Eat Better and Eat Together Month
Make A Difference Day, Navy Day and Cranky Co-Workers Day
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest. It’s orbit around the sun is 92,957,130 miles. This number is also used to reflect the astronomical term of 1.00 AU. Interestingly, the distance from the earth to the sun is approximately the same distance. The earth’s orbit is elliptical and averages about 93,000,000 miles. The earth’s diameter is approximately 25,000. Its diameter is 7926 miles.
Earth is the only planet whose English name does not derive from Greek/Roman mythology. The name derives from Old English and Germanic. In Roman Mythology, the goddess of the Earth was Tellus which means the fertile soil and in Greek it is Gaia, terra mater – “Mother Earth”. It was not until the time of Copernicus (the sixteenth century) that it was understood that the Earth is another planet.
The Earth is divided into several layers which have distinct chemical and seismic properties (depths in km): The crust is approximately 25 miles deep. Most of what we know about the interior is theoretical. The Upper Mantle is between 25 and 250 miles. The next level is called the transition region and it is between 250 and 400 miles. The lower mantle measures from 400 to 1675 miles. The Next layer is called the D” layer and it is fairly thin covering a depth from 1675 miles to 1800 miles and then comes the Outer Core which measures 1800 miles to 3200 miles. The final part is the Inner Core. This level is the solid core and measures from 3200 miles to 3965 miles. This core is not attached to the mantle.
As this shows crust varies considerably in thickness; it is thinner under the oceans, thicker under the continents. The inner core and crust are solid; the outer core and mantle layers are plastic or semi-fluid. The various layers are separated by discontinuities which are evident in seismic data; the best known of these is the Mohorovicic discontinuity between the crust and upper mantle.
The core is probably composed mostly of iron (or nickel/iron) though it is possible that some lighter elements may be present, too. Temperatures at the center of the core may be as high as 13,0000 Fahrenheit, hotter than the surface of the Sun. The lower mantle is probably mostly silicon, magnesium and oxygen with some iron, calcium and aluminum. The upper mantle is mostly olivene and pyroxene (iron/magnesium silicates), calcium and aluminum. We know most of this only from seismic techniques; samples from the upper mantle arrive at the surface as lava from volcanoes but the majority of the Earth is inaccessible. The crust is primarily quartz (silicon dioxide) and other silicates like feldspar.
Taken as a whole, the Earth’s chemical composition (by mass) is 34.6% Iron, 29.5% Oxygen, 15.2% Silicon, 12.7% Magnesium, 2.4% Nickel, 1.9% Sulfur and .05% Titanium.
The Earth is the densest major body in the solar system. The other terrestrial planets probably have similar structures and compositions with some differences: the Moon has at most a small core; Mercury has an extra large core (relative to its diameter); the mantles of Mars and the Moon are much thicker; the Moon and Mercury may not have chemically distinct crusts; Earth may be the only one with distinct inner and outer cores. Note, however, that our knowledge of planetary interiors is mostly theoretical even for the Earth.
Based on evolutionary theory, the Earth’s surface is very young. In the relatively short (by astronomical standards) period of 500,000,000 years or so erosion and tectonic processes destroy and recreate most of the Earth’s surface and thereby eliminate almost all traces of earlier geologic surface history (such as impact craters). Thus the very early history of the Earth has mostly been erased. The Earth is 4.5 to 4.6 billion years old, but the oldest known rocks are about 4 billion years old and rocks older than 3 billion years are rare. The oldest fossils of living organisms are less than 3.9 billion years old. There is no record of the critical period when life was first getting started.
Genesis 1:1 King James Version (KJV)
1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
“It’s not hard to make decisions when you know what your values are.”
~ Roy Disney
verisimilitude ver-uh-suh-MIL-uh-tood; -tyood, noun:
1.The appearance of truth; the quality of seeming to be true.
2. Something that has the appearance of being true or real.
Verisimilitude comes from Latin verisimilitudo, from verisimilis, from verus, “true” + similis, “like, resembling, similar.” The adjective form is verisimilar.
312 – Prior to a battle between Constantine and Maxentius, Constantine experienced a vision of Christ that ordered him to ornament the shields of his soldiers with the Greek letters chi and rho, the monogram for Christ. Constantine won the battle and attributed his success to Christ. He became emperor of the West and an advocate of Christianity.
1659 – William Robinson and Marmaduke Stevenson, two Quakers who came from England in 1656 to escape religious persecution, are executed in the Massachusetts Bay Colony for their religious beliefs.
1682 – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is founded.
1775 – John Adams was successful in persuading the Continental Congress to fit out “with all possible despatch” two vessels to be used to capture British shipping.
1787 – The Independent Journal and The New York Packet newspapers published the first of 77 essays explaining the new Constitution and urging its ratification, written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay and later combined as “The Federalist Papers.” There were a total of 85.
1795 – The United States and Spain sign the Treaty of Madrid, which establishes the boundaries between Spanish colonies and the U.S. It gave navigation rights on the Mississippi River to the United States.
1810 – President James Madison ordered the annexation of the western part of West Florida. Settlers there had rebelled against Spanish authority.
1838 – Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs issues the Extermination Order, which orders all Mormons to leave the state.
1858 – RH Macy & Co opens first store, (6th Ave-NYC) Gross receipts $1106. It was Macy’s eighth business venture, the other seven failed.
1862 – Civil War: A Confederate force was routed at the Battle of Labadieville, near Bayou Lafourche in Louisiana.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Hatcher’s Run (Burgess Mill) Union troops are turned back when they try to cut the last railroad supplying the Confederate force in Petersburg, Virginia.
1864 – Civil War: LT William Cushing, USN, sinks Confederate ram Albemarle with a spar torpedo attached to the bow of his launch.
1871 – Boss Tweed, Democratic leader of Tammany Hall, arrested after NY Times exposed his corruption. Tweed defrauded the city by having contractors present excessive bills for work performed- typically ranging from 15 to 65 percent more than the project actually cost. This extra money was divided among Tweed and his subordinates.
1873 – A De Kalb, Illinois, farmer named Joseph Glidden submits an application to the U.S. Patent Office for his clever new design for a fencing wire with sharp barbs, an invention that will forever change the face of the American West.
1878 – The Manhattan Savings Bank in New York City was robbed of over $3,000,000. The robbery was credited to George “Western” Leslie even though there was not enough evidence to convict him. His two associates were convicted.
1891 – D. B. Downing, inventor, was awarded a patent for the street letter box or mailbox.
1893 – Hurricane hit the US coast between Savannah, Ga., and Charleston, SC.
1904 – First New York City Subway line opens; the system becomes biggest in United States of America, and one of the biggest in world. It ran from the Brooklyn Bridge uptown to Broadway at 145th Street with a fare of one nickel.
1906 – The first authenticated pass completion in a pro game is recorded when George (Peggy) Parratt of Massillon threw a completion to Dan (Bullet) Riley in a victory over a combined Benwood-Moundsville team, according to the NFL.
1907 – Union Station in Washington, D.C., opened.
1913 – Pres. Wilson said US will never attack another country.
1916 – First published reference to “jazz” appears (Variety).
1917 – Jascha Heifetz made his debut at Carnegie Hall in New York City.
1917 – Twenty thousand women marched in a suffrage parade in New York.
1918 – World War I: French 4th Army to the west of the US 1st Army catches up to American front line. This is made possible by the success of two U.S. divisions, the 2nd and 36th, successfully capturing Blanc Mont Ridge in the Champagne and pursuing the enemy to the River Aisne.
1919 – The Axeman of New Orleans claimed last victim. The Axeman was a serial killer active in New Orleans, Louisiana (and surrounding communities, including Gretna, Louisiana), from May 1918 to October 1919. The murderer’s identity remains unknown to this day.(2014)
1922 – Navy League of U.S. sponsors first annual celebration of Navy Day to focus public attention on the importance of the U.S. Navy.
1925 – Inventor Fred Waller of New York was awarded a patent for water skis. He marketed it as “Dolphin Akwa-Skees.”
1927 – The first newsreel Fox Movie-tone News, featuring sound, was released in New York.
1936 – Mrs Wallis Simpson filed for divorce which would eventually allow her to marry King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, thus forcing his abdication from the throne.
1938 – DuPont announces its new synthetic fiber will be called “nylon.”
1940 – The 1939 New York World’s Fair officially closed.
1941 – The Chicago Daily Tribune dismissed the possibility of war with Japan, editorializing, “She cannot attack us. That is a military impossibility. Even our base at Hawaii is beyond the effective striking power of her fleet.”
1941 – In a broadcast to the nation on Navy Day, President Franklin Roosevelt declared: “America has been attacked, the shooting has started.” He did not ask for full-scale war yet, realizing that many Americans were not yet ready for such a step.
1941 – “Everything I Love”, by Buddy Clark, was recorded on the Okeh label.
1941 – World WarII: Holocaust: Nazis directed the evacuation of the gypsy ghetto in Belgrade.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: In Starachowice, Poland, Nazi soldiers separated out weak Jews from the strong. The strong were sent to work and the weak were sent to the extermination camp at Treblinka.
1942 – World War II: At Guadalcanal, the Japanese halt the offensive. They have suffered 3500 casualties with entire units being destroyed. Both sides are exhaustive by the heavy day and night fighting, but the initiative has passed to the Americans.
1943 – World War II: First women Marines report for duty on West Coast, Camp Pendleton.
1944 – World War II: On land, the US 7th Division (part of US 24th Corps) captures Buri Airfield. Meanwhile, the Tacloban airstrip, on Leyte, becomes operational.
1946 – First commercially-sponsored television program airs (Geographically Speaking, sponsored by Bristol-Myers). It ran until December 1, 1946.
1946 – Bozo the Clown was created as a character by Alan W. Livingston and was released as a trademark for Capitol Records. It was produced for a children’s storytelling record-album and illustrative read-along book set and the first of its kind was titled Bozo at the Circus.
1947 – “This is Nora Drake” premiered on NBC radio. Nora Drake was a career-oriented professional who could have had her pick of many eligible bachelors. She had the misfortune to fall in love with Dr. Ken Martinson, who — in a moment of haste — put her aside to marry nurse Peggy King.
1947 – “You Bet Your Life“, with Groucho Marx, premieres on ABC radio. The show was transferred to TV on NBC in 1950 and lasted until 1961.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Because of You” by Tony Bennett, “I Get Ideas” by Tony Martin, “The World is Waiting for the Sunrise” by Les Paul & Mary Ford and “Always Late (With Your Kisses)” by Lefty Frizzell all topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: The 8th Fighter-Bomber Wing recorded its 50,000th combat sortie of the war.
1954 – President Eisenhower offered aid to S. Vietnam President Ngo Dinh Diem.
1954 – Benjamin O. Davis Jr. becomes the first African-American general in the United States Air Force.
1954 – Marilyn Monroe and Joe DiMaggio divorce after DiMaggio allegedly struck Monroe following the filming of her famous “skirt scene” in The Seven-Year Itch. The scene, showing Monroe laughing as a blast of air lifts her skirt, infuriated DiMaggio, who felt it was exhibitionist.
1954 – Disneyland, Walt Disney’s first television series, premieres on ABC. The one-hour show, introduced by Tinkerbell, presented a rotating selection of cartoons, dramas, movies, and other entertainment.
1956 – “Ain’t Got No Home” by Clarence Henry was released. It was his first hit.
1961 – The first Saturn launch vehicle made an unmanned flight test from Cape Canaveral.
1961 – The USS Constellation, a Kitty Hawk-class supercarrier, was commissioned with Captain T. J. Walker in command.
1962 – “Monster Mash” by Bobby Pickett & the Crypt Kickers topped the charts .
1962 – Major Rudolph Anderson of the US Air Force became the only direct human casualty of the Cuban Missile Crisis when his U-2 reconnaissance airplane was shot down in Cuba by a Soviet-supplied SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile.
1962 – Negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union finally result in a plan to end the two-week-old Cuban Missile Crisis. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev offered to remove Soviet missile bases in Cuba if the U.S. removed its missile bases in Turkey. It was later learned that JFK had secretly offered this option to Khrushchev.
1964 – “Come See About Me” was released by the Supremes.
1964 – Ronald Reagan delivers a speech on behalf of Republican candidate for president, Barry Goldwater. The speech launched his political career and came to be known as “A Time for Choosing“.
1964 – Singers Sonny and Cher wed. Cher wore bell-bottoms.
1966 – Women Marines serve in WestPac – first time west of Hawaii.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “To Sir with Love” by Lulu, “How Can I Be Sure” by The Young Rascals, “Expressway to Your Heart” by Soul Survivors and “I Don’t Wanna Play House” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1970 – The US Controlled Substance Act became effective. It classified marijuana, heroin and LSD as “schedule I,” drugs with no accepted medical use.
1972 – The US Noise Control Act of 1972, Public Law 92-574, allowed states or US territories to set noise-control laws.
1972 – Federal legislation established the Golden Gate National Recreation Area in the Bay Area of San Francisco. The park was expanded from 870 acres in 1948 to 6,300 acres by 1972.
1973 – “Midnight Train to Georgia” by Gladys Knight & the Pips topped the charts.
1973 – The Canyon City meteorite, a 1.4 kg chondrite type meteorite strikes in Fremont County, Colorado.
1974 – ABC is credited with the first televised showing of the box office hit, “The Poseidon Adventure“.
1979 – “Rise” by Herb Alpert topped the charts.
1981 – The National Labor Relations Board withdrew recognition of the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization for an illegal strike by its members.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Total Eclipse of the Heart” by Bonnie Tyler, “Islands in the Stream” by Kenny Rogers & Dolly Parton, “All Night Long (All Night)” by Lionel Richie and “Lady Down on Love” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1984 – Washington State’s Rueben Mayes sets college football record of 357 yards rushing in a single game. That record remains the Pacific Ten Conference record. He is 14th in All-Conference yardage with 3519 yards.
1984 – Mrs. Barbara Lehman, sponsor, broke the champagne bottle on the bow of the USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) during the christening ceremony at Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company.
1984 – “I Just Called to Say I Love You” by Stevie Wonder topped the charts.
1985 – World Series: Kansas City Royals (4) vs St. Louis Cardinals (3)
1985 – Billy Martin was fired by Yankees for the 4th time.
1985 – Hurricane Juan ravaged US Gulf states and east coast and 49 died.
1986 – World Series: New York Mets (4) vs Boston Red Sox (3).
1986 – The US Congress gave new life to the 1863 False Claims Act when it promised big payouts for citizens who blew the whistle on firms that defrauded the government.
1988 – Ronald Reagan decides to tear down the new U.S. Embassy in Moscow because of Soviet listening devices in the building structure.
1989 – After a 10 day delay due to the Loma Prieta earthquake, World Series game 3 is played in San Francisco. The Oakland A’s defeated the San Francisco Giants, 13-7.
1990 – “Black Cat” by Janet Jackson topped the charts.
1990 – Death claimed bandleader Xavier Cugat at age 90.
1990 -Elliott Roosevelt (80), son of FDR, died.
1990 – The US Senate gave final legislative approval to a record package of taxes and spending cuts, hours after the House approved the plan.
1991 – The Minnesota Twins won the World Series, beating the Atlanta Braves 1-0 in the bottom of the 10th inning in the seventh and deciding game.
1992 – US Navy radioman Allen R. Schindler, Jr. is brutally murdered by shipmate Terry M. Helvey for being gay. The national debate about gays in the military started resulting in the “Don’t ask, don’t tell” policy.
1993 – U.S. President Bill Clinton and first lady Hillary Clinton presented Congress with the administration’s new plan for healthcare reform in a ceremony at the Capitol.
1993 – Brush fires raged across Southern California, destroying several hundred homes.
1994 – The U.S. Justice Department announces that the U.S. prison population has topped one million for the first time in American history. The figure–1,012,851 men and women were in state and federal prisons–did not even include local prisons, where an estimated 500,000 prisoners were held, usually for short periods.
1994 -First trip to Syria by an American president in 20 years, Pres. Clinton met with Syrian President Hafez Assad before heading to Jerusalem to meet with Israeli officials.
1995 – Gloria Estefan becomes the only pop artist to receive a call from the Pope to perform.
1995 – MASS SHOOTING: William Kreutzer, US Army sergeant, opened fire on a field of 1300 soldiers. He killed a fellow 82nd Airborne soldier, Major Stephen Badger and wounded several others. Defense lawyers in 1996 pleaded that he suffered from depression. He was convicted of pre-meditated murder on 6/11/96. The next day he was sentenced to death.
1997 – Stock markets around the world crash because of fears of a global economic meltdown. The Dow Jones Industrial Average plummets 554.26 points to 7,161.15. For the first time, the New York Stock Exchange activated their “circuit breakers” twice during the day eventually making the controversial move of closing the Exchange early. Finally the stock market shut down for the first time since the 1981 assassination attempt on President Reagan.
1997 – The crew of the Coast Guard Cutter Baranof confiscated two .50-caliber sniper rifles, ammunition and other military supplies that were allegedly to be used in an assassination attempt against Cuban President Fidel Castro. Four Cuban exiles were arrested for illegal possession of firearms after the 46-foot La Esperanza was ordered into Aguadilla, Puerto Rico,
1997 – The U.S. released a redesigned $50 bill.
1997 – Intel Corp bought the chip manufacturing operations of Digital Equipment for $700 million.
1997 – Microsoft argued it should be “free from government interference.”
1998 – The reunion episode “CHiPs ’99” aired for the first time on the cable network TNT.
1998 – Pres. Clinton signed the Curt Flood Act to override the 1922 Supreme Court ruling that exempted baseball from antitrust laws. The new act revoked the exemption only for labor relations.
1999 – The New York Yankees won their second straight World Series sweep, defeating the Atlanta Braves in game four.
1999 – The US federal budget surplus was put at $122.7 billion in 1998, marking the first back-to-back surpluses since the 1950’s.
1999 – The Clinton administration authorized the first direct military training for opponents of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.
2001 – The Arizona Diamondbacks defeated the New York Yankees in game one of the World Series, 9-1.
2001 – In Washington, the search for deadly anthrax widened to thousands of businesses and 30 mail distribution centers.
2001 – Brian Robinson (40) of San Jose became the 1st person to hike the 3 major National Scenic Trails, 7,400 miles in 22 states, in a calendar year.
2002 – World Series: Anaheim Angels (4) vs San Francisco Giants (3). This was Anaheim’s first World Series.
2002 – Emmitt Smith (Dallas Cowboys) became the all-time leading rusher in the NFL when he extended his career yardage to 16,743. He achieved the record in his 193rd game. He also scored his 150th career touchdown. The previous record was held by the late Walter Payton.
2003 – A new US stamp was dedicated to Theodore Geisel, creator of Dr. Seuss.
2003 – As many as 40 civilians and U.S. soldiers were killed in a flurry of terrorist bombings in Baghdad. Among the targets was the headquarters of the International Committee of the Red Cross.
2003 – Bank of America Corp. announced it had agreed to buy FleetBoston Financial Corp. The deal created the second largest banking company in the U.S.
2004 – World Series: Boston Red Sox (4) vs St. Louis Cardinals (0). This was winning their first championship since 1918. It was viewed as the breaking of the Curse of the Bambino and it was a sweep!!!
2005 – New York City’s subway system marked its 100th anniversary.
2005 – Pres. Bush visited Florida and took a look at the damage from Hurricane Wilma as the death toll rose to 14. Some 2 million homes and businesses were still without power.
2005 – Exxon Mobil Corp., the world’s largest publicly traded oil company, said high oil and natural-gas prices helped its third-quarter profit surge almost 75 percent to $9.92 billion, the largest quarterly profit for a U.S. company ever.
2006 – In Missouri the St Louis Cardinals won the World Series by beating the Detroit Tigers 4-2 in game 5, claiming their first MLB crown in 24 years.
2006 – The old US Mint in San Francisco held a ceremonial minting of silver coins. A portion of the proceeds of sales from silver dollars and $5 gold pieces will help turn the 132-year-old structure into a history museum.
2006 – In Sacramento, Ca., Deputy Jeffrey Mitchell (38) was shot and killed following an early morning traffic stop. A van matching the one he stopped was found that evening in the Consumnes River with two dead occupants.
2007 – Despite significant dissent among some of its workers, United Auto Workers members narrowly passed a four-year contract agreement with Chrysler LLC.
2007 – The Bush administration and NY state cut a deal to create a new generation of super-secure driver’s licenses, which would also allow illegal immigrants to get a version.
2008 – Senator Ted Stevens of Alaska has been convicted of lying about free home renovations and other gifts he received from a wealthy oil contractor. The Senate’s longest-serving Republican, Mr. Stevens was found guilty on all seven counts of making false statements on Senate financial documents.
2008 – World Series: Philadelphia Phillies (4) vs Tampa Bay Rays (1).
2008 – An FBI spokesman said 642 arrests in 29 cities were made last week during a 3-day sting operation, Operation Cross Country II, focusing on people who forced teens into prostitution. 100 adults were arrested in the San Francisco Bay Area.
2009 – The NY Times reported that the brother of Afghan President Hamid Karzai has been getting regular payments from the Central Intelligence Agency.
2009-A jury in the British Virgin Islands convicted dive shop owner David Swain of drowning his wife, Shelley Tyre (46) during a 1999 scuba-diving trip in what prosecutors called a near perfect murder.
2010 – US officials said the Obama administration has granted a waiver allowing Chad, Congo DRC, Sudan and Yemen to continue receiving US military aid despite their use of child soldiers. Obama officials said cutting off aid would do more damage than good.
2010 – Wells Fargo admits it made mistakes in 55,000 real estate foreclosure cases.
2010 – Judge Kimba Wood of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York shuts down filesharing service LimeWire.
2011 – The St. Louis Cardinals defeat the Texas Rangers 10-9 in the 11th Inning of Game 6 of the World Series. The win forces Game 7, also to occur in St. Louis.
2012 – Senior Secret Service agent Rafael Prieto (48) committed suicide. It was the result of the prostitution scandal in April involving thirteen Secret Service agents and officers during a presidential trip to Colombia.
2015 – Northrop Grumman, the developer of the Air Force’s current bomber, the B-2, beats out the Boeing-Lockheed Martin team and is awarded the Pentagon contract to build a fleet of stealth planes known as the Long Range Strike Bomber (LRS-B).
1728 – James Cook, British sea captain and explorer.
1811 – Isaac Singer, American inventor of the sewing machine.
1854 – William Alexander Smith, founded the Boys’ Brigade an interdenominational Christian youth organization.
1858 – Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States of America (1901-1909).
1872 – Emily Post, American author famous for writing on etiquette. (d. 1960)
1914 – Dylan Thomas, Welsh poet.
1920 – Nanette Fabray, American actress, singer, and dancer.
1922 – Ruby Dee , is an American actress, poet, playwright, screenwriter, journalist, activist, and widow of actor Ossie Davis.
1925 – Warren Christopher, American politician and diplomat, 63rd United States Secretary of State (d. 2011)
1926 – H. R. Haldeman, American diplomat, 4th White House Chief of Staff (d. 1993)
1932 – Dolores Moore (d.2000) was an infielder who played from 1953 through 1954 in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League.
O’BRIEN, GEORGE H., JR.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Company H, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Korea, October 27th, 1952. Entered service at: Big Spring, Tex. Born: 10 September 1926, Fort Worth, Tex. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a rifle platoon commander of Company H, in action against enemy aggressor forces. With his platoon subjected to an intense mortar and artillery bombardment while preparing to assault a vitally important hill position on the main line of resistance which had been overrun by a numerically superior enemy force on the preceding night, 2d Lt. O’Brien leaped from his trench when the attack signal was given and, shouting for his men to follow, raced across an exposed saddle and up the enemy-held hill through a virtual hail of deadly small-arms, artillery, and mortar fire. Although shot through the arm and thrown to the ground by hostile automatic-weapons fire as he neared the well-entrenched enemy position, he bravely regained his feet, waved his men onward, and continued to spearhead the assault, pausing only long enough to go to the aid of a wounded marine. Encountering the enemy at close range, he proceeded to hurl handgrenades into the bunkers and, utilizing his carbine to best advantage in savage hand-to-hand combat, succeeded in killing at least three of the enemy. Struck down by the concussion of grenades on three occasions during the subsequent action, he steadfastly refused to be evacuated for medical treatment and continued to lead his platoon in the assault for a period of nearly 4 hours, repeatedly encouraging his men and maintaining superb direction of the unit. With the attack halted he set up a defense with his remaining forces to prepare for a counterattack, personally checking each position, attending to the wounded and expediting their evacuation. When a relief of the position was effected by another unit, he remained to cover the withdrawal and to assure that no wounded were left behind. By his exceptionally daring and forceful leadership in the face of overwhelming odds, 2d Lt. O’Brien served as a constant source of inspiration to all who observed him and was greatly instrumental in the recapture of a strategic position on the main line of resistance. His indomitable determination and valiant fighting spirit reflect the highest credit upon himself and enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
COOLIDGE, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 141st Infantry, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: East of Belmont sur Buttant, France, October 27th, 1944. Entered service at: Signal Mountain, Tenn. Birth: Signal Mountain, Tenn. G.O. No.: 53, July 1945. Citation: Leading a section of heavy machineguns supported by one platoon of Company K, he took a position near Hill 623, east of Belmont sur Buttant, France, on 24 October 1944, with the mission of covering the right flank of the 3d Battalion and supporting its action. T/Sgt. Coolidge went forward with a sergeant of Company K to reconnoiter positions for coordinating the fires of the light and heavy machine-guns. They ran into an enemy force in the woods estimated to be an infantry company. T/Sgt. Coolidge, attempting to bluff the Germans by a show of assurance and boldness called upon them to surrender, whereupon the enemy opened fire. With his carbine, T/Sgt. Coolidge wounded two of them. There being no officer present with the force, T/Sgt. Coolidge at once assumed command. Many of the men were replacements recently arrived; this was their first experience under fire. T/Sgt. Coolidge, unmindful of the enemy fire delivered at close range, walked along the position, calming and encouraging his men and directing their fire. The attack was thrown back. Through 25 and 26 October the enemy launched repeated attacks against the position of this combat group but each was repulsed due to T/Sgt. Coolidge’s able leadership. On 27 October, German infantry, supported by 2 tanks, made a determined attack on the position. The area was swept by enemy small arms, machinegun, and tank fire. T/Sgt. Coolidge armed himself with a bazooka and advanced to within 25 yards of the tanks. His bazooka failed to function and he threw it aside. Securing all the hand grenades he could carry, he crawled forward and inflicted heavy casualties on the advancing enemy. Finally it became apparent that the enemy, in greatly superior force, supported by tanks, would overrun the position. T/Sgt. Coolidge, displaying great coolness and courage, directed and conducted an orderly withdrawal, being himself the last to leave the position. As a result of T/Sgt. Coolidge’s heroic and superior leadership, the mission of this combat group was accomplished throughout foiur days of continuous fighting against numerically superior enemy troops in rain and cold and amid dense woods.
*OLSON, ARLO L.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 1 5th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Crossing of the Volturno River, Italy, October 27th, 1943. Entered service at: Toronto, S. Dak. Birth: Greenville, lowa. G.O. No.: 71, 31 August 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 13 October 1943, when the drive across the Volturno River began, Capt. Olson and his company spearheaded the advance of the regiment through thirty miles of mountainous enemy territory in thirteen days. Placing himself at the head of his men, Capt. Olson waded into the chest-deep water of the raging Volturno River and despite pointblank machine-gun fire aimed directly at him made his way to the opposite bank and threw two hand-grenades into the gun position, killing the crew. When an enemy machine-gun 150 yards distant opened fire on his company, Capt. Olson advanced upon the position in a slow, deliberate walk. Although 5five German soldiers threw hand-grenades at him from a range of five yards, Capt. Olson dispatched them all, picked up a machine pistol and continued toward the enemy. Advancing to within fifteen yards of the position he shot it out with the foe, killing nine and seizing the post. Throughout the next thirteen days Capt. Olson led combat patrols, acted as company No. 1 scout and maintained unbroken contact with the enemy. On 27 October 1943, Capt. Olson conducted a platoon in attack on a strongpoint, crawling to within twenty-five yards of the enemy and then charging the position. Despite continuous machine-gun fire which barely missed him, Capt. Olson made his way to the gun and killed the crew with his pistol. When the men saw their leader make this desperate attack they followed him and overran the position. Continuing the advance, Capt. Olson led his company to the next objective at the summit of Monte San Nicola. Although the company to his right was forced to take cover from the furious automatic and small arms fire, which was directed upon him and his men with equal intensity, Capt. Olson waved his company into a skirmish line and despite the fire of a machinegun which singled him out as its sole target led the assault which drove the enemy away. While making a reconnaissance for defensive positions, Capt. Olson was fatally wounded. Ignoring his severe pain, this intrepid officer completed his reconnaissance, Supervised the location of his men in the best defense positions, refused medical aid until all of his men had been cared for, and died as he was being carried down the mountain.
*PERKINS, MICHAEL J.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company D, 101st Infantry, 26th Division. Place and date: At Belieu Bois, France, October 27th,1918. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Boston, Mass. G.O. No.: 34, W.D. 1919. Citation: He, voluntarily and alone, crawled to a German “pill box” machinegun emplacement, from which grenades were being thrown at his platoon. Awaiting his opportunity, when the door was again opened and another grenade thrown, he threw a bomb inside, bursting the door open, and then, drawing his trench knife, rushed into the emplacement. In a hand-to-hand struggle he killed or wounded several of the occupants and captured about twenty-five prisoners, at the same time silencing seven machineguns.
BONNAFFON, SYLVESTER, JR.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company G, 99th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Boydton Plank Road, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth:——. Date of issue: 29 September 1893. Citation: Checked the rout and rallied the troops of his command in the face of a terrible fire of musketry; was severely wounded.
BROWN, JEREMIAH Z.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company K, 148th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Rimmersburg, Pa. Birth: Clarion County, Pa. Date of issue: 22 June 1896. Citation: With 100 selected volunteers, assaulted and captured the works of the enemy, together with a number of officers and men.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1843, Connecticut. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Denning served on board the U.S. Picket Boat No. 1 in action, October 27th, 1864, against the Confederate ram Albemarle which had resisted repeated attacks by our steamers and had kept a large force of vessels employed in watching her. The picket boat, equipped with a spar torpedo, succeeded in passing the enemy pickets within twenty yards without being discovered and then made for the Albemarle under a full head of steam. Immediately taken under fire by the ram, the small boat plunged on, jumped the log boom which encircled the target and exploded its torpedo under the port bow of the ram. The picket boat was destroyed by enemy fire and almost the entire crew taken prisoner or lost.
EMBLER, ANDREW H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company D, 59th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Boydton Plank Road, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: New York. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 19 October 1893. Citation: Charged at the head of two regiments, which drove the enemy’s main body, gained the crest of the hill near the Burgess house and forced a barricade on the Boydton road.
GEORGE, DANIEL G.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. (Real name is William Smith. ) Born: 1840, Plaistow, N.H. Accredited to: New Hampshire. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: George served on board U.S. Picket Boat No. 1, in action October 27th,1864, against the Confederate ram, Albemarle, which had resisted repeated attacks by our steamers and had kept a large force of vessels employed in watching her. The picket boat, equipped with a spar torpedo, succeeded in passing the enemy pickets within twenty yards without being discovered and then made for the Albemarle under a full head of steam. Immediately taken under fire by the ram, the small boat plunged on, jumped the log boom which encircled the target and exploded its torpedo under the port bow of the ram. The picket boat was destroyed by enemy fire and almost the entire crew taken prisoner or lost.
Rank and organization: Coal Heaver, U.S. Navy. Born: 1836, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Hamilton served on board the U.S. Picket Boat No. 1, in action, October 27th,1864, against the Confederate ram Albemarle which had resisted repeated attacks by our steamers and had kept a large force of vessels employed in watching her. The picket boat, equipped with a spar torpedo, succeeded in passing the enemy pickets within twenty yards without being discovered and then made for the Albemarle under a full head of steam. Immediately taken under fire by the ram, the small boat plunged on, jumped the log boom which encircled the target and exploded its torpedo under the port bow of the ram. The picket boat was destroyed by enemy fire and almost the entire crew taken prisoner or lost.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, Brooklyn, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Harley served on board the U.S. Picket Boat No. 1, in action, October 27th,1864, against the Confederate ram Albemarle, which had resisted repeated attacks by our steamers and had kept a large force of vessels employed in watching her. The picket boat, equipped with a spar torpedo, succeeded in passing the enemy pickets within twenty yards without being discovered and then made for the Albemarle under a full head of steam. Immediately taken under fire by the ram, the small boat plunged on, jumped the log boom which encircled the target and exploded its torpedo under the port bow of the ram. The picket boat was destroyed by enemy fire and almost the entire crew taken prisoner or lost.
