Avon was strictly an American phenomenon, and a unique and pioneering one at that. This miracle could never have been duplicated anywhere else on this planet because of our freedoms. The first Avon Lady was actually a man, young door-to-door salesman David McConnell from upstate New York. He launched Avon Calling in 1886, offering women cosmetics in the comfort and privacy of their own homes. But perfumes and hand-cream were not McConnell’s initial merchandise. At the age of sixteen, McConnell had begun selling books door-to-door. When his fare was not well received, he resorted to the then-popular advertising Gimmick of offering a no-cost introductory gift in exchange for being allowed to make a sales pitch.
In his travels, McConnell made two important discoveries. First, he quickly noticed that his female customers were far more interested in the free perfume samples he offered than they were in his books. He made these fragrances himself to serve as “door openers” when he traveled from home to home. Second, McConnell saw women struggling to make ends meet and recognized in many of them natural salespeople who would easily relate to other women and passionately market the products his new company would first sell — perfumes.
McConnell offered women a rarity in 19th century America, a chance at monetary independence. In 1886, it was practically unheard of for a woman to run her own business. Only about 5 million women in the United States were working outside the home, let alone climbing the ranks of any corporate ladder.
McConnell’s first recruit for Avon, then known as the California Perfume Company, was Mrs. P.F.E. Albee of New Hampshire. Not only did he provide Mrs. Albee and other early Representatives with an earnings opportunity when employment options for women were extremely limited, he fostered a supportive environment with a familial feel. (The company newsletter was even called the “Family Album.”) In one of his regular letters to Representatives, he wrote: “All success lies in one’s self and not in external conditions. … Misfortunes are only a discipline, and there are possibilities which often are awakened by them which suggest to us the power and strength we possess, that perhaps otherwise would never have been recognized.” No wonder the Representative ranks rose to 5,000 in just 13 short years.
McConnell believed strongly in the potential of people, and that in that potential lay the power of possibility and, eventually, success:
“If we stop and look over the past and then into the future, we can see that the possibilities are growing greater and greater every day; that we have scarcely begun to reach the proper results from the field we have before us.”
- David H. McConnell, Avon’s Founder
“There are no secrets to success. It is the result of preparation, hard work, learning from failure.”
~ Colin Powell
miscible (MIS-uh-buhl) adjective
[From Latin miscere (to mix), ultimately from the Indo-European root meik-Capable of being mixed together.
(to mix) that's also the source of mix, miscellaneous, meddle, medley,
promiscuous, melee, and mustang.]
632 – In Medina, located in present-day Saudi Arabia, Muhammad, one of the most influential religious and political leaders in history, dies in the arms of Aishah, his third and favorite wife.
1504 – Michelangelo’s David is unveiled in Florence.
1522 – Spanish navigator Juan de Elcano returned to Spain. He completed the 1st circumnavigation of globe, expedition begun under Ferdinand Magellan.
1565 -A Spanish expedition under Pedro Menendez de Aviles established the first permanent European colony in the present day St. Augustine, Fla.
1628 – John Endecott arrived with colonists at Salem, Massachusetts, where he would become the governor.
1636 – A vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony establishes the first college in what would become the United States, today known as Harvard University. It was originally named Cambridge College. It changed its name two years later in honor of the Reverend John Harvard, who gave the institution three hundred books and a large sum of money for the day.
1664 – The Dutch colony of New Amsterdam was surrendered to the British who renamed it New York in 1669.
1755 – French and Indian War: British forces under William Johnson and 250 Indians defeated the French and their allied Indians at the Battle of Lake George, NY.
1771 – Mission San Gabriel Archangel formed in California.
1781 – Gen. Nathanael Greene engaged British forces at Eutaw Springs, South Carolina and was forced to retreat.
1810 – The Tonquin sets sail from New York Harbor with 33 employees of John Jacob Astor’s newly created Pacific Fur Company on board. After a six-month journey around the tip of South America, the ship arrives at the mouth of the Columbia River and Astor’s men establish the fur-trading town of Astoria, Oregon.
1830 – Sloop-of-war Vincennes becomes first U.S. warship to circle the globe.
1845 – Seventh President Andrew Jackson dies.
1847 – The US under Gen. Scott defeated the Mexicans at Battle of Molino del Rey.
1858 – Lincoln made a speech about when you can fool people.
1860 – Steamship Lady Elgin sinks on Lake Michigan, with the loss of around 400 lives.
1861 – Tennessee voted to secede from the Union and joined the Confederacy.
1862 – Civil War: Landing party from U.S.S. Iroquois, Commander James S. Palmer, seized arsenal and took possession of Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
1863 – Civil War: Second Battle of Sabine Pass – On the Texas-Louisiana border at the mouth of the Sabine River, a small Confederate force thwarts a Union invasion of Texas.
1863 – Civil War: Federal troops reconquered the Cumberland Gap, Tennessee and fought the Battle of Telford’s Depot, Tennessee.
1863 – Civil War: Residents of Vicksburg, Miss., fled into caves as Grant’s army began shelling the town.
1866 – The first recorded birth of sextuplets took place in Chicago, IL. The parents were James and Jennie Bushnell.
1874 – Chief Cochise, one of the great leaders of the Apache Indians in their battles with the Anglo-Americans, dies on the Chiricahua reservation in southeastern Arizona.
1875 – An explosion destroyed the Newark, NJ, factory of the Celluloid Manufacturing Co. The Hyatt brothers rebuilt the factory and it turned profitable in 1877.
1880 – Captain W. B. Remey was the first Marine appointed Judge Advocate of the Navy.
1883 – Northern Pacific RR’s last spike driven at Gold Creek in central Montana. Guests included Frederick Billings, Ulysses S. Grant, and the family of abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison.
1892 – “The Pledge of Allegiance” to the United States of America was written by a former Baptist preacher, Francis Bellamy. It only took Mr. Bellamy three hours to write the original 23 words in honor of the 400th anniversary of Columbus discovering America.
1900 – Galveston Hurricane of 1900: a powerful hurricane hits Galveston, Texas killing more than 6,000 men, women and children. Twenty-three-foot waves fronting winds up to 135 mph hit shore. The storm battered Galveston for 18 hours. Among the dead were ten Catholic nuns and ninety children from the St. Mary’s Orphans Asylum. A total of approximately 3,600 buildings were destroyed.
1904 – U.S. Marines landed in Tangiers, Morocco, to protect U.S. citizens.
1906 – Robert Turner invented the automatic typewriter return carriage.
1917 – Eugene Bullard, aviator, was born in Columbus, Georgia. He emigrated to France and became the first Black combat aviator when he flew a reconnaissance mission over the city of Metz, France.
1920 – New York-to-San Francisco air mail service was inaugurated. US postal planes began flying across the country, but these flights took place only in daylight because pilots relied on visual landmarks to navigate.
1921 – Sixteen-year-old Margaret Gorman won the Atlantic City Pageant’s Golden Mermaid trophy; pageant officials later dubbed her the first Miss America.
1923 – Seven of the fifteen ships of Destroyer Squadron 11 were wrecked on a rocky point on the California Santa Barbara County coast. Twenty-three sailors were killed.
1930 – 3M begins marketing Scotch transparent tape. Richard Drew created it.
1930 – Cartoonist Murat “Chic” Young (d.1973) introduced the cartoon strip “Blondie.”
1930 – New York City public schools began teaching Hebrew.
1934 – Luxury liner “Morro Castle” burns off NJ, killing 134. The crew of the cruise ship let a small blaze get out of control and commandeered most of the spots in the lifeboats. Only 15 passengers survived.
1935 – US Senator from Louisiana, Huey Long, nicknamed “Kingfish”, is fatally shot in the Louisiana capitol building. It was suspected that Dr. Weiss was acting in revenge against Long’s public slandering of his father.
1935 – Carl Austin Weiss, murderer of Sen Huey Long, was shot down.
1935 – The Hoboken Four appeared on “Major Bowes Amateur Hour.” The Hoboken Four was a musical group that included Frank Sinatra.
1939 – FDR declares “limited national emergency” due to war in Europe.
1939 – World War II: Europe: Gen. Von Reichenau’s panzer division reached the suburbs of Warsaw.
1941 – Harry James and his orchestra recorded “Miserlou” for Columbia records.
1941 – World War II: The 900-day Siege of Leningrad by German forces began. The Siege of Leningrad, 400 miles northwest of Moscow, took place with Germany spread along a 2,000 mile front. It led to the death of at least one million Russians from starvation and disease.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: The entire Jewish community of Meretsch, Lithuania, was exterminated.
1943 – Senior military officials bring the Zoot Suit Riot under control by declaring Los Angeles off-limits to all sailors, soldiers, and Marines. The Los Angeles City Council passes a resolution banning the wearing of zoot suits in public, punishable by a 50-day jail term.
1943 – World War II: Italy surrendered to the Allies.
1943 – New York Giants player Ace Adams pitched his 62nd game, and set a major-league baseball record for number of games worked by a pitcher in a single season.
1944 – World War II: London is hit by a V2 rocket for the first time.
1944 – World War II: A second wave of Allied troops has landed.Elements of the US 7th Corps, from Utah beach, advance toward Cherbourg.
1944 – Ed Wynn resumed his radio career after seven years off the air. Wynn starred in “Happy Island” on the NBC Blue network.
1945 – United States troops arrive to partition the southern part of Korea in response to Soviet troops occupying the northern part of the peninsula a month earlier.
1945 – A bus equipped with a two-way radio was put into service for the first time.
1945 – Bess Myerson of New York was crowned Miss America. She was the first Jewish contestant to win the title.
1946 – In San Francisco four boys playing near the Paramount Theater found a package containing body parts of Ramon Lopez (52), a flower dealer from San Leandro.
1949 – Richard Strauss, German composer (Also Sprach Zarathustra), died at 85.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mona Lisa” by Nat King Cole, “Play a Simple Melody” by Bing Crosby, “Goodnight Irene” by The Weavers and “Goodnight Irene” by Red Foley – Ernest Tubb all topped the charts.
1950 – Sandy Sadler grabbed the world featherweight boxing title from Willie Pep by a knockout. Peps shoulder was dislocated while he was in a clinch with Sadler.
1951 – In San Francisco, California, 48 nations sign a peace treaty with Japan in formal recognition of the end of the Pacific War.
1951 – Holocaust: Jurgen Stroop, Nazi exterminator of Warsaw Ghetto, was hanged on site of the ghetto.
1951 – “Because of You” by Tony Bennett topped the charts
1952 – The Ernest Hemingway novel “The Old Man and the Sea” was published.
1954 – The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) is established.
1954 – With a 3-2 count, Philadelphia Phillies Richie Ashburn fouls the next 14 pitch
s, then walks.
1955 – The Brooklyn Dodgers won the National League pennant this day — the earliest a team had done so.
1956 – “Hound Dog/Don’t Be Cruel” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1956 – “Calypso,” by Harry Belafonte goes to #1, stays there for 31 weeks.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Nel Blu Dipinto Di Blu (Volare)” by Domenico Modugno, “Little Star” by The Elegants, “Patricia” by Perez Prado and “Bird Dog” by The Everly Brothers all topped the charts.
1958 – Navy and Post Office deliver first official missile mail when USS Barbero (SS-317) fired Regulus II missile with 3000 letters 100 miles east of Jacksonville, FL to Mayport, FL.
1960 – In Huntsville, Alabama, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower formally dedicates the Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA had already activated the facility on July 1).
1961 – Smoking first linked to heart disease.
1961 – Frank Rosenthal (1929-2008), friend of Chicago mobsters, appeared before a Senate hearing on gambling and organized crime. He invoked the Fifth Amendment 38 times.
1962 – “Sheila” by Tommy Roe topped the charts.
1965 – An AFL-CIO affiliated Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC), a union of mostly Filipino workers, voted to go on strike in Delano, Ca. They were joined after eleven days by Cesar Chavez and the National Farm Workers Assoc.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sunshine Superman” by Donovan, “See You in September” by The Happenings, “You Can’t Hurry Love” by The Supremes and “Almost Persuaded” by David Houston all topped the charts.
1966 – NBC-TV aired the first episode of “Star Trek” entitled “The Man Trap“. The show was canceled on September 2, 1969.
1966 – “That Girl” starring Marlo Thomas premiers on ABC-TV.
1967 – During the Six-Day War, Israeli aircraft and torpedo boats attack the USS Liberty in international waters off Egypt’s Gaza Strip.
1968 – “Funny Girl” with Barbra Streisand premiered. (MC, 9/8/01)
1971 – John F Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts opens in Washington DC.
1971 – President Richard Nixon told John Ehrlichman to investigate the tax returns of rich Jews contributing to the democratic campaigns of Humphrey and Muskie.
1972 – The Int’l. Olympic Committee banned Vince Matthews and Wayne Collett from further competition for talking to each other on the victory stand in Munich during the playing of the “Star-Spangled Banner” after winning the gold and silver medals in the 400-meter run.
1973 – Home run number 709 went into the record books for Hank Aaron. The Atlanta slugger established a major-league baseball record for the most home runs hit in one league. Aaron eclipsed Babe Ruth’s record of 714 homers in 1974.
1973 – “Let’s Get It On” by Marvin Gaye topped the charts.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “(You’re) Having My Baby” by Paul Anka, “I Shot the Sheriff” by Eric Clapton, “Tell Me Something Good” by Rufus and “Please Don’t Tell Me How the Story Ends” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1974 – US President Gerald Ford granted an unconditional pardon to former President Richard Nixon for any crimes Nixon may have committed while in office.
1974 – Evel Knievel’s attempt to jump the Snake River Canyon at Twin Falls, Idaho, fails after a parachute prematurely deploys on his “sky cycle.”
1975 – Boston begins court ordered busing of public schools.
1975 – US Air Force Tech Sergeant Leonard Matlovich, a decorated veteran of the Vietnam War, appears in his Air Force uniform on the cover of Time magazine with the headline (printed in all uppercase) “I Am A Homosexual.” He is later given a general discharge.
1979 – “My Sharona” by Knack topped the charts.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Abracadabra” by The Steve Miller Band, “Hard to Say I’m Sorry” by Chicago, “Hold Me” by Fleetwood Mac and “Love Will Turn You Around” by Kenny Rogers all topped the charts.
1984 – “What’s Love Got to Do with It” by Tina Turner topped the charts.
1985 – “USA Weekend’s” first issue, it appears in 255 newspapers.
1985 – Pete Rose of the Cincinnati Reds ties Ty Cobb’s career record with 4,191 hits. It was during a game against the Cubs in Chicago.
1986 – The first Oprah Winfrey Show airs.
1986 – Herschel Walker made his start in the National Football League (NFL) after leaving the New Jersey Generals of the USFL.
1987 – Former Democratic presidential candidate Gary Hart admitted during an interview on ABC’s “Nightline” that he had committed adultery and said he had no plans to resume his White House bid.
1988 – A. Bartlett Giamatti, the National League president, was named to succeed Peter Ueberroth as baseball’s 7th commissioner.
1988 – Two nuclear-missile rocket motors were destroyed at an army ammunition plant in Karnack, Texas; they were the first US weapons to be eliminated under an arms reduction treaty with the Soviet Union.
1989 – Former President Reagan underwent surgery at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota to relieve fluid build-up on his brain after a horse-riding accident.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Blaze of Glory” by Jon Bon Jovi, “Release Me” by Wilson Phillips, “Do Me!” by Bell Biv DeVoe and “Jukebox in My Mind” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1990 – Commander Rosemary Mariner becomes first Navy woman to command a fleet jet aircraft squadron.
1990 – Marjorie Judith Vincent of Illinois was crowned Miss America.
1990 – Gabriela Sabatini won the US Open women’s championship and her first grand slam title as she defeated Steffi Graf.
1991 – Stefan Edberg won the U.S. Open in New York, defeating Jim Courier in straight sets, 6-2, 6-4, 6-0.
1992 – President Bush asked Congress to provide more than $7.6 billion to help Hurricane Andrew recovery efforts.
1992 – In a case that prompted federal laws against carjacking, Pam Basu of Savage, Md., was dragged to her death after being forced from her car.
1993 – German tourist Uwe-Wilhelm Rakebrand was killed by a woman firing from a van as he and his wife drove away from the Miami airport. The gunwoman and an accomplice received life prison sentences; the van’s driver received 87 years.
1993 – Christopher Simmons (17), a Missouri high school student, kidnapped, bound and killed Shirley Crooks by throwing her into a river from a railroad trestle. He was arrested the next day, confessed and 9 months later was sentenced to death.
1994 – Microsoft gave Windows 95 its name, previously, the operating system had been referred to by its code name of “Chicago.”
1994 – USAir flight 427 crashed as it was approaching Pittsburgh International Airport. All 132 people on board the Boeing 737 were killed. In March of 1999, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) concluded that rudder malfunction was the most likely cause of the crash.
1995 -A lifeless zone in the Gulf of Mexico has grown to more than 7,000 sq. miles, nearly the size of New Jersey. It was caused by chemical and fertilizer runoff from US agriculture into the Mississippi River.
1996 – At the U.S. Open, Pete Sampras defeated Michael Chang and Steffi Graf beat Monica Seles to win the top prizes.
1997 – America Online acquired CompuServe.
1997 – The 10th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the conviction of Timothy McVeigh for his role in the bombing of a federal building in Oklahoma City, OK.
1997 – The TV series “Ally McBeal” starred Calista Flockhart as a working girl who was part successful attorney and part angst-ridden woman. The show continued to 2002.
1997 – Forbes Mag. listed Steven Spielberg as the best paid figure, $313 Mil, in the entertainment business in 1997.
1998 – At Busch Stadium in St. Louis, Missouri, Mark McGwire breaks Roger Maris’ 1961 record of 61 home runs hit in a single season. He had beaten a record that had stood for 37 years. McGwire would eventually reach 70 home runs on September 27.
1998 – The shuttle Discovery pulled away from Mir, ending America’s three-year space partnership with Russia.
1998 – In Fayetteville, North Carolina two women’s clinics that performed abortions were attacked with firebombs.
1999 – US Attorney General Janet Reno names former US Senator John Danforth to head an independent investigation of the 1993 fire at the Branch Davidian church near Waco, Texas in response to revelations in the film Waco: The Rules of Engagement contradicting the official government stories.
1999 – Former New Jersey Senator Bill Bradley officially kicked off his campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination with a rally in his hometown of Crystal City, Missouri.
2000 – The head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs apologized for the federal agency’s “legacy of racism and inhumanity” that included massacres, forced relocations of tribes and attempts to wipe out Indian cultures.
2000 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis is launched into orbit to deliver supplies to the new International Space Station.
2001 – Venus Williams won her second consecutive U.S. Open title by beating her sister Serena 6-2, 6-4 in the first prime-time women’s Grand Slam final.
2002 – Pete Sampras beat Andre Agassi 6-3, 6-4, 5-7, 6-4 to win his 14th Grand Slam title and the U.S. Open for the fifth time.
2002 – The US government reported that violent crime rate had dropped by 10 percent the previous year, reaching lowest level since 1973.
2002 – In San Francisco Ray D. Jimmerson Jr. (25), a key witness in a case against the Big Block gang, was shot to death on Buchanon St.
2003 – The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), the music industry’s largest trade group, filed 261 copyright lawsuits across the country against Internet users for trading songs online.
2003 – NASA presented a “return to flight” plan for the shuttle fleet.
2004 – The NASA unmanned spacecraft Genesis crash-lands when its parachute fails to open.
2004 – U.S.-led troops backed by jet fighters and helicopters killed 21 Taliban militants, after rebels attacked a convoy in the mountains of southern Afghanistan.
2004 – Dan Rather featured a story on 60 Minutes with documents that raised questions on Pres. Bush’s National Guard Service in 1972-73. On Sep 20 Dan Rather and CBS apologized for using what appeared to be forged documents.
2005 – A German military plane carrying 15 tons of military rations for survivors of Hurricane Katrina was sent back by US authorities because it did not have the required authorization.
2005 – US grain prices were reported down as grain elevators along the Mississippi filled to capacity and grain handling due to Katrina fell to 63%. Early harvests from Arkansas were particularly hit.
2005 – A suicide car bomber detonated his explosives-laden BMW in the center of Baghdad targeting a passing convoy of private American security agents.
2006 – The Bush administration said it has blocked access to the US financial system by Iran’s Bank Saderat. The bank was alleged to have helped transfer hundreds of millions of dollars to terrorist organizations including Hezbollah and Hamas.
2006 – In Minneapolis ground was broken for the new Masjid An-Nur mosque, the 1st mosque in Minnesota.
2006 – SF Mayor Gavin Newsom said 50 new security cameras will be installed in public housing projects around San Francisco over the next 18 months.
2007 – In Odessa, Texas, two police officers responding to a domestic disturbance were killed and a third was critically wounded by a gunman who led authorities on an hours-long standoff.
2008 – In Berkeley, Ca., university officials cut off the food and water supply to 4 protesters who continued a 21-month-old protest in a lone redwood.
2008 – In Oakland, Ca., authorities said three school district custodians had been arrested for stealing electronic equipment from the district.
2009 – Los Angeles firefighters and city crews worked for several hours to rescue one of their own: a 22-ton firetruck that was nearly swallowed by a water-logged sinkhole.
2009 – A review committee on NASA, led by Norman Augustine, delivered a summary report saying the agency does not have enough money to return to the moon.
2009 – Philip Barry (52) of Brooklyn was charged with operating an alleged $40 million Ponzi scheme that stretched for three decades and apparently helped finance a pornography business.
2010 – The leader of a small Florida church that espouses anti-Islam philosophy said he was determined to go through with his plan to burn copies of the Quran on Sept. 11, despite pressure from the White House, religious leaders and others to call it off.
2010 – Tropical Storm Hermine swept north through Texas and into Oklahoma swamping city neighborhoods and killing six people, five in Texas and one in Oklahoma.
2011 – United States counterterrorism officials investigate reports of a potential terrorist threat against either New York City or Washington DC, linked to the 10th anniversary of the September 11 attacks on Sunday.
2011 – In floods following Tropical Storm Lee, he National Weather Service issued flash flooding warnings for the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Maryland and Virginia. More than twelve inches of rain fell in the region surrounding Harrisburg, PA, causing heavy flooding and evacuations. 115,000 people are ordered to evacuate from the city of Wilkes-Barre and Kingston as flood waters threaten the levees along the Susquehanna River in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. Heavy rains and rockslides close the Schuylkill Expressway, a major artery into Philadelphia. Pennsylvania closes and evacuates the Pennsylvania Governor’s Residence and the state government is suspended. At least four deaths are reported in Pennsylvania and one Maryland.
2011 – A blackout in southern California, Arizona and Baja California in Mexico caused by the loss of the entire San Diego Gas & Electric system leads to the closure of San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station and the loss of power to more than two million people.
2011 – President Barack Obama delivers a speech to a joint session of both houses of Congress, putting forward a new job-creation plan entailing major spending initiatives and tax cuts.
2011 – San Francisco police arrested 20-30 protesters at the Powell Street BART station. The station was closed for 2 hours after officers determined that demonstrators were creating unsafe conditions there.
2012 – A prisoner died at the US Navy base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. He was apparently found unconscious in his cell at the isolated, high-security prison. He was the ninth detainee to die at the facility since it was opened in January 2002. An autopsy revealed that Adnan Latif died from an overdose of psychiatric medication.
2012 – In Oklahoma fierce overnight thunderstorms carried a mobile home into a creek killing 3 people. A truck driver was killed when wind flipped his semi onto a concrete barrier.
2013 – American tennis player Serena Williams wins her fifth Women’s Singles at the US Open over Victoria Azarenka.
2014 – AND THE RAINS CAME!!! – Major flooding was caused by heavy thunderstorms and showers associated with Norbert after it was downgraded to a tropical depression. Phoenix, Az received rains that produced an all-time record. Sky Harbor Airport in Phoenix reported 2.96 inches of rain before 8:30 a.m. local time after starting at about 2 a.m, beating the old record of 2.91 inches on Sept. 4, 1939. Mesa, AZ recorded 5.41 inches and Peoria, AZ recorded 3.92 inches.
1841 – Charles J. Guiteau, American assassin of James A. Garfield (d. 1882)
1881 – Harry Hillman, American athlete was the winner of three gold medals at the 1904 Summer Olympics. (d. 1945)
1889 – Robert Alphonso Taft, American politician was a Republican United States Senator and a prominent conservative statesman. (d. 1953)
1897 – Jimmie Rodgers, American singer and composer was a country singer in the early 20th century known most widely for his rhythmic yodeling. (d. 1933)
1922 – Sid Caesar, American comedian
1922 – Lyndon LaRouche, American politician
1938 – Sam Nunn, American politician
1964 – Michael Johns is an American health care executive,a conservative policy analyst and writer. , and a former White House speechwriter
SWENSON, WILLIAM D.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 10th Mountain Division, 1st Battalion, 32nd Infantry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team. Place and date: Ganjgal, Kunar Province, Afghanistan, September 8. 2009 Entered service at: Fort Benning, GA. Born: 2 November 1978. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Captain William D. Swenson distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as embedded advisor to the Afghan National Border Police, Task Force Phoenix, Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan in support of 1st Battalion, 32nd Infantry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, during combat operations against an armed enemy in Kunar Province, Afghanistan on September 8, 2009. On that morning, more than 60 well-armed, well-positioned enemy fighters ambushed Captain Swenson’s combat team as it moved on foot into the village of Ganjgal for a meeting with village elders. As the enemy unleashed a barrage of rocket-propelled grenade, mortar and machine gun fire, Captain Swenson immediately returned fire and coordinated and directed the response of his Afghan Border Police, while simultaneously calling in suppressive artillery fire and aviation support. After the enemy effectively flanked Coalition Forces, Captain Swenson repeatedly called for smoke to cover the withdrawal of the forward elements. Surrounded on three sides by enemy forces inflicting effective and accurate fire, Captain Swenson coordinated air assets, indirect fire support and medical evacuation helicopter support to allow for the evacuation of the wounded. Captain Swenson ignored enemy radio transmissions demanding surrender and maneuvered uncovered to render medical aid to a wounded fellow soldier. Captain Swenson stopped administering aid long enough to throw a grenade at approaching enemy forces, before assisting with moving the soldier for air evacuation. With complete disregard for his own safety, Captain Swenson unhesitatingly led a team in an unarmored vehicle into the kill zone, exposing himself to enemy fire on at least two occasions, to recover the wounded and search for four missing comrades. After using aviation support to mark locations of fallen and wounded comrades, it became clear that ground recovery of the fallen was required due to heavy enemy fire on helicopter landing zones. Captain Swenson’s team returned to the kill zone another time in a Humvee. Captain Swenson voluntarily exited the vehicle, exposing himself to enemy fire, to locate and recover three fallen Marines and one fallen Navy Corpsman. His exceptional leadership and stout resistance against the enemy during six hours of continuous fighting rallied his teammates and effectively disrupted the enemy’s assault. Captain William D. Swenson’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, Task Force Phoenix, 1st Battalion, 32nd Infantry Regiment, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division and the United States Army.
He was the first living United States Army officer to receive the Medal of Honor since the Vietnam War, as well as the sixth living recipient in the War on Terror.
Rank and Organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: June 26, 1988, Columbia, Kentucky Place and date: Battle of Ganjgal on September 8, 2009, in Kunar Province, Afghanistan Citation: Corporal Meyer maintained security at a patrol rally point while other members of his team moved on foot with two platoons of Afghan National Army and Border Police into the village of Ganjgal for a pre-dawn meeting with village elders. Moving into the village, the patrol was ambushed by more than 50 enemy fighters firing rocket propelled grenades, mortars, and machine guns from houses and fortified positions on the slopes above. Hearing over the radio that four U.S. team members were cut off, Corporal Meyer seized the initiative. With a fellow Marine driving, Corporal Meyer took the exposed gunner’s position in a gun-truck as they drove down the steeply terraced terrain in a daring attempt to disrupt the enemy attack and locate the trapped U.S. team. Disregarding intense enemy fire now concentrated on their lone vehicle, Corporal Meyer killed a number of enemy fighters with the mounted machine guns and his rifle, some at near point blank range, as he and his driver made three solo trips into the ambush area. During the first two trips, he and his driver evacuated two dozen Afghan soldiers, many of whom were wounded. When one machine gun became inoperable, he directed a return to the rally point to switch to another gun-truck for a third trip into the ambush area where his accurate fire directly supported the remaining U.S. personnel and Afghan soldiers fighting their way out of the ambush. Despite a shrapnel wound to his arm, Corporal Meyer made two more trips into the ambush area in a third gun-truck accompanied by four other Afghan vehicles to recover more wounded Afghan soldiers and search for the missing U.S. team members. Still under heavy enemy fire, he dismounted the vehicle on the fifth trip and moved on foot to locate and recover the bodies of his team members. Corporal Meyer’s daring initiative and bold fighting spirit throughout the 6-hour battle significantly disrupted the enemy’s attack and inspired the members of the combined force to fight on. His unwavering courage and steadfast devotion to his U.S. and Afghan comrades in the face of almost certain death reflected great credit upon himself and upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the United States Naval Service.
