Unerased History – November 12th

Posted by Wayne Church on November 12, 2014 in 11 - November, Blog by month |
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  Happy Hour Day 

Best-looking Fake Fly Over Ever!!

Today’s fact was going to be about the Loch Ness Monster until this picture came across my desktop.  It is not a real photo, if it were it would be the most amazing example of precision flying I have seen in my life. This would, however, be a great way to show the world the true American spirit. To save you counting, it is 32 aircraft (two are assumed to be behind the spire).  There is no doubt in my mind that our aircraft could do this and is there no doubt our pilots could do this. However the expenditure to pull this off could only be justified by a huge event.

Other Famed Fakes

This is one of the creepiest fakes ever.  It was this shot of Hungarian tourist, Péter Guzli, apparently standing on top of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 as one of the hijacked planes approaches.

This image did the rounds after the attacks with the claim that it was found in a camera pulled out of the rubble. In fact, Guzli had taken the picture in 1997 and made the edit for friends. Other people then made further edits placing him at every disaster from the sinking of the Titanic to the destruction of the White House by aliens on Independence Day.

John Kerry And Jane Fonda

 This fake cutting that circulated during the 2004 Presidential primaries. This cut ‘n paste was a dirty trick designed to derail John Kerry’s presidential campaign. The shot of John Kerry was taken by Ken Light at the Register for Peace Rally in June 1971. Jane Fonda was photographed by Owen Franken as at a political rally in Miami Beach, Florida, in August 1972.



And finally, Oprah….

 Oprah Winfrey might not have complained about this August 1989 cover of TV Guide either. It’s Oprah’s head all right but according to CNet.com the body belongs to actress Ann-Margret. Ann-Margret’s fashion designer recognized the dress and spotted the fakery.


And now-a-days, you just never know for sure……..



There’s only one corner of the universe you can be certain of improving, and that’s your own self.”

~ Aldous Huxley


wangle (WANG-guhl) verb

To achieve something by scheming or manipulating.
[Of uncertain origin, apparently a blend of wag and dangle.]



1439 – Plymouth, England, becomes the first town incorporated by the English Parliament.

1602 – The Vizcaino expedition held Mass on the feast day of San Diego de Alcala. He named the California landing port after the saint.

1775 – Revolutionary War: Gen. Montgomery began his siege of St. John’s and brought about the surrender of 600 British troops.

1775 – Revolutionary War: General Washington forbade the enlistment of blacks.

1799 – Andrew Ellicott Douglass, an early American astronomer, reported witnessing the Leonids meteor shower from a ship off the Florida Keys — the first meteor shower on record in the US.

1813 – J. H. St. John de Crevecouer, French explorer and writer, died. He had spent more than half of his life in the New World and contributed two important concepts to the American consciousness. The first is the idea of the “American Adam,” that there is something different, unique, special, or new about these people called “Americans.” The second idea is that of the “melting pot,” that people’s “American-ness” transcends their ethnic, cultural, or religious backgrounds.

1833 – Leonid Meteors observed.

1859 – Jules Léotard, the daring young Frenchman on the flying trapeze, made his debut at the Cirque Napoléon. He was also the designer of the garment that is named after him.

1863 – Civil War: Confederate General James Longstreet arrived at Loudon, Tennessee to assist the attack on Union General Ambrose Burnside’s troops at Knoxville.

1864 – Civil War: A boat expedition attempted to destroy Confederate salt works on a reconnaissance near Tampa Bay, Florida, but the sailors were driven back to their boats by Southern cavalry.

1864 – Civil War : Union General William T. Sherman orders the business district of Atlanta destroyed before he embarks on his famous March to the Sea.

1892 – William Pudge Heffelfinger receives $500, becomes first pro football player.  He participated in his first paid game for the Allegheny Athletic Association.

1894 – Lawrence Hargrave, the Australian inventor of the box kite, linked four huge box kites together, added a sling seat, and flew – attached to the ground by piano wire.

1900 – Black painter Henry O. Tanner was one of the 6,916 American exhibitors at the Paris Exposition which closed its gates on this day. Tanner won a silver medal for his entry.

1910 – First movie stunt: man jumps into Hudson river from a burning balloon.

1911 – In Chicago two people froze to death. The temperature had dropped 61 degrees overnight.

1912 – The remains of English explorer Robert Scott and his companion travelers were found in Antarctica.

1912 – LT Theodore Ellyson makes first successful launching of an airplane (A-3) by catapult at the Washington Navy Yard.

1915 – Theodore W. Richards, of Harvard University, became the first American to be awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry.

1920 – Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis was elected the first commissioner of Major League Baseball.

1925 – Louis Armstrong recorded “My Heart“.

1927 – The Holland Tunnel opens to traffic as the first Hudson River vehicular tunnel linking New Jersey to New York City.

1927 – Notre Dame’s Fighting Irish changes blue jerseys for green.

1928 –  The SS Vestris sinks approximately 200 miles  off Hampton Roads, Virginia, killing at least 110 passengers, mostly women and children who die after the vessel is abandoned.

1933 – Hugh Gray takes the first known photos of the Loch Ness Monster.

1933 – First Sunday football game in Philadelphia (previously illegal).

1936 – In California, the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge opened. It cost $78 million and was the longest bridge ever attempted. 23 men died during its construction.

1936 – American League OKs night baseball for St Louis.

1938 – Hermann Göring announces Nazi Germany plans to make Madagascar the “Jewish homeland”, an idea that actually was first considered by 19th century journalist Theodor Herzl.

1939 – Jews in Lodz Poland were ordered to wear yellow star of David.

1940 – BATMAN was trademark registered.

1940 – Walt Disney released “Fantasia.”  The Sorcerers Apprentice (9:18)

1940 – Blizzard struck the Midwest. 154 died including 69 on a boat on the Great Lakes.

1941 – Hot Lips Page performed the vocal for Artie Shaw’s very long and very slow version of “St. James Infirmary” on RCA Victor.

1941 – Madame Lillian Evanti and Mary Cardwell Dawson established the National Negro Opera Company.

1942 – World War II: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal between Japanese and American forces begins near Guadalcanal, will last for three days.

1943 – World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt embarks on USS Iowa (BB-61) to go to the Allied conferences at Teheran, Iran, and Cairo, Egypt.

1943 – World War II: The Japanese carrier aircraft stationed at Rabaul on New Britain are withdrawn. Of the 173 planes committed, 121 were lost, with many pilots.

1944 – World War II: The German battleship “Tirpitz” was sunk off the coast of Norway.

1944 – World War II: U.S. fighters wiped out a Japanese convoy near Leyte, consisting of six destroyers, four transports, and 8,000 troops.

1946 – A branch of the Exchange National Bank in Chicago opens the first ten drive-up teller windows.

1946 – Walt Disney’s “Song Of The South” released.

1948 – Former Japanese premier Hideki Tojo and several other Japanese leaders were sentenced to death by a World War II crimes tribunal.

1949 – “That Lucky Old Sam” by Frankie Laine topped the charts.

1951 – Korean War: The U.S. Eighth Army in Korea was ordered to cease offensive operations and begin an active defense.

1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Because of You” by Tony Bennett, “Sin (It’s No)” by Eddy Howard, “And So to Sleep Again” by Patti Page and “Slow Poke” by Pee Wee King all topped the charts.

1951 – “Paint Your Wagon” (2:37:48) opened at Shubert Theater in  New York City for 289 performances.

1953 – US district Judge Grim of the U.S. District Court in Philadelphia rules NFL can black out TV home games.

1954 – Ellis Island closed after processing more than 20 million immigrants since opening in the New York Harbor in 1892.

1955 – Date Marty McFly returned to in “Back to the Future” & “Back to the Future II”.

1955 – “Autumn Leaves” by Roger Williams topped the charts.

1956 – Largest observed iceberg, 208 by 60 miles, first sighted. It was sighted by the USS Glacier, a U. S. Navy icebreaker, about 150 miles west of Scott Island in the Southern Hemisphere. It was roughly the size of Belgium.

1958 – Warren Harding, Wayne Merry and George Whitmore scaled the “nose” of El Capitan in California’s Yosemite Valley.

1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mack the Knife” by Bobby Darin, “Mr. Blue” by The Fleetwoods, “Don’t You Know” by Della Reese and “Country Girl” by Faron Young all topped the charts.

1960 – “Save the Last Dance For Me” by The Drifters topped the charts.

1960 – Discoverer XVII was launched into orbit from California’s Vandenberg AFB.  The Discoverer Program (1959-1962) was a ruse to conceal the Corona Program, a series of photoreconnaissance spy satellites.

1964 – Paula Murphy sets female land speed record 226.37 MPH.

1965 – Heaviest single piece of freight carried by rail, a 549.2 tons hydrocraker reactor hauled from Birmingham, Alabama to Toledo, Ohio.

1966 – “Poor Side of Town” by Johnny Rivers topped the charts.

1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “To Sir with Love” by Lulu, “Soul Man” by Sam & Dave, “It Must Be Him” by Vikki Carr and “You Mean the World to Me” by David Houston all topped the charts.

1967 – Pearl Bailey took over the lead in the Broadway musical, “Hello Dolly!

1968 – U.S. Supreme Court voided an Arkansas law banning the teaching of evolution in public schools.

1969 – Vietnam War: My Lai Massacre – Independent investigative journalist Seymour Hersh breaks the My Lai story. The US Army admitted to the 1968 Vietnam massacre of civilians at My Lai and announced an investigation of Lt William Calley for massacre of civilians at the Vietnamese village on March 16, 1968.

1970 – The Oregon Highway Division attempts to destroy a rotting beached Gray whale with explosives, leading to the now -infamous exploding whale incident.

1971 – Vietnam War: As part of Vietnamization, US President Richard M. Nixon sets February 1, 1972 as the deadline for the removal of another 45,000 American troops from Vietnam.

1971 – Arches National Park was established in Moab, Utah.

1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Island Girl” by Elton John, “Lyin’ Eyes” by The Eagles, “Who Loves You” by Four Seasons and “I’m Sorry” by John Denver all topped the charts.

1975 – Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas retired due to failing health, after more than 36 years on the Court.

1977 – “You Light Up My Life” by Debbie Boone topped the charts.

1977 – Ernest Nathan Morial was elected the first Black mayor of New Orleans, Louisiana.

1977 – Spingarn Medal awarded to Alexander P. Haley “for his unsurpassed effective in portraying the legendary story of an American of African descent.” The Spingarn Medal is awarded annually by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for outstanding achievement by a black American.

1979 – In response to the hostage situation in Tehran, US President Jimmy Carter orders a halt to all petroleum imports into the US from Iran. Executive Order 12170 halted oil imports from Iran.

1980 – More than three years after its launch, the U.S. planetary probe Voyager 1 edges within 77,000 miles of Saturn, the second-largest planet in the solar system.

1980 – John Lennon’s “Starting Over“, was released.

1981 – First balloon crossing of the Pacific is completed (Double Eagle V). It landed in California 84 hours and 31 minutes following its Nov 10 launch in Japan. It was the first balloon to cross the Pacific ocean. Rocky Aoki, founder of the Benihana steakhouse (1964), was part of the crew.

1981 – Second shuttle mission-first time spacecraft launched twice (Columbia 2).

1982 – Space shuttle Columbia launched for its first operational flight. The crew successfully used a remote manipulator arm.

1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “All Night Long (All Night)” by Lionel Richie, “Islands in the Stream” by Kenny Rogers & Dolly Parton, “One Thing Leads to Another” by The Fixx and “Somebody’s Gonna Love You” by Lee Greenwood all topped the charts.

1984 – Space shuttle astronauts snared a wandering satellite – first space salvage.

1985 – In Norfolk, VA, Arthur James Walker was sentenced to life in prison for his role in a spy ring run by his brother, John A. Walker Jr.

1985 – Xavier Suarez was elected Miami’s first Cuban-American mayor (1985-1993).

1985 – The Unabomber mailed a pipe bomb to Prof. James V. McConnell of Ann Arbor, Mich. Two people were injured three days later when the package was opened, but not McConnell. McConnell and research ass’t. Nick Suing were injured when the bomb exploded.

1986 – First time in NBA history, both head coaches were absent from the game. K.C. Jones and Don Nelson were both too sick to coach the Boston-Milwaukee game. It became the 44th straight home victory for the Boston Celtics, as they beat the Milwaukee Bucks 124-116.

1987 – The American Medical Association issued a policy statement saying it was unethical for a doctor to refuse to treat someone solely because that person had AIDS or was HIV-positive.

1988 – “Wild Wild West” by Escape Club topped the charts.

1988 – “Rattle and Hum“, )1:34:34) the album by U2, topped the album charts.

1989 – The Broadway musical “Grand Hotel,” written by George Forrest and Robert Wright, opened at the Martin Beck Theater for 1018 performances.

1989 – A triple conjunction of Neptune and Saturn took place. These are fairly common and unspectacular but they help amateur astronomers find these dim planets.

1990 – Two years after his father’s death, Crown Prince Akihito was enthroned, becoming the 125th Japanese monarch.

1990 – Tim Berners-Lee publishes a formal proposal for the World Wide Web.

1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cream” by Prince & The N.P.G., “Can’t Stop This Thing We Started” by Bryan Adams, “Real, Real, Real” by Jesus Jones and “Someday” by Alan Jackson all topped the charts.

1991 – Robert Gates was sworn in as CIA director.

1992 – In his first formal post-election news conference, President-elect Clinton presented a detailed blueprint for action once he took office, and promised his administration would have the strictest ethical guidelines in history.

1993 – Singer Michael Jackson canceled a world tour, citing a dependence on painkillers.

1995 – The Space Shuttle “Atlantis” blasted off on a mission to dock with the Russian space station “Mir.”

1996 – In Pontiac, Mich., Jonathan Schmitz, a guest on “The Jenny Jones Show,” was convicted of second-degree murder for shooting Scott Amedure, a gay man who’d revealed a crush on Schmitz during a taping of the program. Schmitz was later sentenced to up to 50 years in prison.

1997 – Jury selection began in Sacramento, Calif., in the trial of accused Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski.

1997 – In Denver policeman Bruce VanderJagt was killed in a shootout with a member of the Denver Skins. The suspect then killed himself with the officer’s gun.

1997 – Four Americans and their Pakistani driver were shot to death in Karachi, Pakistan. The Americans were oil company employees.

1997 – Ramzi Yousef was found guilty of masterminding the 1993 bombing of New York’s World Trade Center.

1998 – Daimler-Benz completes a merger with Chrysler to form Daimler-Chrysler.

1998 – Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley filed a $433 million lawsuit against the firearms industry, declaring that it had created a public nuisance by flooding the streets with weapons deliberately marketed to criminals. A judge dismissed the lawsuit in 2000; an appeals court ruled in 2002 that the city of Chicago could proceed; but the Illinois Supreme Court dismissed the lawsuit in 2004.

2001 – American Airlines flight 587 crashed just minutes after takeoff from Kennedy Airport in New York. The Airbus A300 crashed into the Rockaway Beach section of Queens. All 260 people aboard were killed as well as five people on the ground.

2002 – Stan Lee filed a lawsuit against Marvel Entertainment Inc. that claimed the company had cheated him out of millions of dollars in movie profits related to the 2002 movie “Spider-Man.” Lee was the creator of Spider-Man, the Incredible Hulk and Daredevil.

2002 – An Arab TV station broadcast an audiotape of Osama bin Laden, a voice that U.S. counter terrorism officials said is probably authentic.

2003 – Imelda Ortiz, a former Mexican consul to Lebanon, was arrested on charges of helping a smuggling ring move Arab migrants into the United States from Mexico.

2003US Senators began a forty-hour marathon session over the Democrat’s refusal to confirm several of Presidents Bush’s judicial nominees.

2004 – John McLaughlin, deputy director of the CIA, resigned after a series of confrontations over the past week between senior operations officials and Patrick Murray, the CIA Director Porter J. Goss’s new chief of staff.

2004 – A jury in Redwood City, Ca., convicted Scott Peterson (32) of first degree murder of his pregnant wife and dumping her body in San Francisco Bay in Dec 2002 in what prosecutors portrayed as a cold-blooded attempt to escape marriage and fatherhood for the bachelor life. He was also convicted of second degree murder for the unborn child.

2004 – Former President Gerald R. Ford attended groundbreaking ceremonies at the Univ. of Michigan for the new home of the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy.

2004 – The military reported that insurgents in Falluja, Iraq, are trapped. Hundreds of insurgents, 18 U.S. soldiers and five members of the Iraqi security forces have been killed in four days of fighting.

2005 – Tornadoes hit central Iowa and left one person dead.

2005 – In Iraq two U.S. Marines were killed in combat and an American soldier died in a vehicle accident.

2005 – US premiere of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire at the Ziegfeld Theatre in New York City.

2006 – Gerald R. Ford surpassed Ronald Reagan as the longest-lived US president at 93 years and 121 days.

2007 – The Dow Jones industrial average closed below 13,000 for first time since August 2007.

2007 – It was reported that a donor had given a staggering $100 million to the Erie Community Foundation in Pennsylvania, and all of the charities would receive a share.

2009 – Army charges accused Fort Hood shooter, United States Army Major Nidal Malik Hasan with 13 murder counts.

2009 – US prosecutors filed a civil complaint in federal court against the Alavi Foundation, the Muslim nonprofit organization, suspected to have Iranian links, seeking the forfeiture of more than $500 million in assets.

2009 – The Atlantic seaboard was drenched in rain from Tropical Storm Ida. 3 deaths were reported in Virginia and one in North Carolina.

2009 – The discovery of two sunken World War II Japanese submarines off Oahu, Hawaii, is announced.

2010 – The US Supreme Court  refuses to rescind the country’s ban on openly gay soldiers.

2010 – President Barack Obama’s administration announces plans to nominate Joseph Smith to head the Federal Housing Finance Agency. Smith has been the banks commissioner in North Carolina since 2002.

2010 – A student who guessed the answers to former Governor of Alaska Sarah Palin’s security questions in 2008 is convicted of hacking and sentenced to one year in state custody.
2011 – Secretary of State Hillary Clinton demands that Iran respond soon to the “serious concerns” raised by the International Atomic Energy Agency report that Iran appeared to be working on nuclear bomb technology.
2011 – At a Republican party presidential primary debate, US Presidential candidates Mitt Romney and Newt Gingrich say they would go to war to stop Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons.
2013 – The date and time expressed with military time as 11/12/13  14:15.

1815 – Elizabeth Cady Stanton, American social reformer, founder Women’s Rights Convention
1840 – Auguste Rodin, French sculptor.
1854 – J.D. Eisenstein, American Hebraist who translated the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution into Hebrew and Yiddish.
1889 – DeWitt Wallace, American author, the founder of “Reader’s Digest.”

1890 – Charles de Gaulle, French general and first president of the Fifth Republic.
1908 – Harry Blackmun, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1999)
1929 – Grace Kelly, American actress and, later, Princess of Monaco.
1936 – Mills Lane, American judge and boxing referee
1945 – Neil Young, Canadian singer-songwriter.
1961 – Nadia Comaneci, Romanian gymnast



Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 503d Infantry 173d Airborne Brigade. Place and date: Dak To, Republic of Vietnam, November 12th, 1967. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Born: 16 April 1945, Boston, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Barnes distinguished himself by exceptional heroism while engaged in combat against hostile forces. Pfc. Barnes was serving as a grenadier when his unit was attacked by a North Vietnamese force, estimated to be a battalion. Upon seeing the crew of a machine gun team killed, Pfc. Barnes, without hesitation, dashed through the bullet swept area, manned the machine gun, and killed 9 enemy soldiers as they assaulted his position. While pausing just long enough to retrieve more ammunition, Pfc. Barnes observed an enemy grenade thrown into the midst of some severely wounded personnel close to his position. Realizing that the grenade could further injure or kill the majority of the wounded personnel, he sacrificed his life by throwing himself directly onto the hand grenade as it exploded. Through his indomitable courage, complete disregard for his own safety, and profound concern for his fellow soldiers, he averted a probable loss of life and injury to the wounded members of his unit. Pfc. Barnes’ extraordinary heroism, and intrepidity at the cost of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.




Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, 3d Platoon, Company D, 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein) FMF. Place and date: Que Son Mountains, Republic of Vietnam, November 12th, 1969. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa. Born: 15 July 1950, Shelocta, Indiana County, Pa. Citation: As a member of a reaction force which was pinned down by enemy fire while assisting a platoon in the same circumstance, Pfc. Dias, observing that both units were sustaining casualties, initiated an aggressive assault against an enemy machine gun bunker which was the principal source of hostile fire. Severely wounded by enemy snipers while charging across the open area, he pulled himself to the shelter of a nearby rock. Braving enemy fire for a second time, Pfc. Dias was again wounded. Unable to walk, he crawled fifteen meters to the protection of a rock located near his objective and, repeatedly exposing himself to intense hostile fire, unsuccessfully threw several hand grenades at the machine gun emplacement. Still determined to destroy the emplacement, Pfc. Dias again moved into the open and was wounded a third time by sniper fire. As he threw a last grenade which destroyed the enemy position, he was mortally wounded by another enemy round. Pfc. Dias’ indomitable courage, dynamic initiative, and selfless devotion to duty upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service to his country.





Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company H, 359th Infantry, 90th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kerling, France, November 12th, 1944. Entered service at: Texas City, Tex. Birth: Bainbridge, Ohio. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He commanded a platoon that bore the brunt of a desperate enemy counterattack near Korling, France, before dawn on 12 November 1944. When German tanks and self-propelled guns penetrated his left flank and overwhelming infantry forces threatened to overrun the one remaining machinegun in that section, he ran 400 yards through woods churned by artillery and mortar concentrations to strengthen the defense. With the one remaining gunner, he directed furious fire into the advancing hordes until they swarmed close to the position. He left the gun, boldly charged the attackers and, after a fifteen-minute exchange of hand grenades, forced them to withdraw leaving thirty dead behind. He re-crossed the fire-swept terrain to his then threatened right flank, exhorted his men and directed murderous fire from the single machinegun at that position. There, in the light of bursting mortar shells, he again closed with the enemy in a hand grenade duel and, after a fierce thirty-minute battle, forced the Germans to withdraw leaving another twenty dead. The gallantry and intrepidity of T/Sgt. Everhart in rallying his men and refusing to fall back in the face of terrible odds were highly instrumental in repelling the fanatical enemy counterattack directed at the American bridgehead across the Moselle River.




Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company L, 357th Infantry, 90th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Thionville, France, November 12th, 1944. Entered service at: Howard, Pa. Birth: Marsh Creek, Pa. G.O. No.: 89, 19 October 1945. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry above and beyond the call of duty in combat on 12 November 1944, near Thionville, France. During an attack on strong hostile forces entrenched on a hill he fearlessly ran up the steep approach toward his objective and set up his machinegun twenty yards from the enemy. Realizing it would be necessary to attract full attention of the dug-in Germans while his company crossed an open area and flanked the enemy, he picked up his gun, charged through withering machinegun and rifle fire to the very edge of the emplacement, and there killed twelve German soldiers with devastating close-range fire. He took up a position behind a log and engaged the hostile infantry from the flank in an heroic attempt to distract their attention while his comrades attained their objective at the crest of the hill. He was killed by the very heavy concentration of return fire; but his fearless assault enabled his company to sweep the hill with minimum of casualties, killing or capturing every enemy soldier on it. Pfc. Sayers’ indomitable fighting spirit, aggressiveness, and supreme devotion to duty live on as an example of the highest traditions of the military service.



Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 1st West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Nineveh, Va., November 12th, 1864. Birth: Cabell County, Va. Date of issue: 26 November 1864. Citation: Capture of State flag of 14th Virginia Cavalry (C.S.A.)


Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 1st West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Nineveh, Va., November 12th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Monongalia County, W. Va. Date of issue: 26 November 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 22d Virginia Cavalry (C.S.A.).

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Old Ironsides

Posted by Wayne Church on November 11, 2014 in Extra Info |
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Old Ironsides

By Oliver Wendell Holmes
September 16, 1830




Ay, Long has it waved on high,

And many an eye has danced to see

That banner in the sky;

Beneath it rung the battle shout,

And burst the cannon’s roar;–

The meteor of the ocean air

Shall sweep the clouds no more.

Her deck, once red with heroes’ blood,

Where knelt the vanquished foe,

When winds were hurrying o’er the flood,

And waves were white below,

No more shall feel the victor’s tread,

Or know the conquered knee;–

The harpies of the shore shall pluck

The eagle of the sea!

Oh, better that her shattered bulk

Should sink beneath the wave;

Her thunders shook the mighty deep,

And there should be her grave;

Nail to the mast her holy flag,

Set every threadbare sail,

And give her to the god of storms,

The lightning and the gale!




Unerased History – November 11th

Posted by Wayne Church on November 11, 2014 in 11 - November, Blog by month |
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Origami Day 


Armistice Day Becomes Veterans Day

World War I officially ended on June 28, 1919, with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. The actual fighting between the Allies and Germany, however, had ended seven months earlier with the armistice, which went into effect on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month in 1918.

In November 1919, President Wilson proclaimed November 11 as the first commemoration of Armistice Day with the following words: “To us in America, the reflections of Armistice Day will be filled with solemn pride in the heroism of those who died in the country’s service and with gratitude for the victory, both because of the thing from which it has freed us and because of the opportunity it has given America to show her sympathy with peace and justice in the councils of the nations…”

The original concept for the celebration was for a day observed with parades and public meetings and a brief suspension of business beginning at 11:00 a.m.

Armistice Day, as November 11 became known, officially became a holiday in the United States in 1926, and a national holiday 12 years later. On June 1, 1954, the name was changed to Veterans Day to honor all U.S. veterans.

Tomb of the Unknowns


Official, national ceremonies for Veterans Day center around the Tomb of the Unknowns.

To honor these men, symbolic of all Americans who gave their lives in all wars, an Army honor guard, the 3d U.S. Infantry (The Old Guard), keeps day and night vigil.

At 11 a.m.on November 11, a combined color guard representing all military services executes “Present Arms” at the tomb. The nation’s tribute to its war dead is symbolized by the laying of a presidential wreath and the playing of “Taps.”

The United States Congress officially recognized the end of World War I when it passed a concurrent resolution on June 4, 1926, with these words:

Whereas the 11th of November 1918, marked the cessation of the most destructive, sanguinary, and far reaching war in human annals and the resumption by the people of the United States of peaceful relations with other nations, which we hope may never again be severed, and

Whereas it is fitting that the recurring anniversary of this date should be commemorated with thanksgiving and prayer and exercises designed to perpetuate peace through good will and mutual understanding between nations; and

Whereas the legislatures of twenty-seven of our States have already declared November 11 to be a legal holiday: Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), that the President of the United States is requested to issue a proclamation calling upon the officials to display the flag of the United States on all Government buildings on November 11 and inviting the people of the United States to observe the day in schools and churches, or other suitable places, with appropriate ceremonies of friendly relations with all other peoples.

The first Veterans Day under the new law was observed with much confusion on October 25, 1971. It was quite apparent that the commemoration of this day was a matter of historic and patriotic significance to a great number of our citizens, and so on September 20th, 1975, President Gerald R. Ford signed Public Law 94-97 (89 Stat. 479), which returned the annual observance of Veterans Day to its original date of November 11, beginning in 1978. This action supported the desires of the overwhelming majority of state legislatures, all major veterans service organizations and the American people.

“It is easy to take liberty for granted, when you have never had it taken from you”.  ~Dick Cheney

“This nation will remain the land of the free only so long as it is the home of the brave.”  ~Elmer Davis

“In the beginning of a change, the patriot is a scarce man, and brave, and hated and scorned.  When his cause succeeds, the timid join him, for then it costs nothing to be a patriot.”  ~Mark Twain, Notebook, 1935


he‧ro  /ˈhɪəroʊ/ Pronunciation Key – –noun, plural -roes; 

1.a person of distinguished courage or ability, admired for his or her brave deeds and noble qualities

2. a person who, in the opinion of others, has heroic qualities or has performed a heroic act and is regarded as a model or ideal.



1620 – One hundred-two  Pilgrims stepped ashore. Forty-one men signed the compact calling themselves Saints and others Strangers. One passenger died enroute and two were born during the passage. The Mayflower anchored in Provincetown Harbor of Massachusetts and drafted and signed the Mayflower Compact. The text of the Compact called for the establishment of a “Civil Body Politick” to enact “just and equal laws” for the governance of the first English colony in New England.

1647 – Massachusetts passes first US compulsory school attendance law.

1778 – British Loyalists (Torries) and Seneca Indian forces led by William Butler attack a fort and village in eastern New York near  Cherry Valley, N.Y. during the American Revolutionary War, killed more than forty civilians and soldiers.

1813 –  War of 1812: Battle of Crysler’s Farm – British and Canadian forces defeat a larger American force, causing the Americans to abandon their Saint Lawrence campaign.

1831 – In Jerusalem, Virginia, Nat Turner is hanged and skinned in Southampton county after inciting a violent slave uprising.

1839 – The Virginia Military Institute is founded in Lexington, Virginia.

1843 – Hans Christian Andersen’s The Ugly Duckling was first published.
1851 – The telescope was patented by Alvan Clark of Cambridge, MA.

1861 – Civil War: Balloon observation of Confederate forces from Balloon- Boat G.W. Parke Custis anchored in Potomac Riverby Thaddeus Lowe.

1864 – Civil War: Sherman’s troops destroyed Rome, Georgia and continue on toward Atlanta.

1864 – Civil War: Sherman’s March to the Sea – Union General William Tecumseh Sherman begins burning Atlanta, Georgia to the ground in preparation for his march south.

1864 – Civil War: Commander Henry K. Davenport, U.S.S. Lancaster, captured Confederates on board steamer Salvador, bound from Panama to California, after having been informed that they intended to seize the ship at sea and convert her into a raider.

1865 – Mary Edward Walker, first Army female surgeon, awarded Medal of Honor.

1868 – The first indoor amateur track and field meet was held by the New York Athletic Club.

1887 – Labor Activists Albert Parsons, August Spies, Adolph Fisher and George Engel were hanged in Illinois after being convicted of being connected to a bombing that killed eight police officers during the May 4, 1886, Chicago Haymarket riot. As the noose was placed around his neck, Spies shouted out: “There will be a time when our silence will be more powerful than the voices you strangle today.”

1889 – Washington became the 42nd state.

1890 – D. McCree patented a portable fire escape. Basing his model on fire escapes being used by bigger buildings, McCree created a portable version made of wood that could be attached to the windowsill of a home, enabling people within to escape from second and third story levels during a fire.

1901 – NABISCO was trademark registered.

1909 – Construction began on the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.

