The construction of the Notre Dame Cathedral in Strasbourg started in 1015, it was not until 1439 that the spire was completed. Four hundred twenty-four years in the making. Approximately eleven generations of families worked on this project.
Currently the US tallest building is The Freedom Tower in New York City at 1,776 feet. The Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) in Chicago, IL is the second highest at 1,451ft.
In 1925, the first motel — the “Motel Inn” — opened in San Luis Obispo, California.
The Hoover Dam was built to last 2,000 years. The concrete in it will not even be fully cured for another 500 years.
X-ray technology has shown there are 3 different versions of the Mona Lisa under the visible one.
Fred Rogers, aka Mr. Rogers, was the creator and host of “Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood.” He was equally known for his morning song as he was for his cozy sweaters. Turns out some of those sweaters were actually hand-knit by his own mom.
The last Aztec emperor was Montezuma II, who reigned from 1502 to 1520. He allowed Hernando Cortes to enter the capital of Tenochtitlan without a battle and was taken prisoner. He died under mysterious circumstances.
Although it is the central figure in the California flag, the last grizzly in that state was spotted in the Sierras in 1924.
The 1912 Olympics was the last Olympics that gave out gold medals that were made entirely out of gold.
Alcatraz Federal Prison was closed in March of 1963. The facility had served as a US military prison from 1859 to 1933 and as a federal prison from 1933. Frank Wathernam was the last prisoner to leave Alcatraz prison on March 21, 1963.
New York was the last state, in 1984, to put photographs on driver’s licenses.
Antarctica is the only continent without reptiles or snakes.
Baskin Robbins once made ketchup ice cream. This was the only vegetable flavored ice cream produced.
Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature.
Ohio is the only US state without a rectangular flag. Ohio’s flag is a pennant.
The first graves in Arlington National Cemetery were dug by James Parks, a former Arlington Estate slave. Buried in Section 15, James Parks is the only person buried in Arlington National Cemetery who was also born on the property.
The hyoid bone in the throat is the only bone in the human body not joined to another.
“Life shrinks or expands in proportion to one’s courage.”
~ Anais Nin
trepid(TREP-id) adjective; Fearful; timid.
[From Latin trepidus (alarmed).]
1588 – The Spanish Armada was defeated by an English naval force under the command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake.
1603 – Bartholomew Gilbert was killed in the colony of Virginia by Indians, during a search for the missing Roanoke colonists.
1676 – Nathaniel Bacon was declared a rebel for assembling frontiersmen to protect settlers from Indians.
1773 – First schoolhouse west of Allegheny Mtns completed, Schoenbrunn, OH.
1775 – The legal origin of the Army Chaplains Corps is found in a resolution of the Continental Congress, adopted July 29, 1775, which made provision for the pay of chaplains.
1776 – Silvestre de Escalante and Francisco Dominguez, two Spanish Franciscan priests, leave Santa Fe for an epic journey through the Southwest.
1786 – First newspaper published west of Alleghenies, Pittsburgh Gazette. The paper’s name was later changed to “The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette”.
1835 – First commercial sugar plantation in Hawaii begins.
1846 – Sailors and Marines from U.S. sloop Cyane capture San Diego, CA.
1862 – Civil War: At Moore’s Mill in Missouri, the Confederates were routed by Union guerrillas.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate spy Marie Isabella “Belle” Boyd is arrested by Union troops and detained at the Old Capitol Prison in Washington, D.C.
1864 – Civil War: Third and last day of battle at Deep Bottom Run, Virginia.
1864 – Civil War: Union forces tried to take Petersburg, Va., by exploding a mine under Confederate defense lines. The attack failed.
1864 - Battle of Macon, GA (Stoneman’s Raid).
1874 – Major Wingfield took out a patent for a game called Sphairistike, which the specification described as ” a new and improved portable court for playing the ancient game of tennis.”
1899 – First motorcycle race , Manhattan Beach, New York.
1905 - US Secretary of War William Howard Taft, under the approval of Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, and PM of Japan Katsura Taro signed the Taft-Katsura Agreement, which reinforced American and Japanese influence and spelled doom for Korean sovereignty.
1907 – Sir Robert Baden-Powell founds the Boy Scouts with the first Scout camp at Brownsea Island. The camp ran from August 1-9, 1907.
1914 – Transcontinental telephone service began with the first phone conversation between New York and San Francisco.
1920 – First transcontinental airmail flight from New York to San Francisco.
1920 – Mexican rebel Pancho Villa surrenders.
1927 – First iron lung installed, Bellevue hospital, New York
1928 – Walt Disney’s “Steamboat Willie” is released.
1936 – RCA shows the first real TV program (dancing, film on locomotives, Bonwit Teller fashion show and monologue from Tobacco Road and comedy).
1938 – Olympic National Park established.
1938 – Comic strip “Dennis the Menace,” first appears.
1944 – World War II: Allied air force bombed Germany for six hours.
1945 – World War II: After delivering parts of the first atomic bomb to the island of Tinian, the U.S.S. Indianapolis was hit and sunk by the I-58 Japanese submarine around midnight. Some 883 survivors jumped into the sea and were adrift for 4 days. Nearly 600 died before help arrived. It was the worst loss in the history of the U.S. Navy. Most of the men died being eaten by sharks.
1945 – World War II: An Allied naval bombardment five battleships and several cruisers and destroyers targets the Japanese aircraft factories at Hamamutsu in southern Honshu.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “They Say It’s Wonderful” by Frank Sinatra, “The Gypsy” by The Ink Spots, “Surrender” by Perry Como and “New Spanish Two Step” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1947 – After being shut off on November 9, 1946 for a memory upgrade, ENIAC, the world’s first all-electronic digital computer, is reactivated. It will remain in continuous operation until October 2, 1955.
1947 – Gas leak explodes in a beauty parlor, 10 women die in Harrisonburg, Virginia.
1950 – “Mona Lisa” by Nat ‘King’ Cole topped the charts.
1950 – RKO pictures released Walt Disney’s “Treasure Island” (1:35:51).
1950 – Pee Wee Reese, hits the 3,000th Dodger home run.
1952 – First nonstop transpacific flight by a jet. Major Louis Carrington flew a 91st SRW (Strategic Reconnaissance Wing) RB-45C on the first non-stop, transpacific flight.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS -“Little Things Mean a Lot” by Kitty Kallen, “Sh-Boom” by The CrewbyCuts, “Sh-Boom” by The Chords and “Even Tho’” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1956 – Jacques Cousteau’s “Calypso” anchors in 24,608 feet of water (record).
1957 - Jack Paar made his debut as host of NBC’s late-night TV show “Tonight” and stayed on till 1962.
1957 – The International Atomic Energy Agency was established.
1958 – President Dwight Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, which created NASA.
1961 – “Tossin’ & Turnin‘” by Bobby Lewis topped the charts.
1961 – Bob Dylan injured in car accident.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS -“Roses are Red” by Bobby Vinton, “The Wah Watusi” by The Orlons, “Sealed with a Kiss” by Brian Hyland and “Wolverton Mountain” by Claude King all topped the charts.
1965 – Vietnam War: The first 4,000 paratroopers of the 101st Airborne Division arrive in Vietnam, landing at Cam Ranh Bay.
1965 – Beatles movie “Help” (1:31:44) premiers, Queen Elizabeth attends.
1966 – Bob Dylan hurt in motorcycle accident near Woodstock New York.
1967 – A fire on the Navy carrier USS Forrestal stationed off the coast of Vietnam killed 134 service members. The deadly fire on the USS Forrestal began with the accidental launch of a rocket. Current Senator John McCain (R-AZ) (then Navy Lt. Commander) survived the fire.
1967 – “Light My Fire” by the Doors topped the charts.
1968 – Pope Paul VI upheld the prohibition of all artificial means of birth control for Roman Catholics.
1969 – Mariner 6 begins transmitting far-encounter photos of Mars.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS -“(They Long to Be) Close to You” by Carpenters, “Band of Gold” by Freda Payne, “Make It with You” by Bread and “Wonder Could I Live There Anymore” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1970 – The Coast Guard Cutter “Vigorous” became the first 210-foot Coast Guard cutter to cross the Arctic Circle.
1970 - Six days of race rioting began in Hartford, Ct.
1972 – “Alone Again (Naturally)“ by Gilbert O’Sullivan topped the charts.
1974 – St Louis Cardinal Lou Brock steals his 700th base.
1974 – The House Judiciary Committee approved the 2nd article of impeachment against President Nixon.
1975 – President Ford became the first U.S. president to visit the site of the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz in Poland as he paid tribute to the camp’s victims.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – ““Shadow Dancing“” by Andy Gibb, “Baker Street” by Gerry Rafferty, “Miss You” by The Rolling Stones and “Only One Love in My Life” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1981 – Britain’s Prince Charles married Lady Diana Spencer at St. Paul’s Cathedral in London. Nearly one billion television viewers in 74 countries tuned in.
1983 – Steve Garvey ends his NL record 1,207 consecutive game streak.
1985 – General Motors announced that Spring Hill, TN, would be the home of the Saturn automobile assembly plant.
1985 - The space shuttle Challenger began an eight-day mission that got off to a shaky start. The spacecraft achieved a safe orbit even though one of its main engines shut down prematurely after lift-off.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS -“Sledgehammer” by Peter Gabriel, “Danger Zone” by Kenny Loggins, “Glory of Love” by Peter Cetera and “On the Other Hand” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.
1986 - A federal jury in New York found that the National Football League had committed an antitrust violation against the rival United States Football League. It proved to be a hollow victory for the USFL, the jury ordered the NFL to pay token damages of only $3.
1988 – FDIC bails out First Republic Bank, Dallas, with $4 billion.
1988 - NASA officials delayed a critical test-firing of the space shuttle Discovery’s main engines another three days. The test on Aug. 10 was judged a success.
1989 – “Toy Soldiers” by Martika topped the charts.
1989 - Ji Yun Lee (20) died in a fire at a church camp near East Stroudsburg, Pa. Her father Han Tak Lee (54), a South Korean-born operator of a clothing store in NYC, was arrested for arson. He was convicted of murder on Sep 17, 1990.
1991 – First Sunday Night game at Shea Stadium (Mets beat Cubs 6-0).
1992 - The U.S. 400-meter freestyle relay team won the gold medal at the Barcelona Summer Olympics.
1994 – The Senate approved the nomination of federal Judge Stephen Breyer to the U.S. Supreme Court.
1994 - Abortion opponent Paul Hill (40) shot and killed Dr. John Bayard Britton (69) and Britton’s bodyguard, James H. Barrett, outside the Ladies Center clinic in Pensacola, Fla. Hill was later convicted and sentenced to death. Hill was executed Sep 3, 2003.
1994 - Jesse Timmendequas, a convicted child molester, raped and strangled 7-year-old Megan Kanka in New Jersey. The case spawned the 1996 “Megan’s Law,” the requirement that communities be informed of paroled sex offenders living in their midst.
1996 - At the Atlanta Olympics, Carl Lewis won the gold medal in the long jump, becoming only the fifth Olympian to win gold medals in four straight games.
1997 - Members of US Congress from both parties embraced compromise legislation designed to balance the budget while cutting taxes.
1998 – The United Auto Workers union ended a 54-day strike against General Motors. The strike caused $2.8 billion in lost revenues.
1998 - Pres. Clinton reached an agreement with Kenneth Starr to provide closed-circuit videotaped testimony at the White House on Aug. 17 about whether he tried to cover up a sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsky.
1998 - The O.J. Simpson 6,200 sq. foot mansion at 360 N. Rockingham in LA was demolished. It had sold to an investment banker for $4 million and a new home was planned for the site.
1999 – Mark O. Barton killed nine people and wounded 13 others in a shooting rampage in Atlanta, GA. He wife and two children had been found bludgeoned to death earlier in the day.
1999 – US warplanes struck targets in northern and southern Iraq after anti-aircraft artillery shot at them. Iraq reported 8 people killed.
1999 – A federal judge in Little Rock, Ark., fined U.S. President Bill Clinton $89,000 for lying about his relationship with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky in his deposition in the Paula Jones sexual harassment case.
2001 - In Medina, Ohio a tractor engine exploded at a county fair and 4 people were killed.
2002 – Physician Bernard A. Harris, Jr. becomes an astronaut.
2002 -The Capitol Limited Amtrak train derailed outside Washington DC and over 100 people were injured.
2003 – President Bush refused to release a congressional report on possible links between Saudi Arabian officials and the Sept. 11 hijackers, saying disclosure “would help the enemy” by revealing intelligence sources and methods.
2003 - Boston’s Bill Mueller became the first player in major league history to hit grand slams from both sides of the plate in a game and connected for three homers in a 14-7 win at Texas.
2004 - Target Corp. of Minneapolis announced it would sell Mervyn’s to Sun Capital Partners in Boca Raton, Fla., for $1.65 billion.
2005 - The US Senate approved the nomination of Karen Hughes, a former political adviser to President Bush, as the State Department’s top public relations official, and Rep. Christopher Cox to chair the Securities and Exchange Commission.
2005 - The United Food and Commercial Workers with 1.4 million members departed the AFC-CIO. It planned to focus on recruiting new members along with the departing Teamsters and Service Employees.
2005 – Astronomers announced that they had discovered a new planet larger than Pluto in orbit around the sun.
2007 – Cal Ripken Jr. and Tony Gwynn took their place in the Baseball Hall of Fame.
2008 – Alaska Senator Ted Stevens (84), the longest-serving Republican in the US Senate, was indicted for making false statements concerning gifts he received from an oil-services firm.
2008 – In Maryland police raided the home of Berwyn Heights Mayor Cheye Calvo shooting to death the couple’s two dogs and seizing an unopened package containing 32 pounds of marijuana. The couple appeared to be innocent victims of a scheme by two men to smuggle millions of dollars worth of marijuana by having it delivered to about a half-dozen unsuspecting recipients.
2009 – Microsoft Corp. and Yahoo Inc. agreed to a 10-year Internet search partnership, capping a convoluted pursuit that dragged on for years and finally setting the stage for the rivals to make an all-out assault against the dominance of Google Inc.
2010 – US House investigators accused New York Rep. Charles Rangel (80) of 13 violations of congressional ethics standards.
2010 – Toyota Motor Corp said it would recall nearly 417,000 high-end passenger cars and SUVs in the United States and Canada to fix steering problems.
2011 – Johnson & Johnson announced that it will lower the maximum daily dosage of one of its signature products, Extra Strength Tylenol, in order to reduce the risk of liver damage.
2011 – A U.S. Court of Appeals holds that isolated DNA is “markedly different” in its chemical structure from the DNA within chromosomes, and thus is not simply a product of nature but of human ingenuity.
2011 – The United States House of Representatives votes to increase the debt ceiling but the Senate rejects it.
2013 - Eight workers were injured late Monday night, including four critically, in a series explosions that could be heard from up to 10 miles away inside a central Florida propane plant. One person was listed in critical condition at the University of Florida Health Shands Hospital. Three other workers were transported by helicopter and listed in critical condition at the Orlando Regional Medical Center.
1805 – Alexis de Tocqueville, French historian and politician. One of his famous quotes, “When America ceases to be good, America will cease to be great.”
1883 – Benito Mussolini, dictator of Italy (1922-1945).
1905 – Dag Hammarskjöld, Swedish Nobel Peace Prize winner, secretary-general of the United Nations (1953-1961).
1907 – Melvin Belli, American attorney, author.
1938 – Peter Jennings, American TV journalist.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company D, 20th Infantry, 6th Infantry Division. Place and date: Cordillera Mountains, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 29 July 1945. Entered service at: Nashport, Ohio. Birth: Salem, W. Va. G.O. No.: 49, 31 May 1946. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while fighting in the Cordillera Mountains of Luzon, Philippine Islands. When two Filipino companies were pinned down under a torrent of enemy fire that converged on them from a circular ridge commanding their position, Cpl. Mayfield, in a gallant single-handed effort to aid them, rushed from shell hole to shell hole until he reached four enemy caves atop the barren fire-swept hill. With grenades and his carbine, he assaulted each of the caves while enemy fire pounded about him. However, before he annihilated the last hostile redoubt, a machinegun bullet destroyed his weapon and slashed his left hand. Disregarding his wound, he secured more grenades and dauntlessly charged again into the face of pointblank fire to help destroy a hostile observation post. By his gallant determination and heroic leadership, Cpl. Mayfield inspired the men to eliminate all remaining pockets of resistance in the area and to press the advance against the enemy.
SCOTT, ROBERT S.
Rank and organization: Captain (then Lieutenant), U.S. Army, 172d Infantry, 43d Infantry Division. Place and date. Near Munda Air Strip, New Georgia, Solomon Islands, 29 July 1943. Entered service at. Santa Fe, N. Mex. Birth: Washington, D.C. G.O. No.: 81, 14 October 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty near Munda Airstrip, New Georgia, Solomon Islands, on 29 July 1943. After 27 days of bitter fighting, the enemy held a hilltop salient which commanded the approach to Munda Airstrip. Our troops were exhausted from prolonged battle and heavy casualties, but Lt. Scott advanced with the leading platoon of his company to attack the enemy position, urging his men forward in the face of enemy rifle and enemy machinegun fire. He had pushed forward alone to a point midway across the barren hilltop within 75 yards of the enemy when the enemy launched a desperate counterattack which, if successful, would have gained undisputed possession of the hill. Enemy riflemen charged out on the plateau, firing and throwing grenades as they moved to engage our troops. The company withdrew, but Lt. Scott, with only a blasted tree stump for cover, stood his ground against the wild enemy assault. By firing his carbine and throwing the grenades in his possession he momentarily stopped the enemy advance using the brief respite to obtain more grenades. Disregarding small-arms fire and exploding grenades aimed at him, suffering a bullet wound in the left hand and a painful shrapnel wound in the head after his carbine had been shot from his hand, he threw grenade after grenade with devastating accuracy until the beaten enemy withdrew. Our troops, inspired to renewed effort by Lt. Scott’s intrepid stand and incomparable courage, swept across the plateau to capture the hill, and from this strategic position four days later captured Munda Airstrip.
WHITTINGTON, HULON B.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, 41st Armored Infantry 2d Armored Division. Place and date: Near Grimesnil, France, 29 July 1944. Entered service at: Bastrop, La. Born: 9 July 1921, Bogalusa, La. G.O. No.: 32, 23 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. On the night of 29 July 1944, near Grimesnil, France, during an enemy armored attack, Sgt. Whittington, a squad leader, assumed command of his platoon when the platoon leader and platoon sergeant became missing in action. He reorganized the defense and, under fire, courageously crawled between gun positions to check the actions of his men. When the advancing enemy attempted to penetrate a roadblock, Sgt. Whittington, completely disregarding intense enemy action, mounted a tank and by shouting through the turret, directed it into position to fire pointblank at the leading Mark V German tank. The destruction of this vehicle blocked all movement of the remaining enemy column consisting of over 100 vehicles of a Panzer unit. The blocked vehicles were then destroyed by handgrenades, bazooka, tank, and artillery fire and large numbers of enemy personnel were wiped out by a bold and resolute bayonet charge inspired by Sgt. Whittington. When the medical aid man had become a casualty, Sgt. Whittington personally administered first aid to his wounded men. The dynamic leadership, the inspiring example, and the dauntless courage of Sgt. Whittington, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service.
HEALEY, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 5th Iowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Newnan, Ga., 29 July 1864. Entered service at: Dubuque, Iowa. Birth: Dubuque, Iowa. Date of issue: 13 January 1899. Citation: When nearly surrounded by the enemy, captured a Confederate soldier, and with the aid of a comrade who joined him later, captured four other Confederate soldiers, disarmed the five prisoners, and brought them all into the Union lines.
National Milk Chocolate Day
The year is 1910
What a difference a century makes!
Here are some statistics for the Year 1910:
************ ********* ************
The average life expectancy for men was 47 years.
Fuel for some cars was sold in drug stores only.
Only 14 percent of the homes had a bathtub.
Only 8 percent of the homes had a telephone.
There were only 8,000 cars and only 144 miles of paved roads.
The maximum speed limit in most cities was 10 mph.
The tallest structure in the world was the Eiffel Tower !
The first junior high schools opened in California.
The average US wage in 1910 was 22 cents per hour.
The average US worker made between $200 and $400 per year.
Lakeview Gusher, the largest U.S. oil well gusher near Bakersfield, California, vented to the sky.
Children initiate idea of planting trees in Jerusalem.
A competent accountant could expect to earn $2000 per year, a dentist $2,500 per year, a veterinarian between $1,500 and $4,000 per year, and a mechanical engineer about $5,000 per year.
More than 95 percent of all births took place at HOME.
Ninety percent of all Doctors had NO COLLEGE EDUCATION! Instead, they attended so-called medical schools, many of which were condemned in the press AND the government as ‘substandard.’
Three passenger trains buried at Steven’s Pass in Cascade Range. 118 die. Worst snow slide in US history
Sugar cost four cents a pound.
Eggs were fourteen cents a dozen.
Coffee was fifteen cents a pound.
Most women only washed their hair once a month, and used Borax or egg yolks for shampoo.
First race at Los Angeles Motordrome (first US auto speedway)
Canada passed a law that prohibited poor people from entering into their country for any reason.
The Five leading causes of death were:
1. Pneumonia and influenza
4. Heart disease
The American flag had 45 stars.
The population of Las Vegas, Nevada was only 30!
Crossword puzzles, canned beer, and iced tea hadn’t been invented yet.
There was no Mother’s Day or Father’s Day.
Two out of every 10 adults couldn’t read or write and only 6 percent of all Americans had graduated from high school.
Marijuana, heroin, and morphine were all available over the counter at the local corner drugstores.
Back then pharmacists said, ‘Heroin clears the complexion, gives buoyancy to the mind, regulates the stomach and bowels, and is, in fact, a perfect guardian of health’
Eighteen percent of households had at least one full-time servant or domestic help.
There were about 230 reported murders in the ENTIRE U.S.A.!
“The best way to cheer yourself up is to try to cheer somebody else up.”
~ Mark Twain
fussbudget (FUS-buj-it) noun
One who is fussy about unimportant things.
[From fuss + budget, from Middle English, from Old French bougette,
diminutive of bouge (bag), from Latin bulga (bag). Ultimately from
Indo-European root bhelgh- (to swell) that is also the source of
bulge, bellows, billow, belly, and bolster.]
A synonym of this word is fusspot. Usually we dislike fusspots and
fussbudgets but sometimes we wish there were fussbudgets among our
elected leaders who cared enough to fuss about the budget of this
1540 – King Henry VIII’s chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, was executed, the same day Henry married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard.
1615 – French explorer Samuel de Champlain discovered Lake Huron on his seventh voyage to the New World.
