U.S. Air Force Day
Worldwide Web Day
Chick-Fil-A Appreciation Day
Early Computer Facts
In 1943, Navy officer Grace Hopper found a glitch in her computer. After investigating, she discovered the system had a bug – a real one. Turns out a moth made its way into Hopper’s computer. Though the word bug has meant fault or defect since as far back as the 1870’s, Hopper’s story is credited with making it the synonym of choice in the computer industry.
Grace Hopper is also credited with making nanoseconds understandable when, in a seminar, she handed out 11” pieces of wire. She spoke about the speed of light and the great distances that light could cover in one year. She then asked what everyone thought a nanosecond was and she looked at blank stares. She explained that the 11” pieces of wire represented the distance light traveled in one nanosecond. In other words if light travels at 186,000 miles per second, in one nanosecond it moves just 11″.
Grace Brewster Murray graduated from Vassar with a B.A. in mathematics in 1928 and worked under algebraist Oystein Ore at Yale for her M.A. (1930) and Ph.D. (1934). She married Vincent Foster Hopper, an educator, in 1930 and began teaching mathematics at Vassar in 1931. She had achieved the rank of associate professor in 1941 when she won a faculty fellowship for study at New York University’s Courant Institute for Mathematics.
Hopper had come from a family with military traditions, thus it was not surprising to anyone when she resigned her Vassar post to join the Navy WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service) in December 1943. She was commissioned a lieutenant in July 1944 and reported to the Bureau of Ordnance Computation Project at Harvard University, where she was the third person to join the research team of professor (and Naval Reserve lieutenant) Howard H. Aiken. She recalled that he greeted her with the words, “Where the hell have you been?” and pointed to his electromechanical Mark I computing machine, saying “Here, compute the coefficients of the arc tangent series by next Thursday.”
Hopper plunged in and learned to program the machine, putting together a 500-page Manual of Operations for the Automatic Sequence-Controlled Calculator in which she outlined the fundamental operating principles of computing machines. By the end of World War II in 1945, Hopper was working on the Mark II version of the machine. Although her marriage was dissolved at this point, and though she had no children, she did not resume her maiden name. Hopper was appointed to the Harvard faculty as a research fellow, and in 1949 she joined the newly formed Eckert-Mauchly Corporation.
Hopper never again held only one job at a time. She remained associated with Eckert-Mauchly and its successors (Remington-Rand, Sperry-Rand, and Univac) until her official “retirement” in 1971. In December 1983 she was promoted to commodore in a ceremony at the White House. When the post of commodore was merged with that of rear admiral, two years later, she became Admiral Hopper. She was one of the first software engineers and, indeed, one of the most incisive strategic “futurists” in the world of computing.
“A day will never be anymore than what you make of it. Practice being a ‘doer’!”
~ Josh S. Hinds
eschew es-CHOO, transitive verb:
To shun; to avoid (as something wrong or distasteful).
30 BC – Octavian (later known as Augustus) enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Republic.
1498 – Christopher Columbus landed on “Isla Santa” (Venezuela).
1619 – First African slaves arrive in Jamestown, Virginia.
1774 – The element oxygen is discovered by Carl Wilhelm and Joseph Priestley. The name “oxygen” – comes from a Greek word that means “acid-former”. He discovered it when focusing sunlight through a lens in order to heat a sample of mercuric oxide (red calx). The resulting gas supported the burning of a candle with a vigorous flame, was essentially insoluble in water, and accommodated a mouse under glass for some time.
1781 – English army under Lord Cornwallis occupied Yorktown, Virginia.
1786 – Caroline Herschel becomes first woman discoverer of a comet. In total Caroline discovered eight comets between 1786 and 1797. Her brother discovered Uranus in 1781.
1789 – US Customs begins enforcing Tariff Act. The nation found itself on the brink of bankruptcy. Responding to the urgent need for revenue, the First Congress passed and President George Washington signed the Tariff Act of July 4, 1789, which authorized the collection of duties on imported goods.
1790 – The first U.S. census was completed with a total population of 3,929,214 recorded. The areas included were the present states of Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont and Virginia.
1794 – Whiskey Rebellion begins. It was an uprising in the Pennsylvania counties W of the Alleghenies, caused by Alexander Hamilton’s excise tax of 1791.
1801 – The schooner USS Enterprise defeated the 14-gun Tripolitan corsair Tripoli after a fierce but one-sided battle.
1812 – A rare tornado hits Westchester County, NY.
1825 – William Beaumont, a US Army assistant surgeon at Fort Mackinac in the Michigan territory, began experiments to study the digestive system of Alexis St. Martin, a fur trader who was accidentally shot in the abdomen in 1822.
1861 – Civil War: Captain John Baylor claims most of the territories of Arizona and New Mexico for the Confederacy after he routs a Union force at Fort Fillmore in southern New Mexico.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate steamer Chesterfield, landing troops and ammunition at Cumming’s Point, Morris Island, Charleston harbor, was taken under fire by a Union gunboat.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Little Rock, AR, and the start of the Chattanooga campaign.
1863 – Civil War: Cavalry action near Brandy Station marked the end of Gettysburg Campaign.
1864 – The Elgin Watch Company is founded in Elgin, Illinois.
1864 – Civil War: Union General Ulysses S. Grant appoints General Philip Sheridan commander of the Army of the Shenandoah. Within a few months, Sheridan drove a Confederate force from the Shenandoah Valley and destroyed nearly all possible sources of Rebel supplies, helping to seal the fate of the Confederacy.
1864 – Battle of Petersburg, VA.
1872 – The first long-distance gas pipeline in the U.S. was completed. Designed for natural gas, the two-inch pipe ran five miles from Newton Wells to Titusville, Pennsylvania.
1873 – Andrew S. Hallidie successfully tested a cable car. The design was done for San Francisco, CA.
1876 – Colorado became the 38th state to join the United States.
1893 – Shredded wheat was patented by Henry Perky and William Ford. They actually patented a machine that made fine wheat filaments for shredded-wheat biscuits.
1894 – A voyage across the Atlantic Ocean — in a rowboat! Frank Samuelsen and George Harbo got ready, loaded their craft down with 60 gallons of water, a supply of canned goods, oatmeal, and with five extra sets of oars left Battery Park, Manhattan on 6 June 1896 arriving on the Isles of Scilly, 55 days and 13 hours later having covered 3,250 miles (5,230 km). They continued to row to Le Havre, France.
1900 – “The Wonderful Wizard of Oz” by L. Frank Baum was registered. It was the first uniquely American fairy tale.
1903 – First coast-to-coast automobile trip (SF-NY) completed. Dr. Horatio Jackson rashly wagered $50 that he could traverse the continent in 90 days. Bankrolled by his wealthy wife and accompanied by mechanic friend Sewall Crocker, Jackson set out for New York from San Francisco.
1907 – The U.S. Army Signal Corps established an aeronautical division that later became the U.S. Air Force.
1914 – World War I: Four days after Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Germany and Russia declare war against each other, France orders a general mobilization, and the first German army units cross into Luxembourg in preparation for the German invasion of France.
1916 – Hawaii National Park established.
1917 – International Workers of the World (IWW) organizer Frank Little was lynched in Butte, MT.
1921 – Successful tests of gyroscopic high level bombsight (Norden Bombsight) at Torpedo Station, Yorktown, VA. Carl Norden developed the bombsight for the Bureau of Ordnance.
1921 – Sid Hatfield, police chief of Matewan, WV, and Ed Chambers were murdered on the steps of the McDowell County Courthouse by Baldwin-Felts detectives. This soon led to the Battle of Blair Mountain, a labor uprising also know as the Red Neck War.
1927 – In Bristol, Tennessee, the Carter Family came down from the mountains of Virginia and began recording their country style “hillbilly” music for Ralph Peer of the Victor Talking Machine Co.
1936 – The Berlin Olympic Games open. Adolf Hitler presided over the games as they opened.
1937 – The Buchenwald concentration camp, near Weimar, Germany, became operational. The hill on which it stood was called “Ettersberg.”
1939 – Synthetic vitamin K was produced for the first time.
1940 – John F. Kennedy’s, “Why England Slept” published. It is an account of England’s unpreparedness for war and a study of the shortcomings of democracy when confronted by the menace of totalitarianism.
1941 – President Roosevelt forbids the export of oil and aviation fuel from the United States except to Britain, the British Commonwealth countries and countries of the Western Hemisphere.
1941 – The first Jeep rolled off the assembly line.General Dwight D. Eisenhower said that America couldn’t have won World War II without it. The jeep was built at the time by the Willys Truck Company. Parade magazine called it “…the Army’s most intriguing new gadget…a tiny truck which can do practically everything.”
1941 – The Grumman TBF Avenger torpedo plane made its first flight.
1942 – World War II: Ensign Henry C. White, while flying a J4F Widgeon plane, sank U-166 as it approaches the Mississippi River, the first U-boat sunk by the U.S. Coast Guard.
1942 – Jimmy Dorsey and his orchestra recorded “Charleston Alley“, on Decca Records.
1943 – Race-related rioting erupted in New York City’s Harlem section. The start of the event was the arrest of Private Robert Bandy, a 26-year-old black soldier He was charged with attacking a white policeman who was arresting a black woman in a Harlem hotel .
1943 – World War II: Operation Tidal Wave: The American Eighth Air Force began staging a series of heavy bomber air raids against the oil fields and refineries around Ploesti. These fields furnished about 80% of the Nazis’ petroleum requirements and were a key military target.
1943 – World War II: A Japanese destroyer rams an American PT (patrol torpedo) boat, No. 109, slicing it in two. The destruction is so massive other American PT boats in the area assume the crew is dead. Two crewmen were, in fact, killed, but 11 survived, including Lt. John F. Kennedy.
1944 – Anne Frank makes the last entry in her diary. Three days later she was arrested.
1944 – World War II: In Warsaw, Poland, an uprising against Nazi occupation began. The revolt continued until October 2 when Polish forces surrendered.
1944 – World War II: In a battle termed “the perfect amphibious operation of World War II,” MajGen Harry Schmidt, commander of V Amphibious Corps, declared the island of Tinian secured.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “Amor” by Bing Crosby, “I’ll Be Seeing You” by Bing Crosby, “Long Ago and Far Away” by Helen Forrest & Dick Haymes and “Is You is or is You Ain’t (Ma’ Baby)” by Louis Jordan all topped the charts.
1944 – Adam Clayton Powell elected first African-American congressman from East.
1945 – World War II: Allied mines, dropped by air, bring Japanese shipping on the Yangtze river to a halt. The Japanese have lost thirty-six ships (with eleven others damaged.)
1945 – World War II: The American aircraft carrier Cabot attacks Japanese positions on Wake Island.
1946 – President Truman establishes Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). Physicist John Simpson (d.2000 at 83) helped develop the 1946 McMahon Act, which called for civilian control of atomic energy.
1950 – First Major League baseball player to fight in Korea was Curt Simmons.
1950 – American Bowling Congress ends all-white-males rule.
1950 – Lead elements of the U.S. 2nd Infantry Division arrived in Korea from the United States.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Yours” by Don Cornell, “Delicado” by Percy Faith, “Auf Wiedersehn, Sweetheart” by Vera Lynn and “Are You Teasing Me” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1952 – Jo Stafford (1917-2008), pop star singer during the 1940s and 1950s, entered the Billboard charts with the song “You Belong To Me.” It was her greatest hit.
1952 – The U.S. Coast Guard released a photograph of unidentified aerial phenomena (i.e. a UFO), taken by a 21-year old Coast Guard photographer on 16 July at the Salem Coast Guard Air Station.
1952 – Kemmons Wilson (d.2003) opened the first Holiday Inn just outside Memphis, Tenn.
1953 – The first aluminum-faced building constructed in America was completed. It was the Alcoa (Aluminum Corporation of America) Building in Pittsburgh, PA.
1953 – “I’m Walking Behind You” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.
1954 – The “Moondog Jubilee of Stars Under the Stars” took place at Ebbets Field in Brooklyn. Acts on the bill included Fats Domino, Muddy Waters, the Clovers, the Orioles, and Little Walter.
1956 – The Social Security Act was amended to provide benefits to disabled workers aged 50-64 and disabled adult children.
1956 – Captain Norma Parsons becomes the first woman to join the National Guard when she was sworn in as a nurse in the 106th Tactical Hospital, New York Air National Guard.
1957 – Glen Gorbous throws a baseball a record 445’10”. He was a Canadian minor leaguer, who had a three year stint in the Majors from 1955 – 1957. He still holds the record.
1957 – The United States and Canada create North American Air Defense Command (NORAD).
1957 – First commercial building heated by the sun’s energy. The site is privately owned, at 213 Truman St., NE., Albuquerque, NM.
1958 – First class postage up to 4 cents (had been 3 cents for 26 years).
1958 – US atomic sub USS Nautilus first dove under the North Pole.
1959 – “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka topped the charts.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Sorry” by Brenda Lee, “Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polkadot Bikini” by Brian Hyland, “It’s Now or Never” by Elvis Presley and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling” by Hank Locklin all topped the charts.
1960 – Chubby Checker releases “The Twist“. The record was phenomenally successful, reaching the number one slot on the charts in the U.S.
1960 – Aretha Franklin made her first secular recordings, which included “Today I Sing the Blues.”
1964 – Beatles’ “A Hard Day’s Night” single hits #1.
1964 – Arthur Ashe, first Black male to win Wimbledon, becomes the first Black person named to the US Davis Cup team.
1964 – Vietnam War – The North Vietnamese government accuses South Vietnam and the United States of having authorized attacks on Hon Me and Hon Ngu, two of their islands in the Tonkin Gulf.
1966 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Charles Whitman takes a stockpile of guns and ammunition to the observatory platform atop a 300-foot tower at the University of Texas and proceeds to shoot 46 people, killing 16. Whitman, who had killed both his wife and mother the night before, was eventually shot to death after courageous Austin police officers.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS -“Grazing in the Grass” by Hugh Masekela, “Stoned Soul Picnic” by The 5th Dimension, “Hurdy Gurdy Man” by Donovan and “Folsom Prison Blues” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1969 – The U.S. command in Saigon announces that 27 American aircraft were lost in the previous week, bringing the total losses of aircraft in the conflict to date to 5,690.
1970 – Willie Stargell (Pirates) ties record of five extra base hits in a game.
1970 – “(They Long to Be) Close to You” by the Carpenters topped the charts.
1970 – The dance piece “The Fugue,” created by Twyla Tharp premiered at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst.
1972 – “The Sonny and Cher Comedy Hour” debuted on CBS-TV.
1972 – First article exposing Watergate scandal (Bernstein-Woodward). A $25,000 cashier’s check, apparently earmarked for the Nixon campaign, wound up in the bank account of a Watergate burglar.
1972 – Nate Colbert of San Diego Padres hits record tying five HRs in a double header.
1973 – The movie “American Graffiti” opened.
1974 – Virginia Squires trade Julius “Dr J” Erving to the NY Nets.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS -“Kiss and Say Goodbye” by Manhattans, “Love is Alive” by Gary Wright, “Moonlight Feels Right” by Starbuck and “Teddy Bear” by Red Sovine all topped the charts.
1976 – The Seattle Seahawks played their first (preseason) game. The Seahawks lost 27-20 to San Francisco.
1977 – Francis Gary Powers (47), US U-2 pilot, died in a helicopter crash.
1977 – The book “Elvis: What Happened?” went on sale. The book was written by two of Elvis’ ex-bodyguards.
1978 – Pete Rose of the Cincinnati Reds ended his streak of hitting in 44 consecutive games.
1981 – MTV premiers at 12:01 AM. The first video to be shown was “Video Killed the Radio Star” by the Buggles.
1981 – “Jessie’s Girl” by Rick Springfield topped the charts.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “When Doves Cry” by Prince, “Ghostbusters” by Ray Parker Jr., “State of Shock” by The Jacksons and “Angel in Disguise” by Earl Thomas Conley all topped the charts.
1985 – The 49-year old cutter Ingham gained the distinction of being the oldest commissioned cutter in service when her sister, the Duane, was decommissioned.
1986 – Bert Blyleven became only the tenth pitcher to strike out 3,000 batters in his career.
1987 – “Shakedown (From Beverly Hills Cop II)” by Bob Seger topped the charts.
1987 – Crossbow flight record (2,005 yds 1’9″) set by Harry Drake in Nevada.
1988 – Deep Rover, a one-man research submarine unveiled at Crater Lake, Oregon.
1988 – Conservative commentator Rush Limbaugh began broadcasting his nationally syndicated radio program.
1988 – Martin Scorsese’s “The Last Temptation of Christ” opened. This film went on to scandalize Christ and create a lot of hate.
1993 – Reggie Jackson was admitted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, NY.
1993 – Former chairman of the Democratic National Committee, Ronald H Brown was appointed head of the Department of Commerce by President-elect Bill Clinton.
1993 – The city of St. Louis found itself besieged by the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, which had swelled to record levels after months of flooding in nine Midwestern states.
1994 – Michael Jackson and Lisa Marie Presley announced that they had been married 11 weeks earlier in the Dominican Republic.
1996 – In a political victory for President Clinton, a federal jury in Little Rock, Ark., acquitted two Arkansas bankers of misapplying bank funds and conspiracy to boost his political career; the jury deadlocked on seven other counts.
1996 – At the Atlanta Olympics, Michael Johnson broke his world track record by more than three-tenths of a second, winning the 200 meters in 19.32 seconds.
1997 – The National Cancer Institute reported that fallout from 1950s nuclear bomb tests had exposed millions of children across the country to radioactive iodine.
1998 – Sandra Crouch was ordained as pastor of her church. This was in spite of the ban on woman ministers by the Church of God in Christ (CoGiC).
1999 – A US heat wave that had gripped the nation since mid-July finally broke; authorities attributed nearly 200 deaths to the heat and humidity.
2000 – In Philadelphia police arrested at least 280 protesters and raided a warehouse site used as a staging area for passive resistance demonstrations. 15 police officers were injured.
2001 – Alabama Supreme Court Chief Justice Roy Moore has a 2-1/2 ton Ten Commandments monument installed in the rotunda of the judiciary building, leading to a lawsuit to have it removed and his own removal from office.
2001 – The Federal Trade Commission cleared the way for PepsiCo to acquire Quaker Oats for about $13.4 billion in stock.
2001 – Pro Bowl tackle Korey Stringer died of heat stroke, a day after collapsing at the Minnesota Vikings’ training camp on the hottest day of the year.
2002 – In California two girls (one 16 and Jacqueline Marris, 17) were rescued in Kern County 12 hours after being kidnapped and raped near Lancaster by Roy Ratliff (37). Police shot Ratliff dead. Police credited the new Amber alert system.
2002 – In Atlanta, Georgia, a 35,000 pound billboard collapsed at a suburban shopping center and 3 construction workers were killed.
2004 – The US government warned of possible al-Qaida terrorist attacks against specific financial institutions in New York City, Washington and Newark, N.J.
2005 – The California State Supreme Court ruled that state businesses must treat same-sex domestic couples the same as married couples.
2006 – Cuban leader Fidel Castro turned over absolute power when he gave his brother Raul authority while he underwent an intestinal surgery.
2006 – Former President Clinton and mayors of some of the world’s largest cities announced an initiative to combat climate change and increase energy efficiency in everything from street lights to building materials.
2007 – A major bridge on I-35W over the Mississippi River collapsed in Minneapolis, Minn., at rush hour. Initial reports said at least five people were killed. The bridge dated to 1967. On Aug 9 Navy divers recovered two more bodies, including one identified as a former missionary who had been reported missing.
2007 – San Francisco police and homeless outreach workers rousted people sleeping in Golden Gate Park and other parks and encampments.
2008 – US Federal and state regulators closed First Priority Bank of Bradenton, Florida, the eighth US bank to fail this year. It would be acquired by SunTrustBanks Inc.
2009 – The new US Post-9/11 GI Bill took effect to reimburse veterans for their full undergraduate tuition at public colleges. An amount equivalent to that tuition would go to veterans who choose private schools or graduate programs.
2009 – In Detroit a twenty-four year old woman was shot and killed during a street robbery by a twelve year old boy.
2010 – In Alaska a Fairchild C-123 registered to All West Freight of Delta Junction crashed in Denali National Park killing all three people on board.
2011 – The US House of Representatives passes legislation to raise the debt ceiling and avert a debt ceiling crisis.
2011 – Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords makes her first appearance on Capitol Hill since the 2011 Tucson shootings to cast her vote amongst applause.
2011 – The US Senate failed to pass a bill ending the partial shutdown of the Federal Aviation Administration.
2012 – It has been well known to the U.S. Congress that the Postal Service is guaranteed to run an estimated $5 billion deficit by the end of the year. Still, since the 112th Congress was convened in January 2011, no remedial legislation has been formally offered. However, during that time period, legislators have introduced 60 bills to rename post offices in their districts (passing 38 of them, which represents 17 percent of the legislation passed on all subjects during that time). [ABC News via Yahoo News, 8-1-2012]
2013 – American National Security Agency whistleblower Edward Snowden is granted a one-year temporary political asylum in Russia and leaves Moscow’s Sheremetyevo Airport.
2013 – States of Minnesota and Rhode Island begin issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples.
2013 – Ariel Castro is sentenced to life plus a thousand years for kidnapping three women and holding them hostage for a decade in Cleveland, Ohio. Castro pled guilty to 937 criminal counts of rape, kidnapping, and aggravated murder as part of a plea bargain. One month into his sentence, Castro committed suicide by hanging himself with bedsheets in his prison cell.
1770 – William Clark, American explorer (d. 1838) Along with Meriwether Lewis, Clark led the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803 to 1805 across the Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific Ocean.
1779 – Francis Scott Key, American lawyer and amateur poet. He was the author of the words to the poem “Defence of Fort McHenry”. These became the United States’ national anthem, “The Star-Spangled Banner.” (d. 1843)
1819 – Herman Melville, American writer. His longest novel, Moby-Dick won recognition in the 20th century as one of the chief literary masterpieces of both American and world literature. (d. 1891)
1843 – Robert Todd Lincoln, eldest son of Pres. Abraham and Mary Todd Lincoln, US Secretary of War (1881-85) (d. 1926)
1929 – Ann Calvello, Roller Derby Queen (d. 2006)
1932 – Meir Kahane, American founder of the Jewish Defense League (d. 1990)
1936 – Yves Saint Laurent, French fashion designer
ESPINOZA, VICTOR H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army. Place and date: Chorwon, Korea, August 1, 1952. Born: July 15, 1929, El Paso, TX Entered Service at:Texas Departed: Yes (4/17/1986) Date Issued: 3/18/2014
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Corporal Victor H. Espinoza distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an Acting Rifleman in Company A, 23d Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Chorwon, Korea on August 1, 1952. On that day, Corporal Espinoza and his unit were responsible for securing and holding a vital enemy hill. As the friendly unit neared its objective, it was subjected to a devastating volume of enemy fire, slowing its progress. Corporal Espinoza, unhesitatingly and being fully aware of the hazards involved, left his place of comparative safety and made a deliberate one man assault on the enemy with his rifle and grenades, destroying a machinegun and killing its crew. Corporal Espinoza continued across the fire-swept terrain to an exposed vantage point where he attacked an enemy mortar position and two bunkers with grenades and rifle fire, knocking out the enemy mortar position and destroying both bunkers and killing their occupants. Upon reaching the crest, and after running out of rifle ammunition, he called for more grenades. A comrade who was behind him threw some Chinese grenades to him. Immediately upon catching them, he pulled the pins and hurled them into the occupied trenches, killing and wounding more of the enemy with their own weapons. Continuing on through a tunnel, Corporal Espinoza made a daring charge, inflicting at least seven more casualties upon the enemy who were fast retreating into the tunnel. Corporal Espinoza was quickly in pursuit, but the hostile fire from the opening prevented him from overtaking the retreating enemy. As a result, Corporal Espinoza destroyed the tunnel with TNT, called for more grenades from his company, and hurled them at the enemy troops until they were out of reach. Corporal Espinoza’s incredible display of valor secured the vital strong point and took a heavy toll on the enemy, resulting in at least fourteen dead and eleven wounded. Corporal Espinoza’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
*BAKER, ADDISON E.
WWII (Air Mission)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army Air Corps, 93d Heavy Bombardment Group. Place and date: Ploesti Raid, Rumania, 1 August 1943. Entered service at: Akron, Ohio. Born: 1 January 1907, Chicago, Ill. G.O. No.: 20, 11 March 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy on 1 August 1943. On this date he led his command, the 93d Heavy Bombardment Group, on a daring low-level attack against enemy oil refineries and installations at Ploesti, Rumania. Approaching the target, his aircraft was hit by a large caliber antiaircraft shell, seriously damaged and set on fire. Ignoring the fact he was flying over terrain suitable for safe landing, he refused to jeopardize the mission by breaking up the lead formation and continued unswervingly to lead his group to the target upon which he dropped his bombs with devastating effect. Only then did he leave formation, but his valiant attempts to gain sufficient altitude for the crew to escape by parachute were unavailing and his aircraft crashed in flames after his successful efforts to avoid other planes in formation. By extraordinary flying skill, gallant leadership and intrepidity, Lt. Col. Baker rendered outstanding, distinguished, and valorous service to our Nation.
*HUGHES, LLOYD H.