LESTER, FRED FAULKNER
Rank and organization: Hospital Apprentice First Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Okinawa Shima in the Ryukyu Chain, 8 June 1945 Born: 29 April 1926, Downers Grove, Ill. Accredited to: Illinois. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Medical Corpsman with an Assault Rifle Platoon, attached to the 1st Battalion, 22d Marines, 6th Marine Division, during action against enemy Japanese forces on Okinawa Shima in the Ryukyu Chain, 8 June 1945. Quick to spot a wounded Marine Iying in an open field beyond the front lines following the relentless assault against a strategic Japanese hill position, Lester unhesitatingly crawled toward the casualty under a concentrated barrage from hostile machineguns, rifles, and grenades. Torn by enemy rifle bullets as he inched forward, he stoically disregarded the mounting fury of Japanese fire and his own pain to pull the wounded man toward a covered position. Struck by enemy fire a second time before he reached cover, he exerted tremendous effort and succeeded in pulling his comrade to safety where, too seriously wounded himself to administer aid, he instructed two of his squad in proper medical treatment of the rescued Marine. Realizing that his own wounds were fatal, he staunchly refused medical attention for himself and, gathering his fast-waning strength with calm determination, coolly and expertly directed his men in the treatment of two other wounded Marines, succumbing shortly thereafter. Completely selfless in his concern for the welfare of his fighting comrades, Lester, by his indomitable spirit, outstanding valor, and competent direction of others, had saved the life of one who otherwise must have perished and had contributed to the safety of countless others. Lester’s fortitude in the face of certain death sustains and enhances the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
PEREGORY, FRANK D.
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company K 116th Infantry, 29th Infantry Division. Place and date: Grandcampe France, 8 June 1944. Entered service at: Charlottesville, Va. Born. 10 April 1915, Esmont, Va. G.O. No.: 43, 30 May 1945. Citation: On 8 June 1944, the 3d Battalion of the 116th Infantry was advancing on the strongly held German defenses at Grandcampe, France, when the leading elements were suddenly halted by decimating machinegun fire from a firmly entrenched enemy force on the high ground overlooking the town. After numerous attempts to neutralize the enemy position by supporting artillery and tank fire had proved ineffective, T/Sgt. Peregory, on his own initiative, advanced up the hill under withering fire, and worked his way to the crest where he discovered an entrenchment leading to the main enemy fortifications 200 yards away. Without hesitating, he leaped into the trench and moved toward the emplacement. Encountering a squad of enemy riflemen, he fearlessly attacked them with handgrenades and bayonet, killed eight and forced three to surrender. Continuing along the trench, he single-handedly forced the surrender of thirty-two more riflemen, captured the machine gunners, and opened the way for the leading elements of the battalion to advance and secure its objective. The extraordinary gallantry and aggressiveness displayed by T/Sgt. Peregory are exemplary of the highest tradition of the armed forces.
The first practical can opener was developed 50 years after the birth of the metal can. Canned food was invented for the British Navy in 1813. Made of solid iron, the cans usually weighed more than the food they held! The inventor, Peter Durand, was guilty of an incredible oversight. Though he figured out how to seal food into cans, he gave little thought to how to get it out again. Instructions read: “Cut round the top near the outer edge with a chisel and hammer.” Getting to the food inside a tin can did, in fact, require a hammer and chisel — or, for many soldiers, bayonets, knives, or even rifle fire. The first claw-shape, lever-type openers were developed in Britain and America in the 1850s by cutler Robert Yates in Middlesex in 1855, and by Ezra J. Warner of Waterbury, CT, in 1858. The U.S. Army adopted Warner’s design for the Civil War and issued the bull’s head can opener (above) with its rations of canned “bully beef,” or shredded corned beef mixed with gravy.Only when thinner steel cans came into use in the 1860s could the can opener be invented. The first (patented in 1858), devised by Ezra Warner of Waterbury, Connecticut, looked like a bent bayonet. Its large curved blade was driven into a can’s rim, then forcibly worked around its edge. Stranger yet, this first type of can opener never left the grocery store. A clerk had to open each can before it was taken away!
During WWII, Korea and Vietnam there was a special can opener used for opening the can in C-Rats.
The modern can opener, with a cutting wheel that rolls around the rim, was invented by William Lyman in 1870. The only change from the original patent was the introduction of a serrated rotation wheel by the Star Can Company of San Francisco in 1925. The basic principle continues to be used on the modern can openers, and it was the basis of the first electric can opener, introduced in December 1931. Pull-open cans, patented by Ermal Fraze of Ohio, debuted in 1966.
“First comes thought; then organization of that thought into ideas and plans; then transformation of those plans into reality. The beginning, as you will observe, is in your imagination.”
~ Napoleon Hill
acquiesce ak-wee-ES, intransitive verb:
To accept or consent passively or without objection — usually used with ‘in’ or ‘to’.
Acquiesce comes from Latin acquiescere, “to give oneself to rest, hence to find one’s rest or peace (in something),” from ad, “to” + quiescere, “to rest, to be or keep quiet.”
1251 BC – A solar eclipse on this date might mark the birth of legendary Heracles at Thebes, Greece.
70 – A Roman army under General Titus occupies and plunders Jerusalem.
1630 – The Massachusetts town of Trimontaine (Shawmut), was renamed Boston, and became the state capital. It was named after a town of the same name in Lincolnshire, England.
1776 – World’s first submarine attack: the American submersible craft Turtle attempts to attach a time bomb to the hull of British Admiral Richard Howe’s flagship HMS Eagle in New York Harbor.
1778 – Shawnee Indians attacked and laid siege to Boonesborough, Kentucky.
1800 – The New York City Zion AME Church was dedicated.
1813- The earliest known printed reference to the United States by the nickname “Uncle Sam” occurred in the Troy Post.
1825 – The Marquis de Lafayette, the French hero of the American Revolution, bade farewell to President John Quincy Adams at the White House.
1860 – The Excursion steamer “Lady Elgin” sank and drowned 340 people in Lake Michigan.
1864 – Civil War: Union General Phil Sheridan’s troops skirmished with the Confederates under Jubal Early outside Winchester, Virginia.
1864 – Civil War: Atlanta, Georgia, is evacuated on orders of Union General William Tecumseh Sherman as he prepares for his march to the sea.
1867 – President Andrew Johnson extended amnesty to most but not all of the leaders of the Confederacy.
1876 – In Northfield, Minnesota, Jesse James and the James-Younger Gang attempt to rob the town’s bank but are surrounded by an angry mob and are nearly killed.
1880 – George Ligowsky patents device to throw clay pigeons for trapshooters.
1888 – Edith Eleanor McLean was the first baby to be placed in an incubator. She weighed 2 pounds, 7 ounces. Originally, the incubator was called a hatching cradle.
1892 – The first heavyweight-title boxing match, fought with gloves under the Marquis of Queensbury rules ended with James J Corbett kayoing John L Sullivan in round 21 at the New Orleans Olympic Club.
1896 – A.H. Whiting won the first automobile race held on a racetrack. The race was held in Cranston, RI.
1901 – The Boxer Rebellion in China officially ends with the signing of the Boxer Protocol.
1903 – Marines from the USS Brooklyn landed at Beirut to protect American lives.
1903 – Federation of American Motorcyclists organized in NY. It is still in existence today.
1907 – Cunard Line’s RMS Lusitania sets sail on her maiden voyage from Liverpool, England to New York City. The Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine in 1915.
1909 – Eugene Lefebvre (1878-1909), while test piloting a new French-built Wright biplane, crashes at Juvisy, France when his controls jam. Lefebvre dies, becoming the first ‘pilot’ in the world to lose his life in a powered-heavier-than-air-craft.
1911 – French poet Guillaume Apollinaire is arrested and put in jail on suspicion of stealing the Mona Lisa from the Louvre museum.
1914 – The New York Post Office Building opened its doors to the public. It bears the inscription, “Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds.”
1915 – Former cartoonist Johnny Gruelle is given a patent for his Raggedy Ann doll. 1921 – In Atlantic City, New Jersey, the first Miss America Pageant, a two-day event, is held. Margaret Gorman of Washington, DC, was crowned the first Miss America.
1916 – The U.S. Congress passed the Workman’s Compensation Act.
1927 – American television pioneer Philo T. Farnsworth (21) succeeded in transmitting an image through purely electronic means by using a device called an image dissector. When Philo T. Farnsworth was 13, he envisioned a contraption that would receive an image transmitted from a remote location—the television.
1930 – The cartoon “Blondie” made its first appearance in the comic strips.
1934 – The luxury liner “Morro Castle,” enroute from Havana to NYC, caught fire and ran aground at Asbury Park, NJ. 134 people were killed.
1936 – Hoover (Boulder) Dam located on the Colorado River starts operation. The dam is huge and contains enough concrete (4.5 million cubic yards) to build a two-lane highway from Seattle, Washington to Miami, Florida or imagine a four-foot wide sidewalk around Earth at its equator.
1936 -Sixty thousand workers marched in the San Francisco Labor Day parade as 250,000 spectators watched.
1939 – “Radio New York Worldwide”, WRUL, began radio transmission.
1940 – World War II: Europe: The Blitz – Nazi Germany begins to rain bombs on London. This will be the first of 57 consecutive nights of bombing. The Luftwaffe lost 41 bombers over England.
1940 – Artie Shaw and his orchestra recorded “Temptation” on the Victor label.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: 8,700 Jews of Kolomyia (western Ukraine) sent by German Gestapo to death camp in Belzec.
1942 – World War II: First air evacuation of casualties to hospital ships off shore occurs at Guadalcanal.
1942 – World War II: The 1st Marine Raider Battalion, Col. Merrit “Red” Edson”, lands at Tiavu Point on Guadalcanal.
1942 – First flight of the Consolidated B-32 Dominator. It was a heavy bomber made for United States Army Air Forces during World War II, and has the distinction of being the last Allied aircraft to be engaged in combat during World War II.
1943 – A fire at the Gulf Hotel in Houston, Texas, kills 55 people.
1943 – World War II: The German 17th Army begins its evacuation of the Kuban River (Taman Peninsula) bridgehead in southern Russia and moves across the Strait of Kerch to the Crimea. The move signals the beginning of full retreat of German forces along the Eastern Front.
1945 – World War II: Japanese forces on Wake Island, which they had held since December of 1941, surrender to U.S. Marines.
1948 – The first rubberized asphalt road surface in the U.S. was applied to 6,217-ft of Exchange Street in Akron, Ohio.
1948 – A patent was granted to Louis Parker for a television receiver.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Some Enchanted Evening” by Perry Como, “Room Full of Roses” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Don Cornell), “You’re Breaking My Heart” by Vic Damone and “I’m Throwing Rice (At the Girl that I Love)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1952 – Outfielder Don Grate of Chattanooga sets a record for a long toss of a baseball in Chattanooga’s Engel Stadium, with a throw of 434 feet 1-inch.
1952 – The 369-foot passenger liner Princess Kathleen, launched in 1924, ran aground and sank near Juneau, Alaska. There was no loss of life.
1953 – Nikita Khrushchev becomes head of the Soviet Central Committee.
1954 – The start of Integration for MD public schools, and Washington DC public school.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tammy” by Debbie Reynolds, “Diana” by Paul Anka ,“That’ll Be the Day” by The Crickets and “(Let Me Be Your) Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.
1957 – The original version of the animated NBC peacock logo, used to denote programs “brought to you in living color,” made its debut at the beginning of “Your Hit Parade.”
1960 – Wilma Rudolph became the first American woman to win 3 gold medals in the Olympics (100-meter dash, the 200-meter dash, and anchored the 400-meter relay team).
1963 – The Pro Football Hall of Fame opens in Canton, Ohio with 17 charter members.
1963 – The Beatles made their first US TV appearance on ABC’s Big Night Out.
1963 – American Bandstand moved to California and aired once a week on Saturday.
1963 – “My Boyfriend’s Back” by the Angels topped the charts.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Help!” by The Beatles, “Like a Rolling Stone” by Bob Dylan, “It’s the Same Old Song” by Four Tops and “The Bridge Washed Out” by Warner Mack all topped the charts.
1965 – Vietnam War: In a follow-up to August’s Operation Starlight, United States Marines and South Vietnamese forces initiate Operation Piranha on the Batangan Peninsula.
1966 – The final episode of the original “The Dick Van Dyke Show” was aired on CBS-TV.
1967 – The situation comedy “The Flying Nun,” starring Sally Field as a nun who finds that she can fly, debuted on ABC.
1968 – “People Got to Be Free” by the Rascals topped the charts.
1968 – Feminists protesting outside the Miss America pageant in Atlantic City, N.J., tossed articles including cosmetics, girdles and bras into a trash can ostensibly for burning, although nothing was actually set on fire. Miss Illinois Judith Ford won the pageant.
1969 – Senate Republican leader Everett McKinley Dirksen (b.1896) of Illinois, (“The Wizard of Ooze”) died at 73 in Washington, D.C.
1970 – An anti-war rally is held at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, attended by John Kerry, Jane Fonda and Donald Sutherland.
1970 – Bill Shoemaker sets record for most lifetime wins (8,833 career victories) as a jockey (passing Johnny Longden).
1970 – Donald Boyles set a record for the highest parachute jump from a bridge by leaping off of 1,053 ft Royal George Bridge in Colorado.
1971 – “The Beverly Hillbillies” was seen for the final time on CBS-TV.
1972 – President Nixon said that he wanted Ted Kennedy covered by a Secret Service spy because he saw him as a political threat.
1972 – The Commissioner of Indian Affairs in a memorandum extended federal recognition to the Chippewa tribe of Sault Ste. Marie in Northern Michigan.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Brother Louie” by Stories, “Let’s Get It On” by Marvin Gaye, “Delta Dawn” by Helen Reddy and “Everybody’s Had the Blues” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1974 – “(You’re) Having My Baby” by Paul Anka topped the charts.
1975 – The NBC drama “The Family Holvak” featured Glenn Ford (1916-2006). The show aired for the last time on Dec 28.
1976 – US courts find George Harrison guilty of plagarism (He’s So Fine).
1977 – President Jimmy Carter and Panamanian Chief of Government Omar Torrijos signed the Panama Canal Treaty and Neutrality Treaty. The US agrees to transfer control of the canal to Panama at the end of the 20th century.
1977 – Convicted Watergate conspirator G. Gordon Liddy was released from prison after more than four years.
1979 – The Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, ESPN, made its cable TV debut. In 1984 it was bought by ABC, which was in turn bought by Disney in 1996.
1979 – The Chrysler Corporation asks the United States government for USD $1.5 billion to avoid bankruptcy.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Endless Love” by Diana Ross & Lionel Richie, “Slow Hand” by Pointer Sisters, “Stop Draggin’ My Heart Around” by Stevie Nicks with Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers and “(There’s) No Gettin’ Over Me” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1981 – Judge Wapner & the People’s Court premier on TV.
1983 – Drury Gallagher sets fastest swim around Manhattan (6h41m35s).
1984 -American Express Co. issued the first of its Platinum charge cards.
1985 – “St Elmo’s Fire (Man in Motion)” by John Parr topped the charts.
1986 – An F-106 “Delta Dart” of the 125th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron encounters a Soviet Air Force Tu-95 “Bear” bomber flying parallel to the twelve-mile limit of U.S. airspace as it makes its way from Russia to Cuba.
1986 – Dan Marino, Miami Dolphins, threw his record setting 100th career TD pass, in only his 44th pro game.
1987 – The Rev. Jesse Jackson declared his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination.
1988 – Guy Lafleur, Tony Esposito & Brad Park inducted in NHL Hall of Fame.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cold Hearted” by Paula Abdul, “Hangin’ Tough” by New Kids on the Block, “Don’t Wanna Lose You” by Gloria Estefan and “I’m Still Crazy” by Vern Gosdin all topped the charts.
1989 – Legislation was approved by the U.S. Senate that prohibited discrimination against the handicapped in employment, public accommodations, transportation and communications.
1991 – “The Promise of a New Day” by Paula Abdul topped the charts.
1991 – Monica Seles won the U.S. Open in New York, defeating Martina Navratilova 7-6, 6-1.
1993 – Dr. Joycelyn Elders was confirmed by the Senate to be surgeon general.
1994 – The U.S. Army closed its headquarters in Berlin, ending the American military presence in the once-divided city after nearly half a century.
1995 – The space shuttle “Endeavour” thundered into orbit with five astronauts on a mission to release and recapture a pair of science satellites.
1995 – John F. Kennedy Jr. unveiled his new “George” magazine.
1996 – American rapper Tupac Shakur is fatally shot in a drive by.
1997 – The first test flight of the F-22 Raptor (24:24) takes place.
1998 – Google is founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, two students at Stanford University.
1998 – St. Louis Cardinals’ Mark McGwire equaled Roger Maris’ single-season HR record.
1998 – Two derechos hit the US. “The Syracuse Derecho of Labor Day 1998″ also hit NY, PA, VT, MA, NH and the “The New York City Derecho of Labor Day 1998″also hit MI, OH, WV, PA, NJ, NY, CT. A derecho is a widespread, long-lived, straight-line wind storm that is associated with a land-based, fast-moving band of severe thunderstorms. Derechos can carry hurricane or tornado force and can deliver torrential rains and perhaps flash floods as well as strong winds.
1999 – In Vietnam Madeleine Albright commissioned the new US consulate in Ho Chi Minh City.
1999 – Twelve Puerto Rican prisoners in New York agreed to accept President Clinton’s offer of conditional amnesty. The House of Representatives later condemned the offer in a symbolic vote of 311-41.
2000 – A jury in Coeur D’Alene, Idaho, awarded $6.3 million to a woman and her son who were attacked by Aryan Nations guards outside the white supremacist group’s north Idaho headquarters.
2001 – The final “Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood” TV show aired as Fred Rogers (72) retired.
2001 – Venus Williams and Serena Williams reached the finals of the U.S. Open, becoming the first sisters to play for a Grand Slam championship in more than 100 years.
2004 – Hurricane Ivan, a Category 5 hurricane, devastated the island of Grenada. It killed 39 and damaged 90% of its buildings. It went on to cause $13 billion in damages to the U.S.
2004 – Hurricane Frances, now downgraded to a tropical depression, dumps up to 5 inches of rain on Georgia. At least nine deaths in Florida, two deaths in the Bahamas, and one death in Georgia are blamed on the storm.
2004 – US forces battled insurgents loyal to Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr in the Baghdad slum of Sadr City, in clashes that killed 34 people, including one American soldier.
2005 – As a result of Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin urges the city’s remaining holdouts to leave the area. New Orleans is now 60% underwater. The number of dead in the city could be as few as 2,000 and as many as 20,000, according to estimates.
2005 – Michael Jackson has announced he will record and release a charity single dedicated to the victims of Hurricane Katrina.
2005 – President Bush led the nation in a final tribute to William H. Rehnquist, remembering the 16th chief justice as the Supreme Court’s steady leader and a man of lifetime integrity.
2006 – Former Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage confirmed he was the source of a leak that had disclosed the identity of CIA employee Valerie Plame, saying he didn’t realize Plame’s job was covert.
2007 – A US federal judge said Iran must pay $2.65 billion to the families of the 241 US service members killed in the 1983 bombing of the US Marine barracks in Beirut, in a ruling that left survivors and families shedding tears of joy. A day later Iran rejected the ruling. |
2007 – US District Court judge William Hoeveler refuses to block the extradition of former Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega to France to face charges.
2007 – A jury in St. Francisville, La., acquitted Sal and Mabel Mangano, the owners of a nursing home where thirty-five patients died after Hurricane Katrina, of negligent homicide and cruelty charges.
2008 – US Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson announced plans to take control of troubled mortgage finance giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and replace the companies’ chief executives.
2009 – Three British Muslims were convicted of conspiring to kill thousands of civilians by blowing up trans-Atlantic flights in mid-air with liquid explosives disguised as soft drinks.
2010 – Mark David Chapman, John Lennon’s killer, is denied parole by New York State.
2010 – In Michigan fires swept through 85 structures in at least three Detroit neighborhoods as 50 mph winds downed 62 power lines.
2010 – Some 3,500 people are evacuated in Boulder County, Colorado due to wildfires concerns.
2011 – Tropical Storm Lee remnants cause ten thousand people are ordered to evacuate in Broome County in New York State due to flooding of the Chenango River and the Susquehanna River.
2011 – A Dallas woman, Elizabeth Escalona, beat her 2-year-old daughter almost to death by kicking her in the stomach, beating her with a milk jug, then sticking her hands to an apartment wall with Super Glue. She was sentenced Oct. 12, 2012 to 99 years in prison.
2012 – Secretary of State Clinton notifies Congress of her intent to include the Haqqani network on the government’s terror list. An attaché at the Embassy of Pakistan in Washington dismisses the decision as an “internal matter” of the United States.
2012 – In New York City a police officer shot and killed a convenience store worker who plowed into him on a sidewalk while frantically fleeing an armed robbery.
1533 – Queen Elizabeth I of England (d. 1603)
1819 – Thomas A. Hendricks, 21st Vice President of the United States (d. 1885)
1851 – Edward Ashael Birge, American pioneer in limnology (d. 1950)
1860 – Grandma Moses, American painter (d. 1961)
1908 – Paul Brown, American football coach and executive. He is credited with founding the Cleveland Browns and Cincinnati Bengals, with the latter naming their stadium in his honor.(d. 1991)
1908 – Michael DeBakey, Internationally recognized pioneer of modern medicine.
1912 – David Packard, U.S. entrepreneur and electrical engineer who cofounded the Hewlett-Packard Co., a leading manufacturer computers, computer printers, and analytic and measuring equipment. (d.1996)
1914 – James Van Allen, American space scientist . In 1958 he discovered the two radiation belts surrounding the Earth, which were named after him. (d. 2006)
1936 – Buddy Holly, American singer (The Crickets) (d. 1959)
1949 – Gloria Gaynor, American singer
1952 – Susan Blakely, American actress
1962 – Jennifer Egan, American novelist
1963 – Eazy-E, American rapper (N.W.A.) (d. 1995)
1969 – Diane Farr, American actress (Numb3rs)
1973 – Shannon Elizabeth, American actress
ENGLISH, GLENN H., JR.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company E, 3d Battalion, ~03 Infantry, 173d Airborne Brigade. Place and Date: Phu My District, Republic of Vietnam, 7 September 1970. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Born: 23 April 1940, Altoona, Pa. Citation: S/Sgt. English was riding in the lead armored personnel carrier in a four-vehicle column when an enemy mine exploded in front of his vehicle. As the vehicle swerved from the road, a concealed enemy force waiting in ambush opened fire with automatic weapons and anti-tank grenades, striking the vehicle several times and setting it on fire. S/Sgt. English escaped from the disabled vehicle and, without pausing to extinguish the flames on his clothing, rallied his stunned unit. He then led it in a vigorous assault, in the face of heavy enemy automatic weapons fire, on the entrenched enemy position. This prompt and courageous action routed the enemy and saved his unit from destruction. Following the assault, S/Sgt. English heard the cries of three men still trapped inside the vehicle. Paying no heed to warnings that the ammunition and fuel in the burning personnel carrier might explode at any moment, S/Sgt. English raced to the vehicle and climbed inside to rescue his wounded comrades. As he was lifting one of the men to safety, the vehicle exploded, mortally wounding him and the man he was attempting to save. By his extraordinary devotion to duty, indomitable courage, and utter disregard for his own safety, S/Sgt. English saved his unit from destruction and selflessly sacrificed his life in a brave attempt to save three comrades. S/Sgt. English’s conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the cost of his life were an inspiration to his comrades and are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army.
CRUMP, JERRY K.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company L, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Chorwon, Korea, 6 and 7 September 1951. Entered service at: Forest City, N.C. Born: 18 February 1933, Charlotte, N.C. G.O. No.: 68, 11 July 1952. Citation. Cpl. Crump, a member of Company L, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. During the night a numerically superior hostile force launched an assault against his platoon on Hill 284, overrunning friendly positions and swarming into the sector. Cpl. Crump repeatedly exposed himself to deliver effective fire into the ranks of the assailants, inflicting numerous casualties. Observing two enemy soldiers endeavoring to capture a friendly machine gun, he charged and killed both with his bayonet, regaining control of the weapon. Returning to his position, now occupied by fourof his wounded comrades, he continued his accurate fire into enemy troops surrounding his emplacement. When a hostile soldier hurled a grenade into the position, Cpl. Crump immediately flung himself over the missile, absorbing the blast with his body and saving his comrades from death or serious injury. His aggressive actions had so inspired his comrades that a spirited counterattack drove the enemy from the perimeter. Cpl. Crump’s heroic devotion to duty, indomitable fighting spirit, and willingness to sacrifice himself to save his comrades reflect the highest credit upon himself, the infantry and the U.S. Army.
KANELL, BILLIE G.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company I, 35th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Pyongyang, Korea, 7 September 1951. Entered service at: Poplar Bluff, Mo. Born: 26 June 1931, Poplar Bluff, Mo. G.O. No.: 57, 13 June 1952. Citation: Pvt. Kanell, a member of Company I, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. A numerically superior hostile force had launched a fanatical assault against friendly positions, supported by mortar and artillery fire, when Pvt. Kanell stood in his emplacement exposed to enemy observation and action and delivered accurate fire into the ranks of the assailants. An enemy grenade was hurled into his emplacement and Pvt. Kanell threw himself upon the grenade, absorbing the blast with his body to protect two of his comrades from serious injury and possible death. A few seconds later another grenade was thrown into the emplacement and, although seriously wounded by the first missile, he summoned his waning strength to roll toward the second grenade and used his body as a shield to again protect his comrades. He was mortally wounded as a result of his heroic actions. His indomitable courage, sustained fortitude against overwhelming odds, and gallant self-sacrifice reflect the highest credit upon himself, the infantry, and the U.S. Army.
PORTER, DONN F.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 14th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Mundung-ni Korea, 7 September 1952. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Born: 1 March 1931, Sewickley, Pa. G.O. No.: 64, 18 August 1953. Citation: Sgt. Porter, a member of Company G, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. Advancing under cover of intense mortar and artillery fire, two hostile platoons attacked a combat outpost commanded by Sgt. Porter, destroyed communications, and killed two of his three-man crew. Gallantly maintaining his position, he poured deadly accurate fire into the ranks of the enemy, killing fifteen and dispersing the remainder. After falling back under a hail of fire, the determined foe reorganized and stormed forward in an attempt to overrun the outpost. Without hesitation, Sgt. Porter jumped from his position with bayonet fixed and, meeting the onslaught and in close combat, killed six hostile soldiers and routed the attack. While returning to the outpost, he was killed by an artillery burst, but his courageous actions forced the enemy to break off the engagement and thwarted a surprise attack on the main line of resistance. Sgt. Porter’s incredible display of valor, gallant self-sacrifice, and consummate devotion to duty reflect the highest credit upon himself and uphold the noble traditions of the military service.
MAXWELL, ROBERT D.
Rank and organization: Technician Fifth Grade, U.S. Army, 7th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Besancon, France, 7 September 1944. Entered service at: Larimer County, Colo. Birth: Boise, Idaho. G.O. No.: 24, 6 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty on 7 September 1944, near Besancon, France. Technician 5th Grade Maxwell and three other soldiers, armed only with .45 caliber automatic pistols, defended the battalion observation post against an overwhelming onslaught by enemy infantrymen in approximately platoon strength, supported by 20mm. flak and machinegun fire, who had infiltrated through the battalion’s forward companies and were attacking the observation post with machinegun, machine pistol, and grenade fire at ranges as close as ten yards. Despite a hail of fire from automatic weapons and grenade launchers, Technician 5th Grade Maxwell aggressively fought off advancing enemy elements and, by his calmness, tenacity, and fortitude, inspired his fellows to continue the unequal struggle. When an enemy hand grenade was thrown in the midst of his squad, Technician 5th Grade Maxwell unhesitatingly hurled himself squarely upon it, using his blanket and his unprotected body to absorb the full force of the explosion. This act of instantaneous heroism permanently maimed Technician 5th Grade Maxwell, but saved the lives of his comrades in arms and facilitated maintenance of vital military communications during the temporary withdrawal of the battalion’s forward headquarters.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 176, 9 July 1872. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Iroquois, Delaware River, 7 September 1871. Jumping overboard at the imminent risk of his life, King rescued one of the crew of that vessel from drowning.
U.S. Secret Service
The Secret Service Division was created on July 5, 1865 in Washington, D.C., to suppress counterfeit currency. Chief William P. Wood was sworn in by Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch. In 1867, Secret Service responsibilities were broadened to include “detecting persons perpetrating frauds against the government.” This appropriation resulted in investigations into the Ku Klux Klan, non-conforming distillers, smugglers, mail robbers, land frauds, and a number of other infractions against the federal laws.
In 1870, the government moved the Secret Service headquarters to New York City. In 1874, Secret Service headquarters returned to Washington, D.C. As the department grew and the responsibilities became more precise it became important to “certify” the agents so in 1875, the first commission book and a new badge were issued to operatives.
America was growing and as it grew, more and more criminals tried to take advantage of the creditworthiness of our, now 100 year old, country. In 1877, Congress passed an Act prohibiting the counterfeiting of any coin, gold or silver bar. The problem continued to grow and in 1895 Congress passed corrective legislation for the counterfeiting or possession of counterfeit stamps.
The assassination of William McKinley occurred on September 6, 1901, inside the Temple of Music located on the grounds of the 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. United States President William McKinley was visiting the Exposition and was standing in a receiving line shaking hands with ordinary citizens when he was shot twice by Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist. Congress immediately but informally requested Secret Service Presidential protection following the assassination of President William McKinley. In 1902 the Secret Service assumed full-time responsibility for protection of the President. Two operatives were assigned full time to the White House Detail.