1779 – Revolutionary War: Capt. John Welsh and thirteen Marines were killed in assault on Fort George at Penobscot Bay, Maine.
1851 – Total solar eclipse first captured on a daguerreotype photograph.
1858 – Fingerprints were first used as a means of identification by William Herschel, who later established a fingerprint register.
1863 – Civil War: Under the command of Lieutenant Commander English, U.S.S. Beauregard and Oleander and boats from U.S.S. Sagamore and Para attacked New Smyrna, Florida.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate John Mosby began a series of attacks against General Meade’s Army of the Potomac as it tried to pursue General Robert E. Lee in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley. Confederate Colonel John S. Mosby was known as “The Gray Ghost.”
1864 – Civil War: Large side-wheel double-enders U.S.S. Mendota and U.S.S. Agawam shelled Confederate positions across Four Mile Creek, on the James River.
1864 – Civil War: Atlanta Campaign-Battle of Ezra Church.
1865 – The American Dental Association proposed its first code of ethics.
1866 – Metric system becomes a legal measurement system in US. America is “metric” only in the sense that we can use it if we wish but no contract or other agreements can be cancelled if we don’t.
1868 – The 14th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America, guaranteeing due process of law and African-Americans citizenship and all its privileges, went into effect.
1896 – The city of Miami, Florida, was incorporated. This phenomenal change to this area came thanks to a visionary Cleveland widow named Julia Tuttle. The population at the time was 296 on 640 acres of land.
1900 – The Hamburger was created by Louis Lassing in Connecticut.
1914 – The New York Stock Exchange closed for 4 1/2 months.
1914 – Foxtrot first danced at New Amsterdam Roof Garden, New York City, by Harry Fox.
1914 - World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began today and lasted until 11 November 1918. More than 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians died as a result of the war.
1915 – US forces invade Haiti and stay until 1924.
1915 – Ten-thousand African Americans marched on Fifth Ave in New York City to protest lynchings.
1918 – Marine Corps BGen John A. Lejeune assumed command of the 2d U.S. Army Division in France.
1920 – Revolutionary and bandit Pancho Villa surrendered to the Mexican government.
1926 – Team of scientists from Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Carnegie Institution determine height of the Ionosphere through use of radio pulse transmitter developed by NRL.
1930 – A record high temperature of 114° occurred in Greensburg, KY.
1931 – Congress makes “The Star-Spangled Banner” our 2nd national anthem. It had been ordered by President Wilson in 1916 but made official today.
1931 – Idaho set a a state record high temperature of 118° in Orofino.
1932 – Federal troops forcibly dispersed the so-called “Bonus Army” of World War I veterans who had gathered in Washington, D.C., to demand money they weren’t scheduled to receive until 1945. Under orders from Pres. Hoover shacks built in the shadow of the nation’s Capitol these veteran demonstrators were burned.
1933 – The first singing telegram was delivered, to singer Rudy Vallee on his 32nd birthday.
1933 – The National Football League splits into two, five team divisions.
1939 – Judy Garland recorded “Over the Rainbow” for Decca Records.
1941 – Plans for the Pentagon were approved by the U.S. House of Representatives.
1941 – World War II: A Japanese army landed in Cochin, China (modern day Vietnam).
1942 – L.A. Thatcher received a patent for a coin-operated mailbox. The device stamped envelopes when money was inserted.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: Nazis murder ten-thousand Jews in Minsk, Russia.
1943 – World War II: President FDR announces end of coffee rationing in US.
1943 – World War II: On New Georgia the American attack continues. The present objective is Horseshoe Hill. Two Japanese destroyers are sunk by aircraft near Rabaul.
1943 – World War II:The Japanese evacuate most of their garrison on Kiska Island with being detected by American forces. Kiska was part of The Aleutian Islands campaign in the Pacific campaign of World War II.
1944 – LTJG Clarence Samuels became the first African-American to command a “major” Coast Guard vessel since Revenue Captain Michael A. Healy .
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “The More I See You” by Dick Haymes, “Dream” by The Pied Pipers, “Sentimental Journey” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day) and “Oklahoma Hills” by Jack Guthrie all topped the charts.
1945 – At 9:49 a.m a ten-ton, B-25 U.S. Army bomber crashed into the north side of the 79th floor of New York’s Empire State Building, killing 14 people It created a hole in the building eighteen feet wide and twenty feet high.
1951 – Walt Disney’s “Alice In Wonderland” (1:15:14) released.
1951 – “Come On-a My House” by Rosemary Clooney topped the charts.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Song from Moulin Rouge” by The Percy Faith Orchestra, “April in Portugal” by The Les Baxter Orchestra, “I’m Walking Behind You” by Eddie Fisher, “It’s Been So Long” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1954 – “Sh-Boom (Life Could Be a Dream)” by The Crew Cuts topped the pop singles chart.
1956 – “I Almost Lost My Mind” by Pat Boone shared #1
1956 – “I Want You, I Need You, I Love You” by Elvis Presley shared #1.
1957 – Jerry Lee Lewis made his television debut on “The Steve Allen Show.”
1959 – In preparation for statehood, Hawaiians voted to send the first Chinese-American, Hiram L. Fong, to the Senate and the first Japanese-American, Daniel K. Inouye, Medal of Honor recipient, to the House of Representatives.
1961 – CHART TOPPERS – ”Tossin’ and Turnin’” by Bobby Lewis, “The Boll Weevil Song” by Brook Benton, “Yellow Bird” by Arthur Lyman Group and “Heartbreak U.S.A.” by Kitty Wells all topped the charts.
1962 – “Roses Are Red (My Love)” by Bobby Vinton topped the charts.
1962 – Nineteen people died and one-hundred injured in a train crash in Steelton, Pa. A Pennsylvania Railroad spokesperson said the “Baseball Special” crashed because the tracks were out of alignment.
1962 – Mariner I, launched to Mars, fell into the Atlantic Ocean.
1964 – Ranger 7 was launched toward the Moon. It sent back 4308 TV pictures.
1965 – Vietnam War: President Johnson announced he was increasing the number of American troops in South Vietnam to 175,000 “almost immediately.”
1966 – Operation Latchkey, a series of 38 nuclear test explosions conducted in 1966 and 1967, began with the Saxon blast at the Nevada Test Site. All but one of the tests took place in Nevada.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “In the Year 2525” by Zager & Evans, “Crystal Blue Persuasion” by Tommy James & The Shondells, “My Cherie Amour” by Stevie Wonder and “Johnny B. Goode” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1973 – “Bad, Bad Leroy Brown” by Jim Croce topped the charts.
1973 – Launch of Skylab 3, the second manned mission to the first U.S. manned space station. It was piloted by MAJ Jack R. Lousma, USMC with CAPT Alan L. Bean, USN.
1975 – The US Dept of Interior designated the grizzly bear a threatened species in the lower 48 states under the US Endangered Species Act.
1976 – Captain Eldon Joersz & Major George Morgan set world air speed record of 2193.5 mph over a straight course in an SR-71 Blackbird.
1976 – An earthquake measuring between 7.8 and 8.2 magnitude on the Richter scale leveled Tangshan, China, killing nearly a quarter million people; it was the worst earthquake in modern history.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Looks Like We Made It “by Barry Manilow, “I Just Want to Be Your Everything” by Andy Gibb, “I’m in You” by Peter Frampton and “It was Almost like a Song” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1977 – First oil flow through the Alaska pipeline.
1978 – Price of gold topped the $200 per oz level for first time. Spot gold closed at $201.30.
1979 – “Bad Girls” by Donna Summer topped the charts.
1984 – “When Doves Cry” by Prince topped the charts.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Everytime You Go Away” by Paul Young, “Shout” by Tears For Fears, “You Give Good Love” by Whitney Houston and “Love Don’t Care (Whose Heart It Breaks)” by Earl Thomas Conley all topped the charts.
1985 – Lou Brock, Enos Slaughter, Hoyt Wilhelm and Arky Vaughn were inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame at Cooperstown, New York.
1989 – Vince Coleman, record streak stopped at 50 straight stolen bases.
1990 – “She Ain’t Worth It” by Glenn Medeiros featuring Bobby Brown topped the charts.
1990 – A blackout hit Chicago.
1991 – Dennis Martinez (Montreal Expos) pitched the 13th perfect game in major league baseball history.
1994 – Kenny Rogers (Texas Rangers) pitched the 14th perfect game in major league baseball history.
1995 – A jury in Union, South Carolina, rejected the death penalty for Susan Smith, sentencing her instead to life in prison for drowning her two young sons. Smith was eligible for parole after 30 years.
1996 – “You’re Makin’ Me High” by Toni Braxton topped the charts.
1997 – The Clinton administration and congressional leaders reached a tentative agreement on balancing the budget by 2002 while slashing taxes for millions of families, students and investors.
1998 – Monica Lewinsky received blanket immunity from prosecution to testify before a grand jury about her relationship with U.S. President Clinton.
1998 – Bell Atlantic Corp. and GTE Corp. announced a deal to create the second-biggest telephone company. The resulting mega-corporation was later to be named Verizon Communications.
1999 – The US Senate opened debate on the Republicans’ $792 billion tax cut bill.
2000 – Kathie Lee Gifford made her final appearance as co-host of the ABC talk show “Live with Regis and Kathie Lee.”
2002 – Cycling champion Lance Armstrong won his fourth straight Tour de France.
2002 – In Somerset, Pennsylvania nine coal miners, trapped July 24 by a flood 240 feet underground, were rescued after 77 hours underground in the Quecreek Mine.
2005 – Stephen McCullagh (29), an assistant scoutmaster from St. Helena, and Boy Scout Ryan Collins (13) were killed by lightning in Sequoia National Park in the Sierra Nevada.
2006 – Actor-director Mel Gibson launched an anti-Semitic tirade as he was arrested on the Pacific Coast Highway in Malibu, Calif., for driving drunk; Gibson later apologized and was sentenced to probation and alcohol treatment.
2006 – In Seattle, Wash., gunman Naveed Afzal Haq (30) killed Pam Waechter (58) of Seattle and wounded five others at the Jewish Federation of Greater Seattle. Haq said he was “angry at Israel.”
2007 – In California, garbage workers in Alameda County approved a new contract ending a twenty-six day lockout.
2008 – A senior Bush administration official said the budget deficit for this year will set a record in dollar terms, approaching $490 billion.
2009 – Tennessee state Sen. Paul Stanley (47) resigned in Nashville after his extramarital affair with an intern (22) was revealed by an investigation into an extortion case.
2010 - J. D. Salinger’s toilet is put on sale on eBay for $1 million.
2011 – Striking Verizon Communications workers will return to work from a strike on the night of Monday, August 22, 2011, even without a formal contract.
2061 – Thirty-first recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet.
1857 – Ballington Booth, English-born Salvation Army officer (d. 1940)
1900 – Catherine Dale Owen, American actress (d. 1965)
1901 – Rudy Vallee, American singer.
1929 – Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis, first lady of the U.S. (1961-1963), editor.
1943 – Bill Bradley, American basketball player and politician
1948 – Sally Struthers, American actress
CARON, WAYNE MAURICE
Rank and organization: Hospital Corpsman Third Class, U.S. Navy, Headquarters and Service Company, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and date: Quang Nam Province, Republic of Vietnam, 28 July 1968. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Born: 2 November 1946, Middleboro, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as platoon corpsman with Company K, during combat operations against enemy forces. While on a sweep through an open rice field HC3c. Caron’s unit started receiving enemy small arms fire. Upon seeing two Marine casualties fall, he immediately ran forward to render first aid, but found that they were dead. At this time, the platoon was taken under intense small-arms and automatic weapons fire, sustaining additional casualties. As he moved to the aid of his wounded comrades, HC3c. Caron was hit in the arm by enemy fire. Although knocked to the ground, he regained his feet and continued to the injured Marines. He rendered medical assistance to the first Marine he reached, who was grievously wounded, and undoubtedly was instrumental in saving the man’s life. HC3c. Caron then ran toward the second wounded Marine, but was again hit by enemy fire, this time in the leg. Nonetheless, he crawled the remaining distance and provided medical aid for this severely wounded man. HC3c. Caron started to make his way to yet another injured comrade, when he was again struck by enemy small-arms fire. Courageously and with unbelievable determination, HC3c. Caron continued his attempt to reach the third Marine until he was killed by an enemy rocket round. His inspiring valor, steadfast determination and selfless dedication in the face of extreme danger, sustain and enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
MORGAN, JOHN C. (Air Mission)
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 326th Bomber Squadron, 92d Bomber Group. Place and date: Over Europe, 28 July 1943. Entered service at: London, England. Born: 24 August 1914, Vernon, Tex. G.O. No.: 85, 17 December 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty, while participating on a bombing mission over enemy-occupied continental Europe, 28 July 1943. Prior to reaching the German coast on the way to the target, the B17 airplane in which 2d Lt. Morgan was serving as copilot was attacked by a large force of enemy fighters, during which the oxygen system to the tail, waist, and radio gun positions was knocked out. A frontal attack placed a cannon shell through the windshield, totally shattering it, and the pilot’s skull was split open by a .303 caliber shell, leaving him in a crazed condition. The pilot fell over the steering wheel, tightly clamping his arms around it. 2d Lt. Morgan at once grasped the controls from his side and, by sheer strength, pulled the airplane back into formation despite the frantic struggles of the semiconscious pilot. The interphone had been destroyed, rendering it impossible to call for help. At this time the top turret gunner fell to the floor and down through the hatch with his arm shot off at the shoulder and a gaping wound in his side. The waist, tail, and radio gunners had lost consciousness from lack of oxygen and, hearing no fire from their guns, the copilot believed they had bailed out. The wounded pilot still offered desperate resistance in his crazed attempts to fly the airplane. There remained the prospect of flying to and over the target and back to a friendly base wholly unassisted. In the face of this desperate situation, 2d Lt. Officer Morgan made his decision to continue the flight and protect any members of the crew who might still be in the ship and for 2 hours he flew in formation with one hand at the controls and the other holding off the struggling pilot before the navigator entered the steering compartment and relieved the situation. The miraculous and heroic performance of 2d Lt. Morgan on this occasion resulted in the successful completion of a vital bombing mission and the safe return of his airplane and crew.
MANNING, SIDNEY E.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army Company G, 167th Infantry, 42d Division. Place and date: Near Breuvannes, France, 28 July 1918. Entering service at: Flomaton, Ala. Born: 17 July 1892, Butler County, Ala. G.O. No.: 44, W.D., 1919. Citation: When his platoon commander and platoon sergeant had both become casualties soon after the beginning of an assault on strongly fortified heights overlooking the Ourcq River, Cpl. Manning took command of his platoon, which was near the center of the attacking line. Though himself severely wounded he led forward the thirty-five men remaining in the platoon and finally succeeded in gaining a foothold on the enemy’s position, during which time he had received more wounds and all but seven of his men had fallen. Directing the consolidation of the position, he held off a large body of the enemy only fifty yards away by fire from his automatic rifle. He declined to take cover until his line had been entirely consolidated with the line of the platoon on the front when he dragged himself to shelter, suffering from nine wounds in all parts of the body.
CLARK, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant and Regimental Quartermaster, 6th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: Near Warrenton, Va., 28 July 1863. Entered service at: Vermont. Born: 21 October 1830, Montpelier, Vt. Date of issue: 17 August 1891. Citation: Defended the division train against a vastly superior force of the enemy; he was severely wounded, but remained in the saddle for 20 hours afterward until he had brought his train through in safety.
MURPHY, ROBINSON B.
Rank and organization: Musician, Company A, 127th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Atlanta, Ga., 28 July 1864. Entered service at: Oswego, Kendall County, Ill. Birth: Oswego, Kendall County, Ill. Date of issue: 22 July 1890. Citation: Being orderly to the brigade commander, he voluntarily led two regiments as reinforcements into line of battle, where he had his horse shot under him.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 37th Ohio Infantry Place and date: At Ezra Chapel, Ga., 28 July 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 10 May 1894. Citation: At great hazard of his life he saved his commanding officer, then badly wounded, from capture.
National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day
Coffee Milkshake Day
I have always wondered how “restaurants” got their starts, no from a financial perspective but from an ideological standpoint. In looking at how they began I was surprised to find that they went back to ancient Roman history and actually started as mess-halls. Those were when the soldiers were near their deployments. How then did they eat “on the move.” The secret is by using “street vendors”, people who traveled with the troops to serve the military. That grew to what we currently call “street vendors over a long time.
The idea of cooking and serving food from portable canteens evolved over time. Ancient Romans hawked “street foods” in marketplaces and sold them in sporting venues. Medieval street foods were sold at fairs, tournaments, and other large gatherings. Today, we sometimes call this “fast food.”
The types of items consumed “on the street” are generally determined by the traditional foods of the country/region. Which foods are most popular? That depends upon the time and place. In the places where many cultures and cuisine combine, the confluence of street food is a reflection of the inhabitants. Food carts were often used by peddlers to sell inexpensive homemade and manufactured goods. Ice cream and candy were often sold in this fashion. Early carts where powered by people (pushed, pulled), animals (goats, horses), wheels (bicycles, tricycles) and motors (cars, trucks).
This is how one food historian sums up the topic:
“Street food in a given place, is often far more interesting than restaurant food. Generally speaking, wherever it is found it will be likely to represent well-established local traditions; and in some places a tour of hawkers’ stalls may be the quickest and most agreeable method of getting the feel of local foods. Among the factors which seem to determine how numerous and diverse street foods are in this or that country, one is clearly climate–a temperate or warm climate makes these operations much easier and also produces a larger number of passers-by who are not intent on getting to somewhere out of the cold. Another factor is the degree of economic development. Broadly speaking, developed countries have fewer street foods. However, there are many exceptions or anomalies…there are indeed few generalizations which can be safely made on the subject. Nor is there much literature available for study…A list of the most famous and widespread street foods would certainly include ice cream, doughnut, hamburger, and hot dog.”
—Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 1999 (p. 758)
The next time I go to Philadelphia, I will find the street vendor near the downtown Doubletree Inn who sells the best (IMHO) Philly cheesesteaks in the world!!!
“Excellence is to do a common thing in an uncommon way.”
~ Booker T. Washington
yestreen (ye-STREEN) noun;
Yesterday evening.[From Middle English yester- + even.]
1586 – Sir Walter Raleigh brings first tobacco to England from Virginia.
1663 – The British Parliament passed a second Navigation Act, which required all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.
1775 – The Army Medical Department and the Medical Corps trace their origins to this date when the Continental Congress established the Army hospital headed by a “Director General and Chief Physician.” Benjamin Church began his service as the first Surgeon-General and the Director of Hospitals.
1776 – Silas Deane (1737-1789), secretly sent to France as America’s first official envoy, wrote a letter to the US Congress informing them that he has been successful beyond his expectations. Deane had served as the Connecticut delegate to the Continental Congress.
1777 – The Marquis of Lafayette arrived in New England to help the rebellious colonists fight the British.
1784 – “Courier De L’Amerique” became the first French newspaper to be published in the United States. The paper was printed in Philadelphia, PA for all the many Philadelphians who spoke French.
1789 – Congress established the Department of Foreign Affairs, the forerunner of the Department of State.
1804 – The 12th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. With the amendment Electors were directed to vote for a President and for a Vice-President rather than for two choices for President.
1816 – U.S. troops destroy Ft. Apalachicola, a Seminole fort, to punish Indians for harboring runaway slaves.
1837 – US Mint opens in Charlotte, NC.
1861 – Civil War: Battle of Mathias Point, VA. Rebel forces repelled a Federal landing.
1861 – Civil War: General George B. McClellan as head of the Army of the Potomac.
1861 - Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln replaced General Irwin McDowell with George B. McClellan who then assumed command of the Army of the Potomac following a disastrous Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run.
1861 – Civil War: Battle of St. Augustine Springs, New Mexico Territory.
1863 - Civil War: Morgan’s Raid ends – At Salineville, Ohio, Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and 360 of his volunteers are captured by Union forces.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Darbytown, VA.
1864 - Civil War: Pickets from U.S.S. Shokokon were attacked ashore by Confederate sharpshooters at Turkey Bend, in the James River.
1866 – Cyrus W. Field finally succeeded in laying the first underwater telegraph cable between North America and Europe.
1888 – Philip Pratt unveils first electric automobile.
1898 – Marines from the USS Dixie were the first to raise the American flag over Puerto Rico.
1901 - The 1901 Wright Glider was the second of the brothers’ experimental gliders. They tested it over the Kill Devil Hills, four miles south of Kitty Hawk. The glider was similar to the 1900 version, but had larger wings. It first flew today and was retired on August 17.
1908 - US Attorney General Charles Joseph Bonaparte issues an order to immediately staff the Office of the Chief Examiner (later renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation).
1909 – Orville Wright set a record for the longest airplane flight. He was testing the first Army airplane and kept it in the air for 1 hour 12 minutes and 40 seconds. He was also carrying a passenger.
1914 – World War I: Germany informed Belgium and Luxembourg of its intention to pass its troops through their countries.
1918 – Socony 200, first concrete barge in US, launched to carry oil, NY. Socony was the Standard Oil Company of New York.
1919 – Troops were mobilized to put down Chicago riot which erupted on July 27, and continued for several days. Fifteen whites and twenty-three African-Americans were killed and more than five hundred were injured.
1920 – A radio compass was used for the first time for aircraft navigation.
1921 – Canadian scientists Frederick Banting and Charles Best successfully isolated insulin.
1923 – John Herbert Dillinger joins the Navy in order to avoid charges of auto theft in Indiana, marking the beginning of America’s most notorious criminal’s downfall.
1925 – Charlie Poole (1892-1931) and His North Carolina Ramblers recorded “Don’t Let Your Deal Go Down Blues” at the New York City studios of Columbia Records.
1931 – Grasshoppers in Iowa, Nebraska and South Dakota destroyed thousands of acres of crops.
1940 – Bugs Bunny made his debut in the animated cartoon “A Wild Hare (8:16).” This marked the beginning of the Bugs Bunny series by Fred “Tex” Avery along with the rhetorical “What’s up, Doc?”
1940 – Billboard magazine starts publishing bestseller charts.
1942 – Peggy Lee recorded her first hit record — “Why Don’t You Do Right” with the Benny Goodman Orchestra.
1944 – World War II: U.S. troops completed the liberation of Guam.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be Seeing You” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Frank Sinatra), “Swinging on a Star” by Bing Crosby, “Amor” by Bing Crosby and “Straighten Up and Fly Right” by King Cole Trio all topped the charts.
1945 – British and American carriers conduct extensive air strikes. During the night (July 27-28), US B-29 bombers drop some 600,000 leaflets over 11 Japanese cities which warn inhabitants that the cities are on the target list for bombing raids.
1947 – Yogi Berra starts a record 148 game errorless streak.
