Frog Jumping Day
Apple Pie Day
Calaveras Frog Jumpin’ Day
The Jubilee is tomorrow in Angels Camp, CA!!!
It’s time once again to celebrate our friends the frogs on the not-really-a-holiday-but-sorta kinda- a-holiday, Frog Jumping Day!
The idea actually came from Mark Twain’s short story entitled “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County.” This story was originally published as “Jim Smiley and His Jumping Frog” and “The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County.”
Now frogs make great pocket pets. If you want to celebrate Frog Jumping Day correctly then get a frog—or a toad—as a pet. frogs can be simple to care for, they can be fun to watch, and they can be a great first pet for children. Make sure you teach the kids proper hand washing techniques!
Be sure to do your research before you buy a frog. First, make sure they can live in your climate. Frogs are generally NOT desert dwellers. You’ll need to set up a good habitat with proper lighting, water, and food—which may include live bugs! You might want to set up your own frog pond in your yard or build a small habitat inside your home.
Back to the story. Mark Twain’s short-story was a tall tale of the life and happenings of the gold rush town, Angels Camp. The narrator details a story he heard in a tavern. It is about a frog, Dan’l Webster, who could out jump any other frog, and a man, Jim Smiley, who was the “curiousest man about always betting on anything that turned up you ever see, if he could get anybody to bet on the other side; and if he couldn’t he’d change sides.” Jim Smiley had bet forty dollars. Smiley was figuring that his frog could “out jump any frog in Calaveras County”. Smiley also met a stranger who filled Dan’l Webster with buckshot, therefore, Smiley won the frog jump and the forty dollars in gold. Figuring out what happened Smiley ran after the stranger but he never caught him. The story was published and delighted audiences worldwide but didn’t appear to have much impact on Calaveras County until much later.
Today, in the third week of May, if you find yourself anywhere near Angels Camp, CA just southwest of Sacramento and northeast of Stockton, CA, stop in and enjoy the festivities of the CALAVERAS COUNTY FAIR & JUMPING FROG JUBILEE.
14 When thou art come unto the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein, and shalt say, I will set a king over me, like as all the nations that are about me;
15 Thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the Lord thy God shall choose: one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee: thou mayest not set a stranger over thee, which is not thy brother.
16 But he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses: forasmuch as the Lord hath said unto you, Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.
17 Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away: neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold.
18 And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book out of that which is before the priests the Levites:
19 And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life: that he may learn to fear the Lord his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them:
“Although guided by our excellent Constitution in the discharge of official duties, and actuated, through the whole course of my public life, solely by a wish to promote the best interests of our country; yet, without the beneficial interposition of the Supreme Ruler of the Universe, we could not have reached the distinguished situation which we have attained with such unprecedented rapidity. To HIM, therefore, should we bow with gratitude and reverence, and endeavor to merit a continuance of HIS special favors”. George Washington [1797 letter to John Adams]
“Believe you can do it. Believing something can be done puts your mind to work for you and helps you find ways to do it.”
~ George Shinn
arbiter AR-buh-tuhr, noun:
1. A person appointed or chosen to judge or decide a dispute.
2. Any person who has the power of judging and determining.
Arbiter is from Latin arbiter, “a witness, a spectator,” hence “a judge of any matter.”
1110 – Crusaders marched into Beirut causing a bloodbath.
1494 – Columbus found the natives on Jamaica hostile and left for Cuba.
1607 – Jamestown, Virginia, was settled as a colony of England with about 100 English colonists.
1648 – Margaret Jones of Plymouth was found guilty of witchcraft and was sentenced to be hanged by the neck.
1781 – Revolutionary War: British Gen. William Phillips died of a fever in Petersburg, Va., as his forces confronted the American army under Lafayette.
1801 – Tripoli declares war against the United States. (Barbary Pirates (Muslims))
1821 – Samuel Rust of New York City patented the Washington press, the first, practical and successful printing press to be built in America.
1828 – US passed the Tariff of Abominations. The Tariff of 1828 had been purposely drafted to make Andrew Jackson appear as a free trade advocate in the South and as a protectionist in the North.
1836 – U.S. Exploring Expedition authorized to conduct exploration of Pacific Ocean and South Seas. It was the first major scientific expedition overseas.
1846 – Mexican-American War: The United States declares war on Mexico even though the fighting had started two months before. Mexico had not recognized the secession of Texas in 1836 and announced its intention to take back what it considered a rebel province.
1854 – First big American billiards match was held at Malcolm Hall in Syracuse, NY. Joseph White and George Smith participated in the event for a $200 prize.
1861 – Civil War: Queen Victoria of Britain issues a “proclamation of neutrality” which recognizes the breakaway states as having belligerent rights.
1861 – Civil War: Union troops occupy Baltimore, MD.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate steamer Planter, with her captain ashore in Charleston, was taken out of the harbor by an entirely Negro crew under Robert Smalls and turned over to U.S.S. Onward of the blockading Union squadron.
1862 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Iroquois and U.S.S. Oneida occupied Natchez, Mississippi, as Flag Officer Farragut’s fleet moved steadily toward Vicksburg.
1863 – Civil War: Due to the siege and assault on Vicksburg forced Confederate strategists to withdraw troops from Charleston in order to bring relief to those at Vicksburg.
1863 – Civil War: Union General Ulysses S. Grant advances toward the Mississippi capital of Jackson during his drive to take Vicksburg, the last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River.
1864 – Union soldiers buried the remains of 21-year-old Pvt. William Henry Christman of the 67th Pennsylvania Infantry, who had died two days earlier in a Washington, D.C., hospital from complications related to measles. He was buried on the edge of an estate once belonging to Confederate general Robert E. Lee—thus becoming the first soldier interred in what is now Arlington National Cemetery.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Resaca – the battle begins with Union General Sherman fighting toward Atlanta, Georgia.
1864 – Civil War: Sidewheel steamer U.S.S. Ceres with Army steamer Rockland and 100 soldiers conducted a raiding expedition on the Alligator River, North Carolina. They captured Confederate schooner Ann S. Davenport and disabled a mill supplying ground corn for the Southern armies.
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Palmito Ranch – in far south Texas, more than a month after Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s surrender, the last land battle of the Civil War ends with a Confederate victory.
1873 – Ludwig M. Wolf of Avon, CT, patented the sewing machine lamp holder (No. 138,831). It was developed for those who wanted to sew at night.
1873 – The US Post Office Department issued America’s first postal card. They were the only ones allowed to print the cards until May 19, 1898 when Congress passed the Private Mailing Card Act.
1880 – In Menlo Park, New Jersey, Thomas Edison performs the first test of his electric railway.
1884 – The Institute for Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE) was founded. The initials are still used when speaking of electrical and computer components.
1888 – Ernest Thayer composes “Casey at the Bat”. It was dashed off in an hour to fill a hole on page 4 of the Harvard Lampoon. . The author thought so little of it he insisted it be credited simply to “Phin” – his college nickname. DeWolf Hopper first recited “Casey at the Bat.”
1903 – The Dewey Memorial in Union Square, San Francisco, was dedicated by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt. Robert Aitken sculpted the 12-foot statue of Victory that stood atop an 83-foot column.
1905 – An Executive Order extended the jurisdiction of the Lighthouse Service to the noncontiguous territory of Guam Island.
1911 – New York Giant Fred Merkle is first to get 6 RBIs in an inning.
1911 – The New York Giants set a major league baseball record. Ten runners crossed home plate before the first out of the game against St. Louis.
1913 – Igor Sikorsky built the first four-engine airplane, with an innovative enclosed cabin and became the first man to pilot such an aircraft.
1916 – New York became the first state to observe American Indian Day.
1918 – The first U.S. airmail stamps featuring a picture of an airplane were introduced. The denominations were 6, 16, and 24 cents. The very first sheet of the twenty-four cent ones had the airplane, a Jenny, upside down. It was sold and no others were ever found to be that way. A single inverted Jenny was sold at a Robert A. Siegel auction in November 2007 for US $977,500.
1928 – Marines participated in the Battle of Coco River in Nicaragua.
1934 – Great dustbowl storm. Experts estimate that 650,000,000 tons of topsoil were blown away by this storm and the ones before it.
1938 – Louis Armstrong and his orchestra recorded “When the Saints Go Marching In”
1939 – The first commercial FM radio station in the United States is launched in Bloomfield, Connecticut. The station later becomes WDRC-FM.
1939 – Holocaust : The SS St Louis departed Hamburg with some 937 passengers including over 900 Jewish refugees. They sought refuge in Cuba, but only 22 were allowed to disembark there. No country in the Americas would take them. It returned to Germany where a number of the Jews were later murdered.
1940 – The completed Maryhill Museum in Washington state opened on founder Sam Hill’s (d.1931), birthday. Much of the art collection was donated by Alma de Bretteville Spreckels, wife of the California sugar magnate. Mrs. Spreckels was also the model for the Victory statue. (See 1903 on this page.)
1940 – Winston Churchill, in advance of WW II, gave his first speech as Prime Minister of Britain, he told the House of Commons, “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat.” He was well aware of the difficulties ahead and, not wanting to raise false hope, he entered notes of caution and warning.
1940 – World War II: Germany’s conquest of France begins as the German army crosses the Meuse River.
1940 – World War II: Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands flees the Nazi invasion in the Netherlands to Great Britain. Princess Juliana takes her children to Canada for their safety.
1940 – First successful helicopter flight. Igor Sikorsky first flew the VS-300. The original VS-300 was powered by a 75 HP engine. The aircraft’s body was nothing more than an open cockpit with a welded steel tubing frame.
1941 – World War II: Yugoslav royal colonel Dragoljub Mihailović starts fighting with German occupation troops, beginning the Serbian resistance.
1942 – Helicopter makes its first cross-country flight with Igor Sikorsky at the stick. It was from Stratford, Connecticut to Dayton, Ohio, a distance of about 761 miles.
1943 – World War II: German Afrika Korps and Italian troops in North Africa surrender to Allied forces.
1943 – World War II: US forces now outnumber the Japanese defenders on Attu Island by 4 to 1. However, the Americans are unable to extend their front beyond the landing areas. Bad weather and the terrain hinder progress.
1944 – World War II: An American escort destroyer sinks the Japanese submarine I-501 (formerly U-1224) off the Azores. The submarine had been presented to the Japanese by the German Kriegsmarine.
1944 – World War II: Allied forces in Italy broke through the German Gustav Line into the Liri Valley.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, fierce fighting continues along the Shuri Line. The US 6th Marine Division suffers heavy losses but completes the capture of Dakeshi Ridge.
1945 – The Baya, US submarine SS-318 under the command of Capt. Benjamin C. Jarvis, sank a Japanese tanker and left two other ships severely disabled off of French Indochina. Capt. Jarvis received a Navy Cross for his action.
1945 – World War II: Del Monte airfield is captured by units of the US 40th Division.
1946 – US condemned 58 camp guards of Mauthausen concentration camp to death.
1947 – The US Senate approved the Taft-Hartley Act limiting the power of unions.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cruising Down the River” by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: The Skyliners), “Forever and Ever” by Perry Como, “Careless Hands” by Mel Torme and “Lovesick Blues” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1949 – The first gas turbine to pump natural gas was installed in Wilmar, AR.
1950 – Diner’s Club issued its first credit cards.
1952 – Minor-league Bristol (Appalachian League) pitcher Ron Necciai strikes out 27 in nine innings against a team called Welch. This went to a 7-0 victory for Bristol.
1952 – The Coast Guard announced the establishment of an Organized Reserve Training Program, the first in U.S. Coast Guard history. Morton G. Lessans was sworn in as the first member of the Organized Air Reserve on 12 December 1951.
1952 – Korean War: Naval Task Force 77 began Operation INSOMNIA – a series of abbreviated night attacks.
1953 – Korean War: The Air Force’s 58th Fighter-Bomber Wing attacked Toksan Dam in North Korea and destroyed this major irrigation system.
1954 – President Eisenhower signed into law the St. Lawrence Seaway Development Act.
1954 – “The Pajama Game” made its debut on Broadway in New York City at the St. James Theatre.
1954 – Bobby Adams of the Cincinnati Redlegs hits a lead-off home run against Philadelphia Phillies pitcher Robin Roberts. Roberts then retires the next 27 batters to win, 8-1.
1955 – New York Yankees Mickey Mantle hits three consecutive homeruns of at least 463′ in a single game.
1955 – Elvis Presley’s performance at Jacksonville, FL, became the first Presley show at which a riot ensued.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “School Day” by Chuck Berry, “A White Sport Coat (And a Pink Carnation)” by Marty Robbins, “So Rare” by Jimmy Dorsey and “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.
1958 – During a visit to Caracas, Venezuela, Vice President Richard Nixon’s car is attacked by anti-American demonstrators.
1958 – Stan Musial, is eighth to get 3,000 hits.
1958 – VELCRO was trademark registered . (See May 4th for more)
1960 – The first US launch of the Delta satellite launching vehicle failed.
1960 – Bill Mandel was brought before a HUAC committee at SF City Hall concerning his broadcasts at KPFA radio and KQED TV about press and periodicals of the Soviet Union. His TV show was canceled but he continued broadcasting at KPFA. There was a protest over the hearing and 64 people were arrested as police turned on fire hoses to quell the disturbance.
1960 – Hundreds of UC Berkeley students congregate for the first day of protest against a visit by the House Un-American Activities Committee. Thirty-one students are arrested, and the Free Speech Movement is born.
1961 – “Runaway” by Del Shannon topped the charts.
1965 – Rolling Stones record “Satisfaction.”
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mrs. Brown You’ve Got a Lovely Daughter” by Herman’s Hermits, “Count Me In” by Gary Lewis & The Playboys, “Ticket to Ride” by The Beatles and “Girl on the Billboard” by Del Reeves all topped the charts.
1965 – Several Arab nations broke ties with West Germany after it established diplomatic relations with Israel.
1966 – Rolling Stones release “Paint it Black.”
1966 – The Kinks recorded “Sunny Afternoon.”
1967 – “The Happening“ by the Supremes topped the charts.
1967 – Mickey Mantle hit his 500th homerun.
1967 – “Somethin’ Stupid” by Nancy Sinatra & Frank Sinatra topped the charts.
1967 – Octagonal boxing ring is tested to avoid corner injuries. Today, it is a requirement of the UFC (Ultimate Fighting Championship.)
1970 – Beatles movie “Let it Be” premieres.
1971 – Aretha Franklin received a gold record for “Bridge over Troubled Water,” originally a Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel tune.
1972 – “The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face“ by Roberta Flack topped the charts.
1972 – A burglary occurred at the Chilean Embassy in Washington DC. Two members of Pres. Nixon’s secret White House team were involved. Nixon later blamed the robbery on White House counsel John Dean.
1972 – Milwaukee Brewers beat Minnesota Twins, 4-3, in 22 innings.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree” by Dawn featuring Tony Orlando, “You are the Sunshine of My Life” by Stevie Wonder, “Little Willy” by The Sweet and “Come Live with Me” by Roy Clark all topped the charts.
1973 – Tennis hustler Bobby Riggs (1918-1995) beat Margaret Smith Court (b.1942) in a Mother’s Day match in California.
1974 – More than fifty people were hurt when youths started throwing bottles outside a Jackson 5 concert at RFK Stadium in Washington, DC. 43 people were arrested.
1975 – Tennis ball-sized hail stones hit Wernersville, TN to a depth of 10”.
1975 – Marines recapture Mayaguez, go ashore on Koh Tang Island and release the crew. Gunboats of the Cambodian Navy seized the American merchant ship, SS Mayaguez, in international waters off Cambodia’s coast.
1976 – In the ninth & final ABA championship, New York Nets beat Denver Nuggets, 4 games to 2.
1977 – Dolly Parton made her New York City debut with a concert at the Bottom Line.
1978 – “If I Can’t Have You” by Yvonne Elliman topped the charts.
1978 – Joie Chitwood set a world record when he drove a Chevrolet Chevette for 5.6 miles on just 2 wheels. It was broadcast on ABC television’s Wide World of Sports.
1978 – The last season of “Columbo,” begun in 1971, ended on NBC TV.
1980 – An F3 tornado hits Kalamazoo County, Michigan. President Jimmy Carter declares it a federal disaster area.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Morning Train (Nine to Five)” by Sheena Easton, “Just the Two of Us” by Grover Washington, Jr./Bill Withers, “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes and “Am I Losing You” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1981 – Pope John Paul II shot, wounded by Turkish muslim assailant Mehmet Ali Agca. in St Peter’s Square.
1982 – Chicago Cubs win their 8,000th game against the Houston Astros.
1983 – Reggie Jackson is first major leaguer to strike out 2,000 times.
1984 – “The Fantasticks‘” 10,000th performance. It became the longest-running musical in theatre history, premiering in the Sullivan Street Playhouse, a small New York City off-Broadway theater, on May 3, 1960, with Jerry Orbach in the role of the narrator.
1985 – Carlton Fisk becomes the 5th catcher to steal 100 bases.
1985 – Tony Perez became the oldest major league baseball player to hit a grand slam home run at the age of 42 and 11 months.
1985 – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, police storm MOVE headquarters to end a stand-off, killing eleven MOVE members and destroying the homes of 250 city residents.
1986 – Coast Guard Cutter Manitou stopped the 125-foot Sun Bird in 7th District in Miami, FL waters and her boarding team discovered 40,000 pounds of marijuana hidden aboard.
1988 – The U.S. Senate voted 83-6 to order the U.S. military to enter the war against illegal drug trafficking, approving a plan to give the Navy the power to stop drug boats on the high seas and make arrests.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be There for You” by Bon Jovi, “Real Love” by Jody Watley, “Forever Your Girl” by Paula Abdul and “Is It Still Over?” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.
1989 – Minnesota Twin Kirby Puckett becomes the 35th to hit 4 doubles in a game.
1992 – Three astronauts simultaneous walked in space for the first time. During the STS-49 shuttle mission, the INTELSAT VI (F-3) satellite, stranded in an unusable orbit since launch aboard a Titan vehicle in March 1990, was captured by these three crewmembers.
1992 – President Bush announced a $600 million loan package to help rebuild riot-scarred Los Angeles.
1993 – Kansas City Royal George Brett hits his 300th homerun.
1994 – Johnny Carson makes last television appearance on The David Letterman Show.
1994 – President Clinton nominated federal appeals Judge Stephen G. Breyer to the U.S. Supreme Court to replace retiring Justice Harry A. Blackmun.
1995 – Army Capt. Lawrence Rockwood was convicted at his court-martial in Fort Drum, N.Y., of conducting an unauthorized investigation of reported human rights abuses at a Haitian prison. Rockwood was dismissed from the military the next day.
1996 – The Supreme Court unanimously struck down Rhode Island’s ban on ads that list or refer to liquor prices, saying the law violated free-speech rights.
1996 – Recovery workers in the Florida Everglades retrieved the flight data recorder from ValuJet Flight 592.
1997 – Eddie Murray is 6th baseball player to play in 3,000 games. He gets two hits in Anaheim’s 8-7 win over the White Sox.
1997 – At the Oklahoma City bombing trial, prosecutors showed jurors the key to the Ryder truck used to blow up the Alfred P. Murrah federal building, alleging Timothy McVeigh left it behind in the same alley he picked to stash his getaway car.
1998 – Federal regulators approved a plan to store nuclear bomb waste in New Mexico at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP).It is the world’s third deep geological repository licensed to permanently dispose of transuranic radioactive waste for 10,000 years. Transuranic waste is waste containing more than 100 nanocuries of radiation.
1999 – GOP leadership agreed to approve background checks for all buyers at gun shows following angry calls from constituents.
2002 – In Baltimore Dontee Stokes (26), a former altar boy, shot and seriously wounded Rev. Maurice Blackwell (56), who had sexually abused him from age 9 to 13.
2002 – President Bush announced that he and Russian President Vladimir Putin would sign a treaty to shrink their countries’ nuclear arsenals by two-thirds to 1,700-2,200 active warheads at the end of ten years.
2003 – The US government unveiled a new $20 bill with color added to help thwart counterfeiters. New designs for the $50 and $100 notes will follow in 2004 and 2005.
2003 – L. Paul Bremer, the US administrator in Iraq, reportedly authorized troops to shoot looters on sight. Rumsfeld said muscle would be used to stop looting.
2003 – A judge ruled that Oklahoma City bombing conspirator Terry Nichols should stand trial in state court on 160 counts of first-degree murder. Nichols was later found guilty on 161 counts; the 161st count was for the fetus of a pregnant victim. Nichols was sentenced to life in prison.
2004 – The SpaceShipOne rocket climbed to 211,400 feet, becoming the 1st privately funded vehicle to reach the edge of space. The test flight above California’s Mojave Desert in preparation for the X-Prize.
2004 – The last episode of “Frasier” aired on TV following an 11-year run and bringing to an end Kelsey Grammer’s 23 years playing the character Frasier Crane.
2005 – Star Trek Enterprise airs its last episode, These are the Voyages…, after a run of 98 episodes. Enterprise was canceled by UPN on February 8th due to lack of ratings, marking the first Star Trek series to be canceled since the original series in 1969.
2005 – Michael Ross becomes the first person executed in the U.S. state of Connecticut since 1960. He was convicted in 1987 of the murder of four girls and young women.
2008 – EarthLink said it is pulling out of its high-speed Internet network in Philadelphia, and that it would shut down the operation on June 12.
2008 – U.S. federal prosecutors have filed a new indictment against baseball slugger Barry Bonds, charging him with 14 counts of lying to a grand jury and one count of obstruction of justice when he denied knowingly using performance-enhancing drugs.
2008 – Microsoft Corp. introduced its WorldWide Telescope, bringing the free Web-based program for zooming around the universe to a broad audience.
2008 – Eleven people are killed and twenty wounded in clashes between Iraqi militias and the United States Army in the Sadr City district of Baghdad.
2008 – The Department of Defense drops charges against Mohammed al Qahtani, who was suspected of being the “20th hijacker” in the September 11, 2001 attacks.
2009 – President Barack Obama proclaims May 2009 as Jewish American Heritage Month.
2009 – Chicago became the first US city to adopt a ban on the sale of baby bottles and sippy cups containing the chemical BPA.
2009 – In North Carolina, the country’s top tobacco growing state by sales, legislators approved a ban on smoking in restaurants and bars.
2010 – Five people are arrested, two in Massachusetts, and three in New York by the FBI in connection with the 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt.
2010 – The State of Hawaii enacts a law permitting officials to ignore multiple attempts by the same person to view the birth certificate of President Barack Obama.
2011 – California state parks officials said 70 state parks will close starting in September as a result of state budget cuts.
2011 – Georgia’s Gov. Nathan Deal signed HB 87, a new immigration bill, into law. On June 14 He proposed that unemployed probationers be given the jobs that migrants would have typically filled.
2011 – It was reported that tests by bee researcher Dr. Daniel Favre found that mobile phones may be a major factor in bee colony decline, leading to massive population issues within the species.
1830 – Zebulon Baird Vance, three-time governor of North Carolina (d. 1894)
1914 – Joe Louis, American boxer (d. 1981)
1922 – Beatrice Arthur, American actress
1931 – Jim Jones, American cult leader (d. 1978)
1941 – Ritchie Valens, American singer (d. 1959)
1950 – Stevie Wonder, American singer and musician
1961 – Dennis Rodman, American basketball player and actor
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army, Company A, 1st Battalion, 46th Infantry, Americal Division. Place and date: Quang Tin Province, Republic of Vietnam, May 13th, 1969. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif. Born: 20 February 1934, Superior, Ariz. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Maj. (then Capt.) Dunagan distinguished himself during the period May 13 and 14, 1969, while serving as commanding officer, Company A. On May 13, 1969, Maj. Dunagan was leading an attack to relieve pressure on the battalion’s forward support base when his company came under intense fire from a well-entrenched enemy battalion. Despite continuous hostile fire from a numerically superior force, Maj. Dunagan repeatedly and fearlessly exposed himself in order to locate enemy positions, direct friendly supporting artillery, and position the men of his company. In the early evening, while directing an element of his unit into perimeter guard, he was seriously wounded during an enemy mortar attack, but he refused to leave the battlefield and continued to supervise the evacuation of dead and wounded and to lead his command in the difficult task of disengaging from an aggressive enemy. In spite of painful wounds and extreme fatigue, Maj. Dunagan risked heavy fire on two occasions to rescue critically wounded men. He was again seriously wounded. Undaunted, he continued to display outstanding courage, professional competence, and leadership and successfully extricated his command from its untenable position on the evening of May 14. Having maneuvered his command into contact with an adjacent friendly unit, he learned that a six-man party from his company was under fire and had not reached the new perimeter. Maj. Dunagan unhesitatingly went back and searched for his men. Finding 1 soldier critically wounded, Maj. Dunagan, ignoring his wounds, lifted the man to his shoulders and carried him to the comparative safety of the friendly perimeter. Before permitting himself to be evacuated, he insured all of his wounded received emergency treatment and were removed from the area. Throughout the engagement, Maj. Dunagan’s actions gave great inspiration to his men and were directly responsible for saving the lives of many of his fellow soldiers. Maj. Dunagan’s extraordinary heroism above and beyond the call of duty, are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*OLSON, KENNETH L.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 5th Battalion, 12th Infantry, 199th Infantry Brigade (Separate) (Light). Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, May 13th, 1968. Entered service at: Minneapolis, Minn. Born: 26 May 1945, Willmar, Minn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Olson distinguished himself at the cost of his life while serving as a team leader with Company A. Sp4c. Olson was participating in a mission to reinforce a reconnaissance platoon which was heavily engaged with a well-entrenched Viet Cong force. When his platoon moved into the area of contact and had overrun the first line of enemy bunkers, Sp4c. Olson and a fellow soldier moved forward of the platoon to investigate another suspected line of bunkers. As the two men advanced they were pinned down by intense automatic weapons fire from an enemy position ten meters to their front. With complete disregard for his safety, Sp4c. Olson exposed himself and hurled a hand grenade into the Viet Cong position. Failing to silence the hostile fire, he again exposed himself to the intense fire in preparation to assault the enemy position. As he prepared to hurl the grenade, he was wounded, causing him to drop the activated device within his own position. Realizing that it would explode immediately, Sp4c. Olson threw himself upon the grenade and pulled it in to his body to take the full force of the explosion. By this unselfish action Sp4c. Olson sacrificed his own life to save the lives of his fellow comrades-in-arms. His extraordinary heroism inspired his fellow soldiers to renew their efforts and totally defeat the enemy force. Sp4c. Olson’s profound courage and intrepidity were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*WINDER, DAVID F.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3d Battalion, 1st Infantry, 11th Infantry Brigade, Americal Division. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, May 13th, 1970. Entered service at: Columbus, Ohio. Born: 10 August 1946, Edinboro, Pa. Citation: Pfc. Winder distinguished himself while serving in the Republic of Vietnam as a senior medical aidman with Company A. After moving through freshly cut rice paddies in search of a suspected company-size enemy force, the unit started a thorough search of the area. Suddenly they were engaged with intense automatic weapons and rocket propelled grenade fire by a well entrenched enemy force. Several friendly soldiers fell wounded in the initial contact and the unit was pinned down. Responding instantly to the cries of his wounded comrades, Pfc. Winder began maneuvering across approximately 100 meters of open, bullet-swept terrain toward the nearest casualty. Unarmed and crawling most of the distance, he was wounded by enemy fire before reaching his comrades. Despite his wounds and with great effort, Pfc. Winder reached the first casualty and administered medical aid. As he continued to crawl across the open terrain toward a second wounded soldier he was forced to stop when wounded a second time. Aroused by the cries of an injured comrade for aid, Pfc. Winder’s great determination and sense of duty impelled him to move forward once again, despite his wounds, in a courageous attempt to reach and assist the injured man. After struggling to within 10 meters of the man, Pfc. Winder was mortally wounded. His dedication and sacrifice inspired his unit to initiate an aggressive counterassault which led to the defeat of the enemy. Pfc. Winder’s conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the cost of his life were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit and the U.S. Army.
ANDERS, FRANK L.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company B, 1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry. Place and date: At San Miguel de Mayumo, Luzon, Philippine Islands, May 13th, 1899. Entered service at: Fargo, N. Dak. Birth: Fort Lincoln, Dakota Territory. Date of issue: 3 March 1906. Citation: With eleven other scouts, without waiting for the supporting battalion to aid them or to get into a position to do so, charged over a distance of about 150 yards and completely routed about three-hundred of the enemy who were in line and in a position that could only be carried by a frontal attack.
BIRKHIMER, WILLIAM E.
Rank and organization: Captain, 3d U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At San Miguel de Mayumo, Luzon, Philippine Islands, May 13th, 1899. Entered service at: lowa. Birth: Somerset, Ohio. Date of issue: 15 July 1902. Citation: With twelve men charged and routed three-hundred of the enemy.
DOWNS, WILLIS H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry. Place and date: At San Miguel de Mayumo, Luzon, Philippine Islands, May 13th, 1899. Entered service at: Jamestown, N. Dak. Birth: Mount Carmel, Conn. Date of issue: 16 February 1906. Citation: With eleven other scouts, without waiting for the supporting battalion to aid them or to get into a position to do so, charged over a distance of about 150 yards and completely routed about three-hundred of the enemy who were in line and in a position that could only be carried by a frontal attack.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry. Place and date: At San Miguel de Mayumo, Luzon, Philippine Islands, May 13th, 1899. Entered service at: Devils Lake, N. Dak. Birth: Denmark. Date of issue: 6 June 1906. Citation: With eleven other scouts, without waiting for the supporting battalion to aid them or to get into a position to do so, charged over a distance of about 150 yards and completely routed about 300 of the enemy, who were in line and in a position that could only be carried by a frontal attack.
LYON, EDWARD E.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 2d Oregon Volunteer Infantry. Place and date: At San Miguel de Mayumo, Luzon, Philippine Islands, May 13th, 1899. Entered service at: Amboy, Wash. Birth: Hixton, Wis. Date of issue: 24 January 1906. Citation: With 11 other scouts, without waiting for the supporting battalion to aid them or to get into position to do so, charged over a distance of about 150 yards and completely routed about 300 of the enemy, who were in line and in a position that could only be carried by a frontal attack.
QUINN, PETER H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At San Miguel de Mayumo, Luzon, Philippine Islands, May 13th, 1899. Entered service at: San Francisco, Calif. Birth: San Francisco, Calif. Date of issue: 6 June 1906. Citation: With eleven other scouts without waiting for the supporting battalion to aid them or to get into a position to do so, charged over a distance of about 150 yards and completely routed about three-hundred of the enemy who were in line and in a position that could only be carried by a frontal attack.
National Nutty Fudge Day
A limerick is a kind of a witty, humorous, or nonsense poem that is five lines following the form aabba. The form can be found in England as of the early years of the 18th century. It was popularized by Edward Lear in the 19th century.
The following example of a limerick is of unknown origin and to make it work pronounce it “lim-rik”.
The limerick packs laughs anatomical
In space that is quite economical,
But the good ones I’ve seen
So seldom are clean,
And the clean ones so seldom are comical.
The origin of the name limerick for this type of poem is debated. As of several years ago, its usage was first documented in England in 1898 (New English Dictionary) and in America in 1902. The name is generally taken to be a reference to the City or County of Limerick in Ireland.
Here are some more examples:
Linda Blair with great favor confessed,
She’d been exorcised, thus finding rest,
But alack and alas
Her old demon came back
and now the poor girl’s repossessed.
(Contributed by Dick Lamb)
There once was a fly on the wall
I wonder why didn’t it fall
because its feet stuck
Or was it just luck
Or does gravity miss things so small?
There once was a girl named Irene,
who lived on distilled kerosene.
But she started absorbin’
A new hydrocarbon,
And since then has never benzene!
In a castle that had a deep moat
Lived a chicken a duck and a goat.
They wanted to go out
And wander about
But all they needed was a boat.
There was a young girl from Oliver,
And all the men did follow her,
Until a guy came along,
And played her his song,
And all the rest quit call’n her.
There once was a man from Bombay
who wore on his head a toupee.
He thought that he might
give friends a delight
and remove his toupee for a day.
There one was a man from Peru,
Who dreamed of eating his shoe,
he awoke with a fright,
in the middle of the night,
and found that his dream had come true!
There was a farmer from Leeds,
Who ate six packets of seeds,
It soon came to pass,
He was covered with grass,
And he couldn’t sit down for the weeds!
There once was a man from Great Britain
Who interrupted two girls at their knittin’.
Said he with a sigh,
“That park bench, well I
Just painted it right where you’re sittin’.”
There was a young hunter named Shepherd
Who was eaten for lunch by a leopard.
Said the leopard, “Egad!
You’d be tastier, lad
If you had been salted and peppered!”
A flea and a fly in a flue
Were imprisoned, so what could they do?
Said the fly, “let us flee!”
“Let us fly!” said the flea.
So they flew through a flaw in the flue.
There was a young woman named Bright
Whose speed was much faster than light.
She set out one day
In a relative way,
And returned on the previous night.
An epicure dining at Crewe
Found a very large bug in his stew.
Said the waiter, “Don’t shout
And wave it about,
Or the rest will be wanting one too.”
Spend a little time and come up with more. They can be a lot of fun and great for speeches. For more limericks go to:
2 Peter 1: 16 – 21 . .
16 For we did not follow cleverly devised stories when we told you about the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ in power, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty. 17 He received honor and glory from God the Father when the voice came to him from the Majestic Glory, saying, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased.” 18 We ourselves heard this voice that came from heaven when we were with him on the sacred mountain.
19 We also have the prophetic message as something completely reliable, and you will do well to pay attention to it, as to a light shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts. 20 Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet’s own interpretation of things. 21 For prophecy never had its origin in the human will, but prophets, though human, spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.
“As good government is an empire of laws, how shall your laws be made? In a large society, inhabiting an extensive country, it is impossible that the whole should assemble to make laws. The first necessary step, then, is to depute power from the many to a few of the most wise and good.”
John Adams, Thoughts on Government, 1776
“It matters not what a person is born, but who they choose to be.”
~ Joanne Kathleen Rowling
cajole kuh-JOHL, transitive verb:
To persuade with flattery, repeated appeals, or soothing words; to coax.
Cajole derives from Early Modern French cajoler, originally, “to chatter like a bird in a cage, to sing; hence, to amuse with idle talk, to flatter,” from Old French gaiole, jaiole, “a cage,” from Medieval Latin caveola, “a small cage,” from Latin cavea, “an enclosure, a den for animals, a bird cage,” from cavus, “hollow.” It is related to cave, cage and jail (British gaol)
1700 – The Royal Governor, Earl of Bellomont, presides over the annual muster of New York City’s militia. Following English law, each spring all of the American colonies held a muster of the men enrolled in a city or county’s militia.
1777 – The first advertisement for ice cream in this country appeared in the New York Gazette. Confectioner Philip Lenzi announced that ice cream was available “almost every day.” Records kept by a Chatham Street, New York, merchant show that President George Washington spent approximately $200 for ice cream during the summer of 1790.
1780 – Revolutionary War: Charleston, South Carolina is taken by British forces.
1789 – Society of St Tammany is formed by Revolutionary War soldiers.
1792 – Toilet that flushes itself at regular intervals is patented.
1797 – George Washington addressed the Delaware chiefs and stated: “It is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey his will, to be grateful for his benefits, and to humbly implore his protection and favor.”
1831 – Edward Smith became the first indicted bank robber in the U.S.
1847 – William Clayton invented the odometer.
1851 – A treaty was signed on the south bank of the Kaweah River, the site of John Wood’s grave. Woods was killed by Yokut Indians. The California Tule River War ended.
