International Sword Swallowers Day
Pistol Patent Day (Samuel Colt)
Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust. It did not start that way though because there is no such thing as “pure aluminum”. It was discovered less than 200 years ago and occurs in most kinds of rock but most of the aluminum extracted is taken from bauxite. Of the metallic elements, it is the most abundant, 7.3% by mass of the total crust. Aluminum’s high affinity to bind with oxygen is not found in its naturally occurring elemental state, but only in combined forms such as oxides or silicates.
After oxygen and nitrogen it is the third most common element in the earth. It is one of the lightest metals and a good conductor of heat and electricity. To make it stronger, it is mixed with other metals to make alloys for constructing automobiles, aircraft, and other machines. Because aluminum does not rust, it is easy to melt and reuse. Aluminum can be recycled for less than 5 percent of the cost of making new aluminum. Aluminum can recycling provides over half the aluminum used in making new cans and recycling of all aluminum scrap equals almost half of total aluminum production.
The metal originally obtained its name from the Latin word for alum, alumen. The name alumina was proposed by L. B. G. de Moreveau, in 1761 for the base in alum, which was positively shown in 1787 to be the oxide of a yet to be discovered metal. Finally, in 1807, Sir Humphrey Davy proposed that this still unknown metal be referred to as aluminum. This was then altered further to that of aluminium so to agree with the “ium” spelling that ended most of the elements. This is the spelling that is generally used throughout the world. That is, until the American Chemical Society in 1925 officially reverted the spelling back to aluminum, which is how it is normally spelled in the United States.
Hans Christian Oersted is now generally credited with having been the first to prepare metallic aluminum. He accomplished this in 1825 by heating anhydrous aluminum chloride with potassium amalgam and distilling off the mercury.Frederick Wöhler improved the process between 1827 and 1845 by substituting potassium for the amalgam and by developing a better method for dehydrating aluminum. In 1854 Henri Sainte-Claire Deville substituted sodium for the relatively expensive potassium and, by using sodium aluminum chloride instead of aluminum chloride, produced the first commercial quantities of aluminum in a pilot plant near Paris. Several plants using essentially this process were subsequently built in Great Britain, but none survived for long the advent in 1886 of the electrolytic process, which has dominated the industry ever since.
At one time aluminum was so rare that it was considered a precious metal. Before current process of making it was developed, aluminum was very difficult to extract from its various ores. This made pure aluminum more valuable than gold. Bars of aluminum were exhibited at the Exposition Universelle of 1855, and Napoleon III was said to have reserved a set of aluminum dinner plates for his most honored guests.
As we move toward today we find that aluminum has an on-going and historical presence in the US today. In 1783, a thankful U.S. Continental Congress passed a resolution to keep alive the achievements and memory of George Washington by authorizing the erection of an equestrian statue in his honor. The subsequent history of this seemingly simple commemorative intent is fraught with the foibles of human endeavor. Suffice to say that nothing of substance was done. Finally, in 1848 a consensus among many involved groups was achieved, and the cornerstone of the Washington Monument was laid. It took another 37 years for the monument to be completed and dedicated in 1885.
Just as the Washington Monument is an important symbol for the people of the United States, so also is the aluminum pyramid cap at its apex a symbol for the aluminum industry. Fifty years after its placement by Edgar H. Dix, then chief metallurgist of the Aluminum Company of America (now Alcoa) gave this high accolade when he declared “the crown jewel of the aluminum industry is the cap of the Washington Monument.”
The capping ceremony of December 6, 1884, and the formal dedication of the monument on February 21, 1885, were given front-page publicity in the nation’s newspapers and the aluminum point or apex was creditably described. Hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, of people who had never before even heard about aluminum now knew what it was.
Psalm 119: 1-3
Blessed are the undefiled in the way, Who walk in the law of the Lord!
2 Blessed are those who keep His testimonies, Who seek Him with the whole heart!
3 They also do no iniquity; They walk in His ways.
— Alexander Hamilton.
“Success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has overcome.”
~ Booker T. Washington
1. To split or divide. (past tense: clove or cleft or cleaved; past participle: cloven or cleft or cleaved)
2. To stick, cling. (past tense and past participle: cleaved)
1779 – The British surrendered the Illinois country to Lieutenant George Rogers Clark at Vincennes, Indiana.
1781 – General Nathanael Greene crossed the Dan River on his way to his March 15th confrontation with Lord Charles Cornwallis at Guilford Court House, N.C.
1791 – The First Bank of the U.S. at Philadelphia became the first national bank chartered by Congress.
1793 – George Washington holds the first Cabinet meeting as President of the United States.`
1799 – First federal forestry legislation authorizes purchase of timber land.
1811 – Congress authorizes first naval hospital.
1836 – Samuel Colt receives an American patent for the Colt revolver. U.S. Patent No. X9430.
1836 – US Showman Phineas Taylor Barnum exhibits Black slave Joice Heth.
1837 – The first practical electric motor in the US is patented by Thomas Davenport.
1837 – Cheyney University was established in Pennsylvania through the bequest of Richard Humphreys, and became the oldest institution of higher learning for Blacks.
1861 – Civil War: The Confederate Marine Corps was organized in Richmond, Virginia.
1862 – Congress establishes the US Bureau of Engraving & Printing. The beginning can be traced to an Act of Congress passed today, 12 Stat. 345 the Legal Tender Act, authorizing the Secretary of the Treasury to issue a new currency–United States notes.
1862 – Civil War: U.S.S. Monitor commissioned in New York, Lieutenant John L. Worden commanding. Captain Dahlgren described Monitor as ”a mere speck, like a hat on the surface.”
1862 – Civil War: Confederate troops abandoned Nashville, Tenn., in the face of Grant’s advance. This was the first southern state capital to fall to Union troops. Captain William flew “Old Glory” as the troops entered the city.
1863 – Civil War: Confederates worked feverishly to raise ex-U.S.S. Indianola. They had seen a monstrous gunboat coming down the Mississippi and they blew up the Indianola to prevent its capture. Later they discovered it was a disguised barge.
1863 – Congress creates national banking system and a comptroller of currency. The the new Comptroller of the Currency placed a 10 percent tax on state bank notes to drive them out of business and establish a federal monetary monopoly.
1865 – Civil War: C.S.S. Chickamauga was burned and sunk by her own crew in the Cape Fear River just below Indian Wells, North Carolina.
1866 – Miners in Calaveras County, California, discover what is now called the Calaveras Skull, human remains that supposedly indicated that man, mastodons, and elephants had co-existed.
1870 – Hiram Rhodes Revels, a Republican from Mississippi, is sworn into the United States Senate, becoming the first Black ever to sit in the U.S. Congress. He was sworn in to complete the unexpired term of Jefferson Davis, former president of the Confederacy.
1881 – Phoenix AZ incorporates. “The Phoenix Charter Bill” was passed by the 11th Territorial Legislature. The bill made Phoenix an incorporated city and provided for a government consisting of a mayor and four council members. It was signed by Governor John C. Fremont.
1885 – US Congress condemns barbed wire around government grounds.
1898 – Assistant Secretary of the navy, Theodore Roosevelt sends a highly confidential order to Commodore George Dewey, leader of the Asiatic Squadron, to go to Hong Kong. Dewey is to be prepared to attack the Spanish fleet in the Philippines should war be declared.
1901 – J.P. Morgan incorporates the United States Steel Corporation.
1902 – John Holland was granted a patent for a submarine.
1908 – First tunnel under the Hudson River (railway tunnel) opens.
1913 – The Sixteenth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, authorizing the income tax, went into effect.
1919 – Oregon places a 1 cent per U.S. gallon tax on gasoline, becoming the first U.S. state to levy a gasoline tax.
1924 – Ty Cobb, one of the legends of baseball, issued an edict to his team, the Detroit Tigers that forbid players to play the game of golf during training camp.
1925 – Glacier Bay National Monument (now Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve) is established in Alaska.
1928 – Charles Jenkins Laboratories of Washington, DC becomes the first holder of a television license from the Federal Radio Commission.
1930 – The first bank check photographing device patent was issued in the U.S. to its inventor, George Lewis McCarthy, who called it a Checkograph.
1932 – Adolf Hitler obtains German citizenship by naturalization, which allows him to run in the 1932 election for Reichspräsident. He was born in Austria. The German title Reichspräsident literally means Realm President (reich is a German word that roughly means “country”, “realm” or the central or federal level of government).
1933 – The USS Ranger is launched, becoming the first custom-built aircraft carrier.
1933 – Major NFL rule changes (hash mark 10 yards in, posts on goal line).
1940 – First televised (W2XBS, NYC) hockey game (Rangers vs Canadiens) .
1940 – The American envoy Sumner Welles arrives at the start of his European peace mission.
1941 – February strike: First general & physical protest against Nazi anti-Jewish behavior & -laws (Amsterdam).
1942 – Wartime port security delegated to Coast Guard by Executive Order 9074.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “Besame Mucho” by The Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Bob Eberly & Kitty Kallen), “My Heart Tells Me” by The Glen Gray Orchestra (vocal: Eugenie Baird), “Shoo, Shoo, Baby” by The Andrews Sisters and “Ration Blues” by Louis Jordan all topped the charts.
1944 – Sue Sophia Dauser, Superintendent of the Navy’s Nurse Corps is first woman in Navy to receive rank of Captain.
1944 – World War II: U.S. forces destroyed 135 Japanese planes in Marianas and Guam.
1945 -World War II: Aircraft from the carriers of US Task Force 58 again raid Tokyo. Poor weather conditions hinders the effectiveness of the attacks.
1945 – World War II: Turkey declares war on Germany.
1948 – Martin Luther King ordained as a Baptist minister.
1949 – The US launches the WAC-Corporal at White Sands, New Mexico, achieving a record missile altitude of 250 miles.
1950 – “Your Show of Shows” starring Sid Caesar, Imogene Coca, Carl Reiner, and Howard Morris debuted on TV.
1950 – “Rag Mop” by the Ames Brothers topped the charts.
1951 – The first Pan American Games are held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
1951 – “Tennessee Waltz” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1952 – The complete choreographic score of Cole Porter’s “Kiss Me Kate” became the first musical choreography score given a copyright. The work was the effort of Hanya Holm.
1953 – The musical, “Wonderful Town“, opened at the Winter Garden Theatre in New York City. The show was based on the book, “My Sister Eileen”, and the ran for 559 performances.
1956 – “Lisbon Antigua” by Nelson Riddle topped the charts.
1957 – Buddy Holly & the Crickets record “That’ll Be the Day“.
1957 – The US Supreme Court, in Butler v. Michigan, overturned a Michigan statute making it a misdemeanor to sell books containing obscene language that would tend to corrupt “the morals of youth.”
1957 – US Supreme Court decided 6-3 that baseball is the only antitrust exempt pro sport.
1959 – USS Galveston fires first Talos surface-to-air missile.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith, “Handy Man” by Jimmy Jones, “What in the World’s Come Over You” by Jack Scott and “He’ll Have to Go” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1961 – “Calcutta” by Lawrence Welk topped the charts.
1961 – Paul Bikle in a glider climbs to 46, 267 feet.
1963 – Beatles release their first single in US “Please Please Me“.
1964 – Cassius Clay dethroned world heavyweight boxing champ Sonny Liston in a seventh-round technical knockout. The fight (43:04) was held at Convention Hall, Miami Beach, Florida. Clay then announced his conversion to Islam, changing his name to Muhammad Ali.
1967 – Vietnam War: U.S. warships began shelling Vietnam.
1967 – “Kind of a Drag” by the Buckinghams topped the charts.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love is Blue” by Paul Mauriat, “(Theme From) Valley of the Dolls” by Dionne Warwick, “(Sittin’ On) The Dock of the Bay” by Otis Redding and “Skip a Rope” by Henson Cargill all topped the charts.
1969 – Vietnam War: Navy Lt. Bob Kerry (25) took part in a SEAL raid in the Mekong Delta where over a dozen women, children and old men were killed in the village of Thanh Phong.
1971 – “Oh, Calcutta” opened at the Belasco Theater.
1971 – Vietnam War: In both houses of Congress, legislation is initiated to forbid U.S. military support of any South Vietnamese invasion of North Vietnam without congressional approval.
1972 – Vietnam War: U.S. troops clash with North Vietnamese forces in a major battle 42 miles east of Saigon, the biggest single U.S. engagement with an enemy force in nearly a year.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “50 Ways to Leave Your Lover” by Paul Simon, “Theme from S.W.A.T.” by Rhythm Heritage, “Love Machine (Part 1)” by The Miracles and “Good Hearted Woman” by Waylon & Willie all topped the charts.
1976 – U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states may ban the hiring of illegal aliens.
1977 – New Orleans’ Pete Maravich sets NBA record for a guard with 68 points.
1978 – “Stayin’ Alive” by the Bee Gees topped the charts.
1984 – Michael Spinks defeated Eddie Davis in a unanimous decision to retain the light heavyweight championship; in 12 rounds in Atlantic City, NJ.
1987 – US Supreme Court upheld affirmative action with a 5-4 vote.
1987 – US Supreme Court ruled that California cannot bar gambling on Indian tribal land. This win by the Cabazon tribe opened the door to Indian gambling nationwide.
1988 – The Coast Guard commissioned LT Samone Vasser as a flight officer. She was the first female flight officer in the Coast Guard.
1989 – Dallas Cowboys fire Coach Tom Landry after a 29-year career. Landry was the NFL’s third-winningest coach of all time, compiling a 270-178-6 record in 29 seasons.
1989 – “Straight Up” by Paula Abdul topped the charts.
1989 – Boxer Mike Tyson becomes the undisputed Heavyweight Champion of the World by defeating challenger Frank Bruno of England. (18:35)
1991 – Gulf War: An Iraqi Scud missile hits an American military barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia killing 28 U.S. Army Reservists from Pennsylvania. Adrienne Mitchell, first African American woman to die in combat was among the reservists.
1991 – Gulf War: As the Persian Gulf War ground assault continued, Iraq ordered its forces to withdraw from Kuwait.
1991 – Gulf War: In the most decisive actions of the Gulf War, VII Corps, moving directly east with three heavy divisions abreast, attacked the elite Iraqi Republican Guard units.
1992 – The US Supreme Court ruled prison guards who use unnecessary force against inmates may be violating the Constitution’s ban on cruel and unusual punishment even if they inflict no serious injuries.
1995 – “Take a Bow” by Madonna topped the charts.
1998 – The US Congress for the first time reversed President Clinton’s line item veto and restored 38 military projects. It was later ruled “unconstitutional”.
1999 – Cuba cut phone service to AT&T and MCI WorldCom for $19 mil in unpaid bills. The phone companies were withholding payments pending a lawsuit by relatives of 4 Cuban Americans, whose aircraft were shot down in Feb 1996.
2001 – The commander of the U.S. submarine that struck and sank a Japanese trawler off Hawaii expressed his “most sincere regret.” Cmdr. Scott Waddle stopped short of an apology.
2002 – In New York City, after a 35-year plot to accept bribes and cheat the city out of tax revenues, sixteen tax assessors were arrested and charged with altering values of over 500 properties worth some $8 billion.
2003 – NASA reports that the space probe Pioneer 10 finally ceased its transmissions from deep space, after more than thirty years of a mission which was originally intended to last less than two.
2003 – Chief U.N. weapons inspector Hans Blix said Iraq was showing new signs of real cooperation, but President Bush was dismissive, predicting Saddam Hussein would try to “fool the world one more time.”
2003 – Gulf War: The US military says that warplanes have conducted strikes at five missile systems, including four surface-to-surface rocket launchers in the north and south of Iraq.
2003 – 6,000 US Marines have arrived in Kuwait, bringing the Marine force there to nearly full strength.
2003 – The Bush administration has sent supplies of humanitarian aid to the Gulf region to cope with refugees and displaced people.
2004 – The Mel Gibson film “Passion of Christ” premiered on Ash Wednesday.A woman in Wichita, Kansas, collapses and dies of a massive heart attack while viewing the harrowing Crucifixion scene. Full Movie (1:57:52)
2004 – The US Supreme Court ruled that states may withhold scholarships from students preparing for the ministry.
2004 – It was reported that a biologist had confirmed the sighting of a real Michigan wolverine, about 200 years after the species was last seen in the state that uses the small but ferocious animal as its unofficial nickname.
2005 – Dennis Rader was arrested near his home for the BTK serial killings that terrorized Wichita, Kansas between 1974 and 1991.
2005 – Bank of America reported the loss of computer tapes containing personal information on 1.2 million federal employees including some US Senate members.
2006 – The world’s estimated population reaches 6.5 billion.
2006 – A New Jersey company is accused of harvesting body parts from New York funeral homes for transplants. An estimated 12,000 people received the body parts.
2006 – It was reported that there were 691 billionaires worldwide, compared with 423 in 1996.
2008 – In Connecticut five former insurance company executives were found guilty of a scheme to manipulate the financial statements of the world’s largest insurance company, American International Group Inc. (AIG)
2009 – A Federal Grand Jury returned a single count indictment charging Kody Ray Brittingham (20) of Camp Lejeune, NC, with threatening the President-Elect of the United States, in violation of Title 18, United States Code, Section 871, which has a maximum penalty of 5 years imprisonment followed by up to three years of supervised release and a fine of up to $250,000. In August Brittingham pleaded guilty to charges of threatening to kill President Obama and armed robbery.
2009 – The US Supreme Court ruled that the Summum group does not have a right to erect the “Seven aphorism” of its beliefs in Pleasant Gove City, Utah, park just because the Ten Commandments are displayed there.
2009 – President Barack Obama nominates former Washington Governor Gary Locke to serve as the next Secretary of Commerce.
2009 – Mexico’s government said it will deploy extra troops and federal police to Ciudad Juarez across the border from Texas, where the police chief recently bowed to crime gang demands that he resign.
2010 – In Texas a copy of the 1939 comic book, Detective Comics No. 27, in which Batman makes his debut, sold at a Dallas auction for more than $1 million, breaking a record set just three days earlier by a Superman comic. A copy of the first comic book featuring Superman, a 1938 edition of Action Comics No. 1, sold on Feb 22 for $1 million.
2010 – In California Rick Ray Liles (51) shot and killed deputy Joel Wahlenmaier (49) in Minkler, Fresno County, during an investigation of arson blazes in the village. Liles took his own life in the gunbattle at his mobile home.
2011 – A United States district court approves a $624 million payout to former investors in Countrywide Financial.
2013 – Scientists announce they have found fragments of Rodinia, an ancient “lost” continent, in what is now the Indian Ocean.
2014 – The US Supreme Court has ruled that police may search a home without obtaining a warrant despite the objection of one occupant if that occupant has been removed from the premises.
1682 – Giovanni Battista Morgagni, Italian anatomist. He is celebrated as the father of the modern anatomical pathology. (d. 1771)
1841 – Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French painter, graphic artist and sculptor (d. 1919) 1888 – John Foster Dulles, U.S. Secretary of State (d. 1959)
1901 – Zeppo Marx, American actor (d. 1979)
1908 – Frank G. Slaughter, American novelist (d. 2001)
1910 – Millicent Fenwick, American fashion editor and politician (d. 1992)
1913 – Jim Backus, American actor (d. 1989)
1918 – Bobby Riggs, American tennis player (d. 1995)
1928 – Larry Gelbart began as a writer at the age of sixteen for Danny Thomas’ radio show during the 1940s and also wrote for Jack Paar and Bob Hope. On 1950s television, he worked for Sid Caesar on Caesar’s Hour, along with the other gifted comedy writers Neil Simon, Mel Brooks, Woody Allen, and Carl Reiner.1929 – Christopher George, American actor (d. 1983)
1929 – Tommy Newsom, American bandleader (d. 2007)
1934 – Tony Lema, American golfer (d. 1966)
1935 – Sally Jessy Raphaël, American talk show host
1937 – Bob Schieffer, American broadcast journalist
1958 – Kurt Rambis, American basketball player
1965 – Carrot Top, American comedian
1966 – Nancy O’Dell, American reporter and television personality
1975 – Chelsea Handler, American comedian and actress
1976 – Rashida Jones, American actress, writer, model, and musician
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company F, 2d Battalion, 3d Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and Date: Quang Nag Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 25th, 1966. Entered service at: South Orange, NJ. Born: 4 September 1932, Orange, N.J. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action against enemy Viet Cong forces at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Leading his platoon on a search and destroy operation in an area made particularly hazardous by extensive cave and tunnel complexes, S/Sgt. Connor maneuvered his unit aggressively forward under intermittent enemy small-arms fire. Exhibiting particular alertness and keen observation, he spotted an enemy spider hole emplacement approximately fifteen meters to his front. He pulled the pin from a fragmentation grenade intending to charge the hole boldly and drop the missile into its depths. Upon pulling the pin he realized that the firing mechanism was faulty, and that even as he held the safety device firmly in place, the fuse charge was already activated. With only precious seconds to decide, he further realized that he could not cover the distance to the small opening of the spider hole in sufficient time, and that to hurl the deadly bomb in any direction would result in death or injury to some of his comrades tactically deployed near him. Manifesting extraordinary gallantry and with utter disregard for his personal safety, he chose to hold the grenade against his body in order to absorb the terrific explosion and spare his comrades. His act of extreme valor and selflessness in the face of virtually certain death, although leaving him mortally wounded, spared many of his fellow Marines from death or injury. His gallant action in giving his life in the cause of freedom reflects the highest credit upon the Marine Corps and the Armed Forces of the United States.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Company H, 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 25th, 1969. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa. Born: 17 September 1947, Pittsburgh, Pa. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a squad leader with Company H, in operations against the enemy. While participating in Operation DEWEY CANYON southeast of Vandergrift Combat Base, one of the squads of Cpl. Morgan’s platoon was temporarily pinned down and sustained several casualties while attacking a North Vietnamese Army force occupying a heavily fortified bunker complex. Observing that two of the wounded Marines had fallen in a position dangerously exposed to the enemy fire and that all attempts to evacuate them were halted by a heavy volume of automatic weapons fire and rocket-propelled grenades. Cpl. Morgan unhesitatingly maneuvered through the dense jungle undergrowth to a road that passed in front of a hostile emplacement which was the principal source of enemy fire. Fully aware of the possible consequences of his valiant action, but thinking only of the welfare of his injured companions, Cpl. Morgan shouted words of encouragement to them as he initiated an aggressive assault against the hostile bunker. While charging across the open road, he was clearly visible to the hostile soldiers who turned their fire in his direction and mortally wounded him, but his diversionary tactic enabled the remainder of his squad to retrieve their casualties and overrun the North Vietnamese Army position. His heroic and determined actions saved the lives of two fellow Marines and were instrumental in the subsequent defeat of the enemy. Cpl. Morgan’s indomitable courage, inspiring initiative and selfless devotion to duty upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and of the U.S. Naval Services. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Pancakes & crepes
Did you know that the first pancake-type foods were eaten by ancient peoples? They were not the same pancakes we eat today. They were simple, fried concoctions of milk, flour, eggs and spices and were called “Alita Dolcia” (Latin for “another sweet”) by the Ancient Romans. Depending upon the proportion of ingredients and method of cooking, the finished product might have approximated pancakes, fritters, omlettes, or custard. Some of these dishes were sweet (fruit, nuts, honey); others were savory (cheese, fish, meat). These ancient recipes are also thought to be the relatives of waffles, cakes, muffins, fritters, spoonbread and doughnuts. Pancakes, as we Americans know them today, were “invented” in Medieval Europe.
Throughout history, pancake ingredients (finest available wheat flour, buckwheat, cornmeal, potatoes), cooking implements (ancient bakestones, medieval hearths, pioneer griddles perched on campfire embers, microwave ovens), social rituals (Shrove Tuesday crepes, Chanukah latkes, mass quantities for community fundraisers) and final product (thick or thin, savory or sweet, slathered with butter and smothered with syrup, or gently rolled around delicate fruit) have reflected regional cuisine and local customs. Old English batter was mixed with ale. German and French pancakes, leavened by eggs and much beating, are baked very thin
and served with jam or jelly. The French crěpe suzette is folded or rolled and heated in a sauce of butter, sugar, citrus juice, and liqueur. Russian blintzes, usually prepared with buckwheat, are thin, crisp pancakes, and commonly served with caviar and sour cream or folded over and filled with cream cheese or jam. Mexico has its tortilla,which is often served folded over a bean or meat filling and topped by tomato sauce. In the United States pancakes are sometimes called battercakes, griddlecakes, or flapjacks and are usually leavened with baking powder or baking soda and are served with syrup. A pioneer favorite, still surviving in some localities, is the buckwheat cake.
“The griddle method of cooking is older than oven baking, and pancakes are an ancient form. The first pancakes clearly distinguishable from plain griddle breads are sweet ones mentioned by Apicius; these were made from a batter of egg, mixed milk and water, and a little flour, fried and served with pepper and honey. An English culinary manuscript of about 1430 refers to pancakes in a way which implies that the term was already familiar, but it does not occur often in the early printed cookery books.
Pancakes are cooked one side at a time on a griddle and flipped halfway through the cooking process to cook the other side of the pancake. The process of tossing or flipping is part of the essence of the pancake, and one of the skills that separates the experienced cook from the beginner. It is traditional to turn pancakes over by tossing them in the air using the pan and without using any other implements. This is a tricky maneuver that requires practice to perfect.
Pancakes today are still very popular and come with interesting variations but using the same ingredients. For example, with a special “tool”, pancakes become waffles. A pancake wrapped around a sausage instantly becomes a “pig in a blanket.” Three of those can become a full breakfast.
Psalm 39: 7-11
“And now, Lord, what do I wait for? My hope is in You.
8 Deliver me from all my transgressions; Do not make me the reproach of the foolish. 9 I was mute, I did not open my mouth, Because it was You who did it.
10 Remove Your plague from me; I am consumed by the blow of Your hand.
11 When with rebukes You correct man for iniquity, You make his beauty melt away like a moth; Surely every man is vapor. Selah
“That these are our grievances which we have thus laid before his majesty, with that freedom of language and sentiment which becomes a free people claiming their rights as derived from the laws of nature, and not as the gift of their chief magistrate.”
– Thomas Jefferson
“Make the most of yourself, for that is all there is of you.”
~ Ralph Waldo Emerson
quiddity (KWID-i-tee) noun:
The essence of someone or something.
A trifling point.
From Latin quid (what) which also gave us quidnunc (“What’s new?”) and quid pro quo (what) pro (for) quo (what)
303 – Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Empire.
1582 – Pope Gregory XIII announces the Gregorian calendar.
1616 – Qualifiers of the Holy Office concluded that a sun-centered theory was “foolish and absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical, inasmuch as it expressly contradicts the teachings of many passages of Holy scriptures.”
1607 – L’Orfeo by Claudio Monteverdi, one of the first works recognized as an opera, premieres.
1711 – The London premiere of Rinaldo by George Friderich Handel, the first Italian opera written for the London stage.
1719 – Thomas Fleet publishes “Mother Goose’s Melodies For Children”
1761 – James Otis voices opposition to English colonial rule in a speech before the Supreme Court of Massachusetts.
1796 – The Baltimore Monitor was the first US newspaper to appear on Sunday.
1799 – George Washington’d body is buried at Mt. Vernon. He died of a throat infection December 14, 1799. For months the Nation mourned him.
1803 – The Supreme Court of the United States, in Marbury v. Madison, establishes the principle of judicial review.
1813 - Off Guiana’s Demerara River, the American 18-gun sloop Hornet under Captain James Lawrence sinks the 20-gun British sloop Peacock.
1821 – Mexico rebels proclaimed the “Plan de Iguala,” their declaration of independence from Spain, and took over the mission lands in California. It was short-lived because California became a state in September 1850.
1831 – The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, the first removal treaty in accordance with the Indian Removal Act, is proclaimed. The Choctaws in Mississippi cede land east of the river in exchange for payment and land in the West.
1835 – “Siwinowe Kesibwi” (The Shawnee Sun) was issued as the first Indian language monthly publication in the U.S.
1836 – Texan Colonel William Travis sends a desperate plea for help for the besieged defenders of the Alamo, ending the message with the famous last words, “Victory or Death.”
1839 – William Otis receives a patent for the steam shovel.
1839 – John William Draper took a daguerreotype of the moon, the first celestial photograph made in the U.S. He exposed the plate for 20 minutes using a 5-inch telescope and produced an image one inch in diameter.
1857 – First perforated US postage stamps delivered to the government.
1857 – The Los Angeles Vineyard Society was organized. Land was purchased from Pacifico Ontiveros for $2 per acre.
1863 – Arizona is organized as a United States territory. The U.S. acquired the region under the terms of the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the 1853 Gadsden Purchase. Arizona became the 48th state in 1912.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest made a raid on Brentwood, TN.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Tunnel Hill, GA (Buzzard’s Roost).
1864 – Rebecca Lee Crumpler becomes the first Black woman to receive an M.D. degree. She graduated from the New England Female Medical College. She worked from 1852-1860 as a nurse in Massachusetts.
1865 – Civil War: Captain Henry S. Stellwagen in the U.S.S. Pawnee sent Ensign Allen K. Noyes with the U.S.S. Catalpa and Mingoe up the Peedee River to accept the surrender of the evacuated city of Georgetown.