By 1906 Congress passed Sundry Civil Expenses Act of 1907 that provided funds for Presidential protection by the Secret Service. At the same time that that increase was going in the Service was tasked with investigating the western land frauds. The Service’s investigations returned millions of acres of land to the government.
In 1908 the expansion of the Service picked up speed. In this year the Secret Service began protecting the president-elect. Also, President Roosevelt transferred Secret Service agents to the Department of Justice.
1913, Congress authorized permanent protection of the president and the statutory authorization for president-elect protection. Then in 1917 Congress authorized permanent protection of the president’s immediate family and made “threats” directed toward the president a federal violation. In 1922 President Harding created the White House Police and in 1930 it was placed under the supervision of the Service.
In 1951 just after WWII and during the Korean War, Red Scare and the spread of communism and socialism, Congress enacted legislation that permanently authorized Secret Service protection of the president, his immediate family, the president-elect, and the vice president, if he wishes. (Public Law – 82- 79). In 1961, Congress authorized protection of former presidents for a reasonable period of time because of concern for hostage takings. In 1962, Congress expanded coverage to include the vice president (or the next officer to succeed the president) and the vice president-elect. (Public Law 87- 829).
In 1963, shortly after John Kennedy’s assassination Congress passed legislation for
protection of Mrs. John F. Kennedy and her minor children for two years. (Public Law 83- 195). In 1965, Congress authorized protection of former presidents and their spouses during their lifetime and minor children until age 16. In 1968, as a result of Robert F. Kennedy’s assassination, Congress authorized protection of major presidential and vice presidential candidates and nominees. (Public Law 90-331). In addition they authorized protection of widows of presidents until death, or remarriage, and their children until age 16.
The Service has continued to grow and expand.
“In the long run men hit only what they aim at. Therefore, though they should fail immediately, they had better aim at something high.”
~ Henry David Thoreau
acidulous (a-SIJ-uh-luhs) adjective
Somewhat sour in taste or in manner.
[From Latin acidulus (slightly sour), diminutive of acidus (sour),
from acere (to be sour). Ultimately from the Indo-European root ak-
(sharp) that's also the source of acrid, vinegar, acid, acute, edge,
hammer, heaven, eager, oxygen, and mediocre.]
1522 – The Victoria, one of the surviving ships of Ferdinand Magellan’s expedition, returns to Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Spain, becoming the first ship to circumnavigate the world.
1620 – The Pilgrims sail from Plymouth, England, on the Mayflower to settle in North America.
1622 – A Spanish silver fleet disappeared off Florida Keys; thousands died. The Santa Margarita, discovered off of Key West in 1980 by pioneering shipwreck salvor Mel Fisher, was bound for Spain when it sank in a hurricane in 1622.
1628 – Puritans settle Salem, which will later become part of Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1776 – Continental Congress prescribed first Marine uniform.
1819 – Thomas Blanchard of Springfield, MA patented a machine called the lathe.
1844 – Western explorer John C. Fremont arrives at the shores of the Great Salt Lake.
1847 – Henry David Thoreau leaves Walden Pond and moves in with Ralph Waldo Emerson and his family in Concord, Massachusetts.
1861 – Civil War: Forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant bloodlessly capture Paducah, Kentucky, which gives the Union control of the mouth of the Tennessee River.
1862 – Civil War: U.S.S. Louisiana, Acting Lieutenant Richard T. Renshaw, joined with Union troops in repelling the Confederate attack on Washington, North Carolina.
1863 – Civil War: Confederates evacuate Battery Wagner and Morris Island in South Carolina.
1866 – Frederick Douglass became the first US black delegate to a national convention.
1869 – One hundred ten miners, a number of them young boys, were killed in coal mine disaster which occurred early in the morning in Avondale, Pennsylvania, when a fire broke out in a mineshaft, cutting off the miners’ escape route and their only source of air.
1870 – Louisa Ann Swain of Laramie, Wyoming becomes the first woman in the United States to cast a vote legally after 1807.
1876 – The Southern Pacific rail line from Los Angeles to San Francisco was completed.
1899 – Carnation processes its first can of evaporated milk.
1901 – Anarchist Leon Czolgosz shoots and fatally wounds US President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.
1911 – Roland G. Garros, the aviator, today eclipsed the old world’s record for altitude by about 2,461 feet. Ascending in a monoplane Garros went up 16,240 feet.
1916 – Clarence Saunders opened his first Piggly Wiggly grocery store in Memphis, Tenn. He pioneered self-service in the US and obtained a patent. He later franchised over a 1,000 stores.
1920 – The first prizefight broadcast on radio. Dempsey fought against Billy Miske in Benton Harbor, MI.
1928 – Scotch tape first marketed by 3-M Company.
1930 – “Gallant Fox” won the Lawrence Realization at Belmont Park in New York and became the leading moneymaker in thoroughbred racing.
1937 – Benny Goodman and his orchestra recorded “Sugar Foot Stomp” on Victor Records
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: The requirement to wear the Star of David with the word Jew inscribed, is extended to all Jews over the age of 6 in German-occupied areas.
1944 – World War II: The city of Ypres, Belgium is liberated by allied forces.
1944 – USS Independence (CVL-22) begins use of specially trained air group for night work. First time that a fully equipped night carrier operates with fast carrier task force.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “A Tree in the Meadow” by Margaret Whiting, “It’s Magic” by Doris Day, “You Call Everybody Darlin’” by Al Trace (vocal: Bob Vincent) and “Bouquet of Roses” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1952 – “Wish You Were Here” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.
1952 – The 9th US Circuit Court of Appeals upheld a conviction against Harry Bridges as a Communist who lied to obtain US citizenship.
1953 – The last American and Korean prisoners were exchanged in Operation Big Switch, the last official act of the Korean War.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hound Dog/Don’t Be Cruel” by Elvis Presley, “Canadian Sunset” by Hugo Winterhalter & Eddie Heywood, “Tonight You Belong to Me” by Patience & Prudence and “I Walk the Line” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1958 – Miss Mississippi Mary Ann Mobley was crowned Miss America 1959 in Atlantic City, N.J.
1958 – Actor Steve McQueen starred on the CBS-TV series, Wanted: Dead or Alive. (24:26) McQueen played bounty hunter Josh Randall. Randall was a man of few words but sure knew how to use his .30-.40 sawed-off carbine on the bad guys.
1958 – “Volare” by Domenico Modugno topped the charts.
1958- Georgia Gibbs sang “The Hula-Hoop Song” on “The Ed Sullivan Show”
1959 – The first Barbie Doll was sold by Mattel Toy Corporation.
1963 – Baseball historian Lee Allen says the Indians-Senators game is the 100,000th in ML history.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “The House of the Rising Sun” by The Animals, “Because” by The Dave Clark Five, “Bread and Butter” by The Newbeats and “I Guess I’m Crazy” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1966 – The Coast Guard’s GM1 Lester K. Gates was awarded the Bronze Star Medal with a combat “V” device for “meritorious service and action against the enemy” while serving on board CGC Point White (WPB-82308) in Vietnam.
1969 – “Honky Tonk Women” by the Rolling Stones topped the charts.
1970 – Jimi Hendrix plays what turns out to be his last ever performance, at the badly controlled and rained out Love and Peace Festival, on the Isle Of Fehmarn, Germany.
1970 – Four passenger jets bound from Europe to New York are simultaneously hijacked by Palestinian terrorist members of PFLP. Two are taken to Dawson’s Field in Jordan.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “Alone Again (Naturally)” by Gilbert O’Sullivan, “Long Cool Woman (In a Black Dress)” by The Hollies, “I’m Still in Love with You” by Al Green and “Woman (Sensuous Woman)” by Don Gibson all topped the charts.
1972 – The Summer Olympics resumed in Munich, West Germany, a day after the deadly hostage crisis that took the lives of 11 Israelis and five Arab abductors.
1975 – “Rhinestone Cowboy” by Glen Campbell topped the charts.
1975 – Martina Navratilova requested political asylum while in New York for the U.S. Open Tennis Tournament.
1976 – Soviet pilot, Lieutenant Viktor Belenko, decided to defect to the West. He flew his aircraft, a Mikoyan “MiG-25″ interceptor, from Siberia to Japan. The “Foxbat”, as it was known in the West, was one of the most advanced aircraft fielded by the USSR to that time.
1976 – Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis were reunited by Frank Sinatra.
1978 – James Wickwire and Louis Reichardt reached the top of the world’s second largest mountain, Pakistan’s K-2. They were the first Americans to reach the summit.
1979 – Pres. Carter designated the first Sunday of September following Labor Day of each year as National Grandparents Day.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Upside Down” by Diana Ross, “Emotional Rescue” by The Rolling Stones, “All Out of Love” by Air Supply and “Lookin’ for Love” by Johnny Lee all topped the charts.
1980 – Miss Oklahoma, Susan Powell, was crowned Miss America in Atlantic City, NJ. It was the first time in 25 years that Bert Parks had not served as master of ceremonies for the show.
1985 – Midwest Express Airlines Flight 105, a Douglas DC-9 crashes just after takeoff from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, killing 31.
1986 – “Venus” by Bananarama topped the charts.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Monkey” by George Michael, “Sweet Child o’ Mine” by Guns N’ Roses, “Simply Irresistible” by Robert Palmer and “I Couldn’t Leave You if I Tried” by Rodney Crowell all topped the charts.
1988- Lee Roy Young became the first African-American Texas Ranger in the force’s 165-year history.
1991 – The name Saint Petersburg is restored to Russia’s second largest city, which had been renamed Leningrad in 1924.
1995 – With the jury absent, Los Angeles police detective Mark Fuhrman invokes his Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination in the murder trial of O. J. Simpson.
1995 – Cal Ripken Jr. breaks Lou Gehrig ‘s record of 2,130 consecutive Major League Baseball games played at Camden Yards in Baltimore,Maryland.
1995 – U.S. Senator Bob Packwood was expelled by the Senate Ethics Committee.
1996 – Eddie Murray of the Baltimore Orioles hit his 500th career home run during a game against the Detroit Tigers, joining Hall of Famers Hank Aaron and Willie Mays as the only players with at least 3,000 hits and 500 homers.
1996 – The death toll from Hurricane Fran rose to 17 in Virginia, West Virginia and the Carolinas.
1997 – The funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales, at Westminster Abbey draws large crowds.
1997 – The USS Hopper, the 354th ship in the modern naval fleet, was commissioned. The high-tech destroyer is the second warship to be named after a woman. Grace Hooper (d.1992) was a computer programmer for the Navy until she retired in 1986 at age 79. She coined the term “debugging” when she pulled a moth from her computer.
2000 – Michael Swango, a former doctor suspected in a string of poisoning deaths, pleaded guilty to killing three patients in a Long Island, N.Y., hospital, and was sentenced to life in prison without parole.
2000 – Vice President Gore released his economic plan in the form of a 200-page book.
2001 – United States v. Microsoft: The U S Justice Department announces that it was no longer seeking to break-up software maker Microsoft and will instead seek a lesser antitrust penalty.
2001 – Barry Bonds became the fifth player in baseball history to hit 60 HRs in a season.
2001 – The NFL referees’ union rejected the league’s latest contract offer and replacement officials worked the opening weekend of the regular season.
2001 – Jack Welch, CEO of General Electric, turned over the leadership to Jeffrey Immelt.
2002 – Meeting outside Washington D.C., for only the second time since 1800, Congress convened in New York to pay homage to the victims and heroes of Sept. 11, 2001.
2002 – Jews began Rosh Hashanah at sunset. This ended their year 5762 and began year 5763.
2004 – Former Pres. Clinton (58) underwent successful quadruple heart bypass surgery in NYC.
2005 – The California Legislature becomes the first legislative body in the United States to legalize same-sex marriage without a pre-emptive judicial order to do so.
2005 – The Wikipedia, which surged this year to become the most popular reference site on the Web, was fast overtaking several major news sites as the place where people swarm for context on breaking events. The online encyclopedia, based in St. Petersburg, Fla., was written entirely by volunteers.
2006 – In Phoenix, Arizona, police arrested Mark Goudeau (42), a construction worker, for 2 sexual assaults. In December police identified Goudeau as the Baseline Killer and recommended charging him with 71 counts including 9 murders committed from August, 2005, to June, 2006.
2006 -In Chicago George Ryan (72), former Illinois governor, was sentenced to 6½ years in prison for offenses including racketeering, conspiracy and fraud.
2007 – FBI agents arrested 12 people, including 11 public officials, in New Jersey on charges of taking bribes in exchange for influencing the awarding of public contracts. Mims Hackett Jr., mayor of Orange, was among those arrested.
2008 – The $500 million GeoEye-1, a super-sharp Earth-imaging satellite, was launched into orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base on the Central California coast.
2008 – Tropical Storm Hanna blew hard and dumped rain in eastern North Carolina and Virginia, but caused little damage beyond isolated flooding and power outages as it quickly headed north toward New England.
2010 – In Colorado a fire broke out near Boulder and over the next six days destroyed at least 169 homes.
2010 – The annual Labor Day Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon raised $58.9 million, down from a record $65 million in 2008.
2011 – A wildfire destroys at least 118,500 acres and destroys over 700 homes in Central Texas with two deaths.
2011 – In Nevada Eduardo Sencion (32), armed with an AK-47 assault rifle, shot an entire group of five uniformed National Guard members eating breakfast at an IHOP, killing 3 of them and another person in a hail of gunfire. Sencion of Carson City, also shot himself and later died at a hospital.
2011 – Newly retired Gen. David Petraeus was sworn in as the twentieth director of the CIA.
2012 – Joe South of “Games People Play” fame died today.
2012 – President Barack Obama and VP Joe Biden accepted the Democratic Party nomination for a second term.
2012 – In Kentucky Dr. Mahmoud Yousef Hindi (55) shot and killed two men at a homeowner’s association in Louisville due to frustration over battles with the association.
2013 – Peyton Manning ties NFL record with seven TD passes in the Denver Broncos’ 49-27 annihilation of the Baltimore Ravens in Denver. He is the first quarterback since the AFL and NFL merged to throw for seven touchdowns in one game. The last was the Minnesota Vikings’ Joe Kapp, who accomplished the feat against the Baltimore Colts in 1969.
1757 – Marquis de Lafayette, French soldier and statesman (d. 1834)
1838 – Samuel Arnold, Lincoln conspirator (d. 1906)
1888 – Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., American politician (d. 1969)
1957 – Victoria Suzanne Mitchell, evangelist, teacher
1958 – Jeff Foxworthy, American comedian, actor, and author
DAVIS, RODNEY MAXWELL
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company B, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Quang Nam Province, Republic of Vietnam, 6 September 1967. Entered service at: Macon, Ga. Born: 7 April 1942, Macon, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as the right guide of the 2d Platoon, Company B, in action against enemy forces. Elements of the 2d Platoon were pinned down by a numerically superior force of attacking North Vietnamese Army Regulars. Remnants of the platoon were located in a trench line where Sgt. Davis was directing the fire of his men in an attempt to repel the enemy attack. Disregarding the enemy hand grenades and high volume of small arms and mortar fire, Sgt. Davis moved from man to man shouting words of encouragement to each of them while firing and throwing grenades at the onrushing enemy. When an enemy grenade landed in the trench in the midst of his men, Sgt. Davis, realizing the gravity of the situation, and in a final valiant act of complete self-sacrifice, instantly threw himself upon the grenade, absorbing with his body the full and terrific force of the explosion. Through his extraordinary initiative and inspiring valor in the face of almost certain death, Sgt. Davis saved his comrades from injury and possible loss of life, enabled his platoon to hold its vital position, and upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company A, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Satae-ri Korea, 6 September 1952. Entered service at: Fort Hancock, Tex. Born: 21 March 1931, Fort Hancock, Tex. G.O. No.: 96, 29 December 1953. Citation. Cpl. Martinez, a machine gunner with Company A, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. While manning a listening post forward of the main line of resistance, his position was attacked by a hostile force of reinforced company strength. In the bitter fighting which ensued, the enemy infiltrated the defense perimeter and, realizing that encirclement was imminent, Cpl. Martinez elected to remain at his post in an attempt to stem the onslaught. In a daring defense, he raked the attacking troops with crippling fire, inflicting numerous casualties. Although contacted by sound power phone several times, he insisted that no attempt be made to rescue him because of the danger involved. Soon thereafter, the hostile forces rushed the emplacement, forcing him to make a limited withdrawal with only an automatic rifle and pistol to defend himself. After a courageous six-hour stand and shortly before dawn, he called in for the last time, stating that the enemy was converging on his position His magnificent stand enabled friendly elements to reorganize, attack, and regain the key terrain. Cpl. Martinez’ incredible valor and supreme sacrifice reflect lasting glory upon himself and are in keeping with the honored traditions of the military service.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Battery H, 3d New York Light Artillery. Place and date: At Washington, N.C., 6 September 1862. Entered service at: Madison, N.Y. Birth: Madison, N.Y. Date of issue: 24 April 1896. Citation: Took command of a gun (the lieutenant in charge having disappeared) and fired the same so rapidly and effectively that the enemy was repulsed, although for a time a hand-to-hand conflict was had over the gun.
Be Late for Something Day
Wacky Town Names Breakfast
Reasons abound on why people take long, leisurely driving vacations and the best seem to be those where meandering is the order of the day. So here is a breakfast itinerary that starts in Flagstaff, AZ and continues across some pretty remote areas of the country.
To start consider the last time you went to breakfast in a restaurant. The waitress comes to the table, says good morning and places glasses of water on the table (may not happen where government regulations are out-of-control). She will check to see if you want coffee and, if so, takes off to get it. She then takes your order and at the end of the meal (use your imagination) checks for dessert orders.
Now back to Flagstaff. Head north on Highway 89 to Highway 160 and turn right. Be careful with your speed and your driving because you are on the Navajo Indian Reservation. If you are on a motorcycle, make sure you have helmets and they are on. Forget Arizona law, you are now under tribal law.
Go east on 160 through Yuba City and Rare Metals, AZ. When you reach the intersection of Highway 160 and Highway 191 make a left. Make a left at Indian Route 5056, take it to Indian Route 5058, turn right into Mexican Water, AZ . Oh! Man! How small can one get!! Well maybe better luck with the coffee. (3 hours 14 minutes- 190 miles)
To get the coffee we have to travel to Coffeeville, Mississippi. Take Hwy 160 across even more desolate land to Teec No Pos, AZ and continue straight but the road number changes to Highway 64. Stay on 64 Shiprock and turn south and go all the way to Interstate 40. (3 hours- 160 miles).
Now comes the long part, Gallup, NM to Coffeeville, MS. Head east on Interstate 40, go across all of New Mexico, the Texas panhandle, through Oklahoma, Arkansas all the way to West Memphis. Go south from there on Interstate 55 until reaching the TILLATOBA exit. Head east again to Coffeeville, MS. Whole trip? 1,240 miles in 18 hours. Find the Yellow Rose Restaurant and Store just south of town.
One more short jaunt, from Coffeeville to Goodfood, MS. Leave Coffeeville going north of Route 7 to Oxford, MS then head east on Route 6. #Whenn 6 crosses 41 go north to Goodfood, MS.
With all that driving, take a break, get to the FedEx and order in the next few items: We’ll need to ship our breakfast in from Bacon, Indiana; Ham Lake, Minnesota; Oatmeal, Texas; Spuds, Florida; Tortilla Flat, AZ; and Two Egg, Florida. Wow!! What a great breakfast. It tastes so good we don’t want to waste any so we need to contact the folks in Lick Fork, Virginia and Lickskillet, OH so we don’t miss some. That is a lot of work so, is it lunch time yet? Then we need to head out to Picnic, Florida and get food shipped in from Sandwich, Massachusetts; Oniontown, NY; Pie Town, New Mexico; and Tea, South Dakota. With all that running we need to finish with our dessert from Cheesequake, NJ, Chocolate Bayou, TX or Big Rock Candy Mountain, VT.
These towns were selected for the names only but please don’t ask Why (AZ)!!
The codfish never cackles, to tell you when she’s done.
And so we scorn the codfish, while the humble hen we prize,
Which only goes to show you – that it pays to advertise!”
insouciant in-SOO-see-uhnt, adjective:
Marked by lighthearted unconcern or indifference; carefree; nonchalant.
Insouciant is from the French, from in-, “not” + souciant, “caring,” present participle ofsoucier, “to trouble,” from Latin sollicitare, “to disturb,” from sollicitus, “anxious.” The noun form is insouciance.
1698 – Russia’s Peter the Great imposed a tax on beards.
1774 – In response to the British Parliament’s enactment of the Coercive Acts in the American colonies, the First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, with 56 delegates representing every colony except Georgia. Delegates include Patrick Henry,George Washington, and Samuel Adams (Sept. 5–Oct. 26).. The delegates drafted a declaration of rights and grievances, organized the Continental Association, and elected Peyton Randolph as the first president of the Continental Congress.
1776 – Adoption of first uniforms for Navy officers.
1793 – In France, the French National Convention votes to implement terror measures to enforce the principles of the French Revolution, initiating the Reign of Terror.
1804 – In a daring night raid, American sailors under Lieutenant Stephen Decatur, boarded the captured USS Philadelphia and burned the ship to keep it out of the hands of the Barbary pirates (Muslims) who captured her.
1836 – Sam Houston is elected as the first president of the Republic of Texas.
1862 – Civil War: In the Confederacy’s first invasion of the North, General Robert E. Lee leads 55,000 men of the Army of Northern Virginia across the Potomac River at White’s Ford near Leesburg, Virginia, into Maryland.
1877 – Indian Wars: Oglala Sioux chief Crazy Horse is bayoneted by a United States soldier after resisting confinement in a guardhouse at Fort Robinson in Nebraska.
1881 – The American Red Cross provided relief for disaster for the first time. The disaster was the Great Fire of 1881 in Michigan.
1882 – The first United States Labor Day parade is held in New York City.
1885 – First gasoline pump is delivered to a gasoline dealer, Jake Gumper in Ft. Wayne, Ind.
1906 – Saint Louis University’s Brandbury Robinson throws the first legal forward pass in an American football game. The receiver was Jack Schneider in a game against Carroll College. Saint Louis University beat Carroll 22-0.
1910 – Marie Curie demonstrated the transformation of radium ore to metal at the Academy of Sciences in France.
1914 – Babe Ruth hit his first home run as a professional player in the International League.
1914 – World War I: The Battle of the Marne began. The Germans, British and French fought for six days killing half a million people.
1917 – Federal raids were carried out in 24 cities on International Workers of the World (IWW) headquarters. The raids were prompted by suspected anti-war activities within the labor organization.
1921 – Roy Gardner (1886-1940), train and mail robber, made his escape from McNeil Island in Washington state during an inmate baseball game. He was probably the first and only man to escape from the Island, which led the US Government to build another “escape proof” federal prison on Alcatraz Island. (www.cybersleuths.com/billkelly/bkbonuschap1.htm)
1923 – Flyweights Gene LaRue & Kid Pancho KO each other simultaneously.
1923 – U.S. Asiatic Fleet arrives at Yokohama, Japan, to provide medical assistance and supplies after Kondo Plain earthquake.
1930 – Charles Creighton and James Hagris completed the drive from New York City to Los Angeles and back to New York City all in reverse gear. The trip took 42 days in their 1929 Ford Model A.
1938 – The NBC Red network broadcast “Life Can Be Beautiful” for the first time.
1939 – World War II: The United States declares its neutrality in the war.
1944 – World War II: Germany launched its first V-2 missile at Paris, France.
1945 – World War II: Iva Toguri D’Aquino, a Japanese-American suspected of being wartime radio propagandist Tokyo Rose, is arrested in Yokohama.
1946 – Joe Garagiola plays his first major league baseball game.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Peg o’ My Heart” by The Harmonicats, “That’s My Desire” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Don Cornell), “I Wonder Who’s Kissing Her Now” by Perry Como and “Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)” by Tex Williams all topped the charts.
1949 – A former sharpshooter in World War II, Howard Unruh kills thirteen neighbors in Camden, New Jersey, with a souvenir Luger to become the first U.S. single-episode mass murderer.
1953 – The first privately operated atomic reactor opened in Raleigh, NC.
1954 – Johnny Cash’s “I Walk the Line” shot to Billboard’s No. 1 position and remained on the record charts for an incredible 43 weeks.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Around the Clock” by Bill Haley & His Comets, “The Yellow Rose of Texas” by Mitch Miller, “Autumn Leaves” by Roger Williams and “I Don’t Care” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1958 – Martin Luther King was arrested in an Alabama protest for loitering and fined $14 for refusing to obey police.
1958 – The first color videotaped program was aired. It was “The Betty Freezor Show” on WBTV-TV in Charlotte, NC.
1958 – Boris Pasternak’s “Doctor Zhivago” was published for the first time in the U.S.
1959 – “The Three Bells” by The Browns topped the charts.
1960 – Cassius Clay wins the gold medal in boxing at the Rome Olympic Games. Clay later recanted Christianity, changed to muslim and changed his name to Muhammad Ali.
1961 – The U.S. government made airline hijacking a federal offense. It called for the death penalty for convicted hijackers.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Boyfriend’s Back” by The Angels, “Hello Mudduh, Hello Fadduh!” by Allan Sherman, “Blowin’ in the Wind” by Peter, Paul & Mary and “Ring of Fire” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1964 – “The House of the Rising Sun” by the Animals topped the charts.
1969 – My Lai Massacre: U.S. Army Lt. William Calley is charged with six specifications of premeditated murder for the death of 109 Vietnamese civilians in My Lai.
1970 – “War” by Edwin Starr topped the charts.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey” by Paul & Linda McCartney, “Smiling Faces Sometimes” by The Undisputed Truth, “Spanish Harlem” by Aretha Franklin and “Easy Loving” by Freddie Hart all topped the charts.
1972 – Munich Massacre: A Palestinian terrorist group called “Black September” attack Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympic Games. Eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team, five guerrillas and a police officer were killed in the siege.
In the 2012 Summer Games in London, the Committee refused to honor these athletes.
1972 – Roberta Flack and Donny Hathaway won a gold record for “Where is the Love.”
1975 – In Sacramento, California, a follower of incarcerated cult leader Charles Manson named Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme attempts to assassinate U.S. President Gerald Ford, but is thwarted by a Secret Service agent. Seventeen days later, Sara Jane Moore attempted to assassinate President Ford.
1977 – Voyager program: Voyager 1 is launched after a brief delay.
1978 – Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat begin peace process at Camp David, Maryland.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Sharona” by The Knack, “After the Love Has Gone” by Earth, Wind & Fire, “Don’t Bring Me Down” by Electric Light Orchestra and “Heartbreak Hotel” by Willie Nelson & Leon Russell all topped the charts.
1981 – “Endless Love” by Diana Ross & Lionel Richie topped the charts.
1982 – Eddie Hill sets propeller-driven boat water speed record of 229 mph.
1983 – The “MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour” on PBS became the first hour-long network news show.
1984 – Robert S. Laurent (1933-2004) received a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and was kept alive for 8 days by the electric heart assist pump until a new heart became available. Dr. Peer M. Portner (d.2009 at 69) of Stanford Univ. pioneered the device.
1984 – STS-41-D: The Space Shuttle Discovery lands after its maiden voyage.
1986 – Merv Griffin aired his final program for Metromedia Television after 23 years on various talk shows.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “La Bamba” by Los Lobos, “I Just Can’t Stop Loving You” by Michael Jackson with Siedah Garrett, “Only in My Dreams” by Debbie Gibson and “She’s Too Good to Be True” by Exile all topped the charts.
1989 – Chris Evert retired from professional tennis after a 19-year career.
1990 – Iraqi President Saddam Hussein urged Arabs to rise up in a Holy War against the West and former allies who had turned against him.
1991 – Jury selection began in Miami in the drug and racketeering trial of former Panamanian ruler Manuel Noriega.
1992 – A General Motors Corporation strike ended with a new agreement being approved. Nearly 43,000 workers were on strike.
1996 – Computer scientists found the largest known prime number while testing a Cray T94 computer system. It has 378,632 digits and can be expressed as two to the 1,257,787th power minus 1. (WSJ, 9/5/96, p.A6)
1996 – Hurricane Fran hit at Cape Fear, North Carolina. It tore through the Carolinas with winds at 115-mph.
1997 – Mother Teresa died in Calcutta, India, at the age of 87.
1997 – In England, funeral services for Princess Diana were held in London.
1998 – “I Don’t Want To Miss A Thing” by Aerosmith topped the charts.
1998 – In NYC the Million Youth March ended in a wild melee as police rushed the speaking platform after the event ran minutes over the allotted time. An estimated 20,000 people were in attendance.
1999 – The Houston Comets won their third straight WNBA championship, beating the New York Liberty, 59-to-47.
2000 – Oyster harvesting was shut down in Galveston Bay as a large toxic algal bloom began to spread from the Texas Gulf Coast to the Florida panhandle. Million of fish began to die.
2001 – A San Francisco federal appeals court ruled that prisoners have a constitutional right to reproduce. This opened the door for fatherhood via artificial insemination for those prisoners denied conjugal visits.
2002 – In Illinois, Judge Harold Frobish of Livingston County ruled that prison inmates can choose to starve themselves rather than endure years of solitary confinement and that right outweighs the state’s duty to keep them alive.
2003 – A roller coaster derailed at Southern California’s Disneyland theme park, killing one man and injuring 10 other people, including a 9-year-old. (Reuters, 9/5/03)
2004 – The eye of Hurricane Frances made official landfall near Sewall’s Point, Fl. Sustained winds of 105 mph knocked out power to some 2 million people. Frances left 19 dead in Florida as it slowly moved northwest. Losses were rated as between two and ten billion dollars.