1949 – First jet-propelled airline, De Havilland Comet, flies.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Yours” by Eddie Fisher, “Walkin’ My Baby Back Home” by Johnnie Ray, “Auf Wiedersehn, Sweetheart” by Vera Lynn and “Are You Teasing Me” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: Air Force Captain Ralph S. Parr, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, achieved the last air victory of the Korean War when he destroyed an Il-12 transport plane.
1953 – Korean War: Representatives of the United Nations, Korea, and China signed the Korean War armistice at Panmunjon, Korea ending the war.
1953 – Dizzy Dean, Al Simmons Chief Bender, Bobby Wallace, Harry Wright, Ed Barrow, and Bill Klem and Tom Connolly are inducted into Hall of Fame.
1957 – “Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1959 – Santo and Johnny (Farina) of Brooklyn, NY saw their one and only hit record, the instrumental “Sleepwalk” released.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Sorry” by Brenda Lee, “Only the Lonely” by Roy Orbison, “Itsy Bitsy Teeny Weenie Yellow Polkadot Bikini” by Brian Hyland and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling” by Hank Locklin all topped the charts.
1960 – Vice President Nixon nominated for President at Republican convention in Chicago.
1962 – Martin Luther King Jr. jailed in Albany, Georgia.
1963 – “Surf City” by Jan & Dean topped the charts.
1964 – Vietnam War: The United States will send an additional 5,000 U.S. troops to Vietnam, bringing the total number of U.S. forces in Vietnam to 21,000.
1965 – Vietnam War: Forty-six U.S. F-105 fighter-bombers attack the missile installation that had fired at U.S. planes on July 24.
1965 – The Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act was signed into law. The law required health warnings on all cigarette packages.
1967 – President Johnson appointed the Kerner Commission to assess the causes of the violence in the wake of urban rioting.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Grazing in the Grass” by Hugh Masekela, “Stoned Soul Picnic” by The 5th Dimension, “Hurdy Gurdy Man” by Donovan and “Folsom Prison Blues” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1968 – Race riots lasted three days in Gary, Indiana.
1973 – Walter Blum becomes 6th jockey to ride 4,000 winners. In his illustrious 22-year jockey career, he rode 4,382 winners.
1973 – Secretariat broke two records while practicing at Saratoga Springs, NY. The legendary horse covered a mile in a speedy 1 minute, 34 seconds and ran a 1-1/8 mile distance in 1 minute, 47-4/5 seconds.
1974 – NBC-TV removed “Dinah’s Place” from its daytime programming roster.
1974 – The House Judiciary Committee voted 27-11 to recommend President Nixon’s impeachment on a charge that he had personally engaged in a “course of conduct” designed to obstruct justice in the Watergate case.
1974 – “Annie’s Song” by John Denver topped the charts.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss and Say Goodbye” by Manhattans, “Love is Alive” by Gary Wright, “Moonlight Feels Right” by Starbuck and “Teddy Bear” by Red Sovine all topped the charts.
1976 – Air Force veteran Ray Brennan became the first person to die of so-called “Legionnaire’s Disease” following an American Legion convention in Philadelphia.
1977 – John Lennon is granted a green card for permanent residence in U.S.
1980 – On day 267 of the Iranian hostage crisis, the deposed Shah of Iran (1941-1979) died at a military hospital outside Cairo, Egypt, at age 60.
1981 – Adam Walsh (6) disappeared from a Hollywood, FL mall. Fishermen discovered his severed head two weeks later in a canal 120 miles away. The Adam Walsh Act of 2006 obliged states to make their sex offender registries public.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “When Doves Cry” by Prince, “Dancing in the Dark” by Bruce Springsteen, “Ghostbusters” by Ray Parker Jr. and “Just Another Woman in Love” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.
1984 – Pete Rose passed Ty Cobb’s record for most singles in a career.
1985 – “Everytime You Go Away” by Paul Young topped the charts.
1986 – Greg Lemond is the first American to win the Tour de France.
1988 – Radio Shack announces the Tandy 1000 SL computer.
1989 – Workers at the Nissan Motor Corp. assembly plant in Smyrna, Tenn., voted against representation by the United Auto Workers.
1990 – Zsa Zsa Gabor begins a 3 day jail sentence for slapping a cop.
1991 – TV Guide publishes it’s 2000th edition.
1991 – “(Everything I Do) I Do it for You” by Bryan Adams topped the “Billboard 100” charts.
1993 – IBM reported a record $8.4 billion quarterly loss.
1993 – Boston Celtics star Reggie Lewis died after collapsing on a Brandeis University basketball court during practice; he was 27.
1995 – The Korean War Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C., by President Bill Clinton and South Korean President Kim Young-sam.
1996 – In Atlanta, Georgia, the XXVI Summer Olympiad was disrupted by the explosion of a nail-laden pipe bomb in Centennial Olympic Park, which killed one and injured more than 100.
1997 – United Auto Workers approved a deal to end a six-day strike at a General Motors parts plant that forced four assembly plant shutdowns and threatened GM’s entire North American production.
1999 – The Columbia space shuttle landed at Cape Canaveral after a three-day mission to deploy the Chandra X-ray telescope. With Air Force Colonel Eileen Collins at the controls, space shuttle “Columbia” returned to Earth, ending a five-day mission.
1999 – Binney & Smith Inc., makers of Crayola crayons, adopted the name “chestnut” to replace “Indian red.”
2001 – The ribbon cutting ceremony was held for American Airlines Center in Dallas, TX. The event set two new world records, one for the 3 mile long ribbon and one for the 2,000 people that cut it.
2001 – A judge in West Palm Beach, Fla., sentenced 14-year-old Nathaniel Brazill to 28 years in prison for fatally shooting teacher Barry Grunow at Lake Worth Middle School.
2003 – Bob Hope, master of the one-liner and favorite comedian of servicemen and presidents alike, died at his home in Toluca Lake, Ca. (b.1903) May 29th had been his 100th birthday.
2003 – Lance Armstrong rode to his 5th straight Tour de France victory in a ceremonial final stage in Paris.
2005 – Ahmed Ressam, an Algerian who’d plotted to bomb the Los Angeles airport on the eve of the millennium, was sentenced to 22 years in prison by a judge in Seattle.
2007 – Scientists discovered a prosthetic toe that could be between 1000 and 3000 BC. The device was a wooden and leather toe.
2007 – California’s top court ruled that police can no longer seize vehicles of suspects in drug or prostitution arrests.
2007 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average ended down over 500 points in its worst week in 5 years.
2007 – In Phoenix, Arizona, two news helicopters covering a police chase on live television collided and crashed to the ground, killing all four people on board.
2008 – CHURCH SHOOTING: In Knoxville, Tennessee, Jim D. Adkisson (58) entered the Tennessee Valley Unitarian Universalist Church during a children’s performance and killed two people. He said he hated the church’s liberal politics.
2010 – The Plastiki, a catamaran made out of recycled plastic, arrives in Sydney, Australia, after travelling across the Pacific Ocean from San Francisco, United States, to raise awareness of environmental issues.
2011 – A tropical storm watch is issued for Tropical Storm Don in Texas between Port Mansfield north to San Luis Pass.
2012 – The Citizens Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms today applauds the decision by the United States to not sign the proposed International Arms Trade Treaty, and CCRKBA credits grassroots action for the gun rights victory.
1733 – Jeremiah Dixon was an English surveyor and astronomer who is perhaps best known for his work with Charles Mason, from 1763 to 1767, in determining what was later called the Mason-Dixon line. (d. 1779)
1812 – Thomas Clingman, American Confederate general (d. 1897)
1904 – Kenneth Bainbridge, Director of the Trinity atomic test (d. 1996)
1905 – Leo Durocher, American baseball player and manager (d. 1991)
1913 – George L. Street III was a submariner in the United States Navy. He received the Medal of Honor during World War II. (d. 2000)
1916 – Keenan Wynn, American actor (d. 1986), Col. Bat Guano in Dr. Strangelove
1922 – Norman Lear, American television writer and producer, Creator of All in the Family.
1927 – John Seigenthaler, Tennessean editor, RFK aide
1931 – Jerry Van Dyke, American actor
1938 – Jerry Juhl, Head writer, The Muppet Show
1944 – Bobbie Gentry, American singer and songwriter , Ode to Billie Joe.
1948 – Betty Thomas, American actor and film director, Lucy Bates on Hill Street Blues
1948 – Peggy Fleming, Olympic gold medal winning ice skater.
*PETRARCA, FRANK J.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Medical Detachment, 145th Infantry, 37th Infantry Division. Place and date: At Horseshoe Hill, New Georgia, Solomon Islands, 27 July 1943. Entered service at: Cleveland, Ohio. Birth: Cleveland, Ohio. G.O. No.: 86, 23 December 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Petrarca advanced with the leading troop element to within one-hundred yards of the enemy fortifications where mortar and small-arms fire caused a number of casualties. Singling out the most seriously wounded, he worked his way to the aid of Pfc. Scott, Iying within seventy-five yards of the enemy, whose wounds were so serious that he could not even be moved out of the direct line of fire Pfc Petrarca fearlessly administered first aid to Pfc. Scott and two other soldiers and shielded the former until his death. On 29 July 1943, Pfc. Petrarca. during an intense mortar barrage, went to the aid of his sergeant who had been partly buried in a foxhole under the debris of a shell explosion, dug him out, restored him to consciousness and caused his evacuation. On 31 July 1943 and against the warning of a fellow soldier, he went to the aid of a mortar fragment casualty where his path over the crest of a hill exposed him to enemy observation from only twenty yards distance. A target for intense knee mortar and automatic fire, he resolutely worked his way to within two yards of his objective where he was mortally wounded by hostile mortar fire. Even on the threshold of death he continued to display valor and contempt for the foe, raising himself to his knees, this intrepid soldier shouted defiance at the enemy, made a last attempt to reach his wounded comrade and fell in glorious death.
MORIN, WILLIAM H.
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 23 May 1869, England. G.O. No.: 500, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead at the approaches to Caimanera, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 26 and 27 July 1898. Displaying heroism, Morin took part in the perilous work of sweeping for and disabling twenty-seven contact mines during this period.
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 28 May 1864, England. Accredited to. New York. G.O. No.: 500, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead at the approaches to Caimanera, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 26 and 27 July 1898. Displaying heroism, Spicer took part in the perilous work of sweeping for and disabling 27 contact mines during this period.
Rank and organization: Chief Carpenter’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 26 May 1867, Furland, Russia. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 500, 19 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead at the approaches to Caimanera, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 26 and 27 July 1898. Displaying heroism, Sundquist took part in the perilous work of sweeping for and disabling twenty-seven contact mines during this period.
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 18 December 1869, Chenokeeke, Kans. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 500, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead at the approaches to Caimanera, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 26 and 27 July 1898. Displaying heroism, Triplett took part in the perilous work of sweeping for and disabling twenty-seven contact mines during this period.
All Or Nothing Day
Aunt and Uncle Day
Being able to sue just about anybody is something that Ernie Chambers, a Nebraska State Senator, took to his advantage back in 2007 when he sued God for making terroristic threats against the citizens of his constituency. Chambers was out to make a point; he wanted to demonstrate that the laws of his state were too lax when it comes to enabling people to sue anybody for anything, frivolously or not. To make the case truly hilarious, Chambers said that since God was omnipresent, he was within the court’s jurisdiction, and that since he was omniscient, he didn’t need to be served (since he already knew he was being sued).
In 1991, Richard Overton sued Anheuser-Busch for false and misleading advertising under Michigan State law. The complaint specifically referenced ads involving, among other things, fantasies of beautiful women in tropical settings that came to life for two men driving a Bud Light truck. In addition to two claims of false advertising, Mr. Overton included a third claim in his complaint in which he claimed to have suffered emotional distress, mental injury, and financial loss in excess of $10,0000 due to the misleading Bud Light ads. The court dismissed all claims.
A man filed a lawsuit against his doctor because he survived longer than what the doctor had predicted.
Cleanthi Peters sued Universal Studios for $15,000. She claimed to have suffered extreme fear, mental anguish, and emotional distress due to visiting Universal Studios’ Halloween Horror Nights haunted house, which she said was too scary.
Negligent security is a legitimate claim, when you’re the victim, not the perpetrator! In 2002, Edward Brewer sued Providence Hospital for $2 million. He claimed that the hospital was negligent because it had not prevented him from raping one of its patients. The judge ruled that any damage Brewer suffered due to his crime was his responsibility for choosing to commit the crime, and that the hospital had no legal duty to protect him from that choice.
In 1995, Robert Lee Brock sued himself for $5 million. He claimed that he had violated his own civil rights and religious beliefs by allowing himself to get drunk and commit crimes which landed him in the Indian Creek Correctional Center in Virginia, serving a 23-year sentence for grand larceny and breaking and entering. What could he possibly have to gain by suing himself? Since being in prison prevented him from having an income, he expected the state to pay. This case was thrown out.
In 2001, Linda Sanders and other family members of Columbine High School shooting victims sued 25 movie and video game companies for $5 billion, in a class action lawsuit. They claimed that were it not for movies including The Basketball Diaries and videos games including Doom, Duke Nukem, Quake, Mortal Kombat, Resident Evil, Mech Warrior, Wolfenstein, Redneck Rampage, Final Fantasy, and Nightmare Creatures, the massacre would not have occurred, and that the makers and distributors of the movies and games were partly to blame for their loved ones’ deaths. The case was thrown out and the plaintiffs were ordered to compensate the video game and movie companies for their legal fees.
Whiplash is already widely seen as a completely fabricated injury in many cases, but this is just taking things too far. A 27-year-old man from Michigan was driving his car one day when another car hit him from behind in an extremely minor rear-end collision. Four years later, the man sued the driver of the other car for changing his sexuality. Apparently he had turned gay over those four years and left his wife, and he felt that the only cause could be the accident. The disgusting part about this is that he actually won the case, and $200,000 from the other driver.
The simple fact of the matter is that these are just a few of the cases that happen everyday across this country. If you are not protected from a lawsuit, frivolous or not you should get protection. There is a product available in most states that can provide 24-hour, 7-days a week access to an attorney and it will cost $20 per month or less. For less than one or two attorney hours you can have that protection for a whole year per family. The product is called Legal Shield.
For more information on this product email me at: email@example.com or call me, Wayne Church at 623-680-7230. This product is available only in the U.S. and Canada.
“Many people have the wrong idea of what constitutes true happiness. It is not attained through self-gratification, but through fidelity to a worthy purpose.”
~ Helen Keller
anachronism (uh-NAK-ruh-niz-uhm) noun
1. The error of placing a person, object, custom, or event in the wrong
2. A person, thing, or practice that does not belong in a time period.
Anachronism can be of two kinds: parachronism, when the assigned date is
too late, and prochronism, when the date is too early. Even language can
be fraught with anachronism. Imagine a science fiction story where the
protagonist rides a time machine to go back some 500 years. While there,
he comments how “nice” someone’s dress is. Well, at that time the word
nice would have meant “stupid”. Sometimes anachronism can be unintentional,
a story written in 1970 and set in 2000 that features the USSR, for example.
1533 - Atahualpa, the 13th and last emperor of the Incas, is strangled to death Francisco Pizarro’s Spanish conquistadors. His death ends 300 years of Inca civilization.
1775 – A postal system was established by the Second Continental Congress of the United States with Benjamin Franklin as the first postmaster general.
1788 – New York became the eleventh state to ratify the Constitution of the United States of America.
1790 – US passed the Assumption bill making it responsible for state war-debts.
1812 – War of 1812: Frigate Essex captures British brig Leander.
1835 – First sugar cane plantation started in Hawaii. Its first harvest in 1837 produced 2 tons of raw sugar, which sold for $200.
1846 – US Revenue Cutter Woodbury put down a mutiny on board the troop ship Middlesex during the Mexican War.
1848 – Charles Ellet Jr., engineer, completed a light suspension bridge over the Niagara River. A boy’s kite was used to transfer the first line across.
1848 – Frederick Douglass was the only male to play a prominent role at the first Woman’s Rights Convention at Seneca Falls, New York. He seconded the woman’s suffrage motion introduced by Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
1847 – The Republic of Liberia, formerly a colony of the American Colonization Society, declared its independence. It was the first African colony to secure independence.
1859 – The first intercollegiate regatta began in Worcester, MA. Harvard University defeated both Yale and Brown on Lake Quinsigamond.
1861 – Civil War: General George McClellan assumes command of the Army of the Potomac after the disastrous Union loss at Bull Run five days before.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and 360 of his men are captured at Salineville, Ohio.
1864 – Civil War: Battle at Ezra Chapel (Church), Georgia.
1865 - Patrick Francis Healy, first Black awarded Ph.D. degree, passed final examination at Louvain in Belgium.
1871 – Ferdinand Hayden (1830-1887) and his government sponsored team arrived at the Yellowstone Lake and the geyser fields.
1881 – Thomas Edison and Patrick Kenny execute a patent application for a facsimile telegraph (U.S. Pat. 479,184).
1893 – Commercial production of the Addressograph started in Chicago, Illinois.
1907- The Chester was launched. It was the first turbine-propelled ship.
1908 – U.S. Attorney General Charles J. Bonaparte established the Office of the Chief Examiner, which was the forerunner of the FBI.
1912 – First airborne radio communications from naval aircraft to ship (LT John Rodgers to USS Stringham).
1917 – J. Edgar Hoover got job with the Justice Department.
1918 – Britain’s top war ace, Edward Mannock, was shot down by ground fire on the Western Front.
1926 – Spingarn Medal awarded to Carter G. Woodson for “ten years devoted service in collecting and publishing the records of the Negro in America.”
1939 – Sixteen-year-old singer Kay Starr recorded “Baby Me” with Glenn Miller and his orchestra.
1941 – President Franklin Roosevelt seizes all Japanese assets in the United States in retaliation for the Japanese occupation of French Indo-China.
1942 – Judy Garland joined Gene Kelly to record “For Me and My Gal“.
1942 – World War II: About 400 miles southeast of Fiji, the American aircraft carriers Wasp, Enterprise and Saratoga rendezvous with the invasion force for Guadalcanal.
1942 – CAPT Joy Bright Hancock appointed Director, Women’s Naval Reserve.
1942 – World War II: Actor Gene Autry is sworn into the Army Air Corps on the air, during his regular radio show, “Gene Autry’s Melody Ranch.”
1943 – World War II: In the Solomon Islands, US forces continue to make slow progress with heavy air and artillery support. Tanks and flame throwers are also used.
1944 – World War II: Soviet army enters Lviv, major city of western Ukraine, liberating it from the Nazis. Only 300 Jewish survivors left, out of 160,000 Jews in Lviv prior to Nazi occupation.
1944 – World War II: The first German V-2 rocket hits Great Britain.
1944 – World War II: The first desegregation in the US Army. This was four years before Truman signed the Executive Order.
1945 – In the 11th hour of World War II, Winston Churchill was forced to resign as British prime minister following his party’s electoral defeat by the Labour Party. He became leader of the opposition and in 1951 was again elected prime minister.
1945 – World War II: The Potsdam Declaration is issued in a radio broadcast demanding the immediate and unconditional surrender of Japan. It also threatens the “prompt and utter destruction” of the Japanese homeland, if the government of Japan fails to do so.
1945 – World War II: The heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis arrived at Tinian Island in the Marianas with an unassembled atomic bomb including the U-235. The bomb is destined for Hiroshima.
1946 - Aloha Airlines begins service from Honolulu International Airport
1947 – President Harry Truman signed the National Security Act, creating the Department of Defense, the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. President Truman unified the Army and Navy under the Department of Defense and created the U.S. Air Force from the Army Air Force.
1948 – U.S. President Harry Truman signed Executive Order 9981, officially integrating the Armed Forces many years before the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s.
1948 – Babe Ruth was seen by the public for the last time, when he attended the New York City premiere of the motion picture, “The Babe Ruth Story”. Babe Ruth died on August 16, 1948 at Memorial Hospital in New York City at age 53.
1948 – First African-American host of a network show-CBS’ Bob Howard Show.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Too Young” by Nat King Cole, “My Truly, Truly Fair” by Guy Mitchell, “Mister and Mississippi” by Patti Page and “I Wanna Play House with You” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1952 – Mickey Mantle hits his first grand-slammer.
1952 – “Half As Much” by Rosemary Clooney topped the charts.
1953 – Fidel Castro’s revolutionary “26th of July Movement ” begins. The 26th of July Movement was the revolutionary organization led by Fidel Castro that in 1959 overthrew the Fulgencio Batista regime in Cuba.
1953 - Arizona Governor John Howard Pyle orders an anti-polygamy law enforcement crackdown on residents of Short Creek, Arizona, which becomes known as the Short Creek raid.
1954 – Three aircraft from the USS Philippine Sea (CVA-47) shoot down two Chinese fighters that fired on them while they were providing air cover for rescue operations for a U.K. airliner shot down by a Chinese aircraft.
1955 – Ted Allen throws a record 72 consecutive horseshoe ringers.
1958 – Army launches 4th US successful satellite, Explorer IV. It’s purposes were for studying the Van Allen radiation belts and the effects of nuclear explosions upon these belts (and the Earth’s magnetosphere in general). Explorer 4 was the only such satellite launched.
1958 – “Hard Headed Woman” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka, “A Big Hunk o’ Love” by Elvis Presley, “My Heart is an Open Book” by Carl Dobkins, Jr.and “The Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton all topped the charts.
1959 – There was a partial nuclear reactor meltdown at Rocketdyne’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory 30 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles.
1963 – “Mickey’s Monkey“ was released by Smokey Robinson & the Miracles.
1963 – US Syncom 2, first geosynchronous communications satellite is launched.
1964 – Teamsters president Jimmy Hoffa and six others were convicted of fraud and conspiracy in the handling of a union pension fund.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Windy” by The Association, “Can’t Take My Eyes Off You” by Frankie Valli, “Light My Fire” (9:26) by The Doors and “With One Exception” by David Houston all topped the charts.
1968 – John Lennon and Paul McCartney completed the song “Hey Jude.”
1969 – The Rolling Stones released the album “Beggar’s Banquet.”(39:52)
1969 – “In the Year 2525 (Exordium and Terminus)” by Zager & Evans topped the charts.
1969 – Scientists had a first look at the 46 pounds of rocks that Apollo 11 astronauts brought back from the moon. The “rock box” was opened for the first time in the Vacuum Laboratory of the Manned Spacecraft Center’s Lunar Receiving Laboratory, bldg 37, at 3:55 p.m.
1971 – US launches Apollo 15 to the Moon. The mission was the first flight of the Lunar Roving Vehicle which astronauts used to explore the geology of the Hadley Rille/Apennine region.