HOUGHTON, EDWARD J.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1843, Mobile, Ala. Accredited to: Alabama. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Houghton served on board the U.S. Picket Boat No. 1 in action, October 27th, 1864, against the Confederate ram Albemarle, which had resisted repeated attacks by our steamers and had kept a large force of vessels employed in watching her. The picket boat, equipped with a spar torpedo, succeeded in passing the enemy pickets within twenty yards without being discovered and then made for the Albemarle under a full head of steam. Immediately taken under fire by the ram, the small boat plunged on, jumped the log boom which encircled the target and exploded its torpedo under the port bow of the ram. The picket boat was destroyed by enemy fire and almost the entire crew taken prisoner or lost.
KING, ROBERT H.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Place: Plymouth, N.C. Born: 1845, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: King served on board the U.S. Picket Boat No. 1, in action, October 27th, 1864, against the Confederate ram, Albemarle, which had resisted repeated attacks by our steamers and had kept a large force of vessels employed in watching her. The picket boat, equipped with a spar torpedo, succeeded in passing the enemy pickets within twenty yards without being discovered and then made for the Albemarle under a full head of steam. Immediately taken under fire by the ram, the small boat plunged on, jumped the log boom which encircled the target and exploded its torpedo under the port bow of the ram. The picket boat was destroyed by enemy fire and almost the entire crew taken prisoner or lost.
MURPHY, DANIEL J.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 19th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Lowell, Mass. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 47th North Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.).
NOLAN, JOHN J.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 8th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Georgia Landing, La., October 27th,1862. Entered service at: Nashua, N.H. Born: 24 June 1844, Ireland. Date of issue: 3 August 1897. Citation: Although prostrated by a cannon shot, refused to give up the flag which he was carrying as color bearer of his regiment and continued to carry it at the head of the regiment throughout the engagement.
ORR, CHARLES A.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 187th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Bennington, N.Y. Birth: Holland, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 April 1898. Citation: This soldier and two others, voluntarily and under fire, rescued several wounded and helpless soldiers.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 7th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Jonesville, Mich. Born: 9 August 1842, Niagara County, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 26th North Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.), while outside his lines far from his comrades.
SMITH, JOSEPH S.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel and Commissary of Subsistence, 2d Army Corps. Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Maine. Birth: Wiscasset, Maine. Date of issue: 25 May 1892. Citation: Led a part of a brigade, saved two pieces of artillery, captured a flag, and secured a number of prisoners.
THAXTER, SIDNEY W.
Rank and organization: Major, 1st Maine Cavalry. Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Bangor Maine. Birth: Bangor, Maine. Date of issue: 10 September 1897. Citation: Voluntarily remained and participated in the battle with conspicuous gallantry, although his term of service had expired and he had been ordered home to be mustered out.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Wilkes served on board U.S. Picket Boat No. 1 in action, October 27th, 1864, against the Confederate Ram, Albemarle, which had resisted repeated attacks by our steamers and had kept a large force of vessels employed in watching her. The picket boat, equipped with a spar torpedo, succeeded in passing the enemy pickets within twenty yards without being discovered and them made for the Albemarle under a full head of steam. Immediately taken under fire by the ram, the small boat plunged on, jumped the log boom which encircled the target and exploded its torpedo under the port bow of the ram. The picket boat was destroyed by enemy fire and almost the entire crew taken prisoner or lost.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company I, 1st U.S. Sharpshooters. Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Ionia, Mich. Birth: lonia, Mich. Date of issue: 29 January 1896. Citation: Went to the assistance of a wounded and overpowered comrade, and in a hand-to-hand encounter effected his rescue.
National Caramel Month
National Massage Therapy Week
Carmels. You know those little squares of delectable candy, nuggets of pure enjoyment wrapped in cellophane. M-m-m-m-m!!!!!!! It is absolutely wonderful on popcorn, in candy bars, in ice cream and you can put it into coffee to make it taste better too!
It is difficult to know when humans first craved the sugar that ultimately gave us these delectable morsels. We do not know when people started eating sugar in its various forms to give them that extra bit of energy and satisfied their sweet tooth cravings. Many believe that the earliest sweet treat was honey—simple to acquire and needs no processing. One of the early bible references of what could be “a candy” is described in the account of the meeting with Joseph before he identified himself to his brothers. In preparation for the meeting . Genesis 43:11 “ And their father Israel said to them, “If it must be so, then do this: Take some of the best fruits of the land in your vessels and carry down a present for the man—a little balm and a little honey, spices and myrrh, pistachio nuts and almonds.” The Arabs and the Chinese also prepared candies the same way by dipping fruits and nuts in honey.
By the early nineteenth century, Americans used sugar beet juice to make new candies. Still, hard candies were the primary confections. By the mid-1800s, there were nearly 400 American candy manufacturers that were producing primarily the hard candies often sold in general stores—they were cheap to make, easy to transport, and did not spoil easily. Caramels were made at small confectioneries and were not mass produced at first. Milton Hershey began his chocolate empire not with chocolate, but with caramel.
The best caramels are sweet and just a bit chewy. Caramel manufacturers use the term “short” to characterize a caramel that is too soft (perhaps too moist) or “long” for a caramel that is quite chewy. Caramels are similar to other candies in that the basis for candy is generally sugar, com syrup, and water. Caramels are different in that they also contain milk and fat. Hard candies are plastic or malleable at high temperature, but glass-like (clear and easily cracked) when cooled, caramels are plastic at both high temperature and room temperature. Caramels are softer because they have been cooked to a lower temperature than hard candies (to approximately 245°F [118°C], or the firm ball stage) and contain more moisture. Because of this soft texture, caramel may be extruded at lower temperatures, inserted into a mold, and put into a variety of other candies or candy bars to add flavor, binding, and texture.
What makes a caramel a caramel? The action of the heat on the milk solids, in conjunction with the sugar ingredients, imparts a typical caramel flavor to these sweets. Essentially, the entire batch of candy undergoes a chemical reaction referred to by chemists as the Maillard reaction. In a conventional caramelization process, the sugar syrups are cooked to the proper moisture level, added to the fat and milk, heated, and then allowed to caramelize (develop the characteristic flavor and brown color) in a browning kettle. The confectioner can watch the chemical reaction take place in the kettle as the batch turns from a milky white color to rich brown. The nose can smell the slight burning of the milk solids, too—and a pleasant odor it is. If cooked even further, to about 290°F (143°C), the mixture essentially becomes toffee, a hard-crack caramelized candy.
There is no question that chocolate is a wonderful ingredient in candies, but what would a Snickers bar, a caramel apple, or Milk Duds be without caramel? If not used in a bar, the caramel batch may be poured into a pan, scored, and cut apart in squares for plain consumption. Vanilla caramels, the type most frequently eaten, are flavored with vanilla; chocolate caramels have a bit of chocolate added to the batch, turning it a deep brown color. However, maple caramels, those with molasses and brown sugar, and cream caramels are other delicious varieties.
The good news is that the confectioneries are making a come-back. They will be making smaller batches and all sorts of gourmet treats and flavors. Watch for them close to you!!!
Yield: about 60 caramels
Prep and cook time: 1 hour (not including time to cut and wrap caramels, save extra time for that)
1 cup butter, unsalted
1 cup light corn syrup (11.5 oz)
1 14-oz. can sweetened condensed milk (or substitute two cups half and half or light cream. For shorter cooking time use sweetened condensed milk .
2 1/4 cup brown sugar (14.5 oz.)
1 tsp. vanilla
heavy, 3-qt. sauce pan, or 6-qt. if doubling the recipe, which I always do (having a heavy pan is important, if your pan is too thin it can heat the caramel unevenly and make it separate)
parchment paper (how I love parchment paper, i’ve never found anything that sticks to this stuff)
8×8 or 9×9 pan (or large jelly-roll cookie sheet if doubling recipe)
wax paper for wrapping caramels
- Every time before using a candy thermometer, clip a candy thermometer onto a pan full of cold water and bring it to a boil (make sure the thermometer is not touching the bottom of the pan). I cheat on a lot of things, but I never cheat on this. Boiling water should read 212°. Once the water is boiling, make note of any difference in your reading, and adjust your reading accordingly when you make the candy (for example, if thermometer reads 210° in boiling water instead of 212°, then take caramel off at 242° instead of 244°).
- Line pan with parchment paper, even up the sides. Prepare any apples, pretzels, or other things you’ll be dipping. Chop any nuts or prepare any candy you’ll be sprinkling on top.
- Cut butter into smaller, even sized cubes for even melting. Melt over low in sauce pan.
- Carefully add sugar by pouring it into the center of the pan. If any sugar crystals stick to side of pan, push them down with a damp pastry brush so they do not crystallize the entire batch and make you want to cry. Stir slowly until well combined with melted butter.
- Add and mix in corn syrup and sweetened condensed milk (or cream).
- Cook and stir on medium for one minute, then to med.-high until boiling. You want to change temperatures slowly so you don’t shock the candy. Once boiling, clip on your candy thermometer (again, don’t let it touch the bottom of the pan). By the time your caramel is boiling, if you have been stirring well, you should have the butter fully blended into the caramel mixture, not separated.
- Reduce heat to about medium, adjusting so that you keep a moderate, steady boil. Stir frequently. I’m serious about the stirring. If you let your caramel go too long without stirring, you’ll end up with a separated, greasy batch of caramel. No good.
- Temperature does not raise at a steady rate, so watch thermometer closely. If you have any doubts about the accuracy of your thermometer, periodically do a test by dropping a little in cold water. When your thermometer reaches thread stage (230–233°), take out any caramel that you would like to use as dip. When thermometer reaches late soft ball stage (234–240°), dip in a few apples for caramel apples. To keep your caramel from slipping and sliding, make sure you have washed your apple thoroughly in very warm water. This both slightly cooks the skin of your apple and removes all the wax from the apple. The wax is part of what makes the caramel slide off. Also, your technique of using slightly cool caramel is actually what most of the pros do!”
- When thermometer reaches 244°, remove caramel from heat (this is low firm ball stage; reaching this stage from boiling takes me about 30 minutes with sweetened condensed milk and longer with cream, though I have had a reader reach it in less time, so watch closely).
- Stir in vanilla. If dipping, start immediately. If making caramels, pour the caramel into the prepared pan. Either way, take care not to burn yourself, this stuff is so so hot.
- Allow to cool for several hours and use a butter knife or kitchen shears to cut pieces (UPDATE: a clever reader suggested a pizza cutter, another preferred preferred her trusty Santou knife, lightly buttered, thanks Susan!). Wrap in wax paper. Or to save on cutting time, just leave the whole batch out on the counter with a knife next to it and watch it gradually disappear.
And, for handy reference, here is the candy temperature list:
“It’s simply a matter of doing what you do best and not worrying about what the other fellow is going to do.”
~ John R. Amos
pejorative pih-JOR-uh-tiv, adjective:
1. Tending to make or become worse.
2. Tending to disparage or belittle.
3. A belittling or disparaging word or expression.
Pejorative is derived from the past participle of Late Latin pejorare, “to make worse, to become worse,” from Latin pejor, “worse”.
1407 – Mobs attacked the Jewish community of Cracow.
1492 – Columbus’ fleet anchored on Ragged Island Range, Bahamas.
1492 – Lead pencils were first used.
1682 – William Penn accepted the area around Delaware River from Duke of York.
1749 – The Georgia Colony reversed itself and ruled slavery to be legal.
1774 – The first Continental Congress adjourns. It had declared its opposition to the Coercive Acts, British measures and called for civil disobedience.
1774 – Minutemen were selected in the American colonies. The terms militia and minutemen are sometimes used interchangeably, but there was a difference between them.
1776 – Exactly one month to the day after being named an agent of a diplomatic commission by the Continental Congress, Benjamin Franklin sets sail from Philadelphia for France, with which he was to negotiate and secure a formal alliance and treaty.
1787 – “Federalist Papers,” a series of articles written under the pen name of Publius by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, were published and called for ratification of Constitution.
1795 – Pinckney’s Treaty (Treaty of San Lorenzo) between Spain and US was signed.Spain recognized U.S. borders at the Mississippi and the 31st parallel (the northern border of Florida, a Spanish possession).
1813 – Invading Canada from Lake Champlain, American General Wayne Hampton advanced down the Chateaugay River against defenses established by General Sir George Prevost..
1825 – The Erie Canal opens – passage from Albany, New York to Lake Erie. It was the first major man-made waterway in America.
1858 – The rotary motion-washing machine was patented by Hamilton E. Smith of Pittsburgh, PA.
1861 – Telegraph service inaugurated in US (end of Pony Express.)
1863 – The Football Association is formed .
1864 – Civil War: “Bloody Bill” Anderson, Confederate guerilla, is killed. He was a notorious Confederate guerrilla leader and was killed in Missouri in an ambush.
1876 – President Grant sent federal troops to SC. The soldiers assigned to South Carolina belonged to the 7th Cavalry, Lt. Col. (Brevet Maj. Gen.) George Armstrong Custer’s regiment, which had recently fought the Cheyennes on the Great Plains.
1881 – Wyatt Earp, his two brothers and “Doc” Holliday showed up at the OK Corral in Tombstone, Arizona, to disarm the Clanton and McLaury boys, who were in violation of a ban on carrying guns in the city limits. The Earp brothers facedoff against the Clanton-McLaury gang. Billy Clanton and Tom and Frank McLowery were killed; Earp’s brothers were wounded. This was the notorious “Shootout at the OK Corral.”
1889 – Marine Barracks was established at Naval Station, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
1900 – After four years of work the first section of the New York subway opened.
1911 – World Series: Philadelphia Athletics (4) vs New York Giants (2).
1912 – By an executive order Delaware was represented by the first star and Delaware was represented by the top stripe of the American flag. Delaware was the first of the 13 colonies to ratify the Constitution, on Dec. 7, 1787.
1916 – Margaret Sanger was arrested for obscenity (advocating birth control).
1917 – WW I: Battle of Caporetto: Italy suffers a catastrophic defeat at the hands of Germany and Austria during the First World War.
1921 – In first successful test, a compressed air, turntable catapult, launches an N-9 seaplane. This type of catapult was later installed on battleships, replacing turret-mounted platforms for launching aircraft.
1922 – LCDR Godfrey Chevalier makes first landing aboard a carrier (USS Langley) while underway off Cape Henry, Virginia.
1928 – “Peter Pan” by James Barrie was copyright registered.
1928 – The Pickwick Stage System filed documents to form a passenger airplane service connecting SF, San Diego and Chicago. It planned to use a fleet of tri-motored, 12 passenger Bach monoplanes.
1934 – Cole Porter recorded his own composition titled, “You’re the Top”.
1935 – 12-year-old Judy Garland performed on Wallace Berry’s radio show on NBC Radio Network. Judy sang “Broadway Rhythm” and was a hit. She came back two weeks later to sing “Zing! Went The Strings Of My Heart.”
1936 – At Boulder Dam the first of the five power units to be installed under the initial plan went into operation.
1938 – Du Pont named its new synthetic fiber “nylon.”
1939-World War II: Holocaust: Polish Jews were forced into obligatory work service.
1940 – ParaMarines organize at Lakehurst, New Jersey. Two Marine parachute operations were planned during the war in the Pacific, but were both cancelled.
1940 – The P-51 Mustang makes it maiden flight.
1941 – US savings bonds went on sale.
1942 – World War II: In the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands during the Guadalcanal Campaign, the U.S. aircraft carrier Hornet. is heavily damaged and will sink tomorrow. In addition, the USS South Dakota shot down a record 32 enemy planes in the same battle.
1942 – On the second day in the Battle of Henderson Field. Mitchell Paige (1918-2003), US Marine platoon sergeant, held his position against Japanese forces at Guadalcanal as all his men were killed or wounded, until reinforcements arrived. He received a battlefield commission and later a Medal of Honor.
1944 – US 7th Army continues to fight for St. Die.
1944 – On land, elements of US 24th Corps unsuccessfully attack Japanese positions on Catmon Hill, north of Dulag.
1944 – The Japanese were defeated in the Straits of Surigao in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the world’s largest sea engagement. Japan lost 26 capital ships.
1944 – World War II: The Battle of Leyte Gulf ends. The battle was won by American forces and brought the end of the Pacific phase of World War II into sight.
1944 – Special Task Air Group One makes last attack in month long demonstration of TDR drone missile against Japanese shipping and islands in the Pacific. Of forty-six missiles fired, twenty-nine reached their target areas.
1944 – Future Vice-president, and later, President Harry Truman publicly denies ever having been a member of the Ku Klux Klan.
1948 – Killer smog settles into Donora, Pennsylvania. This was the worst recorded industrial air pollution accident in US history. The Donora incident, which killed twenty and left hundreds seriously injured and dying, was caused by fluoride emissions from the Donora Zinc Works and steel plants owned by the US Steel
1949 – President Truman signed a measure raising the minimum wage from 40 cents to 75 cents an hour.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Goodnight Irene” by The Weavers, “All My Love” by Patti Page, “Harbor Lights” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Tony Alamo) and “I’m Moving On” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1951 – Rocky Marciano defeats Joe Louis at Madison Square Garden.
1952 – NBC-TV premiered “Victory at Sea”.
1954 – Chevrolet introduced the V-8 engine.
1955 – Rebel Without a Cause, starring James Dean, opens. Dean, age 24, had died after a car accident several weeks earlier. Although Dean appeared in only three movies during his brief career, he made a deep impression on American audiences.
1955 – “The Village Voice” was first published. “The Village Voice” is a free weekly newspaper in New York City featuring investigative articles, analysis of current affairs and culture, arts reviews and events listings for New York City.
1957 – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1958 – Pan American Airways makes the first commercial flight of the Boeing 707 from New York to Paris. On the very first flight, which made a stopover in Newfoundland, there were 111 passengers, the largest number ever to board a single regularly scheduled flight. Coach fares were $272, about the same as one would expect to pay for a piston-engine flight across the Atlantic.
1962 – JFK warned Russia that the US would not allow Soviet missiles to remain in Cuba. Nikita Khrushchev sent note to JFK offering to withdraw his missiles from Cuba if US closed its bases in Turkey. The offer was rejected.
1963 – “Sugar Shack” by Jimmy Gilmer & the Fireballs topped the charts.
1963 – USS Andrew Jackson (SSBN-619) launches first Polaris A-3 missile from a submerged submarine, off Cape Canaveral, Florida.
1965 – The Beatles are appointed Members of the Order of the British Empire (MBEs).
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Reach Out I’ll Be There” by Four Tops, “96 Tears” by ?(Question Mark) & The Mysterians, “Walk Away Renee” by The Left Banke and “Open Up Your Heart” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1966 – A fire breaks out on board the 42,000-ton U.S. aircraft carrier Oriskany in the Gulf of Tonkin. The accident occurred when a locker filled with night illumination magnesium flares burst into flame. The fire spread quickly through most of the ship, resulting in 35 officers and eight enlisted men killed and a further 16 injured.
1967 – The Shah of Iran crowned himself and his Queen after 26 years on the Peacock Throne.
1968 – “Hey Jude” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1968 – Illinois state and the city of Chicago recognized Jean Baptiste Pointe de Sable (1745-1818), a Haitian-born sea captain, as the founder of Chicago.
1970 – “Doonesbury” comic strip debuts in 28 newspapers.
1970 – President Nixon signed Executive Order 11566 ordered the establishment of the Consumer Information Center (CIC).
1970 – Congress passed Public Law 91-508, the US Bank Secrecy Act, which required that banks maintain records of wire transfers of more than $3000 and report cash transactions of more than $10,000.
1971 – Memphis minister Al Green earns a gold record for “Tired of Being Alone“.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Then Came You” by Dionne Warwicke & Spinners, “You Haven’t Done Nothin” by Stevie Wonder, “You Ain’t Seen Nothing Yet/Free Wheelin’” by Bachman-Turner Overdrive and “I See the Want to in Your Eyes” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1977 – The experimental space shuttle Enterprise successfully landed at Edwards Air Force Base in California.
1978 – President Carter signed the Ethics in Government Act. It provided for the appointment of independent counsels. The Supreme Court upheld the law in 1987.
1982 – Steve Carlton became first pitcher to win 4 Cy Young awards. He joins Walter Johnson and Willie Mays as the only players to be voted MVP or Cy Young winner 10 or more years apart.
1984 – “Baby Fae” receives a heart transplant from a baboon Dr. Leonard L. Bailey performed the first baboon-to-human heart transplant, replacing a 14-day-old infant girl’s defective heart with a healthy, walnut-sized heart of a young baboon at Loma Linda University Medical Center in California. “Baby Fae” lived for twenty-one days with this animal heart.
1985 – “Saving All My Love for You” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1987 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped 8%. In Miami, an investor who had suffered heavy stock market losses shot and killed a brokerage manager and wounded his personal broker, then turned the gun on himself.
1989 – Washington, D.C. attorney Paul Tagliabue was tapped by NFL team owners to be the league’s new commissioner, succeeding Pete Rozelle.
1990 – The U.S. State Department issued a warning that terrorists could be planning an attack on a passenger ship or aircraft. This came just five years after the Achille Lauro.
1990 – Wayne Gretzky became the first NHL player to reach 2,000 points.
1991 – Former Washington Mayor Marion Barry arrived at a federal correctional institution in Petersburg, VA, to begin serving a six-month sentence for cocaine possession.
1992 – General Motors Corp. Chairman Robert Stempel resigned after the company recorded its highest losses in history.
1993 – Deborah Gore Dean was convicted of 12 felony counts of defrauding the U.S. government and lying to the U.S. Congress. Dean was a central figure in the Reagan-era HUD scandal.
1994 – Jordan and Israel sign a peace treaty.
1995 – The US House passed, 227-to-203, a Republican balanced-budget bill that would shrink the federal government, cut taxes and return power to the states.
1996 – In the US baseball World Series the NY Yankees won their first World Series since 1978, defeating the Atlanta Braves 3-2 in game six.
1996 – Federal prosecutors cleared Richard Jewell as a suspect in the Olympic park bombing.
1997 – Basketball player Charles Barkley is charged with aggravated battery and resisting arrest after throwing Jorge Lugo through a plate glass window in a dance club in Orlando, Florida.
1997 – The Florida Marlins became the youngest franchise to win the World Series with a 3-2 victory in the eleventh inning over the Cleveland Indians in the seventh and final game.
2000 – The successor to the highly successful PlayStation, the PlayStation 2 was released.
2000 –World Series: New York Yankees (4) vs New York Mets (1).
2001 – President George W. Bush signs the Patriot Act, an anti-terrorism law drawn up in response to the attacks on the Pentagon and World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. The USA Patriot Act included Section 215 that gave the FBI authority to obtain library and bookstore records without evidence of wrongdoing. It allowed the government to detain aliens without public acknowledgement.
2001 – It was announced that Fort Worth’s Lockheed Martin won a defense contract for $200 billion over 40 years. The contract, for the “joint strike fighter,” was the largest defense contract in history.
2001 – Anthrax was found in the offices of 3 lawmakers in the Longworth House Office building on Capitol Hill. The Supreme Court was shut down to test for anthrax spores.
2003 – U.S. Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz escaped a rocket attack on a heavily guarded Baghdad hotel.
2003 – Flames stoked by powerful winds raced through parts of Southern California, torching more than 208,000 acres, destroying 500 homes and causing at least eleven deaths. A major radar facility was forced to close and many flights in the area were cancelled.
2004 – AT&T Wireless is officially acquired by Cingular Wireless.
2004 – Spacecraft Cassini flew within 745 miles of Titan providing scientists with new images of the Saturn largest moon.
2004 – Low cost airline ATA filed for bankruptcy.
2005 – World Series: Chicago White Sox (4) vs Houston Astros (0). The Chicago White Sox defeat the Houston Astros in the World Series to win their first championship since 1917 .
2005 – The US accepted a Japanese proposal for the relocation of a US air station on Okinawa.
2005 – In Florida the death toll from Hurricane Wilma rose to 10. Officials estimated agriculture damage at $1 billion.
2005 – Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad ignited international outrage when he said Israel should be wiped off the map.
2006 – U.S. President George Bush signed a bill authorizing construction of nearly 700 miles of fencing on the U.S. border with Mexico to better control illegal immigration.
2006 – The Esperanza Fire was a wind-driven arson-caused wildfire that was started in a river wash near Cabazon, California, west of Palm Springs, California. By the third day it had burned over 61 square miles. Five firefighters were killed defending a vacant, partially-built home that was destroyed by the fire: Jason McKay, Jess McLean, Daniel Hoover-Najera, Mark Loutzenhiser, and Pablo Cerda.
2006 – A big snowstorm in Colorado dumped 20 inches cutting power to thousands.
2006 – In Hoxie, Kansas, Sheridan County sheriff James Johnson (54) was shot and killed as he interviewed Steven Paul Reitcheck (36) about possible commitment to a mental health facility. A deputy then shot and killed Reitcheck.
2007 – A federal jury in Kansas City, Mo., decided that Lisa Montgomery, convicted of killing expectant mother Bobbie Jo Stinnett and cutting the baby from her womb, should receive the death penalty.
2007 – Thousands of southern Californians returned to their neighborhoods as wildfires charred some 800 square miles. At least seven people had died in the fires including four in a migrant camp. Seven other deaths were reported from various causes following evacuation.
2008 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: At the University of Central Arkansas in Conway a shooting left two students dead and a third person wounded.
2009 – In Afghanistan, A UH-1 and an AH-1 Cobra helicopter collided in flight before sunrise over the southern province of Helmand, killing four American troops. Another helicopter went down in the west of the country after leaving the scene of a firefight, killing ten Americans, including seven service members and three Drug Enforcement Administration agents.
2010 – BMW is recalling 150,000 vehicles in the U.S. due to potential fuel pump failure.
2010 – The United States has fallen to a new low of 22nd place in Transparency International’s rating of the least corrupt nations, noting various financial scandals and a lack of regulation leading to power being bought.
2011 – In California, Oakland police disperse Occupy Oakland protesters, using tear gas and rubber bullets and making numerous arrests.
2011 – The United Nations states that the world population will reach seven billion people by October 31, 2011.
2013 – The city council of Dearborn, Michigan voted 4-3 to became the first US city to officially implement all aspects of Sharia Law. The new law could see citizens stoned for adultery or having a limb amputated for theft. Lesser offenses, such as drinking alcohol or abortion, could result in flogging and/or caning. In addition, the law imposes harsh laws with regards to women and allows for child marriage. (Before It’s News 10/29/2013)
1803 – Joseph Hansom, British architect and inventor of a low enclosed horse-drawn coach, which was called the Hansom cab.
1854 – Charles Post, American cereal entrepreneur.
1879 – Leon Trotsky, Russian Communist leader.
1901 – Mahalia Jackson, American gospel singer.
1916 – François Mitterrand, French statesman.
1919 – Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, last Shah of Iran.
1946 – TV personality Pat Sajak (Wheel of Fortune)
1947 – U.S. Sen. Hillary Clinton, D-N.Y., wife of former U.S. President Bill Clinton
1945 – Actress Jaclyn Smith
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Battery F, 2d Battalion, 11th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Korea, October 26th, 1952. Entered service at: East Lansing, Mich. Born: 29 October 1929, Hartford, Conn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as an artillery forward observer of Battery F, in action against enemy aggressor forces on the night of 26 October 1952. When his observation post in an extremely critical and vital sector of the main line of resistance was subjected to a sudden and fanatical attack by hostile forces, supported by a devastating barrage of artillery and mortar fire which completely severed communication lines connecting the outpost with friendly firing batteries, 2d Lt. Skinner, in a determined effort to hold his position, immediately organized and directed the surviving personnel in the defense of the outpost, continuing to call down fire on the enemy by means of radio alone until his equipment became damaged beyond repair. Undaunted by the intense hostile barrage and the rapidly-closing attackers, he twice left the protection of his bunker in order to direct accurate machine gun fire and to replenish the depleted supply of ammunition and grenades. Although painfully wounded on each occasion, he steadfastly refused medical aid until the rest of the men received treatment. As the ground attack reached its climax, he gallantly directed the final defense until the meager supply of ammunition was exhausted and the position overrun. During the three hours that the outpost was occupied by the enemy, several grenades were thrown into the bunker which served as protection for 2d Lt. Skinner and his remaining comrades. Realizing that there was no chance for other than passive resistance, he directed his men to feign death even though the hostile troops entered the bunker and searched their persons. Later, when an enemy grenade was thrown between him and 2 other survivors, he immediately threw himself on the deadly missile in an effort to protect the others, absorbing the full force of the explosion and sacrificing his life for his comrades. By his indomitable fighting spirit, superb leadership, and great personal valor in the face of tremendous odds, 2d Lt. Skinner served to inspire his fellow marines in their heroic stand against the enemy and upheld the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and organization: Major, 308th Bombardment Group, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date: Over South China Sea, October 26th, 1944. Entered service at: San Angelo, Tex. Birth: Fort Worth, Tex. G.O. No.: 14, 4 February 1946. Citation: He piloted a B-24 bomber in a one-plane strike against a Japanese convoy in the South China Sea on the night of 26 October 1944. Taking the enemy force of twelve ships escorted by at least two destroyers by surprise, he made one bombing run at 600 feet, scoring a near miss on one warship and escaping without drawing fire. He circled. and fully realizing that the convoy was thoroughly alerted and would meet his next attack with a barrage of antiaircraft fire, began a second low-level run which culminated in two direct hits on a large tanker. A hail of steel from Japanese guns, riddled the bomber, knocking out two engines, damaging a third, crippling the hydraulic system, puncturing one gasoline tank, ripping uncounted holes in the aircraft, and wounding the copilot; but by magnificent display of flying skill, Maj. Carswell controlled the plane’s plunge toward the sea and carefully forced it into a halting climb in the direction of the China shore. On reaching land, where it would have been possible to abandon the staggering bomber, one of the crew discovered that his parachute had been ripped by flak and rendered useless; the pilot, hoping to cross mountainous terrain and reach a base. He continued onward until the third engine failed. He ordered the crew to bail out while he struggled to maintain altitude. and, refusing to save himself, chose to remain with his comrade and attempt a crash landing. He died when the airplane struck a mountainside and burned. With consummate gallantry and intrepidity, Maj. Carswell gave his life in a supreme effort to save all members of his crew. His sacrifice, far beyond that required of him, was in keeping with the traditional bravery of America’s war heroes.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 312th Infantry, 78th Division. Place and date: At Grand-Pre, France, October 26th, 1918. Entered service at: Harrison, N.J. Born: S August 1895, Newark, N.J. G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919. Citation: Hearing a wounded man in a shell hole some distance away calling for water, Sgt. Sawelson, upon his own initiative, left shelter and crawled through heavy machinegun fire to where the man lay, giving him what water he had in his canteen. He then went back to his own shell hole, obtained more water, and was returning to the wounded man when he was killed by a machinegun bullet.