WWII (Air Mission)
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 564th Bomber Squadron, 389th Bomber Group, 9th Air Force. Place and date: Ploesti Raid, Rumania, 1 August 1943. Entered service at: San Antonio, Tex. Born: 12 July 1921, Alexandria, La. G.O. No.: 17, 26 February 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry in action and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On August 1943, 2d Lt. Hughes served in the capacity of pilot of a heavy bombardment aircraft participating in a long and hazardous minimum-altitude attack against the Axis oil refineries of Ploesti, Rumania, launched from the northern shores of Africa. Flying in the last formation to attack the target, he arrived in the target area after previous flights had thoroughly alerted the enemy defenses. Approaching the target through intense and accurate antiaircraft fire and dense balloon barrages at dangerously low altitude, his plane received several direct hits from both large and small caliber antiaircraft guns which seriously damaged his aircraft, causing sheets of escaping gasoline to stream from the bomb bay and from the left wing. This damage was inflicted at a time prior to reaching the target when 2d Lt. Hughes could have made a forced landing in any of the grain fields readily available at that time. The target area was blazing with burning oil tanks and damaged refinery installations from which flames leaped high above the bombing level of the formation. With full knowledge of the consequences of entering this blazing inferno when his airplane was profusely leaking gasoline in two separate locations, 2d Lt. Hughes, motivated only by his high conception of duty which called for the destruction of his assigned target at any cost, did not elect to make a forced landing or turn back from the attack. Instead, rather than jeopardize the formation and the success of the attack, he unhesitatingly entered the blazing area and dropped his bomb load with great precision. After successfully bombing the objective, his aircraft emerged from the conflagration with the left wing aflame. Only then did he attempt a forced landing, but because of the advanced stage of the fire enveloping his aircraft the plane crashed and was consumed. By 2d Lt. Hughes’ heroic decision to complete his mission regardless of the consequences in utter disregard of his own life, and by his gallant and valorous execution of this decision, he has rendered a service to our country in the defeat of our enemies which will everlastingly be outstanding in the annals of our Nation’s history.
*JERSTAD, JOHN L.
WWII (Air Mission)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army Air Corps, 9th Air Force. Place and date: Ploesti Raid, Rumania, 1 August 1943. Entered service at: Racine, Wis. Born: 12 February 1918, Racine, Wis. G.O. No.: 72, 28 October 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty. On 1 August 1943, he served as pilot of the lead aircraft in his group in a daring low-level attack against enemy oil refineries and installations at Ploesti, Rumania. Although he had completed more than his share of missions and was no longer connected with this group, so high was his conception of duty that he volunteered to lead the formation in the correct belief that his participation would contribute materially to success in this attack. Maj. Jerstad led the formation into attack with full realization of the extreme hazards involved and despite withering fire from heavy and light antiaircraft guns. Three miles from the target his airplane was hit, badly damaged, and set on fire. Ignoring the fact that he was flying over a field suitable for a forced landing, he kept on the course. After the bombs of his aircraft were released on the target, the fire in his ship became so intense as to make further progress impossible and he crashed into the target area. By his voluntary acceptance of a mission he knew was extremely hazardous, and his assumption of an intrepid course of action at the risk of life over and above the call of duty, Maj. Jerstad set an example of heroism which will be an inspiration to the U.S. Armed Forces.
JOHNSON, LEON W.
WWII (Air Mission)
Rank and organization: Colonel, U.S. Army Air Corps, 44th Bomber Group, 9th Air Force. Place and date: Ploesti Raid, Rumania, 1 August 1943. Entered service at: Moline, Kans. Born: 13 September 1904, Columbia, Mo. G.O. No.: 54, 7 September 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry in action and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on 1 August 1943. Col. Johnson, as commanding officer of a heavy bombardment group, let the formation of the aircraft of his organization constituting the fourth element of the mass low-level bombing attack of the 9th U.S. Air Force against the vitally important enemy target of the Ploesti oil refineries. While proceeding to the target on this 2,400-mile flight, his element became separated from the leading elements of the mass formation in maintaining the formation of the unit while avoiding dangerous cumulous cloud conditions encountered over mountainous territory. Though temporarily lost, he reestablished contact with the third element and continued on the mission with this reduced force to the prearranged point of attack, where it was discovered that the target assigned to Col. Johnson’s group had been attacked and damaged by a preceding element. Though having lost the element of surprise upon which the safety and success of such a daring form of mission in heavy bombardment aircraft so strongly depended, Col. Johnson elected to carry out his planned low-level attack despite the thoroughly alerted defenses, the destructive antiaircraft fire, enemy fighter airplanes, the imminent danger of exploding delayed action bombs from the previous element, of oil fires and explosions, and of intense smoke obscuring the target. By his gallant courage, brilliant leadership, and superior flying skill, Col. Johnson so led his formation as to destroy totally the important refining plants and installations which were the object of his mission. Col. Johnson’s personal contribution to the success of this historic raid, and the conspicuous gallantry in action, and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty demonstrated by him on this occasion constitute such deeds of valor and distinguished service as have during our Nation’s history formed the finest traditions of our Armed Forces.
KANE, JOHN R.
WWII (Air Mission)
Rank and organization: Colonel, U.S. Army Air Corps, 9th Air Force. Place and date: Ploetsi Raid, Rumania, 1 August 1943. Entered service at: Shreveport, La. Birth: McGregor, Tex. G.O. No.: 54, 9 August 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry in action and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on 1 August 1943. On this date he led the third element of heavy bombardment aircraft in a mass low-level bombing attack against the vitally important enemy target of the Ploesti oil refineries. En route to the target, which necessitated a round-trip flight of over 2,400 miles, Col. Kane’s element became separated from the leading portion of the massed formation in avoiding dense and dangerous cumulous cloud conditions over mountainous terrain. Rather than turn back from such a vital mission he elected to proceed to his target. Upon arrival at the target area it was discovered that another group had apparently missed its target and had previously attacked and damaged the target assigned to Col. Kane’s element. Despite the thoroughly warned defenses, the intensive antiaircraft fire, enemy fighter airplanes, extreme hazards on a low-level attack of exploding delayed action bombs from the previous element, of oil fires and explosions and dense smoke over the target area, Col. Kane elected to lead his formation into the attack. By his gallant courage, brilliant leadership, and superior flying skill, he and the formation under his command successfully attacked this vast refinery so essential to our enemies’ war effort. Through his conspicuous gallantry in this most hazardous action against the enemy, and by his intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty, Col. Kane personally contributed vitally to the success of this daring mission and thereby rendered most distinguished service in the furtherance of the defeat of our enemies.
System Administrator (SysOp) Appreciation Day
Plants to Clean
In major incidents there is always the possibility for water supplies and land areas to become polluted and unusable. If electrical supplies and recycling systems become usable because of the loss of electricity how does one clean these systems.
One of the worst disasters of the twentieth century was Chernobyl. The Soviets floated rafts of sunflowers to clean up water contaminated by radioactivity. Sunflower heads consist of 1,000 to 2,000 individual flowers joined together by a receptacle base. The large petals around the edge of a sunflower head are individual ray flowers which do not develop into seed. A sunflower is ready to harvest when the back portion of the head turns brown. The roots of the sunflower plants removed 95% of the radioactivity in the water by pulling contaminants out of the water.
Marsh plants like reeds, water hyacinth, iris and duckweed are not only beautiful, they can also help conserve and treat gray water. A wetland full of reeds, fish, frogs, and ducks is a peaceful place. A marsh ecosystem is also an outstanding water treatment system.
The common reed (Phragmites australis) is often used in water treatment in Europe to remove nitrogen. However, it can be invasive in North America and Australia.
Duckweed (Lemnoideae family) also removes nitrogen and phosphorus.
Typha (plants such as cattail, catninetail, punks, or corn dog grass) has shown promise for removing heavy metals, and for those who weave, its vegetation can be used for mats and baskets. The idea of using plants to extract metals from contaminated soil was subsequently revived about 30 years ago and developed by Japan and US. The first field trial on zinc and cadmium phytoextraction (extraction by plants) was conducted in 1991 by Baker and his colleagues.
Iris and water hyacinth can also remove heavy metals such as lead, copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but take care, as water hyacinth can also be invasive (it can takeover areas where there are no”natural enemies”) in many locales.
As with all choices of wetland plants for the garden, plant species should be chosen with local ecology in mind. Always check with local wetland plant experts to ensure that a species is not invasive in local wetlands. Many wetland species breed and spread easily! An excellent example is the kudzu in the southeast.
One of the most spectacular discoveries of a hyperaccumulating plant occurred in China in 1999. Prof. Tongbin Chen and his team from the Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Science discovered a species of Chinese brake fern (Pteris vitatta) [a species of pacô] which can grow healthily in arsenic-rich soils.
Before this discovery no plant in the world had been found able to hyperaccumulate arsenic to a concentration of more than 1,000 milligrams per kilogram. So far, Chen’s team has identified a total of sixteen native Chinese plants able to absorb arsenic, lead, copper and other heavy metals from soil.
A wetland garden can be full of life. It can also add to the sustainability of a home by allowing a gardener to conserve and reuse gray water. Turn a pond or a wet garden into a place that works for the planet by reframing it as a water treatment system.
Of newsworthy note: Keep these in mind should a national emergency ever occur.
“Success isn’t permanent, and failure isn’t fatal.”
~ Mike Ditka
ad lib (ad LIB) noun
Improvised speech or music.
verb transitive: To perform music, speech, etc. spontaneously.
verb intransitive: To improvise.
adjective: Improvised, impromptu.[From Latin ad libitum (at pleasure).]
1498 – On his third voyage to the Western Hemisphere, Christopher Columbus becomes the first European to discover the island of Trinidad. He named it Trinidad because of its three hills.
1703 – English novelist Daniel Defoe was made to stand in the pillory as punishment for offending the government and church with his satire “The Shortest Way With Dissenters.”
1760 – Approximately 60 members of the South Carolina militia organized the Charles Town Artillery Company which was chartered on this date by the colonial government.
1777 – The United States Congress passes a resolution that services of Marquis de Lafayette “be accepted, and that, in consideration of his zeal, illustrious family and connexions, he have the rank and commission of major-general of the United States.”
1786 – Shays’ Rebellion began in Massachusetts.
1790 – The first U.S. patent was signed by George Washington and Thomas Jefferson; granted to inventor Samuel Hopkins for a potash process. The substance was used in fertilizer.
1792 – The first government building’s cornerstone was laid: the US Mint. The money for the Mint was the first money appropriated by Congress for a building to be used for a public purpose.
1809 – First practical US railroad track. Thomas Leiper’s horse-drawn wooden tramway connected quarries in Delaware County, PA, to a boat landing. It was the first time rails were utilized for freight transportation.
1813 – War of 1812: British invaded Plattsburgh, NY.
1813 – War of 1812: Marines landed at York, Lake Ontario, with soldiers to burn stores and barracks of the British.
1815 – War of 1812: Commodore Stephen Decatur concludes agreement with Bey of Tunis to compensate U.S. for seizure of merchant ships during the War.
1849 – Benjamin Chambers patented a breech loading cannon. It became known as the Parrott Gun named after its producer and not its inventor.
1852 – The United States Congress passed legislation creating the first prestamped envelopes.
1864 – Ulysses S. Grant was named General of Volunteers.
1874 – Commissioning of USS Intrepid, first U.S. warship equipped with torpedoes.
1875 – Andrew Johnson, the 17th president of the United States, died in Carter Station, Tenn., at age 66. He succeeded Abraham Lincoln and was the only president to that time to face impeachment proceedings.
1876 – Congress re-established the Revenue Cutter cadet training program after three years suspension and the institution of promotion by examination. US Coast Guard officers’ training school was established at New Bedford, MA.
1880 – Fancy Farm in Kentucky announced in a local newspaper upcoming barn dance, picnic and gander pulling. The event grew to become a major event and its 1982 event was certified in the Guinness Book of Records as the world’s largest picnic.
1882 – Belle and Sam Starr were charged with horse stealing in the Indian territory. Myra Maybelle Shirley (Belle Starr) was neither a belle nor the star of any outlaw band and still remains a legendary wild woman of the Old West.
1912 – First attempt to launch an airplane by catapult made at Annapolis.
1916 – World War I: First terrorist attack in the New York area was conducted by German undercover espionage agents at Black Tom Island – Upper New York Bay and Jersey City Waterfront.
1918 – World War I: The 42nd Division is ordered to capture Hill 177 in preparation for the Aisne Offensive to begin on August 1st.
1922 – The first water skis were demonstrated, by Ralph Samuelson in MN.
1928 – MGM’s Leo the lion roared, introducing MGM’s first talking picture, “White Shadows on the South Seas.”
1932 – Cleveland plays its first game in new Municipal Stadium before a crowd in excess of 80,000.
1932 – The George Washington quarter went into circulation as a 200-year commemorative of G. Washington’s birth. It has been in use ever since.
1932 – Enzo Ferrari retired from racing. In 1950 he launched a series of cars under his name.
1932 – Adolf Hitler’s Nationalist Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis) doubled its strength in legislative elections. Nazi Party won 37.3% of the vote.
1933 – “Jack Armstrong, the All-American Boy!” started from WBBM/Chicago. The show centered on Hudson High School student Jack Armstrong and his friends Billy and Betty Fairfield from 1933 to 1950.
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1933 – USS Constitution commences tour of principal U.S. seaports.
1941 – The U.S. Army established the Military Police Corps.
1942 – Harry James and his band recorded “I’ve Heard that Song Before.” Helen Forrest sang the song.
1942 – World War II: American bombers attack targets on Tulagi and bomb the airfield the Japanese are building on Guadalcanal.
1942 – The Supreme Court held that the president has the power to set up military courts in time of war, but that the decisions of these tribunals can be reviewed by civil courts. Ex Parte Quirin established the principle that, in times of war, enemy agents can be tried by military courts. Such defendants do not have the right to a civil jury trial, although the decisions of the courts martial are subject to review by civilian courts.
1942 – At midnight the record studios fell silent in a struggle with James Caesar Petrillo, head of the American Federation of Musicians. Petrillo insisted that the record industry pay a ¼ to ¾ cent royalty to the musicians union.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust ; The German SS gassed some 1,000 Jews in Minsk, Belorussia.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust: A large number of children were deported to Auschwitz from France by Alois Brunner, deputy to Adolf Eichmann.
1945 – World War II: The Japanese are warned by the Americans that eight cities will be leveled if the government refuses to surrender.
1945 – World War II: Pierre Laval, premier of the pro-Nazi Vichy government, surrendered to U.S. authorities in Austria; he was turned over to France, which later tried and executed him.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Can’t Be True, Dear” by The Ken Griffin Orchestra (vocal: Jerry Wayne), “Woody Woodpecker Song” by The Kay Kaiser Orchestra , “It’s Magic” by Doris Day and “Bouquet of Roses” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 – “Brigadoon” closed at Ziegfeld Theater in NYC after 581 performances. Movie Trailer
1948 – President Harry S. Truman dedicates New York International Airport. (later John F. Kennedy International Airport) at Idlewild Field.
1953 – Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio (63), known as “Mr. Republican,” died in New York. His successor was named by a Democratic governor.
1954 – “Three Coins in the Fountain” by the Four Aces topped the charts.
1955 – Marilyn Bell, age 17, became the youngest person to swim the English Channel.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Wayward Wind” by Gogi Grant, “Hound Dog/Don’t BeCruel” by Elvis Presley, “Whatever Will Be Will Be (Que Sera Sera)” by Doris Day and “I Walk the Line” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1957 – The Distant Early Warning Line, a system of radar stations designed to detect Soviet bombers approaching North America, went into operation.
1960 – Elijah Muhammad, leader of Nation of Islam, called for a black state.
1961 – At Fenway Park in Boston, Massachusetts, the first All-Star Game tie in major league baseball history occurs when the game is stopped in the 9th inning due to rain.
1961 – A concrete wall replaced the barbed wire fence that separated East and West Germany, it would be called the Berlin Wall.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rag Doll” by The 4 Seasons, “A Hard Day’s Night” by The Beatles, “The Little Old Lady (From Pasadena)” by Jan & Dean and “Dang Me” by Roger Miller all topped the charts.
1964 – Al Parker glides 644 miles without any motor. He flew the Sisu which was the most successful American competition sailplane ever produced.
1964 – Jim Reeves died when his single-engine Beechcraft crashed near Nashville, TN. C&W Star
1964 – US Ranger 7 takes 4,316 pictures before crashing on Moon.
1964 – All-nuclear task force with USS Long Beach, USS Enterprise, and USS Bainbridge leaves Norfolk, VA to begin voyage, Operation Sea Orbit, to circle the globe without refueling. They returned on 3 October.
1965 – “I Can’t Get No Satisfaction” by the Rolling Stones topped the charts.
1965 – The Beatles returned to the Cow Palace in Daly City, Ca., for another concert.
1966 – Alabamans burned Beatle products due to John Lennon’s remark that the Beatles are more “popular than Jesus.”
1968 – The Beatle’s recorded “Hey Jude.”
1968 – In Boston, four men were convicted for shooting Edward “Teddy” Deegan in a Chelsea, Mass., alley in 1965. In 2007 a federal judge in Boston ordered the government to pay a record nearly $102 million for the FBI’s role in the wrongful murder convictions of the four men. Two of the men convicted, Louis Greco and Henry Tameleo, died behind bars. The others, Peter Limone (73) and Joseph Salvati (74) spent three decades in prison.
1969 – The Zodiac killer sent a poorly-spelled letter to the San Francisco Chronicle, Examiner and Vallejo Times-Herald and took responsibility for the July 5th shootings.
1969 – Gary Allen Hinman, a California musician and UCLA Ph.D. candidate, was found murdered at his home in Topanga Canyon, Ca. Bruce Davis, a member of Charles Manson’s murderous cult, was later convicted for the murder of Gary Hinman as well as stuntman Donald “Shorty” Shea.
1970 – Chet Huntley retires from NBC, ends “Huntley-Brinkley Report”.
1970 – “(They Long to Be) Close to You” by the Carpenters topped the charts.
1971 – “You’ve Got a Friend” by James Taylor topped the charts
1971 – A security guard was stabbed to death at New York’s Forest Hills Stadium on the second night of the Who’s U.S. tour.
1971 -Apollo program: Apollo 15 astronaut, Dave Scott became the first to ride in a lunar rover. The moon ride lasted two hours and the astronauts were heard to exclaim, “There’s some beautiful geology out there!”
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “Alone Again (Naturally)” by Gilber O’Sullivan, “Brandy (You’re a Fine Girl)” by Looking Glass, “(If Loving You is Wrong) I Don’t Want to Be Right” by Luther Ingram and “It’s Gonna Take a Little Bit Longer” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1972 – Thomas F. Eagleton was chosen by the Democratic Party convention and presidential candidate George McGovern as the Vice presidential candidate.
1972 – George Wright, dressed as a priest and using an alias, hijacked a Delta flight from Detroit to Miami with four other BLA members and three children. They released 86 other passengers in exchange for a $1 million ransom and forced the plane to fly to Boston. There an international navigator was taken aboard, and the plane was flown to Algeria, where the hijackers sought asylum.
1974 – One of the President Nixon’s main men, John Erlichman was sentenced to prison for his role in the break-in at the office of Daniel Ellsberg’s psychiatrist.
1976 – “Kiss and Say Goodbye” by the Manhattans topped the charts.
1976 – Blue Oyster Cult’s “Don’t Fear The Reaper” was released.
1976 – Orleans’ “Still The One” was released.
1976 – “Sugar” Ray Charles Leonard (b.1956), American boxer, won an Olympic gold medal in Montreal.
1979 – Cesar Chavez began a 12-day march from SF to Salinas to dramatize the 6-month strike of the United Farm Workers.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Still Rock & Roll to Me” by Billy Joel, “Magic” by Olivia Newton-John, “Cupid/I’ve Loved You for a Long Time” by Spinners and “Bar Room Buddies” by Merle Haggard & Clint Eastwood all topped the charts.
1981 – Debra Harry released the solo album “Koo Koo.” Harry was the singer for the group Blondie.
1981 – The seven-week baseball players’ strike came to an end as the players and owners agreed on the issue of free agent compensation.
1981 – Arnette Hubbard installed as first female president of the National Bar Association.
1982 – “Eye of the Tiger” by Survivor topped the charts.
1982 – Jai Alai executive John B. Callahan (45) was fatally shot in Miami by mob hit man John Martorano. Callahan’s body was found Aug 2nd in the trunk of his Cadillac. In 2008 former FBI agent John Connolly was convicted of second degree murder for leaking information to mobsters that led to the shooting death of Callahan.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Roll with It” by Steve Winwood, “Hands to Heaven” by Breathe, “Make Me Lose Control” by Eric Carmen and “Don’t We All Have the Right” by Ricky Van Shelton all topped the charts.
1988 – Willie Stargell became 200th man inducted into Baseball’s Hall of Fame. Stargell had 475 career homers, twice leading the NL (48 in 1971, 44 in 1973).
1988 – The last US Playboy Club closed in Lansing, Mich.
1989 – A pro-Iranian group in Lebanon released a videotape reportedly showing the hanged body of American hostage William R. Higgins.
1990 – Nolan Ryan becomes the twentieth major league pitcher to win 300 games.
1990 – Shoal Creek, a private club in Birmingham, Alabama, that drew criticism for being all-white, announced it had accepted a black businessman as an honorary member.
1991 – A volleyball court was installed at People’s Park in Berkeley at a cost of over $1 million due to the ensuing 12 days of rioting and arrests.
1991 – The US Senate voted to allow women to fly combat aircraft.
1991 – Seven people were killed when an Amtrak passenger train derailed near Camden, South Carolina.
1991 – Seven people were killed when a bus carrying Girl Scouts crashed in Palm Springs, California.
1991 – President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev signed START I, the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in Moscow.
1992 – Summer Sanders became the first American athlete to win four medals at the Barcelona Olympics as she won the gold in the women’s 200-meter butterfly.
1992 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis blasted off from Cape Canaveral, on a problem-plagued scientific mission.
1993 – The Missouri River overflowed. It was part of the massive flooding happening throughout the Midwest.
1995 – Selena’s “Dreaming of You” debuted at No. 1 on the Billboard chart. She became the first Latin artist to debut at No. 1.
1995 – The Walt Disney Company agreed to acquire Capital Cities-ABC Inc. in a $19 billion deal. The deal included the ESPN sports cable network.
1996 – President Clinton signed a historic welfare overhaul bill with ninety-eight Democrats joining the House’s Republican majority.
1997 – In New York City, NY, police seized five bombs believed to be bound for terrorist attacks on city subways. Two potential suicide bombers,Gazi Ibrahim Abu Mezer (23) and Lafi Khalil (22), were shot and wounded in a Brooklyn apartmnt fullof explosives.
1998 – In Japan Asa Takii, the oldest person in the country and a survivor of the Hiroshima blast, died at age 114.
1998 – President Clinton said he would “completely and truthfully” answer prosecutors’ questions about Monica Lewinsky in testimony to be beamed by closed-circuit television to a grand jury.
1998 – Bicycle production at the Huffy plant in Celina, Ohio, ended 44 years of production and 650 workers lost their jobs.
1999 – NASA controllers planned to send the $63 million Lunar Prospector crashing into the Mawson crater located in the Moon’s south pole. They hoped to churn up some water vapor for possible detection. Evidence of the crash at 2:51 PDT was not detected.
1999 – Chicago authorities said as many as 46 more residents had died as a result of a relentless heat wave that enveloped much of the nation.
1999 -In Cottrellville Township, MI, ten people died from a skydiving plane crash shortly after takeoff from Marine City Airport, 40 miles north of Detroit.
2000 – The Republican national convention opened in Philadelphia, with George W. Bush’s name put into nomination for president.
2001 – President Bush issued Executive Order 13221. It instructed government agencies that used external standby power devices to purchase products that use no more than one watt in their standby power consuming mode.
2001 – The US House of Representatives voted 265-102 to criminalize all human cloning.
2002 – The US Senate rejected a Medicare drug-benefit bill but passed a bill to speed generic drugs to market.
2002 – In Chicago a mob beat Anthony Stuckey (49) and Jack Moore (62) to death after their van veered into over a curb and injured three women on the South Side.
2002 – In Israel a bomb exploded in a crowded cafeteria at Hebrew University during lunchtime, killing nine people including five Americans and wounding more than 70. Hamas claimed responsibility.
2003 – Felix Baumgartner became the first man to cross the English Channel by unpowered flight. He jumped from a plane about 30,000-ft above Dover, England and glided 22 miles across the Channel in a 10-minute flight.
2005 – The US Department of Justice (DOJ) released its first statistical report on rape behind bars. It estimated 8,210 allegations of sexual violence in American jails in 2004.
2006 – In Los Angeles two women, Olga Rutterschmidt (73) and Helen Golay (75), were charged with killing homeless men in hit-and-run car crashes in order to collect over $2 million in life insurance.
2007 – The US Army censured retired three-star Lt. Gen. Philip Kensinger for a “perfect storm of mistakes, misjudgments and a failure of leadership” after the 2004 friendly-fire death in Afghanistan of Army Ranger Pat Tillman.
2007 – In California Michael Schneider (44), a Hillsborough real estate broker, pleaded no contest in Santa Clara County to 173 felony counts related to bilking investors out of more than $43 million. He faced as much as 169 years in prison.
2007 – The Government Accountability Office, the investigative arm of Congress, issued a report saying it could not account for 190,000 AK-47 rifles and pistols given to Iraqi security forces in 2004 and 2005, or about half the weapons earmarked for soldiers and police.
2008 – California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger ordered the layoffs of thousands of state workers along with steep pay cuts for most other state employees to ease the state’s budget gap of $17.2 billion.
