Unerased History – December 2nd

Posted by Wayne Church on December 2, 2015 in 12 - December, Blog by month |
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National Fritters Day

National Mutt Day

Pearl Harbor Attack 5 days away – 1941


PEZ Candies

PEZ was invented by Eduard Haas, an Austrian confectioner and an anti-smoking advocate. He invented the peppermints using family owned baking powders, and decided to serve the mints in small, hand-size containers.  He manufactured a small tin to hold the mints, similar to the modern Altoids tins.It was first marketed as a compressed peppermint candy and meant to be a cigarette substitute. The word Pez comes from the German word for peppermint or Pfefferminz. It is the P from the beginning, E from the middle and the Z from the
end. The PEZ candies of the early days were black unlike the pastels we love today.


It wasn’t until 1952 that Eduard Haas introduced his product to the United States. Tto make their product more appealing to Americans. They placed heads on the dispensers and marketed it for children. It is unknown which dispenser was first but it was either the Full Body Robot or Full Body Santa. Then in 1955 PEZ started with different flavors and different dispensers. The major change to the dispenser was the placing of heads on the dispensers and marketed them for children. Santa Claus and Mickey Mouse were among the first character dispensers. Since 1950, over 1500 Pez dispensers, including the original character dispensers have been created.

With great tasting flavors and collectable dispensers, PEZ is more than just a candy…it’s the pioneer of “interactive candy” that is both enjoyable to eat and fun to play with. PEZ Dispensers are a hot collectable for adults and children alike as well as being a staple and part of American pop culture.  New character dispensers are introduced regularly to capitalize on current trends. Available around the world in more than 60 countries, PEZ Candy and Dispensers truly have universal appeal. Today, over 3 billion PEZ Candies are consumed annually in the U.S.A. alone.

Scripture of the Day


Founders Thoughts



When you get into a tight place and everything goes against you, till it seems as though you could not hang on a minute longer, never give up then, for that is just the place and time that the tide will turn.”


 ~Harriet Beecher Stowe


tirade     \TY-raid; tih-RAID\, noun:

A long angry speech; a violent denunciation; a prolonged outburst full of censure or abuse.

1763 – Dedication of the Touro Synagogue, in Newport, Rhode Island, the first synagogue in what became the United States.

1775 – Congress orders first Navy officers commissions printed.

1775 – The USS Alfred becomes the first vessel to fly the Grand Union Flag (the precursor to the Stars and Stripes); the flag is hoisted by John Paul Jones.

1776 – George Washington’s army began retreating across the Delaware River from New Jersey to Pennsylvania.

1777 – British officers under Gen. Howe met in the Philadelphia home of Lydia Darragh to discuss plans to the attack American forces on December 5, just prior to Gen. Washington’s planned move to Valley Forge. Mrs. Darragh, a woman much like Betsy Ross, listened in on the plans and sent word to White-marsh of the impending attack. She was a firm, devout Quaker who did not let her religion keep her from protecting her country and loved ones.

1812 – James Madison was re-elected president of US; Elbridge Gerry was vice-president.

1816 – The first savings bank in the U.S., the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society, opened for business.

1823 – Monroe Doctrine: US President James Monroe delivers a speech establishing American neutrality in future European conflicts.

1840 – William Henry Harrison was elected president of US. Whig candidate William Henry Harrison, Old Buckeye, and his running mate John Tyler ran and won in a landslide against Democrat President Martin Van Buren.

1845 – Manifest Destiny: US President James K. Polk announces to Congress that the United States should aggressively expand into the West.

1859 – Militant abolitionist leader John Brown is hanged for his October 16th raid on Harper’s Ferry. He was executed on charges of charges of treason, murder, and insurrection.

1861 – The small Oregon town of Champoeg is flooded by the Willamette River. No deaths occurred. Champoeg (Sham poo) is best known as the site of a series of meetings held in the town during the 1840s. On February 7, 1841 Willamette Valley settlers convened there for the first time. They selected Oregon missionary Jason Lee as their chairman and considered measures to deal with problem of wolves menacing their settlements. It was to be the first in a series of “Wolf meetings” at the town site that would establish the basis of civil codes.

1864 – Civil War: Major General Grenville M. Dodge was named to replace General Rosecrans as Commander of the Department of Missouri.

1864 – Civil War: Skirmish at Rocky Creek Church, Georgia.

1867 – In a New York City theater, British author Charles Dickens gives his first public reading in the United States. The effort and passion he put into these readings with individual character voices is also thought to have contributed to his death.

1899 – Philippine-American War: The Battle of Tirad Pass, termed “The Filipino Thermopylae”, is fought. The Philippine–American War (1899 – 1902/1913) was an armed military conflict between the United States and the Philippines, which arose from the First Philippine Republic struggle against U.S. annexation of the Islands. This conflict is also known as the Philippine Insurrection.

1901 – King Camp Gillette begins selling safety razor blades. Gillette and Nickerson formed the American Safety Razor Company (soon thereafter renamed for Gillette himself). For the first time, razor blades would be sold in multiple packages, with the razor handle a one-time purchase. Prior to this he was a  bottle-cap salesman.

1916 – Baseball players who are injured now get full pay for duration of contract.

1917 – World War I: Hostilities were suspended on the eastern front.

1920 – The Blanch King, a schooner, was ship wrecked on the coral reefs just southwest of Bermuda.

1926 – The first aluminum streetcars were put in service in Cleveland, Ohio.

1927 – Following 19 years of Ford Model T production, the Ford Motor Company unveils the Ford Model A as its new automobile. The price of a Model A roadster was $395.

1930 – Great Depression: US President Herbert Hoover goes before Congress and asks for a $150 million public works program to help generate jobs and stimulate the economy.

1932 – “Adventures of Charlie Chan” (26:19) first heard on NBC-Blue radio network.
1933 – The first transatlantic wedding took place. The groom was in Michigan. The bride was in Sweden. The ceremony took seven minutes and cost $47.50. Cheap wedding!
1933 – Fred Astaire’s first film, “Dancing Lady” is released.   To Live In The 20’s

1939 – New York City’s La Guardia Airport opens.

1941 – Largest roller skating rink (outside of New York City) opens in Peekskill NY.

1941 – Naval Intelligence ended the bugging of the Japanese consul.

1941 – World War II: Yamamoto ordered his fleet to Pearl Harbor. A special code order “Climb Mount Niitaka” is transmitted by Japanese naval headquarters to their carrier force bound for Hawaii.

1942 – Manhattan Project: A team, led by  Enrico Fermi, initiate the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction at a laboratory below the stands at the University of Chicago football stadium.

1943 – “Carmen Jones” opened on Broadway.

1943 – World War II: During the night (December 2-3) German bombers raid Bari, Italy. An ammunition ship in the harbor is hit and explodes, sinking 18 transports of 70,000 tons and 38,000 tons of supplies.

1944 – World War II: Elements of the US 3rd Army reach Saarlautern. To the south, the US 7th Army advances to the Rhine river after the Germans have withdrawn across it at Kehl.

1944 – Two-day destroyer Battle of Ormoc Bay begins.

1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Near You” by The Francis Craig Orchestra (vocal: Bob Lamm), “You Do” By Dinah Shore, “And Mimi” by Art Lund and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1947 – The thirteenth Heisman Trophy Award was awarded to John Lujack, Notre Dame (QB).

1950 – “The Thing” by Phil Harris topped the charts.

1950 – In the Chosin/Changjin Reservoir Area, 1st Marine Division elements began the fighting withdrawal from Yudam-ni to Hagaru-ri. The subzero weather earned the area the title “Frozen Chosin” from the Marines and soldiers who fought there.
Film: With The Marines/Chosin to Hungnam

1951 – Philadelphia sets NFL record of 25 first-downs rushing.

1952 – First human birth televised to public (KOA-TV Denver CO) It was a part of the program, “The March of Medicine”.

1952 – PEZ Candies issued Patent: 2,620,061.

1954 – Red Scare: The United States Senate votes 65 to 22 to condemn Joseph McCarthy for “conduct that tends to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute.” The condemnation, which was equivalent to a censure, related to McCarthy’s controversial investigation of allegedly suspected communists in the U.S. government, military and civilian society.

1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford, “I Hear You Knocking” by Gale Storm, “Memories are Made of This” by Dean Martin and , ”Love, Love, Love” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.

1956 – The Granma yacht reaches the shores of Cuba’s Oriente province and Fidel Castro, Che Guevara and 80 other members of the 26th of July Movement disembark to initiate the Cuban Revolution.

1957 – The first large-scale nuclear power plant in the world began operating in Shippingport, Pennsylvania exactly 15 years after Enrico Fermi demonstrated the first sustained nuclear reaction. The Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh built and operated the Shippingport plant.

1957 – Sam Cooke’s “You Send Me” reaches #1.

1959 – “Behind the Great Wall”, a truly stinking motion picture, was seen at the Mayfair Theatre in New York City. A somewhat noxious scent was piped through the ceiling vents during certain portions of the show. The effect was called Aromarama. It didn’t catch on…

1961 – In a nationally-broadcast speech, Cuban leader Fidel Castro declares that he is a Marxist-Leninist and that Cuba is going to adopt Communism.

1961 – “Big Bad John” by Jimmy Dean topped the charts

1962 – Vietnam War: After a trip to Vietnam at the request of US President John F. Kennedy, US Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield becomes the first American official to not make an optimistic public comment on the war’s progress.

1963 –CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Leaving It Up to You” by Dale & Grace, “Dominique “ by The Singing Nun  in English  in French, “Everybody” by Tommy Roe and “Love’s Gonna Live Here “ by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1963 – The USS Josephus Daniels was launched from the Bath Iron Works in Maine.The Destroyer is named for the North Carolina-born Secretary of the Navy, Josephus Daniels, who served between 1913 and 1921.

1965 – USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) and USS Bainbridge (DLGN-25) become first nuclear-powered task unit used in combat operations with launch of air strikes near Bien Hoa, Vietnam.

1967 – “Daydream Believer” by the Monkees topped the charts.

1967 – Singer Jimmie Rodgers (“Honeycomb“, “Kisses Sweeter Than Wine“) was found in a car in Los Angeles, near death, suffering from a fractured skull. He had been the victim of a “mysterious assault”.

1969 – Boeing 747 jumbo jet first public preview (Seattle WA to New York NY).

1969 – A patent was granted to Marie V.B. Brown for a television-based home security system.

1970 – The United States Environmental Protection Agency begins operations. The first director was William Ruckelshaus.

1970 – The US Senate voted to give 48,000 acres of New Mexico back to the Taos Indians.

1971 – CHART TOPPERS -“Theme from Shaft “ by Isaac Hayes, “Baby I’m-A Want You by Bread, “Have You Seen Her” by Chi-Lites and ”Daddy Frank (The Guitar Man)” by  Merle Haggard all topped the charts.

1971 – Imus began broadcasting on WNBC/New York and while there, he gained national recognition.

1972 – A large sinkhole developed near Calera in Shelby County, Alabama  in a matter of seconds. It has been called the “December Giant”.The sink is about 300 feet in diameter and 100 feet deep. This sinkhole occurred during a drought when the water table was much lower than normal.

1972 – “Papa Was a Rolling Stone” by the Temptations topped the charts.

1975 – Ohio State running back Archie Griffin becomes the first person ever to win the Heisman Trophy twice. He will play for the Cincinnati Bengals and be elected to the National Football Hall of Fame in 1986.

1976 – Fidel Castro becomes President of Cuba replacing Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado. He was a Cuban politician who served as President of Cuba from 17 July 1959 until 2 December 1976.

1978 – Neil Diamond & Barbra Streisand’s “You Don’t Bring Me Flowers” hits #1.

1979 – CHART TOPPERS -“No More Tears (Enough is Enough)” by Barbra Streisand/Donna Summer, “Babe” by Styx, “Please Don’t Go” by K.C. & The Sunshine Band and “Broken Hearted Me” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.

1979 – Libyans ransacked the US embassy at Tripoli, Libya, chanting support for the radical Islamic regime that took power in Iran earlier in the year.

1980 – Four U.S. nuns and churchwomen, Ita Ford, Maura Clarke, Jean Donovan, and Dorothy Kazel, are murdered by a death squad in El Salvador.

1980 – Pres. Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act and protected 104 million acres of wilderness. The size of Denali National Park was tripled to 6.2 million acres.

1982 -Barney Clark, a 62-year-old retired dentist,  became the first person to receive a permanent artificial heart. He survived 112 days.

1985 – The highest-rated “Monday Night Football” telecast was seen this night on ABC-TV. The Miami Dolphins beat the Chicago Bears, 38-24. The Miami win snapped the Bears’ 12-game winning streak.

1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “(I’ve Had) The Time of My Life” by Bill Medley & Jennifer Warnes, “Heaven is a Place on Earth” by Belinda Carlisle, “Should’ve Known Better” by Richard Marx and “Lynda” by Steve Wariner all topped the charts.

1988 – STS-27 Atlantis launched (Secret military mission)

1988 – “Naked Gun” premieres, a movie based on TV’s “Police Squad”.

1989 – “Blame It on the Rain” by Milli Vanilli topped the charts.

1989 – Andre Ware of the University of Houston becomes the first African American quarterback to win the Heisman Trophy.

1990 – The Midwest section of the U.S. prepared for a massive earthquake predicted to occur around New Madrid, MO by Iben Browning. Nothing happened. As late as this year (2013) the prediction includes a massive earthquake along the New Madrid Fault. It kills or injures 60,000 people in Tennessee. A quarter of a million people are homeless. The Memphis airport — the country’s largest air terminal for packages —shuts down. Major oil and gas pipelines across Tennessee rupture, causing shortages in the Northeast.

1991 – Apple releases the first version of QuickTime.

1991 – American hostage Joseph Cicippio was released by his kidnappers. He had been held captive in Lebanon for over five years.

1993 – Colombian drug trafficker Pablo Escobar was killed in a shoot-out with police and soldiers in the Colombian city of Medellin.

1993 – An unemployed man opened fire at an unemployment agency in Oxnard, CA. He killed three workers at the location and a police officer during a chase.

1993 – Space Shuttle program: STS-61 – NASA launches the Space Shuttle Endeavour on a mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope.

1994 – The U.S. government agreed not to seek a recall of allegedly fire-prone General Motors pickup trucks. Instead a deal was made with GM under which the company would spend more than $51 million on safety and research.

1994 – In Pensacola, FL, Paul Hill was given two life sentences for murdering a doctor and security guard outside an abortion clinic in July 1994.

1995 – “One Sweet Day” by Mariah Carey & Boyz II Men topped the charts.

1997 – The US FDA approved irradiation as a safe way to rid meat of bacteria.

2001 – Enron, the giant Houston energy trading company, its stock nearly worthless, became the largest firm to file for bankruptcy.

2001 – U.S. forces in Afghanistan captured John Walker Lindh, 20, a U.S. citizen from San Anselmo, Calif., found fighting with the Taliban.

2002 – The US Supreme Court agreed to decide whether minorities can be given a boost to get into universities. In June, a divided Court allowed the nation’s colleges and universities to select students based in part on race, but emphasized that race could not be the over-riding factor.

2003 – The Supreme Court ruled unanimously that after knocking, police don’t have to wait longer than 20 seconds before breaking into the home of a drug suspect.

2003 – GIMPS has confirmed that 220996011-1 is prime. At 6320430 decimal digits, it is easily the largest known prime number. 220996011-1 is the 40th known Mersenne prime and the 6th Mersenne prime discovered by GIMPS. This would be the equivalent of a 1 followed by 2.4 miles of 12-point zeros.