Rank and organization: Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 29 April 1877, Washington, D.C. Appointed from: District of Columbia. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and eminent and conspicuous conduct in battle at the junction of the Cadacan and Sohoton Rivers, Samar, Philippine Islands, 17 November 1901. In command of the columns upon their uniting ashore in the Sohoton Region, Col. Porter (then Capt. ) made a surprise attack on the fortified cliffs and completely routed the enemy, killing 30 and capturing and destroying the powder magazine, 40 lantacas (guns), rice, food and cuartels. Due to his courage, intelligence, discrimination and zeal, he successfully led his men up the cliffs by means of bamboo ladders to a height of 200 feet. The cliffs were of soft stone of volcanic origin, in the nature of pumice and were honeycombed with caves. Tons of rocks were suspended in platforms held in position by vines and cables (known as bejuco) in readiness to be precipitated upon people below. After driving the insurgents from their position which was almost impregnable, being covered with numerous trails lined with poisoned spears, pits, etc., Col. Porter led his men across the river, scaled the cliffs on the opposite side, and destroyed the camps there. He and the men under his command overcame incredible difficulties and dangers in destroying positions which, according to reports from old prisoners, had taken 3 years to perfect, were held as a final rallying post, and were never before penetrated by white troops. Col. Porter also rendered distinguished public service in the presence of the enemy at Quinapundan River, Samar, Philippine Islands, on 26 October 1901.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1852, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Supply, Flannagan rescued from drowning David Walsh, seaman, of Le Havre, France, October 26th, 1878.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born. 1853 Montreal, Canada. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Second award. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge, at Hampton Roads, Va., October 26th, 1881, Sweeney jumped overboard and assisted in saving from drowning a shipmate who had fallen overboard into a strongly running tide.
Halloween Safety Tips
Never, ever go into a strangers house or even ring their door for treats unless your parents are with you and say that it’s okay. There are some people in life that aren’t very nice to kids and you have to be careful. Always make sure that your mom or dad is within sight when you go out trick-or-treating.
Be careful when you cross a street. Make sure to look in both directions and make sure that there are no cars coming. If you have a little brother or sister with you, take their hand and help them get across the street, too. If the street has a stop light, wait until the cross walk light tells you that it’s okay to cross now, but still check before you cross, look both ways.
If you are an older kid or young teen, and going out with friends, make sure that your parents know where you are going and who you are going with. This may seem like a pain but they are your parents and they love you. They just want you to be safe.
If you can drive and are taking a bunch of friends to a party, make sure that you have enough gas to get there. It is best to have at least a half a tank. You don’t want to run out on a dark street, all alone, or run into any kind of street blockage without enough to go around the obstacle.
If your parents give you a curfew, be home when they say. It builds trust between you and them and they are doing it for your own safety. If you are going to be late, call them and let them know. Have a mutual code word so that they can know, in casual conversation, whether you are okay of not.
Vandalism is never cool! Throwing eggs at cars and houses is not cool. Someone has to clean it up and it could be you, if you get caught. You can also be arrested and punished as a juvenile. So, don’t think that it’s fun only if you can get away with it. It’s never the right thing to do! Think about how you would feel if someone did that to your house and how bad it would make you feel. Be the strong one in the group.
Hurting animals is never acceptable behavior! Some people use Halloween as an excuse to hurt cats and that is just wrong! Not only is it illegal in most places to hurt or torture animals and punishable by law, you should never hurt a helpless living thing.
Parents of trick-or-treating kids can get so caught up in the fun themselves that they might forget some simple safety ideas that could keep everyone out of trouble. Having a fun and safe Halloween will make it all worthwhile! Kids love Halloween! They get to dress up and get free candy! What a perfect holiday! Give your kids some precious Halloween memories that they’ll have for life.
If you take your kids to a sponsored event, like a safe Halloween thrown by your church or community center, make sure to keep an eye on them at al times. Even though it seems less dangerous, you are still in a strange environment full of people that you may or may not know. All it takes is a minute with your back turned to find your child gone.
Cell phones are everywhere now! Everyone seems to have one, they can be so
affordable. Make sure that your child has a pre-programmed cell phone with him/her if they go out on Halloween night! Make sure that all important numbers are already there and ready for use.
Parents of trick-or-treating kids can get so caught up in the fun themselves that they might forget some simple safety ideas that could keep everyone out of trouble. Having a fun and safe Halloween will make it all worthwhile.
“The supreme accomplishment is to blur the line between work and play.”
~ Arnold J. Toynbee
boodle (BOOD-l) noun
An illegal payment, as in graft.
To take money dishonestly, especially from graft.
[From Dutch boedel (property).]
2137 B.C. – Chinese Royal astronomers, Ho and Hsi, were executed after not predicting a solar eclipse that caused panic in the streets of China.
1415 – An English army under Henry V defeated the French at Agincourt, France. The French had outnumbered Henry’s troops, but Welsh longbows turned the tide of the battle.
1621 – Gov. Bradford of US Plymouth colony disallowed sport on Christmas Day.
1760 – George III becomes King of Great Britain. He was the king throughout the American Revolution.
1764 – John Adams, future US president, wed Abigail Smith. He called her “a constant feast.” Their marriage lasted 54 years.
1671 – Giovanni Cassini discovered Iapetus, one of Saturn’s moons. Iapetus is the third largest and one of the stranger of the 18 moons of Saturn.
1812 – The U.S. frigate United States captured the British vessel Macedonian during the War of 1812.
1813 – War of 1812: Canadians and Mohawks defeat the Americans in the Battle of Chateauguay.
1825 – The Erie Canal, America’s first man-made waterway, was opened, linking the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean via the Hudson River.
1854 – The Battle of Balaklava during the Crimean War (Charge of the Light Brigade).
1864 – Civil War: Skirmishes took place at Mine Creek, KS. About six miles south of Trading Post, where the Marais de Cygnes engagement had occurred, the brigades of Col. Frederick W. Benteen and Col. John F. Phillips, of Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton’s Provisional Cavalry Division, overtook the Confederates as they were crossing Mine Creek.
1865 – The U.S.S. Republic was carrying 59 passengers and 20,000 $20 gold coins from New York to New Orleans when it sank in a hurricane off Savannah, Ga. All the passengers boarded life boats and got off alive. In 2003 explorers found the ship.
1870 – First U.S. trademark is awarded — to the Averill Chemical Paint Company of New York City. It was later declared unconstitutional and annulled.
1870 – The Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore, Md., opened and a horse named Preakness won the first stakes race on the program. 3 years later Pimlico honored that horse by naming a race for him.
1875 – Tchaikovsky’s First Piano Concerto premiered in Boston.
1892 – Bridle bit was invented by Brown, L. F. Patent No. 484,994
1906 – US inventor Lee de Forest patented the “Audion,” a 3-diode amplification valve which proved a pioneering development in radio and broadcasting.
1917 – The Bolshevik Revolution commences (according to the Julian calendar, which Russia used at the time of the Revolution. On the Gregorian calendar, the date was November 7).
1918 – The Canadian steamship Princess Sophia hit the reef off the coast of Alaska. Nearly 400 people died.
1923 – The Teapot Dome scandal came to public attention as Senator Thomas J. Walsh of Montana, subcommittee chairman, revealed the findings of the past 18 months of investigation. His case would result in the conviction of Harry F. Sinclair of Mammoth Oil, and later Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall, the first cabinet member in American history to go to jail.
1924 – Airship, USS Shenandoah (ZR-1), completes round trip transcontinental cruise that began on 7 October.
1929 – Former US Interior Secretary Albert B. Fall was convicted of accepting a $100,000 bribe in connection with the Elk Hills Naval Oil Reserve in California. This conviction was in addition to the one he received for accepting kickbacks in conjunction with the Wyoming Teapot Dome Scandal.
1930 – First football game in Atlantic City Convention Center.
1930 – First scheduled transcontinental air service began.
1931 – The George Washington Bridge, linking New York City and New Jersey, opened to traffic. It was completed at a cost of $59 million and 12 lives. The US Post Office featured a commemorative stamp. It was described as the most beautiful bridge in the world.
1936 – Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini create the Rome-Berlin Axis.
1937 – Radio’s “Stella Dallas” made her debut on the NBC Red network.
1938 – The Archbishop of Dubuque, Francis J. L. Beckman, denounces Swing music as “a degenerated musical system… turned loose to gnaw away at the moral fiber of young people”, warning that it leads down a “primrose path to hell”.
1939 – George Kaufman and Moss Hart’s “Man Who Came to Dinner,” premiered in New York City.
1940 – “Cabin in the Sky” opened for the first of 156 shows. “Taking a Chance on Love” is the one big hit that came from the musical.
1940 – Col. Benjamin O. Davis Sr. (1877-1970), commander of the 369th Infantry of New York, was promoted to brigadier general. In 1955 his son became the first black brigadier general in the Air Force.
1940 – Committee on the Participation of Negroes in the National Defense Program met with President Roosevelt.
1940 – National Newspaper Publishers Association founded.
1940 – Spingarn Medal presented to Dr. Louis T. Wright for his civil rights leadership and his contributions as a surgeon.
1941- World War II: Holocaust: sixteen-thousand Jews were massacred in Odessa, Ukraine.
1942 – World War II: Battle of Henderson Field, Guadalcanal began.
1943 – Benny Carter and his orchestra recorded “Poinciana.”
1944 – World War II: The USS Tang under Richard O’Kane (the top American submarine captain of World War II) is sunk by the ship’s own malfunctioning torpedo.
1944 – World War II: Heinrich Himmler orders a crackdown on the Edelweiss Pirates, a loosely organized youth culture in Nazi Germany that had assisted army deserters and others to hide from the Third Reich.
1944 – World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf, the largest naval battle in history, takes place in and around the Philippines between the Imperial Japanese Navy and the U.S. Third and U.S. Seventh Fleets. Japanese were defeated in the Straits of Surigao.
1944 – World War II: In eastern France near Bruyeres Sgt. Clyde Lee Choate (d.2001 at 81) destroyed a German Mark IV tank with two bazooka shots while under heavy fire. Choate later received the Medal of Honor and served in the Illinois Legislature (1947-1967).
1945 – World War II: Japanese surrendered Taiwan to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.
1945 – World War II: The Republic of China takes over administration of Taiwan following Japan’s surrender to the Allies.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “You’re Breaking My Heart” by Vic Damone, “That Lucky Old Sun” by Frankie Laine, “Someday” by Vaughn Monroe and “Slipping Around” by Margaret Whiting & Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: U.N. forces approached to within 34 miles of the Yalu River, the Chinese Manchurian border, as the Chinese Communist Forces launched their First Phase Offensive around this date.
1952 – “I Went to Your Wedding” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: The 7th Infantry Division battled the Chinese near Kumwha and suffered 2,000 casualties during the Battle of Sniper Ridge.
1954 – President Eisenhower conducted the first televised Cabinet meeting.
1955 – The microwave oven was introduced in Mansfield, Ohio at the corporate headquarters of the Tappan Company. The manufacturer put a $1,200 price tag the new stove that could cook eggs in 22 seconds, bacon in 90 seconds.
1957 – The movie musical “Pal Joey,” starring Frank Sinatra, Rita Hayworth and Kim Novak, was released.
1957 – Mob boss Albert Anastasia, the “Lord High Executioner” of “Murder Inc.,” was shot to death in a barber shop inside the Park Sheraton Hotel in New York.
1958 – U.S. Marines withdrew from Beirut, Lebanon. They had been sent in on July 25, 1958, to protect the nation’s pro-Western government.
1958 – “It’s All In The Game” by Tommy Edwards topped the charts.
1960 – First atomic reactor for research & development, Richland WA.
1960 – The Bulova Watch Company introduced its high-tech Accutron electronic wrist watch.
1960 – Cuba nationalized all remaining US businesses.
1962 – Author John Steinbeck won the Nobel Prize for Literature “for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception.”
1962 – Cuban missile crisis: Adlai Stevenson shows photos at the UN proving Soviet missiles are installed in Cuba.
1964 – The Rolling Stones were introduced to American audiences on “The Ed Sullivan Show” on CBS-TV.
1964 – Minnesota Viking Jim Marshall runs 66 yards in the wrong direction for a safety. He scooped up a fumble against the 49ers, carried it 66 yards into the end zone and then jubilantly tossed the ball toward the stands. Trouble was, it was the wrong end zone.
1964 – China detonates its first nuclear device.
1966 – Operation Sea Dragon logistics interdiction began. North Vietnamese regulars and Viet Cong guerrillas were not exempt from this time-honored adage.
1969 – “I Can’t Get Next to You” by the Temptations topped the charts.
1970 – George Blanda replaced Daryle Lamonica, the Oakland Raiders injured quarterback. Blanda tossed three touchdown passes (19, 43 and 44 yards), taking the Raiders to an easy victory over the Pittsburgh Steelers, 31-14.
1971 – The United Nations admitted China as a member, ousting the Nationalist Chinese government of Taiwan.
1971 – The TV show “The Electric Company” premiered providing an advance for children raised on Sesame Street.
1971 – Roy Disney dedicates Walt Disney World.
1972 – The Washington Post reports that White House Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman was the fifth person to control a secret cash fund designed to finance illegal political sabotage and espionage during the 1972 presidential election campaign (see also Watergate scandal) .
1972 – The first female FBI agents were hired.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Angie” by The Rolling Stones, “Midnight Train to Georgia” by Gladys Knight & The Pips, “Keep on Truckin’” by Eddie Kendricks and “Ridin’ My Thumb to Mexico” by Johnny Rodriguez all topped the charts.
1973 – President Nixon put U.S. troops on high alert for just under a week to show the Soviet Union that America would not allow it to send forces to aid Arab states fighting Israel. The Yom Kippur War ends.
1974 – The single, “Skin Tight“, by The Ohio Players, went gold.
1974 – US Air Force fired its first ICBM. The Space and Missile Systems Organization (SAMSO) successfully launched a Minuteman I from a C-5A cargo aircraft.
1975 – “Bad Blood” by Neil Sedaka topped the charts.
1976 – Gov. Wallace of Alabama granted full pardon to Clarence Norris, the last known survivor of nine Scottsboro Boys who were convicted in a 1931 rape.
1979 – In Michigan US District Court Judge John Feikens, in Glover v. Johnson, ruled in favor granting women prisoners a constitutional right to court access and to parity in educational and vocational training.
1980 – “Woman in Love” by Barbra Streisand topped the charts.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Arthur’s Theme (Best That You Can Do)” by Christopher Cross, “Start Me Up” by The Rolling Stones, “Step by Step” by Eddie Rabbitt and “Never Been So Loved (In All My Life)” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1983 – Operation Urgent Fury: The United States and its Caribbean allies invade Grenada, six days after Prime Minister Maurice Bishop and several of his supporters were executed in a coup d’état. Approximately 1,800 US Marines and Army Rangers, assisted by 300 soldiers from six Caribbean nations, invaded this island at the order of President Reagan, who said the action was needed to protect US citizens there.
1984 – John Cougar Mellencamp reached the two-million-dollar sales mark with his album, “Uh-Huh” (1:15:51). Also, country group Alabama went to the three-million-dollar mark with two albums this day: “Feels So Right” (9 Videos) and “Mountain Music“. (39:36)
1986 – Michael Sergio parachuted into Shea Stadium during game 6 of the World Series. In December he was fined $500 and sentenced to 100 hours of community service.
1986 – The New York Mets defeat the Boston Red Sox due to Bill Buckner’s famous error in Game 6 of the World Series and go on to win the championship two days later.
1987 – World Series: Minnesota Twins (4) vs St. Louis Cardinals (3) It was the first World Series win for Minnesota.
1988 – First lady Nancy Reagan, addressing a U.N. committee, said the United States was responsible for its own drug problem, and charged that every American drug user was “an accomplice to every criminal act” committed by drug barons.
1988 – Two units of the Ku Klux Klan and eleven individuals are ordered to pay $ 1 million to African Americans who were attacked during a brotherhood rally in Forsythe County, GA .
1988 – ABC News reports on potbellied pygmy porkers’ popularity as pets.
1990 – James ‘Buster’ Douglas, who had knocked out the undefeated Mike Tyson on Feb. 10, 1990 to win the world heavyweight title, was floored by Evander Holyfield in the third round this day in Las Vegas.
1993 – Colonel Irene Trowell-Harris, from the New York Air National Guard, is promoted to Brigadier General on this date; thus becoming the National Guard’s first African American woman to hold general officer rank.
1994 – Susan Smith reported to police in Union, S.C., that her two young boys had been taken in a carjacking. Nine days later, she confessed she had rolled her car into a lake, drowning the children.
1995 – “Victor/Victoria,” opened at Marquis Theater NYC for 738 performances.
1995 – John J. Sweeney was elected AFL-CIO president. He soon pledged to his 13 million members “We will not be a rubber stamp of the Democrats.”
1995 – A commuter train slammed into a school bus in Fox River Grove, Illinois, killing seven students.
1997 – The Million Woman March was in Philadelphia to revitalize black families and communities drew an estimated 300,000 to one million people.
1998 – Thousands came to Oklahoma City for the ground-breaking ceremony of a memorial to the 1995 bombing of the Murrah Federal Building.
1999 – Intel introduced its code-named Coppermine chip as the new Pentium III with speeds up to 500 megahertz.
1999 – Payne Stewart (42), a professional golfer, was killed with two agents and two pilots when their Lear Jet crashed near Mina, South Dakota. The plane had flown for hours on autopilot before it crashed.
2001 – Windows XP is officially released.
2001 – A State Dept. mail worker in Virginia was diagnosed with the inhalational form of anthrax.
2001 – The U.S. Senate, by a 90-1 vote, approved a final package of anti-terror reforms designed to help law enforcement monitor and detain suspected terrorists.
2001 – The Ford Motor Co. reached a settlement that would cost as much as $2.7 billion to replace a $4 ignition device prone to cause stalling.
2001 – Operation Green Quest was the name given to a Treasury Dept. led task force headed by the Customs Service to crack down on financial sponsors of terrorism.
2002 – Democratic U.S. Sen. Paul Wellstone of Minnesota and seven others were killed in the crash of a small plane near the Eveleth-Virginia Municipal Airport, about 180 miles northeast of Minneapolis.
2002 – In Utah two F-16 fighter jets collided during training and one pilot survived. The second pilot’s body was found Oct 26.
2003 – The Old Fire was a wildfire in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. It was one of at least a dozen wildfires burning around Southern California at this time (which included the Cedar Fire, the second largest fire in California history and the largest since 1900 [The Santiago Canyon Fire of 1889 is the largest]).
2003 – World Series: Florida Marlins (4) vs New York Yankees (2).
2003 – In Afghanistan CIA officers William Carlson, 43, of Southern Pines, N.C., and Christopher Glenn Mueller, 32, of San Diego were ambushed and killed near the village in Shkin in Paktika province while tracking terrorists.
2003 – Florida State’s Bobby Bowden became the winningest coach in major college football history with his 339th victory as the Seminoles beat Wake Forest 48-24.
2004 – Mount St. Helens in the state of Washington awakens, with a minor eruption of steam, smoke, and ash.
2004 – Fidel Castro, Cuba’s President, announces that transactions using the American Dollar will be banned by November 8th.
2004 – The Georgia Supreme Court unanimously threw out the state’s hate crimes law, calling it overbroad and “unconstitutionally vague.” BTW, “hate speech” is a violation of the first amendment.
2005 – In the World Series, the Chicago White Sox and the Houston Astros began playing Game 3, which turned into a 14-inning marathon that did not end until well after midnight with Chicago winning 7-5.
2005 – The US State Dept. said all US passports will be implanted with computer chips starting in Oct 2006.
2006 – A US federal judge ruled that Indiana’s do-not-call list applies to political telemarketers in a House race.
2006 – New Jersey’s Supreme Court ruled that same-sex couples deserve the same privileges as heterosexuals, but left it up to lawmakers to define marriage.
2006 – Florida executed Danny Rolling (52), an infamous serial killer. He was executed for butchering five college students in Gainesville in 1990.
2007 – The US government issued a flurry of product-safety recalls affecting hundreds of thousands of Chinese-made children’s toys and jewelry amid fresh concerns about lead paint.
2007 – The death toll from the California wildfires of October 2007 rises to 12 as four bodies are discovered near the Mexican border.
2007 – The United States imposes economic sanctions against the Iranian Revolutionary Guard for its support of terrorism.
2008 – Anne Pressly (26), an Arkansas KATV anchorwoman, died in Little Rock several days after she didn’t answer her wake-up call and was found brutally beaten in her home.
2009 – The New York Yankees, baseball’s biggest spenders, finally cashed in with their first pennant in six years, beating the Los Angeles Angels 5-2 in Game 6 of the AL championship series behind the savvy pitching of Andy Pettitte.
2009 – In California a fire broke out in the Santa Cruz Mountains between Morgan Hill and Sant Cruz. The Loma Fire covered 485 acres and was only 20% contained. The Loma Fire was fully contained on Oct 27.
2010 – Sony stops selling the original cassette Walkman.
2010 – The trial of the alleged killer of Chandra Levy, Ingmar Guandique of El Salvador, begins in Washington D.C.
2011 – Police arrest seventy-five people outside Oakland City Hall in California while clearing the campsite of the Occupy Oakland protest.
2011 – The last of the United States’ nine-megaton B53 warheads, formerly the most powerful nuclear weapons in the country’s nuclear arsenal, is disassembled near Amarillo, Texas, having been in service since 1962.
2012 – Hurricane Sandy heads towards The Bahamas after making landfall in Cuba and Jamaica.
2012 – A New York Police Department officer, 6-year employee Gilberto Valle III along with an unnamed co-conspirator, is charged with allegedly conspiring to cross state lines and kidnap, torture, cook, and eat women (at least 100 names and pictures, some with physical descriptions, were found on his computer).
2013 – The U.S. Navy has announced that it has turned over its decommissioned carrier, the USS Forrestal, for scrap. The Navy’s first super-carrier launched in 1954 and was in service for an eventful 4 decades, was sold to All Star Metals for one cent.
1825 – Johann Strauss, Viennese composer.
1838 – Georges Bizet, French composer.
1881 – Pablo Picasso, Spanish-born Cubist painter and sculptor.
1888 – Richard Byrd, American polar explorer and first to reach North Pole.
1892 – Leo G. Carroll, American actor. He was best known as the frustrated banker haunted by the ghosts of George and Marion Kerby (sometimes erroneously spelled “Kirby”), in the 1950s television series Topper (1953–1956)
1912 – Minnie Pearl, American comedienne.
1940 – Basketball coach Bobby Knight
1941 – Ann Tyler, American author.
1941 – Pop singer Helen Reddy
GIUNTA, SALVATORE A
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Lunga Area. Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, on October 24th and October 25th, 1942. Born: 4 November 1916, Buffalo, N.Y. Accredited to: New Jersey. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous gallantry in action against enemy Japanese forces, above and beyond the call of duty, while serving with the 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division. While the enemy was hammering at the Marines’ defensive positions, Sgt. Basilone, in charge of two sections of heavy machineguns, fought valiantly to check the savage and determined assault. In a fierce frontal attack with the Japanese blasting his guns with grenades and mortar fire, one of Sgt. Basilone’s sections, with its guncrews, was put out of action, leaving only two men able to carry on. Moving an extra gun into position, he placed it in action, then, under continual fire, repaired another and personally manned it, gallantly holding his line until replacements arrived. A little later, with ammunition critically low and the supply lines cut off, Sgt. Basilone, at great risk of his life and in the face of continued enemy attack, battled his way through hostile lines with urgently needed shells for his gunners, thereby contributing in large measure to the virtual annihilation of a Japanese regiment. His great personal valor and courageous initiative were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
CHOATE, CLYDE L.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 601st Tank Destroyer Battalion. Place and date: Near Bruyeres, France, October 25th, 1944. Entered service at: Anna, IL . Born: 28 June 1920, West Frankfurt, IL. G.O. No.: 75, 5 September 1945. Citation: He commanded a tank destroyer near Bruyeres, France, on 25 October 1944. Our infantry occupied a position on a wooded hill when, at dusk, an enemy Mark IV tank and a company of infantry attacked, threatening to overrun the American position and capture a command post 400 yards to the rear. S/Sgt. Choate’s tank destroyer, the only weapon available to oppose the German armor, was set afire by two hits. Ordering his men to abandon the destroyer, S/Sgt. Choate reached comparative safety. He returned to the burning destroyer to search for comrades possibly trapped in the vehicle risking instant death in an explosion which was imminent and braving enemy fire which ripped his jacket and tore the helmet from his head. Completing the search and seeing the tank and its supporting infantry overrunning our infantry in their shallow foxholes, he secured a bazooka and ran after the tank, dodging from tree to tree and passing through the enemy’s loose skirmish line. He fired a rocket from a distance of twenty yards, immobilizing the tank but leaving it able to spray the area with cannon and machine gun fire. Running back to our infantry through vicious fire, he secured another rocket, and, advancing against a hail of machine gun and small-arms fire reached a position ten yards from the tank. His second shot shattered the turret. With his pistol he killed two of the crew as they emerged from the tank; and then running to the crippled Mark IV while enemy infantry sniped at him, he dropped a grenade inside the tank and completed its destruction. With their armor gone, the enemy infantry became disorganized and was driven back. S/Sgt. Choate’s great daring in assaulting an enemy tank single-handed, his determination to follow the vehicle after it had passed his position, and his skill and crushing thoroughness in the attack prevented the enemy from capturing a battalion command post and turned a probable defeat into a tactical success.
*EVANS, ERNEST EDWIN
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 August 1908, Pawnee, Okla. Accredited to: Oklahoma. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Bronze Star Medal. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Johnston in action against major units of the enemy Japanese fleet during the battle off Samar on October 25th, 1944. The first to lay a smokescreen and to open fire as an enemy task force, vastly superior in number, firepower and armor, rapidly approached. Comdr. Evans gallantly diverted the powerful blasts of hostile guns from the lightly armed and armored carriers under his protection, launching the first torpedo attack when the Johnston came under straddling Japanese shellfire. Undaunted by damage sustained under the terrific volume of fire, he unhesitatingly joined others of his group to provide fire support during subsequent torpedo attacks against the Japanese and, outshooting and outmaneuvering the enemy as he consistently interposed his vessel between the hostile fleet units and our carriers despite the crippling loss of engine power and communications with steering aft, shifted command to the fantail, shouted steering orders through an open hatch to men turning the rudder by hand and battled furiously until the Johnston, burning and shuddering from a mortal blow, lay dead in the water after three hours of fierce combat. Seriously wounded early in the engagement, Comdr. Evans, by his indomitable courage and brilliant professional skill, aided materially in turning back the enemy during a critical phase of the action. His valiant fighting spirit throughout this historic battle will venture as an inspiration to all who served with him.
YOUNG, CAVALRY M.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company L, 3d lowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Osage, Kans., October 25th,1864. Entered service at: Hopeville, Clark County, lowa. Birth: Washington County, Ohio. Date of issue: 4 April 1865. Citation: Gallantry in capturing Confederate Gen. Cabell.
Spinach Lovers Month
Tony Bennett Day
Black Thursday 1929
The Roaring Twenties, the decade that led up to the Great Crash or the Wall Street Crash of 1929,was a time of wealth and excess. The spirit of the Roaring Twenties was marked by a general feeling of discontinuity associated with modernity, a break with traditions. Everything seemed to be feasible through modern technology. New technologies, especially automobiles, moving pictures and radio continued an upward spiral. Despite the dangers of speculation, many believed that the stock market would continue to rise indefinitely. The market had been on a six-year run that saw the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) increase in value fivefold peaking at 381.17 on September 3, 1929. Shortly before the crash, economist Irving Fisher famously proclaimed, “Stock prices have reached what looks like a permanently high plateau.” The optimism and financial gains of the great bull market were shaken on “Black Thursday”, October 24, 1929, when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) abruptly fell.
In the days leading up to the crash the market was severely unstable. Periods of selling and high volumes of trading were interspersed with brief periods of rising prices and recovery. Economist and author Jude Wanniski later correlated these swings with the prospects for passage of the Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act, which was then being debated in Congress. This was supposed to protect domestic markets but, in the end, it only made matters worse and lengthened the Depression.
On October 24 (“Black Thursday”), the market lost 11% of its value at the opening bell on very heavy trading. Several leading Wall Street bankers met to find a solution to the panic and chaos on the trading floor. The meeting included Thomas W. Lamont, acting head of Morgan Bank; Albert Wiggin, head of the Chase National Bank; and Charles E. Mitchell, president of the National City Bank of New York. They chose Richard Whitney, vice president of the Exchange, to act on their behalf. With the bankers’ financial resources behind him, Whitney placed a bid to purchase a large block of shares in U.S. Steel at a price well above the current market. As traders watched, Whitney then placed similar bids on other “blue chip” stocks. This tactic was similar to one that ended the Panic of 1907. It succeeded in halting the slide. The Dow Jones Industrial Average recovered, closing with it down only 6.38 points for the day; however, unlike 1907, the respite was only temporary.
This was but the beginning of a very bad time in American History
“Meticulous planning will enable everything a person does to appear spontaneous.”
erudite AIR-yuh-dyt; -uh-dyt, adjective:
Characterized by extensive reading or knowledge; learned.
Erudite comes from Latin eruditus, from e-, “out of, from” + rudis, “rough, untaught,” which is also the source of English rude. Hence one who is erudite has been brought out of a rough, untaught, rude state.
1537 – Jane Seymour, the third wife of England’s King Henry VIII, died after giving birth to Prince Edward. Prince Edward became King Edward VI.
1648 – The Peace of Westphalia is signed, marking the end of the Thirty Years’ War. The Holy Roman Empire was effectively destroyed.
1836 – Alonzo Dwight Phillips of Springfield, Massachusetts, received the first U.S. patent for the phosphorous friction safety match.
1851 – William Lassell discovered Ariel and Umbriel, satellites of Uranus.
1861 – The first transcontinental telegraph line across the United States is completed, spelling the end for the 18-month-old Pony Express. The first telegram was transmitted from California Chief Justice Stephen Field to U.S. President Abraham Lincoln in Washington.
1861 – Civil War: West Virginia seceded from Virginia. Residents of thirty-nine counties in western Virginia approved the formation of a new Unionist state.
1863 – Civil War: General Ulysses S. Grant arrived in Chattanooga, Tennessee to find the Union Army there starving.
1871 – Anti-Chinese rioting took place in Los Angeles. A mob in Los Angeles hanged sixteen Chinese men and one woman.
1897 – “The New York Journal American” carries the “The Yellow Kid” comic strip. The Yellow Kid was the name of a lead comic strip character that ran from 1895 to 1898.
1901 – Annie Edson Taylor, a 43-year-old widow, became the first person to go over Niagara Falls in a barrel. She made the attempt for the cash award offered, which she put toward the loan on her Texas ranch. The barrel was four and a half feet high and three feet across. She also wore a leather harness and soft cushions were on the inside of the barrel to protect her during her fall. She fell 175 feet. She survived the fall.
1903 – First trotter to run a mile under 2 minutes (Lou Dillon 1:58.1)
1915 – The Marine Corps Recruit Depot was moved from Norfolk, VA and established at Parris Island, South Carolina.
1916 – Industrialist Henry Ford awarded equal pay to women. Ford helped lead American war production with the gigantic facility at Willow Run. Ford mass produced the B-24 Liberator military aircraft from this facility.
1929 – “Black Thursday”, the first day of the stock market crash which began the Great Depression.. In the U.S., investors dumped more than thirteen million shares on the stock market.
1929 – “The Rudy Vallee Show” debuted on NBC radio. The show quickly became a top-rated program, second only to Amos ‘n’ Andy. It introduced to the listening publc such future stars as Eddie Cantor, Kate Smith, Milton Berle and Alice Faye.
1931 – The upper level of the George Washington Bridge opened for traffic between New York and New Jersey.
1931 – Al (Alphonse) Capone, prohibition era Chicago gangster, was sentenced to eleven years in prison for tax evasion.
1938 – The Fair Labor Standards Act became law, establishing the 40-hour work week effective Oct 24, 1940. The Act forbade child labor in factories.
1938 – The minimum wage was set at $.25 per hour. The 1938 Act was applicable generally to employees engaged in interstate commerce or in the production of goods for interstate commerce.
1939 – Benny Goodman records “Let’s Dance.”
1939 – The minimum wage was raised to $.30 per hour.
1939 – Nylon stockings went on sale in the U.S. for the first time to employees at DuPont’s Wilmington, Delaware nylon factory.
1939 – World War II: Holocaust: Nazis required Jews to wear star of David.
1940 – Just a year before Pearl Harbor, Japan eliminated US terms (strike, play ball) from baseball.
1940 – The 40-hour workweek went into effect under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.
1940 – World War II: Holocaust: Protestant churches [in Germany] protested against the dismissal of Jewish civil servants.
1942 – World War II: On Guadalcanal, heavy fighting continues as the Japanese offensive gains some success with the secondary operations infiltrating the left flank of the U.S. positions.