1974 – The U.S. House Judiciary Committee recommended impeachment of President Richard M. Nixon.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Hustle” by Van McCoy & The Soul City Symphony, “I’m Not in Love” by 10cc, “One of These Nights” by Eagles and “Touch the Hand” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1980 – “It’s Still Rock and Roll to Me” by Billy Joel topped the charts.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Every Breath You Take” by The Police, “Electric Avenue” by Eddy Grant, “Is There Something I Should Know” by Duran Duran and “Pancho and Lefty” by Willie Nelson & Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1983 – The United States warns of action to preserve navigation in the Persian Gulf.
1984 – “Purple Rain“, the film creation of Prince, premiered in Hollywood.
1986 – “Sledgehammer” by Peter Gabriel topped the charts.
1986 – Kidnappers in Lebanon released the Reverend Lawrence Martin Jenco, an American hostage held for nearly 19 months.
1988 – Mike Schmidt sets NL record appearing in 2,155 games at third base.
1989 - A federal grand jury indicts Cornell University student Robert T. Morris, Jr. for releasing the Morris worm. He become the first person to be prosecuted under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.
1990 – U.S. President George H.W. Bush signed into law the Americans with Disabilities Act.
1990 – The US House of Representatives reprimanded Congressman Barney Frank, (Democrat, Massachusetts) for ethics violations.
1990 – The US Centers for Disease Control reported that a young woman, later identified as Kimberly Bergalis, had been infected with the AIDS virus, apparently by her dentist.
1990 – General Hospital tapes its 7,000th episode.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Unbelievable” by EMF, “(Everything I Do) I Do It for You” by Bryan Adams, “P.A.S.S.I.O.N.” by Rythm Syndicate and “I Am a Simple Man” by Ricky Van Shelton all topped the charts.
1996 – Amy Van Dyken became the first American woman to win four gold medals at a single Olympics as she captured the 50-meter freestyle in Atlanta.
1996 – President Clinton rejected a clemency plea from Jonathan Pollard, who’d spent more than 10 years in prison for spying for Israel.
1999 – Fifteen-hundred pieces of Marilyn Monroe’s personal items went on display at Christie’s in New York, NY. The items went on sale later in 1999.
2000 – The US Navy reported that an F-14 Tomcat jet crashed in Saudi Arabia during a training flight. Iraqi units claimed to have shot down a US Air Force F-14. When the Navy said no, Iraq claimed that the Navy report was a coverup. The U.S. Air Force does not fly F-14s.
2000 – A federal judge approved a $1.25 billion settlement between Swiss banks and more than a half million plaintiffs who alleged the banks had hoarded money deposited by Holocaust victims.
2000 – A U.S. federal judge issued a preliminary injunction against Napster, Inc. The injunction had been requested by the Recording Industry of Association of America (RIAA). The website was ordered to cease trade in music covered by RIAA member copyrights by midnight July 28, 2000.
2002 – The US Republican-led House voted, 295 to 132, to create an enormous Homeland Security Department, the biggest government reorganization in decades.
2005 – Space Shuttle program: The Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 1039 EST this morning on mission STS-114. The NASA commentator says during launch “Lift-off, lift-off, and return to America’s journey to the Moon, Mars, and beyond”.This was NASA’s first scheduled flight mission after the Columbia Disaster in 2003.
2006 – San Francisco police officer Nick-Tomasito Birco (39) was killed when a Dodge van carrying four robbery suspects broadsided his patrol car at Cambridge and Felton.
2007 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average suffered one of its worst losses of the year, closing down 311.50 to 13,473.57.
2007 – United States Senate passes a package of measures recommended by the 9/11 Commission.
2007 – There was an explosion at a remote test facility in the Mojave Desert belonging to Scaled Composites LLC during testing of a new space tourism vehicle.
2009 – In New York a car crash in Briarcliff killed eight people including four children. Diane Schuler (36) was drunk and high on marijuana when she went the wrong way on Taconic State Parkway and crashed into an SUV.
2010 – Wikileaks releases over 92,000 documents detailing unreported killings of hundreds of Afghan civilians and other incidents related to the war in Afghanistan to The Guardian, The New York Times and Der Spiegel, in one of the biggest leaks in U.S. military history.
2011 – David Wu resigns as a member of the House of Representatives following allegations of an unwanted sexual encounter with an eighteen-year old.
2011 - U.S. Senator Al Franken of Minnesota, in a letter to the Justice Department and the Federal Communications Commission, demands that they block the effort of telephone giant AT&T to buy rival T-Mobile USA.
2012 -President Obama issued an Executive Order entitled, White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans. It places a premium on all education efforts to the exclusion of all other ethnic groups.
1739 – George Clinton, 4th vice president of the USA
1791 – Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart, composer (d. 1844)
1846 – Texas Jack Omohundro, American frontier scout, actor, and cowboy (d. 1880)
1856 – George Bernard Shaw, Irish playwright.
1894 – Aldous Huxley, English-born author (d. 1963)
1902 – William Lear, American engineer and industrialist who founded the Lear Jet Corporation
1903 – Estes Kefauver, U.S. Senator from Tennessee (d. 1963)
1918 – Marjorie Lord is an American television actress. She played Kathy “Clancy” Williams opposite Danny Thomas on “Make Room for Daddy “and later “Make Room for Granddaddy.”
1922 – Jason Robards, American actor (d. 2000)
1928 – Stanley Kubrick, American film director (d. 1999)
1940 – Mary Jo Kopechne, American aide to Robert F. Kennedy (d. 1969)
1943 – Mick Jagger, English singer (The Rolling Stones)
1956 – Dorothy Hamill, American figure skater
1964 – Sandra Bullock, American actress
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps, Commanding Rifle Company, 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Fonte Hill, Guam, 25-26 July 1944. Entered service at: Mississippi. Born: 11 February 1920, Brandon, Miss. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of a rifle company attached to the 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces at Fonte Hill, Guam, 25-26 July 1944. Ordered to take that portion of the hill within his zone of action, Capt. Wilson initiated his attack in mid-afternoon, pushed up the rugged, open terrain against terrific machinegun and rifle fire for three-hundred yards and successfully captured the objective. Promptly assuming command of other disorganized units and motorized equipment in addition to his own company and one reinforcing platoon, he organized his night defenses in the face of continuous hostile fire and, although wounded three times during this five-hour period, completed his disposition of men and guns before retiring to the company command post for medical attention. Shortly thereafter, when the enemy launched the first of a series of savage counterattacks lasting all night, he voluntarily rejoined his besieged units and repeatedly exposed himself to the merciless hail of shrapnel and bullets, dashing fifty yards into the open on one occasion to rescue a wounded Marine Iying helpless beyond the frontlines. Fighting fiercely in hand-to-hand encounters, he led his men in furiously waged battle for approximately ten hours, tenaciously holding his line and repelling the fanatically renewed counterthrusts until he succeeded in crushing the last efforts of the hard-pressed Japanese early the following morning. Then organizing a seventeen-man patrol, he immediately advanced upon a strategic slope essential to the security of his position and, boldly defying intense mortar, machinegun, and rifle fire which struck down thirteen of his men, drove relentlessly forward with the remnants of his patrol to seize the vital ground. By his indomitable leadership, daring combat tactics, and valor in the face of overwhelming odds, Capt. Wilson succeeded in capturing and holding the strategic high ground in his regimental sector, thereby contributing essentially to the success of his regimental mission and to the annihilation of three-hundred fifty Japanese troops. His inspiring conduct throughout the critical periods of this decisive action sustains and enhances the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
BATSON, MATTHEW A.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Calamba, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 26 July 1899. Entered service at: Carbondale, Ill. Birth: Anna, Ill. Date of issue: 8 March 1902. Citation: Swam the San Juan River in the face of the enemy’s fire and drove him from his entrenchments.
McGRATH, HUGH J.
Rank and organization: Captain, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Calamba, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 26 July 1899. Entered service at: Eau Claire, Wis. Birth: Fond du Lac, Wis. Date of issue: 29 April 1902. Citation: Swam the San Juan River in the face of the enemy’s fire and drove him from his entrenchments.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1853, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 215, 9 August 1876. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Plymouth, Navy Yard, New York, 26 July 1876. Showing heroic conduct, Corey endeavored to save the life of one of the crew of that ship who had fallen overboard from aloft.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1853, Bangor, Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 215, 9 August 1876. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Plymouth, Gidding showed heroic conduct in trying to save the life of one of the crew of that ship, who had fallen overboard from aloft at the Navy Yard, New York, 26 July 1876.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1847, St. Johns, Newfoundland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 215, 9 August 1876. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Plymouth at the Navy Yard, New York, 26 July 1876, Kersey displayed bravery and presence of mind in rescuing from drowning one of the crew of that vessel.
Cow Appreciation Day
National Day of the Cowboy
We can all agree that our teeth are very useful. Teeth allow us to cut and tear apart food so that we are able to swallow it. There is no denying that teeth play a huge part in the digestion of our food.
Here are some fun facts about teeth that you might find interesting. According to the American Academy of Periodontology, 50% of people say that a smile is the first feature they notice about someone.
An average person has 32 teeth. That number includes 4 wisdom teeth, 8 incisors, 4 canines, 12 molars and 8 pre-molars. Incisors are cutting teeth; canines grip and tear food; premolars and molars have flattened crowns to crush and grind food.
Teeth in humans start to form before they are born and you get 2 sets of teeth in your lifetime. The first set is your baby teeth and are called “milk teeth.” You will start to lose your baby teeth at around 6-7 years of age. By the time your 21 years old, you will only have permanent teeth.
Teeth are covered with a hard enamel called a crown. The enamel on a humans tooth is the hardest thing in their body. Inside of your tooth is you have dentine and the pulp of your tooth. Each tooth is attached to your jaw socket and has blood vessels and nerves. 2/3rd of the length of your tooth is in the gum.
40% of people over 65 years of age do not have all of their teeth.
“You can conquer almost any fear if you will only make up your mind to do so. For remember, fear doesn’t exist anywhere except in the mind.”
~ Dale Carnegie
carte blanche(kart blanch, kart blansh) noun
[From French carte blanche (blank card or blank document).]
1394 – Charles VI of France issued a decree for the general expulsion of Jews from France.
1587 – Japanese shogun Toyotomi Hideyoshi banned Christianity in Japan and ordered all Christians to leave, although the order was not immediately enforced. A decade later, the crackdown began, and 26 Christians were crucified.
1609 – Admiral William Somers, head of a 7-ship fleet enroute to Virginia, spied land after being blown off course and soon deliberately drove his ship, the Sea Venture, onto the reefs of Bermuda during the storm to prevent its sinking; the survivors go on to found a new colony called Bermuda.
1722 - Father Rale’s War begins along the Maine-Massachusetts border. The root cause of the conflict on the Maine frontier was over the border between Acadia and New England.
1729 – North Carolina becomes royal colony.
1759 - French and Indian War: In Western New York, British forces capture Fort Niagara from the French, who subsequently abandon Fort Rouillé.
1775- Maryland issued currency depicting George III trampling the Magna Carta.
1783 - The Revolutionary War:war’s last action, the Siege of Cuddalore, is ended by preliminary peace agreement.
1788 – Virginia ratified the U.S. Constitution and became the 10th state of the United States.
1805 – Aaron Burr visited New Orleans with plans to establish a new country, with New Orleans as the capital city.
1814 - During the War of 1812 at the Battle of Lundy’s Lane, reinforcements arrive near Niagara Falls for General Riall’s British and Canadian forces and a bloody, all-night battle with Jacob Brown’s Americans started at 6 pm; the Americans retreat to Fort Erie.
1832 – The first recorded railroad accident in U.S. history occurred, on the Granite Railway near Quincy, Massachusetts. In addition it was the site of the first fatal railway accident in the United States when the wagon containing Mr. Thomas B. Achuas, of Cuba, derailed as he was taking a tour.
1850 – In Worcester, MA, Harvard and Yale University freshmen met in the first intercollegiate billiards match.
1850 – Gold was discovered in the Rogue River in Oregon.
1854 – The paper shirt collar was patented by Walter Hunt of New York City.Mr. Hunt was best known for the safety pin and as developer of the first repeating rifle.
1861 – Civil War: The Crittenden Resolution, which called for the American Civil War to be fought to preserve the Union and not for slavery, was passed by the U.S. Congress.
1861 – Civil War: John LaMountain began balloon reconnaissance ascensions at Fort Monroe, Virginia.
1863 – Civil War: U.S. Squadron bombards Fort Wagner, NC.
1864 – Civil War: Union troops surrounding Petersburg, VA, began building a mine tunnel underneath the Confederate lines.
1866 – Rank of Admiral created. David G. Farragut is appointed the first Admiral in the U.S. Navy.
1866 – Ulysses S. Grant was named General of the Army, the first officer to hold the rank.
1867 – Lucien B. Smith patented the first barbed wire.
1868 – Congress passed an act creating the Wyoming Territory.
1868 – Congress enacted legislation granting an eight-hour day to workers employed by the Federal government.
1868 – Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina were readmitted to the Union.
1871 – Seth Wheeler of Albany, NY patented perforated wrapping paper.
1871 – Carousel patented by Wilhelm Schneider, Davenport, Iowa.
1876 – Emily Tassey was granted a patent for an apparatus for raising sunken vessels.
1898 – During the Spanish-American War, U.S. forces launch their invasion of Puerto Rico, the 108-mile-long, 40-mile-wide island that was one of Spain’s two principal possessions in the Caribbean.
1909 – Louis Bleriot first crossed the English Channel in an airplane.
1912 – First specifications for naval aircraft published.
1913 – Pittsburgh Pirates Max Carey goes hitless, but scores 5 runs against the Phillies.
1916 – Inventor of the gas mask, Garrett T Morgan, rescues six from gas-filled tunnel in Cleveland, Ohio.
1917 – Margaretha Zelle, the Dutch spy known as Mata Hari, was sentenced to death.
1917 – The first American fighting troops landed in France.
1918 – Race riot in Chester, Pennsylvania, left three African-Americans and two whites dead.
1920 - The first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast takes place.
1925 – First radio station in the U.S. to broadcast with a 50,000-watt transmitter – Station 2XAG in Schenectady, NY was the first name then it became WGY.
1934 – First President to visit Hawaii, Franklin D. Roosevelt, reaches Hilo on board USS Houston.
1934 – There was a Nazi coup in Vienna. Austrian Premier Engelbert Dollfus was shot and killed by Adolph Hitler.
1939 – W2XBS TV in New York City presented “Topsy and Eva,” the first musical comedy on TV.
1940 – The United States prohibits the export of oil and metal products in certain categories, unless under license, to countries outside the Americas generally and to Britain.
1940 – John Sigmund of St. Louis , MO completed a 292-mile swim down the Mississippi River. The swim from St. Louis to Caruthersville , MO took him 89 hours and 48 minutes.
1941 – Red Sox Lefty Grove becomes 12th to win 300 games (his last victory.)
1941 – The U.S. government froze Japanese and Chinese assets.
1943 – World War II: Benito Mussolini was forced to resign as Dictator of Italy, by his own Italian Grand Council and is replaced by Pietro Badoglio bringing an end to the Fascist regime.
1943 – Launching of USS Harmon (DE-72), first ship named for an African-American. It was named after Mess Attendant Leonard Roy Harmon, who was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross for his actions on the USS San Francisco during the battle of Guadalcanal.
1944 – Bing Crosby and the Andrew Sisters recorded Cole Porter’s “Don’t Fence Me In” in Los Angeles for Decca Records.
1944 – World War II: The US 1st Army begins “Operation Cobra”.
1946 – Crooner Dean Martin and comedian Jerry Lewis staged their first show as a team in Atlantic City at Club 500.
1946 – The U.S. detonated an atomic bomb at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific. It was called Operation Crossroads and was the first underwater test of the device.
1947 – The Women’s Reserve of the Coast Guard Reserve (SPARS) was disestablished.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bewitched” by The Bill Snyder Orchestra, “Mona Lisa” by Nat King Cole, “I Wanna Be Loved” by The Andrews Sisters and “I’m Moving On” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1950 – North Korea invaded South Korea initiating the Korean War.
1950 – Korean War: American soldiers In Korea ordered villagers away from Im Ke Ri and sent them on the road to Hwanggan.
1950 – The independent U.S. 29th Infantry Regimental Combat Team was committed to action near Chinju. The North Koreans ambushed its 3rd Battalion at Hadong, killing 313 and capturing 100.
1951 – The first regular commercial color TV transmissions were presented on CBS using the FCC-approved CBS Color System. The public did not own color TV’s at the time.
1952 – Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth of the United States.
1953 – “I’m Walking Behind You” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.
1953 – New York City transit fare rose from 10 to 15 cents and it was the first use of subway tokens.
1956 – The Italian liner Andrea Doria sank after colliding with the Swedish ship Stockholm, 45 miles south of Nantucket Island; 51 people died.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hard Headed Woman” by Elvis Presley, “Poor Little Fool” by Ricky Nelson, “Little Star” by The Elegants and “Alone with You” by Faron Young all topped the charts.
1959 – “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka topped the “Billboard” charts.
1961 – Maris hits home runs 37, 38, 39 & 40 in a double header. The games between New York and Chicago were both won by New York, 5-1 and 12-0.
1962 – The Elvis Presley film “Kid Galahad” premiered.
1962 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the use of unofficial non-denominational prayer in public schools was unconstitutional.
1964 – “Rag Doll” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1964 – Race riot in Rochester, NY.
1964 – Beatles’ ” A Hard Day’s Night” album goes #1.
1965 – Folk-rock begins, Dylan uses electric guitar at Newport Folk Festival.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hanky Panky” by Tommy James & The Shondells, “Wild Thing” by The Troggs, “Lil’ Red Riding Hood” by Sam the Sham & The Pharoahs and “Think of Me” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1966 – Supremes release “You Can’t Hurry Love“.
1966 – “Dark Shadows” began running on ABC-TV.
1966 – Yankee manager Casey Stengel was elected to baseball’s Hall of Fame.
1967 – US Navy Lt. Commander Donald Davis crashed his jet on the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Searchers later recovered fragments of his remains for return to the US.
1968 – Bobby Bonds (San Francisco Giants) hit a grand-slam home run in his first game with the Giants. He was the first player to debut with a grand-slam.
1969 – Neil Young made his first appearance with Crosby, Stills and Nash.
1969 – Edward Kennedy pleads guilty to leaving scene of an accident a week after the Chappaquiddick car accident that killed Mary Jo Kopechne.
1969 – The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam, in which he stated that the US henceforth expected its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense.
1970 – “(They Long to Be) Close to You” by the Carpenters topped the charts.
1970 – Chicago’s “25 or 6 to 4” was released.
1971 – The Beach Boys released their album “Surf’s Up.”
1972 – US health officials conceded that blacks were used as guinea pigs in the 40-year Tuskegee Syphilis Study in Macon County, Ala.
1973 – White House Counsel John Dean admitted that U.S. President Nixon took part in the Watergate cover-up.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Your Baby” by George McCrae, “Annie’s Song” by John Denver, “Rock and Roll Heaven” by The Righteous Brothers and “Maria Laveau” by Bobby Bare all topped the charts.
1974 – The US Supreme Court ruled in Milliken v Bradley that desegregation cannot be required across school district lines. The case had originated in Detroit.
1975 – “A Chorus Line,” longest-running Broadway show (6,137), premiers. The show closed in 1990.
1976 - Viking 1 takes the famous Face on Mars photo.
1978 – Louise Joy Brown, the first test-tube baby, was born in Oldham, England; she’d been conceived through in-vitro fertilization.
1978 – Bob Dylan booed off Newport Folk Festival for using electric guitar.
1978 – Pete Rose sets NL record hitting in 38 consecutive games.
1978 – The Viking 2 Orbiter to Mars was powered down after 706 orbits.
1981 – Voyager 2 encounters Saturn. Voyager 2 flew by Saturn’s cloudtops at a distance of 100,800 kilometers (62,600 miles).
1981 – Walter Payton signed a contract to play with the Chicago Bears of the NFL on this, his 27th birthday.
1981 – “The One That You Love” by Air Supply topped the charts.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Eye of the Tiger” by Survivor, “Rosanna” by Toto, “Hurts So Good” by John Cougar and “Take Me Down” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1984 – Soviet cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya became the first woman to walk in space.
1985 – ABC’s “Monday Night Football” began with a new line-up. The trio was Frank Gifford, Joe Namath and O.J. Simpson.
1987 – “Alone” by Heart topped the charts.
1987 – The Salt Lake City Trappers set a professional baseball record as the team won its 29th game in a row. The Trappers were an independent Pioneer League minor league baseball team, based in Salt Lake City from 1985 to 1992.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “She Ain’t Worth It” by Glenn Medeiros featuring Bobby Brown, “Hold On” by En Vogue, “Cradle of Love” by Billy Idol and “The Dance” by Garth Brooks all topped the charts.
1990 – Roseanne Barr screeched out the national anthem very off-key at a Padres game, grabbed her crotch and spit on the ground. The incident made the national news and set off widespread outrage.
1990 – The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the right of an individual, whose wishes are clearly made, to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. “The right to die” decision was made in the Curzan vs. Missouri case.
1992 – Army refused to overturn 127 year old conviction against Dr. Mudd.
1992 – General Colin Powell, chairman of the joint chiefs of staff, dedicated the Buffalo Soldiers Monument at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
1994 – Israel and Jordan formally ended the state of war that had existed between them since 1948.
1996 – Outside the Khobar Towers near Dhahran, Saudi Arabia a truck bomb exploded. The bomb killed 19 Americans and injured over 500 Saudis and Americans.
1996 – Divers searching the wreckage of TWA Flight 800 off Long Island, N.Y., recovered the flight data and cockpit voice recorders.
1997 – Autumn Jackson, found guilty of trying to extort $40M from Bill Cosby.
1997 – US immigration agents rounded up seventeen deaf Mexicans in Sanford, North Carolina. This followed the revelation of fifty deaf Mexicans held in servitude in New York City and forced to sell trinkets on the streets.
1997 – In Elk Creek, Virginia, Louis Ceparano and Emmett Cressell Jr. doused Garnett Paul “G.P.” Johnson with gasoline, set him on fire and cut off his head.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court rejected the line-item veto thereby striking down presidential power to cancel specific items in tax and spending legislation.
1998 – The new nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, USS Harry S. Truman, was commissioned by President Clinton. The 97,000 ton ship cost $4.5 billion.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that those infected with HIV are protected by the Americans With Disabilities Act.
1998 – Microsoft’s “Windows 98″ was released to the public.
1998 – The US Capitol was reopened, a day after a gunman killed two police officers; a wounded suspect, Russell E. Weston Junior, was charged with murder.
1998 – U.S. President Clinton was subpoenaed to appear before a federal grand jury regarding the Monica Lewinsky case. The subpoena was withdrawn when Clinton agreed to give videotaped testimony with his lawyers present.