2004 –  The U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary requests Ohio Secretary of State Ken Blackwell to respond to alleged voting irregularities.

2005 – Iraq: Ten U.S. Marines are killed following an insurgent roadside bomb attack in Falluja.

2005 – Kenneth Boyd becomes the 1,000th person to be executed in the United States since capital punishment was reinstated in 1976. Kenneth Lee Boyd (January 19, 1948 – December 2, 2005) was executed by the State of North Carolina. He was convicted of the March 4, 1988 murder in Stoneville of his wife, Julie Curry Boyd and her father Thomas Dillard Curry.

2006 – A sport utility vehicle driven by actor Lane Garrison (Prison Break) hit a tree in Beverly Hills, killing a 17-year-old passenger; Garrison was later sentenced to three years and four months in prison for drunken driving.

2008 – Detroit’s Big Three auto makers presented turnaround plans to Congress and sought $34 billion in aid.

2008 – The new Washington, DC, Capitol Visitor Center opened to the public. The 580,000 square-foot structure ended up costing $621 million, over twice the budgeted amount.

2008 – In Chicago federal prosecutors unveiled a series of elaborate sting operations aimed at officers who hired out to ride shotgun for drug deals and other criminal activities.

2009-The New York State Senate votes down gay marriage bill, 38-24.

2009 – Cocktail waitress Jaimee Grubbs provides evidence to reporters that she had an affair with golf legend Tiger Woods.

2010 – In the US diplomatic cables leak case, Amazon.com cuts off its access to the WikiLeaks website following “heavy political pressure” applied by Senator Joe Lieberman.

2010 – The House of Representatives voted to formally censure Representative Charlie Rangel of New York for financial misconduct despite pleas from the New York Democratic lawmaker and some of his colleagues for a reprimand, which is a lesser punishment. The House first voted against downgrading the punishment to reprimand 146 to 267.

2010 – Actor Chuck Norris was made an honorary Texas Ranger today in Garland, Texas. Martial-arts expert Norris played a Ranger for years on the television series “Walker, Texas Ranger.”

2011 –  In the U.S., the Agriculture Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives votes to issue a subpoena to Jon Corzine, former Governor of New Jersey, in connection with the collapse of MF Global and the disappearance of customer funds.

2011 – In Santa Clara, Ca., city officials announced that they have secured $850 million in funding for a new 49ers football stadium now estimated to cost $1.02 billion.

2012 – In southern California a smuggling vessel rammed a small US Coast Guard boat killing Terrell Horne III (34) near the Channel Islands west of Malibu. Two Mexican suspects were detained.

2015 – A shooting took place  in the 1300 block of South Waterman Avenue in the California city, taking place at a building identified as the Inland Regional Center. The facility is a state-run medical center that serves people with developmental disabilities. Fourteen people killed and seventeen injured.


1694 – William Shirley, Colonial Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1771)
1738 – Richard Montgomery (d. 1775) was an Irish-American soldier who served as a major general in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War.
1754 – William Cooper, American judge, was the founder of Cooperstown, New York.
1760 – John Breckinridge, American politician (d. 1806) was a United States Senator and Attorney General.
1863 – Charles Ringling, American circus owner (d. 1926)
1885 – George Richards Minot, American physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize (d. 1950)
1902 – Howard Koch, (d. 1995) was an American screenwriter who was blacklisted by the Hollywood movie studio bosses in the 1950s.
1923 – Maria Callas, (d. 1977) was an American-born Greek soprano and perhaps the most renowned opera singer of the twentieth century.
1924 – Alexander M. Haig, Jr., is a retired four-star general in the United States Army
1925 – Julie Harris, is a American stage, screen, and television actress.
1931 – Edwin Meese, American politician served as the seventy-fifth Attorney General of the United States (1985-1988).
1968 – Lucy Liu, is an American actress. She became known for her role in the television series Ally McBeal (1998–2002)




Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Infantry, Company B, 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Phuoc Long province, Republic of Vietnam,  December 2nd, 1969. Entered service at: Seattle, Wash. Born: 1 March 1945, Stockton, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. 2d Lt. Leisy, Infantry, Company B, distinguished himself while serving as platoon leader during a reconnaissance mission. One of his patrols became heavily engaged by fire from a numerically superior enemy force located in a well-entrenched bunker complex. As 2d Lt. Leisy deployed the remainder of his platoon to rescue the beleaguered patrol, the platoon also came under intense enemy fire from the front and both flanks. In complete disregard for his safety, 2d Lt. Leisy moved from position to position deploying his men to effectively engage the enemy. Accompanied by his radio operator he moved to the front and spotted an enemy sniper in a tree in the act of firing a rocket-propelled grenade at them. Realizing there was neither time to escape the grenade nor shout a warning, 2d Lt. Leisy unhesitatingly, and with full knowledge of the consequences, shielded the radio operator with his body and absorbed the full impact of the explosion. This valorous act saved the life of the radio operator and protected other men of his platoon who were nearby from serious injury. Despite his mortal wounds, 2d Lt. Leisy calmly and confidently continued to direct the platoon’s fire. When medical aid arrived, 2d Lt. Leisy valiantly refused attention until the other seriously wounded were treated. His display of extraordinary courage and exemplary devotion to duty provided the inspiration and leadership that enabled his platoon to successfully withdraw without further casualties. 2d Lt. Leisy’s gallantry at the cost of his life are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the U.S. Army.





Rank and organization: Captain U.S. Marine Corps, commanding officer, Company F, 2d Battalion 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Chosin Reservoir area, Korea, 28 November to December 2nd, 1950. Entered service at: West Liberty, Ky. Born: 30 November 1919, Dehart, Ky. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of Company F in action against enemy aggressor forces. Assigned to defend a three-mile mountain pass along the division’s main supply line and commanding the only route of approach in the march from Yudam-ni to Hagaru-ri, Capt. Barber took position with his battle-weary troops and, before nightfall, had dug in and set up a defense along the frozen, snow-covered hillside. When a force of estimated regimental strength savagely attacked during the night, inflicting heavy casualties and finally surrounding his position following a bitterly fought seven-hour conflict, Capt. Barber, after repulsing the enemy gave assurance that he could hold if supplied by airdrops and requested permission to stand fast when orders were received by radio to fight his way back to a relieving force after two reinforcing units had been driven back under fierce resistance in their attempts to reach the isolated troops. Aware that leaving the position would sever contact with the 8,000 marines trapped at Yudam-ni and jeopardize their chances of joining the 3,000 more awaiting their arrival in Hagaru-ri for the continued drive to the sea, he chose to risk loss of his command rather than sacrifice more men if the enemy seized control and forced a renewed battle to regain the position, or abandon his many wounded who were unable to walk. Although severely wounded in the leg in the early morning of the 29th, Capt. Barber continued to maintain personal control, often moving up and down the lines on a stretcher to direct the defense and consistently encouraging and inspiring his men to supreme efforts despite the staggering opposition. Waging desperate battle throughout five days and six nights of repeated onslaughts launched by the fanatical aggressors, he and his heroic command accounted for approximately 1,000 enemy dead in this epic stand in bitter subzero weather, and when the company was relieved only eighty-two of his original two-hundred twenty men were able to walk away from the position so valiantly defended against insuperable odds. His profound faith and courage, great personal valor, and unwavering fortitude were decisive factors in the successful withdrawal of the division from the deathtrap in the Chosin Reservoir sector and reflect the highest credit upon Capt. Barber, his intrepid officers and men, and the U.S. Naval Service.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company J, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Yudam-ni, Korea, December 2nd, 1950 (declared missing in action on 2 December 1950, and killed in action as of 2 November 1953). Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Born: 1 January 1926, Pocatello, Idaho. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a squad leader in a provisional rifle platoon composed of artillerymen and attached to Company J, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Vastly outnumbered by a well-entrenched and cleverly concealed enemy force wearing the uniforms of friendly troops and attacking his platoon’s open and unconcealed positions, Sgt. Johnson unhesitatingly took charge of his platoon in the absence of the leader and, exhibiting great personal valor in the face of a heavy barrage of hostile fire, coolly proceeded to move about among his men, shouting words of encouragement and inspiration and skillfully directing their fire. Ordered to displace his platoon during the fire fight, he immediately placed himself in an extremely hazardous position from which he could provide covering fire for his men. Fully aware that his voluntary action meant either certain death or capture to himself, he courageously continued to provide effective cover for his men and was last observed in a wounded condition single-handedly engaging enemy troops in close hand grenade and hand-to-hand fighting. By his valiant and inspiring leadership, Sgt. Johnson was directly responsible for the successful completion of the platoon’s displacement and the saving of many lives. His dauntless fighting spirit and unfaltering devotion to duty in the face of terrific odds reflect the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service.




Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company I, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Gageby Creek, Indian Territory, December 2nd, 1874. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 23 April 1875. Citation: Courage while in command of a detachment.



Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 5th Indiana Cavalry. Place and date: At Walkers Ford, Tenn., December 2nd, 1863. Entered service at: Clifty Brumer, Ind. Birth: Monroe County, Ind. Date of issue: 9 March 1896. Citation: Voluntarily passed through the enemy’s lines under fire and conveyed to a battalion, then in a perilous position and liable to capture, information which enabled it to reach a point of safety.





Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1833, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Agawam as one of a volunteer crew of a powder boat which was exploded near Fort Fisher, December 2nd, 1864. The powder boat, towed in by the Wilderness to prevent detection by the enemy, cast off and slowly steamed to within 300 yards of the beach. After fuses and fires had been lit and a second anchor with short scope let go to assure the boat’s tailing inshore, the crew boarded the Wilderness and proceeded a distance of twelve miles from shore. Less than two hours later the explosion took place, and the following day fires were observed still burning at the forts.

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Unerased History – December 1st

Posted by Wayne Church on December 1, 2015 in 12 - December, Blog by month, School Shootings |
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 National Awareness Day of Awareness Days To Be Aware of Events

 Rosa Parks Day


 Pearl Harbor Attack – 7 days away – 1941


Rosa Parks 

Rosa McCauley was born in Tuskegee, Alabama, on 4th February, 1913. When Rosa was a child her mother, Leona McCauley, separated from her husband and moved to Montgomery. McCauley was a school teacher and encouraged her daughter to be active in the struggle for civil rights.

In 1932 Rosa married a barber, Raymond Parks. Both were members of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and Rosa served as the secretary of the Montgomery chapter.

During this period she became close friends with Philip Randolph, Edgar Nixon and Ella Baker. These activists worked within a range of different organizations. This included the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Established in 1942, by a group of students in Chicago, members were mainly pacifists who had been deeply influenced by Henry David Thoreau and the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi and the nonviolent civil disobedience campaign that he used successfully against British rule in India. The students became convinced that the same methods could be employed by blacks to obtain civil rights in America.

In early 1947, CORE announced plans to send eight white and eight black men into the Deep South to test the Supreme Court ruling that declared segregation in interstate travel unconstitutional. organized by George Houser and Bayard Rustin, the Journey of Reconciliation was to be a two week pilgrimage through Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Kentucky.

The Journey of Reconciliation began on 9th April, 1947. The team included George Houser, Bayard Rustin, James Peck, Igal Roodenko, Nathan Wright, Conrad Lynn, Wallace Nelson, Andrew Johnson, Eugene Stanley, Dennis Banks, William Worthy, Louis Adams, Joseph Felmet, Worth Randle and Homer Jack.

Members of the Journey of Reconciliation team were arrested several times. In North Carolina, two of the African Americans, Bayard Rustin and Andrew Johnson, were found guilty of violating the state’s Jim Crow bus statute and were sentenced to thirty days on a chain gang. However, Judge Henry Whitfield made it clear he found that behavior of the white men even more objectionable. He told Igal Roodenko and Joseph Felmet: “It’s about time you Jews from New York learned that you can’t come down her bringing your niggers with you to upset the customs of the South. Just to teach you a lesson, I gave your black boys thirty days, and I give you ninety.”

In Montgomery, like most towns in the Deep South, buses were segregated. Rosa Parks and other civil rights activists considered using these tactics in Montgomery. However, under pressure from the NAACP, this never took place. Thurgood Marshall, head of the NAACP’s legal department, was strongly against these tactics and warned that a “disobedience movement on the part of Negroes and their white allies, if employed in the South, would result in wholesale slaughter with no good achieved.”

In early 1955, Claudette Colvin, a 15-year-old African-American girl was dragged off a bus in Montgomery and arrested for not giving up her seat to a white person which was in keeping with the segregation laws of the time. Enraged by this treatment of African-Americans, the NAACP  agreed to take up the Colvin incident as a test case. It believed that this would result in a similar outcome to the 1954 Supreme Court decision on segregation in education. However, the NAACP decided to drop the idea when they discovered that Colvin was pregnant. They knew that the authorities in Montgomery would use this against them in the propaganda war that would inevitably take place during this legal battle.

On the evening of December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested.

“I did not get on the bus to get arrested; I got on the bus to go home.”

But that is not what happened instead the headlines in the newspaper said,”

Woman Fingerprinted. Mrs. Rosa Parks, Negro Seamstress, whose Refusal to Move to the Back of a Bus. 
New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection.

Rosa Parks: “Why do you push us around?”
Officer: “I don’t know but the law is the law and you’re under arrest.”

Rosa Parks, an African American, was arrested for disobeying an Alabama law requiring African-American passengers to relinquish seats to white passengers when the bus was full. Blacks also were required to sit at the back of the bus.

It was only at this stage, after consulting friends and family, that she decided to approach the NAACP and volunteer to become a test case. This was a brave decision as she knew it would result in persecution by the white authorities. For example, Parks was immediately fired from her tailoring job with Montgomery Fair.

A young, energetic pastor at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church by the name of Martin Luther King, Jr, agreed to help organize protests against bus segregation. It was decided that from 5th December, black people in Montgomery would refuse to use the buses until passengers were completely integrated. King was arrested and his house was fire-bombed. Edgar Nixon suffered the same fate. Others involved in the Montgomery Bus Boycott also had to endure harassment and intimidation, but the protest continued.

For thirteen months the 17,000 black people in Montgomery walked to work or obtained lifts from the small car-owning black population of the city. Eventually, the loss of revenue and a decision by the Supreme Court forced the Montgomery Bus Company to accept integration, and the boycott came to an end on 20th December, 1956. After the success of this campaign, Parks became known as the “mother of the Civil Rights Movement”.


Scripture of the Day


Founders Thoughts



“The ability to deal with people is as purchasable a commodity as sugar or coffee and I will pay more for that ability than any other under the sun.”

 ~ John D. Rockefeller

gundygut  (GUHN-di-guht) noun

A voracious eater; a greedy person.

[From gundy, of unexplained origin + gut (belly).]

1641 – Massachusetts became the first colony to give statutory recognition to slavery. It was followed by Connecticut in 1650 and Virginia in 1661.

1814 – The shallow-draft steamboat Enterprise, completed in Pittsburgh under the direction of keelboat captain Henry Miller Shreve, left for New Orleans to deliver guns and ammunition to Gen. Jackson.

1824 – Since no candidate received a majority of the total Electoral College votes in the election. The presidential election was turned over to the U.S. House of Representatives. A deadlock developed among John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, William H. Crawford and Henry Clay with Jackson 32 votes shy of a majority. The House of Representatives is given the task to decide the winner (as stipulated by the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution). John Quincy Adams ended up the winner. He was reportedly the only bald-headed president.

1835 – Hans Christian Andersen publishes first book of fairy tales.