1911 – Many cities in the U.S. midwest broke their record highs and lows on the same day as a strong cold front rolls through.  Called The Great Blue Norther of 11/11/11 was the biggest cold snap in U.S. history. Many cities broke record highs early that afternoon. By nightfall, cities were dealing with single-digit temperatures in the Fahrenheit scale. This is the only day in many midwest cities’ weather bureau jurisdictions where the record highs and lows were broken on the same day.

1918 – World War I (then called the Great War) came to an end with the signing of an Armistice between the Allies and Germany. In all, there were nine million soldiers dead, 21 million wounded, and seven million taken prisoner or missing in action. In addition, some six million civilians died from disease, starvation, or exposure. The War officially stopped at 11:11.

1919 – The first 2-minutes’ silence was observed in Britain to commemorate those who died in the Great War (later called WW i).

1919 – The Centralia Massacre in Centralia, Washington results the deaths of four members of the American Legion and the lynching of a local leader of the IWW. The Centralia massacre was an incident of labor unrest in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The incident happened during a celebration marking the first anniversary of Armistice Day, and resulted in a gunfight between local members of the IWW (Industrial Workers of the World, also called the “Wobblies”) and local members of the American Legion.

1920 – Lenah S. Higbee becomes the first woman to be awarded the Navy Cross. It was awarded for her World War I service.

1921 – President Warren Harding dedicated the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Tomb of the Unknowns) at Arlington National Cemetery.

1922 – Largest US flag displayed (150′ X 90′) expanded in 1939 (270′ X 90′). Ski Demski currently owns the World’s Largest Flag, “Superflag,” as designated by the Guinness Book of World Records. It is an American Flag. It measures 505 feet by 225 feet and weighs 3,000 pounds. It takes 500 people to unfurl. Each star is 17 feet high.

1925 – Louis Armstrong records first of Hot Five & Hot Seven recordings.These recordings are considered the “Rosetta Stone” of jazz music, influencing every singer, songwriter, instrumentalist, and even dancer from that point forward.

1926 – The University of Wisconsin announced that women could get college credit for a dance course offered by the school.

1926 – U.S. Route 66 is established. The highway, which became one of the most famous roads in America, originally ran from Chicago, Illinois, through Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California, before ending at Los Angeles, covering a total of 2,448 miles.

1929 –  Andy Kirk and His Twelve Clouds of Joy recorded “Froggy Bottom.”

1930 – Patent number US1781541 was awarded to Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd for their invention, the Einstein refrigerator.

1933 – In South Dakota, a very strong dust storm strips topsoil from desiccated farmlands. This “Great Black Blizzard” was the first great dust storm in the Great Plains.

1935 – Explorer 2 balloon sets altitude record of 72,000 feet over South Dakota.

1938 – In the fall, as war was again threatening Europe, Irving Berlin decided to write a “peace” song. He recalled his “God Bless America” from twenty years earlier and made some alterations to reflect the different state of the world. Singer Kate Smith introduced the revised God Bless America during her radio broadcast on Armistice Day. The song was an immediate sensation.

1940 – “Mandrake the Magician” debuted on WOR radio in New York City.

1940 – World War II: Battle of Taranto – The Royal Navy launches the first aircraft carrier strike in history, on the Italian fleet at Taranto.

1940 – The Willys-Overland Company came out with a four-wheel drive vehicle for the U.S. Army, named “jeep” after GP, or “(general purpose.”)

1940 – Armistice Day Blizzard: An unexpected blizzard kills 144 in U.S. Midwest.

1942 – World War II: On Guadalcanal, the American attacks to the west are halted when news of Japanese supply convoys comes in.

1942 – World War II: Congress approves lowering the draft age to 18 and raising the upper limit to age 37.

1942 – World War II: Initially, African-Americans were passed over for the draft because of racist assumptions about their abilities and the viability of a mixed-race military.

1942 – World War II: Holocaust: 745 French Jews were deported to Auschwitz.

1943 – World War II: Two separate carrier task forces come together in an attack on the Japanese base at Rabaul on New Britain Island. Five carriers and 185 planes are involved.

1943 – World War II: On Bougainville, the Japanese 23rd Regiment is push back by the US 3rd Marine Division.

1943 – World War II:  An Allied convoy east of Oran is attacked by about fifty German aircraft. It loses three transports and one tanker.

1944 – World War II: Private Eddie Slovik was convicted of desertion and sentenced to death for refusing to join his unit in the European Theater of Operations.

1944 – World War II: Aircraft from eight carriers of US Task Force 38 attack a Japanese convoy off Leyte, near Ormoc. Four destroyers, one minesweeper and five transports (carrying nearly 10,000 troops) are sunk.

1944 – World War II: An American cruiser and destroyer task force, commanded by Admiral Smith, shells the island of Iwo Jima during the night.

1944 – Frank Sinatra began a long and successful career with Columbia Records.

1944 – NY Rangers set a dubious NHL record of 25 games without a win (0-21-4).

1946 – New York Knicks’ first game at Madison Square Garden loses 78-68 to the Chicago Stags.

1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “All My Love” by Patti Page, “Goodnight Irene” by The Weavers, “Thinking of You” by Don Cherry and “I’m Moving On” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.

1952 – The first video recorder was demonstrated in California, by its inventors John Mullin and Wayne Johnson.

1953 – The Polio virus was identified and photographed for the first time in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Only Make Believe” by Conway Twitty, “Tom Dooley” by The Kingston Trio, “To Know Him, is to Love Him” by The Teddy Bears and “City Lights” by Ray Price all topped the charts.

1958 – Hank Ballard and the Midnighters record “The Twist.”

1959 – The first episode of “Rocky & His Friends” aired on TV.

1961 – “Big Bad John” by Jimmy Dean topped the charts.

1963 – Gordie Howe ties Rocket Richard’s lifetime 544-goal record.

1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Last Train to Clarksville” by The Monkees, “Poor Side of Town” by Johnny Rivers, “Dandy” by Herman’s Hermits and “Open Up Your Heart” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1966 – Gemini 12 launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida, with astronauts James A. Lovell and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin aboard. The craft circled the Earth 59 times before returning.

1966 – Methodist Church and Evangelical United Brethren Church united as United Methodist Church.

1967 – “To Sir with Love” by Lulu topped the charts.

1967 – The Supremes’ “In And Out Of Love” was released.

1967 – Vietnam War: In a propaganda ceremony in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, three American prisoners of war are released by the Viet Cong and turned over to “new left” antiwar activist Tom Hayden.

1968 – Vietnam War:  U.S. joint-service Operation Commando Hunt is launched. This operation was designed to interdict Communist routes of infiltration along the Ho Chi Minh Trail, through Laos into South Vietnam.

1970 – Stevie Wonder sang “Heaven Help Us All” on the Johnny Cash show.

1971 – Neil Simon’s “Prisoner of Second Avenue,” premiered in New York City.

1972 – Vietnam War: The U.S. turned over its massive military base at Long Binh to the South Vietnamese, symbolizing the end of direct American military participation in the Vietnam War.

1972 – “I Can See Clearly Now” by Johnny Nash topped the charts.

1972 – Berry Oakley, of the Allman Brothers, was killed in a motorcycle accident. He was 24 years old.

1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Ain’t Seen Nothing Yet/Free Wheelin’” by Bachman-Turner Overdrive, “Jazzman” by Carole King, “Whatever Gets You Thru the Night” by John Lennon with The Plastic Ono Nuclear Band and “Love is like a Butterfly” by Dolly Parton all topped the charts.

1978 – “MacArthur Park” by Donna Summer topped the charts.

1978 – Veteran’s Day, originally known as Armistice Day, became a national US holiday in 1938. It was changed back by Congress in this year to this day rather than the 4th Monday of October, which had been set in 1968.

1981 – The first rookie baseball player to win the coveted Cy Young Award was honored. Fernando Valenzuela edges the Reds Tom Seaver 70-67 for National League honors.

1981 – Stuntman Dan Goodwin scaled the outside of the 100-story John Hancock Center in Chicago in about six hours.

1981 – The U.S.S. Ohio was commissioned at the Electric Boat Division in Groton, CT. It was the first Trident class submarine.

1982 – Fifth space shuttle mission-Columbia 5-launched first commercial flight. STS-5 deployed two commercial communications satellites, ANIK C-3 for TELESAT Canada and SitS- C for Satellite Business Systems.

1982 – CHART TOPPERS -“Up Where We Belong” by Joe Cocker & Jennifer Warnes,Heart Attack” by Olivia Newton-John, “I Keep Forgettin’ (Every Time You’re Near)” by Michael McDonald and “You’re So Good When You’re Bad” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.

1984 – President Ronald Reagan accepted the Vietnam Veterans Memorial as a gift to the nation from the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund.

1984 – The Reverend Martin Luther King Sr. died in Atlanta at age 84.

1984 – Gary Coleman, at age 13, underwent his second kidney transplant in Los Angeles. He had his first transplant at age 5.

1986 – Sperry Rand and Burroughs merged to form “Unisys,” becoming the second largest computer company.

1987 – An unidentified person bought Vincent Van Gogh’s painting “Irises” from the estate of Joan Whitney Payson for $53.9 million at Sotheby’s in New York.

1988 – Police in Sacramento, CA, found the first of seven bodies buried on the grounds of a boardinghouse. Dorothea Puente was later charged in the deaths of nine people, convicted of three murders and sentenced to life in prison.

1989 – “When I See You Smile” by Bad English topped the charts.

1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Takes Time” by Mariah Carey, “Pray” by M.C. Hammer, “Giving You the Benefit” by Pebbles and “Home” by Joe Diffie all topped the charts.

1990 – Stormie Jones, the world’s first heart-liver transplant recipient, died at a Pittsburgh hospital at age 13.

1993 – A bronze sculpture was dedicated in Washington, D.C. to the 11,500 U.S. women who served in the Vietnam War.

1993 – Walt Disney Co. announced plans to build a U.S. history theme park in a Virginia suburb of Washington. The plan was halted later due to local opposition.

1996 – The Army reported getting nearly 2,000 calls to a hot line set up after revelations of a sex scandal at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. Meanwhile, a Pentagon official said the Army was ready to take action in another case of alleged sexual misconduct at Fort Leonard Wood, Mo.

1996 – Phan Thi Kim Phuc laid a wreath at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington. John Plummer, Vietnam era helicopter pilot, met with Phan Thi Kim at the Vietnam Memorial in Washington in reconciliation. Phan Thi Kim had suffered severe napalm burns after a napalm bombing of her village in Jun 1972.

1996 – An explosion occurred at the Texaco oil refinery near Los Angeles harbor. No injuries were reported.

1997 – The Eastman Kodak Company announced that they were laying off 10,000 employees because of fierce competition from Japan’s Fuji Photo Film Co.

1997 – Roger Clemens (Toronto Blue Jays) became the third major league player to win the Cy Young Award four times.

1997 – In Pakistan four American oil company employees and their driver were shot dead in Karachi. It was believed to be in retaliation for the conviction of Amil Kasi for the 1993 murder of two CIA employees.

1998 – Jay Cochrane set a record for the longest blindfolded skywalk. He walked on a tightrope between the towers of the Flamingo Hilton in Las Vegas, NV. The towers are 600 feet apart.

1998 –  President Clinton ordered warships, planes and troops to the Persian Gulf as he laid out his case for a possible attack on Iraq.

1999 – The computer virus dubbed Bubbleboy was reported to spread through electronic mail without attachments.

2000 – Pres. Clinton led groundbreaking ceremonies in Washington DC for the National WW II Memorial.

2000 – Lennox Lewis won a unanimous 12-round decision over David Tua in Las Vegas to retain his WBC and IBF heavyweight titles.

2003 – Toronto’s Roy Halladay won the American League Cy Young Award.

2003 – George Soros pledges  $15.5 million to help defeat President George W. Bush in 2004. Soros says a “supremacist ideology” guides the White House and describes the US under the Bush administration as a danger to the world.

2004 – Delta Air Line pilots accepted over $1 billion in annual pay cuts and agreed to forgo raises through 2009.

2005 – Students in Kalamazoo, Mich., learned that an anonymous group of benefactors will offer scholarships for at least the next 13 years to nearly all Kalamazoo high school graduates, good at any of Michigan’s public universities or colleges.

2005 – It was reported that a rare 1,400-pound meteorite was recently discovered seven feet underground in southern Kansas by Steve Arnold of Kingston, Ark., in an area long known for producing prized space rocks.

2006 – President Bush marked Veterans Day at Arlington National Cemetery by praising US troops who had fought oppression around the world, yet spoke only briefly about Iraq, where US commanders were re-evaluating strategy.

2007 – The new War Memorial Community Center at 6655 Mission St. in Daly City, Ca., held its grand opening. The structure included the new John Daly Library.

2008 – Tim Lincecum, pitcher for the SF Giants, was named winner of the Cy Young Award.

2009 – The classic Yahoo homepage retired today.

2009 – Hewlett-Packard Co. said it will acquire 3Com Corp. in a $2.7 billion deal that would put HP in direct competition with Cisco Systems in networking technology.

2009 – Raymond Jessup is sentenced to ten years in prison for sexual assault of an underage girl after the April 2008 raid of the YFZ Ranch in Eldorado, Texas.

2010 – The crippled Carnival Cruise liner Carnival Splendor is towed to port in San Diego, California.

2011 – In Major League Baseball, the Florida Marlins officially change their name to the Miami Marlins.

2011 – The Corduroy Appreciation Club celebrates today as the date (11-11-11) as the one that most resembles corduroy.


1729 – Louis Antoine de Bougainville, French navigator.
1744 – Abigail Smith Adams, First Lady of 2nd President of the United States of America, John Adams.
1792 – Mary Anne Evans, English wife of Benjamin Disraeli (d. 1872)
1821 – Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Russian political revolutionary, author.
1885 – George Smith Patton, Jr., World War I and World War II American Army General.
1904 – Alger Hiss, American government official and spy (d. 1994)
1922 – Kurt Vonnegut, American novelist.
1925 – Jonathan Winters, American comic actor.
1974 – Leonardo DiCaprio, American actor.




Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Mignano, Italy,  November 11th,  1943. Entered service at: Colorado Springs, Colo. Birth: Holdredge, Nebr. G.O. No.: 32, 20 April 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. On 11 November 1943, this soldier’s platoon was furnishing machinegun support for a rifle company attacking a hill near Mignano, Italy, when the enemy counterattacked, forcing the riflemen and half the machinegun platoon to retire to a defensive position. Pfc. Lindstrom saw that his small section was alone and outnumbered five to one, yet he immediately deployed the few remaining men into position and opened fire with his single gun. The enemy centered fire on him with machinegun, machine pistols, and grenades. Unable to knock out the enemy nest from his original position, Pfc. Lindstrom picked up his own heavy machinegun and staggered fifteen yards up the barren, rocky hillside to a new position, completely ignoring enemy small arms fire which was striking all around him. From this new site, only ten yards from the enemy machinegun, he engaged it in an intense duel. Realizing that he could not hit the hostile gunners because they were behind a large rock, he charged uphill under a steady stream of fire, killed both gunners with his pistol and dragged their gun down to his own men, directing them to employ it against the enemy. Disregarding heavy rifle fire, he returned to the enemy machinegun nest for two boxes of ammunition, came back and resumed withering fire from his own gun. His spectacular performance completely broke up the German counterattack. Pfc. Lindstrom demonstrated aggressive spirit and complete fearlessness in the face of almost certain death.




Rank and organization: Major, 33d Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At San Jacinto, Philippine Islands, November 11th, 1899. Entered service at: Youngstown, Ohio. Born: 24 July 1865, Carbondale, Ill. Date of issue: 3 May 1902. Citation: For most distinguished gallantry in leading his battalion upon the entrenchments of the enemy, on which occasion he fell mortally wounded.




Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 20 March 1878, Richmond, Ill. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 537, 8 January 1900. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Texas during the coaling of that vessel at Hampton Roads, Va., November 11th, 1899. Jumping overboard while wearing a pair of heavy rubber boots and at great risk to himself, Mullin rescued Alfred Kosminski, apprentice, second class, who fell overboard, by supporting him until he was safely hauled from the water.




Rank and organization: Saddler, Company L, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Cienaga Springs, Utah, November 11th, 1868. Entered service at:——. Birth: Switzerland. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.


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Unerased History – November 10th

Posted by Wayne Church on November 10, 2014 in 11 - November, Blog by month |
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The Marine Corps Hymn (original)

Since 1941 the fourth verse says in air, on land and sea

USMC Band – Marine Hymn – Band
USMC Band – Marine Hymn - Bagpipes and Band

Original words of the Marine Corps Hymn. The fourth verse added “In the air” during WWII.

From the Halls of Montezuma
To the Shores of Tripoli;

We fight our country’s battles
On the land as on the sea;
First to fight for right and freedom
And to keep our honor clean;
We are proud to claim the title
of United States Marine.

“Our flag’s unfurled to every breeze
From dawn to setting sun;
We have fought in ev’ry clime and place
Where we could take a gun;
In the snow of far-off Northern lands
And in sunny tropic scenes;
You will find us always on the job–
The United States Marines.

“Here’s health to you and to our Corps
Which we are proud to serve
In many a strife we’ve fought for life
And never lost our nerve;

If the Army and the Navy
Ever look on Heaven’s scenes;
They will find the streets are guarded
By United States Marines.”



“All right, they’re on our left, they’re on our right, they’re in front of 

us, they’re behind us…they can’t get away this time”

 ~  Lewis B. “Chesty” Puller, USMC at Chosin Resevoir


snip·pet (snĭpĭt) n.

  1. A bit, scrap, or morsel: “sparkling black bass … strewn with snippets of coriander and basil” (Gael Greene).
  2. Informal. A small or mischievous person.

Origin: 1655–65; snip + -et

1493 – Christopher Columbus discovered Antigua during his second expedition.

1775 -The Continental Congress passed a resolution stating that “two battalions of Marines be raised.” This marked the birth of the United States Marine Corps. The United States Marine Corps traces its institutional roots to the Continental Marines of the Revolutionary War.This date is regarded and celebrated as the birthday of the Marine Corps. Congress commissioned Samuel Nicholas to raise two Battalions of Marines. That very day, Nicholas set up shop in Philadelphia’s Tun Tavern. He appointed Robert Mullan, then the proprietor of the tavern, to the job of chief Marine Recruiter serving, of course, from his place of business at Tun Tavern.

1782 – In the last battle of the American Revolution, George Rodgers Clark attacked Indians and Loyalists at Chillicothe, in Ohio Territory.

1801 – Tennessee became the first U.S. state to outlaw dueling.

1808 –  Osage Indians agree to abandon their lands in Missouri and Arkansas in exchange for a reservation in Oklahoma. The Osage were the largest tribe of the Southern Sioux Indians occupying what would later become the states of Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska.

1864 – Civil War: Kingston, Ga., was burned as the first act of Sherman’s March to Sea. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman had made the city his headquarters as he planned to lay waste the south over the next six weeks.

1865 – Civil War: Henry Wirz, a Swiss immigrant and the commander of Andersonville prison in Georgia, is hanged for the murder of soldiers incarcerated at his prison. Wirz was the only person executed for crimes committed during the war.

1871 – American Journalist-explorer Henry M. Stanley found missing Scottish missionary David Livingstone in Central Africa at Ujiji near Unyanyembe on Lake Tanganyika. Stanley delivered his famous greeting: “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” Livingstone replied: “Yes, and I feel thankful that I am here to welcome you.”

1885 – Paul Daimler, son of German engineer Gottlieb Daimler, became the first motorcyclist when he rode his father’s new invention for six miles.

1891 – The first Woman’s Christian Temperance Union meeting was held in Boston.

1891 – Granville T. Woods patented an electric railway.

1898 –  A sexually-charged race riot in Wilmington, NC, left eight blacks killed. The Wilmington race riot claimed the lives of over twenty Black Americans.

1900 – First national automobile show opens at Madison Square Garden, New York City.

1911 – President Taft ended a 15,000-mile, 57-day speaking tour.

1911 – Andrew Carnegie formed the Carnegie Corporation. for scholarly & charitable works.

1915 – WW I – Great fire at Bethlehem Steel Co in Machine Shop No. 6 temporarily reduced military weapons production., German incendiaries were suspected. Many guns, especially those in Machine Shop No.4 were destroyed.

1917 – Forty-one US suffragettes were arrested for picketing in front of the White House.

1918 – World War I: Marines completed successful reconnaissance against Germans. The 5th Marines made a night crossing of the Meuse River against German resistance.

1919 – The American Legion held its first national convention, in Minneapolis.

1920 – George Bernard Shaw’s “Heartbreak House,” premiered in New York City.

1928 – Knute Rockne delivered his ‘Win One for the Gipper’ pregame speech.

1928 – Emperor Hirohito took the throne of Japan as the 124th Japanese monarch.

1933 – Black Blizzard snow-dust storm raged from South Dakota to Atlantic. This massive dust storm created sand drifts as high as six feet in areas of the country, burying roads and vehicles. The worst drought in American history continues to turn over-farmed soil into dust.

1938 – Kate Smith sang the first performance on radio of “God Bless America.

1939 – Muggsy Spanier and his band recorded “Dipper Mouth Blues” on Bluebird Records.

1939 – The US consulate advises Americans to leave the Netherlands.

1940 – Pittsburgh & Philadelphia play a penalty free NFL game.

1941 – Churchill promised to join the U.S. “within the hour” in the event of war with Japan.

1942 – World War II: German troops occupy Vichy France, which had previously been free of an Axis military presence.

1942 – World War II: Churchill comments on Montgomery’s victory at El Alamein. Minister Churchill stated, “This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.”

1942 – World War II: Churchill delivered a speech in London in which he said, “I have not become the King’s First Minister to preside over the liquidation of the British Empire.”

1942 – World War II: Troops under General Patton begin to move into Oran and the city falls.

1942 - World War II: On Guadalcanal, the Japanese forces around Koli Point are scattered by the American attacks. American attacks to the west are renewed.

1944 – World War II: On Leyte, heavy fighting is reported near Carigara. Elements of the US 24th Division.

1944 – World War II: Forces of US 3rd Army continue to advance beyond the Moselle River to the south of Thionville and farther south beyond Metz.

1945 – College football’s #1 Army beats #2 Notre Dame 48-0.

1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “That Lucky Old Sun” by Frankie Laine, “Don’t Cry, Joe by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Betty Brewer), “I Can Dream, Can’t I?” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Jack Leonard) and “Slipping Around” by Margaret Whiting & Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.

1951 – Direct-dial, coast-to-coast telephone service began as Mayor M. Leslie Denning of Englewood, New Jersey, called his counterpart in Alameda, California. The 10-digit North American Numbering Plan for area codes was introduced.

1951 – “Sin” by Eddy Howard topped the charts.

1952 – U.S. Supreme Court upheld the decision barring segregation on interstate railways.

1952 – San Francisco columnist Stanton Delaplane introduced Irish coffee to America at the Buena Vista Cafe at the end of the Hyde St. cable line.

1954 – The US Marine Corps Memorial, depicting the raising of the American flag on Iwo Jima in 1945, was dedicated by President Eisenhower in Arlington, Va.

1954 – Air Force Lt. Col. John Strapp traveled 632 MPH in a rocket sled.

1956Gene de Paul’s and John Meyer’s musical “Li’l Abner,” premiered in New York City.

1956Billie Holiday returned to the New York City stage at Carnegie Hall after a three-year absence.

1956 – “Love Me Tender” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.

1956 – Kaye Starr’s “Rock and Roll Waltz” was voted Billboard’s top record.

1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley, “You Send Me” by Sam Cooke, “Little Bitty Pretty One” by Thurston Harris and “Wake Up Little Susie” by The Everly Brothers all topped the charts.

1957 – NFL record crowd (102,368), ’49ers vs Rams in LA.

1958 – “It’s Only Make Believe” by Conway Twitty topped the charts.

1958 – Sam Cooke and Lou Rawls, both American recording artists,  were injured in an auto accident near Marion, AR. Sam Cooke’s driver was killed in the accident.

1958 – First domestic (New York-Miami) passenger jet flight-National 707.

1960 – President-Elect John F. Kennedy named Pierre Salinger (35), a former San Francisco Chronicle reporter, to be his White House Press Secretary and Andrew T. Hatcher (37), a Black former editor of the San Francisco Sun-Reporter, as associate press secretary.

1962 – “He’s a Rebel” by the Crystals topped the charts.

1963 – Gordie Howe takes over NHL career goal lead at 545.

1964 – At a news conference, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara says that the United States has no plans to send combat troops into Vietnam.

1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Get Off of My Cloud” by The Rolling Stones, “A Lover’s Concerto” by The Toys, “Everybody Loves a Clown” by Gary Lewis & The Playboys and “Hello Vietnam” by Johnny Wright all topped the charts.

1967 – The Moody Blues released “Nights in White Satin.”

1969 – “Sesame Street” debuted on PBS television.

1969 – Twenty years after its release “Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer” earns a gold record.

1969 – The San Francisco Chronicle received a letter from the Zodiac killer containing detailed plans for a “death machine” to blow up a school bus.

1970 – For the first time in five years, no U.S. combat fatalities in Southeast Asia are reported for the previous week.

1970 – The Great Wall of China, created in the third century BC, was opened to visitors.

1972 – Three black men successfully hijack a Southern Airways DC-9 after a stopover in Birmingham, Ala., and flew to multiple locations in the United States and one Canadian city and finally to Cuba with $10 million and 10 parachutes. They threatened to crash the plane into the Oak Ridge nuclear installation. Two are sentenced in Cuba to 20 years and  one was sentenced to 15 years.

1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Keep on Truckin’” by Eddie Kendricks, “Heartbeat, It’s a Lovebeat” by The DeFranco Family, “Photograph” by Ringo Starr and “Paper Roses” by Marie Osmond all topped the charts.

1975 – The freighter Edmund Fitzgerald broke in half and sank during a storm at the eastern end of Lake Superior and its crew of 29 perished. 1976 Tribute

1978 – The Badlands National Monument was established as a national park and preserve.

1979 – “Heartache Tonight” by the Eagles topped the charts.

1980 – CBS News anchor Dan Rather claimed he had been kidnapped in a cab. It turned out that Rather had refused to pay the cab fare.

1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Private Eyes” by Daryl Hall & John Oates, “Start Me Up” by The Rolling Stones, “Tryin’ to Live My Life Without You” by Bob Seger and “Fancy Free” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.

1981 – The board game “Trivial Pursuit” was registered.

1982 – In Washington, DC, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was opened to visitors.

1983 – The US Federal government shut down.

1983 – Microsoft released Windows, an extension of MS-DOS with a graphical user interface.

1983 – First computer virus. U.S. student Fred Cohen presented to a security seminar the results of his test – the first documented virus, created as an experiment in computer security.

1984 – “Caribbean Queen (No More Love on the Run)” by Billy Ocean topped the charts.

1984 – The U.S. Postal Service issued a commemorative stamp of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

1988 – The U.S. Department of Energy announced that Texas would be the home of the atom-smashing super-collider. The project was cancelled by a vote of the U.S. Congress in Oct. 1993.

1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Listen to Your Heart” by Roxette, “Cover Girl” by New Kids on the Block, “When I See You Smile” by Bad English and “Ace in the Hole” by George Strait all topped the charts.

1989 – Bulldozers began demolishing the 28-year-old Berlin Wall.

1990 – “Love Takes Time” by Mariah Carey topped the charts.

1990 – Secretary of State James A. Baker the Third returned to Washington, claiming success in his weeklong diplomatic tour aimed at shoring up the anti-Iraq coalition.

1991 – Marty Glickman broadcasts his 1,000th football game.

1993 – The musical revival of “Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat” opened at Minskoff Theater New York City for 223 performances.

1993 – John Wayne Bobbitt was acquitted on the charge of marital sexual assault against his wife who sexually mutilated him. Lorena Bobbitt was later acquitted of malicious wounding her husband.

1993 – The U.S. House of Representatives passed the Brady Bill, which called for a five-day waiting period for handgun purchases.

1994 – The “Codex Leicester”, the only Leonardo da Vinci manuscript owned in the United States and the only one in the world still in private hands, was sold at auction. Microsoft chairman Bill Gates paid $30.8 million for it.

1996 – Dan Marino (Miami Dolphins) became the first quarterback in NFL history to pass for more than 50,000 yards.

1996 – In Miami the “Carnival Destiny” from Carnival Cruise Lines will debut. The ship, at 102,000 tons, will be the largest ever made. It will be able to carry 3,350 passengers.

1997 – WorldCom Inc. acquired MCI Communication Corporation. It was the largest merger in US history valued at $37 billion.

1997 – A jury in Virginia convicted Mir Aimal Kasi of the murder of two CIA employees in 1993.

1997 – A judge in Cambridge, MA, reduced Louise Woodward’s murder conviction to manslaughter and sentenced the English au pair to time served. She had served 279 days in the death of 8-month-old Matthew Eappen.

1997 – It was reported that the 1997 Pentagon budget was around $250 billion.

1997 – It was reported that IBM has a new 16.8-gigabyte disk drive for $895. It surpassed the recently unveiled 12-gigabyte drive by Quantum.

1998 – The US military moved warships into the Persian Gulf in anticipation of a possible attack on Iraq over cancellation of weapons inspections.

1998 – In St. Joseph, Mo., police officer Bradley Thomas Arn (27) was killed and three others were wounded by a gunman who was then killed by other officers. The gunman was later identified as William Lattin Jr. (33) of St. Joseph.

1999 – In Flint, Michigan, a boiler exploded at the Clara Barton Convalescence Center. five people were killed and over tenty injured.

2000 – The battle over Florida’s disputed presidential election continued, with George W. Bush’s camp pressing Al Gore to concede without pursuing multiple recounts, and Democrats pressing ahead with protests, determined to find enough votes to erase Bush’s razor-thin lead in initial counting.

2000 – The US Nasdaq market fell 171 points to 3,028.99, its lowest reading since Nov 3, 1999.

2001 – Traces of anthrax were reported in offices of the Hart and Longworth government buildings in Washington DC.

2002 –  U.S. warplanes flying from an aircraft carrier in the Gulf struck missile sites in southern Iraq in response to hostile acts.

2002 – A series of massive storms roared through more than six US states including Tennessee, Ohio, Alabama, Mississippi and Pennsylvania, killing at least 36 people. More than 100 were injured.

2003 – Federal regulators allowed customers to switch home phone numbers to their cell phones.

2004 – President George Bush named Alberto Gonzales, White House Counsel, to be attorney general.

2004 – A Shell gas station in northeast Washington DC became the first in North America to have a hydrogen dispensing pump.

2005 – The US Postal Service honored four Marine heroes with commemorative stamps. They included Lt. Gen. Lewis “Chesty” Puller (1898-1971), Lt. Gen. John Lejeune (1867-1942), Sgt. Maj. Dan Daly (1873-1937) and Gunnery Sgt. John Basilone (1916-1945). The release coincided with the Marine Corps’ 230th anniversary.