1943 – World War II: Allied aircraft raid Rabaul, New Britain Island, for a second time in two days. One Japanese destroyer and five merchant ships have been sunk in the raids.
1943 – World War II: Elements of the US 5th Army capture Sant’Angelo, Italy. The 34th Division moved up through the mist on this morning and entered the walled and narrow streets without resistance.
1944 – World War II: On land, elements of US First Cavalry land on Samar.
1944 – World War II: The aircraft carrier USS Princeton was sunk by a single Japanese plane during the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The US Destroyer Johnson DD-557 sank as well. Survivors were rescued four days later.
1944 – World War II: “Ace of Aces” David McCampbell and one other fighter faced 60 planes approaching US forces. He shot down 9 “Zekes” and with his comrade managed to scatter the remaining 51 planes at the battle of Leyte Gulf. (See Medal of Honor below)
1944 – World War II: US air raid on Japanese battleships and cruisers in Sibuya Sea sank the 65,000 ton Musashi battleship.
1944 – World War II: US submarines sank the Japanese merchant ship Arisan Maru. No one knew but the ship carried 1,800 American POWs and 1,792 of them died.
1944 – Hitler informs his generals of his intention to launch a surprise counteroffensive against the weakly held Ardennes area of the Allied line.
1944 – World War II: The Japanese aircraft carrier Zuikaku is heavily damaged and will sink on October 25th. She was the sixth and last of the aircraft carriers involved at Pearl Harbor.
1945 – U.S. Secretary of State James Byrnes announced the U.N. charter was in effect. Establishment of the United Nations came less than two months after the end of World War II. The United Nations was created to prevent future wars. Unfortunately, from the time its charter was drafted in the Garden Room of San Francisco’s Fairmont Hotel, there have been over 100 million casualties in nearly 150 wars worldwide.
1945 – Pierre Laval of France and Vidkum Abraham Quisling of Norway were executed. The two men were recognized as the two most prominent collaborators of the Nazis.
1945 – The minimum wage was set at $.40 per hour. The 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act was applicable generally to employees engaged in interstate commerce or in the production of goods for interstate commerce.
1947 – Walt Disney testifies to the House Un-American Activities Committee, naming Disney employees he believes to be communists.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Call Everybody Darlin’” by Al Trace (vocal: Bob Vincent), “A Tree in the Meadow” by Margaret Whiting, “Buttons and Bows” by Dinah Shore and “Just a Little Lovin’ (Will Go a Long, Long Way)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 – The term “cold war” was used for the first time. It was in a speech by Bernard Baruch before the Senate War Investigating Committee.
1951 – Dr. Albert W. Bellamy, chief of Radiological Services for the California State Civil Defense, held a press conference to assure state residents that there would be no ill effects from the atomic test explosions near Las Vegas.
1951 – Korean War: The largest air battle of the war occurs as 150 MiGs attack a formation of B-29s escorted by 55 F-84 Thunderjets.
1953 – “St. George and the Dragonet” by Stan Freberg topped the charts.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Honky Tonk (Parts 1 & 2)” by Bill Doggett, “Love Me Tender” by Elvis Presley, “The Green Door” by Jim Lowe and “Hound Dog/Don’t Be Cruel” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.
1957 – Dwight D. Eisenhower pledges United States support to South Vietnam.
1957 -The USAF starts the X-20 Dyna-Soar program.
1958 – USS Kleinsmith (APD-134) evacuates U.S. nationals from Nicaro, Cuba. She rescued fifty-six U.S. citizens and three foreign nationals at Nicaro, Cuba, where they were endangered by military operations between the Cuban Army and the Castro rebels.
1959 – Wilt ‘The Stilt’ Chamberlain launched a pro basketball record streak. Not only did he play in 799 consecutive games; he didn’t foul out in one of them.
1959 – “Mack the Knife” by Bobby Darin topped the charts.
1960 – “I Want to Be Wanted” by Brenda Lee topped the charts.
1960 – All remaining American-owned property in Cuba was nationalized. The process of nationalizing all U.S. and foreign-owned property in Cuban had begun on August 6, 1960.
1962 – James Brown recorded “Live at the Apollo, Volume I.”
1962 – The U.S. blockade of Cuba began under a proclamation signed by President Kennedy.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “Do Wah Diddy Diddy” by Manfred Mann, “Last Kiss” by J. Frank Wilson & The Cavaliers, “We’ll Sing in the Sunshine” by Gale Garnett and “I Don’t Care (Just as Long as You Love Me)” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1968 – NASA test pilot Bill Dana flew the final flight of this North American X-15 rocket-propelled research aircraft. It was its 199th flight. In the course of this program, the X-15s spent eighteen hours flying above Mach 1, twelve hours above Mach 2, almost nine hours above Mach 3, almost six hours above Mach 4, one hour above Mach 5 and a few short minutes above Mach 6. The X-15 was celebrated by the scientific community as the most successful research aircraft of all time.
1969 – Richard Burton bought his wife Elizabeth Taylor a 69-carat Cartier diamond ring for $1.5 million. Burton presented the ring to Taylor several days later. (Today – 2011 – this would be worth $8.92 million on the Consumer Price Index.)
1970 – President Richard Nixon asked radio broadcasters to screen songs containing lyrics that promoted drug use.
1970 – Nancy Walker creates Ida Morgenstein role on Mary Tyler Moore Show.
1970 – “I’ll Be There” by the Jackson 5 topped the charts.
1971 – Texas Stadium opens-Cowboys beat Patriots 44-21.
1973 – Art Garfunkel received his first gold album of his solo career for “Angel Clare.”
1973 – On the NJ Turnpike heavy fog caused collisions killing eleven people.
1973 – Yom Kippur War ends.
1973 – John Lennon sued the US government to admit FBI was tapping his phone.
1977 – Veterans Day is observed on the fourth Monday in October for the seventh and last time. (The holiday is once again observed on November 11 beginning the following year.)
1978 – President Carter signed the Airline Deregulation Act. The main purpose of the act was to remove government control from commercial aviation and expose the passenger airline industry to market forces.
1979 – Guinness Book of Records presents Paul McCartney with a rhodium disc for selling over 200 million albums.
1980 – David H. Barnett, former CIA agent, pled guilty to spying for the Soviet Union from 1976-1979 while based in Indonesia. He admitted to exposing the identities of 30 US agents.
1980 – The US Court of Appeals in San Francisco ruled that the US Navy has the right to discharge personnel for homosexual conduct.
1980 – The merchant freighter USS Poet departed Philadelphia bound for Port Said, Egypt, with a crew of 34 and a cargo of grain; it was never heard from again. In its marine casualty report, the Coast Guard reported that the “precise time and location of the vessel’s loss are unknown and cannot be determined. The Board determined that the Poet was most likely lost during the period when it encountered the most severe weather conditions between the morning of 25 October and the evening of 26 October.”
1981 – “Arthur’s Theme (Best That You Can Do)” by Christopher Cross topped the charts.
1984 – FBI arrested eleven alleged chiefs of the Colombo crime family on charges of racketeering in New York City.
1986 – Nezar Hindawi is sentenced to 45 years in prison, the longest sentence handed down by a British court, for the attempted bombing on an El Al flight at Heathrow. After the verdict, the United Kingdom breaks diplomatic relations with Syria, claiming that Hindawi was helped by Syrian officials.
1987 – “Bad” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Groovy Kind of Love” by Phil Collins, “What’s on Your Mind (Pure Energy)” by Information Society, “Wild, Wild West” by The Escape Club and “Gonna Take a Lot of River” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1989 – Hank Ballard, Bobby Darin, the Four Tops, the Four Seasons, Holland-Dozier-Holland, the Kinks, Carole King and Gerry Goffin, the Platters, the Who, Simon & Garfunkel were inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame.
1990 – The Senate failed to override President Bush’s veto of a major civil rights bill by a vote of 66-to-34, one vote short of the two-thirds majority needed.
1991 – President Bush used a speech in Washington to blast Congress as a “privileged class of rulers.”
1992 – World Series: Toronto Blue Jays (4) vs Atlanta Braves (2). First non-US team to win.
1994 – The Clinton administration announced that the U.S. budget deficit had fallen to $203 billion in the just-completed fiscal year.
1995 – In Cleveland, OH, Chrissie Hynde (Pretenders) sang the national anthem in Game 3 of the World Series.
1995 – New York City declared October 24th Tony Bennett Day.
1995 – “It’s A Mystery” was released by Bob Segar & the Silver Bullet Band. It was their first studio release in four years.
1995 – United Nations marked its 50th anniversary with the largest gathering of world leaders in history.
1996 – In St. Petersburg, Fla., a riot ensued when a white police officer fatally shot a black man during a traffic stop. Some 200 people raged over a 25 sq. block area where at least 17 fires were set.
1997 – In Arlington, VA, former NBC sportscaster Marv Albert was spared a jail sentence after a courtroom apology to the woman he’d bitten during a sexual encounter.
1997 – The US stock market Dow Jones average dropped 132.36 points following the 187 point drop on Oct 23.
1998 – Launch of Deep Space 1 comet/asteroid mission.
1998 – A natural gas well exploded in Bryceland, La., and killed 7 workers.
1998 – “The First Night” by Monica topped the charts.
1999 – Pat Buchanan and Donald Trump announced that they would seek the Reform Party nomination for president.
2000 – The space shuttle Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base following the 100th shuttle flight and work on the International Space Station.
2001 – US jets attacked frontline Taliban positions for a fourth day.
2001 – The US government arranged to buy 100 million Cipro tablets from Bayer for 95 cents each. The tablets were for anthrax. Cost was $95 million dollars for a three-year shelf life.
2001 – The U.S. House of Representatives approved legislation that gave police the power to secretly search homes, tap all of a person’s telephone conversation and track people’s use of the Internet. This was a clear violation of the Fourth Amendment.
2001 – The U.S. stamp “United We Stand” was dedicated.
2001 – NASA’s 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft successfully entered orbit around Mars.
2001 – A blizzard hit North Dakota and Minnesota. The ten inches of snow broke a 1926 Grand Forks record. The blizzard killed six people in the Midwest with four dead in North Dakota car crashes.
2002 – Police arrest John Allen Muhammad (41), an Army veteran who recently converted to Islam, and John Lee Malvo (17) near Frederick, Maryland, in connection with the sniper shootings that left ten dead and three wounded.
2002 – Microsoft Corp. and Walt Disney Co. announced the release of an upgraded MSN Internet service with Disney content.
2003 – California won its first anti-spam judgment when a court fined PW Marketing of Los Angeles County, $2 million for sending out millions of unsolicited e-mails telling people how to spam.
2003 – Concorde makes its last commercial flight, bringing the era of airliner supersonic transport to a close, at least for the time being.
2003 – Tiger Woods matched the 55-year-old standard set by Byron Nelson by making the cut in his 113th consecutive PGA Tour event. Se Ri Pak became the first woman to make the two-round cut in a men’s golf tournament since Babe Zaharias in 1945.
2004 – Arizona’s Emmitt Smith broke Walter Payton’s NFL record for 100-yard games rushing with his 78th.
2004 – A plane owned by Hendrick Motorsports crashed in thick fog en route to a NASCAR race in Martinsville, Va., killing all 10 people aboard, including the son, brother and two nieces of owner Rick Hendrick.
2005 – Hurricane Wilma roared into Florida, packing 125 mph winds and lashing rain, inflicting heavy damage to beaches and buildings. Ten deaths were reported and some 2.5 million South Floridians were without power.
2005 – U.S. President George Bush nominated Ben Bernanke, his chief economic adviser, to replace Alan Greenspan as Federal Reserve Board chairman.
2006 – Ohio executed Jeffrey Lundgren (56), a religious cult leader, for the 1989 murder of a family of five followers who were taken one at a time to a barn, bound and shot to death. The youngest was a girl just 7 years old. Lundgren argued at his trial in 1990 that he was prophet of God and therefore not deserving of the death penalty.
2007 – Strong and gusty winds fanning 15 large wildfires in Southern California began to ease after 656 square miles and at least 1,500 homes had been charred.
2007 – Microsoft secured a deal to buy 1.6% of Facebook, a social networking site, for $240 million.
2008 – In Tennessee a sport utility vehicle carrying four cheerleaders collided with an oncoming car on a wet, foggy highway in Scott County, northwest of Knoxville. Three cheerleaders were killed and a fourth died the next day. A passenger in the car also was killed.
2009 – City and state officials in Los Angeles dedicated the new ten -story, $437 million police headquarters.
2010 – Actor Randy Quaid and his wife seek asylum in Canada to avoid prosecution in the United States, claiming they are being “persecuted”.
2010 – The San Francisco Giants beat the Philadelphia Phillies in the National League Championship Series, advancing to the World Series.
2011 – Julian Assange’s whistleblowing website Wikileaks announces that it will stop publishing classified files and will instead focus on fundraising, after a “financial blockade” by numerous American companies reportedly destroys 95% of the site’s revenue.
2012 – The upcoming presidential elections will be observed by election monitors from countries that have their own issues with democracy.
2012 – A former maintenance worker at Creflo Dollar’s World Changers Church International in the Atlanta suburb of College Park, Georgia fatally shot a 39-year-old church volunteer.
2012 – MASS SHOOTING: Three people are shot dead, two are critically wounded, and a gunman is at large after shootings at two locations in the Los Angeles suburb of Downey, California: a business next to a Coca-Cola plant, and a residence.
2014 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: fifteen-year-old freshman student Jaylen Fryberg shot five other students at Marysville Pilchuck High School in Marysville, Washington, fatally wounding four, before fatally shooting himself. Fryberg’s father, Raymond Fryberg, was arrested the following year for illegally purchasing and owning the gun used in the shooting, among other firearms.
2015 – Actress Maureen O’Hara dies in her sleep at her Boise, Idaho, home. “She passed peacefully surrounded by her loving family as they celebrated her life listening to music from her favorite movie, “The Quiet Man.”
2015 – A driver, arrested on suspicion of driving under the influence (DUI), plows into the Oklahoma State Homecoming parade in Stillwater, Oklahoma, killing four people and injuring 34 with eight in critical condition.
1632 – Anton van Leeuwenhoek, Dutch microscope pioneer.
1788 – Poet Sarah Joseph Hale was born. She wrote the poem “Mary Had A Little Lamb.”
1904 – Moss Hart, American playwright and director.
1926 – Y.A. Tittle, pro football Hall-of-Famer.
1936 – David Nelson, American actor, director, producer. He was the elder son of bandleader/TV actor Ozzie Nelson and singer Harriet Hilliard.
1939 – F. Murray Abraham, American actor.
1961 – Mary Bono, U.S. Congresswoman from California
COOLIDGE, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 141st Infantry, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: East of Belmont sur Buttant, France, October 24th to 27th, 1944. Entered service at: Signal Mountain, Tenn. Birth: Signal Mountain, Tenn. G.O. No.: 53, July 1945. Citation: Leading a section of heavy machineguns supported by one platoon of Company K, he took a position near Hill 623, east of Belmont sur Buttant, France, on 24 October 1944, with the mission of covering the right flank of the Third Battalion and supporting its action. T/Sgt. Coolidge went forward with a sergeant of Company K to reconnoiter positions for coordinating the fires of the light and heavy machineguns. They ran into an enemy force in the woods estimated to be an infantry company. T/Sgt. Coolidge, attempting to bluff the Germans by a show of assurance and boldness called upon them to surrender, whereupon the enemy opened fire. With his carbine, T/Sgt. Coolidge wounded two of them. There being no officer present with the force, T/Sgt. Coolidge at once assumed command. Many of the men were replacements recently arrived; this was their first experience under fire. T/Sgt. Coolidge, unmindful of the enemy fire delivered at close range, walked along the position, calming and encouraging his men and directing their fire. The attack was thrown back. Through 25 and 26 October the enemy launched repeated attacks against the position of this combat group but each was repulsed due to T/Sgt. Coolidge’s able leadership. On 27 October, German infantry, supported by two tanks, made a determined attack on the position. The area was swept by enemy small arms, machinegun, and tank fire. T/Sgt. Coolidge armed himself with a bazooka and advanced to within twenty-five yards of the tanks. His bazooka failed to function and he threw it aside. Securing all the hand grenades he could carry, he crawled forward and inflicted heavy casualties on the advancing enemy. Finally it became apparent that the enemy, in greatly superior force, supported by tanks, would overrun the position. T/Sgt. Coolidge, displaying great coolness and courage, directed and conducted an orderly withdrawal, being himself the last to leave the position. As a result of T/Sgt. Coolidge’s heroic and superior leadership, the mission of this combat group was accomplished throughout four days of continuous fighting against numerically superior enemy troops in rain and cold and amid dense woods.
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy, Air Group 15. Place and date: First and second battles of the Philippine Sea, 19 June 1944. Entered service at: Florida. Born: 16 January 1 910, Bessemer, Ala. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Silver Star, Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross with 2 Gold Stars, Air Medal. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commander, Air Group 15, during combat against enemy Japanese aerial forces in the first and second battles of the Philippine Sea. An inspiring leader, fighting boldly in the face of terrific odds, Comdr. McCampbell led his fighter planes against a force of 80 Japanese carrier-based aircraft bearing down on our fleet on 19 June 1944. Striking fiercely in valiant defense of our surface force, he personally destroyed 7 hostile planes during this single engagement in which the outnumbering attack force was utterly routed and virtually annihilated. During a major fleet engagement with the enemy on October 24th, Comdr. McCampbell, assisted by but l plane, intercepted and daringly attacked a formation of 60 hostile land-based craft approaching our forces. Fighting desperately but with superb skill against such overwhelming airpower, he shot down 9 Japanese planes and, completely disorganizing the enemy group, forced the remainder to abandon the attack before a single aircraft could reach the fleet. His great personal valor and indomitable spirit of aggression under extremely perilous combat conditions reflect the highest credit upon Comdr. McCampbell and the U.S. Naval Service.
O’KANE, RICHARD HETHERINGTON
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy, commanding U.S.S. Tang. Place and date: Vicinity Philippine Islands, October 23rd and October 24th, 1944. Entered service at: New Hampshire. Born: 2 February 1911, Dover, N.H. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Tang operating against 2 enemy Japanese convoys on 23 and 24 October 1944, during her fifth and last war patrol. Boldly maneuvering on the surface into the midst of a heavily escorted convoy, Comdr. O’Kane stood in the fusillade of bullets and shells from all directions to launch smashing hits on 3 tankers, coolly swung his ship to fire at a freighter and, in a split-second decision, shot out of the path of an onrushing transport, missing it by inches. Boxed in by blazing tankers, a freighter, transport, and several destroyers, he blasted two of the targets with his remaining torpedoes and, with pyrotechnics bursting on all sides, cleared the area. Twenty-four hours later, he again made contact with a heavily escorted convoy steaming to support the Leyte campaign with reinforcements and supplies and with crated planes piled high on each unit. In defiance of the enemy’s relentless fire, he closed the concentration of ship and in quick succession sent two torpedoes each into the first and second transports and an adjacent tanker, finding his mark with each torpedo in a series of violent explosions at less than l,000-yard range. With ships bearing down from all sides, he charged the enemy at high speed, exploding the tanker in a burst of flame, smashing the transport dead in the water, and blasting the destroyer with a mighty roar which rocked the Tang from stem to stern. Expending his last two torpedoes into the remnants of a once powerful convoy before his own ship went down, Comdr. O’Kane, aided by his gallant command, achieved an illustrious record of heroism in combat, enhancing the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
DALY, DANIEL JOSEPH
Rank and organization: Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: Glen Cove, Long Island, N.Y., 11 November 1873. Accredited to: New York. Other Navy awards: Second Medal of Honor, Navy Cross. Citation: Serving with the 15th Company of Marines on 22 October 1915, G/Sgt. Daly was one of the company to leave Fort Liberte, Haiti, for a six-day reconnaissance. After dark on the evening of October 24th, while crossing the river in a deep ravine, the detachment was suddenly fired upon from three sides by about 400 Cacos concealed in bushes about 100 yards from the fort. The Marine detachment fought its way forward to a good position, which it maintained during the night, although subjected to a continuous fre from the Cacos. At daybreak the Marines, in three squads, advanced in three different directions, surprising and scattering the Cacos in all directions. G/Sgt. Daly fought with exceptional gallantry against heavy odds throughout this action.
OSTERMANN, EDWARD ALBERT
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, 15th Company of Marines (mounted). Place and date: Vicinity Fort Liberte, Haiti, October 24th, 1915. Entered service at: Ohio. Born: 1883, Columbus, Ohio. Citation: In company with members of the 15th Company of Marines, all mounted, 1st Lt. Ostermann left Fort Liberte, Haiti, for a six-day reconnaissance. After dark on the evening of 24 October 1915, while crossing the river in a deep ravine, the detachment was suddenly fired upon from three sides by about 400 Cacos concealed in bushes about 100 yards from the fort. The Marine detachment fought its way forward to a good position, which it maintained during the night, although subjected to a continuous fire from the Cacos. At daybreak, 1st Lt. Ostermann, in command of one of the three squads which advanced in three different directions, led his men forward, surprising and scattering the Cacos, and aiding in the capture of Fort Dipitie.
UPSHUR, WILLIAM PETERKIN
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 28 October 1881, Richmond, Va. Appointed from: Virginia. Citation: In company with members of the 15th Company of Marines, all mounted, Capt. Upshur left Fort Liberte, Haiti, for a six-day reconnaissance. After dark on the evening of October 24th, 1915, while crossing the river in a deep ravine, the detachment was suddenly fired upon from three sides by about 400 Cacos concealed in bushes about 100 yards from the fort. The Marine detachment fought its way forward to a good position which it maintained during the night, although subjected to a continuous fire from the Cacos. At daybreak, Capt. Upshur, in command of one of the three squads which advanced in three different directions led his men forward, surprising and scattering the Cacos, and aiding in the capture of Fort Dipitie.
International Starman Month
National Mole Day
4 Leadership Lessons From The Founding Fathers
BY DOUG DICKERSON | 07-03-2012 | 6:21 AM
This article is written by a member of our expert contributor community.
Now inscribed on the Library of Congress, James Madison’s words are as true today as they were in 1829: “The happy Union of these States is a wonder; their Constitution a miracle; their example the hope of Liberty throughout the world.” In forging such a nation, the Founding Fathers were the most exemplary of leaders.
In celebration of our independence, let us note how their ideals hold true today. Margaret Mead said, “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world, indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has.” She’s right. Here are four leadership principles our Founders taught us.
The courage of convictions: Our founders clung to and fought for the cause of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” With years of hindsight and the benefit of our modern comforts, it is hard to comprehend their sacrifices. Leadership in a global economy requires steady conviction in the face of incredible challenges. To say that our Founding Fathers were men of conviction would be an understatement, but all great leaders are. What will be the measure of your leadership?
The sanctity of sacrifice: In the formation of our republic and in signing the Declaration of Independence, the Founders pledged to one another, “our lives, our fortunes, our sacred honor.” The leadership principle of sacrifice is not new. Our Founders understood it well. And to that end we understand that sacrificial leadership is selfless, not self-serving. The commitment made 236 years ago reminds us that no great accomplishment comes without sacrifice and that causes greater than self are the lasting ones. Time tested through two centuries, today’s best leaders understand the power of sacrifice when it comes to building a lasting business.
The fulfillment of faith: To their credit, the Founders understood and valued the practice of faith. In their wisdom the founders recognized the truth that we are all “created equal and endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights” by which we live our lives and practice our faith, whether or in a higher power or ideals greater than ourselves. Stepping back to contemplate allows us to see the world around us, and the people entrusted to our leadership, in a more meaningful way. The executive model today is not so much an “independence from” mentality as it is a “responsibility toward” philosophy. Thoughtful leaders seek to be a blessing and to serve causes greater than self; wise ones remember the source.
The power of purpose: It was through persecution, hardships, and struggles whereby the Founders rallied and mutually pledged their “reliance on the protection of Divine Providence” in declaring our independence. The innumerable lessons our Founders taught us transcend political ideology and religious creed. The rally today is for leaders with purpose, backed by the power of their convictions, faith, and sacrifice, to make a difference in the world. Just as the Founders were men of clear purpose and mission, successful management today charts a clear course with the right women and men in place with the necessary tools to achieve their goals.
Our Founders were leadership pioneers; let us honor their memory as we celebrate.
© 2012 Doug Dickerson. Doug Dickerson is a nationally recognized leadership speaker and writer. He is the author of the new book Great Leaders Wanted! Visit Doug’s blog or follow him @managemntmoment.
“Love yourself first and everything else falls into line. You really have to love yourself to get anything done in this world.”
~ Lucille Ball
perfidy PUR-fuh-dee, noun:
The act of violating faith or allegiance; violation of a promise or vow; faithlessness; treachery.Perfidy comes from Latin perfidia, from perfidus, faithless, treacherous, false, from per-, through (perhaps connoting deviation or infringement, or perhaps explicable by qui per fidem decipit, “who through faith or trust deceives”) + fides, faith.
4004 BC – On the preceding eve of this day (in the proleptic Julian calendar), the universe was created, according to the archbishop James Ussher in his Ussher-Lightfoot Calendar.
42 BC – Roman Republican civil wars: Second Battle of Philippi – Brutus’s army is decisively defeated by Mark Antony and Octavian. Marcus Junius Brutus, a leading conspirator in the assassination of Julius Caesar, commits suicide after his defeat.
1690 – American colonial forces from Boston led by Sir William Phips, failed in their attempt to seize Quebec. Phips lost four ships on the return trip due to stormy weather.
1707 – The first Parliament of Great Britain meets.
1760 – The first Jewish prayer books were printed in US.
1777 – A British Royal Navy fleet of ships, trying to open up supply lines along the Delaware River and the occupying British army in Philadelphia, is bombarded by American cannon fire and artillery from Fort Mifflin, Pennsylvania. The fleet is defeated.
1783 – Virginia emancipated slaves who fought for independence during the Revolutionary War.
1818 – The RC Monroe captured the armed brig Columbia inside the Virginia Capes. Columbia had been “cut out” of a Venezuelan fleet by pirates.
1829 – The Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia received its first prisoner, burglar Charles Williams (18). It was based on the Quaker idea of reform through solitude and reflection. It opened to tourists in 1971 after being closed to prisoners. The prison was designed by John Haviland.
1855 – Kansas Free State forces set up a competing government under their Topeka, Kansas, constitution, which outlaws slavery in the United States territory.
1861 – President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in Washington, D.C., for all military-related cases.
1863 – General Grant arrived at Chattanooga and assumed command from General George Thomas.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Westport – Union forces under General Samuel R. Curtis defeat Confederate troops led by General Sterling Price at Westport, near Kansas City.
1877 – A patent for a gas-motor engine was issued to Nicolaus Otto .
1910 – World Series: Philadelphia Athletics (4) vs Chicago Cubs (1)
1910 – Blanche S. Scott became the first woman to make a public solo airplane flight in the United States. She reached an altitude of 12 feet at a park in Fort Wayne, Indiana.
1915 – Women’s suffrage: In New York City, 25,000-33,000 women march up Fifth Avenue to demand the right to vote.
1915 – The first U.S. championship horseshoe tourney was held in Kellerton, IA.
1917 – World War I: The First Infantry Division, “Big Red One,” fired the first US shot in WW I. The first American shell of the war was sent screaming toward German lines by a First Division artillery unit.
1918 – World War I: Germans agreed to suspend submarine warfare, cease inhumane practices such as the use of poison gas, and withdraw troops back into Germany.
1920 – A Chicago grand jury indicted Abe Attell, Hal Chase, and Bill Burns as go-betweens in Black Sox World Series scandal.
1921 – Green Bay Packers play first NFL game, 7-6 win over Minneapolis.
1929 – Great Depression: After a steady decline in stock market prices since a peak in September, the New York Stock Exchange begins to show signs of panic.
1929 – The first transcontinental air service begins from New York City to Los Angeles.
1930 – The first miniature golf tournament finished in Chattanooga, Tennessee. After four 18-hole rounds (par, 56) J. K. Scott who says he scores from 75 to 80 on real golf courses won the $2.000 first prize for men with 223. Mrs. J. E. Rankin who won the $2,000 for the best lady was from Jacksonville too. Her score was 241.
1932 – “Fred Allen Show” premieres on radio.
1934 – Jean Piccard and Jeanette Ridlen attained a record balloon height of 56,893 feet. Question: In Star Trek there is a captain named Jean-Luc Piccard. Could it be possible that “his parents” named him after this pioneer?
1935 – Dutch Schultz (33), born as Arthur Flegenheimer, was shot in the men’s room of the Palace Chop House and Tavern in Newark, New Jersey. He lingered for nearly a day before dying after being the target of a mob hit.
1939 – Zane Grey (67), US western writer (Spirit of the Border), died. He authored 89 books, mostly Westerns.
1939 – World War II: North of Murmansk, a German prize crew steers the US ship City of Flint into Kola Bay. The steamer was seized as contraband by a German cruiser.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: Burning of Odessa Jews, Ukraine: 19,000 Jews are burned alive at Dalnik in Odessa, by Romanian and German troops. The next day, another 10,000 Jews are killed. Romanian Lieutenant-Colonel Nicolae Deleanu administered the executions.
1941 – Walt Disney’s “Dumbo” released. The main character is Jumbo Jr., a semi-anthropomorphic elephant who is cruelly nicknamed Dumbo. He is ridiculed for his big ears, but it turns out that he is capable of flying by using them as wings.
1941 – “Clarinet a la King” was recorded by Benny Goodman and his orchestra — on Okeh Records.
1942 – Ralph Rainger (41), pianist and song writer, was among 12 people killed when their DC-3 crashed after being clipped by a B-34 bomber flown by Army Lt. William Wilson. Rainger’s songs included “Love in Bloom” and “Thanks for the Memories,” which Bing Crosby made a hit in 1934.
1942 – World War II: Second Battle of El Alamein starts – At El Alamein in Egypt, British forces begin a major offensive against Axis forces. British Eighth Army eventually swept the Germans out of North Africa.
1942 – World War II: The Western Task Force, destined for North Africa, departed from Hampton Roads, Virginia.
1942 – World War II: Fourth Marine Raider Battalion organized at Camp Joseph H. Pendleton, Oceanside, CA. Bn. composed of HQ, A, B and C Companies.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust: The first Jewish transport out of Rome reached Birkenau (Poland) extermination camp.
1943 – World War II: In Italy, a British division of Gen. Mark Clark’s 5th Army takes Sparanise, a town adjacent to the ancient Roman Appian Way, and near the Germans’ Barbara defense line, 95 miles south of Rome.
1944 – World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf begins – The largest naval battle in history begins in Leyte Gulf, the Red Army enters Hungary.
1943 – World War II: Troops of the US 5th Army capture Monte Salvaro, Italy.
1944 – World War II: The 1st Battalion, 141st Infantry, 36th Infantry Division (TX), soon known as the “Lost Battalion” was cut off on top of a hill by German infantry and armored forces. After being decimated for six days, the battalion was relieved by the other two battalions of the 141st along with the famed 442nd Regimental Combat Team made up of Japanese-Americans.
1945 – Jackie Robinson, the first black baseball player hired by a major league team, was signed by the Brooklyn Dodgers and sent to their Montreal farm team. He moved up to the Dodgers in 1947 and became one of the sport’s greatest stars.
1946 – A Vatican document advised French church authorities on how to handle information requests from Jewish officials, asking them not to put anything in writing. This document was not found until 2004.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Near You” by The Francis Craig Orchestra (vocal: Bob Lamm), “I Wish I Didn’t Love You So” by Vaughn Monroe ,“Feudin’ and Fightin’” by Dorothy Shay and “Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)” by Tex Williams all topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: Communist troops massacred sixty-eight American POWs in the Sunchon tunnel. A First Cavalry Division force under the command of Brigadier General Frank A. Allen rescued twenty-one survivors.
1952 – The Nobel Prize for Medicine was awarded to Ukrainian-born microbiologist Selmart A. Waksman for his discovery streptomycin, the first antibiotic to successfully treat tuberculosis.
1954 – “Hey There” by Rosemary Clooney topped the charts.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love is a Many-Splendored Thing” by The Four Aces, “Autumn Leaves” by Roger Williams “The Shifting, Whispering Sands” by Rusty Draper and “Love, Love, Love” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1956 – First video recording on magnetic tape televised coast-to-coast was “The Jonathan Winters Show.” It consisted of a pre-recorded song sequence in color by Dorothy Collins during the program.
