodies of a headless woman and a newborn fetus with the umbilical cord still attached washed up separately on the shore of San Francisco Bay near Richmond, California. DNA testing determined the body is that of Laci Peterson, who had been missing from her home in Modesto since December 24, 2002.
2004 – John Ashcroft tells the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States that he blames former president Bill Clinton for intelligence failures and Jamie S. Gorelick for organizational failures leading to the September 11, 2001 attacks.
2004 – U.S. presidential election : An advertisement for John Kerry placed in a newspaper in Gulfport, Florida by a local Democratic Party club gets negative national publicity, as it suggests shooting United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. The ad was placed by the Saint Petersburg Democratic Club of Florida.
2005 – The US House of Representatives voted 302-126 to pass legislation that will make it tougher for consumers to avoid repaying debt by filing for bankruptcy.
2005 – The U.S. Oregon Supreme Court nullifies marriage licenses issued to gay couples a year earlier by Multnomah County.
2005 – US Attorney General Alberto Gonzales announces that law enforcement agencies have arrested 10,340 fugitives in Operation Falcon between April 4-10.
2006 – Kobe Bryant broke the Los Angeles Lakers’ single-season scoring record, getting 50 points to eclipse Elgin Baylor’s long-standing total of 2,719 points in a 110-99 victory over the Portland Trail Blazers.
2008 -Delta Air Lines reaches an agreement with Northwest Airlines to take over Northwest and create the world’s biggest airline.
2009 – Pirates hijack three ships in the Gulf of Aden.
2009 – San Francisco Supervisor Ross Mirkarimi proposed legislation for the city to sell and distribute medical marijuana.
2010 – President Barack Obama unveiled a “bold and daring” new space mission to send astronauts to Mars months after he controversially scrapped a project to return to the Moon. Neil Armstrong and other former astronauts release harsh criticism of the president’s recent cuts to NASA.
2011 – Two people are killed, one missing and four people critically injured after a tornado hits Atoka County in Oklahoma.
2012 – A major tornado outbreak occurred across a major portion of Oklahoma. The storms resulted in 6 tornado-related fatalities, all of which occurred in a single mobile home park in Woodward, Oklahoma. An EF3 tornado caused significant damage and leveled at least ten homes.
2015 – SpaceX CRS-6 launch at Cape Canaveral Florida, Kennedy Space Center. SpaceX CRS-6 is the sixth of at least 12 missions to the International Space Station that SpaceX will fly for NASA under the Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contract.
1788 – David G. Burnet, interim president of the Republic of Texas (d. 1870)
1866 – Anne Sullivan, Helen Keller’s teacher (d. 1936)
1897 – Claire Windsor, American actress (d. 1972)
1905 – Elizabeth Huckaby, American educator (d. 1999)
1921 – Thomas Schelling, American economist, Nobel laureate
1924 – Shorty Rogers, American jazz musician (d. 1994)
1925 – Rod Steiger, American actor (d. 2002)
1935 – Loretta Lynn, American singer/songwriter
1936 – Frank Serpico, American policeman
1941 – Pete Rose, American baseball player
1950 – Francis Collins, American scientist
1960 – Brad Garrett, American actor
1977 – Sarah Michelle Gellar, American actress
1979 – Randal McCloy, Survivor of the Sago Mine Disaster
*DUNHAM, JASON L. IRAQ WAR
Rank and Organization: Corporal, United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps Security Force Battalion, 3rd Battalion 7th Marines. Entered service in Scio, NY Born November 10, 1981 Scio, NY. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as Rifle Squad Leader, 4th Platoon, Company K, Third Battalion, Seventh Marines (Reinforced), Regimental Combat Team 7, First Marine Division (Reinforced), April 14th, 2004. Corporal Dunham’s squad was conducting a reconnaissance mission in the town of Karabilah, Iraq, when they heard rocket-propelled grenade and small arms fire erupt approximately two kilometers to the west. Corporal Dunham led his Combined Anti-Armor Team towards the engagement to provide fire support to their Battalion Commander’s convoy, which had been ambushed as it was traveling to Camp Husaybah. As Corporal Dunham and his Marines advanced, they quickly began to receive enemy fire. Corporal Dunham ordered his squad to dismount their vehicles and led one of his fire teams on foot several blocks south of the ambushed convoy. Discovering seven Iraqi vehicles in a column attempting to depart, Corporal Dunham and his team stopped the vehicles to search them for weapons. As they approached the vehicles, an insurgent leaped out and attacked Corporal Dunham. Corporal Dunham wrestled the insurgent to the ground and in the ensuing struggle saw the insurgent release a grenade. Corporal Dunham immediately alerted his fellow Marines to the threat. Aware of the imminent danger and without hesitation, Corporal Dunham covered the grenade with his helmet and body, bearing the brunt of the explosion and shielding his Marines from the blast. In an ultimate and selfless act of bravery in which he was mortally wounded, he saved the lives of at least two fellow Marines. By his undaunted courage, intrepid fighting spirit, and unwavering devotion to duty, Corporal Dunham gallantly gave his life for his country, thereby reflecting great credit upon himself and upholding the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the United States Naval Service. Dunham became the first Marine to receive the Medal of Honor for actions in Iraq, and the first Marine to receive the Medal of Honor since the Vietnam War.
STREET, GEORGE LEVICK, III
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Tirante. Place and date: Harbor of Quelpart Island, off the coast of Korea, April 14th, 1945. Entered service at. Virginia. Born: 27 July 1913, Richmond, Va. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Silver Star with one Gold Star. Citation. For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Tirante during the first war patrol of that vessel against enemy Japanese surface forces in the harbor of Quelpart Island, off the coast of Korea, on 14 April 1945. With the crew at surface battle stations, Comdr. (then Lt. Comdr.) Street approached the hostile anchorage from the south within 1,200 yards of the coast to complete a reconnoitering circuit of the island. Leaving the ten-fathom curve far behind he penetrated the mined and shoal-obstructed waters of the restricted harbor despite numerous patrolling vessels and in defiance of five shore-based radar stations and menacing aircraft. Prepared to fight it out on the surface if attacked, Comdr. Street went into action, sending two torpedoes with deadly accuracy into a large Japanese ammunition ship and exploding the target in a mountainous and blinding glare of white flames. With the Tirante instantly spotted by the enemy as she stood out plainly in the flare of light, he ordered the torpedo data computer set up while retiring and fired his last two torpedoes to disintegrate in quick succession the leading frigate and a similar flanking vessel. Clearing the gutted harbor at emergency full speed ahead, he slipped undetected along the shoreline, diving deep as a pursuing patrol dropped a pattern of depth charges at the point of submergence. His illustrious record of combat achievement during the first war patrol of the Tirante characterizes Comdr. Street as a daring and skilled leader and reflects the highest credit upon himself, his valiant command, and the U.S. Naval Service.
*MAGRATH, JOHN D.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company G, 85th Infantry, 10th Mountain Division. Place and date: Near Castel d’Aiano, Italy, April 14th, 1945. Entered service at: East Norwalk, Conn. Birth: East Norwalk, Conn. G.O. No.: 71, 17 July 1946. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty when his company was pinned down by heavy artillery, mortar, and small arms fire, near Castel d’Aiano, Italy. Volunteering to act as a scout, armed with only a rifle, he charged headlong into withering fire, killing two Germans and wounding three in order to capture a machinegun. Carrying this enemy weapon across an open field through heavy fire, he neutralized two more machinegun nests; he then circled behind four other Germans, killing them with a burst as they were firing on his company. Spotting another dangerous enemy position to this right, he knelt with the machinegun in his arms and exchanged fire with the Germans until he had killed two and wounded three. The enemy now poured increased mortar and artillery fire on the company’s newly won position. Pfc. Magrath fearlessly volunteered again to brave the shelling in order to collect a report of casualties. Heroically carrying out this task, he made the supreme sacrifice–a climax to the valor and courage that are in keeping with highest traditions of the military service.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1826, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Attached to the U.S.S. Minnesota and temporarily serving on the U.S.S. Mount Washington, during action against the enemy in the Nansemond River, April 14th, 1863. When the Mount Washington drifted against the bank following several successive hits which struck her boilers and stopped her engines, Jordan boarded the stricken vessel and, for six hours as fierce artillery and musketry continued to rake her decks, calmly assisted in manning a 12-pound howitzer which had been mounted on the open hurricane deck.
SIMONDS, WILLIAM EDGAR
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 25th Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Irish Bend, La., April 14th, 1863. Entered service at: Canton, Conn. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 25 February 1899. Citation. Displayed great gallantry, under a heavy fire from the enemy, in calling in the skirmishers and assisting in forming the line of battle.
WOOD, ROBERT B.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: New Garden Ohio. Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Attached to the U.S.S. Minnesota and temporarily serving on the U.S.S. Mount Washington, during action against the enemy in the Nansemond River, April 14th, 1863. When the U.S.S. Mount Washington drifted against the bank and all men were driven from the decks by escaping steam following several successive hits which struck her boilers and stopped her engines, Wood boarded the stricken vessel and, despite a strike on the head by a spent ball, continued at his gun for six hours as fierce artillery and musketry continued to rake her decks.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, California. Accredited to. California. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: As captain of the gun, serving temporarily on board the U.S.S. Mount Washington, during the Nansemond River action, April 14th, 1863. When one of his comrades was struck by a bullet and knocked overboard, Woods fearlessly jumped into the water and swam after him. Before he reached him, the man sank beneath the surface and Woods promptly swam back to the vessel, went to his gun, and fought it to the close of the action. At the close of the battle, he tirelessly cared for the wounded.
Thomas Jefferson Day
International “Moment of Laughter” Day
NO TIME TO DO THINGS?
There were only twenty-four hours in the day, just as now; but before he died, he accomplished the following:
Finished college in less than three years;
Admitted to the bar at the age of twenty-four;
Introduced crop rotation and terracing to the US;
Designed one of his country’s leading universities;Designed and built his own home;
Designed the capital building of his home state;
Invented a plow, lettercopy press, manifold signing machine, double-swinging doors, a seven day calendar clock and countless other gadgets;
Learned to play the violin;
Originated the decimal system for US currency;
Learned to speak fluently: Latin, Greek, Italian, French, German, Old Anglo-Saxon, and several Native American languages;
Became a serious scholar in mathematics, philosophy, economics, history, civics, and geography;
Created the public school system in his state;
Became President of a major university;
Established the US Military Academy at West Point and designed the uniforms the cadets wear to this day;
Wrote the rules of parliamentary procedure under which the US Senate still operates;
Fought for a system of government where the people would rule …. not the aristocracy;
Wrote 16,000 letters in longhand to friends and colleagues around the world;
Served as a member of his state legislature, governor of his state, Minister to France, Secretary of State, Vice President and President of the US for two terms;
Designed his own tombstone and wrote his own epitaph, listing the three accomplishments of which he was most proud …….
HERE WAS BURIED THOMAS JEFFERSON
AUTHOR OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE,
AUTHOR OF THE STATUTES OF VIRGINIA FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM,
AND, FATHER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA.
In these present days of labor and time saving devices such as computers, automobiles, airplanes, telephones etc. …….. how can we dare say….. we don’t have the time?
so that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith—that you, being rooted and grounded in love, may have strength to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth, and to know the love of Christ that surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled with all the fullness of God.
“It is weakness rather than wickedness which renders men unfit to be trusted with unlimited power.”
— John Adams, 1788
The most valuable thing you can make is a mistake – you can’t learn anything from being perfect.”
sobeit (so-BEE-it) conjunction:
ETYMOLOGY: From so + be + it.
1598 – Henry IV of France issues the Edict of Nantes, allowing freedom of religion to the Huguenots. (Edict repealed in 1685.)
1742 – George Frideric Handel’s oratorio Messiah makes its world-premiere in Dublin, Ireland.
1775 – Lord North extended the New England Restraining Act to South Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The act prohibited trade with any country other than Britain and Ireland when Parliament hears that these colonies have ratified the Continental Association.
1782 – Washington, North Carolina was incorporated – first town to be named for George Washington.
1796 – The first elephant ever seen in the USA arrives from India.
1805 – After marching 500 miles from Egypt, U.S. agent William Eaton leads a small force of U.S. Marines and Berber mercenaries against the Tripolitan port city of Derna.
1813 – Zebulon Pike dies during a battle in the War of 1812. Pikes Peak named for him.
1829 – The British Parliament grants freedom of religion to Roman Catholics.
1840 – William Henry Lane (“Juda”) perfects the tap dance. The dance was a mix of European Jig, Reel Steps, Clog and African Rhythms.
1847 – Naval Forces begin a five-day battle to capture several towns in Mexico.
1847 – Marines captured LaPaz, California, during the Mexican War.
1860 – The first mail was delivered via Pony Express when a westbound rider arrived in Sacramento, CA from St. Joseph, MO.
1861 – Civil War: After 34 hours of bombardment, the Union-held Fort Sumter surrendered to Confederates.
1862 – Civil War:In the Washington area volunteers led by Sarah J. Evans paid homage to the graves of Civil War soldiers. Villagers in Waterloo, NY, held their first Memorial Day service on May 5, 1866. In 1966 Pres. Johnson gave Waterloo, NY, the distinction of holding the first Memorial Day.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Irish Bend, LA (Ft. Bisland).
1863 – Civil War: Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled in New York became the first orthopedic hospital.
1865 – Civil War: Union forces under Gen. Sherman began their devastating march through Georgia. Sherman’s troops took Raleigh, NC.
1869 – Steam power brake patented.
1870 – Metropolitan Museum of Art founded.
1873 – Colfax Massacre in Grant Parish, Louisiana, 105 blacks were killed.
1877 – President Hayes removed Federal troops from Louisiana. Reconstruction ended.
1885 – Marines guarded the rail line to Panama City.
1902 – James C. Penney opens his first store in Kemmerer, Wyoming.
1904 – Congress authorizes Lewis & Clark Expo $1 gold coin.
1904 – In Pensacola, Fl., an explosion on the US battleship Missouri killed twenty-nine men and injured five men, of whom two died later.
1906 – An explosion on the US battleship Kearsarge killed seven men. The vessel was off Culebra Island in the Caribbean Sea when the explosion in the forward turret occurred. Two more deaths were soon reported with ten sailors in serious condition.
1908 – Groundbreaking on Philadelphia’s Shibe Park (home of A’s & Phillies). It was the first ballpark built out of concrete and steel, Shibe is the common ancestor of every modern park.
1911 – Polo Grounds grandstand & left field bleachers go up in flames. This was the second stadium and was used primarily for baseball.
1914 – First Federal League Game Baltimore Terrapins beat Buffalo 3-2.
1918 – Electrical fire killed 37 mental patients at Oklahoma State Hospital in Norman. The boys, aged from ten to fifteen years, were burned to death in this state hospital for the insane. All of the boys were inmates of the institution and were helpless as the flames wrapped around them.
1926 – At age 41, Walter Johnson pitches his 7th opening day shutout.
1939 – USS Astoria arrives in Japan under the command of Richard Kelly Turner in an attempt to photograph the Japanese battleships Yamato and Musashi.
1940 – Cornelious Warmerdam becomes the first man to pole vault 15 feet, Berkeley CA.
1940 – “The Road to Singapore,” opened at the Paramount Theatre in NYC. The stars were Bing Crosby, Dorothy Lamour and Bob Hope.
1941 – World War II: German troops captured Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Hitler soon installed Gen. Milan Nedic as a quisling leader. Nedic proceeded to wipe out the Jewish community of Serbia. A quisling is a person who collaborated with Axis forces in occupied Allied countries during World War II.
1942 – World War II: First convoys of Japanese detainees arrived at the Tanforan detention center south of San Francisco.
1943 – World War II: The discovery of a mass grave of Polish prisoners of war executed by Soviet forces in the Katyń Forest Massacre is announced, alienating the Western Allies, the Polish government in exile in London, from the Soviet Union.
1943 – The Jefferson Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C., on the 200th anniversary of Thomas Jefferson’s birth by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. It was designed by John Russell Pope.
1943 – World War II: US bombers conduct day and night raids on Kiska Island.
1944 – World War II: Transport No. 71 departed with French Jews to Nazi Germany.
1945 – World War II: German troops kill more than 1,000 political and military prisoners in Gardelegen Germany.
1945 – World War II: In Manila Bay, American forces land on Fort Drum, known as “the Concrete Battleship”, and begin to pour 5,000 gallons of oil fuel into the fortifications. This was then set on fire and burned for five days, eliminating the Japanese garrison.
1945 – World War II: The Nazi concentration camps at Belsen and Buchenwald are liberated by British and American forces respectively.
1946 – Pitcher Eddie Klepp barred from field in Birmingham, AL. Klepp was victimized by the same Jim Crow laws in the South that had barred black players from playing on white teams. In some Southern cities like Birmingham the law prohibited black and white players from playing together on public athletic fields.
1948 – Seventy-seven doctors, nurses and medical students from Hadassah Hospital are ambushed and massacred by Arabs in Sheikh Jarra near Jerusalem.
1949 – A magnitude 7.1 quake near Olympia, Washington, kills eight.
1949 – Philip S. Hench and associates announced that cortizone was an effective
treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.
1951 – Korea: Munsan fell to communist forces as the Chinese Communist Forces Spring Offensive continued.
1953 – CIA director Allen Dulles launches the mind-control program MKULTRA.
1953 – First game of Milwaukee Braves, they beat Cincinnati Reds 2-0.
1954 – Milwaukee Braves’ Hank Aaron’s first game. In his first ever major-league baseball game, Aaron went 0-for-5 against Cincinnati.
1954 – Baltimore Orioles first game, lose to Tigers in Detroit 3-0.
1954 -Robert Oppenheimer accused of being a communist. While, in truth, he never actually became a communist, he did pass money to liberal causes by way of acquaintances who were alleged to be Communist Party members.
1957 – “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1957 – Due to lack of funds, Saturday mail delivery in the US is temporarily halted.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods, “Pink Shoe Laces” by Dodie Stevens, “(Now and Then There’s) A Fool Such as I” by Elvis Presley and “White Lightning” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1959 – USAF launches Discoverer II into polar orbit. This mission did produce several “firsts.” It was the world’s first satellite stabilized in all three axes, the first to be maneuvered on command from Earth, and the first to eject its reentry vehicle on command for return to Earth. Discoverer I is also generally touted as the world’s first polar-orbiting satellite.
1960 – The first atomic powered electric-drive submarine was launched as the USS Tullibee.
1960 – Transit 1B, first navigational satellite, launched.
1961 – “Carnival!” opens at Imperial Theater NYC for 719 performances.
1962 – Stan Musial scores National League record 1,869th run.
1963 – Pete Rose gets first major-league hit for the Cincinnati Reds.
1963 – “He’s So Fine” by the Chiffons topped the charts.
1964 – Sidney Poitier was the first black to win an Academy Award for Best Actor. This was during the era that also saw Martin Luther King, Jr. won the Nobel Prize and Thurgood Marshall was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court.
1965 – Lawrence Wallace Bradford Jr. (16) was appointed by New York Republican Jacob Javits to be the first black page of the US Senate.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Happy Together” by The Turtles, “Somethin’ Stupid” by Nancy Sinatra & Frank Sinatra, “Bernadette” by the Four Tops and “Walk Through This World with Me” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1968 – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro topped the charts.
1969 – Diana Ross appeared solo on Dinah Shore’s NBC-TV special “Like Hep”.
1970 – Apollo 13 announces “Houston, we’ve got a problem!” An oxygen tank aboard the craft explodes, putting the crew in great danger and causing major damage to the spacecraft while en route to the Moon.
1972 – First baseball players’ strike ends after 13 days.
1972 – Vietnam: North Vietnamese troops shatter defenses north of Quang Tri and move to within 2.5 miles of the city.
1974 – “Bennie and the Jets” by Elton John topped the charts.
1974 – Western Union (in cooperation with NASA and Hughes Aircraft) launches the U.S.’s first commercial geosynchronous communications satellite, Westar 1.
1975 – Saigon was encircled by North Vietnamese troops.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Philadelphia Freedom” by The Elton John Band, “Poetry Man” by Phoebe Snow, “(Hey Won’t You Play) Another Somebody Done Somebody Wrong Song” by B.J. Thomas and “Always Wanting You” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1976 – Federal Reserve begins issuing $2 bicentennial notes.
1978 – New York Yankees win home opener on Reggie Candy Bar Day. Jackson slugs a 3-run homerun in the 1st inning, & the field is showered with ReggieBars It all started with a remark that Reggie Jackson made while he was still an Oakland Athletic. “If I played in New York,” he said, “they’d name a candy bar for me.”
1979 – Longest doubles ping-pong match ends after 101 hours.
1980 – US boycotted the Summer Olympics in Moscow.
1980 – “Grease” closes at Broadhurst Theater NYC after 3,388 performances.
1983 – Harold Washington is elected as the first Black mayor in Chicago’s history.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Billy Jean” by Michael Jackson, “Do You Really Want to Hurt Me” by Culture Club, “Hungry like the Wolf” by Duran Duran and “We’ve Got Tonight” by Kenny Rogers & Sheena Easton all topped the charts.
1984 – Pete Rose becomes first National League player to get 4,000 hits in a career.
1984 – President Reagan sent emergency military aid to El Salvador without congressional approval.
1984 – Christopher Walker was killed in a fight with police in New Hampshire. Walker was wanted as a suspect in the kidnappings of 11 young women in several states.
1985 – “The Grand Ole Opry”, a radio staple from Nashville for 60 years, came to TV. The Nashville Network presented the country music jamboree to some 22-million homes across the U.S.
1985 – “We Are the World” by USA for Africa topped the charts.
1986 – Jack Nicklaus won his sixth Masters green jacket with a 9-under-par 279.