1842 – The first US naval officer condemned for mutiny, was hanged. Midshipman Philip Spencer (18) on the brig-of-war Somers was the officer in question.

1860 – Charles Dickens publishes the first installment of Great Expectations in his magazine All the Year Round.

1861 – Civil War: The U.S. gunboat Penguin seized the Confederate blockade runner Albion carrying supplies worth almost $100,000.

1862 – Civil War: In his State of the Union Address President Abraham Lincoln reaffirms the necessity of ending slavery as ordered ten weeks earlier in the Emancipation Proclamation.

1863 – Civil War: Belle Boyd, a Confederate spy, was released from prison in Washington.

1864 – Civil War: Skirmish at Millen Brutal, Georgia.

1864 – Civil War: Raid at Stoneman: Knoxville, Ten., to Saltville, Va.

1879 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s operetta, “H.M.S. Pinafore”, opened. Arthur Sullivan conducted the orchestra while William Gilbert played the role of a sailor in the chorus and in the Queen’s Nay-vee.

1881 – Virgil, Wyatt and Morgan Earp were exonerated in court for their action in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Ariz.

1885 – Although the exact date is unknown, the US Patent Office acknowledges Today as the first day Dr Pepper was served.

1887 – Sherlock Holmes first appeared in print: “Study in Scarlet.” Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s first story about the detective he named Sherlock Holmes was published in Beeton’s Christmas Annual.

1891 – The Canadian, Dr. James B. Naismith, sports figure, inventor, teacher, invented the game of basketball at the YMCA in Springfield, Mass. A janitor provided peach baskets instead of the requested boxes.

1896 – First certified public accountants received certificates in NY.

1897 – Strongman Louis Cyr withstands the pull of 4 horses.

1903 – First western movie released – “The Great Train Robbery.” Moviegoers screamed when the scene of an outlaw shooting directly into the camera was shown.

1904 – The Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis closed after seven months and twenty million visitors. Fingerprints were introduced to law enforcement for identity verification.

1908 – The US Department of Agriculture as of this day restricted opium imports to the US based on morphine content. Opium with under 3% morphine, which included opium for smoking, was restricted.

1913 – Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving assembly line.

1913 – The first drive-in automobile service station, built by Gulf Refining Co., opened in Pittsburgh.

1917 – Boys Town founded by Father Edward Flanagan west of Omaha Nebraska. In 1938, Spencer Tracy portrayed Father Flanagan in the movie, “Boys Town”, and won himself an Oscar.

1918 – US breweries shut down due to a September directive from President Wilson.

1918 – World War I: An American army of occupation entered Germany.

1919 – Lady Astor becomes first female member of the British Parliament to take her seat (she had been elected to that position on November 28).

1921 – The US Navy flew the first non-rigid dirigible to use helium; the C-7 traveled from Hampton Roads, Va., to Washington.

1922 – First skywriting over US-“Hello USA”-by Capt Turner, RAF.

1924 – “Lady Be Good” opened in New York City. Music by George Gershwin, Lyrics by Ira Gershwin, the play ran for 330 shows.

1925 – World War I aftermath: – The final Locarno Treaty is signed in London, establishing post-war territorial settlements.

1929 – Game of Bingo was invented by Edwin S. Lowe.

1933 – Rudolf Hess and Earnest Roehm became ministers in Hitler govt. Nazi storm troops become an official organ of the Reich.

1936 – Bell Labs tested coaxial cable for TV use.

1939 – Holocaust: Reichsfuhrer-SS Heinrich Himmler ordered the deportation of Polish Jews. In addition they were forced to wear Star of David armbands.

1941 – World War II: The first Civil Air Patrol in the U.S. was organized. CAP was created with Administrative Order 9, signed by New York Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia today. (www.CAP.gov).

1941 – World War II: Japanese emperor Hirohito signed a declaration of war. Japan’s Tojo rejected U.S. proposals for a Pacific settlement as fantastic and unrealistic.

1942 – World War II: Nationwide gasoline rationing went into effect in the United States.

1943 – World War II: President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin concluded their Tehran conference and agreed to Operation Overlord (D-Day).

1944 – Edward Stettinius Jr. becomes the last United States Secretary of State of the Roosevelt administration.

1946 – CHART TOPPERS –  “Ole Buttermilk Sky” by The Kay Kyser Orchestra (vocal: Mike Douglas & The Campus Kids), “The Whole World is Singing My Song” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day), “Five Minutes More” by Tex Beneke and “Divorce Me C.O.D.” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.

1950 – In North Korea a US company of soldiers encountered a swarming Chinese assault near Kunu-ri. Army Sgt. Richard Desautels was among those captured and taken to a POW compound, known as Camp 5, near Pyoktong.

1951 – Gusting winds reached 69 miles per hour  and closed the Golden Gate Bridge for about four hours it was the first-ever weather closure.

1952 – The New York Daily News reports the first successful sexual reassignment operation.

1953 – Walter Alston was named manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers He retired in 1976..

1953 – Playboy Magazine first published.

1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mr. Sandman” by The Chordettes, “Teach Me Tonight” by The De Castro Sisters, “The Naughty Lady of Shady Lane” by The Ames Brothers and “More and More” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.

1955 – In Montgomery, Alabama, seamstress Rosa Parks refuses to give her bus seat to a white man and is arrested for violating the city’s racial segregation laws, an incident which leads to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

1958 – Our Lady of the Angels School fire in Chicago, Illinois kills 92 children and three nuns when smoke, heat, fire, and toxic gasses cut off their normal means of escape through corridors and stairways.

1958 – The Rodgers and Hammerstein musical “Flower Drum Song” opened on Broadway.

1959 – Antarctic Treaty signed , which sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve and bans military activity on that continent.

1959 – The first color photograph of Earth was received from outer space. Photos had been taken of space and earth from space since 1949. This was the first color one.

1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Big Girls Don’t Cry” by The 4 Seasons, “Return to Sender by Elvis Presley, “Bobby’s Girl” by Marcie Blane and “Mama Sang a Song” by Bill Anderson all topped the charts.

1964 – Vietnam War: US President Lyndon B. Johnson and his top-ranking advisers meet to discuss plans to bomb North Vietnam.

1964 – Martin Luther King, Jr.  spoke to J. Edgar Hoover about his slander campaign.

1968 – “Promises, Promises” opened on Broadway. The play ran for 1,281 performances.

1969 – Vietnam War: The first draft lottery in the United States is held since World War II.

1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Think I Love You “ by The Partridge Family, “The Tears of a Clown” by Smokey Robinson & The Miracles, “Montego Bay” by Bobby Bloom and “Endlessly” by Sonny James all topped the charts.

1974 – A Boeing 727 carrying TWA Flight 514 crashes northwest of Dulles International Airport, killing all 92 people on-board.

1974 – The L.A. Skid Row slasher killed Charles Jackson (46), an alcoholic drifter. In 1975 police arrested Vaughn Greenwood, a black loner and homosexual, who had drifted back and forth between Chicago and California.

1975 – The long-running soap opera The Edge of Night switches networks to ABC after 19 years on CBS.

1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “MacArthur Park” by Donna Summer, “How Much I Feel” by Ambrosia, “You Don’t Bring Me Flowers” by Barbra Streisand & Neil Diamond and “Sweet Desire” by The Kendalls all topped the charts.

1980 – IBM delivered its first prototype PC to Microsoft. IBM selected Microsoft to create MS-DOS, the operating system for its first PC.

1980 – The US Justice Dept sued Yonkers, NY, citing racial discrimination.

1980 – IBM delivered its first prototype PC to Microsoft. IBM selected Microsoft to create MS-DOS, the operating system for its first PC.

1982 – At the University of Utah, Barney Clark becomes the first person to receive a permanent artificial heart.

1984 – Just eight days after his miracle pass to lead Boston College over Miami, Doug Flutie was named Heisman Trophy winner for the year.

1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Give Love a Bad Name” by Bon Jovi, “The Next Time I Fall” by Peter Cetera with Amy Grant, “Hip to Be Square” by Huey Lewis & The News and “Touch Me When We’re Dancing” by Alabama all topped the chart.

1986 – Lt. Col. Oliver North pleaded the fifth amendment before a Senate panel investigating the Iran Contra arms sale.

1987 – NASA announced that four companies — Boeing Aerospace, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics, General Electric’s Astro-Space Division and Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International — had been awarded contracts to help build a space station.

1991 – The space shuttle Atlantis safely returned from a shortened military mission.
1992 – In Mineola, N.Y., Amy Fisher was sentenced to five to 15 years in prison for shooting and seriously wounding Mary Jo Buttafuoco. Fisher was released in 1999 after serving 7 years.

1993 – US Navy Ensign George Smith shot and killed his ex-fiancée and a friend and then himself. In Oct. he had passed a Navy screening test to gauge his psychological fitness for nuclear submarine duty.

1993 – Eighteen people were killed when a Northwest Airlink commuter plane crashed in Minnesota.

1997 – President Clinton signed the 50 States Commemorative Coin Program Act into law.

1997 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Michael Carneal (14), student of the Heath High School school-shooting-10in West Paducah, Kentucky, shot and killed Nicole Hadley (14), Jessica James (17) and Kayce Steger (15) – fellow students, who were attending a morning prayer. Five other students were wounded. He later pled guilty but mentally ill to murder charges and is serving life in prison. He is eligible for parole in 2023.

1997 – In California Latrell Sprewell, guard for the Golden State Warriors, choked and threatened coach  P.J. Carlesimo. The Warriors quickly terminated Sprewell’s multi-million contract and the NBA then banned him from basketball for one year.

1997 – Westinghouse formally changed its name to CBS.

1998 – A nation-wide gun-buyer database was due to go into service.

1998 – Exxon announces a US$73.7 billion deal to buy Mobil, thus creating Exxon-Mobil, the largest company on the planet.

1998 – In Chicago a fire destroyed the historic Pullman building. The fire was set by an arsonist and it was the last building remaining in the Pullman Works factory.

1998 – WORD-LOVERS!!! Dutch and Flemish lexicographers unveiled a 40-tome dictionary with 45,000 pages that documented words back to 1500. It took 147 years to complete and compilers stopped at 1976.

1999 – An international team of scientists announced that they had virtually mapped all 34 million chemical letters of the number 22 human chromosome, the second smallest of the 23 pairs.

2000 – Vicente Fox is sworn-in as President of Mexico, ending the 75 year control of the PRI.

2001 – Trans World Airlines (TWA) flies its last flight, after being bought by American Airlines.

2002 – The US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) began rounding up over 2,650 wild horses in Nevada to prevent starving and rangeland destruction.

2003 – Boeing Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Phil Condit resigns, a week after the aviation giant fires its Chief Financial Officer in an ethics scandal.

2003 – US Rep. Bill Janklow went on trial in Flandreau, S.D., charged with manslaughter in the death of a motorcyclist who’d collided with his automobile. Janklow was convicted and served 100 days in jail.

2003 – Alfonso Rodriguez Jr. (50), described by authorities as a predatory sex offender was arrested in Crookston, Minn., and charged with kidnapping in the disappearance of  Dru Sjodin, a North Dakota college student.

2004 – Tom Brokaw anchors his last broadcast of NBC Nightly News after 21 years.  He was succeeded by Brian Williams.

2004 – The Pentagon said it will boost US troops in Iraq to 150,000.

2005 – A dog and its owner found the bodies of Sarah and Philip Gehring, two children who’d been fatally shot by their father and buried in rural Ohio.

2006 – In Berkeley, Ca., protesters began sitting in trees near Memorial Stadium which US Berkeley officials planned to cut in order to build an athletic training center. The last four protesters came down on December 9, 2008.

2006 – The United States warns of a possible al-Qaeda attack to disrupt the stock market and other financial institutions with a cyber attack.

2006 – US companies will need to keep track of all the e-mails, instant messages and other electronic documents generated by their employees thanks to new federal rules that go into effect today.

2007 – Roger Lee Dillon (22) and his girlfriend, Nicole N. Boyd (24), were arrested in Pipestem, West Virginia for the disappearance of $7 million in cash and checks from an Ohio armored car company, AT Systems, Youngstown. The disappearance of the money was discovered Nov 26. They face up to 25 years in prison on charges of conspiracy to steal money from a bank; conspiracy to transport stolen property across state lines; and transporting and aiding and abetting in that transportation.

2007 – The United States wins its first Davis Cup since 1995 taking an unbeatable 3-0 lead over Russia in the final in Portland, Oregon.

2007 – Police in Wichita, Kan., identified a body found days earlier as that of Emily Sander, a missing college student whose disappearance drew nationwide attention.

2007 – Cheryl Dunlap, a nurse from Crawfordsville, Florida, went missing. On Dec 16 her decapitated body was found in the Apalachicola National Forest.

2008 – President-elect Barack Obama announced that Robert Gates would remain as defense secretary. Obama picked former campaign rival Hillary Rodham Clinton as Secretary of State.

2008 – In Alabama mayor Larry Langford of Birmingham was arrested on charges of steering millions of dollars of bond work to a friend in exchange for over $230,000 in bribes. The 101-count indictment also charged Montgomery banker Bill Blount and lobbyist Al LaPierre.

2009 – California Governor Schwarzenegger and Maria Shriver inducted the latest nominees to the California Hall of Fame. They included: Carol Burnett, Andy Grove, Hiram Johnson, Rafer Johnson, Henry J. Kaiser, Joan Kroc, George Lucas, John Madden, Harvey Milk, Fritz Scholder, Danielle Steel, Joe Weider and General Chuck Yeager.

2009 – A Baltimore jury convicted Mayor Sheila Dixon of one count of embezzlement for stealing gift cards meant for poor residents. She was acquitted of other charges.

2009 – President Barack Obama announces that he will send 30,000 extra American troops to Afghanistan within the next six months and start withdrawal in 19 months.

2011 – A shooting occurred at a mobile home in Bay City, Texas about 65 miles southwest of downtown Houston. Police responded at 3:18 p.m. (4:18 p.m. ET) Wednesday to a call that a woman had been shot. When they arrived, they also discovered four dead children, ages 2,3,4 and 5, and the apparent shooter, who died at the scene from a single gunshot to the head.

2012 – The USS Enterprise, the world’s first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, is officially inactivated in ceremonies held at Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia, completing a 51-year career in the United States Navy. It was announced that the U.S. Navy’s third Gerald R. Ford-class aircraft carrier, CVN-80, will be named Enterprise.

2013 – OBAMACARE: A “fixed” healthcare.gov is relaunched.