2008 – A US Virgin Islands hospital fired four board members after a US government audit found alleged financial mismanagement and the use of taxpayer money to fund lucrative pay packages for top administrators.
2008 – Scientists reported that the Phoenix spacecraft robot has confirmed the presence of frozen water lurking below the Martian permafrost.
2008 – A small jet crashed while preparing to land at Degner Regional Airport in Minnesota killing eight people including several casino and construction executives.
2009 – California authorities said the white striped fruit fly has been found in Southern California, marking the first detection of the Southeast Asian pest in the Western Hemisphere. Several thousand traps were soon placed in the La Verne area of eastern Los Angeles County, where seven of the flies were found.
2009 – A jury ordered Joel Tenenbaum (b.1983), a student at Boston University, to pay damages of $675,000 for sharing 30 songs over the Internet.
2009 – The Space Shuttle Endeavour returned to Florida after over two weeks aloft and a successful construction job that boosted the size and power of the International Space Station.
2009 – Iran detained three Americans after they mistakenly crossed the border from northern Iraq. They crossed into Iranian territory while hiking in a mountainous area near the town of Ahmed Awaa. Freelance journalist Shane Bauer, Sara Shourd and Josh Fattal, all graduates of the University of California, Berkeley, were detained after apparently straying across the border while hiking in Iraq’s northern Kurdish region.
2010 – Mitch Miller (b.1911), musician, conductor and producer, died in New York. His TV show, “Sing Along With Mitch” aired from 1961-1964.
2011 – The Senate of the United States fails to pass legislation lifting the debt ceiling with compromise talks continuing. Later Barack Obama and Congressional leaders reach a deal on extending the debt ceiling.
2012 – Republican controlled House voted 261-116 to give more power to President Obama. The bill that was passed in the House, eliminates Senate approval of Presidential appointments.
2012 – Gore Vidal (b.1925), American author, screenwriter and playwright, died at his home in Hollywood Hills. His 25 novels included “Lincoln” (1984) and “Myra Breckenridge” (1968).
2013 – The City Council of Oakland, Ca., ruled that clubs, spray-paint cans, hammers, sling-shots, fire accelerants and wrenches can no longer be carried during local demonstrations.
1816 – George Henry Thomas was a career United States Army officer and a Union General during the Civil War, one of the principal commanders in the Western Theater.
1837 – William Clarke Quantrill was a Confederate guerrilla leader during the Civil War.
1867 – Sebastian Spering Kresge, American merchant and philanthropist, was the founder of the The S. S. Kresge Company (later Kmart), now known as the Sears Holdings Corporation.
1911 – George Liberace was an American musician and television performer.
1912 – Milton Friedman was an American economist, statistician and public intellectual, and a recipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
1919 – Curt Gowdy was an American sportscaster, well-known as the longtime “voice” of the Boston Red Sox and for his coverage of many nationally-televised sporting events
1951 – Barry Van Dyke is an American actor and the second son of actor and entertainer, Dick Van Dyke, and nephew of Jerry Van Dyke.
1962 – Wesley Trent Snipes is an American actor, film producer and martial artist.
1965 – Joanne “Jo” Rowling who writes under the pen name J. K. Rowling, is a British author, best known as the creator of the Harry Potter fantasy series
1966 – Dean Cain is an American actor, known for his role as Clark Kent/Superman in the American television series Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman.
1980 – Fictional character Harry Potter
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant (then Sergeant), U.S. Army, 2d Armored Division. Place and date: Near Gagliano, Sicily, 31 July 1943. Entered service at: Bloomington, Ind. Birth: Salt Lake City, Utah. G.O. No.: 13, 18 February 1944. Citation: On 31 July 1943, near Gagliano, Sicily, a detachment of one officer and nine enlisted men, including Sgt. Kisters, advancing ahead of the leading elements of U.S. troops to fill a large crater in the only available vehicle route through Gagliano, was taken under fire by two enemy machineguns. Sgt. Kisters and the officer, unaided and in the face of intense small arms fire, advanced on the nearest machinegun emplacement and succeeded in capturing the gun and its crew of four. Although the greater part of the remaining small arms fire was now directed on the captured machinegun position, Sgt. Kisters voluntarily advanced alone toward the second gun emplacement. While creeping forward, he was struck five times by enemy bullets, receiving wounds in both legs and his right arm. Despite the wounds, he continued to advance on the enemy, and captured the second machinegun after killing three of its crew and forcing the fourth member to flee. The courage of this soldier and his unhesitating willingness to sacrifice his life, if necessary, served as an inspiration to the command.
RAMAGE, LAWSON PATERSON
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Parche. Place and date: Pacific, 31 July 1944. Entered service at: Vermont. Born: 19 January 1920, Monroe Bridge, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Parche in a predawn attack on a Japanese convoy, 31 July 1944. Boldly penetrating the screen of a heavily escorted convoy, Comdr. Ramage launched a perilous surface attack by delivering a crippling stern shot into a freighter and quickly following up with a series of bow and stern torpedoes to sink the leading tanker and damage the second one. Exposed by the light of bursting flares and bravely defiant of terrific shellfire passing close overhead, he struck again, sinking a transport by two forward reloads. In the mounting fury of fire from the damaged and sinking tanker, he calmly ordered his men below, remaining on the bridge to fight it out with an enemy now disorganized and confused. Swift to act as a fast transport closed in to ram, Comdr. Ramage daringly swung the stern of the speeding Parche as she crossed the bow of the onrushing ship, clearing by less than 50 feet but placing his subMarine in a deadly crossfire from escorts on all sides and with the transport dead ahead. Undaunted, he sent 3 smashing “down the throat” bow shots to stop the target, then scored a killing hit as a climax to 46 minutes of violent action with the Parche and her valiant fighting company retiring victorious and unscathed.
YOUNG, RODGER W.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, 148th Infantry, 37th Infantry Division. Place and date: On New Georgia, Solomon Islands, 31 July 1943. Entered service at: Clyde, Ohio. Birth: Tiffin, Ohio. G.O. No.: 3, 6 January 1944. Citation: On 31 July 1943, the infantry company of which Pvt. Young was a member, was ordered to make a limited withdrawal from the battle line in order to adjust the battalion’s position for the night. At this time, Pvt. Young’s platoon was engaged with the enemy in a dense jungle where observation was very limited. The platoon suddenly was pinned down by intense fire from a Japanese machinegun concealed on higher ground only 75 yards away. The initial burst wounded Pvt. Young. As the platoon started to obey the order to withdraw, Pvt. Young called out that he could see the enemy emplacement, whereupon he started creeping toward it. Another burst from the machinegun wounded him the second time. Despite the wounds, he continued his heroic advance, attracting enemy fire and answering with rifle fire. When he was close enough to his objective, he began throwing handgrenades, and while doing so was hit again and killed. Pvt. Young’s bold action in closing with this Japanese pillbox and thus diverting its fire, permitted his platoon to disengage itself, without loss, and was responsible for several enemy casualties.
MARSH, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 1st Connecticut Cavalry. Place and date: At Back Creek Valley, Va., 31 July 1864. Entered service at: New Milford, Conn.. Birth: Milford, Conn. Date of issue: 23 January 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and its bearer.
The Story of the USS Indianapolis
The world’s first operational atomic bomb was delivered by the Indianapolis, (CA-35) to the island of Tinian on 26 July 1945. The Indianapolis then reported to CINCPAC (Commander-In-Chief, Pacific) Headquarters at Guam for further orders. She was directed to join the battleship USS Idaho (BB-42) at Leyte Gulf in the Philippines to prepare for the invasion of Japan. The Indianapolis, unescorted, departed Guam on a course of 262 degrees making about 17 knots.
At 14 minutes past midnight, on 30 July 1945, midway between Guam and Leyte Gulf, she was hit by two torpedoes out of six fired by the I-58, a Japanese submarine. The first blew away the bow, the second struck near midship on the starboard side adjacent to a fuel tank and a powder magazine. The resulting explosion split the ship to the keel, knocking out all electric power. Within minutes she went down rapidly by the bow, rolling to starboard.
Of the 1,196 aboard, about 900 made it into the water in the twelve minutes before she sank. Few life rafts were released. Most survivors wore the standard kapok life jacket. Shark attacks began with sunrise of the first day and continued until the men were physically removed from the water, almost five days later.
Shortly after 11:00 A.M. of the fourth day, the survivors were accidentally discovered by LT. (jg) Wilbur C. Gwinn, piloting his PV-1 Ventura Bomber on routine antisubmarine patrol. Radioing his base at Peleiu, he alerted, “many men in the water”. A PBY (seaplane) under the command of LT. R. Adrian Marks was dispatched to lend assistance and report. Enroute to the scene, Marks overflew the destroyer USS Cecil Doyle (DD-368), and alerted her captain, of the emergency. The captain of the Doyle, on his own authority, decided to divert to the scene.
Arriving hours ahead of the Doyle, Marks’ crew began dropping rubber rafts and supplies. While so engaged, they observed men being attacked by sharks. Disregarding standing orders not to land at sea, Marks landed and began taxiing to pick up the stragglers and lone swimmers who were at greatest risk of shark attack. Learning the men were the crew of the Indianapolis, he radioed the news, requesting immediate assistance. TheDoyle responded she was enroute.
As complete darkness fell, Marks waited for help to arrive, all the while continuing to seek out and pull nearly dead men from the water. When the plane’s fuselage was full, survivors were tied to the wing with parachute cord. Marks and his crew rescued 56 men that day. The Cecil Doyle was the first vessel on the scene. Homing on Marks’ PBY in total darkness, the Doyle halted to avoid killing or further injuring survivors, and began taking Marks’ survivors aboard.
Disregarding the safety of his own vessel, the Doyle‘s captain pointed his largest searchlight into the night sky to serve as a beacon for other rescue vessels. This beacon was the first indication to most survivors, that their prayers had been answered. Help had at last arrived. Of the 900 who made it into the water, only 317 remained alive. After almost five days of constant shark attacks, starvation, terrible thirst, suffering from exposure and their wounds, the men of the Indianapolis were at last rescued from the sea.
From the website: http://www.ussindianapolis.org
“If you hear a voice within you say ‘you cannot paint,’ then by all means paint, and that voice will be silenced.”
~ Vincent Van Gogh
repartee (rep-uhr-TEE) noun
1. A quick, witty reply or conversation.
2. Cleverness in making witty conversation.
Winston Churchill, having had a modicum of alcoholic spirits, addressed the Lady Astor when she said, “Mr. Churchill you are drunk!!! He replied, “Yes ma’m and you are ugly but tomorrow I shall be sober.”
Another famous one purported to have occurred between these two was when the Lady Astor strongly commented to Mr. Churchill that if he were her husband, she would poison him. To which Mr. Churchill retorted that if that, in fact, was the case that he would gladly drink it.
1502 – Christopher Columbus landed at Guanaja in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras during his fourth voyage.
1619 – The House of Burgesses, a representative colonial assembly – the first in America – was held at Jamestown, Virginia, under the new governor of the colony, Sir George Yeardley. During this summer the first African slaves are brought to Jamestown.
1715 – A Spanish gold and silver fleet disappeared off St. Lucie, Florida.
1729 – The city of Baltimore was founded. It was named after the Irish barony of Baltimore (seat of the Calvert family, proprietors of the colony of Maryland).
1733 – The first Freemasons lodge opened in what would later become the United States.
1839 – Slave rebels took over the slave ship Amistad.
1844 – First US yacht club organized, NY Yacht Club.
1863 – Civil War: Pres. Lincoln issued his “eye-for-eye” order It said that the Union would shoot a Confederate prisoner for every black Union prisoner shot and it would also condemn a Confederate prisoner to hard labor for life for every black prisoner sold into slavery. The order was meant to deter Confederates from murdering or enslaving captured black soldiers.
1863 – Civil War: Brigadier General George Crockett Strong (29), died of injuries. He was wounded on July 18, 1863, while leading the assault against Fort Wagner on Morris Island, South Carolina, and died of tetanus in New York City.
1863 – The Shoshone chief Pocatello signs the Treaty of Box Elder, bringing peace to the emigrant trails of southern Idaho and northern Utah.
1864 – Civil War: Gen Burnside failed on an attack of Petersburg and in an effort to penetrate the Confederate lines around Petersburg, Va., Union troops exploded some 8,000 pounds of gunpowder underneath the Confederate trenches. The blast killed hundreds of Confederates.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate troops attack Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. The town was burned by Union forces under Gen. McCausland (1836-1927)..
1864 – Civil War: Landing party from the U.S.S. Potomska destroyed two large Confederate salt works near the Back River, Georgia.
1865 – The worst US steamship disaster occurred. The Brother Jonathon, a paddle wheel steamer, sank off the coast of Northern California near Crescent City. Two hundred twenty-five people died after the ship hit a rock near Crescent City. There were nineteen survivors.
1866 – Democrat-controlled City of New Orleans orders police to storm racially-integrated Republican meeting. Raid kills 40 and wounds more than 150.
1870 – Clara Barton departed for field with the Red Cross following the French declaration of war against Prussia. In Basle Antoinette Margot (27) joined her as an aide and interpreter.
1878 – German anti-Semitism began during the Reichstag election.
1898 – “Scientific America” carried the first magazine automobile ad. The Winton Motor Car company of Cleveland, OH invited readers to “Dispense with a Horse.”
1898 – Corn Flakes invented by William Kellogg.
1902 – Anti-Jewish rioters attacked the funeral procession of Rabbi Joseph in New York City.
1908 – An around the world automobile race ended in Paris. The American Thomas Speedway Flyer, was declared the winner over teams from Germany and Italy.
1916 – World War I: German saboteurs blew up a munitions pier on Black Tom Island, Jersey City, NJ. Seven people were killed. Damages totaled about $20-25 million. After much legal maneuvering, a commission in 1939 ruled that Germany was guilty of sabotaging Black Tom and another plant in Kingsland, NJ, and awarded$50 million to the claimants.
1918 – World War I: Units of First Marine Aviation Force arrive at Brest, France.
1918 – World War I: Poet Joyce Kilmer (b.1886), a sergeant in the 165th U.S. Infantry Regiment, was killed during the Second Battle of the Marne in World War I. Kilmer is perhaps best remembered for his poem “Trees.”
1919 – Federal troops were called out to put down Chicago race riots.
1928 – George Eastman demonstrates first color movie in the US.
1932 – Walt Disney’s “Flowers and Trees” premiered. It was the first Academy Award winning cartoon and first cartoon short to use Technicolor.
1932 – The Summer Olympic Games opened in Los Angeles. The US won 41 gold medals.
1933 – Charles Darrow, became the first millionaire game designer after he sold his patent for “Monopoly” to Parker Brothers.
1933 – Cardinals Dizzy Dean strikes out 17 Chicago Cubs to win 8-2.
1935 – The first Penguin paperback book was published.
1938 – George Eastman demonstrated his color motion picture process.
1940 – A bombing lull ended the first phase of the Battle of Britain.
1941 – Japanese aircraft bomb USS Tutuila (PR-4) at Chungking, China; First Navy ship damaged by Axis during World War II.
1942 – “Stage Door Canteen” was first heard on CBS radio. Song on Player Piano
Full Movie from 1942 (2:11:20)
1942 – Frank Sinatra recorded the last of ninety recordings with the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra.
1942 – World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a bill creating the WAVES. The members of the Women’s Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service were a part of the U.S. Navy.
1942 – World War II: The US passenger-freighter Robert E. Lee with 268 passengers was sunk by the German U-166 submarine. Fifteen crew members and ten passengers died. In 2001 wreckage of the U-166 was found in the Gulf of Mexico and it appeared that it was sunk by Coast Guard PC-566 right after the attack. U-166 had 52 crew members.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: German SS einsatzgruppen death battalions (mobile killing units) killed 25,000 Jews in Minsk, Belorussia.
1943 – Last Judy Garland-Mickey Rooney movie released (Girl Crazy – I Got Rhythm). It was the final teaming of Judy and Mickey before he was drafted into the Army in World War II.
1944 – World War II: On Tinian, the main town of Tinian is captured by American forces. The southern half of Guam has been secured by US troops.
1945 – World War II: The USS Indianapolis, which had just delivered key components of the Hiroshima atomic bomb to the Pacific island of Tinian, was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine. Only 316 out of 1,196 men survived the sinking and shark-infested waters.
1945 – World War II: British and American carrier aircraft continue attacks. Kobe, Kure and Honshu are bombed.
1945 – World War II: Food shortages in Japan lead the government to call on the civilian population to collect 2.5 million bushels of acorns to be converted into eating material.
1946 – First rocket attains 100 mi (167 km) altitude, White Sands, NM. “Space” is considered to start at 62 miles from our surface.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Peg o’ My Heart “ by The Harmonicats, “I Wonder, I Wonder, I Wonder” by Eddy Howard, “Chi-Baba, Chi-Baba” by Perry Como and “Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)” by Tex Williams all topped the charts.
1949 – “Riders in the Sky” by Vaughan Monroe topped the charts.
1952 – “The Guiding Light,” a popular radio show, premiered on television.
1952 – Korean War: The largest single target bomber strike of the war occurred when 63 B-29s attacked the industrial complex near Sinuiju.
1954 – Elvis Presley made his professional debut in Memphis. It was his first concert to be advertised.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS -“Rock Around the Clock” by Bill Haley & His Comets, “Hard to Get” by Giselle Mackenzie, “Sweet and Gentle” by Alan Daleand “I Don’t Care” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1956 – US motto “In God We Trust” authorized. IN GOD WE TRUST was first used on paper money in 1957, when it appeared on the one-dollar silver certificate.
1956 – Brenda Lee’s first recording session. She recorded seven songs that day with Paul Cohen as her producer. The songs were: “Jambalaya,” “Bigelow 6-200,” “Some People,” “Your Cheatin’ Heart,” “I’m Gonna Lasso Santa Claus,” “Doodle Bug Rag,” and “Christy Christmas.”
1960 – “I’m Sorry” by Brenda Lee topped the charts.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Surf City” by Jan & Dean, “So Much in Love” by The Tymes, “Fingertips – Pt 2” by Little Stevie Wonder and “Ring of Fire” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1964 – Vietnam War: US Naval fired on Hon Ngu and Hon Mo in North Vietnam.
1965 – President Lyndon Johnson signed the Medicare bill into law; it took effect in 1966. The first two recipients were Former President Harry Truman and his wife selected by President Johnson to be the first and second persons, respectively, to be enrolled in Medicare and the first recipients of the new Medicare cards.
1966 – Beatles’ “Yesterday… & Today,” (27:19) album goes #1 & stays #1 for 5 weeks.
1966 – “Wild Thing” by Troggs topped the charts.
1966 – Vietnam War: US aircraft bombed the demilitarized zone in Vietnam.
1967 – Vietnam War: General William Westmoreland claimed that he was winning the war in Vietnam but needed more men.
1967 – A race riot occurred in Milwaukee, WI and four people were killed. The disturbance lasted until August 3rd and the National Guard was called in.
1968 – Ron Hansen of the Washington Senators made the first unassisted triple play in the major leagues in 41 years.
1968 – In Gary, Indiana, policemen took aim at snipers after the third night of racial unrest. Sixty-four people were taken into custody. Mayor Richard G. Hatcher, the first African-American mayor in a city with a African-American majority, said that he now believes that gangs realize they will not be allowed to use violence to get what they want.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS -“Indian Reservation” by Raiders, “You’ve Got a Friend” by James Taylor, “Mr. Big Stuff” by Jean Knight and “I’m Just Me” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1971 – Apollo 15 with astronauts Scott and Irwin lands on the moon at Mare Imbrium.
1971 – In San Francisco police officer Arthur O’Guinn was fatally shot while making a traffic stop. Two people were caught and convicted of second-degree murder. They were paroled in the late 1970s.
1974 – The House Judiciary Committee voted a third article of impeachment against President Richard Nixon: contempt of Congress in hindering the impeachment process. The previous two impeachment articles voted against Nixon by the committee were obstruction of justice and abuse of presidential powers. Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974. Peter Rodino (D-NJ) presided over the impeachment hearings.
1975 – Former Teamsters union president Jimmy Hoffa disappeared in suburban Detroit from the parking lot of the Machus Red Fox Restaurant. Although presumed dead, his remains have never been found. Hoffa was declared legally dead in 1982.
1977 – “I Just Want to Be Your Everything” by Andy Gibb topped the charts.
1978 – Tropical Storm Amelia formed in the western Gulf of Mexico near Brownsville, Texas. The winds intensified to a 50 mph tropical storm. Flooding rains due to torrential rains exceeded 40 inches and led to the deaths of 30 people in Texas.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS -“Bad Girls” by Donna Summer, “Good Times” by Chic, “Gold” by John Stewart and “You’re the Only One” by Dolly Parton all topped the charts.
1983 – “Every Breath You Take” by The Police topped the charts.
1984 – Reggie Jackson hit the 494th home run of his career, passing the Yankees’ Lou Gehrig and taking over 13th place on the all-time home run list.
1984 – The British tanker Alvenus spilled 2.8 million gallons of oil at Cameron, La.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS -“Alone” by Heart, “Shakedown” by Bob Seger, “I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For” by U2 and “The Weekend” by Steve Wariner all topped the charts.
1987 – Former White House Chief of Staff Donald T. Regan told the Iran-Contra congressional committees he had repeatedly urged President Reagan to break off arms sales to Iran.
1987 – Microsoft acquired Forethought, the developer of PowerPoint, for $14 million. Microsoft created its own version 3 years later.
1988 – “Roll with It” by Steve Winwood topped the charts.
1990 – The first Saturn automobile rolled off the assembly line at Spring Hill, Tennessee.
1990 – George Steinbrenner was forced by Commissioner Fay Vincent to resign as principal partner of NY Yankees.
1991 – The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty was signed.
1992 – Shannon Miller won the silver medal, at the Barcelona Summer Olympics, in the women’s all-around gymnastics event.
1992 – A TWA Lockheed L-1011 caught fire during takeoff from New York City’s Kennedy International Airport; all 292 people aboard survived.
1996 – The U.S. Olympic softball team defeated China, 3-1, to win the gold medal.
1996 – A federal law enforcement source said that security guard Richard Jewell had become the focus of the investigation into the bombing at Centennial Olympic Park. Jewell was later cleared as a suspect. In the way that they handled it, ruined his life and reputation.
1998 – The US Post Office began selling a 40-cent breast cancer stamp. Eight cents from every stamp will go to breast cancer research sponsored by the National Institute for Health and the Department of Defense.
1998 – A group of Ohio machine-shop workers (who call themselves the Lucky 13) won the $295.7 million Powerball jackpot. It was the largest-ever American lottery.
1998 – In California a scientific panel advised the state that diesel exhaust posed a serious cancer threat.
1998 – “Buffalo Bob” Smith, the cowboy-suited host of the Howdy Doody Show from 1947-1960, died at age 80 in Hendersonville [Flat Rock], N.C.
1999 – Linda Tripp, whose secretly recorded 1997 phone conversations with Monica Lewinsky led to the impeachment of President Clinton, was charged in Maryland with illegal wiretapping. Prosecutors later dropped the charges.
1999 – Republicans pushed their $792 billion-dollar tax cut through the Senate.
1999 – United Airlines agreed to offer domestic-partner benefits to employees and retirees worldwide following a two-year legal struggle against the San Franciso domestic-partners law.
2001 – Lance Armstrong became the first American to win three consecutive Tours de France.
2001 – Intel rolled out its new Pentium III-M processor based on .13 micron chip technology.
2001 – In Alaska a sightseeing plane crashed near Glacier Bay National Park and all six people aboard were killed.
2002 – WNBA player Lisa Leslie became the first woman to “dunk” a shot in a professional game. She did it on a breakaway in the first half of the Los Angeles Sparks’ 82-73 loss to the Miami Sol.
2002 – President Bush signed into law the most far-reaching government crackdown on business fraud since the Depression. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, named after sponsors Paul Sarbanes and Mike Oxley, was signed into law in response to corporate scandals.
2002 – Expelled from Congress a week earlier, an unrepentant Ohio Democrat James A. Traficant Jr. was sentenced to eight years behind bars for corruption and made it clear he intended to run for re-election from his prison cell — and expected to win. He didn’t.
2003 – The last Volkswagen Beetle was produced in Mexico.
2003 – Textile manufacturer Pillowtex filed for bankruptcy saying it will close sixteen plants and sell its assets. 4,300 people in the Kannopolis, NC, area lost their jobs.
2003 – Sam Phillips (b.1923), founder of Sun Records (1952), died in Memphis. Phillips produced Elvis Presley’s first record.
2004 – Mike Tyson was knocked out in the fourth round of a fight in Louisville, Ky., by British heavyweight Danny Williams.
2004 – In NYC Joseph Massino, a Bonanno crime boss, was convicted of orchestrating murder, racketeering, arson and extortion over the last 25 years.
2004 – In Iraq fierce overnight fighting between U.S. Marines backed by fighter aircraft and insurgents using small arms and mortars killed thirteen insurgents in Fallujah overnight.
2005 – Rep. William Jefferson, D-La., received $100,000 at the Ritz-Carlton in Arlington, Virginia, to use for bribing Abubakar Atiku, vice-president of Nigeria.Documents released later in 2005 said an FBI informant recorded a video of the transaction.
2007 – Jinzhou Chang (24), a Contra Costa college student, was shot and killed in El Cerrito, Ca., while helping his immigrant father make repairs at an apartment complex. Three 17-year-old boys were soon arrested and faced robbery and murder charges.
2008 – A magnitude-5.4 earthquake has struck just east of Los Angeles, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa said that a preliminary analysis has shown no serious structural damage and no injury reports in Los Angeles. This is being described as the strongest since Northridge.