1990 – The aperture door of the Hubble Space Telescope was opened by ground controllers as the space shuttle Discovery, which had carried the Hubble into orbit, prepared to return home.
1992 – The Great Chicago Flood took place as the city’s century-old tunnel system and adjacent basements filled with water from the Chicago River. Nothing could be seen from the streets but some of the buildings had forty feet of water in them.
1992 – American Airlines reduces its first-class fares 20%-50%.
1993 – The day before a visit by Pres. Bush, fourteen people were arrested in Kuwait for plotting to assassinate him. Kuwaiti officials said the plot was organized by Iraqi intelligence.
1996 – “Ironic” by Alanis Morissette topped the charts.
1996 – The Rosemary Baptist Church in Barnwell, S.C., burned down. Arson was sus-pected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1997 – Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win golf’s Masters Tournament.
1997 – First time since 1961 that two doubleheaders are played in the same city. The double headers were San Francisco Giants vs New York Mets & Oakland A’s vs New York Yankees in New York.
1997 – A Texas militia group, called Republic of Texas, took two hostages at the Davis Mountain Resort community in a standoff with 300 police officers.
1998 – A 500-pound steel joint fell from the upper level of New York’s Yankee Stadium, crashing onto seats below. No fans were inside the park at the time.
1999 – Jack Kervorkian was sentenced in Pontiac, MI, to 10 to 25 years in prison for the second-degree murder of Thomas Youk. Youk’s assisted suicide was videotaped and shown on “60 Minutes” in 1998.
1999 – VH1 debuted their Internet radio station called VH1 at Work. The first webcast was the “Divas Live” (1:14:33)concert.
2003 – In the 26th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US troops pushed into Tikrit. Marines found seven missing US troops, including Army Specialist Shoshana Johnson, on the road between Baghdad and Tikrit. Army engineers worked to help restore electricity in Baghdad.
2004 – A provisional report from the September 11 Commission states that the FBI was hampered in its fight against terrorism by poor intelligence, insufficient staffing and resources and a bureaucratic culture.
2004 – Barry Bonds hit his 661st homer, passing Willie Mays to take sole possession of third place on baseball’s career list.
2004 – Cuba agreed to buy $13 million in food from American companies and reached a tentative deal for up to $10 million in farm goods from California.
2005 – A 2,500-strong U.S. force, backed by tanks and artillery, pushed to the outskirts of the Shiite holy city of Najaf for a showdown with a radical cleric. One soldier was killed enroute. US forces in Fallujah killed over 100 insurgents.
2005 – National Geographic and IBM Corp. announced a project to collect DNA samples from people around the globe to trace the routes of human migration.
2006 – Powerful tornadoes rip through Iowa City, Iowa.
2006 – The Nebraska Legislature voted to divide the Omaha school system into 3 districts, one mostly black, one mostly white, and one largely Hispanic. Gov. Dave Heineman signed the measure into law, effective July 2008.
2007 – A NASA Review Board finds that the Mars Global Surveyor stopped working in November 2006 due to computer programming errors.
2007 – A police report shows that New Jersey Governor Jon Corzine was not wearing a seatbelt during the hit and run car accident that injured him the day before.
2009 – United States Representative Donald M. Payne comes under mortar fire at Aden Adde International Airport in Somalia.
2009 – The U.S. federal government will rescind travel and gift restrictions to Cuba.
2011 – The U.S. Bureau of Land Management announces that it has launched a new environmental impact study of oil shale and tar sands development.
2012 – Joe Vitt is named as the interim head coach of the New Orleans Saints for the 2012 season to replace Sean Payton, who was suspended earlier in the year for his role in the New Orleans Saints bounty scandal.
2012 – Tom Benson, owner of the Saints, agrees to buy the New Orleans Hornets from the National Basketball Association for an estimated $338 million.
2013 – Russia bans 18 American diplomats from entering the country, in retaliation for similar restrictions placed on 18 Russian officials by the Magnitsky Act.
2013 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: A man suspected of a shooting at the New River Community College in Christiansburg, Virginia, United States, is charged with multiple counts of malicious wounding and use of a firearm during the commission of a felony, and held without bail.
2014 – CHURCH SHOOTING – There were fatal shootings at the Overland Park (KS) Jewish Community Center at 5800 W. 115th Street and at an assisted living center several blocks south at 123rd Street and Nall. Police said one person was killed at the Jewish Community Center and another was killed at Village Shalom, an assisted living facility. A third person was shot and critically injured. That person was taken to a nearby hospital.
2015 -Two Oklahoma City Police Department officers were called to a park and found a woman and her four children sleeping in a car. They were homeless. Officers Boyett and Dutton took it upon themselves to find shelter for the family, put gas in the woman’s car, and even bought some toys for the kiddos. Great job, guys!
1570 – Guy Fawkes, English Catholic conspirator (d. 1606)
1715 – John Hanson, President of the United States in Congress Assembled (d. 1783)
1743 – Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President of the United States (d. 1826)
1852 – F.W. Woolworth, American businessman (d. 1919)
1866 – Butch Cassidy, American outlaw (d. 1908)
1875 – Ray Lyman Wilbur, U.S. university president and politician (d. 1949)
1892 – Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, Scottish inventor (d. 1973)
1899 – Alfred Mosher Butts, American architect and Scrabble inventor (d. 1993)
1919 – Madalyn Murray O’Hair, American atheist activist (d. 1995)
1923 – Don Adams, American actor and comedian (d. 2005)
1944 – Jack Casady, American musician
1946 – Al Green, American singer and pastor
1950 – William Sadler, American actor
1964 – Caroline Rhea, Canadian actress
|NORRIS, THOMAS R.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy, SEAL Advisor, Strategic Technical Directorate Assistance Team, Headquarters, U.S. Military Assistance Command. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, April 10th to April 13th, 1972. Entered service at: Silver Spring, Md. Born: 14 January 1944, Jacksonville, Fla. Citation: Lt. Norris completed an unprecedented ground rescue of two downed pilots deep within heavily controlled enemy territory in Quang Tri Province. Lt. Norris, on the night of 10 April, led a five-man patrol through 2,000 meters of heavily controlled enemy territory, located one of the downed pilots at daybreak, and returned to the Forward Operating Base (FOB). On 11 April, after a devastating mortar and rocket attack on the small FOB, Lt. Norris led a three-man team on two unsuccessful rescue attempts for the second pilot. On the afternoon of the 12th, a forward air controller located the pilot and notified Lt. Norris. Dressed in fishermen disguises and using a sampan, Lt. Norris and one Vietnamese traveled throughout that night and found the injured pilot at dawn. Covering the pilot with bamboo and vegetation, they began the return journey, successfully evading a North Vietnamese patrol. Approaching the FOB, they came under heavy machinegun fire. Lt. Norris called in an air strike which provided suppression fire and a smoke screen, allowing the rescue party to reach the FOB. By his outstanding display of decisive leadership, undaunted courage, and selfless dedication in the face of extreme danger, Lt. Norris enhanced the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
|ANDERSON, BEAUFORD T
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, 381st Infantry, 96th Infantry Division. Place and date: Okinawa, April 13th,1945. Entered service at: Soldiers Grove, Wis. Birth: Eagle, Wis. G.O. No.: 63, 27 June 1946. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty. When a powerfully conducted predawn Japanese counterattack struck his unit’s flank, he ordered his men to take cover in an old tomb, and then, armed only with a carbine, faced the onslaught alone. After emptying one magazine at pointblank range into the screaming attackers, he seized an enemy mortar dud and threw it back among the charging Japs, killing several as it burst. Securing a box of mortar shells, he extracted the safety pins, banged the bases upon a rock to arm them and proceeded alternately to hurl shells and fire his piece among the fanatical foe, finally forcing them to withdraw. Despite the protests of his comrades, and bleeding profusely from a severe shrapnel wound, he made his way to his company commander to report the action. T/Sgt. Anderson’s intrepid conduct in the face of overwhelming odds accounted for twenty-five enemy killed and several machineguns and knee mortars destroyed, thus single-handedly removing a serious threat to the company’s flank.
|GAUJOT, JULIEN E.
Rank and organization: Captain, Troop K, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Aqua Prieta, Mexico, April 13th,1911. Entered service at: Williamson, W. Va. Birth: Keweenaw, Mich. Date of issue: 23 November 1912. Citation: Crossed the field of fire to obtain the permission of the rebel commander to receive the surrender of the surrounded forces of Mexican Federals and escort such forces, together with five Americans held as prisoners, to the American line.
|COX, ROBERT EDWARD
Rank and organization: Chief Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Missouri on April 13th,1904. Born: 22 December 1855, St. Albans, WV Accredited to: West Virginia. G.O. No.: 43, 14 April 1921. (Medal presented by President Harding.) Citation: For extraordinary heroism on U.S.S. Missouri 13 April, 1904. While at target practice off Pensacola, Fla., an accident occurred in the after turret of the Missouri. The lives of five officers and twenty-eight men were lost. The ship was in imminent danger of destruction by explosion, and the prompt action of C.G. Cox and two gunners’ mates caused the fire to be brought under control, and the loss of the Missouri, together with her crew, was averted.
Rank and organization: Chief Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Missouri on April 13th, 1904.Born: 20 January 1867, Norway. G.O. No.: 160, 26 May 1904. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Missouri, for extraordinary heroism in entering a burning magazine through the scuttle and endeavoring to extinguish the fire by throwing water with his hands until a hose was passed to him, 13 April 1904.
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Kearsage on April 13th, 1906. Born: 24 May 1876, Goteborg, Sweden. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 142, 4 December 1924. Citation: For gallant conduct upon the occasion of the disastrous fire of accidentally ignited powder charges. The incident occurred in the forward turret of the U.S.S. Kearsage during target practice on 13 April 1906. Chief Boatswain Nordstrom, then chief boatswain’s mate, was among the first to enter the turret in order to assist in bringing out the injured.
|SCHEPKE, CHARLES S.
Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Missouri on April 13th,1904.Born: 26 December 1878, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 160, 26 May 1904. Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving on the U.S.S. Missouri in remaining by a burning magazine and assisting to extinguish the fire, 13 April 1904.
|WESTON, JOHN F.
Rank and organization: Major, 4th Kentucky Cavalry. Place and date: Near Wetumpka, Ala., April 13th, 1865. Entered service at: Kentucky. Birth: Kentucky. Date of issue: 9 April 1898. Citation: This officer, with a small detachment, while en route to destroy steamboats loaded with supplies for the enemy, was stopped by an unfordable river, but with five of his men swam the river, captured two leaky canoes, and ferried his men across. He then encountered and defeated the enemy, and on reaching Wetumpka found the steamers anchored in midstream. By a ruse obtained possession of a boat, with which he reached the steamers and demanded and received their surrender.
Walk On Your Wild Side Day
April 12-14, 1861
On March 5, 1861, the day after his inauguration as president of the United States, Abraham Lincoln received a message from Maj. Robert Anderson, commander of the U.S. troops holding Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. The message said that there was less than a six-week supply of food left in the fort.
Attempts by the Confederate government to settle its differences with the Union were spurned by Lincoln, and the Confederacy felt it could no longer tolerate the precense of a foreign force in its territory. Believing a conflict to be inevitable, Lincoln ingeniously devised a plan that would cause the Confederates to fire the first shot and thus, he hoped, inspire the states that had not yet seceded to unite in the effort to restore the Union.
On April 8, Lincoln notified Gov. Francis Pickens of South Carolina that he would attempt to resupply the fort. The Confederate commander at Charleston, Gen.P.G.T. Beauregard, was ordered by the Confederate government to demand the evacuation of the fort and if refused, to force its evacuation. On April 11, General Beauregard delivered the ultimatum to Anderson, who replied, “Gentlemen, if you do not batter the fort to pieces about us, we shall be starved out in a few days.” On direction of the Confederate government in Montgomery, Beauregard notified Anderson that if he would state the time of his evacuation, the Southern forces would hold their fire. Anderson replied that he would evacuate by noon on April 15 unless he received other instructions or additional supplies from his government. (The supply ships were expected before that time.) Told that his answer was unacceptable and that Beauregard would open fire in one hour, Anderson shook the hands of the messengers and said in parting, “If we do not meet again in this world, I hope we may meet in the better one.” At 4:30 A.M. on April 12, 1861, 43 Confederate guns in a ring around Fort Sumter began the bombardment that initiated the bloodiest war in American history.
In her Charleston hotel room, diarist Mary Chesnet heard the opening shot. “I sprang out of bed.” she wrote. “And on my knees–prostrate–I prayed as I never prayed before.” The shelling of Fort Sumter from the batteries ringing the harbor awakened Charleston’s residents, who rushed out into the predawn darkness to watch the shells arc over the water and burst inside the fort. Mary Chesnut went to the roof of her hotel, where the men were cheering the batteries and the women were praying and crying. Her husband, Col. James Chesnut, had delivered Beauregard’s message to the fort. “I knew my husband was rowing around in a boat somewhere in that dark bay,” she wrote, “and who could tell what each volley accomplished of death and destruction?”
Inside the fort, no effort was made to return the fire for more than two hours. The fort’s supply of ammunition was ill-suited for the task at hand, and because there were no fuses for their explosive shells, only solid shot could be used against the Rebel batteries. The fort’s biggest guns, heavy Columbiads and eight-inch howitzers, were on the top tier of the fort and there were no masonry casemates to protect the gunners, so Anderson opted to use only the casemated guns on the lower tier. About 7:00 A.M., Capt. Abner Doubleday, the fort’s second in command, was given the honor of firing the first shot in defense of the fort. The firing continued all day, the federals firing slowly to conserve ammunition. At night the fire from the fort stopped, but the confederates still lobbed an occasional shell in Sumter.
Although they had been confined inside Fort Sumter for more than three months, unsupplied and poorly nourished, the men of the Union garrison vigorously defended their post from the Confederate bombardment that began on the morning of April 12, 1861. Several times, red-hod cannonballs had lodged in the fort’s wooden barracks and started fires. But each time, the Yankee soldiers, with a little help from an evening rainstorm, had extinguished the flames. The Union garrison managed to return fire all day long, but because of a shortage of cloth gunpowder cartridges, they used just six of their cannon and fired slowly.
The men got little sleep that night as the Confederate fire continued, and guards kept a sharp lookout for a Confederate attack or relief boats. Union supply ships just outside the harbor had been spotted by the garrison, and the men were disappointed that the ships made no attempt to come to their relief.
After another breakfast of rice and salt pork on the morning of April 13, the exhausted Union garrison again began returning cannon fire, but only one round every 10 minutes. Soon the barracks again caught fire from the Rebel hot shot, and despite the men’s efforts to douse the flames, by 10:00 A.M. the barracks were burning out of control. Shortly thereafter, every wooden structure in the fort was ablaze, and a magazine containing 300 pounds of gunpowder was in danger of exploding. “We came very near being stifled with the dense livid smoke from the burning buildings,” recalled one officer. “The men lay prostrate on the ground, with wet hankerchiefs over their mouths and eyes, gasping for breath.”
The Confederate gunners saw the smoke and were well aware of the wild uproar they were causing in the island fort. They openly showed their admiration for the bravery of the Union garrison by cheering and applauding when, after a prolonged stillness, the garrison sent a solid shot screaming in their direction.
“The crasing of the shot, the bursting of the shells, the falling of the walls, and the roar of the flames, made a pandemonium of the fort,” wrote Capt. Abner Doubleday on the afternoon of April 13, 1861. He was one of the Union garrison inside Fort Sumter in the middle of South Carolina’s Charleston harbor. The fort’s large flag staff was hit by fire from the surrounding Confederate batteries, and the colors fell to the ground. Lt. Norman J. Hall braved shot and shell to race across the parade ground to retrieve the flag. Then he and two others found a substitute flagpole and raised the Stars and Stripes once more above the fort.
Once the flag came down, Gen. P.G.T. Beaugregard, who commanded the Confederate forces, sent three of his aides to offer the fort’s commander, Union Maj. Robert Anderson, assistance in extinguishing the fires. Before they arrived they saw the garrison’s flag raised again, and then it was replaced with a white flag. Arriving at the fort, Beaugregard’s aides were informed that the garrison had just surrendered to Louis T. Wigfall, a former U.S. senator from Texas. Wigfall, completely unauthorized, had rowed out to the fort from Morris Island, where he was serving as a volunteer aide, and received the surrender of the fort. The terms were soon worked out, and Fort Sumter, after having braved 33 hours of bombardment, its food and ammunition nearly exhausted, fell on April 13, 1861, to the curshing fire power of the Rebels. Miraculously, no one on either side had been killed or seriously wounded.
The generous terms of surrender allowed Anderson to run up his flag for a hundred-gun salute before he and his men evacuated the fort the next day. The salute began at 2:00 P.M. on April 14, but was cut short to 50 guns after an accidental explosion killed one of the gunners and mortally wounded another. Carrying their tattered banner, the men marched out of the fort and boarded a boat that ferried them to the Union ships outside the harbor. They were greeted as heroes on their return to the North.
Psalm 125 – A song of ascents.
1 Those who trust in the Lord are like Mount Zion, which cannot be shaken but endures forever.
2 As the mountains surround Jerusalem, so the Lord surrounds his people both now and forevermore.
3 The scepter of the wicked will not remain over the land allotted to the righteous,
for then the righteous might use their hands to do evil.
4 Lord, do good to those who are good, to those who are upright in heart.
5 But those who turn to crooked ways the Lord will banish with the evildoers.
Peace be on Israel.
“If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary.”
–James Madison, Federalist no. 51.
“Never place a period where God has placed a comma.”
Lenity LEN-uh-tee, noun:
The state or quality of being lenient; mildness; gentleness of treatment; leniency.
Lenity comes from Latin lenitas, from lenis, “soft, mild.”
467 – Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire.
1606 – The Union Flag is adopted as the flag of Great Britain.
1633 – The formal inquest of Galileo Galilei by the Inquisition begins.
1776 – The North Carolina Provincial Congress authorizes delegates to the Second Continental Congress to vote for independence by issuing the Halifax Resolves.
1782 – The British navy won its only naval engagement against the colonists in the American Revolution at the Battle of Les Saintes in the West Indies off Dominica.
1787 – Philadelphia’s Free African Society formed.
1799 – Phineas Pratt patented the comb cutting machine.
1811 – First US colonists on Pacific coast arrive at Cape Disappointment WA.
1833 – Charles Gaylor patented the fireproof safe in New York City. The fire-proof iron chest, called the Salamander Safe, was constructed from two chests, one within the other, with a space between to “inclose air of any non-conductor of heat”.
1844 – Texas became a US territory.
1858 – First US billiards championship is held in Detroit (Michael J Phelan wins).
1861 – Civil War: The war begins with Confederate forces firing on Fort Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina.
1861 – Civil War: Revenue cutter Harriet Lane fires first shot from a naval vessel in the Civil War across the bow of the merchant vessel Nashville when she attempted to enter Charleston Harbor.
1862 – Civil War: Union Gen. David Hunter (1802-1886) formed the first official African-American regiment during the Civil War.
1862 – Civil War: The Great Locomotive Chase or Andrews’ Raid was a military raid that occurred in northern Georgia during the Civil War.
1864 – Civil War: The Fort Pillow massacre: Confederate forces kill most African-American soldiers that surrendered at Fort Pillow, TN.
1865 – Civil War: Mobile, Alabama, falls to the Union Army.
1869 – North Carolina legislature passed an anti-Klan Law.
1872 – Jesse James gang robbed bank in Columbia, Kentucky, of $1,500 with 1 person killed.
1877 – Catcher’s mask first used in a baseball game by James Alexander Tyng.
1892 – George C Blickensderfer patents portable typewriter .
1892 – Voters in Lockport, New York, became the first in the U.S. to use voting machines.
1905 – Hippodrome arena opens in New York NY. Its stage was 12 times larger than any Broadway “legit” house and capable of holding as many as 1,000 performers at a time, or a full-sized circus with elephants and horses. The theatre closed in August 1939 for demolition.
1908 – Fire devastated the city of Chelsea, Massachusetts.
1909 – Ben Shibe, an Athletics stockholder and manufacturer of baseball products, had a dream in mind when he set out to build the first concrete-and-steel stadium in major league history. William Steele and Sons were signed on in 1908 to make the dream a reality and one year later the doors opened to Shibe Park. This was the date of the first game played at the field (the last game ever played was on 10 -01-1970. It was demolished June 1976.
1911 – LT Theodore Ellyson qualifies as first naval aviator.
1912 – Clara Barton (b.1821), the founder of the American Red Cross, died at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland at age 90.
1916 – American cavalrymen and Mexican bandit troops clashed at Parrel, Mexico.
1917 – World War I: Canadian forces successfully complete the taking of Vimy Ridge from the Germans.
1918 – World War I: Marines of the 4th Brigade suffered their first gas attack on the night and early morning hours of 12-13 April when the Germans bombarded the 74th Company, 6th Marines near Verdun with mustard gas.
1922 – A San Francisco jury acquitted actor Roscoe “Fatty” Arbuckle in his 3rd murder trial following 2 hung juries.
1932 – “Joe Palooka”, also be a popular comic strip, made its debut on CBS radio.
1934 – The strongest surface wind gust in the world at 231 mph, is measured on the summit of Mount Washington, US. That was the recorded speed before the anemometer broke.
1934 – The US Auto-Lite Strike begins, culminating in a five-day fight between Ohio National Guard troops and 6,000 strikers and picketers.
1934 – “Tender Is the Night,” by F. Scott Fitzgerald, was first published.
1935 – “Your Hit Parade”, debuts on radio. It was broadcast from 1935 through 1955 on radio, and from 1950 through 1959 on TV. The most popular songs of the then-current week were sung or performed.