1958 – Belgian cartoonist Peyo introduced a new set of comic strip characters The Smurfs.
1961 – “Runaround Sue” by Dion topped the charts.
1962 – Steveland Morris Judkins, later known as Little Stevie Wonder, at the age of 12 recorded his first single. The song was “Thank you for Loving Me All the Way.”
1962 – USAF Major Robert A Rushworth takes X-15 to 133,865 feet.
1962 – During the Cuban Missile Crisis, the U.S. naval “quarantine” of Cuba was approved by the Council of the Organization of American States (OAS).
1962 – The U.S. Navy reconnaissance squadron VFP-62 flying F2H-2P Banshees and F9F-6&8P Cougars began overflights of Cuba under the code name “Blue Moon.”
1963 – Neil Simon’s “Barefoot in the Park,” (2:07:37) premiered in New York City.
1965 – “Yesterday” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1965 – “Turn! Turn! Turn!” was released by the Byrds.
1965 – Vietnam War: Operation Silver Bayonet – The U.S. 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) in conjunction with South Vietnamese forces, launch a new operation, seeking to destroy North Vietnamese forces in Pleku Province in II Corps Tactical Zone (the Central Highlands).
1967 – New Jersey Americans (later NY/NJ Nets) play first ABA game.
1970 – Aretha Franklin, won a gold record for “Don’t Play that Song” .
1970 – American Gary Gabelich attained a record 631.367mph average speed in The Blue Flame, a rocket-powered four-wheeled vehicle. Momentarily achieving 650mph, Gabelich’s vehicle was powered by a liquid natural gas, hydrogen peroxide rocket engine that produced a thrust of up to 22,000 pounds.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Maggie Mae/Reason to Believe” by Rod Stewart, “Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves” by Cher, “Do You Know What I Mean” by Lee Michaels and “How Can I Unlove You” by Lynn Anderson all topped the charts.
1972 – The US Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 became law.
1973 – Watergate Scandal: US President Richard M. Nixon agrees to turn over subpoenaed audio tapes of his Oval Office conversations about the scandal to Judge John Sirica.
1973 – A U.N. sanctioned cease-fire officially ends the Yom Kippur War between Israel and Syria.
1976 – “If You Leave Me Now” by Chicago topped the charts.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rise” by Herb Alpert, “Pop Muzik” by M, “I’ll Never Love This Way Again” by Dionne Warwick and “All the Gold in California” by Larry Gatlin & The Gatlin Brothers all topped the charts.
1979 – Billy Martin (1928-1989), NY Yankee baseball manager, was involved in a barroom altercation when he sucker punched Joseph Cooper, a Minnesota marshmallow salesman. Cooper required 15 stitches. Martin was fired.
1981 – US national debt hits $1 trillion .
1982 – “Jack and Diane” by John Cougar topped the charts.
1983 – TERRORISM: U.S. Marines barracks in Beirut hit by truck bomb, killing 241 American servicemen – 220 Marines, 18 sailors, and three soldiers. French barracks also hit the same morning, killing 58.
1983 – Operation Urgent Fury (Grenada, West Indies) begins.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lost in Emotion” by Lisa Lisa & Cult Jam, “U Got the Look (” by Prince), “I Think We’re Alone Now” by Tiffany and “Fishin’ in the Dark” by Nitty Gritty Dirt Band all topped the charts.
1987 – The U.S. Senate rejected the Supreme Court nomination of Robert H. Bork on a 58-42 vote.
1989 – In Boston, MA, Charles Stuart claimed he and his pregnant wife, Carol, had been shot in their car by an African-American robber. Carol Stuart and her prematurely delivered baby died. Charles Stuart later died, an apparent suicide, after he was implicated in the murder of his wife and child.
1989 – Twenty-three people were killed in an explosion at Phillips Petroleum Co.’s chemical complex in Pasadena, Texas.
1990 – Iraq released 64 British hostages.
1991 – Clarence Thomas was sworn in as US Supreme Court Justice.
1992 – President Bush announced that Vietnam had agreed to turn over all materials in its possession related to U.S. personnel in the Vietnam War.
1993 – World Series: Toronto Blue Jays (4) vs Philadelphia Phillies (2). There would be no World Series in 1994 because of a players strike. Joe Carter (Toronto Blue Jays) became only the second player to end the World Series with a homerun.
1995 – In Houston, TX, a jury convicted Yolanda Saldivar of the murder of Selena.
1996 – The civil trial of former American football player O.J. Simpson opens in Santa Monica, California. Simpson was later found liable in the deaths of his ex-wife, Nicole and her friend, Ronald Goldman.
1997 – British au pair Louise Woodward, charged with murdering a baby in her care, testified at her trial in Cambridge, Mass., that she’d never hurt 8-month-old Matthew Eappen, saying, “I love kids.”
1997 – The International Whaling Commission opened the way for an American Indian tribe, the Makah, to resume traditional whale hunts for the first time in seven decades.
1998 – Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafat reach a “land-for-peace” agreement.
1998 – In Amherst, New York, abortion doctor Barnett Slepian is killed in his home by a sniper. Investigators in both Canada and the United States believe that James Charles Kopp, known among abortion opponents as “Atomic Dog,” was responsible for Slepian’s murder. In March 2001, the authorities caught up with Kopp in Europe, and he was extradited from France on the condition he would not receive the death penalty.
1998 – Swatch Internet Time introduced.
1999 – Apple Computer’s Mac OS 9 is released. Swatch Internet Time is a concept introduced in 1998 and marketed by the Swatch corporation as an alternative, decimal measure of time. One of the goals was to simplify the way people in different time zones communicate about time, mostly by eliminating time zones altogether.
1999 – A Ku Klux Klan rally was allowed to proceed in New York City with no masks as thousands of counter-demonstrators jeered them. 16 Klansmen and 2 Klan women appeared at Foley Square along with some 6,000 protestors and 2,000 tourists.
2001 – Apple Computer releases the first iPod.
2001 – The NASA team celebrated as the 2001 Mars Odyssey slipped into orbit around the Red Planet, two years after back-to-back failures by Mars missions.
2001 – President Bush announced he had authorized money for improved post office security following the deaths of two postal workers from inhalation anthrax.
2002 – Allied planes bombed two military air defense sites in the southern no-fly zone over Iraq in the third round of strikes in a week.
2001 – John Ashcroft, US Attorney General said three men wanted by German authorities, Said Bahaji, Ramzi Binalshibh and Zakariya Essabar, were part of a terrorist cell in Hamburg that included three men from the September 11th attack on the World Trade Center.
2003 – U.S. Congress passed a bill banning late-term abortions.
2003 – In Santa Clara, California, 7-Eleven owner Narinder Badwal learned that he had sold the winning California Lottery and was entitled to a $250,000 commission. He then learned that he had sold the winning ticket worth $49,747,500 to himself.
2005 – In Chicago, IL, Lou Rawls gave his last performance when he performed the national anthem of the United States to start Game Two of the 2005 World Series.
2006 – In Texas a district judge sentenced Jeffrey Skilling (52), former chief executive of Enron Corp., to over 24 years in prison for his role in the financial fraud that destroyed Enron. He was also ordered Skilling to pay $45 million in restitution to Enron investors.
2006 – Tod Skinner (b.1958), American free climber, died in a fall at Yosemite National Park after his harness broke.
2007 – Thousands more residents were ordered to evacuate their homes, bringing the number of people chased away by the wind-whipped flames that have engulfed Southern California to at least 300,000. At least 700 homes were already destroyed. President Bush declared a federal emergency for seven counties.
2007 – The US space shuttle Discovery launched from Cape Canaveral with a 7-person crew for a 14-day mission to the International Space Station.
2008 – Former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan said the current financial crisis is a “once-in-a-century credit tsunami” which will have a severe impact on the US economy, driving unemployment higher.
2008 – New York City Mayor Bloomberg persuaded the city council, in a 29-22 vote, to amend the term limit law allowing him to run for re-election next year.
2009 – President Barack Obama signed a declaration making the swine flu outbreak a national emergency, giving his health chief the power to let hospitals move emergency rooms offsite to speed treatment and protect noninfected patients.
2009 – The Swiss Government says that the United States has formally requested the extradition of film director Roman Polanski for having unlawful sex with an underage girl in 1977.
2009 – US regulators shut down three small banks in Florida and one each in Georgia, Illinois, Minnesota and Wisconsin bringing the total for the year of failed US banks to one-hundred six.
2009 – In Missouri police found the body of Elizabeth Olton (9). She had gone missing two days earlier.
2010 – The Texas Rangers advance to their first World Series after defeating the New York Yankees in the 2010 American League Championship Series.
2012 – A surfer is killed in southern California following an attack by a great white shark.
2012 – Four third-party U.S. presidential election candidates—representing the Libertarian, Green, Constitution, and Justice parties, who were excluded from the high-profile televised encounters between Mitt Romney or Barack Obama—attend their own presidential debate hosted in Chicago by the Free and Equal Elections Foundation.
2013 – OBAMACARE: The deadline to buy coverage and avoid a penalty in 2014 is pushed back to March 31 from Feb. 15.
2014 – The state of Georgia’s Chamber of Commerce wants Georgia’s Republicans to publicly stand against Hobby Lobby, the Little Sisters of the Poor, and religious liberty in general. Many of the state’s Republican leaders will do exactly that because they are so beholden to the Georgia Chamber.
1835 – Adlai Ewing Stevenson, 23rd Vice President of the United States (1893-1897).
1869 – John Heisman, American college football coach from 1892 to 1927, was born. He had a trophy for best college player named after him.
1906 – Gertrude Ederle, American Olympic swimming champion and first woman to swim the English Channel.
1925 – Johnny Carson, American TV host and comedian.
1935 – Chi-Chi Rodriguez, professional golfer.
1940 – Pelé (Edson Arantes do Nascimento), Brazilian soccer star.
*DUNN, PARKER F.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 312th Infantry, 78th Division. Place and date: Near Grand-Pre, France, October 23rd, 1918. Entered service at: Albany, N.Y. Birth: Albany, N.Y. G.O. No.: 49, W.D., 1922. Citation: When his battalion commander found it necessary to send a message to a company in the attacking line and hesitated to order a runner to make the trip because of the extreme danger involved, Pfc. Dunn, a member of the intelligence section, volunteered for the mission. After advancing but a short distance across a field swept by artillery and machinegun fire, he was wounded, but continued on and fell wounded a second time. Still undaunted, he persistently attempted to carry out his mission until he was killed by a machinegun bullet before reaching the advance line.
International Caps Lock Day
National Massage Therapy Week 21-27
National Color Day
The Curse of the Bambino
The Curse of the Bambino was an urban myth or scapegoat cited as a reason for the failure of the Boston Red Sox baseball team to win the World Series for 86 years after they sold Babe Ruth, sometimes called The Bambino, to the New York Yankees. In 1914 the Boston Red Sox bought Babe Ruth from the Baltimore club, who were a minor league team during this era, and immediately signed him for $3,500 a year, three times the amount he was being paid. During the next 3-years Ruth was the best left-hander in baseball. He chalked up 18 wins in 1915, 23 in 1916 and 24 in 1917. In all 3 of those years opponents batted under .220 against him. In 1916 he led the league with a 1.75 ERA and spun a league leading nine shutouts. In 1917, Ruth was 24-13, completing 35 of the 38 games he started. He allowed only 244 hitters in 326 innings. The ‘Bambino’ as Ruth was called, intimidated batters with his imposing size, 6’2″ 220lbs.
The flip side of the curse was New York’s success—after the sale, the once-lackluster Yankees became one of the most successful franchises in American professional sports. While some fans took the superstition of the Curse seriously, many others used the expression in a tongue-in-cheek manner. Talk about the curse effectively ended in 2004, when the Red Sox came back from an 0-3 deficit to beat the Yankees in the 2004 American League Championship Series and then went on to sweep the St. Louis Cardinals to win the 2004 World Series.
“When you blame others, you give up your power to change.”
~ Douglas Adams
ken KEN, noun:
1. Perception; understanding; knowledge. 2. The range of vision. 3. View; sight. Ken is from Middle English kennen, from Old English cennan, “to declare, to make known.”
362 – The temple of Apollo at Daphne, outside of Antioch, is destroyed in a mysterious fire.
1746 – The College of New Jersey (later renamed Princeton University) receives its charter. The University later established a reputation for its spring ritual of sophomores running naked at midnight after the first snowfall.
1797 – Above Paris, Andre-Jacques Garnerin makes the first recorded parachute jump. Differing reports place the altitude at 3200 feet and 6500 feet.
1819 – The first ship passed through the Erie Canal (Rome-Utica).
1824 – The Tennessee Legislature adjourned ending Davy Crockett’s state political career. Crockett died at the legendary siege of the Alamo in 1836.
1836 – Sam Houston is inaugurated as the first President of the Republic of Texas.
1844 – The Great Anticipation: Millerites, followers of William Miller, anticipated the end of the world in conjunction with the Second Advent of Christ. The following day became known as the Great Disappointment.
1846 – Miss Lavinia Fanning Watson of Philadelphia christens the sloop-of-war Germantown, the first U.S. Navy ship sponsored by a woman.
1861 – The first telegraph line linking West & East coasts was completed.
1862 – Civil War: Union troops pushed 5,000 confederates out of Maysbille, Ark., at the Second Battle of Pea Ridge.
1862 –Civil War: Battle at Old Fort Wayne, Indian Territory (Oklahoma). Brig. Gen. James G. Blunt and his troops attacked Col. Douglas H. Cooper and his Confederate command on Beatties Prairie near Old Fort Wayne.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate troops reconquered the Cumberland Gap in Tennessee.
1875 – Sons of the American Revolution organized.
1881 – Boston Symphony Orchestra gave its first concert.
1883 – The Metropolitan Opera House in New York City opens with a performance of Gounod’s Faust (opera).
1883 – The New York Horse show opened. The first national horse show was formed by the newly organized National Horse Show Association of America.
1885 – John Ward and several teammates secretly formed the Brotherhood of Professional Base Ball Players, the first baseball union.
1906 – Three-thousand blacks demonstrated and rioted in Philadelphia.
1907 – Panic of 1907: Second day of a run on Knickerbocker Trust Company stock sets events in motion that will lead to a depression.
1907 – Ringling Brothers circus bought Barnum & Bailey Circus.
1913 – A coal mine explosion in Dawson, New Mexico, kills more than 250 workers, A heroic rescue effort saved 23 others, but also cost two more people their lives.
1917 – U.S.A. seized raw material for war that had been purchased and stored by Germans in the U.S.A. during the first two years of the war.
1917 – World War I – Fifth & Sixth Marines and Sixth Machine Gun Battalion become part of the American Expeditionary Force.
1918 – World War I – Fierce fighting by the Americans on both banks of Meuse, north of Verdun and in the Woevre in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive.
1918 – The Great Influenza Pandemic began; it was a worldwide epidemic. It killed more people than the Great War, known today as World War I (WWI), at somewhere between 20 and 40 million people. It has been cited as the most devastating epidemic in recorded world history. More people died of influenza in a single year than in four-years of the Black Death Bubonic Plague from 1347 to 1351. Known as “Spanish Flu” or “LaGrippe” the influenza of 1918-1919 was a global disaster.
1918 – The cities of Baltimore and Washington ran out of coffins during the “Spanish Influenza” epidemic.
1918 – The new Army Air Service (forerunner of the U.S. Air Force) was organized.
1924 – Toastmasters International is founded.
1926 – J. Gordon Whitehead sucker punches magician Harry Houdini in the stomach in Montreal. A sucker punch involves a closed fist contacting the soft underbelly of a person (beneath the rib cage) at a high velocity, causing the ensuing force to press upward on the victim’s diaphram, leading to a sudden expulsion of air from the victim’s mouth and lungs.
1934 – In East Liverpool, Ohio, notorious bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd is shot and killed by Federal Bureau of Investigation agents.
1938 – Inventor Chester Carlson invented the photocopier. They used powdered ink and an electrical charge to create the first photocopy. The reproduced page said: “10-28-38 Astoria.” Carlson tried to sell the machine to IBM, RCA, Kodak and others, but they were not impressed.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: Some 39,000 Jews were killed by Romanian troops over a two day period in Odessa. Many of them were burned to death in a public square or in warehouses that were locked shut. Altogether some 90,000 Jews were killed in Odessa.
1942 – World War II: On Guadalcanal, the Japanese attack again over the Matanikau River with a strong force of tanks and infantry. They are thrown back with heavy losses due mainly to the effectiveness of the American artillery.
1944 – World War II: On Leyte, US 10th and US 24th Corps both record advances. The US 7th Division, on the right flank, approach Abuyog. The Japanese fleet assembled at Brunei sets sail for the Philippines with the intention of destroying the American invasion fleet.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Five Minutes More” by Tex Beneke, “To Each His Own” by Eddy Howard, “South America, Take It Away” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters and “Divorce Me C.O.D.” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1949 – “That Lucky Old Sam” by Frankie Laine topped the charts.
1950 – The Los Angeles Rams set an NFL record by defeating the Baltimore Colts 70-27. It was a record score for a regular season game.
1951 – First of seven detonations, Operation Buster-Jangle nuclear test. This was a test of the Petite Plutonium fission bomb, designed by Ted Taylor.
1952 – Korean War: USAF ace Major Robinson “Robbie” Risner, flying an F-86 Sabre out of the 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, claimed his sixth MiG-15 of the war.
1953 – “Back That Fact” was a short-lived American game show that aired on ABC from October 22 to November 26, 1953. This was the first TV game show for creator/producers Jack Barry and Dan Enright.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hey There” by Rosemary Clooney, “I Need You Now” by Eddie Fisher, “If I Give My Heart to You” by Doris Day and “I Don’t Hurt Anymore” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1954 – As a result of the Geneva accords granting Communist control over North Vietnam, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized a crash program to train the South Vietnamese Army.
1955 – “Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing” by Four Aces topped the charts.
1955 – The prototype of the F-105 Thunder Chief made its maiden flight. Republic Aircraft’s F-105 Thunderchief, better known as the ‘Thud,’ was the Air Force’s war-horse in Vietnam.
1957 – Vietnam War: First United States casualties in Vietnam.
1959 – “Take Me Along” opened on Broadway.
1960 – “Save the Last Dance For Me” by The Drifters topped the charts.
1960 – Ed Yost makes the first free flight of a modern hot-air balloon at Bruning, Nebraska. Yost was the American inventor of the balloon and is referred to as the “Father of the Modern Day Hot-Air Balloon.”
1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis: US President John F. Kennedy announces that American spy planes have discovered Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba, and that he has ordered a naval “quarantine” or a blockade of the island nation.
1966 – The Supremes become the first all-female music group to attain a No. 1 selling album, “Supremes-A-Go-Go”). (6 Videos)
1966 – “Reach Out, I’ll Be There” by the Four Tops topped the charts.
1968 – Apollo program: Apollo 7 safely splashes down in the Atlantic Ocean after orbiting the Earth 163 times.
1968 – Pres. Johnson signed the Gun Control Act of 1968. It regulated firearms above .50-caliber as destructive devices and required registration and owner’s fingerprints. It also banned the sale of handguns to those under 21. Before this Act, the 2nd Amendment was alive and well in the United States. The Gun Control Act of 1968 is almost a verbatim copy of Hitler’s Gun Control Act of 1938.
1971 – Joan Baez earns gold for “The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down.”
1972 – Vietnam War: In Saigon, Henry Kissinger and South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu meet to discuss a proposed cease-fire that had been worked out between Americans and North Vietnamese in Paris. Thieu rejects the proposal and accused the United States of conspiring to undermine his regime.
1972 – Vietnam War: Operation Linebacker I, the bombing of North Vietnam with B-52 bombers, ended. U.S. warplanes flew 40,000 sorties and dropped over 125,000 tons of bombs during the bombing campaign. The U.S. ended all tactical air sorties into North Vietnam above the 20th parallel and brought to a close Linebacker I operations.
1972 – Oakland A’s first championship; beat Reds, 4 games to 3 in the World Series.
1975 – Carlton Fisk of the Boston Red Sox hits a home run to win Game 6 of the World Series against the Cincinnati Reds.
1975 – World Series: Cincinnati Reds (4) vs Boston Red Sox (3)
1976 – Red Dye No. 4 is banned by the US Food and Drug Administration after it is discovered that it causes tumors in the bladders of dogs. The dye is still used in Canada.
1976 – President Ford signed S. 3091, the National Forest Management Act of 1976.
1976 – Rick Barry (San Francisco), begins then longest NBA free throw streak of 60.
1977 – “You Light Up My Life” by Debbie Boone topped the charts.
1977 – In West Virginia the New River Gorge Bridge was opened to traffic. The bridge is a steel arch bridge 3,030 feet long over the New River Gorge near Fayetteville, West Virginia.
1978 – Pope John Paul II was installed as pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church.
1979 – Walt Disney World’s 100-millionth guest – Kurt Miller.
1979 – The U.S. government allowed the deposed Shah of Iran to travel to New York for medical treatment — a decision that precipitated the Iran hostage crisis.
1981 – The Federal Labor Relations Authority votes to decertify the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization for its strike in August.
1983 – “Total Eclipse of the Heart” by Bonnie Tyler topped the charts.
1983 – At the Augusta National Golf Course in Georgia, an armed man crashed a truck through front gates and demanded to speak with President Reagan.
1986 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs the Tax Reform Act of 1986 into law.
1987 – The US Navy acknowledged that it had deployed five dolphins to the Persian Gulf to search for Iranian mines.
1988 – “Groovy Kind of Love” by Phil Collins topped the charts.
1989 – Survivors of the Loma Prieta earthquake attended church services as the cleanup and recovery efforts continued.
1992 – The space shuttle Columbia was launched on a 10-day mission that included deployment of an Italian satellite.
1993 – Withdrawal of 750 Rangers from Somalia is complete.
1994 – Colorado Springs opened a brand new airport with a 2.5 million annual passenger capacity. (That’s about 7,000 people per day)
1996 – Floodwaters in Portland, Maine, ruptured a pipeline and left some 120,000 people without drinking water. At least seven people died in the weekend storm that dumped as much as eighteen inches in some places.
1997 – Two US Air Force jets collided over Edwards Air Force Base in Ca. and two men in one of the planes, a T-38 trainer, were killed. The other jet, an F-16, managed to land safely.
1997 – In Detroit the Gem Theater / 20th Century Club, a 2,750 ton building, was moved 5 blocks through downtown to make room for a new ballpark. It set a new record as the heaviest building moved.
1998 – The US government announced one of the biggest toys recalls ever, advising parents to remove batteries from Fisher-Price Power Wheels cars and trucks because of faulty wiring.
1999 – In California Jan Davis (60), co-owner of an aerial photography business in Santa Barbara, plunged to her death during a skydiving stunt from El Capitan in Yosemite. The stunt was to protest the banning of sport parachuting from cliffs in national parks.
2001 – The New York Yankees routed Seattle 12-3 in game five to win the American League pennant for the 38th time.
2001 – Anthrax spores were found in a mail-opening machine serving the White House. Preliminary tests on 120 workers who sort mail for the executive mansion were negative.
2001 – A second Washington DC postal worker, Joseph P. Curseen (47), died of inhalation anthrax.
2001 – The Pentagon announced nearly 200 U.S. jets struck Taliban and al-Qaida communications facilities, barracks and training camps.
2002 – Internet users declare this day as the official Caps Lock Day.
2002 – In Aspen Hill, Maryland, Conrad Everton Johnson (35), a bus driver, was shot in the chest and died during surgery. This was the 13th and final attack linked by authorities to the Washington-area sniper attacks.
2002 – Allied planes bombed a military air defense site in the northern no-fly zone over Iraq after taking fire from Iraqi forces.
2003 – Indy Racing League racer Tony Renna, 26, died after crashing at close to 220 mph during a test drive at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.
2004 – Pres. Bush signed a $136 billion corporate tax cut bill. It offered a one-time tax holiday in 2005 when corporations could repatriate their foreign income at a massively reduced tax rate.
2005 – Tropical Storm Alpha forms in the Atlantic Basin, making the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record with 22 named storms.
2005 – US soldiers and warplanes killed 20 insurgents and destroyed five “safe houses” during an operation against militants who shelter foreign fighters for al-Qaida in Iraq near the Syrian border.
2005 – The Chicago White Sox defeat the Houston Astros in Game 1 of the World Series, 5-3.
2008 – Federal immigration officials arrested several members of the MS-13, Mara Salvatrucha, street gang after conducting raids in San Francisco, Richmond and south San Francisco. Twenty-nine people were indicted on multiple charges including murder, car theft and extortion.
2008 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average tumbled 514.45 to close at 8519.21, its seventh biggest point drop in history.
2008 – Sheriffs’ deputies in Crockett County, Tenn., arrested two suspects, Daniel Cowart (20) of Bells, Tenn., and Paul Schlesselman (18) of Helena-West Helena, Ark., on unspecified charges. On Oct 27 federal authorities charged the two white supremacists for allegedly plotting to go on a national killing spree, shooting and decapitating black people and ultimately targeting Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama.
2009 – The Obama administration said it is designating over 200,000 square miles in Alaska and off its coast as critical habitat for polar bears.
2009 – The Olympic Flame was lit during a ceremony in Olympia, Greece to start the 2010 Winter Olympics Torch Relay.
2009 – The US “Pay Czar” slashed compensation for top earners at seven bailed-out companies for the final two months of the year, and was immediately slammed by the country’s largest bank which claimed the cuts could send talent fleeing.
2009 – The Windows 7 computer operating system went on sale.
2010 – The International Space Station set the record (3641 days) for the longest continuous human occupation of space. It had been continuously inhabited since November 2, 2000.
2010 – Wikileaks releases Iraq War Logs, secret American military records which reveal new information, including that U.S. commanders allowed torture and execution to occur without investigation and that hundreds of civilians have been killed at U.S. military checkpoints during the War on Iraq.
2010 – Google says that its Street View cars collected more information than it previously admitted including e-mails, passwords and URLs and that it would change its privacy practices.
2011 – Voters in Louisiana go to the polls for a gubernatorial election with incumbent Governor Bobby Jindal expected to be elected in the first round.
2012 – Lance Armstrong is stripped of his seven Tour de France titles for doping. The International Cycling Union announced it will not appeal the US Anti-DopingAgency’s ruling to bar him for life from Olympic sports for doping and for playing an instrumental role in the team-wide doping of his cycling squads.
2012 – Hurricane Sandy formed in the Caribbean Sea. It ultimately became Superstorm Sandy.
2014 – In Ottowa, Ontario, Canada Michael Zehaf-Bibeau, who has been widely reported to be a recent convert to Islam but whose father is a veteran of the jihad in Libya and who has been a Muslim for at least three years, went on a shooting rampage in Ottawa, murdering military reservist Corporal Nathan Cirillo and engaging in a gun battle inside Canada’s Parliament building.
OLIVE, MILTON L. III
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 2d Battalion (Airborne), 503d Infantry, 173d Airborne Brigade. Place and date: Phu Cuong, Republic of Vietnam, October 22nd, 1965. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 7 November 1946, Chicago, Ill. C.O. No.: 18, 26 April 1966. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Olive was a member of the 3d Platoon of Company B, as it moved through the jungle to find the Viet Cong operating in the area. Although the platoon was subjected to a heavy volume of enemy gunfire and pinned down temporarily, it retaliated by assaulting the Viet Cong positions, causing the enemy to flee. As the platoon pursued the insurgents, Pfc. Olive and four other soldiers were moving through the jungle together with a grenade was thrown into their midst. Pfc. Olive saw the grenade, and then saved the lives of his fellow soldiers at the sacrifice of his by grabbing the grenade in his hand and falling on it to absorb the blast with his body. Through his bravery, unhesitating actions, and complete disregard for his safety, he prevented additional loss of life or injury to the members of his platoon. Pfc. Olive’s extraordinary heroism, at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
DALY, DANIEL JOSEPH
Rank and organization: Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: Glen Cove, Long Island, N.Y., 11 November 1873. Accredited to: New York. Other Navy awards: Second Medal of Honor, Navy Cross. Citation: Serving with the 15th Company of Marines on October 22nd, 1915, G/Sgt. Daly was one of the company to leave Fort Liberte, Haiti, for a 6-day reconnaissance. After dark on the evening of 24 October, while crossing the river in a deep ravine, the detachment was suddenly fired upon from three sides by about four-hundred Cacos concealed in bushes about 100 yards from the fort. The Marine detachment fought its way forward to a good position, which it maintained during the night, although subjected to a continuous fre from the Cacos. At daybreak the Marines, in three squads, advanced in three different directions, surprising and scattering the Cacos in all directions. G/Sgt. Daly fought with exceptional gallantry against heavy odds throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1827, Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Served as coxswain on board the U.S.S. Wabash in the engagement at Pocataligo, October 22nd, 1862. Soliciting permission to accompany the howitzer corps, and performing his duty with such gallantry and presence of mind as to attract the attention of all around him, Ringold, knowing there was a scarcity of ammunition, went through the whole line of fire with his shirt slung over his shoulder filled with fixed ammunition which he had brought from two miles to the rear of the lines.
Besides a quality shot of espresso, the most important element in preparing a cappuccino is the texture and temperature of the milk. When a barista steams the milk for a cappuccino, he or she creates microfoam by introducing very tiny bubbles of air into the milk, giving the milk a velvety texture and sweetness. In some places, skilled baristas create latte art when pouring properly steamed milk into the espresso, making designs such as apples, hearts, leaves, rosettes, and corporate logos.
Cappuccino is a large Italian beverage prepared with espresso and foamy steamed milk. A cappuccino differs from a cafe latte, which is mostly milk and little foam.
In Italy, cappuccino is generally consumed early in the day as part of a light breakfast, with croissant, better known for Italians as cornetto. Generally Italians do not drink cappuccino with meals other than breakfast; however, it is a very common habit, in Italy, to have a cappuccino and croissant after a night out, even if it is about time to go to bed. In other countries it is consumed throughout the day or after dinner.
A cappuccino is generally defined as 1/3 espresso, 1/3 steamed milk and 1/3 frothed milk. Another definition would call for 1/3 espresso and 2/3 microfoam. (A “dry cappuccino” has less milk.) The “iced cappuccino” (or cappuccino “Freddo”) beverage is somewhat of a misnomer since there is no way to duplicate the foam on top of the hot beverage, but the term is nevertheless widely spread in some Mediterranean countries where ice is added before the foam. Espresso and cold milk
on ice is called an iced caffelatte, while an espresso macchiato is a shot of espresso “stained” with a dollop of milk foam.
Servings – 24 cups
Recipe Yield 3 1/2 cups
1 cup powdered non-dairy creamer
1 cup instant chocolate drink mix
3/4 cup instant coffee granules
1/2 cup white sugar
1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg
- In a medium sized glass jar, combine the non-dairy creamer, chocolate drink mix, instant coffee, sugar, cinnamon and nutmeg; mix well.
- To prepare, place 2 tablespoons mix in a mug, pour in 3/4 cup boiling water, and stir until dissolved. Serve hot.
If you want decaf, use instant decaf coffee. If you can find decaf chocolate use that as well.
Amount Per Serving Calories: 56 | Total Fat: 1.8g | Cholesterol: < 1mg
“ If coffee is now five dollars a cup then why am I still dirt poor?”
~ Juan Valdez
Seen on a coffee cup on the Jay Leno Show
com‧mis‧er‧ate / [kuh–miz–uh-reyt] verb, -at‧ed, -at‧ing.
To feel or express sorrow or sympathy for; empathize with; pity.
To sympathize (usually fol. by with): They commiserated with him over the loss of his job.
[Origin: 1585–95; < L commiserātus (ptp. of commiserārī), equiv. to com- com- + miser pitiable (see misery) + -ātus -ate1]
1097 – First Crusade: Crusaders led by Godfrey of Bouillon, Bohemund of Taranto, and Raymond IV of Toulouse, begin the Siege of Antioch.
1512 – Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg
1774 – First display of the word “Liberty” on a flag, raised by colonists in Taunton, Massachusetts and which was in defiance of British rule in Colonial America.