2005 – The US Commerce Department reported that the deficit jumped to $66.1 billion in September, 11.4 percent higher than the $59.3 billion imbalance recorded in August.

2005 – Chris Carpenter of the St. Louis Cardinals won the National League Cy Young Award.

2006 – Pres. Bush dedicated the new National Museum of the Marine Corps in Quantico, Virginia.

2006 – The Los Angeles Police Department holds an investigation after a video showing police officers beating a man is posted on YouTube.

2006 – NASA’s Cassini spacecraft records a hurricane-like storm on the south pole of Saturn which is the first time such an event has been observed on another planet.

2007 – Miami ended its 70-year stay at the famed Orange Bowl with the biggest shutout loss in the stadium’s history, a 48-0 rout to Virginia.

2007 – A stagehands strike shut down most Broadway shows, with curtains rising again 19 days later.

2008 – Circuit City Stores Inc., the second-biggest electronics retailer in the US, filed for bankruptcy protection.

2008 – Deutsche Post AG said it will close all of its DHL Express service centers, cut 9,500 jobs in the United States and eliminate US-only domestic express shipping by land and air, citing heavy losses and fierce competition.

2008 – Reports surface that a United States nuclear weapon was lost somewhere in the ice after the January 21, 1968 crash of a B-52 Stratofortress outside Thule Air Base, Greenland.

2008 – The United States government announces a second bailout of American International Group (AIG); the total value of the new plan, roughly  $150 billion, represents the largest government support package extended to a private company in US history.

2009 – In Virginia sniper John Allen Muhammad (48) refused to utter any last words as he was executed, taking to the grave answers about why and how he plotted the killings of 10 people that terrorized the Washington, D.C., area for three weeks.

2010 – Brad Paisley wins Entertainer of the Year at the 2010 CMA Awards held in Nashville, TN.

2010 – “Sound of Music” 45th Anniversary with the original cast.

2010 – President Barack Obama gives a speech in Indonesia during which he says more needs to be done to repair the relationship between the United States and the Muslim world.

2011 – Obama snubs VA on gas & oil exploration, costing state ‘thousands of new jobs,’ Gov. McDonnell says.

2012 – A Miami-Dade Circuit Court judge recently approved a class action lawsuit over Porsche’s headlight design. Tthieves have recently begun harvesting xenon bulb for a decidedly different purpose: growing marijuana. The xenon bulbs used in Porsche’s lighting systems coincidentally deliver a just-right blend of light and heat for budding amateur horticulturists, and they offer the side benefit of being energy-efficient, too. Nothing says “grow house” to the police quite like a tripling of the electric bill from month to month.

2012 –  An earthquake centered in Kentucky also rattled at least three other states. The USGS says the epicenter of the 4.3 magnitude earthquake was about 10 miles west of Whitesburg, KY. Residents in eastern Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia and Tennessee reported feeling the temblor.

2012 -Residents in northern New Jersey awoke to a small earthquake early Monday. The temblor, with a magnitude of 2.0, struck at 1:19 a.m. and was centered in Ringwood. The quake was 3 miles below ground and could also be felt in Mahwah, Wanaque, Oakland, Franklin Lakes, West Milford and Paterson.




1484 – Martin Luther, German religious leader, founder of Protestantism.
1730 – Oliver Goldsmith, Irish-born British playwright.
1925 – Richard Burton (Jenkins), British stage and movie actor.



Rank and organization: Captain (then Lieutenant), U.S. Army, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: North of Mignano, Italy, November 10th, 1943. Entered service at: Lonoke, Ark. Born: 29 June 1919, Carlisle, Ark. G.O. No.: 23, 24 March 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Disdaining enemy hand grenades and close-range machine pistol, machinegun, and rifle, Lt. Britt inspired and led a handful of his men in repelling a bitter counterattack by approximately one-hundred Germans against his company positions north of Mignano, Italy, the morning of 10 November 1943. During the intense fire fight, Lt. Britt’s canteen and field glasses were shattered; a bullet pierced his side; his chest, face, and hands were covered with grenade wounds. Despite his wounds, for which he refused to accept medical attention until ordered to do so by his battalion commander following the battle, he personally killed five and wounded an unknown number of Germans, wiped out one enemy machinegun crew, fired five clips of carbine and an undetermined amount of Ml rifle ammunition, and threw thirty-two fragmentation grenades. His bold, aggressive actions, utterly disregarding superior enemy numbers, resulted in capture of four Germans, two of them wounded, and enabled several captured Americans to escape. Lt. Britt’s undaunted courage and prowess in arms were largely responsible for repulsing a German counterattack which, if successful, would have isolated his battalion and destroyed his company.

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Unerased History – November 9th

Posted by Wayne Church on November 9, 2014 in 11 - November, Blog by month |
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Kristallnacht or “Crystal Night”
Chaos Never Dies Day

Beef on Weck Day



Beef On Weck Sandwich

© copyright 2004-2007 by Linda Stradley – United States Copyright TX 5-900-517- All rights reserved.
web site What’s Cooking America.

Some people consider Beef on Weck – thinly sliced rare roast beef (piled high as 6 inches) on a freshly baked kummelweck roll – the best roast beef sandwich in America. This sandwich is a staple of Buffalo, New York. Few, if any, restaurants outside the Buffalo area serve this sandwich or even know what it is. Also called Beef on Wick, an alternative spelling usually used by older people from Buffalo and eastern suburbanites. It is a roast beef sandwich on a salty kimmelweck roll. In fact, it is this roll that makes the sandwich unique.


1901 – The following family history of the origin of the Beef on Weck sandwich was shared with me by John Guenther, great grandson of Joe Gohn, originator of the Beef on Weck Sandwich. Some of the information also comes from the Buffalo Courier Express newspaper, April 6, 1980:

Just before the start of the 1901 Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, NY, Joe Gohn (1862-1949) purchased a small saloon which he called the Delaware house, located at Delaware and Delavan Streets. The Delaware House was located on the northwest corner across the street from one of the exposition’s main entrances. He enlarged the house to offer hotel-style rooms for the exposition travelers. It was never called a hotel, but in order to have a whiskey license, he had to have ten bedrooms and provide sitting rooms for his customers.

According to family history, street trolleys loaded with people headed for the exposition were let off near the veranda of the John Gohn’s Delaware House. Since Joe had turned his house into a hotel and tavern to house and feed the hungry people, he decided that a roast beef sandwich and a cold beer would taste good to these travelers. Joe had a German baker working for him who was already making the rolls for the Delaware House. This baker, name unknown, suggested adding the caraway seeds and salt to the top of the rolls as they did in Germany. In Germany, this type of roll was called a kummelweck with nickname of weck. These sandwiches soon became very popular, and of course, the kummelweck helped to create extra thirsty patrons for selling a lot of beer.

The original Delaware House was purchased by the Standard Oil Company in 1931. It was later razed and a has a gas station on the site. Joe Gohn then purchased the building next door and converted it into a tavern, called Gohn’s Tavern. He continued serving his now famous Beef on Weck sandwiches. In later years, he sold the tavern and it became Meyer’s Tavern, which for many years continued selling the Beef on Weck sandwich with great popularity.
It is commonly believed by some historians that William Wahr, a German baker, brought the kummelweck to Buffalo from the Black Forest. There is no historical evidence to back this claim up, but could this be the name of the baker who worked for Joe Gohn at the Delaware House?
 Beef on Weck Sandwich – Beef on Wick Sandwich

Recipe Type: Sandwich, Beef, History
Cuisine: Mid-Atlantic (Buffalo, NY)
Yields: 8 sandwiches
Prep time: 15 min
Cook time: 50 minutes

1 (3- to 4-pound) beef roast (tenderloin, Prime Rib, or eye of round)
1/4 cup extra-virgin olive oil
Salt and coarsely-ground black pepper
Cornstarch Glaze (see recipe below)
8 Kimmelweck or Kaiser rolls
2 tablespoons caraway seeds
2 tablespoons coarse salt
Prepared horseradish

* Kimmelweck roll is a salty roll that is similar to a Kaiser roll.


Preheat oven to 425 degrees F.

Rub roast with olive oil, salt, and pepper. Place roast on rack in a shallow baking pan, tucking the thin end under to make it as thick as the rest of the roast. Bake, uncovered, 40 to 45 minutes or until thermometer registers 130 to 135 degrees F. Remove from oven and transfer to a cutting board; let stand 15 minutes before carving. Reserve meat juice, and carve meat into very thin slices.

Reduce oven temperature to 350 degrees F.

Brush the prepared Cornstarch Glaze on the top of each kimmelweck or Kaiser roll; sprinkle equal amounts of caraway seeds and heat in the oven for 3 minutes or until tops of the rolls get crusty and the caraway seeds and salt begin to stick. Remove from oven and cut each roll in half lengthwise.

To assemble sandwiches, divide sliced beef on the bottom half of each roll, spoon with reserved beef juice, and top with the top half of each roll. Serve with horseradish on the side.

Makes 8 sandwiches.


To be a great champion you must believe you are the best. If you’re not, pretend you are.”

~ Muhammad Ali

obfuscate OB-fuh-skayt, transitive verb:

1. To darken or render indistinct or dim.

2. To make obscure or difficult to understand or make sense of.
3. To confuse or bewilder.

Obfuscate comes from Late Latin obfuscatus, past participle of obfuscare, “to darken,” from Latin ob- + fuscare, “to darken,” from fuscus, “dark.” The noun form is obfuscation.


1799 – Napoleon Bonaparte pulled off a coup and declared himself dictator of France.

1821 – The first US pharmacy college held its first classes in Philadelphia.

1842 – George Bruce received the first Design Patent for printing type faces. This new form of patent was authorized by Act of Congress on August 29, 1842.

1848 – The first U.S. Post Office in California opened in San Francisco at Clay and Pike streets. At that time there were only about 15,000 European settlers living in the state.

1851 – Kentucky marshals abduct abolitionist minister Calvin Fairbank from Jeffersonville, Indiana, and take him to Kentucky to stand trial for helping a slave escape.

1853 – Origin of Carrington rotation numbers for rotation of the Sun. A Carrington Rotation is a period of 27.3 days, representing one full rotation of the Sun as seen from the Earth. The use of the numbers began on this day and continues.

1857 – “Atlantic Monthly” first published. It featured the first installment of “The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table” by Oliver Wendell Holmes.

1858 – New York Symphony Orchestra made its first performance.

1861 – Civil War: Gunboats of Flag Officer Du Pont’s force took possession of Beaufort, South Carolina, and, by block­ing the mouth of Broad River, cut off this communication link between Charleston and Savannah.

1861Civil War: Soldiers of the Illinois 11th, 18th, and 29th Regiments, after forcing the Confederates south, set up camp in Bloomfield, Missouri. Upon finding the newspaper office empty, they decided to print a newspaper for their expedition, relating the troop’s activities. They called it the “Stars and Stripes.”

1862 –  Civil War: Union General Ambrose Burnside assumes command of the Army of the Potomac, after George McClellan was removed.

1862 – Civil War: General US Grant issued orders to bar Jews from serving under him. The order was quickly rescinded.

1864 – Sherman designed his “March to the Sea.”

1872 – The Great Boston Fire started. The fire started in a dry-goods warehouse then spread rapidly in windy weather, destroying nearly 800 buildings. Damage was estimated at more than $75 million. The fire’s bright red glare could be seen in the sky for nearly 100 miles.

1875 - Indian Inspector E.C. Watkins submits a report to Washington, D.C., stating that hundreds of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians associated with Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse are hostile to the United States. In so doing, Watkins set into motion a series of events that led to the Battle of the Little Big Born in Montana the following year.

1887 – The United States receives rights to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

1904 – First airplane flight to last more than five minutes. The Wrights made 105 flights in 1904, but racked up only 45 minutes in total flight time. The two best flights, today and December 1, exceeded five minutes and about three miles in length.

1906 – U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt departed for Panama aboard the battleship Louisiana, on the first official foreign trip in history by a U.S. president.

1912 – Carlisle defeats Army 27-6. Pop Warner was a legendary coach of the Carlisle School for Indians in Pennsylvania (Jim Thorpe played for Warner at Carlisle). On this day, Carlisle hammered Army 27-6. Playing right halfback on the Army team was a future U.S. war hero and president: Dwight D. Eisenhower.

1913 – Storm “Freshwater Fury” sank eight ore-carriers on the Great Lakes. “The Great Lakes Storm of 1913″ was a blizzard with hurricane-force winds that devastated the Great Lakes Basin. The worst day of the storm was today. The Storm killed more than 250 people, destroyed 19 ships, and stranded 19 others.

1918 – Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm II announced he would abdicate, then fled to the Netherlands just two days before the signing of the Armistice.

1921 – USS Olympia arrives at the Washington Navy Yard from France carrying the body of the Unknown Soldier for internment at Arlington National Cemetery.

1921 – Albert Einstein awarded Nobel Prize in Physics for his work with the photoelectric effect.

1923 – The Beer Hall Putsch was crushed by German troops that were loyal to the democratic government. The event began the evening before when Adolf Hitler took control of a beer hall full of Bavarian government leaders at gunpoint.

1925 – The SS (Schutzstaffel or “Protection Squad)” was formed in Germany.

1935 – United Mine Workers president John L. Lewis and other labor leaders formed the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO).

1938 – The kids’ magazine, “Jack and Jill”, was published.

1938 – Mary Martin made her Broadway stage debut.

1938 – Bands of Nazis destroyed Jewish shops, synagogues, and beat, or arrested thousands of Jews (and kill 35) in Germany, Austria, and other Nazi-controlled areas. The attack became known as Kristallnacht or “Crystal Night” for all the broken glass in the streets. Herman Goering’s report said, “…815 shops destroyed, 171 dwelling houses set on fire or destroyed…119 synagogues were set on fire, and another 76 completely destroyed…20,000 Jews were arrested, 36 deaths were reported and those seriously injured were also numbered at 36….”

1942 – World War II: Holocaust: Transport #44 departed with French Jews to Nazi Germany.

1943 – World War II: On Bougainville, the US 3rd Marine Division advances inland from their beachhead at Cape Tarokina, in Empress Augusta Bay.

1944The 455-foot Red Oak Victory ship was launched from Richmond, Ca. It was named after an Iowa town with the highest number of casualties per capita in WW II. The Victory ships were successors of the Liberty ships.

1945 – FBI agents staked out a house in Berkeley, Ca., to watch George Eltenton, a suspected Soviet spy. In 1946 Eltenton admitted that he had tried to obtain secret data on Berkeley’s radiation lab. Eltenton moved to Britain in 1947.

1946 – President Truman ended a wage and price freeze.

1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Buttons and Bows” by Dinah Shore, “Hair of Gold, Eyes of Blue” by Gordon MacRae, “On a Slow Boat to China” by The Kay Kaiser Orchestra (vocal: Harry Babbitt & Gloria Wood and “One Has My Name (The Other Has My Heart)” by Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.

1948 – “This is Your Life” debuted on NBC radio. It was the creation of host Ralph Edwards, who was also the host of radio’s popular “Truth or Consequences.” It became a live television program in 1952, running on the NBC network until 1961.

1950 – Korean War: Task Force 77 makes first attack on the Yalu River bridges. In first engagement between a MIG-15 and F9F jets (USS Philippine Sea), LCDR William T. Amen (VF-111) shoots down a MIG and becomes first Navy pilot to shoot down a jet aircraft.

1953 – The U.S. Supreme Court upheld a 1922 ruling that major league baseball did not come within the scope of federal antitrust laws.

1953 – Maurice Richard set a National Hockey League record (up to that time) by scoring his 325th career goal.

1955 – Harry Belafonte recorded “Jamaica Farewell” and “Come Back Liza.”

1955 – Michael Gazzo’s “Hatful of Rain,” premiered in New York City.

1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Me Tender” by Elvis Presley, “The Green Door” by Jim Lowe, “True Love” by Bing Crosby & Grace Kelly and “Hound Dog/Don’t Be Cruel” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.

1957 – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley topped the charts

1960 – Robert McNamara is named president of Ford Motor Co., the first non-Ford to serve in that post — quitting a month later to join the newly-elected John F. Kennedy administration.

1961 – PGA eliminates Caucasians only rule.

1961 – Neil Armstrong records a world record speed in a rocket plane, flying 6,587km/h in an X-15. In addition, USAF Major Robert M White took the X-15 to 101,600 feet.

1962 – Motown Records released “You’ve Really Got a Hold on Me,” by the Miracles.

1963 – “Sugar Shack” by Jimmy Gilmer & the Fireballs topped the charts.

1963 – “Louie, Louie” was released by the Kingsmen.

1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “Baby Love” by The Supremes, “Last Kiss” by J. Frank Wilson & The Cavaliers, “Leader of the Pack” by The Shangri-Las and “I Don’t Care (Just as Long as You Love Me)” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1965 – The Great Northeast Blackout took place at 5:16 pm in all of New York State, portions of seven  (New York, Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont and New Hampshire )neighboring states, and parts of eastern Canada, as they were hit by a series of power failures lasting up to 13.5 hours.

1965 – Catholic Worker member Roger Allen LaPorte, protesting against the Vietnam War, sets himself on fire in front of the United Nations building.

1967 – NASA launches the unmanned Apollo 4 test spacecraft from Cape Kennedy.
1967 – The first issue of “Rolling Stone” was published. John Lennon was on the cover.
1967 – David Crosby left the Byrds. In 1968, Crosby, Stills, and Nash was formed.
1968 – “Hey Jude” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1970 – Vietnam War: The Supreme Court of the United States votes 6 to 3 against hearing a case to allow Massachusetts to enforce its law granting residents the right to refuse military service in an undeclared war.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Can See Clearly Now” by Johnny Nash, “Nights in White Satin” by The Moody Blues, “Freddie’s Dead (Theme from “Superfly”)” by Curtis Mayfield and “It’s Not Love (But It’s Not Bad)” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1973 – Cat Stevens made his national TV debut on ABC’s “In Concert.”

1973 – The album “Piano Man” (43:34) was released by Billy Joel.

1974 – “You Ain’t Seen Nothing Yet” by Bachman-Turner Overdrive topped the charts.

1976 – Smokey the Bear (26) died at the Washington DC National Zoo.

1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Woman in Love” by Barbra Streisand, “Lady” by Kenny Rogers, “The Wanderer” by Donna Summer and “On the Road Again” by Willie Nelson all topped the charts.

1982 – Sugar Ray Leonard retired from boxing, five months after having retinal surgery on his left eye.

1983 – Alfred Heineken, beer brewer from Amsterdam, was kidnapped and held for a ransom of more than $10 million.

1984 – A bronze statue titled “Three Servicemen,” by Frederick Hart, was unveiled at the site of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, DC.The soldiers are purposefully identifiable as White American, Black American, and Hispanic. The statue and the Wall appear to interact with each other, with the soldiers looking on in solemn tribute at the names of their dead comrades. It has been suggested that the sculpture was positioned especially for that effect.

1985 – “Miami Vice Theme” by Jan Hammer topped the charts.

1987 – Senate Minority Leader Bob Dole formally announced a bid for the Republican presidential nomination during a visit to his hometown of Russell, KS.

1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kokomo” by The Beach Boys, “Wild, Wild West” by The Escape Club, “The Loco-Motion” by Kylie Minogue and “Darlene” by T. Graham Brown all topped the charts.

1988 – Gary Kasparov became world chess champion after beating Anatoly Karpov, the titleholder for 10 years, in Moscow.

1989 – East Germany opened it borders to West Germany and allowed thousands of its citizens to pass freely through the Berlin Wall. The next day, East German troops began dismantling the wall, and less than a year later, East Germany and West Germany were formally reunited.

1991 – “Cream” by Prince & the N.P.G. topped the charts.

1996 – “No Diggity” by Blackstreet topped the charts.

1996 – Evander Holyfield upset Mike Tyson to win the WBA heavyweight title in an 11-round fight in Las Vegas.

1997 – Barry Sanders (Detroit Lions) became the first player in NFL history to rush for over 1,000 yards in nine straight seasons. In the same game Sanders passed former Dallas Cowboy Tony Dorsett for third place on the all-time rushing list.

1997 – A Boeing 707 jetliner carrying First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton was forced to return to Andrews Air Force Base outside Washington after a sensor indicated an engine fire, which turned out to be a false alarm. Mrs. Clinton left the following day for a tour of Central Asia.

1998 – Singer Billy Preston, his manager Merle Otis Greene and Greene’s wife Sandra were indicted on twenty-two charges of fraud in collecting $1 million in insurance claims.

1998 –  Michael Jackson settled a lawsuit over stories and pictures in the London Daily Mirror that said his face had been disfigured by cosmetic surgery.

1998 – The age of digital and interactive TV opened with a PBS documentary special, “Chihuly Over Venice.” This was the first high definition digital TV broadcast.

1999 – The flight data recorder from EgyptAir Flight 990 was recovered from the Atlantic Ocean and shipped to a National Transportation Safety Board laboratory in Washington.

2000 – Pres. Clinton established the 293,000-acre Vermillion Cliffs in northern Arizona as a national monument. He also ordered 661,000 acres of federal land added to the 54,400-acre craters of the Moon National Monument in central Idaho.

2000 – William Leonard Pickard (55) and Clyde Apperson (45) of California were indicted by a grand jury in Kansas City for running a massive LSD laboratory inside a decommissioned nuclear missile silo in Wamego, KS.

2001 – The US Federal Election Committee voted 6-0 to recognize the Green Party as a national committee.

2002 – Allan Chu (17) of Saratoga, CA., won top honors in a Siemens Westinghouse competition for his work on a new algorithm to compress Internet data.

2003 – Art Carney (85) died in Chester, Conn. He played Jackie Gleason’s sewer worker pal Ed Norton in the TV classic “The Honeymooners” and went on to win the 1974 Oscar for best actor in “Harry and Tonto.”

2004 – Kenny Chesney won the US Country Music Association album of the year award for “When The Sun Goes Down” as well as entertainer of the year.

2004 – Houston Astros pitcher Roger Clemens won his record seventh Cy Young award.

2004 – John Ashcroft and Don Evans resign their posts as U.S. Attorney General and U.S. Secretary of Commerce respectively.

2004 – U.S. First Lady Laura Bush officially reopened Pennsylvania Avenue in front of the White House to pedestrians.

2005 – Carolina’s Erik Cole became the first player in NHL history to be awarded two penalty shots in one game. Cole scored on the first, helping the Hurricanes defeat Buffalo 5-3.

2006 – Champion figure skater Michelle Kwan was appointed America’s first public diplomacy envoy by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.

2006 – The Nevada Supreme Court upheld a Las Vegas city regulation barring erotic dancers from raunchy physical contact with their customers, in a ruling that runs counter to the gambling city’s sinful reputation.

2007 – Michael Mukasey, a retired federal judge, was sworn in as the 81st US Attorney General.

2007 – Former New York City police commissioner Bernard Kerik (52) surrendered to face federal corruption charges, in what could prove to be an ongoing embarrassment for presidential hopeful Rudy Giuliani.

2008 – In Louisiana Raymond “Chuck” Foster, 44, shot and killed an Oklahoma woman, who was lured over the Internet to take part in a Ku Klux Klan initiation. The group tried to cover it up by dumping her body on a rural roadside and setting her belongings aflame.

2009 – US giant Kraft Foods launched a hostile 9.8-billion-pound takeover bid for Cadbury which the British confectioner rejected.

2010 – Anwar al-Awlaki, a Yemeni cleric affiliated with al-Queda, tells Muslims in a new video posting that they are free to kill American at will, in retaliation for the killing of civilians in Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere.

2010 – Construction of a factory for the first fleet of commercial spaceships begins at the Mojave Air and Space Port in Mojave, CA.

2011 – A U.S. Federal investigation finds gross mismanagement of the remains of servicemen and women at the Charles C. Carson Center for Mortuary Affairs at Dover Air Force Base.

2011 – The trustees of Pennsylvania State University sack the coach of the Penn State Nittany Lions football team, Joe Paterno, and the University president, Graham Spanier, following allegations of a coverup of alleged sexual abuse by assistant coach Jerry Sandusky.

2012 – CIA Director David Petraeus today submitted his letter of resignation to President Obama. The move was announced in a statement by Director of National Intelligence James Clapper. The excuse he has cited is an extra-marital affair.

2012 – Hillary Clinton intends to step down as secretary of state. That will take place likely “days” after President Barack Obama’s second inauguration in January.

2013 – Newport News Shipbuilding  christened the nation’s newest aircraft carrier Gerald R. Ford (CVN 78) during a ceremony on-site where the ship is being built. The President’s daughter, Susan Ford Bales, served as the ship’s sponsor, performing the traditional honor of breaking a bottle of American sparkling wine across the ship’s bow.

2013 – The US Air Force hosted the famed Doolittle Tokyo Raiders final toast to their fallen comrades. It was held at the National Museum of the Air Force and three of the final four were present, one could not make it for health reasons. (See April 18, 1942)


1731 – Benjamin Banneker, American mathematician, clockmaker, surveyor, almanac author, and astronomer.
1841 – Edward VII, King of England, who succeeded his mother Victoria in 1901.
1853 – Stanford White, American architect of Madison Square Garden and Washington Arch.
1886 – Ed Wynn, American Emmy Award-winning actor.
1889 – Claude Rains, British actor.
1891 – Clifton Webb (Webb Hollenbeck), American actor.
1905 – J. William Fulbright, U.S. Senator and creator of Fulbright scholarships.
1913 – Hedy Lamarr (Hedwig Kiessler), Austrian-born actress.
1918 – Spiro Agnew, Vice President of the United States (d. 1996)
1934 – Carl Sagan, American Pulitzer Prize-winning author and astronomer.
1951 – Lou Ferrigno, American bodybuilder



United States ArmyWHITE, KYLE J.State of Washington


Rank and organization: Specialist, U.S, Army, radio telephone operator with Company C, 2d Battalion (Airborne), 503d Infantry Regiment, 173d Airborne Brigade. Place and date: Nuristan Province, Afghanistan , November 9th, 2007. Entered service at: Seattle, WA Born: 1987, Seattle, WA Citation: Specialist Kyle J. White distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a , during combat operations against an armed enemy in Nuristan Province, Afghanistan on November 9, 2007. On that day, Specialist White and his comrades were returning to Bella Outpost from a shura with Aranas Village elders. As the soldiers traversed a narrow path surrounded by mountainous, rocky terrain, they were ambushed by enemy forces from elevated positions. Pinned against a steep mountain face, Specialist White and his fellow soldiers were completely exposed to enemy fire. Specialist White returned fire and was briefly knocked unconscious when a rocket-propelled grenade impacted near him. When he regained consciousness, another round impacted near him, embedding small pieces of shrapnel in his face. Shaking off his wounds, Specialist White noticed one of his comrades lying wounded nearby. Without hesitation, Specialist White exposed himself to enemy fire in order to reach the soldier and provide medical aid. After applying a tourniquet, Specialist White moved to an injured Marine, similarly providing aid and comfort until the Marine succumbed to his wounds. Specialist White then returned to the soldier and discovered that he had been wounded again. Applying his own belt as an additional tourniquet, Specialist White was able to stem the flow of blood and save the soldier’s life. Noticing that his and the other soldier’s radios were inoperative, Specialist White exposed himself to enemy fire yet again in order to secure a radio from a deceased comrade. He then provided information and updates to friendly forces, allowing precision airstrikes to stifle the enemy’s attack and ultimately permitting medical evacuation aircraft to rescue him, his fellow soldiers, Marines and Afghan Army soldiers. Specialist Kyle J. White’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, Company C, 2d Battalion (Airborne), 503d Infantry Regiment, 173d Airborne Brigade and the United States Army.


Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Air Force, 4th Allied POW Wing, Pilot of an F-4C aircraft. Place and date: North Vietnam, November 9th, 1967. Entered service at: Milwaukee, Wis. Born: 13 April 1942, Milwaukee, Wis. Citation: While on a flight over North Vietnam, Capt. Sijan ejected from his disabled aircraft and successfully evaded capture for more than six weeks. During this time, he was seriously injured and suffered from shock and extreme weight loss due to lack of food. After being captured by North Vietnamese soldiers, Capt. Sijan was taken to a holding point for subsequent transfer to a prisoner of war camp. In his emaciated and crippled condition, he overpowered one of his guards and crawled into the jungle, only to be recaptured after several hours. He was then transferred to another prison camp where he was kept in solitary confinement and interrogated at length. During interrogation, he was severely tortured; however, he did not divulge any information to his captors. Capt. Sijan lapsed into delirium and was placed in the care of another prisoner. During his intermittent periods of consciousness until his death, he never complained of his physical condition and, on several occasions, spoke of future escape attempts. Capt. Sijan’s extraordinary heroism and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty at the cost of his life are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Air Force and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Armed Forces.





Rank and organization: Captain (then 1st Lt.), U.S. Army, Troop B, 1st Cavalry, Americal Division. Place and date: West of Que Son, Republic of Vietnam, November 9th, 1967. Entered service at: San Francisco, Calif. Born: 31 December 1937, Arcata, Calif. Citation: Capt. Taylor, Armor, was serving as executive officer of Troop B, 1st Squadron. His troop was engaged in an attack on a fortified position west of Que Son when it came under intense enemy recoilless rifle, mortar, and automatic weapons fire from an enemy strong point located immediately to its front. One armored cavalry assault vehicle was hit immediately by recoilless rifle fire and all five crewmembers were wounded. Aware that the stricken vehicle was in grave danger of exploding, Capt. Taylor rushed forward and personally extracted the wounded to safety despite the hail of enemy fire and exploding ammunition. Within minutes a second armored cavalry assault vehicle was hit by multiple recoilless rifle rounds. Despite the continuing intense enemy fire, Capt. Taylor moved forward on foot to rescue the wounded men from the burning vehicle and personally removed all the crewmen to the safety of a nearby dike. Moments later the vehicle exploded. As he was returning to his vehicle, a bursting mortar round painfully wounded Capt. Taylor, yet he valiantly returned to his vehicle to relocate the medical evacuation landing zone to an area closer to the front lines. As he was moving his vehicle, it came under machinegun fire from an enemy position not fifty yards away. Capt. Taylor engaged the position with his machinegun, killing the three-man crew. Upon arrival at the new evacuation site, still another vehicle was struck. Once again Capt. Taylor rushed forward and pulled the wounded from the vehicle, loaded them aboard his vehicle, and returned them safely to the evacuation site. His actions of unsurpassed valor were a source of inspiration to his entire troop, contributed significantly to the success of the overall assault on the enemy position, and were directly responsible for saving the lives of a number of his fellow soldiers. His actions were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military profession and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.




Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Air Force, 37th ARS Da Nang AFB, Republic of Vietnam. Place and date: KheSanh, November 9th, 1967. Entered service at: Colorado Springs, Colo. Born: 9 May 1930, Chicago, Ill. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Young distinguished himself while serving as a helicopter rescue crew commander. Capt. Young was flying escort for another helicopter attempting the night rescue of an Army ground reconnaissance team in imminent danger of death or capture. Previous attempts had resulted in the loss of two helicopters to hostile ground fire. The endangered team was positioned on the side of a steep slope which required unusual airmanship on the part of Capt. Young to effect pickup. Heavy automatic weapons fire from the surrounding enemy severely damaged one rescue helicopter, but it was able to extract three of the team. The commander of this aircraft recommended to Capt. Young that further rescue attempts be abandoned because it was not possible to suppress the concentrated fire from enemy automatic weapons. With full knowledge of the danger involved, and the fact that supporting helicopter gunships were low on fuel and ordnance, Capt. Young hovered under intense fire until the remaining survivors were aboard. As he maneuvered the aircraft for takeoff, the enemy appeared at point-blank range and raked the aircraft with automatic weapons fire. The aircraft crashed, inverted, and burst into flames. Capt. Young escaped through a window of the burning aircraft. Disregarding serious burns, Capt. Young aided one of the wounded men and attempted to lead the hostile forces away from his position. Later, despite intense pain from his burns, he declined to accept rescue because he had observed hostile forces setting up automatic weapons positions to entrap any rescue aircraft. For more than seventeen hours he evaded the enemy until rescue aircraft could be brought into the area. Through his extraordinary heroism, aggressiveness, and concern for his fellow man, Capt. Young reflected the highest credit upon himself, the U.S. Air Force, and the Armed Forces of his country.


(Air Mission)


Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 729th Bomber Squadron, 452d Bombardment Group. Place and date: Saarbrucken, Germany, November 9th,1944. Entered service at: Arnett, Okla. Born: 3 June 1923, Arnett, Okla. G.O. No.: 38, 16 May 1945. Citation: On a bombing run upon the marshaling yards at Saarbrucken a B-17 aircraft piloted by 1st. Lt. Gott was seriously damaged by antiaircraft fire. Three of the aircraft’s engines were damaged beyond control and on fire; dangerous flames from the No. 4 engine were leaping back as far as the tail assembly. Flares in the cockpit were ignited and a fire raged therein, which was further increased by free-flowing fluid from damaged hydraulic lines. The interphone system was rendered useless. In addition to these serious mechanical difficulties the engineer was wounded in the leg and the radio operator’s arm was severed below the elbow. Suffering from intense pain, despite the application of a tourniquet, the radio operator fell unconscious. Faced with the imminent explosion of his aircraft, and death to his entire crew, mere seconds before bombs away on the target, 1st. Lt. Gott and his copilot conferred. Something had to be done immediately to save the life of the wounded radio operator. The lack of a static line and the thought that his unconscious body striking the ground in unknown territory would not bring immediate medical attention forced a quick decision. 1st. Lt. Gott and his copilot decided to fly the flaming aircraft to friendly territory and then attempt to crash land. Bombs were released on the target and the crippled aircraft proceeded alone to Allied-controlled territory. When that had been reached, 1st. Lt. Gott had the copilot personally inform all crewmembers to bail out. The copilot chose to remain with 1st. Lt. Gott in order to assist in landing the bomber. With only one normally functioning engine, and with the danger of explosion much greater, the aircraft banked into an open field, and when it was at an altitude of 100 feet it exploded, crashed, exploded again and then disintegrated. All three crewmembers were instantly killed. 1st. Lt. Gott’s loyalty to his crew, his determination to accomplish the task set forth to him, and his deed of knowingly performing what may have been his last service to his country was an example of valor at its highest.




Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 6 November 1922, Neche, N. Dak. Accredited to: North Dakota. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and courage above and beyond the call of duty while attached to the 3d Marine Raider Battalion during action against enemy Japanese forces in the Solomon Islands area on November 9th,1943. While his platoon was engaged in the defense of a vital road block near Empress Augusta Bay on Bougainville Island. Pfc. Gurke, in company with another Marine, was delivering a fierce stream of fire against the main vanguard of the Japanese. Concluding from the increasing ferocity of grenade barrages that the enemy was determined to annihilate their small, two-man foxhole, he resorted to a bold and desperate measure for holding out despite the torrential hail of shells. When a Japanese grenade dropped squarely into the foxhole, Pfc. Gurke, mindful that his companion manned an automatic weapon of superior fire power and therefore could provide more effective resistance, thrust him roughly aside and flung his own body over the missile to smother the explosion. With unswerving devotion to duty and superb valor, Pfc. Gurke sacrificed himself in order that his comrade might live to carry on the fight. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.


(Air Mission)

Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 729th Bomber Squadron 452d Bombardment Group. Place and date: Saarbrucken, Germany, November 9th, 1944. Entered service at: Lima, Ohio. Born: 9 February 1922, Lima, Ohio. G.O. No.: 38, 16 May 1945. Citation: On a bombing run upon the marshaling yards at Saarbrucken, Germany, on 9 November 1944, a B17 aircraft on which 2d Lt. Metzger was serving as copilot was seriously damaged by antiaircraft fire. Three of the aircraft’s engines were damaged beyond control and on fire; dangerous flames from the No. 4 engine were leaping back as far as the tail assembly. Flares in the cockpit were ignited and a fire roared therein which was further increased by free-flowing fluid from damaged hydraulic lines. The interphone system was rendered useless. In addition to these serious mechanical difficulties the engineer was wounded in the leg and the radio operator’s arm was severed below the elbow. Suffering from intense pain, despite the application of a tourniquet, the radio operator fell unconscious. Faced with the imminent explosion of his aircraft and death to his entire crew, mere seconds before bombs away on the target, 2d Lt. Metzger and his pilot conferred. Something had to be done immediately to save the life of the wounded radio operator. The lack of a static line and the thought that his unconscious body striking the ground in unknown territory would not bring immediate medical attention forced a quick decision. 2d Lt. Metzger and his pilot decided to fly the flaming aircraft to friendly territory and then attempt to crash land. Bombs were released on the target and the crippled aircraft proceeded along to Allied-controlled territory. When that had been reached 2d Lt. Metzger personally informed all crewmembers to bail out upon the suggestion of the pilot. 2d Lt. Metzger chose to remain with the pilot for the crash landing in order to assist him in this emergency. With only one normally functioning engine and with the danger of explosion much greater, the aircraft banked into an open field, and when it was at an altitude of 100 feet it exploded, crashed, exploded again, and then disintegrated. All three crewmembers were instantly killed. 2d Lt. Metzger’s loyalty to his crew, his determination to accomplish the task set forth to him, and his deed of knowingly performing what may have been his last service to his country was an example of valor at its highest.




Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company A, 356th Infantry, 89th Division. Place and date: Near Pouilly, France, November 9th, 1918. Entered service at: San Antonio, Tex. Birth: Laredo, Tex. G.O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919. Citation: When information was desired as to the enemy’s position on the opposite side of the Meuse River, Pvt. Barkeley, with another soldier, volunteered without hesitation and swam the river to reconnoiter the exact location. He succeeded in reaching the opposite bank, despite the evident determination of the enemy to prevent a crossing. Having obtained his information, he again entered the water for his return, but before his goal was reached, he was seized with cramps and drowned.





Rank and organization: Sergeant (then Private First Class), U.S. Army, Company A, 356th Infantry, 89th Division. Place and date: Near Pouilly, France, November 9th, 1918. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Kendell, Kans. C O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919. Citation: When information was desired as to the enemy’s position on the opposite side of the Meuse River, Sgt. Johnston, with another soldier, volunteered without hesitation and swam the river to reconnoiter the exact location of the enemy. He succeeded in reaching the opposite bank, despite the evident determination of the enemy to prevent a crossing. Having obtained his information, he again entered the water for his return. This was accomplished after a severe struggle which so exhausted him that he had to be assisted from the water, after which he rendered his report of the exploit.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 9th Infantry, 2d Division. Place and date: At Mouzon, France, November 9th, 1918. Entered service at: Glen Rock, N.J. Birth: Holland. G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919. Citation: While a member of the reconnaissance patrol, sent out at night to ascertain the condition of a damaged bridge, Sgt. Van Iersel volunteered to lead a party across the bridge in the face of heavy machinegun and rifle fire from a range of only seventy-five yards. Crawling alone along the debris of the ruined bridge he came upon a trap, which gave away and precipitated him into the water. In spite of the swift current he succeeded in swimming across the stream and found a lodging place among the timbers on the opposite bank. Disregarding the enemy fire, he made a careful investigation of the hostile position by which the bridge was defended and then returned to the other bank of the river, reporting this valuable information to the battalion commander.



Rank and organization: Artificer, Company F, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Bamban, Luzon, Philippine Islands, November 9th, 1899. Entered service at: Pawneytown, Md. Birth: Pawneytown, Md. Date of issue: 30 April 1902. Citation: Distinguished bravery and conspicuous gallantry in action against insurgents.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Bamban, Luzon, Philippine Islands, November 9th, 1899. Entered service at: Lawrence, Kans. Birth: Oskaloosa County, lowa. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: For distinguished bravery and conspicuous gallantry in action against insurgents.

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Unerased History – November 8th

Posted by Wayne Church on November 8, 2014 in 11 - November, Blog by month |
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Spruce Goose

H-4_HERCULES_spruce_goose (3)

The Hughes H-4 Hercules (“Spruce Goose“) is an aircraft that has been called “The Edsel of Aviation” designed and built by Howard Hughes‘s Hughes Aircraft company. Hughes himself detested the nickname “Spruce Goose”. The nickname arose as a way of mocking the Hercules project due to Hughes’ alleged misuse of government funding to build the aircraft. The Hercules is the largest flying boat, and has the largest wingspan of any aircraft in existence. Only one was ever built.

Due to wartime restrictions on the availability of metals, the H-4 was built almost entirely of laminated birch, not spruce as its nickname suggests. The aircraft was a marvel in its time. It married a soon-to-be outdated technology — flying boats — to a massive airframe that required some truly ingenious engineering innovations.

On the day……………..

It was a wonderful smell, the smell of new fresh wood; the aircraft was huge by anyone’s stretch of the imagination. There was hardly any movement even though the blue water of Long Beach Harbor was a little choppy. No one would probably notice until the plane got “light” in the water. This aircraft was amazing. It has a wing span of 319 feet, largest ever in the world. It is almost eighty feet high and the tallest aircraft ever. Just looking around, it was completely amazing. Today, November 2nd, 1947 was the day it was going to fly.


Standing inside this behemoth was humbling. One person standing in an area designed to hold 750 fully equipped troops is the only one who could appreciate that and the silence was deafening. It was similar to sensory deprivation. The quiet did not last long. When Mr. Hughes and his staff came aboard the noise level went up, of course, but not as loud as it got when the eight P&W 4360 reciprocating engines were started.


The Spruce Goose was originally conceived by Henry J. Kaiser, an American industrialist who became known as the father of modern American shipbuilding. He was the builder of the Liberty ships used by us in WW II. The vision was Kaiser’s but the aircraft was designed, constructed, and engineered by Howard HHughesInGooseHughes and his staff. The ribs and frame of the Spruce Goose were made out of birch wood, the plane was covered with duramold , a new concept developed by Fairchild.  The Spruce Goose had almost no nails or screws. The duramold process used layers of 1/32 inch wood veneer, laid in alternating grain direction, bonded with glue and steam-shaped. Duramold was what made the Spruce Goose both strong and light-weight for its size. It’s maximum takeoff weight was 400,000 lbs.

According to the Fairchild Corporation , “In the mid-1930s, Fairchild pioneered the application of composite structures to airframe design and production – duramold. The adhesive bonding processes and techniques are still followed in the manufacture of composite structures today.  In 1947, Millionaire Howard Hughes became the first and only person to pilot the eight-engine flying boat called the Spruce Goose.

On this morning as the test flight came together the sky was a clear blue and there was a light wind. It was creating a light chop across the harbor but not anything that a good pilot like Mr. Hughes couldn’t handle. As the aircraft was taxied to the takeoff run it moved heavily in the water. They moved the Goose to its takeoff point gir to up to 40 m.p.h., dialed in 15% flaps then spun the aircraft 1800.

Mr. Hughes asked his engineer, “How does it sound Odie?” Odie responded and said, “Sounds pretty good Howard, Power up!!” Mr. Hughes started advancing the master throttle and the Goose moved forward. As it approached 25 mph, Mr. Hughes asked for the speeds to be called out. Thirty mph…., 35, 40, 45, 50. The aircraft was still in contact with the water but it was getting ready to break free. The choppy harbor was starting to cause some trouble but 55 mph, 60. 65, 70 and at 75 mph she broke free. The elation was palpable. The Spruce Goose stayed in the air for one mile and they took her back down again. Long Beach Harbor would never see the likes of what it saw that day.47sprucegooseflies


The aircraft was stored from 1947 to 1992 at Long Beach nearby to the Queen Mary, also on display. In 1992 the HK-1 Flying Boat, nicknamed the Spruce Goose, was moved from a storage hangar to the new Michael King Smith Evergreen Aviation Educational Institute. Evergreen acquired the display rights, took it apart and barged it to Oregon in pieces. The pieces sailed up the Willamette River in January 1993. That February, a parade welcomed trucks carting the Spruce Goose into McMinnville from a landing near Dayton.

The aircraft can be seen at 460 NE Captain Michael King Smith Way

McMinnville, OR 97128

You can also call:      503-434-4185

You can get everything in life you want if you will just help enough other people get what they want.”

~Zig Ziglar


askance uh-SKANS, adverb:

1. With suspicion, mistrust, or disapproval.

2. With a side glance; sidewise; obliquely.

The origin of askance has not been verifiably determined. It is possibly a variant of the Old Norse word askew meaning “to one side.”


392 – Theodosius of Rome passed legislation prohibiting all pagan worship in the empire and declared Christianity the state religion.

1519 – Cortez marched to the Aztec capital and captured Montezuma. Cortez and his men were welcomed by the last of the Motecuhzomas, who had come out to meet them in the belief that the white men must be Quetzalcoatll and other gods, returning at last from across the waters now known as the Gulf of Mexico.

1731 – Benjamin Franklin opened the first US library. The first circulating library in America, the Library Company of Philadelphia, was founded by Benjamin Franklin and others.

1789 – Bourbon Whiskey was first distilled from corn by Elijah Craig in Bourbon KY.

1793 – In Paris, the French Revolutionary government opens the Louvre to the public as a museum. Originally, it was constructed as a fortress in the early thirteenth century.

1805 – Meriwether Lewis and William Clark reached the Pacific coast after setting out from St. Louis over a year earlier. This is the day they set their eyes on the Pacific Ocean.

1837 – Mary Lyon founds Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, which would later become Mount Holyoke College.

1861 – Civil War: Union Captain Charles Wilkes of the sloop San Jacinto seized Confederate commissioners John Slidell and James M. Mason from the British mail ship Trent. Lincoln’s response to uproar: “One war at a time.” The incident turned into a major diplomatic crisis between Great Britain and the United States until the diplomats were released nearly two months later.

1864 – Abraham Lincoln is reelected  to a second term in an overwhelming victory over George McClellan.

1864 – Acting Master Francis Josselyn, U.S.S. Commodore Hull, landed with a party of sailors at Edenton, North Carolina, under orders from Commander Macomb to break up a court session being held there.

1869 - The transcontinental railway arrived in Oakland, Ca. The Mariposa pulled six coaches into Oakland at 7th and Broadway.

1880 – Sarah Bernhardt made her American stage debut. She appeared in “Adrienne Lecouvreur” in New York City.

1887 – Doc Holliday died at the age of 35. The gun fighting dentist died from tuberculosis in a sanitarium in Glenwood Springs, CO. It is said that he awakened from a 57-day delirium, downed a glass of whiskey and said: “I’ll be damned!” and died.

1889 – Montana is admitted as the 41st U.S. state.

1892 – Grover Cleveland is elected over Benjamin Harrison and James B. Weaver to win the second of his non-consecutive terms. He is  the first (and, to date, only) president to win non-consecutive terms in the White House.

1895 – While experimenting with electricity Wilhelm Röntgen discovers x-rays.

1899 – The Bronx Zoo opens.

1904 – Theodore Roosevelt (R) defeated Alton B. Parker (D) in US presidential elections. Roosevelt had succeeded the assassinated William McKinley.

1910 – William H. Frost of Spokane, Washington patented the insect exterminator.

1916 – World War I: U.S.S. “Columbian” sunk by German submarine near Cape Finisterre.

1923 – Adolf Hitler made his first attempt at seizing power in Germany with a failed coup in Munich that later came to be known as the “Beer-Hall Putsch.”

1926 – George Gershwin’s musical “Oh, Kay,” premiered in New York City.

1932 – Franklin D. Roosevelt elected President for first time  by defeating Herbert Hoover in a landslide victory.

1932 – “Make Mine Music” debuted on Broadway. The show ran for 342 performances.

1933 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt unveils the Civil Works Administration, an organization designed to create jobs for more than four million of the unemployed.

1934 – Ford C Frick becomes president of baseball’s National League. One of Frick’s first acts as NL President was an enthusiastic endorsement of the proposed National Baseball Museum and a suggestion to include a Hall of Fame to honor the game’s greats.

1935 – A dozen labor leaders come together to announce the creation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), an organization charged with pushing the cause for industrial unionism.

1938 – Crystal Bird Fauset of Pennsylvania became the first Black woman to be elected to a state legislature. Fauset was a Philadelphia public school teacher from 1914 to 1918 before taking the position as a field secretary for the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA).

1939 – “Life with Father” longest running Broadway drama opens (closes 1947).

1939 – Frank Sinatra recorded  “Every Day of My Life” and “Ciribiribin“. They were the last songs he recorded with the Harry James Band.

1939 – World War II: Assassination attempt on Adolph Hitler using a time bomb placed by Johann Georg Elser.

1940 – The first National Football League championship was aired on national radio. The Chicago Bears beat the Washington Redskins, 73-0.

1940 – The USS City of Rayville, an American freighter carrying a cargo of lead, wool and copper from Australia to New York, sank in the Bass Strait after striking a German mine, a year before the United States entered the war. One seaman drowned while trying to recover personal items from the sinking vessel but 37 other crew survived. She was the first ship lost in WW II.

1942 – World War II: Holocaust: In Ternopil, western Ukraine, German SS deport about 2,400 Jews from Ternopil ghetto to the Belzec death camp, so called “Second Aktion”. When the Germans captured Ternopil, about 18,000 Jews lived in the city.

1942 – World War II: Operation Torch – United States and United Kingdom forces land in French North Africa. It was an invasion during the North African Campaign of WWII.

1942 – World War II: French resistance coup in Algiers, by which 400 Civil French patriots neutralized Vichyst XIXth Army Corps during 15 hours, arrested vichyst generals (Juin, Darlan, etc.), and so allowed the immediate success of Operation Torch in Algiers, then, from there, to the whole French North Africa.

1944 – World War II: The US 3rd Army begins a new offensive around Metz and to the south. During the day, the Seille River is crossed, and Nomony captured.

1944 – Twenty-five thousand Hungarian Jews were “loaned” to Nazis for forced labor.

1944 – In Hungary Peter Balazs (18) was fatally beaten to death for failing to wear a yellow star marking him as a Jew.

1945 – With the end of WWII, America needed to convert its economy back to peacetime conditions. The passage of the Revenue Act of 1945 was a key step in rolling back the heavy taxes which had been implemented to help wage the war. Along with cutting $6 billion in taxes, the Revenue Act initiated an extensive post-war revision of the nation’s entire tax system.

1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Near You” by The Francis Craig Orchestra (vocal: Bob Lamm), “You Do” by Dinah Shore, “And Mimi” by Art Lund and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1950 – Korean War: United States Air Force Lt. Russell J. Brown shoots down two North Korean MiG-15s in the first jet aircraft-to-jet aircraft dogfight in history.

1950 – Korean War: President Truman lifted the ban on bombing within five miles of the Yalu River, and the bridges at Sinuiju were struck. Seventy-nine B-29s along with naval aircraft carried out the mission.

1950 – Korean War: The Korean Service Medal was authorized by Executive Order 10179. Some 1.7 million U.S. service members were eventually awarded this medal for service in Korea and its contiguous waters between June 27, 1950, to July 27, 1954.

1952 – “I Went to Your Wedding” by Patti Page topped the charts.

1954 – American League approves Philadelphia A’s to move to Kansas City.

1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Autumn Leaves” by Roger Williams, “Moments to Remember” by The Four Lads, “I Hear You Knocking” by Gale Storm and “That Do Make It Nice” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1956 – Cecile B. Demille’s “The Ten Commandments” was copyright registered.

1956 – After turning down 18,000 names, the Ford Motor Company decided to name their new car the “Edsel,” after Henry Ford’s only son.

1957 – Pan Am Flight 7, a Pan Am luxury airliner (Boeing 377 registration N90944) named “Romance of the Skies”, on its final leg of a “around-the-world-trip to Hawaii from San Francisco, crashed in the Pacific Ocean. Very little was found, a few bodies and some wreckage. A crew of 6 and 38 passengers had been booked on the flight.

1958 – “It’s All In The Game” by Tommy Edwards topped the charts.

1959 – Elgin Baylor of the Minneapolis Lakers, scored 64 points and set a National Basketball Association scoring record.

1960 – John F. Kennedy is elected President over Richard M. Nixon, becoming the youngest man elected to that office. Kennedy later said that he had been elected by  just a ½ vote per precinct plurality across the country. Popular legend later held that the political machine of Richard Daley in Chicago provided the necessary votes for Kennedy to win Illinois (27 electoral votes) and the elections.

1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sugar Shack” by Jimmy Gilmer & The Fireballs, “Deep Purple” by Nino Tempo & April Stevens, “Washington Square” by The Village Stompers and “Love’s Gonna Live Here” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1964 – Mickey Wright shoots a 62, lowest golf score for a female professional golfer.

1965 – The US Higher Education Act became law. Its intention was to strengthen the educational resources of US colleges and universities and to provide financial assistance to students in postsecondary and higher education. The student loan system was part of Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society program.

1965 – Vietnam War: The 173rd Airborne is ambushed by over 1,200 Viet Cong in Operation Hump.

1965 – The American television soap opera “Days of Our Lives” premiered with Frances Reid (1914-2010) as Alice Horton. Reid spent over 40 years playing Alice Horton on the daytime soap.

1966 – Former Massachusetts Attorney General Edward Brooke becomes the first Black elected to the United States Senate.

1966 – Movie actor Ronald Reagan elected governor of California. He defeated Pat Brown. Reagan had defeated former San Francisco Mayor George Christopher in the primary.

1966 – President Johnson signs anti-trust immunity to AFL-NFL merger.

1969 – “Wedding Bell Blues” by 5th Dimension topped the charts.

1970 – Tom Dempsey of New Orleans Saints kicks NFL record 63-yard field goal. It was the record until Denver Broncos kicker Matt Prater broke the NFL record with a 64-yard field goal to draw within one point of the Tennessee Titans at halftime in this game. Prior to this Dempsey shared the 63 yard record with Jason Elam, Sebastian Janikowski and David Akers.

1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves” by Cher, “Theme from Shaft

by Isaac Hayes, “Imagine” by John Lennon Plastic Ono Band and “Here Comes Honey Again” by Sonny James (Bill Anderson)  all topped the charts.

1973 – The right ear of John Paul Getty III is delivered to a newspaper together with a ransom note, convincing his father to pay 2.9 million USD.

1973 – Walt Disney’s “Robin Hood” (Mac Davis?)is released.

1974 – Charges were dropped against eight Ohio National Guardsmen for their role in the deaths of four anti-war protestors at Kent State University. A federal grand jury had indicted eight National Guardsmen for the May 4, 1970 Kent State shootings.

1974 – Singer Connie Francis (b.1938) was raped in her hotel room at the Jericho Turnpike Howard Johnson’s Lodge after a concert at the Westbury Music Fair on Long Island, NY. She subsequently sued the motel chain for failing to provide adequate security. She reportedly won a $2.5 million judgment, her rapist was never found.

1974 – Debi Kent disappeared in Salt Lake City, Utah. She was later identified as another victim of Theodore “Ted” Bundy.

1975 – Elton John’s album, “Rock of the Westies”, debuted at #1 on US album charts.

1975 – “Island Girl” by Elton John topped the charts.

1978 – Norman Rockwell (b.1894), American artist, died. He had created nearly 4,000 illustrations that included 321 covers for the Saturday Evening Post.

1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Pop Muzik” by M, “Heartache Tonight” by Eagles, “Dim All the Lights” by Donna Summer and “You Decorated My Life” by Kenny Rogers all topped the charts.

1979 – The program, “The Iran Crisis: America Held Hostage”, premiered on ABC-TV. The show was planned to be temporary, but it evolved into “Nightline” in March of 1980.

1979 – U.S. Senators John Warner (R-VA) and Mac Mathias (R-MD) introduced legislation to provide a site on the National Mall for the building of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

1980 – Bruce Springsteen’s album, “The River“, hit #1.

1980 – Voyager 1 space probe discovers 15th moon of Saturn.

1980 – “Woman in Love” by Barbra Streisand topped the charts.

1983 – W Wilson Goode (D) elected first Black mayor of Philadelphia.

1984 – Anna Fisher becomes the first “mom” to go into orbit. Dr. Fisher was a mission specialist on STS-51A, which launched from Kennedy Space Center, FL. The first attempt to rescue two crippled satellites scheduled on Discovery’s mission.

1986 – “Amanda” by Boston topped the charts.

1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Think We’re Alone Now” by Tiffany, “Causing a Commotion” by Madonna, “Mony Mony “Live”” by Billy Idol and “Am I Blue” by George Strait all topped the charts.

1988 – George H. W. Bush is elected over Michael Dukakis.

1990 – In Iraq Saddam Hussein fired his army chief and threatened to destroy the Arabian peninsula.

1991 – The “Carol Burnette Show” premieres on CBS-TV.

1992 – Volunteers began reading aloud the 58,183 names on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C., as part of a tribute marking the 10th anniversary of the monument.

1994 – For the first time in 40 years the  Republican Party takes control of both the House of Representatives and the Senate in midterm congressional elections.

1994 – In Oregon, “Measure 16,” which permitted euthanasia in regulated circumstances for the terminally ill, was voted in.

1994 – California voters approved Proposition 187, designed to bar illegal aliens from education, social services and non-emergency health care. The courts later struck down the law.

1996 – Cheyenne Pyle, the youngest heart transplant patient (90 mins old), was born in Miami and flown to California for surgery. The infant did not survive.

1998 – Four Navy fliers were lost at sea and presumed dead after their EA-6B Prowler struck an S-3 Viking aircraft on the carrier Enterprise during nighttime landing practice off of Virginia. Two crewmen landed safely on the deck.

1999 – Former President Bush was honored in Germany for his role in the fall of the Berlin Wall ten years earlier.

2000 – A statewide recount began in Florida, which emerged as critical in deciding the winner of the 2000 presidential election.

2000 – Waco special counsel John C. Danforth released his final report that absolved the government of wrongdoing in the 1993 seige of the Branch Davidian compound in Texas.

2000 – Joey Chestnut won the Martorano’s Masters Meatball Eating Championship in Las Vegas gobbling 50 meatballs in 10 minutes. The 6.25 pounds was a world record and earned him $1500.

2001 – In a prime-time address, President called on Americans to defy acts of terror by strengthening their communities, comforting their neighbors and remaining vigilant in the face of further threats.

2002 -UN Security Council Resolution 1441 – The United Nations Security Council unanimously approves a resolution on Iraq, forcing Saddam Hussein to disarm or face “serious consequences”.

2002 – The California State Medical Board moved to suspend the licenses of Dr. Chae Hyun Moon and Dr. Fidel Realyvasquez of Redding Medical Center for performing needless heart surgeries from 1992-2002.

2003 – Democrat Howard Dean announced he would opt out of the system for publicly financing elections, and its imposed limits, to better compete against President Bush.

2003 – The new $188 million Carquinez Bridge in Vallejo, Ca., was dedicated. Costs reached $340 million with the approaches. Traffic began with massive tie-ups on Nov 11.

2004 –  Jason Bay became the first Pittsburgh Pirates player to win the National League Rookie of the Year award, while Oakland shortstop Bobby Crosby took the American League honor.

2004 – More than 10,000 U.S. troops and a small number of Iraqi army units participate in a siege on the insurgent stronghold of Fallujah.

2004 – The U.S. dollar was eliminated from circulation in Cuba.

2005 – The original “Guitar Hero” game was released in North America.

2005 – The Kansas Board of Education voted 6-4 that students will be expected to study doubts about Darwinian evolutionary theory.

2005 – In Hillsdale, Michigan, unofficial results showed that Michael Sessions (18) got 732 votes, compared with 668 for Mayor Doug Ingles (51). Once the victory is certified and Sessions is  sworn in he will join two other 18-year old mayors Christopher Seeley of Linesville, Pennsylvania (also born in September 1987) and Sam Juhl of Roland, Iowa (born in November 1987).

2005 – Pennsylvania voters came down hard on school board members who backed a statement on intelligent design being read in biology class, ousting eight Republicans and replacing them with Democrats who want the concept stripped from the science curriculum.

2005 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Jacksboro, Tennessee, Ken Bartley Jr. (15) shot to death assistant principal Ken Bruce and wounded two other school officials with a handgun at Campbell County Comprehensive High School.

2006 – Nancy Pelosi, Representative of San Francisco becomes  the first woman and the first Californian to serve as speaker of the House. Pelosi promised a six-pronged action plan including a new direction for America, to be enacted within 100 hours of becoming speaker.

2007 – California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, joined by 14 other states, sued the Bush administration over its refusal to let them enforce bigger auto emissions cuts than those required by the federal government.

2007 – A US Army UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter crashed in northern Italy, killing at least four people on board and injuring six. Two more soon died in a hospital.

2008 – On Long Island, NY, seven students from Patchogue-Medford High School attacked Marcelo Lucero (38), an immigrant from Ecuador. Jeffrey Conroy (17) stabbed and killed Lucero as he struggled to defend himself. Police soon arrested the 7 teens.

2010 – The Obama administration bans cargo shipments from Somalia in the wake of the Yemen bomb attacks.

2011 – NASA observes the asteroid YU55 as it makes a close Earth flyby, passing within 0.85 lunar distances (about 201,700 miles) of the Earth. YU55 is approximately 1,300 ft across, and is the largest asteroid to make a close pass since 1976.

2012 –  A Key West resident who police say was distraught over the presidential election results and worried about his business has apparently killed himself. Police found Henry Hamilton’s body in his bedroom, along with a living will with handwritten words “Do not revive! (expletive) Obama!” Two empty prescription empty pill bottles were in the dining room.