1937 – Sir Frank Whittle ground-tests the first jet engine designed to power an aircraft at Rugby, England.
1937 – The US Supreme Court ruled that the 1935 National Labor Relations Act is unconstitutional.
1938 – First US law requiring medical tests for marriage licenses was passed in New York.
1939 – Woody Herman’s orchestra recorded “Woodchopper’s Ball” for Decca.
1940 – NFL cuts clipping penalty from 25 yards to 15 yards.
1944 – The U.S. Twentieth Air Force was activated to begin the strategic bombing of Japan.
1945 – World War II: US 9th Army forces cross the Elbe River near Magdeburg, while in the rear of their advance, Brunswick falls.
1945 – World War II: Japanese Kamikaze attacks achieve hits on several of the radar picket ships as well as two battleships and eight other vessels.
1945 – World War II: Canadian troops liberated the Nazi concentration camp at Westerbork, Netherlands.
1945 – In New York, the organization of the first eye bank, the Eye Bank for Sight Restoration, was announced.
1945 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt died in Warm Spring, GA. He died of a cerebral hemorrhage at the age of 63; Vice-President Harry Truman is sworn in as the 33rd President.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton, “Music, Music, Music” by Teresa Brewer, “Peter Cottontail” by Gene Autry and “Long Gone Lonesome Blues” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1954 – Bill Haley and the Comets recorded “Rock Around the Clock.” The song was released a year later in the movie “Blackboard Jungle.”
1954 – Joe Turner’s “Shake, Rattle and Roll” was released.
1955 – First game in Kansas City Municipal Stadium, Kansas City A’s beat Detroit Tigers, 6-2.
1955 – The polio vaccine, developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, is declared safe and effective.
1960 – Bill Veeck & Chicago Comiskey Park debut the “Exploding Scoreboard.”
1961 – Douglas MacArthur declines offer to become baseball commissioner.
1963 – Police used dogs and cattle prods on peaceful civil rights demonstrators in Birmingham, AL.
1965 – First National League game at Houston’s Astrodome.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler, “(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration” by The Righteous Brothers, “Daydream” by The Lovin’ Spoonful and “I Want to Go with You” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1966 – Jan Berry (1942-2004) of the “Jan and Dean” duo was involved in a car crash that left him in a month-long coma.
1967 – Jim Brown made his TV acting debut. He debuted in “Cops and Robbers” on the NBC show “I Spy”, starring Bill Cosby and Robert Culp. “I Spy” aired from 1965 through 1968.
1968 – Nerve gas accident at Skull Valley, Utah. Six thousand sheep were killed on ranches near the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), and the popular explanation blamed Army testing of chemical weapons for the incident.
1969 – “Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In” by 5th Dimension topped the charts.
1969 – Lucy and Snoopy of the comic strip “Peanuts” made the cover of “Saturday Review”.
1969 – Simon & Garfunkel releases “The Boxer.”
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sunshine on My Shoulders” by John Denver, “Hooked on a Feeling” by Blue Swede, “Bennie & The Jets” by Elton John and “A Very Special Love Song” by Charlie Rich all topped the charts.
1975 – “Philadelphia Freedom” by Elton John topped the charts.
1975 – Linda Ronstadt releases “When Will I Be Loved.”
1975 – The US removed its embassy personnel from Phnom Penh.
1980 – “Another Brick In The Wall (Pt.II)” by Pink Floyd topped the charts.
1981 – The first launch of a Space Shuttle: Columbia launches on the STS-1 mission.
Launch of STS-1 Landing of STS-1
1981 – Joe Louis (b.1914), [Brown bomber] heavyweight champion boxer (1937-49), died. He was buried at Arlington Cemetery under a waiver by Pres. Reagan.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Love Rock ’N Roll” by Joan Jett & The Blackhearts, “We Got the Beat” by the Go-Go’s, “Make a Move on Me” by Olivia Newton-John and “Big City” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1982 – Three CBS employees were shot to death in a New York City parking lot.
1983 – Harold Washington was elected the first black mayor of Chicago.
1985 – Senator Joseph ‘Jake’ Garn became the first space politician. Garn was a Republican U.S. Senator from Utah, 1974-1993. In 1985, he became an Astronaut and Payloard Specialist on the space shuttle “Discovery.”
1986 – “Rock Me Amadeus” by Falco topped the charts .
1987 – Texaco Inc. filed the largest bankruptcy in history when it had $35.9 billion in assets. Adjusted for inflation, that amount would be about $73.7 billion today (2013).
1987 – Larry Mize, 28, hit a miracle shot — a 140-foot chip — to win the Masters golf title in Augusta, GA. Mize defeated Greg Norman and Severiano Ballesteros in a playoff.
1988 – The first patent issued for a mammal goes to the “Harvard-Dupont Oncomouse,” a genetically engineered mouse highly susceptible to breast cancer. It was the first patent for animal life.
1988 – Sonny Bono was elected mayor of Palm Springs, CA.
1990 – James Brown was released from a South Carolina jail on work furlough after serving 15 months of a six-year sentence for aggravated assault.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Will Lead You Back” by Taylor Dayne, “I’ll Be Your Everything” by Tommy Page, “All Around the World” by Lisa Stansfield, “Hard Rock Bottom of Your Heart” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.
1990 – Greyhound Bus hired new drivers to replace strikers.
1994 – Canter & Siegel, partners in a husband-and-wife firm of lawyers, post the first commercial mass Usenet spam.
1996 – Historian Stanley I. Kutler of the Univ. of Wisconsin won the release of the Nixon White House tapes.
1998 – Mark O’Meara won the Masters golf tournament in Augusta, Ga. with a 9-under-par score of 279.
1999 – In Arkansas U.S. District Judge Susan Webber Wright cited President Clinton for contempt of court, concluding that the president had lied about his relationship with Monica Lewinsky in a deposition in the Paula Jones case.
1999 – The Snake River in southeastern Washington state was named as the nation’s most endangered river because of 4 dams that have brought salmon runs to the brink of extinction.
2000 – It was reported that the Vermont-based Ben & Jerry’s ice-cream maker would be sold to Unilever Corp.
2001 – Pres. Bush blamed the Chinese for the midair collision of the US spy plane and a Chinese jet and rebuffed demands to end reconnaissance flights off the coast of China.
2001 – The 24 crew members of a U.S. spy plane arrived in Hawaii after being held for 11 days in China.
2003 – In the 25th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US officials said 1,200 police and judicial officers will go to Iraq to help restore order.
2003 – Rescued POW Jessica Lynch returned to the United States after treatment at a U.S. military hospital in Germany.
2004 – A federal judge allowed a nationwide ban on dietary supplements containing ephedra to take effect, turning aside a plea from two manufacturers.
2006 – The Indiana Toll Road was leased for $3.8 billion to a Spanish-Australian consortium that is to maintain and run it for 75 years.
2007 – The new US “forever” postage stamp was scheduled to go on sale. The cost for first class mail was set to rise to 41 cents on May 14.
2009 – US Navy SEAL snipers on a destroyer, shot and killed three Somali pirates and plucked an unharmed Capt. Richard Phillips to safety.
2009 – In New Hampshire a massive fire destroyed or damaged about 40 summer cottages at the 146-year-old Alton Bay Christian Conference Center.
2010 – President Barack Obama opens the summit of 47 countries, the purpose of which is to discuss nuclear security, in particular how to keep nuclear weapons out of the hands of potential terrorists.
2010 – The Washington Post wins four awards at the 2010 Pulitzer Prizes.
2011 – Los Angeles County prosecutors lodge four felony charges against a man suspected of bombing a Chabad house in Santa Monica, California.
2010 – Microsoft launches two new mobile phones marketed to young people. The phones, the Kin One and Kin Two, are built around their social networking features.
2011 – The Senate of the state of North Carolina pardons former Governor William Woods Holden who was impeached in 1871 because of his suspension of habeas corpus in the process of battling the Ku Klux Klan terror campaign.
2012 – The Sony Corp announces plans to cut 10,000 jobs around the world to reduce costs and return the company to profitability.
2012 – Google says that first quarter earnings rose over 24%, with net profit increasing to $8.14 billion.
2013 -Jonathan Winters, creator of breakneck improvisations and misfit characters inspired the likes of Robin Williams and Jim Carrey, died. Winters had made television history in 1956, when RCA broadcast the first public demonstration of color videotape on “The Jonathan Winters Show.”
1724 – Lyman Hall, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1790) 1777 – Henry Clay, American statesman (d. 1852)
1809 – Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States.
1887 – Harold Lockwood, American actor (d. 1918)
1893 – Robert Harron, American actor (d. 1920)
1898 – Lily Pons, American soprano (d. 1976)
1908 – Robert Lee Scott, Jr., American Air Force pilot (d. 2006)
1919 – Billy Vaughn, American musician and bandleader (d. 1991)
1923 – Ann Miller, American actor and dancer (d. 2004)
1940 – John Hagee, American pastor and televangelist
1947 – Tom Clancy, American author
1947 – David Letterman, American talk show host
1950 – David Cassidy, American singer and actor
1964 – Amy Ray, American musician
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 52d Bombardment Squadron, 29th Bombardment Group, 20th Air Force. Place and date: Koriyama, Japan, April 12th, 1945. Entered service at: Bessemer, Ala. Born: 8 May 1921, Adamsville, Ala. G.O. No.: 44, 6 June 1945. Citation: He was the radio operator of a B-29 airplane leading a group formation to attack Koriyama, Japan. He was charged with the additional duty of dropping phosphorous smoke bombs to aid in assembling the group when the launching point was reached. Upon entering the assembly area, aircraft fire and enemy fighter opposition was encountered. Among the phosphorous bombs launched by S/Sgt. Erwin, one proved faulty, exploding in the launching chute, and shot back into the interior of the aircraft, striking him in the face. The burning phosphorous obliterated his nose and completely blinded him. Smoke filled the plane, obscuring the vision of the pilot. S/Sgt. Erwin realized that the aircraft and crew would be lost if the burning bomb remained in the plane. Without regard for his own safety, he picked it up and feeling his way, instinctively, crawled around the gun turret and headed for the copilot’s window. He found the navigator’s table obstructing his passage. Grasping the burning bomb between his forearm and body, he unleashed the spring lock and raised the table. Struggling through the narrow passage he stumbled forward into the smoke-filled pilot’s compartment. Groping with his burning hands, he located the window and threw the bomb out. Completely aflame, he fell back upon the floor. The smoke cleared, the pilot, at 300 feet, pulled the plane out of its dive. S/Sgt. Erwin’s gallantry and heroism above and beyond the call of duty saved the lives of his comrades.
*HASTINGS, JOE R.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 386th Infantry, 97th Infantry Division. Place and date: Drabenderhohe, Germany, April 12th, 1945. Entered service at: Magnolia, Ohio. Birth: Malvern, Ohio. G.O. No.: 101, 8 November 1945. Citation: He fought gallantly during an attack against strong enemy forces defending Drabenderhohe, Germany, from the dug-in positions on commanding ground. As squad leader of a light machinegun section supporting the advance of the 1st and 3d Platoons, he braved direct rifle, machinegun, 20mm., and mortar fire, some of which repeatedly missed him only by inches, and rushed forward over 350 yards of open, rolling fields to reach a position from which he could fire on the enemy troops. From this vantage point he killed the crews of a 20mm. gun and a machinegun, drove several enemy riflemen from their positions, and so successfully shielded the 1st Platoon, that it had time to reorganize and remove its wounded to safety. Observing that the 3d Platoon to his right was being met by very heavy 40mm. and machinegun fire, he ran 150 yards with his gun to the leading elements of that unit, where he killed the crew of the 40mm. gun. As spearhead of the 3d Platoon’s attack, he advanced, firing his gun held at hip height, disregarding the bullets that whipped past him, until the assault had carried 175 yards to the objective. In this charge he and the riflemen he led killed or wounded many of the fanatical enemy and put two machineguns out of action. Pfc. Hastings, by his intrepidity, outstanding leadership, and unrelenting determination to wipe out the formidable German opposition, cleared the path for his company’s advance into Drabenderhohe. He was killed four days later while again supporting the 3d Platoon.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 1st North Dakota Infantry. Place and date: Near Paete, Luzon, Philippine Islands, April 12th, 1899. Entered service at: Grafton, N. Dak. Birth: Norway. Date of issue: 11 March 1902. Citation: Single-handed and alone defended his dead and wounded comrades against a greatly superior force of the enemy.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1849, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 176, 9 July 1872. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Kansas near Greytown, Nicaragua, April 12th, 1872. Displaying great coolness and self-possession at the time Comdr. A. F. Crosman and others were drowned, Denham, by heroism and personal exertion, prevented greater loss of life.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Chief Quarter Gunner, U.S. Navy. Born: 1844, England. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 176, 9 July 1872. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Kansas, Hill displayed great coolness and self-possession at the time Comdr. A. F. Crosman and others were drowned, near Greytown, Nicaragua, April 12th, 1872, and by extraordinary heroism and personal exertion, prevented greater loss of life.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1839, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 176, 9 July 1872. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Kansas near Greytown, Nicaragua April 12th, 1872, Johnson displayed great coolness and self-possession ai the time Comdr. A. F. Crosman and others were drowned and, by extraordinary heroism and personal exertion, prevented greater loss of life.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1841, Ireland. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 176, 9 July 1872. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Kansas, O’Neal displayed great coolness and self-possession at the time Comdr. A. F. Crosman and others were drowned near Greytown, Nicaragua, April 12th, 1872, and by personal exertion prevented greater loss of life.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1849, West Indies. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 176, 9 July 1872. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Kansas, Pile displayed great coolness and self-possession at the time Comdr. A. F. Crosman and others were drowned, near Greytown, Nicaragua, April 12th, 1872, and by his extraordinary heroism and personal exertion prevented greater loss of life.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, Hawaiian Islands. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 176, 9 July 1872. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Kansas, Smith displayed great coolness and self-possession at the time Comdr. A. F. Crosman and others were drowned near Greytown, Nicaragua, April 12th, 1872, and by extraordinary heroism and personal exertion, prevented greater loss of life.
INDIAN WAR PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Indian Scouts. Place and date: Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at: Camp Verde, Ariz. Born: 1853, Arizona Territory. Date of issue: April 12th, 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
(Second to receive Medal of Honor)
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 21st Ohio Infantry. Place and date: Georgia, April 12th, 1862. Entered service at: Hancock County, Ohio. Born: 14 January 1840, Wayne County, Ohio. Date of issue: 25 March 1863. Citation: One of the nineteen of twenty-two men (including two civilians) who, by direction of Gen. Mitchell (or Buell), penetrated nearly 200 miles south into enemy territory and captured a railroad train at Big Shanty, Ga., in an attempt to destroy the bridges and track between Chattanooga and Atlanta . Exact date unknown
Barbershop Quartet Day
International “Louie Louie” Day
The roots of barbershop singing date back to singing by Black Americans in the late 19th century. In that time frame barber shops were not only places to get shaves and haircuts but they also served as community centers, places where people would meet for “networking” and political discourse. Barbering was a kind of low-status job and a lot of barbers were Blacks.
While today we read a magazine or a book while waiting for our turn but at the turn of the century people would bring musical instruments or they would have community sings and because of the “community” nature, people would sing along and experiment with music. Add to this the popularity of travelling minstrel shows and vaudeville shows we see the growth of the barber shops as places where there was a ready-made crowd.
The most popular tunes of the day included simple melodies with sentimental lyrics and harmonies were mostly improvised. There was very little printed music so the most popular tunes were those easily memorized. The “singers” would then “interpret” the music to their what their ears wanted to hear.
Many of the most popular barbershop quartets of the day were African American groups. They were the ones that dared to experiment with the music and to do unconventional things to produce popular singing. At the turn of the century, these groups would provide entertainment at parties, picnics and were often used at minstrel shows top sing in front of the curtain while behind the curtain the stage was being reset. This proved to be very effective especially since no props or instruments were required.
When the big bands started to become more popular, there was a danger that this form of entertainment would disappear. To save this now unique American art form, groups were formed to continue it. Over time the Black Americans lost interest and today there are very few. Singer Thomas Johnson Jr. says he doesn’t know of any black quartets singing barbershop these days. He says that white singers “polished it up some, just like silver and gold… Barbershop music is very beautiful music. But it was a black tradition.”
May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, so that by the power of the Holy Spirit you may abound in hope.
“Free government is founded in jealousy, not confidence. It is jealousy and not confidence which prescribes limited constitutions, to bind those we are obliged to trust with power…. In questions of power, then, let no more be heard of confidence in men, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the Constitution.” — Thomas Jefferson, 1799
“There are three types of people in this world: those who make things happen, those who watch things happen and those who wonder what happened. We all have a choice. You can decide which type of person you want to be. I have always chosen to be in the first group.”
~ Mary Kay Ash
inveigle \in-VAY-guhl; -VEE-\, transitive verb:
1. To persuade by ingenuity or flattery; to entice.
2. To obtain by ingenuity or flattery.
Inveigle comes from Anglo-French enveogler, from Old French aveugler, “to blind, to lead astray as if blind,” from aveugle, “blind,” from Medieval Latin ab oculis, “without eyes.”
1689 – In the days of the “Divine Rights of Kings” we see a glimmer of future hope. William III and Mary II were crowned as joint sovereigns of Britain. As part of their oaths, the new King William III and Queen Mary were required to swear that they would obey the laws of Parliament. At this time, the Bill of Rights was read to both William and Mary. “We thankfully accept what you have offered us,” William replied, agreeing to be subject to law and to be guided in his actions by the decisions of Parliament.
1775 – The last execution for witchcraft in Germany takes place.
1783 – After receiving a copy of the provisional treaty on March 13, the U.S. Congress proclaimed a formal end to hostilities with Great Britain.
1803 – A twin-screw propeller steamboat was patented by John Stevens.
1803 – French Foreign Minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand surprises the U.S. when he makes an offer to sell all of Louisiana Territory to our new government.
1809 – Supreme Court rules federal government power greater than any state (Marbury v. Madison)
1862 – Civil War: Fort Pulaski, guarding the mouth of the Savannah River in Georgia, surrenders after a two-day Union bombardment tears great holes in the massive fort.
1862 – Civil War: Sea battle between the USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia, the first ever between two “ironclads. The Virginia retreated.
1863 – Civil War:Battle of Norfleet House (Suffolk, VA.)
1865 – President Abraham Lincoln makes his last public speech. He urged a spirit of generous conciliation during reconstruction.
1865 – Battle of Mobile, AL, evacuated by the Confederates.
1876 – The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks is organized.
1876 – The stenotype was patented by John C. Zachos of New York City.
1881 – Spelman College is founded in Atlanta, Georgia as the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary, an institute of higher education for African-American women.
1890 – Ellis Island designated as an immigration station. Two percent of immigrants seeking refuge in America who made it as far as Ellis Island failed to be admitted.
1893 – Frederic Ives patented the process for half-tone printing. This gentleman was the Ives part of Currier & Ives.
1895 – Anaheim, CA, completed its new electric light system.
1898 – President William McKinley asked Congress for a declaration of war with Spain.
1899 – The Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish-American War was declared in effect. Spain cedes Puerto Rico to the United States.
1900 – US Navy buys its sixth submarine (USS Holland). The 53.3-foot-long, 63-ton submarine cost $160,000 and could travel to a depth of 75 feet.
1904 – One officer and twenty enlisted men became the first Marines to garrison Midway Island.
1905 – Albert Einstein reveals his Theory of Relativity (special relativity).
1907 – New York Giant Roger Bresnahan becomes first catcher to wear shin guards.
1912 – Thursday 1:30pm: Titanic leaves Queenstown Ireland for New York.
1917 – Babe Ruth beats New York Yankees, pitching for the Red Sox.
1917 – President Wilson issued an executive order transferring 30 lighthouse tenders to the War Department.
1921 – First sports broadcast on the radio takes place. It was a 10-round, no decision fight between Johnny Ray and Johnny Dundee in Pittsburgh’s Motor Square Garden.
1921 – Iowa becomes the first U.S. state to impose a cigarette tax.
1924 – WLS-AM in Chicago IL began radio transmissions.
1938 – The SPEBSQSA (Society for the Preservation and Encouragement of Barbershop Quartet Singing in America) was founded by 26 singing, striped-shirted gentlemen.
1940 – Andrew Ponzi sets world’s record at a New York City pocket billiards tournament. Ponzi ran 127 balls straight.
1941 – Roosevelt tells Churchill that the US Navy will extend the American Defense Zone up to the line of 26 degrees West.
1943 – Frank Piasecki, Vertol founder, flies his first (single-rotor) craft.
1943 – “Nick Carter, Master Detective” debuted on Mutual radio.This was one of the first hit detective radio shows, and in it, Nick was a pretty typical private eye of the time.
1944 – World War II: Marlene Dietrich gives the first of her many shows for U.S. servicemen overseas.
1945 – World War II: Leading armored units of the US 9th Army reach the Elbe River, south of Magdeburg. Forces of US 3rd Army capture Weimar. Other elements capture the Mittlewerke underground V2 factory at Nordhausen.
1945 – World War II: American forces liberate the Buchenwald concentration camp.
1945 – World War II: Japanese Kamikaze attacks damage the battleship USS Missouri and the carrier USS Enterprise.
1945 – World War II: Holocaust: The Nazi SS shot and burned 1,100 on the Isenschnibbe estate near the northern German town of Gardelegen.
1947 – Jackie Robinson became the first African-American player in major league baseball, signing with the Brooklyn Dodgers.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cruising Down the River” by The Blue Barron Orchestra (vocal: ensemble), “Sunflower” by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: The Skylarks), “Red Roses for a Blue Lady” by Vaughn Monroe and “Candy Kisses” by – George Morgan all topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: President Harry Truman relieves General Douglas MacArthur of overall command in Korea.