1999 – Lance Armstrong overcomes cancer to win the Tour de France.
2000 – Presidential candidate George W. Bush announced Former Defense Sec. Dick Cheney as his running mate.
2000 – A New York-bound Air France Concorde crashed outside Paris shortly after takeoff, killing all 109 people on board and four people on the ground. It marked the end of the Concorde.
2002 – The space shuttle Atlantis landed in Florida.
2002 – Zacarias Moussaoui declared he was guilty of conspiracy in the Sept. 11 attacks, then dramatically withdrew his plea at his arraignment in Alexandria, Va.
2004 – Lance Armstrong won a record sixth Tour de France bicycle race, in an amazing comeback after his bout with cancer.
2005 – Lance Armstrong became the first 7-time winner Tour de France bicycle race.
2005 – Corporal Dustin Berg, an Indiana National Guard soldier, pleaded guilty to negligent homicide in the death of an Iraqi police officer.
2005 – Intel announced plans to build a $3 billion computer microprocessor fabrication plant in Arizona.
2006 – San Francisco Supervisors gave final approval to a plan to provide health care coverage to the city’s estimated 82,000 uninsured residents.
2006 – The Interstate Abortion Bill is passed by the United States Senate. The bill would make it illegal for non-parents to take a minor to another state to obtain an abortion without parental consent.
2008 – Congressman Dennis Kucinich (D-Ohio) presents the articles for the impeachment of President George W. Bush to the U.S. House Judiciary Committee.
2008 – Google announces that it has indexed over 1 trillion unique web pages.
2008 – US regulators took over two banks and sold them to Mutual of Omaha Bank, the sixth and seventh bank failures this year as financial institutions struggle with a housing bust and credit crunch.
2008 – California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger signed a bill banning trans fat in restaurants and food facilities, making California the first state to do so. The law takes effect in two stages: Jan 1, 2010 and Jan 1, 2011.
2009 – Harry Patch, the last surviving World War I veteran to have fought in the trenches, dies aged 111.
2010 – WikiLeaks leaked to the public more than 90,000 internal reports involving the U.S.-led War in Afghanistan from 2004-2010.
2011 – The NFL Players Association unanimously accepts a 10 year pay deal with team owners in the NFL.
2011 - In softball, the U.S. defeats Japan 6-4 to win its fifth straight World Cup.
2011 - The President Barack Obama cancels fundraising dinners due to the ongoing debt crisis.
1750 – Henry Knox was an American bookseller from Boston who became the chief artillery officer of the Continental Army and later the nation’s first Secretary of War.
1775 – Anna Symmes Harrison, Ohio, ninth First Lady, 1841
1822 – Schuyler Hamilton, Major General Union volunteers in the Civil War.
1824 – Richard James Oglesby, Major General of U.S. Volunteers in the Civil War.
1894 – Walter Brennan, American actor (d. 1974)
1925 – Jerry Paris, born in San Francisco, California, director/actor, Jerry-Dick Van Dyke Show
1932 – Paul Joseph Weitz, born in Erie, Pennsylvania, astronaut, Skylab 2, STS-6
1941 – Emmett Louis “Bobo” Till was an African-American teenager from Chicago, Illinois who was brutally murdered in a region of Mississippi known as the Mississippi Delta near the small town of Drew in Sunflower County. His murder was one of the key events that energized the nascent American Civil Rights Movement.
1948 – Peggy Fleming, American Athlete
1954 – Walter Payton, American football player (d. 1999)
1957 – Daniel W. Bursch, born in Bristol, Pennsylvania, Lieutenant Commander USN/Astronaut, STS-51, 68, 77
1971 – Stacy Dawn Cenedese, Miss USA-Wyoming 1997
1978 – Louise Joy Brown, born in Oldham , England, world’s first “test tube baby”.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Near Songuch-on, Korea, 25 July 1953. Entered service at: El Paso, Tex. Born: 7 December 1929, La Junta, Colo. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a platoon sergeant of Company F in action against enemy aggressor forces. Participating in the defense of an outpost forward of the main line of resistance, S/Sgt. Guillen maneuvered his platoon over unfamiliar terrain in the face of hostile fire and placed his men in fighting positions. With his unit pinned down when the outpost was attacked under cover of darkness by an estimated force of two enemy battalions supported by mortar and artillery fire, he deliberately exposed himself to the heavy barrage and attacks to direct his men in defending their positions and personally supervise the treatment and evacuation of the wounded. Inspired by his leadership, the platoon quickly rallied and engaged the enemy in fierce hand-to-hand combat. Although critically wounded during the course of the battle, S/Sgt. Guillen refused medical aid and continued to direct his men throughout the remainder of the engagement until the enemy was defeated and thrown into disorderly retreat. Succumbing to his wounds within a few hours, S/Sgt. Guillen, by his outstanding courage and indomitable fighting spirit, was directly responsible for the success of his platoon in repelling a numerically superior enemy force. His personal valor reflects the highest credit upon himself and enhances the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1832, Kensington, N.J. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 215, 9 August 1876. Citation: For gallant conduct in attempting to save a shipmate from drowning at the Navy Yard, Mare Island, Calif., on 25 July 1876.
LUCAS, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 3d Missouri Cavalry. Place and date: At Benton, Ark., 25 July 1864. Entered service at: Mt. Sterling, Brown County, Ill. Birth: Adams County, Ill. Date of issue: December 1864. Citation: Pursued and killed Confederate Brig. Gen. George M. Holt, Arkansas Militia, capturing his arms and horse.
National Drive-Thru Day
Tell An Old Joke Day
FAMOUS LASTS IN ENTERTAINMENT
The last Andy Griffith Show was televised on September 16, 1968.
The Beatles last concert was at Candlestick Park, San Francisco, on August 29, 1966. The last song they played was “Long Tall Sally.” The Beatles recorded their last song together, “I Me Mine,” in 1970.
Italian violin maker Antonius Stradivarius of Cremona made his finest instruments after 1700. His last surviving instrument was dated 1737, the year of his death.
Buddy Holly’s last performance was on February 2, 1959.
Buddy Holly’s last record, “It Doesn’t Matter,” was released in 1959.
Last comedy show together for Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis at New York City’s Copacabana Club, the performance started on July 25, 1946.
The last Ed Sullivan Show on CBS-TV was June 6, 1971. Running for more than 20 years, the Ed Sullivan Show was the longest running variety show on TV. The first show had been telecast on June 20, 1948.
The last song that Elvis ever performed publicly was “Bridge Over Troubled Water“, at his final concert in Indianapolis in June, 1977.
The final episode of M*A*S*H was broadcast on February 28, 1983, and was titled “Goodbye, Farewell and Amen.”
In 2006 at the Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy, Luciano Pavarotti did his last performance. Pavarotti lip-synched (it was too cold to sing) a song during the opening ceremonies. he died in 2007 at 71-years-old.
Heath Ledger finished filming on “The Dark Knight” as The Joker and had started filming The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus when he died of an accidental drug overdose in January 2008.
On September 30, 1955, James Dean was killed in a car crash not long after completing filming on the 1956 movie “Giant.”
The last episode of the original Star Trek was on 6/3/1969 and was called “Turnabout Intruder.”
In February 2009, despite a tiger mauling during a show in 2003 (Roy Horn was almost killed), Siegfried and Roy gave a final performance in Las Vegas.
“It’s not what is available or unavailable that determines your level of success and happiness; it’s what you convince yourself is true.”
~ Dr. Wayne Dyer
exculpate \EK-skuhl-payt; ek-SKUHL-payt\, transitive verb:
To clear from alleged fault or guilt; to prove to be guiltless; to relieve of blame; to acquit.
1567 – Mary Queen of Scots is deposed and replaced by her one-year old son King James VI.
1651 – Anthony Johnson, a free Black, receives grant of 250 acres in VA. He was Virginia’s first free negro and first to establish a negro community, first negro landowner, first negro slave owner and as the first, white or black, to secure slave status for a servant, he was actually the founder of slavery in Virginia.
1683 – First settlers from Germany to US, leave aboard the Concord from London. They will arrive in Philadelphia on October 6, 1683 and form Germantown (part of Philadelphia).
1701 – Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac established Fort Ponchartrain for France at present-day Detroit.
1758 – George Washington admitted to Virginia’s House of Burgesses.
1763 – Ottawa Chief Pontiac led an uprising in the wild, distant lands that would one day become Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania.
1813 – Sailing Master Elijah Mix attempts to blow up British warship Plantagenet with a torpedo (mine) near Cape Henry, Virginia.
1824 – Harrisburg Pennsylvanian newspaper publishes results of first public opinion poll. It showed that Andrew Jackson was leading John Quincy Adams by 335 votes to 169 in the contest for the United States Presidency.
1832 – Benjamin Bonneville leads the first wagon train to cross the Rocky Mountains at Wyoming’s South Pass.
1847 – Brigham Young arrived with 148 Mormon pioneers at Utah’s Valley of the Great Salt Lake.
1847 – Rotary-type printing press patented by Richard March Hoe, New York City.
1849 – Georgetown University in Washington, DC, presented its first Doctor of Music Degree. It was given to Professor Henry Dielman.
1861 – Act “to provide for the temporary increase of the Navy” passed by Congress; gave President authority to take vessels into the Navy and appoint officers for them, to any extent deemed necessary; this con¬firmed action that had been taken by President Lincoln since April.
1862 – Martin Van Buren (79), the eighth president of the United States, died in Kinderhook, N.Y.
1862 – Civil War: Union fleets abandoned their attack on Vicksburg, Miss.
1863 – Civil War: Battle at Battle Mountain, Virginia.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate General Jubal Early defeats Union troops under General George Crook to keep the Shenandoah Valley clear of Yankees.
1864 – Battle of Winchester, VA, casualties numbered 1200 Union soldiers and 600 Confederate soldiers..
1864 – Civil War: Confederate guerrillas captured and burned steamer Kingston, which had run aground the preceding day between Smith’s Point and Windmill Point on the Virginia shore of Chesapeake Bay.
1866 – Tennessee became the first state to be readmitted to the Union after the Civil War.
1870 – The first Transcontinental Railroad was a railroad line built between 1863 and 1869 in the United States. When connected to the eastern railroads, it allowed trans-continental traffic.
1880 – First commercial hydroelectric power plant begins, Grand Rapids, MI.
1883 – Matthew Webb (b.1848), the first person to swim the English Channel (1875), drowned while trying to swim across the Niagara River just below the falls.
1897 – Black soldiers of the 25th Infantry Bicycle Corps arrived in St. Louis, MO, after completing a 40-day bike ride from Missoula, Montana.
1900 – Race riot in New Orleans, two white policemen killed.
1911 – Machu Picchu (Lost City of the Incas) was discovered by Hiram Bingham.
1911 - The first ‘all-star game’ in MLB history took place at League Park in Cleveland. It predated the first official ASG by 22 years. The contest was a benefit game to raise money for the widow and two children of Cleveland pitcher Addie Joss, who had died of meningitis at age 31 three months earlier.
1915 – Excursion ship Eastland capsizes in Lake Michigan. The fully-loaded passenger ship Eastland slowly rolled to her side, killing 844 of the more than 2,500 passengers.
1919 – Race Riot, Washington, D.C. Triggered by raids on Black residential areas by white soldiers. Six persons killed and more than one hundred wounded.
1929 – U.S. President Hoover proclaimed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which renounced war as an instrument of foreign policy.
1933 – The first broadcast of “The Romance of Helen Trent” (13:13) was heard on radio. It was on for 7,222 episodes, more than any other radio soap opera.
1933 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave his fourth “Fireside Chat.”
1935 – The Dust Bowl heat wave reaches its peak, sending temperatures to 109°F (44°C) in Chicago, Illinois and 104°F (40°C) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
1936 – The Coast Guard Cutter Cayuga was ordered to San Sebastian, Spain as the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War necessitated the evacuation of U.S. citizens.
1937 – The state of Alabama dropped charges against four African-American men accused of raping two white women in the so-called Scottsboro case.
1938 – Artie Shaw recorded his now-classic, “Begin the Beguine“.
1938 – Instant coffee was invented. Nestle came up with the first instant coffee after 8 years of experiments.
1941 – The U.S. government denounced Japanese actions in Indochina.
1942 – Irving Berlin’s musical “This is the Army,” premieres in New York City.
1943 – World War II: The U.S. submarine “Tinosa” fired fifteen torpedoes at a lone Japanese merchant ship, but none detonated.
1943 – World War II: British bombers raid Hamburg, Germany, by night in Operation Gomorrah, while Americans bomb it by day in its own “Blitz Week.” The bombings created “firestorms” that killed 40,000.
1944 – The V Amphibious Corps, commanded by Major General Harry Schmidt, landed on Tinian, in the Mariana Islands.
1945 – World War II:U.S. Navy bombers sank the Japanese battleship-carrier Hyuga in shallow waters off Kure, Japan.
1945 – World War II: At Potsdam, President Truman informs Stalin that a new and powerful weapon is now available for use against Japan but does not elaborate on the kind of weapon.
1945 – The Osaka-Nagoya area, the second largest population center in Japan, is bombed by 600 B-29 Superfortress bombers.
1946 – U.S. performs atmospheric nuclear test at Bikini Atoll. It was called Operation Crossroads.
1948 – Soviet occupation forces in Germany blockaded West Berlin. The U.S.-British airlift begins tomorrow.
1948 – Henry A. Wallace accepted the presidential nomination of the Progressive Party in Philadelphia.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Some Enchanted Evening” by Perry Como, “Bali Ha’I” by Perry Como, “Again” by Gordon Jenkins and “One Kiss Too Many” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1950 – V-2/WAC Corporal rocket launch; first launch from Cape Canaveral.
1952 – President Truman announced a settlement in a 53-day steel strike.
1952 – Pres. Truman commuted Oscar Collazo’s death sentence to life imprisonment. He was one of the two who had attempted to assassinate the president. On the same day he signed an act enlarging the self-government of Puerto Rico.
1954 – “Three Coins in the Fountain” by the Four Aces topped the charts.
1956 – At New York City’s Copacabana Club, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis perform their last comedy show together which started on July 25, 1946.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley, “Love Letters in the Sand” by Pat Boone, “It’s Not for Me to Say” by Johnny Mathis and “Bye Bye Love” by The Everly Brothers all topped the charts.
1958 – Jack Kilby (1923-2005) of Texas Instruments came up with the idea for creating the first integrated circuit on a piece of silicon. By September 12 he made a working prototype.
1959 – VP Nixon argued with Khrushchev known as the `Kitchen Debate’. This debate took place during a time of increasing tension in the Cold War, starting with Sputnik in 1957 and ending with the U-2 affair in 1960.
1961 – Roger Maris hits four home runs in a doubleheader.
1961 – Edwin Newman becomes news anchor of the Today Show. Newman was a longtime correspondent for NBC News. He was a member of the network news team that announced to the nation the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963.
1961 – A US commercial plane was hijacked to Cuba and began a trend.
1964 – A race riot took place in Rochester, New York, and four people were killed. Violence and looting in Rochester spanned a period of approximately sixty hours, resulting in four deaths, at least 350 injuries, over 800 arrests, and property damage totalling more than a million dollars.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” by The Rolling Stones, “I’m Henry VIII, I Am” by Herman’s Hermits, “What’s New Pussycat?” by Tom Jones and “Before You Go” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 – Bob Dylan released “Like a Rolling Stone“.
1965 – The Beach Boys’ “California Girls” was released on the Jack Benny Show with guest Bob Hope.
1965 – Vietnam War: U.S. bombers on a raid over munitions manufacturing facilities at Kang Chi, 55 miles northwest of Hanoi, were fired at from an unknown launching site. It was the first time the enemy had launched antiaircraft missiles at U.S. aircraft.
1966 – Golfer Tony Lema (32), while flying with his wife Betty to an exhibition match in Chicago, Illinois, crashed on the seventh hole of a golf course in Lansing, Illinois. All four people on board were killed.
1967 – Race riot, Cambridge, Maryland. National Guard mobilized.
1969 – Hoyt Wilhelm pitches in a record 907th major league game. At his retirement in 1972 he had pitched in 1070 games, more than any pitcher in major league history.
1969 – Apollo 11 splashes down safely in the Pacific.
1969 – Muhammad Ali is convicted for refusing induction in U.S. Army on appeal.
1970 – In Laos Capt. Donald Bloodworth and his pilot were lost on a night reconnaissance mission in a F-4D fighter-bomber. Bloodworth’s remains were returned to the US in 1998.
1970 – Pres. Nixon signed the Failing Newspaper Act (Newspaper Preservation Act) allowing papers in the same market to cut costs by merging some of their operations.
1970 – Freddie Mac (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corp.), a stockholder-owned corporation, was chartered by Congress to keep money flowing to mortgage lenders in support of homeownership and rental housing.
1971 – “Indian Reservation” by the Paul Revere & the Raiders topped the charts.
1971 – The White House Plumbers unit formed to stop the leaking (hence “plumbers”) of classified information to the news media during the Nixon administration.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bad, Bad Leroy Brown” by Jim Croce, “Yesterday Once More” by Carpenters, “Shambala” by Three Dog Night and “Love is the Foundation” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1974 – The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that President Richard Nixon had to turn over subpoenaed White House tape recordings to the Watergate special prosecutor.
1976 – “Kiss and Say Goodbye” by the Manhattans topped the charts.
1976 – Hall & Oates’ “She’s Gone” was released.
1978 – movie trailer “Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band,” starring Peter Frampton and the Bee Gees, opened in New York City, NY. movie trailer
1978 – Billy Martin was fired for the first of three times as the manager of the New York Yankees baseball team.
1979 – Red Sox Carl Yastrzemski hits his 400th home run.
1979 – President Carter names Paul Volcker, President of Federal Reserve.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes, “All Those Years Ago” by George Harrison, “The One that You Love” by Air Supply and “Feels So Right” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1982 – “Eye of the Tiger” by Survivor topped the charts.
1983 – The Space Shuttle Challenger landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, making Sally Ride the first American woman in space.
1984 – After 14 years and four Super Bowl championships with the Pittsburgh Steelers, Terry Bradshaw retires from the National Football League.
1985 – Walt Disney’s “The Black Cauldron” opened in movie houses around the country. The film was the 25th full-length cartoon produced by the Disney Studios in Burbank, CA.
1986 – San Francisco Federal jury convicts Navy radioman Jerry Whitworth of espionage for the Soviets.
1987 – IBM-PC DOS Version 3.3 (updated) released
1987 – Hulda Crooks, a 91-year-old mountaineer from California, became the oldest woman to conquer Mount Fuji, Japan’s highest peak.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Toy Soldiers” by Martika, “Express Yourself” by Madonna, “Batdance” by Prince and “What’s Going on in Your World” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1989 – Paula Gwynn, 22, crowned 21st Miss Black America.
1990 – Pantera released “Cowboys From Hell.” It was their first major label release.
1990 – Iraqi forces start massing on the Kuwait/Iraq border.
1993 – “Can’t Help Falling in Love” by UB40 topped the charts.
1993 – US House Ways and Means Chairman Dan Rostenkowski denied allegations he’d received embezzled funds, saying he had engaged in “no illegal or unethical conduct.”
1993 – In Somalia, two Green Berets are WIA when their HUMVEEs are ambushed.
1995 – A three-night celebration of Frank Sinatra’s 80th birthday began at Carnegie Hall.
1997 – William J. Brennan (91), retired Supreme Court Justice (1956-1990), died in Arlington, Va.
1998 – A gunman burst into U.S. Capitol and opened fire killing two police officers, officers Jacob Chestnut and John Gibson, and wounded a visitor. Russel Weston Jr., was later ruled incompetent to stand trial.
1998 – The motion picture “Saving Private Ryan,” starring Tom Hanks and directed by Steven Spielberg, was released.
1999 – “Wild Wild West” by Will Smith topped the charts.
2000 – Georgia’s Democratic Governor Zell Miller was appointed to the late Republican Paul Coverdell’s Senate seat.
2000 – In Minneapolis, Minn., 80 people were arrested as demonstrators protested against a meeting of the Int’l. Society for Animal Genetics.
2001 – The city of Detroit, Michigan celebrated its 300th anniversary with a historical reenactment of city founder Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac landing on the shores of the Detroit River.
2001 – Larry Silverstein signed a $3.2 billion, 99-year lease for the New York City World Trade Center (WTC). This is just seven weeks before their destruction.
2002 – The US House voted 420-1 to oust Rep. James Traficant, an Ohio Democrat. On July 30 Traficant was sentenced to 8 years in prison for bribery and racketeering.
2002 – In Pennsylvania nine coal miners were trapped by a flood 240 feet underground. All nine were rescued Jul 27.
2002 – In Houston, Texas, Clara Harris ran over her cheating husband with her Mercedes after catching him with his mistress. Harris (45) was convicted of murder Feb 13, 2003.
2003 – The U.S. released pictures of the bodies of Odai and Qusai Hussein. The two died during a battle with U.S. forces near Mosul, Iraq.
2005 – Lance Armstrong wins his seventh Tour de France.
2005 – Four unions said they would boycott the AFL-CIO convention in Chicago. The Service Employees and Teamsters said they would quit the group.
2006 Floyd Landis wins the 2006 Tour de France.
2006 – Rescuers from the US Coast Guard and Alaska Air National Guard saved 23 crew members from a cargo ship taking on water south of the Aleutian Islands.
2007 – The US minimum wage rose 70 cents to $5.85 an hour, the first increase in a decade.
2007 – Florida began distributing playing cards to prison inmates with pictures and information regarding unsolved murder and missing person cases.
2009 – President Barack Obama conceded his words, that a white police officer “acted stupidly” when he arrested a black university scholar in his own home, were ill-chosen.
2009 – A federal minimum wage increase took effect. The increase to $7.25 meant 70 cents more an hour for the lowest-paid workers in the 30 states that have lower minimums or no minimum wage.
2010 - Alarms on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig are found to have been disabled before the explosion and subsequent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
2010 - A court in Arizona listens to challenges to the state’s policy against illegal immigrants.
2011 – A gunman fatally shoots six people, including himself, and wounds four others in a shooting in Grand Prairie, Texas.
2011 – Nearly 4,000 employees of the US FAA are furloughed due to Congressional authorization for its programs lapsing.
1802 – Alexander Dumas (Davy de La Pailleterie) (Dumas PÈre), French playwright, novelist.
1897 – Amelia Earhart, American aviator.
1920 – Bella Abzug, American feminist, U.S. Congresswoman.
1932 – William D Ruckelshaus, headed Environmental Protection Agency.