2004 – The 19th Burning Man went up in flames in Gerlach, Nevada, where some 35, 664 people had gathered for the annual festival. The event is described by many participants as an experiment in community, radical self-expression, and radical self-reliance.
2004 – Tropical Storm Ivan becomes Hurricane Ivan in the Atlantic Ocean.
2005 – President Bush nominated John Roberts (50) to succeed William H. Rehnquist as chief justice and called on the Senate to confirm him before the Supreme Court opens its fall term on Oct. 3.
2005 – Senator and former First Lady Hillary Clinton calls for a “9/11 Style Inquiry” into the U.S. federal government’s response to Hurricane Katrina.
2005 – Jerry Rice ended an NFL career that included three Super Bowls and records for most career receptions, receiving yards and receiving touchdowns.
2006 – The US FDA granted Abiomed approval to sell AbioCor, the world’s first implantable artificial heart.
2006 – Bill Ford steps down from his position as CEO of Ford Motor Company. He is replaced by Alan Mulally, the former executive vice president and CEO of Boeing Commercial Airlines. Bill Ford will remain chairman.
2007 – The Military Times reports that a United States Air Force B-52 bomber carried six nuclear warheads from Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota, to Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana, in violation of rules concerning the handling of nuclear weapons. In addition, the bombs were not reported as missing from the Minot weapons inventory.
2008 – Condoleezza Rice becomes the first United States Secretary of State to visit Libya since 1953.
2008 – US bank regulators shut down Silver State Bank, saying the Nevada bank failed because of losses on soured loans, mainly in commercial real estate and land development. It was the 11th failure this year of a federally insured bank.
2008 – In Lancaster, Ca., a road was paved, at the request of Honda’s Santa Monica advertising agency, with grooves so that passing cars would hear a rendition of Rossini’s William Tell Overture. On Sep 23, following complaints and safety concerns the road was repaved.
2009 – Milwaukee police arrested Walter Ellis (49) after DNA evidence linked him to the slaying of nine women, including eight suspected prostitutes, back to 1986. On Feb 18, 2011, Ellis was convicted in the deaths of seven women and faced a mandatory sentence of life in prison.
2010 – A gunman robbed a Loomis armored car and shot a guard before fleeing a Glendale, AZ Walmart store. The assailant shot the guard in the hand and the leg. He was hospitalized with non-life-threatening injuries.
2011 – US Postal Service is nearing default as losses mount. The agency is so low on cash that it will not be able to make a $5.5 billion payment due this month and may have to shut down entirely this winter unless Congress acts to stabilize its finances.
2011 – Gunman identified by police only as a local man with no criminal history opens fire at a Nevada IHOP restaurant, killing three, including two National Guard members, before turning gun on himself.
2012 – The Democratic Party held its national convention in Charlotte, North Carolina. Former President Bill Clinton nominates current President Barack Obama as the party’s nominee in the presidential election.
2012 – The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements is published and is made available to the general public.
1638 – Louis XIV of France (d. 1715)
1735 – Johann Christian Bach, German composer (d. 1782)
1847 – Jesse James, American outlaw (d. 1882)
1902 – Darryl F. Zanuck, American film producer and executive (d. 1979)
1940 – Raquel Welch, American actress
BENFOLD, EDWARD C.
Rank and organization: Hospital Corpsman Third Class, U.S. Navy, attached to a company in the 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Korea, 5 September 1952. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Born: 15 January 1931, Staten Island, N.Y. Citation: For gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving in operations against enemy aggressor forces. When his company was subjected to heavy artillery and mortar barrages, followed by a determined assault during the hours of darkness by an enemy force estimated at battalion strength, HC3c. Benfold resolutely moved from position to position in the face of intense hostile fire, treating the wounded and lending words of encouragement. Leaving the protection of his sheltered position to treat the wounded when the platoon area in which he was working was attacked from both the front and rear, he moved forward to an exposed ridge line where he observed two Marines in a large crater. As he approached the two men to determine their condition, an enemy soldier threw two grenades into the crater while two other enemy charged the position. Picking up a grenade in each hand, HC3c Benfold leaped out of the crater and hurled himself against the on-rushing hostile soldiers, pushing the grenades against their chests and killing both the attackers. Mortally wounded while carrying out this heroic act, HC3c. Benfold, by his great personal valor and resolute spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of almost certain death, was directly responsible for saving the lives of his two comrades. His exceptional courage reflects the highest credit upon himself and enhances the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for others.
GARCIA, FERNANDO LUIS
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company I, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Korea, 5 September 1952. Entered service at: San Juan, P.R. Born: 14 October 1929, Utuado, P.R. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a member of Company I, in action against enemy aggressor forces. While participating in the defense of a combat outpost located more than one mile forward of the main line of resistance during a savage night attack by a fanatical enemy force employing grenades, mortars, and artillery, Pfc. Garcia, although suffering painful wounds, moved through the intense hail of hostile fire to a supply point to secure more handgrenades. Quick to act when a hostile grenade landed nearby, endangering the life of another Marine, as well as his own, he unhesitatingly chose to sacrifice himself and immediately threw his body upon the deadly missile, receiving the full impact of the explosion. His great personal valor and cool decision in the face of almost certain death sustain and enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
KAUFMAN, LOREN R.
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Company G, 9th Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Near Yongsan, Korea, 4 and 5 September 1950. Entered service at: The Dalles, Oreg. Born: 27 July 1923, The Dalles, Oreg. G.O. No.: 61, 2 August 1951. Citation: Sfc. Kaufman distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. On the night of 4 September the company was in a defensive position on two adjoining hills. His platoon was occupying a strong point two miles away protecting the battalion flank. Early on 5 September the company was attacked by an enemy battalion and his platoon was ordered to reinforce the company. As his unit moved along a ridge it encountered a hostile encircling force. Sfc. Kaufman, running forward, bayoneted the lead scout and engaged the column in a rifle and grenade assault. His quick vicious attack so surprised the enemy that they retreated in confusion. When his platoon joined the company he discovered that the enemy had taken commanding ground and pinned the company down in a draw. Without hesitation Sfc. Kaufman charged the enemy lines firing his rifle and throwing grenades. During the action, he bayoneted two enemy and seizing an unmanned machine gun, delivered deadly fire on the defenders. Following this encounter the company regrouped and resumed the attack. Leading the assault he reached the ridge, destroyed a hostile machine gun position, and routed the remaining enemy. Pursuing the hostile troops he bayoneted two more and then rushed a mortar position shooting the gunners. Remnants of the enemy fled to a village and Sfc. Kaufman led a patrol into the town, dispersed them, and burned the buildings. The dauntless courage and resolute intrepid leadership of Sfc. Kaufman were directly responsible for the success of his company in regaining its positions, reflecting distinct credit upon himself and upholding the esteemed traditions of the military service.
|McLAUGHLIN, ALFORD L.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Company L, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.) Place and date: Korea, 4 and 5 September 1952. Entered service at: Leeds, Ala. Born: 18 March 1928, Leeds, Ala. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a machine gunner of Company L, in action against enemy aggressor forces on the night of 4-5 September 1952. Volunteering for his second continuous tour of duty on a strategic combat outpost far in advance of the main line of resistance, Pfc. McLaughlin, although operating under a barrage of enemy artillery and mortar fire, set up plans for the defense of his position which proved decisive in the successful defense of the outpost. When hostile forces attacked in battalion strength during the night, he maintained a constant flow of devastating fire upon the enemy, alternately employing two machineguns, a carbine, and handgrenades. Although painfully wounded, he bravely fired the machineguns from the hip until his hands became blistered by the extreme heat from the weapons and, placing the guns on the ground to allow them to cool, continued to defend the position with his carbine and grenades. Standing up in full view, he shouted words of encouragement to his comrades above the din of battle and, throughout a series of fanatical enemy attacks, sprayed the surrounding area with deadly fire, accounting for an estimated 150 enemy dead and fifty wounded. By his indomitable courage, superb leadership, and valiant fighting spirit in the face of overwhelming odds, Pfc. McLaughlin served to inspire his fellow Marines in their gallant stand against the enemy and was directly instrumental in preventing the vital outpost from falling into the hands of a determined and numerically superior hostile force. His outstanding heroism and unwavering devotion to duty reflect the highest credit upon himself and enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
|MERLI, GINO J.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 18th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Sars la Bruyere, Belgium, 4-5 September 1944. Entered service at: Peckville, Pa. Birth: Scranton, Pa. G.O. No.: 64, 4 August 1945. Citation: He was serving as a machine gunner in the vicinity of Sars la Bruyere, Belgium, on the night of 4-5 1944, when his company was attacked by a superior German force Its position was overrun and he was surrounded when our troops were driven back by overwhelming numbers and firepower. Disregarding the fury of the enemy fire concentrated on him he maintained his position, covering the withdrawal of our riflemen and breaking the force of the enemy pressure. His assistant machine gunner was killed and the position captured; the other eight members of the section were forced to surrender. Pfc. Merli slumped down beside the dead assistant gunner and feigned death. No sooner had the enemy group withdrawn then he was up and firing in all directions. Once more his position was taken and the captors found two apparently lifeless bodies. Throughout the night Pfc. Merli stayed at his weapon. By daybreak the enemy had suffered heavy losses, and as our troops launched an assault, asked for a truce. Our negotiating party, who accepted the German surrender, found Pfc. Merli still at his gun. On the battlefield lay fifty-two enemy dead, nineteen of whom were directly in front of the gun. Pfc. Merli’s gallantry and courage, and the losses and confusion that he caused the enemy, contributed materially to our victory .
Eat An Exra Dessert Day
Newspaper Carrier Day
National Courtesy Month
One of the single most powerful world-changing forces is enthusiasm. First, what is it? As a word, enthusiasm is a noun and is defined as a great excitement for or interest in a subject or cause, a source or cause of great excitement or interest. In history, it meant ecstasy arising from a perceived possession by God.
“Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm,” said the very quotable Ralph Waldo Emerson. Enthusiasm first appeared in English in 1603 with the meaning “possession by a god.” The source of the word is the Greek enthousiasmos, which ultimately comes from the adjective entheos, “having the god within,” formed from en, “in, within,” and theos, “god.” Over time the meaning of enthusiasm became extended to “rapturous inspiration like that caused by God” to “a confident belief that one is inspired by God.”
Would you like to cause a chain reaction of good in the world? Then live your life with enthusiasm. Enthusiasm is contagious and brings out the best in you and others you meet. When a person is enthusiastic, it is literally impossible to not affect others. Instead of trying to describe how enthusiasm spreads look at this rendition of a chain reaction.
Cause A Chain Reaction
Being Enthusiastic Doesn’t Have to be Difficult
The best veicle for enthusiasm is the smile. Give a genuine smile to as many people that you meet in the morning and wish them a great day. Many will smile back and then keep their smile even after you have left. If they don’t, they probably will give you a skeptical look. That is OK. Once they realize that you are not being enthusiastic to get something from them, they will turn around! You have just made their day a little brighter. The next person they meet may see that smile and think it is for them and return a smile.
If you know the person, use their first name and say hi or good morning along with that smile. If you are in a restaurant or a place where you can see the person’s nametag, use their name. A person’s name is the most important thing to them personnaly.
Enthusiasm Is Beneficial To All
Five of the many benefits enthusiasm can do include:
Battling fear and worry
Helping to overcome stress
Assisting the ability to persuade
Help you be more successful
Enthusiasm is Contagious
Just think, by being enthusiastic you are inspiring others. Not only are you reaping the benefits of being enthusiastic, but those that are catching it from you are also reaping those same benefits, and so do those they touch, and so on., In addition it can help you building an excellent reputation both personally and professionally.
1 . Find something that you are not as passionate about today as you should be. As you do those tasks today, act as if you are passionate about it. Make it a habit to act passionately about it until the real passion comes.
2. Determine your life’s purpose if you don’t already know what it is. Focusing on those things that are consistent with your life’s purpose will help to ensure that you are passionate about what you are doing. Two books that are especially helpul as a place to start your search include “The Purpose-Driven Life” by Rick Warren and “The Power To Be Your Best” by Todd Duncan.
3. Make, as a personal goal, yourself a person who smiles and says good morning, good evening or some other positive short comment to EVERY PERSON YOU SEE.
“I can change. I can live out my imagination instead of my memory. I can tie myself to my limitless potential instead of my limiting past.”
~ Stephen Covey
effulgence i-FUL-juhn(t)s, noun:
The state of being bright and radiant; splendor; brilliance.
From Latin ex, “out of, from” + fulgere, “to shine.” The adjective form of the word iseffulgent.
1564 – A ten-ship Spanish fleet under Pedro Menendez de Aviles made landfall in Florida. Menendez was under orders from Phillip II to oust the French.
1609 – Navigator Henry Hudson discovers island of Manhattan. Exact date is unknown.
1666 – In London, England, the most destructive damage from a Great Fire occurs.
1781 – Los Angeles, California, is founded as El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora La Reina de los Ángeles de Porciúncula (the City of Our Lady, the Queen of the Angels of the Little Portion) by a group of 44 Spanish settlers in Bahia de las Fumas (Valley of Smokes).
1807 – Robert Fulton began operating his steamboat.
1812 – War of 1812: The Battle of Fort Harrison begins when the fort is set on fire.
1820 – Czar Alexander declared that Russian influence in North America extended as far south as Oregon and closed Alaskan waters to foreigners.
1825 – New York Governor Clinton ceremoniously emptied a barrel of Lake Erie water in the Atlantic Ocean to consummate the “Marriage of the Waters” of the Great Lakes and the Atlantic.
1833 – Ten-year old Barney Flaherty answered an ad in “The New York Sun” and became the first newsboy/paperboy.
1862 – Civil War: Robert E. Lee’s Confederate 50,000-man army invaded Maryland, starting the Antietam Campaign. New York Tribune reporter George Smalley scooped the world with his vivid account of the Battle of Antietam.
1864 – Civil War: Bread riots in Mobile, Alabama.
1864 – Civil War: Feared Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan is killed during a Union cavalry raid on the town of Greenville, Tennessee.
1882 – Thomas Edison’s Pearl Street electric power station began operations in New York City. It was the first display of a practical electrical lighting system.
1885 – First self-service cafeteria, Exchange Buffet, opens in New York City.
1886 – Indian Wars: After almost 30 years of fighting, Apache leader Geronimo surrenders with his last band of warriors to General Nelson Miles at Skeleton Canyon in Arizona. Skeleton Canyon is about halfway between AZ 191 and AZ 180 north of Clifton.
1888 – George Eastman received patent #388,850 for his roll-film camera and registered his trademark: “Kodak.” he also introduced the box camera.
1894 – Tailors (12,000) in New York City went on strike to protest the existence of sweatshops.
1899 – An 8.3 earthquake hit Yakutat Bar, AK.
1915 – The U.S. military placed Haiti under martial law to quell a rebellion in its capital Port-au-Prince.
1916 – Christy Mathewson & Mordecai Brown play their final baseball game.
1917 – World War I: The American Expeditionary Force in France suffered its first fatalities in World War I. A German plane attacked a British-run base hospital..
1921 – The first police broadcast was made by radio station WIL in St. Louis, MO.
1923 – In Lakehurst, New Jersey, the first U.S. airship, the USS Shenandoah, takes to the sky for the first time.
1928 – Boston Braves scheduled to play nine doubleheaders in a row.
1928 – Wingy Manone recorded “Downright Disgusted” for Vocalion Records.
1933 – First airplane to exceed 300 mph.
1939 – World War II: Europe: The Nazis marched into Czestochowa, Poland, two days after they invaded Poland.
1939 – World War II: Europe: The Polish ghetto of Mir was exterminated.
1940 – World War II: Europe: The USS Greer becomes the first United States ship fired upon by a German submarine ( U-652 ) in the war, even though the United States is a neutral power. Tension heightens between the two nations as a result.
1940 – First showing of high definition color TV.
1942 – World War II: Soviet planes bombed Budapest in the war’s first air raid on the Hungarian capital.
1943 – World War II: Allied troops captured Lae-Salamaua, in New Guinea.
1945 – World War II: US regained possession of Wake Island from Japan. The American flag was raised on Wake Island after surrender ceremonies there.
1945 – World War II: Japanese forces surrender on Wake Island after hearing word of their nation’s surrender.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “To Each His Own” by Eddy Howard, “Surrender” by Perry Como, “Doin’ What Comes Naturally” by Dinah Shore and “New Spanish Two Step” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1949 – The longest pro tennis match in history was played. Pancho Gonzales and Ted Schroeder played 67 games in five sets.
1949 – “Some Enchanted Evening” by Perry Como topped the charts.
1950 – The Beetle Bailey cartoon appeared for the first time in syndication. Beatle Bailey, the laziest private in the army, was created by Mort Walker.
1950 – First helicopter rescue of American pilot behind enemy lines. In the first H-5 helicopter rescue of a downed U.S. pilot from behind enemy lines in Korea, at Hanggan-dong Lt. Paul W. Van Boven saved Capt. Robert E. Wayne.
1950 – Darlington Raceway is the site of the inaugural Southern 500, the first 500-mile NASCAR race.
1951 – First transcontinental TV broadcast, by President Truman. AT&T carried his address to the opening session of the Japanese Peace Convention in San Francisco.
1952 – The singing group Gladys Knight & the Pips were formed after a birthday party for Bubba Knight.
1953 – “No Other Love” by Perry Como topped the charts.
1953 – The New York Yankees became the first baseball team to win five consecutive American League championships.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sh-Boom” by The Crew-Cuts, “Hey There” by Rosemary Clooney, “Skokiaan” by Ralph Marterie and “I Don’t Hurt Anymore” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1954 – Icebreakers, USS Burton Island (AGB-1) and USCG Northwind, complete first transit of Northwest passage through McClure Strait.
1954 – First passage of McClure Strait, fabled Northwest Passage completed.
1956 – The IBM RAMAC 305, the first commercial computer that used magnetic disk storage, was introduced.
1957 – Little Rock Crisis – Orville Faubus (D), governor of Arkansas, calls out the National Guard to prevent nine Black students from enrolling in Central High School in Little Rock.
1957 – The Ford Motor Company introduces the Edsel. The car was so unpopular that it was taken off the market after only two years. It was designed by Roy Brown and sold only 173,000 units through 1960.
1959 – “Mack the Knife” was banned from radio — at least from WCBS Radio in New York City. The ban was due to teenage stabbings in NYC.
1961 – “Michael” by the Highwaymen topped the charts.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sheila” by Tommy Roe, “You Don’t Know Me” by Ray Charles, “Party Lights” by Claudine Clark and “Devil Woman” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.
1965 – Beatles’ “Help!,” single tops the charts.
1967 – The last new episode of the television sitcom Gilligan’s Island airs on CBS-TV. It ran for 98 shows.
1967 – Vietnam War: Operation Swift begins: U.S. Marines launch a search-and-destroy mission in Quang Nam and Quang Tin Provinces. The ensuing four-day battle in Que Son Valley kills 114 Americans and 376 North Vietnamese.
1967 – Michigan Gov. George Romney said during a TV interview that he had undergone “brainwashing” by U.S. officials while visiting Vietnam in 1965.
1968 – “Street Fighting Man,” by the Rolling Stones, was banned in several cities in the U.S. Authorities feared it might incite public disorder.
1969 – The US Food and Drug Administration issued a report calling birth control pills safe, despite a slight risk of fatal blood-clotting disorders linked to the pills.
1969 – In California Gov. Ronald Reagan signed the first no-fault divorce package into law, effective January 1, 1970.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “War” by Edwin Starr, “In the Summertime” by Mungo Jerry, “(If You Let Me Make Love to You) Why Can’t I Touch You?” by Ronnie Dyson and “Don’t Keep Me Hangin’ On” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1970 – George Harrison releases “My Sweet Lord” single.
1970 – “Get Yer Ya-Ya’s Out” was released by the Rolling Stones.
1971 – “The Lawrence Welk Show” was seen for the last time on ABC-TV.
1971 – An Alaska Airlines jet crashed killing 111 people near Juneau.
1972 – Israeli Athletes taken hostage by Palestinian Black September (group) at 1972 Summer Olympics in the Munich massacre
1972 – US swimmer Mark Spitz becomes first athlete to win seven Olympic gold medals.
1972 – The Price Is Right returns to television as The New Price Is Right on CBS, hosted by Bob Barker. The Joker’s Wild and Gambit also premiere on CBS.
1973 – John Ehrlichman and G. Gordon Liddy were indicted with two others in connection with the burglary of a psychiatrist’s office two years earlier.
1973 – William E Colby (1920-1996), became the 10th director of the CIA.
1974 – General Creighton Williams Abrams, US commander in Vietnam (1968-1972), died in Washington DC of lung cancer.
1976 – “You Should Be Dancing (1997)” by the Bee Gees topped the charts.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Grease” by Frankie Valli, “Three Times a Lady” by Commodores, “Boogie Oogie Oogie” by A Taste of Honey and “Blue Skies” by Willie Nelson all topped the charts.
1981 – Longest game at Fenway Park completed in 20 innings, Mariners-8, Red Sox-7.
1981 – David Brinkley (1920-2003) ended an illustrious 38-year career with NBC News this day. ABC had offered him an opportunity too good to refuse.
1982 – “Abracadabra” by the Steve Miller Band topped the charts.
1982 – The Dorothy May Apartment-Hotel building in Los Angeles, CA was set on fire by an arsonist killing 25 people.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Higher Love” by Steve Winwood, “Venus” by Bananarama, “Take My Breath Away” by Berlin and “Heartbeat in the Darkness” by Don Williams all topped the charts.
1989 – A reconnaissance satellite was released by the Air Force’s Titan Three rocket. The Titan Three set over 200 satellites into space between 1964 and 1989.
1990 – The air evacuation of Western women and children stranded in Iraq and Kuwait resumed, with 25 Americans among the nearly 300 who made it to Jordan.
1991 – Dottie West died at the age of 58. She died from injuries incurred in a car accident 5 days earlier. West was the first female country Grammy winner.
1993 – Jim Abbott, pitcher for the New York Yankees, pitched a no-hitter. Abbott had been born without a right hand.
1993 – Herve Hillechaize (50) died in Los Angeles. The Fantasy Island actor shot himself to death. He achieved worldwide recognition for his role as Mr. Roarke’s assistant, Tattoo.
1996 – Whitewater prosecutors had Susan McDougal held in contempt for refusing to tell a grand jury whether President Clinton had lied at her trial.
1997 – In Lorain, Ohio, the last Ford Thunderbird rolls off the assembly line.
1997 – Three Buddhist nuns acknowledged in testimony to the U.S. Senate that their temple outside Los Angeles illegally reimbursed donors after a fund-raiser attended by Vice President Al Gore, and later destroyed or altered records.
1998 – Google is founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, two students at Stanford University.
1998 – During a visit to Ireland, President Clinton said the words “I’m sorry” for the first time about his affair with Monica Lewinsky, describing his behavior as indefensible.
1998 – In New York City the Million Youth March ended in a wild melee as police rushed the speaking platform after the event ran minutes over the allotted time. police action at the rally where 6,000 people had gathered. Some 3,000 officers were massed in the area.
1999 – In New York City the 2nd Million Youth March headed by Khalid Abdul Muhammad was attended by 1-2 thousand people and watched over by 1,400 police officers.
2001 – Police shot and killed Rolland Rohm (28) at the Rainbow Farms campground in Vandalia, Mich., after he allegedly pointed a weapon at an officer. The campground had been set up for marijuana advocates. Owner Grover T. Crosslin was killed by FBI snipers a day earlier.
2001 – Texas Republican Phil Gramm announced he would leave the U.S. Senate at the end of his third term, following fellow conservatives Jesse Helms and Strom Thurmond into retirement.
2002 – Singer Kelly Clarkson was voted the first “American Idol” on the Fox TV series.
2002 – The Oakland Athletics won their AL-record 20th straight game. The A’s gave up an 11-run lead during the game and then won the game on a Scott Hatteberg home run in the bottom of the ninth inning.
2003 – Keegan Reilly, 22, became the first paraplegic climber to reach the peak of Japan’s Mount Fuji.
2003 – The US House agreed to a 2.2 percent pay raise for Congress, enough to boost lawmakers’ annual salaries to an average of $158,000 next year.
2003 – Pres. Bush signed the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) into law. It required the collection of data on sexual abuse in prison and the creation of a commission to recommend ways of prevention.
2005 – In New Orleans police killed at least four people who shot at contractors. The official Louisiana state death toll stood at 59 but the number was expected to rise to thousands.
2006 – Tropical storm Ernesto soaked the East Coast of the US claiming six lives and left 19,000 customers in the New York area without power.
2006 – In Newry, Maine, four people were found killed at the Black Bear Bed & Breakfast. The victims were shot and then dismembered.
2006 – Steve Irwin (44), world-famous Australian “crocodile hunter” and television environmentalist, was killed by a stingray blow to the chest while filming a documentary on the Great Barrier Reef.
2007 – Mattel Inc.’s reputation took another hit after the world’s largest toy maker announced a third major recall of Chinese-made toys in little more than a month because of excessive amounts of lead paint.
2008 – In St. Paul, Minn., John McCain claimed the GOP presidential nomination portraying himself as a maverick warrior and agent of change.
2008 – Tropical Storm Hanna roared along the edge of the Bahamas ahead of a possible hurricane hit on the Carolinas, leaving behind at least 137 dead in Haiti.
2008 – Jack Abramoff (49), once powerful DC lobbyist, was sentenced to four years in prison for his part in a political corruption scandal. He had already spent two years in prison for a fraudulent casino boat deal in Florida.
2009 – A US federal appeals court has ruled that former Attorney General John Ashcroft can be sued by people who claim they were wrongfully detained as material witnesses after 9/11, and called the government practice “repugnant to the Constitution.”
2009 – The US Embassy in Afghanistan says it has fired eight security guards following allegations of lewd behavior and sexual misconduct at their living quarters. Two other guards resigned and also left.
2009 – US regulators closed the First Bank of Kansas in Missouri, pushing to 85 the number of US banks that have failed this year.
2010 – Hurricane Earl brushed past the northeast US and dumped heavy, wind-driven rain on Cape Cod cottages and fishing villages, but caused little damage.
2011 – Tropical Storm Lee makes landfall near the US city of Lafayette, Louisiana, with the Gulf Coast hit by tornados.
2011 – Wildfires continue to burn in the US state of Texas, destroying tens of thousands of acres of land.
2011 – In Nevada the annual burning Man festival in Black Rock Desert drew nearly 54,000 people, more than the 50,000 allowed under its permit.
2012 – The Democratic National Convention opens in Charlotte, NC with special events embracing Islam, while initially rejecting the prayer offer by a Catholic cardinal, followed later in the week by boos of God and Jerusalem when caught after removing them from the party platform.
2012 – Osvaldo Rivera is the suspect jailed in Camden County, New Jersey for the stabbing to death of a 6-year-old boy and the attempted murder of the boy’s 12-year-old sister. Authorities say he was high on PCP-laced marijuana.
2012 – Scientists develop a “magic carpet” with optical fibers to help prevent elderly people from falling by a warning when it detects unusual footsteps.
2013 – Police arrest a student for allegedly stabbing another student to death and injuring three more at Spring High School in Spring, Texas.
2014 – Former Virginia Gov. Bob McDonnell and his wife were convicted of using his office to promote a dietary supplement in exchange for gifts in a public corruption case that derailed the career of a onetime rising Republican star. A federal jury in Richmond convicted Bob McDonnell of 11 of the 13 counts he faced; Maureen McDonnell was convicted of nine of the 13 counts she had faced.
1803 – Sarah Childress Polk, First Lady of the United States (d. 1891)
1886 – Albert Orsborn, the 6th General of The Salvation Army (d. 1967)
1917 – Henry Ford II, American industrialist (d. 1987)
1918 – Paul Harvey, American radio broadcaster
1931 – Mitzi Gaynor, American actress
1949 – Tom Watson, American golfer
1960 – Damon Wayans, American actor and comedian
1981 – Beyoncé Knowles, American singer and actress
CAPODANNO, VINCENT R.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy, Chaplain Corps, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and Date: Quang Tin Province, Republic of Vietnam, 4 September 1967. Entered service at: Staten Island, N.Y. Born: 13 February 1929, Staten Island, N.Y. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as Chaplain of the 3d Battalion, in connection with operations against enemy forces. In response to reports that the 2d Platoon of M Company was in danger of being overrun by a massed enemy assaulting force, Lt. Capodanno left the relative safety of the company command post and ran through an open area raked with fire, directly to the beleaguered platoon. Disregarding the intense enemy small-arms, automatic-weapons, and mortar fire, he moved about the battlefield administering last rites to the dying and giving medical aid to the wounded. When an exploding mortar round inflicted painful multiple wounds to his arms and legs, and severed a portion of his right hand, he steadfastly refused all medical aid. Instead, he directed the corpsmen to help their wounded comrades and, with calm vigor, continued to move about the battlefield as he provided encouragement by voice and example to the valiant Marines. Upon encountering a wounded Navy corpsman in the direct line of fire of an enemy machine gunner positioned approximately fifteen yards away, Lt. Capodanno rushed a daring attempt to aid and assist the mortally wounded corpsman. At that instant, only inches from his goal, he was struck down by a burst of machine gun fire. By his heroic conduct on the battlefield, and his inspiring example, Lt. Capodanno upheld the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the cause of freedom.