1951 – The Stone of Scone, the stone upon which Scottish monarchs were traditionally crowned, is found on the site of the altar of Arbroath Abbey. It had been taken by Scottish nationalist students from its place in Westminster Abbey.
1953 – “The Doggie in the Window“ by Patti Page topped the charts.
1956 – Elvis Presley’s “Heartbreak Hotel” and “I Was the One.” topped the charts.
1956 – Elvis Presley’s “Heartbreak Hotel” went gold.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Little Darlin’” by The Diamonds, “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley, “Party Doll” by Buddy Knox and “Gone” by Ferlin Husky all topped the charts.
1957 – Ryan X-13 Vertijet becomes first jet to take-off & land vertically.
1959 – “Venus” by Frankie Avalon topped the charts.
1959 – Dodger pitcher Don Drysdale hits his first Opening Day homerun.
1961 – Bob Dylan made his professional singing debut in Greenwich Village.
1961 – The trial of Adolf Eichmann begins in Jerusalem. He was a German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust.. He was found guilty and executed by hanging in 1962. He is the only person to have been executed in Israel on conviction by a civilian court.
1962 – The New York Mets played their first regular season game.
1963 – Vietnam War: One hundred U.S. troops of the Hawaiian-based 25th Infantry Division are ordered to temporary duty with military units in South Vietnam to serve as machine gunners aboard Army H-21 helicopters. This was the first commitment of American combat troops to the war.
1964 – “Can’t Buy Me Love” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Telling You Now” by Freddie & The Dreamers, “The Birds and the Bees” by Jewel Akens, “Game of Love” by Wayne Fontana & The Mindbenders and “King of the Road” by Roger Miller all topped the charts.
1965 – The Palm Sunday tornado outbreak of 1965: Tornadoes hit in six Midwestern states involved 78 tornadoes (38 significant, 19 violent, 21 killers). It was the second biggest outbreak on record. In the Midwest, 271 people were killed and 1,500 injured (1,200 in Indiana).
1966 – Jack Nicklaus wins 30th Golf Masters Championship.
1967 – Harlem (NYC) voters defy Congress & reelect Adam Clayton Powell Jr. He wasn’t seated following allegations that Powell had misappropriated Committee funds for his personal use and other corruption allegations.
1967 – Vietnam War: US planes bombed two thermal power plants in Haiphong, North Vietnam.
1968 – President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968, prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing. This was just one week after the assassination of Martin Luther King. Jr.
1970 – The Apollo 13 spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on the third U.S. moon-landing mission. The attempt was aborted when an oxygen tank exploded but the astronauts safely returned to Earth. The astronauts were James A. Lovell, John L. Swigert, and Fred W. Haise.
1972 – Vietnam War: B-52 strikes against communist forces attacking South Vietnamese positions in the Central Highlands near Kontum remove any immediate threat to that city.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia” by Vicki Lawrence, “Neither One of Us (Wants to Be the First to Say Goodbye)” by Gladys Knight & The Pips, “Ain’t No Woman (Like the One I’ve Got)” by Four Tops and “Super Kind of Woman” by Freddie Hart & The Heartbeats all topped the charts.
1974 – The Judiciary committee subpoenas President Richard Nixon to produce tapes for impeachment inquiry.
1972 – Benjamin L. Hooks, a Memphis lawyer-minister, becomes the first African American named to the Federal Communications Commission.
1975 – Hank Aaron returns as a Milwaukee player (Brewers).
1976 – The Apple I is created.
1977 – The largest American Lobster was caught off of Nova Scotia, Canada. It weighed 44 lbs 6 oz. and was 42” long.
1979 – Ugandan dictator Idi Amin is deposed.
1980 – The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission issued regulations specifically prohibiting sexual harassment of workers by supervisors.
1980 – The Viking 2 Mars Lander ended communications.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss on My List“ by Daryl Hall & John Oates, “Just the Two of Us” by Grover Washington, Jr./Bill Withers, “Morning Train (Nine to Five)” by Sheena Easton and “You’re the Reason God Made Oklahoma” by David Frizzell & Shelly West all topped the charts.
1981 – President Ronald Reagan returns to the White House from the hospital, 12 days after he was wounded in an assassination attempt.
1983 – Harold Washington was elected the first black mayor of Chicago.
1984 – Challenger astronauts complete first in space satellite repair.
1985 – Scientists in Hawaii measured the distance between the earth and moon within one inch.
1985 – The White House announced that President Reagan would visit the Nazi cemetery at Bitburg.
1986 – Dodge Morgan completes nonstop sail solo around the world.
1986 – In Groton, CT, the submarine Nautilus exhibit opened to the public.
1986 – Halley’s Comet makes closest approach to Earth this trip, 39 million miles.
1986 – Kellogg’s stopped giving tours of its breakfast-food plant. The reason for the end of the 80-year tradition was said to be that company secrets were at risk due to spies from other cereal companies.
1987 – “Nothing’s Gonna Stop Us Now“ by Starship topped the charts.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Look” by Roxette, “She Drives Me Crazy” by Fine Young Cannibals, “Like a Prayer” by Madonna and “I’m No Stranger to the Rain” by Keith Whitley all topped the charts.
1989 – First playoff goal scored by a goalee, Ron Hextall of the Philadelphia Flyers.
1990 – Idaho became the 47th state to recognize Jan. 15 as Martin Luther King, Jr. Day and as a national holiday.
1991 – The Space Shuttle “Atlantis” landed safely after an extended, 93-orbit mission that included deployment of an observatory.
1991 – New York City’s Museum of Broadcasting becomes “Museum of Radio & Television.”
1993 – 450 prisoners rioted for ten days at the maximum-security Southern Ohio Correctional Facility near Lucasville. Nine inmates and one guard were killed.
1996 – Seven-year-old pilot Jessica Dubroff, her father and her flight instructor were killed when their plane crashed on takeoff from Cheyenne, Wyo.
1996 – “King & I”, premieres at Neil Simon Theater in New York City for 781 performances.
1996 – The Shell Oil Mars platform was towed to the Gulf of Mexico. Its construction began in Italy in Oct, 1993 and it will stand over 320 stories from ocean floor to the top of the rigging. Its cost was $650 mil. and it weighs 73 mil. lbs.
1996 – The St. Charles Baptist Church in Paintcourtville, La., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1997 – The Air Force announced that despite an intensive nine-day search, it couldn’t find a bomb-laden A-10 warplane that had disappeared with its pilot during a training mission over Arizona. Wreckage was later found on a Colorado mountainside.
2001 – The detained crew of a United States EP-3E aircraft that landed in Hainan, People’s Republic of China after a collision with an J-8 fighter is released. The Chinese pilot was never found.
2002 – A jury in Cleveland, Ohio convicted U.S. Rep. James Traficant, D-Ohio, of racketeering and corruption.
2002 – An attempted coup d’état in Venezuela against President Hugo Chávez takes place.
2002 – An empty American Airlines jet parked outside a hangar at Los Angeles International Airport rolls through a fence before coming to a stop on a service road.
2003 – In the 24th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom the northern city of Mosul fell into US and Kurdish hands after an entire corps of the Iraqi army surrendered.
2003 – In Yemen 10 suspects in the bombing of the US destroyer Cole escaped from prison.
2004 – Gunmen shot down a U.S. attack helicopter during fighting in western Baghdad, killing its two crew members. The bloodied bodies of two men, purportedly Americans killed during fighting in Fallujah, were shown on Arab TV.
2005 – Chelsea Cooley, the reigning Miss North Carolina, was crowned Miss USA in the 54th annual pageant.
2006 – Ariel Sharon was officially relieved of his duties as prime minister of Israel when the Cabinet declared him to be permanently incapacitated. Sharon suffered a major stroke on Jan. 4, 2006, and fell into a coma a short time later. He was succeeded by Ehud Olmert.
2006 – Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announces that Iran has successfully enriched uranium.
2006 – In New Jersey a jury awarded $9 million in punitive damages to a man who blamed his heart attack on Vioxx, finding that manufacturer Merck & Co. failed to warn about the risks of its arthritis drug and misrepresented the risks to physicians.
2007 – North Carolina’s top prosecutor dropped all charges against three former Duke University lacrosse players accused of sexually assaulting a stripper at a party, saying the athletes were innocent victims of a “tragic rush to accuse.”
2007 – The US Senate (democrat-controlled) votes to ease funding restrictions on stem-cell research but President Bush threatens to veto the bill.
2007 – A federal grand jury in Columbus, Ohio, indicted Christopher Paul (43), a US citizen, on charges of joining al-Qaida in the 1990s and conspiring to bomb European tourist resorts and US government facilities and military bases overseas.
2008 – Jane’s Information Group’s examination of Iran’s most recent missile launch indicated the nation is developing both long-range missile technology and a space center.
2008 – A fire destroys the campaign office of Senator Hillary Clinton in Terre Haute, Indiana.
2008 – Crystle Stewart (26), of Missouri City, Texas, was named Miss USA, besting 50 other beauty queens for the coveted crown in Las Vegas.
2010 – Texas Stadium, the former home of the National Football League’s Dallas Cowboys, is demolished by implosion. More than 20,000 people gathered at tailgate parties and other spots to watch fireworks go off one last time.
2011 – The U.S. Attorney’s office for San Diego announces that 10 individuals have been indicted on charges relating to an alleged point shaving scheme involving college basketball games.
2011 – Former Governor of Massachusetts Mitt Romney announces that he will be a candidate for the Republican Party nomination for President of the United States.
2011 – Vincent C. Gray, the Mayor of Washington DC is arrested while protesting about a US budget deal.
2011 – The U.S. Attorney’s office for San Diego announces that 10 individuals have been indicted on charges relating to an alleged point shaving scheme involving college basketball games.
2012 – A Florida special prosecutor charges George Zimmerman with murder in the second degree in relation to the death of Trayvon Martin.
2013 – The US Senate approved the motion to proceed on S. 649 (Gun Control) by a vote of 68-31. This means they will begin debating the issue. Sixteen Republican Senators voted with the Gun Control Proponents and two Democrats voted against.
1755 – James Parkinson, English physician who is most famous for his 1817 work, An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, in which he was the first to describe “paralysis agitans”, a condition that would later be named Parkinson’s disease after him. (d. 1824)
1794 – Edward Everett was a huge political presence in the early and mid 1800’s. In 1863 he delivered a two-hour Gettysburg Oration that has been eclipsed in history by President Lincoln’s two-minute Gettysburg Address, which Everett praised as superior to his own. (d. 1865)
1862 – Charles Evans Hughes, 11th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1948) He resisted President Franklin Roosevelt’s attempts to “pack” the Supreme Court with judges favorable to the New Deal.
1893 – Dean Acheson, U.S. Secretary of State (d. 1971) He served under President Harry S Truman from 1949 to 1953.
1899 – Percy Lavon Julian was an African American research chemist and a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants. (d. 1975)
1908 – Jane Bolin, first African-American female judge (d. 2007)
1913 – Oleg Cassini, American fashion designer (d. 2006)
1916 – Howard W. Koch, American film director (d. 2001)
1928 – Ethel Kennedy, wife of Robert F. Kennedy
1935 – Richard Berry, American singer and composer best known as the composer and original performer of the rock standard “Louie Louie”.(d. 1997)
1938 – Michael Deaver was a member of President Ronald Reagan’s White House staff serving as Deputy White House Chief of Staff under James Baker III and Donald Regan from January 1981 until May 1985. (d. 2007)
1941 – Ellen Goodman, American political columnist
1951 – James Patrick Kelly, American science fiction author
DE LA GARZA, EMILIO A., JR.
Rank and organization: Lance Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and Date: Near Da Nang, Republic of Vietnam, April 11th, 1970. Entered service at: Chicago, IL. Born: 23 June 1949, East Chicago, Ind. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a machine gunner with Company E. Returning with his squad from a night ambush operation, L/Cpl. De La Garza joined his platoon commander and another marine in searching for two enemy soldiers who had been observed fleeing for cover toward a small pond. Moments later, he located one of the enemy soldiers hiding among the reeds and brush. As the three Marines attempted to remove the resisting soldier from the pond, L/Cpl. De La Garza observed him pull the pin on a grenade. Shouting a warning, L/Cpl. De La Garza placed himself between the other two Marines and the ensuing blast from the grenade, thereby saving the lives of his comrades at the sacrifice of his life. By his prompt and decisive action, and his great personal valor in the face of almost certain death, L/Cpl. De La Garza upheld and further enhanced the finest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service.
PITSENBARGER, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Airman First Class, U.S. Air Force, Detachment 6, 38th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron, Bien Hoa Air Base, Republic of Vietnam. Entered service at: Piqua, Ohio Born: July 8, 1944, Piqua, Ohio Place and date: Near Cam My, April 11, 1966. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Airman First Class Pitsenbarger distinguished himself by extreme valor while assigned as a Pararescue Crew Member, Detachment 6, 38th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron. On that date, Airman Pitsenbarger was aboard a rescue helicopter responding to a call for evacuation of casualties incurred in an ongoing firefight between elements of the United States Army’s 1st Infantry Division and a sizeable enemy force approximately 35 miles east of Saigon. With complete disregard for personal safety, Airman Pitsenbarger volunteered to ride a hoist more than one hundred feet through the jungle, to the ground. On the ground, he organized and coordinated rescue efforts, cared for the wounded, prepared casualties for evacuation, and insured that the recovery operation continued in a smooth and orderly fashion. Through his personal efforts, the evacuation of the wounded was greatly expedited. As each of the nine casualties evacuated that day was recovered, Airman Pitsenbarger refused evacuation in order to get more wounded soldiers to safety. After several pick-ups, one of the two rescue helicopters involved in the evacuation was struck by heavy enemy ground fire and was forced to leave the scene for an emergency landing. Airman Pitsenbarger stayed behind on the ground to perform medical duties. Shortly thereafter, the area came under sniper and mortar fire. During a subsequent attempt to evacuate the site, American forces came under heavy assault by a large Viet Cong force. When the enemy launched the assault, the evacuation was called off and Airman Pitsenbarger took up arms with the besieged infantrymen. He courageously resisted the enemy, braving intense gunfire to gather and distribute vital ammunition to American defenders. As the battle raged on, he repeatedly exposed himself to enemy fire to care for the wounded, pull them out of the line of fire, and return fire whenever he could, during which time he was wounded three times. Despite his wounds, he valiantly fought on, simultaneously treating as many wounded as possible. In the vicious fighting that followed, the American forces suffered 80 percent casualties as their perimeter was breached, and Airman Pitsenbarger was fatally wounded. Airman Pitsenbarger exposed himself to almost certain death by staying on the ground, and perished while saving the lives of wounded infantrymen. His bravery and determination exemplify the highest professional standards and traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Air Force.
*ROBINSON, JAMES W., JR.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 2d Battalion, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and Date: Republic of Vietnam, April 11th, 1966. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 30 August 1940, Hinsdale, Ill. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Company C was engaged in fierce combat with a Viet Cong battalion. Despite the heavy fire, Sgt. Robinson moved among the men of his fire team, instructing and inspiring them, and placing them in advantageous positions. Enemy snipers located in nearby trees were inflicting heavy casualties on forward elements of Sgt. Robinson’s unit. Upon locating the enemy sniper whose fire was taking the heaviest toll, he took a grenade launcher and eliminated the sniper. Seeing a medic hit while administering aid to a wounded sergeant in front of his position and aware that now the two wounded men were at the mercy of the enemy, he charged through a withering hail of fire and dragged his comrades to safety, where he rendered first aid and saved their lives. As the battle continued and casualties mounted, Sgt. Robinson moved about under intense fire to collect from the wounded their weapons and ammunition and redistribute them to able-bodied soldiers. Adding his fire to that of his men, he assisted in eliminating a major enemy threat. Seeing another wounded comrade in front of his position, Sgt. Robinson again defied the enemy’s fire to affect a rescue. In so doing he was himself wounded in the shoulder and leg. Despite his painful wounds, he dragged the soldier to shelter and saved his life by administering first aid. While patching his own wounds, he spotted an enemy machinegun which had inflicted a number of casualties on the American force. His rifle ammunition expended, he seized two grenades and, in an act of unsurpassed heroism, charged toward the entrenched enemy weapon. Hit again in the leg, this time with a tracer round which set fire to his clothing, Sgt. Robinson ripped the burning clothing from his body and staggered indomitably through the enemy fire, now concentrated solely on him, to within grenade range of the enemy machinegun position. Sustaining two additional chest wounds, he marshaled his fleeting physical strength and hurled the two grenades, thus destroying the enemy gun position, as he fell dead upon the battlefield. His magnificent display of leadership and bravery saved several lives and inspired his soldiers to defeat the numerically superior enemy force. Sgt. Robinson’s conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity, at the cost of his life, are in keeping with the finest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon the 1st Infantry Division and the U.S. Armed Forces.
MICHAEL, EDWARD S.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 364th Bomber Squadron, 305th Bomber Group. Place and date: Over Germany, April 11th, 1944. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 2 May 1918, Chicago, Ill. G.O. No.: 5, 15 January 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as pilot of a B17 aircraft on a heavy-bombardment mission to Germany, 11 April 1944. The group in which 1st Lt. Michael was flying was attacked by a swarm of fighters. His plane was singled out and the fighters pressed their attacks home recklessly, completely disregarding the Allied fighter escort and their own intense flak. His plane was riddled from nose to tail with exploding cannon shells and knocked out of formation, with a large number of fighters following it down, blasting it with cannon fire as it descended. A cannon shell exploded in the cockpit, wounded the copilot, wrecked the instruments, and blew out the side window. 1st Lt. Michael was seriously and painfully wounded in the right thigh. Hydraulic fluid filmed over the windshield making visibility impossible, and smoke filled the cockpit. The controls failed to respond and 3,000 feet were lost before he succeeded in leveling off. The radio operator informed him that the whole bomb bay was in flames as a result of the explosion of three cannon shells, which had ignited the incendiaries. With a full load of incendiaries in the bomb bay and a considerable gas load in the tanks, the danger of fire enveloping the plane and the tanks exploding seemed imminent. When the emergency release lever failed to function, 1st Lt. Michael at once gave the order to bail out and seven of the crew left the plane. Seeing the bombardier firing the navigator’s gun at the enemy planes, 1st Lt. Michael ordered him to bail out as the plane was liable to explode any minute. When the bombardier looked for his parachute he found that it had been riddled with 20mm. fragments and was useless. 1st Lt. Michael, seeing the ruined parachute, realized that if the plane was abandoned the bombardier would perish and decided that the only chance would be a crash landing. Completely disregarding his own painful and profusely bleeding wounds, but thinking only of the safety of the remaining crewmembers, he gallantly evaded the enemy, using violent evasive action despite the battered condition of his plane. After the plane had been under sustained enemy attack for fully 45 minutes, 1st Lt. Michael finally lost the persistent fighters in a cloud bank. Upon emerging, an accurate barrage of flak caused him to come down to treetop level where flak towers poured a continuous rain of fire on the plane. He continued into France, realizing that at any moment a crash landing might have to be attempted, but trying to get as far as possible to increase the escape possibilities if a safe landing could be achieved. 1st Lt. Michael flew the plane until he became exhausted from the loss of blood, which had formed on the floor in pools, and he lost consciousness. The copilot succeeded in reaching England and sighted an RAF field near the coast. 1st Lt. Michael finally regained consciousness and insisted upon taking over the controls to land the plane. The undercarriage was useless; the bomb bay doors were jammed open; the hydraulic system and altimeter were shot out. In addition, there was no airspeed indicator, the ball turret was jammed with the guns pointing downward, and the flaps would not respond. Despite these apparently insurmountable obstacles, he landed the plane without mishap.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 1st Louisiana Cavalry. Place and date: At Mount Pleasant, Ala., April 11th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Capture of flag.
The Salvation Army began in 1865 when William Booth, a London minister, gave up the comfort of his pulpit and decided to take his message into the streets where it would reach the poor, the homeless, the hungry and the destitute. His original aim was to send converts to established churches of the day, but soon he realized that the poor did not feel comfortable or welcome in the pews of most of the churches and chapels of Victorian England. Regular churchgoers were appalled when these shabbily dressed, unwashed people came to join them in worship.
Booth decided to found a church especially for them — the East London Christian Mission. The mission grew slowly, but Booth’s faith in God remained undiminished.
In May of 1878, Booth summoned his son, Bramwell, and his good friend George Railton to read a proof of the Christian Mission’s annual report. At the top it read: THE CHRISTIAN MISSION is A VOLUNTEER ARMY. Bramwell strongly objected to this wording. He was not a volunteer: he was compelled to do God’s work. So, in a flash of inspiration, Booth crossed out “Volunteer” and wrote “Salvation”. The Salvation Army was born.
On March 10, 1880, Commissioner George Scott Raiton and seven women officers knelt on the dockside at Battery Park in New York City to give thanks for their safe arrival. At their first official street meeting, these pioneers were met with unfriendly actions, as had happened in Great Britain. They were ridiculed, arrested, and attacked. Several officers and soldiers even gave their lives.Three years later, Railton and other Salvationists had expanded their operation into California, Connecticut, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. President Grover Cleveland received a delegation of Salvation Army officers in 1886 and gave the organization a warm personal endorsement. This was the first recognition from the White House and would be followed by similar receptions from succeeding presidents.
General Booth’s death in 1912 was a great loss to The Salvation Army. However, he had laid a firm foundation’ even his death could not deter the ministry’s onward march. His eldest son, Bramwell Booth, succeeded him.