1862 – Civil War: U.S. federal troops occupy Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Raymond: two divisions of James B. McPherson’s XVII Corps (ACW) turn the left wing of Confederate General John C. Pemberton’s defensive line on Fourteen Mile Creek, opening up the interior of Mississippi to the Union Army during the Vicksburg Campaign.
1864 – Civil War: the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House: thousands of Union and Confederate soldiers die in “the Bloody Angle”.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Todd’s Tavern, VA (Sheridan’s Raid).
1864 – Civil War: Union General Benjamin Butler attacked Drewry’s Bluff on the James River.
1864 – Civil War: U.S.S. Somerset, transported a detachment of troops to Apalachicola, Florida, to disperse a Confederate force thought to be in the vicinity.
1865 – Civil War: the Battle of Palmito Ranch: the first day of the last major land action to take place during the CIVIL WAR, resulting in a Confederate victory.
1871 – Segregated street cars were integrated in Louisville, Ky.
1873 – The penny postal card, issued by the Post Office Department, was first put on sale in Springfield, Mass., and in other cities a day later.
1874 – The US Assay office in Helena, Montana, was authorized.
1885 – Ottmar Mergenthaler, a German-born American, received a U.S. patent for his linotype machine that set entire lines of lead type as “slugs” for printing. Typesetting was transformed by the introduction of these keyboard machines.
1888 – Charles Sherrill of the Yale track team became the first runner to use the crouching start for a fast break in a foot race.
1890 – Louisiana legalized prize fighting.
1898 – Louisiana adopted a new constitution with a “grandfather clause” designed to eliminate black voters.
1902 – Union chief John Mitchell raised the call for a nationwide strike in the coal industry; 140,000 members of the United Mine Workers joined in his call.
1908 – Wireless Radio Broadcasting is patented by Nathan B Stubblefield.
1921 – National Hospital Day first observed. It provided a window of opportunity for hospitals to capture the trust of their communities.
1928 – Brothers Joe and Tom Longs (Longs Drug Stores) opened their first store on Oakland CA’s Piedmont Ave.
1932 – Ten weeks after his abduction, the infant son of Charles Lindbergh is found dead in Hopewell, New Jersey just a few miles from the Lindberghs’ home.
1933 – The Agricultural Adjustment Act is enacted to restrict agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies.
1934 – “Cocktails For Two” by Duke Ellington hit #1.
1935 – Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob Smith (founders of Alcoholics Anonymous) meet for the first time in Akron, Ohio, at the home of Henrietta Siberling.
1938 – Lieutenant C. B. Olsen became the first Coast Guardsman to be awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. He earned the award for “heroism in removing Lieutenant Colonel Gullion, U.S. Army, who was stricken with acute appendicitis, from the Army transport ‘Republic.'”
1938 – Sandoz Labs manufactured LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide).
1939 – Boatswain’s Mate First Class Clarence Samuels was appointed as a Chief Photographer’s Mate (Acting). He was the first Black chief petty officer.
1940 – World War II: The Nazi conquest of France began with the German army crossing Muese River.
1942 – World War II: Nazi U-boat U-507 sinks American cargo ship SS Virginia at the mouth of Mississippi River killing 26 sailors.
1942 – World War II: Second Battle of Kharkov – in the eastern Ukraine, the Soviet Army initiates a major offensive. During the battle the Soviets capture the city of Kharkov from the German Army, only to be encircled and destroyed.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: 1,500 Jews are sent to gas chambers in Auschwitz.
1943 – World War II: The Axis forces in North Africa surrendered during World War II.
1943 – World War II: Admiral Ainsworth leads four cruisers and seven destroyers in two groups to shell Vila and Munda. American ships lay more mines near New Georgia Island.
1945 – Elements of US 7th Army capture the Japanese ambassador to Germany, General Oshima, and 130 members of his staff.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Now is the Hour” by Bing Crosby, “Manana” by Peggy Lee, “The Dickey Bird Song” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Glenn Hughes) and “Anytime” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1949 – The Soviet Union announced an end to the Berlin Blockade.
1950 – “The Third Man Theme” by Guy Lombardo topped the charts.
1950 – The American Bowling Congress abolished its white males-only membership restriction after 34 years.
1951 -“How High the Moon” by Les Paul & Mary Ford topped the charts.
1951 – The first Hydrogen Bomb test was on Eniwetok Atoll.
1955 – Gisele MacKenzie played a singer on the NBC-TV program, “Justice”. On the show, she introduced her soon-to-be hit song, “Hard to Get“. Her popularity skyrocketed when the song was actually released and stayed on the charts for 16 weeks.
1955 – The last portion of the IRT Third Avenue Elevated in Manhattan closes. The first segments of the line opened in Manhattan in 1878. Service in Manhattan closed completely in 1955, and in the Bronx in 1973.
1955 – Chicago Cub Sam Jones is first Black to pitch no-hitter against the Pirates, 4-0.
1957 – A.J. Foyt earned his first auto racing victory in Kansas City, Missouri .
1957 – The Coast Guard Cutter Wachusett, on Ocean Station NOVEMBER, halfway between Honolulu and San Francisco, rescued the two-man crew who had bailed out of a U.S. Air Force B-57 because of a fuel shortage.
1958 – “All I Have to Do Is Dream” by Everly Brothers topped the charts.
1962 – Douglas MacArthur delivers his famous “Duty, Honor, Country“ valedictory speech at the United States Military Academy.
1962 – “Soldier Boy” by the Shirelles topped the charts.
1963 – There was a race riot in Birmingham, Alabama.
1965 – “Satisfaction” was recorded by The Rolling Stones.
1966 – Busch Stadium (St Louis MO) opens, Braves lose to Cardinals 4-3 in 12 innings.
1967 – H. Rap Brown (b.1943) replaced Stokely Carmichael (1941-1968) as chairman of Student Nonviolating Coordinating Committee and announced that the organization will continue its commitment to black power.
1969 – Kenneth H Wallis achieved record speed for an autogyro-111 MPH.
1969 – Vietnam War: Viet Cong sappers tried unsuccessfully to overrun Landing Zone Snoopy in Vietnam.
1970 – Ernie Banks becomes the eighth member of the 500 home run club, connecting off Pat Jarvis during a 4-3 eleven-inning Cub win over the Braves.
1970 – The US Senate voted unanimously to confirm Harry A. Blackmun as a Supreme Court justice. Justice Blackmun (1908-1999) was nominated to the US Supreme Court by Richard Nixon on April 14, 1970.
1970 – In Augusta, Georgia, an overnight riot left 6 black men dead. Autopsies confirmed that the six men killed were all shot in the back with police-issued shotguns.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face” by Roberta Flack, “I Gotcha” by Joe Tex, “Betcha By Golly, Wow” by The Stylistics and “Grandma Harp” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1972 – The Rolling Stones released the album “Exile on Main St.“
1973 – “Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree” by Tony Orlando & Dawn topped the charts.
1975 – U.S. merchant ship Mayaguez was seized by Cambodian forces in international waters.
1977 – “Hotel California” earned a gold record for the Eagles.
1978 – Commerce Department announces that hurricane names will no longer be exclusively female.
1979 – “Reunited” by Peaches & Herb topped the charts.
1980 – First nonstop crossing of US via balloon (Maxie Anderson & son Chris).
1982 – Braniff Airlines, based in Dallas, ceased operations. N601BN “747 Braniff Place” made the very last Braniff flight from Hawaii to Dallas/Fort Worth.
1984 – “Hello” by Lionel Richie topped the charts.
1985 – An honorary Doctor of Music degree was given to Lionel Richie from his alma mater Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.
1986 – Destroyer USS David R. Ray deters an Iranian Navy attempt to board a U.S. merchant ship.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wishing Well” by Terence Trent D’Arby, “Anything for You” by Gloria Estefan & Miami Sound Machine, “Pink Cadillac” by Natalie Cole and “Cry, Cry, Cry” by Highway 101 all topped the charts.
1989 – “Entertainment Tonight” performs their 2,000th TV performance.
1989 – The San Bernardino train disaster kills four people. A week later an underground gasoline pipeline explodes killing two more people.
1989 – Last graffiti covered NYC subway car retired.
1990 – “Nothing Compares 2U” by Sinead O’Connor topped the charts.
1992 – Four suspects were arrested in the beating of trucker Reginald Denny at the start of the Los Angeles riots.
1995 – Dow Jones, for 5th straight day of the week, sets a new record (4430.59).
1995 – Jose Mesa gets first of his Major League record 37 consecutive saves.
1995 – President Clinton, during a stopover in Ukraine, visited Babi Yar, where the Nazis massacred more than 30,000 Kiev Jews in 1941.
1996 – Authorities in Florida called off the search for possible survivors from the crash of ValuJet Flight 592, a day after the jetliner nose-dived into the Everglades with 110 people on board.
1996 – The house in which Margaret Mitchell wrote “Gone With the Wind” in Atlanta, Georgia, and purchased by Daimler-Benz for $4.5 mil, burned down while under re-construction for the summer Olympics.
1997 – Susie Maroney, 22, of Australia, is first to swim from Cuba to Florida. Swimming much of the way in a shark cage, she swam the 111 mile distance in just under 25 hours.
1998 – The UAE announced that it would buy 80 F-16s from the US for about $7 billion.
2000 – The Los Alamos fire toll covered 30,000 acres with 191 housing structures burned.
2000 – Adam Petty, 19, the fourth-generation driver of NASCAR’s most famous family, died in a crash during practice for the Busch 200 at New Hampshire International Speedway.
2001 – Perry Como (b.1913), singer, died at age 88 in Jupiter, Fla. His Perry Como Show ran on TV for 15 years (1948-1963).
2002 – US forces in Afghanistan killed five enemy fighters and captured 32 during a raid at Deh Rawod, north of Kandahar. US air strikes at Char Chine, killed 5 civilians.
2002 – Former US President Jimmy Carter arrives in Cuba for a five-day visit with Fidel Castro becoming the first President of the United States, in or out of office, to visit the island since Castro’s 1959 revolution.
2003 – Fifty-nine Democratic lawmakers bring the Texas Legislature to a standstill by going into hiding in a dispute over a Republican congressional redistricting plan.
2003 – Gulf War: L. Paul Bremer, the new American civilian administrator, took over the task of piecing Iraq together. He replaced retired Army Lt. Gen. Jay Garner.
2003 – North Korea declared that the 1992 agreement with South Korea to keep the Korean Peninsula free of nuclear weapons was nullified, citing a “sinister” U.S. agenda.
2003 – In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, multiple, simultaneous car bombings at three foreign compounds killed thirty people, including eight Americans and nine suicide bombers.
2004 – The Department of Energy announces plans to build the world’s fastest supercomputer, capable of a sustained performance of 50 trillion calculations per second (compared to 36.5 trillion for Japan’s Earth Simulator and the 7+ trillion for the USA’s ASCI White.)
2005 – The Islamic Center of America, a $12 million mosque, opened in Dearborn, Mich., down the road near the world headquarters of the Ford Motor Co.
2005 – A federal judge in Houston, Texas, sentences former Enron executive Dan Boyle to 3 years and 10 months in prison for his involvement with a barge scam.
2006 – Tony Snow made his debut as White House press secretary.
2006 – First reported instances of the Year 2038 problem strike. When the clock strikes 14 minutes and seven seconds past three on the morning of Tuesday 19 January 2038 UTC, a bug is expected to hit the web. Any computer, program, server or gadget running a 32-bit system could then fail, on a global scale, unless they are patched and upgraded in advance. This is known as the Year 2038 Problem, and is a theory that was recently proved when Psy’s Gangnam Style exceeded two billion views on YouTube.
2006 – Justin Gatlin breaks the world record in the 100 meter dash with a time of 9.76 seconds.
2006 – Gold surged to 730.65 a troy ounce.
2007 – Voters in Farmers Branch, a suburb of Dallas, Texas, became the first in the nation to prohibit landlords from renting to most illegal immigrants. Texas courts quickly issued a restraining order against the city to prevent the ordnance from taking effect.
2008 – Federal authorities start sending aid to Missouri, Oklahoma and Georgia as the total death toll from the May 2008 tornado outbreak sequence reaches 23.
2008 – Price for a one-ounce First-Class stamp increased from 41 to 42 cents.
2008 – US immigration agents arrested more than 300 people at Agriprocessors Inc, a kosher meat plant in Postville, Iowa, amid an ongoing investigation into identification theft, fraudulent use of Social Security numbers, and for illegal immigrants.
2010 – President Barack Obama and Afghan President Hamid Karzai met at the White House in a show of unity aimed at patching over differences at a pivotal time in the nearly nine-year-old war.
2011 – Flooding along the Mississippi River threatens $2-4 billion estimated damages.
2011 – Plans are cancelled to install prismatic glass on the bottom base of One World Trade Center due to technical problems.
2012 – The United States conducts two drone strikes in southeastern Yemen, killing 11 suspected Al-Qaeda militants.
2012 – Prospective Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney condemns same-sex marriage as illegitimate. At the evangelical Christian Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia, he describes marriage as exclusively “a relationship between one man and one woman.”
2012 – The world is not going to end on December 21, 2012. Especially not according to the awesome newly uncovered Mayan calendar — the oldest known Mayan calendar in existence — which was recently discovered by Boston University archeologist William Saturno.
2013 – New Orleans police say at least 19 people either attending or taking part in a Mother’s Day second-line parade in the 7th Ward were wounded in a shooting. Original reports had the number at a dozen people injured at the Original Big 7 Second Line, but that has since been upped to 19 — ten men, seven women, a 10-year-old boy and a 10-year-old girl.
1820 – Florence Nightingale, British nurse (d. 1910)
1850 – Henry Cabot Lodge, U.S. statesman (d. 1924)
1889 – Otto Frank, German-Swiss businessman and holocaust survivor (d. 1980)
1907 – Katharine Hepburn, American actress (d. 2003)
1912 – Archibald Cox, U.S. Solicitor General (d. 2004)
1914 – Howard K. Smith, American journalist (d. 2002)
1915 – Mary Kay Ash, American businesswoman, founded Mary Kay Cosmetics (d. 2001)
1925 – Yogi Berra, American baseball player
1928 – Burt Bacharach, American composer
1937 – George Carlin, American comedian (d. 2008)
1938 – Millie Perkins, American actress
1939 – Ron Ziegler, White House Press Secretary (d. 2003)
1950 – Bruce Boxleitner, American actor
1963 – Vanessa A. Williams, American actress
DURAN, JESUS S.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company E, 2nd Battalion, 5th Calvary, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Ph Romeas Hek, Cambodia May 12th, 1970 . Born: July 26, 1948, Juarez, Mexico Entered Service at: California Date of Issue: July 26, 1948, Juarez, Mexico
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Specialist Four Jesus S. Duran distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an acting M-60 machinegunner in Company E, 2d Battalion, 5th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) during combat operations against an armed enemy in the Republic of Vietnam on April 10, 1969. That afternoon, the reconnaissance platoon was moving into an elaborate enemy bunker complex when the lead elements began taking concentrated ambush fire from every side. The command post was in imminent danger of being overrun. With an M-60 machinegun blazing from his hip, Specialist Four Duran rushed forward and assumed a defensive position near the command post. As hostile forces stormed forward, Specialist Four Duran stood tall in a cloud of dust raised by the impacting rounds and bursting grenades directed towards him and thwarted the enemy with devastating streams of machinegun fire. Learning that two seriously wounded troopers lay helplessly pinned down under harassing fire, Specialist Four Duran assaulted the suppressive enemy positions, firing deadly bursts on the run. Mounting a log, he fired directly into the enemy’s foxholes, eliminating four and cutting down several others as they fled. Specialist Four Duran then continued to pour effective fire on the disorganized and fleeing enemy. Specialist Four Duran’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
JACKSON, JOE M.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Air Force, 311th Air Commando Squadron, Da Nang, Republic of Vietnam. Place and date: Kham Duc, Republic of Vietnam, May 12th,1968. Entered service at: Newman, Ga. Born: 14 March 1923, Newman, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Lt. Col. Jackson distinguished himself as pilot of a C-123 aircraft. Lt. Col. Jackson volunteered to attempt the rescue of a three-man USAF Combat Control Team from the special forces camp at Kham Duc. Hostile forces had overrun the forward outpost and established gun positions on the airstrip. They were raking the camp with small arms, mortars, light and heavy automatic weapons, and recoilless rifle fire. The camp was engulfed in flames and ammunition dumps were continuously exploding and littering the runway with debris. In addition, eight aircraft had been destroyed by the intense enemy fire and one aircraft remained on the runway reducing its usable length to only 2,200 feet. To further complicate the landing, the weather was deteriorating rapidly, thereby permitting only one air strike prior to his landing. Although fully aware of the extreme danger and likely failure of such an attempt, Lt. Col. Jackson elected to land his aircraft and attempt to rescue. Displaying superb airmanship and extraordinary heroism, he landed his aircraft near the point where the combat control team was reported to be hiding. While on the ground, his aircraft was the target of intense hostile fire. A rocket landed in front of the nose of the aircraft but failed to explode. Once the combat control team was aboard, Lt. Col. Jackson succeeded in getting airborne despite the hostile fire directed across the runway in front of his aircraft. Lt. Col. Jackson’s profound concern for his fellowmen, at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Air Force and reflect great credit upon himself, and the Armed Forces of his country.
COPAS, ARDIE R.
Rank and organization: Specialist 4th Class, U.S. Army. Place and date: Ph Romeas Hek, Cambodia, May 12th, 1970. Born: August, 29, 1950, Fort Pierce, FL , Entered Service at: Fort Pierce, FL Departed: 5/12/1970
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Specialist Four Ardie R. Copas distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Machinegunner in Company C, 1st Battalion (Mechanized), 5th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy near Ph Romeas Hek, Cambodia on May 12, 1970. That morning, Specialist Four Copas’ company was suddenly attacked by a large hostile force firing recoilless rifles, rocket-propelled grenades, and automatic weapons. As Specialist Four Copas began returning fire, his armored car was struck by an enemy recoilless round, knocking him to the ground and injuring four American Soldiers beside the vehicle. Ignoring his own wounds, Specialist Four Copas quickly remounted the burning vehicle and commenced firing his machinegun at the belligerents. Braving the hostile fire directed at him and the possible detonation of the mortar rounds inside the track, Specialist Four Copas maintained a heavy volume of suppressive fire on the foe while the wounded Americans were safely evacuated. Undaunted, Specialist Four Copas continued to place devastating volleys of fire upon the adversary until he was mortally wounded when another enemy round hit his vehicle. Specialist Four Copas’ daring action resulted in the safe evacuation of his comrades. Specialist Four Copas’ extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
SHEA, CHARLES W.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company F, 350th Infantry. 88th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Mount Damiano, Italy, May 12th, 1944. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: New York, NY. G.O. No.: 4, 12 January 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty, on 12 May 1944, near Mount Damiano, Italy. As 2d Lt. Shea and his company were advancing toward a hill occupied by the enemy, 3 enemy machineguns suddenly opened fire, inflicting heavy casualties upon the company and halting its advance. 2d Lt. Shea immediately moved forward to eliminate these machinegun nests in order to enable his company to continue its attack. The deadly hail of machinegun fire at first pinned him down, but, boldly continuing his advance, 2d Lt. Shea crept up to the first nest. Throwing several hand grenades, he forced the four enemy soldiers manning this position to surrender, and disarming them, he sent them to the rear. He then crawled to the second machinegun position, and after a short fire fight forced two more German soldiers to surrender. At this time, the third machinegun fired at him, and while deadly small arms fire pitted the earth around him, 2d Lt. Shea crawled toward the nest. Suddenly he stood up and rushed the emplacement and with well-directed fire from his rifle, he killed all three of the enemy machine gunners. 2d Lt. Shea’s display of personal valor was an inspiration to the officers and men of his company.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 17th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Manchester, Mich. Born: 1838, Germany. Date of issue: 30 July 1896. Citation: Bravely rescued Lt. Charles H. Todd of his regiment who had been captured by a party of Confederates by shooting down one, knocking over another with the butt of his musket, and taking them both prisoners.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 148th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Center County, Pa. Birth: Center County, Pa. Date of issue: 31 January 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag of 8th North Carolina (C.S.A.), being one of the foremost in the assault.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 11th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Manchester, N.H. Born: 28 September 1836, Piermont, N.H. Date of issue: 23 September 1897. Citation: Six color bearers of the regiment having been killed, he voluntarily took both flags of the regiment and carried them through the remainder of the battle.
BEECH, JOHN P.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 4th New Jersey Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania Courthouse, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Trenton, N.J. Born: 1 May 1844, England. Date of issue: 5 June 1894. Citation: Voluntarily assisted in working the guns of a battery, all the members of which had been killed or wounded.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 125th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Spotslvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Troy, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag, seizing it as his regiment advanced over the enemy’s works. He received a bullet wound in the chest while capturing flag.
CLARKE, DAYTON P.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company F, 2d Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Hermon, N.Y. Birth: Hermon, N.Y. Date of issue: 30 June 1892. Citation: Distinguished conduct in a desperate hand-to-hand fight while commanding the regiment.
CLAUSEN, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: First lieutenant, Company H, 61st Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 25 June 1892. Citation: Although severely wounded, he led the regiment against the enemy, under a terrific fire, and saved a battery from capture.
FALL, CHARLES S.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 26th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania Courthouse, Va., May 12th,1864. Entered service at: Hamburg, Mich. Born: 1842, Noble County, Ind. Date of issue: 13 May 1899. Citation: Was one of the first to mount the Confederate works, where he bayoneted two of the enemy and captured a Confederate flag, but threw it away to continue the pursuit of the enemy.
FASNACHT, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 99th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th,1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Lancaster County, Pa. Date of issue: 2 April 1878. Citation: Capture of flag of 2nd Louisiana Tigers (C.S.A.) in a hand-to-hand contest.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 124th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Newburgh, N.Y. Birth: Goshen, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 17th Louisiana (C.S.A.).
HARRIS, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 148th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Bellefonte, Pa. Birth: Schuylkill, Pa. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag, wresting it from the color bearer and shooting an officer who attempted to regain it.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company A, 73d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 65th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
KINDIG, JOHN M.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 63d Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th,1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: East Liberty, Pa. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 28th North Carolina Infantry. (C.S.A.).
LOHNES, FRANCIS W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 1st Nebraska Veteran Cavalry. Place and date: At Gilmans Ranch, Nebr., May 12th, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Oneida County, N.Y. Date of issue: 24 July 1865. Citation: Gallantry in defending Government property against Indians.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 64th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Randolph, N.Y. Birth: Cattaraugus County, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company D, 69th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 2 August 1897. Citation: In a hand-to-hand encounter with the enemy captured a flag, was wounded in the act, but continued on duty until he received a second wound.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 17th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th,1864. Entered service at: Ypsilanti, Mich. Born: 1836, Niagara County, N.Y. Date of issue. 27 July 1896. Citation: Captured Col. Barker, commanding the Confederate brigade that charged the Union batteries; on the same day rescued Lt. George W. Harmon of his regiment from the enemy.
McHALE, ALEXANDER U.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 26th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania Courthouse, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Muskegon, Mich. Born: 1842, Ireland. Date of issue: 11 January 1900. Citation: Captured a Confederate color in a charge, threw the flag over in front of the works, and continued in the charge upon the enemy.
MITCHELL, ALEXANDER H.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company A, 105th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Hamilton, Pa. Birth: Perrysville, Pa. Date of issue: 27 March 1890. Citation: Capture of flag of 18th North Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.), in a personal encounter with the color bearer.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 4th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Delaware County, Ohio. Birth: Delaware County, Ohio. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag from the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 3d Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Grand Rapids, Mich. Born: 20 September 1844, Livingston, N.Y. Date of issue: 24 February 1891. Citation: Capture of colors of 4th Georgia Battery (C.S.A.)
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 20th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Ann Arbor, Mich. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 28 July 1896. Citation: Seized the colors, the color bearer having been shot down, and gallantly fought his way out with them, though the enemy were on the left flank and rear.
NOYES, WILLIAM W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 2d Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Montpelier, Vt. Birth: Montpelier, Vt. Date of issue: 22 March 1892. Citation: Standing upon the top of the breastworks, deliberately took aim and fired no less than fifteen shots into the enemy’s lines, but a few yards away.
ROBBINS, AUGUSTUS I.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company B, 2d Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Grafton, Vt. Birth: Grafton, Vt. Date of issue: 24 March 1892. Citation: While voluntarily serving as a staff officer successfully withdrew a regiment across and around a severely exposed position to the rest of the command; was severely wounded.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 81st Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Tamaqua, Pa. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag in a hand-to-hand conflict.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, 34th New York Battery. Place and date. At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 10 July 1896. Citation: Encouraged his cannoneers to hold a very dangerous position, and when all depended on several good shots it was from his piece that the most effective were delivered, causing the enemy’s fire to cease and thereby relieving the critical position of the Federal troops.
ROUNDS, LEWIS A.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 8th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th,1864. Entered service at: Huron County, Ohio. Birth: Cattaraugus County, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.
RUSSELL, CHARLES L.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 93d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Malone, N.Y. Birth: Malone, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 42d Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 73d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th,1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 15th Louisiana Infantry (C.S.A.).
THOMPSON, CHARLES A.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 17th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Kalamazoo, Mich. Born: 1843, Perrysburg, Ohio. Date of issue: 27 July 1896. Citation: After the regiment was surrounded and all resistance seemed useless, fought single-handed for the colors and refused to give them up until he had appealed to his superior officers.
TRACY, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 37th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864; At Petersburg, Va., 2 April 1865. Entered service at: Springfield, Mass. Birth: Jewett City, Conn. Date of issue: 19 November 1897. Citation: At the risk of his own life, at Spotsylvania, 12 May 1864, assisted in carrying to a place of safety a wounded and helpless officer. On 2 April 1865, advanced with the pioneers, and, under heavy fire, assisted in removing two lines of chevaux-de-frise; was twice wounded but advanced to the third line, where he was again severely wounded, losing a leg.
WEEKS, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 152d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th,1864. Entered service at: Hartwick Seminary, N.Y. Born: 15 March 1845, Hampton, Conn. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag and color bearer using an empty cocked rifle while outnumbered five or six to one.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 52d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Prussia. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 23rd Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
WILCOX, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 9th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Lempster, N.H. Birth: Lempster, N.H. Date of issue: 28 July 1896. Citation: Took command of his company, deployed as skirmishers, after the officers in command of the skirmish line had both been wounded, conducting himself gallantly; afterwards, becoming separated from command, he asked and obtained permission to fight in another company.
WILSON, CHRISTOPHER W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 73d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania. Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: West Meriden, Conn. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 30 December 1898. Citation: Took the flag from the wounded color bearer and carried it in the charge over the Confederate works, in which charge he also captured the colors of the 56th Virginia (C.S.A.) bringing off both flags in safety.
WISNER, LEWIS S.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company K. 124th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., May 12th, 1864. Entered service at: Wallkill, Orange County, N.Y. Birth: Wallkill, Orange County, N.Y. Date of issue: 2 January 1895. Citation: While serving as an engineer officer voluntarily exposed himself to the enemy’s fire.
Donate A Day’s Wages to Charity
Eat What You Want Day
The Spanish-American War was fought in 1898 but it started ninety years before. Imagine how a man might feel if he had reached a pinnacle of success in a business career. Imagine what would happen if another business leader with a strong personality came along and makes inroads into the first man’s power base. As his reputation starts to diminish, the business adversary starts taking things away from the first man. His frustrations start to get a grip on him and he starts to make major mistakes. Finally due to all this pressure he decides to fight back and then loses it all.
Spain was such a man. It was very successful in the late 18th century. It was strong and feared. Then in the early 19th century Spain fought the Peninsular War which was a war between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal. The war was for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic War.
Spain was such a man. It was very successful in the late 18th century. It was strong and feared. Then in the early 19th century Spain fought the Peninsular War which was a war between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal. The war was for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic War.
The war began when French and Spanish armies crossed Spain and invaded Portugal in 1807 and then in 1808 France turned on its ally, Spain. All through these early years Spain was under pressure.
The remainder of the mid-19th century saw revolts against Spanish rule that had been almost endless for decades in Cuba and were closely watched by Americans. There had been war scares before but by 1897–98, American public opinion grew angrier at reports of Spanish atrocities. After the mysterious sinking of the American battleship Maine in Havana harbor, political pressures from the Democratic Party pushed the government of President William McKinley, a Republican, into a war McKinley had wished to avoid.. Compromise proved impossible, resulting in an ultimatum sent to Madrid demanding it relinquish control of Cuba immediately, which was not accepted. First Madrid, then Washington, formally declared war.
The war occurred in both the Caribbean and in the Pacific. The trigger that finally set off this powder-keg was the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine. The war involved Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam.
Psalm 11: For the director of music. Of David.
“But what do we mean by the American Revolution? Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people; a change in their religious sentiments, of their duties and obligations…This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people was the real American Revolution.”
John Adams, letter to H. Niles, February 13, 1818
“ In the long run, we shape our lives, we shape ourselves. The process never ends until we die. And the choices we make are ultimately our responsibility.”
~ Eleanor Roosevelt
quixotic kwik-SOT-ik, adjective:
1. Caught up in the romance of noble deeds and the pursuit of unreachable goals; foolishly impractical especially in the pursuit of ideals.
2. Capricious; impulsive; unpredictable.
Quixotic refers to the eccentric, generous idealism of Don Quixote, the hero of a satiric romance by Miguel de Cervantes.
1310 – Fifty-four members of the Knights Templar are burned at the stake in France for being heretics.
1502 – Christopher Columbus leaves for his fourth and final voyage to the West Indies.
1588 – The Spanish Armada of 130 ships with 30,000 men left Lisbon for England.
1647- Peter Stuyvesant arrived in New Amsterdam to become governor.
1751 – First US hospital founded in Philadelphia, PA (Pennsylvania Hospital) .
1752 – Philadelphia’s volunteer fire companies formed America’s first successful property insurance company, The Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire.
1792 – Captain Robert Gray becomes the first documented non-Hispanic Caucasian to sail into the Columbia River.
1812 – OF SPECIAL NOTE: The Waltz was introduced into English ballrooms. Most observers considered it disgusting and immoral.
1814 – War of 1812: Americans defeated the British at Battle of Plattsburgh.
1816 – The American Bible Society came into being. The assembled delegates declared as their purpose “to encourage the wider circulation of the Holy Scriptures throughout the world,” and stipulated that none of the Bibles would contain notes or comments.
1820 – Launch of HMS Beagle the ship that took young Charles Darwin on his scientific voyage.
1841 – Lt. Charles Wilkes lands at Fort Nisqually in Puget Sound.
1846 – Congress declares war against Mexico at request of the President James Polk.
1858 – Minnesota is admitted as the 32nd U.S. state.
1862 – Civil War: The ironclad CSS Virginia is scuttled in the James River northwest of Norfolk, Virginia.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Yellow Tavern – Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart is mortally wounded by a dismounted Union soldier at Yellow Tavern, Virginia.
1866 – Confederate President Jefferson Davis became a free man after spending two years in prison for his role in the Civil War. He died at age 81 on December 6th, 1889.
1870 – The Brooklyn Atlantics pitcher George “Charmer” Zettlein pitches the first 9 inning shutout against the Cincinnati Red Stockings.
1880 – Battle of Mussel Slough: A US Marshal and his deputies faced a group of farmers in the San Joaquin Valley of California over a land dispute between the farmers and the Southern Pacific Railroad. Seven men died.
1889 – Major Joseph Washington Wham takes charge of $28,000 in gold and silver to pay troops at various points in the Arizona Territory. The money was stolen in a train robbery near Fort Thomas. The site is southeast of Globe on AZ Highway 70 and just east of the base of Mount Turnbull.
1894 – Pullman Strike: Four thousand Pullman Palace Car Company workers go on a wildcat strike in Illinois. President Cleveland intervened to keep the mail running. Thirty-four union workers were killed when federal troops intervened. The strike ended on July 11.
1897 – Washington Senator catcher Charlie Farrell set a major-league record by throwing out eight Orioles trying to steal 2nd base.
1898 – Spanish – American War: Revenue Cutter Hudson towed the crippled USS Winslow from certain destruction under the Spanish forts at Cardenas, Cuba.
1898 – Spanish- American War: Sailors and Marines from USS Marblehead and USS Nashville cut trans-oceanic cable near Cienfuegos, Cuba, isolating Cuba from Spain.
1900 – James J Jeffries KO’s James J Corbett in 23 rounds for heavyweight boxing title.
1907 – A derailment outside Lompoc, California kills 32 Shriners when their chartered train jumps off the tracks at a switch near Surf Depot.
1910 – President Taft signed the bill creating Glacier National Park which comprised 1,600 square miles. Glacier’s first superintendent, William Logan, spent that first summer attempting to control numerous forest fires.
1916 – Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity published.
1919 – Yankees’ Jack Quinn & Senators’ Walter Johnson, 12 inning 0-0 tie.
1920 – The 16th Marine Regiment organized at Philadelphia for duty in Cuba, Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
1926 – Maxwell House Coffee’s “Good To The Last Drop (1950’s)”, was trademark registered.
1927 – Louis B Mayer forms Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences .
1928 – Radio station WGY, in Schenectady, NY, began America’s first regularly scheduled TV broadcasts. The programs lasted from 1:30 to 2:00 p.m. on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays. Most of the viewers were on the technical staff at nearby General Electric, which had designed the system and was using the broadcasts to refine its equipment.
1934 – Dust Bowl: A strong two-day dust storm removes massive amounts of Great Plains topsoil in one of the worst dust storms of the Dust Bowl in North America.
1935 – The US Rural Electrification Administration was established. Rural electrification is the process of bringing electrical power to rural and remote areas.
1937 – Spam, a canned ham by Hormel, was registered as a trademark.
1941 – World War II: The first Messerschmidt 109F was shot down above England.
1942 – William Faulkner’s collections of short stories, “Go Down, Moses”, is published.
1942 – World War II: The Air Medal was authorized by President Roosevelt by Executive Order 9158.
1943 – World War II: American troops invade Attu Island in the Aleutian Islands in an attempt to expel occupying Japanese forces. America was successful nineteen days later.
1943 – World War II: Hermann Goering division in Tunisia surrendered.
1944 – World War II: The Allies start a major offensive against the Axis Powers on the Gustav Line.
1944 – World War II: The US 9th Air Force begins a series of raids on airfields around Caen, France.
1944 – World War II: The Japanese begin to assemble most of their remaining heavy warships at Tawitawi. Admiral Ozawa commands the forces.
1945 – World War II: Kiyoshi Ogawa, Japanese pilot, crashed his plane into the US carrier Bunker Hill near Okinawa. 496 Americans died with him and the ship was knocked out of the war.
1946 – The first CARE packages arrived in Europe, at Le Harve, France.
1946 – First night game at Boston Braves Field (Giants 5, Braves 1).
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Linda” by Buddy Clark with the Ray Noble Orchestra, “Heartaches” by The Ted Weems Orchestra (whistler: Elmo Tanner), “The Anniversary Song” by Dinah Shore and “New Jolie Blonde (New Pretty Blonde)” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1947 – BF Goodrich manufactures first tubeless tire at its plant in Akron OH.
1948 – Edward Ricketts (Doc Ricketts, 51), marine biologist and friend of author John Steinbeck, died in Monterey, Ca., after his car stalled on railroad tracks and was struck by a Del Monte Express.
1949 – First Polaroid camera sold for $89.95 in New York City. Using the Consumer Price Index this would be the equivalent of $822.00 in 2011 dollars.