1866 – In Washington, DC, an American flag made entirely of American bunting was displayed for the first time.
1867 – The House of Representatives voted to impeach President Andrew Johnson.
1868 – The first parade to have floats is staged at Mardi Gras in New Orleans, Louisiana.
1868 – Andrew Johnson becomes the first President of the United States to be impeached by the United States House of Representatives. He is later acquitted in the Senate. He had attempted to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton in alleged violation of the Tenure of Office Act.
1893 – The American University is chartered by an act of the Congress of the United States of America.
1895 – Revolution breaks out in Baire, a town near Santiago de Cuba, beginning the second war for Cuban independence, which ended with the Spanish-American War in 1898. Cuban insurgents were supplied with money by US sugar planters in a move designed both to assist overthrow Spanish domination of Cuba and to prevent the insurrectionists from burning the sugar plantations.
1899 – Western Washington University is established.
1900 – New York City Mayor Van Wyck signed the contract to begin work on New York’s first rapid transit tunnel. The tunnel would link Manhattan and Brooklyn. The ground breaking ceremony was on March 24, 1900.
1903 – In Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, an area was leased to the U.S. for a naval base.
1909 – The Hudson Motor Car Company is founded.
1912 – The Jewish organization Hadassah was founded in New York City.
1916 – Jules Verne’s “20,000 Leagues Under the Sea” opened in New York.
1917 – World War I: The U.S. ambassador to the United Kingdom is given the Zimmermann Telegram, in which Germany pledges to ensure the return of New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona to Mexico if that country declares war on the United States.
1920 – The Nazi Party is founded.
1924 – Johnny ‘Tarzan’ Weissmuller broke the world’s record in the 100-meter swimming event. He did it in 57 2/5 seconds.
1925 – A thermite (magnesium) bomb is used for the first time to break up a 250,000-ton ice jam clogging the St. Lawrence River near Waddington, New York.
1928 – In its first show to feature an Black artist, the New Gallery of New York exhibited works of Archibald Motley.
1932 – Malcolm Campbell drives record speed (253.96 mph) at Daytona. The “car” was a “Bluebird” and an aircraft engine.
1938 – A nylon-bristle toothbrush becomes the first commercial product (DuPont) to be made with nylon yarn.
1938 – The role of Dorothy in “Wizard of Oz” was given to Judy Garland.
1940 – Frances Langford records “When You Wish Upon a Star“. It later became a trademark song for Disney. Performed by Kate Smith.
1942 – World War II: The U.S. Government stopped shipments of all 12-gauge shotguns for sporting use for the wartime effort.
1942 – World War II: Admiral Halsey on board the USS Enterprise leads task force in a successful attack on Wake Island.
1942 – World War II: Approximately 1,600 Pittsburg, CA, residents of Italian descent were evacuated. Nationwide some 600,000 of 5 million Italians were undocumented and deemed “enemy aliens” until Oct 12.
1942 – The Voice of America went on the air for the first time with broadcasts in German. The US State Dept. made William Winter (d.1999) its first Voice of America three months before the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
1943 – In baseball, the Texas League announces it will quit for the duration of WWII.
1944 – World War II: Maj. Gen. Frank Merrill’s guerrilla force, nicknamed “Merrill’s Marauders,” begin a campaign in northern Burma.
1945 – World War II: On Iwo Jima, forces of US 5th Amphibious Corps continue to advance northward and capture part of the island’s second airfield.
1945 – World War II: U.S. troops liberated the Philippine city of Manila from the Japanese.
1949 – V-2/WAC-Corporal first rocket to outer space, White Sands NM. Between April 16, 1946 and September 19, 1952, von Braun and General Electric launched more than sixty V2s from the White Sands Proving Grounds as a part of Project Hermes.
1951 – Korean War: Army Major General Bryant E. Moore, commander of IX Corps, died suddenly of a heart attack. Major General O. P. Smith assumed command, becoming the only Marine to command a major Army unit during the Korean War.
1951 – Korean War: The 315th Air Division dropped a record 333 tons of cargo to front-line troops using 67 C-119 and two C-46 aircraft.
1952 – Korean War: The U.S. 40th Infantry Division (CAARNG) launched the largest tank raid since the beginning of the Korean War. It was the largest deployment of armor without infantry support in a single engagement during the war.
1955 – The Cole Porter musical “Silk Stockings” opened at the Imperial Theater on Broadway for 461 performances.
1955 – President Eisenhower met with newspaper publisher Roy Howard and expressed his resistance under pressure to commit American troops to Vietnam. The conversation was recorded on a dictabelt machine that Eisenhower had secretly installed in the president’s office.
1956 – The city of Cleveland, OH invoked a 1931 law that barred people under the age of 18 from dancing in public without an adult guardian.
1957 – Buddy Holly and the Crickets began recording “That’ll Be the Day.”
1958 – “Get a Job” by the Silhouettes topped the charts.
1962 – “Duke of Earl” by Gene Chandler topped the charts.
1962 – New York police seized $20 million worth of heroin.
1964 – The Beatles appeared for the third time on “The Ed Sullivan Show.” They appeared via tape.
1965 – The Beach Boys recorded “Help Me Rhonda“.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kind of a Drag” by The Buckinghams, “Love is Here and Now You’re Gone” by The Supremes, “The Beat Goes On” by Sonny & Cher and “Where Does the Good Times Go” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1968 – First pulsar discovered. It was identified as CP 1919 by Jocelyn Burnell at Cambridge.
1968 – Vietnam War: The Tet Offensive is halted; South Vietnam recaptures Hué.
1969 – Johnny Cash recorded his second live prison performance. It was at San Quentin, CA and the song “A Boy Named Sue” was introduced.
1969 – The US Supreme Court in the Tinker vs. Des Moines School District case ruled that students had the right to express opinions at odds with the government.
1970 – National Public Radio (NPR) is founded in the United States.
1973 – “Killing Me Softly with His Song” by Roberta Flack topped the charts.
1977 – President Carter announced the US was cutting off all military aid to Ethiopia because of its human rights violations.
1979 – “Da Ya Think I’m Sexy?” by Rod Stewart topped the charts.
1979 – “Roxanne” was released by The Police.
1980 – NBC premiered the TV movie “Harper Valley P.T.A.” (1:41:43)
1980 – USA Olympics hockey team beats Finland (4-2) & wins the gold medal.
1981 – Buckingham Palace announces the engagement of The Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer.
1981 – A jury in White Plains, New York, found Jean Harris guilty of second-degree murder in the fatal shooting of “Scarsdale Diet” author Dr. Herman Tarnower.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Baby, Come to Me” by Patti Austin with James Ingram, “Shame on the Moon” by Bob Seger & The Silver Bullet Band, “Stray Cat Strut” by Stray Cats and “Faking Love” by T.G. Sheppard & Karen Brooks
1983 – A special commission, Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, of the U.S. Congress releases a report that condemns the practice of Japanese internment during World War II.
1983 – The Dow Jones industrial average closed above the 1100 mark for the first time.
1984 – Last of U.S. Marines are withdrawn from Lebanon.
1985 – Yul Brynner reprised his role in “The King and I” — setting a box office record for weekly receipts.
1986 – U.S. Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an Indianapolis law that defined pornography as discrimination against women.
1987 – Coast Guard attorney LCDR Robert W. Bruce, Jr., became the first member of the armed forces to argue a case before the Supreme Court in uniform.
1987 – Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, of the Los Angeles Lakers, scores his 36,000th NBA point.
1987 – An exploding supernova was discovered in the Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy.This was the first time since 1604 that such an event could be seen with the naked eye.
1988 – U.S. Supreme Court defended the right to satirize public figures when it voted 8-0 to overturn a $200,000 settlement awarded the Rev. Jerry Falwell over the parody of him in Hustler Magazine.
1988 – Alice Cooper announced he would run for Governor of Arizona as a member of the “Wild Party”.
1989 – In Utah a 150-million-year-old fossil egg, still inside the mother, was found by CAT scan to contain the oldest dinosaur embryo.
1989 – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini offers a USD $3 million bounty for the death of The Satanic Verses author Salman Rushdie.
1989 – United Airlines Flight 811, bound for New Zealand from Honolulu, Hawaii, rips open during flight, sucking nine passengers out of the business-class section.
1991 – U.S.-led forces began a lightning, multipronged ground assault against Iraq after six weeks of intensive bombing.
1992 – Tracy Gold began working on the set of “Growing Pains” again. She had left the show due to anorexia.
1992 – General Motors announced a record $4.5 billion loss in 1991 and said it will close 21 plants and idle 74,000 workers over four years.
1992 – U.S Postal Service unveiled two designs for a commemorative stamp honoring Elvis Presley — one showing him as young rock-and-roll singer, the other at the height of his success in Las Vegas.
1992 – “Wayne’s World” opened in U.S. theaters.
1994 – US Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders labeled smoking an “adolescent addiction” and accused the tobacco industry of trying to convince teen-agers that cigarettes will make them sexy and successful.
1995 – Diver Greg Louganis, who won four gold medals in the Olympic Games in 1984 and 1988, revealed he had AIDS.
1994 – In Los Angeles, Garrett Morris was shot during a robbery attempt. He eventually recovered from his injury. Garrett was one of the original cast members on “Saturday Night Live.”
1995 – Under pressure from farm-state Republicans, House leaders abandoned a campaign promise to disband the food stamp program.
1995 – The Corona reconnaissance satellite program, in existence from 1959 to 1972, is declassified.
1996 – Cuba shot down two unarmed planes flown by pilots belonging to a Cuban exile group who were looking for boat people to rescue. Cuba claimed the planes violated Cuban airspace. Four men were killed and three were US citizens.
1997 – The Food and Drug Administration named six brands of birth control as safe and effective “morning-after” pills for preventing pregnancy.
1999 – The Senate voted overwhelmingly to give the nation’s military the biggest benefits increase since the early 1980s.
1999 – The State of Arizona executes Karl LaGrand, a German national involved in a bungled armed robbery where a bank manager was killed and a female teller was seriously injured , in spite of Germany’s legal action to attempt to save him. The bank was a Valley National Bank housed in a double-wide mobile home in Marana, AZ.
2000 – In Arizona, Salvatore Gravano, “Sammy the Bull,” was arrested for financing a drug ring led by Michael Papa, the founding member of a white supremacist gang.
2000 – The state of Texas executed Betty Lou Beets, 62, by injection for the 1983 murder of her fifth husband. Governor George W. Bush refused to intervene. She was the 2nd woman executed in Texas since the Civil War.
2001 – Colin Powell arrived in the Middle East on his first overseas trip as U.S. secretary of State.
2001 – The US Navy and Coast Guard captured ten men and 8.8 tons of cocaine on a Belize-flagged fishing boat 250 miles west of Acapulco.
2002 – The Winter Olympics concluded at Salt Lake City with the United States winning thirty-four medals, ten of them gold, its most medals in Winter Games history and one fewer than medals champ Germany.
2003 – Dan Rather interviewed Saddam Hussein via satellite and Hussein proposed a live debate with Pres. Bush.
2004 – U.S. President George Bush called for a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriages in the United States.
2004 – The first charges were filed against two detainees in Guantanamo.
2005 – In Ohio, Rosemarie Essa was killed in a car crash after losing consciousness. Her husband was convicted of lacing her calcium supplement with cyanide so that he could be with his mistress.
2006 – Judge Walter Steed, a small-town judge with three wives, was ordered removed from the bench by the Utah Supreme Court for violating the state’s bigamy law.
2006 – South Dakota lawmakers approved a ban on nearly all abortions.
2007 – “Better late than never”, The Virginia General Assembly passed a resolution expressing “profound regret” for the state’s role in slavery.
2007 – In Arkansas tornado winds injured forty people and damaged dozens of homes and businesses. Much of the town of Dumas was destroyed. The Midwest storm system was blamed for eight traffic deaths, seven in Wisconsin and one in Kansas.
2007 – Broncos running back Damien Nash (24) collapsed and died after a charity basketball game in suburban St. Louis.
2007 – In the 27th annual Razzie Awards the film “Basic Instinct 2” was named worst picture of the year.
2008 – The Cuban National Assembly named Raúl Castro, the 76-year-old armed forces minister, to succeed Fidel Castro, his brother, as president.
2009 – Obama addressed the US Congress and the American people to tap the deep well of American optimism. Themes of responsibility, accountability and, above all, national community rang throughout an address carefully balanced by the gravity of its times. Republican leaders called his plan irresponsible and certain to increase taxes and federal debt.
2009 – A rocket carrying a NASA satellite crashed near Antarctica after a failed launch, ending a $280 million mission to track global warming from space.
2010 – In San Jose, Ca., stealth start-up Bloom Energy publicly unveiled an innovative fuel cell that promises to deliver affordable, clean energy to even remote corners of the world.
2010 – In Orlando, Florida, SeaWorld trainer Dawn Brancheau was killed after Tilikum, a 12,000 pound killer whale, grabbed her hair and pulled her under water.
2011 – Toyota recalls more than two million vehicles in the United States to address problems with accelerator pedals being trapped in floormats.
2011 – US authorities arrest more than sixty suspected members of Mexican drug cartels following the execution of a US Drug Enforcement Administration agent in Mexico last week.
2011 – The Space Shuttle Discovery takes off for its final mission.
2011 – President Obama informed Congress that he would not enforce the laws with which he disagreed. He issues executive orders instead of requesting Congressional action.
2012 – At least twelve people are killed in the deadliest day of protests so far resulting from U.S. soldiers incineration of copies of the Koran in Afghanistan.
2013 – Jimmie Johnson wins the 2013 Daytona 500. Pole winner Danica Patrick finishes eighth, marking the highest ever finish by a woman.
1709 – Jacques de Vaucanson, French inventor who is credited with creating the world’s first true robots, as well as for creating the first completely automated loom. (d. 1782)
1723 – John Burgoyne, British general, politician and dramatist. During the American War of Independence, on October 17, 1777, at the Saratoga he surrendered his army of 9,000 men. (d. 1792)
1786 – Wilhelm Grimm, German philologist and folklorist the younger of the Brothers Grimm. (d. 1859)
1786 – Martin W. Bates, American lawyer and politician (d. 1869)
1836 – Winslow Homer (d.1910), American painter, was born. He began his career as an illustrator for Harper’s Weekly during America’s CIVIL WAR. He is believed to have died a virgin and took up a hermit’s life in his mid 40s.
1885 – Chester Nimitz, U.S. admiral who held the dual command of Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet (“CinCPac” pronounced “sink-pack”), for U.S. naval forces and Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas (CinCPOA), for U.S. and Allied air, land, and sea forces during World War II. (d. 1966)
1921 – Douglass Watson, American actor. Before his acting career, he received two Purple Heart awards for his service in World War II.
1925 - Bud Day, American pilot and colonel, Medal of Honor recipient (d. 2013)
1933 – Judah Folkman is best known for his research on angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, processes where tumors generate tiny blood vessels to nourish themselves.
1938 – Phil Knight, American sportswear manufacturer, the co-founder and Chairman of Nike, Inc.
1942 – Joe Lieberman, American politician
1943 – Terry Semel is an American corporate executive who was the chairman and CEO of Yahoo! Incorporated.
1955 – Steve Jobs, American computer pioneer (co-founder (Apple Computer))
1956 – Paula Zahn, American journalist
1966 – Billy Zane, American actor
|1968 – Mitch Hedberg, American comedian (d. 2005)
1970 – Kienast quintuplets, American quintuplets
1977 – Floyd Mayweather Jr, is an undefeated American professional boxer who has a record of 39-0 (25 KOs).
LEVITOW, JOHN L.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Air Force, 3d Special Operations Squadron. Place and date: Long Binh Army post, Republic of Vietnam, February 24th, 1969. Entered service at: New Haven, Conn. Born: 1 November 1945, Hartford, Conn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Levitow (then A1c.), U.S. Air Force, distinguished himself by exceptional heroism while assigned as a loadmaster aboard an AC-47 aircraft flying a night mission in support of Long Binh Army post. Sgt. Levitow’s aircraft was struck by a hostile mortar round. The resulting explosion ripped a hole two feet in diameter through the wing and fragments made over thirty-five hundred holes in the fuselage. All occupants of the cargo compartment were wounded and helplessly slammed against the floor and fuselage. The explosion tore an activated flare from the grasp of a crewmember who had been launching flares to provide illumination for Army ground troops engaged in combat. Sgt. Levitow, though stunned by the concussion of the blast and suffering from over forty fragment wounds in the back and legs, staggered to his feet and turned to assist the man nearest to him who had been knocked down and was bleeding heavily. As he was moving his wounded comrade forward and away from the opened cargo compartment door, he saw the smoking flare ahead of him in the aisle. Realizing the danger involved and completely disregarding his own wounds, Sgt. Levitow started toward the burning flare. The aircraft was partially out of control and the flare was rolling wildly from side to side. Sgt. Levitow struggled forward despite the loss of blood from his many wounds and the partial loss of feeling in his right leg. Unable to grasp the rolling flare with his hands, he threw himself bodily upon the burning flare. Hugging the deadly device to his body, he dragged himself back to the rear of the aircraft and hurled the flare through the open cargo door. At that instant the flare separated and ignited in the air, but clear of the aircraft. Sgt. Levitow, by his selfless and heroic actions, saved the aircraft and its entire crew from certain death and destruction. Sgt. Levitow’s gallantry, his profound concern for his fellowmen, at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Air Force and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
*WILBANKS, HILLIARD A.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Air Force, 21st. Tactical Air Support Squadron, Nha Trang AFB, RVN. Place and date: Near Dalat, Republic of Vietnam, February 24th, 1967. Entered service at: Atlanta, Ga. Born: 26 July 1933, Cornelia, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. As a forward air controller Capt. Wilbanks was pilot of an unarmed, light aircraft flying visual reconnaissance ahead of a South Vietnam Army Ranger Battalion. His intensive search revealed a well-concealed and numerically superior hostile force poised to ambush the advancing rangers. The Viet Cong, realizing that Capt. Wilbanks’ discovery had compromised their position and ability to launch a surprise attack, immediately fired on the small aircraft with all available firepower. The enemy then began advancing against the exposed forward elements of the ranger force which were pinned down by devastating fire. Capt. Wilbanks recognized that close support aircraft could not arrive in time to enable the Rangers to withstand the advancing enemy, onslaught. With full knowledge of the limitations of his unarmed, unarmored, light reconnaissance aircraft, and the great danger imposed by the enemy’s vast firepower, he unhesitatingly assumed a covering, close support role. Flying through a hail of withering fire at treetop level, Capt. Wilbanks passed directly over the advancing enemy and inflicted many casualties by firing his rifle out of the side window of his aircraft. Despite increasingly intense antiaircraft fire, Capt. Wilbanks continued to completely disregard his own safety and made repeated low passes over the enemy to divert their fire away from the rangers. His daring tactics successfully interrupted the enemy advance, allowing the rangers to withdraw to safety from their perilous position. During his final courageous attack to protect the withdrawing forces, Capt. Wilbanks was mortally wounded and his bullet-riddled aircraft crashed between the opposing forces. Capt. Wilbanks’ magnificent action saved numerous friendly personnel from certain injury or death. His unparalleled concern for his fellow man and his extraordinary heroism were in the highest traditions of the military service, and have reflected great credit upon himself and the U.S. Air Force.
COOLEY, RAYMOND H.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 27th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Lumboy, Luzon, Philippine Islands, February 24th, 1945. Entered service at: Richard City, Tenn. Born: 7 May 1914, Dunlap, Tenn. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He was a platoon guide in an assault on a camouflaged entrenchment defended by machineguns, rifles, and mortars. When his men were pinned down by two enemy machineguns, he voluntarily advanced under heavy fire to within twenty yards of one of the guns and attacked it with a hand grenade. The enemy, however, threw the grenade back at him before it could explode. Arming a second grenade, he held it for several seconds of the safe period and then hurled it into the enemy position, where it exploded instantaneously, destroying the gun and crew. He then moved toward the remaining gun, throwing grenades into enemy foxholes as he advanced. Inspired by his actions, one squad of his platoon joined him. After he had armed another grenade and was preparing to throw it into the second machinegun position, six enemy soldiers rushed at him. Knowing he could not dispose of the armed grenade without injuring his comrades, because of the intermingling in close combat of the men of his platoon and the enemy in the melee which ensued, he deliberately covered the grenade with his body and was severely wounded as it exploded. By his heroic actions, S/Sgt. Cooley not only silenced a machinegun and so inspired his fellow soldiers that they pressed the attack and destroyed the remaining enemy emplacements, but also, in complete disregard of his own safety, accepted certain injury and possible loss of life to avoid wounding his comrades.
There are six Flag Raisers on the photo. Four in the front line and two in back.
The front four are (left to right) Ira Hayes, Franklin Sousley, John Bradley and Harlon Block.
The back two are Michael Strank (behind Sousley) and Rene Gagnon (behind Bradley).
Strank, Block and Sousley would die shortly afterwards. Bradley, Hayes and Gagnon became national heroes within weeks.
Oral History- Iwo Jima Flag Raising
Related Resource: Battle for Iwo Jima, 1945
Recollections of the flag raising on Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima by Pharmacist Mate Second Class John H. Bradley, USN, with the 5th Marine Division.
Adapted from John Bradley interview in box 3 of World War II Interviews, Operational Archives Branch, Naval Historical Center.
I was attached to the 5th Marine Division on Iwo Jima and I was a member of the 28th Marine Regiment who raised the American flag on the highest point on that island which is Mount Suribachi. The company that I was assigned to hit the beach, (we were in the 9th wave); we hit the beach approximately H-Hour plus 45, which would be 45 minutes after H-hour [H-Hour was scheduled for 9:00 a.m.; the first assault wave of armored tracked landing vehicles began landing at 8:59 a.m. on 19 Feb. 1945]. When we hit the beach I was a little bit too busy to do any sight seeing at the time because we had a lot of casualties around the beach. In our company we went right up in the front lines about 45 minutes after we bit the beach and we stayed there. The 28th Marines sector of that island was the southern tip of Iwo Jima which Mount Suribachi was on.
In the morning of D plus 4 [23 Feb.] we organized a patrol of approximately 40 men [from Company E]. And myself and another hospital corpsmen by the name of Zimik (?), Pharmacist’s Mate, 2/c [Second Class] were the [medical] corpsmen attached to that patrol. At that time we didn’t know if we were going to be able to plant the American flag on the top of Mount Suribach. but previous to that the Navy [warships] gave the mountain a terrific bombarding, assisted by the Navy, Army and Marine Corps fighter planes.
We started up the mountain immediately after the Naval barrage and plane strafing was over and we reached the top. And I might add that the reason we reached the top of Mount Suribachi without a single enemy shot being fired was because the Japs were still in their caves waiting for the bombardment to be lifted. When we reached the top we formed our battle line [the platoon moved from the column formation used to climb the mountain trail to one with the squads and fireteams on line] and we all went over the top [attacked] together and much to our surprise we didn’t find a Jap in sight. If one Jap had been up there manning one of his guns I think he could have pretty well taken care of our 40-man patrol.
Well, the minute we got up on top we set our line of fire [defensive perimeter firing positions] up, the Lieutenant in charge placed the machine guns where he wanted them, had our rifle men spotted [positioned] and immediately we sent patrols to the right and to the left [on the slopes]. We went up the mountain almost in the middle so consequently we sent patrols around to the right and left to take care of any Japs that might come out. When we got there I was with the group that swung to the left and immediately the Lieutenant sent a man around to look for a piece of staff [i.e., a flagpole] that we could put the American flag on. And the Japs had some old pipes that were laying around there, they used these pipes to run water down below the mountain. And we used this Jap pipe and we attached the American flag on there and we put it up. And Joe Rosenthal happened to be there at the right time. He came up a little while after we were on top and much to his surprise the picture that is now so famous….the Flag Raising on Mount Suribachi.
After the flag was raised we went back to work taking care of [i.e., killing] the Japs that were here and there and we found many of them in caves. In fact in one cave we counted 142 Japs. And the flame throwers did a fine job on top of the mountain. We tried to talk them out. They wouldn’t come out so then we used the flame throwers as a last resort. There were numerous caves all. around there and we didn’t have one single casualty on top of that mountain. [Flame throwers were first used in modern warfare by the Germans in World War I. The flame throwers used by the Marines in this action were carried by one Marine on his back and shot a stream of flaming fuel – standard gasoline or thickened “napalm” gasoline – from 20-40 yards against enemy caves/pillboxes to kill the enemy by burning, suffocation, or shock.]
Mount Suribachi was a [volcanic] mountain approximately 560 feet high and at the top it was a hollow…it was hollow on top, with about a 20, oh, I’d say a 20-foot ledge that you could walk all a-way around before this crater sank in. This crater was, oh, I’d say approximately 50 to 60 feet deep and it was down in this crater that the Japs were honeycombed in these caves. They had the caves dug in all the way around this crater. Suribachi was inactive at the time but we noticed smoke, sort of a vapor coming out of the ground up on this crater but it was purely inactive. The surface of that crater down below was warm but according to the north end that our regiment went on later, it was cold compared to that north end because that north end was really hot. In fact some of the boys received burns just from sleeping on the ground.
Bradley, in the picture which man are you?
I’m the one that’s second from the right as you’re looking at the picture. And right next to me there you can see a man’s helmet sticking up, that’s Pfc. [Private First Class Rene A.] Gagnon [USMC]. The man bending over nearest to the ground is [Corporal Harlon Henry Block] [USMC]. And the one in back of us with the rifle slung on his shoulder is Pfc. Ira Hayes [USMC]. He is also a survivor. And the one in back of Hayes, is Pfc. [Frank R.] Sousley [USMC] who was later killed in action on the north end [of the island]. And there’s two men that you can hardly see in the picture, they are from, the one on the right hand side is Pfc. Rene Gagnon who is a survivor of the flag raising. And the other one in back of Gagnon is Sergeant [Michael] Strank [USMC] who was killed later in action on the north end of Iwo Jima.
Was this your first invasion?
Yes it was, that was my first invasion with these Marines.
Did you go up the seaward side of Mount Suribachi or the other side?
We went facing the south….we went like I said before, it was in the middle of the mountain, it wasn’t on the seaward side, [but the] land side.
Some Naval officers that have been back said that the Naval ships let a great cheer or salute when they noticed the flag up. Could you hear anything of that demonstration or see anything of it?
Well, at that time we didn’t think of the significance of the flag raising but they’ve told me that they did and it seems to me that I can recall something of that. We men up on top of the mountain weren’t thinking of anything like that at the time. In fact we were all worried.
I understand this is the second flag raising that occurred there.
That’s right. The first flag was a smaller flag and it was put up by Platoon Sergeant [a Staff Noncommissioned Officer rank above that of sergeant] Ernest I. [“Boots”] Thomas of Tallahassee, Florida. He was the Platoon Sergeant in charge of the 40-man patrol [not factually correct – PlSgt Thomas was the senior enlisted man in the platoon and his duty was to assist the Platoon Commander, a commissioned officer]. He put up that flag about one half hour before this larger one was put up. It was so small that it couldn’t be seen from down below so our Battalion commander, Lieutenant Colonel Chandler W. Johnson [USMC] sent a four-man patrol up with this larger flag which is the flag you see on the poster for the 7th war Loan Drive.
None of these six men in the picture then actually carried the flag up?
No sir, the flag was carried by the Lieutenant in charge of the patrol. That was the first flag. And the second flag that want up was carried, in the patrol, there was Sergeant Strank who was in the second flag raising and whose picture is on it and Pfc. Hayes and Pfc. Sousley, They were in the group of the four men that the Battalion Commander sent up with the second flag.
Do you care to identify your Lieutenant in charge of your patrol?
The Lieutenant in charge of that 40-man patrol was First Lieutenant [Harold] Shrier [USMC]. He is one of Carlson’s Old Second Raiders [i.e., 1stLt Shrier was a former member the 2nd Raider Battalion, which was formed and commanded by LtCol Evans F. Carlson USMC from 1942-1943, when it was disbanded and the officers and men transferred to other Marine combat units] and he worked up from an enlisted man and he’s now a First Lieutenant. And he happened to be Executive Officer [second in command] of E Company, 2nd Battalion, 28th Marines.
Do you care to tell us how you got hurt later?
None of the boys got hurt or killed in action at time of the flag raising. All this took place when we received orders to go down to the north end [of the island, where the Marines were fighting to eliminate remaining Japanese-held pockets of resistance] and help them out with the fighting down there. My injury took place on March 12th which was the 22nd day of The operation. It was just about evening. I was getting things squared around my fox hole [a one or two-man fighting hole dug deep enough to protect the user from artillery fire and tanks and still permit him to stand within and fire his weapon over the top edge], getting my medical gear and personal gear arranged so that at night if we got the word to move out I’d know just where everything was and while I was arranging that–things were entirely quiet up to this time. While I was arranging this a Jap mortar shell lit [hit, or exploded] several feet from me and it caught four men and I happened to be one of them. I received wound fragments in both legs and one fragment hit my foot and it broke a bone in my foot. [Mortars are anti-personnel weapons designed to fire explosive or illumination shells at high angles over ranges up to 4,000 yards – the projectiles are fired at a high angle in order to clear obstacles between the mortar and the target, and projectiles plunge almost straight down into the target, thus hitting behind protective fortifications. Mortars were located in infantry company and battalion weapons platoons.]