Edward J. Higgins served as the first elected general, beginning in 1929. The first female general was Booth’s daughter, the dynamic Evangeline Booth, serving from 1934 to 1939. The Army’s fifth general was George Carpenter, succeeded in 1946 by Albert Orsborn. General Wilfred Kitching was elected in 1954, succeeded by Frederick Coutts in 1963. Erik Wickberg followed in 1969; Clarence Wiseman in 1974; Arnold Brown in 1977; Jarl Wahlstrom in 1981; and Eva Burrows, the second female general, in 1986. General Bramwell Tillsley was elected in 1993 and was succeeded by General Paul Rader in 1994, followed by General John Gowans in 1999, General John Larsson in 2002, and General Shaw Clifton in 2006. General Linda Bond was elected the 19th General of The Salvation Army in January 2011, the third female to serve in this capacity. She currently commands the Army from International Headquarters in London, England.
By the 1900s, the Army had spread around the world. The Salvation Army soon had officers and soldiers in 36 countries, including the United States of America. This well-organized yet flexible structure inspired a great many much-needed services: women’s social work, the first food depot, the first day nursery and the first Salvation Army missionary hospital. During World War II, The Salvation Army operated 3,000 service units for the armed forces, which led to the formation of the USO.
Today, The Salvation Army is stronger and more powerful than ever. Now, in over 106 nations around the world, The Salvation Army continues to work where the need is greatest, guided by faith in God and love for all people.
Proverbs 28:13New International Version (NIV)
13 Whoever conceals their sins does not prosper, but the one who confesses and renounces them finds mercy.
“I conceive we cannot better express ourselves than by humbly supplicating the Supreme Ruler of the world . . . that the confusions that are and have been among the nations may be overruled by the promoting and speedily bringing in the holy and happy period when the kingdoms of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ may be everywhere established, and the people willingly bow to the scepter of Him who is the Prince of Peace.”
~ Samuel Adams
“We gain strength, and courage, and confidence by each experience in which we really stop to look fear in the face … we must do that which we think we cannot.”
~ Eleanor Roosevelt
Roister ROY-stur, intransitive verb:
1. To engage in boisterous merrymaking; to revel; to carouse.
2.To bluster; to swagger.Roister is probably from Middle French rustre, “a boor, a clown; clownish,” from Latin rusticus, “rustic,” from rus, “country.”
1606 – The Charter of the Virginia Company of London is established by royal charter by James I of England with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America.
1790 – US Patent system is established. This date marks the first time in American history that the law gave inventors rights to their creations.
1816 – The United States Government approves the creation of the Second Bank of the United States.
1825 – The first hotel opened in Hawaii.
1834 – LaLaurie was a sadistic socialite who lived in New Orleans. Her home was a chamber of horrors. Today a fire broke out in the mansion’s kitchen, and firefighters found two slaves chained to the stove. They appeared to have started the fire themselves, in order to attract attention. Many slaves were tortured and killed. She was never caught.
1841 – New York “Tribune” begins publishing under editor Horace Greeley.
1845 – Over 1,000 buildings were damaged by fire in Pittsburgh, Pa.
1849 – Walter Hunt was awarded a patent for what he called a “dress pin,” .It was a safety pin ,a simple device made of wire. The patent number for the safety pin is 6,281.
1856 – The Theta Chi Fraternity is founded at Norwich University, Norwich, Vermont.
1862 – Civil War: Union forces began the bombardment of Fort Pulaski in Georgia along the Tybee River.
1863 – Civil War: Rebel Gen. Earl Van Dorn attacked at Franklin, Tenn.
1863 – Civil War: An expedition led by Lieutenant Commander Selfridge of U.S.S. Conestoga cut across Beulah Bend, Mississippi, and destroyed guerrilla stations that had harassed Union shipping on the river.
1865 – Civil War: A day after his surrender to Union forces, Confederate General Robert E. Lee addresses his troops for the last time.General Lee issued Gen Order #9, his last orders to the Army of Northern Virginia.
1866 – The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is founded in New York City by Henry Bergh.
1869 – The US Congress increased the number of Supreme Court judges from seven to nine.
1874 – The first Arbor Day is celebrated in Nebraska.
1878 – The California St. Cable Car RR Co. started service.
1887 – President Abraham Lincoln was re-buried with his wife in Springfield, Il.
1912 – The RMS Titanic leaves port in Southampton, England for her first and only voyage.
1912 – The first wireless transmission was received on an airplane.
1913 – President Woodrow Wilson throws out first ball. It was Washington’s home opener at National Park. Under new manager Frank Chance, New York is playing its first official game as Yankees.
1913 – Walter Johnson begins string of 56 consecutive scoreless innings.
1916 – The Professional Golfers Association of America (PGA) is created in New York City.
1917 – A munitions factory explosion at Eddystone, PA., killed 133 workers.
1924 – Tubular steel golf club shafts approved for championship play.
1925 – “The Great Gatsby” by F. Scott Fitzgerald is first published in New York City, by Charles Scribner’s Sons.
1930 – Synthetic rubber first produced.
1933 – The Civilian Conservation Corps is created as part of FDR’s New Deal.
1933 – Michigan was the first state to ratify the 21st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which ended Prohibition and repealed the 18th Amendment. The 21st Amendment is the only amendment to repeal another amendment, and the only amendment ratified by the state convention process.
1941 – U.S. troops occupied Greenland to prevent Nazi infiltration.
1941 – President Roosevelt transferred ten Coast Guard cutters to England, stating that he found the defense of the United Kingdom vital to the defense of the United States.
1941 – USS Niblack, while rescuing survivors of torpedoed ship, was depth charged by a German submarine; first action of WW II between U.S. and German navies.
1941 – Ford Motor Co. became the last major automaker to recognize the United Auto Workers as the representative for its workers.
1942 – World War II: The 65-mile Bataan Death March began to a prison camp near Cabanatuan. The prisoners were forced to march 85 miles in six days with only one meal of rice during the entire journey. Some 10k-15k soldiers perished on the march.
1944 – World War II: Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler escape from the Auschwitz concentration camp and passed information to the Allies about the mass murder that was taking place there.
1944 – German submarines U-515 and U-68 are sunk by elements of US Task Group 21.12 which includes the carrier Guadalcanal.
1945 – World War II: German Me 262 jet fighters shot down ten U.S. bombers near Berlin.
1945 – World War II: The Allies liberated their first Nazi concentration camp, Buchenwald, north of Weimar, Germany.
1945 – NFL’s Boston Yanks & Brooklyn Tigers merge into the “Yanks.”
1947 – Jackie Robinson became the first African-American in modern major league baseball (Dodgers).
1951 – The Defense Department issued an order effective May 1 lowering the induction standards for the Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps. The plan called for the Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps to receive draftees for the first time since World War II.
1952 – The MGM movie musical “Singin’ in the Rain,” starring Gene Kelly, was first released.
1953 – Eddie Fisher was discharged from the Army and arrived home to a check of $330,000 for record royalties for the 7 million records that were sold while he was enlisted.
1954 – “Wanted” by Perry Como topped the charts.
1954 – “Rocky Jones, Space Ranger” aired its first episode. Cruising the galaxy in his space ship “The Orbit Jet” Space Ranger, Rocky Jones, Vena Ray, and 10 year-old Bobby defend the Earth and themselves against space-bound evil doers.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Heartbreak Hotel” by Elvis Presley, “The Poor People of Paris” by Les Baxter, “(You’ve Got) The Magic Touch” by The Platters and “Blue Suede Shoes” by Carl Perkins all topped the charts.
1956 – Nat King Cole was beaten up by a group of racial segregationists in Birmingham, AL.
1958 – Bobby Darin recorded “Splish Splash.”
1960 – The U.S. Senate passed the Civil Rights Bill.
1962 – First major league game in Houston, Colt 45s beat Chicago Cubs, 11-2.
1962 – First baseball game at Los Angeles’ Dodger Stadium, they lose 6-3 to Cincinnati Reds.
1963 – The submarine USS Thresher sinks at sea 220 miles east of Boston . One hundred twenty-nine people die. The sub’s remnants came to a rest on the ocean floor at a depth of 8,500 feet.
1965 – “I’m Telling You Now” by Freddie & the Dreamers topped the charts.
1966 – Vietnam War: River Patrol Boats of River Patrol Force commenced operations on inland waters of South Vietnam.
1967 – The song “Somethin’ Stupid” became the first father-daughter song to hit No. 1 on the Billboard pop chart. The song was performed by Nancy and Frank Sinatra.
1967 – The thirteen-day strike by the American Federation of Radio-TV Artists (AFTRA) came to an end less than two hours before the 39th Academy Awards presentation went on the air.
1970 – Paul McCartney announces official split of the Beatles.
1971 – “Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)” by the Temptations topped the charts.
1971 – John Denver’s “Take Me Home Country Roads” hit the charts. It was his first appearance on the charts.
1971 – First baseball game at Philadelphia’s Veterans Stadium.
1971 – Ping Pong Diplomacy: In an attempt to thaw relations with the United States, the People’s Republic of China hosts the U.S. table tennis team for a weeklong visit.
1972 – Vietnam War: For the first time since November 1967, American B-52 bombers reportedly begin bombing North Vietnam.
1972 – U.S. B-52 bombers reportedly begin bombing North Vietnam for the first time since November 1967. The bombers struck in the vicinity of Vinh, 145 miles north of the Demilitarized Zone.
1972 – Isaac Hayes won an Oscar for the Best Music, Original Song award for the song “Shaft“.
1974 – Golda Meir announced her resignation as prime minister of Israel. Yitzhak Rabin replaced Golda Meir. She died December 8, 1978.
1976 – “Disco Lady” by Johnny Taylor topped the charts.
1979 – Red River Valley Tornado Outbreak: A tornado lands in Wichita Falls, Texas killing 42 people.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Another Brick in the Wall” by Pink Floyd, “Working My Way Back to You/Forgive Me, Girl” by the Spinners, “Call Me” by Blondie and “Sugar Daddy” by the Bellamy Brothers all topped the charts.
1981 – Computer glitch keeps Space Shuttle Columbia grounded. The countdown proceeded on schedule April 12.
1982 – “I Love Rock ‘n’ Roll” by Joan Jett & the Blackhearts topped the charts.
1984 – Damaged Solar Max satellite snared by Challenger shuttle.
1985 – At 80, Leo Sites becomes oldest bowler to score a 300 game.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Get Outta My Dreams, Get Into My Car” by Billy Ocean, “Out of the Blue” by Debbie Gibson, “Devil Inside” by INXS and “Famous Last Words of a Fool” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1988 – On Wall Street, 48 million shares of Navistar International stock changed hands in a single-block trade. It was the largest transaction ever executed on the New York Stock Exchange.
1989 – Intel corp announces shipment of the 80486 chip.
1989 – In Ohio, Jeffrey Lundgren (b.1950), a self-proclaimed prophet, led his cult in planning and executing murders of the Avery family in order to bring about a prophecy he interpreted from the Old Testament.
1991 – Last coin operated cafeteria (automat) closes at 3rd & 42nd St, New York NY.
1991 – Los Angeles King Wayne Gretzky scores NHL record 93rd playoff goal.
1992 – Outside Needles, CA, comedian Sam Kinison was killed when his white 1989 Pontiac Trans Am was struck head-on on U.S. Route 95, four miles north of Interstate 40 and several miles west of Needles, by a pickup truck driven by 17-year-old Troy Pierson, who had been drinking alcohol.
1992 – In Los Angeles, financier Charles Keating Jr. was sentenced to nine years in prison for swindling investors when his Lincoln Savings and Loan collapsed. The convictions were later overturned.
1995 – The Unabomber sent a letter to the New York Times claiming responsibility for the killing of Thomas Mosser.
1995 – New York City enacted the Smoke Free Air Act which banned smoking in all restaurants that seated 35 or more.
1997 – Onetime fighter pilot and former POW Pete Peterson was confirmed by the Senate as the first postwar U.S. ambassador to Vietnam.
1997 – A federal judge struck down as unconstitutional the Line-Item Veto Act, a law that lets the president strike specific items from bills passed by Congress.
1998 – The anti-impotence drug Viagra appeared on the market and became one of the best-selling new medications of all time.
1999 – “No Scrubs” by TLC topped the charts.
1999 – The Miami Heat humiliated the Chicago Bulls, 82-49, holding the Bulls to the lowest point total since the introduction of the basketball shot clock.
1999 – US F-16’s struck southern Iraqi radar and antiaircraft sites after the fighters were fired upon. Iraq claimed that two people were killed and nine wounded in the attacks.
2000 – Ken Griffey Jr. became the youngest player in baseball history to reach 400 home runs. He was 30 years, 141 days old.
2001 – Jane Swift took office as the first female governor of Massachusetts. She succeeded Paul Cellucci, who had resigned to become the U.S. ambassador to Canada.
2001 – Doctors in San Diego implanted genetically modified cells in to the brain of a 60-year-old woman with early Alzheimer’s disease in an effort to slow her mental decline.
2002 – In Ohio a state appeals court declared a ban on concealed weapons to be unconstitutional. 5 other states, all in the Midwest, carried similar laws banning concealed weapons.
2003 – Iraqi Freedom: In the 23rd day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US and Kurdish troops seized oil-rich Kirkuk without a fight and held a second city within their grasp as opposition forces crumbled in northern Iraq. Over 40 suicide vests were found in a Baghdad school. Looting in Kirkuk stripped the North Oil Co. facilities and pumping of 850,000 barrels a day ceased.
2003 – The US House passed a bill creating a national Amber Alert system and strengthening child pornography laws.
2004 – San Francisco Police officer Isaac A. Espinoza (29) was shot dead and his partner wounded in the Bayview neighborhood.
2005 – Tiger Woods won his fourth Masters with a spectacular finish of birdies and bogeys.
2008 – In San Francisco Luis Solari (38) was shot and killed in an apparent incident of road rage. His two young sons survived as his car spun out of control before stopping on I-280.
2009 – Cape Fear Bank in Wilmington, North Carolina, and New Frontier Bank in Greeley, Colorado, are shut down.
2009 – At least 27 tornadoes kill six people throughout the southern United States.
2010 – The Shroud of Turin is displayed in public for the first time in 10 years.
2011 – Wildfires in the US state of Texas destroy more than 230,000 acres of land, including about 20 homes in the small town of Fort Davis.
2012 – The attorneys for George Zimmerman, the main person of interest in the shooting of Trayvon Martin, say that they quit representing Zimmerman due to them losing contact with him.
2012 – University of Arkansas head football coach Bobby Petrino is fired because of misconduct involving an inappropriate relationship with a female employee.
2012 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average falls over 1% amid concerns in Europe over its debt crisis.
2013 – Five firefighters responding to a medical call in Suwanee, GA were taken hostage by a gunman. Suwanee is about 35 miles northeast of downtown Atlanta.
2015 -First female pilot in the Navy’s Blue Angels’ 69-year history, Marine Corps Capt. Katie Higgins reports for duty.
2015 – A 20 year old former Army enlistee attempted a truck bomb attack against soldiers at Fort Riley, Kansas. John T. Booker of Topeka, Kansas, also known as Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, was arrested by the FBI near the gate of the Army installation as he was making final preparations to conduct a truck bomb attack.
1735 – Button Gwinnett, Signer of the US Declaration of Independence (d. 1777)
1794 – Matthew C. Perry, American commodore (d. 1858)
1796 – James Bowie, American pioneer and soldier (d. 1836)
1829 – William Booth, English founder of the Salvation Army (d. 1912)
1847 – Joseph Pulitzer, American journalist and publisher (d. 1911)
1903 – Claire Boothe Luce, American activist, (d. 1987)
1918 – Lee Bergere, American actor (d. 2007)
1921 – Chuck Connors, American actor (d. 1992)
1921 – Sheb Wooley, American actor and singer (d. 2003)
1926 – Junior Samples, American musician (d. 1983)
1927 – Marshall Warren Nirenberg, American scientist, Nobel laureate
1936 – John Madden, American football coach and broadcaster
1938 – Don Meredith, American football player and broadcaster
1951 – Steven Seagal, American actor
1957 – John M. Ford, American science fiction author and poet (d. 2006)
1974 – Eric Greitens, Ph.D., US Navy Seal, Chairman of the Center for Citizen Leadership
BULKELEY, JOHN DUNCAN
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, Commander of Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron 3, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Philippine waters, December 7th, 1941 to April 10th, 1942. Entered service at: Texas. Born: 19 August 1911, New York, N.Y. Other awards: Navy Cross, Distinguished Service Cross, Silver Star, Legion of Merit. Citation: For extraordinary heroism, distinguished service, and conspicuous gallantry above and beyond the call of duty as commander of Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron 3, in Philippine waters during the period 7 December 1941 to 10 April 1942. The remarkable achievement of Lt. Comdr. Bulkeley’s command in damaging or destroying a notable number of Japanese enemy planes, surface combatant and merchant ships, and in dispersing landing parties and land-based enemy forces during the four months and eight days of operation without benefit of repairs, overhaul, or maintenance facilities for his squadron, is believed to be without precedent in this type of warfare. His dynamic forcefulness and daring in offensive action, his brilliantly planned and skillfully executed attacks, supplemented by a unique resourcefulness and ingenuity, characterize him as an outstanding leader of men and a gallant and intrepid seaman. These qualities coupled with a complete disregard for his own personal safety reflect great credit upon him and the Naval Service .
GLOVER, T. B.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Troop B, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Mizpah Creek, Mont., April 10th, 1879; at Pumpkin Creek, Mont., 10 February 1880. Entered service at:——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 20 November 1897. Citation: While in charge of small scouting parties, fought, charged, surrounded, and captured war parties of Sioux Indians.
Winston Churchill Day
Alaska is the 49th state having become such on January 3rd, 1959. It is 586,412 square miles or 2 ½ times the size of Texas and yet the population is approximately 627,000, roughly the size of Memphis, TN or Baltimore, MD.
The process to becoming a state started several years before the purchase date when the Russians started looking for a buyer for a huge piece of land that was “unhospitable” and very difficult to defend.
William H. Seward, Secretary of state under both Lincoln and Johnson, was an ardent expansionist. He was committed to the spread of American influence throughout the Pacific as a means of enhancing the nation’s trade and military standing.
Russia had been interested in selling Alaska for a number of years. The region seemed to have little value and was remote and hard to defend. Negotiations with the United States were opened during the Buchanan administration, but came to a halt with the opening of the Civil War.
Seward actually began negotiations with the Russians before receiving authorization from Johnson. Nonetheless, when the outline of a deal was presented to the cabinet, Seward was surprised to find little opposition. The agreement was signed on March 30, 1867. After the Senate approved of the purchase on April 9th, 1867 and Alaska was transferred to the United States in return for a payment of $7.2 million, amounting to a price of about 2.5 cents per acre. The treaty was ratified by the U.S. Senate by a single vote.
Criticism in the press was harsh, portraying the newly acquired wasteland as “Seward’s Folly,” “Seward’s Icebox” or Johnson’s “polar bear garden.” It was not until the 1890s with the discovery of gold that public attitudes regarding Alaska began to change.
Psalm 124: 1-2
Those who trust in the Lord are like Mount Zion, which cannot be shaken but endures forever. 2 As the mountains surround Jerusalem, so the Lord surrounds his people both now and forevermore.
“[America’s] glory is not dominion, but liberty. Her march is in the march of the mind. She has a spear and a shield: but the motto upon her shield is, FREEDOM, INDEPENDENCE, PEACE. This has been her Declaration: this has been, as far as her necessary intercourse with the rest of mankind would permit, her practice.”
~ John Adams
” In any moment of decision, the best thing you can do is the right thing. The worst thing you can do is nothing.”
Favorable to health; promoting health; healthful.
Salubriousis from Latin salubris, “healthful,” from salus, “health.”
193 – Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans).
1682 – Robert Cavelier de La Salle discovers the mouth of the Mississippi River, claims it for France and names it Louisiana. It starts just 200 miles north of Minneapolis at Lake Itasca State Park. The narrow stream there is ankle deep and naturally it is a favorite activity of visitors to walk across it. A raindrop that falls here will be in Louisiana in about 90 days according to the Park Service.
1730 – The first Jewish congregation in US formed the synagogue, “Sherith Israel, New York City.”
1833 – Peterborough, NH, opened the first municipally supported public library in the United States.
1861 – Second relief convoy for Fort Sumter left New York.
1864 – The Battle of Pleasant Hill, LA, left 2,870 casualties.
1865 – Civil War: Robert E. Lee surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia (26,765 troops) to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, effectively ending the war. Though there were still Confederate armies in the field, the war was officially over. The four years of fighting had killed 360,000 Union troops and 260,000 Confederate troops.
1865 – Civil War: Federals captured Ft. Blakely, Alabama.
1866 – Civil Rights Bill of 1866 was passed by Congress over President Andrew Johnson’s veto..
1867 – Alaska purchase: Passing by a single vote, the United States Senate ratifies a treaty with Russia for the purchase of Alaska.
1870 – The American Anti-Slavery Society was dissolved.
1872 – S.R. Percy of New York City received a patent for dried milk.
1905 – The first aerial ferry bridge went into operation — in Duluth, Minnesota.
1912 – First exhibition baseball game at Fenway Park (Red Sox vs Harvard).
1913 – Brooklyn Dodgers’ Ebbets Field opens, Philadelphia Phillies win 1-0.
1913 – The Connecticut legislature approved what now becomes the 17th Amendment. Ratified by three-fourths of the states in less than one year, the amendment takes the election of U.S. Senators out of the hands of state legislators and puts it in the hands of ordinary Americans.
1914 – The Tampico Affair flares up. It was caused by a misunderstanding that occurred on April 9, 1914, but would fully transpire into the breakdown of diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Mexico, and the occupation of the port city of Veracruz for over six months.
1916 – World War I: The Battle of Verdun – German forces launch their third offensive of the battle.