1797 – U.S. Navy frigate Constitution, nicknamed “Old Ironsides,” was launched in Boston’s harbor. It was built to fight Barbary pirates off the coast of Tripoli. It was never defeated in 42 battles. 216 crew members set sail again in 1997 for its 200th birthday.
1805 – British fleet commanded by Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated a French-Spanish fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar, but Nelson was killed.
1824 – Joseph Aspdin patents Portland cement.
1837 – Osceola, who was sick with malaria, knew the Indians could fight no more. He went to the fort at St. Augustine with a white flag. When Osceola went to General Jesup the General had his men surround him. They threw the white flag to the ground and put chains on his hands and feet. The Seminoles were so angry with Osceola’s capture that they continued to fight for the next five years.
1849 – The first tattooed man, James F. O’Connell, was put on exhibition at the Franklin Theatre in New York City, NY.
1854 – Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 nurses were sent to the Crimean War.
1861 – Civil War: Battle of Ball’s Bluff – Union forces under Colonel Edward Baker, a close friend of Abraham Lincoln, are defeated by Confederate troops in the second major battle of the war. Baker is killed in the fighting.
1865 – Earthquake hit San Francisco. It lasted for 42 seconds and caused major damage throughout the city.
1867 – Medicine Lodge Treaty – Near Medicine Lodge, Kansas a landmark treaty is signed by southern Great Plains Indian leaders. The treaty requires Native American Plains tribes to relocate a reservation in western Oklahoma. Comanche Chief Quanah Parker refused to accept the treaty terms.
1869 – First shipment of fresh oysters comes overland from Baltimore.
1872 – The U.S. Naval Academy admitted John H. Conyers, the first African American to be accepted.
1879 – Thomas A. Edison invented the first working electric (incandescent) light, in his Menlo Park, New Jersey laboratory. It would last 13 1/2 hours before it would burn out.
1902 – A five month strike by United Mine Workers ends.
1904 – Panamanians clashed with U.S. Marines in Panama in a brief uprising.
1907 – The Panic of 1907 began with a run on the Knickerbocker Trust Co. of New York.
1908 – The Saturday Evening Post magazine carried an ad for a brand new product: a two-sided phonograph record.
1916 – US Army formed Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC).
1917 – The first American troops saw action in France during World War I. The U.S. Army’s First Division was assigned to Allied trenches in the Luneville sector near Nancy, France.
1918 – Margaret Owen sets world typing speed record of 170 wpm for 1 min.
1921 – President Warren G. Harding delivers the first speech by a sitting President against lynching in the Deep South.
1921 – George Melford’s silent film, The Sheik, starring Rudolph Valentino, premiers. A clip (1:42) The complete movie (1:26:05)
1925 – The photoelectric cell, the device that turns flood lights on and off, was first demonstrated at the Electrical Show in New York City.
1925 – The U.S. Treasury Department announced that it had fined 29,620 people for (alcohol) prohibition violations.
1927 – Construction began on the George Washington Bridge.
1938 – “Quaker City Jazz” was recorded by Jan Savitt and his Top Hatters Orchestra.
1940 – Ernest Hemingway’s novel “For Whom the Bell Tolls” was published.
1942 – Eight American and British officers landed from a submarine on an Algerian beach to take measure of Vichy French to the Operation Torch landings.
1944 – World War II: During World War II, the German city of Aachen was captured by U.S. troops.
1944 – World War II: The first kamikaze attack: HMAS Australia was hit by a Japanese plane carrying a 441 pound bomb off Leyte Island, as the Battle of Leyte Gulf began.
1944 – World War II: Organized Japanese resistance on Angaur, Palau Islands ends. A total of 1300 Japanese are killed and 45 are captured. American forces have suffered 265 dead and 1335 wounded.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Buy That Dream” by The Pied Pipers, “Till the End of Time” by Perry Como, “On the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe” by Johnny Mercer and “You Two Timed Me One Time Too Often” by Tex Ritter all topped the charts.
1948 – Facsimile high-speed radio transmission demonstrated (Washington DC).
1950 – “Goodnight Irene” by the Weavers with Gordon Jenkins topped the charts.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Vaya Con Dios” by Les Paul & Mary Ford, “You, You, You” by The Ames Brothers, “Crying in the Chapel” by June Valli and “I Forgot More Than You’ll Ever Know” by The Davis Sisters all topped the charts.
1954 – The first part of JRR Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings, “The Fellowship of the Ring” is published in the U.S.A.
1957 – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley shared #1.
1957 – “Chances Are” by Johnny Mathis shared the top of the chart.
1958 – “Tater Tots” were trademark registered.
1958 – Orchestral strings were used for the first time in a rock and roll tune. Buddy Holly recorded “It Doesn’t Matter Anymore“, written by Paul Anka.
1959 – The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York opened; it was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.
1959 – US President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order transferring Wernher von Braun and other German scientists from the United States Army to NASA. By the late 1960s Dr. Von Braun’s rockets were taking men to the moon. At age 25 he had masterminded the V-2 rocket for Nazi Germany.
1960 – The fourth and final debate between Vice President Richard M. Nixon, the Republican presidential candidate, and Senator John F. Kennedy, Democratic candidate, was televised.
1961 – Bob Dylan recorded his first album in a single day at a cost of $400.
1964 – The movie musical “My Fair Lady” (2:51:33) made its world premier in New York.
1965 – The Kingsmen and the Dave Clark Five appear on “Shindig!”
1967 – More than 50,000 Vietnam War protesters marched in Washington, D.C.
1967 – “To Sir with Love” by Lulu topped the charts. Movie closing credits
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Can’t Get Next to You” by The Temptations, “Hot Fun in the Summertime” by Sly & The Family Stone, “Suspicious Minds” by Elvis Presley and “Since I Met You, Baby” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1969 – The play “Butterflies are Free,” premiered in NYC at the Booth Theater. It was written by Leonard Gershe (d.2002). It closed in 1972 after 1128 performances.
1971 – President Nixon nominated Lewis F. Powell and William H. Rehnquist to the US Supreme Court following resignations of Justices Hugo Black and John Harlan.
1972 – “My Ding-a-Ling” by Chuck Berry topped the charts.
1972 – Curtis Mayfield’s “Superfly” movie soundtrack album was #1.
1973 – World Series: Oakland Athletics (4) vs New York Mets (3).
1973 – Fred Dryer of the then Los Angeles Rams becomes the first player in NFL history to score two safeties in the same game.
1973 – John Paul Getty III’s ear is cut off by his kidnappers and sent to a newspaper in Rome; it doesn’t arrive until November 8.
1975 – Red Sox Carlton Fisk’s 12th inning HR beats Reds 7-6 in game 6 of the World Series.
1976 – World Series: Cincinnati Reds (4) vs New York Yankees (0)
1976 – NY Knicks retire first number, # 19, Willis Reed.
1976 – Saul Bellow won the Nobel Prize for literature, the first American honored since John Steinbeck in 1962.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Light Up My Life” by Debby Boone, “Nobody Does It Better” by Carly Simon, “That’s Rock ’n’ Roll” by Shaun Cassidy and “Heaven’s Just a Sin Away” by The Kendalls all topped the charts.
1978 – “Kiss You All Over” by Exile topped the charts.
1980 – World Series: Philadelphia Phillies (4) vs Kansas City Royals (2). First (& only) time Phillies win the World Series (in 98 years).
1983 – The metre is defined at the seventeenth General Conference on Weights and Measures in terms of the speed of light as the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.
1983 – The Pentagon reported that 2,000 Marines were headed to Grenada to protect and evacuate Americans living there. They also sent a ten-ship task force to the island nation.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Take on Me” by a-ha, “Saving All My Love for You” by Whitney Houston, “Part-Time Lover” by Stevie Wonder and “You Make Me Want to Make You Mine” by Juice Newton all topped the charts.
1985-This is “Back to the Future Day.” This is the date that appears on the flux capacitor on the DeLorean time machine.
1986 – Pro-Iranian kidnappers in Lebanon claimed that they had abducted American writer Edward Tracy. He was not released until August of 1991.
1986 – The U.S. ordered 55 Soviet diplomats to leave. The action was in reaction to the Soviet Union expelling five American diplomats.
1987 – U.S. Senate rejected U.S. President Ronald Reagan’s nomination of Judge Robert Bork to the U.S. Supreme Court by the biggest margin in history, 58-42.
1988 – A federal grand jury in New York indicted former Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos and his wife, Imelda Marcos, on charges of fraud and racketeering.
1989 – Buck Helm found alive after being buried 4 days, in Loma Prieta earthquake. Helm died less than a month later.
1989 – Houston becomes first major college team to gain 1000 yards in a game.
1989 – “Miss You Much” by Janet Jackson topped the charts.
1991 – Jesse Turner, an American hostage in Lebanon, was released after nearly five years of being imprisoned.
1992 – New York protesters upset with Sinead O’Connor for ripping up a photo of Pope John Paul II on “Saturday Night Live,” used a steamroller to crush dozens of the Irish singer’s CDs, records and tapes.
1994 – North Korea nuclear weapons program: North Korea and the United States sign an agreement that requires North Korea to stop its nuclear weapons program and agree to inspections.
1994 – Rosario Ames, the wife of CIA agent Aldrich Ames, was sentenced to five years in prison for her role in her husband’s espionage.
1995 – Mariah Carey’s “Daydream” was the number one album in the US.
1995 – Rioting inmates surrendered control of a prison dormitory in Greenville, Illinois, ending a one-day uprising that began after the government ordered federal prisons locked down nationwide.
1996 – Firestorms covered 35,000 acres in Malibu and San Diego County and destroyed more than 60 homes. Another fire in the Los Padres National Forest was reported 60% contained.
1996 – Dow Jones industrial average of 30 major stocks topped the 6,000 mark for the first time.
1997 – “Candle in the Wind 1997” named biggest-selling single record of all time.
1997 – Reversing months of strong opposition, the Clinton administration endorsed a revised Republican bill to restructure the Internal Revenue Service and shift the burden of proof from the taxpayer to the government in contested court cases.
1997 – Pictures of the Antennae galaxies, two intermeshed colliding galaxies, were taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1996 and revealed to the public for the first time.
1998 – World Series: New York Yankees (4) vs San Diego Padres (0) The Yankees set a major league baseball record of 125 victories for the regular and postseason combined.
1998 – A radical environmental group, the Earth Liberation Front, claimed responsibility for fires that caused $12 million in damage at the nation’s busiest ski resort in Vail, CO.
1999 – Organizers called for a “Jam Echelon Day,” an effort to overload US National Security Agency (NSA) supercomputers with e-mail containing words such as “bomb.” Echelon was a worldwide surveillance network run by the NSA and partners in Britain, Australia, Canada and New Zealand.
1999 – The US Justice Dept. sued the city of Columbus, Ohio, for a pattern of civil rights violations by the police.
2001 – The Arizona Diamondbacks won the National League championship, defeating the Atlanta Braves 3-2 in game five.
2001 – A DC postal worker was diagnosed with the deadly inhalation form of anthrax. DC postal worker Thomas L. Morris Jr. (55) died. Officials began testing thousands of postal employees.
2002 – Pres. Bush said he would try diplomacy “one more time,” but did not think Saddam Hussein would disarm, even if doing so would allow him to remain in power.
2003 – The U.S. Senate voted to ban what was known as partial birth abortions.
2003 – In Florida tube-feeding was resumed for Terri Schiavo (39), brain-damaged since 1990, on orders from Governor Jeb Bush, who overrode a court decision for its removal.
2003 – US officials state that they believe Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl was killed by Khalid Sheikh Mohammed.
2004 – The U.S. Army sentences Staff Sergeant Ivan Frederick to eight years in prison for sexually and physically abusing detainees at Abu Ghraib prison.
2004 – The St. Louis Cardinals won the National League pennant with a 7th game win over the Houston Astros.
2004 – A University of Florida scientist, Thomas DeMarse, announces that he has grown a “brain” of rat neurons that can fly an airplane simulator. A “brain” such as this could be used to study how actual brains compute information and, potentially, as a sort of living computer.
2005 – Oscar Wyatt (81), former chairman of Coastal Corp., was arrested at his home in Houston for paying millions in kickbacks to the government of Saddam Hussein in exchange for rights to buy discounted Iraqi oil under the UN’s oil-for-food program.
2006 – Bush administration was reported putting together a timetable for Iraq to quell sectarian violence and take more responsibility for its own security. However, it didn’t call for withdrawal of U.S. troops.
2006 – Iraq: Three U.S. Marines are killed in combat in Anbar province, making October the deadliest month for American forces in Iraq in 2006.
2006 – MASS SHOOTING: In SF Joseph James Melcher (25), a traveling wine salesman, opened fire on three people in Japantown and two died. He was arrested the same evening.
2007 – U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney, in one of the strongest warnings from Washington on the matter, said, “We will not allow Iran to have a nuclear weapon.”
2007 – The Boston Red Sox won the American League championship in Game 7 of their series with the Cleveland Indians, 11-2.
2007 – More than a half-dozen wildfires driven by powerful Santa Ana winds spread across Southern California, killing one person near San Diego and destroying several homes and a church in celebrity-laden Malibu. The Buckweed fire started rampaging across 38,000 acres in the Santa Clarita area, 30 miles north of downtown Los Angeles.
2008 – US federal agents arrested dozens of members of the Mongol motorcycle club in six states, following an undercover investigation in which they infiltrated the notorious motorcycle gang. Prosecutors said it could herald the end of what they call a criminal group.
2009 – The Philadelphia Phillies win the 2009 National League Championship Series 4 games to 1 after defeating the Los Angeles Dodgers 10–4.
2009 – US federal prosecutors in Massachusetts arrested Tarek Mehanna (27) of Sudbury, a suburb of Boston. Prosecutors said he had conspired to kill two prominent US politicians and carry out a holy war by attacking shoppers in US malls and American troops in Iraq.
2009 – In Toledo, Ohio, Mohammad Zaki Amawi (29) was sentenced to 20 years in jail for plotting to recruit and train terrorists to kill US soldiers in Iraq.
2009 – Alyssa Bustamante (15) of St. Martins, Mo., strangled, stabbed and cut a 9-year-old neighbor’s throat. She told authorities she did it because she wanted to know what it was like to kill someone.
2010 – Toyota orders a recall of 1.5 million vehicles, including various Lexus models and Toyota Avalon models, due to brake fluid and fuel pump problems.
2011 – Verizon Communications reports third-quarter earnings have doubled.
2011 – Eleven people are arrested taking part in Occupy Cleveland protest activities in Public Square. They were arrested near the statue of former Mayor Tom Johnson, a symbol of free speech.
2011 – President Barack Obama, announces a plan to withdraw all of the remaining American military forces from Iraq by the end of 2011.
2012 – MASS SHOOTING: A shooting at a spa in Brookfield, Wisconsin, USA, leaves four people dead, including the shooter.
2012 – Sharmeka Moffitt, 20, a female from Winnsboro, Louisiana, sustains burns to over 60% of her body in what was initially believed to be a possible hate crime after she had claimed, through relatives, to have been set afire by three unknown at large male hoodie-wearing assailants in Winnsboro’s Civitan Park. It was later proved a lie.
2013 – New Jersey becomes the 14th U.S. state to allow same-sex marriages.
2014 – America’s oldest WWII veteran died today. Roscoe Cassidy lived in Owingsville, Bath County, Kentucky. Born in 1907 his biggest worry of late was that no one would come to his funeral. The community made sure that that did not happen.PFC Cassidy served in four campaigns during WWII, which include Tunisian, Southern France, Rhineland, and Rome Arno. He also received 4 Bronze Stars.
1687 – Nicolaus I Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (d. 1759)
1772 – Samuel Taylor Coleridge, British poet.
1833 – Alfred Nobel, Swedish chemist (invented dynamite), engineer, businessman, and philanthropist (founded the Nobel Prizes).
1917 – Dizzy Gillespie, American Grammy Award-winning musician and creator of be-bop.
1928 – Whitey Ford, American baseball Hall-of-Famer.
1956 – Carrie Fisher, American actress and writer
*WILSON, RICHARD G
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Co. 1, Medical Company, 187th Airborne Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Opari, Korea, October 21st, 1950. Entered service at: Cape Girardeau Mo. Born: 19 August 1931, Marion, Ill. G.O. No.: 64, 2 August 1951. Citation: Pfc. Wilson distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. As medical aid man attached to Company I, he accompanied the unit during a reconnaissance in force through the hilly country near Opari. The main body of the company was passing through a narrow valley flanked on three sides by high hills when the enemy laid down a barrage of mortar, automatic-weapons and small-arms fire. The company suffered a large number of casualties from the intense hostile fire while fighting its way out of the ambush. Pfc. Wilson proceeded at once to move among the wounded and administered aid to them oblivious of the danger to himself, constantly exposing himself to hostile fire. The company commander ordered a withdrawal as the enemy threatened to encircle and isolate the company. As his unit withdrew Private Wilson assisted wounded men to safety and assured himself that none were left behind. After the company had pulled back he learned that a comrade previously thought dead had been seen to be moving and attempting to crawl to safety. Despite the protests of his comrades, unarmed and facing a merciless enemy, Pfc. Wilson returned to the dangerous position in search of his comrade. Two days later a patrol found him lying beside the man he returned to aid. He had been shot several times while trying to shield and administer aid to the wounded man. Pfc. Wilson’s superb personal bravery, consummate courage and willing self-sacrifice for his comrades reflect untold glory upon himself and uphold the esteemed traditions of the military service.
*MOON, HAROLD H., JR.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company G, 34th Infantry, 24th Infantry Division. Place and date: Pawig, Leyte, Philippine Islands, October 21st, 1944. Entered service at: Gardena, Calif. Birth: Albuquerque, N. Mex. G.O. No.: 104, 15 November 1945. Citation: He fought with conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity when powerful Japanese counterblows were being struck in a desperate effort to annihilate a newly won beachhead. In a forward position, armed with a submachinegun, he met the brunt of a strong, well-supported night attack which quickly enveloped his platoon’s flanks. Many men in nearby positions were killed or injured, and Pvt. Moon was wounded as his foxhole became the immediate object of a concentration of mortar and machinegun fire. Nevertheless, he maintained his stand, poured deadly fire into the enemy, daringly exposed himself to hostile fire time after time to exhort and inspire what American troops were left in the immediate area. A Japanese officer, covered by machinegun fire and hidden by an embankment, attempted to knock out his position with grenades, but Pvt. Moon, after protracted and skillful maneuvering, killed him. When the enemy advanced a light machinegun to within twenty yards of the shattered perimeter and fired with telling effects on the remnants of the platoon, he stood up to locate the gun and remained exposed while calling back range corrections to friendly mortars which knocked out the weapon. A little later he killed two Japanese as they charged an aid man. By dawn his position, the focal point of the attack for more than four hours, was virtually surrounded. In a fanatical effort to reduce it and kill its defender, an entire platoon charged with fixed bayonets. Firing from a sitting position, Pvt. Moon calmly emptied his magazine into the advancing horde, killing eighteen and repulsing the attack. In a final display of bravery, he stood up to throw a grenade at a machinegun which had opened fire on the right flank. He was hit and instantly killed, falling in the position from which he had not been driven by the fiercest enemy action. Nearly two-hundred dead Japanese were found within 100 yards of his foxhole. The continued tenacity, combat sagacity, and magnificent heroism with which Pvt. Moon fought on against overwhelming odds contributed in a large measure to breaking up a powerful enemy threat and did much to insure our initial successes during a most important operation.
BIEGLER, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Captain, 28th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: Near Loac, Luzon, Philippine Islands, October 21st, 1900. Entered service at: Terre Haute, Ind. Birth: Terre Haute, Ind. Date of issue: 11 March 1902. Citation: With but nineteen men resisted and at close quarters defeated three-hundred of the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Arizona, October 21st, 1868. Entered service at:—— Birth: England. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Brought a comrade, severely wounded, from under the fire of a large party of the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company C, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Prussia. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 22d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at:——. Birth: Rutland, Vt. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action .
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: Pawtucket, R.I. Birth: North Attleboro, Mass Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Syracuse, N.Y. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Cltation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Brooklyn, N.Y. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
MONTROSE, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: St. Paul, Minn. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company A, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Birth: Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: Rocky Hill, Conn. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Bravery in action with Sioux.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
WHITEHEAD, PATTON G.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Russell County, Va. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: Beardstown, Ill. Birth: Petersburg, Ill Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
National Character Counts Week
Edison Lamp Day
Traits of a Good Leader
Compiled by the Santa Clara University and the Tom Peters Group:
- Honest — Display sincerity, integrity, and candor in all your actions. Deceptive behavior will not inspire trust.
- Competent — Base your actions on reason and moral principles. Do not make decisions based on childlike emotional desires or feelings.
- Forward-looking — Set goals and have a vision of the future. The vision must be owned throughout the organization. Effective leaders envision what they want and how to get it. They habitually pick priorities stemming from their basic values.
- Inspiring — Display confidence in all that you do. By showing endurance in mental, physical, and spiritual stamina, you will inspire others to reach for new heights. Take charge when necessary.
- Intelligent — Read, study, and seek challenging assignments.
- Fair-minded — Show fair treatment to all people. Prejudice is the enemy of justice. Display empathy by being sensitive to the feelings, values, interests, and well-being of others.
- Broad-minded — Seek out diversity.
- Courageous — Have the perseverance to accomplish a goal, regardless of the seemingly insurmountable obstacles. Display a confident calmness when under stress.
- Straightforward — Use sound judgment to make a good decisions at the right time.
- Imaginative — Make timely and appropriate changes in your thinking, plans, and methods. Show creativity by thinking of new and better goals, ideas, and solutions to problems. Be innovative!
“Retreat Hell! We’ve just got here!” — Attributed to several World War I Marine Corps officers, Belleau Wood, June 1918 (key ideal — take a stand)
Attributes establish what leaders are, and every leader needs at least three of them (U.S. Army Handbook, 1973):
Standard Bearers establish the ethical framework within an organization. This demands a commitment to live and defend the climate and culture that you want to permeate your organization. What you set as an example will soon become the rule as unlike knowledge, ethical behavior is learned more by observing than by listening. And in fast moving situations, examples become certainty. Being a standard bearer creates trust and openness in your employees, who in turn, fulfill your visions.
Developers help others learn through teaching, training, and coaching. This creates an exciting place to work and learn. Never miss an opportunity to teach or learn something new yourself. Coaching suggests someone who cares enough to get involved by encouraging and developing others who are less experienced. Employees who work for developers know that they can take risks, learn by making mistakes, and winning in the end.
Integrators orchestrate the many activities that take place throughout an organization by providing a view of the future and the ability to obtain it. Success can only be achieved when there is a unity of effort. Integrators have a sixth sense about where problems will occur and make their presence felt during critical times. They know that their employees do their best when they are left to work within a vision-based framework.
Perspectives of Character and Traits
Traits (acronym — JJ did tie buckle)
“Make it a rule of life never to regret and never to look back. Regret is an appalling waste of energy; you can’t build on it; it’s only for wallowing in.”
~ Katherine Mansfield
obstreperous uhb-STREP-uhr-uhs; ob-, adjective:1. Noisily and stubbornly defiant; unruly.
2. Noisy, clamorous, or boisterous.
1774 – The Continental Congress banned all forms of entertainment and theater in the Colonies. The colonists were to “discountenance and discourage all horse racing and all kinds of gaming, cock fighting, exhibitions of shows, plays and other expensive diversions and entertainment.”
1786 – Harvard University organized the first astronomical expedition in US.
1803 – United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.
1811 – Fulton’s steamboat, “New Orleans”, built in Pittsburgh, sailed to New Orleans. The boat traveled at the rate of eight miles per hour downstream and three miles per hour upstream.
1817 – First Mississippi showboat leaves Nashville on maiden voyage. It was basically a barge that resembled a long, flat-roofed house, and in order to move down the river, it was pushed by a small towboat. British-born actor William Chapman, Sr. created the first showboat, named the Floating Theater in Pittsburgh in 1831.
1818 – The Convention of 1818 signed between the United States and the United Kingdom which, among other things, settled the US-Canada border on the 49th parallel for most of its length.
1820 – Spain sold a part of Florida to US for $5 million.
1824 – U.S. Schooner Porpoise captures four pirate ships off Cuba.
1866 – Pierre Lallemont, French mechanic, was granted a US patent for his velocipede, a rotary crank bicycle.
1873 – P.T. Barnum’s Hippodrome opens in New York City.
1892 – The city of Chicago dedicated the World’s Columbian Exposition in honor of the 400th anniversary of Columbus discovering America.
1903 – A joint commission ruled in favor of the U.S. concerning a dispute over the boundary between Canada and the District of Alaska..
1904 – The song “Yankee Doodle Boy” was copyright registered.
1906 – Dr. Lee DeForest, one of the “fathers of radio,” announced his three-element electrical vacuum tube (now known as a triode) to a meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers.
1910 – First appearance of cork centered baseball in World Series.
1910 – The hull of the RMS Olympic, sister-ship to the ill-fated RMS Titanic, is launched from the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland.
1911 – Roald Amundsen set out on a race to the South Pole.
1924 – Baseball’s first “colored World Series” was held in Kansas City, Mo.
1926 – President Calvin Coolidge ordered the US Marines to guard the US Mail.
1930 – The “Adventures of Sherlock Holmes” premiered on the NBC Radio Network.
1934 – An all-star baseball team led by Babe Ruth and Connie Mack sailed to Hawaii and Japan.
1938 – World War II: Holocaust: Czechoslovakia, complying with Nazi policy, outlawed the Communist Party and began persecuting Jews.
1939 – “All the Things You Are” was recorded by the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra — for the Victor label.
1939 – The German government warns that neutral merchant ships joining Allied convoys will be sunk without warning.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: Thousands of civilians in Kragujevac in German-occupied Serbia are killed in the Kragujevac massacre.
1942 – World War II: The United States Congress passes the largest tax bill in the country’s history. It will raise $6,881,000,000 in tax revenue.
1943 – World War II: Elements of US 5th Army take Piedimonte d’Alife while other elements are advancing along the Volturno River.
1944 – World War II: A carrier fleet, including one large carrier, one small carrier, two seaplane carriers, and two hybrid carrier-battleships as well as small ships, sails for the Philippines as part of Operation Sho-go.
1944 – Liquid natural gas leaks from storage tanks in Cleveland, OH , then explodes; the explosion and resulting fire level 30 blocks, killed 130 and left 3600 homeless.
1944 – World War II: General Douglas MacArthur fulfills his promise to return to the Philippines when he commands an Allied assault on the islands, reclaiming them from the Japanese. This was 21/2 years after he famously said, “I shall return.”
1944 – World War II: During World War II, the Yugoslav cities of Belgrade and Dubrovnik were liberated.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Walk Alone” by Dinah Shore, “Is You is or is You Ain’t” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “It Had to Be You” by Helen Forrest & Dick Haymes and “Smoke on the Water” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1946 – Frank Seno returns kickoff 105 yd, Chicago Cards vs NY Giants.
1947 – The House Un-American Activities Committee begins its investigation into Communist infiltration of Hollywood, resulting in a blacklist that prevents some from working in the industry for years.
1947 – The radio rights to the World Series were sold for three years for $475,000.
1950 – President Harry S. Truman issued an executive order “activating” the Magnuson Act, which had been passed by Congress earlier that month. This act, authorizing the president to invoke the Espionage Act of 1917, tasked the Coast Guard with the port security mission.
1950 – In the first airborne operation of the Korean War, 2,860 paratroopers of the 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team jumped between Sukchon and Sunchon, 25 miles north of Pyongyang.
1951 – “Because of You” by Tony Bennett topped the charts.
1951 – The “Johnny Bright Incident” occurred in Stillwater, Oklahoma This was a violent, and most likely racially motivated, on-field assault against a Black player Johnny Bright by white American player Wilbanks Smith during a college football game held in Stillwater, Oklahoma.
1952 –Korean War: The destroyer escort Lewis was hit by shore fire off the West Coast of Korea. Seven sailors were killed and one wounded.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Belong to Me” by Jo Stafford, “Wish You Were Here” by Eddie Fisher, “I Went to Your Wedding” by Patti Page and “Jambalaya (On the Bayou)” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – Edward R. Murrow on his TV show “See It Now” brought public attention to the abuses of power in the era of Sen. McCarthy’s anti-communist crusade.
1954 – The musical “Peter Pan” opened.
1955 – Publication of “The Return of the King”, being the last part of “The Lord of the Rings”.
1955 – “No Time for Sergeants” opened on Broadway starring Andy Griffith.
1955 – “Day-O!” by Harry Belafonte Hits was recorded for RCA Victor .
1956 – Dr. Hannes Lindemann began his voyage across the Atlantic Ocean in a small boat (17 feet). Lindemann was a German physician on a U.S. Air Force base in Morocco. He wrote a book “Alone at Sea”, about his two journeys across the Atlantic Ocean.
1957 – Walter Cronkite hosted the documentary “The 20th Century.”
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Save the Last Dance for Me” by The Drifters, “My Heart Has a Mind of Its Own” by Connie Francis, “I Want to Be Wanted” by Brenda Lee and “Alabam” by Cowboy Copas all topped the charts.
1960 – First fully mechanized post office opened, Providence, RI.
1960 – The Elvis Presley film “G.I. Blues” premiered.
1962 – The Four Seasons released “Big Girls Don’t Cry.”
1962 – “Monster Mash” by Bobby Pickett & the Crypt Kickers topped the charts.
1962 – The musical, “Mr. President” opened on Broadway.
1963 – Jim Brown sets NFL single-season rushing record, 1,863 yards.
1964 – Herbert Hoover, the 31st president of the United States (1929-1933), died in New York at age 90.
1965 – The Beatles received a gold record for the single, “Yesterday.”
1967 – A purported bigfoot is filmed by Patterson and Gimlin .
1967 – Vietnam War: Operation Coronado VII began in Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
1967 – Seven men were convicted in Meridian, MS, on charges of violating the civil rights of three civil rights workers. Of the men convicted one was a Ku Klux Klan leader and another was a sheriff’s deputy.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hey Jude” by The Beatles, “Fire” by The Crazy World of Arthur Brown, “Little Green Apples” by O.C. Smith and “Then You Can Tell Me Goodbye” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1968 – Former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy marries Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis.
1969 – John Lennon released “Cold Turkey,” his second solo album.
1973 – “Angie” by the Rolling Stones topped the charts.
1973 – Arab oil-producing nations banned oil exports to the United States, to protest American military support for Israel in its 1973 war with Egypt and Syria. This brought soaring gas prices and long lines at filling stations, and it contributed to a major economic downturn in the U.S.
1973 – The San Francisco Zebra murders began and lasted for 179 days. 15 people were killed and 8 wounded by a gang of racial extremists.
1973 – The Saturday Night Massacre: President Nixon fires Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus after they refuse to fire Watergate prosecutor Archibald Cox, who is finally fired by Robert Bork.
1973 – “The Six Million Dollar Man” premiered on TV.
1973 – President Nixon proclaims Jim Thorpe greatest athlete of 20th century.
1973 – “The Joker” was released by the Steve Miller Band.
1975 – The US Supreme Court ruled that teachers could spank their pupils even if parents do not approve.
1976 – NY Nets Julius “Dr J” Erving sold to the Philadelphia 76ers.
1976 – Seventy-six people were killed when the Norwegian tanker Frosta collided with the ferryboat George Prince on the Mississippi River.
1978 – The Coast Guard Cutter Cuyahoga sank after colliding with M/V Santa Cruz II near the mouth of the Potomac River. Eleven Coast Guard personnel were killed.
1979 – “Rise” by Herb Alpert topped the charts.
1979 – The John F Kennedy library is opened in Boston, Massachusetts.
1981 – The Brink’s robbery of 1981 was an armed robbery carried out by Black Liberation Army members; including Jeral Wayne Williams (aka Mutulu Shakur), Donald Weems (aka Kuwasi Balagoon), Samuel Smith, Nathaniel Burns (aka Sekou Odinga), Cecilio “Chui” Ferguson, Samuel Brown (aka Solomon Bouines); several former members of the Weather Underground, now belonging to the May 19th Communist Organization, including David Gilbert, Samuel Brown, Judith Alice Clark, Kathy Boudin, and Marilyn Buck; and an unknown number of accomplices. They stole $1.6 million from a Brink’s armored car at the Nanuet Mall, in Nanuet, New York, killing two police officers, Edward O’Grady and Waverly Brown, and a Brink’s guard, Peter Paige.