I received very good medical care. Just as soon as I was hit the corpsmen were there to fix me up and the battalion surgeon sent his men up to evacuate me back to the battalion aid station, received supplementary treatment there and in a matter of three-quarters of an hour after I was hit I was back in the field hospital. The next morning I was put on a plane and flown to a rear area hospital which was at Guam. From Guam I was evacuated to Pearl Harbor. From Pearl Harbor to Oakland, California and then I received my orders to report to Washington, D.C. At this time I am a patient at the National Naval Medical Center at Bethesda, Maryland.
How long were you on top of Mount Suribachi?
We stayed there approximately three days, a little over three days and then we received our orders to go to the north end.
How long did the flag stay up?
The flag stayed up all the while. That flag was never taken down.
The first flag, measuring 54×28 inches, was obtained from attack transport USS Missoula (APA-211), and raised on a 20-foot section of pipe at 10:20 a.m. Several hours later, an 8-foot-long battle ensign, obtained from tank landing ship LST-779, was raised, resulting in Associated Press photographer Joe Rosenthal’s famous photograph of the flag raising. This photograph inspired the bronze monument to the Marine Corps by Felix de Welden located near Arlington National Cemetery.
For a detailed description of the struggle for Suribachi see: Garand, George W. and Truman R. Strobridge. Western Pacific Operations. vol.4 of History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II. Washington DC: Historical Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1971.
For the official US Navy history of the battle, including a description of the flag raising, see: Morison, Samuel Eliot. Victory in the Pacific, 1945. Vol.14 of History of United States Naval Operations in World War II.Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1961.
Psalm 37: 25-26
I have been young, and now am old; Yet I have not seen the righteous forsaken, Nor His descendants begging bread.
26 He is ever merciful, and lends; And His descendants are blessed.
“I am for doing good to the poor, but I differ in opinion of the means. I think the best way of doing good to the poor, is not making them easy in poverty, but leading or driving them out of it. In my youth I traveled much, and I observed in different countries, that the more public provisions were made for the poor, the less they provided for themselves, and of course became poorer. And, on the contrary, the less was done for them, the more they did for themselves, and became richer.”
–Benjamin Franklin, On the Price of Corn and Management of the Poor, 1766
“In all things, be willing to listen to people around you. None of us is really smart enough to go it alone.”
~ John Clendenin
1 : drunk enough to be emotionally silly
2 : weakly and effusively sentimental
155 AD – Polycarp, disciple of Apostle John, was arrested and burned at stake.
303 – Roman Emperor Diocletian orders the destruction of the Christian church in Nicomedia, beginning eight years of Diocletianic Persecution.
1455 – Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western book printed from movable type.
1540 – Spanish explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado began his unsuccessful search for the fabled Seven Cities of Gold in the American Southwest.
1778 – American Revolution: Baron von Steuben arrives at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania to help to train the Continental Army.
1792 – The Humane Society of Massachusetts was incorporated. It erected life-saving stations for distressed mariners.
1795 – U.S. Navy Office of Purveyor of Supplies is established. This is the Navy Supply Corps Birthday.
1821 – The Philadelphia College of Apothecaries established the first pharmacy college, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy.
1822 – Boston is incorporated as a city.
1822 – Congress authorized the Revenue Cutter Service to protect the natural environment by preventing “scoundrels” from cutting live oak on Florida public lands.
1836 – The Battle of the Alamo begins in San Antonio, Texas.
1837 – Congress called for an inspection of the coast from Chesapeake Bay to the Sabine River “with regard to the location of additional light-houses, beacons, and buoys.”
1839 – In Boston, MA, William F. Harnden organized the first express service between Boston and New York City. It was the first express service in the U.S.
1846 – The Liberty Bell tolled for the last time, to mark George Washington’s birthday. A hairline fracture had developed since 1817 and a failed attempt to repair it resulted in the crack.
1847 – Mexican-American War: Battle of Buena Vista – In Mexico, American troops under General Zachary Taylor defeat Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.
1848 – John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States (1825-1829), died of a stroke at age 80.
1861 – ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT: President-elect Abraham Lincoln arrives secretly in Washington, D.C., after an assassination attempt in Baltimore, Maryland. Allen Pinkerton, head of a private detective agency, had uncovered a plot to assassinate Lincoln when he passed through Baltimore on his way to the capital.
1861 – Texas became the 7th state to secede from the Union.
1865 – Fort White, guarding the entrance to Winyah Bay leading to Georgetown, S.C., was evacuated upon the approach of the naval squadron and was occupied by a detachment of Marines.
1886 – London Times publishes world’s first classified ad.
1870 – Military control of Mississippi ends and it is readmitted to the Union.
1883 – Alabama becomes the first U.S. state to enact an antitrust law.
1883 – American Anti-Vivisection Society was organized in Philadelphia. Organization works to end using animals in research.
1885 – John “Babbacombe” Lee survived three attempts to hang him in Exeter Prison, as the trap failed to open. His sentence was changed to life imprisonment.
1886 – Charles Martin Hall produced the first samples of man-made aluminum, after several years of intensive work. He was assisted in this project by his older sister Julia Brainerd Hall. Prior to this pure aluminum was so rare that it was considered a precious metal.
1893 – Rudolf Diesel received a German patent for the diesel engine.
1896 – Tootsie Roll introduced by Leo Hirshfield. He named the candy after a nickname of “Tootsie” for his five-year-old daughter, Clara. He was America’s first candy maker to individually wrap penny candy.
1898 – Émile Zola is imprisoned in France after writing “J’accuse”, a letter accusing the French government of anti-Semitism and wrongfully placing Captain Alfred Dreyfus in jail.
1900 – In the Philippines, Marine Captain Draper arranged with the gunboat USS Nashville, when it next came by on patrol, to shell the village of Benictican in retaliation for a raid on a Marine water party six days before that had killed two Marines.
1903 – Cuba leases Guantanamo Bay to the United States “in perpetuity”.
1904 – The United States gains control of the Panama Canal Zone for $10 million.
1905 – Chicago attorney Paul Harris and three other businessmen meet for lunch to form the Rotary Club, the world’s first service club. The name came from the practice of “rotating” the meetings from office to office.
1910 – In Philadelphia, PA, the first radio contest was held.
1915 – Nevada began enforcing convenient divorce law.
1915 – World War I: Germany sank US ships Carib & Evelyn and torpedoed the Norwegian ship Regin.
1916 – Secretary of State Lansing hinted that the U.S. might have to abandon the policy of avoiding “entangling foreign alliances”.
1916 – The McKinley gold dollar commemorative was issued to honor the President, who had been assassinated, and funds from the sale were used to build a memorial at his birthplace in Niles, Ohio.
1921 – First US transcontinental air mail flight arrives in New York.
1926 – President Calvin Coolidge opposed a large air force, believing it would be a menace to world peace.
1927 – The Federal Radio Commission (later renamed the Federal Communications Commission) begins to regulate the use of radio frequencies. It was established by President Calvin Coolidge.
1936 – First rocket air mail flight, Greenwood Lake NY. Two rocket airplanes flew across this lake, about 100 yards.
1937 – Bing Crosby sang with Lani McIntyre and his band as “Sweet Leilani” was recorded.
1940 – Walt Disney’s animated movie “Pinocchio” was released.
1940 – Woody Guthrie dated his song “This Land Is Your Land” to this day. His original title was “God Bless America.”
1941 – Plutonium was first produced and isolated by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg.
1942 – World War II: First attack by the Japanese on the U.S. mainland occurred near Santa Barbara, California. The Imperial Japanese Navy’s submarine I-17, under the command of Commander Nishino Kozo, surfaced and shelled the oil refinery nearby.
1944 – World War II: American aircraft raid Rota, Tinian and Saipan. The US forces are from Task Group 58.3 (Sherman) and Task Group 58.2 (Montgomery). The attack sinks 20,000 tons of Japanese shipping.
1945 – World War II: During the Battle of Iwo Jima, a group of United States Marines from the 3rd Platoon, E Company, 2nd Battalion,28th Regiment of the Fifth Marine Division and a commonly forgotten U.S. Navy Corpsman, reach the top of Mount Suribachi on the island and are photographed raising the American flag. The photo would later win a Pulitzer Prize.
1945 – World War II: A major new offensive by US First and Ninth Armies begins with heavy attacks along the Roer, especially in the Julich and Duren areas.
1945 – World War II: The capital of the Philippines, Manila, is liberated by American forces.
1945 – World War II: The 11th Airborne Division, with Filipino guerrillas, free the captives of the Los Baños internment camp.
1945 – World War II: The German town of Pforzheim is completely destroyed by a raid of 379 British bombers.
1945 – World War II: The Verona Philharmonic Theatre is bombed by Allied forces. It would later be re-opened in 1975.
1946 – Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita was hanged in Manila, the Philippines, for war crimes.
1947 – The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is founded.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dear Hearts and Gentle People” by Bing Crosby, “There’s No Tomorrow” by Tony Martin, “The Old Master Painter” by Snooky Lanson and “Chattanoogie Shoe Shine Boy” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1952 – “Slow Poke” by Pee Wee King topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: Air Force Major William T. Whisner, 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flying his F-86 Sabre “Elenore E,” destroyed his fifth MiG-15 to become the war’s seventh ace and his wing’s first.
1954 – The first mass inoculation of children against polio with the Salk vaccine began in Pittsburgh, PA.
1957 – “Too Much” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t/I Beg of You” by Elvis Presley, “Sail Along Silvery Moon/Raunchy” by Billy Vaughn, “Short Shorts” by The Royal Teens and “Ballad of a Teenage Queen” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1960 – Demolition begins on Brooklyn’s Ebbets Field (opened in 1913).
1960 – Whites joined Black students in a sit-in at a Winston-Salem, N.C. Woolworth store.
1963 – The 24th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. It prohibited poll taxes in federal elections.
1963 – The Chiffons recording of “He’s So Fine” was released.
1963 – “Hey Paula” by Paul & Paula topped the charts.
1965 – Constance Baker Motley elected Manhattan Borough president, the highest elective office held by a Black woman in a major American city.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lightnin’ Strikes” by Lou Christie, “These Boots are Made for Walkin’” by Nancy Sinatra, “My World is Empty Without You” by The Supremes and “Waitin’ in Your Welfare Line” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1967 – Jim Ryun set a record in the half-mile run when he ran it in 1:48.3.
1968 – Wilt Chamberlain becomes first NBA player to score 25,000 points.
1970 – Ringo Starr guest starred on “Laugh-In.” It was his first solo TV appearance.
1971 – Vietnam War: Lt. William Calley confessed and implicated Captain Ernest Medina in My Lai massacre. Lt. Calley was the only one to be court-martialed.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Way We Were” by Barbra Streisand, “Seasons in the Sun” by Terry Jacks, “Until You Come Back to Me (That’s What I’m Gonna Do)” by Aretha Franklin and “Another Lonely Song” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1974 – The Symbionese Liberation Army demands $4 million more to release kidnap victim Patty Hearst.
1974 – Columbia Records released Billy Joel’s “Piano Man.”
1975 – In response to the energy crisis, daylight saving time commences nearly two months early in the United States.
1979 – Frank E. Peterson Jr. was the first African-American Marine Corps aviator and the first African-American Marine Corps general. He retired in 1988.
1980 – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini states that Iran’s parliament would decide the fate of the American embassy hostages.
1980 – “Crazy Little Thing Called Love” by Queen topped the charts.
1983 – The United States Environmental Protection Agency announces its intent to buy out and evacuate the dioxin-contaminated community of Times Beach, Missouri.
1985 – US Senate confirmed Edwin Meese III as attorney general.
1985 – Legendary Indiana basketball coach Bobby Knight gets mad at the referees and throws a chair on the court before getting ejected in a game against Purdue.
1985 – The TV show “Gimme a Break” was broadcast live before a studio audience. It was the first TV sitcom to be seen live since the 1950s.
1987 – Supernova 1987a: A supernova is seen in the Large Magellanic Cloud. First “naked-eye” supernova sighting since 1604.
1988 – Chicago gives Cubs right to install lights & play up to 18 night games.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Opposites Attract” by Paula Abdul with The Wild Pair, “Two to Make It Right” by Seduction, “Escapade” by Janet Jackson and “On Second Thought” by Eddie Rabbitt all topped the charts.
1991 – Gulf War: Ground troops cross the Saudi Arabia border and enter Iraq, thus starting the ground-phase of the war. (because of the time difference, it was already the early morning of February 24th in the Persian Gulf).
1991 – “All the Man That I Need” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1993 – Little Richard received a Lifetime Achievement Grammy.
1994 – The ground breaking ceremony for the Hard Rock Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas occurred.
1995 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average gains 30.28 to close at 4,003.33, closing above 4,000 for the first time.
1996 – Former National Security Agency employee Robert Stephan Lipka was arrested and charged with espionage. This was 30 years after Lipka stopped working for NSA and 22 years after his last contact with the KGB.
1997 – TERRORIST ATTACK: Ali Hassan Abu Kamal, a Palestinian teacher, opened fire on the 86th-floor observation deck of New York City’s Empire State Building. He killed one person and wounded six more before killing himself.
1997 – A large fire occurs in the Russian Space station, Mir.
1997 – NBC TV shows “Schindler’s List”, completely uncensored, 65 million watch.
1997 – Scientists in Scotland announced they succeeded in cloning an adult mammal.
1997 – In Philadelphia a group of white men attacked a black family in the Grays Ferry section. Nine men were tried in 1998 and 6 were convicted on a variety of felony accounts.
1998 – The California State Supreme Court ruled that anybody can sue a corner store or gas station for selling cigarettes to minors.
1998 – Kissimmee Tornado Outbreak: Tornadoes in central Florida destroy or damage 2,600 structures and kill 42.
1998 – Osama bin Laden publishes a fatwa declaring jihad against all Jews and Crusaders. The Al Quds Al-Arabi newspaper published a statement that announced an alliance between Dr. Zawahri, head of the Egyptian Jihad, and Osama bin Laden. “We—with God’s help—call on every Muslim…to comply with God’s order to kill Americans.”
1999 – White supremacist John William King was found guilty of kidnapping and murdering James Byrd Jr. Byrd was dragged behind a truck for two miles on a country road in Texas.
2000 – At Pelican Bay State Prison in California guards shot and killed one prisoner and wounded 15 others as they quelled a prison yard riot between some 150 black and Latino inmates.
2004 – The US Army cancelled a $39 billion Comanche helicopter program after spending $6.9 billion. Boeing and Sikorsky were the main contractors.
2004 – US Education Secretary Rod Paige likened the National Education Association, the nation’s largest teachers union, to a “terrorist organization” during a private White House meeting with governors.
2005 – The New York, NY, city medical examiner’s office announced that it had exhausted all efforts to identify the remains of the people killed at the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, due to the limits of DNA technology. About 1,600 people had been identified leaving more than 1,100 unidentified.
2006 – A US federal judge ordered the Pentagon on to release the identities of hundreds of detainees at Guantanamo Bay to The Associated Press by March 3, a move which would force the government to break its secrecy and reveal the most comprehensive list yet of those who have been imprisoned there.
2006 – In New York City Michael Mastromarino, owner of Biomedical Tissue Services in New Jersey, was charged along with three others of selling body parts for use in transplants across the US.
2007 – Iraq War: Democratic Party members of the United States Senate are planning a challenge to the authority given to President Bush in 2002.
2007 – A Mississippi grand jury refused to bring any new charges in the 1955 slaying of Emmett Till, a black teenager who was beaten and shot after whistling at a white woman, declining to indict the woman, Carolyn Bryant Donham, for manslaughter.
2007 – Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport became the first in the United States to begin testing new X-ray screening technology that can see through people’s clothes.
2008 – A B-2 Spirit of the USAF crashes at Guam. The crew survived but the aircraft was written off, making it the most expensive air crash in human history (the aircraft alone cost $1.2B).
2009 – The FBI said it has rescued more than 45 suspected teenage prostitutes, some as young as 13, in a nationwide 3-night sweep, Operation Cross Country, to remove kids from the illegal sex trade and punish their accused pimps.
2009 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 250.89 (3.4%) to 7114.78, nearly half the peak it hit 16 months ago, and its lowest close in over 11 years.
2009 – Ford Motor Co. said it has reached a tentative deal with the United Auto Workers union on changes to retiree health care, becoming the first Detroit automaker to secure union concessions on the key issue.
2010 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Littleton, Colorado, gunman Bruco Strongeagle Eastwood (32) wounded two students at Deer Creek Middle School before math teacher David Benke (57) subdued him.
2011 – In Texas Khalid Ali-M Aldawasari (20), a native of Saudi Arabia and student at South Plains College, was arrested on a federal charge of attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction in connection with purchases of chemicals and equipment necessary to make an improvised explosive device. His potential targets included the home of George W. Bush in Dallas and at least 12 reservoir dams.
2011 – The Obama administration decided to stop defending a 1996 federal law banning marital benefits for same-sex couples.
2012 – Wikileaks suspect United States Army Private Bradley Manning is formally charged ahead of a court martial.
2013 – The US Air Force grounds its entire fleet of 51 $400 million F-35 jets due to a major engine technical issue. During a routine inspection of the aircraft, maintenance personnel detected a cracked engine blade.
2013 – Six tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation in Washington state are leaking radioactive waste, but the leak has not posed an immediate public health risk.
2013 – A violent Daytona wreck ‘injures multiple fans’. A huge multi-car wreck at the Daytona 500 saw one car ripped in half and debris tear through the safety fence into the crowd causing injuries to several spectators. Fourteen were treated at the Speedway, and another 14 transported to local hospital facilities.
2013 – Space tourist Dennis Tito founds “Inspiration Mars Foundation” and announces plans for a privately funded manned trip to Mars in 2018.
2014 – The family of professional bass angler Jimmy Johnson, who was killed October 13, 2013, by a robber in the parking lot of Motel 6 on I-55 in Jackson, has filed a lawsuit for inadequate security against the motel owners. (See October 13)
1680 – Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, French colonizer and Governor of Louisiana (d. 1767)
1685 – Georg Friedrich Handel, German/British Baroque composer (d. 1759)
1729 – Josiah Hornblower, American statesman and entrepreneur. He built the first stamping mill ( a stamping mill crushes ore to a finer product for further processing) and served as the representative to the Continental Congress from New Jersey in 1785 and 1786. He was also the son of Johnathan Hornblower, the steam power pioneer. (d. 1809)
1868 – W.E.B. DuBois, American civil rights leader (d. 1963)
1904 – William L. Shirer, American historian. His greatest achievement was his 1960 book, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, originally published by Simon & Schuster. (d. 1993)
1915 – Paul Tibbets, US Air Force retired Brigadier General and Pilot of B-29 “Enola Gay” over Hiroshima (d. 2007)
1940 – Peter Fonda, American actor. He is best known for the 1968 movie “Easy Rider” about two long-haired bikers traveling through the southwest and southern United States. It was an intolerant and violent world.
1943 – Fred Biletnikoff, American football player and coach. He spent the majority of his professional playing and coaching days with the Oakland Raiders. Biletnikoff retired as a pro football player after the 1980 season.
1951 – Ed “Too Tall” Jones, American football player in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys. His nickname came from his height 6’9”.
1951 – Patricia Richardson, American actress. She is best known for her role as Jill Taylor on Home Improvement.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company E, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division, (Rein), FMF. Place and date: West of Da Nang, Republic of Vietnam, February 23rd, 1969. Entered service at: Phoenix, Ariz. Born: 15 January 1948, Nacogdoches, Tex. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an assistant machine gunner with Company E, in connection with operations against enemy forces. During the early morning hours Pfc. Austin’s observation post was subjected to a fierce ground attack by a large North Vietnamese Army force supported by a heavy volume of hand grenades, satchel charges, and small arms fire. Observing that one of his wounded companions had fallen unconscious in a position dangerously exposed to the hostile fire, Pfc. Austin unhesitatingly left the relative security of his fighting hole and, with complete disregard for his safety, raced across the fire-swept terrain to assist the Marine to a covered location. As he neared the casualty, he observed an enemy grenade land nearby and, reacting instantly, leaped between the injured Marine and the lethal object, absorbing the effects of its detonation. As he ignored his painful injuries and turned to examine the wounded man, he saw a North Vietnamese Army soldier aiming a weapon at his unconscious companion. With full knowledge of the probable consequences and thinking only to protect the Marine, Pfc. Austin resolutely threw himself between the casualty and the hostile soldier, and, in doing, was mortally wounded. Pfc. Austin’s indomitable courage, inspiring initiative and selfless devotion to duty upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
*DAHL, LARRY G.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, 359th Transportation Company, 27th Transportation Battalion, U.S. Army Support Command. Place and date: An Khe, Binh Dinh Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 23rd, 1971. Entered service at: Portland, Oreg. Born: 6 October 1949, Oregon City, Oreg. Citation: Sp4c. Dahl distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity while serving as a machine gunner on a gun truck near An Khe, Binh Dinh Province. The gun truck in which Sp4c. Dahl was riding was sent with two other gun trucks to assist in the defense of a convoy that had been ambushed by an enemy force. The gun trucks entered the battle zone and engaged the attacking enemy troops with a heavy volume of machine gun fire, causing a large number of casualties. After a brief period of intense fighting the attack subsided. As the gun trucks were preparing to return to their normal escort duties, an enemy hand grenade was thrown into the truck in which Sp4c. Dahl was riding. Instantly realizing the great danger, Sp4c. Dahl called a warning to his companions and threw himself directly onto the grenade. Through his indomitable courage, complete disregard for his safety, and profound concern for his fellow soldiers, Sp4c. Dahl saved the lives of the other members of the truck crew while sacrificing his own. Sp4c. Dahl’s conspicuous gallantry, extraordinary heroism, and intrepidity at the cost of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on himself, his unit and the U.S. Army.
*HARTSOCK, ROBERT W.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, 44th Infantry Platoon, 3d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Hau Nghia, Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 23rd, 1969. Entered service at: Fairmont, W. Va. Born: 24 January 1945, Cumberland, Md. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. S/Sgt. Hartsock, distinguished himself in action while serving as section leader with the 44th Infantry Platoon. When the Dau Tieng Base Camp came under a heavy enemy rocket and mortar attack, S/Sgt. Hartsock and his platoon commander spotted an enemy sapper squad which had infiltrated the camp undetected. Realizing the enemy squad was heading for the brigade tactical operations center and nearby prisoner compound, they concealed themselves and, although heavily outnumbered, awaited the approach of the hostile soldiers. When the enemy was almost upon them, S/Sgt. Hartsock and his platoon commander opened fire on the squad. As a wounded enemy soldier fell, he managed to detonate a satchel charge he was carrying. S/Sgt. Hartsock, with complete disregard for his life, threw himself on the charge and was gravely wounded. In spite of his wounds, S/Sgt. Hartsock crawled about five meters to a ditch and provided heavy suppressive fire, completely pinning down the enemy and allowing his commander to seek shelter. S/Sgt. Hartsock continued his deadly stream of fire until he succumbed to his wounds. S/Sgt. Hartsock’s extraordinary heroism and profound concern for the lives of his fellow soldiers were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the U.S.
*WEBER, LESTER W.
Rank and organization: Lance Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, Company M, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Quang Nam Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 23rd, 1969. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 30 July 1948, Aurora, Ill. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a machinegun squad leader with Company M, in action against the enemy. The 2d Platoon of Company M was dispatched to the Bo Ban area of Hieu Duc District to assist a squad from another platoon which had become heavily engaged with a well entrenched enemy battalion. While moving through a rice paddy covered with tall grass L/Cpl. Weber’s platoon came under heavy attack from concealed hostile soldiers. He reacted by plunging into the tall grass, successfully attacking one enemy and forcing eleven others to break contact. Upon encountering a second North Vietnamese Army soldier he overwhelmed him in fierce hand-to-hand combat. Observing two other soldiers firing upon his comrades from behind a dike, L/Cpl. Weber ignored the frenzied firing of the enemy and racing across the hazardous area, dived into their position. He neutralized the position by wrestling weapons from the hands of the two soldiers and overcoming them. Although by now the target for concentrated fire from hostile riflemen, L/Cpl. Weber remained in a dangerously exposed position to shout words of encouragement to his emboldened companions. As he moved forward to attack a fifth enemy soldier, he was mortally wounded. L/Cpl. Weber’s indomitable courage, aggressive fighting spirit and unwavering devotion to duty upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
*GRABIARZ, WILLIAM J.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army. Troop E, 5th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Manila, Luzon, Philippine Islands, February 23rd, 1945. Entered service at: Buffalo, N.Y. Birth: Buffalo, N.Y. G.O. No.: 115, 8 December 1945. Citation: He was a scout when the unit advanced with tanks along a street in Manila, Luzon, Philippine Islands. Without warning, enemy machinegun and rifle fire from concealed positions in the Customs building swept the street, striking down the troop commander and driving his men to cover. As the officer lay in the open road, unable to move and completely exposed to the pointblank enemy fire, Pfc. Grabiarz voluntarily ran from behind a tank to carry him to safety, but was himself wounded in the shoulder. Ignoring both the pain in his injured useless arm and his comrades’ shouts to seek the cover which was only a few yards distant, the valiant rescuer continued his efforts to drag his commander out of range. Finding this impossible, he rejected the opportunity to save himself and deliberately covered the officer with his own body to form a human shield, calling as he did so for a tank to maneuver into position between him and the hostile emplacement. The enemy riddled him with concentrated fire before the tank could interpose itself. Our troops found that he had been successful in preventing bullets from striking his leader, who survived. Through his magnificent sacrifice in gallantly giving his life to save that of his commander, Pfc. Grabiarz provided an outstanding and lasting inspiration to his fellow soldiers.
WILLIAMS, HERSHEL WOODROW
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, 21st Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, February 23rd, 1945. Entered service at: West Virginia. Born: 2 October 1923, Quiet Dell, W. Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as demolition sergeant serving with the 21st Marines, 3d Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 23 February 1945. Quick to volunteer his services when our tanks were maneuvering vainly to open a lane for the infantry through the network of reinforced concrete pillboxes, buried mines, and black volcanic sands, Cpl. Williams daringly went forward alone to attempt the reduction of devastating machinegun fire from the unyielding positions. Covered only by four riflemen, he fought desperately for four hours under terrific enemy small-arms fire and repeatedly returned to his own lines to prepare demolition charges and obtain serviced flamethrowers, struggling back, frequently to the rear of hostile emplacements, to wipe out one position after another. On one occasion, he daringly mounted a pillbox to insert the nozzle of his flamethrower through the air vent, killing the occupants and silencing the gun; on another he grimly charged enemy riflemen who attempted to stop him with bayonets and destroyed them with a burst of flame from his weapon. His unyielding determination and extraordinary heroism in the face of ruthless enemy resistance were directly instrumental in neutralizing one of the most fanatically defended Japanese strong points encountered by his regiment and aided vitally in enabling his company to reach its objective. Cpl. Williams’ aggressive fighting spirit and valiant devotion to duty throughout this fiercely contested action sustain and enhance the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
George Washington was commander in chief of the Continental army during the American Revolution and first president of the United States (1789-97).
Early Life and Career.
Born in Westmoreland County, Va., on Feb. 22, 1732, George Washington was the eldest son of Augustine Washington and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington, who were prosperous Virginia gentry of English descent. George spent his early years on the family estate on Pope’s Creek along the Potomac River. His early education included the study of such subjects as mathematics, surveying, the classics, and “rules of civility.” His father died in 1743, and soon thereafter George went to live with his half brother Lawrence at Mount Vernon, Lawrence’s plantation on the Potomac. Lawrence, who became something of a substitute father for his brother, had married into the Fairfax family, prominent and influential Virginians who helped launch George’s career. An early ambition to go to sea had been effectively discouraged by George’s mother; instead, he turned to surveying, securing (1748) an appointment to survey Lord Fairfax’s lands in the Shenandoah Valley. He helped lay out the Virginia town of Belhaven (now Alexandria) in 1749 and was appointed surveyor for Culpeper County. George accompanied his brother to Barbados in an effort to cure Lawrence of tuberculosis, but Lawrence died in 1752, soon after the brothers returned. George ultimately inherited the Mount Vernon estate.
By 1753 the growing rivalry between the British and French over control of the Ohio Valley, soon to erupt into the French and Indian War (1754-63), created new opportunities for the ambitious young Washington. He first gained public notice when, as adjutant of one of Virginia’s four military districts, he was dispatched (October 1753) by Gov. Robert Dinwiddie on a fruitless mission to warn the French commander at Fort Le Boeuf against further encroachment on territory claimed by Britain. Washington’s diary account of the dangers and difficulties of his journey, published at Williamsburg on his return, may have helped win him his ensuing promotion to lieutenant colonel. Although only 22 years of age and lacking experience, he learned quickly, meeting the problems of recruitment, supply, and desertions with a combination of brashness and native ability that earned him the respect of his superiors.