PETERS, LAWRENCE DAVID
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company M, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Quang Tin Province, Republic of Vietnam, 4 September 1967. Entered service at: Binghamton, N.Y. Born: 16 September 1946, Johnson City, N.Y. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a squad leader with Company M. During Operation SWIFT, the marines of the 2d Platoon of Company M were struck by intense mortar, machinegun, and small arms fire from an entrenched enemy force. As the company rallied its forces, Sgt. Peters maneuvered his squad in an assault on any enemy defended knoll. Disregarding his safety, as enemy rounds hit all about him, he stood in the open, pointing out enemy positions until he was painfully wounded in the leg. Disregarding his wound, he moved forward and continued to lead his men. As the enemy fire increased in accuracy and volume, his squad lost its momentum and was temporarily pinned down. Exposing himself to devastating enemy fire, he consolidated his position to render more effective fire. While directing the base of fire, he was wounded a second time in the face and neck from an exploding mortar round. As the enemy attempted to infiltrate the position of an adjacent platoon, Sgt. Peters stood erect in the full view of the enemy firing burst after burst forcing them to disclose their camouflaged positions. Sgt. Peters steadfastly continued to direct his squad in spite of two additional wounds, persisted in his efforts to encourage and supervise his men until he lost consciousness and succumbed. Inspired by his selfless actions, the squad regained fire superiority and once again carried the assault to the enemy. By his outstanding valor, indomitable fighting spirit and tenacious determination in the face of overwhelming odds, Sgt. Peters upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
|STOCKDALE, JAMES B.
Rank and organization: Rear Admiral (then Captain), U.S. Navy. Place and date: Hoa Lo prison, Hanoi, North Vietnam, 4 September 1969. Entered service at: Abingdon, Ill. Born: 23 December 1923, Abingdon, Ill.. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while senior naval officer in the Prisoner of War camps of North Vietnam. Recognized by his captors as the leader in the Prisoners’ of War resistance to interrogation and in their refusal to participate in propaganda exploitation, Rear Adm. Stockdale was singled out for interrogation and attendant torture after he was detected in a covert communications attempt. Sensing the start of another purge, and aware that his earlier efforts at self-disfiguration to dissuade his captors from exploiting him for propaganda purposes had resulted in cruel and agonizing punishment, Rear Adm. Stockdale resolved to make himself a symbol of resistance regardless of personal sacrifice. He deliberately inflicted a near-mortal wound to his person in order to convince his captors of his willingness to give up his life rather than capitulate. He was subsequently discovered and revived by the North Vietnamese who, convinced of his indomitable spirit, abated in their employment of excessive harassment and torture toward all of the Prisoners of War. By his heroic action, at great peril to himself, he earned the everlasting gratitude of his fellow prisoners and of his country. Rear Adm. Stockdale’s valiant leadership and extraordinary courage in a hostile environment sustain and enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
*BROWN, MELVIN L.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company D, 8th Engineer Combat Battalion. Place and date: Near Kasan, Korea, 4 September 1950. Entered service at: Erie, Pa. Birth: Mahaffey, Pa. G.O. No.: 11, 16 February 1951. Citation. Pfc. Brown, Company D distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. While his platoon was securing Hill 755 (the Walled City), the enemy, using heavy automatic weapons and small arms, counterattacked. Taking a position on a 50-foot-high wall he delivered heavy rifle fire on the enemy. His ammunition was soon expended and although wounded, he remained at his post and threw his few grenades into the attackers causing many casualties. When his supply of grenades was exhausted his comrades from nearby foxholes tossed others to him and he left his position, braving a hail of fire, to retrieve and throw them at the enemy. The attackers continued to assault his position and Pfc. Brown weaponless, drew his entrenching tool from his pack and calmly waited until they one by one peered over the wall, delivering each a crushing blow upon the head. Knocking ten or twelve enemy from the wall, his daring action so inspired his platoon that they repelled the attack and held their position. Pfc. Brown’s extraordinary heroism, gallantry, and intrepidity reflect the highest credit upon himself and was in keeping with the honored traditions of the military service. Reportedly missing in action and officially killed in action, September 5, 1950.
PENA, MIKE C.
Rank and organization: Master Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company F, 2d Battalion, 5th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division Place and date: Waegwan, Korea, September 4, 1950. Born: November 6, 1924, Newgulf, TX, Entered Service at: ElPaso, TX Departed: Yes (09/05/1950) Date Issued: 3/18/2014
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Master Sergeant Mike C. Pena distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a member of Company F, 5th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Waegwan, Korea, on September 4, 1950. That evening, under cover of darkness and a dreary mist, an enemy battalion moved to within a few yards of Master Sergeant Pena’s platoon. Recognizing the enemy’s approach, Master Sergeant Pena and his men opened fire, but the enemy’s sudden emergence and accurate, point blank fire forced the friendly troops to withdraw. Master Sergeant Pena rapidly reorganized his men and led them in a counterattack which succeeded in regaining the positions they had just lost. He and his men quickly established a defensive perimeter and laid down devastating fire, but enemy troops continued to hurl themselves at the defenses in overwhelming numbers. Realizing that their scarce supply of ammunition would soon make their positions untenable, Master Sergeant Pena ordered his men to fall back and manned a machinegun to cover their withdrawal. He singlehandedly held back the enemy until the early hours of the following morning when his position was overrun and he was killed. Master Sergeant Pena’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
HUTCHINS, JOHNNIE DAVID
Rank and organization: Seaman First Class, U.S. Naval Reserve. Place and date: Lae, New Guinea, 4 September 1943. Born: 4 August 1922, Weimer, Tex. Accredited to: Texas. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous valor above and beyond the call of duty while serving on board a Landing Ship, Tank, during the assault on Lae, New Guinea, 4 September 1943. As the ship on which Hutchins was stationed approached the enemy-occupied beach under a veritable hail of fire from Japanese shore batteries and aerial bombardment, a hostile torpedo pierced the surf and bore down upon the vessel with deadly accuracy. In the tense split seconds before the helmsman could steer clear of the threatening missile, a bomb struck the pilot house, dislodged him from his station, and left the stricken ship helplessly exposed. Fully aware of the dire peril of the situation, Hutchins, although mortally wounded by the shattering explosion, quickly grasped the wheel and exhausted the last of his strength in maneuvering the vessel clear of the advancing torpedo. Still clinging to the helm, he eventually succumbed to his injuries, his final thoughts concerned only with the safety of his ship, his final efforts expended toward the security of his mission. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.
INGALLS, LEWIS J.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 8th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Boutte Station, La., 4 September 1862. Entered service an Belvidere, Vt. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 20 October 1899. Citation: A railroad train guarded by about sixty men on flat cars having been sidetracked by a misplaced switch into an ambuscade of guerrillas who were rapidly shooting down the unprotected guards, this soldier, under a severe fire in which he was wounded, ran to another switch and, opening it, enabled the train and the surviving guards to escape.
MILLS, FRANK W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 1st New York Mounted Rifles Place and date: At Sandy Cross Roads, N.C., 4 September 1862. Entered service at:——. Birth: Middletown, N.Y. Date of issue: 2 April 1898. Citation: While scouting, this soldier, in command of an advance team of 3 or 4 men, came upon the enemy, and charged them without orders, the rest of the troops following, the whole force of the enemy, 120 men, being captured.
International Enthusiasm Week (1-10)
Happy Cat Month
11 puzzling phrases and their meanings
Language changes over time. In particular, It is fun to learn about expressions and phrases that were once commonly known, but that puzzle us today. Fifty years from now, will people know what “bad hair day,” “big brother,” and “Elvis has left the building” mean?
Here are some phrases that were once in common use, along with their definitions.
1. Bee’s knees — means the height of perfection. (Also, “the cat’s pajamas,” “the cat’s meow.”) The phrase originated in the late 1700s to describe something insignificant; however, in the 1920s, it came to mean the opposite, according to the Oxford Dictionaries. Example: I love Matthew Inman’s latest comic; it’s the bee’s knees.
2. At sixes and sevens — means in a state of confusion or disarray. Phrase came from the numbers on dice and cards. To gamble on these numbers was considered reckless. Example: These schedule changes have employees at sixes and sevens.
3. Dog days — refers to the beginning of July to mid-August to coincide with the rising of Sirius, the brightest star in the constellation Canis Major. This is also the hottest period of summer. Example: In sweltering Memphis, it feels like the dog days last all summer.
4. Fair to middling — means average or so-so. The phrase came from the grades of commercial cotton. Cotton was rated from fine to inferior. Middling meant it was good, but not the best. Example: There’s a fair to middling chance your press release won’t be read if you use that headline.
5. Hack — a metaphor for a person hired to do something or who does low-grade work. From the Old English term hackney, which is an ordinary horse suitable for general use. Example: One look at his writing samples, and we knew Stan was a hack.
6. Hatchet man — a person employed to carry out an unpleasant assignment requiring ruthlessness. The term originally described a person serving in the military whose job was to march in front of the troops and clear the way for them. Example: With layoffs looming, we wondered whether Tim was hired to be the hatchet man.
7. Rest on your laurels — to live off your reputation or refrain from further effort because you are satisfied with what you have already achieved. In the ancient Pythian games, winners were crowned with a wreath of laurels. Laurels came to symbolize victory and distinction. Example: He will rest on his laurels, telling everyone who will listen about the award he won in 2005.
8. Make a beeline — means to go directly and quickly to. The phrase came from the belief that bees always flew in a straight line to the hive. Example: After the last town hall meeting, we all made a beeline for the nearest bar.
9. Pig in a poke — something bought or received without prior examination or knowledge. A poke is a small sack. A dishonest farmer, claiming to be selling a young pig, might instead place a cat in the bag. Example: When hiring freelance writers, always ask for writing samples. Otherwise you could end up with a pig in a poke.
10. See a man about a horse — this phrase is said when you are unwilling to state your true destination. The saying comes from the 1866 play, “Flying Scud,” in which a character extricates himself from an uncomfortable situation by saying, “Excuse me Mr. Quail, I can’t stop; I’ve got to see a man about a dog.”
11. Toe the line — means to conform to defined rules or standards. Original meaning was to position one’s toes next to a marked line to be ready to start a race or some other undertaking. Example: You need to toe the line and do what you are told.
“The secret of joy in work is contained in one word – excellence. To know how to do something well is to enjoy it.”
~ Pearl Buck
requisite REK-wuh-zit, adjective:
1. Required by the nature of things or by circumstances; indispensable.
2.That which is required or necessary; something indispensable.
Requisite derives from Latin requisitus, past participle of requirere, “to require.”
301 – San Marino, one of the smallest nations in the world and the world’s oldest republic still in existence, is founded by Saint Marinus.
1609 – Henry Hudson discovered the island of Manhattan. The exact date is not known.
1709 – The first major group of Swiss and German colonists reached the Carolinas.
1752 – The Gregorian Adjustment to the calendar was put into effect in Great Britain and the American colonies followed. Now 11 days needed to be accounted for and Sept. 2 was selected to be followed by Sept. 14. People rioted thinking the government stole 11 days of their lives.
1777 – Revolutionary War: Cooch’s Bridge – Skirmish of the Revolutionary War in New Castle County, Delaware where the Flag of the United States was flown in battle for the first time by a force under General William Maxwell.
1783 – Revolutionary War: The war ends with the signing of the Treaty of Paris by the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain. The treaty bears the signatures of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and John Jay.
1783 – Mackinac Island, Michigan, passed into US hands following the Paris Peace Treaty.
1811 – John Humphrey Noyes was born in Vermont. He founded the Oneida Community (Perfectionists) in 1848.
1812 – Settlers are killed in the Pigeon Roost Massacre in Indiana. a band of about a dozen marauders, said to have been Shawnees, who, scouring the locality and going from cabin to cabin, murdered within a space of an hour, twenty-two persons, sixteen of them being children and five of them women.
1826 – The USS Vincennes commanded by William Finch, leaves New York City to become first United States warship to circumnavigate the globe.
1833 – The first successful penny newspaper was published. Benjamin H. Day issued the first copy of “The New York Sun”. By 1826, circulation was the largest in the country at 30,000. New York’s population was over 250,000.
1838 – Dressed in a sailor’s uniform and carrying identification papers provided by a Free Black seaman, future abolitionist Frederick Douglass boards a train in Maryland on his way to freedom from slavery.
1855 – Indian Wars: In Nebraska, 700 soldiers under American General William S. Harney avenge the Grattan Massacre by attacking Little Thunder’s Brule Sioux at the Battle of Blue Water in Nebraska. They killed 100 men, women, and children.
1861 – Civil War: Confederate General Leonidas Polk invades neutral Kentucky, prompting the state legislature to ask for Union assistance.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Berryville, VA.
1891 – Cotton pickers organized a union & strike in Texas.
1895 – The first professional American football game is played, in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, between the Latrobe YMCA and the Jeannette Athletic Club. (Latrobe won the contest 12-0).
1901 – Miss Ellen Stone, a Protestant missionary from Haverhill, Mass., was kidnapped in Bulgaria by a Macedonian revolutionary gang, who demanded $110,000 in gold.
1902 – Start of Sherlock Holmes “Adventure of Illustrious Client.”
1906 – Joe Gans defended his lightweight boxing title against Battling Nelson in Goldfield, Nevada. He was the first African-American World Boxing Champion.
1908 – Orville Wright began two weeks of flight trials that impressed onlookers with his complete control of his new Type A Military Flyer. In addition to setting an altitude record of 310 feet and an endurance record of more than one hour, he had carried aloft the first military observer, Lieutenant Frank Lahm.
1918 – The United States recognized the nation of Czechoslovakia.
1918 – Five soldiers were hanged for alleged participation in the Houston Race Riot of 1917, or the Camp Logan Riot. It was a mutiny by 156 African American soldiers of the Third Battalion of the all-black Twenty-fourth United States Infantry. It occupied most of one night, and resulted in the deaths of four soldiers and sixteen civilians.
1918 – World War I: Allies forced Germans back across Hindenburg Line.
1925 – The dirigible “Shenandoah” crashed near Caldwell Ohio. The 682-foot Shenandoah, a dirigible built by the U.S. Navy in 1923, broke apart in mid-air, killing fourteen persons aboard.
1928 – Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) discovered, by accident, that the mold penicillin has an antibiotic effect.
1929 – The Dow Jones industrial average closed at 381.17. It was the peak of the bull market of the 1920s.
1935 – Sir Malcolm Campbell reaches 304.331 miles per hour on the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, becoming the first person to drive an automobile over 300 mph.
1938 – The 1940 Olympic site was changed from Tokyo, Japan, to Helsinki, Finland.
1939 – World War II: Europe: Britain and France declared war on Germany, two days after the Nazi invasion of Poland. After Germany ignored Great Britain’s ultimatum to stop the invasion of Poland, Great Britain declares war on Germany, marking the beginning of World War II in Europe.
1940 – Artie Shaw and his Gramercy Five recorded “Summit Ridge Drive,” “Special Delivery Stomp,” “Keepin’ Myself for You” and “Cross Your Heart” in Hollywood for RCA Victor.
1940 – The first showing of high definition color TV.
1940 – World War II: Europe: US gave Britain fifty destroyers in exchange for Newfoundland base lease.
1940 – World War II: Europe: In France more than 700,000 books were seized from bookshops and destroyed. The “Otto lists,” or liste Otto, were comprised of books banned by the German occupying authorities in Vichy France.
1940 – World War II: Europe: In Germany the SS banned Free Masons, Rotary & Red Cross.
1941 – World War II: Europe: Nazis made the first use of Zyclon-B gas in Auschwitz on Russian prisoners of war. Karl Fritzsch was the deputy camp commandant responsible.
1942 – World War II: In response to news of its coming liquidation, Dov Lopatyn leads an uprising in the Ghetto of Lakhva, in present-day Belarus.
1943 – World War II: Mainland Italy is invaded by Allied forces for the first time in the war.
1944 – World War II: US forces entered Belgium at Peruwelz led by reconnaissance scout James W. Carroll on his Harley-Davidson motorcycle.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust: The 68th & last transport of Dutch Jews including diarist Anne Frank and her family are placed on the transport train from Westerbork to Auschwitz, arriving three days later.
1944 – World War II: The U.S. Seventh Army captured Lyons, France. French troops liberate Lyon.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Till the End of Time” by Perry Como, “On the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe” by Johnny Mercer, “Gotta Be This or That” by Benny Goodman and “You Two-Time Me One Time Too Often” by Tex Ritter all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: General Tomoyuki Yamashita, the Japanese commander of the Philippines, surrendered to Lieutenant General Jonathan Wainwright at Baguio.
1951 – The television soap opera “Search for Tomorrow” made its debut on CBS. From 1953 to 1955 it featured Don Knotts as the neurotic Wilbur Peterson.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Walking Behind You” by Eddie Fisher, “No Other Love” by Perry Como, “Vaya Con Dios” by Les Paul & Mary Ford and “A Dear John Letter” by Jean Shepard & Ferlin Husky all topped the charts.
1954 – The US Espionage & Sabotage Act of 1954 signed.
1956 – Tanks were deployed against racist demonstrators in Clinton, Tennessee.
1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wooden Heart” by Joe Dowell, “Michael” by The Highwaymen, “You Don’t Know What You’ve Got (Until You Lose It)” by Ral Donner and “Tender Years” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1961 – The federal minimum wage was raised to $1.15 per hour. An amendment extended coverage of the $1.00 wage primarily to employees in large retail and service enterprises as well as to local transit, construction, and gasoline service station employees.
1964 – President Johnson (D) signed the Wilderness Act and designated 9 million acres as an area “where the Earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.”
1963 – The federal minimum wage was raised to $1.25 for all under the original “1938 Fair Labor and Standards Act”.
1964 – US attorney general Robert Kennedy resigned.
1964 – The federal minimum wage was raised to $1.15 for those covered by the 1961 Amendments.
1965 – Preparing a move to Anaheim, the LA Angels baseball team change their name to California Angels.
1965 – The federal minimum wage was raised to $1.25 for those covered by the 1961 Amendments.
1966 – The 24th World Sci-Fi Convention honored Gene Roddenberry.
1967 – The original version of the television game show “What’s My Line?,” hosted by John Charles Daly, broadcast its final episode after more than 17 years on CBS.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Honky Tonk Women” by The Rolling Stones, “Sugar, Sugar” by The Archies, “Put a Little Love in Your Heart” by Jackie DeShannon and “A Boy Named Sue” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1970 – Vince Lombardi (57), Green Bay Packers and Washington Redskins football coach, died in Washington, D.C.
1971 – The Watergate team broke into Daniel Ellsberg’s psychiatrist’s office.
1972 – In San Francisco the Playland-at-the-Beach amusement park was bulldozed on Labor Day Weekend.
1976 – Viking program: The Viking 2 spacecraft lands at Utopia Planitia on Mars and takes the first close-up, color photos of the planet’s surface.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Best of My Love” by Emotions, “I Just Want to Be Your Everything” by Andy Gibb, “(Your Love Has Lifted Me) Higher and Higher” by Rita Coolidge and “Don’t It Make My Brown Eyes Blue” by Crystal Gayle all topped the charts.
1977 – The “Mary Tyler Moore Show” was last broadcast on NBC-TV.
1979 – Hurricane David struck along the central Florida coast, leaving several people dead and millions of dollars in damage.
1980 – Prof. W. Jackson Davis of UC Santa Cruz uncovered a report that indicated government officials had been aware for almost 20 years that nuclear waste containers, dumped off the California coast, were damaged and leaking.
1981 – California Gov. Jerry Brown signed a law making Martin Luther King’s birthday a state holiday. The legislation was the result of four years of efforts by students at Oakland Tech High School.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Power of Love” by Huey Lewis & The News, “St. Elmo’s Fire (Man in Motion)” by John Parr, “Freeway of Love” by Aretha Franklin and “Love is Alive” by The Judds all topped the charts.
1986 – In Connecticut Barbara Pelkey (30) of Wallingford, a New Haven suburb, was raped and murdered. Kenneth Ireland (20) was convicted in 1989 and sentenced to 50 years in prison. In 2009 Ireland was released from prison and granted a new trial after DNA testing showed he could not have committed the crime.
1988 – On the presidential campaign trail, Democrat Michael Dukakis paid a visit to Ellis Island in New York, while Republican George Bush met reporters at his official Washington residence.
1989 – “Into the Woods” closed at Martin Beck Theater NYC after 764 performances.
1990 – Dr. David Acer, a Florida dentist, died of AIDS after apparently infecting five of his patients with the HIV virus.
1991 – In Hamlet, North Carolina, a grease fire breaks out at the Imperial Foods chicken processing plant, killing 25 people.
1992 – Baseball owners voted 18-9-1 to ask commissioner Fay Vincent to resign.
1993 – The US Labor Department reported the nation’s unemployment rate edged down to a two-year low of 6.7 percent the previous month.
1997 -Arizona Gov. Fife Symington, the great-grandson of steel baron Henry Clay Frick, was found guilty by a jury on 7 counts of lying to get millions in loans to shore up his collapsing real estate empire. He was later pardoned.
1997 -The U.S. Senate voted to ban most federal financing for abortions provided by the managed-care industry.
1999 – NASA temporarily grounded its space shuttle fleet after inspections had uncovered damaged wires that could endanger a mission.
2000 – In California 5.2 earthquake was centered in Napa and injured over 40 people.
2001 – St. Louis Cardinals pitcher Bud Smith became the 16th rookie in modern history to throw a no-hitter, shutting down San Diego in a 4-0 win.
2001 – Hewlett-Packard announced plans to buy Compaq Computer in a $25 billion stock swap. The bid was expected to eliminate as many as 15,000 jobs.
2001 – FBI snipers shot and killed Grover T. Crosslin (47) at his Rainbow Farms campground in Vandalia, Mich., following a 4-day standoff. Crosslin was burning buildings on his property, which was the target of civil forfeiture proceedings.
2002 – The US Senate opened debate on legislation creating a new Homeland Security Department.
2002 – McDonald’s announced it will use a new soy-corn oil to reduce the levels of trans fat and increase polyunsaturated fat in its fried products.
2002 -The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 355 to 8308. Nasdaq fell 51 to 1263.
2003 – Paul Hill, a former minister who said he murdered an abortion doctor and his bodyguard to save the lives of unborn babies, was executed in Florida by injection, becoming the first person put to death in the United States for anti-abortion violence.
2004-US Medicare announced a 17.4% increase in premiums for doctor visits.
2004 – The Beslan school massacre ends in the deaths of approximately 344 people, mostly teachers and children.
2004 – Former President Clinton was hospitalized in New York with chest pains and shortness of breath; he ended up undergoing heart bypass surgery.
2005 – President Bush ordered more than 7,000 active duty forces to the Gulf Coast as his administration intensified efforts to rescue survivors and send aid to the hurricane-ravaged Gulf Coast in the face of criticism it did not act quickly enough.
2005 – In Nevada over 35,000 people gathered in the Black Rock Desert for the 20th burning of the Burning Man.
2005 – US Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist (80), 33 years on the Supreme Court died in Arlington, Va. He oversaw the high court’s conservative shift and presided over the impeachment trial of President Clinton.
2006 – Nina Reiser (31) of Oakland, Ca., went missing. On Oct 10 police arrested Hans Reiser (42), her estranged husband on suspicion of murder.
2007 – Steve Fossett (b.1944), tycoon turned record seeker, disappeared in Nevada after flying from the Flying M Ranch, owned by billionaire Baron Hilton. In 2002 Fosset became the first person to fly around the world in a balloon. Portions of his remains were found October 2, 2008.
2007 – A fire began east of Morgan Hill, Ca., that burned 47,760 acres in and around Henry W. Coe State Park. Margaret Pavese was later charged with a misdemeanor for accidentally starting the fire when burning trash near her cabin.
2007 – In California temperatures headed back toward triple digits, the seventh day of a heat wave that has contributed to blackouts leaving thousands without air conditioning.
2008 – In Pasadena, Texas, a suburb of Houston, Dannette Gillespie (38) orchestrated her daughter (15) and Vanessa Anne Ocampo (19) in the robbery and killing of Eugene Palma (75), which netted them $15. On Sep 7 all three were charged with murder.
2009 – The San Francisco Bay Bridge was completely shut down at 8pm to replace a 300-foot section of the bridge as part of the project to replace the entire eastern span by 2013. The original estimated cost of $132 million was now projected at $527.6 million.
2009 – In the US Virgin Islands two ticket agent contractors who worked for Delta Airlines and an airport employee were arrested after being indicted by a federal grand jury on charges of conspiracy to smuggle illegal immigrants into the US.
2010 – A weakened Hurricane Earl delivered only a glancing blow to North Carolina’s Outer Banks on its way up the East Coast, flooding roads on the narrow vacation islands and knocking out power but staying farther offshore than feared.
2010 – BP successfully replaced a failed blowout preventer from atop its ruptured Gulf of Mexico oil well.
2011 – Heavy rains from Tropical Storm Lee were falling in southern Louisiana and pelting the Gulf Coast as the storm’s center trudged slowly toward land.
2012 – In Minnesota the Black Bear Casino Resort near Carlton cooked up a world-record bacon cheeseburger that’s 10 feet in diameter and weighed a record 2,014 pounds. It included 60 pounds of bacon, 50 pounds of lettuce, 50 pounds of sliced onions, 40 pounds of pickles and 40 pounds of cheese.
2012 – Democrats unveiled a party platform at their national convention in Charlotte, North Carolina, that echoes President Barack Obama’s call for higher taxes on wealthier Americans while backing same-sex marriage and abortion rights.
2013 – The president of the Casper, Wyo., NAACP met behind closed doors with an organizer of the KKK chapter from Great Falls, Mont. — and the meeting actually ended with a crossover membership. The meeting — between Jimmy Simmons of the NAACP with John Abarr of the KKK — was the first of its kind in history.
2013 – Ariel Castro, sentenced to life in prison for the kidnapping, rape and beatings of three Cleveland women he held captive for years in his house, was found hanged in his prison cell.
1925 – Hank Thompson, American singer (d. 2007)
1942 – Al Jardine, American musician (the Beach Boys)
KRZYZOWSKI, EDWARD C.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Company B, 9th Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Tondul, Korea, from 31 August to 3 September 1951. Entered service at: Cicero, Ill. Born: 16 January 1914, Chicago, Ill. G.O. No.: 56, 12 June 1952. Citation: Capt. Krzyzowski, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy as commanding officer of Company B. Spearheading an assault against strongly defended Hill 700, his company came under vicious crossfire and grenade attack from enemy bunkers. Creeping up the fire-swept hill, he personally eliminated one bunker with his grenades and wiped out a second with carbine fire. Forced to retire to more tenable positions for the night, the company, led by Capt. Krzyzowski, resumed the attack the following day, gaining several hundred yards and inflicting numerous casualties. Overwhelmed by the numerically superior hostile force, he ordered his men to evacuate the wounded and move back. Providing protective fire for their safe withdrawal, he was wounded again by grenade fragments, but refused evacuation and continued to direct the defense. On 3 September, he led his valiant unit in another assault which overran several hostile positions, but again the company was pinned down by murderous fire. Courageously advancing alone to an open knoll to plot mortar concentrations against the hill, he was killed instantly by an enemy sniper’s fire. Capt. Krzyzowski’s consummate fortitude, heroic leadership, and gallant self-sacrifice, so clearly demonstrated throughout three days of bitter combat, reflect the highest credit and lasting glory on himself, the infantry, and the U.S. Army.
GOMEZ, EDUARDO C.
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Company 1, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: September 3, 1950, Tabu-dong, Korea . Born: October 28, 1919, Los Angeles, CA, Entered Service at: Departed: Yes (01/29/1972) Date Issued: 3/18/2014
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Sergeant Eduardo C. Gomez distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving with Company I, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Tabu-dong, Korea on September 3, 1950. That afternoon, while conducting combat patrol, Sergeant Gomez’ company was ruthlessly attacked by a hostile force which moved within seventy-five yards of the command post before it was immobilized by rocket fire. However, an enemy tank and multiple enemy machineguns continued to rake the company perimeter with devastating fire. Realizing the tank posed a serious threat to the entire perimeter, Sergeant Gomez voluntarily crawled thirty yards across an open rice field vulnerable to enemy observation and fire, boarded the tank, pried open one of the hatches on the turret and dropped an activated grenade into the hull, killing the crew. Wounded in the left side while returning to his position, Sergeant Gomez refused evacuation. Observing that the tripod of a .30 caliber machinegun was rendered inoperable by enemy fire, he cradled the weapon in his arms, returned to the forward defensive positions, and swept the assaulting force with withering fire. Although his weapon overheated and burned his hands and his painful wound still bled, Sergeant Gomez maintained his stand and, upon orders to withdraw in the face of overwhelming enemy superiority, remained to provide protective fire. Sergeant Gomez continued to pour accurate fire into the enemy ranks, exacting a heavy toll in casualties and retarding their advance. Sergeant Gomez would not consent to leave his post for medical attention until the company established new defensive positions. Sergeant Gomez’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
OUELLETTE, JOSEPH R.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company H, 9th Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Yongsan, Korea, from 31 August to 3 September 1950. Entered service at: Lowell, Mass. Birth: Lowell, Mass. G.O. No.: 25, 25 April 1951. Citation: Pfc. Ouellette distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action against the enemy in the Makioug-Chang River salient. When an enemy assault cut off and surrounded his unit he voluntarily made a reconnaissance of a nearby hill under intense enemy fire to locate friendly troop positions and obtain information of the enemy’s strength and location. Finding that friendly troops were not on the hill, he worked his way back to his unit under heavy fire. Later, when an airdrop of water was made outside the perimeter, he again braved enemy fire in an attempt to retrieve water for his unit. Finding the dropped cans broken and devoid of water, he returned to his unit. His heroic attempt greatly increased his comrades’ morale. When ammunition and grenades ran low, Pfc. Ouellette again slipped out of the perimeter to collect these from the enemy dead. After collecting grenades he was attacked by an enemy soldier. He killed this enemy in hand-to-hand combat, gathered up the ammunition, and returned to his unit. When the enemy attacked on 3 September, they assaulted his position with grenades. On six occasions Pfc. Ouellette leaped from his foxhole to escape exploding grenades. In doing so, he had to face enemy small-arms fire. He continued his resistance, despite a severe wound, until he lost his life. The extraordinary heroism and intrepidity displayed by Pfc. Ouellette reflect the highest credit on himself and are in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the military service.