1982 – World Series: St. Louis Cardinals (4) vs Milwaukee Brewers (3).
1983 – Due to political strife, USS Independence (CV-59) ordered to Grenada.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Just Called to Say I Love You” by Stevie Wonder, “Caribbean Queen (No More Love on the Run)” by Billy Ocean, “Hard Habit to Break” by Chicago and “I Don’t Know a Thing About Love (The Moon Song)” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1987 – An Air Force A-7D-4-CV Corsair II, serial 69-6207, piloted by Major Bruce L. Teagarden, 35, was en route to Nevada via Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma, after departing Pittsburgh International Airport earlier in the day. Ten people were killed when the jet crashed into a Ramada Inn hotel near Indianapolis International Airport after the pilot, who was trying to make an emergency landing, ejected safely. The cockpit and engine went into the lobby, killing nine people. Another person died 1 week later as a result of burn injuries. The hotel stood empty for two years and was never rebuilt.
1988 – World Series: Los Angeles Dodgers (4) vs Oakland Athletics (1)
1989 – The world’s largest milkshake, 1575 gallons, was made by the Smith Dairy at Orrville, Ohio.
1990 – “I Don’t Have the Heart” by James Ingram topped the charts.
1990 – The Cincinnati Reds won the World Series, 2-to-1, sweeping the Oakland A’s in four games.
1991 – The Oakland Hills firestorm kills 25 and destroys 3,469 homes and apartments, causing more than $2 billion in damage. The firestorm was a large urban fire that occurred on the hillsides of northern Oakland, California and southeastern Berkeley.
1993 – Attorney General Janet Reno warned the TV industry to limit the violence in their programs.
1994 – The Pentagon announced that more than 100,000 U.S. troops were being taken off alert for possible movement to the Persian Gulf because the Iraqi threat to Kuwait had abated.
1995 – Space shuttle “Columbia” was launched on a research flight that had been delayed six times.
1999 – Elizabeth Dole quit the US presidential race and her Republican bid to be America’s first woman president due to insufficient campaign funds.
2000 – Egyptian-born Ali Mohamed, a U.S. citizen who’d served in the Army (1986), pleaded guilty in New York to helping plan the deadly U.S. Embassy bombings in Africa in 1998 that killed 224 people, including twelve Americans.
2001 – Traces of anthrax were found in a US House of Representatives mail room. This became the 3rd Capital Hill building infected.
2002 – Yao Ming (22), a 7-foot-5 basketball player from China, arrived in Texas to join the Houston Rockets.
2002 – The Galaxy fishing ship, ported in Seattle, exploded and burned 750 miles SW of Alaska. One man was killed and two were missing.
2003 – President Bush personally condemned the Malaysian prime minister for his statement that Jews rule the world.
2003 – A 40-year-old man went over Niagara Falls without safety devices and survived. He was charged with illegally performing a stunt. Since 1901, 15 daredevils have taken the plunge in barrels or other devices, including a kayak and a personal watercraft. Ten survived,
2003 – The US deficit doubled to $374 billion in fiscal 2003 and was on track to exceed $500 billion for the year.
2004 – Boston Red Sox defeated the New York Yankees 10-3 in Game 7 of the 2004 American League Championship Series, becoming the first team in baseball history to overcome a 3-0 series deficit in a best-of-seven series. Boston Red Sox fans poured into the streets outside Fenway Park to celebrate their team’s victory. Victoria Snellgrove (21) died the next day after a crowd control pellet hit her in the eye.
2004 – Scientists of the Human Genome Project reported a new estimate of human genes at 20k to 25k.
2004 – ABC announced it was dropping the Miss America beauty pageant. It was later picked up by cable country musical network CMT.
2005 – US Congress approved legislation protecting firearms manufacturers and dealers from a broad swath of civil liability lawsuits. Pres. Bush pledged to sign it.
2005 – US Rep. Tom DeLay turned himself in at the sheriff’s office in Travis County, Texas, where he was fingerprinted, photographed and released on $10,000 bail on conspiracy and money-laundering charges. On October 1, 2014, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals affirmed the appellate court decision overturning DeLay’s conviction.
2006 – US federal authorities arrested Jake Brahm, a 20-year-old Wisconsin grocery store clerk, for making a hoax threat that said seven football stadiums across the nation would be targeted by terrorists with radiological “dirty bombs” this weekend.
2006 – Corrections officials said California will begin shipping thousands of inmates to prisons in four other states next month at a cost of more than $51 million a year.
2006 – In Pennsylvania 24 rail cars carrying ethanol derailed and nine caught fire on a bridge over the Beaver River in New Brighton, 25 miles northwest of Pittsburgh.
2007 – Piyush “Bobby” Jindal (36), the son of Punjabi immigrants, won an election in Louisiana to become the United States’ first Indian-American state governor. He became the first nonwhite to hold the job since Reconstruction.
2009 – The US Congress passed a bill allowing detainees from Guantanamo to be brought to the US, but only to stand for trial, not to be released or jailed there.
2009 – In Arizona Faleh Hassan Almaleki (49), an Iraqi immigrant, ran his Jeep Cherokee over his daughter, Noor Almaleki (20), after she refused an arranged marriage and went to college. Noor died of her injuries on Nov 2, 2009. On Feb 22, 2011, Faleh Hassan Almaleki was convicted of 2nd degree murder.
2009 – The U. S. observes the National Day on Writing, sponsored by the National Council of Teachers of English
2010 – The Obama administration notifies the United States Congress of plans for a $60 billion-dollar weapons deal with Saudi Arabia in a move to threaten Iran.
2011 – Two small earthquakes hit the San Francisco area, shaking residents on the same day many Californians took part in an annual earthquake preparedness drill.
2011 – Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi is captured and killed by opposition fighters.
2012 – In New Jersey, Autumn Pasquale (12) disappeared in her hometown of Clayton. On Oct 23 two teenagers were arrested and charged with her murder.
2014 – Ahmad Rouleau, a convert to Islam, hit two Canadian soldiers with his car, murdering Warrant Officer Patrice Vincent. Then he led police on a high-speed chase, during which he called 911 and explained that he was doing it all “in the name of Allah.” (See October 22)
1632 – Christopher Wren was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time.
1859 – John Dewey, American psychologist, philosopher, and educational reformer.
1882 – Bela Lugosi, Hungarian-born actor (d. 1956)
1905 – Ellery Queen, pseudonym of two American writers (d. 1982)
1907 – Arlene Francis, American television personality (d. 2001)
1913 – Grandpa Jones, American banjo player and singer (d. 1998)
1925 – Art Buchwald, American columnist and author.
1931 – Mickey Mantle, baseball player (d. 1995)
KEEBLE, WOODROW W.
Rank: Master Sergeant, Organization: U.S. Army Company G, 19th Infantry Born: May 16, 1917 Waubay, SD Date of Issue: 03/03/2008
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, United States Army, 442nd Regimental Combat Team Place and date: near Bruyeres, France on October 20th, 1944 Entered service at:Hawai’i Birth: November 8, 1922, Aiea, Hawai’i Date of issue: June 21, 2000 Citation: Staff Sergeant Robert T. Kuroda distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action, on 20 October 1944, near Bruyeres, France. Leading his men in an advance to destroy snipers and machine gun nests, Staff Sergeant Kuroda encountered heavy fire from enemy soldiers occupying a heavily wooded slope. Unable to pinpoint the hostile machine gun, he boldly made his way through heavy fire to the crest of the ridge. Once he located the machine gun, Staff Sergeant Kuroda advanced to a point within ten yards of the nest and killed three enemy gunners with grenades. He then fired clip after clip of rifle ammunition, killing or wounding at least three of the enemy. As he expended the last of his ammunition, he observed that an American officer had been struck by a burst of fire from a hostile machine gun located on an adjacent hill. Rushing to the officer’s assistance, he found that the officer had been killed. Picking up the officer’s submachine gun, Staff Sergeant Kuroda advanced through continuous fire toward a second machine gun emplacement and destroyed the position. As he turned to fire upon additional enemy soldiers, he was killed by a sniper. Staff Sergeant Kuroda’s courageous actions and indomitable fighting spirit ensured the destruction of enemy resistance in the sector. Staff Sergeant Kuroda’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Captain, United States Army, 24th Infantry Division Place and date: Leyte, Philippines on October 20th, 1944 Entered service at: Hawai’i Birth: April 17, 1917, Honolulu, Hawai’i Date of issue: June 21, 2000
Citation: Captain Francis B. Wai distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action, on 20 October 1944, in Leyte, Philippine Islands. Captain Wai landed at Red Beach, Leyte, in the face of accurate, concentrated enemy fire from gun positions advantageously located in a palm grove bounded by submerged rice paddies. Finding the first four waves of American soldiers leaderless, disorganized, and pinned down on the open beach, he immediately assumed command. Issuing clear and concise orders, and disregarding heavy enemy machine gun and rifle fire, he began to move inland through the rice paddies without cover. The men, inspired by his cool demeanor and heroic example, rose from their positions and followed him. During the advance, Captain Wai repeatedly determined the locations of enemy strong points by deliberately exposing himself to draw their fire. In leading an assault upon the last remaining Japanese pillbox in the area, he was killed by its occupants. Captain Wai’s courageous, aggressive leadership inspired the men, even after his death, to advance and destroy the enemy. His intrepid and determined efforts were largely responsible for the rapidity with which the initial beachhead was secured. Captain Wai’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 18 December 1898, Camden, N.J. Accredited to: New Jersey. (Awarded by Special Act of Congress 3 February 1933.) Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession on the occasion of a fire on board the U S.S. Trenton. At 3:35 on the afternoon of October 20th, 1924, while the Trenton was preparing to fire trial installation shots from the two 6-inch guns in the forward twin mount of that vessel, two charges of powder ignited. Twenty men were trapped in the twin mount. Four died almost immediately and ten later from burns and inhalation of flames and gases. The six others were severely injured. Cholister, without thought of his own safety, on seeing that the charge of powder from the left gun was ignited, jumped for the right charge and endeavored to put it in the immersion tank. The left charge burst into flame and ignited the right charge before Cholister could accomplish his purpose. He fell unconscious while making a supreme effort to save his shipmates and died the following day.
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Born: 7 August 1901, Braddock, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. (Awarded by Special Act of Congress, 3 February 1933.) Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession on the occasion of a fire on board the U.S.S. Trenton. At 3:35 on the afternoon of October 20th, 1924, while the Trenton was preparing to fire trial installation shots from the two 6-inch guns in the forward twin mount of that vessel, two charges of powder ignited. Twenty men were trapped in the twin mount. Four died almost immediately and ten later from burns and inhalation of flame and gases. The six others were severely injured. Ens. Drexler, without thought of his own safety, on seeing that the charge of powder for the left gun was ignited, jumped for the right charge and endeavored to put it in the immersion tank. The left charge burst into flame and ignited the right charge before Ens. Drexler could accomplish his purpose. He met his death while making a supreme effort to save his shipmates.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Camp on White River, Colo., October 20th, 1879. Entered service at: Huntsville, Mo. Birth: Randolph County, Mo. Date of issue: 18 September 1897. Citation: With a reconnoitering party of three men, was attacked by thirty-five Indians and several times exposed himself to draw the fire of the enemy, giving his small party opportunity to reply with much effect.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Baltimore County, Md. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: California. Birth: St. Louis, Mo. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Bravery in action.
Rank and organization: Blacksmith, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at:——. Birth: Canada West. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th,1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Essex County, N.Y. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Trumpeter, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Brooklyn, N.Y . Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th,1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Perry County, Ohio. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth. Ireland. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Baltimore, Md. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Bravery in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action with Indians.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Washington County, N.Y. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Wagoner, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahva Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at:——. Birth: Dover, Del. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Baltimore, Md. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Rahway, N.J. Date of issue: 14 February 1879. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth. Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization. Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at. ——. Birth. Bath, Maine. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th,1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Lapeer County, Mich. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: Tionesta, Pa. Birth: Forest County, Pa. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation. Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th,1869. Entered service at:——. Birth: York County, Pa. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Saddler, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th,1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Covington. Ky. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action against Indians concealed in a ravine.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill., Birth: England. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Bravery in action with Indians.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: St. Paul, Minn. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Bravery in action with Indians.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th,1869. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: England, Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action with Indians.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th,1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Kosciusko County, Ind. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action with Indians.
Self Promotion Month
Evaluate Your Life Day
The Salvation Army, WWI and the Doughnut
According to The Donut Book: The Whole Story in Words, Pictures & Outrageous Tales, published in 2005 in the US alone over 10 Billion donuts are consumed every year. This translates into roughly $2 Billion dollars worth of tasty treats being sold each year. That is the US only.
The first doughnut was fried by Salvation Army (who would found the United Service Organization) volunteer women for American troops in France during World War I. The first of a group of 250 Officers and Soldiers of The Salvation Army to be posted to France to serve with General John Pershing’s American expeditionary force sailed from New York on August 12th 1917. General Pershing was far from convinced that The Salvation Army’s presence at the Front Line would benefit his troops and at first the Salvationists were treated with total indifference.
At Demange, in the American first division sector, Salvationists toiled in pouring rain to build a hut 25 feet wide by 100 feet long for the troops benefit. No one gave them the time of day, much less a hand. What swung the troops to The Army’s side was their practical example. No task was too menial, none too dangerous or difficult. But The Salvation Army won pride of place in American hearts by a brain wave born of sheer necessity.
At Montiers, after 36 days of rain, supplies were almost exhausted. Only flour, lard and sugar remained. Ensign Margaret Sheldon, from the Chicago slums made a suggestion which was to go down in history. “Why don’t we make them doughnuts?” They had no rolling pins or cake cutters and gales had blown down their tent but Salvationists thrive on challenges. Along with Ensign Helen Purviance, Margaret Sheldon crouched in the rain to prepare the dough. An empty bottle did duty as a rolling pin and in place of a cutter they used a knife to twist the doughnuts into shape. The first doughnuts cooked over a wood fire were triumph of improvisation.
On the first day they served up some 150 doughnuts. The following day’s batch topped 300. The traditional hole was being punched out with the inner tube of a coffee percolator. The doughnuts made by The Salvation Army Lassies were an instant success with the troops. Some of those troops lining up for hours in appalling conditions for their daily supply. Soon the troops came to realize that even in the firing line The Salvationists would not neglect them.
When Lassies like Ensign Florence Turkington crawled under shell fire to deliver
coffee and doughnuts to troops in the trenches, letters praising the work of The Salvation Army began flooding back home. Overnight the bewildered lassies found themselves national heroines. While often in great danger, the Salvationists displayed tremendous courage. At Baccarat they worked so close to the German lines that they couldn’t even whisper for fear of being heard by the listening posts. The sermon that came with the coffee and doughnuts was a friendly squeeze on the shoulder. The Doughnut became a symbol of The Salvation Army in the U.S.A. Outside many of The Army rest rooms and hostels were hung giant “doughnuts”. The Salvation Army, by selfless example, had won the hearts of a nation. At the end of the war the American people subscribed an unprecedented 13 million dollars to meet the debts incurred by The Salvation Army in its’ war work.
The Original recipe for donuts as made by the Salvation Army Lassies in WWI
Why not try them as a fundraiser for your corps?
WWI Donut Recipe – Makes approximately 15 – 20 donuts
4 cups plain flour
1½ tsp salt
½ tsp butter
4 tsp baking powder
1 cup sugar
1 cup milk
¼ tsp cinnamon
¼ tsp nutmeg
Method:Put flour in shallow pan, add salt, baking powder, and Sugar.
Rub in butter with fingertips.
Add the well beaten egg and milk and stir thoroughly.
Toss on floured board, roll to one-fourth inch in thickness, shape, fry, and drain.
No where does it say what to do with the cinnamon and nutmeg.
When I made them I mixed it with super fine (caster) sugar and used it to ‘dust’ the donuts with after they were cooked.
Much to my surprise these turned out very well and taste pretty good!!
Note: Some comments regarding this recipe concerning the amount of butter – or rather the lack of it! :-) To save any confusion, no, this is not a typo. Butter was a scarce commodity during WWI and therefore they used what they had, in this case not a lot! Believe me, the recipe does work and the picture above is of the donuts made by following the above recipe.
“A day will never be anymore than what you make of it. Practice being a ‘doer’!”
~ Josh S. Hinds
exemplar ig-ZEM-plar; -pluhr,noun:
1. A model or pattern to be copied or imitated.
2. A typical or standard specimen.
3. An ideal model or type.
4. A copy of a book or text.
Exemplar derives from Latin exemplum, “example,” from eximere, “to take out,” from ex-, “out” + emere, “to take.”
1216 – King John of England died and was succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry.
1512 – Martin Luther becomes a doctor of theology (Doctor in Biblia).
1630 – In Boston the first general court was held.
1722 – French C. Hopffer patented the fire extinguisher.
1739 – England declared war on Spain over borderlines in Florida. The war is known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear because a Member of Parliament waved a dried ear and demanded revenge for alleged mistreatment of British sailors.
1765 – The Stamp Act Congress drew up a declaration of rights and liberties at its meeting in New York.
1781 – British troops under Lord Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, Virginia. It was the last major battle of the Revolutionary War. British General Lord Cornwallis surrendered 8,000 British soldiers and seamen to a larger Franco-American force, effectively bringing an end to the American Revolution.
1789 – Chief Justice John Jay is sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
1813 – Napoleon was defeated at Leipzig by the Allies at the Battle of the Nations. Around 500,000 troops were involved.
1818 – The US and Chickasaw Indians signed a treaty. Andrew Jackson and Isaac Shelby represented American interests. The Chickasaws ceded their claims to lands in Tennessee.
1848 – John “The Pathfinder” Fremont moved out from near Westport, Missouri, on his fourth Western expedition–a failed attempt to open a trail across the Rocky Mountains along the 38th parallel.
1849 – Elizabeth Blackwell became first woman in US to receive medical degree.
1856 – James Kelly & Jack Smith fight bareknuckle for 6h15m in Melbourne.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Cedar Creek – Union Army under Philip Sheridan destroys Confederate Army under Jubal Early.
1864 – Civil War: Confederates enter Vermont from Canada and raid the town of St. Albans. Along the way, they robbed banks, looted, and attempted to set fire to the town before being chased back into Canada.
1873 – Yale University, Princeton University, Columbia University, and Rutgers University drafted the first code of football rules.
1914 – In the U.S., government owned vehicles were first used to pick up mail in Washington, DC.
1915 – Establishment of submarine base at New London, Connecticut.
1915 – The US Patent Office granted John Van Wormer a patent for his “paper bottle.” His patent was later acquired by the American Paper Bottle Company. The first paper milk carton was introduced in 1933.
1917 – Love Field in Dallas, Texas is opened.
1917 – The first doughnut was fried by Salvation Army volunteer women for American troops in France during World War I.
1919 – Reds beat White Sox, 5 games to 3 in 16th World Series.
1919 – The US Distinguished Service Medal was awarded to a woman for the 1st time.
1926 – John C. Garand patented a semi-automatic rifle.
1931 – Al Capone was convicted of tax evasion and sent to federal prison.
1933 – Berlin Olympic Committee vote to introduce basketball in 1936.
1933 – Dallas Egan, condemned slayer, was executed at San Quentin after California Gov. James Rolph agreed to allow him 8 ounces of good Kentucky bourbon whiskey.
1936 – When H.R. Ekins, a reporter for The New York World Telegram, completed an around-the-world airline trip in 18.5 days.
1937 – “Woman’s Day”, was first published.
1937 – The radio classic, “Big Town”, made its debut on CBS radio.
1939 – World War II: Europe: Reichsmarshal Hermann Goering began plundering art treasures throughout Nazi occupied areas.
1942 – World War II: The Japanese submarine I-36 launched a floatplane for a reconnaissance flight over Pearl Harbor. The pilot and crew reported on the ships in the harbor, after which the aircraft was lost at sea.
1943 – Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, is isolated by researchers at Rutgers University.
1943 – World War II: German forces defending Dragoni, Italy withdraw before a scheduled attack by elements of the US 5th Army begins.
1944 – Marlon Brando appeared in the Broadway hit, “I Remember Mama” by John van Druten,. It opened today at the Music Box Theater on Broadway.
1944 – World War II: The U.S. Navy announced that black women could join the WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service).
1944 – World War II: The US Army 442nd Regiment, composed of Japanese-Americans, fought their way into Bruyeres, France. It included the 100th Battalion of Japanese-Americans from Hawaii.
1944 – World War II: The American escort carriers of TG77.4 continue air strikes on Leyte.
1944 – World War II: American attacks on Aachen continue. Farther south, forces of the US 7th Army capture Bruyeres. Nearby, other units prepare to assault St. Die.
1950 – Korean War: The North Korean capital of Pyongyang was captured by United Nations troops.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Because of You” by Tony Bennett, “I Get Ideas” by Tony Martin, “Cold, Cold Heart” by Tony Bennett AND “Always Late (With Your Kisses)” by Lefty Frizzell all topped the charts.
1951 – President Harry S Truman formally ends state of war with Germany.
1953 – TransWorld Airlines (TWA) was the first airline to inaugurate regularly scheduled nonstop transcontinental service between Los Angeles and New York.
1953 – Ray Bradbury’s novel, “Fahrenheit 451” was copyright registered.
1953 – Singer Julius LaRosa is fired on TV by Arthur Godfrey. Godfrey fired him for “lacking humility.”
1954 – Egypt and Britain signed a pact on the Suez Canal, ending 72 years of British military occupation. Britain agreed to withdraw its force within 20 months and Egypt agreed to maintain freedom of canal navigation.
1957 – “Wake Up Little Suzie” by the Everly Brothers topped the charts.
1957 – “Damn Yankees” closed at 46th St. Theater, New York City after 1,022 performances.
1958 – In Brussels, Belgium, the first world’s fair held since before World War II closes its doors, after nearly 42 million people have visited the various exhibits.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mack the Knife” by Bobby Darin, “Put Your Head on My Shoulder” by Paul Anka, “Mr. Blue” by The Fleetwoods and “The Three Bells” by The Browns all topped the charts.
1959 – Twelve year old Patty Duke made her first Broadway appearance in “The Miracle Worker.” The play lasted for 700 performances.
1960 – Martin Luther King Jr arrested in Atlanta sit-in. King’s arrest during a student-initiated protest in Atlanta became an issue in the national presidential campaign when Democratic candidate John F. Kennedy intervened to secure his release from jail.
1960 – The United States imposed an embargo on exports to Cuba covering all commodities except medical supplies and certain food products.
1963 – Beatles record “I Want to Hold Your Hand” was first song that Americans really liked.
1963 – “Sugar Shack” by Jimmy Gilmer & the Fireballs topped the charts.
1963 – Buck Owen “Love’s Gonna Live Here” topped the country charts.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Letter” by The Box Tops, “To Sir with Love” by Lulu, “Little Ole Man (Uptight=Everything’s Alright)” by Bill Cosby and “I Don’t Wanna Play House” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1968 – “Hey Jude” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1968 – Vietnam War: Operation Maui Peak, a combined regimental-sized operation which began on 6 October, ended 11 miles northwest of An Hoa, Vietnam. More than 300 enemy were killed in the 13-day operation.
1969 – US Vice President Spiro Agnew referred to anti-Vietnam War protesters as “an effete corps of impudent snobs.”
1970 – One World Trade Center was ready for its first tenants.
1970 – John Linley Frazier murdered Dr. Victor Ohta, his wife, 2 children and secretary in Santa Cruz, Ca. He did it it in a manner consistent with Charles Manson in the Tate-LaBianca murders. Frazier hanged himself in prison in August 2009, according to the Amador County Sheriff’s Office.
1971 – “Look” magazine last issue. Look was a bi-weekly, general-interest magazine published in Des Moines, Iowa from 1937 to 1971
1973 – President Richard Nixon rejects an Appeals Court demand to turn over the Watergate tapes.
1974 – “Nothing from Nothing” by Billy Preston topped the charts.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bad Blood” by Neil Sedaka, “Calypso/I’m Sorry” by John Denver, “Miracles” by Jefferson Starship and “Hope You’re Feelin’ Me (Like I’m Feelin’ You)” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1976 – Pres. Ford signed the US Copyright Act of 1976, effective as of January 1, 1978. It declared unpublished materials to be in the public domain when the records are 100 years old or when the creator of the records has been dead for fifty years, whichever date comes first. The act also declared that records created before January 1, 1978 enter the public domain in 2002, provided that they are over 100 years old or the creator of the records has been dead 50 years.
1977 – The supersonic Concorde jet landed in New York City for the first time.
1978 – The US League of Savings and Loan Associations reported that the San Francisco Bay Area had the highest housing costs in the nation.
1980 – Steve McPeak rides 101’9″ tall unicycle in front of the Las Vegas Hilton.
1982 – Carmaker John DeLorean was arrested in Los Angeles and charged in a 24-million-dollar cocaine scheme aimed at salvaging his bankrupt sports car company. He was found not guilty due to entrapment on August 16, 1984.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Total Eclipse of the Heart” by Bonnie Tyler, “Making Love Out of Nothing at All” by Air Supply, “Islands in the Stream” by Kenny Rogers & Dolly Parton and “Paradise Tonight” by Charly McClain & Mickey Gilley all topped the charts.
1983 – The U.S. Senate approved a bill establishing a national holiday in honor of Martin Luther King Jr.
1984 – Four U.S. employees of the CIA were killed in El Salvador when their plane crashed.
1985 – “Take On Me” by A-Ha topped the charts .
1985 – The first Blockbuster Video store opens in Dallas, Texas.
1987 – In retaliation for Iranian attacks on ships in the Persian Gulf, the U.S. Navy disables the first of three of Iran’s offshore oil platforms.
1987 – Black Monday: the stock market crashed as the Dow Jones Industrial Average plunged 508 points, or 22.6 percent.
1988 – Senate passes bill curbing ads during children`s TV shows.
1988 – The Los Angeles Dodgers defeated the Oakland A’s 4-3 in game four of the World Series.
1989 – The U.S. Senate rejected a proposed constitutional amendment that barred the desecration of the American flag.
1990 – Iraq ordered all foreigners in occupied Kuwait to report to authorities or face punishment.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Emotions” by Mariah Carey, “Do Anything” by Natural Selection, “Romantic” by Karyn White and “Keep It Between the Lines” by Ricky Van Shelton all topped the charts.
1991 – Fire begins in the hills of Oakland, California. It went on to burn thousands of homes and kill 25 people. Despite the fact that fires had ravaged the same area three times earlier in the century, people continued to build homes there. Fires had previously raged through the hills in the years 1923, 1970 and 1980.
1993 – Two US Blackhawk helicopters are fired upon with RPG’s over Mogadishu.
1998 – Former heavyweight champion Mike Tyson got his boxing license back after he had lost it for biting Evander Holyfield’s ear during a fight.
1998 – In Colorado a series of arson fires were set at Vail. The Earth Liberation Front later claimed responsibility for the fires that caused $12 million in damage.
1998 – The trial of Microsoft Corp. began in Washington on antitrust charges of stifling competition.
1998 – In Miami, the first class-action lawsuit brought by smokers against the tobacco industry went to trial. Jurors later found the nation’s largest cigarette makers and industry groups had produced a defective and deadly product.
1999 – The Atlanta Braves won the National League pennant by beating the New York Mets, 10-to-9, in Game Six of their championship series.
2001 – Two U.S. Army Rangers were killed in a helicopter crash in Pakistan. The deaths were the first American deaths of the military campaign in Afghanistan.
2001 – The FBI identified the Trenton, NJ, mailbox from which the anthrax letters were sent to NYC and Washington. Two more people were reported to be infected bringing the total to eight.
2001 – In Philadelphia luggage, from a baggage locker that was deposited Sep 29, was found to contain C-4 plastic explosives.
2001 – Enron Corp. froze the assets in its 401 (k) employee retirement plan and barred employees from selling company stock trading at $32.20. Employee stock was unfrozen Nov 19 with shares at $11.69.
2002 – In York, PA, former mayor Charlie Robertson was acquitted and two other men were convicted in the shotgun murder of a young black woman during race riots in 1969.
2002 – In Ashland, Va., a man (37) was shot and seriously wounded in what appeared to be another sniper attack. The sniper left a note that included a request for $10 million and threats to focus on children.
2003 – Mother Teresa is beatified by Pope John Paul II.
2003 – A Fallujah roadside attack on a military convoy leaves an American armored car and munitions truck burning wrecks. No one was reported killed. Iraqis nearby were reportedly cheering.
2004 – Thirteen people were killed when a Corporate Airlines commuter turboprop crashed near Kirksville, Missouri. 2 survived with only broken bones.
2005 – Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.
2005 – Busch Memorial Stadium is closed and destroyed.
2005 – The Houston Astros defeated the St. Louis Cardinals for the National League title. They will face the Chicago White Sox in the World Series.
2005 – Dell Computers, the world’s largest personal computer producer, announced it was moving jobs out of the United States and setting up a major customer call center in the Philippines.
2005 – On this date Hurricane Wilma goes through one of the fastest and most amazing rapid intensification processes in hurricane history to become the third Category 5 storm of 2005. It will not get to the US until the 24th but today it became the most intense hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic.
2006 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 12,000 for the first time closing at 12,011.73
2006 – The St. Louis Cardinals beat the New York Mets to win the National League pennant. They will face the Detroit Tigers for the World Series.
2006 – The United States has adopted a document that rejects any proposals to ban space weapons.
2007 – James D. Watson, who shared the 1962 Nobel Peace prize for deciphering the double-helix of DNA, apologizes for reported comments suggesting that black people, over all, are not as intelligent as whites.
2008 – Colin Powell, a Republican and retired general who was President Bush’s first secretary of state, broke with the party and endorsed Democrat Barack Obama for president.
2008 – It was reported that California’s San Mateo County suffered potential losses of some $150 million due to the bankruptcy of Lehman Bros.
2009 – American scientists Stewart D. Nozette (52) of Chevy Chase, Md., was arrested for attempted espionage after passing classified information to an undercover FBI agent posing as an Israeli intelligence operative.
2010 – Google and the Israel Antiquities Authority announce plans to publish the Dead Sea Scrolls online.
2010 – The Crystal Cathedral Ministries, the California megachurch founded by televangelist Robert Schuller and best known for its weekly The Hour of Power television program, files for bankruptcy court protection.
2010 – The National Football League announces that it will suspend players for dangerous hits, especially those involving helmets.
2011 – United States’ largest bank, Bank of America, is surpassed by JPMorgan Chase in total assets according to Bank of America’s third-quarter financial earnings report.
2011 – Evidence that Iran is funding terrorist activities along our southern Mexican Border. News program
2012 – Big Tex, a 52-foot statue and cultural icon in Dallas, Texas, is destroyed by fire during the final weekend of the 2012 State Fair of Texas.
2012 – A tour bus went off the highway and crashed in northwest Arizona late Friday at around 8:00 PM PDT, killing the bus driver (who was believed to have suffered a medical incident), and leaving at least four of the passengers with serious injuries. The bus was northbound on Highway 93 near Willow Beach, Arizona and the Nevada state line, southeast of Las Vegas.
2014 – Operation Deep Freeze 2014 began today. The Air National Guard’s 109th Airlift Wing sent its first LC-130 Hercules aircraft of the season to Antarctica from Stratton Air National Guard Base, N.Y.
1605 – Sir Thomas Browne, British physician and writer of famous quotations.
1810 – Cassius Marcellus Clay, American abolitionist (d. 1903)
1931 – John le Carré (David Cornwell), British author.