1949 – Recognizing that rocket test ranges will exceed White Sands capability, Cape Canaveral was selected for future long range flights. President Truman signed a bill providing a 5,000-mile guided-missile test range.
1951 – Jay Forrester patented computer core memory.
1953 – The 1953 Waco tornado outbreak: An F5 tornado hit downtown Waco, Texas, killing 114 people with 597 injured. Damages were estimated at $200 million. In 2011 dollars that equals $1. 63 billion dollars.
1953 – Winston Churchill criticized the domino theory of John Foster Dulles.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White” by Perez Prado, “Unchained Melody” by Les Baxter, “Honey-Babe” by Art Mooney and “In the Jailhouse Now” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1956 – Pinky Lee Show, last airs on NBC-TV.
1957 – “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1957 – Buddy Holly and the Crickets auditioned for “Arthur Godfrey’s Talent Scouts” and were rejected.
1957 – The Everly Brothers made their debut on “Grand Ole Opry” in Nashville, TN.
1959 – “The Happy Organ” by Dave ‘Baby’ Cortez topped the charts.
1959 – “Kookie, Kookie Lend Me Your Comb” by Byrnes & Connie Stevens hits #4.
1959 – Yankee catcher Yogi Berra’s errorless streak of 148 games ends.
1960 – In Buenos Aires, Argentina, four Israeli Mossad agents capture fugitive Nazi Adolf Eichmann, living under the assumed name Ricardo Klement.
1960 – The first contraceptive pill is made available on the market.
1961 – Vietnam War: President Kennedy approves sending 400 Special Forces troops and 100 other U.S. military advisers to South Vietnam.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Will Follow Him” by Little Peggy March, “Puff the Magic Dragon” by Peter, Paul & Mary, “If You Wanna Be Happy” by Jimmy Soul and “LOnesome 7-7203” by Hawkshaw Hawkins all topped the charts. “I Will Follow Him” was also used later in the movie “Sister Act.”
1963 – Los Angeles Dodger Sandy Koufax 2nd no-hitter beats New York Giants, 8-0.
1963 – Racial bomb attacks took place in Birmingham, Alabama.
1965 – The Byrds made their TV debut with “Mr. Tambourine Man” on NBC’s “Hullabaloo.” Hullabaloo was a music show that ran on NBC from January 12, 1965 until August 29, 1966.
1965 – Vietnam: U.S. destroyers deliver first shore bombardment of Vietnam War.
1967 – The ABC-TV special “Rodgers & Hart Today” aired. It starred Bobby Darin, the Supremes, Petula Clark and the Mamas & the Papas.
1967 – 100,000,000th US phone connected.
1967 – The siege of Khe Sanh ended.
1968 – Richard Harris releases “MacArthur Park.”
1968 – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro topped the charts.
1969 – Vietnam War: Operation Apache Snow: American and South Vietnamese forces fight North Vietnamese troops for Ap Bia Mountain (aka Hill 937 or “Hamburger Hill”).
1970 – “Long & Winding Road” by the Beatles was released in the US. It was their last American release.
1970 – “Give Me Just a Little More Time” earned a gold record for The Chairmen of the Board, a moderately successful Detroit group.
1970 – Henry Marrow is murdered in a violent racially-motivated crime in Oxford, North Carolina.
1970 – The Lubbock Tornado: An F5 tornado hits downtown Lubbock, Texas, killing 26.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Joy to the World” by Three Dog Night, “Never Can Say Goodbye” by The Jackson 5, “I Am…I Said” by Neil Diamond and “How Much More Can She Stand” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1971 – Cleveland Indians’ Steve Dunning becomes last American League pitcher to hit a grand slam.
1972 – John Lennon says his phone is tapped by the FBI on Dick Cavett Show.
1972 – San Francisco Giants trade Willie Mays to New York Mets.
1972 – Vietnam War: Air Force pilot First Lt. Michael Joseph Blassie (b.1948) was shot down by anti-aircraft fire after having logged 137 combat missions. His remains were entombed on Memorial Day, 1984, at the Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington. In 1998 his remains were exhumed and identified by DNA testing.
1973 – Citing government misconduct, Daniel Ellsberg has his charges for his involvement in releasing the Pentagon Papers to The New York Times dismissed.
1974 – Steely Dan releases “Rikki Don’t Lose that Number.”
1974 – “The Loco-Motion” by Grand Funk topped the charts.
1977 – Braves owner Ted Turner gives manager Dave Bristol a 10-day paid leave and takes over as field manager.
1980 – Pete Rose, 39, steals second, third, & home in one inning for Phillies. It is the fifth time since 1928 that this has been accomplished: The last National Leaguer to pull this feat was Jackie Robinson in 1954.
1981 – Heavyweight boxing challenger Gerry Cooney left former champ Ken Norton on the ropes and unconscious after 54 seconds of the first round at Madison Square Garden in New York City.
1981 – Bob Marley, famous reggae artist died from cancer today after a seven month bout with the disease.
1982 – US Football League forms. The USFL existed from 1982 to 1985 for three full seasons. It was founded by David Dixon, from New Orleans, Louisiana.
1984 – The Detroit Tigers improve their record to 26-4 with an 8-2 win over the Angels and establish a new record for the best 30-game start in ML history.
1985 – Dave Concepcion becomes 4th Cincinnati Red teammate to get 2,000 hits.
1985 – Scott Brayton turned in the fastest lap ever at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Brayton was traveling at 214.199 MPH in the third lap of qualifying.
1986 – Fred Markham (US), unpaced and unaided by wind, became the first to pedal 65 mph on a level course, Big Sand Flat, Calif.
1985 – “Crazy for You” by Madonna topped the charts.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “(I Just) Died in Your Arms” by Cutting Crew, “Looking for a New Love” by Jody Watley, “With or Without You” by U2 and “The Moon is Still Over Her Shoulder” by Michael Johnson all topped the charts.
1987 – In Baltimore, Maryland, The first heart-lung transplant takes place. The surgery is performed by Dr. Bruce Reitz, of Stanford University School of Medicine. Clinton House, the nation’s first living heart donor, died 14 months later.
1987 – Former National Security Adviser Robert C. McFarlane began testifying at the Iran-Contra hearings.
1989 – President Bush recalled the US ambassador and planned to dispatch about 1,700 soldiers and 165 Marines in phases to reinforce troops already in Panama.
1989 – US Federal Judge Walter Nixon (61) of Mississippi was impeached by the House of Representatives.
1989 – The Franklin Mills mega-mall, the former Liberty Bell Racetrack, opened in Philadelphia.
1991 – “Joyride” by Roxette topped the charts.
1991 – President Bush dispatched an amphibious task force with thousands of Marines and dozens of helicopters to help cyclone-ravaged Bangladesh with disaster relief efforts.
1994 – Arkansas put to death two convicted murderers; it was the first time a state executed two people on the same day since the U.S. Supreme Court allowed states to restore the death penalty in 1976.
1995 – In New York City, more than 170 countries decide to extend the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty indefinitely and without conditions.
1996 – After taking-off from Miami, Florida, a fire started by improperly handled oxygen canisters in the cargo hold of Atlanta-bound ValuJet Flight 592 causes the Douglas DC-9 to crash in the Florida Everglades killing all 110 on board.
1996 – In Pomona, CA, police officer Daniel Fraembs was shot and killed on South Humane Way.
1997 – IBM Deep Blue, a chess-playing supercomputer, defeats Garry Kasparov in the last game of the rematch, becoming the first computer to beat a world-champion chess player in a classic match format.
1999 – Gulf War: US and British warplanes bombed air defense targets in northern and southern Iraq after they were targeted by radar.
1999 – The solar wind from the sun died away 98% for 24 hrs and allowed the Earth’s magnetic field to stretch out to the moon.
2000 – At Los Alamos 25,000 people were evacuated and the fire destroyed at least 150-260 homes. Flames scorched parts of the nuclear weapons facility.
2001 – U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft announced his decision to approve a 30-day delay of the execution of convicted Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh.
2001 – Texas Gov. Rick Perry signed the James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Act.
2002 – Joseph Bonanno (97), former Mafia boss known as “Joe Bananas,” died in Tucson, Az. His autobiography was titled “A Man of Honor.”
2004 – The Bush administration ordered economic sanctions against Syria for supporting terrorism. Food and medicine were excepted.
2004 – A video, posted on an al-Qaida-linked Web site, showed the beheading of Nick Berg, an American civilian in Iraq. Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, aka Ahmad Fadhil al Khalayeh, was later identified as the beheader. Nick Berg (26) was from West Chester, Pa.
2004 – NBA star Kobe Bryant pleaded not guilty in a Colorado court to a rape charge. Prosecutors later dropped the case.
2004 – Oil for June delivery rose to 40.06 per barrel, the highest price in 13 years.
2005 – The US Real ID Act of 2005 was signed into law. It was Division B of an act of the United States Congress entitled Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Tsunami Relief, 2005.
2006 – The Philadelphia City Council unanimously approved a plan to blanket the city’s 135 square miles with a high-speed wireless Internet connection, a measure the mayor is expected to sign soon.
2006 – In Kingston, Tenn., deputy Bill Jones and a friend were shot and killed as they served felony warrants alleging aggravated assault. Jones was shot 33 times by two brothers at a rural farmhouse.
2007 – In California firefighters struggled to protect Avalon, Catalina Island’s main city, from a wildfire that forced hundreds of residents to flee on ferries as ash rained down like snow.
2007 – In California the high school graduation rate fell to 67%, a 10-year low, as the exit exam for basic skills was required for the first time.
2009 – US District Judge Samuel Kent was sentenced to 3 years in prison for lying to investigators about sexually abusing two female employees at his Galveston, Texas, courthouse. This was the first sex abuse case ever against a sitting federal judge.
2009 – The space shuttle Atlantis and seven astronauts blasted off from Cape Canaveral on a mission to repair the Hubble telescope.
2009 – The price of a US first-class stamp rose 2 cents to 44 cents.
2009 – United States Army soldier, Sgt. John M. Russell, kills five fellow-soldiers at Camp Liberty in Baghdad, Iraq.
2010 – Louisiana state health officials close oyster harvesting areas as a precaution against contaminated products from the Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
2011 – A trial of United States citizens Josh Fattal and Shane Bauer in Tehran, Iran, on espionage charges is again delayed.
2011 – Two people are arrested in New York City for allegedly planning a terrorist attack.
2011 – The Miami Heat beat the Boston Celtics 97-87 to advance to the Eastern Conference Final in the US National Basketball Association.
2012 – The US miliatry is embroiled in controversy over a defunct officer training course called Perspectives on Islam and Islamic Radicalism, which taught that Islam is America’s irreconcilable enemy.
2012 – Thousands of fans attend a memorial service for the late San Diego Chargers linebacker Junior Seau at Qualcomm Stadium. Team president Dean Spanos announces that Seau’s #55 will be retired by the team.
1720 – Karl Friedrich Hieronymus Freiherr von Münchhausen, German adventurer. He served until 1750, in particular taking part in two campaigns against the Turks. Returning home, Münchhausen supposedly told a number of outrageous tall tales about his adventures. Munchhausen Syndrome is a mental condition named after him. (d. 1797)
1799 – John Lowell, was a U.S. businessman, early philanthropist, and through his will, founder of the Lowell Institute. (d. 1836)
1852 – Charles W. Fairbanks, American Politician and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. (d. 1918)
1875 – Harriet Quimby, American aviator. was the first female to gain a pilot license in the United States.
1888 – Irving Berlin, American composer. (d. 1989)
1888 – Willis A. Lee, admiral of the United States Navy during World War II. (d. 1945)
1894 – Martha Graham, American dancer and choreographer regarded as one of the foremost pioneers of modern dance, (d. 1991)
1911 – Phil Silvers, His best-known work is The Phil Silvers Show, a 1950s sitcom set on a US Army post in which he played Sergeant Bilko; the show was also often referred to by this name. (d. 1985)
1912 – Foster Brooks, was an American actor and comedian who was most famous for his ongoing portrayal of a drunken man in Las Vegas nightclub performances and television programs. One of his famous lines (said as a drunken man) was “Some seeple pink I’m under the affluence on incohol.”(d. 2001)
1928 – Brother Andrew, is a Christian missionary famous for his exploits smuggling Bibles to communist countries in the height of the Cold War, a feat that has earned him the nickname “God’s smuggler”.
1946 – Robert Jarvik is an American scientist, researcher and entrepreneur known for his role in developing the Jarvik-7 artificial heart.
McKlNNEY, JOHN R.
Rank and organization: Sergeant (then Private), U.S. Army, Company A, 123d Infantry, 33d Infantry Division. Place and date: Tayabas Province, Luzon, Philippine Islands, May 11th, 1945. Entered service at: Woodcliff, Ga. Birth: Woodcliff, Ga. G.O. No.: 14, 4 February 1946. Citation: He fought with extreme gallantry to defend the outpost which had been established near Dingalan Bay. Just before daybreak approximately one-hundred Japanese stealthily attacked the perimeter defense, concentrating on a light machinegun position manned by three Americans. Having completed a long tour of duty at this gun, Pvt. McKinney was resting a few paces away when an enemy soldier dealt him a glancing blow on the head with a saber. Although dazed by the stroke, he seized his rifle, bludgeoned his attacker, and then shot another assailant who was charging him. Meanwhile, one of his comrades at the machinegun had been wounded and his other companion withdrew carrying the injured man to safety. Alone, Pvt. McKinney was confronted by ten infantrymen who had captured the machinegun with the evident intent of reversing it to fire into the perimeter. Leaping into the emplacement, he shot seven of them at pointblank range and killed three more with his rifle butt. In the melee the machinegun was rendered inoperative, leaving him only his rifle with which to meet the advancing Japanese, who hurled grenades and directed knee mortar shells into the perimeter. He warily changed position, secured more ammunition and reloading repeatedly, cut down waves of the fanatical enemy with devastating fire or clubbed them to death in hand-to-hand combat. When assistance arrived, he had thwarted the assault and was in complete control of the area. Thirty-eight dead Japanese around the machinegun and two more at the side of a mortar forty-five yards distant was the amazing toll he had exacted single-handedly. By his indomitable spirit, extraordinary fighting ability, and unwavering courage in the face of tremendous odds, Pvt. McKinley saved his company from possible annihilation and set an example of unsurpassed intrepidity.
*TERRY, SEYMOUR W.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Company B, 382d Infantry, 96th Infantry Division. Place and date: Zebra Hill, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, May 11th, 1945. Entered service at: Little Rock, Ark. Birth: Little Rock, Ark. G.O. No.: 23, 6 March 1946. Citation: 1st Lt. Terry was leading an attack against heavily defended Zebra Hill when devastating fire from five pillboxes halted the advance. He braved the hail of bullets to secure satchel charges and white phosphorus grenades, and then ran thirty yards directly at the enemy with an ignited charge to the first stronghold, demolished it, and moved on to the other pillboxes, bombarding them with his grenades and calmly cutting down their defenders with rifle fire as they attempted to escape. When he had finished this job by sealing the four pillboxes with explosives, he had killed twenty Japanese and destroyed three machineguns. The advance was again held up by an intense grenade barrage which inflicted several casualties. Locating the source of enemy fire in trenches on the reverse slope of the hill, 1st Lt. Terry, burdened by six satchel charges launched a one-man assault. He wrecked the enemy’s defenses by throwing explosives into their positions and himself accounted for ten of the twenty hostile troops killed when his men overran the area. Pressing forward again toward a nearby ridge, his two assault platoons were stopped by slashing machinegun and mortar fire. He fearlessly ran across one-hundred yards of fire-swept terrain to join the support platoon and urge it on in a flanking maneuver. This thrust, too, was halted by stubborn resistance. 1st Lt. Terry began another one -man drive, hurling grenades upon the strongly entrenched defenders until they fled in confusion, leaving five dead behind them. Inspired by this bold action, the support platoon charged the retreating enemy and annihilated them. Soon afterward, while organizing his company to repulse a possible counterattack, the gallant company commander was mortally wounded by the burst of an enemy mortar shell. By his indomitable fighting spirit, brilliant leadership, and unwavering courage in the face of tremendous odds, 1st Lt. Terry made possible the accomplishment of his unit’s mission and set an example of heroism in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service.
*WAUGH, ROBERT T.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 339th Infantry, 85th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Tremensucli, Italy, May 11th, to May 14th 1944. Entered service at: Augusta, Maine. Birth: Ashton, R.I. G.O. No.: 79, 4 October 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy. In the course of an attack upon an enemy-held hill on 11 May, 1st Lt. Waugh personally reconnoitered a heavily mined area before entering it with his platoon. Directing his men to deliver fire on six bunkers guarding this hill, 1st Lt. Waugh advanced alone against them, reached the first bunker, threw phosphorus grenades into it and as the defenders emerged, killed them with a burst from his tommygun. He repeated this process on the five remaining bunkers, killing or capturing the occupants. On the morning of 14 May, 1st Lt. Waugh ordered his platoon to lay a base of fire on two enemy pillboxes located on a knoll which commanded the only trail up the hill. He then ran to the first pillbox, threw several grenades into it, drove the defenders into the open, and killed them. The second pillbox was next taken by this intrepid officer by similar methods. The fearless actions of 1st Lt. Waugh broke the Gustav Line at that point, neutralizing six bunkers and two pillboxes and he was personally responsible for the death of thirty of the enemy and the capture of twenty-five others. He was later killed in action in Itri, Italy, while leading his platoon in an attack.
The cutting of the cables at Cienfuegos, Cuba was one of the most remarkable events of the Spanish American War. In the face of severe fire, a group of men raised the cables through which communications passed between Cuba and the outside world. The following men received the Medal of Honor for this action:
BAKER, BENJAMIN F.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 12 March 1862, Dennisport, Mass. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the cutting of the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Baker set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action .
BARROW, DAVID D.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 October 1877, Reelsboro, N.C. Entered service at: Norfolk, Va. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the cutting of the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Barrow set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
BENNETT, JAMES H.
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 11 August 1877, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the cutting of the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Bennett set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 June 1859, Hanover, Germany. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the cutting of the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Beyer set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 November 1868, Pittsburgh, Pa. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the cutting of the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Blume set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
BRADY, GEORGE F.
Rank and organization: Chief Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 7 September 1867, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 497, 3 September 1899. Citation: On board the torpedo boat Winslow during the actions at Cardenas, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Conspicuously gallant during this period, Brady, by his energy in assisting to sustain fire, his efforts to repair the steering gear and his promptness in maintaining watertight integrity, was largely instrumental in saving the vessel.
BRIGHT, GEORGE WASHINGTON
Rank and organization: Coal Passer, U.S. Navy. Born: 27 December 1874, Norfolk, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the cutting of the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Bright set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 26 October 1874, Prince Edward Island, Canada. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the cutting of the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Campbell set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
CARTER, JOSEPH E.
Rank and organization: Blacksmith, U.S. Navy. Born: 15 August 1875, Manchester, England. Accredited: North Dakota. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Carter set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Apprentice First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 24 November 1878, Middletown, Del. Accredited to: Delaware. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Chadwick set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this period.
COONEY, THOMAS C.
Rank and organization: Chief Machinist, U.S. Navy. Born: 18 July 1853, Westport, Nova Scotia. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 497, 3 September 1898. Citation: On board the U.S. Torpedo Boat Winslow during the action at Cardenas, Cuba,May 11th,1898. Following the piercing of the boiler by an enemy shell, Cooney, by his gallantry and promptness in extinguishing the resulting flames, saved the boiler tubes from burning out.
Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate Third Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board U.S.S. Marblehead at Cienfuegos, Cuba, 11 May 1898. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 28 October 1878, Germany. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead, during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Davis set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
DORAN, JOHN J.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Doran set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
DURNEY, AUSTIN J.
SPANISH- AMERICAN WAR
Rank and organization: Blacksmith, U.S. Navy. Born: 26 November 1867, Philadelphia, Pa. Entered service at: Woodland, Mo. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Durney set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 17 October 1874, Finland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th,1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Eglit set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 18 July 1870, Finland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Erickson set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
FIELD, OSCAR WADSWORTH
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 6 October 1873, Jersey City, N.J. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Field set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
FOSS, HERBERT LOUIS
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 12 October 1871, Belfast, Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Foss set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
FRANKLIN, JOSEPH JOHN
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 18 June 1870, Buffalo, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Franklin set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U .S. Marine Corps. Born: 17 March 1865, Belmullet, Ireland. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Gaughan set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Oiler, U.S. Navy. Born: Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfugos, Cuba, May 11th,1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Gibbons set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 5 September 1851, Boston, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th,1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Gill set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Machinist First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 9 June 1866, Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Hart set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 12 March 1862, Germany. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Hendrickson displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 13 August 1864, Hartford, Conn. Accredited to: Connecticut. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Hill displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 11 September 1872, New York, N.Y.. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Hoban displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
JOHANSON, JOHN P.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 January 1865, Sweden. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 529, 21 November 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th,1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Johanson set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
|JOHANSSON, JOHAN J.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 12 May 1870, Sweden. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th,1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Johansson set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Chief Machinist, U.S. Navy. Born: 3 January 1865, Sandnes, Norway. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 497, 3 September 1898. Citation: On board the torpedo boat Winslow during the action at Cardenas, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Showing great presence of mind, Johnsen turned off the steam from the engine which had been wrecked by a shell bursting in the cylinder.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 4 October 1874, Newmarket, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th,1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Kearney set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born. 20 January 1865, Germany. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Kramer set an example of extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 3 July 1866, Germany. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th,1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Krause displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
|KUCHNEISTER, HERMANN WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: Hamburg, Germany. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing ;he heavy fire of the enemy, Kuchneister displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Apprentice First Class, U.S. Navy. Born. 3 June 1879, Pennsylvania. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Levery displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
|MAGER, GEORGE FREDERICK
Rank and organization: Apprentice First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 23 February 1875, Philipsburg, N.J. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 529, 2 November 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th,1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Mager displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Fireman Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 21 June 1841, Ireland. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Maxwell displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. (Name changed to Patrick F. Ford, Jr ) Born: 11 April 1872, Omaha, Nebr. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Meredith displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action .
Rank and organization: Carpenter’s Mate Third Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 June 1863, Germany. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Meyer displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness through this action.
|MILLER, HARRY HERBERT
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Nashville, Cienfuegos, Cuba, 11 May 1898. Entered service at: Massachusetts. Born: 4 May 1879, Noel Shore, Hants County, Nova Scotia. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville, during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Miller displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action .
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: S June 1877, Noel Shore, Hants County, Nova Scotia, Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Miller displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Sailmaker’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 26 March 1860, Norway. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Nelson displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 8 August 1860, Colchester, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Oakley displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this period.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 26 April 1867, Norway. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 529, 2 November 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Olsen displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this period.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 17 March 1874, Gates County, N.C. Accredited to: North Carolina. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Parker displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
|RILLEY, JOHN PHILLIP
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 January 1877, Allentown, Pa. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 521, July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th,1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Rilley displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
|RUSSELL, HENRY P.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 June 1878, Quebec, Canada. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Russell displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
|SCOTT, JOSEPH FRANCIS
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 4 June 1864, Boston, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Scott displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Private, U .S. Marine Corps. Born: 16 May 1870, Cork, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Sullivan displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
|SUNDQUIST, GUSTAV A.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 4 June 1879, Sweden. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 529, 2 November 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Sundquist displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. (Named changed to Wadas, Albert.) Born: 26 March 1876, Austria-Hungary. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Vadas displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this period .
|VAN ETTEN, HUDSON
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 17 May 1874, Port Jervis, N.J. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Van Etten displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this period.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born. 31 January 1875, San Francisco, Calif. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nashville during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th,1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Volz displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this period.
|WEST, WALTER SCOTT
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 13 March 1872, Bradford, N.H. Accredited to: New Hampshire. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th,1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, West displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
|WILKE, JULIUS A. R.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 14 November 1860, Germany. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th, 1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Wilke displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 October 1872, Germany. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 521, 7 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead during the operation of cutting the cable leading from Cienfuegos, Cuba, May 11th,1898. Facing the heavy fire of the enemy, Williams displayed extraordinary bravery and coolness throughout this period.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 24th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Arizona, May 11th, 1889. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Spotsylvania County, Va. Date of issue: 19 February 1890. Citation: Although shot in the abdomen, in a fight between a paymaster’s escort and robbers, did not leave the field until again wounded through both arms.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company B, 24th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Arizona, May 11th,1889. Entered service at: Columbus Barracks, Ohio. Born: 16 February 1858, Carters Bridge, Va. Date of issue: 19 February 1890. Citation: Gallantry in the fight between Paymaster Wham’s escort and robbers. Mays walked and crawled 2 miles to a ranch for help.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1850, New York. Accredited to: New York. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Fortune off Point Zapotitlan, Mexico, May 11th, 1874. On the occasion of the capsizing of one of the boats of the Fortune and the drowning of a portion of the boat’s crew, Fowler displayed gallant conduct.
|RUTHERFORD, JOHN T.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company L, 9th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Yellow Tavern, Va., May 11th, 1864; At Hanovertown, Va., 27 May 1864. Entered service at: Canton, N.Y. Birth:——. Date of issue: 22 March 1892. Citation: Made a successful charge at Yellow Tavern, Va., 11 May 1864, by which ninety prisoners were captured. On 27 May 1864, in a gallant dash on a superior force of the enemy and in a personal encounter, captured his opponent.
|TREAT, HOWELL B.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company I, 52d Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Buzzard’s Roost, Ga., May 11th, 1864. Entered service at: Painesville, Ohio. Birth: Painesville, Ohio. Date of issue: 14 August 1894. Citation: Risked his life in saving a wounded comrade.
|YEAGER, JACOB F.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 101st Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Buzzard’s Roost, Ga., May 11th, 1864. Entered service at: Tiffin, Ohio. Birth: Lehigh County, Pa. Date of issue: 3 August 1897. Citation: Seized a shell with fuze burning that had fallen in the ranks of his company and threw it into a stream, thereby probably saving his comrades from injury.
Fintastic Friday: Giving Sharks A Voice
If the Earth is hollow, where does all that magma spewing out of all those volcanoes come from? Somebody must have a half-convincing answer to that question, presumably that handful of people who still believe the Earth is an empty shell. The idea seems quite ludicrous now, but in pre-scientific times, it at least appeared to make sense: if Heaven was a place in the skies above, where else would Hell be than somewhere deep below our feet?
Harder to understand is why the idea survived several centuries of scientific progress, including the powerful notion of nature’s horror vacui. In a 1692 scientific paper, Edmund Halley of comet fame – put forth the idea that Earth consists of a shell about 800 km thick, and of two inner concentric shells and an innermost core with about the same diameter as the planet Mars.
Halley did have scientific grounds for his rather bizarre thought-construct. It tried to explain why compass readings could be so anomalous: each of the inner spheres had their own magnetic poles and rotated at differing speeds. To compound his error, Halley proposed that the inner spheres might be inhabited and that the inner atmosphere was made up of luminous gases that, when escaping outward, cause the Aurora borealis.
Later theorists came up with variations to Halley’s model. In the seventeenth century, Leonhard Euler proposed a single-shell hollow Earth with a small sun (1.000 km across) at the centre, providing light and warmth for an inner-Earth civilisation. Others proposed two inner suns, and even named them: Pluto and Proserpine.
In the early eighteenth century, American John Cleves Symmes Jr supplemented the theory with the suggestion of ‘blowholes’: openings about 2.300 km across at both poles. Symes apparently was utterly convinced by his own theories: he campaigned for an expedition to the North Pole. The intervention of President Andrew Jackson was needed – to stop it, that is.
Quite unbelievably, the hollow Earth idea persisted into the twentieth century, when the study of plate tectonics and the like made it obvious that the Earthcouldn’t be hollow. Yet hollow Earth books and theories multiplied, many based on Symmes’ work. In 1913, Marshall Gardner wrote A Journey to the Earth’s Interior, even built a working model of his hollow Earth – and patented it.
16 Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly as you teach and admonish one another with all wisdom, and as you sing psalms, hymns and spiritual songs with gratitude in your hearts to God.
“Each individual of the society has a right to be protected by it in the enjoyment of his life, liberty, and property, according to standing laws. He is obliged, consequently, to contribute his share to the expense of this protection; and to give his personal service, or an equivalent, when necessary. But no part of the property of any individual can, with justice, be taken from him, or applied to public uses, without his own consent, or that of the representative body of the people. In fine, the people of this commonwealth are not controllable by any other laws than those to which their constitutional representative body have given their consent.”
John Adams, Thoughts on Government, 1776
“When you dance, your purpose is not to get to a certain place on the floor. It’s to enjoy each step on the way.”
~ Dr. Wayne Dyer
stentorian sten-TOR-ee-uhn, adjective:
Stentorian comes from Stentor, a Greek herald in the Trojan War. According to Homer’s Iliad, his voice was as loud as that of fifty men combined.
70 – Siege of Jerusalem: Titus, son of emperor Vespasian, opens a full-scale assault on Jerusalem and attacks the city’s Third Wall to the northwest.
1497 – Amerigo Vespucci allegedly leaves Cádiz for his first voyage to the New World.
1503 – Christopher Columbus visits the Cayman Islands and names them Las Tortugas after the numerous sea turtles there.
1534 – Jacques Cartier visits Newfoundland.
1652 – John Johnson, a free black, granted 550 acres in Northampton County, VA., for importing eleven persons.
1676 – Bacon’s Rebellion, frontiersmen vs Virginia Government begins. High taxes, low prices for tobacco, and resentment against special privileges given those close to the governor, Sir William Berkeley, provided the background for the uprising.
1773 – The Tea Act is passed by the British Parliament on and would launch the final spark to the revolutionary movement in Boston. The act was not intended to raise revenue in the American colonies, and in fact imposed no new taxes. It was designed to bail out the East India Company which was floundering financially.
1775 – Revolutionary War: Fort Ticonderoga is taken by a small force led by Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold. Black patriots participated in the first aggressive action of American forces.
1775 – The Second Continental Congress convenes in Philadelphia, with John Hancock elected as its president. On May 15, the Congress places the colonies in a state of defense. Congress issues paper currency for first time.
1775 – Revolutionary War: Representatives from the 13 colonies of the United States meet in Philadelphia and raise the Continental Army to defend the new republic. They place it under command of George Washington of Virginia.
1797 – First Navy ship, the “United States” is launched. USS United States was the first of the six original frigates authorized for construction by the Naval Act of 1794. It was designed by naval architect Joshua Humphreys and William Doughty and built at the shipyard in Philadelphia.
1801 – First Barbary War: The Barbary pirates (Muslims) of Tripoli declare war on the United States of America.
1818 – Paul Revere (b.1735) American patriot, died in Boston. Revere, best known for his midnight ride, fathered 16 children-eight by his first wife Sarah Orne and eight by his second wife, Rachel Walker.
1823 – First steamboat, the New Orleans or Orleans, to navigate the Mississippi River arrives at Fort Snelling.
1837 – Panic of 1837: New York City banks fail, and unemployment reaches record levels.
1840 – Mormon leader Joseph Smith moved his band of followers to Illinois to escape the hostilities they had experienced in Missouri.
1845 – The USS Constitution dropped anchor in the bay outside of Tourane, Cochin China (Da Nang, Vietnam).
1849 – A mob destroyed Astor Place opera house in Manhattan, New York City and 22 people were killed. It was a dispute between actors Edwin Forrest and William Charles Macready. Edward Z.C. Judson (Ned Buntline) was convicted of leading the riot and was sentenced to a year in prison.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate River Defense Fleet made a spirited attack on Union gunboats and mortar flotilla at Plum Point Bend, Tennessee.
1862 – Civil War: Norfolk Navy Yard set afire before being evacuated by Confederate forces in a general withdrawal up the peninsula to defend Richmond.
1862 – Civil War: Pensacola reoccupied by Union Army and Navy forces.
1863 – Civil War: Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson died of pneumonia a week after losing his arm in a “friendly-fire” incident.
1864 – Civil War: Colonel Emory Upton leads a 10-regiment “Attack-in-depth” assault against the Confederate works at The Battle of Spotsylvania, which, though ultimately unsuccessful, would provide the idea for the massive assault against the Bloody Angle on May 12. Upton was wounded slightly but immediately is promoted to Brigadier General.
1864 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Mound City and U.S.S. Carondelet grounded near where work was proceeding on the wing dams across the Red River rapids above Alexandria.
1865 – Civil War: Jefferson Davis is captured with his wife and entourage by Union troops near Irwinville, Georgia.
1865 – Civil War: Union soldiers ambush and mortally wound Confederate raider William Quantrill in Kentucky, who lingers until his death on June 6.
1869 – The First Transcontinental Railroad, linking the eastern and western United States, is completed at Promontory Summit, Utah (not Promontory Point, Utah) with the golden spike.
1872 – Victoria Woodhull becomes the first woman nominated for President of the United States. An advocate of “free love,” Woodhull’s critics decried her promiscuity, charges she answered in her crusading newspaper. Citing a double-standard, she accused one of the most famous ministers of the day, Henry Ward Beecher, of adultery, claiming she herself had been one of his lovers.
1876 – Centennial Fair opened in Philadelphia. Centennial Hall was built in Philadelphia, Pa., to commemorate the country’s 100th birthday. The US population at this time was 46 million.
1876 – Richard Wagner’s “Centennial Inaugural March” debuted.
1879 – Meteorite falls near Estherville, IA.
1893 – The US Supreme Court rules in Nix v. Hedden that a tomato is a vegetable, not a fruit, under the Tariff Act of 1883.
1898 – A vending machine law was enacted in Omaha, NE. It cost $5,000 for a permit.
1908 – Mother’s Day is observed for the first time in the United States, in Grafton, West Virginia.
1910 – Halley’s Comet closest approach to Earth in the 1910 pass.
1919 – Race riot in Charleston, South Carolina. Two Blacks were killed.
1922 – The 1,000th Rickenbacker car was produced.It was named after the company co-founder, American World War I flying ace Eddie Rickenbacker. The company went out in 1928 having made 11,000 cars. They were too expensive for the times and the manufacturing equipment was sold to Audi. These cars are now very rare.
1922 – The United States annex the Kingman Reef. Kingman Reef has the status of an unincorporated territory of the United States, administered from Washington, DC by the U.S. Department of Interior. The atoll is closed to the public.
1924 – J. Edgar Hoover is appointed the Director of the United States’ Federal Bureau of Investigation, and remains so until his death in 1972.
1927 – The Hotel Statler in Boston, MA became the first hotel to install radio headsets in their rooms for guest entertainment.
1927 – US aviator Charles Augustus Lindbergh picked up his plane, “The Spirit of St. Louis,” in San Diego and flew it to St. Louis. The next day he continued to New York using railroad maps that he picked up in a drugstore for 50 cents each.
1928 – WGY-TV in Schenectady, NY, began regular television programming.
1930 – The first US planetarium opened in Chicago.
1933 – In Germany, the Nazis stage massive public book burnings. Some 40,000 people watched or took part.
1940 – Jimmy Dorsey and his orchestra recorded the classic, “Perfidia“, for Decca Records.
1940 – World War II: The first German bombs of the war fall on England at Chilham and Petham, in Kent.
1940 – World War II: Germany invades Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
1940 – World War II: Winston Churchill is appointed Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
1940 – World War II: Invasion of Iceland by the United Kingdom.
1941 – World War II: The House of Commons in London is damaged by the Luftwaffe in an air raid.
1941 – World War II: Rudolf Hess parachutes into Scotland in order to try and negotiate a peace deal between the United Kingdom and Germany.