1656 (N.S.) – Edmond Halley, British astronomer and mathematician (d. 1742)
1723 – John Byron, British naval officer (d. 1786)
1836 – Milton Bradley, American lithographer and game manufacturer (d. 1911)
1866 – Herbert Austin, English automobile pioneer (d. 1941)
1884 – Hermann Rorschach, Swiss psychiatrist (d. 1922) inventor of the inkblot test (Rorshach Test).
1900 – Margaret Mitchell, American author (d. 1949)
1922 – Christiaan Barnard, South African heart surgeon (d. 2001)
1927 – Patti Page, American singer
1931 – Morley Safer, reporter and correspondent for CBS News.
1949 – Bonnie Raitt, American singer
1950 – Mary Hart, American television personality






Rank and organization: Specialist Sixth Class (then Sp5c), U.S. Army, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion (Airborne), 503d Infantry, 173d Airborne Brigade. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam,  November 8th, 1965. Entered service at: New York City, N.Y. G.O. No.: 15, 5 April 1967. Born: 22 February 1928, Winston-Salem, N.C. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp6c. Joel demonstrated indomitable courage, determination, and professional skill when a numerically superior and well-concealed Viet Cong element launched a vicious attack which wounded or killed nearly every man in the lead squad of the company. After treating the men wounded by the initial burst of gunfire, he bravely moved forward to assist others who were wounded while proceeding to their objective. While moving from man to man, he was struck in the right leg by machine gun fire. Although painfully wounded his desire to aid his fellow soldiers transcended all personal feeling. He bandaged his own wound and self-administered morphine to deaden the pain enabling him to continue his dangerous undertaking. Through this period of time, he constantly shouted words of encouragement to all around him. Then, completely ignoring the warnings of others, and his pain, he continued his search for wounded, exposing himself to hostile fire; and, as bullets dug up the dirt around him, he held plasma bottles high while kneeling completely engrossed in his life saving mission. Then, after being struck a second time and with a bullet lodged in his thigh, he dragged himself over the battlefield and succeeded in treating thirteen more men before his medical supplies ran out. Displaying resourcefulness, he saved the life of one man by placing a plastic bag over a severe chest wound to congeal the blood. As one of the platoons pursued the Viet Cong, an insurgent force in concealed positions opened fire on the platoon and wounded many more soldiers. With a new stock of medical supplies, Sp6c. Joel again shouted words of encouragement as he crawled through an intense hail of gunfire to the wounded men. After the twenty-four hour battle subsided and the Viet Cong dead numbered 410, snipers continued to harass the company. Throughout the long battle, Sp6c. Joel never lost sight of his mission as a medical aidman and continued to comfort and treat the wounded until his own evacuation was ordered. His meticulous attention to duty saved a large number of lives and his unselfish, daring example under most adverse conditions was an inspiration to all. Sp6c. Joel’s profound concern for his fellow soldiers, at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.





Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 28th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division, RVN. Place and date: Tay Ninh Province, Republic of Vietnam, November 8th,  1966. Entered service at: Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico. Born: 1 March 1938, Ponce, Puerto Rico. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Rubio, Infantry, was serving as communications officer, 1st Battalion, when a numerically superior enemy force launched a massive attack against the battalion defense position. Intense enemy machinegun fire raked the area while mortar rounds and rifle grenades exploded within the perimeter. Leaving the relative safety of his post, Capt. Rubio received two serious wounds as he braved the withering fire to go to the area of most intense action where he distributed ammunition, re-established positions and rendered aid to the wounded. Disregarding the painful wounds, he unhesitatingly assumed command when a rifle company commander was medically evacuated. Capt. Rubio was wounded a third time as he selflessly exposed himself to the devastating enemy fire to move among his men to encourage them to fight with renewed effort. While aiding the evacuation of wounded personnel, he noted that a smoke grenade which was intended to mark the Viet Cong position for air strikes had fallen dangerously close to the friendly lines. Capt. Rubio ran to reposition the grenade but was immediately struck to his knees by enemy fire. Despite his several wounds, Capt. Rubio scooped up the grenade, ran through the deadly hail of fire to within twenty meters of the enemy position and hurled the already smoking grenade into the midst of the enemy before he fell for the final time. Using the repositioned grenade as a marker, friendly air strikes were directed to destroy the hostile positions. Capt. Rubio’s singularly heroic act turned the tide of battle, and his extraordinary leadership and valor were a magnificent inspiration to his men. His remarkable bravery and selfless concern for his men are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on Capt. Rubio and the U.S. Army.





Rank and organization: Colonel, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date. Near Port Lyautey, French Morocco, November 8th,  1942. Entered service at: Michigan. Born: 9 April 1900, Traverse City, Mich. G.O. No.: 11, 4 March 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty. On 8 November 1942, near Port Lyautey, French Morocco, Col. Craw volunteered to accompany the leading wave of assault boats to the shore and pass through the enemy lines to locate the French commander with a view to suspending hostilities. This request was first refused as being too dangerous but upon the officer’s insistence that he was qualified to undertake and accomplish the mission he was allowed to go. Encountering heavy fire while in the landing boat and unable to dock in the river because of shell fire from shore batteries, Col. Craw, accompanied by one officer and one soldier, succeeded in landing on the beach at Mehdia Plage under constant low-level strafing from three enemy planes. Riding in a bantam truck toward French headquarters, progress of the party was hindered by fire from our own naval guns. Nearing Port Lyautey, Col. Craw was instantly killed by a sustained burst of machinegun fire at pointblank range from a concealed position near the road.





Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date: Near Port Lyautey, French Morocco, November 8th,  1942. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 3 August 1898, Tuxedo Park, N.Y. G.O. No.: 4, 23 January 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty. On 8 November 1942, near Port Lyautey, French Morocco, Lt. Col. Hamilton volunteered to accompany Col. Demas Craw on a dangerous mission to the French commander, designed to bring about a cessation of hostilities. Driven away from the mouth of the Sebou River by heavy shelling from all sides, the landing boat was finally beached at Mehdia Plage despite continuous machinegun fire from three low-flying hostile planes. Driven in a light truck toward French headquarters, this courageous mission encountered intermittent firing, and as it neared Port Lyautey a heavy burst of machinegun fire was delivered upon the truck from pointblank range, killing Col. Craw instantly. Although captured immediately, after this incident, Lt. Col. Hamilton completed the mission .






Rank and organization: Colonel, U.S. Army, Western Task Force, North Africa. Place and date: Fedala, North Africa, November 8th,  1942. Entered service at: Palmer, Mass. Birth: Palmer, Mass. G.O. No.: 2, 13 January 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty. Col. Wilbur prepared the plan for making contact with French commanders in Casablanca and obtaining an armistice to prevent unnecessary bloodshed. On 8 November 1942, he landed at Fedala with the leading assault waves where opposition had developed into a firm and continuous defensive line across his route of advance. Commandeering a vehicle, he was driven toward the hostile defenses under incessant fire, finally locating a French officer who accorded him passage through the forward positions. He then proceeded in total darkness through 16 miles of enemy-occupied country intermittently subjected to heavy bursts of fire, and accomplished his mission by delivering his letters to appropriate French officials in Casablanca. Returning toward his command, Col. Wilbur detected a hostile battery firing effectively on our troops. He took charge of a platoon of American tanks and personally led them in an attack and capture of the battery. From the moment of landing until the cessation of hostile resistance, Col. Wilbur’s conduct was voluntary and exemplary in its coolness and daring.





Rank and organization: Technician Fifth Grade, U.S. Army, Medical Detachment, 328th Infantry, 26th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Bezange la Petite, France, November 8th,  1944. Entered service at: Fairchance, Pa. Birth: Fairchance, Pa. G.O. No.: 47, 18 June 1945. Citation: He volunteered to assist as an aid man a company other than his own, which was suffering casualties from constant artillery fire. He administered to the wounded and returned to his own company when a shellburst injured a number of its men. While treating his comrades he was seriously wounded, but refused to be evacuated by litter bearers sent to relieve him. In spite of great pain and loss of blood, he continued to administer first aid until he was too weak to stand. Crawling from one patient to another, he continued his work until excessive loss of blood prevented him from moving. He then verbally directed unskilled enlisted men in continuing the first aid for the wounded. Still refusing assistance himself, he remained to instruct others in dressing the wounds of his comrades until he was unable to speak above a whisper and finally lapsed into unconsciousness. The effects of his injury later caused his death. By steadfastly remaining at the scene without regard for his own safety, Cpl. Wilson through distinguished devotion to duty and personal sacrifice helped to save the lives of at least ten wounded men.






Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 356th Infantry, 89th Division. Place and date: Near Pouilly, France, November 8th,  1918. Entered service at: Neosho, Mo. Born: 6 January 1894, Bolivar, Mo. G.O. No.: 74, W.D., 1919. Citation: When volunteers were called for to secure information as to the enemy’s position on the opposite bank of the Meuse River, Sgt. Hatler was the first to offer his services for this dangerous mission. Swimming across the river, he succeeded in reaching the German lines, after another soldier, who had started with him, had been seized with cramps and drowned in midstream. Alone he carefully and courageously reconnoitered the enemy’s positions, which were held in force, and again successfully swam the river, bringing back information of great value.





Rank and organization: Captain, Company D, 19th Michigan Infantry; First Lieutenant, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At McClellans Creek, Tex., November 8th,  1874. Citation: Rescued, with two companies, two white girls by a voluntary attack upon Indians whose superior numbers and strong position would have warranted delay for reinforcements. That delay would have permitted the Indians to escape and kill their captives. First Award- Civil War


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Unerased History – November 7th

Posted by Wayne Church on November 7, 2014 in 11 - November, Blog by month |
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Pursuit of Happiness Week

National Bittersweet Chocolate with Almonds Day



In a democracy, voting commonly implies election, i.e. a way for an electorate to select among candidates for office. In politics, voting is the method by which the electorate of a democracy appoints representatives in its government.

A vote, or a ballot, is an individual’s act of voting, by which he or she express support or preference for a certain motion (e.g. a proposed resolution), a certain candidate, or a certain selection of candidates. A secret ballot, the standard way to protect voters’ political privacy, generally takes place at a polling station. (Compare postal ballot). The act of voting in most countries is voluntary, however some countries, such as Australia, Belgium and Brazil, have compulsory voting systems.

Though voting is usually recognized as one of the main characteristics of democracy, a country’s having an election featuring the populace casting votes does not necessarily mean the country is democratic. Many authoritarian governments have “elections” but the candidates are pre-chosen and approved by elites, there is no competition, voter qualifications are restrictive, and voting is often a sham. If you watch the elections in any country that has voting and the most vote getter is in the high ninety percent of all votes, you can vbe assured that it was not an American style vote.

 Extremely Important Dates In Voting History

1787 – The passage of the U.S. Constitution giving white male property owners age 21 and over the right to vote.

1807 – 1843 – A series of acts that changed voting requirements so that all white men 21 and older could vote.

1870 – The 15th Amendment guaranteed the right to vote to all men that were 21 or older regardless of race or ethnic background.

1920 – The 19th Amendment gave women age 21 and older the right to vote.

1964 – The 24th Amendment made it illegal for states to charge poll tax to voters.

1965 – The Voting Rights Act authorized the federal government to take over registration of voters in areas where state officials had regularly prevented blacks and other minorities from registering to vote or cast their ballots through usage of literacy tests, grandfather clauses, and intimidation tactics. This Act enforced provisions previously guaranteed in the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments almost a century earlier.

1971 – The 26th Amendment lowered the voting age across the nation to 18.

1982 – The Voting Rights Act Amendments extended right to vote guarantees given in the 1965 legislation. Further provisions for Americans with disabilities, voters not able to read and write, and those not fluent in English were added to insure their freedoms.

1993 – The National Voter Registration Act (Motor Voter) expanded the opportunity for convenient voter registration for every person of voting age by increasing the number of active government agencies serving as registries. The departments of Safety, Health, Human Services, Mental Health and Retardation, and Veteran’s Affairs are required to include voter registration applications with their own department’s forms. Other government offices such as libraries, post offices, county clerk offices, and the Registrar of Deeds will also have voter forms available to the public.

1994 – The Tennessee Early Voting Act replaced the previous absentee voting system used for the state. Tennesseans now have a period of 15 days in which to vote early before the actual election day without declaring a reason for this early casting of votes. Voters using this opportunity may vote at their county election office or any one of its satellite locations in that county during their posted hours of operation.


One important key to success is self-confidence. An important key to self-confidence is preparation.”

~ Arthur Ashe

(po-ko-koo-RAN-tee, -kyoo-) 

as an adjective  it is a way to describe a person

Indifferent, apathetic, nonchalant.

As a noun
 A careless or indifferent person.
[From Italian poco (little) + curante, present participle of curare,
(to care), from Latin curare (cure, care).]

1492 – The Ensisheim Meteorite, a 250 pound meteorite fell and is the oldest meteorite with a known date of impact. It struck the earth around noon in a wheat field outside the village of Ensisheim, Alsace, France.

1504 – Columbus returned to Spain following his fourth voyage after suffering a shipwreck at Jamaica. Columbus brought back cocoa beans and chocolate drinks soon became a favorite in the Spanish court.

1637 – Anne Hutchinson, the first female religious leader in the American colonies, was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for heresy. She preached that faith alone was sufficient for salvation, and therefore that individuals had no need for the church or church law.

1665 – The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, is first published.

1775 – Lord Dunmore, promises freedom to male slaves who join British army. This was the first mass emancipation of slaves in North America, however, after his retreat he resold these men back into slavery.

1805 – Lewis & Clark first sight Pacific Ocean. Here they establish their winter quarters, named Fort Clatsop for a nearby Indian tribe. Their survival over the winter was attributed to the help of the Nez Perce Indians.

1811 – Tecumseh’s (Shawnee chief) band of followers were defeated in the Battle of the Wabash (or Tippecanoe) by William Henry Harrison, governor of the Indiana Territory.

1814 – Andrew Jackson attacked and captured Pensacola, Florida, without authorization from his superiors. His aim was to end a threat posed by a small British garrison that had caused trouble in the area.

1837 – In Alton, Illinois, abolitionist printer Elijah P. Lovejoy, founder of “The Saint Louis Observer” anti-slavery newspaper, was shot to death by a mob while trying to protect his printing shop.

1848 – Zachary Taylor is elected president in the first US presidential election held in every state on the same day.

1861 – Civil War: Battle of Belmont: In Belmont, Missouri, Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant overrun a Confederate camp but are forced to retreat when Confederate reinforcements arrive.

1861 – Civil War: Naval forces under Flag Officer Du Pont captured Port Royal Sound. While Du Pont’s ships steamed in boldly, the naval gunners poured a withering fire into the defending Forts Walker and Beauregard with extreme accuracy.

1863 – Civil War: Battle of Rappahannock Station and Kelly’s Ford, Va.

1864 – Civil War: Learning that Confederate officers were quartered in a house on the Arkansas side of the Mississippi River near Island 68, Acting Lieutenant Frederic S. Hill led an expedition from U.S.S. Tyler to capture them. However, they had departed.

1872 – The Mary Celeste, a 103-foot brigantine, set sail from New York for Genoa on November 7, 1872. She was found abandoned at sea on December 14, 1872, 590 miles west of Gibraltar by the Dei Gratia.

1874 – A cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper’s Weekly, is considered the first important use of an elephant as a symbol for the United States Republican Party.

1876 – Rutherford B. Hayes was elected 19th President of the United States of America.

1876 – Edward Bouchet became the first Black to receive a PhD in US college at Yale.

1876 – The cigarette manufacturing machine was patented by Albert H. Hook.

1881 – Wyatt Earp and Doc Holliday, two participants in Tombstone, Arizona’s, famous Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, were jailed as the hearings on what happened in the fight, grew near.

1893 – Colorado granted women the right to vote.

1895 – Canada’s transcontinental railway was completed.

1910 – The first air freight shipment (from Dayton, Ohio, to Columbus, Ohio) is undertaken by the Wright Brothers and department store owner Max Moorehouse.

1914 – The “New Republic” magazine was printed for the first time.

1916 – Democrat Woodrow Wilson is re-elected President of the United States by defeating Republican Charles Evans Hughes.  The race was so close that all votes had to be counted before an outcome could be determined, so the results were not known until November 11.

1916 – Republican Jeannette Rankin of Montana became the first woman elected to Congress. In 1917, she voted against declaring war on Germany. This gave her great unpopularity and she ended up losing her seat in the House in 1918.

1917 – Vladimir Lenin returned from exile and led the Bolshevik Revolution with Leon Trotsky, staging a coup d’etat of the provisional government in Russia.

1918 – The 1918 Influenza Epidemic spreads to Western Samoa, killing 7,542 (about 20% of the population) by the end of the year.

1918 – Goddard demonstrates tube-launched solid propellant rockets.

1919 – US police raided offices of Union of Russian Workers.

1929 – New York’s Museum of Modern Art opened to the public.

1930 – “The Waltz You Save for Me” was released by Wayne King.

1932 – Buck Rogers in the 25th Century airs on radio for the first time.

1933 – Pennsylvania voters overturn blue law, by permitting Sunday sports . The new law permitted baseball and football on Sunday afternoons between 2:00 and 5:30 p.m., if the voters of any locality approved.

1937 – “Dr. Christian” debuted on CBS radio.

1938 – The first broadcast of “This Day is Ours”, was heard on CBS radio.

1940 – The middle section of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, nick-named “Galloping Gertie,” between Seattle and Tacoma, the third-largest suspension bridge in the world, collapsed — just four months after opening.

1941 – The Marine Corps Reserve of 23 battalions completed its mobilization.

1942 – World War II:  First US President to broadcast in a foreign language-FDR in French.

1942 – World War II: On Guadalcanal, US Marines, begin attacks to the east toward Koli Point. The Japanese stage landings after dark to the west of American holdings bringing elements of the 38th Infantry Division to shore.

1943 – World War II: US Task Force 38 with the carriers Saratoga and Princeton is attacked by 100 Japanese aircraft. The air attack fails to achieve any hits on the carriers.

1943 – Detroit Lions 0, NY Giants 0; last scoreless tie in NFL.

1944 – Franklin D. Roosevelt won an unprecedented fourth term as President of the United States of America, defeating Thomas E. Dewey.

1944 – On Leyte, the US 96th Division captures Bloody Ridge. Near the north coast, the American advance is held by Japanese defenses.

1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Five Minutes More” by Frank Sinatra, “South America, Take It Away” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “You Keep Coming Back like a Song” by Dinah Shore and “Divorce Me C.O.D.” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.

1946 – A coin-operated television receiver was displayed in New York City. It operated when a 25-cent coin was inserted.

1948 – “Studio One” debuted on CBS-TV. It was an adaptation of the mystery play, “The Storm” and became the first production of “Studio One”. Margaret Sullivan starred — for $500. “Studio One” continued until 1958.

1950 – The Hawaii Territory ratified a state constitution, it will not be until 1959 that it will become an American State.

1953 – “St. George and the Dragonet” by Stan Freberg topped the charts.

1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Need You Now” by Eddie Fisher, “This Ole House” by Rosemary Clooney, “Papa Loves Mambo” by Perry Como and “More and More” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.

1954 – “Face the Nation” had its TV premiere.

1954 – A US spy plane was shot down North of Japan.

1956 – Elvis Presley hit the charts with “Love Me Tender.”

1959 – “Mack the Knife” by Bobby Darin topped the charts.

1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “He’s a Rebel” by The Crystals, “Only Love Can Break a Heart” by Gene Pitney, “All Alone Am I” by Brenda Lee and “Mama Sang a Song” by Bill Anderson all topped the charts.

1962 – Republican Richard M. Nixon lost the race to be California’s governor and held what he called his “last press conference,” saying, “You won’t have Nixon to kick around anymore.”

1962 – Glenn Hall set NHL record of 503 consecutive games as goalie.

1962 – Former First Lady (1933-1945) Eleanor Roosevelt (b.1884) died in New York City and was buried near her husband at their estate in Hyde Park, New York.

1963 – The film “It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World” premiered at Hollywood’s new Cinerama Theater in a lengthy 195 minute version.

1963 – First Black American League MVP was Elston Howard, NY Yankees.

1964 – “Baby Love” by the Supremes topped the charts.

1964 – National League keeps Braves in Milwaukee in 1965, can move to Atlanta in 1966.

1964 – Vietnam War: The latest U.S. intelligence analysis claims that Communist forces in South Vietnam now include about 30,000 professional full-time soldiers, many of whom are North Vietnamese.

1965 – The “Pillsbury Dough Boy” debuted in television commercials.

1967 – Carl Stokes was elected the first Black mayor of a major city, Cleveland, Ohio.

1967 – President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, establishing the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.

1967 – The U.S. Selective Service Commission announced that college students arrested in anti-war demonstrations would lose their draft deferments.

1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be There” by The Jackson 5, “We’ve Only Just Begun” by Carpenters, “Fire and Rain” by James Taylor and “I Can’t Believe That You’ve Stopped Loving Me” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.

1970 –  “Does Anybody Really Know What Time It Is?” was released by Columbia.

1972 – Richard M. Nixon won the Presidency of the United States of America with a landslide victory over Democrat George McGovern.

1972 – Jesse Helms (1921-2008) of North Carolina, who had switched to the Republican Party in 1970, was elected to the US Senate, the first Republican from NC in the 20th century.

1973 – NJ becomes first state to allow girls into the little league.

1973 – Congress overrode President Richard Nixon’s veto of the War Powers Act, which limits a chief executive’s power to wage war without congressional approval.

1975 – “Wonder Woman” debuts on ABC. American war hero Steve Trevor is downed over the Bermuda Triangle and lands on “Paradise Island”, home of the Amazons. The Amazons hold a contest and choose a champion among them – Wonder Woman – who will return with Steve Trevor to America and remain there to fight the Nazi threat.

1976 – “Gone With the Wind” was aired (over two nights) on NBC-TV.

1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Needed Me” by Anne Murray, “MacArthur Park” by Donna Summer, “Double Vision” by Foreigner and “Sleeping Single in a Double Bed” by Barbara Mandrell all topped the charts.

1981 – “Private Eyes” by Daryl Hall & John Oates topped the charts.

1981 – Federal District Judge H. Lee Sarokin overturns Rubin “Hurricane” Carter’s conviction. He was imprisoned for a murder that he did not commit.

1983 – A bomb explodes inside the US Capitol building. On the Monday of November 7, the Senate adjourned at 7:02 p.m. A crowded reception, held near the Senate Chamber, broke up two hours later. At 10:58 p.m. an explosion tore through the second floor of the Capitol’s north wing, the adjacent halls were virtually deserted. Minutes before the blast, a caller claiming to represent the “Armed Resistance Unit” had warned the Capitol switchboard that a bomb had been placed near the Chamber in retaliation for recent U.S. military involvement in Grenada and Lebanon.

1984 – San Francisco’s memorial to the Holocaust was formally dedicated in Lincoln Park. It included a sculpture by George Segal depicting a pile of white bronze corpses.

1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “True Colors” by Cyndi Lauper, “Typical Male” by Tina Turner and “I Didn’t Mean to Turn You On” by Robert Palmer all topped the charts.

1986 – The longest high school football winning streak comes to an end. Canyon High of Canyon Country, CA, lost 21-20 to Antelope Valley High of nearby Lancaster. Canyon High had 46 consecutive wins before this loss.

1987 – “I Think We’re Alone Now” by Tiffany topped the charts.

1988 – “Sugar” Ray Leonard knocked out Canadian Donny Londe, completing his collection of world titles at five different weights.

1988 – On the eve of Election Day, Vice President George Bush confidently said the nation was “coming in behind my candidacy” while Democrat Michael Dukakis vowed to pull off a stunning “November surprise.”

1989 – L. Douglas Wilder won the election for governor in Virginia, making him the first African-American governor in U.S. history.

1989 – In New York, former Manhattan borough president David Dinkins, a Democrat, is elected New York City’s first African-American mayor.

1989 – Richard Ramirez, convicted of California’s “Night Stalker” killings, was sentenced to death.

1990 – The musical revival of “Those Were The Days” opened.

1991 – Basketball player Magic Johnson announces he has tested positive for HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) and that he is retiring.

1996 – NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor blasted off from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on a mission to map the surface of the Red Planet. In 2001, it went into orbit around Mars.

1996 – The U.S. liquor industry voted to drop its decades-old voluntary ban on broadcast advertising.

1996 – Michael Norton, chief of Kona Kai Farms in Berkeley, was indicted on charges of money laundering and wire fraud in connection with selling cheaper coffee as Hawaiian Kona Coffee.

1997 – In a rising war of words, the Clinton administration warned it was considering military options, including a cruise missile strike, if Iraq carried out its threat to shoot down U.N. surveillance planes.

1997 – In Concord, Ca., the De La Salle High School football team under coach Bob Ladoucer won their 73rd straight game and broke a 1975 record set by Hudson, Mich., High School.

1998 – The shuttle Discovery landed in Cape Canaveral, Fla. After 9 days in space. 77-year-old John Glenn returned to Earth aboard the space shuttle Discovery, visibly weak but elated after the mission.

1998 – Four years after leading Republicans to glory, House Speaker Newt Gingrich announced he would resign not just his speakership but also his seat in the House.

1999 – Tiger Woods became the first golfer since Ben Hogan in 1953 to win four straight tournaments.

1999 – Relatives of the victims of EgyptAir Flight 990 gathered in Newport, Rhode Island, to bid them a final farewell, a week after the plane crashed into the Atlantic Ocean.

2000 – Republican George W. Bush president won over incumbent Democratic Vice President Al Gore in the U.S. presidential election, but the results were not finalized for more than a month because of a dispute over votes in Florida.

2000 – Hillary Rodham Clinton became the first First Lady to win public office, defeating Republican Rick Lazio for a U.S. Senate seat from New York.

2000 – Missouri’s late Gov. Mel Carnahan won the Senate election over Rep. John Ashcroft. Carnahan’s widow Jean had already agreed to assume the seat if her husband won.

2001 – The new .BIZ domain extension was officially launched.

2001 –  Italy pledged an aircraft carrier and 2,700 troops to help the American campaign in Afghanistan.

2001 – Bridgestone/Firestone Inc. agreed to pay $41.5 million to head off lawsuits by states over defective tires.

2002 - In his first news conference since the midterm elections, President Bush, charting an agenda for the new Republican Congress, said that homeland security came first and that an economic-recovery plan with new tax cuts would wait until the next year.

2002 – Representative Dick Gephardt stepped down as House Democratic leader in the wake of his party’s election losses.

2002 – Iran bans advertising of United States products.

2003 – In Tikrit, Iraq, an Army Black Hawk helicopter crashed, apparently shot down by insurgents, killing all six U.S. soldiers aboard. Two other soldiers were killed near Mosul.

2003 – The defending champion US baseball team failed to qualify for the 2004 Athens Olympics, losing to Mexico 2-1 in the quarterfinals of a qualifying tournament in Panama City, Panama.

2004 – The Iraqi government declared a sixty-day state of emergency throughout most of the country, as US and Iraqi forces prepared for an all-out assault on rebels in Fallujah.

2005 – Oakland, CA, pediatrician Zehra Attari went missing. On December  20th she was found in her car as it was pulled out of the Oakland estuary at the end of Grand St.

2006 – In a rout once considered almost inconceivable, Democrats won a 51st seat in the Senate and regained control of Congress after 12 years by the Republican Party.

2006 – Keith Ellison, a Democratic state lawmaker from Minnesota, became the first Muslim elected to Congress.

2006 – Bernard Sanders from Vermont was elected to the U.S. Senate over GOP opponent Richard Tarrant and became the first socialist in the U.S. Senate.

2007 – General Motors posted a record loss of $39 billion, which included a $38.6 billion noncash charge related to accumulated deferred tax credits.

2008 – US President–elect Obama gave his first news conference and vowed to pass a stimulus plan as his first act.

2008 – The US Labor Department said the nation’s employers cut 240,000 jobs in October, hurtling the US unemployment rate to a 14-year high of 6.5 percent.

2008 – General Motors Corp. reported $2.5 billion losses in the third quarter, burning through $6.9 billion in cash and warned that in 2009  it could run out of cash.

2009 – The Democratic-controlled House narrowly passed landmark health care reform legislation (220-215), handing President Barack Obama a hard won victory on his signature domestic priority.

2010 – The Nintendo Wii and Nintendo DSi XL come out in color red celebrating Mario’s 25th anniversary.

2011 –  Barnes & Noble, a company best known for its chain of book stores, enters the tablet computer market with the Nook Tablet, an extension of its line of Nook eReaders.

2011 –  Conrad Murray is found guilty of involuntary manslaughter in relation to the death of American entertainer Michael Jackson.

2012 –  A disturbance broke out on the University of Mississippi’s campus early today, after students angry at the reelection of president Barack Obama took to the streets to vent their displeasure.


1832 – Andrew Dickson White, American co-founder and first president of Cornell University (d. 1918)
1867 – Madame Marie Curie (Marja Sklodowski), German Nobel Prize-winning physicist.
1879 – Leon Trotsky, Russian Communist leader.
1918 – Billy Graham, American evangelist and TV host.
1922 – Al Hirt, American trumpeter (d. 1999)
1937 – Mary Travers, American singer (Peter, Paul and Mary)
1942 – Johnny Rivers, American singer and composer






Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Loc Ninh, Republic of Vietnam,  November 7th,  1967. Entered service at:Throop, N.Y. Born:9 November 1944,Auburn,N.Y. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Stryker, U.S. Army, distinguished himself while serving with Company C. Sp4c. Stryker was serving as a grenadier in a multi-company reconnaissance in force near Loc Ninh. As his unit moved through the dense underbrush, it was suddenly met with a hail of rocket, automatic weapons and small arms fire from enemy forces concealed in fortified bunkers and in the surrounding trees. Reacting quickly, Sp4c. Stryker fired into the enemy positions with his grenade launcher. During the devastating exchange of fire, Sp4c. Stryker detected enemy elements attempting to encircle his company and isolate it from the main body of the friendly force. Undaunted by the enemy machinegun and small-arms fire, Sp4c. Stryker repeatedly fired grenades into the trees, killing enemy snipers and enabling his comrades to sever the attempted encirclement. As the battle continued, Sp4c. Stryker observed several wounded members of his squad in the killing zone of an enemy claymore mine. With complete disregard for his safety, he threw himself upon the mine as it was detonated. He was mortally wounded as his body absorbed the blast and shielded his comrades from the explosion. His unselfish actions were responsible for saving the lives of at least six of his fellow soldiers. Sp4c. Stryker’s great personal bravery was in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflects great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.