French and Indian War.
In April 1754, on his way to establish a post at the Forks of the Ohio (the current site of Pittsburgh), Washington learned that the French had already erected a fort there. Warned that the French were advancing, he quickly threw up fortifications at Great Meadows, Pa., aptly naming the entrenchment Fort Necessity, and marched to intercept advancing French troops. In the resulting skirmish the French commander the sieur de Jumonville was killed and most of his men were captured. Washington pulled his small force back into Fort Necessity where he was overwhelmed (July 3) by the French in an all-day battle fought in a drenching rain. Surrounded by enemy troops, with his food supply almost exhausted and his dampened ammunition useless, Washington capitulated. Under the terms of the surrender signed that day, he was permitted to march his troops back to Williamsburg.
Discouraged by his defeat and angered by discrimination between British and colonial officers in rank and pay, he resigned his commission near the end of 1754. The next year, however, he volunteered to join British general Edward Braddock’s expedition against the French. When Braddock was ambushed by the French and their Indian allies on the Monongahela River, Washington, although seriously ill, tried to rally the Virginia troops. Whatever public criticism attended the debacle, Washington’s own military reputation was enhanced, and in 1755, at the age of 23, he was promoted to colonel and appointed commander in chief of the Virginia militia, with responsibility for defending the frontier. In 1758 he took an active part in Gen. John Forbes’s successful campaign against Fort Duquesne. From his correspondence during these years, Washington can be seen evolving from a brash, vain, and opinionated young officer, impatient with restraints and given to writing admonitory letters to his superiors, to a mature soldier with a grasp of administration and a firm understanding of how to deal effectively with civil authority.
Feeling that the Virginia frontier was safe from French attack, Washington left the army in 1758 and returned to Mount Vernon, directing his attention toward restoring his neglected estate. He erected new buildings, refurnished the house, and experimented with new crops. With the support of an ever-growing circle of influential friends, he entered politics, serving (1759-74) in Virginia’s House of Burgesses. In January 1759 he married Martha Dandridge Custis, a wealthy and attractive young widow with two small children. It was to be a happy and satisfying marriage. After 1769, Washington became a leader in Virginia’s opposition to Great Britain’s colonial policies. At first he hoped for reconciliation with Britain, although some British policies had touched him personally. Discrimination against colonial military officers had rankled deeply, and British land policies and restrictions on western expansion after 1763 had seriously hindered his plans for western land speculation. In addition, he shared the usual planter’s dilemma in being continually in debt to his London agents. As a delegate (1774-75) to the First and Second Continental Congress, Washington did not participate actively in the deliberations, but his presence was undoubtedly a stabilizing influence. In June 1775 he was Congress’s unanimous choice as commander in chief of the Continental forces.
Washington took command of the troops surrounding British-occupied Boston on July 3, devoting the next few months to training the undisciplined 14,000-man army and trying to secure urgently needed powder and other supplies. Early in March 1776, using cannon brought down from Ticonderoga by Henry Knox, Washington occupied Dorchester Heights, effectively commanding the city and forcing the British to evacuate on March 17. He then moved to defend New York City against the combined land and sea forces of Sir William Howe. In New York he committed a military blunder by occupying an untenable position in Brooklyn, although he saved his army by skillfully retreating from Manhattan into Westchester County and through New Jersey into Pennsylvania. In the last months of 1776, desperately short of men and supplies, Washington almost despaired. He had lost New York City to the British; enlistment was almost up for a number of the troops, and others were deserting in droves; civilian morale was falling rapidly; and Congress, faced with the possibility of a British attack on Philadelphia, had withdrawn from the city.
Colonial morale was briefly revived by the capture of Trenton, N.J., a brilliantly conceived attack in which Washington crossed the Delaware River on Christmas night 1776 and surprised the predominantly Hessian garrison. Advancing to Princeton, N.J., he routed the British there on Jan. 3, 1777, but in September and October 1777 he suffered serious reverses in Pennsylvania–at Brandywine and Germantown. The major success of that year–the defeat (October 1777) of the British at Saratoga, N.Y.–had belonged not to Washington but to Benedict Arnold and Horatio Gates. The contrast between Washington’s record and Gates’s brilliant victory was one factor that led to the so-called Conway Cabal–an intrigue by some members of Congress and army officers to replace Washington with a more successful commander, probably Gates. Washington acted quickly, and the plan eventually collapsed due to lack of public support as well as to Washington’s overall superiority to his rivals. After holding his bedraggled and dispirited army together during the difficult winter at Valley Forge, Washington learned that France had recognized American independence. With the aid of the Prussian Baron von Steuben and the French marquis de LaFayette, he concentrated on turning the army into a viable fighting force, and by spring he was ready to take the field again. In June 1778 he attacked the British near Monmouth Courthouse, N.J., on their withdrawal from Philadelphia to New York. Although American general Charles Lee’s lack of enterprise ruined Washington’s plan to strike a major blow at Sir Henry Clinton’s army at Monmouth, the commander in chief’s quick action on the field prevented an American defeat.
In 1780 the main theater of the war shifted to the south. Although the campaigns in Virginia and the Carolinas were conducted by other generals, including Nathanael Greene and Daniel Morgan, Washington was still responsible for the overall direction of the war. After the arrival of the French army in 1780 he concentrated on coordinating allied efforts and in 1781 launched, in cooperation with the comte de Rochambeau and the comte d’Estaing, the brilliantly planned and executed Yorktown Campaign against Charles Cornwallis, securing (Oct. 19, 1781) the American victory.
Washington had grown enormously in stature during the war. A man of unquestioned integrity, he began by accepting the advice of more experienced officers such as Gates and Charles Lee, but he quickly learned to trust his own judgment. He sometimes railed at Congress for its failure to supply troops and for the bungling fiscal measures that frustrated his efforts to secure adequate materiel. Gradually, however, he developed what was perhaps his greatest strength in a society suspicious of the military–his ability to deal effectively with civil authority. Whatever his private opinions, his relations with Congress and with the state governments were exemplary–despite the fact that his wartime powers sometimes amounted to dictatorial authority. On the battlefield Washington relied on a policy of trial and error, eventually becoming a master of improvisation. Often accused of being overly cautious, he could be bold when success seemed possible. He learned to use the short-term militia skillfully and to combine green troops with veterans to produce an efficient fighting force.
After the war Washington returned to Mount Vernon, which had declined in his absence. Although he became president of the Society of the Cincinnati, an organization of former Revolutionary War officers, he avoided involvement in Virginia politics. Preferring to concentrate on restoring Mount Vernon, he added a greenhouse, a mill, an icehouse, and new land to the estate. He experimented with crop rotation, bred hunting dogs and horses, investigated the development of Potomac River navigation, undertook various commercial ventures, and traveled (1784) west to examine his land holdings near the Ohio River. His diary notes a steady stream of visitors, native and foreign; Mount Vernon, like its owner, had already become a national institution.
In May 1787, Washington headed the Virginia delegation to the Constitutional Convension in Philadelphia and was unanimously elected presiding officer. His presence lent prestige to the proceedings, and although he made few direct contributions, he generally supported the advocates of a strong central government. After the new Constitution was submitted to the states for ratification and became legally operative, he was unanimously elected president (1789).
Taking office (Apr. 30, 1789) in New York City, Washington acted carefully and deliberately, aware of the need to build an executive structure that could accommodate future presidents. Hoping to prevent sectionalism from dividing the new nation, he toured the New England states (1789) and the South (1791). An able administrator, he nevertheless failed to heal the widening breach between factions led by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. Because he supported many of Hamilton’s controversial fiscal policies–the assumption of state debts, the Bank of the United States, and the excise tax–Washington became the target of attacks by Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans.
Washington was reelected president in 1792, and the following year the most divisive crisis arising out of the personal and political conflicts within his cabinet occurred–over the issue of American neutrality during the war between England and France. Washington, whose policy of neutrality angered the pro-French Jeffersonians, was horrified by the excesses of the French Revolution and enraged by the tactics of Edmond Genet, the French minister in the United States, which amounted to foreign interference in American politics. Further, with an eye toward developing closer commercial ties with the British, the president agreed with the Hamiltonians on the need for peace with Great Britain. His acceptance of the 1794 Jay’s Treaty, which settled outstanding differences between the United States and Britain but which Democratic-Republicans viewed as an abject surrender to British demands, revived vituperation against the president, as did his vigorous upholding of the excise law during the WHISKEY REBELLION in western Pennsylvania.
Retirement and Assessment
By March 1797, when Washington left office, the country’s financial system was well established; the Indian threat east of the Mississippi had been largely eliminated; and Jay’s Treaty and Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) with Spain had enlarged U.S. territory and removed serious diplomatic difficulties. In spite of the animosities and conflicting opinions between Democratic-Republicans and members of the Hamiltonian Federalist party, the two groups were at least united in acceptance of the new federal government. Washington refused to run for a third term and, after a masterly Farewell Address in which he warned the United States against permanent alliances abroad, he went home to Mount Vernon. He was succeeded by his vice-president, Federalist John Adams.
Although Washington reluctantly accepted command of the army in 1798 when war with France seemed imminent, he did not assume an active role. He preferred to spend his last years in happy retirement at Mount Vernon. In mid-December, Washington contracted what was probably quinsy or acute laryngitis; he declined rapidly and died at his estate on Dec. 14, 1799.
Even during his lifetime, Washington loomed large in the national imagination. His role as a symbol of American virtue was enhanced after his death by Mason L. Weems, in an edition of whose Life and Memorable Actions of George Washington (c.1800) first appeared such legends as the story about the cherry tree. Later biographers of note included Washington Irving (5 vols., 1855-59) and Woodrow Wilson (1896). Washington’s own works have been published in various editions, including The Diaries of George Washington, edited by Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig (6 vols., 1976-79), and The Writings of George Washington, 1745-1799, edited by John C. Fitzpatrick (39 vols., 1931-44).
Psalm 37: 232-24
The steps of a good man are ordered by the Lord, And He delights in his way.
24 Though he fall, he shall not be utterly cast down; For the Lord upholds him with His hand.
“A democracy cannot exist as a permanent form of government. It can only exist until the voters discover that they can vote themselves largesse from the public treasury. From that moment on, the majority always votes for the candidates prom
ising the most benefits from the public treasury with the result that a democracy always collapses over loose fiscal policy, always followed by a dictatorship. The average age of the world’s greatest civilizations has been 200 years.”
Alexis de Tocqueville
“Skill in the art of communication is crucial to a leader’s success. He can accomplish nothing unless he can communicate effectively.”
~ Norman Allen
pignus (PIG-nuhs) noun, plural pignora
1. A pledge.
2. Something held as security for a debt.[From Latin pignus (pledge).]
1295 BC – The coronation of Ramses II, on whose face the sun’s rays fall each year in Abu Simbel temple.
1630 – Popcorn was introduced to English colonists by Quadequine, brother of Massasoit.
1632 – Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published. It was a 1632 book by Galileo, comparing the Copernican system, and the traditional Ptolemaic system. In the Copernican system, the Earth and other planets orbit the Sun, while in the Ptolemaic system everything in the Universe circles around the Earth. The Dialogue was published in Florence under a formal license from the Inquisition. In 1633, Galileo was convicted of “grave suspicion of heresy” based on the book, which was then placed on the Index of Forbidden Books, from which it was not removed until 1835 (after the theories it discussed had been permitted in print in 1822). In an action that was not announced at the time, the publication of anything else he had written or ever might write was also banned.
1656 – New Amsterdam (New York) was granted a Jewish burial site.
1732 – George Washington, was born at his parents’ plantation at Bridges Creek in the Virginia Colony.
1784 – “Empress of China”, a U.S. merchant ship, left New York City for the Far East.
1786 – John Adams meets with the ambassador of Tripoli in order to negotiate a settlement to end piracy on American shipping in the Mediterranean Sea and off the coasts of Portugal and Spain (Barbary Pirates). The negotiations fail.
1819 – By the Adams-Onís Treaty, Spain sells Florida to the United States for five million U.S. dollars.
1847 – Mexican-American War: The Battle of Buena Vista – Mexican General Santa Anna surrounds the outnumbered forces of U.S. General Zachary Taylor at the Angostura Pass in Mexico and demands an immediate surrender. Taylor refused, allegedly replying, “Tell him to go to hell.” Five thousand American troops drive off 15,000 Mexicans.
1853 – The Washington University is founded in St. Louis as Eliot Seminary.
1855 – The Pennsylvania State University is founded. It was started as the Farmers’ High School of Pennsylvania
1855 – The U.S. Congress voted to appropriate $200,000 for continuance of the work on the Washington Monument. The next morning the resolution was tabled and it would be 21 years before the Congress would vote on funds again. Work was continued by the Know-Nothing Party in charge of the project.
1856 – The Republican Party opens its first national meeting in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
1860 – Organized baseball’s first game was played in San Francisco, CA.
1861 – Civil War: Jefferson Davis was sworn in as the permanent president of the Confederate States of America on Washington’s birthday.
1862 – Civil War: Union naval vessels entered Savannah River through Wall’s Cut, isolating Fort Pulaski.
1862 – Civil War: Jefferson Davis is officially inaugurated for a six-year term as the President of the Confederate States of America in Richmond, Virginia.
1865 –Civil War: Rear Admiral Porter’s gunboats’ bombardment cause surrender of Wilmington, NC.
1865 – Tennessee adopts a new constitution that abolishes slavery.
1872 – The Prohibition Party holds its first national convention in Columbus, Ohio, nominating James Black as its presidential nominee. It is a political party in the United States best known for its historic opposition to the sale or consumption of alcoholic beverages. It is the oldest existing third party in the US. It still exists but only garnered 519 votes in 2012.
1876 – Johns Hopkins University is founded in Baltimore, Maryland.
1879 – In Utica, New York, Frank Woolworth opens the first of many of 5 and 10-cent Woolworth stores. The original name was “Woolworth’s Great Five Cent Store”. This store soon failed. Frank opened his first successful “Woolworth’s Great Five Cent
Store” on July 18, 1879, in Lancaster, PA. The chain went out of business in July 1997.
1881 – President Hayes, whose wife is nicknamed Lemonade Lucy because she serves no alcohol in the White house, declares that no alcoholic beverages are to be sold on military posts.
1886 – “The Times” newspaper published a classified personal column, the first newspaper to do so.
1888 – John Reid of Scotland demonstrated golf to Americans at Yonkers, NY. Reid converted his lawn to six hole for golf in Yonkers N.Y., the first golf course in the US.
1889 – President Grover Cleveland signs a bill admitting North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and Washington as U.S. states.
1898 – A black postmaster was lynched and his wife and 3 daughters were shot in Lake City, SC.
1900 – Hawaii became a US territory.
1901 – The steamer Rio de Janeiro piled up on rocks at Fort Point at the bay entrance of San Francisco and some 130 people died. 80 people were rescued, mostly by Italian fishing boats and many of the dead were Chinese immigrants.
1902 – A fistfight broke out in the Senate. Senator Benjamin Tillman suffered a bloody nose for accusing Senator John McLaurin of bias on the Philippine tariff issue.
1903 – Due to drought the US side of Niagara Falls, the river ran short of water.
1907 – It was reported that workers at the refugee camp in San Francisco’s Ingleside district had agreed the comply with a directive by commander C.M. Wallenberg to work one day per week for the betterment of the camp or miss their allotment of free tobacco.
1909 – The sixteen battleships, the Great White Fleet returned to Norfolk, Va., from an around-the-world show of naval power. It was the first US fleet to circle the globe.
1915 – World War I : Germany institutes unrestricted submarine warfare.
1916 – Ernst Alexanderson was issued a patent for a selective radio tuning system.
1918 – World War I: Caused by hysterical fears of treacherous German spies and domestic labor violence, the Montana legislature passes a Sedition Law that severely restricts freedom of speech and assembly.
1920 – In Emeryville, California, the first dog race track to employ an imitation rabbit opens.
1922 – Congress authorizes Grant Memorial $1 gold coin.
1922 – WOR-AM in New York City NY begins radio transmissions.
1923 – The United States begins the first transcontinental air mail route. In order to keep the pilots on track, the federal government built a series of concrete arrows 50 to 70 feet long from coast to coast.
1923 – First successful chinchilla farm in US in Los Angeles CA.
1924 – Calvin Coolidge becomes the first President of the United States to deliver a radio broadcast from the White House.
1931 – Maurice Chevalier recorded “Walkin’ My Baby Back Home” for Victor Records in New York City.
1932 -Purple Heart award re-instituted.
1932 – Adolf Hitler was the Nazi Party candidate for the presidential elections in Germany. The election of Hitler was supposed to mark the beginning of the Thousand-Year Reich.
1933 – Nazi Herman Goring formed SA/SS-police.
1934 – “It Happened One Night” opens at New York’s Radio City Music Hall. It was directed by Frank Capra and the leading man role was surprisingly filled by Clark Gable who was on loan from another studio. He starred opposite of Claudette Colbert. Full Movie
1935 – All plane flights over the White House were barred because they disturbed President Roosevelt’s sleep.
1942 – World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders General Douglas MacArthur out of the Philippines as American defense collapses.
1943 – The battleship USS Iowa, the first in the Navy’s 45,000 ton class, was commissioned. The ship carried Pres. Roosevelt to Tehran in Nov. and was decommissioned in 1990.
1943 – World War II: The Coast Guard Cutter USS Campbell, rammed the U-606 in the North Atlantic after the U-boat was forced to surface after having been attacked by the Polish destroyer Burza.
1943 – World War II: Members of White Rose are executed in Nazi Germany. White Rose (German: die Weiße Rose) was a World War II non-violent resistance group in Germany famous for a leaflet campaign in which they called for active opposition to the Nazi regime.
1944 – World War II: In the Marianas, Japanese bombers and torpedo planes attack the ships of US Task Force 58.
1944 – World War II: General Truscott takes full command of VI Corps at Anzio, replacing General Lucas.
1944 – World War II: US forces land on Parry Island, in the Eniwetok Atoll. There is heavy Japanese resistance.
1945 – World War II: US 5th Army makes some gains in mountain fighting high up in the Reno Valley.
1945 – World War II: The US 20th Corps (part of US 3rd Army) achieves most of its objectives in the area between the Saar and Moselle rivers.
1945 – World War II: The naval gun and air bombardment (by US Task Forces 52, 54 and 58) continues. Elements of the US 5th Amphibious Corps continue to make slow progress toward Mount Suribachi to the south and the airfield to the north (most of which has now been captured). There are Japanese counterattacks and infiltration attempts during the night.
1945 – World War II: German Ju88 bombers sink the SS Henry Bacon. This is the last Allied merchant ship to be sunk by German aircraft during the war.
1946 – Dr. Selman Abraham Waksman announced his discovery of streptomycin, an antibiotic.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Powder Your Face with Sunshine” by Evelyn Knight, “Far Away Places” by Margaret Whiting, “A Little Bird Told Me” by Evelyn Knight and “I Love You So Much It Hurts” by Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1949 – Grady the Cow, a 1,200-pound cow gets stuck inside a silo on a farm in Yukon, Oklahoma and garners national media attention. The story goes that Grady The Cow gave birth to a stillborn calf. When the doctor removed the calf, Grady was not happy. She broke away from her attending physician and jumped into a nearby silo.
1951 – The Atomic Energy Commission disclosed information about the first atom-powered airplane.
1953 – General Mark Clark, commander in chief U.N. Command, proposed an exchange of sick and wounded prisoners. The North Koreans charged the United Nations with germ warfare.
1954 – Radio’s “Breakfast Club” simulcast on TV.|
1955 – In Operation Teapot’s second detonation, codenamed Moth, the total device weight was 445 lb (the lightest complete fission device yet fired).
1956 – Elvis Presley enters the music charts for the first time, with “Heartbreak Hotel“.
1956 – In Montgomery, Alabama, 80 participants in the three month old bus boycott voluntarily gave themselves up for arrest after an ultimatum from white city leaders. Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks were among those arrested.
1958 – Roy Hamilton’s record, “Don’t Let Go” was the first stereo record to chart. Hamilton rose to fame in the mid-1950’s with big ballad hits like “You’ll Never Walk Alone,” “Hurt,” and the seminal version of “Unchained Melody.”
1958 – Egypt and Syria join to form the United Arab Republic.
1958 – “Don’t/I Beg of You” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1959 – Lee Petty wins the first Daytona 500. His winning speed was 135.521 MPH.
1960 – “Theme From A Summer Place” by Percy Faith topped the charts
1962 – Wilt Chamberlain sets NBA record with 34 free throw attempts.
1964 – “I Saw Her Standing There” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “This Diamond Ring” by Gary Lewis & The Playboys, “My Girl” by The Temptations, “The Jolly Green Giant” by The Kingsmen and “I’ve Got a Tiger by the Tail” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 – Vietnam: General William Westmoreland, commander of Military Assistance Command Vietnam, cables Washington, D.C., to request that two battalions of U.S. Marines be sent to protect the U.S. airbase at Da Nang.
1967 – National Football League standardizes sling-shot goal post & 6′ wide border around field.
1969 – Barbara Jo Rubi wins a United States thoroughbred horse race making history as the first woman to do so.
1969 – The last time all four Beatles were together for a recording session.
1969 – “Everyday People” by Sly & the Family Stone topped the charts.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Crocodile Rock” by Elton John, “Oh, Babe, What Would You Say?” by Hurricane Smith, “Dueling Banjos” by Eric Weissberg & Steve Mandell and “I Wonder if They Ever Think of Me” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1973 – After President Richard Nixon’s visit to the People’s Republic of China, the two countries agree to establish liaison offices.
1974 – ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT: Samuel Byck tries and fails to assassinate President Richard Nixon. He was an unemployed former tire salesman who attempted to hijack a plane flying out of Baltimore-Washington International Airport. He intended to crash into the White House in hopes of killing the President. Byck committed suicide by shooting himself in the head during the hijacking attempt.
1974 – LtJG Barbara Ann Allen becomes first Navy designated female aviator.
1978 – US Dept. of Defense launched the first of the satellites that later made the backbone of the Global Positioning System (GPS).
1982 – Alan C. Nelson (1933-1997) became US Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization (INS) and served to 1989. In 1994 he co-authored California’s Proposition 187, an initiative to deny health and education benefits to illegal immigrants.
1983 – The notorious Broadway flop “Moose Murders” opens and closes on the same night at the Eugene O’Neill Theatre.
1984 – The U.S. Census Bureau statistics showed that the State of Alaska was the fastest growing state of the decade with an increase in population of 19.2 percent.
1984 – A 12-year-old Houston boy known publicly only as “David,” died fifteen days after being removed from the bubble for a bone-marrow transplant. He had spent most his life in a plastic bubble because he had no immunity to disease.
1986 – “How Will I Know” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1991 – The US invaded Kuwait in the Gulf War Desert Storm and quickly chased out the Iraqi forces.
1992 – President Bush renewed his attack on a Democratic tax plan, saying in a radio address that congressional Democrats were choosing “politics over duty.”
1992 – At the Winter Olympics in Albertville, France, American speedskater Cathy Turner won the women’s 500-meter race.
1994 – Aldrich Ames and his wife are charged by the United States Department of Justice with spying for the Soviet Union.
1995 – France accused four American diplomats and a fifth U.S. citizen of spying, and asked them to leave the country.
1995 – The Corona reconnaissance satellite program, in existence from 1959 to 1972, is declassified. The Corona satellites were used for photographic surveillance of the Soviet Union (USSR), the People’s Republic of China, and other areas.
1996 – The space shuttle “Columbia” blasted into orbit on a mission to unreel a satellite on the end of a 12.8-mile cord.
1997 – “Wannabe” by Spice Girls topped the charts.
1998 – The revival of “King & I,” closed at Neil Simon Theater in New York City after 781 performances.
1998 – In Peoria, Ill., United Auto Workers rejected a new contract with Caterpillar Inc. The dispute was into its sixth year.
1999 – In New York City, Mayor Giuliani put into effect a plan that allowed police to seize the vehicles of drunken drivers.
1999 – Levi Strauss, falling victim to a fashion generation gap, announced that it would close 11 of 22 US plants and lay off 5,900 factory workers.
1999 – The Pinkerton Security was sold to the Swedish company Securitas AB for $384 million.
2000 – The space shuttle Endeavour and its crew of 6 returned to Cape Canaveral with over a week’s worth of radar images to map Earth.
2000 – In Jordan a 15-year-old boy, acting under Sharia Law, strangled his sister (14) in a “crime of honor” because he considered her to have shamed his family. An autopsy revealed that the girl was a virgin.
2002 – The California state Supreme Court struck down the “Son of Sam” law that required felons to turn over profits from books and movies to their victims.
2002 – A New Jersey teenager (16) was arrested for killing 6 people in a 2-day shooting spree on the outskirts of Philadelphia.
2002 – An Alabama jury found Monsanto and its corporate successors (Solutia Inc.) guilty of releasing tons of PCBs in Anniston between 1935-1979. In 2004 some 18,447 plaintiffs were scheduled to an average of $7,725, while 27 lawyers were scheduled to receive over $4 million each.
2003 – Jesica Santillan, who was made critically ill after receiving donor organs of the wrong blood type in a medical accident during a heart-lung transplant, is taken off life support after being declared brain dead after a second heart-lung transplant operation at Duke University Medical Center in North Carolina..
2004 – The final TV episode of “Sex and the City” aired after a 6-season run.
2004 – In San Jose, Ca., Ranbir Singh (43) opened fire a group of Sikh men playing cards and killed three. Singh was killed after the group turned on him.
2004 – Same-sex marriage in the United States: Saying he will defend California’s laws limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples, state attorney general Bill Lockyer dismisses California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger’s “order” in the San Francisco marriage licenses debate, saying his office is independent of gubernatorial power.
2005 – ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT: A Virginia man was charged with plotting with al-Qaida to kill President Bush. Ahmed Omar Abu Ali was convicted on all counts in November 2005. Originally sentenced to 30 years in prison, in 2009, his sentence was increased to life.
2005 – Researchers at Texas Tech Univ. reported that the rocket fuel perchlorate has been found in women’s breast milk at five times the average level found in dairy milk.
2006 – In Lincoln, Nebraska, eight workers at a meat processing plant claimed the record $365 million Powerball jackpot.
2006 – South Dakota’s Senate advanced a law banning abortion in virtually all cases, with the intention of forcing the Supreme Court to reconsider its 1973 decision legalizing the procedure.
2007 – The US General Accountability Office said it will cost at least $ 12 billion to clean up contamination from tens of thousands of gasoline storage tanks that were leaking underground.
2008 – The White House announces that U.S. Army National Guard Master Sergeant Woodrow W. Keeble will posthumously receive the Medal of Honor for his service in the Korean War, becoming the first Sioux to receive the award. (U.S. Army)
2008 – Arizona Republican Rep. Rick Renzi was indicted on charges of extortion, wire fraud, money laundering and other matters in an Arizona land swap scam that allegedly helped him collect hundreds of thousands of dollars in payoffs.
2008 – John Heath (81) was sentenced In Los Angeles to 28 years in prison in an investment scam that prosecutors say seeped across half the country and bilked 1,800 people, many of them elderly, of about $190 million.
2008 – In Texas three British bankers were sentenced to just over three years in prison for their roles in a fraudulent scheme with former Enron Chief Financial Officer Andrew Fastow.
2008 – A United States Air Force B-2 Spirit stealth bomber crashes at Anderson Air Force Base on Guam. The two pilots ejected, with one hospitalized. It is the first B-2 to crash.
2009 – Mississippi Gov. Barbour said he would join Louisiana Gov. Jindal in turning down federal incentives to expand unemployment insurance coverage.
2010 – President Barack Obama put forward a nearly $1 trillion, 10-year compromise that would allow the government to deny or roll back egregious insurance premium increases that infuriated consumers.
2010 – A Delaware grand jury returned an indictment on pediatrician Dr. Earl Bradley of Lewes with 471 counts of sexual crimes against 103 children.
2011 – Militant Shawna Forde of the Minutemen Civil Defense Corps is sentenced to death in Arizona for her role in the murders of Raul and Brisenia Flores.
2011 – The Iran Navy sends two ships through the Suez Canal for the first time since the 1979 Iranian Revolution.
2011 – The Democrats in the Indiana House of Representatives leave for other states in the U.S. rather than vote on anti-union legislation.
2012 – A judge in Los Angeles declared the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act unconstitutional and ordered the federal government to ignore the statute and provide health benefits to the wife of a lesbian federal court employee.
2012 – Seven US Marines die in a helicopter crash on the border of the states of California and Arizona.
2012 – The United States Embassy in Kabul goes into lockdown as a result of the protests.
2012 – In Charlottesville, Virginia, U.S., former University of Virginia men’s lacrosse player George Huguely is found guilty of second-degree murder in the death of former UVA women’s lacrosse player Yeardley Love in 2010.
2013 – The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves Kadcyla, a new drug manufactured by Roche, for treating late-stage breast cancer.