1936 – Ruth Buzzi, Westerly, Rhode Island, comedienne, Laugh-In, Margie-That Girl
1951 – Lynda Carter, born in Phoenix, Arizona, Miss USA, 1973, actress, Wonder Woman
1964 – Barry Bonds, born in Riverside, California, left fielder, Pirates, San Francisco Giants, 3X MVP
1970 – Jennifer Lopez, American actress, singer, record producer, dancer, and fashion designer.
PITTMAN, RICHARD A.
Rank and organization: Sergeant (then L/Cpl.), U.S. Marine Corps, Company 1, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein) FMF. Place and date: near the Demilitarized Zone, Republic of Vietnam, 24 July 1966. Entered service at: Stockton, Calif. Born: 26 May 1945, French Camp, San Joaquin, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While Company 1 was conducting an operation along the axis of a narrow jungle trail, the leading company elements suffered numerous casualties when they suddenly came under heavy fire from a well concealed and numerically superior enemy force. Hearing the engaged Marines’ calls for more firepower, Sgt. Pittman quickly exchanged his rifle for a machinegun and several belts of ammunition, left the relative safety of his platoon, and unhesitatingly rushed forward to aid his comrades. Taken under intense enemy small-arms fire at point blank range during his advance, he returned the fire, silencing the enemy position. As Sgt. Pittman continued to forge forward to aid members of the leading platoon, he again came under heavy fire from two automatic weapons which he promptly destroyed. Learning that there were additional wounded Marines fifty yards further along the trail, he braved a withering hail of enemy mortar and small-arms fire to continue onward. As he reached the position where the leading Marines had fallen, he was suddenly confronted with a bold frontal attack by thirty to forty enemy. Totally disregarding his safety, he calmly established a position in the middle of the trail and raked the advancing enemy with devastating machinegun fire. His weapon rendered ineffective, he picked up an enemy submachinegun and, together with a pistol seized from a fallen comrade, continued his lethal fire until the enemy force had withdrawn. Having exhausted his ammunition except for a grenade which he hurled at the enemy, he then rejoined his platoon. Sgt. Pittman’s daring initiative, bold fighting spirit and selfless devotion to duty inflicted many enemy casualties, disrupted the enemy attack and saved the lives of many of his wounded comrades. His personal valor at grave risk to himself reflects the highest credit upon himself, the Marine Corps, and the U.S. Naval Service.
HASTINGS, SMITH H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company M, 5th Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At Newbys Crossroads, Va., 24 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Quincy, Mich. Date of issue: 2 August 1897. Citation: While in command of a squadron in rear guard of a cavalry division, then retiring before the advance of a corps of infantry, was attacked by the enemy and, orders having been given to abandon the guns of a section of field artillery with the rear guard that were in imminent danger of capture, he disregarded the orders received and aided in repelling the attack and saving the guns.
WOODRUFF, CARLE A.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 2d U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At Newbys Crossroads, Va., 24 July 1863. Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Born: Buffalo, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 September 1893. Citation: While in command of a section of a battery constituting a portion of the rear guard of a division then retiring before the advance of a corps of Infantry was attacked by the enemy and ordered to abandon his guns. Lt. Woodruff disregarded the orders received and aided in repelling the attack and saving the guns.
Don’t Trip Over the Threshold - In the olden days, the groom carried the bride over the threshold to protect her from evil demons that might try to pull her under. A lot of superstitions come from evil spirits trying to kidnap the bride.
If you cut an apple in half and count how many seeds are inside, you will also know how many children you will have.
It’s bad luck to walk under a ladder. This came from the early Christian belief that a leaning ladder formed a triangle with the wall and ground. You must never violate the Holy Trinity by walking through a triangle, lest you be considered in league with the devil.
Skin Of Your Teeth. This saying means to barely escape from a harrowing situation. It comes from Job 19:20 (KJV), where God inflicts all sorts of terrible things on one of those who love him. Poor Job had all his animals stolen, his children die, his house collapse and his body covered with sores. Job has this to say; “My bone cleaveth to my skin and to my flesh, and I am escaped with the skin of my teeth.”
Knocking on wood was supposed to keep the evil spirits that lived in the wood from coming out to spoil our good fortune. Men believed that the gods lived in trees and if you wanted a favor from the gods, you would “knock on wood.” To thank the gods if your request were to come to fruition, you would “knock on wood.”
Good Luck Charms. Horseshoes - In ancient Greece, horses were considered sacred animals. If a horse’s shoe was hung over the door of a house, it was believed it would attract good luck. The open end of the horseshoe had to point up though, making it look like a roundish ‘U’, so that it would hold the good luck in. If it pointed downwards, the good luck was believed to have spilled out.
The number ‘13’
Both the sixth day of the week and the number 13 both have foreboding reputations said to date from ancient times, and their inevitable conjunction from one to three times a year portends more misfortune than some credulous minds can bear. Some people won’t go to work on Friday the 13th; some won’t eat in restaurants; many wouldn’t think of setting a wedding on the date. Of special interest to the student of history is the number of times the number ‘13’ shows up in the United States documents and symbols. It should be very clear that our Founding Fathers had no fear of this number.
Why do so many people get married in June? For one thing June has been known to be the luckiest month for weddings since the days of ancient Rome. The goddess Juno, after whom the month has been named, was the guardian of happy marriages. June also has the longest day of the year. A wedding in June therefore was supposed to materialize into a long and happy marriage.
Why do all engaged or married people wear a ring around their finger? The wedding ring comes to us from ancient Egypt. A circle is an uninterrupted and unbroken continuous ring – the sign of a lasting marriage. If the ring broke, it meant bad luck. If it were taken off, love might escape from the heart. Additionally, the Egyptians believed that a vein ran from the third finger of the left hand to the heart. That is how the third finger of left hand became the ring finger.
The custom of showering rice, now illegal in most of the US, comes from Pakistan, India and China. Rice is considered as one of the main diets in these countries. It stands for health and wealth. People throw rice on newlyweds so that the couple would have many children. This wasted or thrown away rice is also a gift for any evil spirits who might be lurking around so that they get busy in collecting and eating it leaving the couple in peace.
Finally, why is a diamond a ‘girl’s best friend’? Its sparkle was believed to come from the fires of love. Wearing a diamond was supposed to bring love and faithfulness.
“In the long run the pessimist may be proved right, but the optimist has a better time on the trip.”
~ Daniel L. Reardon
valediction val-uh-DIK-shuhn, noun:
the action of bidding farewell; a farewell
In use by 1614, from Latin valedicere “bid farewell,” from vale, imperative form of valere “be well” + dicere “to say”
1099 – First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon elected first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1298 – Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of Falkirk – King Edward I of England and his longbowmen defeats William Wallace and his Scottish schiltrons outside the town.
1376 – The legend of the Pied Piper of Hamelin leading rats out of town is said to have occurred on this date.
1587 – Colony of Roanoke: A second group of English settlers arrive on Roanoke Island off of North Carolina to re-establish the deserted colony. It was lead by John White and financed by Sir Walter Raleigh.
1620 – The Pilgrims set out from Holland destined for the New World. The Speedwell sailed to England from the Netherlands with members of the English Separatist congregation that had been living in Leiden, Holland.
1686 – Albany, New York formally chartered as a municipality by Governor Thomas Dongan
1789 – Thomas Jefferson became the first head of the U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs.
1793 – Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Pacific Ocean becoming the first Euro-American to complete a transcontinental crossing north of Mexico.
1796 – Surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company name an area in Ohio “Cleveland” after Gen. Moses Cleaveland, the superintendent of the surveying party.
1802 – Frigate Constellation defeats nine Corsair gunboats off Tripoli.
1823 – Marines attack pirates near Cape Cruz, Cuba.
1862 – Civil War: U.S.S. Essex and ram Queen of the West attacked C.S.S. Arkansas while it was at anchor with a disabled engine at Vicksburg.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Atlanta – Outside of Atlanta, Georgia, Confederate General John Bell Hood leads an unsuccessful attack on Union troops under General William T. Sherman on Bald Hill.
1864 – Civil War: A landing party from U.S.S. Oneida conducted a daring expedition that resulted in the capture of a Confederate cavalry patrol near Fort Morgan, Mobile Bay.
1873 – Louis Pasteur received a patent for the manufacture of beer and treatment of yeast.
1881 – The first volume of “The War of the Rebellion,” a compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, was published.
1893 – Katherine Lee Bates (1819-1910), Wellesley professor, wrote the words to the song “America the Beautiful,” while atop Pike’s Peak during a trip to Colorado. It appeared in print on July 4, 1895.
1905 – Body of John Paul Jones moved to Annapolis, MD for reburial.
1916 – In San Francisco, California, a bomb explodes on Market Street during a Preparedness Day parade killing 10 and injuring 40.
1919 – Two companies of Quantico Marines helped civil authorities restore order after race riots in Washington, DC.
1923 – Walter Johnson becomes the first to strikeout 3,000 batters.
1926 – Babe Ruth caught a baseball that was dropped from an airplane. The plane was at 250 feet and traveling at about 100 miles-per-hour. Ruth was knocked flat during the first two attempts.
1933 – Wiley Post becomes first person to fly solo around the world traveling 15,596 miles in 7 days, 18 hours and 49 minutes. in his single-engine Lockheed Vega 5B aircraft “Winnie Mae.”
1933 – Caterina Jarboro became the first African American prima donna of an opera company. The singer performed “Aida” with the Chicago Opera Company at the Hippodrome in New York City.
1934 – Outside Chicago’s Biograph Theatre, “Public Enemy No. 1″ John Dillinger is mortally wounded by FBI agents.
1937 – Senate rejects FDR proposal to enlarge the Supreme Court.
1937 – Hal Kemp and his orchestra recorded, “Got a Date with an Angel.” The distinctive vocal on the tune is provided by Skinnay Ennis.
1942 – World War II: The United States government begins compulsory civilian gasoline rationing due to the wartime demands.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: The systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto to Treblinka begins.
1942 – World War II: Gasoline rationing involving the use of coupons began along the Atlantic seaboard.
1943 – World War II: American forces led by Gen. George S. Patton captured Palermo, Sicily.
1943 – World War II: US naval forces including two battleships and four cruisers as well as lighter units bombard Japanese held Kiska Island.
1944 – World War II: On Guam, Marines of US 3rd Amphibious Corps attempt to link up their two beachheads with converging attacks. The American forces only advance about one mile against heavy Japanese resistance.
1946 – Jewish extremists, that included Menachem Begin and Yitzhak Shamir, blew up a wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, which housed British administrative offices.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Peg o’ My Heart” by The Harmonicats, “I Wonder, I Wonder, I Wonder” by Eddy Howard, “Chi-Baba, Chi-Baba” by Perry Como and “Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)” by Tex Williams all topped the charts.
1950 – “Mona Lisa” by Nat ‘King’ Cole topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: Major John H. Glenn, future astronaut and U.S. senator, claimed his third MiG kill in the last aerial victory of the war by a Marine pilot.
1953 – Korea War: First Lieutenant Sam P. Young, 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, was credited with the final MiG kill of the Korean War.
1954 – Governor Gordon Persons declares martial law in Russell County after a key witness in an upcoming grand jury inquiry is murdered to prevent his testimony about local corruption and vote fraud. One hundred fifty Alabama Guardsmen move in to “clean up.”
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Around the Clock” by Bill Haley & His Comets, “Honey-Babe” by Art Mooney, “The House of Blue Lights” by Chuck Miller and “I Don’t Care” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1955 – Vice President Richard M. Nixon chaired a cabinet meeting in Washington, D.C. It was the first time that a Vice President had carried out this task.
1957 – The Frisbee aka ‘Pluto Plater’ patented (Design patent 183,626). It was invented by a Los Angeles building inspector named Walter Frederick Morrison.
1957 – In El Segundo, CA, two police officers were shot and killed after pulling over a car for running a red light. Gerald Mason (68) was arrested in 2003 following fingerprint ID from a new FBI database.
1960 – Cuba nationalized all US owned sugar factories.
1961 – “Tossin’ & Turnin‘” by Bobby Lewis topped the charts.
1962 – Mariner program: Mariner 1 spacecraft flies erratically several minutes after launch and has to be destroyed.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Surf City” by Jan & Dean, “So Much in Love” by The Tymes, “Memphis” by Lonnie Mack and “Act Naturally” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1963 – World Heavyweight Champion Sonny Liston hung on to his boxing title by knocking out challenger Floyd Patterson in the first round of a bout in Las Vegas, NV.
1964 – Four Navy Divers (LCDR Robert Thompson, MC; Gunners Mate First Class Lester Anderson, Chief Quartermaster Robert A. Barth, and Chief Hospital Corpsman Sanders Manning) submerge in Sealab I for 10 days at a depth of 192 feet, 39 miles off Hamilton, Bermuda.
1966 – Vietnam War: B-52 bombers hit the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Vietnam for the first time.
1967 – “Windy“, by The Association topped the “Billboard” charts.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Too Late/I Feel the Earth Move” by Carole King, “You’ve Got a Friend” by James Taylor, “Don’t Pull Your Love” by Hamilton, Joe Frank & Reynolds and “When You’re Hot, You’re Hot” by Jerry Reed all topped the charts.
1972 – Venera 8 makes soft landing on Venus. The spacecraft took 117 days to reach Venus, entering the atmosphere today. Venera 8 transmitted data during the descent and continued to send back data for 50 minutes after landing.
1972 – “Lean On Me” by Bill Withers topped the “Billboard”charts.
1975 – Confederate General Robert E. Lee had his U.S. citizenship restored by the U.S. Congress.
1977 – Tony Orlando announced his retirement from show business.
1978 – “Shadow Dancing” by Andy Gibb topped the “Billboard” charts.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bad Girls” by Donna Summer, “Good Times” by Chic, “Makin’ It” by David Naughton and “Shadows in the Moonlight” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.
1986 – The US House of Representatives impeached Judge Harry E. Claiborne. He was later convicted by the Senate of tax evasion and bringing disrepute on the federal courts.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Alone” by Heart, “Shakedown” by Bob Seger, “Don’t Disturb This Groove” by The System and “I Know Where I’m Going” by The Judds all topped the charts.
1987 – The US began its policy of escorting re-flagged Kuwaiti tankers up and down the Persian Gulf to protect them from possible attack by Iran.
1990 – Greg LeMond won his third Tour de France.
1991 – Desiree Washington, a Miss Black America contestant, charged she’d been raped by boxer Mike Tyson in an Indianapolis hotel room. Tyson was later convicted of rape and served 3 years in prison.
1991 – Police arrested Jeffrey Dahmer after finding the remains of 11 victims in his apartment in Milwaukee. Dahmer confessed to 17 murders and was sentenced to life in prison. He was murdered while in prison in 1994.
1992 – Near Medellín, Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar escapes from his luxury prison fearing extradition to the United States.
1994 – Last of the large fragments of the comet Shoemaker-Levy strikes Jupiter.
1994 – O.J. Simpson pleaded innocent to the slaying of his ex-wife, Nicole, and her friend, Ronald Goldman.
1995 – Susan Smith was convicted by a jury in Union, South Carolina, of first-degree murder for drowning her two sons. She was later sentenced to life in prison.
1997 – The second Blue Water Bridge opens between Port Huron, Michigan and Sarnia, Ontario.
1997 – In Michigan some 2,800 UAW workers went on strike at a GM plant in Warren.
1999 – The first version of MSN Messenger was released by Microsoft.
1999 – The ashes of John F. Kennedy Junior, his wife, Carolyn, and her sister, Lauren Bessette, were cast into the sea off Martha’s Vineyard, consigned to the depths where they died.
1999 – In Waverly, Iowa, the Cedar River crested at 21 feet and flooded 65 city blocks forcing some 1500 people out of their homes.
2000 – Astronomers at the University of Arizona announced that they had found a 17th moon orbiting Jupiter.
2000 – Mack Metcalf (42) of Kentucky and his wife Virginia Metcalf Merida (46) won $34.1 million in the Powerball Lottery. They planned to split their winnings 60/40.
2002 – The Bush administration said it would not contribute to a UN program that it contends provides aid to the Chinese government to coerce women in getting abortions.
2003 – Members of 101st Airborne, aided by Special Forces, attack a compound in Iraq, killing Saddam Hussein’s sons Uday and Qusay, along with Mustapha Hussein, Qusay’s 14-year old son, and a bodyguard.
2003 – Months after her prisoner-of-war ordeal, Pvt. 1st Class Jessica Lynch returned home to a hero’s welcome in Elizabeth, W.Va.
2004 – The USS John F. Kennedy aircraft carrier collided with a dhow in the Arabian Gulf while running night flights in support of U.S. operations in Iraq. The crew of the small boat was missing.
2004 – The 567-page 9/11 Commission Report was made public.
2005 – In Irving, Texas, Kimberly-Clark Corp., maker of Kleenex tissues and Huggies diapers, said it plans to cut about 6,000 jobs and sell or close up to 20 manufacturing plants.
2008 – North Carolina-based Wachovia Corp., the 4th largest US bank, lost $8.86 billion in the 2nd quarter, and said it was slashing its dividend and cutting 6,350 jobs after losses tied to mortgages soared.
2009 – In Lynn, Massachusetts, 6 boys, aged 7-15, used bricks to severely beat Damien Merida (30), a Guatemalan immigrant, as he slept near railroad tracks.
2010 - Tornado strikes Battle Creek, Michigan.
2010 - U.S. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack Wednesday apologizes to Shirley Sherrod for firing her over a heavily-edited video tape of a speech, circulated by Tea Party activists, which alleged that Sherrod’s actions were the result of racism, and offers her an official job.
2011 – Democratically controlled Senate tables, effectively killing, the House Republicans’ “cut, cap and balance” deficit reduction bill.
2011 – Debt negotiations between President Barack Obama and Speaker of the House John Boehner collapse.
2012 – The US Marine Corps has created its first law enforcement battalions – a lean, specialized force of military police officers that it hopes can quickly deploy.The Corps activated three such battalions last month. Each is made up of roughly 500 military police officers and dozens of dogs.
2013 - Southwest Flight 345 crash-landed at LaGuardia Airport. The plane’s front-landing gear collapsed shortly after the plane touched down. Six passengers were taken to the hospital with minor injuries and 10 passengers were treated at the crash scene. New York Port Authority Acting Director of Aviation Thomas Bosco told the Associated Press that there was no warning signal leading up to the plane landing.
1844 – William Archibald Spooner, English priest and scholar (d. 1930)
1882 – Edward Hopper, American painter (d. 1967)
1890 – Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy, American Kennedy family matriarch (d. 1995)
1898 – Stephen Vincent Benét, American author (d. 1943)
1908 – Amy Vanderbilt, American author (d. 1974)
1923 – Bob Dole, American politician
1928 – Orson Bean, American film actor
1936 – Tom Robbins, American author
1955 – Willem Dafoe, American actor
1964 – David Spade, American comedian
1992 – Selena Gomez, American actress
LOBAUGH, DONALD R.
Rank and organization: Private, U .S. Army, 127th Infantry, 32d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Afua, New Guinea, 22 July 1944. Entered service at: Freeport, Pa. Birth: Freeport, Pa. G.O. No.: 31, 17 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty near Afua, New Guinea, on 22 July 1944. While Pvt. Lobaugh’s company was withdrawing from its position on 21 July, the enemy attacked and cut off approximately one platoon of our troops. The platoon immediately occupied, organized, and defended a position, which it held throughout the night. Early on 22 July, an attempt was made to effect its withdrawal, but during the preparation therefor, the enemy emplaced a machinegun, protected by the fire of rifles and automatic weapons, which blocked the only route over which the platoon could move. Knowing that it was the key to the enemy position, Pfc. Lobaugh volunteered to attempt to destroy this weapon, even though in order to reach it he would be forced to work his way about thirty yards over ground devoid of cover. When part way across this open space he threw a hand grenade, but exposed himself in the act and was wounded. Heedless of his wound, he boldly rushed the emplacement, firing as he advanced. The enemy concentrated their fire on him, and he was struck repeatedly, but he continued his attack and killed two more before he was himself slain. Pfc. Lobaugh’s heroic actions inspired his comrades to press the attack, and to drive the enemy from the position with heavy losses. His fighting determination and intrepidity in battle exemplify the highest traditions of the U.S. Armed Forces.
MASON, LEONARD FOSTER
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Asan-Adelup Beachhead, Guam, Marianas Islands on 22 July 1944. Born: 2 February 1920, Middleborough, Ky. Accredited to: Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as an automatic rifleman serving with the 2d Battalion, 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on the Asan-Adelup Beachhead. Suddenly taken under fire by two enemy machineguns not more than fifteen yards away while clearing out hostile positions holding up the advance of his platoon through a narrow gully, Pfc. Mason, alone and entirely on his own initiative, climbed out of the gully and moved parallel to it toward the rear of the enemy position. Although fired upon immediately by hostile riflemen from a higher position and wounded repeatedly in the arm and shoulder, Pfc. Mason grimly pressed forward and had just reached his objective when hit again by a burst of enemy machinegun fire, causing a critical wound to which he later succumbed. With valiant disregard for his own peril, he persevered, clearing out the hostile position, killing five Japanese, wounding another and then rejoining his platoon to report the results of his action before consenting to be evacuated. His exceptionally heroic act in the face of almost certain death enabled his platoon to accomplish its mission and reflects the highest credit upon Pfc. Mason and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
SKAGGS, LUTHER, JR.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, 3d Battalion, 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Asan-Adelup beachhead, Guam, Marianas Islands, 21 -22 July 1944. Entered service at: Kentucky. Born: 3 March 1923, Henderson, Ky. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as squad leader with a mortar section of a rifle company in the 3d Battalion, 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division, during action against enemy Japanese forces on the Asan-Adelup beachhead, Guam, Marianas Islands, 21 -22 July 1944. When the section leader became a casualty under a heavy mortar barrage shortly after landing, Pfc. Skaggs promptly assumed command and led the section through intense fire for a distance of 200 yards to a position from which to deliver effective coverage of the assault on a strategic cliff. Valiantly defending this vital position against strong enemy counterattacks during the night, Pfc. Skaggs was critically wounded when a Japanese grenade lodged in his foxhole and exploded, shattering the lower part of one leg. Quick to act, he applied an improvised tourniquet and, while propped up in his foxhole, gallantly returned the enemy’s fire with his rifle and handgrenades for a period of 8 hours, later crawling unassisted to the rear to continue the fight until the Japanese had been annihilated. Uncomplaining and calm throughout this critical period, Pfc. Skaggs served as a heroic example of courage and fortitude to other wounded men and, by his courageous leadership and inspiring devotion to duty, upheld the high traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
FORCE, MANNING F.
Rank and organization: Brigadier General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Atlanta, Ga., 22 July 1864. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Born: Washington, D.C. 17 December 1824. Date of issue: 31 March 1892. Citation: Charged upon the enemy’s works, and after their capture defended his position against assaults of the enemy until he was severely wounded.