 State of New Jersey


Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 30th Infantry Division. Place and date: St. Die, France, November 7th, 1944 Born: August 9th, 1913, Lockport, NJ, Entered Service at: Lockport, NJ  Departed: Yes (08/04/1985)  Date Issued: 3/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Private First Class William F. Leonard distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Squad Leader in Company C, 30th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy near St. Die, France on November 7, 1944. Private First Class Leonard’s platoon was reduced to eight men as a result of blistering artillery, mortar, machinegun, and rifle fire. Private First Class Leonard led the survivors in an assault over a hill covered by trees and shrubs which the enemy continuously swept with automatic weapons fire. Ignoring bullets which pierced his pack, Private First Class Leonard killed two snipers at ranges of fifty and seventy-five yards and engaged and destroyed a machinegun nest with grenades, killing its two-man crew. Though momentarily stunned by an exploding bazooka shell, Private First Class Leonard relentlessly advanced, ultimately knocking out a second machinegun nest and capturing the roadblock objective. Private First Class Leonard’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.






Rank and organization: Private First Class,  442 Regimental Combat Team, United States Army. Place and date: near La Houssiere, France ,  November 7th, 1944. Entered service at:  Arkansas Birth: February 21, 1919; Fresno, California  Date of issue: 1998  Citation: Private First Class Joe M. Nishimoto distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on 7 November 1944, near La Houssiere, France. After three days of unsuccessful attempts by his company to dislodge the enemy from a strongly defended ridge, Private First Class Nishimoto, as acting squad leader, boldly crawled forward through a heavily mined and booby-trapped area. Spotting a machine gun nest, he hurled a grenade and destroyed the emplacement. Then, circling to the rear of another machine gun position, he fired his submachine gun at point-blank range, killing one gunner and wounding another. Pursuing two enemy riflemen, Private First Class Nishimoto killed one, while the other hastily retreated. Continuing his determined assault, he drove another machine gun crew from its position. The enemy, with their key strong points taken, were forced to withdraw from this sector. Private First Class Nishimoto’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.






Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 8 February 1918, Columbus, Ohio. Accredited to: West Virginia. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous gallantry above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces during the battle at the Koromokina River, Bougainville Islands, Solomon Islands, on November 7th, 1943. Although several of his men were struck by enemy bullets as he led his squad through dense jungle undergrowth in the face of severe hostile machinegun fire, Sgt. Thomas and his group fearlessly pressed forward into the center of the Japanese position and destroyed the crews of two machineguns by accurate rifle fire and grenades. Discovering a third gun more difficult to approach, he carefully placed his men closely around him in strategic positions from which they were to charge after he had thrown a grenade into the emplacement. When the grenade struck vines and fell back into the midst of the group, Sgt. Thomas deliberately flung himself upon it to smother the explosion, valiantly sacrificing his life for his comrades. Inspired by his selfless action, his men unhesitatingly charged the enemy machinegun and, with fierce determination, killed the crew and several other nearby-defenders. The splendid initiative and extremely heroic conduct of Sgt. Thomas in carrying out his prompt decision with full knowledge of his fate reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.





Rank and organization: Captain of the Afterguard, U.S. Navy. Born: 12 March 1839, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Served as pilot of the U.S.S. Santee when that vessel was engaged in cutting out the rebel armed schooner Royal Yacht from Galveston Bay, November 7th, 1861, and evinced more coolness, in passing the four forts and the rebel steamer General Rusk, than was ever before witnessed by his commanding officer. “Although severely wounded in the encounter, he displayed extraordinary courage under the most painful and trying circumstances.”




Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company G, 27th New York Infantry; and Captain, Company F, 121st New York Infantry. Place and date. At Gaines Mill, Va., 27 June 1862. At Rappallannock Station, Va., November 7th, 1863. Entered service at: New York. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 17 August 1891. Citation: Although wounded at Gaines Mill, Va., he remained on duty and participated in the battle with his company. At Rappahannock Station, Va., while acting as aide, rendered gallant and prompt assistance in reforming the regiments inside the enemy’s works.






Rank and organization: Captain, Company B, 20th Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Rappahannock Station, Va., November 7th, 1863. Entered service at: Brownville, Maine. Birth: Brownville, Maine. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: Learning that an assault was to be made upon the enemy’s works by other troops, this officer voluntarily joined the storming party with about fifty men of his regiment, and by his dash and gallantry rendered effective service in the assault.






Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 6th Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Rappanhannock Station, Va., November 7th,1863. Entered service at: Dexter, Maine. Birth: Sangerville, Maine. Date of issue: 28 December 1863. Citation: Capture of flag of 8th Louisiana Infantry (C.S.A.) in a hand_to_hand struggle with the color bearer.






Rank and organization: Signal Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Cape May County, N.J. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: During action of the main squadron of ships against heavily defended Forts Beauregard and Walker on Hilton Head, November 7th, 1861. Serving as signal quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Mohican, Thompson steadfastly steered the ship with a steady and bold heart under the batteries; was wounded by a piece of shell but remained at his station until he fell from loss of blood. Legs since amputated.





Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Elizabethtown, N.J. G.O. No: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Captain of an 11-inch gun aboard the U.S.S. Mohican during action of the main squadron of ships against the heavily defended Forts Beauregard and Walker on Hilton Head, and against ships of the Confederate Fleet, November 7th, 1861. Cool and courageous at his battle station, Williams maintained steady fire against the enemy while under the fort batteries during a four-hour engagement which resulted in silencing the batteries of the forts and in the rout of the rebel steamers.

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Unerased History – November 6th

Posted by Wayne Church on November 6, 2014 in 11 - November, Blog by month |
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Saxophone Day

National Peanut Butter Lovers Month


Distress Calls

For centuries, ships became isolated as soon as they left visual range of shore and of other ships. This meant that if a ship encountered any problems while at sea, they could sink without anyone knowing their fate. It was also much harder to communicate during time of war and distress. A system to communicate over long distances was needed.

The first messaging system was a non-electric system invented by Claude Chappe in 1794. This was the semaphore system based on a flag alphabet. It depended on a line of sight for communication. The optical telegraph was replaced by the electric telegraph in 1809. A  crude telegraph was invented in Bavaria by Samuel Soemmering then  in 1825, British inventor William Sturgeon (1783-1850) revealed an invention that laid the foundations for electronic communications: the electromagnet. In 1828, the first telegraph in the USA. was invented by Harrison Dyar who sent electrical sparks through chemically treated paper tape to burn dots and dashes.

In 1830, an American, Joseph Henry (1797-1878), demonstrated the potential of William Sturgeon’s electromagnet for long distance communication by sending an electronic current over one mile of wire to activate an electromagnet which caused a bell to strike.

In 1837, British physicists, William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone patented the Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph using the same principle of electromagnetism. It was, however, Samuel Morse (1791-1872) that successfully exploited the electromagnet and bettered Joseph Henry’s invention. Morse made sketches of a “magnetized magnet” based on Henry’s work. Morse invented a telegraph system that was a practical and commercial success.

In 1835 Samuel Morse invented Morse Code. . He gave a public demonstration in 1838, but it was not until five years later that Congress funded $30,000 to construct an experimental telegraph line from Washington to Baltimore, a distance of 40 miles. The message, “What hath God wrought?” was sent by “Morse Code” from the old Supreme Court chamber in the United States Capitol to his partner in Baltimore. This officially opened the completed line of May 24, 1844. Morse allowed Annie Ellsworth, the young daughter of a friend, to choose the words of the message, and she selected a verse from Numbers 23: 23 – “What hath God wrought?”, which was recorded onto paper tape. Morse’s early system produced a paper copy with raised dots and dashes, which were translated later by an operator.

The “SOS” (…—…) distress signal was adopted at the Second International Radio Telegraphic Conference in Berlin,Germany in 1906. According to the 1918 Marconi Yearbook of Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony, “This signal [SOS] was adopted simply on account of its easy radiation and its unmistakable character. There is no special signification in the letters themselves, and it is entirely incorrect to put full stops between them.” All the popular interpretations of SOS – Save our Ship, Save our Souls, or Send Out Succor – are simply not valid. The earlier and original distress call for shipping (as used by the Titanic) was CQD.

With the advent of the telephone and texting, the distress calls have changed significantly. AT&T announced their designation of 911 On January 12, 1968 as a universal emergency number at a press conference in the Washington (DC) office of Indiana Rep. Ed Roush, who had championed for Congressional support for “one number.” AT&T’s plan affected only the Bell companies, and not any of the independent telephone companies. In Alabama, Bob Gallagher, president of the independent Alabama Telephone Co. reads an article in the Wall Street Journal revealing that AT&T intended to announce its emergency number plan that same day.

After reading the Wall Street Journal story, Gallagher decided he would beat AT&T to the punch and implement 911 first , somewhere within the Alabama Telephone Co. territory–it was his competitive spirit. He contacted Robert Fitzgerald, who was Inside State Plant Manager for ATC, who in turn identified Haleyville as the perfect site because of technical considerations. Fitzgerald then designed the circuitry and directed the effort to implement 911 in the town, in the northwest portion of the state.

On February 9th, Gallagher issued a press release announcing that 911 service would begin in Haleyville on Feb. 16. Just 35 days after AT&T’s announcement of 911, the first-ever 911 call is placed by Alabama Speaker of the House Rankin Fite from Haleyville City Hall to U.S. Rep. Tom Bevill (Dem.) at the city’s police station. Bevill reportedly answered the phone with “Hello.” Attending with Fite was Haleyville mayor James Whitt. At the police station with Bevill was Gallagher and Alabama Public Service Commission director Eugene “Bull” Connor (formerly the Birmingham police chief involved in federal desegregation of the city’s schools). Fitzgerald was at the ATC central office serving Haleyville, and actually observed the call pass through the switching gear, as the mechanical equipment clunked out “9-1-1.” The phone used to answer the first 911 call, a bright red model, is now in a museum in Haleyville, AL.


You’ve got to sing like you don’t need the money. You’ve got to love like you’ll never get hurt. You’ve got to dance like there’s nobody watching. You’ve got to come from the heart, if you want it to work.”

 ~ Susanna Clark


rapport ra-POR; ruh-, noun: 

A relation, especially one characterized by sympathetic understanding, emotional affinity, or mutual trust.

comes from French, from Old French, from raporter, “to bring back,” from re-, “back, again” (from Latin) + aporter, “to bring” (from Latin apportare, from ad-, “to” + portare, “to carry”).



1429 – Henry VI was crowned King of England.

1528 - A Spanish barge under Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca landed in East Texas. The survivors of two barges spent the winter on an island they named Isla de Malhado, “The Island of Misfortune.” By the spring of 1529 there were 15 castaways left and half the native population was dead from disease.

1572 – Supernova is observed in the constellation known as Cassiopeia. It was visible to the naked eye for about 16 months until March 1574.

1850 – The San Francisco Bay Yerba Buena and Angel islands were reserved for military use.

1860 – Abraham Lincoln became 16th President of the United States of America; he was the first Republican president. He defeated Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge, Constitutional Union candidate John Bell, and Northern Democrat Stephen Douglas, a U.S. senator for Illinois.

1861 – Civil War: Jefferson Davis was elected to a six-year term as president of the Confederacy.

1863 – Civil War: Battle of Droop Mountain, in West Virginia. In early November, Brig. Gens. W.W. Averell and Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié embarked on a raid into southwestern Virginia to disrupt the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad.

1863 – Civil War: The Battle of Rogersville took place at Big Creek in Hawkins County, Tennessee. Union troops, under the command of Col. Israel Garrard, faced Confederates under the overall command of Brig. Gen. William E. Jones. Confederates won and sent prisoners to Libby Prison in Richmond, Virginia.

1869 – The first intercollegiate football (soccer) game took place, between Rutgers University and Princeton University, in New Brunswick, New Jersey. The final score Rutgers –  6, Princeton –  4.

1882 – ‘The Jersey Lily of England’ made her American debut. Lily Langtry would star in “An Unequal Match” which opened in New York City. In 1882, Lillie arrived in America traffic came to a standstill and The New York Stock Exchange was closed. Even a town in Texas, Langtry, named after her by yet another admirer, Judge Roy Bean.

1888 – Former Union General Benjamin Harrison of Indiana won the presidential election, defeating incumbent Grover Cleveland with electoral votes, even though Cleveland won the popular vote.

1891 – Comanche, the only 7th Cavalry horse to survive George Armstrong Custer’s “Last Stand” at the Little Bighorn, died at Fort Riley, Kan.

1900 – Republican incumbent William McKinley is re-elected by defeating Democrat challenger William Jennings Bryan.

1906 – Republican Charles Evans Hughes was elected governor of New York, defeating newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst. In 1910 he was appointed to the US Supreme Court and served until 1916. In 1930 he was appointed as Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court and served until 1941.

1911 – Maine became a dry state.

1913 – Mohandas K. Gandhi was arrested as he led a march of Indian miners in South Africa.

1917 – New York State allowed women to vote.

1917 – The Third Battle of Ypres finally ended when Canadian forces take the village of Passchendaele in Belgium; it was one of the bloodiest battles of World War I with 250,000 casualties.

1918 – U.S.A. promises to exercise influence to secure for Romania political and territorial rights.

1923 – European inflation soared and one loaf of bread in Berlin was reported to be worth about 140 Billion German Marks. Germany suffered a terrible economic inflation. Hyperinflation eventually made 4.2 trillion marks worth $1. In comparison, the national debt of the US could be paid off with $4 of silver backed US currency.

1928 – U.S. presidential election, 1928: Republican Herbert Hoover wins by a wide margin over Democrat Alfred E. Smith. Norman Thomas was the presidential candidate for the Socialist Party.

1928 – Colonel Jacob Schick patented the first electric razor. The dry shaver went on the market, and in 1930 the firm was incorporated as Schick Dry Shaver, Inc.

1928 – The first Motogram machine was installed on the New York Times Building in Times Square.It was and is an illuminated news ticker that circles the building; it got its start reporting the 1928 election returns. (Hoover won.)

1932 – In general elections held in Germany, the Nazis won.

1935 – Edwin H. Armstrong announced his development of FM broadcasting.

1936 – RCA displayed its 343-line TV for the press as part of NBC’s tenth anniversary celebration.

1936 – Woody Herman played in his first recording session. His greatest commercial and mega popular hit record “Woodchoppers’ Ball“.

1938 – The Red Ryder and Little Beaver cartoon strip by Fred Harman (b.1902) began appearing in the Chicago Sun. It went out of syndication in 1964.

1939 – The Hedda Hopper Show debuts with Hollywood gossip Hedda Hopper as host. The show would run until 1951, making Hopper a powerful figure in the Hollywood elite. Hedda Hopper on What’s My Line

1939 – WGY-TV (Schenectady, NY), first commercial TV station, begins service. This was NBC’s third affiliate – a link that would last for 42 years.

1941 – On Neutrality Patrol, USS Omaha (CL-4) and USS Somers (DD-381) intercept the German blockade runner Odenwald. The smuggler is carrying a cargo of rubber from Japan, disguised as U.S. freighter.

1942 – World War II: Holocaust: Nazis executed 12,000 Minsk ghetto Jews.

1944 – World War II: Holocaust: Hannah Senesh, Jewish poet, was executed by Nazis in Budapest.

1944 – Plutonium is first produced at the Hanford Atomic Facility, subsequently used in the Fat Man Atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.

1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Till the End of Time” by Perry Como, “I’ll Buy that Dream by The Pied Pipers, “That’s for Me” by Dick Haymes and “With Tears in My Eyes” by Wesley Tuttle all topped the charts. Mr. Tuttle lost his fingers on his left hand in a meat grinder, played guitar left-handed.

1945 – The first jet, a FR-1 Fireball landed on a carrier, the USS Wake Island.

1945 – US House UnAmerican Activities Committee began an investigation of seven radio commentators.

1946 – Sister Maria Innocentia Hummel (b.1909 as Berta Hummel), German nun and artist, died. She became famous for her artwork which was used to create the Hummel figurines beginning in 1935.

1947 – “Meet the Press” premiered on TV, making it the oldest program still on television.

1950 – Korean War: A Chinese offensive was halted at Chongchon River, North Korea. General Douglas MacArthur charged the Chinese with unlawful aggression.

1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Vaya Con Dios” by Les Paul & Mary Ford, “You, You, You by The Ames Brothers, “Ebb Tide” by The Frank Chacksfield Orchestra and “I Forgot More Than You’ll Ever Know” by The Davis Sisters all topped the charts.

1954 – “This Ole House” by Rosemary Clooney topped the charts.

1955 – The first motion picture premiere was seen coast to coast. Rex Harrison and Margaret Leighton starred in “The Constant Husband“.

1956 – U.S. presidential election, 1956: Republican incumbent Dwight D. Eisenhower is re-elected by defeating Democrat challenger Adlai E. Stevenson in a rematch of their contest four years earlier.

1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Big Bad John” by Jimmy Dean, “Fool #1” by Brenda Lee,This Time” by Troy Shondell and “Walk on By” by Leroy Van Dyke all topped the charts.

1961 – US government issues a stamp honoring 100th birthday of James Naismith, founder of basketball.

1962 – The United Nations condemned South Africa for its Apartheid policies. The General Assembly called on all member states to terminate economic and military relations with South Africa.

1965 – The Rolling Stones, Strangeloves and Fontella Bass appeared on “Shindig!”

1965 – “Get Off My Cloud” by the Rolling Stones topped the charts.

1965 – “It’s My Life” by the Animals was released.

1965 – Freedom Flights begin: Cuba and the United States formally agree to start an airlift for Cubans who want to go to the United States. By 1971, 250,000 Cubans will take advantage of this program.

1966 – First entire lineup televised in color (NBC).

1967 – Phil Donahue began a TV talk show in Dayton, OH. The show was on the air for 29 years.

1968 – Richard Nixon was elected 37th President of the United States, defeating Hubert Humphrey. Richard Nixon entered the Republican convention as the front runner.

1968At San Francisco State on the one year anniversary of the Gator incident, the Black Students’ Union and the Third World Liberation Front issued a list of 10 “nonnegotiable” demands and called for a one day strike. The strike lasted 167 days.

1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Suspicious Minds” by Elvis Presley, “Wedding Bell Blues” by The 5th Dimension, “Baby It’s You” by Smith and “The Ways to Love a Man” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.

1969 – First Cy Young Award tie (Mike Cuellar, Baltimore & Denny McLain, Detroit).

1971 – “Gypsies, Tramps and Thieves” by Cher topped the charts.

1971 – The US Atomic Energy Commission tests the largest U.S. underground hydrogen bomb, code-named Cannikin, on Amchitka Island in the Aleutians. It exploded a 5-megaton bomb just 87 miles from the Petropavlovsk Russian naval base. It registered as a magnitude-7 earthquake.

1973 – The Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) assassinated Oakland school superintendent Marcus Foster and wounded Robert Blackburn, his assistant. The SLA warned against a proposed student ID program.

1973 – Coleman Young (1918-1997) was elected the first Black mayor of Detroit, Mich. He served 5 consecutive terms and chose not to seek re-election in 1993.

1973 – Abraham D. Beame (1906-2001) was elected as the New York city’s 104th and first Jewish mayor.

1975 – “Good Morning America” premiered on TV.

1976 – “Rock’n Me” by the Steve Miller Band topped the charts.

1976 – Benjamin L. Hooks was chosen to be the new executive director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Light Up My Life” by Debby Boone, “Nobody Does It Better” by Carly Simon, “Boogie Nights” by Heatwave and “I’m Just a Country Boy” by Don Williams all topped the charts.

1977 – Thirty-nine people were killed when an earthen dam burst, sending a wall of water through the campus of Toccoa Falls Bible College in Georgia.

1977 – San Francisco marijuana smokers held “A Day on the Grass” smoke-in at the Civic Center as the 59th Veterans Day Parade took place.

1978 – Pres. Carter signed the Presidential Records Act of 1978, which put the papers of future presidents in the public domain. It envisioned the release of most sensitive records twelve years after a president left office.

1978 – The US Bankruptcy Reform Act revised bankruptcy regulations to allow companies to reorganize under Chapter 11 of the law.

1979 – Ayatollah Khomeini’s Islamic Revolutionary Council took power in Iran from the provisional government.

1982 – “Up Where We Belong” by Joe Cocker & Jennifer Warnes topped the charts.

1983 – U.S. Army choppers dropped hundreds of leaflets over northern and central Grenada. The leaflets urged residents to cooperate in locating any Grenadian army or Cuban resisters to the U.S-led invasion.

1984 – Ronald Reagan defeats Walter Mondale to be re-elected in one of the largest electoral landslides in United States election history. For the first time in 193 years, the New York Stock Exchange remained open during a presidential election day.

1984 – The Coast Guard accepted operational control from the Navy of the SES-200, a Surface Effect Ship, for five months of operations evaluations.

1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Part-Time Lover” by Stevie Wonder, “Miami Vice Theme by Jan Hammer, “Head Over Heels” by Tears For Fears and “Some Fools Never Learn” by Steve Wariner all topped the charts.

1985 – “Irangate” scandal: The American press reveals that US President Ronald Reagan had authorized the shipment of arms to Iran.

1985 – An exploratory oil well at Ranger, Tx., exploded and spilled 150,000 barrels of oil.

1986 – Edy’s Ice Cream Company took out a $1 million policy to protect their taste-tester, John Harrison. His 9.000 taste buds were very important to the company.

1986 – Former Navy radioman John A. Walker Jr., was sentenced in Baltimore to life imprisonment. Walker had admitted to being the head of a family spy ring.

1988 – Six thousand U.S. Defense Department computers were crippled by a virus; the culprit was the 23-year-old son of the head of the country’s computer security agency.

1989 – Word Perfect 5.1 was released.

1990 – Fire destroys some of Universal Studio’s stages. A massive fire started deliberately on the backlot destroyed a fifth of the standing sets. The total damage was estimated at up to $50 million, and was started in a Brownstone Street alley by a security guard with a cigarette lighter.

1990 – William Jefferson became the first African American to be elected to Congress from Louisiana since Reconstruction.

1992 – President-elect Bill Clinton asked Vernon Jordan and Warren Christopher to lead the White House transition team.

1993 – “I’d Do Anything for Love” by Meat Loaf topped the charts.

1993 – Heavyweight boxer Evander Holyfield defeated Riddick Bowe in a 12-round fight in Las Vegas; the match was interrupted in the seventh round when an intruder, using a paraglider, tried to fly into the ring.

1995 – Cleveland Browns owner Art Modell announces he is moving his team to Baltimore. The “Browns” name was not allowed to leave Cleveland, however.

1995 – Mark Messier scored his 500th NHL goal.

1995 – The US Air Force launched the most powerful unmanned rocket, Titan 4, with a $1 bil. Milstar communications satellite for the defense dept.

1995 – Michael Guillen published his “Five Equations That Changed the World.” The book narrates the stories behind Newton’s law of gravity, Daniel Bernoulli’s law of hydrodynamic pressure, Michael Farraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, Rudolf Clausius’s law of entropy, and Albert Einstein’s law of mass-energy equivalence.

1996 – Michael Jordan scored 50 points for the 29th time in his NBA career.

1996 – Chevron Corp. agreed to pay more than $8 million to 777 women in a suit that alleged discrimination in pay, promotions and assignments.

1997 – The Clinton administration warned Iraq it could face military action or economic sanctions if it continued to bar U.N. weapons inspections.

1997 – In Texas the $83 million George Bush Presidential Library and Museum was dedicated on the campus of Texas A&M Univ. at College Station.

1998 – Sen. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, D-N.Y., announced he would not run for re-election in 2000.

1998 – Former Louisiana Gov. Edwin Edwards (71) was charged in a 34-count federal indictment for trying to steer gambling licenses to associates in exchange for payoffs after he left office in 1996.

2001 – Michael Bloomberg, self-made billionaire, was elected as the NYC’s 108th mayor. He spent $69 million on his self-financed campaign. He soon introduced “311,” a form of centralized customer service for the city.

2001 – Season One of the television series “24” was first broadcast. It featured Jack Bauer as the protagonist.

2001 – Attorney General Ashcroft directed US DEA agents to go after Oregon doctors in assisted suicide cases.

2002 – A jury in Beverly Hills convicted actress Winona Ryder of stealing $5,500 worth of merchandise from a Saks Fifth Avenue store.

2002 – In Iran University professor Hashem Aghajari, was sentenced to death on charges of insulting Islam’s prophet and questioning the hard-line clergy’s interpretation of Islam. He was also was sentenced to 74 lashes, banned from teaching for 10 years and exiled to three remote Iranian cities for 8 years.

2003 – Federal judges in New York and California blocked a new ban on certain late-term abortions, a day after President Bush signed it into law.

2003 – Two American soldiers were killed near Baghdad and along the Syrian border.

2003 – The US Mint unveiled the new nickel.

2004 – The designers of SpaceShipOne, the first privately manned rocket to burst into space [see Oct 4], were handed a $10 million check and the Ansari X Prize trophy.

2004 – In an open letter to the Iraqi people and posted on the Internet, 26 Saudi scholars and religious preachers stressed that armed attacks launched by militant Iraqi groups on U.S. troops and their allies in Iraq were “legitimate” resistance.

2005 – A tornado ripped across southwestern Indiana and northern Kentucky, killing at least twenty-two people, wrecking homes and knocking out power to thousands.

2006 – In Danville, Ca., Dimitra Mantas (43) was bludgeoned to death by her son (16), a user of methamphetamine. In 2008 a judge ruled that Andrew Mantas was incompetent to stand trial.

2006 – In Vallejo, Ca., mayoral candidates Osby Davis (62) and Gary Cloutier (45) finished in a dead heat. Cloutier was later sworn in as mayor after elections officials said he won by 4 votes. On Dec 11 Osby was sworn in as mayor following a recount that put him on top by 2 votes.

2007 – The deadliest year for US troops in Iraq, with at least 853 military deaths.

2008 – President elect Barack Obama chose Rahm Emanuel (48) as his White House chief of staff.

2009 – The US Labor Dept. said the unemployment rate has surpassed 10% for the first time since 1983, and that it was expected to go higher. Unemployment in October hit 10.2%  up from 9.8% in September with some 16 million jobless Americans.

2009 – In Orlando, Florida, Jason Rodriguez (40), a former engineer, fatally shot Otis Beckford (26) and wounded five others at the firm where he once worked. The next day his attorney  said Rodriguez is “very mentally ill” and crumbled under the stress of his divorce, bankruptcy and unemployment.

2010 – Joe Paterno wins his 400th game as head coach of the Penn State Nittany Lions, becoming the first FBS head coach to reach that milestone. NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) college football, is formerly known as Division I-A.

2010 – The jury in the Petit family home invasion murder trial continues to deliberate whether murderer Steven Hayes should receive the death penalty or life imprisonment.

2010 – Champion American thoroughbred racehorse Zenyatta ends her career with a second to “Blame” in the Breeders’ Cup.

2011 – Arizona Cardinals beat the St. Louis Rams in overtime with a touchdown after a 99 yard punt return 19-13.

2011 – Thousands of people protest in Washington DC against the proposed Keystone XL project.

2011 – A 5.6 magnitude earthquake, the largest in the state’s history, strikes 21 miles NNE of Shawnee, Oklahoma, causing significant damage.

2012 – Election Day!!! This is the culmination of the single most expensive election ever in American History!!!

2012 –  Two people are shot dead and eight wounded during a workplace violence shooting rampage at chicken processing plant in Fresno, Calif. A disgruntled worker at  California chicken processing plant (Valley Protein)  whipped out a gun Tuesday and started shooting  before shooting himself in the head in a failed suicide bid.

2012 –  President Barack Hussein Obama defeated Governor Mitt Romney for President of the United States.

2013 – Clarence “Ace” Parker, the oldest member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame, died. He was 101. He was a first-round draft choice of the National Football League’s Brooklyn Dodgers in 1937.



1771 – Alois Senefelder, German inventor of lithography.
1814 – Antoine-Joseph Sax (Adolphe Sax), Belgian musician and inventor of the saxophone.
1851 – Charles Henry Dow, American financial journalist who, with Edward D. Jones, started the Dow-Jones Averages.
1854 – John Philip Sousa, American bandleader and composer.
1860 – Ignace Jan Paderewski, Polish composer and musician.
1861 – James Naismith, Canadian-born American, creator of basketball.
1946 – Sally Field, American film and television actress.
1955 – Maria Shriver, former First Lady of California and former journalist for NBC.





Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company H, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Vicinity ogf Chinhung-ni, Korea,  November 6th, 1950. Entered service at: Elizabethtown, Pa. Born: 20 October 1925, Lancaster, Pa. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a platoon commander in Company H, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Grimly determined to dislodge a group of heavy enemy infantry units occupying well-concealed and strongly fortified positions on commanding ground overlooking unprotected terrain. 2d Lt. Reem moved slowly forward up the side of the ridge with his platoon in the face of a veritable hail of shattering hostile machine gun, grenade, and rifle fire. Three times repulsed by a resolute enemy force in achieving his objective, and pinned down by the continuing fury of hostile fire, he rallied and regrouped the heroic men in his depleted and disorganized platoon in preparation for a fourth attack. Issuing last-minute orders to his noncommissioned officers when an enemy grenade landed in a depression of the rocky ground in which the group was standing, 2d Lt. Reem unhesitatingly chose to sacrifice himself and, springing upon the deadly missile, absorbed the full impact of the explosion in his body, thus protecting others from serious injury and possible death. Stouthearted and indomitable, he readily yielded his own chance of survival that his subordinate leaders might live to carry on the fight against a fanatic enemy. His superb courage, cool decisiveness, and valiant spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of certain death reflect the highest credit upon 2d Lt. Reem and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.




Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company C, 893d Tank Destroyer Battalion. Place and date: Kommerscheidt, Germany, November 4th -November 6th, 1944. Entered service at: Dallas, Tex. Birth: Dallas, Tex. G.O. No.: 74, 1 September 1945. Citation: He displayed extraordinary heroism while commanding a platoon of mobile weapons at Kommerscheidt, Germany, on 4, 5, and 6 November 1944. During the fierce three-day engagement, he repeatedly braved overwhelming enemy fire in advance of his platoon to direct the fire of his tank destroyer from exposed, dismounted positions. He went on lone reconnaissance missions to discover what opposition his men faced, and on one occasion, when fired upon by a hostile machinegun, advanced alone and eliminated the enemy emplacement with a hand grenade. When a strong German attack threatened to overrun friendly positions, he moved through withering artillery, mortar, and small arms fire, reorganized confused infantry units whose leaders had become casualties, and exhorted them to hold firm. Although wounded early in battle, he continued to direct fire from his advanced position until he was disabled by a high-explosive shell which shattered his arm, forcing him to withdraw. He was last seen at a medical aid station which was subsequently captured by the enemy. By his superb courage, inspiring leadership, and indomitable fighting spirit, 1st Lt. Leonard enabled our forces to hold off the enemy attack and was personally responsible for the direction of fire which destroyed six German tanks.





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Unerased History – November 5th

Posted by Wayne Church on November 5, 2014 in 11 - November, Blog by month |
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Dear Santa Letter Week




Continuing from yesterday are more documents that will help you understand how people thought in the days that these documents were crafted.