1732 – George Washington, First President of the United States (d. 1799)
1839 – Francis Pharcellus Church, American editor and publisher. He was a lead editorial writer on his brother’s newspaper, the New York Sun, and it was in that capacity that in 1897 he wrote his most famous editorial, Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus. (d. 1906)
1857 – Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, English founder of the Boy Scouts (d. 1941)
1857 – Heinrich Hertz, German physicist. He was the first to satisfactorily demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic waves by building an apparatus to produce and detect VHF or UHF radio waves. (d. 1894)
1889 – Olave Baden-Powell, English founder of the Girl Guide and wife of Robert Baden-Powell (d. 1977)
1892 – Edna St. Vincent Millay, American writer who was an American lyrical poet and playwright and the first woman to receive the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry. (d. 1950)
1907 – Robert Young, American actor who was best known for his leading roles of Jim Anderson, the father of Father Knows Best (NBC and then CBS) and physician Marcus Welby in Marcus Welby, M.D. (ABC). (d. 1998)
1932 – Ted Kennedy, American politician is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic Party.(d.2009)
1934 – Sparky Anderson, American baseball manager. He managed the National League’s Cincinnati Reds to the 1975 and 1976 championships, then added a third title in 1984 with the Detroit Tigers of the American League.
1950 – Julius Erving, American basketball player commonly known by the nickname Dr. J, is a retired American basketball player who helped launch a modern style of play that emphasizes leaping and playing above the rim.
1952 – Bill Frist is an American physician, businessman, and politician. Frist served two terms as a United States Senator where he became the Republican Majority Leader from 2003 until his retirement in 2007.
1962 – Steve Irwin, Australian herpetologist known simply as Steve Irwin and nicknamed “The Crocodile Hunter”, was a television personality, wildlife expert, and conservationist. (d. 2006)
1975 – Drew Barrymore is an American actress and film producer. She is the youngest member of the Barrymore family of American actors.
|FOX, WESLEY L.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps, Company A, 1st Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 22nd, 1969. Entered service at: Leesburg, Va. Born: 30 September 1931, Herndon, Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as commanding officer of Company A, in action against the enemy in the northern A Shau Valley. Capt. (then 1st Lt.) Fox’s company came under intense fire from a large well concealed enemy force. Capt. Fox maneuvered to a position from which he could assess the situation and confer with his platoon leaders. As they departed to execute the plan he had devised, the enemy attacked and Capt. Fox was wounded along with all of the other members of the command group, except the executive officer. Capt. Fox continued to direct the activity of his company. Advancing through heavy enemy fire, he personally neutralized 1 enemy position and calmly ordered an assault against the hostile emplacements. He then moved through the hazardous area coordinating aircraft support with the activities of his men. When his executive officer was mortally wounded, Capt. Fox reorganized the company and directed the fire of his men as they hurled grenades against the enemy and drove the hostile forces into retreat. Wounded again in the final assault, Capt. Fox refused medical attention, established a defensive posture, and supervised the preparation of casualties for medical evacuation. His indomitable courage, inspiring initiative, and unwavering devotion to duty in the face of grave personal danger inspired his marines to such aggressive action that they overcame all enemy resistance and destroyed a large bunker complex. Capt. Fox’s heroic actions reflect great credit upon himself and the Marine Corps, and uphold the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
The Burr Conspiracy
On February 19th, 1807 the soldiers from Ft. Stoddert, Louisiana Territory, captured the fugitive Aaron Burr former Vice President,on a muddy road near the hamlet of Wakefield, Washington County, Alabama. Burr’s fall from grace seemed total. The former vice president, who at one time, dressed as magnificently as any head of state, wore a battered beaver hat and ragged wool coat. The man who had charmed women by the score, sported a scruffy crop of whiskers. Aaron Burr had traveled West just six months before to carve out his own empire. Now, he would return East to stand trial for treason in Richmond, Va.
It has been over 200 years but the exact details of what became known as the Burr Conspiracy remain unknown. But the conspiracy probably began sometime in early 1804, just months before Burr killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel. It is believed that Aaron Burr’s attempt to detach the Western states and the Louisiana Territory from the Union were his attempt to regain his pre-eminence. Vice President Burr’s political hopes in the East were fading by then. And after he killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel on July 11, they would die completely. But Burr saw a chance to revive his fortunes. If the East wouldn’t crown him, the West just might.
Burr turned to the newly acquired Territory of Louisiana. The land was mostly unsettled and its borders were disputed by Spain. Many of its residents talked openly of secession and Burr believed that with a relatively small and well-armed military force, he could pry territory from Louisiana and build his own empire.
Burr would need an army to accomplish his objectives. He had many co-conspirators but the obvious one was General James Wilkinson, Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Army. Wilkinson had befriended Burr during the Revolutionary War and after the war Burr convinced President Jefferson to give the governorship of Northern Louisiana to Wilkinson.
Wilkinson represented a logical choice for Burr even though he had some significant faults such as the fact that he was arrogant, unscrupulous, and he was overly fond of liquor. As commander-in chief, however, Wilkinson controlled the military and could move about the West without suspicion to cultivate alliances. Burr needed to search for supporters with even more power.
In August 1804 the vice president contacted Anthony Merry, Britain’s Minister to the United States. Burr offered to help Britain take Western territory from the United States. Merry immediately sent a dispatch to Britain, detailing Burr’s offer to “effect a separation of the western part of the United States” from the rest of the country. In return, Burr wanted money and ships to carry out his conquest.
In April, 1805, shortly after his term as vice president ended, Burr journeyed West on a reconnaissance mission. In town after town, he dropped hints of the expedition to come. And in town after town, he met men that he believed would support him in his enterprise. One of these men, Harman Blennerhassett, would prove a loyal follower.
Blennerhassett, an eccentric Irish gentleman, had come to the United States with a fortune in hand. On a small island in the Ohio River near Marietta, he had built himself a mansion. There, with his wife and children, he lived a life of luxury. But thanks to Aaron Burr’s scheme, Blennerhassett’s paradise would soon crumble.
Problems still remained. Support from the British had not yet arrived. In fact, it never would — nor would assistance from Spain. Rumors about Burr’s plans began to circulate and had even been published in Eastern newspapers. Unshaken, Burr continued his quest for support.
Meanwhile, the border conflict with Spain had begun to heat up. This fit perfectly into Burr’s plan. Jefferson would order Wilkinson to Louisiana with U.S. troops. In the name of U.S. sovereignty, Wilkinson and Burr could attack Texas or even Mexico. Burr could then declare himself ruler of the conquered lands.
Finally ready to move forward, Burr sent a coded letter to Wilkinson outlining his plans. The document would become known as the Cipher Letter, and would figure prominently at Burr’s treason trial. Burr set out from Pittsburgh in August, 1806. His first stop was Blennerhassett’s, where he ordered the Irishman to outfit his island as a military encampment.
As Burr hobnobbed around Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, the trickle of rumors about him became a torrent. Particularly problematic for Burr was the U.S. Court in Frankfort, Kentucky. Burr was called by the court three times to answer charges of treason. Each time he was acquitted.
By the beginning of December, 1806, Burr’s plan was in total collapse, although he didn’t know it. Wilkinson, who by now believed Burr’s plan would fail, opted to save his own hide. On October 9, he had sent a letter to President Thomas Jefferson outlining the conspiracy, but without naming Burr. Jefferson responded with a cease and desist order. Burr was not named specifically, but he didn’t need to be. The newspapers were full of treason talk, and Burr’s name was prominently featured.
On December 9, 1806, authorities struck the first blow against Burr. Ohio militiamen captured most of his boats and supplies at a Marietta boatyard. On December 11, the militia raided Blennerhassett’s Island, but most of the men had already fled downriver. Blennerhassett’s mansion was ransacked.
When Burr rendezvoused with Blennerhassett on the Ohio River near the end of December, he expected to meet a small army. Instead, he met a force of less than 100 men. A less ambitious (or wiser) leader would have quit. But Burr proceeded, picking up what new recruits he could as they drifted down the Mississippi.
At Bayou Pierre, just 30 miles above New Orleans, the final blow came. A friend handed Burr a New Orleans newspaper. It announced a reward for the capture of Aaron Burr and reproduced in full a translation of the coded letter Burr had sent to Wilkinson.
Burr surrendered to authorities at Bayou Pierre and was arraigned before a grand jury. Burr and his men insisted that they had no intention of attacking U.S. territory, and the jury failed to return an indictment. Still, one of the two judges involved in the case ordered Burr returned to the courtroom. Convinced he would be railroaded, Burr fled into the wilderness. On February 13, 1807, a soaking wet and bedraggled Burr was captured and carried back to the federal court at Richmond, Virginia, to face trial for treason.
This was truly the trial of the century, and Aaron Burr battled for his life. Both the prosecution and the defense used the Cipher Letter to try and prove their case. But in the end, the Cipher Letter took a back seat to another, even more renowned document: the Constitution, which defines treason very specifically. Supreme Court Justice John Marshall insisted on absolute adherence to this strict definition, that there had to be an overt act but Burr’s actions did not meet that requirement. As a result he was acquitted.
But if Burr was victorious in court, he lost in the court of public opinion. Across America he was burned in effigy. Several states filed additional charges against him, and he lived in fear for his life. Wisely, Burr fled again — this time to Europe, where he tried without success to convince Britain and France to support other North American invasion plots.
After four years in exile, Aaron Burr returned to America again. In mid-1812, the country was on the brink of war with Britain, and the Burr Conspiracy seemed ancient history. Aaron Burr put up his shingle in New York as an attorney and found ready business. He would live the rest of his life in relative obscurity, his dreams of empire forever undone.
Matthew 5: 13 – 16:
“You are the salt of the earth. But if the salt loses its saltiness, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything, except to be thrown out and trampled underfoot. 14 You are the light of the world. A town built on a hill cannot be hidden. 15 Neither do people light a lamp and put it under a bowl. Instead they put it on its stand, and it gives light to everyone in the house. 16 In the same way, let your light shine before others, that they may see your good deeds and glorify your Father in heaven.”
“To lay taxes to provide for the general welfare of the United States, that is to say, ‘to lay taxes for the purpose of providing for the general welfare.’ For the laying of taxes is the power, and the general welfare the purpose for which the power is to be exercised. They are not to lay taxes ad libitum for any purpose they please; but only to pay the debts or provide for the welfare of the Union.”
– Thomas Jefferson
(1743-1826), US Founding Father, drafted the Declaration of Independence, 3rd US President
“Never do today what you can put off till tomorrow. Delay may give clearer light as to what is best to be done.”
~ Aaron Burr
1401 – William Sawtree, first English religious martyr, was burned in London.
1545 – Pierre Brully, [Peter Brulius], Calvinist minister, was burned to death.
1674 – England and the Netherlands sign the Peace of Westminster, ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War. A provision of the agreement transfers the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam to England, which renamed it New York.
1803 – Congress voted to accept Ohio’s borders and constitution. However, Congress did not get around to formally ratifying Ohio statehood until 1953.
1807 – Aaron Burr, former US vice president, was arrested in Wakefield, Alabama on charges of plotting to annex Spanish territory in Louisiana and Mexico to be used toward the establishment of an independent republic. He was acquitted on the grounds that, although he had conspired against the United States, he was not guilty of treason because he had not engaged in an “overt act,” a requirement of treason as specified by the Constitution of the United States of America.
1814 – War of 1812: USS Constitution captures British brig Catherine.
1831 – First practical US coal-burning locomotive makes first trial run in Pennsylvania.
1845 – Lighthouse establishment transferred to Revenue Marine Bureau. Metal buoys were first put into service.
1846 – In Austin, Texas the newly-formed Texas state government is officially installed. The Republic of Texas government officially transfers power to the State of Texas government following Texas’ annexation by the United States. J. Pinckney Henderson took the oath of office as governor.
1847 – The Donner Party is rescued in the Sierras. It is noted that some of the survivors seem to be remarkably well-fed considering their ordeal. Rumors had it that many resorted to cannibalism to survive.
1852 – The Phi Kappa Psi fraternity is founded at Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania.
1856 – Tin-type camera patented by Hamilton Smith, Gambier, OH.
1858 – Leschi, a Nisqually American Indian leader from the Puget Sound region, was hanged a mile east of Fort Steilacoom. On June 10, 1857, he had been convicted of the murder of Abram Moses, a Territorial Militiaman, and was sentenced to hang. He was exonerated in 2004.
1859 – Daniel E. Sickles, NY congressman, was acquitted of murder on grounds of temporary insanity. This was the first time this defense was successfully used. Sickles had shot and killed Philip Barton Key, son of Francis Scott Key, author of “Star Spangled Banner.”
1861 – President-elect Lincoln traveled through New York City on his way to Washington, D.C.
1862 – Civil War: Confederates evacuated Clarksville, Tennessee.
1862 – Civil War: Trial run of two-gun ironclad U.S.S. Monitor in New York harbor.
1862 – Congress authorized cutters to enforce law forbidding importation of Chinese “coolie” labor.
1865 – Civil War: The Confederate steamer A. H. Schultz, carrying exchange prisoners between Richmond and the Varina vicinity on the James River was destroyed by a torpedo near Chaffin’s Bluff on the James River.
1866 – Congress passes the New Freedman’s Bureau bill, providing for military trials for people accused of depriving Blacks of their civil rights.
1869 – US Assay Office in Boise ID authorized. It was very costly to ship gold to the mint in San Francisco so a strong demand for either a federal mint or an assay office in Idaho.
1878 – The phonograph, “an improvement in phonograph or speaking machines,” is patented by Thomas Edison.
1881 – Kansas became the first state to prohibit all alcoholic beverages.
1884 – A series of sixty tornadoes left an estimated 800 people dead in seven US states (MS, AL, NC, SC, TN, KY and IN). It was one of the largest outbreaks in US History.
1887 – The 49th US Congress passed the Edmunds-Tucker Act. It abolished women’s suffrage, forced wives to testify against their husbands, disincorporated the LDS Church, dismantled the Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company, abolished the Nauvoo Legion, and provided that LDS Church property in excess of $50,000 would be forfeited to the United States.It is named after its sponsors, Senator George F. Edmunds of Vermont and Congressman John Randolph Tucker of Virginia. The Act was repealed in 1978.
1906 – William Kellogg established the Battle Creek Toasted Cornflake Company, selling breakfast cereals. The cereals were originally developed as a health food for psychiatric patients.Kellogg spent 2/3 of the company budget to advertise Corn Flakes.
1910 – Mary Mallon (aka Typhoid Mary) was released from 4 years of quarantine on New York’s North Brother Island. In 1914 she caused a typhus outbreak in the Sloane Maternity Hospital. She was again arrested and returned to North Brother Island where she died Nov 11, 1938.
1913 – Cracker Jack prizes are included in candy boxes for the first time.
1915 – World War I: The Battle of Gallipoli began.
1917 – World War I: American troops are recalled from the Mexican border to prepare for possible deployment to Europe. General Pershing has already been ordered off the hunt for Pancho Villa.
1921 – The U.S. Red Cross reported that approximately 20,000 children died yearly in auto accidents.
1922 – Ed Wynn became the first big-name vaudeville entertainer to sign on as a radio talent.
1925 – President Calvin Coolidge proposed the phasing out of inheritance tax.
1929 – A medical diathermy machine was first used in Schenectady, NY. Diathermy is the controlled production of “deep heating” beneath the skin in the subcutaneous tissues, deep muscles and joints for therapeutic purposes.
1934 – US contract air mail service canceled, replaced by US army for 6 months. In the process of awarding air mail contracts there appeared to be a lot of favoritism and downright corruption, many small airlines complained. The change proved to be disastrous.
1941 – Coast Guard Reserve established. Auxiliary created from former Reserve.
1941 – World War II: The Afrika Korps, the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in North Africa, was formed.
1941 – World War II: Europe: Nazi police were attacked and driven away from Koco, Amsterdam by young Jews. Nazis raided Amsterdam and rounded up 429 young Jews for deportation.
1942 – Tommy Dorsey and his orchestra recorded “I’ll Take Tallulah.”
1942 – World War II: nearly 250 Japanese warplanes attack the northern Australian city of Darwin killing between 243 to 1100 people.
1942 – World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt bypasses Congress and signs the executive order 9066, allowing the United States military to relocate Japanese-Americans to Japanese internment camps.
1942 – World War II: The Army Air Corps’ all African-American 100th Pursuit Squadron, later designated a fighter squadron, was activated at Tuskegee Institute. The squadron served honorably in England and in other regions of the European continent during World War II.
1942 – World War II: General Dwight D. Eisenhower, is appointed chief of the War Plans Division of the US Army General Staff.
1942 – World War II: New York Yankees announce 5,000 uniformed soldiers will be admitted free at each of their upcoming home games.
1943 – World War II: On Guadalcanal American reinforcements arrive as part of the buildup for the next offensive move to the Russell Islands.
1944 – World War II: The U.S. Eighth Air Force and Royal Air Force began “Big Week,” a series of heavy bomber attacks against German aircraft production facilities.
1945 – World War II: Battle of Iwo Jima – about 30,000 United States Marines land on Iwo Jima. The initial assault forces are from US 4th and 5th Marine Divisions with 3rd Marines in reserve. The 36-day battle took the lives of 7,000 Americans and about 20,000 of 22,000 Japanese defenders.
1945 – World War II: On Ramree Island off the coast of old Burma, some 900 Japanese soldiers retreated from British soldiers into an alligator filled swamp. Only about 20 men survived.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Symphony” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Clyde Rogers), “I Can’t Begin to Tell You” by Bing Crosby with the Carmen Cavallaro Orchestra, “Aren’t You Glad You’re You” by Bing Crosby and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1949 – Ezra Pound won the Bollingen Prize. He was an American expatriate poet and critic, and a major figure in the early modernist movement in poetry.
1949 – “A Little Bird Told Me” by Evelyn Knight topped the charts.
1953 – State of Georgia approves the first literature censorship board in the United States.
1955 – “Sincerely” by the McGuire Sisters topped the charts.
1955 – Dot Records launched “Two Hearts, Two Kisses, One Love“, the first single by Pat Boone.
1958 -Really nasty weather in Minneapolis, MN, hail the size of baseballs was reported with flash lightning.
1959 – USAF rocket-powered rail sled attains Mach 4.1 (3,088 mph), New Mexico.
1960 – Bill Keane’s “Family Circus” cartoon strip debuts.
1960 – UniversityC Regents retracted the following question from an English aptitude test for high school applicants: “What are the dangers to a democracy of a national police organization, like the FBI, which operates secretly and is unresponsive to public criticism.” FBI director J. Edgar Hoover had organized a covert public relations campaign and put pressure on Gov. Brown to retract the question.
1960 – California Gov. Edmund G. Brown gave a 60-day stay of execution for San Quentin inmate Caryl Chessman (39), convicted sex offender and best-selling author, “The Red Light Bandit.”
1963 – The Soviet Union informed President John F. Kennedy it would withdraw “several thousand” of its troops in Cuba.
1964 – Paul Simon writes “The Sounds of Silence,” the song which, in a year and a half, will catapult him and Art Garfunkel to stardom as Simon & Garfunkel.
1966 – “Lightnin’ Strikes” by Lou Christie topped the charts.
1968 – National Educational Television (the predecessor to the Public Broadcasting Service in the United States) debuts the children’s television program Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood .
1969 – Elvis Presley recorded the Eddie Rabbit song “Kentucky Rain.”
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Thank You (Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin)/Everybody is a Star” by Sly & The Family Stone, “Hey There Lonely Girl” by Eddie Holman, “No Time” by The Guess Who and “It’s Just a Matter of Time” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1970 – American League Cy Young winner Denny McLain suspended for book-making. It was for alleged involvement in a bookmaking operation. The suspension lasted three months.
1970 – Nautel introduced first solid state Radio Beacon Transmitter.
1972 – “Without You” by Nilsson topped the charts.
1974 – Dick Clark premiered the “American Music Awards.”
1977 – “Blinded by the Light” by Manfred Mann’s Earth Band topped the charts.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Stayin’ Alive” by the Bee Gees, “(Love Is) Thicker Than Water” by Andy Gibb, “Just the Way You Are” by Billy Joel and “Don’t Break the Heart that Loves You” by Margo Smith all topped the charts.
1981 – The U.S. State Department called El Salvador a “textbook case” of a Communist plot.
1981 – Ford Motor Company announced a loss of $1.5 billion.
1983 – “Baby, Come to Me” by Patti Austin & James Ingram topped the charts.
1983 – MASS SHOOTING: A shooting at the Wah Mee gambling parlor in Seattle, Wa., left 13 men dead. Kwan-Fai Mak and Benjamin Ng were later found guilty on 13 murder counts.
1985 – Artificial heart patient William J. Schroeder becomes the first such patient to leave hospital. He spent 15 minutes outside Humana Hospital in Louisville, Ky.
1985 – Cherry Coke was introduced by the Coca-Cola Company.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “How Will I Know” by Whitney Houston, “When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Get Going” by Billy Ocean, “Kyrie” by Mr. Mister and “Makin’ Up for Lost Time (The Dallas Lovers’ Song)” by Crystal Gayle & Gary Morris all topped the charts.
1986 – The Soviet Union launches the Mir space station.
1986 – After waiting 37 years, the United States Senate approves a treaty outlawing genocide.
1986 – In the San Francisco Bay Area water breached a levee on the 8,800 acre Tyler Island wiping out crops and nearly destroying the Mello family’s farming business.
1987 – Anti-smoking ad airs for first time on TV, featuring Yul Brynner. This was made just before he died of lung cancer and he had expressed a desire to make an anti-smoking commercial.
1987 – President Ronald Reagan lifts trade sanctions against Poland when the Communist government releases political prisoners.
1987 – Fidel Castro resigns; younger brother Raul to succeed. See 2008.
1988 – A group calling itself the “Organization of the Oppressed on Earth” claimed responsibility for the kidnapping in Lebanon of U.S. Marine Lt. Col. William R. Higgins. This group is a pseudonym for or a splinter of Hezbollah.
1988 – The Coast Guard Cutter Mallow made the largest drug bust in Hawaiian waters to date. A boarding team from Mallow discovered 454 55-pound bales of marijuana aboard.
1992 – John Singleton, the first African American director to be nominated for the Academy Award is nominated for best director and best screenplay for his first film “Boyz N the Hood.”
1992 – “Crazy For You” opened at Shubert Theater in New York City for 1622 performances.
1992 – Peter Collins of Boulder, Colo., discovered Nova Cygni 1992.
1994 – American speedskater Bonnie Blair won the fourth Olympic gold medal of her career as she won the 500-meter race in Lillehammer, Norway.
1993 – President Clinton’s economic plan won praise from Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan. The president, visiting Hyde Park, N.Y., suggested the United States might have to consider a national sales tax “not too long in the future,” then said he’d meant in 10 years or so.
1994 – American speedskater Bonnie Blair won the fourth Olympic gold medal of her career as she won the 500-meter race in Lillehammer, Norway.
1996 – President Clinton told Monica Lewinsky that their relationship must end. It was later resumed.
1997 – FCC made available 311 for non-emergency calls & 711 for hearing or speech-impaired emergency calls.
1997 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In southwestern Alaska Evan Ramsey (16) opened fire with a Mossberg 500 12-gauge shotgun as students assembled in a high school lobby, killing two people, a principal and 16-year-old classmate, wounding two others, in Bethel, a town of 6,000. Ramsey was sentenced to a 198-year prison term.
1998 – Federal officials in Henderson, Nevada, arrested Larry Wayne Harris and William Job Leavitt for possession of suspected anthrax bacterium.
1999 – President Clinton posthumously pardoned Henry O. Flipper, the first African-American graduate of West Point, whose military career was tarnished by a racially motivated discharge.
1999 – Ohio inmate Wilford Berry, “The Volunteer”, became the first inmate to be executed in Ohio since 1963.
1999 – An explosion in Allentown, Pa., at a chemical processing plant in the Lehigh Valley Industrial Park, killed 5 people and injured 14.
1999 – In Sylacauga, Alabama, Billy Jack Gaither (39), a textile warehouse worker, was abducted, beaten to death with an ax handle and burned on a pile of burning tires due to a sexual advance.
2000 – Physicists described the possible detection of a neutralino particle, also called a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP).
2001 – An Oklahoma City bombing museum is dedicated at the Oklahoma City National Memorial.
2002 – Vonetta Flowers became the first African-American gold medalist in the history of the Winter Olympic Games. She and partner Jull Brakken won the inaugural women’s two-person bobsled event.
2002 – The US Supreme Court approved peer grading in schools. Owasso Independent School District v. Falvo, 534 U.S. 426 (2002), was a case that held (in favor of the school district) that allowing students to score each other’s tests and call out the grades does not violate the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA).
2002 – NASA’s Mars Odyssey space probe begins to map the surface of Mars using its thermal emission imaging system.
2003 – In West Warwick, RI, 99 people were killed when fire destroyed the nightclub “The Station.” The fire started with sparks from a pyrotechnic display being used by Great White. Ty Longley, guitarist for Great White, was one of the victims in the fire.
2003 – Missouri Rep. Dick Gephardt announced his second candidacy for president with a pledge to repeal most of President Bush’s tax cuts.
2004 – Former Enron CEO Jeffrey Skilling surrenders to the FBI in Houston and is arraigned on charges of fraud and insider trading.
2004 – Nazi-hunter Simon Wiesenthal is awarded an honorary knighthood in recognition of a “lifetime of service to humanity.”
2004 – The AFL-CIO endorsed Democrat John Kerry for president.
2005 – The USS Jimmy Carter was commissioned at Groton, CT. It was the last of the Seawolf class of attack submarines. It is the most heavily armed submarine ever built.
2005 – In Arkansas a train slammed into an ambulance that apparently tried to get out of its path, but stopped at a rail crossing, killing all three paramedics on board. The patient in the vehicle survived.
2006 – Jimmie Johnson won the Daytona 500.
2006 – The East rallied from 21 points down for a 122-120 victory over the West in the NBA All-Star Game.
2008- Cuban leader Fidel Castro said Tuesday that he will not return to lead the country, retiring as head of state 49 years after he seized power in an armed revolution. The announcement was posted in a letter to readers on the website of the state-run newspaper Granma.
2008 – San Francisco-based Sharper Image retailer filed for bankruptcy protection.
2008 – In southwestern Minnesota a woman driving a van crashed into a school bus, killing four students. Olga Marino Franco del Cid (24) of Minnesota, was later charged in state court with four counts of criminal vehicular homicide.
2009 – Barack Obama made his first foreign trip as president to Canada where he sought to quell Canadian concerns about US protectionism.
2009 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 89.68 to 7465.95, a new 6-year low.
2009 – In Pennsylvania Roger Leon Barlow (19) was charged with setting nine fires in arson-prone Coatesville, 35 miles west of Philadelphia.
2010 – From Ponte Vedra Beach, Fla. Golf star Tiger Woods faced the world and formally apologized for his infidelity.
2011 – Pirates seize a yacht with four Americans off the coast of Oman.
2011 – Governor of Wisconsin Scott Walker rejects union concessions on the state budget as protests continue in the state capital.
2012 – ESPN admits two other instances in which it referred to the American basketball player Jeremy Lin by the racial slur “chink”. It comes after yesterday’s controversial “Chink in the Armor” headline.
2012 – Whitney Houston is buried at Fairview Cemetery in Westfield, New Jersey, USA.
2013 – U.S. Federal Court hits President Barack Hussein Obama with three charges of abuse of office. The indictments assert that President Obama “acted as a dictator” to exceed his powers of office. President Barack Obama violated the Constitution when he bypassed the Senate last year to appoint three members of the National Labor Relations Board, a federal appeals court decided.
2013 – Two people are missing and at least 14 injured after a car struck a gas main causing an explosion at the Country Club Plaza in Kansas City, Missouri.
1473 – Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikolaj Kopernick), Polish astronomer, known as the “Father of Modern Astronomy.”
1865 – Sven Hedin, Swedish explorer of Tibet, scientist.
1912 – Stan Kenton, American jazz bandleader.
1912 – Saul Chaplin, was one of Hollywood’s preeminent composers and musical directors. he won four Oscars for collaborating on the scores and orchestrations of An American in Paris (1951), Seven Brides for Seven Brothers (1954) and West Side Story (1961). (d. 1997)
1916 – Eddie Arcaro, known professionally as Eddie Arcaro, was an American Thoroughbred horse racing Hall of Fame jockey who won more American Classic Races than any other jockey in history and is the only rider to have won the U.S. Triple Crown twice. (d. 1997)
1924 – Lee Marvin, was an American film actor. Known for his gravelly voice, white hair and 6’2″ stature (d. 1987)
1940 – Smokey Robinson is an American R&B and soul singer-songwriter, record producer, and former record executive. Robinson is noted for being one of the primary figures associated with Motown Records.