1943 – World War II: U.S. troops invaded Attu in the Aleutian Islands to expel the Japanese.
1945 – World War II: The 22nd Marines, 6th Marine Division, executed a pre-dawn attack south across the Asa River Estuary and seized a bridgehead from which to continue the attack toward Naha, the capital of Okinawa.
1945 -The government announces plans to withdraw 3.1 million American troops from Europe.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh, What It Seemed to Be” by The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Marjorie Hughes), “Shoo Fly Pie“ – The Stan Kenton Orchestra (vocal: June Christy), “One-zy, Two-zy” by Phil Harris and “New Spanish Two Step” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1946 – First successful launch of an American V-2 rocket at White Sands Proving Ground.
1950 – Jackie Robinson appears on the cover of Life magazine; first time a Black American is featured on the cover in the magazine’s 13 year history.
1951 – Korean War: The Battle of Bunker Hill began with action by the 38th Infantry Regiment of the 2nd Infantry Division.
1952 – “Blue Tango” by Leroy Anderson topped the charts.
1954 – Bill Haley & His Comets release “Rock Around the Clock“, the first rock and roll record to reach number one on the Billboard charts.
1958 – “Witch Doctor” by David Seville topped the charts
1960 – The nuclear submarine USS Triton completes the first underwater circumnavigation of the earth (called Operation Sandblast) in 84 days following many of the routes taken by Magellan and cruising 46,000 miles.
1962 – Southern School News reported that 246,988 or 7.6 per cent of the Black pupils in public schools in seventeen Southern and Border States and the District of Columbia attended integrated classes in 1962.
1962 – Marvel Comics publishes the first issue of The Incredible Hulk.
1963 – Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth announced an agreement on limited integration plan which ended the Birmingham demonstrations.
1964 – Dusty Springfield made her U.S. television debut on the “Ed Sullivan Show.”
1965 – Warren Buffett took control of Berkshire-Hathaway. The textile company closed at $18 per share. In 2006 shares of Berkshire-Hathaway passed $100,000 per share.
1966 – Vietnam War: Coast Guard Cutter Point Grey interdicted near the Ca Mau peninsula with a large trawler. This was the largest, single known infiltration attempt since the Vung Ro Bay incident of February 1965 and was the first “suspicious trawler interdicted by a Market Time unit.”
1967 – Hank Aaron only inside the park homerun (vs Jim Bunning).
1968 – Jim Morrison (Doors) incited a riot during a Chicago concert.
1969 – The Turtles and the Temptations played the White House upon the request of Tricia Nixon.
1969 – “Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In” by 5th Dimension topped the charts.
1969 – Apollo 10 transmits first color pictures of Earth from space.
1969 – Vietnam War: The Battle of Dong Ap Bia begins with an assault on Hill 937. It will ultimately become known as Hamburger Hill. The name evidently derived from the fact that the battle turned into a “meat grinder.”
1969 – The National and American Football Leagues announced their plans to merge for the 1970-71 season.
1969 – In Louisiana the second Lake Pontchartrain causeway opened. The first span was completed in 1956.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “American Woman/No Sugar Tonight” by The Guess Who, “Vehicle” by The Ides of March, “Love or Let Me Be Lonely” by The Friends of Distinction and “The Pool Shark” by Dave Dudley all topped the charts.
1970 – The Boston Bruins win their first Stanley Cup since 1941 when Bobby Orr makes an overtime winning goal.
1970 – Brave’s Hoyt Wilhelm pitches in his 1,000th game, loses to Cardinals 6-5.
1972 – US Navy pilot Duke Cunningham shot down 3 North Vietnamese MiGs before flying his badly damaged and burning F-4 Phantom out of enemy territory and over safe waters where he and his co-pilot could eject.
1974 – “Just Don’t Want to Be Lonely” earned a gold record for the group, The Main Ingredient.
1974 – Eric Clapton recorded “I Shot the Sheriff.”
1975 – Sony introduces the Betamax videocassette recorder in Japan.
1975 – “He Don’t Love You (Like I Love You)” by Tony Orlando & Dawn topped the charts.
1975 – Stevie Wonder and his band Wonderlove played for 125,000 people at the Washington Monument as part of Human Kindness Day.
1977 – Patti Hearst was sentenced to 5 years’ probation for her role in the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) crime spree May 16-17, 1974. She still faced a 7-year sentence for armed robbery.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Night Fever” by Bee Gees, “If I Can’t Have You” by Yvonne Elliman, “The Closer I Get to You” by Roberta Flack with Donny Hathaway and “It’s All Wrong, But It’s All Right” by Dolly Parton all topped the charts.
1980 – “Call Me” by Blondie topped the charts.
1982 – WABC stopped playing music, a date known as “the day the music died”. The main reason was due to FM Radio having better sound. Its last record was John Lennon’s “Imagine” and it then joins ABC’s All Talk radio network.
1982 – Elliott Gould made his dramatic television debut after 30 movies in 17 years. He starred in “The Rules of Marriage” on CBS-TV.
1983 – “Laverne & Shirley” last airs on ABC-TV. The last episode was subtitled “Hear Today Hair Tomorrow,”
1984 – The International Court of Justice said the U.S. should halt any actions to blockade Nicaragua’s ports. The U.S. had already said it would not recognize World Court jurisdiction on this issue.
1986 – Navy Lt. Commander Donnie Cochran became the first African American pilot to fly with the Blue Angels team.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “West End Girls” by the Pet Shop Boys, “Greatest Love of All” by Whitney Houston, “Why Can’t This Be Love” by Van Halen and “Grandpa (Tell Me ’bout the Good Old Days)” by The Judds all topped the charts.
1989 – In Panama, the government of Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega announced it had nullified the country’s elections, which independent observers said the opposition had won by a 3-1 margin.
1992 – Astronaut Pierre Thuot tried but failed to snag a wayward satellite during a spacewalk outside the shuttle Endeavour. A trio of astronauts succeeded in capturing the Intelsat-Six three days later.
1994 – The state of Illinois executed convicted serial killer John Wayne Gacy for the murders of 33 young men and boys.
1995 – Terry Nichols was charged in the Oklahoma City bombing.
1996 – Excel Communications, Inc. becomes the youngest company ever to join the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), trading under the symbol (ECI).
1996 – A “rogue storm” near the summit of Mount Everest kills eight climbers, making this the deadliest day in the mountain’s history. Among the dead are experienced climbers Rob Hall and Scott Fischer, both of whom were leading paid expeditions to the summit.
1996 – Two US Marine helicopters collided and killed 14 servicemen in a piney swamp at Camp LeJeune, N.C. during a U.S.-British training exercise. An AH-1 Cobra attack helicopter collided with a CH-46 Sea Knight troop copter.
1997 – Physicists at UC Berkeley first listened to the sound from superfluid helium atoms oscillating between overlapping quantum states.
1998 – Tax freedom day, the day the average American taxpayer will have earned enough to pay his annual taxes.
1998 – In Clearfield, Pa., Kimberly Jo Dotts (15) was hanged to death by teenagers who planned to run away to Florida.
1999 – A military jury sentenced Captain Richard Ashby, a Marine pilot whose jet had clipped an Italian gondola cable, sending twenty people plunging to their deaths, to six months in prison and dismissed him from the Corps for helping hide a videotape shot during the flight.
1999 – The US approved the export of two Motorola Iridium satellites to China.
2000 – Eleven thousand residents were evacuated in Los Alamos, NM, due to a fire that was blown into a canyon. The fire had been deliberately set to clear brush.
2000 – President Clinton issued an executive order to make drugs for AIDS less expensive in Africa.
2001 – Boeing Co. announced that it would be moving its headquarters to Chicago, IL.
2002 – F.B.I. agent Robert Hanssen is given a life sentence without the possibility of parole for selling United States secrets to Moscow for $1.4 million in cash and diamonds.
2002 – Dr. Pepper announced that it would be introducing a new flavor, Red Fusion, for the first time in 122 years. Its production was essentially canceled less than a year later, although in certain areas it was available until late 2004.
2003 – Steven Tyler (Aerosmith) was given an honorary doctorate degree in music by the Berklee College of Music.
2003 – The May 2003 tornado outbreak sequence takes place.
2005 – A hand grenade which was thrown by Vladimir Arutinian lands about 65 feet from U.S. President George W. Bush while he was giving a speech to a crowd in Tbilisi, Georgia (of the former USSR), but it malfunctions and does not detonate.
2005 – A federal bankruptcy judge freed United Airlines from responsibility for pensions covering 120,000 employees.
2006 – Oklahoma became the last state to make tattoos legal when the governor Brad Henry signed legislation to license and regulate tattoo artists and parlors.
2007 – The Democratic-controlled House, by a vote of 255-171, defeated legislation to require the withdrawal of US combat troops from Iraq within nine months.
2007 – A US federal jury in Santa Ana, Ca., convicted Chi Mak, a China-born engineer, of passing submarine data to Beijing. Mak was later sentenced to 24 1/2 years in federal prison.
2008 – A tornado rumbled through Picher, Okla., killing at least seven people. The same storm system then moved into southwest Missouri, where tornadoes killed at least fifteen others. The storms moved eastward and killed at least one person the next day in Georgia.
2008 – In Wisconsin a medical helicopter crashed killing a surgeon, nurse and pilot.
2008 – Oil closed at a record high with light, sweet crude settling at $125.96 per barrel on the New York Mercantile Exchange.
2010 – President Barack Obama nominated Solicitor General Elena Kagan (50) to the Supreme Court, pushing the former law school dean toward the pinnacle of her profession and positioning the United States to have three women justices for the first time in its history.
2010 – Several tornadoes were reported in Oklahoma and Kansas. 5 people were killed and fifty-eight more were injured. Flattened homes, toppled semitrailers and downed power lines were left behind.Twisters hit a truck stop near Midwest City and locations in Oklahoma City.
2011 – Microsoft announced an $8.5 billion deal to acquire Skype, an Internet voice and video communications company.
2011 – The Mississippi River crested at Memphis, Tenn., at nearly 47.87 feet, just over the 48.7 feet record set in 1937. Vicksburg was forecast to see its highest river level ever, slightly above the 56.2-feet mark set in 1927. Farther south in Natchez, forecasters said the 1937 record could be shattered by 4 feet on May 14.
2011 – Former Governor of California and actor Arnold Schwarzenegger and journalist Maria Shriver announce their separation after 25 years of marriage.
2011 – The Minnesota Vikings and Ramsey County announce plans to build a $1.2 billion stadium for the team at Arden Hills, MN.
2013 – Boston Marathon suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev is buried in the al-Barzakh Cemetery in Doswell, Virginia.
1813 – Montgomery Blair, American politician. He was a loyal member of the Cabinet of Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War (d. 1883)
1838 – John Wilkes Booth, American actor and assassin of Abraham Lincoln (d. 1865)
1898 – Ariel Durant, American historian (d. 1981)
1899 – Fred Astaire, American dancer and actor (d. 1987)
1902 – David O. Selznick, American film producer (d. 1965)
1909 – Maybelle Carter, American musician (d. 1978)
1918 – George Welch, American WW II pilot nominated for the Medal of Honor(d. 1954)
1930 – Pat Summerall, American football player and broadcaster
1936 – Gary Owens, American actor and announcer
1955 – Mark David Chapman, American assassin of John Lennon
1963 – Lisa Nowak, American astronaut
1970 – Dallas Roberts, American actor
SABO, LESLIE H.
Rank: Specialist Fourth Class Organization: U.S. Army, Company B, 3d Battalion, 506th Infantry, 101st Airborne Division Born: February 23, 1948, Austria Entered Service At: Ellwood City, Pennsylvania Date of Issue: 05/16/2012 State: Pennsylvania
Place / Date: May 10th, 1970, Se San, Cambodia Specialist Four Leslie H. Sabo Jr. distinguished himself by conspicuous acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty at the cost of his own life while serving as a rifleman in Company B, 3d Battalion, 506th Infantry, 101st Airborne Division in Se San, Cambodia, on May 10, 1970. On that day, Specialist Four Sabo and his platoon were conducting a reconnaissance patrol when they were ambushed from all sides by a large enemy force. Without hesitation, Specialist Four Sabo charged an enemy position, killing several enemy soldiers. Immediately thereafter, he assaulted an enemy flanking force, successfully drawing their fire away from friendly soldiers and ultimately forcing the enemy to retreat. In order to re-supply ammunition, he sprinted across an open field to a wounded comrade. As he began to reload, an enemy grenade landed nearby. Specialist Four Sabo picked it up, threw it, and shielded his comrade with his own body, thus absorbing the brunt of the blast and saving his comrade’s life. Seriously wounded by the blast, Specialist Four Sabo nonetheless retained the initiative and then single-handedly charged an enemy bunker that had inflicted severe damage on the platoon, receiving several serious wounds from automatic weapons fire in the process. Now mortally injured, he crawled towards the enemy emplacement and, when in position, threw a grenade into the bunker. The resulting explosion silenced the enemy fire, but also ended Specialist Four Sabo’s life. His indomitable courage and complete disregard for his own safety saved the lives of many of his platoon members. Specialist Four Sabo’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness, above and beyond the call of duty, at the cost of his life, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, Company B, 3d Battalion, 506th Infantry, 101st Airborne Division, and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Pharmacist’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Naval Reserve. Born: 2 August 1924, Canton, N.C. Accredited to: North Carolina. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with a Marine Rifle Company in the 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division, during action against enemy Japanese forces on Okinawa Shima in the Ryukyu Chain, May 10th, 1945. Undaunted by the deadly accuracy of Japanese counterfire as his unit pushed the attack through a strategically important draw, Halyburton unhesitatingly dashed across the draw and up the hill into an open fire-swept field where the company advance squad was suddenly pinned down under a terrific concentration of mortar, machinegun and sniper fire with resultant severe casualties. Moving steadily forward despite the enemy’s merciless barrage, he reached the wounded Marine who lay farthest away and was rendering first aid when his patient was struck for the second time by a Japanese bullet. Instantly placing himself in the direct line of fire, he shielded the fallen fighter with his own body and staunchly continued his ministrations although constantly menaced by the slashing fury of shrapnel and bullets falling on all sides. Alert, determined and completely unselfish in his concern for the helpless Marine, he persevered in his efforts until he himself sustained mortal wounds and collapsed, heroically sacrificing himself that his comrade might live. By his outstanding valor and unwavering devotion to duty in the face of tremendous odds, Halyburton sustained and enhanced the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1829, Wales. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 77, 1 August 1866. Citation: For heroic conduct in rescuing from drowning James Rose and John Russell, seamen of the U.S.S. Winooski, off Eastport, Maine, May 10th, 1866.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Afterguard, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, Denmark. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 77, 1 August 1866. Citation: For heroic conduct with two comrades, in rescuing from drowning James Rose and John Russell, seamen, of the U.S.S. Winooski, off Eastport, Maine, May 10th,1866.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1833, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 77, 1 August 1866. Citation: For heroic conduct, with two comrades, in rescuing from drowning James Rose and John Russell, seamen, of the U.S.S. Winooski, off Eastport, Maine, May 10th, 1866.
Rank and organization: Captain, 5th U.S. Cavalry, Place and date: At Davenport Bridge, Va., May 10th, 1864. Entered service at: Bedford, Pa. Born: 24 March 1837, Bedford, Pa. Date of issue: 1 September 1893. Citation: By a gallant charge against a superior force of the enemy, extricated his command from a perilous position in which it had been ordered.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company B, 6th Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At Namozine Church, Va., May 10th, 1863. Entered service at: Monroe, Mich. Birth: New Rumley, Ohio. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag on 10 May 1863.
Rank and organization: Major, 20th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Horseshoe Bend, Ky., May 10th, 1863. Entered service at: Ypsilanti, Mich. Born: 11 May 1 836, Pembroke, N.H. Date of issue: 29 June 1891. Citation: Distinguished gallantry in leading his regiment in a charge on a house occupied by the enemy.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 4th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Laurel Hill, Va., May 10th,1864. Entered service at: Hillsdale, Mich. Born: 14 May 1842, Payson, Adams County, Ill. Date of issue: 7 February 1895. Citation: Voluntarily returned in the face of the advancing enemy to the assistance of a wounded and helpless comrade, and carried him, at imminent peril, to a place of safety.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 3d Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania Courthouse, Va., May 10th, 1864. Entered service at: Pomfret, Vt. Born: 23 December 1833, Davendish, Vt. Date of issue: 8 April 1892. Citation: At the head of three regiments and under a most galling fire attacked and occupied the enemy’s works.
The Memorial Wall, designed by Maya Ying Lin, is made up of two black granite walls 246 feet 9 inches (75 meters) long. The walls are sunk into the ground, with the earth behind them. At the highest tip (the apex where they meet), they are 10.1 feet (3 m) high, and they taper to a height of eight inches (20cm) at their extremities. Granite for the wall came from Bangalore, Karnataka, India and was deliberately chosen because of its reflective quality. Stone cutting and fabrication was done in Barre, Vermont. Stones were then shipped to Memphis, Tennessee where the names were etched. The etching was completed using a photoemulsion and sandblasting process developed at GlassCraft by their research and development division (now known as Glassical, Inc.).
The negatives used in the process are in storage at the Smithsonian Institution. When a visitor looks upon the wall, his or her reflection can be seen simultaneously with the engraved names, which is meant to symbolically bring the past and present together. One wall points toward the Washington Monument, the other in the direction of the Lincoln Memorial, meeting at an angle of 125° 12?. Each wall has 72 panels, 70 listing names (numbered 1E through 70E and 70W through 1W) and 2 very small blank panels at the extremities. There is a pathway along the base of the Wall, where visitors may walk, read the names, make a pencil rubbing of a particular name, or pray. Some people leave sentimental items there for their deceased loved ones, and non-perishable items are stored at the Museum and Archaeological Regional Storage Facility, with the exception of miniature American flags.
Inscribed on the walls with the Optima typeface are the names of servicemen who were either confirmed to be KIA (Killed in Action) or remained classified as MIA (Missing in Action) when the walls were constructed in 1982. They are listed in chronological order, starting at the apex on panel 1E in 1959 (although it was later discovered that the first casualties were military advisers who were killed by artillery fire in 1957), moving day by day to the end of the eastern wall at panel 70E, which ends on May 25, 1968, starting again at panel 70W at the end of the western wall which completes the list for May 25, 1968, and returning to the apex at panel 1W in 1975. Symbolically, this is described as a “wound that is closed and healing.” Information about rank, unit, and decorations are not given. The wall listed 58,159 names when it was completed in 1993; as of May 2007, there are 58,256 names, including 8 women. Approximately 1,200 of these are listed as missing (MIAs, POWs, and others), denoted with a cross; the confirmed dead are marked with a diamond. If the missing return alive, the cross is circumscribed by a circle (although this has never occurred as of January 2007); if their death is confirmed, a diamond is superimposed over the cross. According to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund, “there is no definitive answer to exactly how many, but there could be as many as 38 names of personnel who survived, but through clerical errors, were added to the list of fatalities provided by the Department of Defense.” Visitors can use directories to locate specific names.
Bernie Plassmeyer was a pilot I worked with while he was in training in Yuma, AZ. I was his plane captain. Note the date of his death. Thirty one years prior to 9/11.
“At the establishment of our constitutions, the judiciary bodies were supposed to be the most helpless and harmless members of the government. Experience, however, soon showed in what way they were to become the most dangerous; that the insufficiency of the means provided for their removal gave them a freehold and irresponsibility in office; that their decisions, seeming to concern individual suitors only, pass silent and unheeded by the public at large; that these decisions, nevertheless, become law by precedent, sapping, by little and little, the foundations of the constitution, and working its change by construction, before any one has perceived that that invisible and helpless worm has been busily employed in consuming its substance. In truth, man is not made to be trusted for life, if secured against all liability to account.”
Thomas Jefferson in a letter to Monsieur A. Coray, October 31, 1823
If you could get up the courage to begin, you have the courage to succeed.”
~ David Viscott
flibbertigibbet FLIB-ur-tee-jib-it, noun:
A silly, flighty, or scatterbrained person, especially a pert young woman with such qualities.
Flibbertigibbet is from Middle English flipergebet, which is probably an imitation of the sound of meaningless chatter.
1457 BC – Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC) between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of Kadesh. It is the first battle to have been recorded in what is accepted as relatively reliable detail.
1502 – Christopher Columbus leaves Spain for his fourth and final journey to the New World. He explored Central America, and discovered St. Lucia, the Isthmus of Panama, Honduras, and Costa Rica. Columbus left 52 Jewish families in Costa Rica.
1671 – Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal England’s Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. Interestingly, he used the same system used today. Get to know the watcher and hit him over the head after he opens the door.
1750 – The South Carolina Gazette reports that Caesar, a South Carolina slave has been granted his freedom and a life time annuity in exchange for his cures for poison and rattlesnake bite. Caesar and the famous James Derham of New Orleans are two of the earliest know African American medical practitioners.
1754 – First newspaper cartoon in America-divided snake “Join or Die.”
1813 – U.S. troops under William Henry Harrison rescued Fort Meigs from British and Canadian troops.
1825 – The first gaslit theatre in America opened. It was the Chatham Theatre in New York City.
1837 – “Sherrod” burned in Mississippi River below Natchez, Miss., and 175 died.
1846 – Mexican-American War: Gen. Mariano Arista crossed the Rio Grande and killed a number of US soldiers in a surprise attack. Mexico believed that France and Britain would support it in a war against the US.
1846 – Mexican-American War: US forced Mexico back to Rio Grande in the Battle of Resaca de la Palma.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of Ft. Pickens, FL (Pensacola), evacuated by the CSA.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of Farmington, Missouri.
1862 – Civil War: U.S.S. Constitution Lieutenant G. W. Rodgers, and U.S. steamer Baltic Lieutenant C.R.P. Rodgers, arrived at Newport, Rhode Island, with officers and midshipmen from the U.S. Naval Academy. The Naval Academy remained there for the duration of the war.
1862 -Civil War: USRC Miami landed President Abraham Lincoln on Confederate-held soil the day before the fall of Norfolk.
1864 – Union General John Sedgwick was shot and killed by a confederate sharpshooter during fighting at Spotsylvania, Va. His last words before getting hit were “They couldn’t hit an elephant at this distance.”
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Cloyd’s Mountain and Swift Creek, VA (Drewry’s Bluff, Ft. Darling).
1865 – A U.S. patent was issued to Richard Jordan Gatling for the Gatling gun, invented 1861, which was the first to successfully combine reliability, high firing rate and ease of loading into a single device. In the patent description, he called it a “battery-gun.”
1868 – The city of Reno, Nevada, is founded.
1887 – Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show opens in London.
1893 – The first motion picture exhibition was given by Thomas Alva Edison in Brooklyn, New York to an audience of 400 people at the Dept of Physics, Brooklyn Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y. using Edison’s Kinetograph.
1899 – John Albert Burr patented an improved rotary blade lawn mower. Burr designed a lawn mower with traction wheels and a rotary blade.
1909 – In San Francisco 135 delegates of the anti-Japanese Laundry League took steps at a convention at Golden Gate Hall, 222 Van Ness Ave., to boycott all Japanese enterprises on the Pacific Coast.
1913 – The 17th amendment to the Constitution, providing for the election of US senators by popular vote rather than selection by state legislatures, was ratified.
1914 – Mother’s Day, first observed in 1908, was recognized officially by Congress and President Wilson. It is celebrated in honor of the nation’s mothers on the second Sunday in May.
1915 – World War I: Second Battle of Artois between German and French forces.
1916 – President Woodrow Wilson mobilizes the National Guard of Arizona, New Mexico and Texas to patrol their borders with Mexico as Brigadier General John J. Pershing led an Army expedition into northern Mexico to try to capture or kill the bandit leader Pancho Villa and his group.
1919 – James Reese Europe, preeminent jazz bandleader killed by a crazed band member. The military band he formed during World War I was one of the most popular in all of Europe.
1926 – Admiral Richard E. Byrd and Floyd Bennett claim to have flown over the North Pole (later discovery of Byrd’s diary seems to indicate that this did not happen).
1930 – For the first time, a starting gate was used to start a Triple Crown race. The gate was rolled into place at the Preakness at the Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore, MD.
1936 – The first sheet of postage stamps of more than one variety went on sale in New York City.
1937 – Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy started their own radio show on NBC.
1939 – Ray Eberle recorded “Stairway to the Stars” with the Glenn Miller Orchestra for Bluebird Records.
1940 – Actress Vivien Leigh made her American theatre debut with Laurence Olivier in “Romeo and Juliet” in New York City.
1940 – World War II: The German submarine U-9 sinks the French coastal submarine Doris near Den Helder.
1941 – World War II: The German submarine U-110 is captured by the Royal Navy. On board is the latest Enigma cryptography machine which Allied cryptographers later used to break coded German messages.
1942 – World War II: USS Icarus, CG, sank the U-352 off Charleston and took 33 prisoners, the first German prisoners taken in combat by any US force in World War II.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: Belgrade becomes the first Axis-conquered city to murder or eliminate its Jewish population, largely with the help of Serbian collaborators.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: The SS murder 588 Jewish residents of the Podolian town of Zinkiv (Khmelnytska oblast, Ukraine).
1942 – World War II: Sixty-four Spitfires are successfully delivered to Malta by naval forces including the USS Wasp and the HMS Eagle. This time, the planes are quickly refueled and rearmed and there is no destruction on the ground as with the previous delivery.
1943 – World War II: The 5th German Panzer army surrendered in Tunisia.
1944 – Jimmie Davis became the Governor of Louisiana. He wrote the song “You Are My Sunshine.”
1944 – World War II: Allied air forces begin large scale raids on airbases in France as part of the preparation for the D-Day invasion.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Candy” by Johnny Mercer & Jo Stafford, “I’m Beginning to See the Light” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “He’s Home for a Little While” by Dinah Shore and “Smoke on the Water” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: The final German surrender to Marshal Georgy Zhukov at Berlin-Karlshorst is signed by Colonel-General Hans-Jürgen Stumpff as the representative of the Luftwaffe, Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel as the Chief of Staff of OKW, and Admiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg as Commander-in-Chief of the Kriegsmarine.
1945 – World War II: General Alexander Löhr, commander of German Army Group E in Topolšica signs the unconditional surrender of German occupying forces in former Yugoslavia ending World War II in Slovenia.
1945 – World War II: Hermann Göring is captured by the United States Army.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, the US 1st Marine Division captures Height 60 after eliminating Japanese positions on Nan Hill.
1945 – World War II: U.S. officials announced that a midnight entertainment curfew was being lifted immediately.
1946 – First hour long entertainment TV show, “NBC’s Hour Glass” premieres.
1951 – Korean War: Three hundred and twelve Air Force, Marine Corps and Navy planes hit Sinuiju Airfield in one of the largest air raids of the war.
1953 – “The Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1955 – “Sam and Friends“ debuts marking the first television appearance of both Jim Henson and what would become Kermit the Frog and the Muppets.
1958 – Mattel’s Barbie doll was registered. The doll made its debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York on March 9, 1959. This date is also used as Barbie’s official birthday.
1958 – Richard Burton made his network television debut on “The Dupont Show of the Month.”
1958 – Alan Freed was indicted for inciting unlawful destruction of property in Boston.
1959 – “Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods topped the charts.
1960 – The FDA announces it will approve birth control as an additional indication for Searle’s Enovid, making Enovid the world’s first approved oral contraceptive pill.
1960 – “Stuck on You” by Elvis Presley topped the charts .
1961 – Jim Gentile of the Baltimore Orioles becomes the first player in baseball history to hit grand slams in consecutive innings. The game was against the Minnesota Twins.
1961 – FCC Chairman Newton N Minow criticizes TV as a “vast wasteland.”
1962 – Laser beam successfully bounced off Moon for first time.
1964 – “Hello, Dolly!” by Louis Armstrong topped the charts.
1964 – Peter & Gordon release “World Without Love.”
1967 – Vietnam War: Marine Sgt. James Neil Tycz (22) and three other US servicemen were killed on Hill 665 near Khe Sanh, Vietnam, close to the Laos border. In 2005 three of the men were buried at Arlington National Cemetery on the 38th anniversary of their deaths.
1970 – “American Woman” by Guess Who topped the charts.
1970 – The Blues Images “Ride Captain Ride” was released.
1970 – Vietnam War: In Washington, D.C., 75,000 to 100,000 war protesters demonstrate in front of the White House.
1971 – The last episode of “The Honeymooners” airs.
1974 – The House Judiciary Committee began formal hearings on the Nixon impeachment.
1974 – The House of Representatives Judiciary Committee opens formal and public impeachment hearings against President Richard Nixon in the Watergate Scandal.
1978 – Musical “Ain’t Misbehavin‘” opens at Longacre Theater New York City for 1604 performances.
1979 – Unabomber- This was the second bomb the Unabomber sent and it went to John Harris, graduate student at Northwest University- Evanston. Illinois. He received slight injuries in the explosion.
1980 – In Florida, Liberian freighter MV Summit Venture hits the Sunshine Skyway Bridge over Tampa Bay sending 35 people (most in a bus) to a watery death as a 1,400-foot section of the bridge collapses.
1980 – In Norco, California, five masked gunman hold up a Security Pacific bank, leading to a violent shoot-out and one of the largest pursuits in California history. Two of the gunmen and one police officer are killed and thirty-three police and civilian vehicles are destroyed in the chase.
1981 – “Morning Train (Nine to Five)” by Sheena Easton topped the charts.
1984 – Chicago White Sox beat Milwaukee Brewers, 7-6, in 25 innings.
1984 – In San Francisco a 5-alarm fire engulfed Piers 30 and 32 along the
Embarcadero at the foot of Bryant Street. Damages were estimated at $2.5 million.
1987 – Oriole Eddie Murray is first to switch hit homeruns in two consecutive games.
1987 – “(I Just) Died in Your Arms” by the Cutting Crew topped the charts.
1989 – New York Mets Kevin Elster, errs after 88 errorless games at shortstop.
1989 – New York Mets Rick Cerone, errs after 159 errorless games as catcher.
1989 – Vice President Dan Quayle says in United Negro College Fund speech: “What a waste it is to lose one’s mind” instead of “a mind is terrible thing to waste.”
1990 – President Bush and congressional leaders announced plans for emergency budget talks, with tax increases and spending cuts on the negotiating table.
1991 – William Kennedy Smith was charged with rape, nearly six weeks after Patricia Bowman accused him of attacking her at the Kennedy family estate in West Palm Beach, Florida. He was later acquitted at trial.
1991 – Michael Landon (d.7/1/1991) appeared on Tonight Show to talk about his cancer.
1992 – Final episode of “Golden Girls” aired on NBC-TV.
1992 – President Bush, back in Washington after a visit to riot-torn Los Angeles, promised in a radio speech that he would work with the Democrat-controlled Congress on proposals to help American cities.
1993 – Major flooding began in the Mississippi Valley. 1700 square miles flooded in Kansas, Illinois, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Total damage was later estimated at $20 billion.
1994 – Comedian Bobcat Goldthwait sets fire to the couch on Tonight Show. A misdemeanor charge soon followed and a fine of $3,888.
1995 – The United States returned 13 Cuban boat people to their homeland, the first to be sent back under a new policy bitterly protested by Cuban-Americans.
1996 – In video testimony to a courtroom in Little Rock, AR, President Clinton insisted that he had nothing to do with a $300,000 loan in the criminal case against his former Whitewater partners.
1997 – San Diego Padres retire #35 worn by pitcher Randy Jones.
1997 – Former Florida Representative Douglas “Pete” Peterson becomes the first ambassador to Vietnam since 1975.
1997 – A pesticide plant burned after an explosion in West Helena, Ark. The chemical Azinphosmethyl was not supposed to have exploded unless it was heated and decomposed. A levee was built to keep poison-laden rainwater from entering the Mississippi River. Three firefighters were killed.
1999 – On Oahu, Hawaii, a landslide at Sacred Falls State Park killed 8eight people and injured dozens.
2000 – Former four-term Louisiana Governor Edwin Edwards was convicted of extortion schemes to manipulate the licensing of riverboat casinos.
2000 – In Kentucky a fire at the Wild Turkey Distillery caused an alcohol runoff into an 8-mile stretch of the Kentucky River and a huge fish kill followed within days.
2000 – A U.S. federal appeals court upheld a $5.4 million jury decision that Michael Bolton had plagiarized parts of the song “Love is a Wonderful Thing.” The original song, of the same name, was released in 1966 by the Isley Brothers. Original – Love Is A Wonderful Thing
2000 – Clinton became the first president to visit Vietnam since Richard Nixon’s 1969 trip to South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
2003 – The Republican-led House approved 222-203 a $550 billion tax cut package.
2003 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Cleveland, Ohio, Biswanath Halder (62), a camouflage-clad gunman, fired hundreds of rounds as he roamed the halls of the Case Western Univ. Weatherhead School of Management. Norman’s killer was finally cornered by the SWAT team more than seven hours after he’d first opened fire. He’d taken one life, seriously wounded two others and held 90 people hostage.
2003 – The National Association of Evangelicals, a group of evangelical Christians, condemns Franklin Graham, Jerry Falwell, Jerry Vines, Pat Robertson and other evangelical ministers for anti-Islamic statements.
2004 – Twenty-two passengers, two stowaways and crew are injured when an American Eagle ATR 42, flight 1450, crash-lands in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
2005 – Newsweek ran a story that said US interrogators at Guantanamo Bay prison had flushed a Quran, the Muslim holy book, down a toilet. May 17th, the story was retracted as untrue.
2006 – The world’s largest annual trade show for the computer and video games industry, the Electronic Entertainment Expo (E³), is held in Los Angeles.
2008 – Oil closed at a record high with light, sweet crude settling at $125.96 per barrel on the New York Mercantile Exchange.
2009 – Federal drug enforcement agents began seizing about 351 pounds of meth from two houses in Duluth, in suburban Atlanta. The 2-day operation included the arrest of four Mexican nationals, three of whom were in the US illegally. It was the biggest seizure of Mexican crystal methamphetamine ever recorded east of the Mississippi River.
2010 – Dallas Braden of the Oakland Athletics throws the 19th perfect game in Major League Baseball history in a 4-0 win over the Tampa Bay Rays.
2011 – The Governor of Arizona Jan Brewer asks the United States Supreme Court to overturn a ruling putting parts of its 2010 Immigration Law on hold.
2011 – Values in the United States housing market decline by 1.1% for March and 3% in the March quarter, the heaviest fall since late 2008, with values falling for 57 months in a row since the United States housing bubble burst in 2007.
2011 – Floods in Mississippi worsen, with the Army Corps of Engineers saying an area between Simmesport, Louisiana and Baton Rouge may be inundated under 20-30 feet of water.
2011 – The Texas Senate approves legislation containing an amendment allowing university students in the US state of Texas to carry handguns on campus.
2012 – Andy Warhol’s Double Elvis sells at an auction for $37 million at Sotheby’s in New York City.
2012 – Adam Mayes, wanted by authorities on suspicion of four charges of kidnapping and two charges of first-degree murder is spotted on store cameras in a Guntown, Mississippi store and is added to the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation’s Most Wanted List.
2012 – President Barack Obama officially states that he supports the right for same-sex partners to marry.
2012 – CHURCH SHOOTING: An 84-year-old man who was working as a security guard was shot to death in the parking lot of a Detroit church while Bible study took place inside. Deacon Jimmy Jones of Victory Way Assembly Church of God in Christ tells the Detroit Free Press that the death of Joseph Lewis after tonight’s shooting is a ‘heart breaker.’ Police say two men approached the elderly man, a struggle ensued and one of the attackers shot the man.