1761 – Marie Tussaud, French creator of wax sculptures (Madame Tussauds) (d. 1850)
1886 – Rex Stout, American author (d. 1975)
1911 – Walter Alston, American baseball manager (d. 1984)
1913 – Mary Martin, American actor and singer (d. 1990)
1923 – Stansfield Turner, American admiral and CIA director
1931 – Jim Nesbitt, singer (d. 2007)
1933 – Lou Rawls, American singer (d. 2006)
1935 – Woody Allen, American film director, actor, and comedian
1939 – Lee Trevino, American golfer
1940 – Richard Pryor, American actor, comedian (d. 2005)
1944 – Michael W. Hagee, 33rd Commandant of the United States Marine Corps 1945 – Bette Midler, American actress and singer
1958 – Charlene Tilton, American actress
1977 – Jared Fogle, American spokesperson for Subway






Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 5th Battalion (Airmobile), 7th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam,  December 1st, 1966. Entered service at: Seattle, Wash. Born: 27 April 1946, Venice, Italy. G.O. No.: 12, 3 April 1968. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Albanese’s platoon, while advancing through densely covered terrain to establish a blocking position, received intense automatic weapons fire from close range. As other members maneuvered to assault the enemy position, Pfc. Albanese was ordered to provide security for the left flank of the platoon. Suddenly, the left flank received fire from enemy located in a well-concealed ditch. Realizing the imminent danger to his comrades from this fire, Pfc. Albanese fixed his bayonet and moved aggressively into the ditch. His action silenced the sniper fire, enabling the platoon to resume movement toward the main enemy position. As the platoon continued to advance, the sound of heavy firing emanated from the left flank from a pitched battle that ensued in the ditch which Pfc. Albanese had entered. The ditch was actually a well-organized complex of enemy defenses designed to bring devastating flanking fire on the forces attacking the main position. Pfc. Albanese, disregarding the danger to himself, advanced one-hundred meters along the trench and killed six of the snipers, who were armed with automatic weapons. Having exhausted his ammunition, Pfc. Albanese was mortally wounded when he engaged and killed two more enemy soldiers in fierce hand-to-hand combat. His unparalleled actions saved the lives of many members of his platoon who otherwise would have fallen to the sniper fire from the ditch, and enabled his platoon to successfully advance against an enemy force of overwhelming numerical superiority. Pfc. Albanese’s extraordinary heroism and supreme dedication to his comrades were commensurate with the finest traditions of the military service and remain a tribute to himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.





Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, commanding officer, 1st Battalion, 32d Infantry Regiment, 7th Infantry Division. Place and date: Vicinity Hagaru-ri, Northern Korea, 27 November to December 1st,1950. Entered service at: Washington, Ind. Born: 26 August 1918, Washington, Ind. G.O. No.: 59, 2 August 1951. Citation: Lt. Col. Faith, commanding 1st Battalion, distinguished himself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty in the area of the Chosin Reservoir. When the enemy launched a fanatical attack against his battalion, Lt. Col. Faith unhesitatingly exposed himself to heavy enemy fire as he moved about directing the action. When the enemy penetrated the positions, Lt. Col. Faith personally led counterattacks to restore the position. During an attack by his battalion to effect a junction with another U.S. unit, Lt. Col. Faith reconnoitered the route for, and personally directed, the first elements of his command across the ice-covered reservoir and then directed the movement of his vehicles which were loaded with wounded until all of his command had passed through the enemy fire. Having completed this he crossed the reservoir himself. Assuming command of the force his unit had joined he was given the mission of attacking to join friendly elements to the south. Lt. Col. Faith, although physically exhausted in the bitter cold, organized and launched an attack which was soon stopped by enemy fire. He ran forward under enemy small-arms and automatic weapons fire, got his men on their feet and personally led the fire attack as it blasted its way through the enemy ring. As they came to a hairpin curve, enemy fire from a roadblock again pinned the column down. Lt. Col. Faith organized a group of men and directed their attack on the enemy positions on the right flank. He then placed himself at the head of another group of men and in the face of direct enemy fire led an attack on the enemy roadblock, firing his pistol and throwing grenades. When he had reached a position approximately thirty yards from the roadblock he was mortally wounded, but continued to direct the attack until the roadblock was overrun. Throughout the five days of action Lt. Col. Faith gave no thought to his safety and did not spare himself. His presence each time in the position of greatest danger was an inspiration to his men. Also, the damage he personally inflicted firing from his position at the head of his men was of material assistance on several occasions. Lt. Col. Faith’s outstanding gallantry and noble self-sacrifice above and beyond the call of duty reflect the highest honor on him and are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army. (This award supersedes the prior award of the Silver Star (First Oak Leaf Cluster) as announced in G.O. No. 32, Headquarters X Corps, dated 23 February 1951, for gallantry in action on 27 November 1950.)





Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company I, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Vicinity of Yudam-ni, Korea, December 1st, 1950. Entered service at: Hammond, Ind. Born: 14 May 1921, Chicago, Ill. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a platoon sergeant of Company I, in action against enemy aggressor forces the night of 1 December 1950. Promptly organizing a squad of men when the enemy launched a sudden, vicious counterattack against the forward elements of his company’s position, rendering it untenable, S/Sgt. Windrich, armed with a carbine, spearheaded the assault to the top of the knoll immediately confronting the overwhelming forces and, under shattering hostile automatic-weapons, mortar, and grenade fire, directed effective fire to hold back the attackers and cover the withdrawal of our troops to commanding ground. With seven of his men struck down during the furious action and himself wounded in the head by a bursting grenade, he made his way to his company’s position and, organizing a small group of volunteers, returned with them to evacuate the wounded and dying from the frozen hillside, staunchly refusing medical attention himself. Immediately redeploying the remainder of his troops, S/Sgt. Windrich placed them on the left flank of the defensive sector before the enemy again attacked in force. Wounded in the leg during the bitter fight that followed, he bravely fought on with his men, shouting words of encouragement and directing their fire until the attack was repelled. Refusing evacuation although unable to stand, he still continued to direct his platoon in setting up defensive positions until weakened by the bitter cold, excessive loss of blood, and severe pain, he lapsed into unconsciousness and died. His valiant leadership, fortitude, and courageous fighting spirit against tremendous odds served to inspire others to heroic endeavor in holding the objective and reflect the highest credit upon S/Sgt. Windrich and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.





Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1851, Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 201, 18 January 1876. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Swatara at Para, Brazil, December 1st, 1875. Displaying gallant conduct, Deneef jumped overboard and rescued one of the crew of that vessel from drowning.





Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Stony Creek Station, Va., December 1st, 1864. Entered service at: Allegheny County, Pa. Born: 14 September 1844, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, Pa. Date of issue: 16 February 1897. Citation: His horse having been shot from under him he voluntarily and on foot participated in the cavalry charge made upon one of the forts, conducting himself throughout with great personal bravery.

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Unerased History – November 30th

Posted by Wayne Church on November 30, 2015 in 11 - November, Blog by month |
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Pearl Harbor Attack- 8 days away – 1941

The Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree Lighting

This is an annual Christmas tree lighting that takes place in New York City’s Rockefeller Center, in mid-town Manhattan. The 2015 lighting will be on December 2nd. The tree is erected and lit in early December or late-November. In recent years, the lighting has been broadcast live nationwide on NBC’s Christmas in Rockefeller Center show.

The tradition actually started in December 1931. It was the beginning of the Great Depression and America needed two great things, jobs and hope. In 1931 construction was started on Rockefeller Center and it was a project that provide both. On December 24th, 1931 the workers erected a 20 ft balsam fir tree with “strings of cranberries, garlands of paper, and even a few tin cans.”  Daniel Okrent, in his history of Rockefeller Center, recounts that the tree was decorated with the tin foil ends of blasting caps. There was no Rockefeller Center Christmas tree in 1932. The official tradition started in 1933. During the construction of the Center, it provided 75.000 jobs.

The tree, usually a Norway spruce 69 to 100 ft tall, has been put up every year since 1933. In 2010, the tree was lit on November 30, and remained illuminated until the first week of January, 2011. The tallest Christmas tree at Rockefeller Center was a 100 ft foot spruce erected on November 11, 1999 that was being cared for by Cathy and Jim Thomson. The tree is erected and lit and the lighting has been broadcast live nationwide on NBC’s Christmas in Rockefeller Center show.

Many Rockefeller trees were given to Rockefeller Center by donors. The late David

1987 Tree

Murbach, Manager of the Gardens Division of Rockefeller Center, scouted in a helicopter for the desired tree in areas including Connecticut, Vermont, Ohio, upstate New York, New Jersey, and even Ottawa, Canada. Once a suitable tree is located it is transported by a special truck to 30 Rockefeller.  It is supported by a crane while it is cut and then it is placed on a custom telescoping trailer that can transport trees up to 125 ft tall. The maximum that can actually be transported is 110 feet because of the widths of the streets in New York.

Once at the Rockefeller Center, the tree is supported by four guy-wires attached at its midpoint, and by a steel spike at its base. Scaffolding is put up around the tree to assist workers in putting up 30,000 lights attached to 5 miles of wiring.  The star that has topped the tree since 2004 is 9.5 ft in diameter and weighs 550 pounds. This star called the “Swarovski Star” was created by German artist Michael Hammers.

The decorated Christmas tree remains lit at Rockefeller Center until the week after New Year’s Day, when it is removed and recycled for a variety of uses. In 2007, the tree went “green,” employing LED lights.  After being taken down, the tree was used to furnish lumber for Habitat for Humanity house construction.

Records are incomplete about where the trees come from but here is the partial list from Wikipedia:

Year Original Location Tree Type Height
2014 Bloomsburg, PA Norway Spruce 85 ft
2013 Shelton, CT Norway Spruce 76 ft
2012 Flanders, NJ Norway Spruce 80 ft
2011 Mifflinville, PA Norway Spruce 74 ft
2010 Mahopac, NY Norway Spruce 74 ft
2009 Easton, CT Norway Spruce 76 ft
2008 Hamilton, NJ Norway Spruce 72 ft
2007 Shelton, CT Norway Spruce 84 ft
2006 Ridgefield, CT Norway Spruce 88 ft
2005 Wayne, NJ Norway Spruce 74 ft
2004 Suffern, NY Norway Spruce 71 ft
2003 Manchester, CT Norway Spruce 79 ft
2002 Bloomsbury, NJ Norway Spruce 76 ft
2001 Wayne, NJ Norway Spruce 81 ft
2000 Buchanan, NY Norway Spruce 80 ft
1999 Killingworth, CT Norway Spruce 100 ft
1998 Richfield, OH Norway Spruce 75 ft
1997 Stony Point, NY Norway Spruce 70 ft
1996 Armonk, NY Norway Spruce 90 ft
1995 Mendham, NJ Norway Spruce 75 ft
1994 Ridgefield, CT Norway Spruce 85 ft
1986 Nanuet, NY Norway Spruce 68 ft
1963 Rockaway, NJ Bruce Fir 84 ft
1957 Brighton, VT White Spruce 67 ft


Scripture of the Day

Proverb 15: 18  Living Bible

18 A quick-tempered man starts fights; a cool-tempered man tries to stop them.


Founders Thoughts


The idea is to make decisions and act on them — to decide what is important to accomplish, to decide how something can best be accomplished, to find time to work at it and to get it done.”

~ Karen Kakascik

Ixnay  /’IksnEI/ Pig Latin

Nix. Nothing.

This word is best known in the US, as the type of wordplay It’s Pig Latin, or igpay atinlay, as Pig Latinists would name it, sometimes instead called Hog Latin. Originally a children’s word game that had been around since at least the 1890s, it became fashionable among adults in the 1920s and 1930s. The first known appearance of “ixnay” in print is in the film script for the early talkie Broadway Melody in 1929.


The Pig Latin rules are simple: if a word starts with a vowel, then add “ay” to the end; otherwise move the first letter (or pair of letters if they represent one sound) to the end and add “ay” to it.

So “imay oingay ootay ostonbay” is Pig Latin for “I’m going to Boston”. The film The Lion King included “ixnay on the upidstay” – “nix on the stupid” or “don’t be stupid”.


1776 – Captain Cook began his third and last trip to the Pacific South Seas.

1777 – San Jose, California, was founded by the Spanish as El Pueblo de San Jose de Guadeloupe, California’s first town.

1782 – American Revolutionary War: This was the actual end of the war, In Paris, representatives from the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain signed preliminary peace articles (later, September 3,1783)  formalized in the 1783 Treaty of Paris.

1785 – A.J. Ehrrichson of Akron, OH patented the oat-crushing machine.

1803 – In New Orleans, Spanish representatives officially transfer Louisiana Territory to a French representative. Just 20 days later, France transfers the same land to the United States as the Louisiana Purchase.

1804 – The Jeffersonian Republican-controlled United States Senate begins an impeachment trial against Federalist-partisan Supreme Court of the United States Justice Samuel Chase. They later acquit him.

1858 – John Mason patented the screw neck bottle — the Mason Jar.

1861 – Harper’s Weekly publishes Ethel Lynn Beers “All quiet along the Potomac.”  Also known as  “The Picket.”

1864 – Civil War: Battle of Franklin — The Army of Tennessee led by General John Bell Hood mounts a dramatically unsuccessful frontal assault on Union positions around Franklin, Tennessee (Hood lost six generals and almost a third of his troops).

1864 – Civil War: Battle of Honey Hill, SC, (Broad River). Ninety-six men were killed and 665 wounded.

1866 – Work began on the first traffic tunnel under a river in the U.S. – the Washington Street Tunnel in Chicago, Ill, under the Chicago River.

1886 – The Folies Bergère stages its first revue. It featured women in sensational costumes, debuted in Paris.

1886 – The first commercially successful U.S. alternating current power plant was opened at Buffalo, N.Y.

1887 – The first softball game was played — in Chicago, IL. The game was really called indoor baseball; it used a broomstick for a bat and a boxing glove for a ball.

1889 – S.R. Scratton patents curtain rod.

1897 – Thomas Edison’s own motion picture projector had its first commercial exhibition.

1902 – Second-in-command of Butch Cassidy’s Wild Bunch gang, Kid Curry Logan, is sentenced to 20 years imprisonment with hard labor.

1906 – President Theodore Roosevelt denounced segregation of Japanese schoolchildren in San Francisco.

1908 –  A mine explosion in the mining town of Marianna, Pennsylvania kills 154.

1908 – San Francisco Police Chief William J. Biggy disappeared off a police boat in the San Francisco Bay. The chief was last seen vomiting over the side of the launch. He had been under pressure since the shooting of prosecutor Francis J. Heney two weeks earlier. Biggy’s body was pulled from the bay two weeks later.

1914 – Charlie Chaplin made his film debut in “Making a Living,” a one-reel film.

1920 – The Navy minesweeper USS Swan ran aground on Duxbury Beach, MA. Coast Guardsmen from three nearby stations rescued the minesweeper’s crew with a breeches buoy.

1924 – First photo facsimile transmitted across Atlantic by radio. Pictures of officials were accompanied by a photo of the Oxford team winning in a relay race at Cambridge, a steamship aground on the banks of the Thames, and an image of the written proverb, “One picture is worth a thousand words.”

1936 – In London, the Crystal Palace is destroyed by fire.

1936 – First coaxial cable installed between New York and Philadelphia made available for multi-channel telephone tests.

1939 – Harry James and his big band recorded “Concerto for Trumpet” — on Columbia 78s.

1940 – Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz are married in Greenwich, Connecticut.

1941 – The 101 year old Nyack-Tarrytown (NY) ferry makes it’s last run.

1942 – World War II: A U.S. warship force is defeated by a smaller Japanese warship force in the Battle of Tassafaronga during the Guadalcanal Campaign. This was an American attempt to stop the regular night supply run of the “Tokyo Express”.

1943 – World War II: Tehran Conference — U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet leader Josef Stalin establish an agreement concerning a planned June 1944 invasion of Europe code named Operation Overlord.

1943 – Nat ‘King’ Cole and his trio recorded “Straighten Up and Fly Right” on Capitol Records. It was the first recording for the King Cole trio.

1944 – World War II: To the north and south of Aachen, the US 9th and 1st Armies continue attacks. Southern elements of US 3rd Army reach the Saar River.

1944 – A US Navy reconnaissance plane crashed into the south face of Mount Tamalpais, in Marin County, Ca. 8 Navy fliers were killed.

1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Been a Long, Long Time” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “That’s for Me” by Dick Haymes, “I’ll Buy that Dream” by The Pied Pipers and “Shame on You” by The Lawrence Welk Orchestra (vocal: Red Foley) all topped the charts.