Credentials of the Members of the Federal Convention

  State of Connecticut; May 2, 1787

  Commonwealth of Massachusetts; April 9, 1787

  State of New Hampshire; June 27, 1787

  State of New Jersey; June 5, 1787

  State of New York; March 6, 1787

  State of Pennslyvania; March 28, 1787

 The Constitutional Convention

  Variant Texts of the Virginia Plan, Presented by Edmund Randolph to the Federal Convention, May 29, 1787. Text A.

  Variant Texts of the Virginia Plan, Presented by Edmund Randolph to the Federal Convention, May 29, 1787. Text B.

  Variant Texts of the Virginia Plan, Presented by Edmund Randolph to the Federal Convention, May 29, 1787. Text C.

  The Plan of Charles Pinckney (South Carolina), Presented to the Federal Convention, May 29, 1787

  Variant Texts of the Plan Presented by William Patterson, ( N. J. ) to the Federal Convention, June 15, 1787. Text A

  Variant Texts of the Plan Presented by William Patterson, ( N. J. ) to the Federal Convention, June 15, 1787. Text B

  Variant Texts of the Plan Presented by William Patterson, ( N. J. ) to the Federal Convention, June 15, 1787. Text C

  Variant Texts of the Plan Presented by Alexander Hamilton to the Federal Convention, June 18, 1787. Text. A

  Variant Texts of the Plan Presented by Alexander Hamilton to the Federal Convention, June 18, 1787. Text. B

  Variant Texts of the Plan Presented by Alexander Hamilton to the Federal Convention, June 18, 1787. Text. C

  Variant Texts of the Plan Presented by Alexander Hamilton to the Federal Convention, June 18, 1787. Text. D

  Variant Texts of the Plan Presented by Alexander Hamilton to the Federal Convention, June 18, 1787. Text. E

  Madison’s Notes on Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787

  Constitution as Recorded in Madison’s Notes; September 12, 1787

  Notes of Alexander Hamilton in the Federal Convention of 1787

  Notes of Rufus King in the Federal Convention of 1787

  Notes of Major William Pierce (Georgia) in the Federal Convention of 1787

  Papers of Dr. James McHenry on the Federal Convention of 1787

  Notes of William Paterson in the Federal Convention of 1787

  Notes of the Secret Debates of the Federal Convention of 1787, Taken by the Late Hon Robert Yates, Chief Justice of the State of New York, and One of the Delegates from That State to the Said Convention

  United States Constitution

 Ratification and Formation of the Government

  Letter of the President of the Federal Convention, Dated September 17, 1787, to the President of Congress, Transmitting the Constitution.

  Resolution of the Federal Convention Submitting the Constitution to Congress, September 17, 1787

  Resolution of Congress of September 28, 1787, Submitting the Constitution To the Several States.

  Circular Letter of the Secretary of Congress, Dated September 28, 1787, Transmitting Copy of the Constitution to the Several Governors.

  Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Delaware; December 7, 1787

  Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Pennsylvania; December 12, 1787

  Ratification of the Constitution by the State of New Jersey; December 18, 1787

  Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Georgia; January 2, 1788

  Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Connecticut; January 8, 1788

  Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Massachusetts; February 6, 1788

  Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Maryland; April 28, 1788.

  Ratification of the Constitution by the State of South Carolina; May 23, 1788.

  Ratification of the Constitution by the State of New Hampshire; June 21, 1788

  Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Virginia; June 26, 1788.

  Resolution of Congress, Dated July 2, 1788, Submitting Ratifications of the Constitution to a Committee

  Ratification of the Constitution by the State of New York; July 26, 1788

  Resolution of the Congress, of September 13, 1788, Fixing Date for Election of a President, and the Organization of the Government Under the Constitution, in the City of New York.

  Resolution of the First Congress Submitting Twelve Amendments to the Constitution; March 4, 1789

  Ratification of the Constitution by the State of North Carolina; November 21, 1789

  Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Rhode Island; May 29, 1790.

  The Federalist Papers

  Declaration of the Rights of Man; 1789

  Virginia Resolution 1798

  Kentucky Resolutions : Draft – October 1798

  Kentucky Resolution – 1799


“Don’t be afraid to go out on a limb.  That’s where the best fruit is.”

~ Ken and Linda Williams
Graduates of Central Bucks High School- 1966


 Quixotry  Quix”ot*ry, n.

Quixotism;Visionary schemes.

The state or condition of being extremely idealistic, unrealistic and impractical.This word just recently set the record in Scrabble scoring 365 points in a single turn.


1492 – Christopher Columbus learns of maize (corn) from the Indians of Cuba.

1605 – King James I of England learned about the “Gunpowder Plot,” Guy Fawkes’ plan to blow up Parliament and England’s Protestant government.

1639 – First post office in the colonies opened in Massachusetts.

1733 -German-born publisher John Peter Zenger began printing The New York Weekly Journal in opposition to the British colonial administration.

1768 – William Johnson, the northern Indian Commissioner, signed a treaty with the Iroquois Indians to acquire much of the land between the Tennessee and Ohio rivers for future settlement. It was called the Treaty of Fort Stanwix.

1775 – Continental Army commander- in- chief General George Washington condemns his troops’ planned celebration of the British anti-Catholic holiday, Guy Fawkes Night, as he was simultaneously struggling to win French-Canadian Catholics to the Patriot cause.

1780 –  French-American forces under Colonel LaBalme are defeated by Miami Chief Little Turtle.

1781 – John Hanson elected first “President of the US in Congress assembled.” He was considered a black man because of his Moorish background. Hanson was elected by an unanimous vote and served from November 5, 1781 to November 4, 1782. He was one of the eight “pre-George Washington’ presidents. Seven other presidents were elected after him — Elias Boudinot (1782-83), Thomas Mifflin (1783-84), Richard Henry Lee (1784-85), John Hancock (1785-86), Nathan Gorman (1786-87), Arthur St. Clair (1787-88), and Cyrus Griffin (1788-89).

1814 – Having decided to abandon the Niagara frontier, the American army blew up Fort Erie and withdrew to Buffalo.

1831 –  Nat Turner, American slave leader, is tried, convicted, and sentenced to death in Virginia.

1835 – The Battle of Lipantitlán was fought along the Nueces River between the Mexican Army and Texian insurgents, as part of the Texas Revolution. After the Texian victory at the Battle of Goliad, only two Mexican garrisons remained in Texas, Fort Lipantitlán near San Patricio and the Alamo Mission at San Antonio de Béxar.

1836 – Theo Wright becomes the first Black person to get a Theology Degree in the US.

1844 – Democratic candidate James K. Polk defeated Whig party candidate Henry Clay to become the 11th President of the United States of America.

1862 – President Lincoln removes General George B. McClellan from command of the Army of the Potomac for the second time.

1862 – Three hundred Santee Sioux are found guilty of raping and murdering Anglo settlers and are sentenced to hang. A month later, President Abraham Lincoln commuted all but 38 of the death sentences. One man was acquitted at the last minute.

1870 – The actual FIRST train robbery in the American West took place near Verdi, Nevada. Smiling Jack Davis and his band of robbers stole $40,000 from the Central Pacific Railroad.

1872 – Suffragist Susan B. Anthony was fined $100 for attempting to vote in a presidential election. She never paid the fine.

1872 – Ulysses S. Grant was re-elected US president.

1879 - James Clerk Maxwell (48) the Scottish physicist who calculated the speed of light, died.

1895 – George B. Selden of Rochester, New York, received the first U.S. patent for an automobile. United States Patent No. 549,160 was finally issued to Selden for a machine he originally termed a “road-locomotive” and later would call a “road engine.” He first conceived of it when he was an infantryman in the American Civil War.

1901 – Henry Ford received a patent for a motor carriage.

1911 – Calbraith P. Rodgers completed the first transcontinental airplane trip; it took 49 days and flew from New York City to Pasadena, California.

1911 – The first bombs were dropped (Actually more like a grenade) from airplanes, by the Italians on Libya.

1912 – Woodrow Wilson was elected the 28th President of the United States of America, defeating Progressive Republican Theodore Roosevelt and incumbent Republican William Howard Taft. This presidential election was the only one in American history in which two former presidents were defeated by another candidate.

1915 – In AB-2 flying boat, LCDR Henry C. Mustin makes first underway catapult launch from a ship, USS North Carolina, at Pensacola Bay, FL.

1915 – Marines under Major Smedley D. Butler captured the stronghold at Fort Capois, Haiti. Butler led a reconnaissance force of twenty-six volunteers in pursuit of a Caco force that had killed ten Marines.

1916 – The Everett Massacre takes place in Everett, Washington as political differences lead to a shoot-out between the Industrial Workers of the World organizers and local police.

1917 – World War I: General Pershing led U.S. troops into the first American action against German forces.

1917 – World War I: German submarine torpedoes USS Alcedo off French coast.

1917 - U.S. Supreme Court decision (Buchanan v. Warley) struck down Louisville, Ky., ordinance which required Blacks and whites to live in separate residential areas.

1917 – Emmett J. Scott, former secretary to Booker T. Washington, was appointed special assistant to the Secretary of War. His role was to advise in “Negro” matters.

1918 – World War I: Americans cross Meuse at Brieulles and Clery-le-Petit and take Beaumont.

1919 – Actor Rudolph Valentino married actress Jean Acker. The marriage lasted less than 6 hours.

1923 – Tests designed to prove the feasibility of launching a small seaplane from a submarine occur at Hampton Roads Naval Base.

1927 – Walter Hagen wins his 4th straight PGA championship.

1930 – “All Quiet on the Western Front” wins best picture at the 3rd Annual Academy Awards.

1930 – Sinclair Lewis was the first American awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, for “Babbit”.

1930 – The first commercial television broadcast was aired.

1933 – Chicago Bears 30 game unbeaten streak ends to Greensboro Patriots (10-0).

1934 – The first broadcast of “The Gumps” was heard on CBS radio.

1935 – Parker Brothers launched the game Monopoly.

1935 – Maryland Court of Appeals ordered the University of Maryland to admit black student Donald Murray.

1940 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt won an unprecedented third term as he defeated Republican challenger Wendell L. Willkie along with Surprise Party challenger Gracie Allen.

1941 – Japanese marine staff officers Suzuki and Maejima left Pearl Harbor.

1941 – The Japanese government decides to attempt to negotiate a settlement with the United States, setting a deadline of the end of November. The US rejects the offer.

1942 – World War II: Admiral Tanaka takes command of the “Toyko Express,” the destroyer flotilla supplying Japanese forces on Guadalcanal.

1942 – World War II: American General Eisenhower arrives in Africa from Gibraltar to set up his headquarters for Operation Torch, the invasion of French North Africa.

1943 – World War II: US Task Force 38 (Admiral Sherman) with the carriers Saratoga and Princeton launches an attack on the Japanese naval squadron led by Admiral Kurita. A total of 107 American planes attack, resulting in damage to four heavy cruisers, two light cruisers and two destroyers. Only ten American planes are lost.

1943 – World War II: On Bougainville, the US 3rd Marine Division defeats a counterattack by the Japanese 23rd Regiment.

1943 – World War II: In Italy, the US 5th Army launches an assault on the German-held Reinhard Line.

1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Walk Alone” by Dinah Shore, “Dance with the Dolly by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: Al Jennings), “How Many Hearts Have You Broken” by The Three Suns (singer: Johnny Mercer)  and “Smoke on the Water” by Red Foley all topped the charts.

1944 – World War II: Three groups of US Task Force 38 (Admiral McCain) strike Japanese targets on Luzon and in the nearby waters.

1945 - Ensign Jake C. West (VF-41) makes first jet landing on board a carrier, USS Wake Island (CVE-65).

1946 – John F Kennedy (D-MA) elected to House of Representatives.

1949 – First Marine Corps enlisted pilots to fly “Shooting Star” begin training at El Toro. This was the first jet fighter used operationally by the United States Army Air Forces and the Marine Corps.

1949 – “That Lucky Old Sam” by Frankie Laine topped the charts.

1950 – Tallulah Bankhead hosts “The Big Show” on NBC radio.

1950 – Korean War: General Douglas MacArthur ordered a heavy air offensive over North Korea, including the Yalu River bridges at Sinuiju. This order was in violation of the Joint Chiefs of Staff directive forbidding bombing within five miles of the Yalu River.

1950 – Korean War: The 3rd Infantry Division, joined by the Puerto Rico’s famed 65th Infantry Regiment already in Korea, landed at Wonsan on the East Coast.

1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Belong to Me” by Jo Stafford, “Wish You Were Here by Eddie Fisher, “Half as Much” by Rosemary Clooney and “Jambalaya (On the Bayou)” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.

1955 – “Autumn Leaves” by Roger Williams topped the charts.

1959 – The American Football League was formed.

1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Save the Last Dance for Me” by The Drifters, “My Heart Has a Mind of Its Own” by Connie Francis, “You Talk Too Much” by Joe Jones and “Wings of a Dove” by Ferlin Husky all topped the charts.

1960 – Country and rockabilly artist Johnny Horton, whose number one hit “Battle of New Orleans” topped the pop charts for six solid weeks in 1959, was killed in an auto accident in Milano, Texas.

1963 – Archaeologists found Viking ruins in Newfoundland predating Columbus by 500 years. Leif Ericson, Icelandic explorer, second son of Eric the Red, is believed by most historians to have been the first European to reach the North American mainland.

1966 – “Last Train to Clarksville” by the Monkees topped the charts.

1967 – ATS-3 launched by US to take first pictures of full Earth disk.

1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hey Jude” by The Beatles, “Those Were the Days” by Mary Hopkin, “Midnight Confessions” by The Grass Roots and “Next in Line” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.

1968 – Richard M. Nixon became the 37th President of the United States of America, defeating Vice President Hubert Humphrey and third-party candidate George Wallace.

1968 – Shirley Chisholm of New York became the first Black woman to be elected to the House of Representatives.

1968 – First AL pitcher to win MVP, Denny McLain. His 31-6 record with a 1.96 ERA earned him MVP and Cy Young honors. His 280 strikeouts – as opposed to only 63 walks – also contributed to Detroit’s first pennant since 1945. He was the last 30-game winner of the 20th century.

1969 – In Chicago, Bobby Seale, founder of the Black Panthers, was sentenced to four years in prison after being tried as a member of the “Chicago Eight;” they were a group of political radicals accused of conspiring to incite the riots that occurred during the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago.

1970 – Authorities in Temple City, California, discovered a 13-year-old feral child known as “Genie”, who had spent almost her entire life in social isolation. She is now 55 years old(2012) and speechless!

1974 – Ella T. Grasso became the first woman governor (of Connecticut) to be elected without succeeding her husband.

1974 – Walter E Washington, becomes first elected mayor of Washington, DC.

1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “If You Leave Me Now” by Chicago, “Rock’n Me” by Steve Miller, “The Wreck of the Edmond Fitzgerald” by Gordon Lightfoot and “Among My Souvenirs” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.

1977 – 31-year-old future President George W. Bush marries 33-year-old Laura Welch at the First United Methodist Church in her hometown of Midland, Texas.

1977 – NCAA passing record set at 571 yards (Marc Wilson, Brigham Young).

1977 – Debbie Boone’s “You Light Up My Life,” goes #1.

1978 – Oakland Raider’s John Madden becomes 13th coach to win 100 NFL games.

1979 – Iran’s Ayatollah Khomeini declared US “The Great Satan.”

1982 – Cleveland Cavaliers lose 24th consecutive game (NBA record).

1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Caribbean Queen (No More Love on the Run)” by Billy Ocean, “Purple Rain” by Prince & The Revolution, “Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go” by Wham! And “City of New Orleans” by Willie Nelson all topped the charts.

1984 – The Supreme Court ruled that the NFL could not block future franchise moves and had exceeded antitrust limits in attempting to stop a move by the Oakland Raiders to Los Angeles.

1986- Stephen Sondheim’s and James Lapine’s musical “Into the Woods,” premiered on Broadway. It had debuted in San Diego at the Old Globe Theatre in 1986.

1986 – The White House reaffirmed the U.S. ban on the sale of weapons to Iran.

1987 – Iceberg twice the size of Rhode Island sighted in Antarctic.

1987 – US Supreme Court nominee Douglas H. Ginsburg admitted using marijuana several times in the 1960s and 70s, calling it a mistake. Ginsburg ended up withdrawing his nomination.

1988 – A 23-year-old graduate student at Cornell University, Robert Morris, released the internet’s first worm.

1988 – The Beach Boys hit #1 in US with “Kokomo.

1990 – Egyptian-born gunman, apparently acting alone, assassinated Meir Kahane, the U.S. native who founded the militant Jewish Defense League.

1990 – U.S. Supreme Court let stand an order requiring the U.S. Army to permit homosexuals to re-enlist.

1991 – The Senate confirmed Robert M. Gates as CIA director.

1992 – Malice Green, a black motorist, was beaten to death in Detroit during a struggle with police. Two officers were later convicted in his death and sentenced to prison.

1992 – Bobby Fischer beat Boris Spassky to win Chess title in Belgrade.

1994 – Former President Ronald Reagan disclosed he had Alzheimer’s disease.

1994 : George Foreman becomes oldest heavyweight champ. He defeats 26-year-old Michael Moorer in the 10th round of their WBA fight in Las Vegas.

1994 – Space probe Ulysses completed its first passage behind the Sun.

1996 – U.S. President Bill Clinton was re-elected, defeating Republican challenger Bob Dole.

1998 – Scientists published a genetic study that showed strong evidence that Thomas Jefferson fathered at least one child (Eston Hemings) of his slave, Sally Hemings.

1998 – Chairman Henry Hyde of the Judiciary Committee asked President Clinton to answer 81 questions for the House impeachment inquiry.

1999 – U.S. District Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson declared Microsoft a monopoly.

1999 – Astronomers detected a gas planet near the star called HD 209458, near 51 Pegasi, 153 light-years away. In 2001 scientists said the atmosphere was loaded with sodium.

2001 – Subash Gurung (27) of Nepal was arrested at O’Hare Int’l. Airport just before boarding a plane to Omaha. He passed through checkpoint carrying seven knives, a stun gun and a can marked tear gas and was in the US with an expired student visa.

2001 – Six U.S. Navy Cyclone-Class patrol coastal warships were assigned to Operation Noble Eagle. This was the first time that U.S. Navy ships were employed jointly with the U.S. Coast Guard to help protect our nation’s coastline, ports and waterways from terrorist attack.

2002 – Randy Johnson won his record-tying 4th straight Nat’l. League Cy Young Award.

2003 – President Bush signed a bill outlawing the procedure known by its critics as ”partial-birth abortion.” Less than an hour later, a federal judge in Nebraska issued a temporary restraining order against the ban. In 2007 the US Supreme Court upheld the Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act.

2003 –  Green River Killer Gary Ridgway pleaded guilty to 48 counts of murder.

2004 – The US government said intelligence agencies had tripled their estimate of shoulder fired surface-to-air missile systems to be at large worldwide. At least 4,000 of the weapons from Iraq’s pre-war arsenal could not be accounted for.

2005 – The final episode of The Red Green Show aired, ending at exactly 300 episodes at the end of season 15.

2005 – Earl Krugel (62), Jewish Defense League activist, was killed at the Federal Correctional Inst. In Phoenix, Az. He had been imprisoned for his role in a 2001 plot to bomb a California mosque and the office of Lebanese American congressman Darrell Issa.

2006 – Former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, 69, faced death by hanging after his conviction in Baghdad in a yearlong trial for the 1982 slaughter of 148 Shiite boys and men in the village of Dujail. The sentence was upheld on appeal and was carried out on Dec. 30.

2007 – The first walkout by Hollywood writers in nearly 20 years got under way with noisy pickets outside the “Today” show, a strike that threatens to disrupt everything from late-night talk shows to soap operas.

2007 – Conde Nast said it would cease publication of House & Garden magazine with the December issue and close down the magazine web site.

2008 – California Proposition 8, a referendum that amended the State Constitution, passes and defines marriage as being between a man and a woman, thus ending same-sex marriage in California.

2009 – The U.S. Army  closed its massive Army base at Fort Hood, Texas. The Fort Hood shooting was a shooting that took place today at the fort, located just outside Killeen, Texas  In the course of the shooting, a single gunman killed 13 people and wounded 29 others. It is the worst shooting ever to take place on an American military base. The sole suspect is Nidal Malik Hasan, a U.S. Army Major serving as a psychiatrist. He was shot and taken into custody by Department of the Army Civilian Police officers, and is now paralyzed from the waist down.
2013 Update – This man has yet to be tried and this terrorist attack has been labeled
“workplace violence” by the Obama Department of Justice.”

2010 –  MSNBC suspends U.S. television pundit Keith Olbermann indefinitely for making political donations to three Democratic Party candidates.

2010 – Violent protests occur in Oakland, California following Johannes Mehserle receiving two years jail for the shooting of Oscar Grant on the Bay Area Rapid Transit system.

2011 – The largest earthquake in state history rocked Oklahoma. The 5.6 magnitude event was preceded by an early morning 4.8 quake that measured third-strongest in recorded Oklahoma history. The morning earthquake rattled buildings and awoke residents shortly after 2 a.m. The evening quake followed Saturday at 10:53 p.m.

2012 – The Mothers Health & Safety Act, which prohibits most abortions after 20 weeks, will be heard in the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco. Maricopa County (AZ) Attorney Bill Montgomery will be arguing in defense of the law in court.

2013 – The U.S. Supreme Court hears oral argument today in Bond v. United States, the fundamental issues will be U.S. sovereignty and the Constitution’s structural limits on federal power. The original case was in 2006, Carol Anne Bond of Lansdale, Pa., burned a woman with caustic chemicals as revenge after the woman became pregnant by Bond’s husband.


1855 – Eugene V. Debs, American Socialist leader, first president of the American Railway Union.
1885 – Will Durant, American author.
1912 – Roy Rogers  (Leonard Slye later known as Roy Rogers), is born in Cincinnati, Ohio. Rogers first came to Hollywood in the 1920s as a migrant fruit picker. In the early 1930s, he joined a singing group called Uncle Tom Murray’s Hollywood Hillbillies, which first sang on the radio in 1931.

1913 – British actress Vivien Leigh. Leigh is best remembered for playing Scarlett O’Hara in Gone with the Wind (1939), for which she received her first Best Actress Oscar. In 1940, Leigh married actor Laurence Olivier. She won a second Best Actress Oscar in 1951, for her role as Blanche du Bois in A Streetcar Named Desire.
1941 – Art Garfunkel, American singer-songwriter.
1943 – Sam Shepard, American actor-playwright.
1947 – Peter “Herman” Noone, English singer of the 1960s rock group Herman’s Hermits.



Rank and organization: Sergeant (then Pfc.), U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 27th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, November 5th, 1966. Entered service at: Moline, Ill. Born: 30 October 1945, Davenport, Iowa. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. En route to assist another unit that was engaged with the enemy, Company A came under intense enemy fire and the lead man was killed instantly. Sgt. Baker immediately moved to the head of the column and together with another soldier knocked out two enemy bunkers. When his comrade was mortally wounded, Sgt. Baker, spotting four Viet Cong snipers, killed all of them, evacuated the fallen soldier and returned to lead repeated assaults against the enemy positions, killing several more Viet Cong. Moving to attack two additional enemy bunkers, he and another soldier drew intense enemy fire and Sgt. Baker was blown from his feet by an enemy grenade. He quickly recovered and single-handedly destroyed one bunker before the other soldier was wounded. Seizing his fallen comrade’s machine gun, Sgt. Baker charged through the deadly fusillade to silence the other bunker. He evacuated his comrade, replenished his ammunition and returned to the forefront to brave the enemy fire and continue the fight. When the forward element was ordered to withdraw, he carried one wounded man to the rear. As he returned to evacuate another soldier, he was taken under fire by snipers, but raced beyond the friendly troops to attack and kill the snipers. After evacuating the wounded man, he returned to cover the deployment of the unit. His ammunition now exhausted, he dragged two more of his fallen comrades to the rear. Sgt. Baker’s selfless heroism, indomitable fighting spirit, and extraordinary gallantry were directly responsible for saving the lives of several of his comrades, and inflicting serious damage on the enemy. His acts were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.




Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 27th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Quan Dau Tieng, Republic of Vietnam, November 5th,1966. Entered service at: Newton, Mass. Born: 30 May 1941, Newton, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Foley’s company was ordered to extricate another company of the battalion. Moving through the dense jungle to aid the besieged unit, Company A encountered a strong enemy force occupying well concealed, defensive positions, and the company’s leading element quickly sustained several casualties. Capt. Foley immediately ran forward to the scene of the most intense action to direct the company’s efforts. Deploying one platoon on the flank, he led the other two platoons in an attack on the enemy in the face of intense fire. During this action both radio operators accompanying him were wounded. At grave risk to himself he defied the enemy’s murderous fire, and helped the wounded operators to a position where they could receive medical care. As he moved forward again one of his machine gun crews was wounded. Seizing the weapon, he charged forward firing the machine gun, shouting orders and rallying his men, thus maintaining the momentum of the attack. Under increasingly heavy enemy fire he ordered his assistant to take cover and, alone, Capt. Foley continued to advance firing the machine gun until the wounded had been evacuated and the attack in this area could be resumed. When movement on the other flank was halted by the enemy’s fanatical defense, Capt. Foley moved to personally direct this critical phase of the battle. Leading the renewed effort he was blown off his feet and wounded by an enemy grenade. Despite his painful wounds he refused medical aid and persevered in the forefront of the attack on the enemy redoubt. He led the assault on several enemy gun emplacements and, single handed, destroyed three such positions. His outstanding personal leadership under intense enemy fire during the fierce battle which lasted for several hours inspired his men to heroic efforts and was instrumental in the ultimate success of the operation. Capt. Foley’s magnificent courage, selfless concern for his men and professional skill reflect the utmost credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.




Rank and organization: Corporal, U S. Army, Company E, 19th Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Chonghyon, Korea, November 5th, 1950. Entered service at: Merrilan Wis. Born: 2 July 1924, Hatfield, Wis. G.O. No.: 26, 25 April 1951. Citation: Cpl. Red Cloud, Company E, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. From his position on the point of a ridge immediately in front of the company command post he was the first to detect the approach of the Chinese Communist forces and give the alarm as the enemy charged from a brush-covered area less than one-hundred feet from him. Springing up he delivered devastating pointblank automatic rifle fire into the advancing enemy. His accurate and intense fire checked this assault and gained time for the company to consolidate its defense. With utter fearlessness he maintained his firing position until severely wounded by enemy fire. Refusing assistance he pulled himself to his feet and wrapping his arm around a tree continued his deadly fire again, until he was fatally wounded. This heroic act stopped the enemy from overrunning his company’s position and gained time for reorganization and evacuation of the wounded. Cpl. Red Cloud’s dauntless courage and gallant self-sacrifice reflects the highest credit upon himself and upholds the esteemed traditions of the U.S. Army.





Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 60th Infantry, 5th Division. Place and date: At Clery-le-Petit, France, November 5th,1918. Entered service at: Corvallis, Oreg. Born: 6 July 1887, Crawford, Wash. G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919. Citation: While his company was crossing the Meuse River and canal at a bridgehead opposite Clery-le-Petit, the bridge over the canal was destroyed by shell fire and Capt. Allworth’s command became separated, part of it being on the east bank of the canal and the remainder on the west bank. Seeing his advance units making slow headway up the steep slope ahead, this officer mounted the canal bank and called for his men to follow. Plunging in he swam across the canal under fire from the enemy, followed by his men. Inspiring his men by his example of gallantry, he led them up the slope, joining his hard-pressed platoons in front. By his personal leadership he forced the enemy back for more than a kilometer, overcoming machinegun nests and capturing 100 prisoners, whose number exceeded that of the men in his command. The exceptional courage and leadership displayed by Capt. Allworth made possible the re-establishment of a bridgehead over the canal and the successful advance of other troops.


CANN, TEDFORD H.State of Connecticut



Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 3 September 1897, Bridgeport, Conn. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 366, 1918. Citation: For courageous conduct while serving on board the U.S.S. May, November 5th, 1917. Cann found a leak in a flooded compartment and closed it at the peril of his life, thereby unquestionably saving the ship.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Battery G, 3d U.S. Artillery. Place and date: Near Calulut, Luzon, Philippine Islands, November 5th,1899. Entered service at: ——. Birth: South Brooksville, Maine. Date of issue: 11 March 1902. Citation: While in command of a detachment of four men, charged and routed forty entrenched insurgents, inflicting on them heavy loss.




Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: Between Calubus and Malalong, Philippine Islands, November 5th, 1899. Entered service at: San Francisco, Calif. Born: 13 June 1869, Niles Township, Delaware County, Ind. Date of issue: 15 March 1902. Citation: Alone and unaided, charged a body of fifteen insurgents, dislodging them, killing four and wounding several.





Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Staked Plains, Tex., November 5th, 1874. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 13 October 1875. Citation: Ran down and killed an Indian.

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Valor 24 Medal of Honor Recipients

Posted by Wayne Church on November 4, 2014 in Uncategorized |
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President Obama presented 24 Medals of Honor to Army personnel who served previously and, according to him, represented Hispanic Army veterans.  These are also posted throughout the Medal of Honor Collection in the daily Unerased History.




State of California


Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, United States Army. Place and date: Phuoc Long Province, Republic of Vietnam, 12 August 1969. Entered service at: Bakersfield, Calif. Born: 13 February 1947, Bakersfield, CA Date of Issue: 18 March 2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Specialist Four Leonard L. Alvarado distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Rifleman with Company D, 2d Battalion, 12th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) during combat operations against an armed enemy in Phuoc Long Province, Republic of Vietnam on August 12, 1969. On that day, as Specialist Four Alvarado and a small reaction force moved through dense jungle en route to a beleaguered friendly platoon, Specialist Four Alvarado detected enemy movement and opened fire. Despite his quick reaction, Specialist Four Alvarado and his comrades were soon pinned down by the hostile force that blocked the path to the trapped platoon. Specialist Four Alvarado quickly moved forward through the hostile machinegun fire in order to engage the enemy troops. Suddenly, an enemy grenade exploded nearby, wounding and momentarily stunning him. Retaliating immediately, he killed the grenadier just as another enemy barrage wounded him again. Specialist Four Alvarado crawled forward through the fusillade to pull several comrades back within the hastily-formed perimeter. Realizing his element needed to break away from the hostile force, Specialist Four Alvarado began maneuvering forward alone. Though repeatedly thrown to the ground by exploding satchel charges, he continued advancing and firing, silencing several emplacements, including one enemy machinegun position. From his dangerous forward position, he persistently laid suppressive fire on the hostile forces, and after the enemy troops had broken contact, his comrades discovered that he had succumbed to his wounds. Specialist Four Alvarado’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.