2014 – The Pledge of Allegiance does not discriminate against atheists and can be recited at the start of the day in public schools, Massachusetts’ supreme court rules.
2014 – Boy Scouts from Berkeley Heights, NJ were in Harriman State Park in New York. On one of the trails they encountered Ann Curry, 57, from NBC. She was sitting on the side of a trail and had broken her ankle. “We were hiking along, and we came to a trail intersection,” Scouter Rick Jurgens said, “and a lady was sitting on the ground with her one leg out. The Scouts used their Scouting first aid skills to work and then built a stretcher. They took her down the trail to her husband and son.
1800 – John Brown, American abolitionist (d. 1859)
1882 – Henry J. Kaiser, American shipbuilder (d. 1967)
1886 – Francis Biddle, United States Attorney General (d. 1968)
1893 – William Moulton Marston, American psychologist, writer (co-creator, Wonder Woman) (d. 1947)
1907 – Kathryn Kuhlman, famed evangelist (d. 1976)
1914 – Hank Snow, American country music singer and songwriter (d. 1999)
1918 – Mike Wallace, American journalist
1923 – Johnny Grant, American radio personality, television producer (d. 2008)
1931 – Vance Brand, American astronaut
1942 – John Ashcroft, United States Attorney General
1942 – Tommy Roe, American singer and songwriter
1946 – Candice Bergen, American actress
1949 – Billy Joel, American musician
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 10th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Swifts Creek, Va., May 9th, 1864. Entered service at: Manchester, N.H. Birth: Vermont. Date issued: 31 August 1893. Citation: During a sudden night attack upon Burnham’s Brigade, resulting in much confusion, this officer, without waiting for orders, led his regiment forward and interposed a line of battle between the advancing enemy and Hunt’s Battery, repulsing the attack and saving the guns.
FERRIER, DANIEL T.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 2d Indiana Cavalry. Place and date: At Varnells Station, Ga., May 9th, 1864. Entered service at: Delphi, Ind. Birth:——. Date of issue: 30 March 1898. Citation: While his regiment was retreating, voluntarily gave up his horse to his brigade commander who had been unhorsed and was in danger of capture, thereby enabling him to rejoin and rally the disorganized troops. Sgt. Ferrier himself was captured and confined in Confederate prisons, from which he escaped and, after great hardship, rejoined the Union lines.
Battle of Coral Sea
The Battle of the Coral Sea, fought in the waters southwest of the Solomon Islands and eastward from New Guinea, was the first of the Pacific War’s six fights between opposing aircraft carrier forces. Though the Japanese could rightly claim a tactical victory on “points”, it was an operational and strategic defeat for them, the first major check on the great offensive they had begun five months earlier at Pearl Harbor. The diversion of Japanese resources represented by the Coral Sea battle would also have immense consequences a month later, at the Battle of Midway.The Coral Sea action resulted from a Japanese amphibious operation intended to capture Port Moresby, located on New Guinea’s southeastern coast. A Japanese air base there would threaten northeastern Australia and support plans for further expansion into the South Pacific, possibly helping to drive Australia out of the war and certainly enhancing the strategic defenses of Japan’s newly-enlarged oceanic empire.
The Japanese operation included two seaborne invasion forces, a minor one
targeting Tulagi, in the Southern Solomons, and the main one aimed at Port Moresby. These would be supported by land-based airpower from bases to the north and by two naval forces containing a small aircraft carrier, several cruisers, seaplane tenders and gunboats. More distant cover would be provided by the big aircraft carriers Shokaku and Zuikaku with their escorting cruisers and destroyers. The U.S. Navy, tipped off to the enemy plans by superior communications intelligence, countered with two of its own carriers, plus cruisers (including two from the Australian Navy), destroyers, submarines, land-based bombers and patrol seaplanes.
Preliminary operations on 3-6 May and two days of active carrier combat on 7-8 May cost the United States one aircraft carrier, a destroyer and one of its very valuable fleet oilers, plus damage to the second carrier. However, the Japanese were forced to cancel their Port Moresby seaborne invasion. In the fighting, they lost a light carrier, a destroyer and some smaller ships. Shokaku received serious bomb damage and Zuikaku‘s air group was badly depleted. Most importantly, those two carriers were eliminated from the upcoming Midway operation, contributing by their absence to that terrible Japanese defeat.
“[I]t is a common observation here that our cause is the cause of all mankind, and that we are fighting for their liberty in defending our own.”
Benjamin Franklin, letter to Samuel Cooper, May 1, 1777
“It is necessary, then, to cultivate the habit of being grateful for every good thing that comes to you, and to give thanks continuously. And because all things have contributed to your advancement, you should include all things in your gratitude.”
~Wallace D. Wattles
troglodyte TROG-luh-dyt, noun:
1. A member of a primitive people that lived in caves, dens, or holes; a cave dweller.
2.One who is regarded as reclusive, reactionary, out of date, or brutish.Troglodyte comes from Latin Troglodytae, a people said to be cave dwellers, from Greek Troglodytai, from trogle, “a hole” + dyein, “to enter.” The adjective form is troglodytic.
1541 – Hernando de Soto reaches the Mississippi River and names it Río de Espíritu Santo.
1639 – William Coddington founded Newport, RI. Coddington was an early magistrate of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and later of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. He served as the Judge of Portsmouth, Judge of Newport, Governor of Portsmouth and Newport, Deputy Governor of the entire (four-town) colony, and then Governor of the colony.
1784 – A fatal hailstorm hit Winnsborough, South Carolina. An account was found in the South Carolina Gazette: “hailstones, or rather pieces of ice measured about 9 inches in circumference: it killed several people, a great number of sheep, lambs, geese, and the feathered inhabitants of the woods without number”. Piles of hail were reported still in existence 46 days later.
1792 – US establishes military draft. The Militia Act of 1792 placed certain requirements on the militia: all able-bodied men between the ages of 18 and 45 had to serve; to equip themselves; to attend annual practices, or musters.
1792 – Captain George Vancouver sailed into Puget Sound in 1792 he “discovered” a huge mountain that he named in honor of his friend, Rear Admiral Peter Rainier.
1794 – Antoine Lavoisier was executed by guillotine. He was the French chemist that discovered oxygen.
1794 – The United States Post Office was established.
1808 – Marine Barracks, Charleston was established under Lt Pinckney and 22 Marines.
1838 – US mint in New Orleans begins operation (producing dimes).
1846 – News reached Washington DC that Mexican troops had attacked a US reconnaissance patrol near the Rio Grande and killed or captured some 40 men. That same afternoon Polk and his cabinet had decided to ask Congress for a declaration of war against Mexico.
1846 – Mexican-American War: The Battle of Palo Alto – Zachary Taylor defeats a Mexican force north of the Rio Grande in the first major battle of the war.
1847 – Robert W. Thomson of Adelphi, Middlesex, England was issued the first U.S. patent for Rubber tyres. His “improvement in carriage wheels” was the application of elastic bearings around the rims of carriage wheels.
1858 – John Brown held an antislavery convention.
1861 – Civil War: Richmond, Virginia is named the capital of the Confederate States of America.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson’s Valley Army defeats Brig. Gen. Robert Schenk’s Union forces at McDowell Virginia in the Allegheny foothills.
1862 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Monitor and four other boats – “by direction of the President”- shelled Confederate batteries at Sewell’s Point, Virginia.
1862 – Civil War: Landing party from U.S.S. Iroquois seized the arsenal and took possession of Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
1863 – Civil War: Commander Charles H. B. Caldwell, supported by U.S.S. Richmond Captain Alden, opened the bombardment of the Confederate works at Port Hudson, Louisiana.
1873 – Melvil Dewey (d.1931) presented the first draft of his decimal classification system to the Amherst College Library Committee.
1877 – At Gilmore’s Gardens in New York City, the first Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show opens (ends May 11).
1878 – Paul Hines makes baseball’s first unassisted triple play. Boston runners on first and third took off on a short fly over the shortstop’s head which seemed a sure hit. Hines charged in from centerfield to make a spectacular shoestring catch, ran to third base to double off one runner, then threw to second base to catch the other and complete the play.
1879 – George Selden files for first patent for a gasoline-driven automobile. It was issued almost two decades later, on November 5, 1898.
1886 – Pharmacist John Styth Pemberton invents a carbonated beverage that would later be named “Coca-Cola”. The prototype Coca-Cola recipe was formulated at the Eagle Drug and Chemical Company, a drugstore in Columbus, GA originally as a coca wine called Pemberton’s French Wine Coca.
1904 – U.S. Marines landed in Tangier to protect the Belgian legation.
1906 – Philadelphia A’s pitcher Chief Bender plays outfield & hits two homeruns.
1911 – Navy ordered its first airplane, Curtiss A-1, This is the Birthday of Naval Aviation.
1914 – Paramount Pictures is formed.
1914 – Congress establishes an official Mother’s Day as a tribute to Anna M. Jarvis’s beloved mother and to all mothers. Mother’s Day is the second Sunday of May.
1915 – H.P. Whitney’s “Regret” became the first filly to win the Kentucky Derby.
1919 – Edward George Honey first proposes the idea of a moment of silence to commemorate The Armistice of World War I, which later results in the creation of Remembrance Day.
1919 – First transatlantic flight take-off by a navy seaplane. The NC-4 started from the Naval Air Station at Rockaway, New York, at 1000 hours on May 8, 1919, in concert with the NC-1 and NC-3, and although the NC-1 and NC-3 did not complete the journey, the NC-4 successfully crossed the Atlantic and landed in Lisbon, Portugal on May 27, 1919.
1926 – Fire breaks out in Fenway Park. The fire broke out in the bleacher section which was never replaced.
1929 – New York Giant Carl Hubbell no-hits Pirates, 11-0.This was the first no-hitter by a lefthander since Hub Leonard in 1918.
1936 – He was dead, really dead. Jockey Ralph Neves was declared dead after his horse, Fannikins, tripped and went through a wooden fence. When Dr. Horace Stevens arrived Neves had already been toe-tagged and sent to the morgue. When the Dr. arrived at the morgue he took a shot of adrenaline and put it directly into Neves heart, he tuned and left. A few minutes later Neves staggered out of the hospital and hailed a cab to take him back to the racetrack.
1939 – Clay Puett invented the electric starting gate for horseracing.
1941 – Anita O’Day recorded “Let Me Off Uptown” with Gene Krupa and his band.
1942 – First twilight game in 24 years, the Dodgers top Giants 7-6 raising $60,000 for Navy Relief Fund.
1942 – “White Christmas” registered by Irving Berlin.
1942 – World War II: The Battle of the Coral Sea comes to an end. This is the first time in the naval history that two enemy fleets fight without visual contact between warring ships.
1942 – World War II: Gunners of the Ceylon Garrison Artillery on Horsburgh Island in the Cocos Islands rebel in the Cocos Islands Mutiny. Their mutiny is crushed and three of them are executed, the only British Commonwealth soldiers to be executed for mutiny during the Second World War.
1943 – World War II: The Germans suppressed a revolt by Polish Jews and destroyed the Warsaw Ghetto.
1943 – World War II: Three Japanese destroyers are sunk by the American mines surrounding New Georgia Island.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Love You” by Bing Crosby, “I’ll Get By” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Dick Haymes), “Long Ago and Far Away” by Helen Forrest & Dick Haymes and “Too Late to Worry, Too Blue to Cry” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: General Eisenhower selects June 5th as D-Day for the Normandy invasion.
1944 – The first “eye bank” was established, in New York City.
1945 – Combat in Europe ends in World War II: V-E Day. German forces agree to an unconditional surrender. President Harry Truman announced in a radio address that World War II had ended in Europe.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, torrential rain restricts military operations. The US 1st Marine Division eliminates several Japanese held cave positions on Nan Hill, with explosives.
1945 – Life photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt got signalman Jim Reynolds to pose for a kiss with a nurse in a famous photo that later appeared in life Magazine’s issue of Aug 27. This was denied by Life and not verified by Reynolds.
1951 – Dacron men’s suits introduced.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Blue Tango” by The Leroy Anderson Orchestra, “Blacksmith Blues” by Ella Mae Morse, “Anytime” by Eddie Fisher and “Easy on the Eyes” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: Allied fighter-bombers staged the largest raid of the war on North Korea.
1954 – “Wanted” by Perry Como topped the charts.
1954 – First shot-put over 60′ – Parry O’Brien, Los Angeles CA.
1956 – Alfred E. Neuman appeared on the cover of “Mad Magazine” for the first time.
1958 – President Eisenhower ordered the National Guard out of Little Rock as Ernest Green became the first black to graduate from an Arkansas public school.
1958 – Vice President Nixon was shoved, stoned, booed and spat upon by anti-American protesters in Lima, Peru.
1959 – Mike and Marian Ilitch founded “Little Caesars Pizza Treat”.
1959 – The final broadcast of “One Man’s Family” was heard on NBC radio after being on the air 27 years. The show had completed 3,256 episodes since its beginning back in 1932.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Stuck on You” by Elvis Presley, “Sink the Bismarck” by Johnny Horton, “Sixteen Reasons” by Connie Stevens and “He’ll Have to Go” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1961 – The first practical seawater conversion plant in the U.S. was opened in Freeport, Texas, by the Office of Saline Water, U.S. Dept of the Interior. The plant was designed to produce about a million gallons of water a day at a cost of about $1.25 per thousand gallons.
1961 – “Shore Patrol Revisited” became one of the most memorable episodes of the CBS-TV series, “Hennessey.” The program marked the first time that Jackie Cooper and Mickey Rooney appeared together professionally since they had been teenagers — about 25 years earlier.
1961 – New Yorkers selected a new name for the National League baseball franchise. New Yorkers called them, “The Mets.” The “Mets” was the choice among the 10 finalists: Continentals, Burros, Mets, Skyliners, Skyscrapers, Bees, Rebels, NYBs, Avengers, and Jets. The original list was 644 names from 9,613 suggestions.
1962 – “A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum” opens at the Alvin Theater in New York City.
1963 – President John F Kennedy offered Israel assistance against aggression.
1963 – James Bond in “Dr No” premieres in US.
1965 – First shut put over 70′ (Randy Matson 70′ 7″).
1965 – “Mrs. Brown You’ve Got a Lovely Daughter” by Herman’s Hermits topped the charts.
1966 – Only homerun ever hit out of Baltimore’s Memorial Stadium (Frank Robinson). It was a 451-foot hit.
1967 – Muhammad Ali was indicted for refusing induction in U.S. Army.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro, “Tighten Up” by Archie Bell & The Drells, “Young Girl” by The Union Gap and “The Legend of Bonnie and Clyde” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1968 – William Styron (1925-2006), a white author, received the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for “The Confessions of Nat Turner.” The book was based on the true story of an 1831 slave revolt in Virginia.
1970 – The Hard Hat Riot occurs in the Wall Street area of New York City as blue-collar construction workers clash with anti-war demonstrators protesting the Vietnam War.
1970 – Beatles release “Let it Be” album.
1971 – “Joy to the World” by Three Dog Night topped the charts.
1972 – Billy Preston became the first rock performer to headline at Radio City Music Hall.
1972 – Vietnam War – President Richard M. Nixon announces his order to place mines in major North Vietnamese ports in order to stem the flow of weapons and other goods to that nation.
1973 – A 71-day standoff between federal authorities and the American Indian Movement members occupying the Pine Ridge Reservation at Wounded Knee, South Dakota ends with the surrender of the militants.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Welcome Back” by John Sebastian, “Right Back Where We Started From” by Maxine Nightingale, “Boogie Fever” by Sylvers and “My Eyes Can Only See as Far as You” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1978 – David R. Berkowitz, known as the “Son of Sam,” pled guilty to six murder charges.
1979 – Radio Shack released TRSDOS 2.3.
1982 – “Chariots of Fire – Titles” by Vangelis topped the charts.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)” by Phil Collins, “Hello” by Lionel Richie, “Hold Me Now” by The Thompson Twins and “I Guess It Never Hurts to Hurt Sometimes” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1984 – The Soviet Union announces that it will boycott the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, California.
1984 – Joanie (Erin Moran) and Chachi (Scott Baio) got married on ABC-TV’s “Happy Days.”
1985 – “New Coke” was released to the public on the 99th anniversary of Coca-Cola.
1985 – The largest cocaine seizure by the Coast Guard (to date) was made when Coast Guard units seized the Goza Now with 1,909 pounds of cocaine.
1986 – Reporters were told that 84,000 people had been evacuated from areas near the Chernobyl nuclear plant in Soviet Ukraine.
1987 – Coast Guard units, including the Coast Guard Cutter Ocracoke, make the largest seizure of cocaine by the Coast Guard (to date). They located 3,771 pounds (1.9 tons) aboard the La Toto off the northwest coast of St. Croix.
1988 – A fire at Illinois Bell’s Hinsdale Central Office triggers an extended 1AESS outage once considered the ‘worst telecommunications disaster in US telephone industry history’ is still the worst to occur on Mother’s Day.
1990 – One crewman was killed, 18 others injured in a fire aboard the guided-missile destroyer USS Conyngham in the Atlantic, about 100 miles southeast of Norfolk, Va.
1990 – New York Newsday reporter Jimmy Breslin was suspended for a racial slur.
1994 – 500th commentary by Andy Rooney on 60 Minutes.
1997 – In Washington DC Jacqueline Thompson (32) gave birth to sextuplets. One was stillborn. No fertility drugs were used but both she and her husband Linden had a family history of multiple births.
1999 – “Livin’ La Vida Loca” by Ricky Martin topped the chart.
1999 – Nancy Mace becomes the first female cadet to graduate from The Citadel military college.
1999 – Gulf War: US warplanes bombed northern Iraq as Iraqi TV reported three people were killed when eighteen bombs fell on civilian and military positions.
2000 – The San Francisco Board of Supervisors voted to ban discrimination based on weight or height.
2000 – Scientists announced that they had mapped chromosome 21 which is associated with Down syndrome, epilepsy, Lou Gehrig’s disease and Alzheimer’s.
2002 – FBI Director Robert Mueller told a Senate committee an FBI memo from Phoenix warning that several Arabs were suspiciously training at a U.S. aviation school wouldn’t have led officials to the Sept. 11 hijackers even if they’d followed up the warning with more vigor.
2002 – US Sec. of State Rumsfeld said the Pentagon would kill the $11 billion Crusader artillery system.
2002 – Abdullah Al Mujahir, also known as Jose Padilla, was arrested as he flew from Pakistan into Chicago’s O’Hare International Airport. Padilla was alleged to be al-Qaida connected and suspected of plotting to build and detonate a radioactive ”dirty” bomb in an attack in the United States.
2003 – An F4 tornado hits metro area of Oklahoma City, and became the 10th costliest tornado in United States history. The tornado followed a path similar to that of the F5 tornado of May 3, 1999.The tornado swept through and flattened hundreds of homes. No one was killed but at least 104 people were injured.
2003 – Elizabeth Neuffer (46), an award-winning reporter for The Boston Globe, died in a car crash in Iraq.
2003 – In New York City, the World Boxing Council declares itself bankrupt, to avoid paying a former world champion $31 million dollars after the former boxer German fighter Graciano Rocchigiani wins a lawsuit against the organization.He had had his light-heavyweight title taken away from him.
2005 – Steve Nash edged Shaquille O’Neal by 34 points to win the NBA’s most valuable player award.
2005 – Worldwide celebrations commemorate the 60th anniversary of V-E Day, the official end of World War II in Europe with the capitulation of Germany under Karl Dönitz.
2006 – US federal Judge Gary Klausner in Los Angeles sentenced “botmaster” Jeanson Ancheta (20) to 57 months in jail for taking control of an array of computers he had corralled into his “Botnet.”
2006 – Florida’s Gov. Jeb Bush declared a state of emergency and called in the state National Guard to help fight wildfires that have burned thousands of acres and blanketed highways with thick smoke.
2007 – U.S. police arrest six Islamic men from the Republic of Macedonia and the Middle East based on a tip from a Mount Laurel, NJ resident who discovered their plot to attack Fort Dix, New Jersey, and “kill as many soldiers as possible.”
2007 – A flood surge moved down the Missouri River and tributaries following weekend storms and damages approached 1993 levels.
2008 – Federal officials arrested thirteen fraternity members in San Diego, Ca., in a drug bust. Officials said 128 people, including at least 75 San Diego State University students, had been arrested as part of a five-month investigation.
2008 – The US House of Representatives approves legislation developed by Barney Frank to let the United States government insure up to $300 billion in mortgages to help homeowners avert foreclosure.
2009 – In the Midwest a wave of storms damaged or destroyed hundreds of homes and businesses in Kansas, Kentucky, Illinois, Kentucky and Missouri. Five people were left dead.
2009 – Louis Caldera resigns as Director of the White House Military Office.During his tenure, Caldera approved a mission, conducted on April 27, 2009, where a Boeing VC-25 followed by an F-16 military fighter jet, performed low-altitude fly-overs of New York City and New Jersey. There was a significant public outcry.
2009 – Wildfires cause at least 30,000 people to evacuate Santa Barbara, California.
2010 – U.S. Senator Bob Bennett, Republican from Utah, is ousted from his party’s primary ballot at the state’s Republican convention, meaning he will not have a chance for a fourth term.
2011 – Flooding along the Mississippi and tributaries has worsened, exceeding record levels since a three day tornado outbreak over a week ago, with ten dead, more than a thousand homes ordered evacuated in Memphis, Tennessee, more than 2,000 in Mississippi state, and about 13% of US refinery output disrupted. The flood is expected to peak at 48 feet on Tuesday just below the record of 48 feet 7 set in 1927.
2011 – The Dallas Mavericks complete a sweep in the Western Conference Semifinals by beating the Los Angeles Lakers by 122 to 86.
2012 – Nevada approves the country’s first self-driven vehicle license. Called autonomous vehicles they are also known as robotic or informally as driverless or self-driving car. The license was issued to a Toyota Prius modified with Google’s experimental driver-less technology.
2012 – According to government officials, a CIA double agent was involved in a foiled bomb plot by Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula to blow up an U.S.-bound flight.
2012 – North Carolina bans same-sex marriage.
1821 – William Henry Vanderbilt, member of the Vanderbilt family (d. 1885).
1828 – Jean Henri Dunant, Founder of the Red Cross (d. 1910)
1847 – Oscar Hammerstein I, American theater producer and impresario (d. 1919)
1884 – Harry S Truman, President of the United States (d. 1972)
1895 – James H. “Dutch” Kindelberger, American aerospace pioneer (d. 1962)
1895 – Fulton J. Sheen, American bishop (d. 1979)
1911 – Robert Johnson, American blues musician (d. 1938)
1915 – Milton Meltzer, American history and biography author, writer of Thomas Jefferson, Revolutionary Aristocrat
1926 – Don Rickles, American comedian
1932 – Sonny Liston, American boxer (d. 1970)
1940 – Ricky Nelson, American singer (d. 1985)
1940 – Toni Tennille, American singer
1951 – Philip Bailey, American singer (Earth, Wind & Fire)
1964 – Melissa Gilbert, American actress
Rank and organization: Lance Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, Combined Action platoon 1-3-2, 111 Marine Amphibious Force. Place and date: Quang Ngai province, Republic of Vietnam, May 8th, 1970. Entered service at: Omaha, Nebr. Born: 2 June 1951, San Antonio, Tex. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a machine gunner with Combined Action platoon 1-3-2. During the early morning L/Cpl. Keith was seriously wounded when his platoon was subjected to a heavy ground attack by a greatly outnumbering enemy force. Despite his painful wounds, he ran across the fire-swept terrain to check the security of vital defensive positions and then, while completely exposed to view, proceeded to deliver a hail of devastating machine gun fire against the enemy. Determined to stop five of the enemy soldiers approaching the command post, he rushed forward, firing as he advanced. He succeeded in disposing of three of the attackers and in dispersing the remaining two. At this point, a grenade detonated near L/Cpl. Keith, knocking him to the ground and inflicting further severe wounds. Fighting pain and weakness from loss of blood, he again braved the concentrated hostile fire to charge an estimated twenty-five enemy soldiers who were massing to attack. The vigor of his assault and his well-placed fire eliminated four of the enemy soldiers while the remainder fled for cover. During this valiant effort, he was mortally wounded by an enemy soldier. By his courageous and inspiring performance in the face of almost overwhelming odds, L/Cpl. Keith contributed in large measure to the success of his platoon in routing a numerically superior enemy force, and upheld the finest traditions of the Marine Corps and of the U.S. Naval Service.
HALL, WILLIAM E.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Junior Grade, U.S. Naval Reserve. Place and date: Coral Sea, May 7th and May 8th, 1942. Entered service at: Utah. Born: 31 October 1913, Storrs, Utah. Citation: For extreme courage and conspicuous heroism in combat above and beyond the call of duty as pilot of a scouting plane in action against enemy Japanese forces in the Coral Sea on 7 and 8 May 1942. In a resolute and determined attack on 7 May, Lt. (j.g.) Hall dived his plane at an enemy Japanese aircraft carrier, contributing materially to the destruction of that vessel. On 8 May, facing heavy and fierce fighter opposition, he again displayed extraordinary skill as an airman and the aggressive spirit of a fighter in repeated and effectively executed counterattacks against a superior number of enemy planes in which three enemy aircraft were destroyed. Though seriously wounded in this engagement, Lt. (j.g.) Hall, maintaining the fearless and indomitable tactics pursued throughout these actions, succeeded in landing his plane safe.
*KROTIAK, ANTHONY L.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company I, 148th Infantry, 37th Infantry Division. Place and date: Balete Pass, Luzon, Philippine Islands, May 8th, 1945. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 15 August 1915, Chicago, Ill. G.O. No.: 18, 13 February 1946. Citation: He was an acting squad leader, directing his men in consolidating a newly won position on Hill B when the enemy concentrated small arms fire and grenades upon him and four others, driving them to cover in an abandoned Japanese trench. A grenade thrown from above landed in the center of the group. Instantly pushing his comrades aside and jamming the grenade into the earth with his rifle butt, he threw himself over it, making a shield of his body to protect the other men. The grenade exploded under him, and he died a few minutes later. By his extraordinary heroism in deliberately giving his life to save those of his comrades, Pfc. Krotiak set an inspiring example of utter devotion and self-sacrifice which reflects the highest traditions of the military service.
*POWERS, JOHN JAMES
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 July 1912, New York City, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. Other Navy award: Air Medal with one gold star. Citation: For distinguished and conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty, while pilot of an airplane of Bombing Squadron 5, Lt. Powers participated, with his squadron, in 5 engagements with Japanese forces in the Coral Sea area and adjacent waters during the period May 4th to May 8th, 1942. Three attacks were made on enemy objectives at or near Tulagi on 4 May. In these attacks he scored a direct hit which instantly demolished a large enemy gunboat or destroyer and is credited with two close misses, one of which severely damaged a large aircraft tender, the other damaging a 20,000-ton transport. He fearlessly strafed a gunboat, firing all his ammunition into it amid intense antiaircraft fire. This gunboat was then observed to be leaving a heavy oil slick in its wake and later was seen beached on a nearby island. On 7 May, an attack was launched against an enemy airplane carrier and other units of the enemy’s invasion force. He fearlessly led his attack section of three Douglas Dauntless dive bombers, to attack the carrier. On this occasion he dived in the face of heavy antiaircraft fire, to an altitude well below the safety altitude, at the risk of his life and almost certain damage to his own plane, in order that he might positively obtain a hit in a vital part of the ship, which would insure her complete destruction. This bomb hit was noted by many pilots and observers to cause a tremendous explosion engulfing the ship in a mass of flame, smoke, and debris. The ship sank soon after. That evening, in his capacity as Squadron Gunnery Officer, Lt. Powers gave a lecture to the squadron on point-of-aim and diving technique. During this discourse he advocated low release point in order to insure greater accuracy; yet he stressed the danger not only from enemy fire and the resultant low pull-out, but from own bomb blast and bomb fragments. Thus his low-dive bombing attacks were deliberate and premeditated, since he well knew and realized the dangers of such tactics, but went far beyond the call of duty in order to further the cause which he knew to be right. The next morning, 8 May, as the pilots of the attack group left the ready room to man planes, his indomitable spirit and leadership were well expressed in his own words, “Remember the folks back home are counting on us. I am going to get a hit if I have to lay it on their flight deck.” He led his section of dive bombers down to the target from an altitude of 18,000 feet, through a wall of bursting antiaircraft shells and into the face of enemy fighter planes. Again, completely disregarding the safety altitude and without fear or concern for his safety, Lt. Powers courageously pressed home his attack, almost to the very deck of an enemy carrier and did not release his bomb until he was sure of a direct hit. He was last seen attempting recovery from his dive at the extremely low altitude of 200 feet, and amid a terrific barrage of shell and bomb fragments, smoke, flame and debris from the stricken vessel.
*RICKETTS, MILTON ERNEST
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 5 August 1913, Baltimore, Md. Appointed from: Maryland. Citation: For extraordinary and distinguished gallantry above and beyond the call of duty as Officer-in-Charge of the Engineering Repair Party of the U.S.S. Yorktown in action against enemy Japanese forces in the Battle of the Coral Sea on May 8th, 1942. During the severe bombarding of the Yorktown by enemy Japanese forces, an aerial bomb passed through and exploded directly beneath the compartment in which Lt. Ricketts’ battle station was located, killing, wounding or stunning all of his men and mortally wounding him. Despite his ebbing strength, Lt. Ricketts promptly opened the valve of a near-by fireplug, partially led out the fire hose and directed a heavy stream of water into the fire before dropping dead beside the hose. His courageous action, which undoubtedly prevented the rapid spread of fire to serious proportions, and his unflinching devotion to duty were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
GALLOWAY, GEORGE N.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 95th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Alsops Farm, Va., May 8th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 24 October 1895. Citation: Voluntarily held an important position under heavy fire.
McKAY, CHARLES W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 154th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Dug Gap, Ga., May 8th, 1864. Entered service at: Allegheny, Cattaraugus County, N.Y. Birth: Mansfield, N.Y. Date of issue: 13 April 1894. Citation: Voluntarily risked his life in rescuing under the fire of the enemy a wounded comrade who was Iying between the lines.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 82d Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At McDowell, Va., May 8th, 1862. Entered service at: Hardin County, Ohio. Birth: Licking County, Ohio. Date of issue: 14 August 1893. Citation: After the charge of the command had been repulsed, he rushed forward alone with an empty gun and captured two of the enemy’s sharpshooters.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company C., 61st New York Infantry. Place and date: At Todds Tavern, Va., May 8th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Orange County, N.Y. Date of issue: 21 August 1893. Citation: Led the regiment in charge at a critical moment under a murderous fire until he fell desperately wounded.
PHELPS, CHARLES E.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 7th Maryland Infantry. Place and date: At Laurel Hill, Va., May 8th, 1864. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Born: 1 May 1833, Guilford, Vt. Date of issue: 30 March 1898. Citation: Rode to the head of the assaulting column, then much broken by severe losses and faltering under the close fire of artillery, placed himself conspicuously in front of the troops, and gallantly rallied and led them to within a few feet of the enemy’s works, where he was severely wounded and captured.
ROBERTSON, ROBERT S.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company K, 93d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Corbins Bridge, Va., May 8th, 1864. Entered service at: Argyle, N.Y. Birth: Argyle, N.Y. Date of issue: 2 August 1897. Citation: While acting as aide-de-camp to a general officer, seeing a regiment break to the rear, he seized its colors, rode with them to the front in the face of the advancing enemy, and rallied the retreating regiment.
ROBINSON, JOHN C.
Rank and organization: Brigadier General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Laurel Hill, Va., May 8th, 1864. Entered service at: Binghamton, N.Y. Birth: Binghamton, N.Y. Date of issue: 28 March 1894. Citation: Placed himself at the head of the leading brigade in a charge upon the enemy’s breastworks; was severely wounded.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 154th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Dug Gap, Ga., May 8th, 1864. Entered service at: Allegany, Cattaraugus County, N.Y. Birth: Groton, N.Y. Date of issue: 13 April 1894. Citation: Risked his life in rescuing a wounded comrade under fire of the enemy.
National Day of Prayer – 2015
“Lord Hear Our Cry”
National Chocolate Custard Month
The first spacecraft named Enterprise never made it to space. It was named the Space Shuttle Enterprise (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101) and was the first Space Shuttle orbiter. It was built for NASA as part of the Space Shuttle program to perform test flights in Earth’s atmosphere. It was constructed without engines or a functional heat shield, and was therefore not capable of spaceflight. On September 17, 1976 the first full scale prototype was completed.
This craft was transported to retirement on 4/27/2012.
The next time the Enterprise name was used for a spacecraft was VSS Enterprise, the first commercial spaceship being constructed by Virgin Galactic and the first of five commercial suborbital spacecraft by Scaled Composites. It was rolled out on December 7, 2009. On 15 July 2010 VSS Enterprise flew her first crewed mission. On October 10, 2010 Enterprise completed its first successful free flight. The ship glided for 25 minutes from its mothership at 45,000 feet (13,700 meters) to the Mojave Spaceport. The crew consisted of Pete Siebold and his co-pilot Mike Alsbury.
VSS Enterprise was named in honor of the Starship Enterprise. While the VSS
actually exists, the USS does not. The Enterprise of the “future” appears in the fictional Star Trek universe and there have been a number of starships with that name (where the designation refers to United Space Ship rather than United States Ship):
USS Enterprise (XCV 330) Declaration class (circa 2130s) from art in Star Trek: The Motion Picture, and the series Star Trek: Enterprise. This was before James Tiberius Kirk’s time. He was not born until March 22, 2233 (fictional date).
Enterprise (NX-01) NX class (2151–2161) from the series Star Trek: Enterprise starship by ‘The Light Works’ .
USS Enterprise (NCC-1701) Constitution class (2245–2285) from the original Star Trek series, the first three films and 2009’s Star Trek.
USS Enterprise (NCC-1701A) Constitution (also listed as Enterprise) class (2286–2293) from the films The Voyage Home, The Final Frontier and The Undiscovered Country. Captain Kirk’s first fictional death was in 2293 so this was his primary ship.
USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-B) Excelsior class (2293–2320s) from the film Generations. Kirk comes back from the Nexus and Captain Picard’s request and so experiences a fictional second death in 2371.
USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-C) Ambassador class (2332–2344) from the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode “Yesterday’s Enterprise”.
USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-D) Galaxy class (2363–2371) from the series Star Trek: The Next Generation and film Generations.
USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-E) Sovereign class (2372—) from the films First Contact, Insurrection, and Nemesis
There is no NCC-1701G
USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-J) (26th century) from the Star Trek: Enterprise episode “Azati Prime” No K or L
USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-M) Constitution class (2306—) a museum ship from the Tim Russ production Star Trek: Of Gods and Men.
So far there is no N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, or X
NCC- 1701 Y
NCC- 1701 Z
Isaiah 60: 1-3 King James Version (KJV)
1Arise, shine; for thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee. 2 For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but the Lord shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee. 3 And the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising.
“There! His Majesty can now read my name without glasses. And he can double the reward on my head!”
“Start with good people, lay out the rules, communicate with your employees, motivate them, and reward them. If you do these things effectively, you can’t miss.”
~ Lee Iaccoca
empyrean em-py-REE-uhn; -PEER-ee-, noun:
1. The highest heaven, in ancient belief usually thought to be a realm of pure fire or light.
2. Heaven; paradise.
3. The heavens; the sky.
1. Of or pertaining to the empyrean of ancient belief.
322 BC – Aristotle, the Greek philosopher, committed suicide. He had been indicted for rejecting the gods acknowledged by the state, of bringing in strange deities, and of corrupting the youth.