1946 – Karen Silkwood, was an American labor union activist and chemical technician at the Kerr-McGee plant near Crescent, Oklahoma. She died under mysterious circumstances after investigating claims of irregularities and wrongdoing at the Kerr-McGee plant. (d. 1974)
ZABITOSKY, FRED WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class (then S/Sgt.), U.S. Army, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne). Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, February 19, 1968. Entered service at: Trenton, N.J. Born: 27 October 1942, Trenton, N.J. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sfc. Zabitosky, U.S. Army, distinguished himself while serving as an assistant team leader of a 9-man Special Forces long-range reconnaissance patrol. Sfc. Zabitosky’s patrol was operating deep within enemy-controlled territory when they were attacked by a numerically superior North Vietnamese Army unit. Sfc. Zabitosky rallied his team members, deployed them into defensive positions, and, exposing himself to concentrated enemy automatic weapons fire, directed their return fire. Realizing the gravity of the situation, Sfc. Zabitosky ordered his patrol to move to a landing zone for helicopter extraction while he covered their withdrawal with rifle fire and grenades. Rejoining the patrol under increasing enemy pressure, he positioned each man in a tight perimeter defense and continually moved from man to man, encouraging them and controlling their defensive fire. Mainly due to his example, the outnumbered patrol maintained its precarious position until the arrival of tactical air support and a helicopter extraction team. As the rescue helicopters arrived, the determined North Vietnamese pressed their attack. Sfc. Zabitosky repeatedly exposed himself to their fire to adjust suppressive helicopter gunship fire around the landing zone. After boarding one of the rescue helicopters, he positioned himself in the door delivering fire on the enemy as the ship took off. The helicopter was engulfed in a hail of bullets and Sfc. Zabitosky was thrown from the craft as it spun out of control and crashed. Recovering consciousness, he ignored his extremely painful injuries and moved to the flaming wreckage. Heedless of the danger of exploding ordnance and fuel, he pulled the severely wounded pilot from the searing blaze and made repeated attempts to rescue his patrol members but was driven back by the intense heat. Despite his serious burns and crushed ribs, he carried and dragged the unconscious pilot through a curtain of enemy fire to within ten feet of a hovering rescue helicopter before collapsing. Sfc. Zabitosky’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*COLE, DARRELL SAMUEL
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 20 July 1920, Flat River, Mo. Entered service at. Esther, Mo. other Navy award: Bronze Star Medal. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as leader of a Machinegun Section of Company B, 1st Battalion, 23d Marines, 4th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces during the assault on Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands, February 19, 1945. Assailed by a tremendous volume of small-arms, mortar and artillery fire as he advanced with one squad of his section in the initial assault wave, Sgt. Cole boldly led his men up the sloping beach toward Airfield No. 1 despite the blanketing curtain of flying shrapnel and, personally destroying with hand grenades two hostile emplacements which menaced the progress of his unit, continued to move forward until a merciless barrage of fire emanating from three Japanese pillboxes halted the advance. Instantly placing his one remaining machinegun in action, he delivered a shattering fusillade and succeeded in silencing the nearest and most threatening emplacement before his weapon jammed and the enemy, reopening fire with knee mortars and grenades, pinned down his unit for the second time. Shrewdly gauging the tactical situation and evolving a daring plan of counterattack, Sgt. Cole, armed solely with a pistol and one grenade, coolly advanced alone to the hostile pillboxes. Hurling his one grenade at the enemy in sudden, swift attack, he quickly withdrew, returned to his own lines for additional grenades and again advanced, attacked, and withdrew. With enemy guns still active, he ran the gauntlet of slashing fire a third time to complete the total destruction of the Japanese strong point and the annihilation of the defending garrison in this final assault. Although instantly killed by an enemy grenade as he returned to his squad, Sgt. Cole had eliminated a formidable Japanese position, thereby enabling his company to storm the remaining fortifications, continue the advance, and seize the objective. By his dauntless initiative, unfaltering courage, and indomitable determination during a critical period of action, Sgt. Cole served as an inspiration to his comrades, and his stouthearted leadership in the face of almost certain death sustained and enhanced the highest tradition of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
JOHNSTON, WILLIAM J.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company G, 180th Infantry, 45th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Padiglione, Italy, February 17th-February 19, 1944. Entered service at: Colchester, Conn. Birth: Trenton, N.J. G.O. No.: 73, 6 September 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. On 17 February 1944, near Padiglione, Italy, he observed and fired upon an attacking force of approximately eighty Germans, causing at least twenty-five casualties and forcing withdrawal of the remainder. All that day he manned his gun without relief, subject to mortar, artillery, and sniper fire. Two Germans individually worked so close to his position that his machinegun was ineffective, whereupon he killed one with his pistol, the second with a rifle taken from another soldier. When a rifleman protecting his gun position was killed by a sniper, he immediately moved the body and relocated the machinegun in that spot in order to obtain a better field of fire. He volunteered to cover the platoon’s withdrawal and was the last man to leave that night. In his new position he maintained an all-night vigil, the next day causing seven German casualties. On the afternoon of the 18th, the organization on the left flank having been forced to withdraw, he again covered the withdrawal of his own organization. Shortly thereafter, he was seriously wounded over the heart, and a passing soldier saw him trying to crawl up the embankment. The soldier aided him to resume his position behind the machinegun which was soon heard in action for about ten minutes. Though reported killed, Pfc. Johnston was seen returning to the American lines on the morning of 19 February slowly and painfully working his way back from his overrun position through enemy lines. He gave valuable information of new enemy dispositions. His heroic determination to destroy the enemy and his disregard of his own safety aided immeasurably in halting a strong enemy attack, caused an enormous amount of enemy casualties, and so inspired his fellow soldiers that they fought for and held a vitally important position against greatly superior forces.
McCARTER, LLOYD G.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, 503d Parachute Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Corregidor, Philippine Islands, February 16th-February 19th, 1945. Entered service at: Tacoma, Wash. Born: 11 May 1917, St. Maries, Idaho. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He was a scout with the regiment which seized the fortress of Corregidor, Philippine Islands. Shortly after the initial parachute assault on 16 February 1945, he crossed thirty yards of open ground under intense enemy fire, and at pointblank range silenced a machinegun with hand grenades. On the afternoon of 18 February he killed six snipers. That evening, when a large force attempted to bypass his company, he voluntarily moved to an exposed area and opened fire. The enemy attacked his position repeatedly throughout the night and was each time repulsed. By 2 o’clock in the morning, all the men about him had been wounded; but shouting encouragement to his comrades and defiance at the enemy, he continued to bear the brunt of the attack, fearlessly exposing himself to locate enemy soldiers and then pouring heavy fire on them. He repeatedly crawled back to the American line to secure more ammunition. When his submachine gun would no longer operate, he seized an automatic rifle and continued to inflict heavy casualties. This weapon, in turn, became too hot to use and, discarding it, he continued with an M-l rifle. At dawn the enemy attacked with renewed intensity. Completely exposing himself to hostile fire, he stood erect to locate the most dangerous enemy positions. He was seriously wounded; but, though he had already killed more than thirty of the enemy, he refused to evacuate until he had pointed out immediate objectives for attack. Through his sustained and outstanding heroism in the face of grave and obvious danger, Pvt. McCarter made outstanding contributions to the success of his company and to the recapture of Corregidor.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 30 September 1921, Dayton, Ohio. Accredited to: Ohio. citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with Company A, 1st Battalion, 28th Marines, 5th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo Jima, in the Volcano Islands, February 19,1945. The first man of his unit to be on station after hitting the beach in the initial assault, Cpl. Stein, armed with a personally improvised aircraft-type weapon, provided rapid covering fire as the remainder of his platoon attempted to move into position. When his comrades were stalled by a concentrated machinegun and mortar barrage, he gallantly stood upright and exposed himself to the enemy’s view, thereby drawing the hostile fire to his own person and enabling him to observe the location of the furiously blazing hostile guns. Determined to neutralize the strategically placed weapons, he boldly charged the enemy pillboxes one by one and succeeded in killing twenty of the enemy during the furious single-handed assault. Cool and courageous under the merciless hail of exploding shells and bullets which fell on all sides, he continued to deliver the fire of his skillfully improvised weapon at a tremendous rate of speed which rapidly exhausted his ammunition. Undaunted, he removed his helmet and shoes to expedite his movements and ran back to the beach for additional ammunition, making a total of eight trips under intense fire and carrying or assisting a wounded man back each time. Despite the unrelenting savagery and confusion of battle, he rendered prompt assistance to his platoon whenever the unit was in position, directing the fire of a half-track against a stubborn pillbox until he had effected the ultimate destruction of the Japanese fortification. Later in the day, although his weapon was twice shot from his hands, he personally covered the withdrawal of his platoon to the company position. Stouthearted and indomitable, Cpl. Stein, by his aggressive initiative sound judgment, and unwavering devotion to duty in the face of terrific odds, contributed materially to the fulfillment of his mission, and his outstanding valor throughout the bitter hours of conflict sustains and enhances the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
HISTORY OF CHERRIES
Cherries have been favorites of food lovers for centuries. Cherries were brought to
Modern day cherry production began in the mid-1800s. Peter Dougherty was a Presbyterian missionary living in northern Michigan. In 1852, he planted cherry trees on Old Mission Peninsula (near Traverse City, Michigan). Much to the surprise of the other farmers and Indians who lived in the area, Dougherty’s cherry trees flourished and soon other residents of the area planted trees. The area proved to be ideal for growing cherries because Lake Michigan tempers Arctic winds in winter and cools the orchards in summer.
The first commercial tart cherry orchards in Michigan were planted in 1893 on Ridgewood Farm near the site of Dougherty’s original plantings. By the early 1900s, the tart cherry industry was firmly established in the state with orchards not only in the Traverse City area, but all along Lake Michigan from Benton Harbor to Elk Rapids. Soon production surpassed other major crops. The first cherry processing facility, Traverse City Canning Company, was built just south of Traverse City, and the ruby-red fruit was soon shipped to Chicago, Detroit and Milwaukee.
In the Northwestern part of the United States, cherry orchards also flourished. In 1847, Henderson Lewelling planted an orchard in western Oregon, using nursery stock that he had transported by ox cart from Iowa. Lewelling Farms became known for its sweet cherries with orchards coming into production during the 1870s and 80s.
The most famous sweet cherry variety is the Bing cherry; this cherry variety got its name from one of Lewelling’s Chinese workmen. Another sweet cherry variety is the Lambert, which also got its start on Lewelling Farms. The Rainier cherry, a light sweet variety, originated from the cross breeding of the Bing and Van varieties by Dr. Harold W. Fogle at the Washington State University Research Station in Prosser, Washington. The Bing, Lambert and Rainier varieties together account for more than 95 percent of the Northwest sweet cherry production.
Galatians 5:22-23New King James Version (NKJV)
But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control. Against such there is no law.
“If we wish to be free, if we mean to preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending, if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and which we have pledged ourselves never to abandon until the glorious object of our contest shall be obtained – we must fight!”
“The truest greatness lies in being kind, the truest wisdom in a happy mind.”
~ Ella Wheeler Wilcox
sonorous suh-NOR-uhs; SAH-nuh-rus, adjective:
1. Giving sound when struck; resonant; as, sonorous metals.
2. Loud-sounding; giving a clear or loud sound; as, a sonorous voice.
3. Yielding sound; characterized by sound; as, the vowels are sonorous.
4.Impressive in sound; high-sounding.
1229 – The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy.
1493 – Columbus landed on the island of Santa Maria, the southernmost island of the Portuguese-controlled Azores.
1678 – John Bunyan’s “The Pilgrim’s Progress” is published. The Pilgrim’s Progress was read in virtually every Victorian home and remains a best seller for youth and adults alike. His works are considered devotional classics among Christian literature.
1685 – Fort St. Louis is established by a Frenchman at Matagorda Bay thus forming the basis for France’s claim to Texas.
1688 – At a Quaker meeting in Germantown, Pa, German Mennonites penned a memorandum stating a profound opposition to Negro slavery. Quakers in Germantown, Pa., adopted the first formal antislavery resolution in America.
1735 – First opera performed in America, “Flora”, in Charleston SC.
1804 – First US land-grant college, Ohio University, Athens OH, chartered.
1814 – The British schooner “Phoenix” fell to US Marines of the USS Constitution.
1823 – Mexican Emperor Augustin de Iturbide reconfirms the land grant made by the governor of New Spain to the late Moses Austin, made transferable to his son, Stephen F. Austin. This tract along the Rio Grande will become home to over 300 families brought in by Austin in 1825.
1841 – The first ongoing filibuster in the United States Senate begins and lasts until March 11.The Democratic minority tried to block a bank bill favored by the Whig majority by using this political tactic.
1845 – John Chapman, aka Johnny Appleseed, died in Allen County, Indiana.
1846 – “It having been represented to the (Navy) Department, that confusion arises from the use of the words “Larboard” and “Starboard,” in consequence of the similarity of sound, the word “Port” is hereafter to be substituted for “Larboard.”–Navy Department General Order.
1849 – First regular steamboat service to San Francisco CA starts: gold rush prospectors from east coast.
1850 – The California state legislature created the original 18 counties.
1850 – The city of San Francisco was incorporated.
1856 – The American Party (Know-Nothings) convene in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to nominate their first Presidential candidate, former President Millard Fillmore.
1861 – Civil War: In Montgomery, Alabama, Jefferson Davis is inaugurated as the provisional President of the Confederate States of America.
1864 – Civil War: President Lincoln ended the blockade of Brownsville, Texas, and opened the port for trade.
1865 – CIVIL WAR: Union forces under Major General William T. Sherman set the South Carolina State House on fire during the burning of Columbia.
1865 – Civil War: Following the fall of Fort Fisher at the mouth of the river, Union forces re-positioned for an attack on Fort Anderson, N.C on the Cape Fear River.
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Ft. Moultrie, SC.
1878 – The Lincoln County War begins in Lincoln County, New Mexico. It began with the murder of Billy the Kid’s mentor, Englishman rancher John Tunstall. Outlaw Jesse Evans of the James J. Dolan gang gunned down Tunstall in Lincoln, N.M.
1879 – Auguste Bartholdi was granted a design patent for the Statue of Liberty.
1885 – Mark Twain’s Adventures of “Huckleberry Finn” is published for the first time.
1896 – Cave of Winds at Niagara Falls goes almost dry for first time in 50 years.
1896 – Black American H. Grenon received Patent No. 554,867 for a “Razor Stropping Device.”
1901 – Winston Churchill makes his first speech in the British House of Commons.
1901 – H Cecil Booth patented a dust removing suction cleaner.
1907 – In San Francisco according to an agreement between Mayor Schmidt, Pres. Theodore Roosevelt and the San Francisco School Board, Japanese children under 16 were to be admitted to the city’s public schools. Skilled and unskilled laborers from Japan were to be banned from entering the US and American laborers were to be excluded from Japan.
1908 – First US postage stamps in coils issued.
1922 – Kenesaw Mountain Landis resigns his judgeship to work for baseball. Landis was selected to become the first Commissioner of Major League Baseball, serving from 1920 until his death in 1944. The position was created to restore public confidence in the integrity of baseball following the 1919 Black Sox scandal.
1927 – Singer Jessica Dragonette starred on radio’s “Cities Service Concerts” (sponsored by the oil company of the same name,)
1929 – First Academy Awards are announced. The ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 1927 and 1928 and took place on May 16, 1929, at a private dinner held at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in Los Angeles,California.
1930 – While studying photographs taken in January, Clyde Tombaugh discovers the planet Pluto.Tombaugh also discovered many asteroids and he called for the serious scientific research of unidentified flying objects, or “U.F.O.s”.
1930 – Elm Farm “Ollie” becomes the first cow to fly in a fixed-wing aircraft and also the first cow to be milked in an aircraft. It was as part of the International Air Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri. The aircraft, a Ford Trimotor, covered 72 miles from Bismarck, Missouri, to St. Louis.
1932 – Sonja Henie won her sixth world women’s figure skating title in Montreal, Canada.
1932 – In San Francisco, federal prohibition agents seized the offices and storehouses of two wholesale liquor setups: The Chicago Specialty Company at 724 Montgomery St. and J.C. Millet at 241 Clay St. The raids were aimed at breaking up a major bootlegging ring said to be headed by Johnny Marino.
1938 – “The Big Broadcast of 1938” was released.
1939 – The Golden Gate International Exposition opened on Treasure Island in the San Francisco Bay.
1940 – The American Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, applies the American “moral embargo” to the USSR.
1942 – The Mills Brothers recorded “Paper Doll” on Decca records.
1942 – The Free French submarine Surcouf (then the largest submarine in the world) is sunk in a collision with a US merchant ship.
1943 – World War II: Munich resistance group “White Rose” was captured by Nazis. The White Rose was a law abiding, non-violent, intellectual resistance group in Nazi Germany, consisting of students from the University of Munich and their philosophy professor. The group became known for an anonymous leaflet and graffiti campaign.
1943 – Groundbreaking ceremony in Oak Ridge, TN for the first uranium 235 plant. The uranium manufacturing facility cost $280,000,000 to build and was completed in the summer of 1944.
1943 – World War II: Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels delivers his Sportpalast speech.This speech was a speech delivered at the Berlin Sportpalast to a large but carefully selected audience calling for a total war, as the tide of World War II had turned against Nazi Germany and its Axis allies.
1943 – World War II: The new American 6th Army, commanded by General Krueger, become operational in the southwest Pacific.
1943– World War II: A US Task Group (Admiral McMorris) with two cruisers and four destroyers bombards Japanese positions on Attu Island.
1943– World War II: Rommel took three towns in Tunisia, North Africa. The intercepted communications of an American in Cairo provided a secret ear for the Desert Fox.
1944 – President Roosevelt vetoes the Bankhead Bill which proposed to end food subsidies. The veto is upheld by the House of Representatives.
1944 – World War II: American forces continue their raid on the Japanese base at Truk. Over the course of the two days, US aircraft log 1250 sorties.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Fence Me In” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “Accentuate the Positive” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “I Dream of You” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Freddy Stewart) and “I’m Losing My Mind Over You” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: All US Third Army units attacked. The German Siegfried Line is broken north of Echternach by US 8th Corps while both US 12th and 20th Corps, to the south, are advancing.
1945 – World War II: While most of US Task Force 58 is replenishing, one group of four carriers commanded by Admiral Radford attacks Haha Jima and Chichi Jima.
1945 – World War II: U.S. Marines stormed ashore at Iwo Jima (2/18-19). About 60,000 US Marines went ashore at Iwo Jima, an 8-sq. mile island of rock, volcanic ash and black sand. The 36-day battle took the lives of 7,000 Americans and about 20,000 of 22,000 Japanese defenders.
1949 – “Yours Truly Johnny Dollar” (1:09:47) debuted on CBS radio.
1950 – “Rag Mop” by the Ames Brothers topped the charts.
1951 – “Tennessee Waltz” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: An enemy shore battery scored a hit on the destroyer USS Ozbourn and wounded two sailors. This was the first time a U.S. Navy ship operating in the vicinity of Wonsan had been hit by gunfire from a shore battery.
1952 – Two tanker ships broke apart off Cape Cod. 14 men died in the wrecks, 9 of 41 on the Pendleton and 5 of 43 on the Fort Mercer.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” by Perry Como, “Till I Waltz Again with You” by Teresa Brewer, “Keep It a Secret” by Jo Stafford and “I Let the Stars Get in My Eyes” by Goldie Hill all topped the charts.
1953 – Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz signed a contract worth $8,000,000 to continue the “I Love Lucy” TV show through 1955.
1953 – “Bwana Devil,” the movie that heralded the 3D fad of the 1950s, opened in New York City.
1955 – Operation Teapot begins. It is a series of fourteen nuclear detonations to determine the effects of nuclear weapons on a variety of materials and in a variety of conditions begins with detonation Wasp. The Teapot test shot “Wasp” is successfully detonated at the Nevada Test Site with a yield of 1.2 kilotons.
1959 – Elvis Presley appeared after hours at the Lido Club in Paris while on leave from the U.S. Army.
1959 – Ray Charles recorded “What’d I Say.”
1960 – The Eighth Winter Olympic Games were formally opened in Squaw Valley, Calif., by Vice President Nixon. A drought of snow ended 2 days before the start of the games.
1960 – Walter O’Malley, Los Angeles Dodger owner, purchases Chavez Ravine for $494,000. It was only worth $92,500.
1962 – Robert F. Kennedy said that U.S. troops would stay in Vietnam until Communism was defeated.
1964 – “Any Wednesday” opened at the Music Box Theatre in New York City. The play established Gene Hackman as an actor.
1964 – The United States cuts off military assistance to Britain, France, and Yugoslavia in retaliation for their continuing trade with the communist nation of Cuba. The action was chiefly symbolic, but represented the continued U.S. effort to destabilize the Cuban regime of Fidel Castro.
1965 – Alabama police were sent to Marion as some 500 people marched from a church toward the city jail to protest the jailing of a civil rights worker. Street lights went out and troopers began swinging clubs on the marchers. Jimmie Lee Jackson (26) was shot while aiding his grandfather (82) and mother. Jackson died 2 days later.
1967 – “Kind of a Drag” by the Buckinghams topped the charts.
1968 – Vietnam War: Three U.S. pilots who were held by the Vietnamese arrived in Washington.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Everyday People” by Sly & The Family Stone, “Touch Me” by The Doors, “Build Me Up Buttercup” by The Foundations and “Until My Dreams Come True” by Jack Greene all topped the charts.
1969 – Hawthorne Nevada Airlines Flight 708 disaster. The aircraft crashed into the tallest mountain in the contiguous United States, Mount Whitney, near Lone Pine, killing all 35 passengers and crew on board.
1970 – The Chicago Seven are found not guilty of conspiring to incite riots at the 1968 Democratic Party national convention.
1972 – The California Supreme Court in the case of People v. Anderson, 6 Cal.3d 628 invalidates the state’s death penalty and commutes the sentences of all death row inmates to life in prison.
1973 – A 119 lb octopus measuring 23 feet across captured in Hood Canal, Washington.
1976 – President Gerald Ford signed Executive Order #11905 prohibiting US officials from plotting or engaging in political assassination. The order was later broadened by Presidents Carter and Reagan.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Torn Between Two Lovers” by Mary MacGregor, “New Kid in Town” by the Eagles, “Blinded by the Light” by Manfred Mann’s Earth Band and “Near You” by George Jones & Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1977 – The Space Shuttle “Enterprise” test vehicle goes on its maiden “flight” while sitting on top of a Boeing 747.
1978 – “Stayin’ Alive” by the Bee Gees topped the charts. In 2012 it was determined that the “beat” to this song was perfect for training CPR students on the speed of chest compressions.
1979 – The miniseries “Roots: Next Generations” premiered on ABC TV. (This was very offensive.)
1983 – MASS SHOOTING: Thirteen people die and one is seriously injured in the Wah Mee Massacre in Seattle, Washington, said to be the largest robbery-motivated mass-murder in American history. The Wah Mee massacre was a multiple homicide in which Kwan Fai “Willie” Mak, Wai-Chiu “Tony” Ng, and Benjamin Ng gunned down 14 people in the Wah Mee gambling club.
1984 – “Karma Chameleon” by the Culture Club topped the charts.
1984 – Reed Larson (Detroit Red Wings) got two assists to become the highest scoring, American-born player in the history of the National Hockey League.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Careless Whisper” by Wham! featuring George Michael, “Loverboy” by Billy Ocean, “Method of Modern Love” by Daryl Hall John Oates and “Make My Life with You” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1985 – General William Westmoreland and CBS, INC. reach an out-of-court settlement in Westmoreland’s $120 million libel suit in which he charged that a CBS documentary falsely accused him of misrepresenting the strength of Vietcong forces.
1987 – The executives of the Girl Scout movement decided to change the color of the scout uniform from the traditional Girl Scout green to the newer Girl Scout blue.
1987 – The song “Sign O’ The Times” was released by Prince.
1988 – Anthony M. Kennedy was sworn in as the 104th justice of the Supreme Court.
1998 – Two white separatists are arrested in Nevada and accused of plotting a biological attack on New York City subways.
1986 – San Antonio’s Alvin Robertson scores NBA 2nd quadruple double- 20 points, 11 rebounds, 10 assists & 10 steals against Phoenix. The NBA only recognizes four in basketball history.
1989 – “Straight Up” by Paula Abdul topped the charts.
1994 – At the Winter Olympic Games in Norway, speedskater Dan Jansen finally won a gold medal, breaking the world record in the 1,000 meters.
1997 – Shuttle Discovery Astronauts completed their tuneup of the Hubble Space Telescope.
1997 – It was reported that scientists found evidence that upheld the theory of an asteroid hitting the Earth 65 million years ago in seabed drill sediments 300 miles off the coast of northern Florida.
1999 – The Clinton administration warned Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic to choose peace with ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, or face a devastating military strike.
2000 – Mariano Faget (54), a 34-year US immigration officer in Miami, was reported to be a Cuban spy. Faget was found guilty of disclosing government secrets May 30.
2000 – Ford Motor Co. agreed to pay $3.8 million in a settlement with the Labor Dept. over charges of discrimination in hiring against women and minorities at seven plants.
2000 – Announcer Bob Hite Sr. (86), whose rich voice introduced “The Lone Ranger” on radio, died in West Palm Beach, Fla.
2001 – FBI agent Robert Hanssen is arrested for spying for the Soviet Union. He was ultimately convicted and sentenced to life in prison.
2001 – Dale Earnhardt is killed in a crash during the final lap of the Daytona 500, which was won by Michael Waltrip, driving in a car that Earnhardt owned. His son, Dale Earnhardt, Jr. finished second.
2004 – Scientists reported that X-rays from galaxy RX J1242-11 indicated a black hole tearing apart a star and gobbling up a share of its gaseous mass.
2004 – The US federal debt passed the $7 trillion mark.
2005 – The United Kingdom law banning fox hunting, hare coursing and other sports which kill wild mammals is enforced from this date.
2005 – President George W. Bush signed the US Class Action Fairness Act. It expanded federal jurisdiction over many large class-action lawsuits and mass actions taken in the United States.
2005 – Mathematics: The 42nd known Mersenne prime is discovered by Martin Nowak of Germany. The prime number is the largest known Mersenne prime at the time of its discovery, and is nearly eight million digits long. That makes this number in Pica 10, over 25 miles long.
2006 – Thousands of people remained without power after a winter storm packing wind gusts of up to 77 mph rolled across the Northeast US, downing trees and power lines. Four people were killed.
2007 – The United States sent eight more US F-22 stealth fighter planes to the southern Japanese island of Okinawa in their first full deployment overseas.
2007 – Eight U.S. troops are killed and fourteen wounded in a helicopter crash in south-eastern Afghanistan.
2009 – The Federal Reserve cut its economic outlook for 2009 on Wednesday and warned that the United States economy would face an “unusually gradual and prolonged” period of recovery as the country struggles to climb out of a deep global downturn.
2009 – A Florida jury ordered Philip Morris to pay $8 million in damages to Elaine Hess, the widow of a smoker who died of lung cancer.
2009 – A Columbian mammoth is discovered in the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California.
2009 – General Motors will cut 47,000 jobs throughout 2009.
2010 – A small private plane is intentionally crashed into an office building in Austin, Texas. Andrew Joseph Stack III, flying his Piper Dakota, crashed into Building I of the Echelon office complex in a suicide attempt killing himself and Internal Revenue Service manager Vernon Hunter. Thirteen others were injured, two seriously.
2011 – The Obama administration rescinds most of a regulation designed to protect health care workers who refuse to provide a service that they find objectionable but retains protections against performing abortions when you have strong anti-abortion convictions.
2011 – The US House of Representatives blocks Federal funding for Planned Parenthood.
2011 – Wisconsin has demonstrations in the tens of thousands against a bill forcing public service workers to pay increased pension costs, increased healthcare coverage as well as striping them of almost all union rights. State Senators yesterday fled the state to Illinois.
2011 – NASA clears the Space Shuttle Discovery for its final flight.
2012 – The funeral of entertainer Whitney Houston is held at the New Hope Baptist Church in Newark, New Jersey. Kevin Costner’s emotional speech (17:09)
1745 – Alessandro Volta, Italian physicist (d. 1827) was an Italian physicist known especially for the development of the electric battery in 1800.
1838 – Ernst Mach, who was a Bohemian-Austrian physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the “Mach number” (also known as Mach speed) and the optical illusion known as Mach bands. (d. 1916)
1892 – Wendell Willkie, was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. He lost to Franklin D. Roosevelt . (d. 1944)
1901 – Wayne King, saxophonist, bandleader. He was an American musician, songwriter, singer and orchestral leader. He was sometimes referred to as “the Waltz King”. (d. 1985)
1914 – Pee Wee King, American country musician and songwriter was an American country music songwriter and recording artist. King’s songs included “The Tennessee Waltz”, “Slow Poke”, and “You Belong to Me”. (d. 2000)
1919 – Jack Palance, was an Oscar-winning American film actor. With his rugged facial features and gravelly voice, Palance was best known to modern movie audiences as both the characters of Curly and Duke in the two City Slickers movies (d. 2006)
1920 – Bill Cullen, was an Emmy Award-winning American radio and television personality . He was best known for his roles in game shows as the original host of The Price Is Right in the 1960s and The $25,000 Pyramid in the 1970s. (d. 1990)
1925 – George Kennedy is an Academy-Award winning American actor who has appeared in over 200 film and television productions. He is widely familiar as Joe Patroni in the Airport series of disaster movies from the 1970s,
1950 – Cybill Shepherd is a Golden Globe Award-winning American actress, singer, and former fashion model.