WATKINS, TRAVIS E.
Rank and organization: Master Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company H, 9th Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division Place and date: Near Yongsan, Korea, 31 August through 3 September 1950. Entered service at: Texas. Birth: Waldo, Ark. G.O. No.: 9, 16 February 1951. Citation: M/Sgt. Watkins distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. When an overwhelming enemy force broke through and isolated 30 men of his unit, he took command, established a perimeter defense and directed action which repelled continuous, fanatical enemy assaults. With his group completely surrounded and cut off, he moved from foxhole to foxhole exposing himself to enemy fire, giving instructions and offering encouragement to his men. Later when the need for ammunition and grenades became critical. He shot two enemy soldiers 50 yards outside the perimeter and went out alone for their ammunition and weapons. As he picked up their weapons he was attacked by three others and wounded. Returning their fire he killed all three and gathering up the weapons of the five enemy dead returned to his amazed comrades. During a later assault, six enemy soldiers gained a defiladed spot and began to throw grenades into the perimeter making it untenable. Realizing the desperate situation and disregarding his wound he rose from his foxhole to engage them with rifle fire. Although immediately hit by a burst from an enemy machine gun he continued to fire until he had killed the grenade throwers. With this threat eliminated he collapsed and despite being paralyzed from the waist down, encouraged his men to hold on. He refused all food, saving it for his comrades, and when it became apparent that help would not arrive in time to hold the position ordered his men to escape to friendly lines. Refusing evacuation as his hopeless condition would burden his comrades, he remained in his position and cheerfully wished them luck. Through his aggressive leadership and intrepid actions, this small force destroyed nearly five-hundred of the enemy before abandoning their position. M/Sgt. Watkins’ sustained personal bravery and noble self-sacrifice reflect the highest glory upon himself and is in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel (then Captain), 2d Battalion, 60th Infantry Regiment, 9th Infantry Division, US Army. Place and date: Renouf, France, 14 June to 3 September 1944. Entered service at: Fort Bragg, North Carolina, 2 July 1941. Date and place of birth: 25 August 1919, Buffalo, New York. Lieutenant Colonel (then Captain) Matt Urban, l 12-22-2414, United States Army, who distinguished himself by a series of bold, heroic actions, exemplified by singularly outstanding combat leadership, personal bravery, and tenacious devotion to duty, during the period 14 June to 3 September 1944 while assigned to the 2d Battalion, 60th Infantry Regiment, 9th Infantry Division. On 14 June, Captain Urban’s company, attacking at Renouf, France, encountered heavy enemy small arms and tank fire. The enemy tanks were unmercifully raking his unit’s positions and inflicting heavy casualties. Captain Urban, realizing that his company was in imminent danger of being decimated, armed himself with a bazooka. He worked his way with an ammo carrier through hedgerows, under a continuing barrage of fire, to a point near the tanks. He brazenly exposed himself to the enemy fire and, firing the bazooka, destroyed both tanks. Responding to Captain Urban’s action, his company moved forward and routed the enemy. Later that same day, still in the attack near Orglandes, Captain Urban was wounded in the leg by direct fire from a 37mm tank-gun. He refused evacuation and continued to lead his company until they moved into defensive positions for the night. At 0500 hours the next day, still in the attack near Orglandes, Captain Urban, though badly wounded, directed his company in another attack. One hour later he was again wounded. Suffering from two wounds, one serious, he was evacuated to England. In mid-July, while recovering from his wounds, he learned of his unit’s severe losses in the hedgerows of Normandy. Realizing his unit’s need for battle-tested leaders, he voluntarily left the hospital and hitchhiked his way back to his unit hear St. Lo, France. Arriving at the 2d Battalion Command Post at 1130 hours, 25 July, he found that his unit had jumped-off at 1100 hours in the first attack of Operation Cobra.” Still limping from his leg wound, Captain Urban made his way forward to retake command of his company. He found his company held up by strong enemy opposition. Two supporting tanks had been destroyed and another, intact but with no tank commander or gunner, was not moving. He located a lieutenant in charge of the support tanks and directed a plan of attack to eliminate the enemy strong-point. The lieutenant and a sergeant were immediately killed by the heavy enemy fire when they tried to mount the tank. Captain Urban, though physically hampered by his leg wound and knowing quick action had to be taken, dashed through the scathing fire and mounted the tank. With enemy bullets ricocheting from the tank, Captain Urban ordered the tank forward and, completely exposed to the enemy fire, manned the machine gun and placed devastating fire on the enemy. His action, in the face of enemy fire, galvanized the battalion into action and they attacked and destroyed the enemy position. On 2 August, Captain Urban was wounded in the chest by shell fragments and, disregarding the recommendation of the Battalion Surgeon, again refused evacuation. On 6 August, Captain Urban became the commander of the 2d Battalion. On 15 August, he was again wounded but remained with his unit. On 3 September, the 2d Battalion was given the mission of establishing a crossing-point on the Meuse River near Heer, Belgium. The enemy planned to stop the advance of the allied Army by concentrating heavy forces at the Meuse. The 2d Battalion, attacking toward the crossing-point, encountered fierce enemy artillery, small arms and mortar fire which stopped the attack. Captain Urban quickly moved from his command post to the lead position of the battalion. Reorganizing the attacking elements, he personally led a charge toward the enemy’s strong-point. As the charge moved across the open terrain, Captain Urban was seriously wounded in the neck. Although unable to talk above a whisper from the paralyzing neck wound, and in danger of losing his life, he refused to be evacuated until the enemy was routed and his battalion had secured the crossing-point on the Meuse River. Captain Urban’s personal leadership, limitless bravery, and repeated extraordinary exposure to enemy fire served as an inspiration to his entire battalion. His valorous and intrepid actions reflect the utmost credit on him and uphold the noble traditions of the United States.
|GILLENWATER, JAMES R.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: Near Porac, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 3 September 1899. Entered service at: Rye Cove, Va. Birth: Rye Cove Va. Date of issue: 15 March 1902. Citation: While on a scout drove off a superior force of insurgents and with the assistance of one comrade brought from the field of action the bodies of two other comrades, one killed and the other severely wounded.
|LEAHY, CORNELIUS J.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: Near Porac, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 3 September 1899. Entered service at: San Francisco, Calif. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 3 May 1902. Citation: Distinguished gallantry in action in driving off a superior force and with the assistance of one comrade brought from the field of action the bodies of two other comrades, one killed and the other severely wounded, this while on a scout.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 42d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Masons Island, Md., 3 September 1861. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 28 September 1841, Ireland. Date of issue: 22 March 1898. Citation: Assisted a wounded comrade to the riverbank and, under heavy fire of the enemy, swam with him across a branch of the Potomac to the Union lines.
V-J Day (the formal signing)
7 Up (or Seven Up) is a brand of a lemon-lime flavored soft drink. The franchise for the brand is held by Dr Pepper/Seven Up in the United States, by Britvic in Great Britain, by C&C in Ireland and by PepsiCo in the rest of the world.
The product has been reformulated several times since its launch in 1929; in 2006, it underwent another reformulation, becoming “100% Natural” with five ingredients: “filtered carbonated water, high fructose corn syrup, natural citric acid, natural flavors, natural potassium citrate”.
The origin of the 7 Up name is not clear. The most popular story is that its creator named the soft drink after seeing a cattle brand with the number 7 and the letter u. Other rumors suggest that the name reflects the drink’s seven flavors and carbonation, that the bottle contained seven ounces, that its creator came up with the name while playing dice, or that even it was the 7th large commercial lemonade brand that taste the same.
Marketing Themes over the years:
You Like It, It Likes You (1936)
The Fresh Up Family Drink (1952)
Fresh up with 7 Up (1957)
Nothing does it like 7 Up! (1958)
Get real action, 7 Up your thirst away (1963-1964)
Wet ‘n’ Wild (1965, 1966)
The (Diet) Uncola. (1967-1990s) (some with charismatic actor Geoffrey Holder)
Crisp refreshing 7 Up (1960s-1970s)
It’s 7 Up, it’s Uncola (1975)
UNdo it with 7 Up (1977-78)
America is turning 7 Up (1978-79)
Feelin’ 7 Up (1980)
Canada’s turning 7 Up (1980) Canada
7 Up, The Difference is Clear (1982)
Never Had It, Never Will (1980s, reference to 7 Up not containing caffeine)
The feeling of Christmas. (December 1980s)
Put some Un in your life (diet). (early 1990s)
When you want the taste of UN, there’s only one (early 1990s, used concurrently with previous slogan)
On the spot. (late 1980s – early 1990s)
Now that’s refreshing. (1990s)
6 Up was not enough. We went one louder. (1994)
It’s an up thing. (1995)
Make 7 Up Yours. (1999)
Are you an Un? (Late 1990s-Early 2000s)
Seven flavors in one drink. (2008)
“Bheja fry .. 7 Up try” (2008)
“It’s way more better than cola, it’s 7 Up (Secondary Slogan used with Richard Karn to promote summer 7 Up commercials)
Ridiculously Bubbly. (2009, in spots with Brad Garrett)
“Failures are few among people who have found a work they like enough to do it well. You invest money in your work; invest love in it too. Like your work. Like the materials and the tools with which you work. Like the people with whom you work. Like the place where you work. It pays well.”
~ Clarence E. Flynn
explicate EK-spluh-kayt, transitive verb:
To explain; to clear of difficulties or obscurity.
Explicate comes from Latin explicare, “to unfold; to unfold the meaning or sense of; to explain, expound, or interpret,” from ex-, “out” + plicare, “to fold.”
490 BC – Phidippides runs first marathon seeking aid from Sparta vs Persia
44 BC – Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion.
44 BC – The first of Cicero’s Philippics (oratorical attacks) on Mark Antony. He will make 14 of them altogether.
31 BC – Roman Civil War: Battle of Actium – Off the western coast of Greece, forces of Octavian defeat troops under Mark Antony and Cleopatra.
1666 – The Great Fire of London breaks out and burns for three days, destroying 10,000 buildings including St. Paul’s Cathedral.The fire, having started at Pudding Lane, began to demolish about four-fifths of London. It started at the house of King Charles II’s baker, Thomas Farrinor, after he forgot to extinguish his oven.
1775 – The Hurricane of Independence was a hurricane that hit the Outer Banks of North Carolina. in September of 1775. It is believed to have killed at least 4,140 people, making it the eighth deadliest Atlantic hurricane of all time. In an era where hurricanes were viewed as omens from God, what this storm meant to the colonists about the justness of their cause would yield unexpected results.
1775 – Hannah, the first American war vessel was commissioned by General George Washington.
1789 – The Treasury Department, headed by Alexander Hamilton, was created in New York City.
1838 – Lydia Kamekeha Liliuokalani (d.1917), last sovereign before annexation of Hawaii by the United States, was born. Lili’uokalani, the last monarch of Hawaii (1891-1893). She composed Hawaii’s most famous song “Aloha Oe.”
1842 – A letter by Abraham Lincoln (31) in the Sangamon Journal satirized the Illinois State Auditor’s call for state taxes to be paid in silver or gold. This in part led auditor James Shields to challenge Lincoln to a duel.
1858 – Lincoln makes speech about when you can fool people. Tradition has come to attribute this quote to his speech at Clinton, IL on September 2, 1858 where he stated: “You can fool all the people some of the time and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time.”
1862 – Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln reluctantly restores Union General George McClellan to full command after General John Pope’s disastrous defeat at the Battle of Second Bull Run.
1864 – Civil War: Union Gen. William T. Sherman’s forces enter Atlanta, Georgia a day after the Confederate defenders flee the city.
1870 – Samuel Augustus Maverick (b.1803), Texas lawyer, politician, land baron and signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence, died. His name is the source of the term “maverick”, first cited in 1867, which means independent minded.
1883 – Oberlin College is founded by John Shipherd and Philo P. Stewart.
1885 – One hundred-fifty white miners in Rock Springs, Wyoming, brutally attack their Chinese coworkers, killing 28, wounding 15 others, and driving several hundred more out of town.
1894 – Forest fires ravaged over 160,000 acres and destroyed Hinckley, Minnesota. About 600 people died.
1897 – The first issue of “McCall’s” magazine was published. The magazine had been known previously as “Queens Magazine” and “Queen of Fashion.”
1901 – Vice President Theodore Roosevelt utters the famous phrase, “Speak softly and carry a big stick” at the Minnesota State Fair.
1910 – Alice Stebbins Wells was admitted to the Los Angeles Police Force as the first woman police officer to receive an appointment based on a civil service exam.
1918 – Baseball season ends due to WW I.
1921 – First Miss America contest held in Atlantic City, has eight entries.
1921 – At the Battle of Blair Mountain in West Virginia an army of 10 to 15 thousand miners and their families faced a private army of some 2,000 men and 2,100 state and federal troops.
1925 – The U.S. Zeppelin the USS Shenandoah crashes, killing 14.
1927 – Sophie Tucker recorded her signature song, “Some of These Days.”
1930 – First non-stop airplane flight from Europe to US (37 hrs). Dieudonne Costes and Le Brix fly the Breguet 19 Super Bidon biplane “Point d’Interrogation” (Question Mark) in first nonstop westbound fixed-wing aircraft flight between European and American mainlands, over the North Atlantic, 3,852 miles from Paris to New York City.
1931 – “15 Minutes with Bing Crosby” debuted on CBS. Crosby’s Legendary Years
1935 – Labor Day Hurricane of 1935: A large hurricane hits the Florida Keys. Estimates of the dead reached 500-800. Some 260 WW I veterans were killed in the Labor Day hurricane as well as over 160 permanent residents. Prior to 1950, hurricanes weren’t named at all.
1936 – First transatlantic round-trip air flight. The flight, originating in the United States, is made by Richard Merrill and Harry Richman flying the “Lady Peace”.
1938 – The first railroad car equipped with fluorescent lighting.
1940 – The US Great Smoky Mountains National Park dedicated.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be Seeing You” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Frank Sinatra), “Swinging on a Star” by Bing Crosby, “It Could Happen to You” by Jo Stafford and “Soldier’s Last Letter” by Ernest Tubb all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: Troops of the U.S. First Army entered Belgium.
1944 – World War II: George Bush ejects from a burning plane. Bush piloted one of four aircraft from VT-51 that attacked the Japanese installations on Chichi Jima. Bush waited four hours in his inflated raft, several fighters circled protectively overhead until he was rescued by the lifeguard submarine U.S.S. Finback. For this action Bush received the Distinguished Flying Cross.
1945 – World War II: Combat ends in the Pacific Theater: the Instrument of Surrender of Japan is signed by Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu and accepted aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
1950 – “Goodnight Irene” by the Weavers with Gordon Jenkins topped the charts.
1950 – In Oakland, Ca., the Children’s Fairyland opened at Lake Merritt. 6,000 children streamed through the instep of Old Mother Hubbard’s Shoe. Walt Disney based his theme park on Fairyland and stole away the first director, Dorothy Manes, with a higher salary. It was reconstructed in 1998.
1951 – Korean War: Twenty-two F-86 Sabre jets clashed with 40 MiG-15s in a 30-minute dogfight over the skies between Sinuiju and Pyongyang. The air battle resulted in the destruction of four MiGs.
1951 – Korean War: Marine Helicopter Transport Squadron 161, equipped with HRS-1s, arrived Pusan, Korea.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Auf Wiedersehn, Sweetheart” by Vera Lynn, “Walkin’ My Baby Back Home” by Johnnie Ray, “Half as Much” by Rosemary Clooney and “It Wasn’t God Who Made Honky Tonk Angels” by Kitty Wells all topped the charts.
1952 – Dr. Floyd J. Lewis first used a deep freeze technique in heart surgery.
1956 – Tennessee National Guardsmen halted rioters protesting the admission of twelve Blacks to schools in Clinton, TN.
1957 – Pres. Eisenhower signed the Price-Anderson Act, which limited firms’ liability in commercial nuclear disasters. The Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act, a United States federal law, has since been renewed several times since its passage.
1957 – Arkansas Gov. Orval Faubus (D) called out the National Guard to prevent nine black students from entering Central High School in Little Rock. Pres. Eisenhower soon responded with Federal troops to enforce federal law for integration. His father was a socialist.
1958 – President Eisenhower signed the National Defense Education Act, which provided aid to public and private education to promote learning in such fields as math and science.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Now or Never” by Elvis Presley, “Walk-Don’t Run” by The Ventures, “The Twist” by Chubby Checker and “Alabam” by Cowboy Copas all topped the charts.
1961 – “Wooden Heart” by Joe Dowell topped the charts.
1962 – Ken Hubbs, of the Chicago Cubs, set a major-league baseball fielding record when he played errorless for his 74th consecutive game.
1963 – CBS Evening News becomes U.S. network television’s first half-hour weeknight news broadcast, when the show is lengthened from 15 to 30 minutes.
1963 – The integration of Tuskegee High School was prevented by state troopers assigned by Alabama Gov. George Wallace (D). Wallace had the building surrounded by state troopers.
1965 – The Beatles received a gold record for their single “Help!”
1966 – Frank Robinson, professional baseball player, was named MVP of the American League.
1967 – “Ode to Billy Joe” by Bobbie Gentry topped the charts.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “People Got to Be Free” by The Rascals, “Born to Be Wild” by Steppenwolf, “Light My Fire” by Jose Feliciano and “Mama Tried” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1969 – The first automatic teller machine in the United States is installed in Rockville Center, New York.
1969 – The first Internet message was a packet switch delivered to UCLA from BBN Corp. (Bolt Beranek and Newman). The first two machines of ARPANET were connected at Prof. Len Kleinrock’s lab at UCLA.
1969 – NBC-TV canceled “Star Trek.” The show had debuted on September 8, 1966.
1971 – Cesar Cedeno hits an inside-the-park grand slammer primarily due to a collision between the 2nd baseman and the referee.
1972 – “Alone Again (Naturally)” by Gilbert O’Sullivan topped the charts.
1972 – Dave Wottle of the United States won the men’s 800-meter race at the Munich Summer Olympics.
1974 – Pres. Gerald Ford signed the Employee Retirement Income Security Act. It was passed partly in response to Studebaker employee pension losses in 1963.
1975 – Joseph W. Hatchett was sworn in as first Black supreme court justice in the South since Reconstruction. He served on the Florida Supreme Court.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Go Breaking My Heart” by Elton John & Kiki Dee, “You Should Be Dancing” by Bee Gees, “Let ’Em In” by Wings and “(I’m A) Stand by My Woman Man” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1978 – “Grease” by Frankie Valli topped the charts.
1978 – Graham Salmon set the world’s record for 100 meters by a blind man (11.4 seconds).
1980 – In the San Francisco Bay Area US District Judge William Ingram found Mafia boss Joseph Bonanno guilty of conspiracy to influence witnesses before a federal grand jury investigating the Santa Clara Valley business affairs of his two sons.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “What’s Love Got to Do with It” by Tina Turner, “Missing You” by John Waite, “Stuck on You” by Lionel Richie and “Let’s Fall to Pieces Together” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1984 – “Zorba” closed at the Broadway Theater in New York City after 362 performances.
1985 – It was announced that the Titanic had been found on September 1 by a U.S. and French expedition 560 miles off Newfoundland. The luxury liner had been missing for 73 years.
1986 – Cathy Evelyn Smith was sentenced to three years in prison for involuntary manslaughter in connection with the overdose death of John Belushi. She only served eighteen months.
1987 – In Moscow, the trial begins of 19-year-old pilot Mathias Rust, who flew his Cessna aircraft into Red Square in May 1987.
1988 – Democrat Michael Dukakis welcomed back former top aide John Sasso to his presidential campaign, nearly a year after Sasso resigned because of his role in torpedoing the campaign of Democratic Senator Joseph Biden.
1989 – “Cold Hearted” by Paula Abdul topped the charts.
1990 – Ninth no-hitter of 1990: Blue Jay Dave Steib beats Cleveland 3-0.
1990 – Brian Watkins (22), a tourist from Utah, was stabbed in the heart and died in New York City while defending his family from muggers.
1990 – Dozens of Americans reached freedom in the first major airlift of Westerners from Iraq during the month-old Persian Gulf crisis.
1992 – The United States and Russia agreed to build a space station.
1992 – The Southern California Gas Company purchased the first motor vehicles powered by natural gas.
1993 – The United States and Russia formally ended decades of competition in space by agreeing to a joint venture to build a space station.
1994 – The US government reported the nation’s unemployment rate for August was unchanged from July, at 6.1 percent.
1995 – The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame opens in Cleveland, Ohio.
1995 – President Clinton marked the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II, saying it taught Americans that “the blessings of freedom are never easy or free.”
1995 – “You Are Not Alone” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1996 – The US launched cruise missiles at selected air defense targets in Iraq to discourage Sadam Hussein’s military moves against a Kurd faction.
1997 – It was reported that 52,000 books, fiction and non-fiction, would be published this year in the US.
1997 – In Miami Beach, Florida US postal worker, Jesus Antonio Tamayo (64) shot and critically injured his former wife, Manuela Acosta (62) and a friend and then killed himself.
1998 – Tropical Storm Earl hit the Florida Panhandle. It was expected to reach hurricane strength with winds over 74 mph.
1998 – Tropical Storm Isis grew into a hurricane and hit the tip of Baja California.
1998 – A Swissair MD-11 jetliner crashed off Nova Scotia with 229 people aboard and all were feared dead. The New York to Geneva flight had 136 Americans on board.
1999 – Cal Ripken, Jr. hit his 400th home run.
1999 – President and Mrs. Clinton had signed a contract to purchase a $1.7 million house in Chappaqua, New York, ending a months-long guessing game over where the couple would live after leaving the White House.
2000 – The California opening for the 6,356 mile American Discovery Trail was celebrated at Crissy Field in San Francisco. The 15-state trail is the result of an 11-year effort backed by Backpacker Magazine and the American Hiking Society.
2000 – In Nevada some 28,000 people gathered for the finale of the Burning Man festival in the Black Rock Desert.
2001 – The Nevada Burning Man festival came to a close. Also burned was “The Mausoleum,” a plywood temple built over several weeks and dedicated to the dead.
2002 – Glenn Tilton was named chairman, president and chief executive officer of United Airlines parent UAL Corp.
2002 – Consolidated Freightways Corp. of Vancouver, Wa., filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and laid off 15,500 people nationwide.
2003 -A federal appeals court in San Francisco threw out more than 100 death sentences in Arizona, Montana and Idaho because the inmates had been sent to death row by judges instead of juries.
2003 – Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden says that his organization is working on “serious projects“, and that his priority is to usebiological weapons against the United States.
2003 -A forest fire erupts in the Gorge of the Columbia River to the east of Cascade Locks, Oregon, forcing the closure of a 47-mile section of Interstate 84.
2004 – Pres. Bush pledged “a safer world and a more hopeful America” as he accepted his party’s nomination for a second term at the Republican National Convention in New York.
2004 – A military jury at Camp Pendleton, Calif., convicted Marine Sgt. Gary Pittman of dereliction of duty and abuse of prisoners at a makeshift detention camp in Iraq.
2005 – Pres. Bush made a tour of damages from Hurricane Katrina in Alabama, Mississippi and New Orleans. He acknowledged that current relief results were not acceptable. A National Guard convoy packed with food, water and medicine rolled into New Orleans to bring relief suffering multitudes and put down the looting and violence.
2005 – In New Orleans Henry Glover (31) was shot and killed by police, who then burned his body. In 2010 a US federal grand jury indicted three current and two former New Orleans police officers in the shooting.
2005 – In New Orleans police Officer Ronald Mitchell shot and killed Danny Brumfeld (45) outside the city’s convention center. In 2011 Mitchell was convicted of lying about the aftermath of the deadly shooting.
2005 – The US Labor Department reported the August unemployment rate was 4.9%, a four-year low.
2006 – In Nevada’s Black Rock Desert the Burning Man art festival culminated with the burning of a 40-foot wooden man.
2006 – Offices of at least six Alaska legislators, including Republican Senate President Ben Stevens, son of the senior Republican U.S. Senator Ted Stevens, are raided by federal agents searching for possible ties between the lawmakers and VECO, an Anchorage based company whose executives are major contributors to political campaigns.
2008 – A gunman goes on a shooting spree that leaves six people, including a police deputy, dead, and four injured, in Alger, Washington,
2008 – Google’s new Web browser, named Chrome, became available for download.
2008 – New Orleans residents were blocked from returning home due to damage from Hurricane Gustav, but Mayor Nagin said they would be allowed back on Sep 4.
2009 – Two American journalists held by North Korea for illegal entry admit to crossing the border but claim North Korean guards arrested them on the Chinese side of the border and dragged them back into the country.
2009 – US federal prosecutors hit Pfizer Inc. with a record-breaking $2.3 billion in fines for illegal drug promotions surrounding the marketing of thirteen drugs.
2009 – BP announced the discovery of oil at its new Tiber Prospect oil reserve in the Gulf of Mexico. It later estimated the reserve held between four and six billion barrels of oil. Its Deepwater Horizon rig had drilled down seven miles to reach the oil.
2010 – The US Justice Dept. sued Joe Arpaio, the sheriff of Arizona’s Maricopa county, for failing to turn over documents in an investigation of his aggressive operations against illegal immigrants.
2010 – The US Postal Service issued a new 44-cent stamp recognizing Mother Teresa (1910-1997) for her humanitarian work.
2010 – A tropical storm warning is issued for the coast of Long Island in New York as Hurricane Earl approaches the east coast of the United States.
2010 – An oil rig explodes in the Gulf of Mexico, west of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig that exploded in April. No one was killed.
2012 – The Washington Post reported that U.S. special operations personnel temporarily halted the training of all Afghan army and police recruits while a full background check of 27,000 people is ongoing.
2013 – Endurance swimmer Diana Nyad became the first person to swim from Cuba to Florida without a shark cage arriving in Key West two days after starting her 110-mile trek. Nyad, 64, arrived at the beach just before 2 p.m. EDT, about 53 hours.
2014 – American journalist Steven Sotloff was beheaded by a bloody, murderous group called ISIS. President Obama had no comment.
2014 – A teacher, Patrick McLaw, in Cambridge, Maryland has been suspended from teaching, banned from school property, had his home searched, and been taken in for emergency medical evaluation because of a novel he wrote under a pseudonym in 2011, three years before he was hired. As part of this epic overreaction the school where McLaw taught was swept for bombs and guns and police remain on duty there.
1884 – Dr. Frank C. Laubach, Christian missionary (d. 1970)
1937 – Peter Ueberroth, American sport executive
1946 – Billy Preston, American musician (d. 2006)
1948 – Christa McAuliffe, the first civilian passenger on a space mission, was born in Boston, Mass. She and the six other crew members on the space shuttle Challenger perished in an explosion shortly after launch.
1948 – Terry Bradshaw, American football player
1952 – Jimmy Connors, American tennis player
|LEE, DANIEL W.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Troop A, 117th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron. Place and date: Montreval, France, 2 September 1944. Entered service at: Alma, Ga. Born: 23 June 1919, Alma, Ga. G.O. No.: 14, 4 February 1946. Citation: 1st Lt. (then 2d Lt. ) Daniel W. Lee was leader of Headquarters Platoon, Troop A, 117th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron, Mechanized, at Montreval, France, on 2 September 1944, when the Germans mounted a strong counterattack, isolating the town and engaging its outnumbered defenders in a pitched battle. After the fight had raged for hours and our forces had withstood heavy shelling and armor-supported infantry attacks, 2d Lt. Lee organized a patrol to knock out mortars which were inflicting heavy casualties on the beleaguered reconnaissance troops. He led the small group to the edge of the town, sweeping enemy riflemen out of position on a ridge from which he observed seven Germans manning two large mortars near an armored half-track about one hundred yards down the reverse slope. Armed with a rifle and grenades, he left his men on the high ground and crawled to within thirty yards of the mortars, where the enemy discovered him and unleashed machine-pistol fire which shattered his right thigh. Scorning retreat, bleeding and suffering intense pain, he dragged himself relentlessly forward He killed five of the enemy with rifle fire and the others fled before he reached their position. Fired on by an armored car, he took cover behind the German half-track and there found a panzerfaust with which to neutralize this threat. Despite his wounds, he inched his way toward the car through withering machinegun fire, maneuvering into range, and blasted the vehicle with a round from the rocket launcher, forcing it to withdraw. Having cleared the slope of hostile troops, he struggle back to his men, where he collapsed from pain and loss of blood. 2d Lt. Lee’s outstanding gallantry, willing risk of life, and extreme tenacity of purpose in coming to grips with the enemy, although suffering from grievous wounds, set an example of bravery and devotion to duty in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 3d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Dodge, Kans., 2 September 1868. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Bucks County, Pa. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: While detailed as mail courier from the fort, voluntarily went to the assistance of a party of four enlisted men, who were attacked by about fifty Indians at some distance from the fort and remained with them until the party was relieved.