1917 – World War I: The Battle of Arras – the battle begins with Canadian forces executing a massive assault on Vimy Ridge.
1928 – Mae West’s NYC debut in a daring new play “Diamond Lil”.
1939 – Marian Anderson sings at the Lincoln Memorial, after being denied the right to sing at the Daughters of the American Revolution’s Constitution Hall.
1940 – Jimmy Dorsey and his orchestra recorded “Six Lessons from Madame La Zonga.”
1940 – World War II: Germany invades Denmark and Norway.
1941 – Commissioning of USS North Carolina, which carried 9 16-inch guns.
1941 – The PGA established a Golf Hall of Fame.
1942 – World War II: The Battle of Bataan/Bataan Death March – US forces surrender on the Bataan Peninsula. The Japanese Navy launches an air raid on Trincomalee in Ceylon (Sri Lanka); Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Hermes and Royal Australian Navy Destroyer HMAS Vampire are sunk off the island’s east coast.
1945 – World War II: The German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer is sunk.
1945 – World War II: The Battle of Königsberg, in East Prussia, ends.
1945 – World War II: At Bari, Italy, the Liberty exploded and killed 360 people. The ship was carrying aerial bombs.
1945 – World War II: In the attacks against the Ruhr pocket, US 9th Army units penetrate into Essen and reach the famous Krupp factories.
1945 – World War II: Dietrich Bonhoeffer (b.1906), a German Lutheran theologian and antifascist, was hanged by the Nazis at Flossenburg prison. He had participated in the failed July 20, 1944, plot to assassinate Hitler.
1945 – The United States Atomic Energy Commission is formed.
1945 – NFL requires players to wear long stockings.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Anniversary Song” by Dinah Shore, “How are Things in Glocca Morra” by Buddy Clark, “Managua, Nicaragua” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Don Rodney) and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1947 – The Glazier-Higgins-Woodward tornadoes kill 181 and injure 970 in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
1947 – The Journey of Reconciliation, the first interracial Freedom Ride, begins through the upper South in violation of Jim Crow laws. The riders wanted enforcement of the United States Supreme Court’s decision in Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia, 328 U.S. 373 (1946) that banned racial segregation in interstate travel.
1949 – “Cruising Down the River” by Blue Barron topped the charts.
1950 – Bob Hope hosted a “Star-Spangled Review” on NBC-TV.
1953 – Warner Brothers premieres the first 3-D film, entitled “House of Wax”. In Ashtabula, Ohio, fifteen cents allowed admittance to this and “The Creature from the Black Lagoon” including the special glasses.
1953 – Korean War: Marines regained “Carson” Hill during fighting in Korea.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes, “Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White” by Perez Prado, “Unchained Melody” by Les Baxter and “In the Jailhouse Now” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1959 – Mercury program: NASA announces the selection of the United States’ first seven astronauts, whom the news media quickly dub the “Mercury Seven”. The “Mercury Seven” were Scott Carpenter, L. Gordon Cooper, Jr., John H. Glenn, Jr., Virgil I. “Gus” Grissom, Walter M. Schirra, Jr., Alan B. Shepard, Jr., and Donald K. “Deke” Slayton.
1960 – Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1962 – President John F Kennedy throws out first ball at Washington DC’s new Stadium.
1963 – British statesman Winston Churchill was made an honorary U.S. citizen.
1965 – Bruce Johnston joined the Beach Boys as the permanent replacement for Brian Wilson.
1965 – “TIME” magazine featured a cover with the entire “Peanuts” gang.
1965 – The Houston Astrodome held its first baseball game.
1966 – “(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration” by the Righteous Brothers topped the charts.
1966 – Percy Sledge’s “When A Man Loves A Woman” was released.
1967 – The first Boeing 737 (a 100 series) makes its maiden flight.
1968 – Martin Luther King Jr, buried in Atlanta, GA.
1969 – The “Chicago Eight” plead not guilty to federal charges of conspiracy to incite a riot at the1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois.
1969 – Students and police clashed at Harvard University.
1970 – Paul McCartney quit the Beatles.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)” by The Temptations, “For All We Know” by the Carpenters, “What’s Going On” by Marvin Gaye and “After the Fire is Gone” by Conway Twitty & Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1973 – Paul McCartney released the song “My Love.”
1974 – Phil Brooks received a patent for a disposable syringe.
1977 – “Dancing Queen” by ABBA topped the charts.
1977 – Shaun Cassidy performed “Da Doo Ron Ron” on “American Bandstand.”
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Will Survive” by Gloria Gaynor, “What a Fool Believes” by The Doobie Brothers, “Sultans of Swing” by Dire Straits and “I Just Fall in Love Again” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.
1981 – Dodgers pitcher Fernando Valenzuela shuts out the Astros 2-0 on five hits in his first ML start.
1981 – The U.S. Submarine George Washington struck and sunk a small Japanese freighter in the East China Sea. The Nissho Maru’s captain and first mate died.
1983 – “Billie Jean” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1983 – The Space Shuttle Challenger concluded it’s first flight.
1985 – White Sox pitcher Tom Seaver starts a record 15th opening day game.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Nothing’s Gonna Stop Us Now” by Starship, “Tonight, Tonight, Tonight” by Genesis, “Come Go with Me” by Expose and “Ocean Front Property” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1987 – “(I Just) Died in Your Arms” by Cutting Crew topped the charts.
1987 – Dikye Baggett became the first person to undergo corrective surgery for Parkinson’s disease.
1987 – Responding to charges of bugging at the new U.S. Embassy in Moscow, Soviet officials displayed microphones and other gadgets they said were found in Soviet missions in the United States.
1987 – Special Forces Branch was established as a basic branch of the Army effective April 9, 1987, by General Orders No. 35, June 19, 1987.
1988 – “Get Outta My Dreams, Get Into My Car” by Billy Ocean topped the charts.
1989 – Rickey Henderson steals his 800th career base in New York’s 4-3 loss to Cleveland.
1991 – Release of Microsoft MS-DOS 5.0.
1992 – A U.S. Federal Court finds former Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega guilty of drug and racketeering charges. He is sentenced to 30 years in prison.
1993 – Colorado Rockies 1st home game & 1st victory, 11-4 over Montréal Expos.
1994 – “Bump n’ Grind” by R. Kelly topped the charts.
1994 – The Space Shuttle Endeavour (14:57) blasted off on an eleven-day mission that included mapping the Earth’s surface in three dimensions.
1995 – Women’s rights supporters rallied near the U.S. Capitol to protest violence against women.
1995 – Two Palestinians blew themselves up outside two Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip and killed seven Israeli soldiers and an American, Alisa Flatow (20).
1996 – Former representative Dan Rostenkowski (D-Ill.), the once-powerful House Ways and Means chairman, pleaded guilty to two mail fraud charges in a deal that brought with it a 17-month prison term.
1998 – The National Prisoner of War Museum opened in Andersonville, GA, at the site of an infamous CIVIL WAR camp.
1998 – A Los Angeles Superior Court jury awarded Michael Jackson $2.7 million in damages in a defamation-of-character suit against Victor Gutierrez of the TV show Hard Copy.
1999 – A $250 million Air Force satellite, intended to warn of missile launches, went into a useless orbit after being launched aboard a Titan IV.
1999 – A tornado hit the Cincinnati area and 7 people were reported killed.
2000 – CBS-TV aired “Failsafe. (1:24:23)” It was the first live full-length show to by aired by CBS in 39 years.
2001 – American Airlines completed the acquisition of bankrupt Trans World Airlines (TWA) and became the world’s largest air carrier.
2002 – The Wall Street Journal redesigned the front page for the 1st time since 1942.
2003 – Baghdad falls, ending Saddam Hussein’s 24-year rule.
2003 – James Smith (59), a senior FBI counterintelligence agent, was arrested in LA along with Katrina Leung (49), prominent venture capitalist, for the alleged theft and transfer of a classified defense document to the Chinese government. Smith was arrested today and charged with gross negligence for allowing an FBI asset, Katrina Leung access to classified material. He had been having an affair with Leung for 20 years, and allegedly brought classified materials to their trysts.
2003 – Iraqi Freedom: In the 22nd day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US commanders declared Saddam Hussein’s rule over Baghdad over and jubilant crowds swarmed into the streets here, dancing, looting, cheering and bringing down images of the Iraqi leader. No more than 150 Iraqis gathered in Farbus Square to watch American Marines, not Iraqis, pull down a statue of Hussein.
2004 – Rebels attacked a convoy near Baghdad’s airport and kidnapped two US soldiers and seven Halliburton construction employees. Four bodies were found in the area a few days later.
2005 – A day after the funeral for Pope John Paul II, cardinals began an intense period of silence and prayer before their conclave to choose the next pope.
2007 – Don Imus, nationally syndicated shock jock, was suspended for 2 weeks by CBS Radio and MSNBC due to his calling members of the Rutgers Univ. women’s basketball team “nappy-headed ho’s.”
2008 – The California Supreme Court rejected San Francisco’s appeal of a lower court ruling that limited its ability regulate handguns as approved by voters in 2005.
2009 – FBI hostage negotiators joined US Navy efforts to free an American ship captain held captive on a lifeboat by Somali pirates. A US destroyer and a spy plane kept close watch in the high-seas standoff near the Horn of Africa. Capt. Richard Phillips made a desperate escape attempt but was recaptured.
2009 – In Fullerton, Ca., Los Angeles Angels pitcher Nick Adenhart (22) was killed along with two others in a car accident with a suspected drunk driver.
2010 – U.S. helicopter – Air Force CV-22 Osprey – crashed in southern Afghanistan, killing three U.S. service members and one civilian employee. Zabiullah Mujahid said Taliban fighters shot down the chopper.
2010 – Associate Justice John Paul Stevens of the U.S. Supreme Court announces his retirement after serving on the court for 34 years.
2011 – A tornado hits in Iowa’s Monona County in the Midwest.
2012 – The Lion King becomes the all-time highest grossing show on Broadway, overtaking The Phantom of the Opera.
2012 – Facebook buys photo sharing application Instagram for $1 billion.
2013 – University of Connecticut women’s basketball team beats Louisville, 93-60, to win their eighth national championship.
1597 – John Davenport, Connecticut pioneer (d. 1670)
1897 – John B. Gambling, American radio talk-show host (d. 1974)
1898 – Curly Lambeau, American football coach, executive (d. 1965)
1898 – Paul Robeson, American singer and activist (d. 1976)
1903 – Ward Bond, American actor (d. 1960)
1905 – J. William Fulbright, U.S. Senator from Arkansas (d. 1995)
1919 – J. Presper Eckert, American computer pioneer (d. 1995)
1928 – Tom Lehrer, American musician and mathematician
1930 – F. Albert Cotton, American chemist (d. 2007)
1932 – Cheeta, chimpanzee actor
1939 – Michael Learned, American actress
1954 – Dennis Quaid, American actor
1965 – Mark Pellegrino, American actor
1966 – Cynthia Nixon, American actress
1987 – Jesse McCartney, American actor and singer
BOOKER, ROBERT D.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, 34th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Fondouk, Tunisia, April 9th, 1943. Entered service at: Callaway, Nebr. Born: 11 July 1920, Callaway, Nebr. G.O. No.: 34, 25 April 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in action. On 9 April 1943 in the vicinity of Fondouk, Tunisia, Pvt. Booker, while engaged in action against the enemy, carried a light machinegun and a box of ammunition over 200 yards of open ground. He continued to advance despite the fact that 2 enemy machineguns and several mortars were using him as an individual target. Although enemy artillery also began to register on him, upon reaching his objective he immediately commenced firing. After being wounded he silenced 1 enemy machinegun and was beginning to fire at the other when he received a second mortal wound. With his last remaining strength he encouraged the members of his squad and directed their fire. Pvt. Booker acted without regard for his own safety. His initiative and courage against insurmountable odds are an example of the highest standard of self-sacrifice and fidelity to duty.
MOSKALA, EDWARD J.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 383d Infantry, 96th Infantry Division. Place and date: Kakazu Ridge, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, April 9th, 1945. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 6 November 1921, Chicago, Ill. G.O. No.: 21, 26 February 1946. Citation: He was the leading element when grenade explosions and concentrated machinegun and mortar fire halted the unit’s attack on Kakazu Ridge, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands. With utter disregard for his personal safety, he charged forty yards through withering, grazing fire and wiped out two machinegun nests with well-aimed grenades and deadly accurate fire from his automatic rifle. When strong counterattacks and fierce enemy resistance from other positions forced his company to withdraw, he voluntarily remained behind with eight others to cover the maneuver. Fighting from a critically dangerous position for three hours, he killed more than twenty-five Japanese before following his surviving companions through screening smoke down the face of the ridge to a gorge where it was discovered that one of the group had been left behind, wounded. Unhesitatingly, Pvt. Moskala climbed the bullet-swept slope to assist in the rescue, and, returning to lower ground, volunteered to protect other wounded while the bulk of the troops quickly took up more favorable positions. He had saved another casualty and killed four enemy infiltrators when he was struck and mortally wounded himself while aiding still another disabled soldier. With gallant initiative, unfaltering courage, and heroic determination to destroy the enemy, Pvt. Moskala gave his life in his complete devotion to his company’s mission and his comrades’ well-being. His intrepid conduct provided a lasting inspiration for those with whom he served.
CALLAHAN, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 122d Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Macoupin County, Ill. Birth: Shelby County, Ky. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
CAREY, JAMES L.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 10th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox Courthouse, Va., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: —— Birth: Onondaga County, N.Y. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Daring bravery and urging the men forward in a charge.
COOK, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 119th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Pleasant Hill, La., April 9th, 1864. Entered service at: Quincy, Ill. Birth: England. Date of issue: 19 September 1890. Citation: During an attack by the enemy, voluntarily left the brigade quartermaster, with whom he had been detailed as a clerk, rejoined his command, and, acting as first lieutenant, led the line farther toward the charging enemy.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company L, 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox Courthouse, Va., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Butler County, Pa. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 4th Virginia Cavalry (C.S.A.).
FINKENBINER, HENRY S.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 107th Ohio Infantry Place and date: At Dingles Mill, S.C., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at. ——. Birth: North Industry, Ohio. Date of issue: 30 March 1898. Citation: While on the advance skirmish line and within direct and close fire of the enemy’s artillery, crossed the mill race on a burning bridge and ascertained the enemy’s position.
Rank and organization: Major, 121st Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Appomattox Courthouse, Va., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 15 October 1872. Citation: Capture of flag of 46th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox Campaign, Va., March 29th to April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: New Brighton, Pa. Birth: Pittsburgh, Pa. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company H, 119th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Bushnell, McDonough County, Ill. Birth: Belmont County, Ohio. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: While leading his company in an assault, Capt. McConnell braved an intense fire that mowed down his unit. Upon reaching the breastworks he found that he had only one member of his company with him, Pvt. Wagner. He was so close to an enemy gun that the blast knocked him down a ditch. Getting up, he entered the gun pit, the guncrew fleeing before him. About 30 paces away he saw a Confederate flag bearer and guard which he captured with the last shot in his pistol.
MERRIAM, HENRY C.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 73d U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Houlton, Maine. Birth: Houlton, Maine. Date of issue: 28 June 1894. Citation: Volunteered to attack the enemy’s works in advance of orders and, upon permission being given, made a most gallant assault.
MILLER, HENRY A.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company B, 8th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Decatur, Ill. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
MOORE, DANIEL B.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 11th Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Mifflin, Wis. Born: 12 June 1838, lowa County, Wis. Date of issue: 8 August 1900. Citation: At the risk of his own life saved the life of an officer who had been shot down and overpowered by superior numbers.
MYERS, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 1st Maryland Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox Courthouse, Va., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 14 June 1871. Citation: Gallantry in action; was five times wounded.
NICHOLS, HENRY C.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company E, 73d U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Brandon, Vt. Date of issue: 3 August 1897. Citation: Voluntarily made a reconnaissance in advance of the line held by his regiment and, under a heavy fire, obtained information of great value.
PAYNE, THOMAS H. L.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company E, 37th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Mendota, La Salle County, Ill. Born: 5 October 1840, Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 1 April 1898. Citation: While acting regimental quartermaster, learning of an expected assault, requested assignment to a company that had no commissioned officers present; was so assigned, and was one of the first to lead his men into the enemy’s works.
|PENTZER, PATRICK H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company C, 97th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Gillespie, Macoupin County, Ill. Birth: Marion County, Mo. Date of issue: 9 October 1 879. Citation: Among the first to enter the enemy’s entrenchments, he received the surrender of a Confederate general officer and his headquarters flag.
|REBMANN, GEORGE F.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 119th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Browning, Schuyler County, Ill. Birth: Schuyler County, Ill. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
|ROCKEFELLER, CHARLES M.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company A, 178th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: New York. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 2 August 1897. Citation: Voluntarily and alone, under a heavy fire, obtained valuable information which a reconnoitering party of 25 men had previously attempted and failed to obtain, suffering severe loss in the attempt The information obtained by him was made the basis of the orders for the assault that followed. He also advanced with a few followers, under the fire of both sides, and captured 300 of the enemy who would otherwise have escaped.
|SOVA, JOSEPH E.
Rank and organization: Saddler, Company H, 8th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox Campaign, Va., March 29th to April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Chili, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 83d Ohio Infantry. Place and date. At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Bethany, Ohio. Birth: Butler County, Ohio. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
|TOBIE, EDWARD P.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 1st Maine Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox Campaign, Va., March 29th to April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Lewiston, Maine. Birth: Lewiston, Maine. Date of issue: 1 April 1898. Citation: Though severely wounded at Sailors Creek, 6 April, and at Farmville, 7 April, refused to go to the hospital, but remained with his regiment, performed the full duties of adjutant upon the wounding of that officer, and was present for duty at Appomattox.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 97th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Saline County, Nebr. Birth: Belgium. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 8th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Illinois. Born: 15 July 1838, Calhoun County, Mich. Date of issue: 16 January 1894. Citation: Led the right wing of his regiment, and, springing through an embrasure, was the first to enter the enemy’s works, against a strong fire of artillery and infantry.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 119th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Ft. Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Camden, Schuyler County, Ill. Birth: Brown County, Ill. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
The History of Kites
The exact date and origin of the kite is not known but it is believed that they were flown in China more than two thousand years ago. One legend suggests that when a Chinese farmer tied a string to his hat to keep it from blowing away in a strong wind, the first kite was born.
There are many stories about how the people of Micronesia used leaf kites to carry bait far out over the water where the gar-fish fed. The Polynesians have myths about two brother gods introducing kites to man when they had a kite duel. The winning brother flew his kite the highest. There are still contests in the islands where the highest flying kite is dedicated to the gods.The earliest written account of kite flying was about 200 B.C. when the Chinese General Han Hsin of the Han Dynasty flew a kite over the walls of a city he was attacking to measure how far his army would have to tunnel to reach past the defenses. Knowing this distance his troops reached the inside of the city, surprised their enemy, and were victorious. Kite flying was eventually spread by traders from China to Korea, and across Asia to India. Each area developed a distinctive style of kite and cultural purpose for flying them.
Men like Benjamin Franklin and Alexander Wilson used their knowledge of kite flying to learn more about the wind and weather. Sir George Caley, Samuel Langley, Lawrence Hargrave, Alexander Graham Bell, and the Wright Brothers all experimented with kites and contributed to development of the airplane.
One of the strangest uses of kite power was developed by schoolmaster George Pocock. In 1822, he used a pair of kites to pull a carriage at speeds of up to 20 miles per hour. Some of his kite trips were recorded at over 100 miles. And because road taxes at the time were based on the number of horses a carriage used, he was exempted from any tolls.
During World War I, the British, French, Italian, and Russian armies all used kites for enemy observation and signaling. The introduction of airplanes quickly made these units obsolete. The German Navy continued to use man-lifting box kites to increase the viewing range of surface-cruising submarines. In World War II, the US Navy found several uses for kites. Harry Saul’s Barrage Kite prevented airplanes from flying too low over targets. Pilots lost at sea raised the Gibson-Girl Box kite so they could be found. And Paul Garber’s Target Kite, a large steerable Diamond was used for target practice and aircraft recognition at sea.
To humans belong the plans of the heart, but from the Lord comes the proper answer of the tongue. 2 All a person’s ways seem pure to them, but motives are weighed by the Lord. 3 Commit to the Lord whatever you do, and he will establish your plans.
“We…took our horses to the meeting in the afternoon and heard the minister again upon “Seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you.” There is great pleasure in hearing sermons so serious, so clear, so sensible and instructive as these ….”
~ John Adams July 4th, 1776
“There is a certain enthusiasm in liberty, that makes human nature rise above itself, in acts of bravery and heroism.” –Alexander Hamilton (1775)
Pugnacious puhg-NAY-shuhs, adjective:
Inclined to fight; combative; quarrelsome.
Pugnacious comes from Latin pugnare, “to fight,” from pugnus, “fist.”
217 – Roman Emperor Caracalla is assassinated (and succeeded) by his Praetorian Guard prefect, Marcus Opellius Macrinus.
1513 – Explorer Juan Ponce de León declares Florida a territory of Spain.
1730 – Shearith Israel, the first synagogue in New York City, is dedicated.
1766 – First fire escape patented, wicker basket on a pulley & chain.
1789 – The U.S. House of Representatives held its first meeting.
1812 – Marines participated in the sea battle between the USS Hyder Ally and HMS General Monk.
1823 – Marines chased pirates east of Havana, Cuba.
1832 – Black Hawk War: Around three-hundred United States 6th Infantry troops leave St. Louis, Missouri to fight the Sauk Indians.
1834 – In New York City, Cornelius Lawrence became the first mayor to be elected by popular vote in a city election.