1945 – John Lithgow, American Emmy Award and Tony Award-winning actor.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 21st Infantry. Place and date: Kumson, Korea, October 19th, 1951. Born: October 18, 1928, Lamar, MO Departed: 4/20/2006 Date Issued: 3/18/2014
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Sergeant Jack Weinstein distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while leading 1st Platoon, Company G, 21st Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division in Kumsong, Korea on October 19, 1951. That afternoon, thirty enemy troops counterattacked Sergeant Weinstein’s platoon. Most of the platoon’s members had been wounded in the previous action and withdrew under the heavy fire. Sergeant Weinstein, however, remained in his position and continued to fight off the onrushing enemy, killing at least six with his M-1 rifle before running out of ammunition. Although under extremely heavy enemy fire, Sergeant Weinstein refused to withdraw and continued fighting by throwing enemy hand grenades found lying near his position. He again halted the enemy’s progress and inflicted numerous casualties. Alone and unaided, he held the ground which his platoon had fought tenaciously to take and held out against overwhelming odds until another platoon was able to relieve him and drive back the enemy. Sergeant Weinstein’s leg had been broken by an enemy grenade and old wounds suffered in previous battles had reopened, but he refused to withdraw and successfully bought time for his wounded comrades to reach friendly lines. Sergeant Weinstein’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 21st Infantry. Place and date: Kumson, Korea, October 19th, 1951. Born: October 18, 1928, Lamar, MO, Entered Service at: Departed:
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Private Joe Gandara distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving with Company D, 2d Battalion, 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 17th Airborne Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Amfreville, France on June 9, 1944. On that day, Private Gandara’s detachment came under devastating enemy fire from a strong German force, pinning the men to the ground for a period of four hours. Private Gandara voluntarily advanced alone toward the enemy position. Firing his machinegun from his hip as he moved forward, he destroyed three hostile machineguns before he was fatally wounded. Private Gandara’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
HAJIRO, BARNEY F.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, 442nd Regimental Combat Team Place and date: October 19th, 22, and 29 October 1944, in the vicinity of Bruyeres and Biffontaine, eastern France. Entered service at: Hawaii Birth: September 16, 1916 Date of issue: June 21, 2000 Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Private Barney F. Hajiro distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action. Private Hajiro, while acting as a sentry on top of an embankment on 19 October 1944, in the vicinity of Bruyeres, France, rendered assistance to allied troops attacking a house 200 yards away by exposing himself to enemy fire and directing fire at an enemy strong point. He assisted the unit on his right by firing his automatic rifle and killing or wounding two enemy snipers. On 22 October 1944, he and one comrade took up an outpost security position about fifty yards to the right front of their platoon, concealed themselves, and ambushed an eighteen-man, heavily armed, enemy patrol, killing two, wounding one, and taking the remainder as prisoners. On 29 October 1944, in a wooded area in the vicinity of Biffontaine, France, Private Hajiro initiated an attack up the slope of a hill referred to as “Suicide Hill” by running forward approximately 100 yards under fire. He then advanced ahead of his comrades about ten yards, drawing fire and spotting camouflaged machine gun nests. He fearlessly met fire with fire and single-handedly destroyed two machine gun nests and killed two enemy snipers. As a result of Private Hajiro’s heroic actions, the attack was successful. Private Hajiro’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon him, his unit, and the United States Army.
PIERCE, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company 1, 22d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near San Isidro, Luzon, Philippine Islands, October 19th, 1899. Entered service at: Delaware City, Del. Birth: Cecil County, Md. Date of issue: 10 March 1902. Citation: Held a bridge against a superior force of the enemy and fought, though severely wounded, until the main body came up to cross.
RAY, CHARLES W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company 1, 22d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near San Isidro, Luzon, Philippine Islands, October 19th, 1899. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: Pensacola Yancey County, N.C. Date of issue: 18 April 1902. Citation: Most distinguished gallantry in action. Captured a bridge with the detachment he commanded and held it against a superior force of the enemy, thereby enabling an army to come up and cross.
BLUNT, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company K, 6th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at. Chatham, Four Corners, N.Y. Birth: Columbia County, N.Y. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Voluntarily led a charge across a narrow bridge over the creek, against the lines of the enemy.
CROCKER, HENRY H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company F, 2d Massachusetts Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: California. Born: 20 January 1840, Colchester, Conn. Date of issue: 10 January 1896. Citation: Voluntarily led a charge, which resulted in the capture of fourteen prisoners and in which he himself was wounded.
CROCKER, ULRIC L.
Rank and organization: Private, Company M, 6th Michigan Cavalry.
Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th,1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ohio. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 18th Georgia (C.S.A.).
DU PONT, HENRY A.
Rank and organization: Captain, 5th U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Wilmington, Del. Birth: Eleutherean Mills, Del. Date of issue: 2 April 1898. Citation: By his distinguished gallantry, and voluntary exposure to the enemy’s fire at a critical moment, when the Union line had been broken, encouraged his men to stand to their guns, checked the advance of the enemy, and brought off most of his pieces.
HENRY, WILLIAM W.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 10th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Waterbury, Vt. Born: 21 November 1831, Waterbury, Vt. Date of issue: 21 December 1892. Citation: Though suffering from severe wounds, rejoined his regiment and let it in a brilliant charge, recapturing the guns of an abandoned battery.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 8th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Henry County, Ind. Birth: Henry County, Ind. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.
LOVE, GEORGE M.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 116th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: New York. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 6 March 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag of 2d South Carolina (C.S.A.).
LYON, FREDERICK A.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 1st Vermont Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th,1864. Entered service at: Burlington, Vt. Born: 25 June 1843, Williamsburg, Mass. Date of issue: 26 November 1864. Citation: With one companion, captured the flag of a Confederate regiment, three officers, and an ambulance with its mules and driver.
McGONNlGLE, ANDREW J.
Rank and organization: Captain and Assistant Quartermaster, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Cedar Creek. Va., October 19th, 1864 Entered service at: Cumberland, Md. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 21 July 1897. Citation: While acting chief quartermaster of Gen. Sheridan’s forces operating in the Shenandoah Valley was severely wounded while voluntarily leading a brigade of infantry and was commended for the greatest gallantry by Gen. Sheridan.
PARKS, HENRY JEREMIAH
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 9th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th,1864. Entered service at: Orangeville, N.Y. Born: 24 February 1848, Orangeville, N.Y. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: While alone and in advance of his unit and attempting to cut off the retreat of a supply wagon, he fought and sent to flight a Confederate color bearer. After capturing the color bearer and leaving him in the rear, he returned to the front and captured three more wagons and drivers.
REIGLE, DANIEL P.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 87th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Adams County, Pa. Birth: Adams County, Pa. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: For gallantry while rushing forward to capture a Confederate flag at the stone fence where the enemy’s last stand was made.
SCOFIELD, DAVID H.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster Sergeant, Company K. 5th N.Y., U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Mamaroneck, N.Y. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 13th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 1st Vermont Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Essex, Vt. Birth: England. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: With one companion captured the State flag of a North Carolina regiment, together with three officers and an ambulance with its mules and driver.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 18th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Martin County, Ind. Birth: Madison County. Ala. Date of issue: 21 November 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 8th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Montpelier, Vt. Birth: Vermont. Date of issue: 25 July 1892. Citation: Distinguished conduct in a desperate hand-to-hand encounter, in which the advance of the enemy was checked.
TRACY, AMASA A.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 2d Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Middlebury, Vt. Birth: Maine. Date of issue: 24 June 1892. Citation: Took command of and led the brigade in the assault on the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 5th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th,1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: Recaptured the flag of the 15th New Jersey Infantry.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 90th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Cayuga County, N.Y. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 3 November 1896. Citation: While the enemy were in close proximity, this soldier sprang forward and bore off in safety the regimental colors, the color bearer having fallen on the field of battle.
WELLS, THOMAS M.
Rank and organization: Chief Bugler, 6th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: DeKalb, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: Capture of colors of 44th Georgia Infantry (C.S.A.).
WOODBURY, ERI D.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 1st Vermont Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: St. Johnsbury, Vt. Birth: Francistown, N.H. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: During the regiment’s charge when the enemy was in retreat Sgt. Woodbury encountered 4 Confederate infantrymen retreating. He drew his saber and ordered them to surrender, overcoming by his determined actions their willingness to further resist. They surrendered to him together with their rifles and 12th North Carolina (C.S.A.) regimental flag.
Freedom from Bullies at Work Week
Dry Ice is frozen carbon dioxide, a normal part of our earth’s atmosphere. It is the gas that we exhale during breathing and the gas that plants use in photosynthesis. It is also the same gas commonly added to water to make soda water. Dry Ice is particularly useful for freezing, and keeping things frozen because of its very cold temperature: -109.3°F or -78.5°C. Dry Ice is widely used because it is simple to freeze and easy to handle using insulated gloves. Dry Ice changes directly from a solid to a gas -sublimation- in normal atmospheric conditions without going through a wet liquid stage. Therefore it gets the name “dry ice.”
As a general rule, Dry Ice will sublimate at a rate of five to ten pounds every 24 hours in a typical ice chest. This sublimation continues from the time of purchase; therefore, pick up Dry Ice as close to the time needed as possible. Bring an ice chest or some other insulated container to hold the Dry Ice and slow the sublimation rate. Dry Ice sublimates faster than regular ice melts but will extend the life of regular ice.
It is best not to store Dry Ice in your freezer because your freezer’s thermostat will shut off the freezer due to the extreme cold of the Dry Ice! Of course if the freezer is broken, Dry Ice will save all your frozen goods.
Commercial shippers of perishables often use dry ice even for non frozen goods. Dry ice gives more than twice the cooling energy per pound of weight and three times the cooling energy per volume than regular water ice (H2O). It is often mixed with regular ice to save shipping weight and extend the cooling energy of water ice. Sometimes dry ice is made on the spot from liquid CO2. The resulting dry ice snow is packed in the top of a shipping container offering extended cooling without electrical refrigeration equipment and connections.
Other uses include:
Cleaning with dry ice! This new development is quickly expanding around the world. One system uses small rice size pellets of dry ice shooting them out of a jet nozzle with compressed air. It works somewhat like sandblasting or high-pressure water or steam blasting, with superior results. The frigid temperature of the dry ice “blasting” against the material to be removed, causes it to shrink and lose adhesion from its sub surface. Additionally when some of of dry ice penetrates through the material to be removed, it comes in contact with the underlying surface. The warmer sub surface causes the dry ice to convert back into carbon dioxide gas. The gas has 800 times greater volume and expands behind the material speeding up its removal. Paint, oil, grease, asphalt, tar, decals, soot, dirt, ink, resins, and adhesives are some of the materials removed by this procedure. Only the removed material must be disposed of, as the dry ice sublimes into the atmosphere.
This method is superior to sandblasting because the dry ice is soft enough not to pit or damage the underlying surface. The dry ice sublimes quickly into the air and only the removed material must be cleaned up. Dry Ice blasting eliminates equipment damage in two ways. First, dry ice does not erode or wear away the targeted surface as traditional grit media and even wire brushes do. This means that surface integrity and critical tolerances are preserved and equipment will not have to be replaced due to surface erosion common with sand, glass beads, and other abrasive media. Second, with traditional cleaning methods, equipment is often damaged (bumped, dropped, etc.) while in transit to or from the dedicated cleaning area. Instead most equipment and machinery can be cleaned while in place.
CAMPING AND TRAVELING WITH DRY ICE
Plan on using 10 to 20 pounds of dry ice for every 24-hour period depending upon the size of the ice chest. Dry Ice will keep everything frozen in this ice chest, including extra ice, so keep non-frozen goods to be refrigerated with regular ice in a separate ice chest. Dry Ice normally comes in 10-inch squares, 2 inches thick weighing about 10 pounds each square. Plan to put one square per each 15 inches of ice chest length. This will work out to 2 squares (20 pounds) for an average 40-quart cooler. For larger containers and longer camping or traveling times, multiply dry ice quantities by these rates. Dry Ice, at -109.0°F or -78.5°C, will freeze and keep frozen everything in its container until it is completely sublimated. These frozen items will take some extra time to thaw because they have been so cold.
HOW TO PACK DRY ICE
If the Dry Ice is placed on top of the food (cold sinks), it will work better. However it is sometimes in the way so many people prefer to keep the Dry Ice on the bottom of the ice chest for convenience. When packing items in the container fill the empty space with wadded newspaper or other filler. Any “dead air space” will cause the Dry Ice to sublimate faster. The best storage container is a three-inch thick urethane insulated box. Lining the inside of your ice chest with sheets of Styrofoam will increase the life of Dry Ice. Dry Ice sublimation (changing from a solid to a gas) will vary depending on the temperature, air pressure and thickness of insulation. The more Dry Ice you have stored in the container, the longer it will last.
TRANSPORTING BY AUTO OR VAN
Plan to pick up the Dry Ice as close to the time it is needed as possible. If possible pack insulating items such as sleeping bags around the ice chest. This will stretch the time that the Dry Ice lasts. If it is transported inside a car or van (not in the trunk) for more than 10 minutes make sure there is fresh air. After 15 minutes with Dry Ice only in its paper bag in the passenger seat next to me, I started to breathe faster and faster as though I were running a race. I couldn’t figure out why I was so out of breath until I saw the car air system was set in the re-circulated position, not fresh outside air.
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“Your imagination is your preview to life’s coming attractions.”
~ Albert Einstein
An extremely intelligent but socially inept person.
[After Poindexter, a character in the animated series Felix the Cat.]
Poindexter is a synonym of nerd or geek. In the cartoon, Poindexter is the nephew of The Professor, the arch-enemy of Felix the Cat. The creator of the cartoon series is said to have named the character Poindexter after his lawyer.
1009 – The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the muslim Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who hacks the Church’s foundations down to bedrock.
1469 – Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella of Castile, making Spain a world power. They started the Spanish Inquisition in 1478.
1564 – John Hawkins began his second trip to America. In addition to being knighted by the Queen for his abilities in ship building, he was the first British slave trader.
1648 – The first American labor organization was founded by Boston’s shoemakers, barrel makers, and tub makers in Massachusetts.
1685 – The Edict of Nantes, granting religious freedom to the Huguenots, was revoked by King Louis XIV of France.
1767 – The Mason-Dixon line, the boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania, was agreed upon.
1776 – In a NY bar decorated with bird tail, a customer orders a “cock tail.”
1776 – Revolutionary War: At the Battle of Pelham, Col. John Glover and the Marblehead regiment collided with British Forces in the Bronx. Sir William Howe, Commander-in-Chief of the British army, landed 4,000 English and Hessian troops near the stables on Pelham Parkway.
1785 – Benjamin Franklin was elected president of Pennsylvania. A special balloting, unanimously elected Franklin the sixth President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, replacing John Dickinson. This was four years before the Constitution when we were a Confederation.
1812 – War of 1812: U.S. sloop of war Wasp captures HM brig Frolic in a 45-minute battle on rough seas.
1848 – Captain Douglas Ottinger, USRM, was designated by the Secretary of the Treasury to supervise the construction of the first Life-Saving Stations and the equipment and boats to be placed in them.
1851 – Herman Melville’s “Moby-Dick” is first published as “The Whale” by Richard Bentley of London.
1858 – The play “Our American Cousin” by Tom Taylor premiered at Laura Keene’s theater in New York. This was the play Lincoln and his wife went to see the night he was assassinated.
1859 – U.S. Marines reach Harper’s Ferry, VA and assault the arsenal seized by John Brown and his followers. Brown is “taken out” by the bent-up and damaged ceremonial sword of Lt. Israel Green after which Green hit him over the head with it.
1862 – James Creighton died of ruptured bladder caused from hitting a home run on Oct 14th.
1862 – Civil War: Morgan’s raiders captured federal garrison at Lexington, Ky.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Charlestown in WV. It was a small engagement between Confederate cavalry forces under Brig. Gen. John D. Imboden and the Union forces under Col. Benjamin L. Simpson as part of the Bristoe and Mine Run Campaigns, resulting in a Confederate victory..
1867 – The U.S. formally takes possession of Alaska after purchasing the territory from Russia for $7.2 million, or less than two cents an acre. The Alaska purchase comprised 586,412 square miles, about twice the size of Texas.
1873 – Columbia Princeton Rutgers & Yale set rules for collegiate football.
1878 – Edison made electricity available for household usage.
1889 – First All- New York City world series NY Giants (NL) play Brooklyn (AA).
1892 – The first long-distance telephone line between Chicago and New York became operational.
1898 – American troops raised the U.S. flag over Puerto Rico, formalizing U.S. authority over the island. In December, the Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Spanish-American War and approving the ceding of Puerto Rico to the United States.
1922 – Little Orphan Annie, comic strip character, was born.
1924 – Harold “Red” Grange, was one of the finest collegiate football player (4 long TD runs)In history. In a game between Michigan and his Univerity of Illinois,Grange streaked ninety-five yards for a touchdown on the opening kickoff and then darted from scrimmage for three more stunning touchdown runs of sixty-seven, fifty-six and forty-four yards before leaving the field with three minutes remaining in the first quarter. Grange became the first recipient of the Chicago Tribune Silver Football award denoting the Big Ten’s MVP. In 2008, he was named the best college football player of all time by ESPN, and in 2011, he was named the Greatest Big Ten Icon by the Big Ten Network.
1924 – Notre Dame beats Army 13-7. NY Herald Tribune dubs them the 4 Horsemen.
1925 – The Grand Ole Opry opens.
1931 – Inventor Thomas Alva Edison died at the age of 84.
1935 -“I’m Getting Sentimental Over You” was recorded by Tommy Dorsey and orchestra.
1939 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt banned foreign war submarines from U.S. ports and waters.
1940 – Kaufman’s & Harts “George Washington Slept Here,” premiered in New York City.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: The Germans forces in Mariupol, Ukraine, murdered some 9,000 local Jews.
1942 – World War II: In reaction to several incidents, Hitler orders that all prisoners taken from Allied Commando or similar units are to be shot immediately whether in uniform or not and whether surrendering or not. At the Nuremberg Trials, the Commando Order was found to be a direct breach of the laws of war, and German officers who carried out illegal executions under the Commando Order were found guilty of war crimes.
1942 – World War II: On New Guinea, American forces sent on a parallel trail to help the Australians cut off Japanese retreats down the Kokoda Trail, finally begin to reach Pongani. The trip has proved to be so difficult that the soldiers are in no condition to fight.
1943 – World War II: US bombing of Bougainville, Solomon Islands.
1943 – The first broadcast of “Perry Mason” (10:00) was presented on CBS radio.
1943 – World War II: In Italy, elements of the US 5th Army reach Dragoni, while other elements capture Gioia.
1943 – World War II: General Orders 27, 29th Infantry Division (DC, MD, VA) disbands the 29th Ranger Battalion (Provisional.) This was designed to be a “Train-the-trainer” learning from the British Commandos and taking it back to our troops.
1944 – World War II: All able-bodied German males between the ages of 16 and 60 are now liable for conscription into the Volkssturm (the home defense force).
1944 – World War II: The American escort carriers of TG77.4 concentrate air strikes on Leyte while the now 12 fleet carriers, in three groups from TF38, strike Luzon.
1944 – “Forever Amber” was first published this day. Forever Amber tells the story of orphaned Amber St. Clare, who makes her way up through the ranks of 17th century English society by sleeping with and/or marrying successively richer and more important men, while keeping her love for the one man she could never have. It became a movie in 1947.
1945 – The first German War Crimes Trial began. The International Military Tribunal met at Nuremberg and lasted through to 1946.
1945 – The USSR’s nuclear program receives plans for the USA’s plutonium bomb from Klaus Fuchs (d.1988) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Goodnight Irene” by The Weavers, “All My Love” by Patti Page, “Harbor Lights” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Tony Alamo) and “I’m Moving On” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1950 – Connie Mack announced he was retiring after 50 seasons as manager of baseball’s Philadelphia Athletics.
1950 –Korean War: US forces drove north across the 38th parallel into the Peoples Republic of North Korea.
1952 – “I Went to Your Wedding” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1953 – Willie Thrower becomes first black NFL quarterback in modern times. While a good player, his greater achievement was in breaking the racial barrier of what was then a predominantly white sport.
1954 – The comic strip “Hi and Lois” appeared in newspapers for the first time.
1954 – Texas Instruments announces the first transistor radio.
1954 – Hurricane Hazel, the third of 1954, dissipated today and became the most severe to hit US. It came ashore on the 15th as a Category 4. It killed 1000 in Haiti, 95 in the U.S. and 81 in Canada mostly in Toronto.
1955 – Track & Field magazine names Jesse Owens all-time track athlete.
1955 – University of California discovered the anti-proton.
1956 – NFL commissioner Bert Bell disallowed the use of radio-equipped helmets by NFL quarterbacks.
1956 – Elvis Presley is involved in a fight at a downtown Memphis gas station with two stations attendants. Elvis was cleared of misconduct with assault & battery charges. On 10/25 Clarence Harwell, owner of the station, showed up at Elvis’ house to apologize for the incident. Elvis lived at 1034 Audubon Drive at the time.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s All in the Game” by Tommy Edwards, “Rock-in Robin” by Bobby Day, “Tears on My Pillow” by Little Anthony & The Imperials and “Bird Dog” by The Everly Brothers all topped the charts.
1958 – The first computer-arranged marriage took place on Art Linkletter’s show.
1961 – Vietnam: An emergency crisis was proclaimed in South Vietnam due to a communist attack.
1962 – Tony Sheridan & the Beat Brothers record “Let’s Dance.‘”
1962 – Dr. James D. Watson of the United States, and Dr. Francis Crick and Dr. Maurice Wilkins of Britain, were named winners of the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology for their work in determining the double-helix molecular structure of DNA.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Reach Out I’ll Be There” by Four Tops, “Last Train to Clarksville” by The Monkees, “Psychotic Reaction” by Count Five and “Blue Side of Lonesome” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1967 – Walt Disney’s “Jungle Book” is released.
1967 – American League votes to allow Athletics to move from KC to Oakland, new franchises were awarded to Kansas City and Seattle.
1967 – A protest in Madison, Wisc., against recruiting by Dow Chemical, the maker of napalm and Agent Orange, turned violent.
1968 – Circus Circus Casino opened in Las Vegas “to attract all members of the family.”
1968 – The U.S. Olympic Committee suspends two black athletes, Tommie Smith and John Carlos, for giving a “black power” salute during a victory ceremony at the Mexico City games.
1968 – Bob Beamon sets a world record of 29″2″ in the long jump at the Olympic Games in Mexico City. This becomes the longest unbroken track and field record in history, standing for 23 years, and is later named by Sports Illustrated magazine as one of the five greatest sporting moments of the 20th century. On August 30, 1991 Mike Powell of the United States set the current records with a jump of 29 ft 4¼ in.
1968 – Vietnam War: In Operation Sea Lords, the Navy’s three major operating forces in Vietnam (TF 115, 116, and 117) are brought together for the first time to stop Vietcong infiltration deep into South Vietnam’s Mekong Delta.
1969 – “I Can’t Get Next to You” by the Temptations topped the charts.
1969 – The U.S. federal government banned cyclamates, the artificial sweeteners, because it was shown that the substance caused cancer in laboratory rats.
1971 – The final issue of “Look” magazine was published, after 34 years.
1972 – Congress passed the Water Pollution Control Act.
1973 – “Raisin” opened at 46th St. Theater New York City for 847 performances.
1973 – Congress authorized a bicentennial quarter, half-dollar and dollar coin.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Honestly Love You” by Olivia Newton-John, “Nothing from Nothing” by Billy Preston “Then Came You” by Dionne Warwicke & Spinners and “Please Don’t Stop Loving Me” by Porter Wagoner & Dolly Parton all topped the charts.
1974 – Chicago Bull Nate Thurmond becomes first in the NBA to complete a quadruple double-22 pts, 14 rebounds, 13 assists & 12 blocks.
1975 – “Bad Blood” by Neil Sedaka topped the charts.
1977 – Reggie Jackson hits three consecutive homers on three successive pitches. The three swings lead the Yankees to an 8-4, Series-clinching victory. This also tied the record for homers by Babe Ruth in a single World Series game. The New York Yankees (4) beat the Los Angeles Dodgers (2).
1977 – A German Special Forces team stormed a hijacked Lufthansa airliner and killed all four hijackers and freed 86 hostages. The Palestinian hijackers had demanded the release of members of the Red Army Faction.
1980 – “Another One Bites the Dust” by Queen topped the charts.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Jack & Diane” by John Cougar, “Who Can It Be Now?” by Men at Work, “Eye in the Sky” by The Alan Parsons Project and “I Will Always Love You” by Dolly Parton all topped the charts.
1982 – Former first lady Bess Truman (97) died at her home in Independence, Mo.
1983 – Kenny Rogers and Dolly Parton received gold for “Islands in the Stream.”
1983 – General Motors agreed to hire more women and minorities for five years as part of a settlement with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
1985 – Nintendo releases the Nintendo Entertainment System in the United States.
1986 – “When I Think of You” by Janet Jackson topped the charts.
1988 – The TV sitcom “Roseanne” began a nine- year showing.
1989 – The space shuttle Atlantis was launched on a mission that included the deployment of the Galileo space probe.
1991 – Confirmed Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas swore to uphold the Constitution during an oath-taking ceremony at the White House.
1992 – The visiting Toronto Blue Jays defeated the Atlanta Braves in game two of the World Series, 5-to-4, evening the series at one game apiece. The pre-game ceremony was marred by a U.S. Marine Corps color guard that mistakenly presented the Canadian flag upside-down.
1993 – In California two defendants were acquitted of most of the felony charges in the beating of trucker Reginald Denny and other motorists at the start of the 1992 Los Angeles riots.
1996 – New findings were published in the journal Science that linked mutations in lung cancer to cigarette smoke. An ingredient in the smoke was found to damage the gene p53, vital to the suppression of runaway growth that leads to tumors.
1997 – A $21.5 million memorial monument honoring U.S. servicewomen, past and present, was dedicated at Arlington National Cemetery.
1997 – The Florida Marlins beat the Cleveland Indians 7-4 in game one of the World Series.
1998 – A weekend storm in Texas killed at least 14 people after 12 inches of rain fell. The death toll increased to 22 and later 28.
1998 – The new Steve Wynn $1.6 billion, 3,000 room Bellagio Casino opened in Las Vegas. It was built over the site of the old Dunes casino. It was named after the Italian town of Bellagio whose name means place of relaxation.
1999 – The New York Yankees won a record 36th pennant, beating the Boston Red Sox 6-to-1 in Game Five of the American League Championship Series.
2000 – President Clinton honored the 17 sailors killed in a suicide bomb attack against the USS Cole as he attended a ceremony at the Norfolk Naval Station in Virginia.
2001 – In New York, four defendants were convicted for the 1998 bombings of two U.S. embassies in Africa. They were sentenced to life in prison and ordered to pay $33 million in restitution to victims.
2001 – It was announced that a New Jersey letter carrier and an employee in the office of CBS news anchorman Dan Rather’s office had tested positive for skin anthrax.
2001 – Two new cases of anthrax were reported in New Jersey. The FBI and Postal Service announced a $1 million reward for information leading to the arrest of anthrax mailings.
2002 – Two US Navy planes, F/A-18F Super Hornet jets, collided off the Big Sur coast of California and both pilots and both RIO’s were killed.
2002 – Space shuttle Atlantis returned to Earth following an 11-day mission to the International Space Station.
2003 – The Florida Marlins won the first game of the 99th World Series, defeating the New York Yankees 3-2.The Marlins became the second straight wild card team to win the World Series.
2003 – In a new audiotape, a voice purported to be that of Osama bin Laden vowed suicide attacks “inside and outside” the United States and threatened nations that were helping the American occupation of Iraq.
2004 – President Bush and Democratic rival John Kerry traded biting accusations over the war in Iraq, with Bush saying his Democratic challenger stood for “protest and defeatism” while Kerry accused the president of “arrogant boasting.”
2004 – David Ortiz single-handedly triumphed over the New York Yankees in the American League Championship Series twice on this day. His first triumph occurred at 1:10 a.m. EST when he hit a two-run walk-off home run. At 10:50 p.m., Ortiz hit a walk-off single into center field.
2004 – The Dover, Pa., school district voted 6-3 to mandate the teaching of “intelligent design” in public schools along with the theory of evolution. A number of parents soon filed suit.
2005 – William Evan Allan, the last surviving Australian First World War veteran, dies aged 106.
2005 – Scientists announced that tracks of a previously unknown swimming dinosaur have been found along the shores of an ancient sea in Wyoming.
2005 – Authorities closed one of two highway tunnels carrying traffic under Baltimore, Maryland’s harbor following a threat to detonate explosive filled vehicles.
2005 – Saddam Hussein’s trial begins.
2006 – Microsoft released Internet Explorer 7.0.
2006 – President Bush signed a new National Space Policy the rejects future arms-control agreements that might limit US flexibility in space.
2006 – The Dow Jones industrial average passed 12,000 for the first time before pulling back to close at 11,992.68.
2007 – Oil prices reach $90 a barrel for the first time due to the low dollar and ongoing tension between Turkey and Iraq.
2008 – NASA launches the Interstellar Boundary Explorer satellite that will study the edge of solar system.
2010 – With increasing uncertainty about the timing of the release of the next batch of classified documents by WikiLeaks, the U.S. military assembles a 120-member team to search its database for clues in preparation for the publication event.
2010 – Bank of America resumes foreclosures in twenty-three states following a temporary halt in foreclosures due to the 2010 Foreclosure crisis.
2011 – Motorola introduces the Droid RAZR, the world’s thinnest smartphone.
2011 – A bill to takeover the capital city of Harrisburg, rather than have it file for Chapter 9, clears the Pennsylvania State Legislature. The Governor of Pennsylvania, Tom Corbett, is expected to sign it.
2011 – Spaceport America in New Mexico, United States, officially opens as the world’s first purpose-built commercial spaceport.
2011 – About 400,000 illegal immigrants were deported from the United States in the 2011 fiscal year, the most deportations ever in United States history, according to a report released by ICE.
2012 – Newsweek buckled under the pressure afflicting the magazine industry in general and newsweeklies in particular. In a message posted on The Daily Beast, Ms. Tina Brown announced that Newsweek would cease print publication at the end of the year and move to an all-digital format.
2015 – Iran Nuclear Deal Goes Into Effect Today. The implementation of the Iran nuclear deal is meant to begin but only time will tell if Iran will comply with the agreement and whether the international community will actually hold the Islamic Republic to its word.
1595 – Edward Winslow, Plymouth Colony founder (d. 1655)
1921 – Jesse Helms, U.S. Senator from North Carolina
1926 – Chuck Berry, American singer.
1927 – George C. Scott, American actor.
1934 – Chuck Swindoll, American evangelist
1939 – Lee Harvey Oswald, American assassin of John F. Kennedy (d. 1963)
1956 – Martina Navratilova, Czechoslovakian-born tennis player.
1960 – Jean-Claude Van Damme, Belgian actor
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company K, 18th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Haaren, Germany, October 18th, 1944. Entered service at: Prescott, Ariz. Birth: Bethel, N.C. G.O. No.: 47, 18 June 1945. Citation: On 18 October 1944, Company K, 18th Infantry, occupying a position on a hill near Haaren, Germany, was attacked by an enemy infantry battalion supported by tanks. The assault was preceded by an artillery concentration, lasting an hour, which inflicted heavy casualties on the company. While engaged in moving wounded men to cover, Sgt. Thompson observed that the enemy had overrun the positions of the 3d Platoon. He immediately attempted to stem the enemy’s advance single-handedly. He manned an abandoned machinegun and fired on the enemy until a direct hit from a hostile tank destroyed the gun. Shaken and dazed, Sgt. Thompson picked up an automatic rifle and although alone against the enemy force which was pouring into the gap in our lines, he fired burst after burst, halting the leading elements of the attack and dispersing those following. Throwing aside his automatic rifle, which had jammed, he took up a rocket gun, fired on a light tank, setting it on fire. By evening the enemy had been driven from the greater part of the captured position but still held three pillboxes. Sgt. Thompson’s squad was assigned the task of dislodging the enemy from these emplacements. Darkness having fallen and finding that fire of his squad was ineffective from a distance, Sgt. Thompson crawled forward alone to within twenty yards of one of the pillboxes and fired grenades into it. The Germans holding the emplacement concentrated their fire upon him. Though wounded, he held his position fearlessly, continued his grenade fire, and finally forced the enemy to abandon the blockhouse. Sgt. Thompson’s courageous leadership inspired his men and materially contributed to the clearing of the enemy from his last remaining hold on this important hill position.