2008 – President Bush signed a massive housing bill intended to provide mortgage relief for 400,000 struggling homeowners and stabilize financial markets.
2008 – President Bush signed an executive order updating the authority of the national intelligence director.
2008 – President Bush signed an act reauthorizing PEPFAR, the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. It will provide $39 billion to be spent on AIDS over the next 5 years, up more than double, from $15 billion for the past 5 years.
2009 – The United States Presidential Medal of Freedom is awarded to several international figures including Stephen Hawking, Billie Jean King, Harvey Milk, Sidney Poitier, Mary Robinson, Desmond Tutu and Muhammad Yunus.
2009 – Seventy-thousand people are evacuated from Bryan, TX, USA, after ammonium nitrate is released during a fire at the El Dorado Chemical Company warehouse.
2009 – President Barack Obama arranged a meeting to “have a beer” with police officer Sgt. James Crowley and African-American public intellectual Henry Louis Gates at the White House in a bid to quell a dispute over racial profiling that arose from an altercation between the two of them.
2009 – Hahn Family Wines in Soledad, Calif., said that visits to the company’s Web site have increased tenfold since news of an Alabama ban on their Cycles Gladiator wine broke late last week. Callers from across the country have been asking where they can buy the wine. It was reported that the Alabama Alcoholic Beverage Control Board had recently told stores and restaurants to quit serving Cycles Gladiator wine because of a label that features a nude nymph. The wine’s label is copied from an 1895 French advertising poster for Cycles Gladiator bicycles. It shows a side view of a full-bodied nymph flying alongside a winged bicycle.
2010 – A Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute study suggests that the Nili Fossae area on the surface of Mars could be a good spot to search for evidence of past life on Mars.
2010 – Multiple law-enforcement agencies seize a hoard of cannabis thought to be worth up to US$1.7 billion in the Sierra Nevada mountains in southern California.
2010 – A wildfire forces the evacuation of thousands of homes in Palmdale California.
2010 – In Arizona, three convicted murderers escaped from a private prison. Daniel Renwick (36) was caught on Aug 1. Terry Province (42) and John McCluskey (45) remained at large. On Aug 4, the burned remains of Linda and Gary Haas (61) were found in a charred camper in Santa Rosa, New Mexico. Province and McCluskey were linked to their killing as was Casslyn Welch (44), a woman who helped them escape.
2011 – Four people are shot and one killed after a George Clinton concert in Cleveland, Ohio.
2012 – James Holmes was charged with murder in the deaths of twelve people at a Batman movie premiere in Aurora, Colo. Holmes was also formally charged with 116 counts of attempted murder.
1890 – Casey Stengel, American baseball manager (d. 1975)
1920 – Isaac Stern, American concert violin impresario.
1933 – Edward Byrnes, American actor. His most famous role was as Gerald Lloyd “Kookie” Kookson III on the TV series 77 Sunset Strip.
1947 – Arnold Schwarzenegger, Austrian-born actor, California Governor.
*OZBOURN, JOSEPH WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Tinian Island, Marianas Islands, 30 July 1944. Born: 24 October 1919, Herrin, Ill. Accredited to: Illinois. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a Browning Automatic Rifleman serving with the 1st Battalion, 23d Marines, 4th Marine Division, during the battle for enemy Japanese-held Tinian Island, Marianas Islands, 30 July 1944. As a member of a platoon assigned the mission of clearing the remaining Japanese troops from dugouts and pillboxes along a tree line, Pvt. Ozbourn, flanked by two men on either side, was moving forward to throw an armed handgrenade into a dugout when a terrific blast from the entrance severely wounded the four men and himself. Unable to throw the grenade into the dugout and with no place to hurl it without endangering the other men, Pvt. Ozbourn unhesitatingly grasped it close to his body and fell upon it, sacrificing his own life to absorb the full impact of the explosion, but saving his comrades. His great personal valor and unwavering loyalty reflect the highest credit upon Pvt. Ozbourn and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
O’NEIL, RICHARD W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 165th Infantry, 42d Division. Place and date: On the Ourcq River, France, 30 July 1918. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 30, W.D., 1921. Citation: In advance of an assaulting line, he attacked a detachment of about 25 of the enemy. In the ensuing hand-to-hand encounter he sustained pistol wounds, but heroically continued in the advance, during which he received additional wounds: but, with great physical effort, he remained in active command of his detachment. Being again wounded, he was forced by weakness and loss of blood to be evacuated, but insisted upon being taken first to the battalion commander in order to transmit to him valuable information relative to enemy positions and the disposition of our men.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1852, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Pensacola, Regan displayed gallant conduct in the harbor of Coquimbor, Chile, 30 July 1873.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 30th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Cemetery Hill, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: Oswego County, N.Y. Born: 1840, Schoharie County, N.Y. Date of issue: 22 June 1891. Citation: Gallantry in action where he fell, shot through the face, at the head of his regiment.
CATLIN, ISAAC S.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 109th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: Oswego, N.Y. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 13 January 1899. Citation: In a heroic effort to rally the disorganized troops was disabled by a severe wound. While being carried from the field he recovered somewhat and bravely started to return to his command, when he received a second wound, which necessitated amputation of his right leg.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 6th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va., 6 May 1864; At the mine, Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: Campton, N.H. Birth: Guttentag, Silesia, Prussia. Date of issue: 24 August 1865. Citation: During Battle of the Wilderness rallied and formed, under heavy fire, disorganized and fleeing troops of different regiments. At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864, bravely and coolly carried orders to the advanced line under severe fire.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company H, 30th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At the mine, Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: Otsego County, N.Y. Born: 12 February 1840, Scotland. Date of issue: 17 October 1892. Citation: One of the first to enter the enemy’s works, where, after his colonel, major, and one-third the company officers had fallen, he gallantly assisted in rallying and saving the remnant of the command.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company H, 1st Michigan Sharpshooters.Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: Sherman, Mich. Date of issue: 30 July 1896. Citation: Being an old artillerist, aided General Bartlett in working the guns of the dismantled fort.
DODD, ROBERT F.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 27th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: Hantramck, Mich. Born: 1844, Canada. Date of issue: 27 July 1896. Citation: While acting as orderly, voluntarily assisted to carry off the wounded from the ground in front of the crater while exposed to a heavy fire.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 39th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: Baltimore County, Md. Birth: Howard County, Md. Date of issue: 8 November 1865. Citation: Planted his colors on the Confederate works in advance of his regiment, and when the regiment was driven back to the Union works he carried the colors there and bravely rallied the men.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 13th Ohio Cavalry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: Fairmount, Mo. Birth: Champaign County, Ohio. Date of issue. 27 January 1865. Citation: When about entering upon the charge, this soldier, then but 15 years old, was cautioned not to go in, as he had not been mustered. He indignantly protected and participated in the charge, his left arm being crushed by a shell and amputated soon afterward.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 1st Michigan Sharpshooters. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: Goodland, Mich. Born. 1846, Reading, Mich. Date of issue. 31 July 1896. Citation: Instead of retreating, remained in the captured works, regardless of his personal safety and exposed to the firing, which he boldly and deliberately returned until the enemy was close upon him.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 14th New York Heavy Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: Lyons, N.Y. Birth. Lyons, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag, shooting a Confederate officer who was rallying his men with the colors in his hand.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 45th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: Front of Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: Howard, Pa. Birth: Center County, Pa. Date of issue: 1 October 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 6th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Color Sergeant, Company A, 29th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: Near Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Roxbury, Mass. Date of issue: 3 June 1869. Citation: Fought his way through the enemy’s lines with the regimental colors, the rest of the color guard being killed or captured.
HOUGHTON, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company L, 14th New York Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864; 25 March 1865. Entered service at: Ogdensburg, N.Y. Born: 30 April 1842, Macomb, St. Lawrence County, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: In the Union assault at the Crater (30 July 1864), and in the Confederate assault repelled at Fort Haskell, displayed most conspicuous gallantry and repeatedly exposed himself voluntarily to great danger, was 3 times wounded, and suffered loss of a leg.
Rank and organization: 1st Sergeant, Company B, 139th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864; At Fort Harrison, Va., 29 September 1864. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: France. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: Voluntarily went between the lines under a heavy fire at Petersburg, Va., to the assistance of a wounded and helpless officer, whom he carried within the Union lines. At Fort Harrison, Va., seized the regimental color, the color bearer and guard having been shot down, and, rushing forward, planted it upon the fort in full view of the entire brigade.
KNIGHT, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 9th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at Keene, N.H. Birth: Keene, N.H. Date of issue: 27 July 1896. Citation. In company with a sergeant, was the first to enter the exploded mine; was wounded but took several prisoners to the Federal lines.
MATHEWS, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company E, 2d Maryland Veteran Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: England. Date of issue: 10 July 1892. Citation: Finding himself among a squad of Confederates, he fired into them, killing 1, and was himself wounded, but succeeded in bringing in a sergeant and two men of the 17th South Carolina Regiment (C.S.A.) as prisoners.
(Enlisted in 1861 at Baltimore, Md., under the name Henry Sivel, and original Medal of Honor issued under that name. A new medal was issued in 1900 under true name, William H Mathew.)
McALWEE, BENJAMIN F.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 3d Maryland Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Washington, D.C. Date of issue: 4 April 1898. Citation: Picked up a shell with burning fuse and threw it over the parapet into the ditch, where it exploded; by this act he probably saved the lives of comrades at the great peril of his own.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 3d Maryland Veteran Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Baltimore, Md. Date of issue: 27 July 1896. Citation: After the color sergeant had been shot down, seized the colors and planted them on the enemy’s works during the charge.
SIMONS, CHARLES J.
Rank and organization. Sergeant, Company A, 9th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: Exeter, N.H. Birth: India. Date of issue: 27 July 1896. Citation: Was one of the first in the exploded mine, captured a number of prisoners. and was himself captured, but escaped.
SWIFT, HARLAN J.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company H, 2d Mew York Militia Regiment. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: New York. Birth: New Hudson, N.Y. Date of issue: 20 July 1897. Citation: Having advanced with his regiment and captured the enemy’s line, saw four of the enemy retiring toward their second line of works. He advanced upon them alone, compelled their surrender and regained his regiment with the four prisoners.
THATCHER, CHARLES M.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 1st Michigan Sharpshooters. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: Eastmanville, Mich. Born: 1844, Coldwater, Mich. Date of issue: 31 July 1896. Citation: Instead of retreating or surrendering when the works were captured, regardless of his personal safety continued to return the enemy’s fire until he was captured.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 4th Rhode Island Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: Slatersville, R.I. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 3 June 1905. Citation: Bore off the regimental colors after the color sergeant had been wounded and the color corporal bearing the colors killed thereby saving the colors from capture.
WILKINS, LEANDER A.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 9th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Lancaster, N.H. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Recaptured the colors of 21st Massachusetts Infantry in a hand_to_hand encounter.
WRIGHT, ALBERT D.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company G, 43d U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864. Entered service at:——. Born: 10 December 1844, Elkland, Tioga County, Pa. Date of issue: 1 May 1893. Citation: Advanced beyond the enemy’s lines, capturing a stand of colors and its color guard; was severely wounded.
The construction of the Notre Dame Cathedral in Strasbourg started in 1015, it was not until 1439 that the spire was completed. Four hundred twenty-four years in the making. Approximately eleven generations of families worked on this project.
Currently the US tallest building is The Freedom Tower in New York City at 1,776 feet. The Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) in Chicago, IL is the second highest at 1,451ft.
In 1925, the first motel — the “Motel Inn” — opened in San Luis Obispo, California.
The Hoover Dam was built to last 2,000 years. The concrete in it will not even be fully cured for another 500 years.
X-ray technology has shown there are 3 different versions of the Mona Lisa under the visible one.
Fred Rogers, aka Mr. Rogers, was the creator and host of “Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood.” He was equally known for his morning song as he was for his cozy sweaters. Turns out some of those sweaters were actually hand-knit by his own mom.
The last Aztec emperor was Montezuma II, who reigned from 1502 to 1520. He allowed Hernando Cortes to enter the capital of Tenochtitlan without a battle and was taken prisoner. He died under mysterious circumstances.
Although it is the central figure in the California flag, the last grizzly in that state was spotted in the Sierras in 1924.
The 1912 Olympics was the last Olympics that gave out gold medals that were made entirely out of gold.
Alcatraz Federal Prison was closed in March of 1963. The facility had served as a US military prison from 1859 to 1933 and as a federal prison from 1933. Frank Wathernam was the last prisoner to leave Alcatraz prison on March 21, 1963.
Antarctica is the only continent without reptiles or snakes.
Baskin Robbins once made ketchup ice cream. This was the only vegetable flavored ice cream produced.
Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature.
Ohio is the only US state without a rectangular flag. Ohio’s flag is a pennant.
The first graves in Arlington National Cemetery were dug by James Parks, a former Arlington Estate slave. Buried in Section 15, James Parks is the only person buried in Arlington National Cemetery who was also born on the property.
The hyoid bone in the throat is the only bone in the human body not joined to another.
“Life shrinks or expands in proportion to one’s courage.”
~ Anais Nin
trepid(TREP-id) adjective; Fearful; timid.
[From Latin trepidus (alarmed).]
1588 – The Spanish Armada was defeated by an English naval force under the command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake.
1603 – Bartholomew Gilbert was killed in the colony of Virginia by Indians, during a search for the missing Roanoke colonists.
1676 – Nathaniel Bacon was declared a rebel for assembling frontiersmen to protect settlers from Indians.
1773 – First schoolhouse west of Allegheny Mtns completed, Schoenbrunn, OH.
1775 – The legal origin of the Army Chaplains Corps is found in a resolution of the Continental Congress, adopted July 29, 1775, which made provision for the pay of chaplains. Numerous famous leaders have served as military chaplains, including Robert Treat Paine, a signer of the Declaration of Independence.
1776 – Silvestre de Escalante and Francisco Dominguez, two Spanish Franciscan priests, leave Santa Fe for an epic journey through the Southwest.
1786 – First newspaper published west of Alleghenies, Pittsburgh Gazette. The paper’s name was later changed to “The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette”.
1835 – First commercial sugar plantation in Hawaii begins.
1846 – Sailors and Marines from U.S. sloop Cyane capture San Diego, CA.
1862 – Civil War: At Moore’s Mill in Missouri, the Confederates were routed by Union guerrillas.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate spy Marie Isabella “Belle” Boyd is arrested by Union troops and detained at the Old Capitol Prison in Washington, D.C.
1864 – Civil War: Third and last day of battle at Deep Bottom Run, Virginia.
1864 – Civil War: Union forces tried to take Petersburg, Va., by exploding a mine under Confederate defense lines. The attack failed.
1864 – Battle of Macon, GA (Stoneman’s Raid).
1874 – Major Wingfield took out a patent for a game called Sphairistike, which the specification described as ” a new and improved portable court for playing the ancient game of tennis.”
1899 – First motorcycle race , Manhattan Beach, New York.
1905 – US Secretary of War William Howard Taft, under the approval of Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, and PM of Japan Katsura Taro signed the Taft-Katsura Agreement, which reinforced American and Japanese influence and spelled doom for Korean sovereignty.
1907 – Sir Robert Baden-Powell founded the Boy Scouts with the first Scout camp at Brownsea Island. The camp ran from August 1-9, 1907.
1914 – Transcontinental telephone service began with the first phone conversation between New York and San Francisco.
1920 – First transcontinental airmail flight from New York to San Francisco.
1920 – Mexican rebel Pancho Villa surrenders.
1927 – First iron lung installed, Bellevue hospital, New York.
1928 – Walt Disney’s “Steamboat Willie” is released.
1936 – RCA shows the first real TV program (dancing, film on locomotives, Bonwit Teller fashion show and monologue from Tobacco Road and comedy).
1938 – Olympic National Park established.
1938 – Comic strip “Dennis the Menace,” first appears.
1944 – World War II: Allied air force bombed Germany for six hours.
1945 – World War II: After delivering parts of the first atomic bomb to the island of Tinian, the U.S.S. Indianapolis was hit and sunk by the I-58 Japanese submarine around midnight. Some 883 survivors jumped into the sea and were adrift for 4 days. Nearly 600 died before help arrived. It was the worst loss in the history of the U.S. Navy. Most of the men died being eaten by sharks.
1945 – World War II: An Allied naval bombardment five battleships and several cruisers and destroyers targets the Japanese aircraft factories at Hamamutsu in southern Honshu.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “They Say It’s Wonderful” by Frank Sinatra, “The Gypsy” by The Ink Spots, “Surrender” by Perry Como and “New Spanish Two Step” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1947 – After being shut off on November 9, 1946 for a memory upgrade, ENIAC, the world’s first all-electronic digital computer, is reactivated today. It will remain in continuous operation until October 2, 1955.
1947 – Gas leak explodes in a beauty parlor, 10 women die in Harrisonburg, Virginia.
1950 – “Mona Lisa” by Nat ‘King’ Cole topped the charts.
1950 – RKO pictures released Walt Disney’s “Treasure Island” (1:35:51).
1950 – Pee Wee Reese, hits the 3,000th Dodger home run.
1952 – First nonstop transpacific flight by a jet. Major Louis Carrington flew a 91st SRW (Strategic Reconnaissance Wing) RB-45C on the first non-stop, transpacific flight.
1956 – Jacques Cousteau’s “Calypso” anchors in 24,608 feet of water (record) (4.66 miles).
1957 – Jack Paar made his debut as host of NBC’s late-night TV show “Tonight” and stayed on till 1962.
1957 – The International Atomic Energy Agency was established.
1958 – President Dwight Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, which created NASA.
1961 – “Tossin’ & Turnin‘” by Bobby Lewis topped the charts.
1961 – Bob Dylan injured in car accident.
1965 – Vietnam War: The first 4,000 paratroopers of the 101st Airborne Division arrive in Vietnam, landing at Cam Ranh Bay.
1965 – Beatles movie “Help” (1:31:44) premiers, Queen Elizabeth attends.
1966 – Bob Dylan hurt in motorcycle accident near Woodstock New York.
1967 – A fire on the Navy carrier USS Forrestal stationed off the coast of Vietnam killed 134 service members. The deadly fire on the USS Forrestal began with the accidental launch of a rocket. Current Senator John McCain (R-AZ) (then Navy Lt. Commander) survived the fire.
1967 – “Light My Fire” by the Doors topped the charts.
1968 – Pope Paul VI upheld the prohibition of all artificial means of birth control for Roman Catholics.
1969 – Mariner 6 begins transmitting far-encounter photos of Mars.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS -“(They Long to Be) Close to You” by Carpenters, “Band of Gold” by Freda Payne, “Make It with You” by Bread and “Wonder Could I Live There Anymore” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1970 – The Coast Guard Cutter “Vigorous” became the first 210-foot Coast Guard cutter to cross the Arctic Circle.
1970 – Six days of race rioting began in Hartford, Ct.
1972 – “Alone Again (Naturally)“ by Gilbert O’Sullivan topped the charts.
1974 – St Louis Cardinal Lou Brock steals his 700th base.
1974 – The House Judiciary Committee approved the 2nd article of impeachment against President Nixon.
1975 – President Ford became the first U.S. president to visit the site of the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz in Poland as he paid tribute to the camp’s victims.
1981 – Britain’s Prince Charles married Lady Diana Spencer at St. Paul’s Cathedral in London. Nearly one billion television viewers in 74 countries tuned in.
1983 – Steve Garvey ends his NL record 1,207 consecutive game streak.
1985 – General Motors announced that Spring Hill, TN, would be the home of the Saturn automobile assembly plant.
1985 – The space shuttle Challenger began an eight-day mission that got off to a shaky start. The spacecraft achieved a safe orbit even though one of its main engines shut down prematurely after lift-off.
1986 – A federal jury in New York found that the National Football League had committed an antitrust violation against the rival United States Football League. It proved to be a hollow victory for the USFL, the jury ordered the NFL to pay token damages of only $3.
1988 – FDIC bails out First Republic Bank, Dallas, with $4 billion.
1988 – NASA officials delayed a critical test-firing of the space shuttle Discovery’s main engines another three days. The test on Aug. 10 was judged a success.
1989 – “Toy Soldiers” by Martika topped the charts.
1989 – Ji Yun Lee (20) died in a fire at a church camp near East Stroudsburg, Pa. Her father Han Tak Lee (54), a South Korean-born operator of a clothing store in NYC, was arrested for arson. He was convicted of murder on Sep 17, 1990.
1991 – First Sunday Night game at Shea Stadium (Mets beat Cubs 6-0).
1992 – The U.S. 400-meter freestyle relay team won the gold medal at the Barcelona Summer Olympics.
1994 – The Senate approved the nomination of federal Judge Stephen Breyer to the U.S. Supreme Court.
1994 – Abortion opponent Paul Hill (40) shot and killed Dr. John Bayard Britton (69) and Britton’s bodyguard, James H. Barrett, outside the Ladies Center clinic in Pensacola, Fla. Hill was later convicted and sentenced to death. Hill was executed Sep 3, 2003.
1994 – Jesse Timmendequas, a convicted child molester, raped and strangled 7-year-old Megan Kanka in New Jersey. The case spawned the 1996 “Megan’s Law,” the requirement that communities be informed of paroled sex offenders living in their midst.
1996 – At the Atlanta Olympics, Carl Lewis won the gold medal in the long jump, becoming only the fifth Olympian to win gold medals in four straight games.
1997 – Members of US Congress from both parties embraced compromise legislation designed to balance the budget while cutting taxes.
1998 – The United Auto Workers union ended a 54-day strike against General Motors. The strike caused $2.8 billion in lost revenues.
1998 – Pres. Clinton reached an agreement with Kenneth Starr to provide closed-circuit videotaped testimony at the White House on Aug. 17 about whether he tried to cover up a sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsky.
1998 – The O.J. Simpson 6,200 sq. foot mansion at 360 N. Rockingham in LA was demolished. It had sold to an investment banker for $4 million and a new home was planned for the site.
1999 – Mark O. Barton killed nine people and wounded 13 others in a shooting rampage in Atlanta, GA. He wife and two children had been found bludgeoned to death earlier in the day.
1999 – US warplanes struck targets in northern and southern Iraq after anti-aircraft artillery shot at them. Iraq reported 8 people killed.
1999 – A federal judge in Little Rock, Ark., fined U.S. President Bill Clinton $89,000 for lying about his relationship with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky in his deposition in the Paula Jones sexual harassment case.
2001 – In Medina, Ohio a tractor engine exploded at a county fair and 4 people were killed.
2002 – Physician Bernard A. Harris, Jr. becomes an astronaut.
2002 -The Capitol Limited Amtrak train derailed outside Washington DC and over 100 people were injured.
2003 – President Bush refused to release a congressional report on possible links between Saudi Arabian officials and the Sept. 11 hijackers, saying disclosure “would help the enemy” by revealing intelligence sources and methods.
2003 – Boston’s Bill Mueller became the first player in major league history to hit grand slams from both sides of the plate in a game and connected for three homers in a 14-7 win at Texas.
2004 – Target Corp. of Minneapolis announced it would sell Mervyn’s to Sun Capital Partners in Boca Raton, Fla., for $1.65 billion.
2005 – The US Senate approved the nomination of Karen Hughes, a former political adviser to President Bush, as the State Department’s top public relations official, and Rep. Christopher Cox to chair the Securities and Exchange Commission.
2005 – The United Food and Commercial Workers with 1.4 million members departed the AFC-CIO. It planned to focus on recruiting new members along with the departing Teamsters and Service Employees.
2005 – Astronomers announced that they had discovered a new planet larger than Pluto in orbit around the sun.
2007 – Cal Ripken Jr. and Tony Gwynn took their place in the Baseball Hall of Fame.
2008 – Alaska Senator Ted Stevens (84), the longest-serving Republican in the US Senate, was indicted for making false statements concerning gifts he received from an oil-services firm.
2008 – In Maryland police raided the home of Berwyn Heights Mayor Cheye Calvo shooting to death the couple’s two dogs and seizing an unopened package containing 32 pounds of marijuana. The couple appeared to be innocent victims of a scheme by two men to smuggle millions of dollars worth of marijuana by having it delivered to about a half-dozen unsuspecting recipients.
2009 – Microsoft Corp. and Yahoo Inc. agreed to a 10-year Internet search partnership, capping a convoluted pursuit that dragged on for years and finally setting the stage for the rivals to make an all-out assault against the dominance of Google Inc.
2010 – US House investigators accused New York Rep. Charles Rangel (80) of 13 violations of congressional ethics standards.
2010 – Toyota Motor Corp said it would recall nearly 417,000 high-end passenger cars and SUVs in the United States and Canada to fix steering problems.
2011 – Johnson & Johnson announced that it will lower the maximum daily dosage of one of its signature products, Extra Strength Tylenol, in order to reduce the risk of liver damage.
2011 – A U.S. Court of Appeals holds that isolated DNA is “markedly different” in its chemical structure from the DNA within chromosomes, and thus is not simply a product of nature but of human ingenuity.
2011 – The United States House of Representatives votes to increase the debt ceiling but the Senate rejects it.
2013 – Eight workers were injured late Monday night, including four critically, in a series explosions that could be heard from up to 10 miles away inside a central Florida propane plant. One person was listed in critical condition at the University of Florida Health Shands Hospital. Three other workers were transported by helicopter and listed in critical condition at the Orlando Regional Medical Center.
1805 – Alexis de Tocqueville, French historian and politician. One of his famous quotes, “When America ceases to be good, America will cease to be great.”