1948 – Baseball’s Negro National League disbands with many of its players signing with Organized Baseball.

1951 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Major George A. Davis shot down three Tupolev TU-2s and a MiG jet fighter to become the fifth ace of the war.

1952 Korean War: U.S. Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Winton W. Marshall destroyed one TU-2 and a LA-9 and was officially credited as the sixth ace of the war.

1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rags to Riches” by Tony Bennett, “Many Times” by Eddie Fisher, “Ricochet” by Teresa Brewer and “There Stands the Glass” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.

1954 – In Sylacauga, Alabama, United States, an 8.5 lb (3.4 kg) sulfide meteorite crashes through a roof and hits Mrs. Elizabeth Hodges in her living room after bouncing off her radio, giving her a bad bruise, in the only unequivocally known case of a human being hit by a space rock.

1956 – Archie Moore was defeated by Floyd Patterson. Patterson won the heavyweight boxing title vacated by the retired Rocky Marciano.

1956 – CBS replayed the program “Douglas Edward and the News” three hours after it was received on the West Coast. It was the world’s first broadcast via videotape.

1957 – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.

1958 – First guided missile destroyer launched. It was the USS Dewey ((DLG-14/DDG-45), launched from the Bath Iron Works, Bath, ME.

1959 – Joe Foss was named American Football League commissioner.

1960 – Production of the DeSoto automobile brand ceases.

1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Runaround Sue” by  Dion, “Please Mr. Postman” by The Marvelettes, “Goodbye Cruel World” by James Darren and “Big Bad John” by Jimmy Dean all topped the charts.

1963 – “I’m Leaving it up to You” by Dale & Grace topped the charts.

1965 – The Colorado State government declared this day to be “Rolling Stones Day”.

1968 – “Love Child” by Diana Ross & the Supremes topped the charts.

1968 – Sly & The Family Stone’s “Everyday People” was released.

1968 – Montesino Sanchez, a Cuban, hijacked a Boeing 720 from Miami to Cuba.

1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Come Together/Something” by The Beatles, “And When I Die” by Blood, Sweat & Tears,”Na Na Hey Hey Kiss Him Goodbye” by Steam and “Okie from Muskogee” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.

1969 – Simon & Garfunkel’s first TV special, “Songs of America,” (52:03) aired.

1971 – ABC-TV presented “Brian’s Song” as the “ABC Movie of the Week”. The touching story was about Chicago Bears running back Brian Piccolo and his friendship with football great Gayle Sayers. Trailer |  Full Movie | Song  by Henry Mancini.

1972 – Vietnam War: White House Press Secretary Ron Ziegler tells the press that there will be no more public announcements concerning American troop withdrawals from Vietnam due to the fact that troop levels are now down to 27,000.

1973 – John Dean (b.1938), White House counsel, pleaded guilty to one count of conspiring to obstruct justice in the Watergate scandal and served 3 months in jail.

1974 – The Eagles hit, “Best of My Love“, was released.

1974 – “I Can Help” by Billy Swan topped the charts.

1974 – Pioneer 11 sent photos back to NASA as it neared Jupiter. Pioneer 11 was launched on 5 April 1973.

1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Light Up My Life” by Debby Boone, “Don’t It Make My Brown Eyes Blue” by Crystal Gayle, “How Deep is Your Love” by Bee Gees and “The Wurlitzer Prize (I Don’t Want to Get over You)” by Waylon Jennings.

1977 – Eric Sevareid retired from CBS-TV. He left CBS after 38 years of working with famous names in the TV news biz.

1979 – Pink Floyd release the album “The Wall”.

1981 – Cold War: In Geneva, representatives from the United States and the Soviet Union begin to negotiate intermediate-range nuclear weapon reductions in Europe (the meetings ended inconclusively on December 17).

1981 – President Reagan signs first memorandum on Strategic Cooperation with Israel.

1981 – Spingarn Medal awarded to Coleman A. Young “in recognition of his singular accomplishments as mayor of the City of Detroit.”

1982 – Michael Jackson (1958-2009) released “Thriller,” his sixth studio album. It became the best-selling album of all time.

1982 – British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher receives a parcel bomb at 10 Downing Street.

1982 – US submarine Thomas Edison collided with a US Navy destroyer in the South China Sea.

1983 – Radio Shack announced the Tandy Model 2000 computer (80186 chip).

1985 – “CHART TOPPERS – “Separate Lives” by Phil Collins & Marilyn Martin, “Broken Wings” by Mr. Mister, “Never” by Heart and “Too Much on My Heart “ by The Statler Brothers all topped the charts.

1986 – Ivan Lendl became the first tennis player in the world to gain career earnings exceeding $10 million.

1988 – Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. buys RJR Nabisco for $25.07 billion.

1989 – PLO leader Yasser Arafat was refused a visa to enter the United States in order to address the U.N. General Assembly in New York City.

1990 – President Bush announced that Secretary of State James Baker the Third would go to Iraq in a last-ditch diplomatic peace effort. This was also the event where the Secretary, quite purposely, showed Saddam the bottom of his shoe, a great insult in Islam.

1991 – “Set Adrift on Memory Bliss” by P.M. Dawn topped the charts.

1992 – The U.S. Supreme Court sustained women’s basic right to abortion, voting 6-3 against reviving a 1990 Guam law that would have prohibited nearly all such procedures.

1993 – U.S. President Bill Clinton signs the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (the Brady Bill) into law.

1993 – Richard Allen Davis was arrested by authorities in California. Davis confessed to abducting and slaying 12-year-old Polly Klaas of Petaluma.

1994 – Hip-hop artist Tupac Shakur is robbed of $40,000 in jewelry and survives being shot five times in a New York music studio.

1994 – Two passengers died and nearly 1,000 others and crew members fled the cruise ship “Achille Lauro” after it caught fire off the coast of Somalia; the ship sank two days later. The Achille Lauro had gained notoriety in 1985 when it was hijacked by Palestinian extremists and a handicapped American guest was thrown overboard.

1995 – Bill Clinton became the first U.S. president to visit Northern Ireland.

1995 – It was reported that global warming over the last 100 years was measured to be one degree Fahrenheit.

1995 –  Official end of Operation Desert Storm.

1997 – Composer and guitarist Michael Hedges (43) died in an auto accident in Mendocino County, Ca. His albums included “Breakfast in the Field” (1983), “Aerial Boundaries” (1984), “Taproot” (1990), and “The Road to Return” (1994).

1998 –  Exxon and Mobil sign a $73.7 billion USD agreement to merge, thus creating Exxon-Mobil, the world’s largest company.

1998 – In Los Angeles, three people were left dead following a drive-by shooting, carjacking and police chase. Officer Brian Brown (27) was killed.

1998 – The new US computerized instant-check on gun sales began. After one week 951 sales were disqualified out of a total of 177,391.

1999 – In Seattle, Washington, United States, protests against the WTO meeting by anti-globalization protesters catch police unprepared and force the cancellation of opening ceremonies.

2000 – The space shuttle Endeavour (STS-97) took off to the International Space Station with a crew of 5 to install new solar panels.

2000The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell to 10,414 and the Nasdaq fell 109 points to 2,597.

2000 – David Spade was assaulted with a stun gun by his longtime personal assistant, David Warren Malloy. Malloy attacked Spade during a burglary of Spade’s home in Beverly Hills.

2001 – For the first time in its history, McDonald’s teamed up with a retail partner on its Happy Meal promotions. Toys R Us provided plush figures from its Animal Alley.

2001 – Gary Leon Ridgway (b.1949) was arrested in connection with four of seven Green River serial killings in Washington state. Four murders were linked to him through DNA and three through paint he used at his job.

2001 – In Georgia, former DeKalb County Sheriff Sidney Dorsey and two other men were arrested and charged with murder in the slaying of Sheriff-elect Derwin Brown, who had defeated Dorsey in a bitter runoff election.

2001 – Robert Tools, the first person to receive a self-contained artificial heart survived with the device for 151 days, and died today of other health problems. (See July 21, 2001)

2001 – Iraq War: US warplanes continued airstrikes around Kandahar. US Marine and Navy increased to around 1,200.

2003 – Walt Disney Company vice chairman Roy E. Disney stepped down from the board of directors.

2003 – In Cincinnati, Ohio, a 350-pound black man died after being clubbed by police. An autopsy showed that Nathaniel Jones (41) had an enlarged heart and that his blood contained cocaine and PCP.

2004 – U.S. Department of Homeland Security Secretary Tom Ridge resigns. This is the latest in a string of resignations after the 2004 presidential election.

2004 – Longtime Jeopardy champion Ken Jennings finally loses, leaving him with $2,520,700, television’s all-time biggest game show haul.

2004 – The U.S. Department of Commerce imposes heavy tariffs against shrimp imported to the U.S. from China and Vietnam.

2005 – The US Military has been covertly paying to run news stories written by US Military “information operations” troops. The stories, usually praising the work of the U.S. Military, appeared in Baghdad newspapers.

2005 – The Atlantic storm season ended with a record 26 as Tropical Storm Epsilon formed without posing a risk.

2005 – After almost a year of research into data from the space probe Huygens, scientists reported that Saturn’s moon Titan resembles Earth in many ways but is unlikely to support life.

2006 – Microsoft Corp. released Windows Vista for businesses. This was the 1st major upgrade to its operating system in five years.

2006 – The 2006 Atlantic hurricane season officially ends with a total of nine storms having formed.

2007 – Leeland Eisenberg (46) of Somersworth, NH, carrying what appeared to be a bomb,he had a package strapped to his chest,  took hostages at a Clinton campaign office in Rochester, NH, before surrendering after a 6-hour standoff.

2007 – Scientists at Duke Univ. reported the creation of the first map of genes that are inherited as “silenced genes.” The Duke map verified 40 and identified another 156.

2007 -Amtrak Pere Marquette train #371 en route from Grand Rapids, Michigan, to Chicago, Illinois, collides with a parked freight train on the south side of Chicago, seriously or critically injuring five Amtrak employees and slightly injuring 100 to 150 of the 187 passengers on board.

2007 –  The Miami-Dade County Police Department arrests four people in relation to the killing of Washington Redskins player Sean Taylor.

2008 – The US space shuttle Endeavour ended a 16-day trip to the int’l. space station landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California after storms hit the main landing site in Florida.

2009 – The US Dept. of Agriculture designated the Big Island of Hawaii a primary natural disaster area because of losses farmers suffered from volcanic emissions this year.

2009 – Police in Seattle report that Maurice Clemmons, shot in the murder of four police officers in Parkland, Washington, is on the run. After two days following the shooting, Clemmons was shot and killed by a police officer in Seattle.

2010 – US Secretary of Defense Robert Gates urges the United States Senate to abolish “don’t ask don’t tell” for gays and lesbians serving in the US military and releases a report showing that ending the policy would have little impact.

2011 –  Researchers at Washington State University develop an artificial bone “scaffold” which can be produced using 3D printers, potentially allowing doctors to quickly print replacement bone tissue for injured patients.

2012 – A railway bridge collapses over a creek in Paulsboro in southern New Jersey, causing a Conrail freight train to derail and spill hazardous chemicals into the air and water.

2012 – A New Hampshire federal grand jury indicts David Kwiatkowski, 33, a former employee of Exeter Hospital in Exeter, New Hampshire, on fraud and product-tampering charges in connection with an outbreak of hepatitis C that sickened more than 30 people and caused concern in seven states.

2013 – Black Friday: A woman was arrested today for stabbing to death three shoppers at a Chicago-area Wal-Mart in order to secure the store’s last X-Box One.

2014 – African-Americans screamed “kill the white people” before the brutal murder of Bosnian Immigrant Zemir Begic by hammers in St. Louis, MO. As of 12/2 two suspects were taken into custody, while two others, a black teen and a Hispanic teen, are still on the loose.


1466 – Andrea Doria, Italian naval leader (d. 1560)
1667 – Jonathan Swift, Irish writer and satirist (d.1745)
1723 – William Livingston, revolutionary Governor of New Jersey (d. 1790)
1810 – Oliver Winchester, American gunsmith (d. 1880)
1835 – Samuel Clemens (aka Mark Twain), American writer (d. 1910)
1874 – Sir Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1965)
1898 – Firpo Marberry, American baseball player (d. 1976) He was an American right-handed starting and relief pitcher in Major League Baseball from 1923 to 1936, most notably with the Washington Senators.
1918 – Efrem Zimbalist Jr., American actor is an American actor best known for his roles in the television series 77 Sunset Strip and The F.B.I. and for several appearances as “Dandy Jim Buckley” on TV’s Maverick. He later became an active part of Trinity Broadcasting Network (TBN) and a born-again Christian.
1924 – Shirley Chisholm, American politician (d. 2005)
1926 – Richard Crenna, American actor (d. 2003)
1929 – Dick Clark, American television host
1930 – G. Gordon Liddy, Watergate operative
1936 – Abbie Hoffman, American activist (d. 1989)
1953 – June Pointer, American singer (Pointer Sisters)
1962 – Bo Jackson, American football and baseball player
1965 – Ben Stiller, American actor and writer
1978 –  Clay Aiken, American singer




Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 179th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Songnae-dong, Korea,  November 30th, 1952. Entered service at: Whittier, N.C. Born: 23 August 1932, Cherokee, N.C. G.O. NO.: 19, 18 March 1954. Citation: Pfc. George, a member of Company C, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy on the night of 30 November 1952. He was a member of a raiding party committed to engage the enemy and capture a prisoner for interrogation. Forging up the rugged slope of the key terrain feature, the group was subjected to intense mortar and machine gun fire and suffered several casualties. Throughout the advance, he fought valiantly and, upon reaching the crest of the hill, leaped into the trenches and closed with the enemy in hand-to-hand combat. When friendly troops were ordered to move back upon completion of the assignment, he and two comrades remained to cover the withdrawal. While in the process of leaving the trenches a hostile soldier hurled a grenade into their midst. Pfc. George shouted a warning to one comrade, pushed the other soldier out of danger, and, with full knowledge of the consequences, unhesitatingly threw himself upon the grenade, absorbing the full blast of the explosion. Although seriously wounded in this display of valor, he refrained from any outcry which would divulge the position of his companions. The two soldiers evacuated him to the forward aid station and shortly thereafter he succumbed to his wound. Pfc. George’s indomitable courage, consummate devotion to duty, and willing self-sacrifice reflect the highest credit upon himself and uphold the finest traditions of the military service.





Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps, Company G, 3d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Hagaru-ri, Korea, November 29 and November 30th,  1950. Entered service at: Pueblo, Colo. Born: 2 December 1921, Syracuse, Mo. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of Company G, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Ordered to break through enemy-infested territory to reinforce his battalion the morning of 29 November, Capt. Sitter continuously exposed himself to enemy fire as he led his company forward and, despite twenty-five percent casualties suffered in the furious action, succeeded in driving through to his objective. Assuming the responsibility of attempting to seize and occupy a strategic area occupied by a hostile force of regiment strength deeply entrenched on a snow-covered hill commanding the entire valley southeast of the town, as well as the line of march of friendly troops withdrawing to the south, he reorganized his depleted units the following morning and boldly led them up the steep, frozen hillside under blistering fire, encouraging and redeploying his troops as casualties occurred and directing forward platoons as they continued the drive to the top of the ridge. During the night when a vastly outnumbering enemy launched a sudden, vicious counterattack, setting the hill ablaze with mortar, machine gun, and automatic-weapons fire and taking a heavy toll in troops, Capt. Sitter visited each foxhole and gun position, coolly deploying and integrating reinforcing units consisting of service personnel unfamiliar with infantry tactics into a coordinated combat team and instilling in every man the will and determination to hold his position at all costs. With the enemy penetrating his lines in repeated counterattacks which often required hand-to-hand combat, and, on one occasion infiltrating to the command post with hand grenades, he fought gallantly with his men in repulsing and killing the fanatic attackers in each encounter. Painfully wounded in the face, arms, and chest by bursting grenades, he staunchly refused to be evacuated and continued to fight on until a successful defense of the area was assured with a loss to the enemy of more than fifty percent dead, wounded, and captured. His valiant leadership, superb tactics, and great personal valor throughout thirty-six hours of bitter combat reflect the highest credit upon Capt. Sitter and the U.S. Naval Service.