1954 – John Travolta is a two-time Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor and singer.
1957 – Vanna White, is an American television personality, best known as the hostess and puzzle board operator on the long-running game show Wheel of Fortune. She is the niece of actor Christopher George.
1968 – Molly Ringwald, is an American actress, singer, and dancer.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry (Mechanized) 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Cu Chi, Hau Nghia Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 18th, 1966. Entered service at: Albuquerque, N. Mex. Born: 30 June 1944, Albuquerque, N. Mex. c.o. No.: 21, 26 April 1967. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Fernandez demonstrated indomitable courage when the patrol was ambushed by a Viet Cong rifle company and driven back by the intense enemy automatic weapons fire before it could evacuate an American soldier who had been wounded in the Viet Cong attack. Sp4c. Fernandez, a sergeant and two other volunteers immediately fought their way through devastating fire and exploding grenades to reach the fallen soldier. Upon reaching their fallen comrade the sergeant was struck in the knee by machine gun fire and immobilized. Sp4c. Fernandez took charge, rallied the left flank of his patrol and began to assist in the recovery of the wounded sergeant. While first aid was being administered to the wounded man, a sudden increase in the accuracy and intensity of enemy fire forced the volunteer group to take cover. As they did, an enemy grenade landed in the midst of the group, although some men did not see it. Realizing there was no time for the wounded sergeant or the other men to protect themselves from the grenade blast, Sp4c. Fernandez vaulted over the wounded sergeant and threw himself on the grenade as it exploded, saving the lives of his four comrades at the sacrifice of his life. Sp4c. Fernandez’ profound concern for his fellow soldiers, at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
National PTA Founders Day
Black Sox Scandal
The players on the Charles Comiskey’s 1919 Chicago White Sox team were a fractious lot. The club was divided into two “gangs” of players, each with practically nothing to say to the other. Together they formed the best team in baseball–perhaps one of the best teams that ever played the game, yet they–like all ball players of the time–were paid a fraction of what they were worth. Because of baseball’s reserve clause, any player who refused to accept a contract was prohibited from playing baseball on any other professional team. The White Sox owner paid two of his greatest stars, outfielder “Shoeless” Joe Jackson and third baseman Buck Weaver, only $6000 a year. Comiskey has been labeled the tyrant and tightwad whose cheap practices made his players especially willing to sell their baseball souls for money, but in fact Comiskey was probably no worse than most owners–in fact, Chicago had the highest team payroll in 1919. In the era of the reserve clause, gamblers could find players on lots of teams looking for extra cash.
The 1919 World Series ended up being the most famous scandal in baseball history. Eight players from the Chicago White Sox (later nicknamed the Black Sox) were accused of throwing the series against the Cincinnati Reds. Details of the scandal and the extent to which each man was involved have always been unclear. It was, however, front-page news across the country and, despite being acquitted of criminal charges, the players were banned from professional baseball for life. The eight men included the great “Shoeless” Joe Jackson; pitchers Eddie Cicotte and Claude “Lefty” Williams; infielders Buck Weaver, Arnold “Chick” Gandil, Fred McMullin, and Charles “Swede” Risberg; and outfielder Oscar “Happy” Felsch. While the facts surrounding the throwing of the Series are confusing, people familiar with the case agree that “Chick” Gandil was the ringleader.
A few weeks before the 1919 World Series, Gandil approached Sullivan about fixing the Series. He told Sullivan that for $100,000, Gandil and several of his teammates would make sure the White Sox would lose. Gandil was known as a rough character and, at the age of thirty-three, he was getting ready to retire. Before his career ended, he had one last shot to make big money. While Sullivan started raising money, Gandil went to work getting the cooperation of his teammates.
The gamblers started almost immediately not paying on their promises and the players seeing that they were not getting paid had a change of heart. They started winning until the crucial final game. Unfortunately, any chance of winning was ruined by Arnold Rothstein. Instead of betting individual games, he had bet on Cincinnati to win the series. With his investment at risk, Rothstein sent one of his henchman to visit Williams, who was pitching in the eighth game. He explained to Williams that Rothstein wanted the Series to end the next day. He threatened Williams and his wife. Chicago lost 10-5. In the end, one scared man handed Cincinnati the World Series.\
“Why do you see the speck that is in your brother’s eye, but do not notice the log that is in your own eye? Or how can you say to your brother, ‘Let me take the speck out of your eye,’ when there is the log in your own eye? You hypocrite, first take the log out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly to take the speck out of your brother’s eye.”
“Be not intimidated… nor suffer yourselves to be wheedled out of your liberties by any pretense of politeness, delicacy, or decency. These, as they are often used, are but three different names for hypocrisy, chicanery and cowardice.”
“Without difficulties life would be like a stream without rocks or curves.”
~Tao of Pooh
idee fixe\ee-day-FEEKS\, noun:
An idea that dominates the mind; a fixed idea; an obsession.
1600 – Philosopher Giordano Bruno was burnt alive at Campo de’ Fiori in Rome, charged of heresy. The Roman Inquisition claimed that his cosmological theories went beyond the Copernican model in proposing that the Sun was essentially a star, and moreover, that the universe contained an infinite number of inhabited worlds populated by other intelligent beings.
1621 – Myles Standish is appointed as first commander of Plymouth colony.
1691 – Thomas Neale was granted a British patent for American postal service.
1776 – First volume of Gibbon’s “Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire” published.
1801 – An electoral tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr is resolved when Jefferson is elected President of the United States and Burr Vice President by the US House of Representatives.
1817 – First US city lit by gas (Baltimore.)
1820 – The United States House of Representatives passes the Missouri Compromise. The Missouri Compromise, also called the Compromise of 1820, was an agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30′ north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri.
1827 – Chester Stone patented a washing machine.
1861 – Civil War: Local militia forced the surrender of the federal arsenal at San Antonio, TX even before the state seceded on March 2.
1862 – Ironclad C.S.S. Virginia (ex-U.S.S. Merrimack) commissioned, Captain Franklin Buchanan commanding.
1862 – Legislation was introduced in the Senate on 17 February 1862, which authorized the Congressional Medal of Honor for the Army and followed the pattern of a similar award approved for Naval personnel in December 1861.
1864 – Civil War: H. L. Hunley (CSA) becomes the first submarine to engage and sink a warship, the USS Housatonic.
1865 – Civil War: Columbia, South Carolina burned as Confederate forces flee from advancing Union forces.
1865 – Civil War: Ships of Rear Admiral Porter’s fleet helped to ferry General Schofield’s two divisions from Fort Fisher to Smithville, on the west bank of the Cape Fear River.
1865 – Civil War: Union forces regained Fort Sumter.
1865– Civil War: During the night, Forts Moultrie, Sumter, Johnson, Beauregard, and Castle Pinckney were abandoned as the Confederates marched northward to join the beleaguered forces of General Lee.
1870 – Mississippi became the 9th state readmitted to US after Civil War.
1872 – The Senate refuses to ratify a treaty with the Samoan Islands that would have given the US the right to install a naval coaling station on Pago Pago and become “protector” of Samoa.
1876 – Sardines first canned by Julius Wolff in Eastport, ME.
1878 – In San Francisco, CA, the first large city telephone exchange opened. It had only 18 phones.
1897 – National Congress of Parents & Teachers (PTA) organizes (Washington, DC).
1900 – After an ambush that killed two Philippine-based Marines the day before, the gunboat USS Manileno was sent to the village of Moron a little after midnight on the morning of 17 February. Surprising the defenders, it took the town without much resistance, destroyed a store of ammunition, and burned the blockhouse. On the afternoon of the same day the captain ordered the inhabitants of Benictican and Baton to move into Olongapo, where the Marines were based, within three days or be declared outlaws. All obeyed his order except six families, who, according to his information, moved to another town.
1906 – Theodore Roosevelt’s daughter Alice marries in the White House.
1909 – A government commission reported that the tobacco industry was controlled by six men with 86 firms that were worth $450 million.
1911 – First amphibian flight to & from a ship, by Glenn Curtiss, San Diego.
1913 – The Armory Show opens in New York City, displaying works of artists who are to become some of the most influential painters of the early 20th century.
1924 – In Miami, Florida, Johnny Weissmuller sets a new world record in the 100-yard freestyle swimming competition with a time of 52-2/5 seconds.
1925 – Harold Ross and Jane Grant found The New Yorker magazine; the debut issue was dated February 21, 1925 and the cost was 15 cents.
1926 – An avalanche buried 75 in Sap Gulch, Bingham, Utah, and 40 died.
1927 – A major four day storm that dumped 25.38 inches of rain on the San Diego area. This was a 5000 year storm at the HenshawDam. The Henshaw weather station reported 14.48 inches on February 16, 1927 alone. The death toll reached 24 with some 3,000 left homeless.
1932 – Irving Berlin’s musical “Face the Music,” premiered in New York City.
1933 – The magazine Newsweek is published for the first time.
1933 – The Blaine Act ends Prohibition in the United States. It was sponsored by Wisconsin Senator John J. Blaine and passed by the United States Senate today.The repeal was formally adopted as the 21st Amendment to the Constitution on December 5, 1933.
1933 – Blondie Boopadoop marries Dagwood Bumstead. They married three years after Chic Young’s popular strip first debuted. Blondie is an American comic strip created by cartoonist Chic Young. Distributed by King Features Syndicate, the strip has been published in newspapers since September 8, 1930.
1934 – First high school auto driving course offered in State College, PA.
1936 – The world’s first superhero, The Phantom, makes his first appearance in comics.
1937 – Nearly at the end of the four years of construction of the Golden Gate Bridge, ten construction workers lost their lives when a section of scaffold fell through a safety net.
1940 – President Roosevelt sends Sumner Welles, Under-Secretary of State, on a “fact-finding” tour of Europe and appoints Myron C. Taylor as his “personal representative” to the Vatican.
1942 – World War II: Two-hundred ninety-six men of the first naval construction unit to deploy from the United States was designated the First Construction Detachment and it arrived at Bora Bora in the Societies Islands with the mission of constructing a fueling station and other facilities.
1943 – New York Yankee Joe DiMaggio, enlists into the US Army.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “Shoo, Shoo, Baby” by The Andrews Sisters, “My Heart Tells Me” by The Glen Gray Orchestra (vocal: Eugenie Baird), “Besame Mucho” by The Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Bob Eberly & Kitty Kallen), “Pistol Packin’ Mama” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1944 – Oil was discovered in commercial quantities in Alabama.
1944 – World War II: Battle of Eniwetok Atoll (Operation Catchpole)begins. The battle ends in an American victory on February 22.
1944 – World War II: Operation Hailstone begins. U.S. naval air, surface, and submarine attack against Truk (Chuuk), Japan’s main base in the central Pacific, in support of the Eniwetok invasion.
1944 – World War II: During the night (February 17-18), US destroyers bombard Japanese bases at Rabaul and Kavieng.
1944 – World War II: German forces continue attacks on the Anzio beachhead. The US 45th Division barely contains the German attack. Heavy losses are sustained by both sides.
1945 – There are new attacks by US 12th and 20th Corps, of US 3rd Army, from Luxembourg and around Saarlouis.
1945 – World War II:Gen. MacArthur’s troops landed on Corregidor in the Philippines. General Tomoyuki Yamashita was the Japanese general opposing MacArthur.
1945 -US Task Force 54 and TF52 continue the preliminary bombardment of Iwo Jima. The battleship Tennessee and a cruiser as well as several smaller ships are damaged by Japanese return fire. Meanwhile, a USAAF raid by B-24 bombers is also conducted.
1947 – With the words, “Hello! This is New York calling,“the Voice of America begins to transmit radio broadcasts into the Soviet Union.
1949 – Burl Ives release his original recording of Ghost Riders in the Sky. Numerous artists went on to record this as well.
1949 – Richard (Dick) Button bested all competition in Paris, France to retain the world title of the men’s figure skating championship. Button is a commentator on figure skating events the world over for American television, including Olympics competition.
1950 – In New York 31 people died in a train crash at Long Island’s Rockville Center.
1951 – Packard introduced its “250” Chassis Convertible.
1951 – FBI director J. Edgar Hoover initiated a secret nationwide program intended to remove politically suspect employees from their jobs.
1951 – Korean War: B-26s flew the first night bombing mission using SHORAN, a short-range navigation system employing an airborne radar device and two ground beacon stations for precision bombing.
1954 – Doris Day’s single, “Secret Love“, became the #1 tune in the U.S. It won the 1953 Academy Award winner for Best Song.
1956 – The US Coast Guard Cutter Casco saved twenty-one persons from a US Navy seaplane that was forced to ditch 100 miles south of Bermuda and delivered both the survivors and the disabled aircraft to the Naval Air Station at St. Georgia Harbor, Bermuda.
1957 – A fire at a home for the elderly, the Katie Jane Memorial Home for the Aged , in Warrenton, Missouri kills 72 people.
1958 – Pope Pius XII declares Saint Clare of Assisi (1193~1253) the patron saint of television.
1958 – Comic strip “BC” first appears. It was created by Johnny Hart (1931-2007.)
1958 – “Sugartime” by McGuire Sisters topped the charts.
1959 – Project Vanguard: Vanguard 2 – The first weather satellite launched to measure cloud-cover distribution.
1960 – Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested in the Alabama bus boycott.
1962 – Gene Chandler hit #1 with “Duke of Earl“.
1962 – Beach Boys introduced a new musical style with their hit “Surfin.”
1964 – In Wesberry v. Sanders, the Supreme Court of the United States rules that congressional districts have to be approximately equal in population.
1964 – Luke Appling became the 101st member elected to baseball’s Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, NY.
1965 – Project Ranger: The Ranger 8 probe launches on its mission to photograph the Mare Tranquillitatis region of the Moon in preparation for the manned Apollo missions. Mare Tranquillitatis or the “Sea of Tranquility” would become the site chosen for the Apollo 11 lunar landing.
1965 – Comedienne Joan Rivers made her first guest appearances on ” The Tonight Show starring Johnny Carson” on NBC-TV.
1966 – Staff Sgt. Barry Sadler received a gold record from RCA Victor, for both the album and the single of “The Ballad of the Green Berets“.
1966 – In testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Gen. Maxwell Taylor states that a major U.S. objective in Vietnam is to demonstrate that “wars of liberation” are “costly, dangerous and doomed to failure.”
1967 – Beatles release “Penny Lane” & “Strawberry Fields.” Strawberry Fields was a children’s home run by the Salvation Army. It was closed in 2005.
1967 – Vietnam War: The first full day of Operation DECKHOUSE VI, which lasted until 3 March, was conducted near Quang Ngai city. The Special Landing Force (BLT Y4 and HMM-363) accounted for 280 enemy killed.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love is Blue” by Paul Mauriat, “I Wish It Would Rain” by The Temptations, “(Theme From) Valley of the Dolls” by Dionne Warwick and “Skip a Rope” by Henson Cargill all topped the charts.
1968 – Vietnam War: American officials in Saigon report an all-time high weekly rate of U.S. casualties–543 killed in action and 2,547 wounded in the previous seven days.
1968 – In Springfield, Massachusetts the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame opens.
1970 – At Fort Bragg, North Carolina, Dr. Jeffrey MacDonald’s wife and two daughters were murdered. Dr. MacDonald was convicted of the murders but claimed that drug-crazed assailants were responsible.
1972 – Sales of the Volkswagen Beetle exceeded those of Ford Model-T.
1972 – President Richard Nixon departed on his historic trip to China.
1973 – President Richard Nixon named Patrick Gray director of the FBI.
1973 – “Crocodile Rock” by Elton John topped the charts.
1974 – Robert K. Preston, a disgruntled U.S. Army private, buzzes the White House with a stolen helicopter. At 2 A.M. Preston, stole a United States Army helicopter from Fort Meade, Maryland, flew it to Washington, D.C., and hovered for six minutes over the White House before descending on the south lawn, about 100 yards from the West Wing.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “50 Ways to Leave Your Lover” by Paul Simon, “Love to Love You Baby” by Donna Summer, “You Sexy Thing” by Hot Chocolate and “The White Knight” by Cledus Maggard & the Citizen’s Band all topped the charts.
1985 – U.S. Postage stamp prices were raised from 20 cents to 22 cents for first class mail.
1985 – Murray Haydon became the third person to receive an artificial heart.
1986 – Johnson and Johnson, maker of Tylenol, announced it would no longer sell over-the-counter medications in capsule form, following the death of a woman who had taken a cyanide-laced capsule.
1988 – Marine Lt. Col. William Higgins, an American officer, and veteran of Vietnam, serving with a United Nations truce monitoring group, was kidnapped in southern Lebanon by pro-Iranian terrorists.
1988 – In St. Paul, MN about 40 “well-to-do”partygoers celebrating after a pop concert were stripped naked and robbed by four men with machine guns.
1989 – A six-week study of Arctic atmosphere by NASA shows no ozone “hole”.
1990 – “Opposites Attract” by Paula Abdul & the Wild Pair topped the charts.
1992 – A court in Milwaukee, Wisconsin sentences serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer to life in prison. In November of 1994, he was beaten to death in prison.
1993 – President Clinton addressed a joint session of Congress, asking Americans to accept one of the biggest tax increases in history as part of a plan to stimulate the economy and curb massive budget deficits.
1995 – Federal judge allowed a lawsuit claiming US tobacco makers knew nicotine was addictive and manipulated its levels to keep customers hooked.
1995 – Colin Ferguson is convicted of six counts of murder for the December 1993 Long Island Rail Road shootings and later receives a 200+ year sentence.
1996 – In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, world champion Garry Kasparov beats the Deep Blue supercomputer in a chess match.
1996 – NASA’s Discovery Program begins as the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft lifts off on the first mission ever to orbit and land on an asteroid, 433 Eros.
1997 – The Virginia House of Delegates voted to retire the state song “Carry Me Back to Old Virginia,” and make it the state song emeritus.
1997 – In Austin, Texas, Angela Peck was stabbed in the back and the neck by Carl Wayne Thomas (21), a security guard. She pleaded for mercy and promised to blame the attack on a fictitious character. Thomas agreed and summoned aid. She later told the truth and Thomas confessed. He agreed to a 42-year prison sentence for attempted murder.
1998 – The U.S. women’s hockey team won the gold medal at Nagano, Japan, defeating Canada 3-1.
1998 – Bob Merrill (b.1921), composer and lyricist, died from suicide at age 74. His work included the musicals “Carnival” and “Funny Girl” and the song “How Much Is That Doggie in the Window.”
1998 – An Iranian crowd cheered as US wrestlers carried the Stars and Stripes into an international meet in Tehran.
1999 – In a satellite-linked address to college campuses across the country, President Clinton made his case for shoring up Social Security and Medicare.
2000 – Microsoft released the Windows 2000 computer operating system.
2002 – The new US Transportation Security Administration took over supervision of aviation security from the airline industry and the Federal Aviation Administration.
2003 – An estimated 40 million viewers tuned in to the finale of Fox’s reality show “Joe Millionaire,” in which Evan Marriott chose Zora Andrich. Once he was revealed to her, they did not stay together but did split the winnings.
2003 – A blizzard shut down much of the mid-Atlantic region on Presidents Day with windblown snow up to 4 feet deep, halting air and some rail travel and caused at least 40 deaths.
2003 – Baltimore Orioles pitcher Steve Bechler died of heatstroke at a Fort Lauderdale, Fla., hospital, less than 24 hours after complaining of dizziness during a spring training workout.
2003 – In Chicago twenty-one people were killed at the E2 nightclub in an early morning stampede after security guards used mace and pepper spray to halt a fist fight between two women.
2004 – Cingular Wireless won the bidding war to acquire AT&T Wireless Services for nearly $41 billion in cash, a deal which would create the largest cell phone company in the US.
2004 – A study published in the latest issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association suggests breast cancer is linked to the use of antibiotics. (Tucson Citizen).
2004 – In Connecticut two cranes collapsed at a bridge construction site and one worker was killed.
2005 – President George W. Bush named John Negroponte as the first national intelligence director.
2005 – Two US Border Patrol agents in Texas stopped a van carrying 743 pounds of marijuana and shot Osvaldo Aldrete-Davila, an admitted Mexican drug smuggler, as he fled back across the Rio Grande.
2005 – The US House of Representatives passes a Class Action Fairness Act that intends to curb class action suits, moving them from state courts to federal courts.
2005 – Researchers demonstrated a robot that used a “passive-dynamic design” to learn walking step by step like a toddler.
2006 – Christian worship leader and songwriter Brenton Brown released his first solo album, “Everlasting God“.
2006 – Harry Whittington, the lawyer shot by Vice President Dick Cheney while quail hunting, left a Corpus Christi, Texas, hospital, saying “accidents do and will happen.”
2006 – US-based Space Adventures announced it plans to build a $265 million spaceport in the United Arab Emirates.
2006 – A fierce storm system swept across the Midwest moving eastward, ripping the roof off an Indiana church, pelting Arkansas with hail and cutting power to thousands in Michigan.
2007 – Presidential contender Hillary Clinton has called for a 90-day deadline to start withdrawing U.S. troops from Iraq. She states in a video on her website: “If George Bush doesn’t end the war before he leaves office, when I’m president, I will.” (Reuters via ABC Australia Online)
2007 – Bismarck, ND reclaims the snow angel record. More than 8,900 people flapped their arms and legs on Bismarck’s state Capitol grounds in an attempt to reclaim the snow angel record of 3,784 set by students at Michigan Technological University in Houghton, MI.
2007 – In Cape Canaveral, Florida, a rocket carried five satellites into orbit as part of the THEMIS mission to study magnetic storms in the Earth’s atmosphere.
2008 – California-based Hallmark/Westland Meat Packing Company voluntarily recalls just over 143 million pounds (65 million kilograms) of raw and frozen beef products, considered the largest meat recall in the United States, following an investigation into animal cruelty.
2009 – President Barack Obama authorizes the deployment of 12,000 more soldiers into the Afghanistan War.
2009 – President Obama signs the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 in Denver, Colorado.
2009 – General Motors and Chrysler inform the U.S. federal government that they will need additional loans of $21.6 billion.
2009 – Trump Entertainment Resorts Inc, the casino operator named for Donald Trump, filed for bankruptcy protection as recession and declining gambling revenues battered the company and its rivals.
2010 – Defense Secretary Robert Gates announced that the Obama administration has decided to give the war in Iraq a new name, “Operation New Dawn,” effective Sept 1, to reflect the reduced role US troops will play in securing the country this year as troop levels fall.
2010 – In Palo Alto, Ca., a Cessna 310 crashed into a neighborhood after takeoff from the fogged-in Palo Alto Airport, killing all three people aboard.
2011 – Police arrest nine people allegedly involved in a United States-Mexico arms ring, and seize 300 weapons.
2011 – The inquiry into the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is released finding that the accident was entirely preventable. (Oil Spill Commission)
2011 – US authorities charge more than a hundred doctors, nurses and physical therapists in nine cities with Medicare fraud.
2011 – Schools in Wisconsin close as teachers attend rallies against proposals to limit collective bargaining for state employees. Democratic State Senators leave the capital Madison to avoid participating in the debate.
2012 – United States Capitol Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation arrested Amine El Khalifi, a man from Morocco who allegedly planned a suicide attack on the United States Capitol.
2012 – A US Federal Court judge orders Tampa-based Odyssey Marine Exploration to return treasures from the shipwreck of the Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes to Spain.
2012 – New Jersey Governor Chris Christie vetoes a bill that would legalize same-sex marriage in the state.
2013 – Danica Patrick becomes the first woman to win pole position at the Daytona 500 and the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series.
2014 – Jimmy Fallon takes over the Tonight Show from Jay Leno!!!
2014 – A cafe owner was ordered to remove an extractor fan because the smell of her frying bacon offended passing Muslims. Planning officials acted against Beverley Akciecek, 49, after being told her next door neighbour’s Muslim friends had felt ”physically sick” due to the ”foul odour.”
1718 – Matthew Tilghman, American Continental Congressman (d. 1790)
1844 – Aaron Montgomery Ward, American department store founder (d. 1913)
1874 – Thomas J. Watson, American computer manufacturer (d. 1956)
1908 – Red Barber, American baseball announcer (d. 1992)
1910 – Arthur Hunnicutt, American actor (d. 1979)
1914 – Arthur Kennedy, American actor (d. 1990)
1914 – Wayne Morris, American actor (d. 1959)
1922 – Marshall Teague, American race car driver (d. 1959)
1924 – Margaret Truman, American novelist (d. 2008)
1925 – Hal Holbrook, American actor
1933 – Craig L. Thomas, American politician (d. 2007)
1936 – Jim Brown, American football player
1939 – Mary Ann Mobley, American actress and beauty queen
1942 – Huey P. Newton, American political activist (d. 1989)
1954 – Rene Russo, American actress
1963 – Michael Jordan, American basketball player
1963 – Larry the Cable Guy, American comedian
1975 – Wish Bone, American rapper
1981 – Paris Hilton, American actress and heiress
*HAMMERBERG, OWEN FRANCIS PATRICK
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 31 May 1920, Daggett, Mich. Accredited to: Michigan. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a diver engaged in rescue operations at West Loch, Pearl Harbor, February 17th, 1945. Aware of the danger when two fellow divers were hopelessly trapped in a cave-in of steel wreckage while tunneling with jet nozzles under an LST sunk in forty feet of water and twenty feet of mud. Hammerberg unhesitatingly went overboard in a valiant attempt to effect their rescue despite the certain hazard of additional cave-ins and the risk of fouling his lifeline on jagged pieces of steel imbedded in the shifting mud. Washing a passage through the original excavation, he reached the first of the trapped men, freed him from the wreckage and, working desperately in pitch-black darkness, finally effected his release from fouled lines, thereby enabling him to reach the surface. Wearied but undaunted after several hours of arduous labor, Hammerberg resolved to continue his struggle to wash through the oozing submarine, subterranean mud in a determined effort to save the second diver. Venturing still farther under the buried hulk, he held tenaciously to his purpose, reaching a place immediately above the other man just as another cave-in occurred and a heavy piece of steel pinned him crosswise over his shipmate in a position which protected the man beneath from further injury while placing the full brunt of terrific pressure on himself. Although he succumbed in agony eighteen hours after he had gone to the aid of his fellow divers, Hammerberg, by his cool judgment, unfaltering professional skill and consistent disregard of all personal danger in the face of tremendous odds, had contributed effectively to the saving of his two comrades. His heroic spirit of self-sacrifice throughout enhanced and sustained the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.
HERRING, RUFUS G.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Naval Reserve, LCI (G) 449. Place and date: Iwo Jima, February 17th, 1945. Entered service at: North Carolina. Born: 11 June 1921, Roseboro, N.C. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of LCI (G) 449 operating as a unit of LCI (G) Group 8, during the preinvasion attack on Iwo Jima on 17 February 1945. Boldly closing the strongly fortified shores under the devastating fire of Japanese coastal defense guns, Lt. (then Lt. (j.g.)) Herring directed shattering barrages of 40mm. and 20mm. gunfire against hostile beaches until struck down by the enemy’s savage counter-fire which blasted the 449’s heavy guns and whipped her decks into sheets of flame. Regaining consciousness despite profuse bleeding he was again critically wounded when a Japanese mortar crashed the conning station, instantly killing or fatally wounding most of the officers and leaving the ship wallowing without navigational control. Upon recovering the second time, Lt. Herring resolutely climbed down to the pilothouse and, fighting against his rapidly waning strength, took over the helm, established communication with the engineroom, and carried on valiantly until relief could be obtained. When no longer able to stand, he propped himself against empty shell cases and rallied his men to the aid of the wounded; he maintained position in the firing line with his 20mm. guns in action in the face of sustained enemy fire, and conned his crippled ship to safety. His unwavering fortitude, aggressive perseverance, and indomitable spirit against terrific odds reflect the highest credit upon Lt. Herring and uphold the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
JOHNSTON, WILLIAM J.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company G, 180th Infantry, 45th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Padiglione, Italy, February 17th to February 19th, February 1944. Entered service at: Colchester, Conn. Birth: Trenton, N.J. G.O. No.: 73, 6 September 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. On 17 February 1944, near Padiglione, Italy, he observed and fired upon an attacking force of approximately eighty Germans, causing at least twenty-five casualties and forcing withdrawal of the remainder. All that day he manned his gun without relief, subject to mortar, artillery, and sniper fire. Two Germans individually worked so close to his position that his machinegun was ineffective, whereupon he killed one with his pistol, the second with a rifle taken from another soldier. When a rifleman protecting his gun position was killed by a sniper, he immediately moved the body and relocated the machinegun in that spot in order to obtain a better field of fire. He volunteered to cover the platoon’s withdrawal and was the last man to leave that night. In his new position he maintained an all-night vigil, the next day causing seven German casualties. On the afternoon of the 18th, the organization on the left flank having been forced to withdraw, he again covered the withdrawal of his own organization. Shortly thereafter, he was seriously wounded over the heart, and a passing soldier saw him trying to crawl up the embankment. The soldier aided him to resume his position behind the machinegun which was soon heard in action for about ten minutes. Though reported killed, Pfc. Johnston was seen returning to the American lines on the morning of 19 February slowly and painfully working his way back from his overrun position through enemy lines. He gave valuable information of new enemy dispositions. His heroic determination to destroy the enemy and his disregard of his own safety aided immeasurably in halting a strong enemy attack, caused an enormous amount of enemy casualties, and so inspired his fellow soldiers that they fought for and held a vitally important position against greatly superior forces.