Labor Day 2014
The first Labor Day holiday was celebrated on Tuesday, September 5, 1882, in New York City, in accordance with the plans of the Central Labor Union. The Central Labor Union held its second Labor Day holiday just a year later, on September 5, 1883.
In 1884 the first Monday in September was selected as the holiday, as originally proposed, and the Central Labor Union urged similar organizations in other cities to follow the example of New York and celebrate a “workingmen’s holiday” on that date. The idea spread with the growth of labor organizations, and in 1885 Labor Day was celebrated in many industrial centers of the country.
The first governmental recognition came through municipal ordinances passed during 1885 and 1886. From them developed the movement to secure state legislation. The first state bill was introduced into the New York legislature, but the first to become law was passed by Oregon on February 21, 1887.
Although the movement to have Labor Day had been happening for quite some time, in September 1892, union workers in New York City took an unpaid day off and gathered in Union Square to support the holiday.
In 1894 President Cleveland made a campaign promise to enact the holiday to win votes and he followed through with his promise. By this time 23 other states had adopted the holiday in honor of workers, and on June 28 of that year, Congress passed an act making the first Monday in September of each year a legal holiday in the District of Columbia and the territories.
In 1898, the head of the American Federation of Labor, Samuel Gompers, called it “the day for which the toilers in past centuries looked forward, when their rights and their wrongs would be discussed…that the workers of our day may not only lay down their tools of labor for a holiday, but upon which they may touch shoulders in marching phalanx and feel the stronger for it.”
The form that the observance and celebration of Labor Day should take were outlined in the first proposal of the holiday — a street parade to exhibit to the public “the strength and esprit de corps of the trade and labor organizations” of the community, followed by a festival for the recreation and amusement of the workers and their families. This became the pattern for the celebrations of Labor Day.
In 1909. by a resolution of the American Federation of Labor convention of that year, the Sunday preceding Labor Day was adopted as Labor Sunday and dedicated to the spiritual and educational aspects of the labor movement.
The character of the Labor Day celebration has undergone a change in recent years, especially in large industrial centers where mass displays and huge parades have proved a problem. This change, however, is more a shift in emphasis and medium of expression. The outrageous displays of violence and vile behavior in places such as Minnesota have started to turn Americans against the unions.
In 2011, on Sunday August 28th, the Marathon County Central Labor Council in Wausau, Wisconsin said that “GOP politicians aren’t welcome in this year’s Labor Day parade.” They claimed that until today they apparently thought they were the only sponsor of said parade, “organizers choose not to invite elected officials who have openly attacked worker’s rights.” On Tuesday August 30th, the Labor Council found out from Wausau Mayor Jim Tipple that they are not the parade’s only sponsor. after being told by the town’s mayor that it couldn’t exclude GOP politicians from a Labor Day parade unless it reimbursed the city for its out-of-pocket costs. The union changed its position after being told by the town’s mayor that it couldn’t exclude GOP politicians from a Labor Day parade unless it reimbursed the city for its out-of-pocket costs.
“Fires can’t be made with dead embers, nor can enthusiasm be stirred by spiritless men. Enthusiasm in our daily work lightens effort and turns even labor into pleasant tasks.”
grandiloquent gran-DIL-uh-kwuhnt, adjective:
Lofty in style; pompous; bombastic.
5509 BC – The world was created, according to the Byzantine Empire.
1715 – King Louis XIV of France dies after a reign of 72 years — the longest of any major European monarch.
1752 – The Liberty Bell arrives in Philadelphia.
1772 – Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa founded in San Luis Obispo, California.
1781 – French fleet traps British fleet at Yorktown, VA.
1799 – Bank of Manhattan Company opens in NYC (forerunner to Chase Manhattan).
1807 – Aaron Burr acquitted of charges of plotting to set up an empire.
1819 – The first plow with interchangeable parts was patented by Jethro Wood.
1821 – William Becknell led a group of traders from Independence, Mo., toward Santa Fe on what would become the Santa Fe Trail.
1858 – First transatlantic cable fails after less than 1 month. The cable was tested using very weak currents but the engineer in charge, Wildman Whitehouse, started by applying very high voltages.
1859 – First Pullman sleeping car in service.
1859 – The largest recorded geomagnetic storm occurred. Aurorae were seen around the world, those in the northern hemisphere even as far south as the Caribbean; those over the Rocky Mountains were so bright that their glow awoke gold miners, who began preparing breakfast because they thought it was morning. People who happened to be awake in the northeastern US could read a newspaper by the aurora’s light. The aurora was visible as far from the poles as Cuba and Hawaii. It was observed for the first time by astronomer Richard C. Carrington.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate forces attack retreating Union troops in Chantilly, Virginia.
1862 – Civil War: A federal tax was levied on tobacco, especially that grown in Confederate states.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate General John Bell Hood evacuates Atlanta, Georgia after a four-month siege by General Sherman.
1864 – Battle of Petersburg, VA.
1865 – Joseph Lister performs first antiseptic surgery.
1866 – Manuelito, the last Navaho chief, turned himself in at Fort Wingate, New Mexico.
1878 – First female telephone operator starts work (Emma Nutt in Boston).
1887 – Emile Berliner filed for a patent for his gramophone which we now called a record player. Berliner’s legacy lives on in his trademark (later adopted by RCA): a picture of a dog listening to “his master’s voice” issuing from a gramophone.
1890 – First baseball tripleheader-Boston vs Pittsburgh.
1894 – A forest fire in Hinckley, Minnesota, kills more than 400 people. It appears that this was the second-deadliest fire in the history of Minnesota, surpassed only by the 1918 Cloquet Fire.
1897 – The Boston subway opens, becoming the first underground metro in North America.
1906 – Pitcher Jack Coombs of the American League’s Philadelphia Athletics went 24 innings.
1914 – The last passenger pigeon, a female named Martha, dies in captivity in the Cincinnati Zoo.
1922 – New York City law requires all “pool” rooms to change name to “billiard”.
1922 – The first daily news program on radio. “The Radio Digest” was edited by George Thompson and heard on WBAY in New York City at 4:30 pm.
1939 – World War II: Nazi Germany attacks Poland, beginning the war.
1939 – George C. Marshall becomes Chief of Staff of the United States Army.
1939 – Adolf Hitler signs an order to begin the systematic euthanasia of mentally ill and disabled people.
1941 – World War II: Jews living in Germany were required to wear a yellow Star of David.
1942 – A federal judge in Sacramento, CA, upheld the wartime detention of Japanese-Americans as well as Japanese nationals.
1942 – World War II: First Seabee unit to serve in a combat area, 6th Naval Construction Battalion, arrives on Guadalcanal.
1945 – Phillies Vince DiMaggio ties NL record with 4th grand slam of season.
1945 – USS Benevolence (AH-13) evacuates civilian internees from two internment camps near Tokyo, Japan.
1945 – Americans received word of Japan’s formal surrender that ended World War II. Because of the time difference, it was Sept. 2 in Tokyo Bay, where the ceremony took place.
1949 – “Martin Kane, Private Eye” debuted on NBC-TV. You-Tube has numerous episodes.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Because of You” by Tony Bennett, “Come On-a My House” by Rosemary Clooney, “Shanghai” by Doris Day and “Always Late (With Your Kisses)” by Lefty Frizzell all topped the charts.
1954 – Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) became pastor at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama.
1956 – “Hound Dog/Don’t Be Cruel” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1956 – Elvis bought his mom a pink Cadillac.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sea of Love” by Phil Phillips, “Sleep Walk” by Santo & Johnny, “I’m Gonna Get Married” by Lloyd Price and “The Three Bells” by The Browns all topped the charts.
1961 – TWA Flight 529, a Lockheed Constellation L-049 propliner, crashed shortly after takeoff from Midway Airport in Chicago, killing all seventy-three passengers and five crew on board; it was at the time the deadliest single plane disaster in US history.
1962 – “Sheila” by Tommy Roe topped the charts.
1962 – UN announced Earth’s that human population has hit 3 billion.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ode to Billie Joe” by Bobbie Gentry, “Pleasant Valley Sunday” by The Monkees, “Baby I Love You” by Aretha Franklin and “I’ll Never Find Another You” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1969 – A revolution in Libya brings Col. Muammar al-Gaddafi to power , which was later transferred to the People’s Committees .
1969 – There was a race riot in Hartford, Connecticut.
1970 – The last episode of “I Dream of Jeannie” aired on NBC-TV. The show premiered was on September 18, 1965.
1970 – Dr. Hugh Scott of Washington, D.C., became the first Black superintendent of schools in a major U.S. city.
1971 – Danny Murtaugh of the Pittsburgh Pirates gave his lineup card to the umpire with the names of nine black baseball players on it. This was a first for Major League Baseball.
1972 – “Back Stabbers” by the The O’Jays received a gold record.
1972 – Bobby Fischer (US) defeats Boris Spassky (USSR) for world chess title.
1973 – “Brother Louie” by the Stories topped the charts.
1974 – The SR-71 Blackbird sets (and holds) the record for flying from New York to London: 1 hour 54 minutes and 56.4 seconds.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Get Down Tonight” by K.C. & The Sunshine Band, “How Sweet It Is (To Be Loved by You)” by James Taylor, “At Seventeen” by Janis Ian and “Rhinestone Cowboy” by Glen Campbell all topped the charts.
1975 – The last original episode of the American television series Gunsmoke airs on CBS after a record 20-year run.
1975 – NY Met Tom Seaver is first to strike out 200 in 8 consecutive seasons.
1976 – U.S. Rep. Wayne L. Hays, D-Ohio, resigned in the wake of a scandal in which he admitted having an affair with secretary Elizabeth Ray.
1977 – First TRS-80 Model I computer sold.
1977 – Bobby C. Wilks became the first Black in the Coast Guard to reach the rank of captain.
1979 – LA Court orders Clayton Moore to stop wearing Lone Ranger mask.
1979 – “My Sharona” by Knack topped the charts.
1979 – Pioneer 11 makes first fly-by of Saturn, discovers new moon, rings. It passes the planet at a distance of 13,000 mi.
1982 – Max speedometer reading mandated at 85 MPH.
1982 – The United States Air Force Space Command is founded.
1982 – The US Congress created the 110,000 acre Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Every Breath You Take” by The Police, “Sweet Dreams (Are Made of This)” by Eurythmics, “Maniac” by Michael Sembello and “You’re Gonna Ruin My Bad Reputation” by Ronnie McDowell all topped the charts.
1983 – The KAL flight 007 was downed by a Soviet jet fighter after the airliner entered Soviet airspace. Two hundred sixty-nine people were killed aboard the Korean Air Lines Boeing 747 including sixty-one Americans, among them Georgia Representative Larry McDonald.
1984 – “What’s Love Got to Do with It” by Tina Turner topped the charts.
1985 – A joint American-French expedition locates the wreck of the RMS Titanic. The wreck site is located 963 miles northeast of New York and 453 miles southeast of the Newfoundland coast.
1986 – Paul McCartney released his “Press to Play” album. (1:08:38)
1986 – Jerry Lewis raised a record $34 million for Muscular Dystrophy during his annual telethon for Jerry’s kids over the Labor Day weekend.
1987 – In California S. Brian Wilson (46), Vietnam veteran, had his legs sliced off when a munitions train at the Concord Naval Weapons Station ran him over during the Nuremberg Actions protest against weapons shipments to Central America.
1990 – “If Wishes Came True” by Sweet Sensation topped the charts.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “(Everything I Do) I Do It for You” by Bryan Adams, “Fading Like a Flower (Every Time You Leave)” by Roxette, “Wind of Change” by the Scorpions and “You Know Me Better Than That” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1991 – The Burning Man Festival came to the Black Rock Desert in Nevada from Baker’s Beach in San Francisco.
1993 – Louis Freeh was sworn in as the director of the FBI.
1995 – A ribbon-cutting ceremony was held for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland, Ohio.
1997 – The 32nd annual Muscular Dystrophy Telethon, led by Jerry Lewis, ended with a record $50.5 million pledged.
1997 – The second phase of the minimum wage raise to $5.15 per hour went into effect.
1997 – In Bosnia several hundred Bosnian Serbs attacked some 300 armed US troops in an effort to take back a key TV transmitter that was seized by the Americans last week. The melee was a standoff.
1998 – Mark McGwire of the St. Louis Cardinals hit his 56th and 57th home runs, breaking the one-season record set by Hack Wilson in 1930.
1999 – Twenty-two of baseball’s 68 permanent umpires found themselves jobless, the fallout from their union’s failed attempt to force an early start to negotiations for a new labor contract.
1999 – Attorney General Janet Reno ordered US marshals to FBI headquarters to seize an infrared videotape containing a recording of FBI communications made during the 1993 FBI assault of the Branch Davidian sect in Waco, Texas. FBI officials had stated that no tape of that stage of the operation existed.
2000 – Pres. Clinton put the anti-missile national defense system on hold and passed the decision for moving the project forward to his successor, President George Bush.
2001 – The Los Angeles Sparks won the WNBA championship, defeating the Charlotte Sting 82-to-54.
2001 – The US issued a 34 cent stamp featuring Arabic calligraphy that says “Eid Mubarek,” a greeting used to celebrate the 2 holiest Islamic holidays, Aid al-Fitr for the end of Ramadan fasting, and Eid al-Adha for the end of the annual pilgrimage to Mecca.
2003 – During a Labor Day trip to Richfield, Ohio, President Bush announced he was creating a high-level government post to nurture the manufacturing sector.
2004 – Accused U.S. Army deserter Charles Jenkins said he will surrender to the US to face charges that have dogged him since he vanished from his unit in South Korea nearly 40 years.
2004 – Republican National Convention: U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney accepts re-nomination and harshly criticizes Democratic candidate John Kerry.
2005 – In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina unknown assailants opened fire on a UH-60 Black Hawk military helicopter at New Orleans Superdome, halting evacuations.
2005 – The California Senate passes the first bill to allow same-sex marriage in the United States.
2006 – Disrupting the start of the Labor Day weekend, the remnants of Tropical Storm Ernesto drenched the Mid-Atlantic region, cut power to more than 400,000 customers and forced evacuations. Three people were reported killed in North Carolina and Virginia.
2006 – US federal agents began rounding up illegal immigrants in Stillmore, Georgia. More than 120 illegal immigrants were loaded onto buses bound for immigration courts in Atlanta. Hundreds more fled Emanuel County.
2007 – Idaho Republican Senator Larry Craig resigns from the United States Senate effective 30 September following a guilty plea to a disorderly conduct charge following his arrest in a restroom at the Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport.
2007 – It was reported that it is now more expensive to execute someone in the US that to jail him for life. In North Carolina each capital case was said to cost some $2 million to legal fees.
2007 – In an unusual college football upset, Appalachian State defeated #5-ranked Michigan at Michigan Stadium by a score of 34-32. This is the first time a team from the second-tier NCAA Division I FCS has defeated an AP-ranked Division I FBS opponent. Armanti Edwards was the quarterback for the underdog Mountaineers.
2008 – Hurricane Gustav smashed into the Gulf coast as a Category 2 storm with 110-mph winds just southwest of New Orleans, where levees held as waves splashed over. Seven people were killed, ninety people were injured and 750,000 people were left without power in Louisiana. The GOP convention opened at the Xcel Energy Center in St. Paul, Minn., in an abbreviated session due to Hurricane Gustav. Alaska’s Gov. Palin, GOP candidate for the vice-presidency, disclosed that her daughter, Bristol (17), is 5 months pregnant.
2009 – Former heavyweight world champion boxer Muhammad Ali visits the birthplace of his great-grandfather in Ennis, Ireland.
2009 – A top State Department official said the US has released $214 million of an aid package to help Mexico fight drug trafficking, including funds for five helicopters for the military to be delivered by year’s end.
2009 – In San Francisco charges were filed against 5 workers of the Public Utilities Commission and 2 workers at city approved vendors in a scam that bilked the city of over $200,000 in goods from 2003-2007.
2009 – In Southern California the Station wildfire continued to rage with 53 homes up in smoke, thousands more threatened and new rounds of evacuations as towering flames crackled close to foothill neighborhoods just 15 miles north of downtown Los Angeles.
2010 – Apple Inc. launches Ping.
2010 – The United States changed commanders in Iraq, beginning the final phase of American military involvement in the country despite political uncertainty and persistent violence.
2010 – In Maryland police shot and killed James J. Lee after he took 2 employees and a security officer hostage at the headquarters of the Discovery Channel.
2011 – Egyptian Islamic Jihad’s senior cleric has publicly stated that if they come to power in Egypt, they’ll institute Shar’iah law, enslave or ‘convert’ Christians, exterminate those who don’t prefer enslavement or Islam, form ‘Islamic battalions’ to conquer the region, and then the world, and enforce Shar’iah law on the entire world.
2011 – Ohio officials said the Lake Erie Correctional Institution in Ashtabula county has been sold to Corrections Corporation of America for $72.7 million. This was the first US prison to be sold to a private company.
2012- ICE Chief of Staff Suzanne Barr, a top official at Immigration and Customs Enforcement, has resigned following allegations by several subordinates of lewd behavior.
2012 – Tent cabins in Yosemite National Park, U.S., are closed after officials notify 3,100 recent visitors of an outbreak of Hantavirus.
2012 – Environmentalists vow to legally fight the federal end of protecting the wolf in Wyoming, saying the species still needs protection to maintain its successful recovery.
1875 – Edgar Rice Burroughs, American writer (d. 1950)
1923 – Rocky Marciano, American boxer (d. 1969). He was the World Heavyweight Boxing Champion from September 23, 1952 to November 30, 1956.
1933 – Conway Twitty, American singer (d. 1993)
1939 – Lily Tomlin, American actress and comedian
1950 – Dr. Phil, American talk show host
1955 – Billy Blanks, American martial artist
1957 – Gloria Estefan, Cuban singer
JONES, WILLIAM A., III
Rank and organization: Colonel, U.S. Air Force, 602d Special Operations Squadron, Nakon Phanom Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand. Place and date: Near Dong Hoi, North Vietnam, 1 September 1968. Entered service at: Charlottesville, Va. Born: 31 May 1922, Norfolk, Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Col. Jones distinguished himself as the pilot of an A-1H Skyraider aircraft near Dong Hoi, North Vietnam. On that day, as the on-scene commander in the attempted rescue of a downed U.S. pilot, Col. Jones’ aircraft was repeatedly hit by heavy and accurate antiaircraft fire. On one of his low passes, Col. Jones felt an explosion beneath his aircraft and his cockpit rapidly filled with smoke. With complete disregard of the possibility that his aircraft might still be burning, he unhesitatingly continued his search for the downed pilot. On this pass, he sighted the survivor and a multiple-barrel gun position firing at him from near the top of a karst formation. He could not attack the gun position on that pass for fear he would endanger the downed pilot. Leaving himself exposed to the gun position, Col. Jones attacked the position with cannon and rocket fire on two successive passes. On his second pass, the aircraft was hit with multiple rounds of automatic weapons fire. One round impacted the Yankee Extraction System rocket mounted directly behind the headrest, igniting the rocket. His aircraft was observed to burst into flames in the center fuselage section, with flames engulfing the cockpit area. He pulled the extraction handle, jettisoning the canopy. The influx of fresh air made the fire burn with greater intensity for a few moments, but since the rocket motor had already burned, the extraction system did not pull Col. Jones from the aircraft. Despite searing pains from severe burns sustained on his arms, hands, neck, shoulders, and face, Col. Jones pulled his aircraft into a climb and attempted to transmit the location of the downed pilot and the enemy gun position to the other aircraft in the area. His calls were blocked by other aircraft transmissions repeatedly directing him to bail out and within seconds his transmitters were disabled and he could receive only on 1 channel. Completely disregarding his injuries, he elected to fly his crippled aircraft back to his base and pass on essential information for the rescue rather than bail out. Col. Jones successfully landed his heavily damaged aircraft and passed the information to a debriefing officer while on the operating table. As a result of his heroic actions and complete disregard for his personal safety, the downed pilot was rescued later in the day. Col. Jones’ profound concern for his fellow man at the risk of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Air Force and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Special Forces Operational Detachment Alpha 3312. Place and date: Phuoc Long Province, Vietnam, September 1, 1969 . Born: June 15, 1937, Corpus Christi, TX Entered Service at: Corpus Christi, TX Departed: No Date Issued: 3/18/2014
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Sergeant First Class Jose Rodela distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as the company commander, Detachment B-36, Company A, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces during combat operations against an armed enemy in Phuoc Long Province, Republic of Vietnam on September 1, 1969. That afternoon, Sergeant First Class Rodela’s battalion came under an intense barrage of mortar, rocket, and machine gun fire. Ignoring the withering enemy fire, Sergeant First Class Rodela immediately began placing his men into defensive positions to prevent the enemy from overrunning the entire battalion. Repeatedly exposing himself to enemy fire, Sergeant First Class Rodela moved from position to position, providing suppressing fire and assisting wounded, and was himself wounded in the back and head by a B-40 rocket while recovering a wounded comrade. Alone, Sergeant First Class Rodela assaulted and knocked out the B-40 rocket position before successfully returning to the battalion’s perimeter. Sergeant First Class Rodela’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
HENRY, FREDERICK F.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company F, 38th Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Vicinity of Am-Dong, Korea, 1 September 1950. Entered service at: Clinton, Okla. Birth: Vian, Okla. G.O. No.: 8, 16 February 1951. Citation: 1st Lt. Henry, Company F, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. His platoon was holding a strategic ridge near the town when they were attacked by a superior enemy force, supported by heavy mortar and artillery fire. Seeing his platoon disorganized by this fanatical assault, he left his foxhole and moving along the line ordered his men to stay in place and keep firing. Encouraged by this heroic action the platoon reformed a defensive line and rained devastating fire on the enemy, checking its advance. Enemy fire had knocked out all communications and 1st Lt. Henry was unable to determine whether or not the main line of resistance was altered to this heavy attack. On his own initiative, although severely wounded, he decided to hold his position as long as possible and ordered the wounded evacuated and their weapons and ammunition brought to him. Establishing a one-man defensive position, he ordered the platoon’s withdrawal and despite his wound and with complete disregard for himself remained behind to cover the movement. When last seen he was single-handedly firing all available weapons so effectively that he caused an estimated fifty enemy casualties. His ammunition was soon expended and his position overrun, but this intrepid action saved the platoon and halted the enemy’s advance until the main line of resistance was prepared to throw back the attack. 1st Lt. Henry’s outstanding gallantry and noble self-sacrifice above and beyond the call of duty reflect the highest honor on him and are in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the U.S. Army.
KAHO’OHANOHANO, ANTHONY T.
Place and Date: Chupa-ri, Korea, 1 September, 1951 Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty Private First Class Anthony T. Kaho’ohanohano, Company H, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Infantry Division, distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action against the enemy in the vicinity of Chupa-ri, Korea, on 1 September 1951. On that date, Private First Class Kaho’ohanohano was in charge of a machine-gun squad supporting the defensive positioning of Company F when a numerically superior enemy force launched a fierce attack. Because of the enemy’s overwhelming numbers, friendly troops were forced to execute a limited withdrawal. As the men fell back, Private First Class Kaho’ohanohano ordered his squad to take up more defensible positions and provide covering fire for the withdrawing friendly force. Although having been wounded in the shoulder during the initial enemy assault, Private First Class Kaho’ohanohano gathered a supply of grenades and ammunition and returned to his original position to face the enemy alone. As the hostile troops concentrated their strength against his emplacement in an effort to overrun it, Private First Class Kaho’ohanohano fought fiercely and courageously, delivering deadly accurate fire into the ranks of the onrushing enemy. When his ammunition was depleted, he engaged the enemy in hand-to-hand combat until he was killed. Private First Class Kaho’ohanohano’s heroic stand so inspired his comrades that they launched a counterattack that completely repulsed the enemy. Upon reaching Private First Class Kaho’ohanohano’s emplacement, friendly troops discovered 11 enemy soldiers lying dead in front of the emplacement and two inside it, killed in hand-to-hand combat. Private First Class Kaho’ohanohano’s extraordinary heroism and selfless devotion to duty are in keeping with the finest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, the 7th Infantry Division, and the United States Army.
|KOUMA, ERNEST R.
Rank and organization: Master Sergeant (then Sfc.) U.S. Army, Company A, 72d Tank Battalion. Place and date: Vicinity of Agok, Korea, 31 August and 1 September 1950. Entered service at: Dwight, Nebr. Born: 23 November 1919, Dwight, Nebr. G.O. No.: 38, 4 June 1951. Citation: M/Sgt. Kouma, a tank commander in Company A, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. His unit was engaged in supporting infantry elements on the Naktong River front. Near midnight on 31 August, a hostile force estimated at 500 crossed the river and launched a fierce attack against the infantry positions, inflicting heavy casualties. A withdrawal was ordered and his armored unit was given the mission of covering the movement until a secondary position could be established. The enemy assault overran two tanks, destroyed one and forced another to withdraw. Suddenly M/Sgt. Kouma discovered that his tank was the only obstacle in the path of the hostile onslaught. Holding his ground, he gave fire orders to his crew and remained in position throughout the night, fighting off repeated enemy attacks. During one fierce assault, the enemy surrounded his tank and he leaped from the armored turret, exposing himself to a hail of hostile fire, manned the .50 caliber machine gun mounted on the rear deck, and delivered pointblank fire into the fanatical foe. His machine gun emptied, he fired his pistol and threw grenades to keep the enemy from his tank. After more than nine hours of constant combat and close-in fighting, he withdrew his vehicle to friendly lines. During the withdrawal through eight miles of hostile territory, M/Sgt. Kouma continued to inflict casualties upon the enemy and exhausted his ammunition in destroying three hostile machine gun positions. During this action, M/Sgt. Kouma killed an estimated 250 enemy soldiers. His magnificent stand allowed the infantry sufficient time to reestablish defensive positions. Rejoining his company, although suffering intensely from his wounds, he attempted to resupply his tank and return to the battle area. While being evacuated for medical treatment, his courage was again displayed when he requested to return to the front. M/Sgt. Kouma’s superb leadership, heroism, and intense devotion to duty reflect the highest credit on himself and uphold the esteemed traditions of the U.S. Army.
|SMITH, DAVID M.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company E, 9th Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Yongsan, Korea, 1 September 1950. Entered service at: Livingston, Ky. Born: 10 November 1926, Livingston, Ky. G.O. No.: 78, 21 August 1952. Citation: Pfc. Smith, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action. Pfc. Smith was a gunner in the mortar section of Company E, emplaced in rugged mountainous terrain and under attack by a numerically superior hostile force. Bitter fighting ensued and the enemy overran forward elements, infiltrated the perimeter, and rendered friendly positions untenable. The mortar section was ordered to withdraw, but the enemy had encircled and closed in on the position. Observing a grenade lobbed at his emplacement, Pfc. Smith shouted a warning to his comrades and, fully aware of the odds against him, flung himself upon it and smothered the explosion with his body. Although mortally wounded in this display of valor, his intrepid act saved five men from death or serious injury. Pfc. Smith’s inspirational conduct and supreme sacrifice reflect lasting glory on himself and are in keeping with the noble traditions of the infantry of the U.S. Army.
STORY, LUTHER H.
Rank and organization Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 9th Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Agok, Korea, 1 September 1950. Entered service at: Georgia. Born: 20 July 1931, Buena Vista, Ga. G.O. No.: 70, 2 August 1951. Citation: Pfc. Story, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. A savage daylight attack by elements of 3 enemy divisions penetrated the thinly held lines of the 9th Infantry. Company A beat off several banzai attacks but was bypassed and in danger of being cut off and surrounded. Pfc. Story, a weapons squad leader, was heavily engaged in stopping the early attacks and had just moved his squad to a position overlooking the Naktong River when he observed a large group of the enemy crossing the river to attack Company A. Seizing a machine gun from his wounded gunner he placed deadly fire on the hostile column killing or wounding an estimated one hundred enemy soldiers. Facing certain encirclement the company commander ordered a withdrawal. During the move Pfc. Story noticed the approach of an enemy truck loaded with troops and towing an ammunition trailer. Alerting his comrades to take cover he fearlessly stood in the middle of the road, throwing grenades into the truck. Out of grenades he crawled to his squad, gathered up additional grenades and again attacked the vehicle. During the withdrawal the company was attacked by such superior numbers that it was forced to deploy in a rice field. Pfc. Story was wounded in this action, but, disregarding his wounds, rallied the men about him and repelled the attack. Realizing that his wounds would hamper his comrades he refused to retire to the next position but remained to cover the company’s withdrawal. When last seen he was firing every weapon available and fighting off another hostile assault. Private Story’s extraordinary heroism, aggressive leadership, and supreme devotion to duty reflect the highest credit upon himself and were in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the military service.
|TURNER, CHARLES W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, 2d Reconnaissance Company, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Yongsan, Korea, 1 September 1950. Entered service at: Massachusetts. Birth: Boston, Mass. G.O. No.: 10, 16 February 1951. Citation: Sfc. Turner distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. A large enemy force launched a mortar and automatic weapon supported assault against his platoon. Sfc. Turner, a section leader, quickly organized his unit for defense and then observed that the attack was directed at the tank section 100 yards away. Leaving his secured section he dashed through a hail of fire to the threatened position and, mounting a tank, manned the exposed turret machine gun. Disregarding the intense enemy fire he calmly held this position delivering deadly accurate fire and pointing out targets for the tank’s 75mm. gun. His action resulted in the destruction of seven enemy machine gun nests. Although severely wounded he remained at the gun shouting encouragement to his comrades. During the action the tank received over fifty direct hits; the periscopes and antenna were shot away and 3 rounds hit the machine gun mount. Despite this fire he remained at his post until a burst of enemy fire cost him his life. This intrepid and heroic performance enabled the platoon to withdraw and later launch an attack which routed the enemy. Sfc. Turner’s valor and example reflect the highest credit upon himself and are in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the U.S. Army.
|RYAN, THOMAS JOHN
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Yokohama, Japan, 1 September 1923. Entered service at: Louisiana. Born: 5 August 1901, New Orleans, La. Citation: For heroism in effecting the rescue of a woman from the burning Grand Hotel, Yokohama, Japan, on 1 September 1923. Following the earthquake and fire which occurred in Yokohama on 1 September, Ens. Ryan, with complete disregard for his own life, extricated a woman from the Grand Hotel, thus saving her life. His heroic conduct upon this occasion reflects the greatest credit on himself and on the U.S. Navy, of which he is a part. (Medal presented by President Coolidge at the White House on 15 March 1924.)