Rank and organization:Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 100th Infantry Battalion (Separate) Entered service at: Schofield Barracks, Hawaii Born:September 13, 1918, Honolulu, Hawaii Place and date:Cerasuolo, Italy, November 30th,  1943 Citation: Sergeant Allan M. Ohata distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on 29 and 30 November 1943, near Cerasuolo, Italy. Sergeant Ohata, his squad leader, and three men were ordered to protect his platoon’s left flank against an attacking enemy force of forty men, armed with machine guns, machine pistols, and rifles. He posted one of his men, an automatic rifleman, on the extreme left, fifteen yards from his own position. Taking his position, Sergeant Ohata delivered effective fire against the advancing enemy. The man to his left called for assistance when his automatic rifle was shot and damaged. With utter disregard for his personal safety, Sergeant Ohata left his position and advanced fifteen yards through heavy machine gun fire. Reaching his comrade’s position, he immediately fired upon the enemy, killing ten enemy soldiers and successfully covering his comrade’s withdrawal to replace his damaged weapon. Sergeant Ohata and the automatic rifleman held their position and killed thirty-seven enemy soldiers. Both men then charged the three remaining soldiers and captured them. Later, Sergeant Ohata and the automatic rifleman stopped another attacking force of fourteen, killing four and wounding three while the others fled. The following day he and the automatic rifleman held their flank with grim determination and staved off all attacks. Staff Sergeant Ohata’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.





Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company A, 102d U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Honey Hill, S.C., November 30th, 1864. Entered service at: Michigan. Born: 17 November 1841, Union City Branch County, Mich. Date of issue: 9 March 1887. Citation: After several unsuccessful efforts to recover three pieces of abandoned artillery, this officer gallantly led a small force fully one-hundred yards in advance of the Union lines and brought in the guns, preventing their capture.





Rank and organization: Captain, Company D, 12th Kentucky Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th,  1864. Entered service at: Charlestown, Mass. Born: 1834, Canada. Date of issue: 13 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.





Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 104th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th,  1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Wales. Date of issue: 4 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.






Rank and organization: Captain, Company B, Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Honey Hill, S.C., November 30th,  1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth:, Mass. Date of issue: 18 November 1895. Citation: Under a heavy fire carried his wounded commanding officer from the field.





Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 104th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th,  1864. Entered service at: Damascoville, Ohio. Birth: Columbiana County, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.




Rank and organization: Captain and aide-de-camp, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Honey Hill, S.C., November 30th,  1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 21 August 1893. Citation: While under severe fire of the enemy, which drove back the command, rendered valuable assistance in rallying the men.





Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 104th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th,  1864. Entered service at: Salem, Ohio. Birth: Montgomery County, Pa. Date of issue: 13 February 1865. Citation: Capture of corps headquarters flag (C.S.A.).






Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 104th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th,  1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Portage County, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag, believed to have belonged to Steward’s Corps (C.S.A.).






Rank and organization: Captain, Company A, 104th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th,  1864. Entered service at: Massillon, Ohio. Born: 23 March 1843, Massillon, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag supposed to be of Cheatham’s Corps (C.S.A.).






Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 88th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th,  1864. Entered service at: Manlius, Bureau County, Ill. Birth: Pennsylvania. Date of issue: 28 March 1896. Citation: Captured two battle flags from the enemy and returned with them to his own lines.






Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company K, 97th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Delaware County, Ohio. Date of issue: 24 February 1865. Citation: Captured the flag of the 2d Mississippi Infantry (C.S.A.), in a hand-to-hand fight with the color bearer.






Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 104th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th,  1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Springfield, Ohio. Date of issue: 3 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 16th Alabama Artillery (C.S.A.).






Rank and Organization: Color Sergeant , United States Army, Union Army, 55th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, Entered service: Smithland, KY Born: Clinton, IL
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Corporal Andrew Jackson Smith, of Clinton, Illinois, a member of the 55th Massachusetts Voluntary Infantry, distinguished himself on November 30th, 1864 by saving his regimental colors, after the color bearer was killed during al bloody charge called the Battle of Honey Hill, South Carolina. In the late afternoon, as the 55th Regiment pursued enemy skirmishers and conducted a running fight, they ran into a swampy area backed by a rise where the Confederate Army awaited. The surrounding woods and thick underbrush impeded infantry movement and artillery support. The 55th and 34th regiments formed columns to advance on the enemy position in a flanking movement. As the Confederates repelled other units, the 55th and 54th regiments continued to move into tanking positions. Forced into a narrow gorge crossing a swamp in the face of the enemy position, the 55th’s Color-Sergeant was killed by an exploding shell, and Corporal Smith took the Regimental Colors from his hand and carried them through heavy grape and canister fire. Although half of the officers and a third of the enlisted men engaged in the fight were killed or wounded, Corporal Smith continued to expose himself to enemy fire by carrying the colors throughout the battle. Through his actions, the Regimental Colors of the 55th Infantry Regiment were not lost to the enemy. Corporal Andrew Jackson Smith’s extraordinary valor in the face of deadly enemy fire is in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon him, the 55th Regiment, and the United States Army.






Rank and organization: Major General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th,  1864. Entered service at: Congress, Wayne County, Ohio. Born: 1 June 1828, Cedar Valley, Ohio. Date of issue: 29 March 1893. Citation: At a critical moment rode to the front of one of his brigades, reestablished its lines, and gallantly led it In a successful assault.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 24th Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: At Franklin, Tenn., November 30th,  1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Gallantry in action; voluntarily assisting in working guns of battery near right of the regiment after nearly every man had left them, the fire of the enemy being hotter at this than at any other point on the line.

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Unerased History – November 29th

Posted by Wayne Church on November 29, 2015 in 11 - November, Blog by month |
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Square Dance Day




super – cali – fragil – istic – expee – alee – doe – shus) is a song and a long word from the movie Mary Poppins (and in the musical version) This is a looooooooooooooonnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnggggggggggggggggg word, but a short song. The song describes using the word as a miraculous way to talk oneself out of difficult situations, and even as a way to change one’s mood.

The song appears in the film’s animated sequence where Mary Poppins is harangued by reporters after winning a horse race and responds to one claiming there are not words to describe her feelings of the moment. Mary disagrees with that and begins the song about one word she can use. Ever since the word is used as an adjective referring to “absolutely stunningly fantastic”.

In the West End and Broadway versions, every one runs out of conversations and Mary and the kids head to Mrs. Corry’s shop, where you can buy them. Jane and Michael pick out some letters and spell a few words. Bert and Mrs. Corry use the letters to make up some words too, which Jane doesn’t think they exist. Mary says you could use some letters more than one time and makes the longest word of all.

The word itself has obscure origins, pertaining as to when it was first used, but the roots are fairly clear, as Richard Lederer wrote in his book Crazy English: super- “above,” cali- “beauty,” fragilistic- “delicate,” expiali- “to atone,” and docious- “educable,” the sum meaning roughly “Atoning for extreme and delicate beauty while still being highly educable.” This is the perfect word for Mary Poppins to use, being that she thinks of herself as incredibly beautiful but also extremely intelligent, which makes up for it.


Scripture of the Day

Proverbs 15: 1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but harsh words cause quarrels.

Founders Thoughts


“When your heart is in your dream, no request is too extreme.”

 ~ Jiminy Cricket

redact\rih-DAKT\, transitive verb:

1. To draw up or frame (a statement, proclamation, etc.); to put in writing.

2. To make ready and put in shape for publication; to edit.

Redact derives from Latin redactus, past participle of redigere, to drive back, from re-, red-, “again, back” + agere, “to put in motion, to drive.”


1758 – England’s  John Wesley baptized the first two known Black converts to the Methodism movement.

1775 – Captain John Manley in schooner Lee captures British ordnance ship Nancy with large quantity of munitions.

1775 – The American Congress formed the Committee of Secret Correspondence with the mission of corresponding with friends in Great Britain, Ireland and other parts of the world. It April, 1777, its title was changed to Committee for Foreign Affairs.

1776 – Revolutionary War: The Battle of Fort Cumberland, Nova Scotia comes to an end with the arrival of British reinforcements.

1777 – San Jose, California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe. It is the first civilian settlement, or pueblo, in Alta California.

1780 – After the winter of Valley Forge, Black slaves and free men were welcomed into the American Army. Included in those groups was Lemuel Haynes, Revolutionary War veteran, licensed to preach in the Congregational Church. Black soldiers were in the front lines in most of the big battles of the war. They were at White Plains, Stillwater, Bennington, Bemis Heights, Saratoga, Stony Points, Trenton, Princeton, Eutaw, S.C., and Yorktown. Blacks were critical factors in the battles of Rhode Island, Long Island, Red Bank, Savannah, Monmouth and Fort Griswold.

1781 – The slave ship Zong dumps its 133 African passengers into the sea in order to claim insurance.

1783 – A 5.3 magnitude earthquake strikes New Jersey.

1804 – Lt Presley O’Bannon and seven U.S.Marines landed in Alexandria, Egypt. The group will gather 500 mercenaries and in January 1805 begin an overland march to Tripoli.

1808 – President Jefferson had ordered an embargo against most European imports and exports to protest the harassment of U.S. sailors by warring European powers.

1825 – First Italian opera in US, “Barber of Seville,” premiered in New York City.

1863 – Civil War: The Battle of Fort Sanders, Knoxville, TN., ended in Confederate withdrawal.

1847 –  Whitman Massacre was the murder of Oregon missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman, his wife Narcissa, and 15 others. They were killed by Cayuse and Umatilla Indians, causing the Cayuse War.

1864 – Civil War: Battle of Spring Hill, TN. (Thomason’s Station). Spring Hill was the prelude to the Battle of Franklin.

1864 – The Sand Creek Massacre occurred in Colorado when a militia led by Colonel John Chivington, killed at least 400 peaceful Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians who had surrendered and had been given permission to camp.

1872 – Indian Wars: The Modoc War begins with the Battle of Lost River.  The war was the result of an attempt by the U.S. 1st Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army to force a band of the Modoc tribe to relocate to the Klamath Reservation.

1877 – Thomas Edison demonstrates his hand-cranked phonograph for the first time.

1881 – Francis Blake was granted a patent for the speaking phone.

1887 – US received rights to Pearl Harbor on Oahu, Hawaii.

1890 – In West Point, New York, the United States Naval Academy defeats the United States Military Academy 24-0 in the first Army-Navy football game.

1902 – The Pittsburgh Stars defeated the Philadelphia Athletics, 11-0, at the Pittsburgh Coliseum, to win the first championship associated with a national professional football league.

1910 – The first U.S. patent for a traffic signal was issued to Ernest E. Sirrine for a “Street Traffic System.” Sign arms were mounted crosswise on a post at a road intersection, rotating to showing “Stop” and “Proceed” signs alternately in each direction.

1915 – Fire destroys most of the buildings on Santa Catalina Island in California.

1916 – US declared martial law in Dominican Republic.

1922 – Howard Carter opened the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun to the public.

1927 In California troops battled 1,200 inmates after Folsom prisoners revolted.

1927Genevieve Paddleford arrived as the first woman inmate at the new women’s quarters at San Quentin Prison. She was serving 1 to 10 years for stealing $600 worth of clothing.

1929 – U.S. Admiral Richard Byrd becomes the first American and the first person to fly over the South Pole.

1932 – The Committee on Cost of Medical Care urged socialized medicine in the United States.

1934 – Chicago Bears beat Detroit in first NFL game broadcast nationally. Graham McNamee was the play-by-play announcer.

1935 – The Pan Am China Clipper under Captain Ed Musick landed in Manila Bay in the Philippines. It was Pan Am’s first trans-Pacific flight.

1938 – Tommy Dorsey and his orchestra waxed “Hawaiian War Chant” for Victor Records.

1939 – Fritz Kuhn, the leader of the German-American Bund, is found guilty of grand larceny and forgery.

1941The passenger ship Lurline sent a radio signal of sighting Japanese war fleet steaming east across the northern Pacific. This was nine days before Japan’s attack.

1941 – The Japanese government liaison conference decides that the final terms from the United States are unacceptable and that Japan must go to war.

1943 – World War II: Four American destroyers bombard Japanese positions on the south coast of New Britain Island, near Gasmata.

1943 – World War II: US aircraft carrier Hornet was launched.

1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Trolley Song” by The Pied Pipers, “Dance with the Dolly” by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: Al Jennings), “I’ll Walk Alone” by Dinah Shore and “Smoke on the Water” by  Red Foley all topped the charts.

1944 – The first surgery (on a human) to correct blue baby syndrome is performed by Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas,  a black assistant who perfected the procedure at Johns Hopkins Hospital.

1944 – World War II: USS Archerfish (SS-311) sinks Japanese carrier Shinano, world’s largest warship sunk by any submarine during World War II.

1944 – World War II: Japanese attacks on Kilay Ridge, on Leyte, continue. American forces successfully counterattack. At sea, the battleship USS Maryland and two destroyers are seriously damaged by Kamikaze attacks.

1945 – A Sikorsky R5 helicopter performed the first rescue from a sinking civilian vessel and the first use of a rescue winch. Caught in a violent storm, an oil barge had grounded on Penfield Reef, off the coast at Fairfield, Connecticut in Long Island Sound.

1947 – The United Nations General Assembly votes to partition Palestine.

1948 – The first opera to be televised was broadcast from the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City. “Othello”, by Verdi, was presented over WJZ-TV.

1948 – The popular children’s television show, Kukla, Fran and Ollie, moved to the NBC Midwest network.

1948 – Ninth Marines went to Shanghai to evacuate U. S. nationals.

1949 – U.S. announced it would conduct atomic tests at Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific.

1950 – Korean War: North Korean and Chinese troops force United Nations forces to retreat from North Korea.

1951 – The first U.S. underground atom bomb test – designed “Uncle” – was detonated. The low-yield 1.2 kiloton bomb was buried 17-ft sub-surface at Frenchman Flat, a 123-square-mile  dry lake bed at the Nevada Test Site.

1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Belong to Me” by Jo Stafford, “Glow Worm” by The Mills Brothers, “Lady of Spain” by Eddie Fisher and “Jambalaya (On the Bayou)” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.

1952 – Korean War: U.S. President-elect Dwight D. Eisenhower fulfills a campaign promise by traveling to Korea to find out what can be done to end the conflict.

1952 – John T. Downey (22) and Richard G. Fecteau (25), CIA spies, were shot down over Jilin province and captured by the Chinese. The 2 men spent 20 years in a Chinese prison.

1952 – “Why Don’t You Believe Me” by Joni James topped the charts.

1953 – American Airlines began first regular commercial NY-LA air service.

1956 – The musical “Bells Are Ringing,” starring Judy Holliday, opened at Shubert Theater in New York City for 925 performances.