HANEY, MILTON L.
Rank and organization: Chaplain, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Atlanta, Ga., 22 July 1864. Entered service at: Bushnell, Ill. Birth: Ohio. Date of issue: 3 November 1896. Citation: Voluntarily carried a musket in the ranks of his regiment and rendered heroic service in retaking the Federal works which had been captured by the enemy.
SANCRAINTE, CHARLES F.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 15th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Atlanta, Ga., 22 July 1864. Entered service at: Monroe, Mich. Born: 1840, Monroe, Mich. Date of issue: 25 July 1892. Citation: Voluntarily scaled the enemy’s breastworks and signaled to his commanding officer in charge; also in single combat captured the colors of the 5th Texas Regiment (C.S.A.).
SPRAGUE, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 63d Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Decatur, Ga., 22 July 1862. Entered service at: Sandusky, Ohio Born: 4 April 1817, White Creek, N.Y. Date of issue: 18 January 1894. Citation: With a small command defeated an overwhelming force of the enemy and saved the trains of the corps.
Legal Drinking Age Day
Monkeying Around Day
Just Interesting (Strange and Weird but useless)
Months that begin with a Sunday will always have a “Friday the 13th.”
The dial tone of a normal telephone is in the key of “F”.
The Earth orbits the Sun at a speed of about 67,000 miles per hour or 18.6 miles per second (1/10000 of the speed of light.)
Non-dairy creamer is flammable.
The reason firehouses have circular stairways is from the days of yore when the engines were pulled by horses. The horses were stabled on the ground floor and figured out how to walk up straight staircases. They could not, however, walk back down.
There are at least a half-million more automobiles in Los Angeles than there are people.
Money isn’t made out of paper; it’s made out of cotton.
The oceans contain enough salt to cover all the continents to a depth of nearly 500 feet.
The “57″ on Heinz ketchup bottle represents the number of varieties of pickles the company once had.
Your stomach has to produce a new layer of mucus every two weeks otherwise it will digest itself.
A duck’s quack doesn’t echo. No one knows why.
At any particular time, there are approximately 1,800 thunderstorms occurring in the Earth’s atmosphere.
A 2×4 is 1 1/2″ x 3 1/2″.
Chocolate kills dogs! True, chocolate affects a dog’s heart and nervous system. A few ounces are enough to kill a small sized dog.
Most lipstick contains fish scales.
During the California Gold Rush of 1849 miners sent their laundry to Honolulu for washing and pressing. Due to the extremely high costs in California during these boom years it was deemed more feasible to send the shirts to Hawaii for servicing.
There are no clocks in Las Vegas gambling casinos.
The capital of Burkina Faso is Ouagadougou. This is just in case you want to bamboozle someone.
There are no words in the dictionary that rhyme with: orange, purple, and silver!
The original name for the butterfly was ‘flutterby’!
By raising your legs slowly and lying on your back, you can’t sink in quicksand.
Celery has negative calories! It takes more calories to eat a piece of celery than the celery has in it to begin with.
In Gulliver’s Travels, Jonathan Swift described the two moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos, giving their exact size and speeds of rotation. He did this more than 100 years before either moon was discovered.
At the equator the Earth spins at about 1,038 miles per hour.
The name Wendy was made up for the book Peter Pan, there was never a recorded Wendy before!
Venus is the only planet that rotates clockwise.
Guinness Book of Records holds the record for being the book most often stolen from Public Libraries.
There are more than 250,000 rivers in the United States, which amounts to 3.5 million miles of rivers.
“If there are a hundred steps
In thy path to success
And ye have not reached it
In ninety-nine of them
Do not conclude
That the journey is a failure.”
~ Sir Lancelot
caveat \KAY-vee-at; KAV-ee-; KAH-vee-aht\, noun:
1. (Law) A notice given by an interested party to some officer not to do a certain act until the opposition has a hearing.
2. A warning or caution; also, a cautionary qualification or explanation to prevent misunderstanding
1669 – John Locke’s Constitution of the English colony of Carolina was approved.
1733 – John Winthrop was granted the first honorary Doctor of Law degree in the U.S., by Harvard College.
1823 – After pirate attack, LT David G. Farragut leads landing party to destroy the pirate stronghold in Cuba.
1846 – Mormons founded the first English settlement in the San Joaquin Valley of California.
1861 – Civil War: The first Battle of Bull Run was fought at Manassas, Virginia — a Confederate victory. Many folks, dressed in their Sunday best, came to watch and picnic as 60,000 men fought for over ten hours. When a shell destroyed a wagon blocking the main road of retreat, panic sent Union troops and picnickers scurrying back to Washington D.C.
1862 – U.S. steamers Clara Dolsen and Rob Roy and tug with troops, embarked, arrived from Cairo, IL to protect Evansville, IN, at the request of Governor Morton.
1865 -Wild Bill Hickok killed gunman Dave Tutt in Springfield, Illinois, in the first formal quick-draw duel.
1873 – A train robbery, mistakenly called the first, in America was pulled off by Jesse James and his gang. They took $3,000 from the Rock Island Express after derailing it at Adair, IA.
1875 - Mark Twain’s “The Adventure of Tom Sawyer” was registered.
1877 – The Baltimore and Ohio railroad strike turned bloody: the Maryland militia opened fire on the rail workers, leaving nine strikers dead and touching off a round of riots that engulfed Baltimore. The US Army & Marines broke the strike.
1896 – Mary Church Terrell founded the National Association of Colored Women in Washington, D.C.
1904 – Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson arrived in Cleveland with his mechanic Sewell Croker escorted by a fleet of new Winton automobiles. They were enroute to NYC from San Francisco
1904 – In a Gobron-Brilli, Louis Rigolly set a new land speed record of 103.58 mph at Ostend, Belgium. Built explicitly for land speed racing, it was the first vehicle to set record over 100 mph.
1918 – World War I: The German U-boat, U-156, fired at an American tug and four barges just off shore of Orleans, Massachusetts.
1919 – A dirigible crashed through a bank skylight killing 13 in Chicago.
1921 – Gen. Billy Mitchell flew off with a payload of makeshift aerial bombs and sank the former German battle ship Ostfriesland off Hampton Roads, Virginia; the first time a battleship was ever sunk by an airplane.
1925 – John T. Scopes was convicted of violating state law for teaching Darwin’s Theory of Evolution (later overturned).
1930 – The U.S. Veterans Administration was established by an executive order of President Herbert Hoover.
1931 – Ted Husing was master of ceremonies for the very first CBS-TV program. The first broadcast included Mayor James J. Walker, Kate Smith, and George Gershwin.
1941 – Roosevelt asks Congress to extend the draft period from one year to 30 months and to make similar increases in the terms of service for the National Guard.
1941 – Holocaust: Himmler ordered the building of the Majdanek concentration camp. The camp was built in eastern Poland as a principal site to exterminate Jews. It contained seven gas chambers.
1943 – World War II: The Allied advances continue. The British capture Gerbini, the Canadians take Leonforte and the Americans occupy Corleone and Castelvetrano.
1944 – World War II: Guam, in the western Pacific Ocean, which had been under Japanese occupation since Dec 1941, was retaken by U.S. Marines. The 3rd Marine Division establishes a beachhead at Asan, west of Agana. The 1st Marine Division comes ashore at Agat.
1944 – Harry S Truman accepted the Democratic party’s nomination for vice president.
1945 – World War II: American radio broadcasts call on Japan to surrender or face destruction.
1946 - CHART TOPPERS – “The Gypsy” by The Ink Spots, “They Say It’s Wonderful” by Frank Sinatra, “Surrender” by Perry Como and “New Spanish Two Step” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1946 – In first U.S. test of adaptability of jet aircraft to shipboard operations, XFD-1 Phantom makes landings and takeoffs without catapults from the USS Franklin D. Roosevelt.(CVB/CVA/CV-42)
1947 – Loren MacIver’s portrait of Emmett Kelly as Willie the Clown appeared on the cover of “LIFE” magazine.
1949 – The U.S. Senate ratified the North Atlantic Treaty.
1950 – Korean War: Major General William F. Dean was reported missing in action as his 24th Infantry Division fought its way out of Taejon. During that action, he set the example by single-handedly attacking a T-34 tank with a grenade and directing the fire of others from an exposed position.
1951 – “Too Young” by Nat ‘King’ Cole topped the charts.
1952 – A quake in the Tehachapi-Bakersfield area 50 miles north of Los Angeles, California, registers 7.7.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Little Things Mean a Lot” by Kitty Kallen, “Sh-Boom” by The Crew Cuts, “Goodnight, Sweetheart, Goodnight” by The McGuire Sisters and “Even Tho” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1954 – Construction for Disneyland began. The spot was in the rural Anaheim, California area with a purchase of a 160-acre orange grove near the junction of the Santa Ana Freeway (I-5) and Harbor Boulevard.
1954 – France surrendered North Vietnam to the Communists.
1955 – First sub powered by liquid metal cooled reactor launched-Seawolf.
1956 – “The Wayward Wind” by Gogi Grant topped the charts.
1957 – First Black to win a major US tennis tournament (Althea Gibson). She won the Women’s National clay-court singles competition.
1958 – “Hard Headed Woman” by Elvis Presley shares #1 with “Yakety Yak” by the Coasters. “Hard Headed Woman” became the first rock and roll single to earn the RIAA designation of “Gold Record.”
1958 – The last of “Arthur Godfrey’s Talent Scouts” programs aired on CBS-TV.
1959 – First atomic powered merchant ship, Savannah, is christened in Camden NJ. The NS Savannah served until 1971.
1959 – A U.S. District Court judge in New York City ruled that “Lady Chatterley’s Lover” was not a dirty book.
1961 – Captain Virgil “Gus” Grissom became the second American to go into space on the final suborbital Mercury test flight aboard the Liberty Bell 7.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Roses are Red” by Bobby Vinton, “The Wah Watusi” by The Orlons, “Johnny Get Angry” by Joanie Sommers and “Wolverton Mountain” by Claude King all topped the charts.
1962 – One hundred-sixty civil right activists were jailed after demonstration in Albany, Ga.
1965 – Gemini 5 launched atop Titan V with Cooper & Conrad.
1966 – Gemini X returned to Earth.
1968 – Arnold Palmer became the first golfer to earn a million dollars.
1969 – Neil Armstrong steps on the Moon at 2:56:15 AM (GMT).
1969 – Just one day after Neil Armstrong set foot on the moon, Duke Ellington and a portion of his band performed a 10-minute composition on ABC-TV titled “Moon Maiden“. The work featured piano, drums, bass and vocals.
1969 – Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin blasted off from the moon aboard the lunar module.
1969 – Riots in York, Pa., left 2 people dead, Lillie Belle Allen (27) along with rookie officer Henry Schaad (22). Schaad was mortally wounded 3 days before Allen was killed.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mama Told Me (Not to Come)” by Three Dog Night, “They Long to Be) Close to You” by Carpenters, “Band of Gold” by Freda Payne and “He Loves Me All the Way”( by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1973 – Hank Aaron becomes second major leaguer to hit 700 HRs.
1973 – “Bad, Bad Leroy Brown” by Jim Croce topped the “Billboard” pop-singles chart. Jim Croce died September 20th.
1974 – US House Judiciary approved two Articles of Impeachment against Pres. Nixon.
1976 – “Legionnaire’s Disease” struck in Philadelphia, Pa. 29 people died from the disease. The disease was first identified after an outbreak at the Bellevue Stratford Hotel in Philadelphia.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Shadow Dancing” by Andy Gibb, “Baker Street” by Gerry Rafferty, “Miss You by” The Rolling Stones and “Only One Love in My Life” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1979 – “Bad Girls” by Donna Summer topped the charts.
1979 – National Women’s Hall of Fame (Seneca Falls, NY) dedicated
1980 – Jean-Claude Droyer climbs the Eiffel Tower in 2 hrs 18 mins.
1980 – Draft registration began for 19 and 20-year-old men.
1983 – The coldest temperature ever measured on Earth was -129 at Vostok, Antarctica.
1984 – “When Doves Cry” by Prince topped the charts.
1984 – In Jackson, Michigan, a male die-cast operator (34) was pinned by a hydraulic Unimate robot. He died after 5 days. This was the first documented case of a robot killing a human in US.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Invisible Touch” by Genesis, “Sledgehammer” by Peter Gabriel, “Nasty” by Janet Jackson and “Until I Met You” by Judy Rodman all topped the charts.
1989 – The State Department confirmed an ABC News report that Felix S. Bloch, a veteran U.S. diplomat, was being investigated as a possible Soviet spy. Bloch was never charged with espionage, but was fired from his job in 1990.
1990 – “She Ain’t Worth It” by Glenn Medeiros featuring Bobby Brown topped the charts.
1996 – At the Atlanta Olympics, swimmer Tom Dolan gave the United States its first gold, in the 400-meter individual medley.
1997 – The U.S.S. Constitution, which defended the United States during the War of 1812, set sail under its own power for the first time in 116 years.
1998 – Astronaut Alan Shepard, the first American in space, died in Monterey, Calif., at age 74.
1998 – The Pentagon said it found no evidence to support allegations in a CNN report that U.S. troops had used nerve gas against American defectors in Laos.
1998 – In New York City a 48-story elevator scaffold collapsed at the construction site of the Conde Nast building on West 43rd St.
1999 – The missing plane of John F. Kennedy Jr. was found off of the coast of Martha’s Vineyard, MA. The bodies of Kennedy, his wife Carolyn Bessette and her sister Lauren Bessette were found on board. The plane had crashed on July 16, 1999.
2000 – NBC announced that they had found nearly all of Milton Berle’s kinescopes. The filmed recordings of Berle’s early TV shows had been the subject of a $30 million lawsuit filed by Berle the previous May.
2000 – Norm Mineta, the first Asian American to serve in a president’s cabinet, was sworn in as the 33rd US Secretary of Commerce.
2002 – Telecommunications giant WorldCom, Inc. filed for bankruptcy protection, shortly after disclosing it had inflated profits by nearly $4 billion through deceptive accounting.
2004 – The September 11 panel was harshly critical of the U.S. government in its voluminous report released after a 19-month investigation. The report called for sweeping changes in American intelligence agencies.
2005 – The House voted to extend the USA Patriot Act.
2005 – US and Canadian authorities reported the shutdown of a newly completed 100-yard border crossing tunnel outside Lynden, Wa., intended for smuggling marijuana.
2005 – In Phoenix, Az., a blistering heat wave was blamed for the deaths of eighteen people. Fourteen were thought to be homeless; three were elderly women.
2006 - Four men joined a conspiracy and executed a robbery of an armored car which was off-loading money at Casino Arizona on the Salt River Indian Reservation. Ismar Kabaklic, armed with a simulated AK-47 assault rifle, and one of his co-defendants, Adnan Alisic, approached the armored car drivers as they were off-loading money. Alisic sprayed the armored car guard with pepper spray. No one was killed, every one was captured.
2008 – Former Bosnian Serb president Radovan Karadzic arrested after more than a decade on the run as one of the world’s most wanted war crimes fugitives for his role in atrocities committed during the 1990s Balkans conflict.
2008 – The US FDA issued an advisory for consumers to avoid eating uncooked jalapeno peppers after it found a jalapeno grown in Mexico tested positive for salmonella.
2008 – A US B-52 bomber that was due to fly in a Liberation Day parade in the US territory of Guam crashed into the Pacific Ocean soon after take-off. All of the bomber’s six-man crew was killed.
2009 – The US Senate voted to stop production of the F-22 fighter plane, handing President Barack Obama a victory as he tries to reduce the size of the military.
2009 -The Ninth US Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco ruled that police who tell investigators about alleged corruption in their departments have no constitutional protection for their statements and can be fired.
2010 – President Obama signed major financial overhaul legislation named after Senator Chris Dodd (D-Conn) and Representative Barney Frank (D-Mass).
2010 – Scientists said a huge ball of brightly burning gas in a neighboring galaxy may be the heaviest star ever discovered, hundreds of times more massive than the sun after working out its weight for the first time.
2010 – A US federal jury found Beau Diamond of Sarasota, Fla., guilty of 18 counts of fraud and money laundering crimes in association with a $37 million Ponzi scheme between 2006 and 2009.
2011 – Two dozen people have died this week in a heat wave in the United States.
2011 – Space Shuttle Atlantis lands at the Kennedy Space Center, concluding its final mission and marking the end of the 30-year Space Shuttle program.
2011 – Team owners in the National Football League have voted to approve a 10- year deal with the NFL Players Association and to end a lockout if players approve.
1864 – Frances Cleveland (Folsom) – Wife of 22nd U.S. President Grover Cleveland; (d. Oct 29, 1947)
1899 – Ernest Hemingway, American Pulitzer Prize and Nobel Prize-winning author.
1920 – Isaac Stern, American concert violin impresario.
1922 – Kay Starr (Katherine Starks) (singer: Rock and Roll Waltz, My Heart Reminds Me, Wheel of Fortune, Side By Side)
1924 – Don Knotts American comedian, Emmy Award-winning actor: The Andy Griffith Show [1960-1967], Matlock, Three’s Company, The Don Knotts Show, The Steve Allen Show; died Feb 24, 2006)
1951 – Robin Williams (Academy Award-winning actor: Good Will Hunting ; comedian and/or actor:
|DEAN, WILLIAM F.
Rank and organization: Major General, U.S. Army, commanding general, 24th Infantry Division. Place and date: Taejon, Korea, 20 and 21 July 1950. Entered service at: California. Born: 1 August 1899, Carlyle, Ill. G.O. No.: 7, 16 February 1951. Citation: Maj. Gen. Dean distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the repeated risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. In command of a unit suddenly relieved from occupation duties in Japan and as yet untried in combat, faced with a ruthless and determined enemy, highly trained and overwhelmingly superior in numbers, he felt it his duty to take action which to a man of his military experience and knowledge was clearly apt to result in his death. He personally and alone attacked an enemy tank while armed only with a hand grenade. He also directed the fire of his tanks from an exposed position with neither cover nor concealment while under observed artillery and small-arm fire. When the town of Taejon was finally overrun he refused to insure his own safety by leaving with the leading elements but remained behind organizing his retreating forces, directing stragglers, and was last seen assisting the wounded to a place of safety. These actions indicate that Maj. Gen. Dean felt it necessary to sustain the courage and resolution of his troops by examples of excessive gallantry committed always at the threatened portions of his frontlines. The magnificent response of his unit to this willing and cheerful sacrifice, made with full knowledge of its certain cost, is history. The success of this phase of the campaign is in large measure due to Maj. Gen. Dean’s heroic leadership, courageous and loyal devotion to his men, and his complete disregard for personal safety.
Boiler Explosion on USS Bennington, 21 July 1905
At about 10:30 a.m. on 21 July 1905 the gunboat Bennington suffered one of the Navy’s worst peacetime disasters. She had arrived at San Diego, California, just two days earlier, after a difficult seventeen-day voyage from the Hawaiian Islands. Though both the ship and her men could have used a rest, they were soon ordered back to sea to assist the monitor “Wyoming“, which had broken down and needed a tow.
While steam was being raised, much of Bennington‘s crew, having completing the hard and dirty job of coaling, were cleaning their ship and themselves. Below decks, an improperly closed steam line valve, oily feed water and a malfunctioning safety valve conspired to generate steam pressures far beyond the boilers’ tolerance. Suddenly, one of them exploded. Men and equipment were hurled into the air, living compartments and deck space filled with scalding steam, and the ship’s hull was opened to the sea. But for quick work by the tug Santa Fe, which beached Bennington in relatively shallow water, the gunboat would probably have sunk. As it was, she was so badly damaged as to be not worth repairing. Even worse, more than sixty of her crew had been killed outright or were so severely injured that they did not long survive.
The number of casualties overhelmed the then-small city of San Diego’s hospitals, and badly burned Sailors had to be cared for in improvised facilities largely staffed by volunteers. Local morticians were hard pressed to prepare the Bennington‘s dead for burial. On the 23rd of July, the great majority were interred at the Army’s Fort Rosecrans, located on the Point Loma heights overlooking the entrance to San Diego Harbor and what would, years later, become the North Island Naval Air Station.
Despite the awful death toll, which far exceeded that sustained by the Navy in the Spanish-American War, and sometimes lurid rumors of misconduct on the part of some members of Bennington‘s engineering force, official investigations concluded that the tragedy had not resulted from negligence. Eleven surviving crewmen were awarded the Medal of Honor for ” extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion”. USS Bennington was raised, but remained inactive and unrepaired until sold in 1910.
DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY — NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER
805 KIDDER BREESE SE — WASHINGTON NAVY YARD
WASHINGTON DC 20374-5060
BOERS, EDWARD WILLIAM
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 March 1884, Cincinnati, Ohio. Accredited to: Kentucky. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Bennington, 21 July 1905. Following the explosion of a boiler of that vessel, Boers displayed extraordinary heroism in the resulting action.
BROCK, GEORGE F.
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Carpenter’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 18 October 1872, Cleveland, Ohio. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Bennington for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
CLAUSEY, JOHN J.
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Chief Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 16 May 1875, San Francisco, Calif. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Bennington for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 23 October 1883, Chicago, Ill. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Bennington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster Third Class U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Bennington, 21 July i905. Entered service at: Puget Sound, Wash. Born: 19 September 1885, Mankato, Minn. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Bennington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Watertender, U.S. Navy. (Biography not available.) G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Benington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 24 December 1870, Austria. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Bennington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
HILL, FRANK E.
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Ship’s Cook First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 31 July 1880, La Grange, Ind. Accredited to: Indiana. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Bennington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
NELSON, OSCAR FREDERICK
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Machinist’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 5 November 1881, Minneapolis, Minn. Accredited to: Minnesota. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Bennington, for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
SCHMIDT, OTTO DILLER
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 August 1884, Blair, Nebr. Accredited to: Nebraska. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: While serving on board the U.S.S. Bennington for extraordinary heroism displayed at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
SHACKLETTE, WILLIAM SIDNEY
INTERIM 1901- 1911
Rank and organization: Hospital Steward, U.S. Navy. Born: 17 May 1880, Delaplane, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 13, 5 January 1906. Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving on the U.S.S. Bennington at the time of the explosion of a boiler of that vessel at San Diego, Calif., 21 July 1905.
First Bull Run, Manassas, VA
In July, 1861, Abraham Lincoln sent Major General Irvin McDowell and the Union Army to take Richmond, the new base the Confederate government. On 21st July McDowell attacked the forces of Pierre T. Beauregard near the stone bridge over Bull Run at Manassas Junction, Virginia. The advance was blocked by Thomas Stonewall Jackson, who was described as standing like a “stone wall” against the enemy.