Rank and organization: Brigadier General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Jonesboro, Ga., 1 September 1864. Entered service at: Washington, Pa. Birth: Washington, Pa. Date of issue: 22 April 1896. Citation: Voluntarily led a detached brigade in an assault upon the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company H, 14th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Jonesboro, Ga., 1 September 1864. Entered service at: Ann Arbor, Mich. Born: 1839, Ireland. Date of issue: 28 April 1896. Citation: In a charge by the 14th Michigan Infantry against the entrenched enemy was the first man over the line of works of the enemy, and demanded and received the surrender of Confederate Gen. Daviel Govan and his command.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company A, 74th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Jonesboro, Ga., 1 September 1864. Entered service at: Warsaw, Ind. Birth: Seneca County, Ohio. Date of issue: 7 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 8th and 19th Arkansas (C.S.A.).
|MATTINGLY, HENRY B.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 10th Kentucky Infantry. Place and date: At Jonesboro, Ga., 1 September 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Marion County, Ky. Date of issue: 7 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 6th and 7th Arkansas Infantry (C.S.A.).
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Daniel Shays’ parents emigrated from Ireland to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the 1730s. Patrick and Margaret (Dempsey) Shays married in 1744 and set up housekeeping in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. In 1747, Margaret gave birth to Daniel, the second of what would be a family of six children. Little is known of Daniel’s early life, but a few fragments of surviving information are suggestive in light of his later career and reputation. We know that, in common with other young men without land of their own, Daniel Shays hired himself out to work. According to a contemporary, by the early 1770s, Shays was living on a farm in Brookfield, where he was paid above the going rate for a laborer in recognition of his performance as a “smart, active” man. The same resident recalled that the young Daniel Shays “had much taste for the military.” When young men assembled for militia training days, some armed only with wooden guns and swords, Shays enthusiastically drilled them. Hard worker or not, men like Daniel Shays without a trade or land to farm, generally delayed marriage until their mid-twenties. At the age of 25, Daniel Shays appeared in the town records in 1772 with Abigail Gilbert when the couple published their intention to wed. Their first child, Daniel junior, was born in 1773. Other children followed, including two daughters. It is not known how many children were born to Daniel and Abigail, although an elderly Daniel Shays would refer to the difficulty of maintaining a “large and Expensive family.” As war with England seemed ever more likely, the old militia exercises assumed a more serious character. Daniel seems never to have faltered in his commitment to the American, or Patriot, cause. He did not remain a member of the Brookfield militia, however. At some point between 1774 and 1775, Daniel and Abigail moved west to Shutesbury, where Shays joined militia from Shutesbury, Amherst and Leverett. His experience in drilling may explain why he appeared on the company roll as Sergeant Daniel Shays. When Captain Reuben Dickinson’s company marched to Cambridge in 1775 following the fighting at Lexington and Concord, Shays received 18 shillings, 10 pence for 11 days of service. Captain Shays was not the only Massachusetts resident suffering financial hardship during the recession that had followed a brief post-war boom. The determined attempt by the Massachusetts Legislature to pay off the state’s war debt through an aggressive taxation policy despite the hard times proved disastrous. The government’s insistence that people pay their taxes in hard money rather than in goods or paper currency made a bad situation worse. The little gold and silver in circulation was not in the hands of farmers, whose assets were tied up in land, livestock and produce. Pelham joined dozens of towns across the Commonwealth in petitioning for debtor relief, and for laws lowering judicial court fees and government salaries.
A wave of farm foreclosures in western Massachusetts swept the young republic to its first episode in class struggle. Demonstrators and rioters protested high taxation, the governor’s high salary, high court costs and the assembly’s refusal to issue paper money (an inflationary measure highly favored by the debtor class).
Opposition had coalesced around Daniel Shays, a Revolutionary Warveteran. At first, the activity was limited to meetings and petitions to Massachusetts government in Boston. The matter escalated when the Massachusetts Supreme Court indicated eleven leaders of the movement as disorderly, riotous, and seditious. Shays responded by raising a militia of 700 men, many unpaid veterans of the Continental Army. They marched first for Worcester where they closed down the commonwealth’s supreme court, then turned west to Springfield where they broke into the jail to free imprisoned debtors. The barns of some government officials were burned. Wealthy Bostonians, who feared the rebellion in the west, contributed money for soldiers under the command of General Benjamin Lincoln. The rebels were routed in a skirmish in January 1787. Shays escaped toVermont and was later pardoned. Others were not so fortunate – 150 were captured and several sentenced to death. George Washington and others urged compassionate treatment of the rebels and pardons were eventually granted. It is interesting to note the role reversal of such people as Samuel Adams. In early revolutionary times, Adams was among the most vocal and radical critics of the existing government. By the 1780s, however, Adams had become an establishment figure and urged death sentences for the leading Shays rebels. Abigail Adams also had no compunctions with regard to the rebels. In a letter to Thomas Jefferson, while she was in London late 1787 and he was in Paris, she described the uprising: “Ignorant, restless deperadoes, without conscience or principles, have led a deluded multitude to follow their standard, under pretense of grievances which have no existence but in their imaginations.” She lauded the firm steps taken to put down the rebellion. The next statewide election in Massachusetts altered the assembly’s complexion and led to passage of a number of measures designed to improve the farmers’ conditions. However, conservative forces were deeply disturbed by the anarchy in the west and became increasingly committed to strengthening the central government.
“The average pencil is seven inches long, with just a half-inch eraser – in case you thought optimism was dead.”
~ Robert Brault, software developer, writer (1972- )
pugnacious puhg-NAY-shuhs, adjective: Inclined to fight; combative; quarrelsome.
Pugnacious comes from Latin pugnare, “to fight,” from pugnus, “fist.”
1521 – Cortes captured the city of Tenochtitlan, Mexico, and set it on fire. Mexico-Tenochtitlan, was the capital of the Aztec empire, which was built on an island in Lake Texcoco in what is now central Mexico. The city was largely destroyed in the 1520s by Spanish conquistadors, Mexico City was erected on top of the ruins and, over the ensuing centuries, most of Lake Texcoco has gradually been drained.
1688 – Death in London of John Bunyan, English author of The Pilgrim’s Progress. 1777 – Samuel Mason, a captain in command of Fort Henry on the Ohio frontier, survives a devastating Indian attack only to become one of the young nation’s first western desperados.
1778 – Revolutionary War: British killed 17 Stockbridge Indians in Bronx during Revolution.
1786 – Shays’ Rebellion began in Massachusetts.Captain Daniel Shays led an armed mob and prevented the Northampton Court from holding a session in order to prevent debtors, mostly poor farmers, from being tried and put in prison.
1802 – Captain Meriwether Lewis left Pittsburgh to meet up with Captain William Clark and begin their trek to the Pacific Ocean.
1819 – The cutters Alabama and Louisiana captured the privateer Bravo in the Gulf of Mexico. The master, Jean Le Farges — a lieutenant of Jean Lafitte — was later hanged from the Louisiana’s yardarm on the Mississippi River.
1835 – An angry mob in Charleston, South Carolina, seized U.S. mail containing abolitionist literature and burned it in public.
1842 – US Naval Observatory authorized by an act of Congress. James Melville Gilliss was put in charge of the project and is credited with its founding.
1842 – Micah Rugg patented a nuts & bolts machine.
1852 – The United States Congress passed legislation creating the first prestamped envelopes.
1852 – The Lighthouse Board was created and charged with administering the Lighthouse Service, as the Revenue Cutter Service was again decentralized.
1864 – Civil War: General William T. Sherman launches the attack that finally secures Atlanta, Georgia, for the Union, and seals the fate of Confederate General John Bell Hood’s army, which is forced to evacuate the area. Battle of Jonesboro, Georgia, 1900 casualties.
1864 – At the Democratic convention in Chicago, General George B. McClellan was nominated for president. McClellan ran on a Copperhead platform claiming the war had been a failure and was hopelessly lost.
1865 – The US Federal government estimated the American Civil War had cost about eight-billion dollars. Human costs have been estimated at more than one-million killed or wounded.
1881 – First US tennis championships were held. The event was at the Newport Casino in Rhode Island, where it remained for 34 years.
1886 – First major earthquake recorded in eastern US, at Charleston, SC. It was one of the largest historic earthquakes in eastern North America, and by far the largest earthquake in the southeastern United States.110 people were killed.
1887 – Thomas Edison patented the Kinetoscope, the forerunner of the motion picture camera.
1888 – The body of Mary Ann “Polly” Nichols, the first victim of Jack the Ripper, was found mutilated in Buck’s Row, London.
1894 – Phillies “Sliding Billy” Hamilton steals seven bases in a single game.
1895 – John Brallier is paid US$10 plus expenses to play football for the Latrobe, Pennsylvania YMCA, making him the first professional football player. His team won 12-0.
1896 – Announcement of gold in the Yukon. George Washington Carmack, Skookum Jim and Tagish Charlie, with their “Bonanza” gold discovery on Rabbit Creek, charted a new course for life in the Yukon.
1897 – Thomas Edison patented a kinetographic camera. Edison had actually invented and built his motion picture camera by 1891 but it took six years for the patent to be approved.
1902 – Mrs. Adolph Landenburg introduces the split skirt for horseback riding in Saratoga Springs, NY.
1903 – The first automobile trip from San Francisco to New York City was completed. Most roads were little more than muddy wagon paths, and when those stopped the travellers could only follow along railroad tracks or trust in their sense of direction as they set out across the vast plains and desert.
1909 – The A.J. Reach Co. patented the cork-centered baseball.
1919 – John Reed formed the Communist Labor Party in Chicago, with the motto, “Workers of the World unite!”
1920 – The first radio news program was broadcast August 31, 1920 by station 8MK in Detroit, Michigan.
1934 – First football all star game-Bears tie collegians 0-0 in Chicago.The College All-Star Game was a preseason American football game played annually (except in 1974) from 1934 to 1976 between the National Football League champions and a team of star college seniors from the previous year.
1935 – President Roosevelt (FDR) signs an act prohibiting export of US arms to belligerents.
1935 – First national skeet championship (Indianapolis). L.S. Pratt of Indianapolis was the winner. A 14-year-old boy, Dick Shaughnessy of St. Louis, captured the second title with a score of 248 out of a possible 250. During World War II, skeet played an important role in training aerial gunners since skeet targets closely resembled the flight paths of enemy planes and shooting at them taught “lead”. 1939 – Frank Sinatra recorded “All or Nothing at All” with the Harry James Band. 1939 – World War II: Europe: There was a staged “Polish” assault on radio station in Gleiwitz by Nazis dressed as Poles to “provoke” war, an excuse for Germany to invade Poland the next day to start World War II.
1939 – World War II: Europe: Nazi leader Adolf Hitler signed an order to attack Poland, and German forces moved to the frontier.
1940 – US National Guard assembled. They will be mobilized for one year, extended to two, to train and assist in war games to test new tactics.
1940 – The FBI created a Disaster Squad to assist civilian authorities in identifying persons who died in a Virginia plane crash. FBI personnel were among the victims. 1941 – Great Gildersleeve, a spin-off of Fibber McGee & Molly debuts on NBC.
1941 – World War II: US Agricultural Secretary Claude Wickard announces that meat rationing will probably be necessary.
1942 – World War II: The Battle of Guadalcanal. Japanese General Kawaguchi lands 1200 troops on the island.
1943 – World War II: American carrier based aircraft strike Marcus island. The Independence, Essex and Yorktown are involved. These ships are part of the newly formed Fast Carrier Task Force.
1943 – The USS Harmon, the first U.S. Navy ship to be named for a African-American person, is commissioned.
1944 – World War II: US 4th Corps (part of US 5th Army) advances after German forces conduct withdrawals from some positions along the Arno River.
1944 – World War II: Carrier task group begins three-day attack on Iwo Jima and Bonin Islands.
1945 – World War II: General MacArthur establishes the supreme allied command at the main port of Tokyo, as the first foreigner to take charge of Japan in 1000 years. 1945 – World War II: The remaining Japanese troops in the Philippines formally surrender.The Japanese garrison on Marcus Island surrenders to the American Admiral Whiting.
1946 – Superman returned to radio on the Mutual Broadcasting System after being dropped earlier in the year. Bud Collyer, later of TV’s “Beat the Clock”, played Clark Kent aka Superman on the radio series.
1949 – Six of the 16 surviving Union veterans of the Civil War attended the last-ever encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic, held in Indianapolis, Indiana.
1950 -CHART TOPPERS – “Mona Lisa” by Nat King Cole, “Play a Simple Melody” by Bing Crosby,“Sam’s Song” by Bing & Gary Crosby and “Goodnight Irene” by Red Foley-Ernest Tubb all topped the charts.
1950 – Brooklyn Dodger’s Gil Hodges hits four home runs & a single in a game vs Braves. He drove in 9 runs in the Dodgers 19-3 rout of the Boston Braves at Ebbets Field. He got homers off of Boston Braves pitchers Warren Spahn, Normie Roy, Bob Hall and Johnny Antonelli.
1950 – Korean War: Far East Air Force B-29s completed air strikes on the docks and railway yards at Songjin and the industrial factory at Chinnampo. From Aug. 28-31, aircraft dropped 326 tons of bombs on Songjin and 284 tons on Chinnampo.
1950 – Korean War: The second battle of the Naktong Bulge began as the North Korean I Corps crossed the lower Naktong River in a well-planned attack against the U.S. 2nd and 25th Infantry Divisions.
1951 – The former enemies of World War II reconvened in San Francisco to finalize negotiations on the peace treaty to formally end WW II. Japan agreed to pay the Int’l. Red Cross about $15 per POW while the allies agreed not to bring charges against it. 1951 – Korean War: The last United Nations Command offensive of the war occurred when the 1st Marine Division began its assault against the Punchbowl from Aug. 31 to Sept. 3. The 2nd Infantry Division seized Bloody Ridge at a cost of 2,700 casualties.
1954 – Seventy people were killed when Hurricane Carol hit the northeastern coast of the U.S.
1955 – First microwave TV station operated (Lufkin, TX).
1955 – First sun-powered automobile demonstrated, Chicago, IL.
1957 – “Tammy” by Debbie Reynolds topped the charts.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Nel Blu Dipinto Di Blu (Volare)” by Domenico Modugno, “Little Star” by The Elegants, “My True Love” by Jack Scott and “Blue Blue Day” by Don Gibson all topped the charts.
1959 – Sandy Koufax set a National League record by striking out 18 hitters.
1961 – A concrete wall replaced the barbed wire fence that separated East Germany and West Germany — the Berlin Wall.
1962 – Last flight of a Navy airship made at NAS Lakehurst, NJ.
1963 – “My Boyfriend’s Back” by the Angels topped the charts.
1963 – Walter Cronkite named anchor of the “CBS Evening News”.
1964 – California officially became the most populated state of the United States. 1965 – Congress establishes the Dept of Housing & Urban Development.
1965 – The Aero Spacelines Super Guppy Aircraft makes its first flight.
1965 – President Johnson signs into law a bill making it illegal to destroy or mutilate a U.S. draft card, with penalties of up to five years and a $10,000 fine.
1966 -CHART TOPPERS – “Summer in the City” by The Lovin’ Spoonful, “Sunny” by Bobby Hebb, “See You in September” by The Happenings and “Almost Persuaded” by David Houston all topped the charts.
1966 – Final original episode of McHale’s Navy.
1968 – “People Got to Be Free” by the Rascals topped the charts.
1969 – Boxer Rocky Marciano died in an airplane crash in Iowa.
1971 – Dave Scott becomes first person to drive a car on the Moon.
1972 – Vietnam War: U.S. weekly casualty figures of five dead and three wounded are the lowest recorded since record keeping began in January 1965.
1972 – At the Munich Summer Olympics American swimmer Mark Spitz won his fourth and fifth gold medals, in the 100-meter butterfly and 800-meter freestyle relay.
1974 – “The Partridge Family” television show ended.
1974 – In federal court, John Lennon testified the Nixon administration tried to have him deported because of his involvement with the anti-war demonstrations at the 1972 Republican convention in Miami, FL.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “(You’re) Having My Baby” by Paul Anka, “I Shot the Sheriff” by Eric Clapton, “Tell Me Something Good” by Rufus and “The Grand Tour” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1974 – Carole King’s “Jazzman” was released.
1976 – George Harrison (1943-2001) was found guilty of plagiarizing “My Sweet Lord.”
1978 – Emily and William Harris, founding members of the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA), pleaded guilty to four charges related to the 1974 kidnapping of Patty Hearst.
1979 – Comet Howard-Koomur-Michels collides with the Sun.
1980 – The Polish trade union Solidarity was formed in Gdansk.
1981 – $100 tickets went on sale for the highest-priced play in Broadway history. The popularity of Nicholas Nickleby gained unexpected momentum in the 1980s with the success of the Royal Shakespeare Company’s eight-and-a-half-hour stage production. It came with dinner.
1981 – The 30-year contract between ‘Mr. Television’, Milton Berle, and NBC-TV expired.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Eye of the Tiger” by Survivor, “Hurts So Good” by John Cougar, “Abra-ca-dabra” by The Steve Miller Band and “Fool Hearted Memory” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1985 – “The Power of Love” by Huey Lewis & the News topped the charts.
1985 – The “Night Stalker” killer, Richard Ramirez, was captured by residents in Los Angeles.
1986 – Eighty-two people were killed when a small private plane collided with a Aeromexico DC-9 over Cerritos, CA.
1987 – The US Justice Department challenged the constitutionality of the 1978 Ethics in Government Act, which provided for the appointment of independent counsels. The Supreme Court upheld the law.
1988 – Five-day power blackout of downtown Seattle begins.
1988 – A Delta Boeing 727 crashed during takeoff at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport in Texas. Fourteen people were killed in the accident that was later blamed on the crew’s failure to set the wing flaps in their proper position.
1989 – The Rolling Stones began their first concert tour in eight years at JFK Stadium in Philadelphia, PA.
1990 – Ken Griffey Sr. & Jr. were the first father-and-son combo to play on same baseball team.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Vision of Love” by Mariah Carey, “Come Back to Me” by Janet Jackson, “If Wishes Came True” by Sweet Sensation and “Next to You, Next to Me” by Shenandoah all topped the charts.
1990 – East Germany and West Germany signed a reunification treaty.
1991 – In a “Solidarity Day” protest hundreds of thousands of union members marched in Washington, DC.
1992 – Randy Weaver, a white separatist, surrendered to authorities after an eleven day siege at his cabin in Naples, ID.
1993 – Hurricane Emily hit North Carolina’s Outer Banks, killing three people.
1995 – Judge Lance Ito ruled that only two tapes of racist comments by Mark Fuhrman could be played in the trial of O.J. Simpson.
1996 – Iraq: More than 100 members of the Iraqi National Congress in Irbil were captured by Iraqi secret police and apparently executed. The Congress was set up by the US in 1992 as an alternative to Saddam Hussein.
1996 – Three adults and four children drowned at John D. Long Lake in Union, South Carolina when their car rolled into the lake by accident. They had gone to see a monument to the sons of Susan Smith, who drowned her two sons on Oct 25, 1994 when she let her car roll into the lake.
1997 – Princess Diana of Wales died at age 36 in a car crash in Paris. Her companion, Dodi Fayed, and their chauffeur were also killed.
1997 – In Phoenix, Az., bounty hunters in search of a bail jumper killed a couple that apparently knew nothing about the sought bail jumper.
1998 – “Titanic” became the first movie in North America to earn more than $600 million.
1998 – In Gaithersburg, Md., boxer Mike Tyson assaulted two motorists following a minor chain-reaction collision. In 1999 he was convicted of assault and sentenced to one year in jail.
1998 – Madonna filed suit against the YMCA to prevent it from building a high-rise residential tower near Lincoln Center in New York City, NY.
1999 – Detroit’s teachers went on strike, wiping out the first day of class for 172-thousand students in one of the largest teachers’ strikes in years. The walkout lasted nine days.
2000 – President Clinton vetoed a bill that would have gradually repealed inheritance taxes, saying it would have benefited the wealthiest Americans while threatening the nation’s financial well-being.
2001 – In Montana a helicopter assigned to the 25,500-acre Fridley fire crashed and 3 crewmen were killed.
2002 – The Los Angeles Sparks beat the New York Liberty 69-66 to defend their WNBA championship.
2003 – The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency declassifies carbon dioxide as a pollutant, a move seen as leading to the elimination of restrictions on industrial emissions of the controversial gas.
2004 – US astronomers reported finding two planets orbiting distant stars. One was near 55 Cancri, 41 light-years away; the other was near Gliese 436, 33 light-years away.
2004 – Iraq: A video purporting to show the methodical, grisly killings of twelve Nepalese construction workers kidnapped in Iraq was posted on a Web site linked to a militant group operating in Iraq.
2004 – Tropical Storm Gaston flooded Richmond and other parts of central Virginia with a foot or more of rain. Five people were killed.
2005 – The Bush administration said it will release oil from federal petroleum reserves to help refiners affected by Hurricane Katrina.
2005 – New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin announced that the planned sandbagging of the 17th Street Canal levee breach had failed. At the time, 85% of the city was underwater.
2005 – At least 25,000 of Hurricane Katrina’s refugees, a majority of them at the New Orleans Superdome, began traveling in a bus convoy to Houston and will be sheltered at the 40-year-old Astrodome.
2006 – President George Bush, speaking in Salt Lake City, predicted victory in the war on terror, likening the struggle against Islamic fundamentalism with the fight against Nazis and communists.
2006 – NASA awarded a multibillion contract to Lockheed Martin Corp. to send astronauts to the moon and maybe on to Mars. The projected Orion crew exploration vehicle program will cost an estimated $7.5 billion through 2019. 2007- The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco denied an appeal from the Teamsters, the Sierra Club and other groups on Aug. 31, to allow Mexican trucks to cross or borders with no controls.
2007 – Mike Nifong, the disgraced former district attorney of Durham County, N.C., was sentenced to a day in jail after being held in criminal contempt of court for lying to a judge when pursuing rape charges against three falsely accused Duke University lacrosse players.
2007 – Democratic Party fundraiser Norman Hsu surrenders to the San Mateo County sheriff’s office on a 15-year-old felony warrant. 2007 – A federal appeals court allowed the US Navy to resume underwater sonar blasts in anti-submarine warfare tests off of Southern California, saying military needs come before whales. 2008 – New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin orders the mandatory evacuation of the city ahead of Hurricane Gustav.
2009 – In southern California a massive fire in the Angeles National Forest nearly doubled in size overnight, threatening 12,000 homes in a 20-mile-long swath of flame and smoke and surging toward a mountaintop broadcasting complex.
2009 – Florida’s Gov. Crist signed a 20-year gambling pact with the Seminole Indian tribe, which agreed to pay Florida $12.5 million a month for 30 months for running, currently illegal, slot machines and blackjack games.
2009 – The Walt Disney Co. said it is buying Marvel Entertainment Inc. for $4 billion in cash and stock, bringing such characters as Iron Man and Spider-Man into the family of Mickey Mouse and WALL-E.
2010 – President Barack Obama marked the symbolic end of US combat operations in Iraq. Vice President Joe Biden presided over the formal end to US combat operations in Iraq.
2010 – In Arkansas a medical helicopter crashed in Van Burn County killing three crew members trying to reach a person injured in a traffic accident.
2010 – Senator Lisa Murkowski concedes defeat in the Alaskan Republican primary election to challenger to Joe Miller.
2011- Wildfires severely damage homes and infrastructure in the US states of Texas and Oklahoma.
2012 – A shooting at a Pathmark grocery store in Old Bridge, New Jersey, kills at least three people. Old Bridge is a bedroom suburb of New York City located across the Raritan Bay from Staten Island, and it is about 25 miles from Manhattan, and about 30 miles south of Newark.
1880 – Wilhelmina, Dutch queen (1890-1948).
1897 – Fredric March (Ernest Frederick McIntyre Bickel), American Academy Award-winning actor.
1903 – Arthur Godfrey, American television host (d. 1983)
1908 – William Saroyan, American Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright.
1918 – Alan Jay Lerner, American songwriter, lyricist.
1935 – Eldridge Cleaver, American black activist.
1945 – Itzhak Perlman, Israeli violinist.
KOUMA, ERNEST R. KOREAN WAR
Rank and organization: Master Sergeant (then Sfc.) U.S. Army, Company A, 72d Tank Battalion. Place and date: Vicinity of Agok, Korea, 31 August and 1 September 1950. Entered service at: Dwight, Nebr. Born: 23 November 1919, Dwight, Nebr. G.O. No.: 38, 4 June 1951. Citation: M/Sgt. Kouma, a tank commander in Company A, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. His unit was engaged in supporting infantry elements on the Naktong River front. Near midnight on 31 August, a hostile force estimated at five hundred crossed the river and launched a fierce attack against the infantry positions, inflicting heavy casualties. A withdrawal was ordered and his armored unit was given the mission of covering the movement until a secondary position could be established. The enemy assault overran two tanks, destroyed one and forced another to withdraw. Suddenly M/Sgt. Kouma discovered that his tank was the only obstacle in the path of the hostile onslaught. Holding his ground, he gave fire orders to his crew and remained in position throughout the night, fighting off repeated enemy attacks. During one fierce assault, the enemy surrounded his tank and he leaped from the armored turret, exposing himself to a hail of hostile fire, manned the .50 caliber machine gun mounted on the rear deck, and delivered pointblank fire into the fanatical foe. His machine gun emptied, he fired his pistol and threw grenades to keep the enemy from his tank. After more than nine hours of constant combat and close-in fighting, he withdrew his vehicle to friendly lines. During the withdrawal through 8 miles of hostile territory, M/Sgt. Kouma continued to inflict casualties upon the enemy and exhausted his ammunition in destroying three hostile machine gun positions. During this action, M/Sgt. Kouma killed an estimated two-hundred-fifty enemy soldiers. His magnificent stand allowed the infantry sufficient time to reestablish defensive positions. Rejoining his company, although suffering intensely from his wounds, he attempted to resupply his tank and return to the battle area. While being evacuated for medical treatment, his courage was again displayed when he requested to return to the front. M/Sgt. Kouma’s superb leadership, heroism, and intense devotion to duty reflect the highest credit on himself and uphold the esteemed traditions of the U.S. Army.
*LYELL, WILLIAM F. KOREAN WAR
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Chup’a-ri, Korea, 31 August 1951. Entered service at: Old Hickory, Tenn. Birth: Hickman County, Tenn. G.O. No.: 4, 9 January 1953. Citation: Cpl. Lyell, a member of Company F, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. When his platoon leader was killed, Cpl. Lyell assumed command and led his unit in an assault on strongly fortified enemy positions located on commanding terrain. When his platoon came under vicious, raking fire which halted the forward movement, Cpl. Lyell seized a 57mm. recoilless rifle and unhesitatingly moved ahead to a suitable firing position from which he delivered deadly accurate fire completely destroying an enemy bunker, killing its occupants. He then returned to his platoon and was resuming the assault when the unit was again subjected to intense hostile fire from two other bunkers. Disregarding his personal safety, armed with grenades he charged forward hurling grenades into one of the enemy emplacements, and although painfully wounded in this action he pressed on destroying the bunker and killing six of the foe. He then continued his attack against a third enemy position, throwing grenades as he ran forward, annihilating four enemy soldiers. He then led his platoon to the north slope of the hill where positions were occupied from which effective fire was delivered against the enemy in support of friendly troops moving up. Fearlessly exposing himself to enemy fire, he continuously moved about directing and encouraging his men until he was mortally wounded by enemy mortar fire. Cpl. Lyell’s extraordinary heroism, indomitable courage, and aggressive leadership reflect great credit on himself and are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service.
GREBE, M. R. WILLIAM CIVIL WAR
Rank and organization: Captain, Company F, 4th Missouri Cavalry. Place and date: At Jonesboro, Ga., 31 August 1864. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Born: 4 August 1838, Germany. Date of issue: 24 February 1899. Citation: While acting as aide and carrying orders across a most dangerous part of the battlefield, being hindered by a Confederate advance, seized a rifle, took a place in the ranks and was conspicuous in repulsing the enemy.