Famous Amos Cookies
Wally Amos is one of the most famous black entrepreneurs in America. He sometimes calls himself the Jackie Robinson of the theatrical business. It was Amos who “discovered” Simon and Garfunkel in a Manhattan Club. Amos was known for promoting talent at the William Morris Agency.
One evening a friend of Amos came over and with him brought a batch of chocolate chip cookies. Amos wanted to know how to make them himself and the friend said, Simple, the recipe is on the back of the bag of Nestles chocolate chips. After months of making cookies for his friends and making the recipe his own, Amos was ready to introduce his new discovery to the world.
It was opening night in Los Angeles. Two thousand people were sent special invitations. A red carpet adorned the sidewalk. Celebrities arrived in limousines. Music was playing and champagne were flowing. It was the opening night of the “Famous” Amos first chocolate chip cookie store.
Within five years, annual sales went to five million dollars annually. What’s out there waiting to be “discovered?” Look around it could the simplest, everyday thing that you could improve to the “world’s best!”
“A slack hand causes poverty, but the hand of the diligent makes rich.”
Virtues such as “industriousness, wisdom, and the development of insight” are also means by which possessions and property may be acquired.
“An elective despotism was not the government we fought for; but one in which the powers of government should be so divided and balanced among the several bodies of magistracy as that no one could transcend their legal limits without being effectually checked and restrained by the others.”
~ James Madison
“The thoughts we choose to think are the tools we use to paint the canvas of our lives.”
overweening oh-ver.-WEE-ning, adjective:
1. Overbearing; arrogant; presumptuous.
2.Excessive; immoderate; exaggerated.
Overweening is from Middle English overwening, present participle of overwenen, “to be arrogant,” from over + wenen “to ween,” from Old English wenan.
600 – Pope Gregory the Great decreed “God bless You” as the religiously correct response to a sneeze.
659- First known check (£400) – on display at Westminster Abbey (did it bounce?)
1741- Benjamin Franklin published America’s second magazine, “The General Magazine and Historical Chronicle”. It beat the first magazine by lasting twice as long. The first, Bradford’s American Magazine, lasted only three issues and Franklin’s lasted six.
1751 – Thomas Gray’s poem “Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard” was first published.
1760 – Cherokee Indians held hostage at Fort St. George by South Carolina Governor Lyttleton are killed in revenge for Indian attacks on frontier settlements that broke a peace treaty of December 1759.
1804 – During the First Barbary War, Stephen Decatur (USMC) leads a raid to burn the pirate-held frigate USS Philadelphia (1799). The First Barbary War (1801–1805) was the first of two wars fought between the United States and the Northwest African Berber Muslim states known collectively as the Barbary States.
1838 – Kentucky passes law permitting widows with children the right to vote in school board elections.
1840 – American Charles Wilkes discovers Shackleton Ice Shelf, Antarctica
1852 – Studebaker Brothers Wagon Company, precursor of the automobile manufacturer, is established.
1857 – The National Deaf Mute College was incorporated in Washington, DC. It was the first school in the world for advanced education of the deaf. The school was later renamed Gallaudet College.
1857 – Frederick Douglass elected President of Freedman Bank and Trust.
1859 – The French Government passes a law to set the A-note above middle C to a frequency of 435 Hz, in an attempt to standardize the pitch.
1862 – Civil War: General Ulysses S. Grant captures Fort Donelson, Tennessee and aapproximately 14,000 Confederate soldiers surrendered.
1862 – Civil War: Gunboats of Flag Officer Foote’s force destroyed the “Tennessee Iron Works” above Dover on the Cumberland River.
1864 – Civil War: Union naval forces, composed of double-ender U.S.S. Octorara, converted ferryboat U.S.S. J. P. Jackson and six mortar schooners, began bombarding the Confederate works at Fort Powell. Six months later this would result in the closing of Mobile Bay.
1865 – Civil War: Columbia, S.C., surrendered to Federal troops.
1868 – In New York City, the Jolly Corks organization is renamed the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks.
1878 – Silver dollar became US legal tender.
1883 – “Ladies Home Journal” began publication. It started as a women’s supplement to the Tribune and Farmer. The following year it became an independent publication.
1909 – First subway car with side doors goes into service in New York City.
1909 – The San Francisco Citizens Health Committee declared San Francisco free of bubonic plague.
1913 – President Taft agrees not to intervene in Mexico.
1914 – The first airplane flight between Los Angeles and San Francisco took place.
1923 – Black singer Bessie Smith makes her first recording, “Down Hearted Blues,” which sells 800,000 copies for Columbia Records. Her music reflected the Depression era.
1923 – Howard Carter unseals the burial chamber of Pharaoh Tutankhamun. On the 17th he entered the chamber with several invited guests. He had originally found the tomb on November 4, 1922.
1926 – Congress authorized Secretary of Treasury to acquire a site at New London, CT, without cost to United States, and construct thereon buildings for the United States Coast Guard Academy at a total cost not to exceed $1,750,000.
1932 – The first fruit tree patent was issued to James E. Markham for a peach tree which ripens later than other varieties.
1936 – 4th Winter Olympic games close at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.
1937 – Wallace H. Carothers receives a patent for nylon. Carothers was a research chemist for Du Pont.
1938 – The U.S. Federal Crop Insurance program was authorized.
1940 – World War II: Altmark Incident: The German tanker Altmark is boarded by sailors from the British destroyer HMS Cossack. 299 British prisoners are freed.
1942 – Shep Fields and his orchestra recorded “Jersey Bounce.”
1942 – German submarines attacked an Aruba oil refinery and sank the tanker “Pedernales.”
1943 – Sign on Munich facade: “Out with Hitler! Long live freedom!” was posted by the “White Rose” student group. They were caught on 2/18 and beheaded on 2/22.
1943 – World War II: The Soviet troops reenter Kharkov.
1944 – World War II: Justo Gonzalez became the first Hispanic-American to make the rank of chief petty officer when the Coast Guard promoted him to Chief Machinist’s Mate.
1944 – World War II: German forces begin a new attack on the Allied forces on the Anzio beachhead.
1945 – World War II: Two American battalions, one seaborne and one dropped by parachute, land on Corregidor Island in Manila Bay.
1945 – World War II: Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines is occupied by American troops, almost three years after the devastating and infamous Bataan Death March.
1945 – World War II: US Task Force 58, part of US 5th Fleet (Spruance), with twelve fleet carriers and four light carriers, conducts air raids on Tokyo. The aircraft carriers are escorted by eight battleships, fifteen cruisers and eighty-three destroyers as well as numerous support ships.
1945 – World War II: US Task Force 54 (Admiral Rodgers), with five cruisers and sixteen destroyers, as well as the ten escort carriers of US Task Force 52 begin the preliminary bombardment of Iwo Jima.
1946 – The first commercial helicopter, the four-seat Sikorsky S51, single rotor helicopter first flew. It could carry three passengers over 250 miles at a speed of 100 miles per hour.
1948 – The first U.S. newsreel telecast to be presented daily was the 20th Century-Fox Movietone News.
1948 – NBC-TV began airing its first nightly newscast, “The Camel Newsreel Theatre”, which consisted of Fox Movietone newsreels.
1948 – Miranda, famous moon of Uranus, photographed for the first time.
1950 – Longest-running prime-time game show (17 years), “What’s My Line” begins on CBS. “That’s three down. We move now to Arlene Francis.” Arlene Francis, Dorothy Kilgallen, humorist Hal Block, and Louis Untermeyer joined host John Daly.
1951 – Korean War: The 861-day naval siege of Wonsan began. This was one of the largest blockade and bombardment efforts ever initiated by the U.S. Navy.
1951 – New York City passes bill prohibiting racism in city-assisted housing.
1952 – “Slow Poke” by Pee Wee King topped the charts.
1952 – The FBI arrested ten members of the Ku Klux Klan in North Carolina.
1953 – Korean War: Marine Corps Captain Ted Williams, future baseball hall of famer, had his F9F Panther jet fighter badly damaged by anti-aircraft fire. Instead of ditching the aircraft, Captain Williams opted to return to base, an action that required exceptional skill and daring. He received the Air Medal for his actions. Williams walked away from the wheels-up landing.
1953 – Air Force Captain Joseph C. McConnell, Jr., 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flying his F-86 “Beauteous Butch” shot down his fifth MiG. He is recognized as the 27th ace of the war.
1953 – First man-made diamonds. The diamond crystals, the size of grains of sand, were produced in Sweden in a high pressure press by subjecting graphite to 83,000 atmospheres pressure and about 2000 degrees C for an hour.
1957 – “Young Love” by Tab Hunter topped the charts.
1959 – Leonard Spigelgass’ “Majority of One,” premiered in New York City.
1959 – The US House Committee on Un-American Activities has charged that an “elite corps” of Communist lawyers is promoting the party’s cause in the courts, Congress and government agencies.
1959 – Fidel Castro becomes Premier of Cuba after dictator Fulgencio Batista was overthrown on January 1.
1960 – The U.S.S. Triton began the first circumnavigation of the globe under water. The trip ended on May 10.
1961 – Explorer 9 (S-56a) is launched.The Explorer program was a United States space exploration program that provides flight opportunities for physics, heliophysics, and astrophysics investigations from space.
1961 – The DuSable Museum of African American History is chartered.
1962 – Jimmy Bostwick defeated his brother, Pete, to win the U.S. Open Court-Tennis championships for the third time.
1963 – First round-trip swim of Straits of Messina, Italy, was made by Mary Revell of the US.
1964 – The Beatles performed for the second time on “The Ed Sullivan Show.” They had made their first appearance on the show only a week before.
1965 – Pegasus 1 launched. Pegasus was a series of three satellites, which were launched 1965 to study the frequency of micrometeorite impacts. All three Pegasus satellites were launched by Saturn 1 rockets, and remained connected with the upper stage.
1965 – Four persons were held in a plot to blow up the Statue of Liberty, Liberty Bell and the Washington Monument.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m a Believer” by The Monkees, “Georgy Girl” by The Seekers, “Kind of a Drag” by The Buckinghams and “Don’t Come Home a’Drinkin’ (With Lovin’ on Your Mind)” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1967 – Vietnam: Operation River Raider begins in Mekong Delta.
1968 – In Haleyville, Alabama, the first 9-1-1 emergency telephone system goes into service.
1968 – Elvis Presley receives gold record for “How Great Thou Art.”
1970 – Joe Frazier began his reign as the undefeated heavyweight world champion when he knocked out Jimmy Ellis in five rounds. He lost the title on January 22,1973, when he lost for the first time in his professional career to George Foreman.
1970 – In San Francisco, a homemade bomb exploded outside the police Park Station on Waller St. Sgt. Brian McDonnell (44) died 2 days later and 8 other officers were injured. Black Panthers were suspected, but a later investigation suggested it was the work of the Weather Underground.
1971 – Aretha Franklin recorded “Spanish Harlem.”
1972 – Wilt Chamberlain (Los Angeles Lakers) reached the 30,000-point mark in his NBA career during a game against the Phoenix Suns. He was the first NBA player to do so.
1974 – “The Way We Were” by Barbra Streisand’s topped the charts.
1978 – The first computer bulletin board system is created (Ward & Randy’s CBBS) in Chicago, Illinois. (CBBS stood for Computerized Bulletin Board System.)
1980 – “Do That to Me One More Time” by Captain & Tennille topped the charts.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Down Under” by Men at Work, “Baby, Come to Me” by Patti Austin with James Ingram, “Shame on the Moon” by Bob Seger & The Silver Bullet Band and “’Til I Gain Control Again” by Crystal Gayle all topped the charts.
1984 – Bill Johnson becomes first American to win Olympic downhill skiing gold.
1984 – Musician Jerry Lee Lewis surrendered to federal authorities to answer income tax evasion charges. He was later acquitted.
1985 – “Careless Whisper” by George Michael topped the charts.
1985 – “Kojak” returned to network television after an absence of seven years with the CBS-TV special, “Kojak: The Belarus File.”
1985 – Ray ‘Boom Boom’ Mancini lost the World Boxing Association lightweight championship crown to Livingstone Bramble. The fighter retired in August, 1985.
1985 – Coach Lefty Driesell got his 400th career victory as the University of Maryland defeated Davidson by a score of 65-63.
1987 – The trial of John Demjanjuk, accused of being a Nazi guard dubbed “Ivan the Terrible” in Treblinka extermination camp, starts in Jerusalem.
1988 – First documented combat action by U.S. military advisors in El Salvador.
1989 – Investigators in Lockerbie, Scotland, announced that a bomb hidden inside a radio-cassette player was the reason that Pan Am Flight 103 was brought down the previous December. All 259 people aboard and 11 on the ground were killed.
1988 – MASS SHOOTING: Richard Wade Farley gunned down seven people at ESL Corp. during an office rampage in Sunnyvale, Calif. Farley was later convicted of murder and sentenced to death.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)” by C & C Music Factory featuring Freedom Williams, “All the Man that I Need” by Whitney Houston, “One More Try” by Timmy -T-, and “Brother Jukebox” by Mark Chesnutt all topped the charts.
1991 – US female Figure Skating championship won by Tonya Harding.
1992 – Former silver Goodyear blimps are now painted yellow & blue.
1993 – Prices fell as Wall Street reacted unfavorably to President Clinton’s economic austerity plan outlined in a White House address last night.
1994 – Figure skaters Tonya Harding and Nancy Kerrigan encountered each other at the Winter Olympic Games in Norway before posing for the U.S. team photograph.
1996 – World chess champion Garry Kasparov won for the second time against IBM supercomputer “Deep Blue” in the fifth game of their match in Philadelphia (Kasparov had drawn twice and lost once).
1996 – A commuter train slammed into Amtrak’s Capital Limited an Silver Spring, Md., and killed 11 people. It was later claimed that a new warning system was partly to blame.
1997 – At age 25, Jeff Gordon is youngest winner in Daytona 500 history.
1998 – Mr. Jefferson, the first cloned calf, was born in Virginia.
1999 – The Chinese Lunar New Year began the Year of the Rabbit.
1999 – Testimony began in the Jasper, TX, trial of John William King. He was charged with murder in the gruesome dragging death of James Byrd Jr. King was later convicted and sentenced to death.
2000 – In New York City, Lucy Edwards (41), a former Bank of New York executive, and her husband, Peter Berlin (46), pleaded guilty to laundering over $7 billion from Russian bankers in exchange for $1.8 million.
2001 – Two dozen US and British aircraft bombed 5 radar and other anti-aircraft sites around Baghdad with guided missiles. A number of new guided bombs, AGM-154A priced from $250-700k, missed their targets.
2002 – In Noble, Ga., officials found 334 decomposing bodies at the Tri-State Crematory, where the furnace had not worked for years. Ray Brent Marsh (28), manager of the family operation, was arrested and charged with five counts of theft by deception.
2003 – Michael Waltrip raced past leader Jimmie Johnson to win the rain-shortened Daytona 500 for the second time in three years.
2004 – In Ohio a crane collapsed at an I-80 bridge near Toledo and three workers were killed.
2004 – L. Paul Bremer, the United States administrator of Iraq states he will veto any interim constitution that would make Islam “the chief source of law”, as opposed to “a source of inspiration for the law.”
2005 – The Kyoto Protocol comes into force, following its ratification by Russia.
2005 – The National Hockey League (NHL) cancels the entire 2004-2005 regular season and playoffs, becoming the first major sports league in North America to do so over a labor dispute.
2006 – The last Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) is decommissioned by the United States Army.
2006 – Pennsylvania Senator Arlen Specter asked the Senate Ethics Committee to investigate whether a top aide improperly helped direct nearly $50 million in Pentagon spending to clients represented by her husband.
2007 – An annual survey released Forbes.com said Raleigh, North Carolina, topped the list of the best US cities for getting a job.
2007 – The Democrat-controlled US House of Representatives voted 246-182 for a non-binding resolution opposing President Bush’s Surge plan to send 21,500 more troops to Iraq. Seventeen Republicans voted in favor.
2007 – Francisco Castaneda, an illegal immigrant from El Salvador, died of penile cancer that went undiagnosed for more than a year while he was in state and federal custody in California. In 2010 a Los Angeles jury awarded his family $1.73 million.
2008 – In Maryland a car plowed into a crowd that had gathered to watch a drag race on a suburban road, killing eight people and injuring at least four.
2008 – A student dies of unknown causes while competing at the Harvard National Speech and Debate Tournament.
2008 – A company source said Toshiba Corp is planning to give up on its HD DVD format for high-definition video, conceding defeat to the competing Blu-Ray technology backed by Sony Corp.
2009 – In Kansas, Republican legislators blocked an effort by Democratic Gov. Kathleen Sebelius to transfer funds to allow the state to pay its bills. Income tax refunds were suspended and the state payroll was threatened.
2009 – In Stamford, Connecticut, a 200-pound domesticated chimpanzee was shot dead by police after a violent rampage that left a friend of its owner badly mauled. Travis (15) had once starred in TV commercials for Old Navy and Coca-Cola. Charla Nash lost her hands, nose, lips and eyelids in the attack. Doctors later said she will be blind for life.
2010 – New US Treasury data said China’s holdings of US Treasury bonds tumbled in December, allowing Japan to take over as the top holder of American government debt.
2010 – In New Jersey Shamsid-Din Abdul-Raheem (21) threw his 3-month-old daughter off the Garden State Parkway Driscoll Bridge after the mother filed a restraining order against him. The body of the infant was found on April 24.
2011 – Borders Group, the second largest bookstore chain in the United States, files for bankruptcy with plans to sell at least 200 stores.
2011 – The West Virginia Gazette reported that three U.S. marshals were shot in Elkins, West Virginia, while trying to serve a warrant, resulting in the death of one marshal and the shooter.
2012 – Two time Pulitzer Prize winner Anthony Shadid dies suddenly at age 43 of an acute asthma attack.
2012 – Four World Trade Center’s construction crane snaps while lifting a steel beam.
2013 -Two firefighters are killed and two others are injured extinguishing an inferno at a Knights of Columbus fraternal lodge in Bryan, Texas.
1698 – Pierre Bouguer was a French mathematician and astronomer. He is also known as “the father of naval architecture”. (d. 1758)
1812 – Henry Wilson, 18th Vice President of US (d. 1875) He served under President Ulysses S Grant. He was a leading Republican who committed himself to the destruction of what he called the Slave Power. This was a conspiracy of slave owners to seize control of the federal government and block the progress of liberty.
1826 – Julia Grant, First Lady of the United States (d. 1902)
1866 – Billy Hamilton (baseball player), MLB Hall of Fame Outfielder (d. 1940)
1887 – Kathleen Clifford, American actress (d. 1962)
1901 – Wayne King, American musician and orchestra leader (d. 1985)
1901 – Chester Morris, American film actor (d. 1970) He is most famous for his role in the Boston Blackie detective series of the 1940s.
1903 – Edgar Bergen, American ventriloquist (d. 1978)
1906 – Vera Menchik, British-Czech chess player, the first Women’s World Champion in chess (d. 1944)
1909 – Hugh Beaumont, American actor (d. 1982) is best known for his portrayal of Ward Cleaver, the husband of June Cleaver (Barbara Billingsley) and the father of Wally (Tony Dow) and Beaver (Jerry Mathers) on the television series, Leave It to Beaver (1957–1963).
1909 – Richard McDonald, American fast food pioneer (d. 1998)He was one of the early American fast food pioneers, originally from Manchester, New Hampshire, who established the first McDonald’s restaurant in San Bernardino, California in 1940.
1918 – Patty Andrews, American singer and one of the famous Andrew Sisters.
1920 – Anna Mae Hays, American army general. She was the first woman in the U.S. Military to be promoted to a general officer rank.
1934 – Herbie & Harold Kalin, American singers (d. 2005-Harold / 2006-Herbie) The twins were a pop music recording duo and remain the archetypal one-hit wonders with the 1958 song “When”.
1935 – Sonny Bono, American entertainer & U.S. Congressman (d. 1998)
1951 – William Katt, American actor. He is best known as the star of The Greatest American Hero.
1954 – Margaux Hemingway, American actress and model (d. 1996)
1957 – LeVar Burton, American actor. He is most well-known for his portrayal of Geordi La Forge on Star Trek: The Next Generation, and as the host of the PBS children’s program Reading Rainbow.
1958 – Ice-T, American rapper, songwriter, and actor
1959 – John McEnroe, American tennis player
1967 – Keith Gretzky, former hockey player; brother of Wayne Gretzky
*GRAVES, TERRENCE COLLINSON
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, 3d Force Reconnaissance Company, 3d Reconnaissance Battalion, 3d Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 16th, 1968. Entered service at: New York Born: 6 July 1945, Corpus Christi, Tex. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a platoon commander with the 3d Force Reconnaissance Company. While on a long-range reconnaissance mission, 2d Lt. Graves’ eight-man patrol observed seven enemy soldiers approaching their position. Reacting instantly, he deployed his men and directed their fire on the approaching enemy. After the fire had ceased, he and two patrol members commenced a search of the area, and suddenly came under a heavy volume of hostile small arms and automatic weapons fire from a numerically superior enemy force. When one of his men was hit by the enemy fire, 2d Lt. Graves moved through the fire-swept area to his radio and, while directing suppressive fire from his men, requested air support and adjusted a heavy volume of artillery and helicopter gunship fire upon the enemy. After attending the wounded, 2d Lt. Graves, accompanied by another Marine, moved from his relatively safe position to confirm the results of the earlier engagement. Observing that several of the enemy were still alive, he launched a determined assault, eliminating the remaining enemy troops. He then began moving the patrol to a landing zone for extraction, when the unit again came under intense fire which wounded two more Marines and 2d Lt. Graves. Refusing medical attention, he once more adjusted air strikes and artillery fire upon the enemy while directing the fire of his men. He led his men to a new landing site into which he skillfully guided the incoming aircraft and boarded his men while remaining exposed to the hostile fire. Realizing that one of the wounded had not embarked, he directed the aircraft to depart and, along with another Marine, moved to the side of the casualty. Confronted with a shortage of ammunition, 2d Lt. Graves utilized supporting arms and directed fire until a second helicopter arrived. At this point, the volume of enemy fire intensified, hitting the helicopter and causing it to crash shortly after liftoff. All aboard were killed. 2d Lt. Graves’ outstanding courage, superb leadership and indomitable fighting spirit throughout the day were in keeping with the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country .
*MILLER, GARY L.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company A, 1st Battalion, 28th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and Date: Binh Duong province, Republic of Vietnam, February 16th,1969. Entered service at: Roanoke, Va. Born: 19 March 1947, Covington, Va. Citation: For conspicuous intrepidity and gallantry in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. First Lt. Miller, Infantry, Company A, was serving as a platoon leader at night when his company ambushed a hostile force infiltrating from Cambodian sanctuaries. After contact with the enemy was broken, 1st Lt. Miller led a reconnaissance patrol from their prepared positions through the early evening darkness and dense tropical growth to search the area for enemy casualties. As the group advanced they were suddenly attacked. First Lt. Miller was seriously wounded. However, the group fought back with telling effect on the hostile force. An enemy grenade was thrown into the midst of the friendly patrol group and all took cover except 1st Lt. Miller. who in the dim light located the grenade and threw himself on it, absorbing the force of the explosion with his body. His action saved nearby members of his patrol from almost certain serious injury. The extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by this officer were an inspiration to his comrades and are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army.
*MONROE, JAMES H.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and Date: Bong Son, Hoai Nhon Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 16th, 1967. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 17 October 1944, Aurora, Ill. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. His platoon was deployed in a night ambush when the position was suddenly subjected to an intense and accurate grenade attack, and one foxhole was hit immediately. Responding without hesitation to the calls for help from the wounded men Pfc. Monroe moved forward through heavy small-arms fire to the foxhole but found that all of the men had expired. He turned immediately and crawled back through the deadly hail of fire toward other calls for aid. He moved to the platoon sergeant’s position where he found the radio operator bleeding profusely from fragmentation and bullet wounds. Ignoring the continuing enemy attack, Pfc. Monroe began treating the wounded man when he saw a live grenade fall directly in front of the position. He shouted a warning to all those nearby, pushed the wounded radio operator and the platoon sergeant to one side, and lunged forward to smother the grenade’s blast with his body. Through his valorous actions, performed in a flash of inspired selflessness, Pfc. Monroe saved the lives of two of his comrades and prevented the probable injury of several others. His gallantry and intrepidity were in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army, and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
*SMITH, ELMELINDO R.
Rank and organization: Platoon Sergeant (then S/Sgt.), U.S. Army, 1st Platoon, Company C, 2d Battalion, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, February 16th,1967. Entered service at: Honolulu, Hawaii. Born: 27 July 1935, Honolulu, Hawaii. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. During a reconnaissance patrol, his platoon was suddenly engaged by intense machinegun fire hemming in the platoon on three sides. A defensive perimeter was hastily established, but the enemy added mortar and rocket fire to the deadly fusillade and assaulted the position from several directions. With complete disregard for his safety, P/Sgt. Smith moved through the deadly fire along the defensive line, positioning soldiers, distributing ammunition and encouraging his men to repeal the enemy attack. Struck to the ground by enemy fire which caused a severe shoulder wound, he regained his feet, killed the enemy soldier and continued to move about the perimeter. He was again wounded in the shoulder and stomach but continued moving on his knees to assist in the defense. Noting the enemy massing at a weakened point on the perimeter, he crawled into the open and poured deadly fire into the enemy ranks. As he crawled on, he was struck by a rocket. Moments later, he regained consciousness, and drawing on his fast dwindling strength, continued to crawl from man to man. When he could move no farther, he chose to remain in the open where he could alert the perimeter to the approaching enemy. P/Sgt. Smith perished, never relenting in his determined effort against the enemy. The valorous acts and heroic leadership of this outstanding soldier inspired those remaining members of his platoon to beat back the enemy assaults. P/Sgt. Smith’s gallant actions were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and they reflect great credit upon him and the Armed Forces of his country.
*KYLE, DARWIN K.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company K, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kamil-ni, Korea, February 16th, 1951. Entered service at: Racine, W. Va. Born: 1 June 1918, Jenkins, Ky. G.O. No.: 17, 1 February 1952. Citation: 2d Lt. Kyle, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. When his platoon had been pinned down by intense fire, he completely exposed himself to move among and encourage his men to continue the advance against enemy forces strongly entrenched on Hill 185. Inspired by his courageous leadership, the platoon resumed the advance but was again pinned down when an enemy machine gun opened fire, wounding six of the men. 2d Lt. Kyle immediately charged the hostile emplacement alone, engaged the crew in hand-to-hand combat, killing all three. Continuing on toward the objective, his platoon suddenly received an intense automatic-weapons fire from a well-concealed hostile position on its right flank. Again leading his men in a daring bayonet charge against this position, firing his carbine and throwing grenades, 2d Lt. Kyle personally destroyed four of the enemy before he was killed by a burst from an enemy submachinegun. The extraordinary heroism and outstanding leadership of 2d Lt. Kyle, and his gallant self-sacrifice, reflect the highest credit upon himself and are in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the military service.
McCARTER, LLOYD G.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, 503d Parachute Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Corregidor, Philippine Islands, February 16th – February 19th 1945. Entered service at: Tacoma, Wash. Born: 11 May 1917, St. Maries, Idaho. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He was a scout with the regiment which seized the fortress of Corregidor, Philippine Islands. Shortly after the initial parachute assault on 16 February 1945, he crossed thirty yards of open ground under intense enemy fire, and at pointblank range silenced a machinegun with hand grenades. On the afternoon of 18 February he killed six snipers. That evening, when a large force attempted to bypass his company, he voluntarily moved to an exposed area and opened fire. The enemy attacked his position repeatedly throughout the night and was each time repulsed. By 2 o’clock in the morning, all the men about him had been wounded; but shouting encouragement to his comrades and defiance at the enemy, he continued to bear the brunt of the attack, fearlessly exposing himself to locate enemy soldiers and then pouring heavy fire on them. He repeatedly crawled back to the American line to secure more ammunition. When his submachine gun would no longer operate, he seized an automatic rifle and continued to inflict heavy casualties. This weapon, in turn, became too hot to use and, discarding it, he continued with an M-l rifle. At dawn the enemy attacked with renewed intensity. Completely exposing himself to hostile fire, he stood erect to locate the most dangerous enemy positions. He was seriously wounded; but, though he had already killed more than thirty of the enemy, he refused to evacuate until he had pointed out immediate objectives for attack. Through his sustained and outstanding heroism in the face of grave and obvious danger, Pvt. McCarter made outstanding contributions to the success of his company and to the recapture of Corregidor.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 4 June 1873, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: Served in battle against the enemy at February 16th,1900. Throughout this action and in the presence of the enemy, Harvey distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.