1839 – The first Intercollegiate Rodeo was held at the Godshall Ranch, Apple Valley, CA.
1862 – John D Lynde patents aerosol dispenser.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Mansfield – Union forces are thwarted by the Confederate army at Mansfield, Louisiana.
1865 – General Robert E. Lee’s retreat was cut off near Appomattox Court House. Lee requested to meet with Gen Ulysses Grant to discuss possible surrender.
1865 – Thirteenth Amendment banning slavery passed the U.S. Senate with 100% Republican support and 63% Democrat opposition.
1879 – Milk is sold in glass bottles for first time. Before milk bottles, milkmen filled the customers’ jugs.
1893 – The first recorded college basketball game occurs in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania. It is located 31 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, and on the Beaver River, six miles from its confluence with the Ohio River.
1893 – The “Critic” reports that the ice cream soda is our national drink. Invention of the ice cream soda is usually attributed to Robert M. Green, who operated a soda water concession in Philadelphia.
1873 – Alfred Paraf patented the first successful oleomargarine.
1895 – The US Supreme Court declares income tax to be unconstitutional in Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan & Trust Co.
1899 – Martha Place becomes the first woman to be executed in an electric chair.
1904 – Longacre Square in midtown Manhattan is renamed Times Square after The New York Times.
1908 – Harvard University votes to establish the Harvard Business School.
1911 – The first squash tournament was played at the Harvard Club in New York City.
1913 – The 17th Amendment to the United States Constitution, requiring direct election of Senators, becomes law. The Connecticut legislature approved it in the ratification process and completed three-fourths of the states in less than one year, the amendment takes the election of U.S. Senators out of the hands of state legislators and puts it in the hands of ordinary Americans. This was another serious blow against State sovereignty.
1916 – In Corona, California, racecar driver Bob Burman crashes, killing three and badly injuring five spectators.
1918 – World War I: Actors Douglas Fairbanks and Charlie Chaplin sell war bonds on the streets of New York City’s financial district.
1918 – World War I: The US First Aero Squadron was assigned to the Western Front for the first time on observation duty.
1925 – First planned night landings on a carrier, USS Langley, by VF-1.
1935 – The Works Progress Administration is formed when the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 becomes law.
1940 – World War II: Great Britain and France announce that they have mined Norwegian territorial waters to prevent their use by German supply ships.
1942 – World War II: Siege of Leningrad – Soviet forces open a much-needed railway link to Leningrad.
1942 – World War II: The Japanese take Bataan in the Philippines.
1942 – World War II: Overwhelmed by numbers and short of food and equipment, the American and Filipino forces remaining on the Bataan peninsula are ordered to destroy their equipment prior to a surrender.
1943 – Wendell Wilkie’s “One World” was published for the first time. “One World” was a plea for international peacekeeping after the war.
1943 – World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in an attempt to check inflation, freezes wages and prices, prohibits workers from changing jobs unless the war effort would be aided thereby, and bars rate increases to common carriers and public utilities.
1945 – On Okinawa, the forces of US 3rd Amphibious Corps, attacking northward on the island, have cut the neck of the Motobu Peninsula and US 6th Marine Division begins operations to clear it of Japanese forces. At sea, there are less intense Kamikaze attacks.
1945 – US 7th Army units capture Schweinfurt. Other Allied armies farther north also advance.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh, What It Seemed to Be” by The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Marjorie Hughes), “Personality” by Johnny Mercer, “You Won’t Be Satisfied” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day) and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1946 – The last meeting of the League of Nations, the precursor of the United Nations, is held.
1947 – The first illustrated insurance policy was issued by the Allstate Insurance Company.
1950 – “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton topped the charts.
1950 – A US Navy privateer airplane flew from Wiesbaden, West Germany, to spy over the Soviet Union with 10 people on board. Soviet reconnaissance spotted the plane over Latvia and shot it down.
1950 – A tornado ripped through Clyde, TX, just east of Abilene, TX and left a refrigerator sitting on top of a telephone pole.
1952 – President Harry Truman (D) calls for the seizure of all domestic steel mills to prevent a nationwide strike.
1953 – A Federal Grand Jury in SF indicted Hugh Bryson, president of the National Union of Marine Cooks and Stewards, on charges that he falsely claimed that he was not a communist in a Taft-Hartley affidavit.
1954 – “By the Beautiful Sea” opens at the Majestic Theater on Broadway.
1956 – Ribbon Creek Incident: Six Marine recruits drowned during exercise at Parris Island, SC and the courts-martial of Sgt. McKeon.” The McKeon court-martial had been held at Parris Island during July and August 1956. There was a moratorium on physical contact with recruits.
1960 – The U.S. Senate approves the Civil Rights Act of 1960 despite Southern Democrat senators’ marathon filibuster effort.
1961 – “Blue Moon” by The Marcels topped the charts.
1962 – Bay of Pigs invaders got thirty years imprisonment in Cuba.
1963 – Steve Brooks became only the fifth race jockey to ride 4,000 career winners.
1964 – The Supremes recorded “Where Did Our Love Go.” The song was their first No. 1 single.
1964 – Unmanned Gemini 1 launched. Its main objectives were to test the structural integrity of the new spacecraft and modified Titan II.
1965 – African-American Senate Page appointed on April 8, 1965. sixteen-year old Lawrene Bradford of New York City was the first Black Page appointed to the US Senate.
1966 – Astros and Dodgers played baseball’s first game on synthetic grass CALLED Astroturf made by Monsanto.
1966 – The cover of Time magazine asked “Is God Dead?” An article inside examined the changing view of the Judeo-Christian God.
1967 – “Happy Together” by the Turtles topped the charts.
1968 – The Academy Awards and Baseball’s Opening Day is postponed because of Martin Luther King Jr assassination.
1968 – The Beatles receive a gold record for the single, “Lady Madonna“.
1968 – Vietnam War: Khe Sanh was officially relieved after 77 days by the US 2nd Cavalry. US forces in Operation Pegasus finally retook Route 9, ending the siege of Khe Sanh. Khe Sanh had been the biggest single battle of the Vietnam War to that point.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel, “Let It Be” by The Beatles, “Instant Karma (We All Shine On)” by John Ono Lennon and “Tennessee Bird Walk” by Jack Blanchard & Misty Morgan all topped the charts.
1970 – The Senate rejected President Nixon’s nomination of G. Harold Carswell to the Supreme Court.
1971 – First legal off-track betting system begins (OTB-New York).
1972 – “A Horse with No Name” by America topped the charts.
1974 – Hank Aaron hits his 715th home run breaking Babe Ruth’s record of 714.
1975 – Frank Robinson manages the Cleveland Indians in his first game as major league baseball’s first Black manager.
1979 – The 204th and final episode of “All in the Family” ran on TV.
1981 – General of the Army Omar Bradley, commander of the 12th Army Group who ensured Allied victory over Germany, dies.
1984 -In the 4th Golden Raspberry Awards: “The Lonely Lady” won.
1985 – Following the Bhopal disaster: India files suit against Union Carbide for the disaster which killed an estimated 2,000 and injured another 200,000.
1985 – Phyllis Diller underwent a surgical procedure for permanent eyeliner to eliminate the need for eyelid makeup.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Me Amadeus” by Falco, “R.O.C.K. in the U.S.A.” by John Cougar Mellencamp, “Kiss” by Prince & The Revolution and “100% Chance of Rain” by Gary Morris all topped the charts. Prince has banned both YouTube and iTunes from using his music, calling the internet dead.
1986 – Clint Eastwood was elected mayor of Carmel, CA.
1987 – Los Angeles Dodgers executive Al Campanis resigns amid controversy over racially-charged remarks he had made while on Nightline.
1989 – Former President Reagan aide Lyn Nofzinger was sentenced to prison for illegal lobbying for Wedtech Corp.
1989 – One-handed pitcher Jim Abbott debut but lasts only 4 2/3 innings.
1989 – “She Drives Me Crazy“ by Fine Young Cannibals topped the charts.
1991 – Oakland A’s Stadium becomes first outdoor arena to ban smoking.
1991 – The show “Twin Peaks” ended its run on TV.
1992 – Retired tennis great Arthur Ashe announces that he has AIDS, acquired from blood transfusions during one of his two heart surgeries.
1994 – Smoking banned in Pentagon & all US military bases.
1995 – Former Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara, in an interview with AP Network News and “Newsweek” magazine to promote his memoirs, called America’s Vietnam War policy “terribly wrong.”
1997 – Microsoft Corp releases Internet Explorer 4.0.
1998 – A line of storms struck the southeast and killed at least 41 people. 32 were left dead in Alabama, 8 in Georgia and 1 in Mississippi. Thirty-six people were killed by tornadoes that struck Alabama, Mississippi and Georgia.
2000 – Nineteen Marines are killed when an V-22 Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft crashes near Marana, Arizona.
2000 – The Central Intelligence Agency confirmed that personnel action had been taken following the mistaken bombing of the Chinese embassy during the NATO war against Yugoslavia; one employee was reportedly fired.
2001 – Eldrick Tiger Woods won the Masters golf tournament, his 4th straight major championship in a span of 294 days.
2002 – Suzan-Lori Parks became the first African-American woman to win a Pulitzer Prize for drama for her play “Topdog/Underdog.”
2002 – The space shuttle Atlantis took off for an 11-day mission to the ISS carrying latticework and a rail car.
2002 – Saddam Hussein cuts off Iraqi oil exports to the west in a bid to force Israel to abandon its West Bank offensive. Iraq says the oil supplies will be cut off for 30 days unless Israel pulls out before then.
2003 – In the 21st day of Operation Iraqi Freedom George W. Bush and Tony Blair met in Northern Ireland and endorsed a “vital role” for the United Nations when fighting ends in Iraq.
2003 – A US errant rocket struck in Iran near the Iraqi border and killed a 13-year-old boy.
2004 – Condoleeza Rice, US national security advisor, testified before the National Commission on Terrorism Attacks and contended that that Pres. Bush did not ignore threats of terrorism in the months before Sep 11, 2001.
2004 – Fred Olivi (82), who copiloted the plane that dropped the atomic bomb on Nagasaki, died in Lemont, Ill..
2005 – Kalman Ferenczfalvi (84), credited with saving the lives of some 2,000 Jews during the Holocaust, died in Hungary.
2006 – The New Yorker magazine reported in its April 17 issue that the administration of Pres. George W. Bush is planning a massive bombing campaign against Iran, including use of bunker-buster nuclear bombs to destroy a key Iranian suspected nuclear weapons facility.
2006 – Democratic Party leaders in Vermont passed a motion asking Congress to immediately begin impeachment proceedings against President Bush.
2008 – Congressional auditors reported that federal employees charged millions of dollars for Internet dating, tailor-made suits, lingerie, lavish dinners and other questionable expenses to their government credit cards over a 15-month period.
2009 – One person is killed and four are injured in a shooting in Temecula, California.
2010 – President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev sign a new arms reduction treaty that will cut both countries’ arsenals by a third.
2010 – Scientists say Glacier National Park has lost two more of its glaciers to global warming.
2011 – The Department of Justice (DOJ) defends its probing of WikiLeaks-related Twitter accounts and dismisses as “absurd” any privacy and freedom of speech concerns.
2011 – The United States Congress reaches a deal on the 2011 United States federal budget an hour before the deadline to avoid a government shutdown.
2012 – Police arrest two men suspected in carrying out a shooting attack in Tulsa, Oklahoma, that happened on April 7, leaving three people dead and two injured. The shootings are being investigated as a hate crime.
2012 – American golfer Bubba Watson wins the US Masters defeating Louis Oosthuizen of South Africa in a playoff.
2013 – The Baroness Margaret Thatcher, former Prime Minister of Britain and friend and co-leader to President Ronald Reagan died today.
2013 – Annette Funicello, one of the best-known members of the original 1950s “Mickey Mouse Club” and a star of numerous 1960s “beach party” films, died today at a California hospital. She was just 13 when she was selected by Walt Disney himself to be one of the original Mouseketeers.
2013 – Louisville beats Michigan 82-76 to win NCAA men’s basketball championship.
1732 – David Rittenhouse, American astronomer, inventor, and mathematician (d. 1796)
1865 – Charles W. Woodworth, American entomologist (d. 1940)
1869 – Harvey Cushing, American neuorosurgeon (d. 1939)
1871 – Clarence Hudson White American photographer (d. 1925)
1911 – Melvin Calvin, American chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1997)
1912 – Sonja Henie, Norwegian figure skater and actress. Henie won 10 consecutive world championships. (d. 1969)
1918 – Betty Ford, First Lady of the United States
1920 – Carmen McRae, American jazz singer (d. 1994)
1926 – Shecky Greene, American comedian
1931 – John Gavin, American actor and politician
1940 – John Havlicek, American basketball player
1941 – Peggy Lennon, American singer (The Lennon Sisters)
1944 – Carolyn Amy, future wife of the author of Unerased History.
1946 – Catfish Hunter, American baseball player (d. 1999)
1947 – Tom DeLay, American politician
1949 – Brenda Russell, American singer/songwriter
1955 – Kane Hodder, American actor and stuntman
1966 – Robin Wright Penn, American actress
1968 – Patricia Arquette, American actress
1980 – Katee Sackhoff, American actress
LITTRELL, GARY LEE
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Advisory Team 21, 11 Corps Advisory Group. Place and date: Kontum province, Republic of Vietnam, April 4th – April 8th, 1970. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif. Born: 26 October 1944, Henderson, Ky. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sfc. Littrell, U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, Advisory Team 21, distinguished himself while serving as a Light Weapons Infantry Advisor with the 23d Battalion, 2d Ranger Group, Republic of Vietnam Army, near Dak Seang. After establishing a defensive perimeter on a hill on April 4, the battalion was subjected to an intense enemy mortar attack which killed the Vietnamese commander, one advisor, and seriously wounded all the advisors except Sfc. Littrell. During the ensuing four days, Sfc Littrell exhibited near superhuman endurance as he single-handedly bolstered the besieged battalion. Repeatedly abandoning positions of relative safety, he directed artillery and air support by day and marked the unit’s location by night, despite the heavy, concentrated enemy fire. His dauntless will instilled in the men of the 23d Battalion a deep desire to resist. Assault after assault was repulsed as the battalion responded to the extraordinary leadership and personal example exhibited by Sfc. Littrell as he continuously moved to those points most seriously threatened by the enemy, redistributed ammunition, strengthened faltering defenses, cared for the wounded and shouted encouragement to the Vietnamese in their own language. When the beleaguered battalion was finally ordered to withdraw, numerous ambushes were encountered. Sfc. Littrell repeatedly prevented widespread disorder by directing air strikes to within 50 meters of their position. Through his indomitable courage and complete disregard for his safety, he averted excessive loss of life and injury to the members of the battalion. The sustained extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by Sfc. Littrell over an extended period of time were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on him and the U.S. Army.
*MICHAEL, DON LESLIE
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 4th Battalion, 503d Infantry, 1 73d Airborne Brigade. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, April 8th, 1967. Entered service at: Montgomery, Ala. Born: 31 July 1947, Florence, Ala. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Michael, U.S. Army, distinguished himself while serving with Company C. Sp4c. Michael was part of a platoon which was moving through an area of suspected enemy activity. While the rest of the platoon stopped to provide security, the squad to which Sp4c. Michael was assigned moved forward to investigate signs of recent enemy activity. After moving approximately 125 meters, the squad encountered a single Viet Cong soldier. When he was fired upon by the squad’s machine gunner, other Viet Cong opened fire with automatic weapons from a well-concealed bunker to the squad’s right front. The volume of enemy fire was so withering as to pin down the entire squad and halt all forward movement. Realizing the gravity of the situation, Sp4c. Michael exposed himself to throw two grenades, but failed to eliminate the enemy position. From his position on the left flank, Sp4c. Michael maneuvered forward with two more grenades until he was within twenty meters of the enemy bunkers, when he again exposed himself to throw two grenades, which failed to detonate. Undaunted, Sp4c. Michael made his way back to the friendly positions to obtain more grenades. With two grenades in hand, he again started his perilous move towards the enemy bunker, which by this time was under intense artillery fire from friendly positions. As he neared the bunker, an enemy soldier attacked him from a concealed position. Sp4c. Michael killed him with his rifle and, in spite of the enemy fire and the exploding artillery rounds, was successful in destroying the enemy positions. Sp4c. Michael took up pursuit of the remnants of the retreating enemy. When his comrades reached Sp4c. Michael, he had been mortally wounded. His inspiring display of determination and courage saved the lives of many of his comrades and successfully eliminated a destructive enemy force. Sp4c. Michael’s actions were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect the utmost credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
CREWS, JOHN R.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company F, 253d Infantry, 63d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Lobenbacherhof, Germany, April 8th, 1945. Entered service at: Bowlegs, Okla. Birth: Golden, Okla. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on 8 April 1945 near Lobenbacherhof, Germany. As his company was advancing toward the village under heavy fire, an enemy machinegun and automatic rifle with rifle support opened upon it from a hill on the right flank. Seeing that his platoon leader had been wounded by their fire, S/Sgt. Crews, acting on his own initiative, rushed the strongpoint with two men of his platoon. Despite the fact that one of these men was killed and the other was badly wounded, he continued his advance up the hill in the face of terrific enemy fire. Storming the well-dug-in position single-handedly, he killed two of the crew of the machinegun at pointblank range with his M-1 rifle and wrested the gun from the hands of the German whom he had already wounded. He then with his rifle charged the strongly emplaced automatic rifle. Although badly wounded in the thigh by crossfire from the remaining enemy, he kept on and silenced the entire position with his accurate and deadly rifle fire. His actions so unnerved the remaining enemy soldiers that seven of them surrendered and the others fled. His heroism caused the enemy to concentrate on him and permitted the company to move forward into the village.
HEYL, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 23d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Hartsuff, Nebr., 28 April 1876. Entered service at: Camden, N.J. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 26 October 1897. Citation: Voluntarily, and with most conspicuous gallantry, charged with three men upon six Indians who were entrenched upon a hillside.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 1st West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox Station, Va., April 8th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Washington County, Pa. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of Confederate flag.
BRAS, EDGAR A.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 8th Iowa Infantry. Place and date: Spanish Fort, Ala., April 8th, 1865. Entered service at: Louisa County, Iowa. Birth: Jefferson County, Iowa. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
READ, MORTON A.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company D, 8th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox Station, Va., April 8th,1865. Entered service at: Brockport, N.Y. Birth: Brockport, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 1st Texas Infantry (C.S.A.)
Rank and organization: Chief Bugler, Company M, 1st West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox, Va., April 8th, 1865. Entered service at: Mason City, W. Va. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of the Sumter Flying Artillery (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 2d West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox, Va., April 8th,1865. Entered service at: Ironton, Ohio. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of the Washington Artillery (C.S.A.).
No Housework Day
The Blue Hole
The Blue Hole is a fresh water pond located in Castalia, Erie County, Ohio, in the United States. From the 1920s to 1990 the Blue Hole was a tourist site, attracting 165,000 visitors annually at the height of its popularity, partly because of its location on State Route 269, about seven miles southwest of the Cedar Point amusement park in Sandusky, Ohio.
The Blue Hole, which is approximately 75 feet in diameter, captured the public’s interest because of its clarity, vibrant blue hue and enigmatic “bottomless” appearance. Contrary to prevalent belief, the depth of the Blue Hole is not unknown, but has been sounded and found to be about forty-three to forty-five feet deep. Water temperature is about 48 degrees Fahrenheit throughout the year. Floods and droughts have no effect on temperature or water level. The Blue Hole is fed by a passing underground stream which discharges seven million gallons of water daily into Sandusky Bay to the north, which feeds into Lake Erie. The water contains lime, soda, magnesia and iron, and because the Blue Hole is anoxic, it does not sustain fish. The surrounding terrain is largely limestone, which erodes quickly upon contact with ground water, creating water-filled sinkholes. The Blue Hole was known to American Indians and was first recorded in history in 1761. Several similar blue holes are known to local residents. The actual original Blue Hole is now off limits to the public and is located on the Castalia State Fish Hatchery operated by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife. Another hole similar in size and eerie bluish-green color is open for public viewing at the hatchery.
“It is he that sitteth upon the CIRCLE of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in.”
“It is the duty of the clergy to accommodate their discourses to the times, to preach against such sins as are most prevalent, and recommend such virtues as are most wanted. For example, if exorbitant ambition and venality are predominant, ought they not to warn their hearers against those vices? If public spirit is much wanted, should they not inculcate this great virtue? If the rights and duties of Christian magistrates and subjects are disputed, should they not explain them, show their nature, ends, limitations, and restrictions, how muchsoever it may move the gall of Massachusetts.”
~ John Adams
” The best way to predict the future is to create it!”
Lacking courage; timid.
[From Latin pusillus (weak, very small), diminutive of pullus (young of an animal) + animus (spirit, mind).]
529 – First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I.
1712 – Slave revolt in New York NY.
1776 – Captain John Barry and the USS Lexington captures the HMS Edward.
1788 – American pioneers to the Northwest Territory arrive at at the confluence of the Ohio and Muskingum rivers, establishing Marietta, Ohio as the first permanent American settlement of the new United States in the Northwest Territory.
1798 – The Mississippi Territory is organized from territory ceded by Georgia and South Carolina and is later twice expanded to include disputed territory claimed by both the U.S. and Spain.
1805 – The Corps of Discovery (Lewis & Clark) breaks camp among the Mandan tribe and resumes its journey West along the Missouri River.
1818 – Gen. Andrew Jackson captured St. Marks, Fla., from the Seminole Indians.
1827 – John Walker, an English chemist, sells the first friction match. He had invented it the previous year.