1883 – Benito Mussolini, dictator of Italy (1922-1945).
1905 – Dag Hammarskjöld, Swedish Nobel Peace Prize winner, secretary-general of the United Nations (1953-1961).
1907 – Melvin Belli, American attorney, author.
1938 – Peter Jennings, American TV journalist.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company D, 20th Infantry, 6th Infantry Division. Place and date: Cordillera Mountains, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 29 July 1945. Entered service at: Nashport, Ohio. Birth: Salem, W. Va. G.O. No.: 49, 31 May 1946. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while fighting in the Cordillera Mountains of Luzon, Philippine Islands. When two Filipino companies were pinned down under a torrent of enemy fire that converged on them from a circular ridge commanding their position, Cpl. Mayfield, in a gallant single-handed effort to aid them, rushed from shell hole to shell hole until he reached four enemy caves atop the barren fire-swept hill. With grenades and his carbine, he assaulted each of the caves while enemy fire pounded about him. However, before he annihilated the last hostile redoubt, a machinegun bullet destroyed his weapon and slashed his left hand. Disregarding his wound, he secured more grenades and dauntlessly charged again into the face of pointblank fire to help destroy a hostile observation post. By his gallant determination and heroic leadership, Cpl. Mayfield inspired the men to eliminate all remaining pockets of resistance in the area and to press the advance against the enemy.
SCOTT, ROBERT S.
Rank and organization: Captain (then Lieutenant), U.S. Army, 172d Infantry, 43d Infantry Division. Place and date. Near Munda Air Strip, New Georgia, Solomon Islands, 29 July 1943. Entered service at. Santa Fe, N. Mex. Birth: Washington, D.C. G.O. No.: 81, 14 October 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty near Munda Airstrip, New Georgia, Solomon Islands, on 29 July 1943. After 27 days of bitter fighting, the enemy held a hilltop salient which commanded the approach to Munda Airstrip. Our troops were exhausted from prolonged battle and heavy casualties, but Lt. Scott advanced with the leading platoon of his company to attack the enemy position, urging his men forward in the face of enemy rifle and enemy machinegun fire. He had pushed forward alone to a point midway across the barren hilltop within 75 yards of the enemy when the enemy launched a desperate counterattack which, if successful, would have gained undisputed possession of the hill. Enemy riflemen charged out on the plateau, firing and throwing grenades as they moved to engage our troops. The company withdrew, but Lt. Scott, with only a blasted tree stump for cover, stood his ground against the wild enemy assault. By firing his carbine and throwing the grenades in his possession he momentarily stopped the enemy advance using the brief respite to obtain more grenades. Disregarding small-arms fire and exploding grenades aimed at him, suffering a bullet wound in the left hand and a painful shrapnel wound in the head after his carbine had been shot from his hand, he threw grenade after grenade with devastating accuracy until the beaten enemy withdrew. Our troops, inspired to renewed effort by Lt. Scott’s intrepid stand and incomparable courage, swept across the plateau to capture the hill, and from this strategic position four days later captured Munda Airstrip.
WHITTINGTON, HULON B.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, 41st Armored Infantry 2d Armored Division. Place and date: Near Grimesnil, France, 29 July 1944. Entered service at: Bastrop, La. Born: 9 July 1921, Bogalusa, La. G.O. No.: 32, 23 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. On the night of 29 July 1944, near Grimesnil, France, during an enemy armored attack, Sgt. Whittington, a squad leader, assumed command of his platoon when the platoon leader and platoon sergeant became missing in action. He reorganized the defense and, under fire, courageously crawled between gun positions to check the actions of his men. When the advancing enemy attempted to penetrate a roadblock, Sgt. Whittington, completely disregarding intense enemy action, mounted a tank and by shouting through the turret, directed it into position to fire pointblank at the leading Mark V German tank. The destruction of this vehicle blocked all movement of the remaining enemy column consisting of over 100 vehicles of a Panzer unit. The blocked vehicles were then destroyed by handgrenades, bazooka, tank, and artillery fire and large numbers of enemy personnel were wiped out by a bold and resolute bayonet charge inspired by Sgt. Whittington. When the medical aid man had become a casualty, Sgt. Whittington personally administered first aid to his wounded men. The dynamic leadership, the inspiring example, and the dauntless courage of Sgt. Whittington, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service.
HEALEY, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 5th Iowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Newnan, Ga., 29 July 1864. Entered service at: Dubuque, Iowa. Birth: Dubuque, Iowa. Date of issue: 13 January 1899. Citation: When nearly surrounded by the enemy, captured a Confederate soldier, and with the aid of a comrade who joined him later, captured four other Confederate soldiers, disarmed the five prisoners, and brought them all into the Union lines.
National Milk Chocolate Day
The year is 1910
What a difference a century makes!
Here are some statistics for the Year 1910:
************ ********* ************
The average life expectancy for men was 47 years.
Life expectancy for the year 2010 was 78.54.
Fuel for some cars was sold in drug stores only.
Only 14 percent of the homes had a bathtub.
Only 8 percent of the homes had a telephone.
There were only 8,000 cars and only 144 miles of paved roads.
In 2010 there were 254,639,386 cars, light trucks, etc. and 5,356,000 paved and unpaved miles of roads.
The maximum speed limit in most cities was 10 mph.
Most cities had speed limits of 45 mph.
The tallest structure in the world was the Eiffel Tower ! In the United States in 2009 it was Trump Tower at 1389′ in Chicago. By 2014 it was One World Trade Center at 1776′.
The first junior high schools opened in California.
The average US wage in 1910 was 22 cents per hour.
The average wage in 2010 was $12.67 per hour.
The average US worker made between $200 and $400 per year.
The average US worker made $26,363 per year.
Lakeview Gusher, the largest U.S. oil well gusher near Bakersfield, California, vented to the sky.
Children initiate idea of planting trees in Jerusalem.
A competent accountant could expect to earn $2000 per year, a dentist $2,500 per year, a veterinarian between $1,500 and $4,000 per year, and a mechanical engineer about $5,000 per year.
More than 95 percent of all births took place at HOME.
Ninety percent of all Doctors had NO COLLEGE EDUCATION! Instead, they attended so-called medical schools, many of which were condemned in the press AND the government as ‘substandard.’
Three passenger trains buried at Steven’s Pass in Cascade Range. 118 die. Worst snow slide in US history.
Sugar cost four cents a pound. in 2010 it was $.64 a pound.
Eggs were fourteen cents a dozen.
Coffee was fifteen cents a pound.
Most women only washed their hair once a month, and used Borax or egg yolks for shampoo.
First race at Los Angeles Motordrome (first US auto speedway)
Canada passed a law that prohibited poor people from entering into their country for any reason.
The Five leading causes of death were:
1. Pneumonia and influenza
4. Heart disease
The American flag had 45 stars.
The population of Las Vegas, Nevada was only 30! 574,378
Crossword puzzles, canned beer, and iced tea hadn’t been invented yet.
There was no Mother’s Day or Father’s Day.
Two out of every 10 adults couldn’t read or write and only 6 percent of all Americans had graduated from high school.
Marijuana, heroin, and morphine were all available over the counter at the local corner drugstores.
Back then pharmacists said, ‘Heroin clears the complexion, gives buoyancy to the mind, regulates the stomach and bowels, and is, in fact, a perfect guardian of health’
Eighteen percent of households had at least one full-time servant or domestic help.
There were about 230 reported murders in the ENTIRE U.S.A.!
“The best way to cheer yourself up is to try to cheer somebody else up.”
~ Mark Twain
fussbudget (FUS-buj-it) noun
One who is fussy about unimportant things.
[From fuss + budget, from Middle English, from Old French bougette,
diminutive of bouge (bag), from Latin bulga (bag). Ultimately from
Indo-European root bhelgh- (to swell) that is also the source of
bulge, bellows, billow, belly, and bolster.]
A synonym of this word is fusspot. Usually we dislike fusspots and
fussbudgets but sometimes we wish there were fussbudgets among our
elected leaders who cared enough to fuss about the budget of this
1540 – King Henry VIII’s chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, was executed, the same day Henry married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard.
1615 – French explorer Samuel de Champlain discovered Lake Huron on his seventh voyage to the New World.
1779 – Revolutionary War: Capt. John Welsh and thirteen Marines were killed in assault on Fort George at Penobscot Bay, Maine.
1851 – Total solar eclipse first captured on a daguerreotype photograph.
1858 – Fingerprints were first used as a means of identification by William Herschel, who later established a fingerprint register.
1863 – Civil War: Under the command of Lieutenant Commander English, U.S.S. Beauregard and Oleander and boats from U.S.S. Sagamore and Para attacked New Smyrna, Florida.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate John Mosby began a series of attacks against General Meade’s Army of the Potomac as it tried to pursue General Robert E. Lee in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley. Confederate Colonel John S. Mosby was known as “The Gray Ghost.”
1864 – Civil War: Large side-wheel double-enders U.S.S. Mendota and U.S.S. Agawam shelled Confederate positions across Four Mile Creek, on the James River.
1864 – Civil War: Atlanta Campaign-Battle of Ezra Church.
1865 – The American Dental Association proposed its first code of ethics.
1866 – Metric system becomes a legal measurement system in US. America is “metric” only in the sense that we can use it if we wish but no contract or other agreements can be cancelled if we don’t.
1868 – The 14th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America, guaranteeing due process of law and African-Americans citizenship and all its privileges, went into effect.
1896 – The city of Miami, Florida, was incorporated. This phenomenal change to this area came thanks to a visionary Cleveland widow named Julia Tuttle. The population at the time was 296 on 640 acres of land.
1900 – The Hamburger was created by Louis Lassing in Connecticut.
1914 – The New York Stock Exchange closed for 4 1/2 months.
1914 – Foxtrot first danced at New Amsterdam Roof Garden, New York City, by Harry Fox.
1914 – World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began today and lasted until 11 November 1918. More than 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians died as a result of the war.
1915 – US forces invade Haiti and stay until 1924.
1915 – Ten-thousand African Americans marched on Fifth Ave in New York City to protest lynchings.
1918 – Marine Corps BGen John A. Lejeune assumed command of the 2d U.S. Army Division in France.
1920 – Revolutionary and bandit Pancho Villa surrendered to the Mexican government.
1926 – Team of scientists from Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Carnegie Institution determine height of the Ionosphere through use of radio pulse transmitter developed by NRL.
1930 – A record high temperature of 114° occurred in Greensburg, KY.
1931 – Congress makes “The Star-Spangled Banner” our 2nd national anthem. It had been ordered by President Wilson in 1916 but made official today.
1931 – Idaho set a a state record high temperature of 118° in Orofino.
1932 – Federal troops forcibly dispersed the so-called “Bonus Army” of World War I veterans who had gathered in Washington, D.C., to demand money they weren’t scheduled to receive until 1945. Under orders from Pres. Hoover shacks built in the shadow of the nation’s Capitol these veteran demonstrators were burned.
1933 – The first singing telegram was delivered, to singer Rudy Vallee on his 32nd birthday.
1933 – The National Football League splits into two, five team divisions.
1939 – Judy Garland recorded “Over the Rainbow” for Decca Records.
1941 – Plans for the Pentagon were approved by the U.S. House of Representatives.
1941 – World War II: A Japanese army landed in Cochin, China (modern day Vietnam).
1942 – L.A. Thatcher received a patent for a coin-operated mailbox. The device stamped envelopes when money was inserted.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: Nazis murder ten-thousand Jews in Minsk, Russia.
1943 – World War II: President FDR announces end of coffee rationing in US.
1943 – World War II: On New Georgia the American attack continues. The present objective is Horseshoe Hill. Two Japanese destroyers are sunk by aircraft near Rabaul.
1943 – World War II:The Japanese evacuate most of their garrison on Kiska Island with being detected by American forces. Kiska was part of The Aleutian Islands campaign in the Pacific campaign of World War II.
1944 – LTJG Clarence Samuels became the first African-American to command a “major” Coast Guard vessel since Revenue Captain Michael A. Healy .
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “The More I See You” by Dick Haymes, “Dream” by The Pied Pipers, “Sentimental Journey” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day) and “Oklahoma Hills” by Jack Guthrie all topped the charts.
1945 – At 9:49 a.m a ten-ton, B-25 U.S. Army bomber crashed into the north side of the 79th floor of New York’s Empire State Building, killing 14 people It created a hole in the building eighteen feet wide and twenty feet high.
1951 – Walt Disney’s “Alice In Wonderland” (1:15:14) released.
1951 – “Come On-a My House” by Rosemary Clooney topped the charts.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Song from Moulin Rouge” by The Percy Faith Orchestra, “April in Portugal” by The Les Baxter Orchestra, “I’m Walking Behind You” by Eddie Fisher, “It’s Been So Long” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1954 – “Sh-Boom (Life Could Be a Dream)” by The Crew Cuts topped the pop singles chart.
1956 – “I Almost Lost My Mind” by Pat Boone shared #1
1956 – “I Want You, I Need You, I Love You” by Elvis Presley shared #1.
1957 – Jerry Lee Lewis made his television debut on “The Steve Allen Show.”
1959 – In preparation for statehood, Hawaiians voted to send the first Chinese-American, Hiram L. Fong, to the Senate and the first Japanese-American, Daniel K. Inouye, Medal of Honor recipient, to the House of Representatives.
1961 – CHART TOPPERS – ”Tossin’ and Turnin’” by Bobby Lewis, “The Boll Weevil Song” by Brook Benton, “Yellow Bird” by Arthur Lyman Group and “Heartbreak U.S.A.” by Kitty Wells all topped the charts.
1962 – “Roses Are Red (My Love)” by Bobby Vinton topped the charts.
1962 – Nineteen people died and one-hundred injured in a train crash in Steelton, Pa. A Pennsylvania Railroad spokesperson said the “Baseball Special” crashed because the tracks were out of alignment.
1962 – Mariner I, launched to Mars, fell into the Atlantic Ocean.
1964 – Ranger 7 was launched toward the Moon. It sent back 4308 TV pictures.
1965 – Vietnam War: President Johnson announced he was increasing the number of American troops in South Vietnam to 175,000 “almost immediately.”
1966 – Operation Latchkey, a series of 38 nuclear test explosions conducted in 1966 and 1967, began with the Saxon blast at the Nevada Test Site. All but one of the tests took place in Nevada.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “In the Year 2525” by Zager & Evans, “Crystal Blue Persuasion” by Tommy James & The Shondells, “My Cherie Amour” by Stevie Wonder and “Johnny B. Goode” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1973 – “Bad, Bad Leroy Brown” by Jim Croce topped the charts.
1973 – Launch of Skylab 3, the second manned mission to the first U.S. manned space station. It was piloted by MAJ Jack R. Lousma, USMC with CAPT Alan L. Bean, USN.
1975 – The US Dept of Interior designated the grizzly bear a threatened species in the lower 48 states under the US Endangered Species Act.
1976 – Captain Eldon Joersz & Major George Morgan set world air speed record of 2193.5 mph over a straight course in an SR-71 Blackbird.
1976 – An earthquake measuring between 7.8 and 8.2 magnitude on the Richter scale leveled Tangshan, China, killing nearly a quarter million people; it was the worst earthquake in modern history.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Looks Like We Made It “by Barry Manilow, “I Just Want to Be Your Everything” by Andy Gibb, “I’m in You” by Peter Frampton and “It was Almost like a Song” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1977 – First oil flow through the Alaska pipeline.
1978 – Price of gold topped the $200 per oz level for first time. Spot gold closed at $201.30.
1979 – “Bad Girls” by Donna Summer topped the charts.
1984 – “When Doves Cry” by Prince topped the charts.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Everytime You Go Away” by Paul Young, “Shout” by Tears For Fears, “You Give Good Love” by Whitney Houston and “Love Don’t Care (Whose Heart It Breaks)” by Earl Thomas Conley all topped the charts.
1985 – Lou Brock, Enos Slaughter, Hoyt Wilhelm and Arky Vaughn were inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame at Cooperstown, New York.
1989 – Vince Coleman, record streak stopped at 50 straight stolen bases.
1990 – “She Ain’t Worth It” by Glenn Medeiros featuring Bobby Brown topped the charts.
1990 – A blackout hit Chicago.
1991 – Dennis Martinez (Montreal Expos) pitched the 13th perfect game in major league baseball history.
1994 – Kenny Rogers (Texas Rangers) pitched the 14th perfect game in major league baseball history.
1995 – A jury in Union, South Carolina, rejected the death penalty for Susan Smith, sentencing her instead to life in prison for drowning her two young sons. Smith was eligible for parole after 30 years.
1996 – “You’re Makin’ Me High” by Toni Braxton topped the charts.
1997 – The Clinton administration and congressional leaders reached a tentative agreement on balancing the budget by 2002 while slashing taxes for millions of families, students and investors.
1998 – Monica Lewinsky received blanket immunity from prosecution to testify before a grand jury about her relationship with U.S. President Clinton.
1998 – Bell Atlantic Corp. and GTE Corp. announced a deal to create the second-biggest telephone company. The resulting mega-corporation was later to be named Verizon Communications.
1999 – The US Senate opened debate on the Republicans’ $792 billion tax cut bill.
2000 – Kathie Lee Gifford made her final appearance as co-host of the ABC talk show “Live with Regis and Kathie Lee.”
2002 – Cycling champion Lance Armstrong won his fourth straight Tour de France.
2002 – In Somerset, Pennsylvania nine coal miners, trapped July 24 by a flood 240 feet underground, were rescued after 77 hours underground in the Quecreek Mine.
2005 – Stephen McCullagh (29), an assistant scoutmaster from St. Helena, and Boy Scout Ryan Collins (13) were killed by lightning in Sequoia National Park in the Sierra Nevada.
2006 – Actor-director Mel Gibson launched an anti-Semitic tirade as he was arrested on the Pacific Coast Highway in Malibu, Calif., for driving drunk; Gibson later apologized and was sentenced to probation and alcohol treatment.
2006 – In Seattle, Wash., gunman Naveed Afzal Haq (30) killed Pam Waechter (58) of Seattle and wounded five others at the Jewish Federation of Greater Seattle. Haq said he was “angry at Israel.”
2007 – In California, garbage workers in Alameda County approved a new contract ending a twenty-six day lockout.
2008 – A senior Bush administration official said the budget deficit for this year will set a record in dollar terms, approaching $490 billion.
2009 – Tennessee state Sen. Paul Stanley (47) resigned in Nashville after his extramarital affair with an intern (22) was revealed by an investigation into an extortion case.
2010 – J. D. Salinger’s toilet is put on sale on eBay for $1 million.
2011 – Striking Verizon Communications workers will return to work from a strike on the night of Monday, August 22, 2011, even without a formal contract.
2061 – Thirty-first recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet.
1857 – Ballington Booth, English-born Salvation Army officer (d. 1940)
1900 – Catherine Dale Owen, American actress (d. 1965)
1901 – Rudy Vallee, American singer.
1929 – Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis, first lady of the U.S. (1961-1963), editor.
1943 – Bill Bradley, American basketball player and politician
1948 – Sally Struthers, American actress
CARON, WAYNE MAURICE
Rank and organization: Hospital Corpsman Third Class, U.S. Navy, Headquarters and Service Company, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and date: Quang Nam Province, Republic of Vietnam, 28 July 1968. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Born: 2 November 1946, Middleboro, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as platoon corpsman with Company K, during combat operations against enemy forces. While on a sweep through an open rice field HC3c. Caron’s unit started receiving enemy small arms fire. Upon seeing two Marine casualties fall, he immediately ran forward to render first aid, but found that they were dead. At this time, the platoon was taken under intense small-arms and automatic weapons fire, sustaining additional casualties. As he moved to the aid of his wounded comrades, HC3c. Caron was hit in the arm by enemy fire. Although knocked to the ground, he regained his feet and continued to the injured Marines. He rendered medical assistance to the first Marine he reached, who was grievously wounded, and undoubtedly was instrumental in saving the man’s life. HC3c. Caron then ran toward the second wounded Marine, but was again hit by enemy fire, this time in the leg. Nonetheless, he crawled the remaining distance and provided medical aid for this severely wounded man. HC3c. Caron started to make his way to yet another injured comrade, when he was again struck by enemy small-arms fire. Courageously and with unbelievable determination, HC3c. Caron continued his attempt to reach the third Marine until he was killed by an enemy rocket round. His inspiring valor, steadfast determination and selfless dedication in the face of extreme danger, sustain and enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
MORGAN, JOHN C. (Air Mission)
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 326th Bomber Squadron, 92d Bomber Group. Place and date: Over Europe, 28 July 1943. Entered service at: London, England. Born: 24 August 1914, Vernon, Tex. G.O. No.: 85, 17 December 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty, while participating on a bombing mission over enemy-occupied continental Europe, 28 July 1943. Prior to reaching the German coast on the way to the target, the B17 airplane in which 2d Lt. Morgan was serving as copilot was attacked by a large force of enemy fighters, during which the oxygen system to the tail, waist, and radio gun positions was knocked out. A frontal attack placed a cannon shell through the windshield, totally shattering it, and the pilot’s skull was split open by a .303 caliber shell, leaving him in a crazed condition. The pilot fell over the steering wheel, tightly clamping his arms around it. 2d Lt. Morgan at once grasped the controls from his side and, by sheer strength, pulled the airplane back into formation despite the frantic struggles of the semiconscious pilot. The interphone had been destroyed, rendering it impossible to call for help. At this time the top turret gunner fell to the floor and down through the hatch with his arm shot off at the shoulder and a gaping wound in his side. The waist, tail, and radio gunners had lost consciousness from lack of oxygen and, hearing no fire from their guns, the copilot believed they had bailed out. The wounded pilot still offered desperate resistance in his crazed attempts to fly the airplane. There remained the prospect of flying to and over the target and back to a friendly base wholly unassisted. In the face of this desperate situation, 2d Lt. Officer Morgan made his decision to continue the flight and protect any members of the crew who might still be in the ship and for 2 hours he flew in formation with one hand at the controls and the other holding off the struggling pilot before the navigator entered the steering compartment and relieved the situation. The miraculous and heroic performance of 2d Lt. Morgan on this occasion resulted in the successful completion of a vital bombing mission and the safe return of his airplane and crew.
MANNING, SIDNEY E.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army Company G, 167th Infantry, 42d Division. Place and date: Near Breuvannes, France, 28 July 1918. Entering service at: Flomaton, Ala. Born: 17 July 1892, Butler County, Ala. G.O. No.: 44, W.D., 1919. Citation: When his platoon commander and platoon sergeant had both become casualties soon after the beginning of an assault on strongly fortified heights overlooking the Ourcq River, Cpl. Manning took command of his platoon, which was near the center of the attacking line. Though himself severely wounded he led forward the thirty-five men remaining in the platoon and finally succeeded in gaining a foothold on the enemy’s position, during which time he had received more wounds and all but seven of his men had fallen. Directing the consolidation of the position, he held off a large body of the enemy only fifty yards away by fire from his automatic rifle. He declined to take cover until his line had been entirely consolidated with the line of the platoon on the front when he dragged himself to shelter, suffering from nine wounds in all parts of the body.
CLARK, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant and Regimental Quartermaster, 6th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: Near Warrenton, Va., 28 July 1863. Entered service at: Vermont. Born: 21 October 1830, Montpelier, Vt. Date of issue: 17 August 1891. Citation: Defended the division train against a vastly superior force of the enemy; he was severely wounded, but remained in the saddle for 20 hours afterward until he had brought his train through in safety.
MURPHY, ROBINSON B.
Rank and organization: Musician, Company A, 127th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Atlanta, Ga., 28 July 1864. Entered service at: Oswego, Kendall County, Ill. Birth: Oswego, Kendall County, Ill. Date of issue: 22 July 1890. Citation: Being orderly to the brigade commander, he voluntarily led two regiments as reinforcements into line of battle, where he had his horse shot under him.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 37th Ohio Infantry Place and date: At Ezra Chapel, Ga., 28 July 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 10 May 1894. Citation: At great hazard of his life he saved his commanding officer, then badly wounded, from capture.
National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day
Coffee Milkshake Day
I have always wondered how “restaurants” got their starts, no from a financial perspective but from an ideological standpoint. In looking at how they began I was surprised to find that they went back to ancient Roman history and actually started as mess-halls. Those were when the soldiers were near their deployments. How then did they eat “on the move.” The secret is by using “street vendors”, people who traveled with the troops to serve the military. That grew to what we currently call “street vendors over a long time.
The idea of cooking and serving food from portable canteens evolved over time. Ancient Romans hawked “street foods” in marketplaces and sold them in sporting venues. Medieval street foods were sold at fairs, tournaments, and other large gatherings. Today, we sometimes call this “fast food.”
The types of items consumed “on the street” are generally determined by the traditional foods of the country/region. Which foods are most popular? That depends upon the time and place. In the places where many cultures and cuisine combine, the confluence of street food is a reflection of the inhabitants. Food carts were often used by peddlers to sell inexpensive homemade and manufactured goods. Ice cream and candy were often sold in this fashion. Early carts where powered by people (pushed, pulled), animals (goats, horses), wheels (bicycles, tricycles) and motors (cars, trucks).
This is how one food historian sums up the topic:
“Street food in a given place, is often far more interesting than restaurant food. Generally speaking, wherever it is found it will be likely to represent well-established local traditions; and in some places a tour of hawkers’ stalls may be the quickest and most agreeable method of getting the feel of local foods. Among the factors which seem to determine how numerous and diverse street foods are in this or that country, one is clearly climate–a temperate or warm climate makes these operations much easier and also produces a larger number of passers-by who are not intent on getting to somewhere out of the cold. Another factor is the degree of economic development. Broadly speaking, developed countries have fewer street foods. However, there are many exceptions or anomalies…there are indeed few generalizations which can be safely made on the subject. Nor is there much literature available for study…A list of the most famous and widespread street foods would certainly include ice cream, doughnut, hamburger, and hot dog.”
—Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 1999 (p. 758)
The next time I go to Philadelphia, I will find the street vendor near the downtown Doubletree Inn who sells the best (IMHO) Philly cheesesteaks in the world!!!
“Excellence is to do a common thing in an uncommon way.”
~ Booker T. Washington
yestreen (ye-STREEN) noun;
Yesterday evening.[From Middle English yester- + even.]
1586 – Sir Walter Raleigh brings first tobacco to England from Virginia.
1663 – The British Parliament passed a second Navigation Act, which required all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.
1775 – The Army Medical Department and the Medical Corps trace their origins to this date when the Continental Congress established the Army hospital headed by a “Director General and Chief Physician.” Benjamin Church began his service as the first Surgeon-General and the Director of Hospitals.
1776 – Silas Deane (1737-1789), secretly sent to France as America’s first official envoy, wrote a letter to the US Congress informing them that he has been successful beyond his expectations. Deane had served as the Connecticut delegate to the Continental Congress.
1777 – The Marquis of Lafayette arrived in New England to help the rebellious colonists fight the British.
1784 – “Courier De L’Amerique” became the first French newspaper to be published in the United States. The paper was printed in Philadelphia, PA for all the many Philadelphians who spoke French.
1789 – Congress established the Department of Foreign Affairs, the forerunner of the Department of State.
1804 – The 12th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. With the amendment Electors were directed to vote for a President and for a Vice-President rather than for two choices for President.
1816 – U.S. troops destroy Ft. Apalachicola, a Seminole fort, to punish Indians for harboring runaway slaves.
1837 – US Mint opens in Charlotte, NC.
1861 – Civil War: Battle of Mathias Point, VA. Rebel forces repelled a Federal landing.
1861 – Civil War: General George B. McClellan as head of the Army of the Potomac.
1861 – Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln replaced General Irwin McDowell with George B. McClellan who then assumed command of the Army of the Potomac following a disastrous Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run.
1861 – Civil War: Battle of St. Augustine Springs, New Mexico Territory.
1863 – Civil War: Morgan’s Raid ends – At Salineville, Ohio, Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and 360 of his volunteers are captured by Union forces.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Darbytown, VA.
1864 – Civil War: Pickets from U.S.S. Shokokon were attacked ashore by Confederate sharpshooters at Turkey Bend, in the James River.
1866 – Cyrus W. Field finally succeeded in laying the first underwater telegraph cable between North America and Europe.
1888 – Philip Pratt unveils first electric automobile.
1898 – Marines from the USS Dixie were the first to raise the American flag over Puerto Rico.
1901 – The 1901 Wright Glider was the second of the brothers’ experimental gliders. They tested it over the Kill Devil Hills, four miles south of Kitty Hawk. The glider was similar to the 1900 version, but had larger wings. It first flew today and was retired on August 17.
1908 – US Attorney General Charles Joseph Bonaparte issues an order to immediately staff the Office of the Chief Examiner (later renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation).
1909 – Orville Wright set a record for the longest airplane flight. He was testing the first Army airplane and kept it in the air for 1 hour 12 minutes and 40 seconds. He was also carrying a passenger.
1914 – World War I: Germany informed Belgium and Luxembourg of its intention to pass its troops through their countries.
1918 – Socony 200, first concrete barge in US, launched to carry oil, NY. Socony was the Standard Oil Company of New York.
1919 – Troops were mobilized to put down Chicago riot which erupted on July 27, and continued for several days. Fifteen whites and twenty-three African-Americans were killed and more than five hundred were injured.
1920 – A radio compass was used for the first time for aircraft navigation.
1921 – Canadian scientists Frederick Banting and Charles Best successfully isolated insulin.
1923 – John Herbert Dillinger joins the Navy in order to avoid charges of auto theft in Indiana, marking the beginning of America’s most notorious criminal’s downfall.
1925 – Charlie Poole (1892-1931) and His North Carolina Ramblers recorded “Don’t Let Your Deal Go Down Blues” at the New York City studios of Columbia Records.
1931 – Grasshoppers in Iowa, Nebraska and South Dakota destroyed thousands of acres of crops.
1940 – Bugs Bunny made his debut in the animated cartoon “A Wild Hare (8:16).” This marked the beginning of the Bugs Bunny series by Fred “Tex” Avery along with the rhetorical “What’s up, Doc?”
1940 – Billboard magazine starts publishing bestseller charts.
1942 – Peggy Lee recorded her first hit record — “Why Don’t You Do Right” with the Benny Goodman Orchestra.
1944 – World War II: U.S. troops completed the liberation of Guam.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be Seeing You” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Frank Sinatra), “Swinging on a Star” by Bing Crosby, “Amor” by Bing Crosby and “Straighten Up and Fly Right” by King Cole Trio all topped the charts.
1945 – British and American carriers conduct extensive air strikes. During the night (July 27-28), US B-29 bombers drop some 600,000 leaflets over 11 Japanese cities which warn inhabitants that the cities are on the target list for bombing raids.
1947 – Yogi Berra starts a record 148 game errorless streak.
1949 – First jet-propelled airline, De Havilland Comet, flies.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Yours” by Eddie Fisher, “Walkin’ My Baby Back Home” by Johnnie Ray, “Auf Wiedersehn, Sweetheart” by Vera Lynn and “Are You Teasing Me” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: Air Force Captain Ralph S. Parr, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, achieved the last air victory of the Korean War when he destroyed an Il-12 transport plane.
1953 – Korean War: Representatives of the United Nations, Korea, and China signed the Korean War armistice at Panmunjon, Korea ending the war.
1953 – Dizzy Dean, Al Simmons Chief Bender, Bobby Wallace, Harry Wright, Ed Barrow, and Bill Klem and Tom Connolly are inducted into Hall of Fame.
1957 – “Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1959 – Santo and Johnny (Farina) of Brooklyn, NY saw their one and only hit record, the instrumental “Sleepwalk” released.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Sorry” by Brenda Lee, “Only the Lonely” by Roy Orbison, “Itsy Bitsy Teeny Weenie Yellow Polkadot Bikini” by Brian Hyland and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling” by Hank Locklin all topped the charts.
1960 – Vice President Nixon nominated for President at Republican convention in Chicago.
1962 – Martin Luther King Jr. jailed in Albany, Georgia.
1963 – “Surf City” by Jan & Dean topped the charts.
1964 – Vietnam War: The United States will send an additional 5,000 U.S. troops to Vietnam, bringing the total number of U.S. forces in Vietnam to 21,000.
1965 – Vietnam War: Forty-six U.S. F-105 fighter-bombers attack the missile installation that had fired at U.S. planes on July 24.
1965 – The Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act was signed into law. The law required health warnings on all cigarette packages.
1967 – President Johnson appointed the Kerner Commission to assess the causes of the violence in the wake of urban rioting.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Grazing in the Grass” by Hugh Masekela, “Stoned Soul Picnic” by The 5th Dimension, “Hurdy Gurdy Man” by Donovan and “Folsom Prison Blues” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1968 – Race riots lasted three days in Gary, Indiana.
1973 – Walter Blum becomes 6th jockey to ride 4,000 winners. In his illustrious 22-year jockey career, he rode 4,382 winners.
1973 – Secretariat broke two records while practicing at Saratoga Springs, NY. The legendary horse covered a mile in a speedy 1 minute, 34 seconds and ran a 1-1/8 mile distance in 1 minute, 47-4/5 seconds.
1974 – NBC-TV removed “Dinah’s Place” from its daytime programming roster.
1974 – The House Judiciary Committee voted 27-11 to recommend President Nixon’s impeachment on a charge that he had personally engaged in a “course of conduct” designed to obstruct justice in the Watergate case.
1974 – “Annie’s Song” by John Denver topped the charts.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss and Say Goodbye” by Manhattans, “Love is Alive” by Gary Wright, “Moonlight Feels Right” by Starbuck and “Teddy Bear” by Red Sovine all topped the charts.
1976 – Air Force veteran Ray Brennan became the first person to die of so-called “Legionnaire’s Disease” following an American Legion convention in Philadelphia.
1977 – John Lennon is granted a green card for permanent residence in U.S.
1980 – On day 267 of the Iranian hostage crisis, the deposed Shah of Iran (1941-1979) died at a military hospital outside Cairo, Egypt, at age 60.
1981 – Adam Walsh (6) disappeared from a Hollywood, FL mall. Fishermen discovered his severed head two weeks later in a canal 120 miles away. The Adam Walsh Act of 2006 obliged states to make their sex offender registries public.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “When Doves Cry” by Prince, “Dancing in the Dark” by Bruce Springsteen, “Ghostbusters” by Ray Parker Jr. and “Just Another Woman in Love” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.
1984 – Pete Rose passed Ty Cobb’s record for most singles in a career.
1985 – “Everytime You Go Away” by Paul Young topped the charts.
1986 – Greg Lemond is the first American to win the Tour de France.
1988 – Radio Shack announces the Tandy 1000 SL computer.
1989 – Workers at the Nissan Motor Corp. assembly plant in Smyrna, Tenn., voted against representation by the United Auto Workers.
1990 – Zsa Zsa Gabor begins a 3 day jail sentence for slapping a cop.
1991 – TV Guide publishes it’s 2000th edition.
1991 – “(Everything I Do) I Do it for You” by Bryan Adams topped the “Billboard 100” charts.
1993 – IBM reported a record $8.4 billion quarterly loss.
1993 – Boston Celtics star Reggie Lewis died after collapsing on a Brandeis University basketball court during practice; he was 27.
1995 – The Korean War Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C., by President Bill Clinton and South Korean President Kim Young-sam.
1996 – In Atlanta, Georgia, the XXVI Summer Olympiad was disrupted by the explosion of a nail-laden pipe bomb in Centennial Olympic Park, which killed one and injured more than 100.
1997 – United Auto Workers approved a deal to end a six-day strike at a General Motors parts plant that forced four assembly plant shutdowns and threatened GM’s entire North American production.
1999 – The Columbia space shuttle landed at Cape Canaveral after a three-day mission to deploy the Chandra X-ray telescope. With Air Force Colonel Eileen Collins at the controls, space shuttle “Columbia” returned to Earth, ending a five-day mission.
1999 – Binney & Smith Inc., makers of Crayola crayons, adopted the name “chestnut” to replace “Indian red.”
2001 – The ribbon cutting ceremony was held for American Airlines Center in Dallas, TX. The event set two new world records, one for the 3 mile long ribbon and one for the 2,000 people that cut it.
2001 – A judge in West Palm Beach, Fla., sentenced 14-year-old Nathaniel Brazill to 28 years in prison for fatally shooting teacher Barry Grunow at Lake Worth Middle School.
2003 – Bob Hope, master of the one-liner and favorite comedian of servicemen and presidents alike, died at his home in Toluca Lake, Ca. (b.1903) May 29th had been his 100th birthday.
2003 – Lance Armstrong rode to his 5th straight Tour de France victory in a ceremonial final stage in Paris.
2005 – Ahmed Ressam, an Algerian who’d plotted to bomb the Los Angeles airport on the eve of the millennium, was sentenced to 22 years in prison by a judge in Seattle.
2007 – Scientists discovered a prosthetic toe that could be between 1000 and 3000 BC. The device was a wooden and leather toe.
2007 – California’s top court ruled that police can no longer seize vehicles of suspects in drug or prostitution arrests.
2007 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average ended down over 500 points in its worst week in 5 years.
2007 – In Phoenix, Arizona, two news helicopters covering a police chase on live television collided and crashed to the ground, killing all four people on board.
2008 – CHURCH SHOOTING: In Knoxville, Tennessee, Jim D. Adkisson (58) entered the Tennessee Valley Unitarian Universalist Church during a children’s performance and killed two people. He said he hated the church’s liberal politics.
2010 – The Plastiki, a catamaran made out of recycled plastic, arrives in Sydney, Australia, after travelling across the Pacific Ocean from San Francisco, United States, to raise awareness of environmental issues.
2011 – A tropical storm watch is issued for Tropical Storm Don in Texas between Port Mansfield north to San Luis Pass.
2012 – The Citizens Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms today applauds the decision by the United States to not sign the proposed International Arms Trade Treaty, and CCRKBA credits grassroots action for the gun rights victory.
1733 – Jeremiah Dixon was an English surveyor and astronomer who is perhaps best known for his work with Charles Mason, from 1763 to 1767, in determining what was later called the Mason-Dixon line. (d. 1779)
1812 – Thomas Clingman, American Confederate general (d. 1897)
1904 – Kenneth Bainbridge, Director of the Trinity atomic test (d. 1996)
1905 – Leo Durocher, American baseball player and manager (d. 1991)
1913 – George L. Street III was a submariner in the United States Navy. He received the Medal of Honor during World War II. (d. 2000)
1916 – Keenan Wynn, American actor (d. 1986), Col. Bat Guano in Dr. Strangelove
1922 – Norman Lear, American television writer and producer, Creator of All in the Family.
1927 – John Seigenthaler, Tennessean editor, RFK aide
1931 – Jerry Van Dyke, American actor
1938 – Jerry Juhl, Head writer, The Muppet Show
1944 – Bobbie Gentry, American singer and songwriter , Ode to Billie Joe.
1948 – Betty Thomas, American actor and film director, Lucy Bates on Hill Street Blues
1948 – Peggy Fleming, Olympic gold medal winning ice skater.
*PETRARCA, FRANK J.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Medical Detachment, 145th Infantry, 37th Infantry Division. Place and date: At Horseshoe Hill, New Georgia, Solomon Islands, 27 July 1943. Entered service at: Cleveland, Ohio. Birth: Cleveland, Ohio. G.O. No.: 86, 23 December 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Petrarca advanced with the leading troop element to within one-hundred yards of the enemy fortifications where mortar and small-arms fire caused a number of casualties. Singling out the most seriously wounded, he worked his way to the aid of Pfc. Scott, Iying within seventy-five yards of the enemy, whose wounds were so serious that he could not even be moved out of the direct line of fire Pfc Petrarca fearlessly administered first aid to Pfc. Scott and two other soldiers and shielded the former until his death. On 29 July 1943, Pfc. Petrarca. during an intense mortar barrage, went to the aid of his sergeant who had been partly buried in a foxhole under the debris of a shell explosion, dug him out, restored him to consciousness and caused his evacuation. On 31 July 1943 and against the warning of a fellow soldier, he went to the aid of a mortar fragment casualty where his path over the crest of a hill exposed him to enemy observation from only twenty yards distance. A target for intense knee mortar and automatic fire, he resolutely worked his way to within two yards of his objective where he was mortally wounded by hostile mortar fire. Even on the threshold of death he continued to display valor and contempt for the foe, raising himself to his knees, this intrepid soldier shouted defiance at the enemy, made a last attempt to reach his wounded comrade and fell in glorious death.
MORIN, WILLIAM H.
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 23 May 1869, England. G.O. No.: 500, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead at the approaches to Caimanera, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 26 and 27 July 1898. Displaying heroism, Morin took part in the perilous work of sweeping for and disabling twenty-seven contact mines during this period.
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 28 May 1864, England. Accredited to. New York. G.O. No.: 500, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead at the approaches to Caimanera, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 26 and 27 July 1898. Displaying heroism, Spicer took part in the perilous work of sweeping for and disabling 27 contact mines during this period.
Rank and organization: Chief Carpenter’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 26 May 1867, Furland, Russia. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 500, 19 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead at the approaches to Caimanera, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 26 and 27 July 1898. Displaying heroism, Sundquist took part in the perilous work of sweeping for and disabling twenty-seven contact mines during this period.
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 18 December 1869, Chenokeeke, Kans. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 500, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Marblehead at the approaches to Caimanera, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 26 and 27 July 1898. Displaying heroism, Triplett took part in the perilous work of sweeping for and disabling twenty-seven contact mines during this period.
All Or Nothing Day
Aunt and Uncle Day
Being able to sue just about anybody is something that Ernie Chambers, a Nebraska State Senator, took to his advantage back in 2007 when he sued God for making terroristic threats against the citizens of his constituency. Chambers was out to make a point; he wanted to demonstrate that the laws of his state were too lax when it comes to enabling people to sue anybody for anything, frivolously or not. To make the case truly hilarious, Chambers said that since God was omnipresent, he was within the court’s jurisdiction, and that since he was omniscient, he didn’t need to be served (since he already knew he was being sued).
In 1991, Richard Overton sued Anheuser-Busch for false and misleading advertising under Michigan State law. The complaint specifically referenced ads involving, among other things, fantasies of beautiful women in tropical settings that came to life for two men driving a Bud Light truck. In addition to two claims of false advertising, Mr. Overton included a third claim in his complaint in which he claimed to have suffered emotional distress, mental injury, and financial loss in excess of $10,0000 due to the misleading Bud Light ads. The court dismissed all claims.
A man filed a lawsuit against his doctor because he survived longer than what the doctor had predicted.
Cleanthi Peters sued Universal Studios for $15,000. She claimed to have suffered extreme fear, mental anguish, and emotional distress due to visiting Universal Studios’ Halloween Horror Nights haunted house, which she said was too scary.
Negligent security is a legitimate claim, when you’re the victim, not the perpetrator! In 2002, Edward Brewer sued Providence Hospital for $2 million. He claimed that the hospital was negligent because it had not prevented him from raping one of its patients. The judge ruled that any damage Brewer suffered due to his crime was his responsibility for choosing to commit the crime, and that the hospital had no legal duty to protect him from that choice.
In 1995, Robert Lee Brock sued himself for $5 million. He claimed that he had violated his own civil rights and religious beliefs by allowing himself to get drunk and commit crimes which landed him in the Indian Creek Correctional Center in Virginia, serving a 23-year sentence for grand larceny and breaking and entering. What could he possibly have to gain by suing himself? Since being in prison prevented him from having an income, he expected the state to pay. This case was thrown out.
In 2001, Linda Sanders and other family members of Columbine High School shooting victims sued 25 movie and video game companies for $5 billion, in a class action lawsuit. They claimed that were it not for movies including The Basketball Diaries and videos games including Doom, Duke Nukem, Quake, Mortal Kombat, Resident Evil, Mech Warrior, Wolfenstein, Redneck Rampage, Final Fantasy, and Nightmare Creatures, the massacre would not have occurred, and that the makers and distributors of the movies and games were partly to blame for their loved ones’ deaths. The case was thrown out and the plaintiffs were ordered to compensate the video game and movie companies for their legal fees.
Whiplash is already widely seen as a completely fabricated injury in many cases, but this is just taking things too far. A 27-year-old man from Michigan was driving his car one day when another car hit him from behind in an extremely minor rear-end collision. Four years later, the man sued the driver of the other car for changing his sexuality. Apparently he had turned gay over those four years and left his wife, and he felt that the only cause could be the accident. The disgusting part about this is that he actually won the case, and $200,000 from the other driver.
The simple fact of the matter is that these are just a few of the cases that happen everyday across this country. If you are not protected from a lawsuit, frivolous or not you should get protection. There is a product available in most states that can provide 24-hour, 7-days a week access to an attorney and it will cost $20 per month or less. For less than one or two attorney hours you can have that protection for a whole year per family. The product is called Legal Shield.
For more information on this product email me at: firstname.lastname@example.org or call me, Wayne Church at 623-680-7230. This product is available only in the U.S. and Canada.
“Many people have the wrong idea of what constitutes true happiness. It is not attained through self-gratification, but through fidelity to a worthy purpose.”
~ Helen Keller
anachronism (uh-NAK-ruh-niz-uhm) noun
1. The error of placing a person, object, custom, or event in the wrong
2. A person, thing, or practice that does not belong in a time period.
Anachronism can be of two kinds: parachronism, when the assigned date is
too late, and prochronism, when the date is too early. Even language can
be fraught with anachronism. Imagine a science fiction story where the
protagonist rides a time machine to go back some 500 years. While there,
he comments how “nice” someone’s dress is. Well, at that time the word
nice would have meant “stupid”. Sometimes anachronism can be unintentional,
a story written in 1970 and set in 2000 that features the USSR, for example.
1533 – Atahualpa, the 13th and last emperor of the Incas, is strangled to death Francisco Pizarro’s Spanish conquistadors. His death ends 300 years of Inca civilization.
1775 – A postal system was established by the Second Continental Congress of the United States with Benjamin Franklin as the first postmaster general.
1788 – New York became the eleventh state to ratify the Constitution of the United States of America.
1790 – US passed the Assumption bill making it responsible for state war-debts.
1812 – War of 1812: Frigate Essex captures British brig Leander.
1835 – First sugar cane plantation started in Hawaii. Its first harvest in 1837 produced 2 tons of raw sugar, which sold for $200.
1846 – US Revenue Cutter Woodbury put down a mutiny on board the troop ship Middlesex during the Mexican War.
1848 – Charles Ellet Jr., engineer, completed a light suspension bridge over the Niagara River. A boy’s kite was used to transfer the first line across.
1848 – Frederick Douglass was the only male to play a prominent role at the first Woman’s Rights Convention at Seneca Falls, New York. He seconded the woman’s suffrage motion introduced by Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
1847 – The Republic of Liberia, formerly a colony of the American Colonization Society, declared its independence. It was the first African colony to secure independence.
1859 – The first intercollegiate regatta began in Worcester, MA. Harvard University defeated both Yale and Brown on Lake Quinsigamond.
1861 – Civil War: General George McClellan assumes command of the Army of the Potomac after the disastrous Union loss at Bull Run five days before.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and 360 of his men are captured at Salineville, Ohio.
1864 – Civil War: Battle at Ezra Chapel (Church), Georgia.
1865 – Patrick Francis Healy, first Black awarded Ph.D. degree, passed final examination at Louvain in Belgium.
1871 – Ferdinand Hayden (1830-1887) and his government sponsored team arrived at the Yellowstone Lake and the geyser fields.
1881 – Thomas Edison and Patrick Kenny execute a patent application for a facsimile telegraph (U.S. Pat. 479,184).
1893 – Commercial production of the Addressograph started in Chicago, Illinois.
1907- The Chester was launched. It was the first turbine-propelled ship.
1908 – U.S. Attorney General Charles J. Bonaparte established the Office of the Chief Examiner, which was the forerunner of the FBI.
1912 – First airborne radio communications from naval aircraft to ship (LT John Rodgers to USS Stringham).
1917 – J. Edgar Hoover got job with the Justice Department.
1918 – Britain’s top war ace, Edward Mannock, was shot down by ground fire on the Western Front.
1926 – Spingarn Medal awarded to Carter G. Woodson for “ten years devoted service in collecting and publishing the records of the Negro in America.”
1939 – Sixteen-year-old singer Kay Starr recorded “Baby Me” with Glenn Miller and his orchestra.
1941 – President Franklin Roosevelt seizes all Japanese assets in the United States in retaliation for the Japanese occupation of French Indo-China.
1942 – Judy Garland joined Gene Kelly to record “For Me and My Gal“.
1942 – World War II: About 400 miles southeast of Fiji, the American aircraft carriers Wasp, Enterprise and Saratoga rendezvous with the invasion force for Guadalcanal.
1942 – CAPT Joy Bright Hancock appointed Director, Women’s Naval Reserve.
1942 – World War II: Actor Gene Autry is sworn into the Army Air Corps on the air, during his regular radio show, “Gene Autry’s Melody Ranch.”
1943 – World War II: In the Solomon Islands, US forces continue to make slow progress with heavy air and artillery support. Tanks and flame throwers are also used.
1944 – World War II: Soviet army enters Lviv, major city of western Ukraine, liberating it from the Nazis. Only 300 Jewish survivors left, out of 160,000 Jews in Lviv prior to Nazi occupation.
1944 – World War II: The first German V-2 rocket hits Great Britain.
1944 – World War II: The first desegregation in the US Army. This was four years before Truman signed the Executive Order.
1945 – In the 11th hour of World War II, Winston Churchill was forced to resign as British prime minister following his party’s electoral defeat by the Labour Party. He became leader of the opposition and in 1951 was again elected prime minister.
1945 – World War II: The Potsdam Declaration is issued in a radio broadcast demanding the immediate and unconditional surrender of Japan. It also threatens the “prompt and utter destruction” of the Japanese homeland, if the government of Japan fails to do so.
1945 – World War II: The heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis arrived at Tinian Island in the Marianas with an unassembled atomic bomb including the U-235. The bomb is destined for Hiroshima.
1946 – Aloha Airlines begins service from Honolulu International Airport
1947 – President Harry Truman signed the National Security Act, creating the Department of Defense, the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. President Truman unified the Army and Navy under the Department of Defense and created the U.S. Air Force from the Army Air Force.
1948 – U.S. President Harry Truman signed Executive Order 9981, officially integrating the Armed Forces many years before the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s.
1948 – Babe Ruth was seen by the public for the last time, when he attended the New York City premiere of the motion picture, “The Babe Ruth Story”. Babe Ruth died on August 16, 1948 at Memorial Hospital in New York City at age 53.
1948 – First African-American host of a network show-CBS’ Bob Howard Show.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Too Young” by Nat King Cole, “My Truly, Truly Fair” by Guy Mitchell, “Mister and Mississippi” by Patti Page and “I Wanna Play House with You” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1952 – Mickey Mantle hits his first grand-slammer.
1952 – “Half As Much” by Rosemary Clooney topped the charts.