With the arrival of Confederate troops led by E. Kirby Smith, the inexperienced Union Army retreated. Attacked by armies led by Joseph E. Johnston, James Jeb Stuart, Jubal Early, and Braxton Bragg, the Union forces rushed back North. The South had won the first great battle of the war and the Northern casualties totaled 1,492 with another 1,216 missing. Nine men were given the Medal of Honor.
|First Bull Run, Va.21 July 1861|
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 5th U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861. Entered service at: Rockland, Maine. Birth: East Thomaston, Maine. Date of issue: 22 June 1894. Citation: remained upon the field in command of a section of Griffin’s Battery, directing its fire after being severely wounded and refusing to leave the field until too weak to sit upon the caisson where he had been placed by men of his command.
COOKE, WALTER H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company K, 4th Pennsylvania Infantry Militia. Place and date. At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861. Entered service at:——. Birth: Norristown, Pa. Date of issue: 19 May 1887. Citation: Voluntarily served as an aide on the staff of Col. David Hunter and participated in the battle, his term of service having expired on the previous day.
HARTRANFT, JOHN F.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 4th Pennsylvania Militia. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861. Entered service at: Norristown, Pa. Born: 16 December 1830, New Hanover Township, Montgomery County, Pa. Date of issue: 26 August 1886. Citation: Voluntarily served as an aide and participated in the battle after expiration of his term of service, distinguishing himself in rallying several regiments which had been thrown into confusion.
KNOWLES, ABIATHER J.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 2d Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861, Entered service at: ——. Born: 15 March 1830, LaGrange, Maine. Date of issue: 27 December 1894. Citation: Removed dead and wounded under heavy fire.
MERRITT, JOHN G.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 1st Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 1 April 1880. Citation: Gallantry in action; was wounded while capturing flag in advance of his regiment.
MURPHY, CHARLES J.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant and Quartermaster, 38th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861. Entered service at:——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: Took a rifle and voluntarily fought with his regiment in the ranks; when the regiment was forced back, voluntarily remained on the field caring for the wounded, and was there taken prisoner.
WHEELER, HENRY W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 2d Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861. Entered service at: Bangor, Maine. Born: 1842, Fort Smith, Ark. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: Voluntarily accompanied his commanding officer and assisted in removing the dead and wounded from the field under a heavy fire of artillery and musketry.
WILLCOX, ORLANDO B.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 1st Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Birth: Detroit, Mich. Date of issue: 2 March 1895. Citation: Led repeated charges until wounded and taken prisoner.
WITHINGTON, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company B, 1st Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 21 July 1861. Entered service at: Jackson, Mich. Born: 1 February 1835, Dorchester, Mass. Date of issue: 7 January 1895. Citation: Remained on the field under heavy fire to succor his superior officer.
TRUELL, EDWIN M.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 12th Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: Near Atlanta, Ga., 21 July 1864. Entered service at: Mauston, Wis. Birth: Lowell, Mass. Date of issue: 11 March 1870. Citation: Although severely wounded in a charge, he remained with the regiment until again severely wounded, losing his leg.
National Get Out of the Dog House Day
National Hug Your Child Day
God, in the amazing intricacy of His Creation, has shown His level of concern for all in the example of migratory birds.
Hummingbirds, in their migration of 600 miles, cross the Gulf of Mexico, beating their tiny wings up to 75 times a second for 25 hours, over six million wing-beats without stopping.
The migration of the black-poll warbles is marvelous, it weighs only three-quarters of a ounce, its final destination is South America, but it first heads toward Africa, out over the Atlantic Ocean, it picks up to some 20,000 feet, and the prevailing wind turns it toward South America.
Arctic terns are the long-distance champions, they complete an annual migration of about 22,000 miles, nesting north of the Arctic Circle, at summer’s end they fly south to spend the Antarctic summer near the South Pole, before heading north to return to the Arctic they may circle the entire continent of Antarctic.
Sandpipers migrate a thousand miles beyond the pampas to the tip of South America. The golden Plover travels from the arctic tundra to the Pampas in Argentina. Young long tailed cuckoos of New Zealand travel 4,000 miles to pacific islands to join their parents who had gone earlier.
Manx Shearwaters migrate from Wales to Brazil, leaving their chicks, which follow them as soon as they can fly. The penguins when removed 1,200 miles from their rookeries and released, they quickly oriented themselves and set out in a straight line for the open sea and food, they spend the dark winters at sea.
Science experiments indicate that birds may use the sun and the stars for the navigation. They appear to have internal clocks to compensate for the movement of these heavenly bodies. Some birds appear to have built-in magnetic compasses and some appear to have a map in their heads, with both starting and destination point on it. But to science, these are only effects and do not answer the concept of cause.
“Learn everything you can, anytime you can, from anyone you can – there will always come a time when you will be grateful you did.”
~ Sarah Caldwell
innocuous ih-NOK-yoo-uhs, adjective:
1. Harmless; producing no ill effect.
2.Not likely to offend or provoke; as, “an innocuous remark.”
1715 – The Riot Act took effect in England. The Act said … “If a dozen or more persons were disturbing the peace, an authority was required to command silence and read the statute. Any persons who failed to obey within one hour were to be arrested.”
Has anyone ever been “read the Riot Act?”
1801 – President Thomas Jefferson becomes “The Big Cheese”. A mammoth cheese was delivered to the White House by the itinerant Baptist preacher John Leland. The cheese was distilled from the single day’s milk production of nine hundred or more “Republican” cows. It measured more than four feet in diameter, thirteen feet in circumference, and seventeen inches in height; once cured, it weighed 1,235 pounds.
1846 – First visit of U.S. warships (USS Columbus and USS Vincennes) to Japan is unsuccessful in negotiating a treaty.
1858 – First baseball game where a fee was charged to watch the game. New York beats Brooklyn 22-18. It cost $.50 to get in and the players on the field did not receive a salary (until 1863).
1861 – Civil War: The Congress of the Confederate States began holding sessions in Richmond, Virginia.
1861 – Civil War: The New York Tribune compared Peace Democrats to the venomous Copperhead snake, which strikes without warning.
1861 – Civil War: First major battle. The battle becomes known by the Confederates as Manassas, while the Union called it Bull Run. It was fought on Judith Carter Henry’s farm.
1862 – Civil War: A guerrilla campaign in GA (Porter’s & Poindexter’s) The battle left 580 Union causalities and 2,866 Confederate casualties.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Peachtree Creek – Near Atlanta, Georgia, Confederate forces led by General John Bell Hood unsuccessfully attack Union troops under General William T. Sherman.
1868 – First use of tax stamps on tobacco products.
1871 – British Columbia entered Confederation as a Canadian province.
1872 – The United States Patent Office awards the first patent for wireless telegraphy to Mahlon Loomis.
1881 – Sioux Indian leader Sitting Bull, a fugitive since the Battle of the Little Big Horn, surrendered to federal troops. This was five years after General George A. Custer’s infamous defeat.
1894 – Two thousand federal troops were recalled from Chicago with the end of the Pullman strike.
1903 – Ford Motor Company shipped its first car.
1912 – Philadelphia Phillies Sherry Magee steals home twice in one game.
1917 – The draft lottery in World War I went into operation. Secretary of War Baker drew the first draft number (#258) from a large bowl. About 10 million men registered for first draft registration day.
1934 – Iowa sets its state record high temperature of 118° in Keokuk.
1935 – NBC radio debuted “G-men”. It was sponsored by Chevrolet. The title was changed to “Gang Busters” on January 15, 1936, and the show had a 21-year run through November 20, 1957.
1940 – Billboard magazine publishes its first “Music Popularity Chart”; the first number one song is Frank Sinatra’s “I’ll Never Smile Again“.
1942 – The first detachment of the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) began basic training at Fort Des Moines, Iowa.
1942 – Legion of Merit Medal authorized by Congress. (Public Law 671 – 77th Congress, Chapter 508, 2d Session)
1944 – World War II:An attempt by a group of German officials to assassinate Adolf Hitler with a bomb failed as the explosion at Hitler’s Rastenburg headquarters only wounded the Nazi leader.
1944 – World War II: US invaded Japanese occupied Guam. Japanese aircraft carrier Hijo was sunk by US air attack.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust: The death march of 1,200 Jews from Lipcani, Moldavia, began.
1944 – The Democratic Party nominates Franklin D. Roosevelt for a fourth term as president.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dream” by The Pied Pipers, “The More I See You” by Dick Haymes, “Sentimental Journey” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day) and “Stars and Stripes on Iwo Jima” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1947 – The National Football League ruled that no professional team could sign a player who had college eligibility remaining.
1948 – William Forster, US Communist Party chairman, was arrested.
1950 – “Arthur Murray Party” (10:00) premiers on ABC TV.
1950 – Black troops win first US Victory in Korea, the 24th Infantry Regiment.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Song from Moulin Rouge” by The Percy Faith Orchestra, “April in Portugal” by The Les Baxter Orchestra, “I’m Walking Behind You” by Eddie Fisher and “It’s Been So Long” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1957 – “Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1960 – First submerged submarine to fire Polaris missile (George Washington).
1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tossin’ and Turnin’” by Bobby Lewis, “The Boll Weevil Song” by Brook Benton, “Yellow Bird” by Arthur Lyman Group and “Heartbreak U.S.A.” by Kitty Wells all topped the charts.
1963 – First surfin’ record to go #1-Jan & Dean’s “Surf City“.
1963 – Ray Conniff received two gold-record awards one for the albums, “Concert in Rhythm” and the other for “Memories are Made of This“, on Columbia Records.
1964- Four Navy divers enter Project SEALAB I capsule moored 192 feet on the ocean floor off Bermuda for 11 day experiment.
1967 – Race riots took place in Memphis, Tenn.
1968 – “Grazing in the Grass” by Hugh Masekela topped the charts.
1968 – During a BBC radio interview, actress Jane Asher announced that her engagement to Beatle Paul McCartney was off; he was not the first to find out.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS -“In the Year 2525” by Zager & Evans, “Spinning Wheel” by Blood, Sweat & Tears, “Good Morning Starshine” by Oliver and “I Love You More Today” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1969 – Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin became the first men to walk on the Moon. Armstrong stepped on the lunar surface at 10:56 ET and proclaimed, “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.”
1969 – “Buzz: Aldrin” became the first person to take Communion on any extraterrestrial body. It occurred just after his public statement. His own account says: “In the radio blackout, I opened the little plastic packages which
contained the bread and the wine. I poured the wine into the
chalice our church had given me. In the one-sixth gravity of the
moon, the wine slowly curled and gracefully came up the side of the
cup. Then I read the scripture, ‘I am the vine, you are the branches.
Whosoever abides in me will bring forth much fruit..
Apart from me you can do nothing.’
“I had intended to read my communion passage back to earth,
but at the last minute [they] had requested that I not do this.
NASA was already embroiled in a legal battle with Madelyn Murray
O’Hare, the celebrated opponent of religion, over the Apollo 8 crew
reading from Genesis while orbiting the moon at Christmas. I agreed
“I ate the tiny Host and swallowed the wine. I gave thanks for
the intelligence and spirit that had brought two young pilots
to the Sea of Tranquility. It was interesting for me to think: the
very first liquid ever poured on the moon, and the very first food
eaten there, were the communion elements.”
1974 – “Rock Your Baby” by George McRae topped the charts.
1976 – America’s Viking I robot spacecraft made a successful, first-ever landing on Mars. This was the seventh anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing.
1976 – Hank Aaron hit his 755th and final home run off the California Angels’ Dick Drago at Milwaukee County Stadium. October 3rd was his final Major League game.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Da Doo Ron Ron” by Shaun Cassidy, “Looks Like We Made It” by Barry Manilow, “I Just Want to Be Your Everything” by Andy Gibb and “It Was Almost like a Song” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1977 – Flash flood hits Johnstown, PA, kills 80 & causing $350 million damage.
1981 – David Allen Kirwan, a 24-year-old, died from third-degree burns after attempting to rescue a friend’s dog from the 200°F (93°C) water in Celestine Pool, a hot spring at Yellowstone National Park.
1982 – President Ronald Reagan pulled the U.S. out of comprehensive test ban negotiations indefinitely.
1983 – The US House censured Reps. Gerry Studds of Massachusetts and Daniel B. Crane of Illinois for having sexual relations with pages.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “A View to a Kill” by Duran Duran, “Raspberry Beret” by Prince & The Revolution, “Everytime You Go Away” by Paul Young and “Dixie Road” by Lee Greenwood all topped the charts.
1985 – US divers found the wreck of Spanish galleon Atocha. The divers began hauling up $400 million in coins and silver ingots from the sea floor in the biggest underwater jackpot in history.
1987 – Don Mattingly ties ML record as he makes 22 putouts in the Yankees 7-1 win over the Twins. The feat was last accomplished in the American League by Hal Chase in 1906.
1989 – President Bush called for a long-range space program to build an orbiting space station, establish a base on the moon and send a manned mission to the planet Mars.
1990 – William J. Brennan (1906-1997), US Supreme Court Justice, one of the court’s most liberal voices, left office after serving over 33 years.
1991 – “Unbelievable” by EMF topped the charts.
1993 – White House deputy counsel Vincent Foster Jr. was found shot to death, a suicide, in a park near Washington, DC.
1998 – A smoky fire aboard the cruise ship Ecstasy just two miles from the Florida shore forcing its return to port.
1999 – After 38 years at the bottom of the Atlantic, astronaut Gus Grissom’s “Liberty Bell Seven” Mercury capsule was lifted to the surface.
2000 – A federal grand jury indicted two former Utah Olympic officials for their alleged roles in paying one million dollars in cash and gifts to help bring the 2002 games to Salt Lake City.
2001 – Ira Einhorn, convicted in absentia of killing his girlfriend, was flown from France and handed over to Philadelphia police.
2003 – Golf rookie Ben Curtis, ranked 396th in the world, wins the British Open, the first golfer to win a major golf tournament on his first try in more than ninety years.
2003 – The sons of Saddam Hussein, Uday and Qusay, are killed in an engagement with US forces in Baghdad.
2004 – Microsoft said it would make a one-time dividend payment of $32 billion and buy back up to $30 billion in company stock over the next 4 years.
2004 – In Saudi Arabia the head of slain American hostage Paul M. Johnson Jr., who was kidnapped and decapitated by militants last month, was found by security forces during a raid that targeted the hideout of the Saudi al-Qaida chief. Two militants were killed.
2005 - Eastman Kodak Co. said it is cutting as many as 10,000 more jobs as the company that turned picture-taking into a hobby for the masses navigates a tough transition from film to digital photography.
2005 - Actor James Doohan (85), who transported the crew of “Star Trek” through space on the command “Beam me up, Scotty,” died. He has asked that his ashes be blasted into space.
2006 - President Bush delivered his first address to the 97th annual NAACP convention after having declining invitations for five years in a row.
2006 – The US Senate voted 98-0 to renew the landmark 1965 Voting Rights Act for another quarter-century.
2006 – The US Postal Service released new postage stamps featuring Batman, Superman, Wonder Woman, Supergirl and a half dozen other superheroes.
2007 – A 4.2 earthquake jolted San Francisco Bay area residents awake, breaking glass and rattling nerves, although there were no immediate reports of injuries.
2007 – In Ohio an ambulance heading to a hospital was broadsided by a car in Crane Township and five people were killed including three EMT technicians and two patients.
2007 – President Bush signed an executive order prohibiting cruel and inhuman treatment, including humiliation or denigration of religious beliefs, in the detention and interrogation of terrorism suspects.
2008 – Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama pledged steadfast aid to Afghanistan in talks with its Western-backed leader and vowed to pursue the war on terror “with vigor” if he is elected.
2010 – The Oakland, Ca., City Council adopted regulations permitting industrial-scale marijuana farms.
2010 – Actress Lindsay Lohan starts a 90-day sentence for breaking her parole for a 2007 conviction for drunk driving in California.
2011 – The Supreme Court of the state of Georgia has agreed to the execution of Cobb County killer Andrew Grant DeYoung to be videotaped.
356 BC – Alexander the Great, Macedonian-Greek king and military leader (d. 323 BC)
1591 – Anne Hutchinson, religious liberal, one of the founders of Rhode Island.
1822 – Gregor Mendel was an Augustinian priest and scientist, and is often called the father of genetics for his study of the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants.
1824 – Alexander Schimmelfennig, born in Prussia, Brigadier General Union volunteers
1836 – Thomas C Allbutt, English physiologist, Diseases of the Heart
1919 – Sir Edmund Hillary, New Zealand-born explorer, first to climb Mt. Everest.
1920 – Elliot L. Richardson, Attorney General, 1973, Secretary of Defense, 1973
1921 – Frederick Schroeder, Jr., tennis champ, U.S. Open-1942
1930 – Chuck Daly, American basketball coach. He led the Detroit Pistons to consecutive National Basketball Association (NBA) Championships in 1989 and 1990, and the Dream Team to the men’s basketball gold medal at the 1992 Summer Olympics.
1933 – Nelson Doubleday, publisher, Doubleday, owner for the New York Mets
1933 – Buddy Knox was an American singer and songwriter best known for his 1957 rockabilly hit song, “Party Doll”.
1938 – Natalie Wood was a successful child actor in Miracle on 34th Street as well as Rebel Without a Cause with James Dean.
1938 – Diana Rigg, born in Doncaster, England, actress, Emma Peel-Avengers, Hospital
1947 – Carlos Santana, born in Mexico, rock guitarist, Santana-Black Magic Woman
1957 – Nancy Cruzan was a figure in the right-to-die movement. After an auto accident left her in a persistent vegetative state, her family petitioned in courts for three years, as far as the U.S. Supreme Court (Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health), to have her feeding tube removed.
1964 – Terri Irwin, American naturalist; widow of Steve Irwin.
1968 – Chris Kennedy, actor, Bill and Ted’s Excellent Adventure
1971 Charles Johnson, born in Fort Pierce, Florida, catcher, U.S. Olympics 1992, Marlins.
|*COLLIER, GILBERT G.
Rank and organization: Sergeant (then Cpl.), U.S. Army, Company F, 223d Infantry Regiment, 40th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Tutayon, Korea, 19-20 July 1953. Entered service at: Tichnor Ark. Born: 30 December 1930, Hunter, Ark. G.O. No.: 3, 12 January 1955. Citation: Sgt. Collier, a member of Company F, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. Sgt. Collier was pointman and assistant leader of a combat patrol committed to make contact with the enemy. As the patrol moved forward through the darkness, he and his commanding officer slipped and fell from a steep, 60-foot cliff and were injured. Incapacitated by a badly sprained ankle which prevented immediate movement, the officer ordered the patrol to return to the safety of friendly lines. Although suffering from a painful back injury, Sgt. Collier elected to remain with his leader, and before daylight they managed to crawl back up and over the mountainous terrain to the opposite valley where they concealed themselves in the brush until nightfall, then edged toward their company positions. Shortly after leaving the daylight retreat they were ambushed and, in the ensuing fire fight, Sgt. Collier killed two hostile soldiers, received painful wounds, and was separated from his companion. Then, ammunition expended, he closed in hand-to-hand combat with four attacking hostile infantrymen, killing, wounding, and routing the foe with his bayonet. He was mortally wounded during this action, but made a valiant attempt to reach and assist his leader in a desperate effort to save his comrade’s life without regard for his own personal safety. Sgt. Collier’s unflinching courage, consummate devotion to duty, and gallant self-sacrifice reflect lasting glory upon himself and uphold the noble traditions of the military service.
|*LIBBY, GEORGE D.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 3d Engineer Combat Battalion, 24th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Taejon, Korea, 20 July 1950. Entered service at: Waterbury, Conn. Birth: Bridgton, Maine. G.O. No.: 62, 2 August 1951. Citation: Sgt. Libby distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. While breaking through an enemy encirclement, the vehicle in which he was riding approached an enemy roadblock and encountered devastating fire which disabled the truck, killing or wounding all the passengers except Sgt. Libby. Taking cover in a ditch Sgt. Libby engaged the enemy and despite the heavy fire crossed the road twice to administer aid to his wounded comrades. He then hailed a passing M-5 artillery tractor and helped the wounded aboard. The enemy directed intense small-arms fire at the driver, and Sgt. Libby, realizing that no one else could operate the vehicle, placed himself between the driver and the enemy thereby shielding him while he returned the fire. During this action he received several wounds in the arms and body. Continuing through the town the tractor made frequent stops and Sgt. Libby helped more wounded aboard. Refusing first aid, he continued to shield the driver and return the fire of the enemy when another roadblock was encountered. Sgt. Libby received additional wounds but held his position until he lost consciousness. Sgt. Libby’s sustained, heroic actions enabled his comrades to reach friendly lines. His dauntless courage and gallant self-sacrifice reflect the highest credit upon himself and uphold the esteemed traditions of the U.S. Army.
|KEEFER, PHILIP B.
Rank and organization: Coppersmith, U.S. Navy. Born: 4 September 1875, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: District of Columbia. G.O. No.: 501, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Iowa off Santiago de Cuba, 20 July 1898. Following the blow-out of a manhole gasket of that vessel which caused the fireroom to be filled with live steam and the floor plates to be covered with boiling water, Keefer showed courageous and zealous conduct in hauling fires from two furnaces of boiler B.
Rank and organization: Fireman First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 October 1872, City Point, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 501, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Iowa off Santiago de Cuba, 20 July 1898. Performing his duty at the risk of serious scalding at the time of the blowing out of the manhole gasket on board the vessel, Penn hauled the fire while standing on a board thrown across a coal bucket one foot above the boiling water which was still blowing from the boiler.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 136th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Peach Tree Creek, Ga., 20 July 1864. Entered service at: Avon, N.Y. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 7 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 31st Mississippi (C.S.A.).
|CROSIER, WILLIAM H. H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Peach Tree Creek, Ga., 20 July 1864. Entered service at: Skaneateles, N.Y. Birth: Skaneateles, N.Y. Date of issue: 12 January 1892. Citation: Severely wounded and ambushed by the enemy, he stripped the colors from the staff and brought them back into the line.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 104th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Peach Tree Creek, Ga., 20 July 1864. Entered service at: Ottawa, Ill. Born: 15 January 1839, Ephratah, Fulton County, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: With conspicuous coolness and bravery rallied his men under a severe attack, re-formed the broken ranks, and repulsed the attack.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 14th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Carters Farm, Va., 20 July 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Monomgalis County, W.Va. Date of issue: 31 January 1896. Citation: Charged upon a Confederate fieldpiece in advance of his comrades and by his individual exertions silenced the piece.
|WILLIAMS, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 82d Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Peach Tree Creek, Ga., 20 July 1864. Entered service at: Miami County, Ohio. Birth: Hancock County, Ohio. Date of issue: 19 June 1894. Citation: Voluntarily went beyond the lines to observe the enemy; also aided a wounded comrade.