1429 – Joan of Arc ends the Siege of Orléans, pulling an arrow from her own shoulder and returning, wounded, to lead the final charge. The victory marks a turning point in the Hundred Years’ War.
1700 – William Penn began monthly meetings for Blacks advocating emancipation.
1718 – La Nouvelle-Orleans (New Orleans) was founded by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
1763 – Indian Wars begin. Chief Pontiac begins the “Conspiracy of Pontiac” by attacking British forces at Fort Detroit.
1769 – Revolution was in the air on this day as George Washington launched a legislative salvo at Great Britain’s fiscal and judicial attempts to maintain its control over the American colonies.
1779 – Continental Navy sloop Providence captures British brig Diligent off Cape Charles.
1789 – One week after the Inauguration of George Washington in New York City, sponsors held a ball to honor the new President.
1792 – Capt. Robert Gray discovered Gray’s Harbor in Washington state.
1800 – Congress divided the Northwest Territory into two parts. The western part became the Indiana Territory and the eastern sections remained the Northwest Territory.
1800 – Jean Baptiste Pointe DuSable, frontier trader, fur trapper, farmer, businessman and “father” of Chicago sold all his property for $1,200 and left the area. He died 18 years later, almost penniless, and was buried in St. Charles, Missouri.
1824 – The Ninth Symphony by Beethoven had its premiere. The “Ode to Joy” lyric was originally written by Friedrich von Schiller as the “Ode to Freedom.”
1840 – The Great Natchez Tornado strikes Natchez, Mississippi killing 317 people. It is the second deadliest tornado in United States history.
1847 – The American Medical Association (AMA) is founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
1848 – In Hawaii, the Great Mahele was signed. The act, called the Mahele, allowed private ownership of land for the first time.
1850 – U.S. Senator Daniel Webster endorsed the Compromise of 1850 as a method of preserving the Union.
1854 – Charles Miller received a patent for the sewing machine.
1862 – Civil War: At the Battle of Eltham’s Landing in Virginia, Confederate troops struck Union troops in the Shenandoah Valley.
1862 – Civil War: U.S.S. Wachusett, U.S.S. Chocura, and Sebago escorted Army transports up the York River, supported the landing at West Point, Virginia, and successfully countered a Confederate attack.
1864 – Civil War: The Army of the Potomac, under General Ulysses S. Grant, breaks off from the Battle of the Wilderness and moves to the southeast, intending to leave the Wilderness to put his army between Lee and Richmond, leading to the bloody Battle of Spotsylvania Court House. Union losses were 17,666; CSA were 7,500.
1864 – Civil War: The Union Navy captures Tampa, FL. At a few minutes after 7a.m. the Stars and Stripes were hoisted in the town by the Navy.” The warships also captured blockade running sloop Neptune with cargo of cotton.
1873 – US Marines attacked Panama.
1876 – Alexander Graham Bell received a patent (U.S. Patent No. 174,465) for his telephone.
1877 – The Cincinnati Enquirer, first uses the term “Bullpen” to indicate foul territory in baseball.
1878 – Fire escape ladder patented by Joseph Winters.
1888 – George Eastman patents “Kodak box camera.” Advertised as ‘the smallest, lightest and simplest of all Detective cameras’ (a popular term of the 1880s for hand-held cameras), it was a simple wooden box six and a half inches long, three and three-quarters inches high and three and a quarter inches wide.
1896 – Dr. Henry Howard Holmes (b.1860), serial killer, was hanged to death in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He confessed, saying, “I was born with the devil in me. I could not help the fact that I was a murderer, no more than a poet can help the inspiration to sing.” Reportedly, authorities discovered the remains of over 200 victims on his property.
1898 – The first Intercollegiate Trapshooting competition meet was held in New Haven, CT. Clay pigeons were used for the contest.
1901 – It was announced that blacks had been found enslaved in parts of South Carolina.
1904 – Flexible Flyer trademark registered. The Flexible Flyer was the world’s first steerable runner sled.
1904 – In Springfield, OH, a mob broke into a jail and shot a black man accused of murder.
1908 – Cincinnati’s mayor, Mark Breith announced before the city council that, “Women are not physically fit to operate automobiles.”
1911 – Willis Farnworth of Petaluima, CA patented the coin-operated locker. The purpose was to reduce the use of keys while improving security.
1911 – In the wake of the Mexican Revolution, the U.S. sent 20,000 troops to the border of Mexico.
1912 – Columbia University approves plans for awarding the Pulitzer Prize. The first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded on June 4, 1917, and they are now announced each April. Recipients are chosen by an independent board.
1912 – The first airplane equipped with a machine gun flew over College Park, MD.
1914 – Woodrow Wilson’s daughter Eleanor married in the White House.
1915 – Lusitania sunk by German submarine; 1198 lives lost, 128 Americans were included. Alfred G. Vanderbilt, US millionaire, was one who died aboard the Lusitania.
1917 – Red Sox Babe Ruth beats Washington Senator Walter Johnson. It is the third time that Johnson has lost to Ruth by a 1-0 score.
1927 – A Texas law that banned Negroes from voting was ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court.
1928 – A Pulitzer prize was awarded to Thornton Wilder for Bridge of San Luis Rey.
1929 – Albert Anselmi, John Scalise and Joseph “Top Toad” Giunta, US gangsters, were murdered by Al Capone.
1933 – CBS radio debuted “Marie The Little French Princess.” It was the first daytime radio serial.
1933 – The board game Monopoly was invented. The history of the board game Monopoly can be traced back to the early 1900s. Based on original designs by the American Elizabeth Magie, several board games were developed from 1906 through the 1930s that involved the buying and selling of land and the development of that land.
1934 – The USS Constitution completes tour of principal U.S. ports.
1934 – A Pulitzer prize was awarded to Sidney Kingsley for his book, “Men in White.”
1940 – FDR orders Pacific Fleet to remain in Hawaiian waters indefinitely.
1941 – Glenn Miller and His Orchestra recorded “Chattanooga Choo Choo” for RCA Victor. It became the first gold record in history.
1942 – World War II: American Admiral Fletcher sends Task Force 44 to attack Japanese troop transports bound for Port Moresby.
1942 – World War II: In the Battle of the Coral Sea, Japanese and American navies attacked each other with carrier planes. It was the first time in the history of naval warfare where two enemy fleets fought without seeing each other. This battle stopped Japanese expansion.
1942 – World War II: A Nazi decree ordered all Jewish pregnant women of Kovno Ghetto executed.
1943 – World War II: Tunis and Bizerta are both captured by British and American forces.
1943 – World War II: Americans lay mines in the waters around New Georgia to prevent Japanese supplies from reaching the island.
1944 – World War II: The US 15th Air Force and British Bomber Command attack railway yards in Bucharest during the day and night, leaving the city in flames.
1944– World War II: The US 8th Air Force conducts a massive raid on Berlin with 1500 aircraft.
1944– World War II: The US 9th Air Force attacks the railway yards at Mezieres-Charleville with Marauders and P-38 Lightnings.
1944 – World War II: The US 46th Division occupies Cape Hopkins Airfield in the Bismarck Archipelago, islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean.
1945 – World War II: General Alfred Jodl signs unconditional surrender terms at Reims, France, ending Germany’s participation in the war. The document takes effect the next day.
1945 – World War II: U.S. forces crossed the Rhine River at Remagen, Germany.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, the US 7th Division completes the elimination of Japanese units that infiltrated into the Tanabaru area.
1945 – A Pulitzer prize was awarded to John Hersey for “Bell for Adano.”
1946 – Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering (later renamed Sony) is founded with about 20 employees.
1947 – “Kraft Television Theater” premieres on NBC.
1947 – John L. Lewis declared that only a totalitarian regime could prevent strikes.
1947 – Nick DeJohn, former capodecina (head of ten in the Mafia) in the Chicago Family, was strangled and his body stuffed into the trunk of a car parked on a San Francisco street.
1949 – “Forever & Ever” by Russ Morgan topped the charts.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “If” by Perry Como, “Mockingbird Hill” by Patti Page, “Sparrow in the Treetop” by Bing Crosby and “Cold, Cold Heart” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1951 – A Pulitzer prize was awarded to Conrad Richter for “The Town.”
1951 – Korean War: Forces under General Matthew Ridgeway launched Operation Ripper against the Chinese.
1952 – The concept of the integrated circuit, the basis for all modern computers, is first published by Geoffrey W.A. Dummer.
1952 – Korean War – Communist POW’s at Koje-do rioted against their American captors.
1953 – “Can Can” opened at Shubert Theater in New York City for 892 performances.
1954 – US, Great Britain and France rejected Russian membership in NATO.
1954 – A San Francisco jury decided that Harold Jackson and Joseph Lear should be executed for the kidnapping of Leonard Moskovitz. Their sentences were later changed to life in prison and both men died in San Quentin. In January 1954, when Mr. Moskovitz was 36 and working in a family real estate office in San Francisco, he was abducted by these two men and held for a $500,000 ransom.
1954 – Vietnam: The Battle of Dien Bien Phu ended after 55 days with Vietnamese insurgents overrunning French forces and the US began to get involved.
1955 – “Peter Pan” was presented as a television special for the first time. 1960 Version (1:40)
1955 – Phyllis Diller made her debut at the Purple Onion in San Francisco, CA.
1958 – Major Howard Johnson, USAF, sets aircraft altitude record in F-104. He reached an altitude of 91,249 feet in a zoom climb at Edwards AFB in California.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods, “The Happy Organ” by Dave ‘Baby’ Cortez, “Sorry (I Ran All the Way Home)” by The Impalas and “White Lightning” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1959 – Melvin C. Garlow became the first pilot to fly over a million miles in jet airplanes.
1959 – “Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White” by Perez Prado topped the charts.
1959 – The Los Angeles Coliseum is jammed by 93,103 on “Roy Campanella Night” for an exhibition game between the Dodgers and the New York Yankees. This is the largest crowd in ML history. The Yanks win 6-2.
1959 – In San Francisco Albert C. Kogler, a SF State college student, died 2½ hours following a shark attack while swimming off Baker Beach. Shirley O’Neill (19), also a SF State College student, had risked her life to pull her friend to the beach. In June she was awarded the Carnegie Hero Fund Commission’s silver medal.
1960 – Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev announces that his nation is holding American U-2 pilot Gary Powers.
1962 – A Pulitzer prize was awarded to Theodore H. White for “Making of President.”
1963 – SETC Telstar 2 launched (apogee 6,700 miles). On its tenth orbit, it transmitted the first transatlantic TV program seen in color.
1964 – Pacific Air Lines Flight 773, a Fairchild F-27 airliner, crashes near San Ramon, California, killing all 44 aboard; the FBI later reports that a cockpit recorder tape indicates that the pilot and co-pilot had been shot by a suicidal passenger.
1965 – State troopers and a sheriff’s posse broke up a march by civil rights demonstrators in Selma, AL.
1966 – Mamas & Papas “Monday Monday” hits #1.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Somethin’ Stupid” by Nancy Sinatra & Frank Sinatra, “The Happening” by The Supremes, “Sweet Soul Music” by Arthur Conley and “Need You” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1968 – Vietnam War: The Battle of Saigon came to an end.
1970 – “Long & Winding Road” becomes Beatles’ last American release.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “He Don’t Love You (Like I Love You)” by Tony Orlando & Dawn, “Before the Next Teardrop Falls” by Freddy Fender, “Chevy Van” by Sammy Johns and “Roll on Big Mama” by Joe Stampley all topped the charts.
1975 – The “Matt Helm” TV series, featured Gene Evans (d.1998 at 75), premiered. Full movie with Dean Martin “The Silencers.” (1:42:27)
1975 – President Gerald R. Ford issued a presidential proclamation that, effective as of that date, the eligibility period terminated for veterans to be credited with Vietnam wartime service with respect to those benefits the President is legally empowered to terminate.
1975 – The U.S. Senate revised the filibuster rule. The new rule allowed 60 senators to limit debate instead of the previous two-thirds. Senate was Democrat 61-39.
1976 – William H. Hastie inaugurated as the first Black governor of the Virgin Islands.
1977 – “Hotel California” by the Eagles topped the charts.
1977 – “Seattle Slew“ (d.2002) won the Kentucky Derby, the first of his Triple Crown victories.
1979 – Mayor Ed Koch of New York asked for federal assistance during a city-wide strike by tugboat operators and longshoremen in New York City.Secretary of Transportation Brock Adams sent the cutters Sauk, Manitou and Red Beech to begin moving 16 garbage scows from a Staten Island landfill site to refuse pick-up points in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx.
1979 – An estimated 125,000 people rallied against nuclear power in Washington, DC.
1981 – Anti-government guerrillas in Colombia executed the kidnapped American Bible translator Chester Allen Bitterman. The guerrillas accused Bitterman of being a CIA agent.
1982 – Federal jury rules NFL violates antitrust laws in preventing Oakland Raiders from moving to Los Angeles.
1982 – IBM releases PC-DOS version 1.1.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Beat It” by Michael Jackson, “Jeopardy” by Greg Kihn Band, “Let’s Dance” by David Bowie and “Jose Cuervo” by Shelly West all topped the charts.
1983 – TNN (The Nashville Network) began broadcasting.
1985 – In California Unit 1 of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant came online. Unit 2 became operational on March 13, 1986.
1987 – Mike Tyson became the youngest heavyweight titleholder when he beat James Smith in a decision during a 12-round fight in Las Vegas, NV.
1987 – Shelly Long made her last appearance as a regular on the popular TV show, “Cheers”.
1988 – “Wishing Well” by Terence Trent D’Arby topped the charts.
1988 – “Winning Colors” won the 114th running of the Kentucky Derby, becoming the third filly to win the event.
1990 – The White House put aside President Bush’s pledge of no new taxes, saying talks to strike a budget deal with Congress would have “no preconditions.”
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Baby Baby” by Amy Grant, “Joyride” by Roxette, “Like the Way (The Kissing Game)” by Hi-Five and “Rockin’ Years” by Dolly Parton with Ricky Van Shelton all topped the charts.
1992 – Michigan ratifies a 203-year-old proposed amendment to the US Constitution making the 27th Amendment law. This amendment bars the U.S. Congress from giving itself a mid-term pay raise.
1992 – The Space Shuttle Endeavour blasted off on its maiden voyage. The Endeavour launch (STS-49), as the $2 billion replacement for the Challenger. Astronaut and Coast Guard CDR Bruce Melnick made his second space flight when he served as a Mission Specialist.
1994 – Denver Nuggets become NBA’s first #8 seed to beat a #1 seed (Seattle).
1994 -“Go For Gin” won the 120th Kentucky Derby.
1994 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that parodies that poke fun at an original work can be considered “fair use” that does not require permission from the copyright holder.
1996 – Tax Freedom Day, the day on which the average American had earned enough to pay federal, state and local taxes.
1996 – In San Diego, Ca., Alzheimer’s researcher, Tsunao Saitoh and his daughter, 13-year-old Loullie, were shot and killed. In 1993 he identified a protein that is deposited in plaques that form in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. In 1995 he learned that the protein was controlled by chromosome 4 and was searching for its exact location when he was killed.
1997 – The Army accused its top enlisted man, Army Sgt. Maj. Gene McKinney, of sexual misconduct. At his court-martial, McKinney was acquitted of sexual misconduct, but found guilty of obstruction of justice.
1998 – Mercedes-Benz buys Chrysler for $40 billion and forms DaimlerChrysler in the largest industrial merger in history.
1999 – A jury finds The Jenny Jones Show and Warner Bros. liable in the shooting death of Scott Amedure, after the show purposely deceived Jonathan Schmitz to appear on a secret same-sex crush episode. Schmitz later killed Amedure and the jury awarded Amedure’s family $25 million USD.
1999 – The Dow Jones closed at a record 11,031.59.
2000 – A second fire was set to contain an earlier blaze that was begun to clear brush on the Bandelier National Monument in New Mexico; the second fire blew out of control, destroying more than 200 homes and damaging part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory before it was controlled.
2001 – California electricity grid operators ordered statewide rolling power blackouts.
2002 – Triple Crown winner “Seattle Slew” died at age 28, 25 years to the day after his victory in the Kentucky Derby.
2002 – A federal judge awarded Anna Nicole Smith more than $88 million in damages. The ruling was the latest in a legal battle over the estate of Smith’s late husband, J. Howard Marshall II.
2002 – A man was arrested following a car chase near Lovelock, Nevada, and charged for the recent series of mailbox pipe bombs. Lucas John Helder (21) of Pine Island, Minn., said he was trying to make a “smiley face” pattern on the map of his bombings.
2004 – The Coast Guard Cutter James Rankin set the historic “Francis Scott Key” buoy off of Fort McHenry, Maryland, near the Key Bridge in Baltimore, Maryland.
2005 – “Giacomo”, a 50-1 shot, defied the odds and won the $2.4 million Kentucky Derby in a gigantic upset.
2005 – MIT students held their first convention for time travelers.
2007 – NASA announces that the Chandra X-ray Observatory and ground-based telescopes have discovered a massive supernova designated SN 2006gy, the largest ever recorded, and possibly a new type that has been predicted but never observed.
2007 – The tomb of Herod the Great is discovered.
2007 – The FBI arrested six radical Islamist men, allegedly plotting to stage an attack on the Fort Dix military base in New Jersey. The alleged aim of the six men was said to be to “kill as many soldiers as possible”.
2008 – Tennessee Gov. Phil Bredesen said 2,011 state jobs will be eliminated to shore up the state’s budget. Voluntary buyouts would begin in June.
2009 – NASA’s Kepler Mission, a space photometer for searching for extrasolar planets in the Milky Way galaxy, was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida.
2009 – Wildfires near Santa Barbara, California, burn 3,000 acres of land and force 15,000 people to evacuate.
2009 – Maryland’s Gov. Martin O’Malley signed legislation extending hate crimes protection to homeless people.
2009 – Seven Pittsburgh-area ACORN workers were charged with falsifying voter registration forms, with six accused of doing so to meet the group’s alleged quota system before last year’s general election.
2009 – General Motors Corp. lost $6 billion in the first quarter and its revenue was cut nearly in half as car buyers feared the wounded auto giant would enter bankruptcy and no longer honor its warranties.
2011 – The Spring 2011 Mississippi River Floods continue, with thousands of homes now ordered evacuated. The 1927 Mississippi flooding record is expected to be broken.
2011 – Jockey John R. Velazquez wins the 2011 Kentucky Derby riding “Animal Kingdom.”
2011 – American baseball pitcher Justin Verlander of the Detroit Tigers throws a no-hitter against the Toronto Blue Jays.
2012 – Changes in the wording of Selective Service System record-keeping requirements, made days after the opening of an investigation into the alleged forgery of President Barack Obama’s selective service registration form, raise serious questions about U.S. Government intentions.
2012 – The CIA announces it had foiled a plot by Fahd al-Quso, a Yemeni affiliate of al-Qaida, to have a suicide bomber, using an improved version of the underwear bomb used by Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab in 2009, to blow up an American-bound airliner.
2015 – Today is the 64th National Day of Prayer. The theme is “Lord, Hear Our Cry,” emphasizing the need for individuals to place their faith in the unfailing character of our Creator.
1643 – Stephanus Van Cortlandt, American politician (d. 1700)
1774 – William Bainbridge, American Commodore (d. 1833)
1885 – George ‘Gabby’ Hayes, American actor (d. 1969)
1892 – Archibald MacLeish, American Librarian of Congress (d. 1982)
1901 – Gary Cooper, American actor (d. 1961)
1909 – Edwin H. Land, American inventor (d. 1991)
1922 – Darren McGavin, American actor (d. 2006)
1930 – Totie Fields, American comedienne (d. 1978)
1931 – Teresa Brewer, American pop and jazz singer (d. 2007)
1933 – Johnny Unitas, American football player (d. 2002)
1950 – Tim Russert, American television host (d. 2008)
1968 – Traci Lords, American actress
KAYS, KENNETH MICHAEL
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 506th Infantry, 101st Airborne Division. Place and date: Thua Thien province, Republic of Vietnam, May 7th, 1970. Entered service at: Fairfield, Ill. Born: 22 September 1949, Mount Vernon, Ill. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. (then Pvt.) Kays distinguished himself while serving as a medical aidman with Company D, 1st Battalion, 101st Airborne Division near Fire Support Base Maureen. A heavily armed force of enemy sappers and infantrymen assaulted Company D’s night defensive position, wounding and killing a number of its members. Disregarding the intense enemy fire and ground assault, Pfc. Kays began moving toward the perimeter to assist his fallen comrades. In doing so he became the target of concentrated enemy fire and explosive charges, one of which severed the lower portion of his left leg. After applying a tourniquet to his leg, Pfc. Kays moved to the fire-swept perimeter, administered medical aid to one of the wounded, and helped move him to an area of relative safety. Despite his severe wound and excruciating pain, Pfc. Kays returned to the perimeter in search of other wounded men. He treated another wounded comrade, and, using his own body as a shield against enemy bullets and fragments, moved him to safety. Although weakened from a great loss of blood, Pfc. Kays resumed his heroic lifesaving efforts by moving beyond the company’s perimeter into enemy held territory to treat a wounded American lying there. Only after his fellow wounded soldiers had been treated and evacuated did Pfc. Kays allow his own wounds to be treated. These courageous acts by Pfc. Kays resulted in the saving of numerous lives and inspired others in his company to repel the enemy. Pfc. Kays’ heroism at the risk of his life are in keeping with the highest traditions of the service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*FARDY, JOHN PETER
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S Marine Corps. Born: 8 August 1922, Chicago, Ill. Accredited to: Illinois. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a squad leader, serving with Company C, 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Okinawa Shima in the Ryukyu Islands, May 7th, 1945. When his squad was suddenly assailed by extremely heavy small arms fire from the front during a determined advance against strongly fortified, fiercely defended Japanese positions, Cpl. Fardy temporarily deployed his men along a nearby drainage ditch. Shortly thereafter, an enemy grenade fell among the Marines in the ditch. Instantly throwing himself upon the deadly missile, Cpl. Fardy absorbed the exploding blast in his own body, thereby protecting his comrades from certain and perhaps fatal injuries. Concerned solely for the welfare of his men, he willingly relinquished his own hope of survival that his fellow Marines might live to carry on the fight against a fanatic enemy. A stouthearted leader and indomitable fighter, Cpl. Fardy, by his prompt decision and resolute spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of certain death, had rendered valiant service, and his conduct throughout reflects the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
*HANSEN, DALE MERLIN
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 13 December 1922, Wisner, Nebr. Accredited to: Nebraska. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Okinawa Shima in the Ryukyu Chain, May 7th, 1945. Cool and courageous in combat, Pvt. Hansen unhesitatingly took the initiative during a critical stage of the action and, armed with a rocket launcher, crawled to an exposed position where he attacked and destroyed a strategically located hostile pillbox. With his weapon subsequently destroyed by enemy fire, he seized a rifle and continued his one-man assault. Reaching the crest of a ridge, he leaped across, opened fire on six Japanese and killed four before his rifle jammed. Attacked by the remaining two Japanese, he beat them off with the butt of his rifle and then climbed back to cover. Promptly returning with another weapon and supply of grenades, he fearlessly advanced, destroyed a strong mortar position and annihilated eight more of the enemy. In the forefront of battle throughout this bitterly waged engagement, Pvt. Hansen, by his indomitable determination, bold tactics and complete disregard of all personal danger, contributed essentially to the success of his company’s mission and to the ultimate capture of this fiercely defended outpost of the Japanese Empire. His great personal valor in the face of extreme peril reflects the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service.
*PETERSON, OSCAR VERNER
Rank and organization: Chief Watertender, U.S. Navy. Born: 27 August 1899, Prentice, Wis. Accredited to: Wisconsin. Citation: For extraordinary courage and conspicuous heroism above and beyond the call of duty while in charge of a repair party during an attack on the U .S .S. Neosho by enemy Japanese aerial forces on May 7th, 1942. Lacking assistance because of injuries to the other members of his repair party and severely wounded himself, Peterson, with no concern for his own life, closed the bulkhead stop valves and in so doing received additional burns which resulted in his death. His spirit of self-sacrifice and loyalty, characteristic of a fine seaman, was in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.
*SCHWAB, ALBERT EARNEST
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 17 July 1920, Washington, D.C. Entered service at: Tulsa, Okla. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a flamethrower operator in action against enemy Japanese forces on Okinawa Shima in the Rykuyu Islands, May 7th, 1945. Quick to take action when his company was pinned down in a valley and suffered resultant heavy casualties under blanketing machinegun fire emanating from a high ridge to the front, Pfc. Schwab, unable to flank the enemy emplacement because of steep cliffs on either side, advanced up the face of the ridge in bold defiance of the intense barrage and, skillfully directing the fire of his flamethrower, quickly demolished the hostile gun position, thereby enabling his company to occupy the ridge. Suddenly a second enemy machinegun opened fire, killing and wounding several Marines with its initial bursts. Estimating with split-second decision the tactical difficulties confronting his comrades, Pfc. Schwab elected to continue his one-man assault despite a diminished supply of fuel for his flamethrower. Cool and indomitable, he moved forward in the face of a direct concentration of hostile fire, relentlessly closed the enemy position and attacked. Although severely wounded by a final vicious blast from the enemy weapon, Pfc. Schwab had succeeded in destroying two highly strategic Japanese gun positions during a critical stage of the operation and, by his dauntless, single-handed efforts, had materially furthered the advance of his company. His aggressive initiative, outstanding valor and professional skill throughout the bitter conflict sustain and enhance the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
WAINWRIGHT, JONATHAN M.
Rank and organization: General, Commanding U.S. Army Forces in the Philippines. Place and date: Philippine Islands, 12 March to May 7th, 1942. Entered service at: Skaneateles, N.Y. Birth: Walla Walla, Wash. G.O. No.: 80, 19 September 1945. Citation: Distinguished himself by intrepid and determined leadership against greatly superior enemy forces. At the repeated risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in his position, he frequented the firing line of his troops where his presence provided the example and incentive that helped make the gallant efforts of these men possible. The final stand on beleaguered Corregidor, for which he was in an important measure personally responsible, commanded the admiration of the Nation’s allies. It reflected the high morale of American arms in the face of overwhelming odds. His courage and resolution were a vitally needed inspiration to the then sorely pressed freedom-loving peoples of the world.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1858, Holland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S. Tug Fortune, May 7th, 1882, at Hampton Roads, Va., and rescuing from drowning James Walters, gunner’s mate.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman. U.S. Navy. Biography not available. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S. Tug Fortune, May 7th, 1882, at Hampton Roads, Va., and rescuing from drowning James Walters, gunner’s mate.
INDIAN WAR PERIOD
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company L, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Muddy Creek, Mont., May 7th, 1877; at Camas Meadows, Idaho, 29 August 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 28 February 1878. Citation: Gallantry in action with hostile Sioux, at Little Muddy Creek, Mont.; having been wounded in the hip so as to be unable to stand, at Camas Meadows, Idaho, he still continued to direct the men under his charge until the enemy withdrew.
JONES, WILLIAM H.
INDIAN WAR PERIOD
Rank and organization: Farrier, Company L, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Muddy Creek, Mont., May 7th, 1877- at Camas Meadows, Idaho, 20 August 1877. Entered service at: Louisville, Ky. Birth. Davidson County, N.C. Date of issue: 28 February 1878. Citation: Gallantry in the attack against hostile Sioux Indians on May 7, 1877 at Muddy Creek, Mont., and in the engagement with Nez Perces Indians at Camas Meadows, Idaho, on 20 August 1877 in which he sustained a painful knee wound.
INDIAN WAR PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 9th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Fort Tularosa, N. Mex., 14 May 1880; at Carrizo Canyon, N. Mex., 12 August 1881. Entered service at: Nashville, Tenn. Birth: Williamson County, Tenn. Date of issue: 7 May 1890. Citation: While commanding a detachment of 25 men at Fort Tularosa, N. Mex., repulsed a force of more than 100 Indians. At Carrizo Canyon, N . Mex., while commanding the right of a detachment of 19 men, on 12 August 1881, he stubbornly held his ground in an extremely exposed position and gallantly forced back a much superior number of the enemy, preventing them from surrounding the command.
INDIAN WAR PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Muddy Creek, Mont., May 7th, 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ypsilanti, Mich. Date of issue: 8 August 1877. Citation: Bravery in action.
PHILLIPS, SAMUEL D.
INDIAN WAR PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Muddy Creek, Mont., May 7th, 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Butler County, Ohio. Date of issue: 8 August 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
INDIAN WAR PERIOD
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company L, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Muddy Creek, Mont., May 7th, 1877; at Camas Meadows, Idaho, 20 August 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 28 February 1878. Citation: Bravery in actions with Indians.
HERRON, FRANCIS J.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 9th lowa Infantry. Place and date: At Pea Ridge, Ark., May 7th, 1862. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa. Born: 17 February 1837, Pittsburgh, Pa. Date of issue 26 September 1893. Citation: Was foremost in leading his men, rallying them to repeated acts of daring, until himself disabled and taken prisoner.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 13th Pennsylvania Reserves. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., May 7th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Lawrence County, Pa. Date of issue. 20 July 1887. Citation: Gallant services and soldierly qualities in voluntarily rejoining his command after having been wounded.
Bob Hope First USO Performance
Meet the man that the U.S. Congress declared the “first and only honorary veteran of the U.S. Armed Forces.”Bob Hope (legally Leslie Townes Hope) known, honored and revered by countless American war veterans for his selfless service to soldiers, sailors and Marines in war zones with the USO.Bob Hope started in the entertainment field at the ripe old age of 12 when he was a busker on a local boardwalk in Cleveland, Ohio where his family had moved to after coming over from England. A busker was a person who did street performances and he would do dances and short comedy routines for donations. He entered many dancing and amateur talent contests (as Lester Hope),and won prizes for his impersonation of Charlie Chaplin.
Like most stage performers when he went into films he made his first films in New York. His first job in film was with a company called Educational Pictures probably best known today for its series of 1930’s comedies starring Buster Keaton. They employed him in 1934 for a short-subject comedy, Going Spanish. He sealed his future with them when Walter Winchell asked him about the film. Hope cracked, “When they catch John Dillinger, they’re going to make him sit through it twice.”
Hope made his debut in television in 1932 during a test transmission from an experimental CBS studio in New York. He had a long and successful career in television. His final television special, Laughing with the Presidents, was broadcast in 1996, with Tony Danza helping Hope present a personal retrospective of Presidents of the United States known to the comedian.
Hope made his debut in television in 1932 during a test transmission from an experimental CBS studio in New York. He had a long and successful career in television. His final television special, Laughing with the Presidents, was broadcast in 1996, with Tony Danza helping Hope present a personal retrospective of Presidents of the United States known to the comedian.
His time with the USO will be a role that will be remembered the longest. Hope’s first wartime performance occurred at sea. Aboard the RMS Queen Mary when World War II began in September 1939. He went to the captain to volunteer to perform a special show for the panicked passengers, during which he sang “Thanks for the Memory” with rewritten lyrics. He performed his first United Service Organizations (USO) show on May 6, 1941, at March Field, California. He continued to travel and entertain troops for the rest of World War II[ and later during the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the third phase of the Lebanon CIVIL WAR, the latter years of the Iran–Iraq War, and the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf War.
Of his World War II performances, John Steinbeck, author of the “Grapes of Wrath”, said, “When the time for recognition of service to the nation in wartime comes to be considered, Bob Hope should be high on the list. This man drives himself and is driven. It is impossible to see how he can do so much, can cover so much ground, can work so hard, and can be so effective. He works month after month at a pace that would kill most people.
In 1997, an act of Congress signed by President Clinton named Hope an “Honorary Veteran.” Bob remarked, “I’ve been given many awards in my lifetime — but to be numbered among the men and women I admire most — is the greatest honor I have ever received.”
Hope appeared in so many theaters of war over the decades that it was often cracked (in Bob Hope style) that “Where there’s death, there’s Hope”.
James 1: 16 – 18 . .
Do not be deceived, my beloved brothers. Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights with whom there is no variation or shadow due to change. Of his own will he brought us forth by the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first fruits of his creatures.
“If the present (Continental) Congress errs in too much talking, how can it be otherwise, in a body to which the people send one hundred and fifty lawyers, whose trade it is to question everything, yield nothing, and talk by the hour?”
~ Thomas Jefferson – 1821
“When you get into a tight place and everything goes against you, till it seems as though you could not hang on a minute longer, never give up then, for that is just the place and time that the tide will turn.”
~Harriet Beecher Stowe
disport dis-PORT, intransitive verb:
1. To amuse oneself in light or lively manner; to frolic.
1. To divert or amuse.
2. To display.
1527 – Spanish and German troops sack Rome; some consider this the end of the Renaissance. 147 Swiss Guards, including their commander, die fighting the forces of Charles V during the Sack of Rome in order to allow Pope Clement VII to escape into Castel Sant’Angelo.
1536 – King Henry VIII orders English language Bibles be placed in every church.
1626 – The purchase of Manhattan took place. Either the Shinnecock or the Canarsee Indians, according to sources, sold it to Peter Minuit.
1816 – The American Bible Society is founded in New York City.
1833 – John Deere made his first steel plow.
1835 – James Gordon Bennett, Sr. publishes the first issue of the New York Herald. Price was $.01. The Herald specialized in crime with an emphasis on murder.
1851 – Dr John Gorrie Patents a “refrigeration machine”
1851 – The Cherokee Nation opened its men’s seminary (high school) near Park Hill in the eastern part of Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). The Cherokees provided all of the funding for the school. The female seminary opened the next day.
1851 – Linus Yale patented the clock-type lock.
1853 – The first major US rail disaster killed 46 at Norwalk, Connecticut.
1856 – U.S. Army troops from Fort Tejon, Grapevine Canyon, CA and Fort Miller, now Fresno County, CA prepared to ride out to protect Keyesville, California, from Yokut Indian attack.
1861 – Civil War: Confederate Congress passed act recognizing state of war with the United States and authorized the issuing of Letters of Marque to private vessels.
1861 – Civil War: Arkansas became the ninth state to secede from the Union.
1861 – Civil War: Tennessee becomes the tenth state to secede from US.
1863 – Civil War: The Battle of Chancellorsville ends with the defeat of the Army of the Potomac by Confederate troops.
1864 – Civil War: Union and Confederate troops continue their desperate struggle in the Wilderness, which was the opening battle in the biggest campaign of the war.Confederate Gen. James Longstreet (d.1903) was wounded by his own men.
1864 – Civil War: General Sherman began to advance on Atlanta.
1864 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Dawn, Acting Lieutenant John W. Simmons, transported soldiers to capture a signal station at Wilson’s Wharf, Virginia.
1877 – Crazy Horse and Dull Knife, plus as many as 1,000 of their followers, surrendered at the Red Cloud Agency near Fort Robinson in northwestern Nebraska.
1882 – Congress passes the Chinese Exclusion Act. It was signed by President Chester A. Arthur. This act provided an absolute 10-year moratorium on Chinese labor immigration. For the first time, Federal law proscribed entry of an ethnic working group on the premise that it endangered the good order of certain localities. It was the first significant law restricting immigration into the United States.
1889 – The Eiffel Tower is officially opened to the public at the Universal Exposition in Paris.
1896 – The Aerodrome No. 5 made the first successful flight of an unpiloted, engine-driven, heavier-than-air craft of substantial size.
1902 – Start of Sherlock Holmes “Adventure of Shoscombe Old Place.”