 State of California


Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company B, 187 Airborne Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Kangdong, Korea, 15 November 1950. Entered service at: Santa Clara, Calif. Born: 28 August 1930, Colorado  Date of Issue: 18 March 2014 Departed: Yes (11/25/1950)
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Corporal Joe R. Baldonado distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an acting machinegunner in 3d Squad, 2d Platoon, Company B, 187th Airborne Infantry Regiment during combat operations against an armed enemy in Kangdong, Korea on November 25, 1950. On that morning, the enemy launched a strong attack in an effort to seize the hill occupied by Corporal Baldonado and his company. The platoon had expended most of its ammunition in repelling the enemy attack and the platoon leader decided to commit his 3d Squad, with its supply of ammunition, in the defensive action. Since there was no time to dig in because of the proximity of the enemy, who had advanced to within twenty-five yards of the platoon position, Corporal Baldonado emplaced his weapon in an exposed position and delivered a withering stream of fire on the advancing enemy, causing them to fall back in disorder. The enemy then concentrated all their fire on Corporal Baldonado’s gun and attempted to knock it out by rushing the position in small groups and hurling hand grenades. Several times, grenades exploded extremely close to Corporal Baldonado but failed to interrupt his continuous firing. The hostile troops made repeated attempts to storm his position and were driven back each time with appalling casualties. The enemy finally withdrew after making a final assault on Corporal Baldonado’s position during which a grenade landed near his gun, killing him instantly. Corporal Baldonado’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.








Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company C, 4th US Infantry. Place and date: December 2-3, 1944, Schevenhutte, Germany. Entered service at: Texas. Born: June 19, 1920, La Morita, Mexico  Departed: 6/24/1952   Date of Issue: 3/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Private Pedro Cano distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving with Company C, 8th Infantry Regiment, 4th Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Schevenhutte, Germany on December 2 and 3, 1944. On the afternoon of the 2nd, American infantrymen launched an attack against German emplacements but were repulsed by enemy machinegun fire. Armed with a rocket launcher, Private Cano crawled through a densely mined area under heavy enemy fire and successfully reached a point within ten yards of the nearest emplacement. He quickly fired a rocket into the position, killing the two gunners and five supporting riflemen. Without hesitating, he fired into a second position, killing two more gunners, and proceeded to assault the position with hand grenades, killing several others and dispersing the rest. Then, when an adjacent company encountered heavy fire, Private Cano crossed his company front, crept to within fifteen yards of the nearest enemy emplacement and killed the two machinegunners with a rocket. With another round he killed two more gunners and destroyed a second gun. On the following day, his company renewed the attack and again encountered heavy machinegun fire. Private Cano, armed with his rocket launcher, again moved across fire-swept terrain and destroyed three enemy machineguns in succession, killing the six gunners. Private Cano’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.








Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 1st Battalion, 82nd Division. Place and date: April 4, 1969, Ap Tan Hoa, Vietnam Born: February 24, 1938, Juncos, Puerto Rico Entered Service At: Chicago, IL  Departed: Yes (04/04/1969)  Date of Issue: 03/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Staff Sergeant Felix M. Conde-Falcon distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an acting Platoon Leader in Company D, 1st Battalion, 505th Infantry Regiment, 3d Brigade, 82d Airborne Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Ap Tan Hoa, Republic of Vietnam on April 4, 1969. While entering a heavily wooded section on the route of advance, Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon and his company encountered an extensive enemy bunker complex, later identified as a battalion command post. Following tactical artillery and air strikes on the heavily-secured enemy position, Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon’s platoon was selected to assault and clear the bunker fortifications. Moving out ahead of his platoon, Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon charged the first bunker, heaving grenades as he went. As the hostile fire increased, he crawled to the blind side of an entrenchment position, jumped to the roof, and tossed a grenade into the bunker aperture. Without hesitating, he proceeded to two additional bunkers, both of which he destroyed in the same manner as the first. Rejoining his platoon, Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon advanced about one hundred meters through the trees before coming under intense hostile fire. Selecting three men to accompany him, he maneuvered toward the enemy’s flank position. Carrying a machinegun, he single-handedly assaulted the nearest fortification, killing the enemy inside before running out of ammunition. After returning to the three men with his empty weapon and taking up an M-16 rifle, he concentrated on the next bunker. Within ten meters of his goal, Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon was shot by an unseen assailant and soon died of his wounds. Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.







 State of Florida

Rank and organization: Specialist 4th Class, U.S. Army. Place and date: Ph Romeas Hek, Cambodia, May 12, 1970.  Born: August, 29, 1950, Fort Pierce, FL , Entered Service at: Fort Pierce, FL  Departed: 5/12/1970

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Specialist Four Ardie R. Copas distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Machinegunner in Company C, 1st Battalion (Mechanized), 5th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy near Ph Romeas Hek, Cambodia on May 12, 1970. That morning, Specialist Four Copas’ company was suddenly attacked by a large hostile force firing recoilless rifles, rocket-propelled grenades, and automatic weapons. As Specialist Four Copas began returning fire, his armored car was struck by an enemy recoilless round, knocking him to the ground and injuring four American Soldiers beside the vehicle. Ignoring his own wounds, Specialist Four Copas quickly remounted the burning vehicle and commenced firing his machinegun at the belligerents. Braving the hostile fire directed at him and the possible detonation of the mortar rounds inside the track, Specialist Four Copas maintained a heavy volume of suppressive fire on the foe while the wounded Americans were safely evacuated. Undaunted, Specialist Four Copas continued to place devastating volleys of fire upon the adversary until he was mortally wounded when another enemy round hit his vehicle. Specialist Four Copas’ daring action resulted in the safe evacuation of his comrades. Specialist Four Copas’ extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.



ArmyValor24DURAN, JESUS S.Mexico75



Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company E, 2nd Battalion, 5th Calvary, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Ph Romeas Hek, Cambodia May 12, 1970 .  Born: July 26, 1948, Juarez, Mexico  Entered Service at: California Date of Issue: July 26, 1948, Juarez, Mexico

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Specialist Four Jesus S. Duran distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an acting M-60 machinegunner in Company E, 2d Battalion, 5th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) during combat operations against an armed enemy in the Republic of Vietnam on April 10, 1969. That afternoon, the reconnaissance platoon was moving into an elaborate enemy bunker complex when the lead elements began taking concentrated ambush fire from every side. The command post was in imminent danger of being overrun. With an M-60 machinegun blazing from his hip, Specialist Four Duran rushed forward and assumed a defensive position near the command post. As hostile forces stormed forward, Specialist Four Duran stood tall in a cloud of dust raised by the impacting rounds and bursting grenades directed towards him and thwarted the enemy with devastating streams of machinegun fire. Learning that two seriously wounded troopers lay helplessly pinned down under harassing fire, Specialist Four Duran assaulted the suppressive enemy positions, firing deadly bursts on the run. Mounting a log, he fired directly into the enemy’s foxholes, eliminating four and cutting down several others as they fled. Specialist Four Duran then continued to pour effective fire on the disorganized and fleeing enemy. Specialist Four Duran’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.








 State of Texas


Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 501st Infantry, 101st Airborne Division. Place and date: Tam Ky City, Vietnam, May 21, 1969.  Born: 1946, Nordheim, TX  Entered Service at: San Antonio, TX

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Specialist Four Santiago J. Erevia distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a radio telephone operator in Company C, 1st Battalion (Airmobile), 501st Infantry, 101st Airborne Division (Airmobile) during search and clear mission near Tam Ky, Republic of Vietnam on May 21, 1969. After breaching an insurgent perimeter, Specialist Four Erevia was designated by his platoon leader to render first aid to several casualties, and the rest of the platoon moved forward. As he was doing so, he came under intense hostile fire from four bunkers to his left front. Although he could have taken cover with the rest of the element, he chose a retaliatory course of action. With heavy enemy fire directed at him, he moved in full view of the hostile gunners as he proceeded to crawl from one wounded man to another, gathering ammunition. Armed with two M-16 rifles and several hand grenades, he charged toward the enemy positions behind the suppressive fire of the two rifles. Under very intense fire, he continued to advance on the insurgents until he was near the first bunker. Disregarding the enemy fire, he pulled the pin from a hand grenade and advanced on the bunker, leveling suppressive fire until he could drop the grenade into the bunker, mortally wounding the insurgent and destroying the fortification. Without hesitation, he employed identical tactics as he proceeded to eliminate the next two enemy positions. With the destruction of the third bunker, Specialist Four Erevia had exhausted his supply of hand grenades. Still under intense fire from the fourth position, he courageously charged forward behind the fire emitted by his M-16 rifles. Arriving at the very edge of the bunker, he silenced the occupant within the fortification at point blank range. Through his heroic actions the lives of the wounded were saved and the members of the Company Command Post were relieved from a very precarious situation. His exemplary performance in the face of overwhelming danger was an inspiration to his entire company and contributed immeasurably to the success of the mission. Specialist Four Erevia’s conspicuous gallantry, extraordinary heroism, and intrepidity at the risk of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, were in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.




 State of Texas


Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army. Place and date: Chorwon, Korea, August 1, 1952.  Born: July 15, 1929, El Paso, TX Entered Service at:Texas  Departed: Yes (4/17/1986)  Date Issued: 3/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Corporal Victor H. Espinoza distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an Acting Rifleman in Company A, 23d Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Chorwon, Korea on August 1, 1952. On that day, Corporal Espinoza and his unit were responsible for securing and holding a vital enemy hill. As the friendly unit neared its objective, it was subjected to a devastating volume of enemy fire, slowing its progress. Corporal Espinoza, unhesitatingly and being fully aware of the hazards involved, left his place of comparative safety and made a deliberate one man assault on the enemy with his rifle and grenades, destroying a machinegun and killing its crew. Corporal Espinoza continued across the fire-swept terrain to an exposed vantage point where he attacked an enemy mortar position and two bunkers with grenades and rifle fire, knocking out the enemy mortar position and destroying both bunkers and killing their occupants. Upon reaching the crest, and after running out of rifle ammunition, he called for more grenades. A comrade who was behind him threw some Chinese grenades to him. Immediately upon catching them, he pulled the pins and hurled them into the occupied trenches, killing and wounding more of the enemy with their own weapons. Continuing on through a tunnel, Corporal Espinoza made a daring charge, inflicting at least seven more casualties upon the enemy who were fast retreating into the tunnel. Corporal Espinoza was quickly in pursuit, but the hostile fire from the opening prevented him from overtaking the retreating enemy. As a result, Corporal Espinoza destroyed the tunnel with TNT, called for more grenades from his company, and hurled them at the enemy troops until they were out of reach. Corporal Espinoza’s incredible display of valor secured the vital strong point and took a heavy toll on the enemy, resulting in at least fourteen dead and eleven wounded. Corporal Espinoza’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.







 State of Missouri


Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 21st  Infantry. Place and date: Kumson, Korea, October 19, 1951.  Born: October 18, 1928, Lamar, MO, Entered Service at:  Departed:

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Private Joe Gandara distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving with Company D, 2d Battalion, 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 17th Airborne Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Amfreville, France on June 9, 1944. On that day, Private Gandara’s detachment came under devastating enemy fire from a strong German force, pinning the men to the ground for a period of four hours. Private Gandara voluntarily advanced alone toward the enemy position. Firing his machinegun from his hip as he moved forward, he destroyed three hostile machineguns before he was fatally wounded. Private Gandara’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.




 State of Texas


Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 1st  Battalion, 1st Brigade, 1st Infantry Division . Place and date: Lai Khe, Republic of Vietnam, December 8, 1968.  Born: February 26, 1944, Corsicana, TX,  Entered Service at: Texas,  Departed: Yes (01/10/2013)

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Sergeant Candelario Garcia distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an acting Team Leader for Company B, 1st Battalion, 2d Infantry, 1st Brigade,1st Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Lai Khe, Republic of Vietnam on December 8, 1968. On that day, while conducting reconnaissance, Sergeant Garcia and his platoon discovered communication wire and other signs of an enemy base camp leading into a densely vegetated area. As the men advanced, they came under intense fire. Several men were hit and trapped in the open. Ignoring a hail of hostile bullets, Sergeant Garcia crawled to within ten meters of a machinegun bunker, leaped to his feet and ran directly at the fortification, firing his rifle as he charged. Sergeant Garcia jammed two hand grenades into the gun port and then placed the muzzle of his weapon inside, killing all four occupants. Continuing to expose himself to intense enemy fire, Sergeant Garcia raced fifteen meters to another bunker and killed its three defenders with hand grenades and rifle fire. After again braving the enemies’ barrage in order to rescue two casualties, he joined his company in an assault which overran the remaining enemy positions. Sergeant Garcia’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.





 State of California


Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Company 1, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: September 3, 1950, Tabu-dong, Korea .  Born: October 28, 1919, Los Angeles, CA, Entered Service at:  Departed: Yes (01/29/1972) Date Issued: 3/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Sergeant Eduardo C. Gomez distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving with Company I, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Tabu-dong, Korea on September 3, 1950. That afternoon, while conducting combat patrol, Sergeant Gomez’ company was ruthlessly attacked by a hostile force which moved within seventy-five yards of the command post before it was immobilized by rocket fire. However, an enemy tank and multiple enemy machineguns continued to rake the company perimeter with devastating fire. Realizing the tank posed a serious threat to the entire perimeter, Sergeant Gomez voluntarily crawled thirty yards across an open rice field vulnerable to enemy observation and fire, boarded the tank, pried open one of the hatches on the turret and dropped an activated grenade into the hull, killing the crew. Wounded in the left side while returning to his position, Sergeant Gomez refused evacuation. Observing that the tripod of a .30 caliber machinegun was rendered inoperable by enemy fire, he cradled the weapon in his arms, returned to the forward defensive positions, and swept the assaulting force with withering fire. Although his weapon overheated and burned his hands and his painful wound still bled, Sergeant Gomez maintained his stand and, upon orders to withdraw in the face of overwhelming enemy superiority, remained to provide protective fire. Sergeant Gomez continued to pour accurate fire into the enemy ranks, exacting a heavy toll in casualties and retarding their advance. Sergeant Gomez would not consent to leave his post for medical attention until the company established new defensive positions. Sergeant Gomez’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.






 State of New York


Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company M, 3d Battalion, 5th Regiment. Place and date: Yangpyong, Korea, March 6-7, 1951.  Born: 1931, Brooklyn,  Entered Service at: New York  Departed: Yes (03/07/1951)  Date Issued: 3/14/2014


For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Private First Class Leonard M. Kravitz distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an assistant machinegunner with Company M, 5th Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Yangpyong, Korea on March 6 and 7, 1951. After friendly elements had repulsed two probing attacks, the enemy launched a fanatical banzai charge with heavy supporting fire and, despite staggering losses, pressed the assault with ruthless determination. When the machinegunner was wounded in the initial phase of the action, Private First Class Kravitz immediately seized the weapon and poured devastating fire into the ranks of the onrushing assailants. The enemy effected and exploited a breach on the left flank, rendering the friendly positions untenable. Upon order to withdraw, Private First Class Kravitz voluntarily remained to provide protective fire for the retiring elements. Detecting enemy troops moving toward friendly positions, Private First Class Kravitz swept the hostile soldiers with deadly, accurate fire, killing the entire group. His destructive retaliation caused the enemy to concentrate vicious fire on his position and enabled the friendly elements to withdraw. Later, after friendly troops had returned, Private First Class Kravitz was found dead behind the gun he had so heroically manned, surrounded by numerous enemy dead. Private First Class Kravitz’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.







 State of California


Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company L, 180th  Infantry. Place and date: Aprilia, Italy May 27-28, 1944.  Born: 1920  Entered Service at: Riverside, CA Departed: Yes (05/28/1945)

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Private First Class Salvador J. Lara distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as the Squad Leader of a rifle squad with 2d Platoon, Company L, 180th Infantry, 45th Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Aprilia, Italy on May 27 and 28, 1944. On the afternoon of the 27th, Private First Class Lara aggressively led his rifle squad in neutralizing multiple enemy strongpoints and in inflicting large numbers of casualties on the enemy. Having taken his initial objective, Private First Class Lara noticed that the unit to his right was meeting stiff resistance from a large, well-entrenched enemy force in a deep ditch. Private First Class Lara quickly gathered three men and attacked a wide section of the enemy position, killing four, forcing fifteen others to surrender and causing two enemy mortar crews to abandon their weapons. His fearless and efficient performance enabled both his own unit and the unit to his right to continue to their objective. The next morning, as his company resumed the attack, Private First Class Lara sustained a severe leg wound, but did not stop to receive first aid. His company suffered heavy casualties as a result of withering machinegun fire coming from an enemy strongpoint on the right flank. After requesting permission to destroy the enemy machineguns armed only with a Browning Automatic Rifle, Private First Class Lara crawled alone toward the nearest machinegun. Despite his painful wound and the extreme danger of the task, he rose and fearlessly charged the nest, killing the crew members. Another machinegun opened fire on him, but he quickly neutralized this weapon with accurate fire from his Browning, killing three more of the enemy. His aggressive attack forced two other machinegun crews to flee their weapons. After rejoining his company, Private First Class Lara continued his exemplary performance until he captured his objective. Private First Class Lara’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.





 State of New Jersey


Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 30th Infantry Division. Place and date: St. Die, France, November 7, 1944 Born: August 9th, 1913, Lockport, NJ, Entered Service at: Lockport, NJ  Departed: Yes (08/04/1985)  Date Issued: 3/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Private First Class William F. Leonard distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Squad Leader in Company C, 30th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy near St. Die, France on November 7, 1944. Private First Class Leonard’s platoon was reduced to eight men as a result of blistering artillery, mortar, machinegun, and rifle fire. Private First Class Leonard led the survivors in an assault over a hill covered by trees and shrubs which the enemy continuously swept with automatic weapons fire. Ignoring bullets which pierced his pack, Private First Class Leonard killed two snipers at ranges of fifty and seventy-five yards and engaged and destroyed a machinegun nest with grenades, killing its two-man crew. Though momentarily stunned by an exploding bazooka shell, Private First Class Leonard relentlessly advanced, ultimately knocking out a second machinegun nest and capturing the roadblock objective. Private First Class Leonard’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.






 State of Arizona


Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, Company B, 250th Infantry, 88th Infantry Division. Place and date: Mt. Battaglia, Italy, October 4, 1944  Born: June 15, 1922, Miami, AZ   Entered Service at:  Phoenix, AZ  Departed: 12/12/2001  Date of Issue: 3/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Staff Sergeant Manuel V. Mendoza distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Platoon Sergeant with Company B, 350th Infantry, 88th Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy on Mt. Battaglia, Italy on October 4, 1944. That afternoon, the enemy launched a violent counterattack preceded by a heavy mortar barrage. Staff Sergeant Mendoza, already wounded in the arm and leg, grabbed a Thompson sub-machinegun and ran to the crest of the hill where he saw approximately 200 enemy troops charging up the slopes employing flame-throwers, machine pistols, rifles, and hand grenades. Staff Sergeant Mendoza immediately began to engage the enemy, firing five clips and killing ten enemy soldiers. After exhausting his ammunition, he picked up a carbine and emptied its magazine at the enemy. By this time, an enemy soldier with a flame-thrower had almost reached the crest, but was quickly eliminated as Staff Sergeant Mendoza drew his pistol and fired. Seeing that the enemy force continued to advance, Staff Sergeant Mendoza jumped into a machinegun emplacement that had just been abandoned and opened fire. Unable to engage the entire enemy force from his location, he picked up the machinegun and moved forward, firing from his hip and spraying a withering hail of bullets into the oncoming enemy, causing them to break into confusion. He then set the machinegun on the ground and continued to fire until the gun jammed. Without hesitating, Staff Sergeant Mendoza began throwing hand grenades at the enemy, causing them to flee. After the enemy had withdrawn, he advanced down the forward slope of the hill, retrieved numerous enemy weapons scattered about the area, captured a wounded enemy soldier, and returned to consolidate friendly positions with all available men. Staff Sergeant Mendoza’s gallant stand resulted in thirty German soldiers killed and the successful defense of the hill. Staff Sergeant Mendoza’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.






 State of Oklahoma

Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, 3rd Company. Place and date: Chi Lang, Vietnam, September 17, 1969.  Born: January 7, 1942, Okmulgee, OK, Entered Service at:  Fort Bragg, NC  Departed: No  Date of Issue: 3/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Staff Sergeant Melvin Morris distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as Commander of a Strike Force drawn from Company D, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces, during combat operations against an armed enemy in the vicinity of Chi Lang, Republic of Vietnam on September 17, 1969. On that afternoon, Staff Sergeant Morris’ affiliated companies encountered an extensive enemy mine field and were subsequently engaged by a hostile force. Staff Sergeant Morris learned by radio that a fellow team commander had been killed near an enemy bunker and he immediately reorganized his men into an effective assault posture before advancing forward and splitting off with two men to recover the team commander’s body. Observing the maneuver, the hostile force concentrated its fire on Staff Sergeant Morris’ three-man element and successfully wounded both men accompanying him. After assisting the two wounded men back to his forces’ lines, Staff Sergeant Morris charged forward into withering enemy fire with only his men’s suppressive fire as cover. While enemy machine gun emplacements continuously directed strafing fusillades against him, Staff Sergeant Morris destroyed the positions with hand grenades and continued his assault, ultimately eliminating four bunkers. Upon reaching the bunker nearest the fallen team commander, Staff Sergeant Morris repulsed the enemy, retrieved his comrade and began the arduous trek back to friendly lines. He was wounded three times as he struggled forward, but ultimately succeeded in returning his fallen comrade to a friendly position. Staff Sergeant Morris’ extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.








Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army. Place and date: Kalma-Eri, Korea, April 28, 1951.  Born: September 26, 1929, Corozal, Puerto Rico  Entered Service at:  Departed: Yes (3/29/1996)

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Sergeant Juan E. Negron distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a member of Company L, 65th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Kalma-Eri, Korea on April 28, 1951. That afternoon, Sergeant Negron took up the most vulnerable position on his company’s exposed right flank after an enemy force had overrun a section of the line. When notified that elements of his company were withdrawing, Sergeant Negron refused to leave his exposed position, instead delivering withering fire at hostile troops who had broken through a road block. When the hostile troops approached his position, Sergeant Negron accurately hurled hand grenades at short range, halting their attack. Sergeant Negron held the position throughout the night while friendly forces organized and launched a counterattack. The next morning, after the enemy had been repulsed, friendly forces relieved Sergeant Negron and found the bodies of fifteen enemy soldiers surrounding his position. Sergeant Negron’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.








 State of New York


Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company H, 16th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Heistern, Germany, November 18, 1944.  Born: April 27, 1921, Queens, NY  Entered Service at: Jamaica, NY   Departed: : Yes (11/18/1944)  Date Issued: 3/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Sergeant Alfred B. Nietzel distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a section leader for Company H, 16th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Heistern, Germany on November 18, 1944. That afternoon, Sergeant Nietzel fought tenaciously to repel a vicious enemy attack against his unit. Sergeant Nietzel employed accurate, intense fire from his machinegun and successfully slowed the hostile advance. However, the overwhelming enemy force continued to press forward. Realizing he desperately needed reinforcements, Sergeant Nietzel ordered the three remaining members of his squad to return to the company command post and secure aid. He immediately turned his attention to covering their movement with his fire. After expending all his machinegun ammunition, Sergeant Nietzel began firing his rifle into the attacking ranks until he was killed by the explosion of an enemy grenade. Sergeant Nietzel’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.







 State of Texas


Rank and organization: Master Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company F, 2d Battalion, 5th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division  Place and date: Waegwan, Korea, September 4, 1950.  Born: November 6, 1924, Newgulf, TX, Entered Service at: ElPaso, TX  Departed: Yes (09/05/1950) Date Issued: 3/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Master Sergeant Mike C. Pena distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a member of Company F, 5th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Waegwan, Korea, on September 4, 1950. That evening, under cover of darkness and a dreary mist, an enemy battalion moved to within a few yards of Master Sergeant Pena’s platoon. Recognizing the enemy’s approach, Master Sergeant Pena and his men opened fire, but the enemy’s sudden emergence and accurate, point blank fire forced the friendly troops to withdraw. Master Sergeant Pena rapidly reorganized his men and led them in a counterattack which succeeded in regaining the positions they had just lost. He and his men quickly established a defensive perimeter and laid down devastating fire, but enemy troops continued to hurl themselves at the defenses in overwhelming numbers. Realizing that their scarce supply of ammunition would soon make their positions untenable, Master Sergeant Pena ordered his men to fall back and manned a machinegun to cover their withdrawal. He singlehandedly held back the enemy until the early hours of the following morning when his position was overrun and he was killed. Master Sergeant Pena’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.








Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company G, 7th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Changyong-ni, Korea, May 22-23, 1951.  Born: April 29, 1933, Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico.  Entered Service at: New York  Departed: Yes (03/19/1967)  Date Issued: 3/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Private Demensio Rivera distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an automatic rifleman with 2d Platoon, Company G, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Changyong-ni, Korea on May 23, 1951. Early that morning, a large hostile force emerged from a dense fog and viciously attacked Private Rivera and his comrades. Private Rivera immediately responded by firing with deadly accuracy until his weapon jammed. Without hesitating, he threw his rifle down and began to engage the enemy with his pistol and grenades. At one point, Private Rivera fearlessly crawled from his emplacement to engage an infiltrating enemy soldier in fierce hand-to-hand combat. With only the sound of footsteps and obscure shadows to guide his aim, Private Rivera held his position against tremendous odds, inflicting numerous casualties on the enemy until he found himself without ammunition of any kind except one grenade. Displaying a peerless fighting spirit and an utterly selfless devotion to duty, Private Rivera pulled the pin from his last grenade and calmly waited for the enemy to reach his position. As enemy troops leaped inside his bunker, Private Rivera activated the grenade with the full knowledge that it meant his almost certain death. When the debris from the explosion had cleared, friendly forces recovered a severely wounded Private Rivera and discovered the bodies of four dead or dying enemy soldiers surrounding him. Private Rivera’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.







 State of Texas


Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Special Forces Operational Detachment Alpha 3312. Place and date: Phuoc Long Province, Vietnam, September 1, 1969 .  Born: June 15, 1937, Corpus Christi, TX   Entered Service at: Corpus Christi, TX Departed: No  Date Issued: 3/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Sergeant First Class Jose Rodela distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as the company commander, Detachment B-36, Company A, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces during combat operations against an armed enemy in Phuoc Long Province, Republic of Vietnam on September 1, 1969. That afternoon, Sergeant First Class Rodela’s battalion came under an intense barrage of mortar, rocket, and machine gun fire. Ignoring the withering enemy fire, Sergeant First Class Rodela immediately began placing his men into defensive positions to prevent the enemy from overrunning the entire battalion. Repeatedly exposing himself to enemy fire, Sergeant First Class Rodela moved from position to position, providing suppressing fire and assisting wounded, and was himself wounded in the back and head by a B-40 rocket while recovering a wounded comrade. Alone, Sergeant First Class Rodela assaulted and knocked out the B-40 rocket position before successfully returning to the battalion’s perimeter. Sergeant First Class Rodela’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.





 State of Nebraska


Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company E, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Lure, France, September 17, 1944.  Born: Dec. 6, 1918, in Hooper, Neb.   Entered Service at: Nebraska  Departed: Yes (02/19/2005)  Date Issued: 3/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

First Lieutenant Donald K. Schwab distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as the Commander of Company E, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division, during combat operations against an armed enemy near Lure, France on September 17, 1944. That afternoon, as First Lieutenant Schwab led his company across four hundred yards of exposed ground, an intense, grazing burst of machinegun and machine-pistol fire sprung forth without warning from a fringe of woods directly in front of the American force. First Lieutenant Schwab quickly extricated his men from the attempted ambush and led them back to a defiladed position. Soon after, he was ordered to overwhelm the enemy line. He rapidly organized his men into a skirmish line and, with indomitable courage, again led them forward into the lethal enemy fire. When halted a second time, First Lieutenant Schwab moved from man to man to supervise collection of the wounded and organize his company’s withdrawal. From defilade, he rallied his decimated force for a third charge on the hostile strong point and successfully worked his way to within fifty yards of the Germans before ordering his men to hit the dirt. While automatic weapons fire blazed around him, he rushed forward alone, firing his carbine at the German foxholes, aiming for the vital enemy machine-pistol nest which had sparked the German resistance and caused heavy casualties among his men. Silhouetted through the mist and rain by enemy flares, he charged to the German emplacement, ripped the half-cover off the hostile firing pit, struck the German gunner on the head with his carbine butt and dragged the German back through a hail of fire to friendly lines. First Lieutenant Schwab’s action so disorganized hostile infantry resistance that the enemy forces withdrew, abandoning their formidable defensive line. First Lieutenant Schwab’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.








Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company F, 38th Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Chorwon, Korea, September 21, 1952.  Born: May 3, 1932,  Puerto Rico   Entered Service at: Puerto Rico  Departed: Yes 9/21/1952

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Private Miguel A. Vera distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an automatic rifleman with Company F, 38th Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division in Chorwon, Korea, on September 21, 1952. That morning, despite suffering from wounds inflicted in a previous battle, Private Vera voluntarily left the aid station to join his comrades in an attack against well-fortified enemy positions on a hill of great importance. When the assaulting elements had moved within twenty yards of the enemy positions, they were suddenly trapped by a heavy volume of mortar, artillery and small-arms fire. The company prepared to make a limited withdrawal, but Private Vera volunteered to remain behind to provide covering fire. As his companions moved to safety, Private Vera remained steadfast in his position, directing accurate fire against the hostile positions despite the intense volume of fire which the enemy was concentrating upon him. Later in the morning, when the friendly force returned, they discovered Private Vera in the same position, facing the enemy. Private Vera’s noble intrepidity and self-sacrifice saved many of his comrades’ lives. Private Vera’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.



 Valor24 Medal of Honor



 State of Missouri


Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 21st  Infantry. Place and date: Kumson, Korea, October 19, 1951.  Born: October 18, 1928, Lamar, MO Departed: 4/20/2006  Date Issued: 3/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Sergeant Jack Weinstein distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while leading 1st Platoon, Company G, 21st Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division in Kumsong, Korea on October 19, 1951. That afternoon, thirty enemy troops counterattacked Sergeant Weinstein’s platoon. Most of the platoon’s members had been wounded in the previous action and withdrew under the heavy fire. Sergeant Weinstein, however, remained in his position and continued to fight off the onrushing enemy, killing at least six with his M-1 rifle before running out of ammunition. Although under extremely heavy enemy fire, Sergeant Weinstein refused to withdraw and continued fighting by throwing enemy hand grenades found lying near his position. He again halted the enemy’s progress and inflicted numerous casualties. Alone and unaided, he held the ground which his platoon had fought tenaciously to take and held out against overwhelming odds until another platoon was able to relieve him and drive back the enemy. Sergeant Weinstein’s leg had been broken by an enemy grenade and old wounds suffered in previous battles had reopened, but he refused to withdraw and successfully bought time for his wounded comrades to reach friendly lines. Sergeant Weinstein’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.


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