1829 – Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, commences translation of the Book of Mormon, with Oliver Cowdery as his scribe.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of Shiloh ends – the Union Army under General Ulysses S. Grant defeats the Confederates near Shiloh, TN.
1863 – Civil War:Battle of Charleston, SC. The Federal fleet attack on Fort Sumter failed.
1864 – The first camel race in America was held in Sacramento, CA.
1888 – P.F. Collier published a weekly periodical for the first time. “Collier’s” became the publication’s name at a later date. The magazine was popular for 69 years.
1891 – Nebraska introduced an 8-hour work day.
1896 – Tolbert Lanston was issued a patent for the first typeface issued by the Lanston Monotype Machine Company in the USA as Modern Condensed (Series 1).
1902 – Texas Oil Company (Texaco) was formed.
1913 – The suffragists’ marched to the Capitol in Washington, D.C. By the second decade of the 20th century, woman suffrage–women’s right to vote–had become an issue of national importance in America.
1917 – Navy takes control of all wireless radio stations in the U.S.
1922 – Teapot Dome scandal: United States Secretary of the Interior leases Teapot Dome petroleum reserves in Wyoming. US Secretary of the Interior leased the reserves to Harry F. Sinclair in Wyoming.
1923 – The Workers Party of America in New York City became an official communist party.
1926 – In San Luis Obispo, Ca., lightning sparked a 5-day oil fire killing 2 people. Over 6 million barrels of oil were burned. Final damages were estimated at $15 million.
1927 – First distance public television demonstration of a working prototype of a TV. by Philo Farnsworth (21) from Washington, DC to New York City, displaying the image of Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover.
1930 – The first steel columns were set for the Empire State Building.
1932 – Erv A. Kelley, US policeman, was shot to death by gangster Pretty Boy Floyd.
1933 – Prohibition is repealed for beer of no more than 3.2% alcohol by weight, eight months before the ratification of the 21st Amendment. (See April 6th – New Beers Eve)
1940 – Booker T. Washington becomes the first African American to be depicted on a United States postage stamp. It was a ten-cent stamp.
1941 – World War II: US naval and air bases open in Bermuda. The carrier Ranger and other ships are to be based there as the Central Atlantic Neutrality Patrol.
1942 – The Navy Department today announced that Negro volunteers will be accepted for enlistment for general service in the reserve components of the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Marine Corps, and the U.S. Coast Guard.
1942 – World War II: US President Roosevelt authorizes the American commanders in the Philippines to take any necessary steps.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust – In Terebovlia, Ukraine, Germans order 1,100 Jews to undress to their underwear and march through the city of Terebovlia to the nearby village of Plebanivka where they are shot dead and buried in ditches.
1943 – World War II: In an effort to disrupt the American buildup in the Solomons, Japanese Admiral Yamamoto mounts an air offensive known as Operation I.
1943 – World War II: US Marine Lt. James Swett (1920-2009), division leader of Squadron 221, shot down seven Japanese bombers over the Solomon Islands.
1943 – NFL adopts free substitution rule. Enacted in response to the depleted rosters of the World War II period, any or all of the players may be replaced by substitutes after any play.
1943 – NFL dictates that wearing of helmets is mandatory for all players.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Dreams are Getting Better All the Time” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day), “I’m Beginning to See the Light” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “A Little on the Lonely Side” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Jimmy Brown) and “Shame on You” by Spade Cooley all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: The Japanese battleship Yamato, the largest battleship ever constructed, is sunk 200 miles north of Okinawa while en-route to a suicide mission in Operation Ten-Go. This was the last major Japanese naval operation in the Pacific Theater.
1945 – World War II: American P-51 Mustang fighters, based on Iwo Jima, escort B-29 Superfortress bombers on a raid to Tokyo.
1945 – World War II: Japanese Kamikaze attacks damage the carrier USS Hancock and the battleship Maryland as well as other ships.
1945 – World War II: First two Navy flight nurses land on an active battlefield (Iwo Jima): ENS Jane Kendeigh, USNR, and LTJG Ann Purvis, USN.
1947 – Auto pioneer Henry Ford (b.1863) died in Dearborn, Mich. Most of his personal estate, valued at $205 million, was left to the Ford Foundation.
1948 – The musical “South Pacific” by Rogers and Hammerstein debuted on Broadway.
1949 – The Rodgers and Hammerstein musical “South Pacific” opened on Broadway at the Majestic Theater for 1928 performances.
1951 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1953 – IBM unveiled the IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine. It was IBM’s first commercially available scientific computer.
1954 – “Gee” by The Crows became the first rhythm and blues single to gain attention on pop music charts.
1954 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower gives his “domino theory” speech during a news conference.
1956 – “Rock ‘n Roll Dance Party” debuted on the CBS Radio Network.
1956 – “The Poor People of Paris” by Les Baxter topped the charts.
1957 – The last of New York City’s electric trolleys completed its final run from the city’s borough of Queens to Manhattan.
1959 – Oklahoma ends prohibition, after 51 years.
1962 – “Johnny Angel” by Shelley Fabares topped the charts.
1963 – Jack Nicklaus became the youngest golfer to win the Green Jacket at the Masters Tournament. The ‘Golden Bear’ earned the win at one of golf’s premier events at the age of 23.
1964 – IBM announces the System/360. The chief architect of the S/360 was Gene Amdahl, and the project was managed by Fred Brooks, responsible to Chairman Thomas J. Watson Jr.
1966 – US recovers lost H-bomb from Mediterranean floor.
1967 – KMPX-FM, San Francisco unveiled “Progressive Rock” format. Freeform radio gained attention in 1967 when Tom Donahue began programming KMPX-FM in San Francisco with a progressive format that eliminated typical top 40 gimmicks. One of the station’s positioning statements was “no jingles, no talkovers, no time and temp, no pop singles.”
1967 – Six-Day War: Israel reported that they had shot down six Syrian MIGs.
1967 – Sonny & Cher’s movie “Good Times” debuted in Chicago, IL.
1968 – Jim Clark, two-time F1 World Champion and winner of the Indianapolis 500, dies in a racing accident during a Formula 2 race at Hockenheim, Germany.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dizzy” by Tommy Roe, “Aquarius/Let the Sun Shine In” by The 5th Dimension, “You’ve Made Me So Very Happy” by Blood, Sweat & Tears and “Who’s Gonna Mow Your Grass” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1969 – The Internet’s symbolic birth date: publication of RFC (Request for Comments) 1.
1969 – The U.S. Supreme Court in Stanley v. Georgia unanimously struck down laws prohibiting private possession of obscene material.
1969 – Bill Singer of the Dodgers is credited with the first official save, as Los Angeles defeats Cincinnati 3-2, scoring once in the 2nd and twice in the 3rd off Gary Nolan.
1970 – John Wayne, a movie veteran of over 200 films, won his first and only Oscar. The Duke earned an Academy Award for Best Actor for his role in “True Grit”, also starring Kim Darby and Glen Campbell.
1971 – President Richard Nixon announces his decision to increase the rate of American troop withdrawals from Vietnam.
1971 – President Nixon ordered Lt. Calley, imprisoned for the Mi Lai massacre, free.
1971 – Dismissal of Curt Flood’s suit against baseball is upheld by Supreme Court.
1972 – Richard McCoy (1942-1974), Vietnam veteran and pilot, hijacked a United Air Lines jet and extorted $500,000 in copycat version of the DB Cooper crime.
1972 – “Crazy” Joe Gallo, flamboyant mobster, was gunned down at his 43rd birthday party in Manhattan’s Umberto’s Clam House.
1973 – Vicki Lawrence got her number one single as “The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia” made it to the top of the pop charts.
1975 – Beverly Sills made her debut at the Metropolitan Opera in Gioacchino Rossini’s “Siege of Corinth.”
1978 – Gutenberg bible sold for $2,200,000 in New York City. It was bought by Martin Breslauer for the state museum of Baden Wurttemberg.
1978 – Development of the neutron bomb is canceled by President Jimmy Carter.
1979 – Henri LaMothe dives 28′ into 12 3/8″ of water. High-diving was a sideline occupation of LaMothe’s. His main line of work was as a doctor. In fact, he learned the high-diving trick — a special way of contorting your body when you hit the water — when he attended a medical school with a very shallow pool.
1979 – “I Will Survive” by Gloria Gaynor topped the charts.
1979 – Launching of first Trident submarine, USS Ohio (SSBN-726) at Groton, CT.
1980 – The U.S. broke diplomatic relations with Iran and imposed economic sanctions in response to the taking of hostages on November 4, 1979.
1983 – During STS-6, astronauts Story Musgrave and Don Peterson perform the first space shuttle spacewalk.
1984 – “Footloose” by Kenny Loggins topped the charts.
1985 – First live telecast of Easter Parade.
1990 – “Love Will Lead You Back” by Taylor Dayne topped the charts.
1990 – During the Iran Contra Affair, John Poindexter is found guilty of five charges for his part in the scandal (the conviction was reversed on appeal).
1991 – US military planes began airdropping supplies to Kurdish refugees who were facing starvation and exposure in the snow-covered mountains of northern Iraq. The United States warned Iraq not to interfere with the relief effort.
1995 – Baseball exhibition season begins late due to strike.
1995 – President Clinton threatened to veto a lengthy list of bills passed by the Republican-controlled House if they were not modified in the Senate.
1995 – In a prime-time television address, House Speaker Newt Gingrich declared the GOP “Contract with America” was only a beginning.
1996 – Monica Lewinsky informed President Clinton that she was to be transferred from the White House. He promised to bring her back following the elections and they had another sexual encounter.
1998 – Mary Bono, the widow of Sonny Bono, won a special election to serve out the remainder of her husband’s congressional term.
1999 – In Kentucky two volunteer firefighters, Kenneth Nickell (28) and Kevin Smith (30), were killed while battling a blaze at the Daniel Boone National Forest.
2000 – President Clinton signed the Senior Citizens Freedom to Work Act of 2000. The bill reversed a Depression-era law and allows senior citizens to earn money without losing Social Security retirement benefits.
2001 – The $297 million Mars Odyssey was launched on a six-month, 286-million-mile journey to the Red Planet and was expected to arrive near Mars Oct 24.
2003 – Embedded NPR journalists relay reports from a top official with the first Marine Division that U.S. forces near Baghdad have discovered 20 medium range BM-21 missiles armed with warheads containing deadly sarin and mustard gas that are “ready to fire.”
2003 – The US Supreme Court voted 6-3 to uphold a 50-year-old Virginia law making it a crime to burn a cross as an act of intimidation.
2003 – Jewelry valued at $4.5 million was stolen from the Lang Estate and Jewelry store on Union Square in San Francisco.
2003 – In Oakland, California, police fired rubber bullets and beanbags at anti-war protesters and dockworkers outside the Port, injuring at least a dozen demonstrators and six longshoremen standing nearby.
2003 – Iraqi Freedom: Capt. Harry Alexander Hornbuckle on the road to Baghdad led 80 US soldiers against 300 Iraqi and Syrian fighters. 200 enemy were killed with no US casualties.
2003 – The San Francisco Chronicle ran a $45,000 full-page ad that called for the impeachment of President Bush. Former US Attorney Gen’l. Ramsey Clark led the ad sponsors.
2004 – The US government issued the 1st license for a manned suborbital rocket to Scaled Composites of Mojave headed by Burt Rutan.
2004 – Represented by the ACLU, New York State Assembly man Daniel O’Donnell and his partner and 12 other same sex couples file suit against the New York Department of Health to strike down a state law defining marriage as between “a man and a woman.”
2004 – Militants inside the Abdul-Aziz al-Samarrai mosque shoot at US Marines, and Lt. Col. Brennan Byrne orders his men to return fire. “If they use the mosque as a military machine, then it’s no longer a house of worship and we strike”, he said.
2005 – Montana voted to ban smoking in all public places. Gov. Brian Schweitzer said he would sign the legislation.
2005 – The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) announces that it has drilled a hole to the lowest level of the Earth’s crust, and that it is poised to break through to the mantle, in search of the Mohorovicic discontinuity. This is a project to “drill a hole between the earth’s mantle and its core. It has been cancelled several times, the latest in 2011.
2006 – At 10 o’clock UTC NASA’s Pluto probe New Horizons crossed the orbit of Mars, after 78 days journey. This is a new Earth-to-Mars-distance flight record.
2007 – Cambridge University defeats Oxford University by one and a half lengths in the 153rd University Boat Race.
2007 – Thousands of people protest in Los Angeles, California calling for citizenship rights for undocumented immigrants to the United States.
2008 – The Kansas Jayhawks defeat the Memphis Tigers in overtime, 75-68, to win the 2008 U.S. Division I men’s college basketball championship.
2008 – The Washington Post wins six Pulitzer Prizes including the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service for a series of articles of poor conditions for veterans at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center.
2009 – US military leaders said the Pentagon has spent over $100 million in the past 6 months responding to and repairing damage from cyber attacks and other computer network problems.
2009 – MASS SHOOTING: In southern California a gunman in Temecula opened fire at a Korean Christian retreat center, leaving one woman dead and four people injured.
2009 – In Texas Jon Dale Jones (46), a former Army hospital nurse, pleaded guilty to assault and theft. He was accused of infecting fifteen patients with hepatitis C.
2009 – US District Judge Emmet G. Sullivan overturns the conviction of former Alaska Senator Ted Stevens.
2010 – us Tennis player Martina Navratilova announces she has been diagnosed with breast cancer.
2011 – General Electric Co. announces that it is investing $600 million to construct a facility for the manufacture of thin-film solar panels, and says it hopes and expects to drive the price of solar energy down.
2011 – The Hawaii Intermediate Court of Appeals dismisses an appeal from a man wanting to see President Barack Obama’s birth certificate.
2011 – Seventeen people are arrested at a protest organised by the Service Employees International Union trying to storm the Governor of Washington’s office in Olympia.
2012 – A woman and two men were shot overnight in Tulsa, Okla., in one of several shootings within a one-mile radius. Three people are dead and two in critical conditions. Police are speculating that the shootings were racially motivated because all of the victims are black; it is not believed the victims knew one another.
2013 – In college basketball:
The University of Louisville and University of Connecticut advance to the championship game of the 2013 NCAA Women’s Division I Basketball Tournament.
Drury University defeats Metropolitan State University of Denver 73–72 to win the 2013 NCAA Men’s Division II Basketball Championship.
Amherst College defeats the University of Mary Hardin–Baylor 87–80 to win the 2013 NCAA Men’s Division III Basketball Championship.
2014 – Connecticut defeats Kentucky 60–54 in the NCAA Men’s Division I Tournament final. It is the fourth national title for the Huskies.
1506 – Saint Francis Xavier, Spanish founder of the Society of Jesus (d. 1552)
1770 – William Wordsworth, English poet (d. 1850)
1803 – James Curtiss, Mayor of Chicago (d. 1859)
1859 – Walter Camp, sports authority known as the “Father of American Football” (d. 1925)
1860 – Will Keith Kellogg, American cereal manufacturer (d. 1951)
1893 – Allen Dulles, American Central Intelligence Agency director (d. 1969)
1897 – Walter Winchell, American broadcaster and journalist (d. 1972)
1908 – Percy Faith, Canadian composer and musician (d. 1976)
1915 – Billie Holiday, American singer (d. 1959)
1928 – James Garner, American actor
1929 – Bob Denard, French mercenary (d. 2007)
1933 – Wayne Rogers, American actor
1938 – Jerry Brown, American politician
1939 – Francis Ford Coppola, American film director
1939 – Sir David Frost, English broadcaster and TV host
1948 – Carol Douglas, American singer
1954 – Jackie Chan, Chinese actor, action choreographer, film director, producer, martial artist, comedian, screenwriter, singer and stunt performer.
1954 – Tony Dorsett, American football player
1971 – Jennifer Schwalbach Smith, American actress
1976 – Kevin Alejandro, American actor
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 398th Infantry, 100th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Untergriesheim, Germany, April 7th, 1945. Entered service at. Duluth, Minn. Birth: Hibbing, Minn. G.O. No.: 4, 9 January 1946. Citation: He was pinned down with other members of his company during an attack against strong enemy positions in the vicinity of Untergriesheim, Germany. Heavy artillery, mortar, and machinegun fire made any move hazardous when he stood up, shouted to the company to follow, and ran forward in the wake of a supporting tank, firing his machine pistol. Inspired by his example, his comrades advanced in the face of savage enemy fire. When his weapon was struck by shrapnel and rendered useless, he climbed to the deck of a friendly tank, manned an exposed machinegun on the turret of the vehicle, and, while bullets rattled about him, fired at an enemy emplacement with such devastating accuracy that he killed or wounded at least ten hostile soldiers and destroyed their machinegun. Maintaining his extremely dangerous post as the tank forged ahead, he blasted three more positions, destroyed another machinegun emplacement and silenced all resistance in his area, killing at least three and wounding an undetermined number of riflemen as they fled. His machinegun eventually jammed; so he secured a submachinegun from the tank crew to continue his attack on foot. When our armored forces exhausted their ammunition and the order to withdraw was given, he remained behind to help a seriously wounded comrade over several hundred yards of open terrain rocked by an intense enemy artillery and mortar barrage. By his intrepidity and inspiring courage Pfc. Colallilo gave tremendous impetus to his company’s attack, killed or wounded twenty-five of the enemy in bitter fighting, and assisted a wounded soldier in reaching the American lines at great risk of his own life.
*AMES, WILLY F., Jr.
Rank and Organization: Infantry Scout, Organization: US Army, Company G, 413th Infantry Regiment , 104th Infantry Division Born: Kansas City, MO Entered Service At: Kansas City, MO, September 11, 1942, Place and Date: April 7th, 1945 near Lippoldsberg, Germany. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in action. As lead scout during a maneuver to secure and expand a vital bridgehead, Private First Class James was the first to draw enemy fire. He was pinned down for over an hour, during which time he observed enemy positions in detail. Returning to his platoon, he assisted in working out a new plan of maneuver. He then led a squad in the assault, accurately designating targets as he advanced, until he was killed by enemy machine gun fire while going to the aid of his fatally wounded platoon leader. Private First Class James’ fearless, self-assigned actions, coupled with his diligent devotion to duty exemplified the finest traditions of the Armed Forces.
Rank and Organization: Yokio Okutsu, Technical Sergeant, US Army, 442nd Regimental Combat Team Born: 11/3/1921, Koloa, Hawaii; Entered Service At: Hawaii; Place and Date: April 7, 1945, Mount Belvedere in Italy; Citation: Technical Sergeant Yukio Okutsu distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on April 7th, 1945, on Mount Belvedere, Italy. While his platoon was halted by the crossfire of three machine guns, Technical Sergeant Okutsu boldly crawled to within 30 yards of the nearest enemy emplacement through heavy fire. He destroyed the position with two accurately placed hand grenades, killing three machine gunners. Crawling and dashing from cover to cover, he threw another grenade, silencing a second machine gun, wounding two enemy soldiers, and forcing two others to surrender. Seeing a third machine gun, which obstructed his platoon’s advance, he moved forward through heavy small arms fire and was stunned momentarily by rifle fire, which glanced off his helmet. Recovering, he bravely charged several enemy riflemen with his submachine gun, forcing them to withdraw from their positions. Then, rushing the machine gun nest, he captured the weapon and its entire crew of four. By these single-handed actions he enabled his platoon to resume its assault on a vital objective. The courageous performance of Technical Sergeant Okutsu against formidable odds was an inspiration to all. Technical Sergeant Okutsu’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
SWETT, JAMES ELMS
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Marine Fighter Squadron 221, with Marine Aircraft Group 12, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. Place and date: Solomon Islands area, April 7th, 1943. Entered service at: California. Born: 15 June 1920, Seattle, Wash. Other Navy award: Distinguished Flying Cross with 1 Gold Star. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and personal valor above and beyond the call of duty, as division leader of Marine Fighting Squadron 221 with Marine Aircraft Group 12, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, in action against enemy Japanese aerial forces in the Solomons Islands area, 7 April 1943. In a daring flight to intercept a wave of 150 Japanese planes, 1st Lt. Swett unhesitatingly hurled his four-plane division into action against a formation of fifteenenemy bombers and personally exploded three hostile planes in midair with accurate and deadly fire during his dive. Although separated from his division while clearing the heavy concentration of antiaircraft fire, he boldly attacked six enemy bombers, engaged the first four in turn and, unaided, shot down all in flames. Exhausting his ammunition as he closed the fifth Japanese bomber, he relentlessly drove his attack against terrific opposition which partially disabled his engine, shattered the windscreen and slashed his face. In spite of this, he brought his battered plane down with skillful precision in the water off Tulagi without further injury. The superb airmanship and tenacious fighting spirit which enabled 1st Lt. Swett to destroy seven enemy bombers in a single flight were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1841, Ireland. Accredited to: New Hampshire. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation. Served on board the U.S.S. Crusader and the Keokuk during various actions of those vessels. Carrying out his duties skillfully while on board the U.S.S. Crusader, Q.M. Anderson, on all occasions, set forth the greatest intrepidity and devotion. During the attack on Charleston, while serving on board the U.S.S. Keokuk April 7th, 1863, Q.M. Anderson was stationed at the wheel when shot penetrated the house and, with the scattering of the iron, used his own body as a shield for his commanding officer.
Rank and organization: Commissary Sergeant, 8th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Farmville, Va., April 7th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 30 October 1897. Citation: His regiment being surprised and nearly overwhelmed, he dashed forward under a heavy fire, reached the right of the regiment, where the danger was greatest, rallied the men and prevented a disaster that was imminent.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company G, 59th New York Veteran Infantry. Place and date: At Farmville, Va., April 7th, 1865. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: England. Date of issue: 10 August 1889. Citation: Gallantry and promptness in rallying his men and advancing with a small detachment to save a bridge about to be fired by the enemy.