1915 – Red Sox Babe Ruth pitching debut & first homerun loses to Yankees 4-3 in 13 innings.
1916 – First ship-to-shore radio telephone voice conversation from USS New Hampshire off Virginia Capes to SECNAV Josephus Daniels in Washington, DC.
1925 – Ty Cobb hits his 5th homerun in 2 games tying Cap Ansons record of 1884.
1927 – There was a major flood along the Mississippi that killed 247 people and displaced thousands. The levee system broke in 145 places and caused 27,000 square miles of flooding in Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi and Tennessee.
1929 – American League announces it will discontinue MVP award. In 1931 the Baseball Writers Association will pick it up and conduct the balloting from then on.
1935 – Bypassing Congress, President issued Executive Order 7034 creating the Works Progress Administration.
1937 – The German zeppelin Hindenburg catches fire and is destroyed within a minute while attempting to dock at Lakehurst, New Jersey. Thirty-six people are killed. The fire ignited the 16 hydrogen-filled cells and destroyed the zeppelin in only 34 seconds. It was 803 feet long and had private rooms for 50 passengers.
1940 – John Steinbeck is awarded the Pulitzer Prize for his novel “The Grapes of Wrath.”
1941 – At California’s March Field, Bob Hope performs his first USO show. (1941)
1942 – World War II: On Corregidor, the last American forces in the Philippines surrender to the Japanese.
1944 – World War II: The first flight of the Mitsubishi A7M fighter (designed to replace the Zero) takes place. Technical problems and Allied bombing raids prevent mass production.
1945 – World War II: Axis Sally delivers her last propaganda broadcast to Allied troops (first was on December 11, 1941).
1945 – World War II: The Prague Offensive, the last major battle of the Eastern Front, begins.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, the Japanese offensive loses momentum. Japanese forces have sustain losses of at least 5000 killed. Even while it has been going on, American forces have made gains near Machinto airfield and Maeda Ridge.
1945 – World War II: The Coast Guard-manned frigate USS Moberly (PF-63), in concert with USS Atherton, sank the U-853 in the Atlantic off Block Island. There were no survivors.
1946 – The New York Yankees announced that they were to be the first major-league baseball team to travel by airplane during the entire 1946 season.
1946 – A Pulitzer prize was awarded to Arthur M. Schlesinger (“Age of Jackson”).
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Foolish Heart” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Eileen Wilson), “Bewitched” by The Bill Snyder Orchestra, “The Third Man Theme“ by Alton Karas and “Long Gone Lonesome Blues” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: Planes from the carriers Princeton and Valley Forge blasted a mining area northwest of Songjin, causing numerous secondary explosions and destroying buildings and a main transformer station.
1954 – Roger Bannister becomes the first person to run the mile in under four minutes.
1957 – U.S. Senator John Fitzgerald Kennedy was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for his book “Profiles in Courage”.
1957 – Last broadcast of “I Love Lucy” on CBS-TV. The Ricardos Dedicate A Statue
1960 – More than 20 million viewers watch the first televised royal wedding when Princess Margaret marries Anthony Armstrong-Jones at Westminster Abbey.
1960 – President Eisenhower signs Civil Rights Act of 1960.
1961 – “Runaway” by Del Shannon topped the charts.
1962 – First nuclear warhead fired from the Polaris submarine “Ethan Allen” while submerged.
1963 – A Pulitzer prize was awarded to Barbara Tuchman (Guns of August).
1967 – “Somethin’ Stupid“ by Nancy & Frank Sinatra topped the charts.
1967 – Four-hundred students seized the administration building at Cheyney State College, Pa.
1968 – Astronaut Neil Armstrong was nearly killed in a lunar module trainer accident.
1972 – “The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face” by Roberta Flack topped the charts.
1974 – Oakland A’s pitcher Paul Lindblad ends his record streak of 385 consecutive errorless games.
1974 – Bundy victim Roberta Parks disappeared from OSU, Corvallis, Ore.
1975 – Early warnings provided by REACT (ham radio operators) means only three people die in tornado that strikes Omaha NE.
1975 – Bundy victim Lynette Culver disappeared from Pocatello, Idaho.
1978 – “Night Fever” by the Bee Gees topped the charts.
1978 – On this day at 12:34, the numbers 12345678 represented the time and day: 12:34 5/6/78. The next such sequence will occur in 2078.
1981 – A jury of architects and sculptors unanimously selects Maya Ying Lin’s design for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial from 1,421 other entries.
1981 – US expelled Libyan diplomats.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Love Rock ’N Roll” by Joan Jett & The Blackhearts, “Chariots of Fire” by Titles – Vangelis, “Ebony and Ivory” by Paul McCartney with Stevie Wonder and “Mountain Music” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1983 – The Hitler diaries are revealed as a hoax when experts examine the books and conclude that they are fake.
1987 – Democratic presidential candidate Gary Hart held a news conference in Hanover, N.H., in which he denied ever having an affair with Miami model Donna Rice, but declined to say whether he’d ever committed adultery.
1989 – “Like a Prayer” by Madonna topped the charts.
1989 – “Sunday Silence“ scored an upset victory over “Easy Goer” in the 115th Kentucky Derby at Churchill Downs.
1990 – Freed American hostage Frank Reed said at a news conference in Arlington, Va., that he had been savagely beaten by his captors in Lebanon after two unsuccessful escape attempts.
1993 – The space shuttle “Columbia” landed safely at Edwards Air Force Base in California after a 10-day mission.
1994 – Former Arkansas state worker Paula Jones files suit against President Bill Clinton, alleging that he had sexually harassed her in 1991.
1994 – The last HH-3F Pelican helicopter in Coast Guard service was retired. This ended the Coast Guard’s “amphibious era,” as no aviation asset left in service was capable of making water landings.
1995 – Long-shot “Thunder Gulch“, ridden by Gary Stevens, won the 121st Kentucky Derby.
1996 – The body of former CIA director William Colby is found washed up on a riverbank in southern Maryland, eight days after he disappeared.
1998 – Kerry Wood strikes out 20 Houston Astros to tie the major league record held by Roger Clemens. He threw a one-hitter and did not walk a batter in his 5th career start.
1998 – Astronomers announced the detection of a gamma ray burst in a galaxy 12 billion light years away that was equal to the energy expended by the sun in a trillion years.
1999 – A parole board in New York voted to release Amy Fisher. She had been in jail for 7 years for shooting her lover’s wife, Mary Jo Buttafuoco, in the face.
1999 – A US appeals court ruled that government restrictions on the export of encryption software violated free speech.
2001 – Chandra Levy’s parents reported her missing to police in Washington, DC. Levy’s body was found on May 22, 2002 in Rock Creek Park.
2001 – American businessman Dennis Tito ended the world’s first paid space vacation as he returned to Earth aboard a Russian capsule.
2002 – “Spider-Man” became the first movie to make more than $100 million in its first weekend.
2002 – Two mailbox pipe bombs were found in Colorado and another one in Nebraska.
2003 – Kmart Corporation emerged from bankruptcy after more than 15 months of Chapter 11 protection.
2004 – An audio recording attributed to Osama bin Laden offered rewards in gold for the killing of top U.S. and U.N. officials in Iraq or of the citizens of any nation fighting there.
2006 – “Barbaro” won the Kentucky Derby.
2006 – Lillian Gertrud Asplund (99), the last American survivor of the sinking of the Titanic, died in Shrewsbury, Mass.
2009 – Maine legalizes same-sex marriage.
2009 – In California a wildfire surged into Santa Barbara forcing at least 8,000 residents to evacuate.
2009 – US scientists in the Jason submersible from Woods Hole, Mass., filmed the West Mata undersea volcano between Samoa and Fiji. The summit of the volcano now reached some 4,000 feet from the sea floor and was still some 4,000 feet below the ocean’s surface.
2010 -The Dow Jones Industrial Average plunges nearly 1,000 points for a record intraday loss before recovering about 70% of its losses.
2011 – Schools in Washington D.C. continued to receive more envelopes containing a white, powdery substance. Yesterday they received twenty-nine and today they received ten more.
2011 – Spring 2011 Mississippi River Floods, the US Coast Guard closes a section of the Mississippi River near Caruthersville, Missouri due to heavy flooding. President Barack Obama declares a state of emergency for Louisiana due to concerns about floods.
1758 – Maximilien Robespierre, French Revolutionary (d. 1794)
1797 – Joseph Brackett, American religious leader and composer (d. 1882)
1856 – Robert Peary, American explorer (d. 1920)
1902 – Harry Golden, American journalist (d. 1981)
1915 – Orson Welles, American director (d. 1985)
1915 – Theodore White, American writer (d. 1986)
1916 – Robert H. Dicke, American physicist (d. 1997)
1931 – Willie Mays, American baseball player
1947 – Martha Nussbaum, American philosopher
*HOWE, JAMES D.
Rank and organization: Lance Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, Company I, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, May 6th, 1970. Entered service at: Fort Jackson, S.C. Born: 17 December 1948, Six Mile, Pickens, S.C. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a rifleman with Company I, during operations against enemy forces. In the early morning hours L/Cpl. Howe and two other Marines were occupying a defensive position in a sandy beach area fronted by bamboo thickets. Enemy sappers suddenly launched a grenade attack against the position, utilizing the cover of darkness to carry out their assault. Following the initial explosions of the grenades, L/Cpl. Howe and his two fellow Marines moved to a more advantageous position in order to return suppressive fire. When an enemy grenade landed in their midst, L/Cpl. Howe immediately shouted a warning and then threw himself upon the deadly missile, thereby protecting the lives of the fellow Marines. His heroic and selfless action was in keeping with the finest traditions of the Marine Corps and of the U.S. Naval Service. He valiantly gave his life in the service of his country.
PATTERSON, ROBERT MARTIN
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Troop B, 2d Squadron. 17th Cavalry. Place and date: Near La Chu, Republic of Vietnam, May 6th, 1968. Entered service at: Raleigh, N.C. Born: 16 April 1948, Durham, N.C. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Patterson (then Sp4c.) distinguished himself while serving as a fire team leader of the 3d Platoon, Troop B, during an assault against a North Vietnamese Army battalion which was entrenched in a heavily fortified position. When the leading squad of the 3d Platoon was pinned down by heavy interlocking automatic weapon and rocket propelled grenade fire from two enemy bunkers, Sgt. Patterson and the two other members of his assault team moved forward under a hail of enemy fire to destroy the bunkers with grenade and machinegun fire. Observing that his comrades were being fired on from a third enemy bunker covered by enemy gunners in one -man spider holes, Sgt. Patterson, with complete disregard for his safety and ignoring the warning of his comrades that he was moving into a bunker complex, assaulted and destroyed the position. Although exposed to intensive small arm and grenade fire from the bunkers and their mutually supporting emplacements. Sgt. Patterson continued his assault upon the bunkers which were impeding the advance of his unit. Sgt. Patterson single-handedly destroyed by rifle and grenade fire five enemy bunkers, killed eight enemy soldiers and captured seven weapons. His dauntless courage and heroism inspired his platoon to resume the attack and to penetrate the enemy defensive position. Sgt. Patterson’s action at the risk of his life has reflected great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
MACLAY, WILLIAM P.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 43d Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Hilongas, Leyte, Philippine Islands, May 6th, 1900. Entered service at: Altoona, Pa. Birth: Spruce Creek, Pa. Date of issue: 11 March 1902. Citation: Charged an occupied bastion, saving the life of an officer in a hand-to-hand combat and destroying the enemy.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 2 April 1879, Fredericstadt, Germany. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 6, 15 August 1900. Citation. For heroism and gallantry under fire of the enemy at Hilongas, Philippine Islands, May 6th, 1900.
INDIAN WAR PERIOD
Rank and organization: Bugler, Company A, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Santa Maria Mountains, Ariz., May 6th, 1873. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Dauphin County, Pa. Date of issue: 12 August 1875. Citation: Gallantry in action, also services as trailer in May 1872.
BINGHAM, HENRY H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company G, 140th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., May 6th, 1864. Entered service at: Cannonsburg, Pa. Born: 4 December 1841, Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 31 August 1893. Citation: Rallied and led into action a portion of the troops who had given way under the fierce assaults of the enemy.
BROWN, HENRI LE FEVRE
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 72d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., May 6th, 1864. Entered service at: Ellicott, N.Y. Birth: Jamestown, N.Y. Date of issue: 23 June 1896. Citation: Voluntarily and under a heavy fire from the enemy, 3 times crossed the field of battle with a load of ammunition in a blanket on his back, thus supplying the Federal forces, whose ammunition had nearly all been expended, and enabling them to hold their position until reinforcement arrived, when the enemy were driven from their position.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 97th New York Infantry. Place and date. At Wilderness, Va., May 6th, 1864. Entered service at: Harrisburgh, Lewis County, N.Y. Born: 1842, Lewis County, N.Y. Date of Issue: 24 August 1896. Citation: At the risk of his own life went back while the rebels were still firing and, finding Col. Wheelock unable to move, alone and unaided, carried him off the field of battle.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 6th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., May 6th, 1864; At the mine, Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: Campton, N.H. Birth: Guttentag, Silesia, Prussia. Date of issue: 24 August 1865. Citation: During Battle of the Wilderness rallied and formed, under heavy fire, disorganized and fleeing troops of different regiments. At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864, bravely and coolly carried orders to the advanced line under severe fire.
DE LACEY, PATRICK
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company A, 143d Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., May 6th, 1864. Entered service at: Scranton, Pa. Born: 25 November 1834, Carbondale, Lackawanna County, Pa. Date of issue: 24 April 1894. Citation: Running ahead of the line, under a concentrated fire, he shot the color bearer of a Confederate regiment on the works, thus contributing to the success of the attack.
DRAKE, JAMES M.
Rank and organization: 2d Lieutenant, Company D, 9th New Jersey Infantry. Place and date: At Bermuda Hundred, Va., May 6th, 1864. Entered service at: Elizabeth, N.J. Birth: Union County, N.J. Date of issue: 3 March 1873. Citation: Commanded the skirmish line in the advance and held his position all day and during the night.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company C, 2d New Jersey Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., May 6th, 1864. Entered service at: Newark, N.J. Born: 16 November 1841, Ireland. Date of issue: 13 February 1891. Citation: During a rout and while under orders to retreat seized the colors, rallied the men, and drove the enemy back.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 50th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., May 6th, 1864. Entered service at: —–. Birth: Schuylkill County, Pa. Date of issue: 23 September 1897. Citation: This soldier, with one companion, would not retire when his regiment fell back in confusion after an unsuccessful charge, but instead advanced and continued firing upon the enemy until the regiment re-formed and regained its position.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 57th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., May 6th, 1864. Entered service at: Springfield, Mass. Birth: Hungary. Date of issue: 30 April 1870. Citation: While color bearer, rallied the retreating troops and induced them to check the enemy’s advance.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company D, 5th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., May 6th, 1864. Entered service at: Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. Birth: Lima, Ohio. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 31st North Carolina (C.S.A.) in a personal encounter.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 141st Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., May 6th, 1864. Entered service at: Crampton, Pa. Birth: Bradford County, Pa. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 13th North Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.).
THOMPSON, WILLIAM P.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 20th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., May 6th, 1864. Entered service at: Tippecanoe County, Ind. Birth: Brooklyn, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 55th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Colonel, 109th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., May 6th, 1864. Entered service at: Owego, N.Y. Born: 26 April 1830, Owego, N.Y. Date of issue: 21 June 1895. Citation: Seized the colors and led the regiment when other regiments had retired and then reformed his line and held it.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 72d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness. Va., May 6th, 1864. Entered service at Chautauqua County, N.Y. Birth: Chautauqua County, N.Y. Date of issue: 2 April 1898. Citation: With two companions, voluntarily went forward in the forest to reconnoiter the enemy’s position, was fired upon and one of his companions disabled. Pvt. Young took the wounded man upon his back and, under fire, carried him within the Union lines.
Have you ever went hunting or hiking through a field full of cockleburs? Have you ever got home and had to make the choice on whether you wanted to pull all those little burrs off or just throw the pants way. Well in 1941, George de Mestral and his Irish pointer were out hunting game birds in the ancient Jura mountains of Switzerland. All day long, he had to stop and pull off sticky cockleburs clinging to the dog’s coat and his own trousers. If he didn’t do that it could get very uncomfortable.
De Mestral was surprised at the tenacity of these hitchhiking seedpods. They were difficult to disentangle from animal fur or woolen cloth. That evening, he placed a burr under a microscope and was stunned to see that the exterior of the seedpod was covered with stiff, hooked spines and that these stick to fur and clothing.
Cockleburs – the model for Velcro
They can be very difficult to extract act like masses of tiny hooks that act like hundreds of grasping hands. De Mestral, who was an engineer, wondered whether it would be possible to imitate nature and create a fastener for fabric. When he succeeded he gave the creation a memorable name by splicing together the first syllable of two French words: velour (velvet) and crochet (hook): Velcro.
Velcro has hundreds of uses – replacing zippers and laces and buttons, and enabling arthritic seniors and clumsy toddlers to get in and out of clothing with ease. Holding together skiing, scuba, and marine gear ! Velcro wallets and book bags for kids – watchbands, blood pressure cuffs, and child-safe dart boards – and then the barroom pastime of tossing yourself onto hook-and-loop walls wearing a special suit..
Psalm 37:3-5 (NASB) “Trust in the LORD and do good; Dwell in the land and cultivate faithfulness. Delight yourself in the LORD; And He will give you the desires of your heart. Commit your way to the LORD, Trust also in Him, and He will do it.”
“He who is void of virtuous attachments in private life is, or very soon will be, void of all regard for his country. There is seldom an instance of a man guilty of betraying his country, who had not before lost the feeling of moral obligations in his private connections.”
~ Samuel Adams
“Motivation is everything. You can do the work of two people, but you can’t be two people. Instead you have to inspire the next guy down and get him to inspire his people.”
~ Lee Iaccoca
sudorific soo-duh-RIF-ik, adjective:
1. Causing sweat.
1. A sudorific agent.
Sudorific comes from the Latin word sūdor meaning “sweat.” The word “sweat” is unrelated and comes from the Old English, swote.
1215 – Rebel Barons renounce their allegiance to King John of England. This was part of a chain of events leading to the Magna Carta signing.
1494 – Christopher Columbus lands on the island of Jamaica and claims it for Spain. He calls it St. Iago or Gloria.
1775 – Benjamin Franklin arrived in Philadelphia following almost a decade in Europe.
1798 – U.S. Secretary of War William McHenry ordered that the USS Constitution be made ready for sea. The frigate was launched on October 21, 1797, but had never been put to sea.
1809 – Mary Kies becomes the first woman awarded a U.S. patent, for a technique of weaving straw with silk and thread.
1814 – War of 1812: The British attacked the American forces at Ft. Ontario, Oswego, NY.
1847 – The American Medical Association was organized, in Philadelphia.
1861 – Civil War: CSA troops abandon Alexandria, VA.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of Williamsburg commenced as part of the Peninsular Campaign.
1864 – Civil War: The Battle of the Wilderness begins in Spotsylvania County, Virginia.
1864 – Civil War: Rear Admiral Porter’s fleet were waiting for the opportunity to pass over the Red River rapids while the ships below Alexandria were incessantly attacked by Confederate forces.
1865 – In North Bend, Ohio (a suburb of Cincinnati, Ohio), the first train robbery in the United States takes place. It was the first but not usually included in the discussion because it was done by Civil War guerillas and therefore considered a “war-time“event.
1865 – The Thirteenth Amendment was ratified, abolishing slavery in the U.S except for “duly convicted” prisoners..
1866 – Villagers in Waterloo, NY, held their first Memorial Day service.
1877 – Indian Wars: Sitting Bull leads his band of Lakota into Canada to avoid harassment by the United States Army under Colonel Nelson Miles.
1886 – The Bay View Tragedy occurs, as militia fire upon a crowd of protesters in Milwaukee, Wisconsin killing seven. This was the end of events that began on Saturday May 1, 1886 when 7,000 building-trades workers joined with 5,000 Polish laborers who had organized at St. Stanislaus Catholic Church in Milwaukee.
1891 – The Music Hall in New York City (now known as Carnegie Hall) has its grand opening and first public performance, with Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky as the guest conductor.
1893 – The Wall Street Crash of 1893 began as stock prices fell dramatically. By the end of the year, 600 banks closed and several big railroads were in receivership. Another 15,000 businesses went bankrupt amid 20 percent unemployment. It was the worst economic crisis in U.S. history up to that time.
1895 – First ever color cartoon, The Yellow Kid.
1900 – “The Billboard” begins weekly publication.
1904 – Pitching against the Philadelphia Athletics at the Huntington Avenue Grounds, Cy Young (Denton True Young) of the Boston Americans throws the first perfect game in the modern era of baseball.
1907 – San Francisco streetcar workers of the Carmen’s Union went on strike after Patrick Calhoun, president of the United Railroads, refused to accept a $3 per 8-hour day wage. Calhoun induced the strike and hired James Farley to break the union. The strike ended up leaving 31 people dead.
1908 – The Great White Fleet arrived in San Francisco.
1916 – US Marines invade the Dominican Republic.
1917 – Eugene Jacques Bullard becomes the first Black aviator when he earned his flying certificate with the French Air Service.
1920 – US President Woodrow Wilson made the Communist Labor Party illegal.
1920 – Anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti are arrested, accused of robbery and murder.
1922 – Construction begins in the Bronx on Yankee Stadium.
1925 – John T. Scopes is served an arrest warrant for teaching evolution in violation of the Butler Act.
1926 – Sinclair Lewis refused a 1925 Pulitzer for “Arrowsmith.”
1935 – The radio program, “Rhythm at Eight”, made its debut. The star of the show was 24-year-old Ethel Merman.
1935 – American Jesse Owens set the long jump record at 26 ft. 8 inch.
1936 – Edward Ravenscroft patents screw-on bottle cap with a pour lip.
1938 – Phillies pitcher Hal Kelleher faced 16 batters in the 8th inning, as the Cubs score 12 runs in a 21-2 rout.
1941 – Chanel No. 5 is released.
1942 – World War II: Sales of sugar resumed in the United States under a rationing program.
1942 – World War II: Japanese troops land on Corregidor. Fierce fighting by the remaining American troops under General Wainwright results, but the Japanese maintain a beach head.
1942 – World War II: Japanese Admiral Takagi’s carriers enter the Coral Sea. American Admiral Fletcher’s Task Force 17 is there refueling, but the Japanese do not find it.
1942– World War II: Imperial Headquarters orders the Japanese Navy to prepare for the invasion of Midway Island.
1943 – Postmaster General Frank C Walker invents Postal Zone System.
1944 – World War II: Hospital ship, USS Comfort is commissioned in San Pedro, CA; first ship to be manned jointly by Army and Navy personnel.
1945 – World War II: In Lakeview, Oregon, Mrs. Elsie Mitchell and five neighborhood children are killed while attempting to drag a Japanese balloon out the woods.Unbeknownst to Mitchell and the children, the balloon was armed, and it exploded soon after they began tampering with it. They were the first and only known American civilians to be killed in the continental United States during World War II.
1945 – World War II: German troops in the Netherlands and Denmark capitulate to Canadian and British forces, liberating these countries from Nazi occupation.
1945 – World War II: The 761st Tank Battalion, an all Black unit under Gen. Patton, linked with Russian allies near Steyr, Austria.
1945 – World War II: Prague uprising against the Nazis.
1945 – World War II: The Mauthausen concentration camp is liberated.
1945 – World War II: Admiral Karl Dönitz, leader of Germany after Hitler’s death, orders all U-boats to cease offensive operations and return to their bases.
1945 – World War II: Ezra Pound, poet and author, was arrested by American Army soldiers in Italy for treason. He had served during the war as a pro-fascist and anti-Semitic spokesman for the Mussolini government.
1945 – The War Department announces that about 400,000 troops will remain in Germany to form the US occupation force and 2,000,000 men will be discharged from the armed services, leaving 6,000,000 soldiers serving in the war against Japan.
1947 – Pulitzer prize was awarded to Robert Penn Warren (All the King’s Men).
1948 – The USS Saipan, hosts the first air squadron (VF-17A) ,of jets aboard a carrier – McDonnell FH-1 Phantom I. The Phantom was the first jet deployed by the United States Marine Corps and, although short lived, it led the way to the F2H Banshee, one of the two most important naval jet fighters of the Korean War.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cruising Down the River” by The Blue Barron Orchestra (vocal: ensemble), “Forever and Ever” by Perry Como, “Again” by Doris Day and “Lovesick Blues” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1950 – Congress approved the Uniform Code of Military Justice for the “government of the armed forces of the United States.”
1951 – “How High the Moon” by Les Paul & Mary Ford topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: The battleship USS New Jersey, the cruiser USS Bremerton, and the destroyers USS Twining and Colohan destroyed troop shelters, caves, concrete ammunition bunkers and an observation post.
1955 – “Damn Yankees” opens at 46th St Theater, New York City for 1022 performances.
1955 – The US detonated a 29-kiloton nuclear device in Nevada. “Apple 2” was the 2nd of 40 tests of Operation Cue. The test was meant to study the effects of a nuclear explosion on a typical American community.
1956 – “Hot Diggity” by Perry Como topped the charts.
1956 – Jim Bailey became the first runner to break the four-minute mile in the U.S. He was clocked at 3:58.5.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley, “School Day” by Chuck Berry, “A White Sport Coat (And a Pink Carnation)” by Marty Robbins and “Gone” by Ferlin Husky all topped the charts.
1958 – The Arkansas Gazette received the Pulitzer Prize for its coverage of the Little Rock Central High School integration crisis; James Agee was posthumously honored for his novel “A Death in the Family.”
1961 – The Mercury program: Mercury-Redstone 3 – Alan Shepard becomes the first American to travel into outer space, making a sub-orbital flight of 15 minutes.
1962 – “Soldier Boy” by the Shirelles topped the charts.
1962 – Chris Montez recorded “Let’s Dance.”
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mrs. Brown You’ve Got a Lovely Daughter” by Herman’s Hermits, “I Know a Place” by Petula Clark, “I’ll Never Find Another You” by The Seekers and “This is It” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1965 – Vietnam War: First large-scale US Army ground units arrived in South Vietnam.
1968 – Creedence Clearwater Revival’s “Bad Moon Rising” was released.
1968 – Vietnam War: U.S. Air Force planes hit Nhi Ha, South Vietnam in support of attacking infantrymen.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree” by Tony Orlando & Dawn, “The Cisco Kid” by War, “Little Willy” by The Sweet and”Behind Closed Doors” by Charlie Rich all topped the charts.
1975 – Michael Shaara won Pulitzer Prize in fiction for his novel “Killer Angels.”
1978 – Cincinnati Red Pete Rose becomes the 14th player to get 3,000 hits.
1979 – “Reunited” by Peaches & Herb topped the charts.
1979 – Voyager 1 passed Jupiter.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Morning Train (Nine to Five)” by Sheena Easton, “Just the Two of Us” by Grover Washington, Jr./Bill Withers, “Being with You” by Smokey Robinson and “Rest Your Love on Me” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1982 – Janet Smith, a secretary, was injured when a bomb package was opened at Vanderbilt University.
1983 – In Beirut, Lebanon, a UH-1N helicopter carrying the commander of the American peace-keeping force, Colonel James Mead, was hit by machine gun fire. The six Marines aboard the aircraft escaped injury.
1984 – “Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)” by Phil Collins topped the charts.
1986 – Rock & Roll Hall of Fame & Museum announced to be built in Cleveland.
1987 – Start of Congressional televised hearings on the Iran-Contra affair.
1987 – The US federal government began a yearlong amnesty program, offering citizenship to illegal immigrants who met certain conditions.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Like a Prayer” by Madonna, “I’ll Be There for You” by Bon Jovi, “She Drives Me Crazy” by Fine Young Cannibals and “Young Love” by The Judds all topped the charts.
1990 – “Nothing Compares 2U” by Sinead O’Connor topped the charts.
1990 – Kentucky Derby: “Unbridled” won the 116th running of the Kentucky Derby.
1991 – A riot breaks out in the Mt. Pleasant section of Washington, D.C. after a Salvadoran man is shot by police.
1992 – The 27th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified. “No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened.”
1994 – The US House passed the assault weapons ban.
1994 – Singapore caned American teenager Michael Fay for vandalism, a day after the sentence was reduced from six lashes to four in response to an appeal by President Clinton, who considered the punishment too harsh.
1995 – Last basketball game at Boston Gardens (Magic beats Celtics).
1995 – Rescue workers ended their search for bodies in the Oklahoma City bombing.
1997 – A jury in Jacksonville, Florida, found R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company was not responsible for the death of Jean Connor, a lifelong smoker.
1997 – “Hypnotize” by The Notorious B.I.G. topped the charts.
1997 – “Married With Children” final episode on Fox TV.
1998 – The $816 million, 3.1 million-sq.-ft. Ronald Reagan Federal Building in Washington DC was dedicated.
1998 – The Michigan state legislature introduced a bill that would limit concert attendance by minors under the age of 18.
2000 – A conjunction of the five bright planets – Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn – formed a rough line across the sky with the Sun and Moon. It last happened in February 1962 and will not happen again until April 2438.
2001 – Kentucky Derby: “Monarchos” won the 2001 Kentucky Derby.
2003 – Tornadoes across Missouri, Kansas and Tennessee left at least 40 people dead. Tornado-packed storms flattened communities in four Midwestern states, killing 19 people.
2004 – The Coast Guard presented the Purple Heart to BM3 Joseph Ruggiero in Miami for injuries sustained in action against the enemy while defending the Khawr Al Amaya Oil Terminal in Iraq on 24 April 2004.
2005 – “Precious Doe,” a slain girl mourned but unknown for four years in Kansas City, Mo., was identified as Erica Michelle Marie Green; her mother and stepfather were charged with murder.
2007 – Kentucky Derby: “Street Sense” roared from next-to-last in a 20-horse field to win the Kentucky Derby.
2009 – In California a wildfire broke out in the Santa Ynez mountains near Santa Barbara. By May 15, after destroying 80 homes, it was 90% contained.
2011 – Dozens of schools in Washington, D.C. received envelopes in the mail using Al-Queda wording and containing a white, powdery substance. According to the FBI they all originated from the Dallas, TX area. Twenty-nine letters surfaced today. FBI says that none of the powder was hazardous.
2012 – Kentucky Derby: “I’ll Have Another” wins the 2012 Kentucky Derby.
2012 – Japan shuts down its last nuclear reactor, leaving the country without nuclear power for the first time since 1970.
2013 – A limousine catches fire on the San Bridge in Hayward, California killing five women and injuring four trapped inside.
2013 – Six people are wounded during a drive-by shooting outside a McDonald’s restaurant in East Palo Alto, California
2013 – The world’s first gun produced by Defense Distributed using a 3-D printer is fired successfully in Austin, Texas, United States. Security officials worry that such plastic weapons could evade detection at airport screenings.
2014 – The Supreme Court ruled that opening town council meetings with Christian prayers does not violate the Constitution, so long as officials make an effort at inclusion. The 5-4 ruling was a victory for Greece, New York, which was at the center of the case, but also for a fair and historical reading of the First Amendment.
1830 – John Batterson Stetson, American hat manufacturer (d. 1906)
1832 – H.H. Bancroft, American historian and publisher (d. 1918)
1865 – Nellie Bly, American journalist and writer (d. 1922)
1890 – Christopher Morley, American writer (d. 1957)
1899 – Freeman Gosden, American radio comedian (Amos-Amos ‘n’ Andy) (d. 1982)
1901 – Blind Willie McTell, American singer (d. 1959)
1903 – James Beard, American chef and cookbook writer (d. 1985)
1914 – Tyrone Power, American actor (d. 1958)
1915 – Alice Faye, American actress (d. 1998)
1925 – Leo Ryan, United States Congressman (d. 1978)
1938 – Michael Murphy, American actor
1942 – Tammy Wynette, American musician (d. 1998)
1954 – Dave Spector, American television personality and commentator
1959 – Brian Williams, American news anchor
1971 – David Reilly, American singer (God Lives Underwater) (d. 2005)
1984 – Eve Torres, American dancer and model
1988 – Jessica Dubroff, American aviator (d. 1996)
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Whetstone Mountains, Ariz., 5 May 1871. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 13 November 1871. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Whetstone Mountains, Ariz., 5 May 1871. Entered service at:——. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 13 November 1871. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Whetstone Mountains, Ariz., 5 May 1871. Entered service at:——. Birth: Fairfield County, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 November 1871. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Whetstone Mountains, Ariz., 5 May 1871. Entered service at:——. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 13 November 1871. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Whetstone Mountains, Ariz., 5 May 1871. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Putnam County, Ind. Date of issue: 13 November 1871. Citation: Gallantry in action with Indians.
Rank and organization: Quarter Gunner, U.S. Navy. Born: 1834, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Signal, Red River, 5 May 1864. Proceeding up the Red River, the U.S.S. Signal engaged a large force of enemy field batteries and sharpshooters, returning their fire until the Federal ship was totally disabled, at which time the white flag was raised. Although on the sick list, Q.G. Asten courageously carried out his duties during the entire engagement.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 40th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Williamsburg, Va., 5 May 1862. At Chancellorsville, Va., 2 May 1863. Entered service at: Amesbury, Mass. Birth: Lemington, Maine. Date of issue: 8 July 1896. Citation: This soldier, at Williamsburg, Va., then a corporal, at great personal risk, voluntarily saved the lives of and brought from the battlefield 2 wounded comrades. A year later, at Chancellorsville, voluntarily, and at great personal risk, brought from the field of battle and saved the life of Capt. George B. Carse, Company C, 40th New York Volunteer Infantry.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 19th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., 5 May 1864. Entered service at: Muncie, Ind. Birth: Delaware County, Ind. Date of issue: 4 December 1893. Citation: Though suffering from an open wound, carried the regimental colors until again wounded.
Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: Rome, N.Y. Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Signal, Red River, 5 May 1864. Proceeding up the Red River, the U.S.S. Signal engaged a large force of enemy field batteries and sharpshooters, returning their fire until the ship was totally disabled, at which time the white flag was raised. Although entered on the sick list, Butts courageously carried out his duties during the entire engagement.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 37th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Williamsburg, Va., 5 May 1862. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 11 October 1892. Citation: Took command of the company in action, the captain having been wounded, the other commissioned officers being absent, and handled it with skill and bravery.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 70th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Williamsburg, Va., 5 May 1862. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 14 November 1839, New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 18 April 1888. Citation: Capture of a flag after a severe hand-to-hand contest; was mentioned in orders for his gallantry.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 2d New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Williamsburg, Va., 5 May 1862. At Oak Grove, Va., 25 June 1862. Entered service at: Wilton, N.H. Birth: Chelmsford, Mass. Date of issue: 10 October 1889. Citation: Bravery in repulsing the enemy’s charge on a battery, at Williamsburg, Va. At Oak Grove, Va., crawled outside the lines and brought in important information.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 62d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., 5 May 1864. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 25 February 1895. Citation: Went out in front of the line under a fierce fire and, in the face of the rapidly advancing enemy, rescued the regimental flag with which the color bearer had fallen.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 37th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Williamsburg, Va., 5 May 1862. At Fair Oaks, Va., 30-31 May 1862. At Big Shanty, Ga., 14-15 June 1864. Entered service at: Freehold, N.J. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 13 February 1891. Citation: At Williamsburg, Va., assisted in driving rebel skirmishers to their main line. Participated in action, at Fair Oaks, Va., though excused from duty because of disability. In a charge with his company at Big Shanty, Ga., was the first man on the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 83d Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., 5 May 1864. Entered service at: Berkshire, Mass. Birth: Berkshire, Mass. Date of issue: 27 December 1894. Citation: Singlehanded, rescued a comrade from two Confederate guards, knocking down one and compelling surrender of the other.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 72d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Williamsburg, Va., 5 May 1862. At Bristol Station, Va., 27 August 1862. At Manassas, Va., 29-30 August 1862. Entered service at: Westfield, N.Y. Born: 1 July 1841, Westfield, N.Y. Date of issue: 8 June 1888. Citation: At Williamsburg, Va., voluntarily carried a severely wounded comrade off the field in the face of a large force of the enemy; in doing so was himself severely wounded and taken prisoner. Went into the fight at Bristol Station, Va., although severely disabled. At Manassas, volunteered to search the woods for the wounded.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1819, Ireland. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as seaman on board the U.S.S. Signal which was attacked by field batteries and sharpshooters and destroyed in Red River, 5 May 1864. Proceeding up the Red River, the U.S.S. Signal engaged a large force of enemy field batteries and sharpshooters, returning their fire until the ship was totally disabled, at which time the white flag was raised. Although wounded, Hyland courageously went in full view of several hundred sharpshooters and let go the anchor, and again to slip the cable, when he was again wounded by the raking enemy fire.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1833, Ireland. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as boatswain’s mate on board the U.S.S. Signal, Red River, 5 May 1864. Proceeding up the Red River, the U.S.S. Signal engaged a large force of enemy field batteries and sharpshooters, returning the fire until the ship was totally disabled, at which time the white flag was raised. Serving as gun captain and wounded early in the battle, McCormick bravely stood by his gun in the face of the enemy fire until ordered to withdraw.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company I, 61st Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Williamsburg, Va., 5 May 1862. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 25 October 1893. Citation: As aide_de_camp led the charge with a part of a regiment, pierced the enemy’s center, silenced some of his artillery, and, getting in his rear, caused him to abandon his position.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company I, 62d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., 5 May 1864. Entered service at: New York. Birth: France. Date of issue: 14 January 1890. Citation: Voluntarily rushed back into the enemy’s lines, took the colors from the color sergeant, who was mortally wounded, and, although himself wounded, carried them through the fight.
Rank and organization: Major, 116th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Chancellorsville, Va., 4_5 May 1863. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Born: 1 April 1839, Ireland. Date of issue: 26 March 1895. Citation: In command of the picket line held the enemy in check all night to cover the retreat of the Army.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy, Born: 1841, Rochester N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as boatswain’s mate on board the U.S.S. Signal, Red River, 5 May 1864. Proceeding up the Red River, the U.S.S. Signal engaged a large force of enemy field batteries and sharpshooters, returning the fire until the ship was totally disabled, at which time the white flag was raised. Serving as gun captain, and wounded early in the battle, O’Donoghue bravely stood by his gun in the face of enemy fire until ordered to withdraw.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 7th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., 5 May 1864. Entered service at: Decatur County, Ind. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 50th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 11th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., 5 May 1864. Entered service at: New York. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 23 July 1897. Citation: Under the heavy fire of the advancing enemy, picked up and carried several hundred yards to a place of safety a wounded officer of his regiment who was helpless and would otherwise have been burned in the forest.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company K, 4th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., 5 May 1864. Entered service at: Northfield, Mass. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 4 January 1895. Citation: Saved the life of an officer.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 83d Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., 5 May 1864. Entered service at: Springs, Pa. Birth: Calnehoose, N.Y. Date of issue: 19 November 1897. Citation: Although assigned to other duty, he voluntarily joined his regiment in a charge and fought with it until severely wounded.
Rank and organization: Pilot, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Indiana. Born: 6 June 1830, Indiana. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as pilot on board the U.S.S. Signal, Red River, 5 May 1864. Proceeding up the Red River, the U.S.S. Signal engaged a large force of enemy field batteries and sharpshooters, returning their fire until the ship was totally disabled, at which time the white flag was ordered raised. Acting as pilot throughout the battle, Wilkes stood by his wheel until it was disabled in his hands by a bursting enemy shell.
Respect for Chickens Day
Star Wars Day
8th Grade Final Exam: Salina, Kansas – 1895
Questions: What percentage of this year’s seniors and last year’s high school graduates could pass the following 8th grade test required in 1895, even if the few outdated questions were modernized? How many college students could pass it? For that matter, what percentage of high school teachers could pass it? And – – what percentage of today’s schools have standards for promotion from 8th grade equal to or tougher than those required in 1895?
This is the eighth-grade final exam* from 1895 from Salina, Kansas. It was taken from the original document on file at the Smoky Valley Genealogical Society and Library in Salina, Kansas and reprinted by the Salina Journal.
Grammar (Time, one hour)
1. Give nine rules for the use of Capital Letters.
2. Name the Parts of Speech and define those that have no modifications.
3. Define Verse, Stanza and Paragraph.
4. What are the Principal Parts of a verb? Give Principal Parts of do, lie, lay and run.
5. Define Case, Illustrate each Case.
6. What is Punctuation? Give rules for principal marks of Punctuation.
7-10. Write a composition of about 150 words and show therein that you understand the practical use of the rules of grammar.
Arithmetic (Time, 1.25 hours)
1. Name and define the Fundamental Rules of Arithmetic.
2. A wagon box is 2 ft. deep, 10 feet long, and 3 ft. wide. How many bushels of wheat will it hold?
3. If a load of wheat weighs 3942 lbs., what is it worth at 50cts. per bu, deducting 1050 lbs. for tare?
4. District No. 33 has a valuation of $35,000. What is the necessary levy to carry on a school seven months at $50 per month, and have $104 for incidentals?
5. Find cost of 6720 lbs. coal at $6.00 per ton.
6. Find the interest of $512.60 for 8 months and 18 days at 7 percent.
7. What is the cost of 40 boards 12 inches wide and 16 ft. long at $.20 per inch?
8. Find bank discount on $300 for 90 days (no grace) at 10 percent.
9. What is the cost of a square farm at $15 per acre, the distance around which is 640 rods?
10.Write a Bank Check, a Promissory Note, and a Receipt.
U.S. History (Time, 45 minutes)
1. Give the epochs into which U.S. History is divided.
2. Give an account of the discovery of America by Columbus.
3. Relate the causes and results of the Revolutionary War.
4. Show the territorial growth of the United States.
5. Tell what you can of the history of Kansas.
6. Describe three of the most prominent battles of the Rebellion.
7. Who were the following: Morse, Whitney, Fulton, Bell, Lincoln, Penn, and Howe?
8. Name events connected with the following dates: 1607, 1620, 1800, 1849, and 1865?
Orthography (Time, one hour)
1. What is meant by the following: Alphabet, phonetic orthography, etymology, syllabication?
2. What are elementary sounds? How classified?
3. What are the following, and give examples of each: Trigraph, subvocals, diphthong, cognate letters, linguals?
4. Give four substitutes for caret ‘u’.
5. Give two rules for spelling words with final ‘e’. Name two exceptions under each rule.
6. Give two uses of silent letters in spelling. Illustrate each.
7. Define the following prefixes and use in connection with a word: Bi, dis, mis, pre, semi, post, non, inter, mono, super.
8. Mark diacritically and divide into syllables the following, and name the sign that indicates the sound: Card, ball, mercy, sir, odd, cell, rise, blood, fare, last.
9. Use the following correctly in sentences, Cite, site, sight, fane, fain, feign, vane, vain, vein, raze, raise, rays.
10.Write 10 words frequently mispronounced and indicate pronunciation by use of diacritical marks and by syllabication.
Geography (Time, one hour)
1. What is climate? Upon what does climate depend?
2. How do you account for the extremes of climate in Kansas?
3. Of what use are rivers? Of what use is the ocean?
4. Describe the mountains of N.A.
5. Name and describe the following: Monrovia, Odessa, Denver, Manitoba, Hecla, Yukon, St. Helena, Juan Fermandez, Aspinwall and Orinoco.
6. Name and locate the principal trade centers of the U.S.
7. Name all the republics of Europe and give capital of each.
8. Why is the Atlantic Coast colder than the Pacific in the same latitude?
9. Describe the process by which the water of the ocean returns to the sources of rivers.
10.Describe the movements of the earth. Give inclination of the earth.
The top of the test states > “EXAMINATION GRADUATION QUESTIONS OF SALINE COUNTY, KANSAS
April 13, 1895 J.W. Armstrong, County Superintendent.Examinations at Salina, New Cambria, Gypsum City, Assaria, Falun, Bavaria, and District No. 74 (in Glendale Twp.)”
According to the Smoky Valley Genealogy Society, Salina, Kansas “this test is the original eighth-grade final exam for 1895 from Salina, KS. An interesting note is the fact that county students taking this test were allowed to take the test in the 7th grade, and if they did not pass the test at that time, they were allowed to re-take it again in the 8th grade.”
Proverbs 21:21-24 King James Version (KJV)
21 He that followeth after righteousness and mercy findeth life, righteousness, and honour. 22 A wise man scaleth the city of the mighty, and casteth down the strength of the confidence thereof. 23 Whoso keepeth his mouth and his tongue keepeth his soul from troubles. 24 Proud and haughty, scorner is his name, who dealeth in proud wrath.
“This is the tendency of all human governments. A departure from principle becomes a precedent for a second; that second for a third; and so on, till the bulk of society is reduced to mere automatons of misery, to have no sensibilities left but for sinning and suffering… And the fore horse of this frightful team is public debt. Taxation follows that, and in its train wretchedness and oppression.”
~ Thomas Jefferson
“The world is a great mirror. It reflects back to you what you are. If you are loving, if you are friendly, if you are helpful, the world will prove loving and friendly and helpful to you. The world is what you are.”
~ Thomas Dreier
efficacious ef-ih-KAY-shuhs, adjective:
Possessing the quality of being effective; producing, or capable of producing, the effect intended; as, an efficacious law.
1415 – Religious reformers John Wycliffe and Jan Hus are condemned as heretics at the Council of Constance.
1494 – Christopher Columbus lands in Jamaica.
1626 – Dutch explorer Peter Minuit arrives in New Netherland (present day Manhattan Island) aboard the See Meeuw.
1715 – A French manufacturer debuted the first folding umbrella.
1776 – Rhode Island declared its freedom from England. After the start of the American Revolution, Rhode Island militia under Nathanael Greene joined (1775) the Continental Army at Cambridge, and on May 4, 1776, the province renounced its allegiance to George III.
1780 – American Academy of Arts & Science founded.
1846 – Michigan ended its death penalty.
1851 – Great San Francisco Fire which started May 3rd is still spreading. It had been set by The Sydney Ducks on San Francisco’s Portsmouth Square. Water evaporated to steam as swift winds sent the roaring flames everywhere through the great hollows beneath the plank streets. The Sydney Ducks was the name given to a gang of criminal immigrants from Australia in San Francisco.
1851 – The 1840-ship General Harrison burned to the water line. It was salvaged for parts, buried and not seen again until 2001 when construction at Battery and Clay revealed its remains. The whaling ship Niantic, already converted to a waterfront hotel, burned and sank into the bay. In 1977 new construction uncovered the Niantic’s burned remains.
1855 – American adventurer William Walker departs from San Francisco with about sixty men to conquer Nicaragua.
1862 – Civil War: At Yorktown, VA., McClellan halted his troop before town because it was full of armed land mines left by Confederate Brig. General Gabrial Rains.
1862 – Civil War: Battle at Williamsburg, Virginia.
1862 – Civil War: Boat crew from U.S.S. Wachusett raised the United States flag at Gloucester Point, Virginia, after General McClellan’s troops occupied Yorktown; two Confederate schooners were captured.
1863 – Civil War: The Battle of Chancellorsville ends with a Union retreat.
1863 – Civil War: Three war correspondents Richard T. Colburn, Junius H. Brown and Albert Dean Richardson were captured enroute to Grant’s headquarters by a Confederate patrol near Vicksburg, Miss.
1864 – Civil War: The Army of the Potomac embarks on the biggest campaign of the Civil War and crosses the Rapidan River, precipitating an epic showdown that eventually decides the war.
1865 – Abraham Lincoln was buried in a temporary tomb in Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, Illinois.
1871 – The National Association, the first professional baseball league, opens its first season in Fort Wayne, Indiana.
1886 – Haymarket Square Riot: A bomb is thrown at policemen trying to break up a labor rally in Chicago, Illinois, killing eight and wounding 60. The police fire into the crowd.
1886 – The first practical phonograph, better known as the gramophone, was patented. Three patents for recording and reproducing speech and other sounds relating to a phonograph disk record was issued to Chichester Bell and Charles S. Tainter. Alexander Graham Bell was a joint patentee on two of them.
1891 – Sherlock Holmes, Arthur Conan Doyle’s fictional detective, “died” at Reichenbach Falls.
1893 – Cowboy Bill Pickett invents bulldogging. Bill was the first African-American cowboy to be inducted into the National Cowboy Hall of Fame. He invented the rodeo event Bulldogging, known today as Steer Wrestling.
1899 – “Manuel” rushed to the finish line ahead of four others to win the 25th Kentucky Derby. He was an American Thoroughbred racehorse that won the 1899 Kentucky Derby in what was deemed a very uneventful race.
1904 – Construction begins by the United States on the Panama Canal.
1904 – Ever hear of Rolls-Royce? Charles Stewart Rolls meets Frederick Henry Royce at the Midland Hotel in Manchester, England.
1905 – Belmont Park opened in suburban Long Island. It opened as the largest race track in the world.
1910 – Congress required every passenger ship or other ship carrying 50 persons or more, leaving any port of United States, to be equipped with a radio (powerful enough to transmit to a 100-mile radius) and a qualified operator.
1911 – In San Francisco, Police chief Seymour instructed Capt. Thomas Duke of Central Station to notify the proprietors of brothels that $2 per day would be the maximum they would be allowed to charge the 100 prostitutes at 633 Jackson and 719 Commercial Street. Current charges for the women were $5 per day.
1912 – More than ten thousand women and about a thousand men marched down Fifth Avenue in NYC to support woman’s suffrage.
1916 – At request of US, Germany curtails its submarine warfare. The sinking of the Sussex on March 24, 1916, killing fifty Americans, nearly pushed the isolationist United States into war. President Woodrow Wilson thus issued to Germany an ultimatum, either Germany immediately stop their unrestricted submarine warfare, or the US would enter the war on the Allied side.
1917 – World War I: First Navy ships, Destroyer Division 8, arrive at Queenstown, Ireland, to provide convoy escorts against German U-boats.
1919 – First legal Sunday baseball game in New York City. The Phillies beat the Giants 4-3.
1920 – The Symphony Society of New York presented a concert at the Paris Opera House. It was the first American orchestra to make a European tour.
1925 – The Terris-Dundee boxing match was the final event held at the old Madison Square Garden in New York City. Five different sites have been named Madison Square Garden over the years.
1927 – First balloon flight over 40,000 feet was made by Captain Hawthorne C. Gray of the U.S. Army Air Service at Scott Field, IL.
1927 – The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences was incorporated. Louis B. Mayer and three of his guests – actor Conrad Nagel, director Fred Niblo and producer Fred Beetson, had initiated discussions for the organization earlier in the year.
1928 – Hennie Youngman, comedian, married Sadie Cohen. They met in a Kresge’s 5 & 10 cent store in Brooklyn where they both worked. He later made famous the line: “Take my wife… Please!”
1929 – Lou Gehrig hits three consecutive homeruns and the Yankees beat the Tigers 11-9.
1932 – In Atlanta, Georgia, mobster Al Capone begins serving an eleven-year prison sentence for tax evasion. He was later transferred to Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay.
1942 – World War II: The Battle of the Coral Sea begins with an attack by aircraft from the US aircraft carrier Yorktown on Japanese naval forces at Tulagi Island in the Solomon Islands. The Japanese forces had invaded Tulagi the day before.
1942 – World War II: Food rationing began.
1942 – World War II: The Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Ernest J. King, ordered the Coast Guard Auxiliary to organize into an anti-submarine patrol force, which becomes known as the “Corsair Fleet” for service along the east coast.
1942 – World War II: Aircraft from the USS Yorktown positioned 100 miles south of Guadalcanal, attack Japanese forces off Tulagi. The Yorktown then returns south to join the American Task Force 17 which is assembling to engage the Japanese. American actions are dictated by their code breaking which has revealed many of the Japanese plans to them.
1943 – Baseball Commissioner Ford Frick demonstrates the revised “balata ball” to reporters by bouncing it on his office carpet. This ball will prove to be 50 percent livelier than the 1942 one. When introduced in games on May 9th, six home runs will be hit in four doubleheaders compared with nine home runs hit with the previous ball in the first 72 games.
1943 – Patent for Helicopter Controls obtained by Igor Sikorsky.
1944 – World War II: The Coast Guard-manned destroyer escort USS Pride (DE-323), with three other escorts, sank U-371 in the Mediterranean.
1945 – World War II: The liberation of the Neuengamme concentration camp near Hamburg by the British Army.
1945 – World War II: German naval commander Donitz sends envoys to the headquarters of Field Marshal Montgomery, at Luneburg Heath, and they sign an agreement, at 1820 hrs, for the surrender of German forces in Holland, Denmark and northern Germany.
1945 – World War II: On Luzon, the US 25th Division, part of US 1st Corps, capture Mount Haruna, west of the Balete Pass.
1945 – John F. Kennedy, correspondent for the Hearst Newspapers, filed a dispatch on the founding of the UN in San Francisco in which he said: “Any organization drawn up here will be merely a skeleton. Its powers will be limited… The hope is however, that this skeleton will put on flesh as time goes by.”
1946 – In San Francisco Bay, U.S. Marines from the nearby Treasure Island Navy Base stop a two-day riot at Alcatraz federal prison. Five people are killed in the riot.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Now is the Hour” by Bing Crosby, “The Dickey Bird Song” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Glenn Hughes), “Manana” by Peggy Lee and “Anytime” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 – Norman Mailer’s first novel, “The Naked and the Dead”, is published.
1951 – The U.S. Senate unanimously passed a bill to raise the maximum strength of the Marine Corps to 400,000 — double its strength at the time. The bill also made the Commandant of the Marine Corps a consultant to the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
1953 – Ernest Hemingway is awarded the Pulitzer Prize for The Old Man and the Sea.
1954 – The first intercollegiate court tennis match was played in the U.S. It was between Yale and Princeton.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Heartbreak Hotel/I Was the One” by Elvis Presley, “Moonglow and Theme from ’Picnic’” by Morris Stoloff, “Standing on the Corner” by The Four Lads and “Blue Suede Shoes” by Carl Perkins all topped the charts.
1956 – Gene Vincent and his group, The Blue Caps, recorded “Be-Bop-A Lula“.
1957 – “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1957 – Alan Freed hosts “Rock n’ Roll Show” first prime-time network rock show.
1959 – First Grammy Awards:
Record of the Year – 1959
Domenico Modugno for “Nel Blu Dipinto di Blu (Volare)
Album of the Year – 1959
Henry Mancini for The Music from Peter Gunn
Song of the Year –
Domenico Modugno for “Nel Blu Dipinto di Blu (Volare)”
Best Recording for Children
Ross Bagdasarian Sr. for “The Chipmunk Song (Christmas Don’t Be Late)” performed by Ross Bagdasarian Sr. as “David Seville and the Chipmunks”
Best Comedy Performance
Ross Bagdasarian, Sr. for “The Chipmunk Song“, performed by Ross Bagdasarian Sr. as “David Seville and the Chipmunks”
Composing and arranging
Best Musical Composition First Recorded and Released in 1958 (over 5 minutes duration)
Nelson Riddle (composer) for “Cross Country Suite”
Henry Mancini (arranger & artist) for The Music from Peter Gunn
Best Country & Western Performance
The Kingston Trio for “Tom Dooley”
Best Jazz Performance, Individual
Ella Fitzgerald for Ella Fitzgerald Sings the Duke Ellington Songbook
Best Jazz Performance, Group
Count Basie for Basie
Best Original Cast Album (Broadway or TV)
Meredith Willson (composer) & the original cast with Robert Preston, Barbara Cook, David Burns, Eddie Hodges, Pert Kelton & Helen Raymond for The Music Man
Best Sound Track Album, Dramatic Picture Score or Original Cast
André Previn & the original cast for Gigi (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack)
Best Vocal Performance, Female
Ella Fitzgerald for Ella Fitzgerald Sings the Irving Berlin Songbook
Best Vocal Performance, Male
Perry Como for “Catch a Falling Star”
Best Performance by a Vocal Group or Chorus
Keely Smith & Louis Prima for “That Old Black Magic”
Best Performance by a Dance Band
Count Basie for Basie
Best Performance by an Orchestra
Billy May for Billy May’s Big Fat Brass
1959 – Dick Clark announced the first movie to be released from his production company. The film was “Harrison High.”
1961 – In the American civil rights movement, the “Freedom Riders” begin a bus trip through the South.
1961 – Strato-Lab 5, a 411-foot hydrogen filled balloon was launched from the deck of USS Antietam. Malcolm Ross & Victor Prather reach 113,746 feet (record) in balloon.
1961 – At a press conference, Secretary of State Dean Rusk reports that Viet Cong forces have grown to 12,000 men and that they had killed or kidnapped more than 3,000 persons in 1960.
1963 – Pitcher Bob Shaw sets record of five balks in a game. Shaw is penalized three times in the third inning alone; tying the major-league record set the previous week by Jim Owens.
1963 – “I Will Follow Him” by Little Peggy March topped the charts.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “Can’t Buy Me Love” by The Beatles, “Hello Dolly!” by Louis Armstrong, “Bits and Pieces” by The Dave Clark Five and “My Heart Skips a Beat” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1964 – “Another World” & “As the World Turns” premiere on TV.
1966 – Willie Mays 512th homerun breaks Mel Ott’s 511th National League record homerun.
1968 – First American Basketball Association championship: Pittsburgh Pipers beat New Orleans Buccaneers, 4 games to 3. The ABA was only in existence from 1968 to 1976.
1968 – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro topped the charts.
1970 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Kent State shootings: the Ohio National Guard, sent to Kent State University after disturbances in the city of Kent the weekend before, open fire killing four students and wounding nine others. The students were protesting the United States’ invasion of Cambodia. The shooting became known as the May 4 Massacre.
1970 – Vietnam War: A dispatch filed from Saigon described looting by US soldiers at the Cambodian town of Snuol. The mention of looting was removed by an editor in New York before the story was transmitted to newspapers in the United States.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face” by Roberta Flack, “I Gotcha” by Joe Tex, “Betcha By Golly, Wow” by The Stylistics and “Chantilly Lace” by Jerry Lee Lewis all topped the charts.
1972 – Vietnam War: The Vietcong formed revolutionary government in Quang Tri South Vietnam.
1973 – The first TV network female nudity appeared in Bruce Jay Smith’s Steambath (PBS) with Valerie Perrine.
1974 – “The Loco-Motion” by Grand Funk topped the charts.
1975 – Houston’s Bob Watson scores baseball’s one-millionth run of all time.
1977 – A large tornado swept through Pleasant Hill, Mo., hitting the city’s high school and grade school. Only minor injuries occurred due to superb tornado warnings and drills.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Call Me” by Blondie, “Ride like the Wind” by Christopher Cross, “Lost in Love” by Air Supply and “Are You on the Road to Lovin’ Me Again” by Debby Boone all topped the charts.
1981 – The Federal Reserve Board raised its discount rate to 14%.
1984 – At Minnesota, Oakland’s Dave Kingman hit a pop up that collides with the Metrodome, 180 feet up, and stays there. The ball is dislodged on May 5th.
1985 – “We Are the World” by USA for Africa topped the charts.
1985 – “Spend A Buck” posted the third fastest winning time in the Kentucky Derby by running the 1-1/4 mile track at Churchill Downs in 2 minutes and 1/8 second. Only Secretariat (1973) and Northern Dancer (1964) had been faster.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Where Do Broken Hearts Go” by Whitney Houston, “Wishing Well” by Terence Trent D’Arby, “Angel” by Aerosmith and “It’s Such a Small World” by Rodney Crowell & Rosanne Cash all topped the charts.
1988 – The PEPCON disaster rocks Henderson, Nevada, as tons of space shuttle fuel detonates during a fire.
1988 – A huge explosion occurred at the Shell oil refinery in Norco, La., on the Mississippi river just north of New Orleans. Eight people were killed and over forty injured.
1989 – Space probe Magellan first to be released from a shuttle. It was carried aloft in the cargo bay of the STS-30 Space Shuttle Atlantis mission launched from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This was the first planetary spacecraft to be released from a shuttle in Earth orbit.
1989 – Former White House aide Oliver North is convicted of three crimes and acquitted of nine other charges in the Iran-Contra Affair:. The convictions, however, are later overturned on appeal.
1991 – President Bush suffered shortness of breath while jogging at Camp David; he was rushed to Bethesda Naval Hospital, where doctors found he was experiencing an irregular heartbeat.
1991 – Cleveland Indians’ Chris James sets club record for most RBIs in a game (9).
1991 – “Strike the Gold” won the 117th Kentucky Derby.
1992 – Democratic presidential candidate Bill Clinton toured riot-ravaged Los Angeles streets, blaming the destruction on what he called 12 years of Republican neglect.
1996 – “Because You Loved Me” by Celine Dion topped the charts.
1996 – “Always Be My Baby” by Mariah Carey topped the charts.
1996 – “Grindstone” won the Kentucky Derby, giving trainer D. Wayne Lukas a sixth straight victory in a Triple Crown race.
1997 – IBM’s Deep Blue computer defeated world chess champion Garry Kasparov, evening their six-game series at one game apiece.
1998 – A federal judge in Sacramento, CA, gives “Unabomber” Theodore Kaczynski four life sentences plus 30 years after Kaczynski accepts a plea agreement sparing him from the death penalty.
1998 – The FDA approved the first commercial surgical glue, Tisseel, made by Baxter Labs.
1999 – President Clinton authorized a Congressional Gold Medal for Rosa Parks.
1999 – Manuel Babbitt (50), a Vietnam veteran, was executed at San Quentin, Ca., the day after his birthday, for the 1980 murder of an elderly grandmother in Sacramento. He refused his last meal and asked that the $50 allotted be given to homeless Vietnam vets.
2000 – The e-mail virus “ILOVEYOU” bug hit millions of computers around the world. It was considered the most virulent, most damaging ($2.6 bil), most costly and most rapidly spread virus to date.
2001 – The US unemployment rate went up .2% to 4.5%, its highest level in 2 ½ years.
2001 – US experts, following 3 days of inspections, said the US spy plane on China’s Hainan Island could be repaired and flown home.
2001 – Bonny Lee Bakley (44), the wife of actor Robert Blake (67), died from a bullet wound to the head as she sat in a car near a restaurant in Los Angeles.
2002 – “War Emblem“, a 20-1 shot, scored a down-to-the-wire, four-length victory over “Proud Citizen” in the Kentucky Derby.
2002 – Five pipe bombs were found in rural Nebraska mailboxes.
2003 – “Idaho Gem”, a mule, was born. He was the first member of the horse family to be cloned.
2003 – Swarms of violent thunderstorms and tornadoes crashed through the nation’s midsection, killing at least 30 people in Kansas, Missouri and Tennessee. 8 people were missing in Pierce City, Mo.
2003 – A Soyuz spacecraft safely delivered a three-man, US-Russian crew to Earth in the first landing since the Columbia space shuttle disaster.
2004 – The United States walked out of a U.N. meeting to protest its decision minutes later to give Sudan a third term on the Human Rights Commission.
2004 – William J. Krar (63) of East Texas was sentenced to 11 years in federal prison for stockpiling weapons that included a sodium-oxide bomb capable of killing everyone inside a midsize civic building.
2004 – Oil prices for June delivery rose to $38.98 a barrel.
2005 – A military judge at Fort Hood, Texas, threw out Pvt. 1st Class Lynndie England’s guilty plea to abusing Iraqi detainees at Abu Ghraib prison, saying he was not convinced the Army reservist knew her actions were wrong at the time. England was later convicted in a court-martial and sentenced to three years in prison.
2006 – In Virginia US Judge Leonie Brinkema sent Zacarias Moussaoui to prison for life, to “die with a whimper,” for his role in the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. He declared: “God save Osama bin Laden, you will never get him.”
2006 – A US government study said some 300,000 US children have been diagnosed with autism.
2007 – Greensburg, Kansas is almost completely destroyed by a 1.7-mile wide EF-5 tornado. It killed at least seven.
2007 – US federal officials placed a hold on 20 million chickens raised for market in several states because their feed was mixed with pet food containing an industrial chemical.
2007 – An Alaska lawmaker and two of his former colleagues were arrested for allegedly soliciting and accepting bribes from VECO Corp., a private oil services company, to pass a new oil-tax system.
2009 – President Barack Obama proposed changing provisions in the tax code that he says encourage US companies to move jobs overseas, as part of a broader package aimed at saving $210 billion over 10 years.
2009 – Wolves in parts of the northern Rockies and the Great Lakes region come off the endangered species list, opening them to public hunts in some states for the first time in decades.
2009 – In Kentucky Amanda Hornsby-Smith (28) was strangled to death. In 2010 her husband, Woody Will Smith (33), went on trial for her murder. He claimed excessive caffeine from sodas, energy drinks and diet pills left him so mentally unstable he couldn’t have knowingly killed her.
2011 – President Barack Obama declared parts of Kentucky, Mississippi and Tennessee as disaster areas due to flooding, freeing up federal aid to help those affected.
2011 – In Oklahoma Sandlin Matthews Smith was shot and killed after he pulled a gun on federal agents trying to arrest him. Smith faced federal charges in connection with the bombing of the Islamic Center of Northeast Florida last May.
2011 – Intel unveiled its new Ivy Bridge processor made with a 3-D manufacturing technique that increases chip performance as much as 37% while using less power.
2012 – Former media mogul Conrad Black is released from prison in Miami after being locked up for just over three years for defrauding investors.
2012 – The trial of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the accused mastermind of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, starts at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp.
2014 – Barack Obama promised to continue his dictatorial style rule of America, vowing to go around Congress and the system of government that our Founders put in place if Republicans don’t give him exactly what he wants.
2014 – The California Assembly passed legislation that would ban the state from selling or displaying the Confederate flag, or any similar image. This is a bill that clearly violates the First Amendment and infringes on free speech.
1796 – Horace Mann, American educator (d. 1859)
1796 – William H. Prescott, American historian (d. 1859)
1820 – Julia Tyler, First Lady of the United States (d. 1889)
1826 – Frederic Edwin Church, American painter (d. 1900)
1929 – Sidney Lamb, American linguist
1938 – Tyrone Davis, American soul singer (d. 2005)
1940 – Robin Cook, American novelist
1941 – George Will, American writer
1975 – Laci Peterson, American murder victim (d. 2002)
*FOURNET, DOUGLAS B.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company B, 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and date: A Shau Valley, Republic of Vietnam, May 4th, 1968. Entered service at: New Orleans, La. Born: 7 May 1943, Lake Charles, La. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. 1st Lt. Fournet, Infantry, distinguished himself in action while serving as rifle platoon leader of the 2d Platoon, Company B. While advancing uphill against fortified enemy positions in the A Shau Valley, the platoon encountered intense sniper fire, making movement very difficult. The right flank man suddenly discovered an enemy claymore mine covering the route of advance and shouted a warning to his comrades. Realizing that the enemy would also be alerted, 1st Lt. Fournet ordered his men to take cover and ran uphill toward the mine, drawing a sheath knife as he approached it. With complete disregard for his safety and realizing the imminent danger to members of his command, he used his body as a shield in front of the mine as he attempted to slash the control wires leading from the enemy positions to the mine. As he reached for the wire the mine was detonated, killing him instantly. Five men nearest the mine were slightly wounded, but 1st Lt. Fournet’s heroic and unselfish act spared his men of serious injury or death. His gallantry and willing self-sacrifice are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*KINSER, ELBERT LUTHER
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 21 October 1922, Greeneville, Tenn. Accredited to: Tennessee. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while acting as leader of a Rifle Platoon, serving with Company I, 3d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division, in action against Japanese forces on Okinawa Shima in the Ryukyu Chain, May 4th, 1945. Taken under sudden, close attack by hostile troops entrenched on the reverse slope while moving up a strategic ridge along which his platoon was holding newly won positions, Sgt. Kinser engaged the enemy in a fierce hand grenade battle. Quick to act when a Japanese grenade landed in the immediate vicinity, Sgt. Kinser unhesitatingly threw himself on the deadly missile, absorbing the full charge of the shattering explosion in his own body and thereby protecting his men from serious injury and possible death. Stouthearted and indomitable, he had yielded his own chance of survival that his comrades might live to carry on the relentless battle against a fanatic enemy. His courage, cool decision and valiant spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of certain death sustained and enhanced the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
SHAW, GEORGE C.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 27th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Pitacus, Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippine Islands, May 4th, 1903. Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Birth: Pontiac, Mich. Date of issue: 9 June 1904. Citation: For distinguished gallantry in leading the assault and, under a heavy fire from the enemy, maintaining alone his position on the parapet after the first three men who followed him there had been killed or wounded, until a foothold was gained by others and the capture of the place assured.
BROWN, EDWARD, JR.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 62d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg and Salem Heights, Va., 3-May 4th, 1863. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 6 July 1841, Ireland. Date of issue: 24 November 1880. Citation: Severely wounded while carrying the colors, he continued at his post, under fire, until ordered to the rear.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1826 Rochester, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Albatross during action against Fort De Russy in the Red River Area on May 4th, 1863. After the steering wheel and wheel ropes had been shot away by rebel fire, Brown stood on the gun platform of the quarterdeck, exposing himself to a close fire of musketry from the shore, and rendered invaluable assistance by his expert management of the relieving tackles in extricating the vessel from a perilous position, and thereby aided in the capture of Fort De Russy’s heavyworks.
BUTTERFIELD, FRANK G.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company C, 6th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Salem Heights, Va., May 4th, 1863. Entered service at: Rockingham, Vt. Birth: Rockingham, Vt. Date of issue: 4 May 1891. Citation: Took command of the skirmish line and covered the movement of his regiment out of a precarious position.
CLARK, CHARLES A.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant and Adjutant, 6th Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Brooks Ford, Va., May 4th, 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Sangerville, Maine. Date of issue: 13 May 1896. Citation: Having voluntarily taken command of his regiment in the absence of its commander, at great personal risk and with remarkable presence of mind and fertility of resource led the command down an exceedingly precipitous embankment to the Rappahannock River and by his gallantry, coolness, and good judgment in the face of the enemy saved the command from capture or destruction.
COFFEY, ROBERT J.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 4th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Banks Ford, Va., May 4th, 1863. Entered service at: Montpelier, Vt. Birth: Nova Scotia. Date of issue: 13 May 1892. Citation: Single-handedly captured two officers and five privates of the 8th Louisiana Regiment (C.S.A.).
CUMMINGS, AMOS J.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 26th New Jersey Infantry. Place and date: At Salem Heights, Va., May 4th, 1863. Entered service at: Irvington, N.J. Born: 15 May 1841, Conklin, N.Y. Date of issue. 28 March 1894. Citation: Rendered great assistance in the heat of the action in rescuing a part of the field batteries from an extremely dangerous and exposed position.
*McVEANE, JOHN P.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 49th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fredericksburg Heights, Va., May 4th, 1863. Entered service at: Buffalo, N.Y. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 21 September 1870. Citation: Shot a Confederate color bearer and seized the flag; also approached, alone, a barn between the lines and demanded and received the surrender of a number of the enemy therein.