1953 – Fidel Castro’s revolutionary “26th of July Movement ” begins. The 26th of July Movement was the revolutionary organization led by Fidel Castro that in 1959 overthrew the Fulgencio Batista regime in Cuba.
1953 – Arizona Governor John Howard Pyle orders an anti-polygamy law enforcement crackdown on residents of Short Creek, Arizona, which becomes known as the Short Creek raid.
1954 – Three aircraft from the USS Philippine Sea (CVA-47) shoot down two Chinese fighters that fired on them while they were providing air cover for rescue operations for a U.K. airliner shot down by a Chinese aircraft.
1955 – Ted Allen throws a record 72 consecutive horseshoe ringers.
1958 – Army launches 4th US successful satellite, Explorer IV. It’s purposes were for studying the Van Allen radiation belts and the effects of nuclear explosions upon these belts (and the Earth’s magnetosphere in general). Explorer 4 was the only such satellite launched.
1958 – “Hard Headed Woman” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka, “A Big Hunk o’ Love” by Elvis Presley, “My Heart is an Open Book” by Carl Dobkins, Jr.and “The Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton all topped the charts.
1959 – There was a partial nuclear reactor meltdown at Rocketdyne’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory 30 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles.
1963 – “Mickey’s Monkey“ was released by Smokey Robinson & the Miracles.
1963 – US Syncom 2, first geosynchronous communications satellite is launched.
1964 – Teamsters president Jimmy Hoffa and six others were convicted of fraud and conspiracy in the handling of a union pension fund.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Windy” by The Association, “Can’t Take My Eyes Off You” by Frankie Valli, “Light My Fire” (9:26) by The Doors and “With One Exception” by David Houston all topped the charts.
1968 – John Lennon and Paul McCartney completed the song “Hey Jude.”
1969 – The Rolling Stones released the album “Beggar’s Banquet.”(39:52)
1969 – “In the Year 2525 (Exordium and Terminus)” by Zager & Evans topped the charts.
1969 – Scientists had a first look at the 46 pounds of rocks that Apollo 11 astronauts brought back from the moon. The “rock box” was opened for the first time in the Vacuum Laboratory of the Manned Spacecraft Center’s Lunar Receiving Laboratory, bldg 37, at 3:55 p.m.
1971 – US launches Apollo 15 to the Moon. The mission was the first flight of the Lunar Roving Vehicle which astronauts used to explore the geology of the Hadley Rille/Apennine region.
1974 – The U.S. House Judiciary Committee recommended impeachment of President Richard M. Nixon.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Hustle” by Van McCoy & The Soul City Symphony, “I’m Not in Love” by 10cc, “One of These Nights” by Eagles and “Touch the Hand” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1980 – “It’s Still Rock and Roll to Me” by Billy Joel topped the charts.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Every Breath You Take” by The Police, “Electric Avenue” by Eddy Grant, “Is There Something I Should Know” by Duran Duran and “Pancho and Lefty” by Willie Nelson & Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1983 – The United States warns of action to preserve navigation in the Persian Gulf.
1984 – “Purple Rain“, the film creation of Prince, premiered in Hollywood.
1986 – “Sledgehammer” by Peter Gabriel topped the charts.
1986 – Kidnappers in Lebanon released the Reverend Lawrence Martin Jenco, an American hostage held for nearly 19 months.
1988 – Mike Schmidt sets NL record appearing in 2,155 games at third base.
1989 – A federal grand jury indicts Cornell University student Robert T. Morris, Jr. for releasing the Morris worm. He become the first person to be prosecuted under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.
1990 – U.S. President George H.W. Bush signed into law the Americans with Disabilities Act.
1990 – The US House of Representatives reprimanded Congressman Barney Frank, (Democrat, Massachusetts) for ethics violations.
1990 – The US Centers for Disease Control reported that a young woman, later identified as Kimberly Bergalis, had been infected with the AIDS virus, apparently by her dentist.
1990 – General Hospital tapes its 7,000th episode.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Unbelievable” by EMF, “(Everything I Do) I Do It for You” by Bryan Adams, “P.A.S.S.I.O.N.” by Rythm Syndicate and “I Am a Simple Man” by Ricky Van Shelton all topped the charts.
1996 – Amy Van Dyken became the first American woman to win four gold medals at a single Olympics as she captured the 50-meter freestyle in Atlanta.
1996 – President Clinton rejected a clemency plea from Jonathan Pollard, who’d spent more than 10 years in prison for spying for Israel.
1999 – Fifteen-hundred pieces of Marilyn Monroe’s personal items went on display at Christie’s in New York, NY. The items went on sale later in 1999.
2000 – The US Navy reported that an F-14 Tomcat jet crashed in Saudi Arabia during a training flight. Iraqi units claimed to have shot down a US Air Force F-14. When the Navy said no, Iraq claimed that the Navy report was a coverup. The U.S. Air Force does not fly F-14s.
2000 – A federal judge approved a $1.25 billion settlement between Swiss banks and more than a half million plaintiffs who alleged the banks had hoarded money deposited by Holocaust victims.
2000 – A U.S. federal judge issued a preliminary injunction against Napster, Inc. The injunction had been requested by the Recording Industry of Association of America (RIAA). The website was ordered to cease trade in music covered by RIAA member copyrights by midnight July 28, 2000.
2002 – The US Republican-led House voted, 295 to 132, to create an enormous Homeland Security Department, the biggest government reorganization in decades.
2005 – Space Shuttle program: The Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 1039 EST this morning on mission STS-114. The NASA commentator says during launch “Lift-off, lift-off, and return to America’s journey to the Moon, Mars, and beyond”.This was NASA’s first scheduled flight mission after the Columbia Disaster in 2003.
2006 – San Francisco police officer Nick-Tomasito Birco (39) was killed when a Dodge van carrying four robbery suspects broadsided his patrol car at Cambridge and Felton.
2007 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average suffered one of its worst losses of the year, closing down 311.50 to 13,473.57.
2007 – United States Senate passes a package of measures recommended by the 9/11 Commission.
2007 – There was an explosion at a remote test facility in the Mojave Desert belonging to Scaled Composites LLC during testing of a new space tourism vehicle.
2009 – In New York a car crash in Briarcliff killed eight people including four children. Diane Schuler (36) was drunk and high on marijuana when she went the wrong way on Taconic State Parkway and crashed into an SUV.
2010 – Wikileaks releases over 92,000 documents detailing unreported killings of hundreds of Afghan civilians and other incidents related to the war in Afghanistan to The Guardian, The New York Times and Der Spiegel, in one of the biggest leaks in U.S. military history.
2011 – David Wu resigns as a member of the House of Representatives following allegations of an unwanted sexual encounter with an eighteen-year old.
2011 – U.S. Senator Al Franken of Minnesota, in a letter to the Justice Department and the Federal Communications Commission, demands that they block the effort of telephone giant AT&T to buy rival T-Mobile USA.
2012 -President Obama issued an Executive Order entitled, White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans. It places a premium on all education efforts to the exclusion of all other ethnic groups.
1739 – George Clinton, 4th vice president of the USA
1791 – Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart, composer (d. 1844)
1846 – Texas Jack Omohundro, American frontier scout, actor, and cowboy (d. 1880)
1856 – George Bernard Shaw, Irish playwright.
1894 – Aldous Huxley, English-born author (d. 1963)
1902 – William Lear, American engineer and industrialist who founded the Lear Jet Corporation
1903 – Estes Kefauver, U.S. Senator from Tennessee (d. 1963)
1918 – Marjorie Lord is an American television actress. She played Kathy “Clancy” Williams opposite Danny Thomas on “Make Room for Daddy “and later “Make Room for Granddaddy.”
1922 – Jason Robards, American actor (d. 2000)
1928 – Stanley Kubrick, American film director (d. 1999)
1940 – Mary Jo Kopechne, American aide to Robert F. Kennedy (d. 1969)
1943 – Mick Jagger, English singer (The Rolling Stones)
1956 – Dorothy Hamill, American figure skater
1964 – Sandra Bullock, American actress
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps, Commanding Rifle Company, 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Fonte Hill, Guam, 25-26 July 1944. Entered service at: Mississippi. Born: 11 February 1920, Brandon, Miss. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of a rifle company attached to the 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces at Fonte Hill, Guam, 25-26 July 1944. Ordered to take that portion of the hill within his zone of action, Capt. Wilson initiated his attack in mid-afternoon, pushed up the rugged, open terrain against terrific machinegun and rifle fire for three-hundred yards and successfully captured the objective. Promptly assuming command of other disorganized units and motorized equipment in addition to his own company and one reinforcing platoon, he organized his night defenses in the face of continuous hostile fire and, although wounded three times during this five-hour period, completed his disposition of men and guns before retiring to the company command post for medical attention. Shortly thereafter, when the enemy launched the first of a series of savage counterattacks lasting all night, he voluntarily rejoined his besieged units and repeatedly exposed himself to the merciless hail of shrapnel and bullets, dashing fifty yards into the open on one occasion to rescue a wounded Marine Iying helpless beyond the frontlines. Fighting fiercely in hand-to-hand encounters, he led his men in furiously waged battle for approximately ten hours, tenaciously holding his line and repelling the fanatically renewed counterthrusts until he succeeded in crushing the last efforts of the hard-pressed Japanese early the following morning. Then organizing a seventeen-man patrol, he immediately advanced upon a strategic slope essential to the security of his position and, boldly defying intense mortar, machinegun, and rifle fire which struck down thirteen of his men, drove relentlessly forward with the remnants of his patrol to seize the vital ground. By his indomitable leadership, daring combat tactics, and valor in the face of overwhelming odds, Capt. Wilson succeeded in capturing and holding the strategic high ground in his regimental sector, thereby contributing essentially to the success of his regimental mission and to the annihilation of three-hundred fifty Japanese troops. His inspiring conduct throughout the critical periods of this decisive action sustains and enhances the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
BATSON, MATTHEW A.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Calamba, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 26 July 1899. Entered service at: Carbondale, Ill. Birth: Anna, Ill. Date of issue: 8 March 1902. Citation: Swam the San Juan River in the face of the enemy’s fire and drove him from his entrenchments.
McGRATH, HUGH J.
Rank and organization: Captain, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Calamba, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 26 July 1899. Entered service at: Eau Claire, Wis. Birth: Fond du Lac, Wis. Date of issue: 29 April 1902. Citation: Swam the San Juan River in the face of the enemy’s fire and drove him from his entrenchments.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1853, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 215, 9 August 1876. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Plymouth, Navy Yard, New York, 26 July 1876. Showing heroic conduct, Corey endeavored to save the life of one of the crew of that ship who had fallen overboard from aloft.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1853, Bangor, Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 215, 9 August 1876. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Plymouth, Gidding showed heroic conduct in trying to save the life of one of the crew of that ship, who had fallen overboard from aloft at the Navy Yard, New York, 26 July 1876.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1847, St. Johns, Newfoundland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 215, 9 August 1876. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Plymouth at the Navy Yard, New York, 26 July 1876, Kersey displayed bravery and presence of mind in rescuing from drowning one of the crew of that vessel.
Cow Appreciation Day
National Day of the Cowboy
We can all agree that our teeth are very useful. Teeth allow us to cut and tear apart food so that we are able to swallow it. There is no denying that teeth play a huge part in the digestion of our food.
Here are some fun facts about teeth that you might find interesting. According to the American Academy of Periodontology, 50% of people say that a smile is the first feature they notice about someone.
An average person has 32 teeth. That number includes 4 wisdom teeth, 8 incisors, 4 canines, 12 molars and 8 pre-molars. Incisors are cutting teeth; canines grip and tear food; premolars and molars have flattened crowns to crush and grind food.
Teeth in humans start to form before they are born and you get 2 sets of teeth in your lifetime. The first set is your baby teeth and are called “milk teeth.” You will start to lose your baby teeth at around 6-7 years of age. By the time your 21 years old, you will only have permanent teeth.
Teeth are covered with a hard enamel called a crown. The enamel on a humans tooth is the hardest thing in their body. Inside of your tooth is you have dentine and the pulp of your tooth. Each tooth is attached to your jaw socket and has blood vessels and nerves. 2/3rd of the length of your tooth is in the gum.
40% of people over 65 years of age do not have all of their teeth.
“You can conquer almost any fear if you will only make up your mind to do so. For remember, fear doesn’t exist anywhere except in the mind.”
~ Dale Carnegie
carte blanche(kart blanch, kart blansh) noun
[From French carte blanche (blank card or blank document).]
1394 – Charles VI of France issued a decree for the general expulsion of Jews from France.
1587 – Japanese shogun Toyotomi Hideyoshi banned Christianity in Japan and ordered all Christians to leave, although the order was not immediately enforced. A decade later, the crackdown began, and 26 Christians were crucified.
1609 – Admiral William Somers, head of a 7-ship fleet enroute to Virginia, spied land after being blown off course and soon deliberately drove his ship, the Sea Venture, onto the reefs of Bermuda during the storm to prevent its sinking; the survivors go on to found a new colony called Bermuda.
1722 – Father Rale’s War begins along the Maine-Massachusetts border. The root cause of the conflict on the Maine frontier was over the border between Acadia and New England.
1729 – North Carolina becomes royal colony.
1759 – French and Indian War: In Western New York, British forces capture Fort Niagara from the French, who subsequently abandon Fort Rouillé.
1775- Maryland issued currency depicting George III trampling the Magna Carta.
1783 – The Revolutionary War:war’s last action, the Siege of Cuddalore, is ended by preliminary peace agreement.
1788 – Virginia ratified the U.S. Constitution and became the 10th state of the United States.
1805 – Aaron Burr visited New Orleans with plans to establish a new country, with New Orleans as the capital city.
1814 – During the War of 1812 at the Battle of Lundy’s Lane, reinforcements arrive near Niagara Falls for General Riall’s British and Canadian forces and a bloody, all-night battle with Jacob Brown’s Americans started at 6 pm; the Americans retreat to Fort Erie.
1832 – The first recorded railroad accident in U.S. history occurred, on the Granite Railway near Quincy, Massachusetts. In addition it was the site of the first fatal railway accident in the United States when the wagon containing Mr. Thomas B. Achuas, of Cuba, derailed as he was taking a tour.
1850 – In Worcester, MA, Harvard and Yale University freshmen met in the first intercollegiate billiards match.
1850 – Gold was discovered in the Rogue River in Oregon.
1854 – The paper shirt collar was patented by Walter Hunt of New York City.Mr. Hunt was best known for the safety pin and as developer of the first repeating rifle.
1861 – Civil War: The Crittenden Resolution, which called for the American Civil War to be fought to preserve the Union and not for slavery, was passed by the U.S. Congress.
1861 – Civil War: John LaMountain began balloon reconnaissance ascensions at Fort Monroe, Virginia.
1863 – Civil War: U.S. Squadron bombards Fort Wagner, NC.
1864 – Civil War: Union troops surrounding Petersburg, VA, began building a mine tunnel underneath the Confederate lines.
1866 – Rank of Admiral created. David G. Farragut is appointed the first Admiral in the U.S. Navy.
1866 – Ulysses S. Grant was named General of the Army, the first officer to hold the rank.
1867 – Lucien B. Smith patented the first barbed wire.
1868 – Congress passed an act creating the Wyoming Territory.
1868 – Congress enacted legislation granting an eight-hour day to workers employed by the Federal government.
1868 – Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina were readmitted to the Union.
1871 – Seth Wheeler of Albany, NY patented perforated wrapping paper.
1871 – Carousel patented by Wilhelm Schneider, Davenport, Iowa.
1876 – Emily Tassey was granted a patent for an apparatus for raising sunken vessels.
1898 – During the Spanish-American War, U.S. forces launch their invasion of Puerto Rico, the 108-mile-long, 40-mile-wide island that was one of Spain’s two principal possessions in the Caribbean.
1909 – Louis Bleriot first crossed the English Channel in an airplane.
1912 – First specifications for naval aircraft published.
1913 – Pittsburgh Pirates Max Carey goes hitless, but scores 5 runs against the Phillies.
1916 – Inventor of the gas mask, Garrett T Morgan, rescues six from gas-filled tunnel in Cleveland, Ohio.
1917 – Margaretha Zelle, the Dutch spy known as Mata Hari, was sentenced to death.
1917 – The first American fighting troops landed in France.
1918 – Race riot in Chester, Pennsylvania, left three African-Americans and two whites dead.
1920 – The first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast takes place.
1925 – First radio station in the U.S. to broadcast with a 50,000-watt transmitter – Station 2XAG in Schenectady, NY was the first name then it became WGY.
1930 – US Marine Lt. General “Chesty” Lewis Puller won first of five Navy Crosses chasing Sandino guerrillas in Nicaragua.
1934 – First President to visit Hawaii, Franklin D. Roosevelt, reaches Hilo on board USS Houston.
1934 – There was a Nazi coup in Vienna. Austrian Premier Engelbert Dollfus was shot and killed by Adolph Hitler.
1939 – W2XBS TV in New York City presented “Topsy and Eva,” the first musical comedy on TV.
1940 – The United States prohibits the export of oil and metal products in certain categories, unless under license, to countries outside the Americas generally and to Britain.
1940 – John Sigmund of St. Louis , MO completed a 292-mile swim down the Mississippi River. The swim from St. Louis to Caruthersville , MO took him 89 hours and 48 minutes.
1941 – Red Sox Lefty Grove becomes 12th to win 300 games (his last victory.)
1941 – The U.S. government froze Japanese and Chinese assets.
1943 – World War II: Benito Mussolini was forced to resign as Dictator of Italy, by his own Italian Grand Council and is replaced by Pietro Badoglio bringing an end to the Fascist regime.
1943 – Launching of USS Harmon (DE-72), first ship named for an African-American. It was named after Mess Attendant Leonard Roy Harmon, who was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross for his actions on the USS San Francisco during the battle of Guadalcanal.
1944 – Bing Crosby and the Andrew Sisters recorded Cole Porter’s “Don’t Fence Me In” in Los Angeles for Decca Records.
1944 – World War II: The US 1st Army begins “Operation Cobra”.
1946 – Crooner Dean Martin and comedian Jerry Lewis staged their first show as a team in Atlantic City at Club 500.
1946 – The U.S. detonated an atomic bomb at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific. It was called Operation Crossroads and was the first underwater test of the device.
1947 – The Women’s Reserve of the Coast Guard Reserve (SPARS) was disestablished.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bewitched” by The Bill Snyder Orchestra, “Mona Lisa” by Nat King Cole, “I Wanna Be Loved” by The Andrews Sisters and “I’m Moving On” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1950 – North Korea invaded South Korea initiating the Korean War.
1950 – Korean War: American soldiers In Korea ordered villagers away from Im Ke Ri and sent them on the road to Hwanggan.
1950 – The independent U.S. 29th Infantry Regimental Combat Team was committed to action near Chinju. The North Koreans ambushed its 3rd Battalion at Hadong, killing 313 and capturing 100.
1951 – The first regular commercial color TV transmissions were presented on CBS using the FCC-approved CBS Color System. The public did not own color TV’s at the time.
1952 – Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth of the United States.
1953 – “I’m Walking Behind You” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.
1953 – New York City transit fare rose from 10 to 15 cents and it was the first use of subway tokens.
1956 – The Italian liner Andrea Doria sank after colliding with the Swedish ship Stockholm, 45 miles south of Nantucket Island; 51 people died.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hard Headed Woman” by Elvis Presley, “Poor Little Fool” by Ricky Nelson, “Little Star” by The Elegants and “Alone with You” by Faron Young all topped the charts.
1959 – “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka topped the “Billboard” charts.
1961 – Maris hits home runs 37, 38, 39 & 40 in a double header. The games between New York and Chicago were both won by New York, 5-1 and 12-0.
1962 – The Elvis Presley film “Kid Galahad” premiered.
1962 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the use of unofficial non-denominational prayer in public schools was unconstitutional.
1964 – “Rag Doll” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1964 – Race riot in Rochester, NY.
1964 – Beatles’ ” A Hard Day’s Night” album goes #1.
1965 – Folk-rock begins, Dylan uses electric guitar at Newport Folk Festival.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hanky Panky” by Tommy James & The Shondells, “Wild Thing” by The Troggs, “Lil’ Red Riding Hood” by Sam the Sham & The Pharoahs and “Think of Me” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1966 – Supremes release “You Can’t Hurry Love“.
1966 – “Dark Shadows” began running on ABC-TV.
1966 – Yankee manager Casey Stengel was elected to baseball’s Hall of Fame.
1967 – US Navy Lt. Commander Donald Davis crashed his jet on the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Searchers later recovered fragments of his remains for return to the US.
1968 – Bobby Bonds (San Francisco Giants) hit a grand-slam home run in his first game with the Giants. He was the first player to debut with a grand-slam.
1969 – Neil Young made his first appearance with Crosby, Stills and Nash.
1969 – Edward Kennedy pleads guilty to leaving scene of an accident a week after the Chappaquiddick car accident that killed Mary Jo Kopechne.
1969 – The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam, in which he stated that the US henceforth expected its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense.
1970 – “(They Long to Be) Close to You” by the Carpenters topped the charts.
1970 – Chicago’s “25 or 6 to 4” was released.
1971 – The Beach Boys released their album “Surf’s Up.”
1972 – US health officials conceded that blacks were used as guinea pigs in the 40-year Tuskegee Syphilis Study in Macon County, Ala.
1973 – White House Counsel John Dean admitted that U.S. President Nixon took part in the Watergate cover-up.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Your Baby” by George McCrae, “Annie’s Song” by John Denver, “Rock and Roll Heaven” by The Righteous Brothers and “Maria Laveau” by Bobby Bare all topped the charts.
1974 – The US Supreme Court ruled in Milliken v Bradley that desegregation cannot be required across school district lines. The case had originated in Detroit.
1975 – “A Chorus Line,” longest-running Broadway show (6,137), premiers. The show closed in 1990.
1976 – Viking 1 takes the famous Face on Mars photo.
1978 – Louise Joy Brown, the first test-tube baby, was born in Oldham, England; she’d been conceived through in-vitro fertilization.
1978 – Bob Dylan booed off Newport Folk Festival for using electric guitar.
1978 – Pete Rose sets NL record hitting in 38 consecutive games.
1978 – The Viking 2 Orbiter to Mars was powered down after 706 orbits.
1981 – Voyager 2 encounters Saturn. Voyager 2 flew by Saturn’s cloudtops at a distance of 100,800 kilometers (62,600 miles).
1981 – Walter Payton signed a contract to play with the Chicago Bears of the NFL on this, his 27th birthday.
1981 – “The One That You Love” by Air Supply topped the charts.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Eye of the Tiger” by Survivor, “Rosanna” by Toto, “Hurts So Good” by John Cougar and “Take Me Down” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1984 – Soviet cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya became the first woman to walk in space.
1985 – ABC’s “Monday Night Football” began with a new line-up. The trio was Frank Gifford, Joe Namath and O.J. Simpson.
1987 – “Alone” by Heart topped the charts.
1987 – The Salt Lake City Trappers set a professional baseball record as the team won its 29th game in a row. The Trappers were an independent Pioneer League minor league baseball team, based in Salt Lake City from 1985 to 1992.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “She Ain’t Worth It” by Glenn Medeiros featuring Bobby Brown, “Hold On” by En Vogue, “Cradle of Love” by Billy Idol and “The Dance” by Garth Brooks all topped the charts.
1990 – Roseanne Barr screeched out the national anthem very off-key at a Padres game, grabbed her crotch and spit on the ground. The incident made the national news and set off widespread outrage.
1990 – The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the right of an individual, whose wishes are clearly made, to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. “The right to die” decision was made in the Curzan vs. Missouri case.
1992 – Army refused to overturn 127 year old conviction against Dr. Mudd.
1992 – General Colin Powell, chairman of the joint chiefs of staff, dedicated the Buffalo Soldiers Monument at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
1994 – Israel and Jordan formally ended the state of war that had existed between them since 1948.
1996 – Outside the Khobar Towers near Dhahran, Saudi Arabia a truck bomb exploded. The bomb killed 19 Americans and injured over 500 Saudis and Americans.
1996 – Divers searching the wreckage of TWA Flight 800 off Long Island, N.Y., recovered the flight data and cockpit voice recorders.
1997 – Autumn Jackson, found guilty of trying to extort $40M from Bill Cosby.
1997 – US immigration agents rounded up seventeen deaf Mexicans in Sanford, North Carolina. This followed the revelation of fifty deaf Mexicans held in servitude in New York City and forced to sell trinkets on the streets.
1997 – In Elk Creek, Virginia, Louis Ceparano and Emmett Cressell Jr. doused Garnett Paul “G.P.” Johnson with gasoline, set him on fire and cut off his head.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court rejected the line-item veto thereby striking down presidential power to cancel specific items in tax and spending legislation.
1998 – The new nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, USS Harry S. Truman, was commissioned by President Clinton. The 97,000 ton ship cost $4.5 billion.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that those infected with HIV are protected by the Americans With Disabilities Act.
1998 – Microsoft’s “Windows 98” was released to the public.
1998 – The US Capitol was reopened, a day after a gunman killed two police officers; a wounded suspect, Russell E. Weston Junior, was charged with murder.
1998 – U.S. President Clinton was subpoenaed to appear before a federal grand jury regarding the Monica Lewinsky case. The subpoena was withdrawn when Clinton agreed to give videotaped testimony with his lawyers present.
1999 – Lance Armstrong overcomes cancer to win the Tour de France.
2000 – Presidential candidate George W. Bush announced Former Defense Sec. Dick Cheney as his running mate.
2000 – A New York-bound Air France Concorde crashed outside Paris shortly after takeoff, killing all 109 people on board and four people on the ground. It marked the end of the Concorde.
2002 – The space shuttle Atlantis landed in Florida.
2002 – Zacarias Moussaoui declared he was guilty of conspiracy in the Sept. 11 attacks, then dramatically withdrew his plea at his arraignment in Alexandria, Va.
2004 – Lance Armstrong won a record sixth Tour de France bicycle race, in an amazing comeback after his bout with cancer.
2005 – Lance Armstrong became the first 7-time winner Tour de France bicycle race.
2005 – Corporal Dustin Berg, an Indiana National Guard soldier, pleaded guilty to negligent homicide in the death of an Iraqi police officer.
2005 – Intel announced plans to build a $3 billion computer microprocessor fabrication plant in Arizona.
2006 – San Francisco Supervisors gave final approval to a plan to provide health care coverage to the city’s estimated 82,000 uninsured residents.
2006 – The Interstate Abortion Bill is passed by the United States Senate. The bill would make it illegal for non-parents to take a minor to another state to obtain an abortion without parental consent.
2008 – Congressman Dennis Kucinich (D-Ohio) presents the articles for the impeachment of President George W. Bush to the U.S. House Judiciary Committee.
2008 – Google announces that it has indexed over 1 trillion unique web pages.
2008 – US regulators took over two banks and sold them to Mutual of Omaha Bank, the sixth and seventh bank failures this year as financial institutions struggle with a housing bust and credit crunch.
2008 – California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger signed a bill banning trans fat in restaurants and food facilities, making California the first state to do so. The law takes effect in two stages: Jan 1, 2010 and Jan 1, 2011.
2009 – Harry Patch, the last surviving World War I veteran to have fought in the trenches, dies aged 111.
2010 – WikiLeaks leaked to the public more than 90,000 internal reports involving the U.S.-led War in Afghanistan from 2004-2010.
2011 – The NFL Players Association unanimously accepts a 10 year pay deal with team owners in the NFL.
2011 – In softball, the U.S. defeats Japan 6-4 to win its fifth straight World Cup.
2011 – The President Barack Obama cancels fundraising dinners due to the ongoing debt crisis.
1750 – Henry Knox was an American bookseller from Boston who became the chief artillery officer of the Continental Army and later the nation’s first Secretary of War.
1775 – Anna Symmes Harrison, Ohio, ninth First Lady, 1841
1822 – Schuyler Hamilton, Major General Union volunteers in the Civil War.
1824 – Richard James Oglesby, Major General of U.S. Volunteers in the Civil War.
1894 – Walter Brennan, American actor (d. 1974)
1925 – Jerry Paris, born in San Francisco, California, director/actor, Jerry-Dick Van Dyke Show
1932 – Paul Joseph Weitz, born in Erie, Pennsylvania, astronaut, Skylab 2, STS-6
1941 – Emmett Louis “Bobo” Till was an African-American teenager from Chicago, Illinois who was brutally murdered in a region of Mississippi known as the Mississippi Delta near the small town of Drew in Sunflower County. His murder was one of the key events that energized the nascent American Civil Rights Movement.
1948 – Peggy Fleming, American Athlete
1954 – Walter Payton, American football player (d. 1999)
1957 – Daniel W. Bursch, born in Bristol, Pennsylvania, Lieutenant Commander USN/Astronaut, STS-51, 68, 77
1971 – Stacy Dawn Cenedese, Miss USA-Wyoming 1997
1978 – Louise Joy Brown, born in Oldham , England, world’s first “test tube baby”.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Near Songuch-on, Korea, 25 July 1953. Entered service at: El Paso, Tex. Born: 7 December 1929, La Junta, Colo. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a platoon sergeant of Company F in action against enemy aggressor forces. Participating in the defense of an outpost forward of the main line of resistance, S/Sgt. Guillen maneuvered his platoon over unfamiliar terrain in the face of hostile fire and placed his men in fighting positions. With his unit pinned down when the outpost was attacked under cover of darkness by an estimated force of two enemy battalions supported by mortar and artillery fire, he deliberately exposed himself to the heavy barrage and attacks to direct his men in defending their positions and personally supervise the treatment and evacuation of the wounded. Inspired by his leadership, the platoon quickly rallied and engaged the enemy in fierce hand-to-hand combat. Although critically wounded during the course of the battle, S/Sgt. Guillen refused medical aid and continued to direct his men throughout the remainder of the engagement until the enemy was defeated and thrown into disorderly retreat. Succumbing to his wounds within a few hours, S/Sgt. Guillen, by his outstanding courage and indomitable fighting spirit, was directly responsible for the success of his platoon in repelling a numerically superior enemy force. His personal valor reflects the highest credit upon himself and enhances the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1832, Kensington, N.J. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 215, 9 August 1876. Citation: For gallant conduct in attempting to save a shipmate from drowning at the Navy Yard, Mare Island, Calif., on 25 July 1876.
LUCAS, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 3d Missouri Cavalry. Place and date: At Benton, Ark., 25 July 1864. Entered service at: Mt. Sterling, Brown County, Ill. Birth: Adams County, Ill. Date of issue: December 1864. Citation: Pursued and killed Confederate Brig. Gen. George M. Holt, Arkansas Militia, capturing his arms and horse.
National Drive-Thru Day
Tell An Old Joke Day
FAMOUS LASTS IN ENTERTAINMENT
The last Andy Griffith Show was televised on September 16, 1968.
The Beatles last concert was at Candlestick Park, San Francisco, on August 29, 1966. The last song they played was “Long Tall Sally.” The Beatles recorded their last song together, “I Me Mine,” in 1970.
Italian violin maker Antonius Stradivarius of Cremona made his finest instruments after 1700. His last surviving instrument was dated 1737, the year of his death.
Buddy Holly’s last performance was on February 2, 1959.
Buddy Holly’s last record, “It Doesn’t Matter,” was released in 1959.
Last comedy show together for Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis at New York City’s Copacabana Club, the performance started on July 25, 1946.
The last Ed Sullivan Show on CBS-TV was June 6, 1971. Running for more than 20 years, the Ed Sullivan Show was the longest running variety show on TV. The first show had been telecast on June 20, 1948.
The last song that Elvis ever performed publicly was “Bridge Over Troubled Water“, at his final concert in Indianapolis in June, 1977.
The final episode of M*A*S*H was broadcast on February 28, 1983, and was titled “Goodbye, Farewell and Amen.”
In 2006 at the Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy, Luciano Pavarotti did his last performance. Pavarotti lip-synched (it was too cold to sing) a song during the opening ceremonies. he died in 2007 at 71-years-old.
Heath Ledger finished filming on “The Dark Knight” as The Joker and had started filming The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus when he died of an accidental drug overdose in January 2008.
On September 30, 1955, James Dean was killed in a car crash not long after completing filming on the 1956 movie “Giant.”
The last episode of the original Star Trek was on 6/3/1969 and was called “Turnabout Intruder.”
In February 2009, despite a tiger mauling during a show in 2003 (Roy Horn was almost killed), Siegfried and Roy gave a final performance in Las Vegas.
“It’s not what is available or unavailable that determines your level of success and happiness; it’s what you convince yourself is true.”
~ Dr. Wayne Dyer
exculpate \EK-skuhl-payt; ek-SKUHL-payt\, transitive verb:
To clear from alleged fault or guilt; to prove to be guiltless; to relieve of blame; to acquit.
1567 – Mary Queen of Scots is deposed and replaced by her one-year old son King James VI.
1651 – Anthony Johnson, a free Black, receives grant of 250 acres in VA. He was Virginia’s first free black and first to establish a black community, first black landowner, first black slave owner and as the first, white or black, to secure slave status for a servant, he was actually the founder of slavery in Virginia.
1683 – First settlers from Germany to US, leave aboard the Concord from London. They will arrive in Philadelphia on October 6, 1683 and form Germantown (part of Philadelphia).
1701 – Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac established Fort Ponchartrain for France at present-day Detroit.
1758 – George Washington admitted to Virginia’s House of Burgesses.
1763 – Ottawa Chief Pontiac led an uprising in the wild, distant lands that would one day become Michigan, Ohio and Pennsylvania.
1813 – Sailing Master Elijah Mix attempts to blow up British warship Plantagenet with a torpedo (mine) near Cape Henry, Virginia.
1824 – Harrisburg Pennsylvanian newspaper publishes results of first public opinion poll. It showed that Andrew Jackson was leading John Quincy Adams by 335 votes to 169 in the contest for the United States Presidency.
1832 – Benjamin Bonneville leads the first wagon train to cross the Rocky Mountains at Wyoming’s South Pass.
1847 – Brigham Young arrived with 148 Mormon pioneers at Utah’s Valley of the Great Salt Lake.
1847 – Rotary-type printing press patented by Richard March Hoe, New York City.
1849 – Georgetown University in Washington, DC, presented its first Doctor of Music Degree. It was given to Professor Henry Dielman.
1861 – Act “to provide for the temporary increase of the Navy” passed by Congress; gave President authority to take vessels into the Navy and appoint officers for them, to any extent deemed necessary; this con¬firmed action that had been taken by President Lincoln since April.
1862 – Martin Van Buren (79), the eighth president of the United States, died in Kinderhook, N.Y.
1862 – Civil War: Union fleets abandoned their attack on Vicksburg, Miss.
1863 – Civil War: Battle at Battle Mountain, Virginia.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate General Jubal Early defeats Union troops under General George Crook to keep the Shenandoah Valley clear of Yankees.
1864 – Battle of Winchester, VA, casualties numbered 1200 Union soldiers and 600 Confederate soldiers..
1864 – Civil War: Confederate guerrillas captured and burned steamer Kingston, which had run aground the preceding day between Smith’s Point and Windmill Point on the Virginia shore of Chesapeake Bay.
1866 – Tennessee became the first state to be readmitted to the Union after the Civil War.
1870 – The first Transcontinental Railroad was a railroad line built between 1863 and 1869 in the United States. When connected to the eastern railroads, it allowed trans-continental traffic.
1880 – First commercial hydroelectric power plant begins, Grand Rapids, MI.
1883 – Matthew Webb (b.1848), the first person to swim the English Channel (1875), drowned while trying to swim across the Niagara River just below the falls.
1897 – Black soldiers of the 25th Infantry Bicycle Corps arrived in St. Louis, MO, after completing a 40-day bike ride from Missoula, Montana.
1900 – Race riot in New Orleans, two white policemen killed.
1911 – Machu Picchu (Lost City of the Incas) was discovered by Hiram Bingham.
1911 – The first ‘all-star game’ in MLB history took place at League Park in Cleveland. It predated the first official ASG by 22 years. The contest was a benefit game to raise money for the widow and two children of Cleveland pitcher Addie Joss, who had died of meningitis at age 31 three months earlier.
1915 – Excursion ship Eastland capsizes in Lake Michigan. The fully-loaded passenger ship Eastland slowly rolled to her side, killing 844 of the more than 2,500 passengers.
1919 – Race Riot, Washington, D.C. Triggered by raids on Black residential areas by white soldiers. Six persons killed and more than one hundred wounded.
1929 – U.S. President Hoover proclaimed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which renounced war as an instrument of foreign policy.
1933 – The first broadcast of “The Romance of Helen Trent” (13:13) was heard on radio. It was on for 7,222 episodes, more than any other radio soap opera.
1933 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave his fourth “Fireside Chat.”
1935 – The Dust Bowl heat wave reaches its peak, sending temperatures to 109°F (44°C) in Chicago, Illinois and 104°F (40°C) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
1936 – The Coast Guard Cutter Cayuga was ordered to San Sebastian, Spain as the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War necessitated the evacuation of U.S. citizens.
1937 – The state of Alabama dropped charges against four African-American men accused of raping two white women in the so-called Scottsboro case.
1938 – Artie Shaw recorded his now-classic, “Begin the Beguine“.
1938 – Instant coffee was invented. Nestle came up with the first instant coffee after 8 years of experiments.
1941 – The U.S. government denounced Japanese actions in Indochina.
1942 – Irving Berlin’s musical “This is the Army,” premieres in New York City.
1943 – World War II: The U.S. submarine “Tinosa” fired fifteen torpedoes at a lone Japanese merchant ship, but none detonated.
1943 – World War II: British bombers raid Hamburg, Germany, by night in Operation Gomorrah, while Americans bomb it by day in its own “Blitz Week.” The bombings created “firestorms” that killed 40,000.
1944 – The V Amphibious Corps, commanded by Major General Harry Schmidt, landed on Tinian, in the Mariana Islands.
1945 – World War II:U.S. Navy bombers sank the Japanese battleship-carrier Hyuga in shallow waters off Kure, Japan.
1945 – World War II: At Potsdam, President Truman informs Stalin that a new and powerful weapon is now available for use against Japan but does not elaborate on the kind of weapon.
1945 – The Osaka-Nagoya area, the second largest population center in Japan, is bombed by 600 B-29 Superfortress bombers.
1946 – U.S. performs atmospheric nuclear test at Bikini Atoll. It was called Operation Crossroads.
1948 – Soviet occupation forces in Germany blockaded West Berlin. The U.S.-British airlift begins tomorrow.
1948 – Henry A. Wallace accepted the presidential nomination of the Progressive Party in Philadelphia.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Some Enchanted Evening” by Perry Como, “Bali Ha’I” by Perry Como, “Again” by Gordon Jenkins and “One Kiss Too Many” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1950 – V-2/WAC Corporal rocket launch; first launch from Cape Canaveral.
1952 – President Truman announced a settlement in a 53-day steel strike.
1952 – Pres. Truman commuted Oscar Collazo’s death sentence to life imprisonment. He was one of the two who had attempted to assassinate the president. On the same day he signed an act enlarging the self-government of Puerto Rico.
1954 – “Three Coins in the Fountain” by the Four Aces topped the charts.
1956 – At New York City’s Copacabana Club, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis perform their last comedy show together which started on July 25, 1946.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Teddy Bear” by Elvis Presley, “Love Letters in the Sand” by Pat Boone, “It’s Not for Me to Say” by Johnny Mathis and “Bye Bye Love” by The Everly Brothers all topped the charts.
1958 – Jack Kilby (1923-2005) of Texas Instruments came up with the idea for creating the first integrated circuit on a piece of silicon. By September 12 he made a working prototype.
1959 – VP Nixon argued with Khrushchev known as the `Kitchen Debate’. This debate took place during a time of increasing tension in the Cold War, starting with Sputnik in 1957 and ending with the U-2 affair in 1960.
1961 – Roger Maris hits four home runs in a doubleheader.
1961 – Edwin Newman becomes news anchor of the Today Show. Newman was a longtime correspondent for NBC News. He was a member of the network news team that announced to the nation the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963.
1961 – A US commercial plane was hijacked to Cuba and began a trend.
1964 – A race riot took place in Rochester, New York, and four people were killed. Violence and looting in Rochester spanned a period of approximately sixty hours, resulting in four deaths, at least 350 injuries, over 800 arrests, and property damage totalling more than a million dollars.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” by The Rolling Stones, “I’m Henry VIII, I Am” by Herman’s Hermits, “What’s New Pussycat?” by Tom Jones and “Before You Go” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 – Bob Dylan released “Like a Rolling Stone“.
1965 – The Beach Boys’ “California Girls” was released on the Jack Benny Show with guest Bob Hope.
1965 – Vietnam War: U.S. bombers on a raid over munitions manufacturing facilities at Kang Chi, 55 miles northwest of Hanoi, were fired at from an unknown launching site. It was the first time the enemy had launched antiaircraft missiles at U.S. aircraft.
1966 – Golfer Tony Lema (32), while flying with his wife Betty to an exhibition match in Chicago, Illinois, crashed on the seventh hole of a golf course in Lansing, Illinois. All four people on board were killed.
1967 – Race riot, Cambridge, Maryland. National Guard mobilized.
1969 – Hoyt Wilhelm pitches in a record 907th major league game. At his retirement in 1972 he had pitched in 1070 games, more than any pitcher in major league history.
1969 – Apollo 11 splashes down safely in the Pacific.
1969 – Muhammad Ali is convicted for refusing induction in U.S. Army on appeal.
1970 – In Laos Capt. Donald Bloodworth and his pilot were lost on a night reconnaissance mission in a F-4D fighter-bomber. Bloodworth’s remains were returned to the US in 1998.
1970 – Pres. Nixon signed the Failing Newspaper Act (Newspaper Preservation Act) allowing papers in the same market to cut costs by merging some of their operations.
1970 – Freddie Mac (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corp.), a stockholder-owned corporation, was chartered by Congress to keep money flowing to mortgage lenders in support of homeownership and rental housing.
1971 – “Indian Reservation” by the Paul Revere & the Raiders topped the charts.
1971 – The White House Plumbers unit formed to stop the leaking (hence “plumbers”) of classified information to the news media during the Nixon administration.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bad, Bad Leroy Brown” by Jim Croce, “Yesterday Once More” by Carpenters, “Shambala” by Three Dog Night and “Love is the Foundation” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1974 – The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that President Richard Nixon had to turn over subpoenaed White House tape recordings to the Watergate special prosecutor.
1976 – “Kiss and Say Goodbye” by the Manhattans topped the charts.
1976 – Hall & Oates’ “She’s Gone” was released.
1978 – movie trailer “Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band,” starring Peter Frampton and the Bee Gees, opened in New York City, NY. movie trailer
1978 – Billy Martin was fired for the first of three times as the manager of the New York Yankees baseball team.
1979 – Red Sox Carl Yastrzemski hits his 400th home run.
1979 – President Carter names Paul Volcker, President of Federal Reserve.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes, “All Those Years Ago” by George Harrison, “The One that You Love” by Air Supply and “Feels So Right” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1982 – “Eye of the Tiger” by Survivor topped the charts.
1983 – The Space Shuttle Challenger landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, making Sally Ride the first American woman in space.
1984 – After 14 years and four Super Bowl championships with the Pittsburgh Steelers, Terry Bradshaw retires from the National Football League.
1985 – Walt Disney’s “The Black Cauldron” opened in movie houses around the country. The film was the 25th full-length cartoon produced by the Disney Studios in Burbank, CA.
1986 – San Francisco Federal jury convicts Navy radioman Jerry Whitworth of espionage for the Soviets.
1987 – IBM-PC DOS Version 3.3 (updated) released
1987 – Hulda Crooks, a 91-year-old mountaineer from California, became the oldest woman to conquer Mount Fuji, Japan’s highest peak.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Toy Soldiers” by Martika, “Express Yourself” by Madonna, “Batdance” by Prince and “What’s Going on in Your World” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1989 – Paula Gwynn, 22, crowned 21st Miss Black America.
1990 – Pantera released “Cowboys From Hell.” It was their first major label release.
1990 – Iraqi forces start massing on the Kuwait/Iraq border.
1993 – “Can’t Help Falling in Love” by UB40 topped the charts.
1993 – US House Ways and Means Chairman Dan Rostenkowski denied allegations he’d received embezzled funds, saying he had engaged in “no illegal or unethical conduct.”
1993 – In Somalia, two Green Berets are WIA when their HUMVEEs are ambushed.
1995 – A three-night celebration of Frank Sinatra’s 80th birthday began at Carnegie Hall.
1997 – William J. Brennan (91), retired Supreme Court Justice (1956-1990), died in Arlington, Va.
1998 – A gunman burst into U.S. Capitol and opened fire killing two police officers, officers Jacob Chestnut and John Gibson, and wounded a visitor. Russel Weston Jr., was later ruled incompetent to stand trial.
1998 – The motion picture “Saving Private Ryan,” starring Tom Hanks and directed by Steven Spielberg, was released.
1999 – “Wild Wild West” by Will Smith topped the charts.
2000 – Georgia’s Democratic Governor Zell Miller was appointed to the late Republican Paul Coverdell’s Senate seat.
2000 – In Minneapolis, Minn., 80 people were arrested as demonstrators protested against a meeting of the Int’l. Society for Animal Genetics.
2001 – The city of Detroit, Michigan celebrated its 300th anniversary with a historical reenactment of city founder Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac landing on the shores of the Detroit River.
2001 – Larry Silverstein signed a $3.2 billion, 99-year lease for the New York City World Trade Center (WTC). This is just seven weeks before their destruction.
2002 – The US House voted 420-1 to oust Rep. James Traficant, an Ohio Democrat. On July 30 Traficant was sentenced to 8 years in prison for bribery and racketeering.
2002 – In Pennsylvania nine coal miners were trapped by a flood 240 feet underground. All nine were rescued Jul 27.
2002 – In Houston, Texas, Clara Harris ran over her cheating husband with her Mercedes after catching him with his mistress. Harris (45) was convicted of murder Feb 13, 2003.
2003 – The U.S. released pictures of the bodies of Odai and Qusai Hussein. The two died during a battle with U.S. forces near Mosul, Iraq.
2005 – Lance Armstrong wins his seventh Tour de France.
2005 – Four unions said they would boycott the AFL-CIO convention in Chicago. The Service Employees and Teamsters said they would quit the group.
2006 Floyd Landis wins the 2006 Tour de France.
2006 – Rescuers from the US Coast Guard and Alaska Air National Guard saved 23 crew members from a cargo ship taking on water south of the Aleutian Islands.
2007 – The US minimum wage rose 70 cents to $5.85 an hour, the first increase in a decade.
2007 – Florida began distributing playing cards to prison inmates with pictures and information regarding unsolved murder and missing person cases.
2009 – President Barack Obama conceded his words, that a white police officer “acted stupidly” when he arrested a black university scholar in his own home, were ill-chosen.
2009 – A federal minimum wage increase took effect. The increase to $7.25 meant 70 cents more an hour for the lowest-paid workers in the 30 states that have lower minimums or no minimum wage.
2010 – Alarms on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig are found to have been disabled before the explosion and subsequent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
2010 – A court in Arizona listens to challenges to the state’s policy against illegal immigrants.
2011 – A gunman fatally shoots six people, including himself, and wounds four others in a shooting in Grand Prairie, Texas.
2011 – Nearly 4,000 employees of the US FAA are furloughed due to Congressional authorization for its programs lapsing.
1802 – Alexander Dumas (Davy de La Pailleterie) (Dumas PÈre), French playwright, novelist.
1897 – Amelia Earhart, American aviator.
1920 – Bella Abzug, American feminist, U.S. Congresswoman.
1932 – William D Ruckelshaus, headed Environmental Protection Agency.
1936 – Ruth Buzzi, Westerly, Rhode Island, comedienne, Laugh-In, Margie-That Girl
1951 – Lynda Carter, born in Phoenix, Arizona, Miss USA, 1973, actress, Wonder Woman
1964 – Barry Bonds, born in Riverside, California, left fielder, Pirates, San Francisco Giants, 3X MVP
1970 – Jennifer Lopez, American actress, singer, record producer, dancer, and fashion designer.
PITTMAN, RICHARD A.
Rank and organization: Sergeant (then L/Cpl.), U.S. Marine Corps, Company 1, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein) FMF. Place and date: near the Demilitarized Zone, Republic of Vietnam, 24 July 1966. Entered service at: Stockton, Calif. Born: 26 May 1945, French Camp, San Joaquin, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While Company 1 was conducting an operation along the axis of a narrow jungle trail, the leading company elements suffered numerous casualties when they suddenly came under heavy fire from a well concealed and numerically superior enemy force. Hearing the engaged Marines’ calls for more firepower, Sgt. Pittman quickly exchanged his rifle for a machinegun and several belts of ammunition, left the relative safety of his platoon, and unhesitatingly rushed forward to aid his comrades. Taken under intense enemy small-arms fire at point blank range during his advance, he returned the fire, silencing the enemy position. As Sgt. Pittman continued to forge forward to aid members of the leading platoon, he again came under heavy fire from two automatic weapons which he promptly destroyed. Learning that there were additional wounded Marines fifty yards further along the trail, he braved a withering hail of enemy mortar and small-arms fire to continue onward. As he reached the position where the leading Marines had fallen, he was suddenly confronted with a bold frontal attack by thirty to forty enemy. Totally disregarding his safety, he calmly established a position in the middle of the trail and raked the advancing enemy with devastating machinegun fire. His weapon rendered ineffective, he picked up an enemy submachinegun and, together with a pistol seized from a fallen comrade, continued his lethal fire until the enemy force had withdrawn. Having exhausted his ammunition except for a grenade which he hurled at the enemy, he then rejoined his platoon. Sgt. Pittman’s daring initiative, bold fighting spirit and selfless devotion to duty inflicted many enemy casualties, disrupted the enemy attack and saved the lives of many of his wounded comrades. His personal valor at grave risk to himself reflects the highest credit upon himself, the Marine Corps, and the U.S. Naval Service.
HASTINGS, SMITH H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company M, 5th Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At Newbys Crossroads, Va., 24 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Quincy, Mich. Date of issue: 2 August 1897. Citation: While in command of a squadron in rear guard of a cavalry division, then retiring before the advance of a corps of infantry, was attacked by the enemy and, orders having been given to abandon the guns of a section of field artillery with the rear guard that were in imminent danger of capture, he disregarded the orders received and aided in repelling the attack and saving the guns.
WOODRUFF, CARLE A.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 2d U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At Newbys Crossroads, Va., 24 July 1863. Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Born: Buffalo, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 September 1893. Citation: While in command of a section of a battery constituting a portion of the rear guard of a division then retiring before the advance of a corps of Infantry was attacked by the enemy and ordered to abandon his guns. Lt. Woodruff disregarded the orders received and aided in repelling the attack and saving the guns.