1958 – “It’s Only Make Believe” by Conway Twitty topped the charts.

1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Are You Lonesome To-night?” by Elvis Presley, “Last Date by Floyd Cramer, “A Thousand Stars” by Kathy Young with The Innocents and “Wings of a Dove” by Ferlin Husky all topped the charts.

1961 – The U.S. spacecraft  Mercury-Atlas 5 is launched with Enos, a chimpanzee, aboard (the spacecraft orbited the Earth twice and splashed-down off the coast of Puerto Rico).

1961 – Freedom Riders attacked by white mob at bus station in McComb, Miss., November 29-December 2.

1962 – Baseball decides to revert back to one All Star game per year.

1963 – Beatles release “I Want to Hold Your Hand“.

1963 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson establishes the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

1967 – U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara announces his resignation to become president of the World Bank.

1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hey Jude” by The Beatles, “Love Child” by Diana Ross & The Supremes, “Abraham, Martin and John” by Dion and “Stand By Your Man” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.

1968 – Vietnam: Hanoi Radio broadcasted a National Liberation Front directive calling for a new offensive to “utterly destroy” Allied forces. The broadcast added that the new operation was particularly concerned with eliminating the “Phoenix Organization.”

1969 – Beatles’ “Come Together,” single goes #1.

1971 – Vietnam: The U.S. 23rd Division (Americal) ceases combat operations and begins its withdrawal from South Vietnam.

1972 – Nolan Bushnell (founder of Atari) released Pong (the first commercially successful video game) in Andy Capp’s Tavern in Sunnyvale, Calif.

1975 – The name “Micro-soft” (for “microcomputer software”) is first used in a letter from Bill Gates to Paul Allen.

1975 – Earthquake triggers Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii.

1975 – “Fly, Robin, Fly” by the Silver Convention topped the charts.

1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)” by Rod Stewart,The Wreck of the Edmond Fitzgerald” by Gordon Lightfoot, “The Rubberband Man” by Spinners and “Good Woman Blues” by Mel Tillis all topped the charts.

1976 – Jerry Lee Lewis shot his bass player, Norman “Butch” Owens, twice in the chest while trying to hit a soda bottle. Lewis was charged with shooting a firearm within the city limits.

1980 – “Lady” by Kenny Rogers topped the charts.

1981 – Actress Natalie Wood drowns during a boating accident off Santa Catalina Island, California.

1982 – US submarine Thomas Edison collided with a US Navy destroyer in the South China Sea.

1983 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 1287.20 — a new record.

1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go” by Wham!, “I Feel for You” by Chaka Khan, “Out of Touch” by Daryl Hall & John Oates and “You Could’ve Heard a Heart Break” by Johnny Lee all topped the charts.

1986 – “You Give Love a Bad Name” by Bon Jovi topped the charts.

1987 – Cuban detainees released 26 hostages that they’d been holding for more than a week at the Federal Detention Center in Oakdale, La.

1987 – Joe Montana of the San Francisco 49ers completed a NFL record 22 consecutive passes.

1988 – US Senate Democrats elected George Mitchell of Maine to be majority leader, the post vacated by Robert Byrd of West Virginia.

1988 – Six Kansas City firefighters are killed by two powerful explosions  at a construction site. At the scene, only one twisted chassis remained early today as evidence of two fire trucks that arrived with the six firemen before 4 A.M. The wreckage lay near two craters, 30 to 40 feet wide and about seven feet deep.

1988 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the rights of criminal defendants are not violated when police unintentionally fail to preserve potentially vital evidence.

1990 – Gulf War: The United Nations Security Council passes UN Security Council Resolution 678, authorizing military intervention in Iraq if that nation did not withdraw its forces from Kuwait and free all foreign hostages by January 15, 1991.

1991 – Seventeen people were killed in a 164-vehicle wreck during a dust storm near Coalinga, CA, on Interstate 5. Over 250 vehicles were involved and over 100 were injured.

1992 – Dennis Byrd (New York Jets) was paralyzed after a neck injury in a game against the Kansas City Chiefs.

1993 – Kathleen Willey sought assistance from Pres. Clinton, who allegedly made a sexual advance upon her. She was requesting a job due to her husband’s financial difficulties. It was later learned that her husband committed suicide that same day.

1996 – Evidence suggesting that water might be present on the Moon was published in “Science” magazine.

1996 – John C. Salvi III, serving a life sentence for fatally shooting two receptionists at an abortion clinic, hanged himself in his Massachusetts prison cell.

1997 – Coleman Young (b. May 24, 1918 in Tuscaloosa, Ala.- d. Nov 29, 1997), former mayor of Detroit (1973-1993), died. The city’s first black mayor held office for an unprecedented five terms.

1998 – In Dalton, Mich., Seth Stephen Privacky (18) and Steven Wallace (18) shot and killed Privacky’s father (50), mother (49), grandfather (78), brother (19) and brother’s girlfriend, April A. Boss (19). Privacky confessed that he committed the murders because his father had threatened to kick him out of the house.

1999 – Pres. Clinton signed the Satellite Television Home Viewers Act which allowed satellite companies to compete with cable TV.

1999 – In Seattle as many as 50,000 protestors gathered to oppose “the march of corporate globalization.”

1999 – Astronomer reported finding 6 planets orbiting sunlike stars as close as 65 light years from Earth (390,000,000,000,000 miles).

2001 – George Harrison (b.1943), lead guitarist for the Beatles, died of cancer in LA. His ashes were scattered in the Ganges Dec 4.

2001 – American warplanes continued to bomb Taliban positions around Kandahar.

2003 – In Norfolk, Virginia, the USS Cole leaves port on the destroyer’s first overseas deployment since it was bombed in 2000 in Yemen’s port at Aden.

2003 – In Iraq US senators Hillary Rodham Clinton and Jack Reed met with local officials in the oil-rich northern city of Kirkuk.

2004 – Brett Favre Day announced in Wisconsin, in honor of his record-setting 200th consecutive start as an NFL quarterback.

2004 – “Armored car guard shot, killed. Slayer flees on bike after Ahwatukee robbery.” Robert Keith Palomares, 24, was carrying the weekend deposits out of the AMC Ahwatukee 24 theater. Suspect, Jason Derek Brown, who lay in wait near a ticket booth, approached Palomares and fired numerous rounds. But Palomares had a tight grip on the money bag, and at first, his killer couldn’t get it out of his hands.

2004 – The U.S. Supreme Court hears a landmark case to decide the rights of states to overrule federal restrictions on medical marijuana use. This case has important consequences for redefining the separation and limitation of powers between states and the federal government.

2004 – A US Army Black Hawk helicopter crashed near Fort Hood, Texas, and seven soldiers were killed.

2005 – Broad areas of the Dakotas remained shut down by the Plains’ first blizzard of the season, with highways closed by blowing, drifting snow and thousands of people without electricity as temperatures hit the low teens. In Colorado eastbound I-70 was closed.

2005 – Ohio carried out the nation’s 999th execution since 1977, putting to death a man who strangled his mother-in-law while high on cocaine and later killed his 5-year-old stepdaughter to cover up the crime.

2006 – United States District Court judge Richard J. Leon orders the Bush administration to resume making payments to thousands of people who lost their homes as a result of Hurricane Katrina.

2006 – Still losing money after job and factory cuts, Ford Motor Co. said 38,000 workers, almost half of its hourly production force, had accepted buyouts or early retirement offers.

2006 – Brandon Mayfield, wrongly arrested after the 11 March, 2004 Madrid attacks settles a lawsuit against the Federal Bureau of Investigation for $2 million.

2007 – In Richmond County, Georgia, Jeanette Michelle Hawes (22) fatally stabbed her two young children in a Food Mart convenience store bathroom.

2007 – Henry Hyde (b.1924), former Illinois Republican Representative (1975-2007), died. In 1976 he attached an amendment to a spending bill barring the use of federal funds for abortions. In 1998 he led House efforts to impeach Pres. Clinton for allegedly lying about his affair with intern Monica Lewinsky.

2009 – Andrew Conley (17) of Rising Sun, Indiana, strangled his 10-year-old brother as the two wrestled. The teen told investigators he had had fantasies about killing someone since he was in eighth grade, including cutting somebody’s throat, and felt “just like” the serial killer Dexter on the Showtime television series of the same name.

2009 – In Washington state Maurice Clemmons (37) shot and killed four police officers from the Tacoma suburb of Lakewood as they worked on their laptop computers in a coffee house at the beginning of their shifts in Parkland.

2010 – U.S. scrambles to contain WikiLeaks damage. Clinton and other officials shrug off the undiplomatic assessments revealed in the diplomatic cables, saying they won’t affect long-term ties, even as they promise to tighten security and punish the culprits.

2010 – Twenty-three students and a teacher are released after being taken hostage for five hours by an armed 15-year-old student, who then shot and injured himself, at Marinette High School in the town of Marinette, Wisconsin.

2011 –  American Airlines, the world’s fourth-largest airline, files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

2011 –  Dr. Conrad Murray is sentenced to four years in jail for involuntary manslaughter in Los Angeles in connection to the death of Michael Jackson in 2009.

2011 – Seven people, including a toddler, are shot while recording a music video in Oakland, California.

2012 – Michigan Republican State Senator Rick Jones proposes dissolving the city of Detroit due to financial problems.

2012 – The new species of darter fish are classified and named as Etheostoma obama after President Barack Obama.  Darters are small, perch-like fish found in freshwater streams in North America.

2014 – Ferguson PD officer Darren Wilson resigns following a grand jury decision not to indict him in the Michael Brown case.


1489 – Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England, queen consort of James IV of Scotland (d. 1541)
1690 – Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst, father of Catherine II of Russia (d. 1747)
1752 – Jemima Wilkinson, American preacher (d. 1819) was a charismatic American evangelist who preached total sexual abstinence to her congregation of “Universal Friends.”
1799 – Amos Bronson Alcott, American educator, philosopher of American Transcendentalism, and father of Louisa May Alcott.
1803 – Christian Doppler, Austrian physicist (d. 1853) was an Austrian mathematician and physicist, most famous for the hypothesis of what is now known as the Doppler effect which is the apparent change in frequency and wavelength of a wave that is perceived by an observer moving relative to the source of the waves.
1816 – Morrison Waite, 7th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1888)
1832 – Louisa May Alcott, American novelist (d. 1888)
1876 – Nellie Tayloe Ross, American politician (d. 1977) was the first woman to serve as governor of a U.S. state.
1898 – C. S. Lewis, Irish writer (d. 1963) Examples of Lewis’s allegorical fiction include The Screwtape Letters, The Chronicles of Narnia and The Space Trilogy.
1908 – Adam Clayton Powell Jr., American civil rights leader and politician (d. 1972) who represented Harlem, New York in the United States House of Representatives between 1945 and 1971.
1927 – Vin Scully, baseball announcer
1949 – Garry Shandling, American comedian, actor, writer, producer, and director
1955 – Howie Mandel, Canadian actor, “Deal or No Deal” host.
1973 – Sarah Jones, American playwright, poet and actress






Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, 75th Infantry, Americal Division. Place and Date: Quang Ngai Province, Republic of Vietnam,  November 29th,  1969. Entered service at: Minneapolis, Minn. Born: 9 September 1949, St. Paul, Minn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. S/Sgt. Pruden, Company G, distinguished himself while serving as a reconnaissance team leader during an ambush mission. The 6-man team was inserted by helicopter into enemy controlled territory to establish an ambush position and to obtain information concerning enemy movements. As the team moved into the preplanned area, S/Sgt. Pruden deployed his men into two groups on the opposite sides of a well used trail. As the groups were establishing their defensive positions, 1 member of the team was trapped in the open by the heavy fire from an enemy squad. Realizing that the ambush position had been compromised, S/Sgt. Pruden directed his team to open fire on the enemy force. Immediately, the team came under heavy fire from a second enemy element. S/Sgt. Pruden, with full knowledge of the extreme danger involved, left his concealed position and, firing as he ran, advanced toward the enemy to draw the hostile fire. He was seriously wounded twice but continued his attack until he fell for a third time, in front of the enemy positions. S/Sgt. Pruden’s actions resulted in several enemy casualties and withdrawal of the remaining enemy force. Although grievously wounded, he directed his men into defensive positions and called for evacuation helicopters, which safely withdrew the members of the team. S/Sgt. Pruden’s outstanding courage, selfless concern for the welfare of his men, and intrepidity in action at the cost of his life were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.






Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company G, 3d Battalion, 1st Marine, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Along road from Koto-ri to Hagaru-ri, Korea,  November 29th, 1950. Entered service at: Harrison, Ohio. Born: 7 July 1930, McKinney, Ky. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a member of an antitank assault squad attached to Company G, during a nighttime enemy attack against a motorized column. Acting instantly when a hostile hand grenade landed in his truck as he and his squad prepared to alight and assist in the repulse of an enemy force delivering intense automatic-weapons and grenade fire from deeply entrenched and well-concealed roadside positions, Pfc. Baugh quickly shouted a warning to the other men in the vehicle and, unmindful of his personal safety, hurled himself upon the deadly missile, thereby saving his comrades from serious injury or possible death. Sustaining severe wounds from which he died a short time afterward, Pfc. Baugh, by his superb courage and valiant spirit of self-sacrifice, upheld the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.



Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps, 3d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division, (Rein.). Place and date: Near Hagaru-ri, Korea,  November 29th,  1950. Entered service at: Boise, Idaho. Born: 26 November 1919, Boise, Idaho. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as executive officer of the 3d Battalion, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Assuming command of a composite unit of Army and Marine service and headquarters elements totaling approximately 250 men, during a critical stage in the vital defense of the strategically important military base at Hagaru-ri, Maj. Myers immediately initiated a determined and aggressive counterattack against a well-entrenched and cleverly concealed enemy force numbering an estimated 4,000. Severely handicapped by a lack of trained personnel and experienced leaders in his valiant efforts to regain maximum ground prior to daylight, he persisted in constantly exposing himself to intense, accurate, and sustained hostile fire in order to direct and supervise the employment of his men and to encourage and spur them on in pressing the attack. Inexorably moving forward up the steep, snow-covered slope with his depleted group in the face of apparently insurmountable odds, he concurrently directed artillery and mortar fire with superb skill and although losing 170 of his men during fourteen hours of raging combat in subzero temperatures, continued to reorganize his unit and spearhead the attack which resulted in 600 enemy killed and 500 wounded. By his exceptional and valorous leadership throughout, Maj. Myers contributed directly to the success of his unit in restoring the perimeter. His resolute spirit of self-sacrifice and unfaltering devotion to duty enhance and sustain the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service .



Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps, Company G, 3d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Hagaru-ri, Korea,  November 29th  and 30th November 1950. Entered service at: Pueblo, Colo. Born: 2 December 1921, Syracuse, Mo. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of Company G, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Ordered to break through enemy-infested territory to reinforce his battalion the morning of 29 November, Capt. Sitter continuously exposed himself to enemy fire as he led his company forward and, despite 25 percent casualties suffered m the furious action, succeeded in driving through to his objective. Assuming the responsibility of attempting to seize and occupy a strategic area occupied by a hostile force of regiment strength deeply entrenched on a snow-covered hill commanding the entire valley southeast of the town, as well as the line of march of friendly troops withdrawing to the south, he reorganized his depleted units the following morning and boldly led them up the steep, frozen hillside under blistering fire, encouraging and redeploying his troops as casualties occurred and directing forward platoons as they continued the drive to the top of the ridge. During the night when a vastly outnumbering enemy launched a sudden, vicious counterattack, setting the hill ablaze with mortar, machine gun, and automatic-weapons fire and taking a heavy toll in troops, Capt. Sitter visited each foxhole and gun position, coolly deploying and integrating reinforcing units consisting of service personnel unfamiliar with infantry tactics into a coordinated combat team and instilling in every man the will and determination to hold his position at all costs. With the enemy penetrating his lines in repeated counterattacks which often required hand-to-hand combat, and, on one occasion infiltrating to the command post with handgrenades, he fought gallantly with his men in repulsing and killing the fanatic attackers in each encounter. Painfully wounded in the face, arms, and chest by bursting grenades, he staunchly refused to be evacuated and continued to fight on until a successful defense of the area was assured with a loss to the enemy of more than 50 percent dead, wounded, and captured. His valiant leadership, superb tactics, and great personal valor throughout 36 hours of bitter combat reflect the highest credit upon Capt. Sitter and the U.S. Naval Service.






Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company B, 100th Infantry Battalion (Separate) Entered service at: Schofield Barracks, Hawaii Born: July 13, 1916, Honolulu, Hawaii Citation: Private Mikio  Hasemoto distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on  November 29th,  1943, in the vicinity of Cerasuolo, Italy. A force of approximately forty enemy soldiers, armed with machine guns, machine pistols, rifles, and grenades, attacked the left flank of his platoon. Two enemy soldiers with machine guns advanced forward, firing their weapons. Private Hasemoto, an automatic rifleman, challenged these two machine gunners. After firing four magazines at the approaching enemy, his weapon was shot and damaged. Unhesitatingly, he ran ten yards to the rear, secured another automatic rifle and continued to fire until his weapon jammed. At this point, Private Hasemoto and his squad leader had killed approximately twenty enemy soldiers. Again, Private Hasemoto ran through a barrage of enemy machine gun fire to pick up an M-1 rifle. Continuing their fire, Private Hasemoto and his squad leader killed ten more enemy soldiers. With only three enemy soldiers left, he and his squad leader charged courageously forward, killing one, wounding one, and capturing another. The following day, Private Hasemoto continued to repel enemy attacks until he was killed by enemy fire. Private Hasemoto’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.






Rank and organization:Private, U.S. Army, Company A, 100th Infantry Battalion (Separate)/ Entered service at:Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, Born:November 28, 1917, Waiakea, Hawaii. Place and date:Cerasuolo, Italy,  November 29th,  1943. Private Shizuya Hayashi distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on 29 November 1943, near Cerasuolo, Italy. During a flank assault on high ground held by the enemy, Private Hayashi rose alone in the face of grenade, rifle, and machine gun fire. Firing his automatic rifle from the hip, he charged and overtook an enemy machine gun position, killing seven men in the nest and two more as they fled. After his platoon advanced 200 yards from this point, an enemy antiaircraft gun opened fire on the men. Private Hayashi returned fire at the hostile position, killing nine of the enemy, taking four prisoners, and forcing the remainder of the force to withdraw from the hill. Private Hayashi’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.






Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 377th Infantry, 95th Infantry Division. Place and date: From Woippy, France, through Metz to Kerprich Hemmersdorf, Germany,  November 16th- November 29th, 1944. Entered service at: Two Rivers, Wis. Birth: Manitowoc, Wis. G.O. No.: 74, 1 September 1945. Citation: For performing a series of heroic deeds from 16 to 29 November 1944, during his company’s relentless drive from Woippy, France, through Metz to Kerprich Hemmersdorf, Germany. As he led a rifle squad on 16 November at Woippy, a crossfire from enemy machineguns pinned down his unit. Ordering his men to remain under cover, he went forward alone, entered a building housing one of the guns and forced five Germans to surrender at bayonet point. He then took the second gun single-handedly by hurling grenades into the enemy position, killing two, wounding three more, and taking two additional prisoners. At the outskirts of Metz the next day, when his platoon, confused by heavy explosions and the withdrawal of friendly tanks, retired, he fearlessly remained behind armed with an automatic rifle and exchanged bursts with a German machinegun until he silenced the enemy weapon. His quick action in covering his comrades gave the platoon time to regroup and carry on the fight. On 19 November S/Sgt. Miller led an attack on large enemy barracks. Covered by his squad, he crawled to a barracks window, climbed in and captured six riflemen occupying the room. His men, and then the entire company, followed through the window, scoured the building, and took seventy-five prisoners. S/Sgt. Miller volunteered, with three comrades, to capture Gestapo officers who were preventing the surrender of German troops in another building. He ran a gauntlet of machinegun fire and was lifted through a window. Inside, he found himself covered by a machine pistol, but he persuaded the four Gestapo agents confronting him to surrender. Early the next morning, when strong hostile forces punished his company with heavy fire, S/Sgt. Miller assumed the task of destroying a well-placed machinegun. He was knocked down by a rifle grenade as he climbed an open stairway in a house, but pressed on with a bazooka to find an advantageous spot from which to launch his rocket. He discovered that he could fire only from the roof, a position where he would draw tremendous enemy fire. Facing the risk, he moved into the open, coolly took aim and scored a direct hit on the hostile emplacement, wreaking such havoc that the enemy troops became completely demoralized and began surrendering by the score. The following day, in Metz, he captured twelve more prisoners and silenced an enemy machinegun after volunteering for a hazardous mission in advance of his company’s position. On 29 November, as Company G climbed a hill overlooking Kerprich Hemmersdorf, enemy fire pinned the unit to the ground. S/Sgt. Miller, on his own initiative, pressed ahead with his squad past the company’s leading element to meet the surprise resistance. His men stood up and advanced deliberately, firing as they went. Inspired by S/Sgt. Miller’s leadership, the platoon followed, and then another platoon arose and grimly closed with the Germans. The enemy action was smothered, but at the cost of S/Sgt. Miller’s life. His tenacious devotion to the attack, his gallant choice to expose himself to enemy action rather than endanger his men, his limitless bravery, assured the success of Company G.



Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 2 August 1887, Broadwell, Ill. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 289, 27 April 1917. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: In action against hostile forces at San Francisco de Macoris, Dominican Republic,  November 29th,  1916. With only a dozen men available, 1st Lt. Williams rushed the gate of the fortress. With eight of his party wounded by rifle fire of the defenders, he pressed on with the four remaining men, threw himself against the door just as it was being closed by the Dominicans and forced an entry. Despite a narrow escape from death at the hands of a rifleman, he and his men disposed of the guards and within a few minutes had gained control of the fort and the hundred prisoners confined there.




Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company K, 79th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Sanders, Knoxville, TN.,  November 29th,  1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 2 November 1870. Citation: The color bearer of the 51st Georgia Infantry. (C.S.A.), having planted his flag upon the side of the work, Sgt. Judge leaped from his position of safety, sprang upon the parapet, and in the face of a concentrated fire seized the flag and returned with it in safety to the fort.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 29th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Sanders, Knoxville, TN.,  November 29th,  1863. Entered service at. Fall River, Mass. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 17th Mississippi Infantry (C.S.A.).




Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 29th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date. At Fort Sanders, Knoxville, TN.,  November 29th,  1863. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ipswich, Mass. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 16th Georgia Infantry (C.S.A.).



Rank and organization: Major and Aide-de-Camp, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Spring Hill, TN.,  November 29th,  1864. Entered service at: Ohio. Birth: Vermont. Date of issue: 28 September 1897. Citation: During a night attack of the enemy upon the wagon and ammunition train of this officer’s corps, he gathered up a force of stragglers and others, assumed command of it, though himself a staff officer, and attacked and dispersed the enemy’s forces, thus saving the train.



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Unerased History – November 28th

Posted by Wayne Church on November 28, 2015 in 11 - November, Blog by month |
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Make Your Own Head Day

Red Planet Day


Covered Bridges

A covered wooden bridge is a bridge made of timber whose passageway is protected by a roof and enclosing sides. Covered wooden bridges are popular in art and folklore, but they are also important in engineering history. Few engineering structures have captivated the American imagination like a covered wooden bridge Wooden bridges tended to deteriorate rapidly from exposure to the elements, having a useful lifespan of only nine years. Covering them protected their structural members, thus extending their life to 80 years or more..

The Hillsgrove Covered Bridge (above) is a Burr arch truss covered bridge over Loyalsock Creek in Hillsgrove Township, Sullivan County, Pennsylvania. It was built circa 1850 and is 186 feet  long. In 1973, it became the first covered bridge in the county to be placed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The bridge is named for the township and nearby unincorporated village of Hillsgrove, and is also known as Rinkers Covered Bridge for an adjoining farm. Pennsylvania had the first covered bridge in the United States, and has had the most such bridges since the 19th century.

While there is little or no evidence of covered bridges in the ancient world, there are sketches of covered bridges going back to the 13th century. The first covered wooden bridge in the United States is credited to Timothy Palmer of Newburyport, Massachusetts, and spanned the Schuylkill River of Philadelphia in 1800.


The Cornish bridge is 449’5″ long and consists of two spans of 204’0″ and 203’0″. It has an overall width of 24’0″., a roadway width of 19’6″, and a maximum vertical clearance of 12’9″. It is posted for ten tons.

Parke County, Indiana has the largest concentration of covered bridges, 35, in the United States and Lancaster County, Pennsylvania has 29 covered bridges, the most in a Pennsylvania County.

There are approximately 800 covered wood bridges in the United States.



Scripture of the Day


Founders Thoughts



Either you decide to stay in the shallow end of the pool or you go out in the ocean.”   

~Christopher Reeve


ig-ZAS-ur-bayt, transitive verb:
To render more severe, violent, or bitter; to irritate; to aggravate; to make worse.

is from Latin exacerbare, “to irritate, to provoke, to aggravate very much,” from ex-, intensive prefix + acerbare, “to make bitter, to aggravate,” from acerbus, “bitter.”



1493 – Christopher Columbus arrived in La Navidad, Hispaniola. He found the fort burned and his men from the first voyage dead.

1520 – After navigating through the South American strait, three ships under the command of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reach the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Europeans to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific.

1582 – In Stratford-upon-Avon, William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway pay a £40 bond for their marriage licence.

1729 – Natchez Indians massacre 138 Frenchmen, 35 French women, and 56 children at Fort Rosalie, near the site of modern-day Natchez.

1745 – French troops attacked Indians at Saratoga, NY. The Saratoga of 1745 was on the site of the present Schuylerville, NY, on the west bank of the Hudson River about eleven miles east of the present Saratoga Springs NY.

1775 – The Second Continental Congress adopts first rules for regulation of the “Navy of the United Colonies.”

1775 – Samuel Nicholas is commissioned as Captain of Marines.

1776 – Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware River.

1785 – The Treaty of Hopewell is signed between the US Representative Benjamin Hawkins and the Cherokee Indians. The treaty laid out a Western boundary of settlement for the Colonials. The treaty gave rise to the sardonic Cherokee phrase of Talking Leaves, since they claimed that when the treaties no longer suited the Americans, they would “blow away like talking leaves.”

1795 – US paid $800,000 and a frigate as tribute to Algiers and Tunis.

1843 – Ka Lahui: Hawaiian Independence Day – The Kingdom of Hawaii is officially recognized by the United Kingdom and France as an independent nation.

1861 – The Confederate Congress admitted Missouri to the Confederacy, although Missouri had not yet seceded from the Union.

1862 – Civil War: In the Battle of Cane Hill, Union troops under General John Blunt defeat General John Marmaduke’s Confederates.

1864 – Civil War:  Battles at Waynesboro and Jones’s Plantation, Georgia (3rd day).

1864 – Civil War:  Battle of New Creek, WV, (Rosser’s Raid, Ft. Kelly).

1872 – The Modoc War of 1872-73 began in Siskiyou County, northern California when fighting broke out between Modoc Chief Captain Jack and a cavalry detail led by Captain James Jackson.

1895 – The first American automobile race takes place over the 54 miles from Chicago’s Jackson Park to Evanston, Illinois. Frank Duryea wins in approximately ten hours. The average speed was seven mph. Eighty cars entered the race, six started and two finished.

1905 – ARM & HAMMER baking soda was trademark registered .

1906 – Philadelphia Jack O’Brien and Tommy Burns fought to no decision in a twenty-round draw in a world heavyweight title bout in Los Angeles.

1907 – In Haverhill, Massachusetts, scrap-metal dealer Louis B. Mayer opens his first movie theater.

1908 –   A coal mine explosion at Marianna, Pa  killed 154 men.

1914 – World War I: Following a war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opens for bond trading.

1916 – World War I: First (German) air attack on London.

1917 – Fred and Adele Astaire debut on Broadway in the Sigmund Romberg revue “Over the Top”.

1919 – American-born Lady Astor is elected to be the first female to sit in the Parliament of the United Kingdom.She was not the first to be elected.That was Countess Markievicz. The Lady Astor and Winston Churchill literally hated one another.

1920 – “The Mark of Zorro”, starring Douglas Fairbanks opens  in New York at the Capitol Theater.

1922 – First skywriting over US-“Hello USA – Call Vanderbilt 7200 ” -by Captain Turner, RAF.

1925 – Country-variety show “WSM Barn Dance” makes its radio debut on station WSM. The program would be renamed “Grand Ole Opry” in 1927.

1929 – Adm Richard E Byrd makes first South Pole flight.

1929 – Chicago Cardinals fullback Ernie Nevers, scored every one of his team’s points (six touchdowns and four extra point conversions) in a 40-6 rout of the Chicago Bears. Record still stands.

1932 – Groucho Marx performed on radio for the first time. The original title was “Beagle, Shyster and Beagle – Attorneys at Law.”

1936 – “Pennies From Heaven” hits #1 on the pop singles chart by Bing Crosby.

1941 – World War II: The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise departed Pearl Harbor to deliver F4F Wildcat fighters to Wake Island. This mission saved the carrier from destruction when the Japanese attacked.

1942 – A huge fire occurred at the Cocoanut Grove Night Club in Boston. 492 people perished in total. The Cocoanut Grove was originally a speakeasy—an illegal bar during alcohol Prohibition—and some of its doors were bricked up or bolted shut. The main entrance to the club was only a revolving door.

1942 – Coffee rationing began in the United States, lasting through the end of World War II.

1942 – World War II: The first production Ford bomber, the B-24 Liberator, rolled off the assembly line at Ford’s huge Willow Run plant in Ypsilanti, Michigan.

1943 – World War II: Tehran Conference – US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran to discuss war strategy.

1944 – “Meet Me in St. Louis,” starring Judy Garland, opened in New York.

1948 – The first instant camera, Polaroid Model 95, and film (40 series roll film) were sold to the public at the Jordan Marsh department store (now Macy’s) in Boston, Massachusetts.

1948 – “Hopalong Cassidy” TV western premiered on NBC television.

1950 – Lieutenant General Walton Walker announced that the Eighth Army offensive was at an end. In Tokyo, General Douglas MacArthur announced an “entirely new war.”

1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sin (It’s No)” by Eddy Howard, “Because of You” by Tony Bennett, “And So to Sleep Again” by Patti Page and “Slow Poke” by Pee Wee King all topped the charts.

1953 – “Rags to Riches” by Tony Bennett topped the charts.

1953 – New York City began eleven days without newspapers due to a strike of photoengravers.

1958 – The US reported the first full-range firing of an ICBM.

1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mack the Knife” by Bobby Darin, “Mr. Blue” by The Fleetwoods, “Deck of Cards” by Wink Martindale and “Country Girl” by Faron Young all topped the charts.

1960 – “Are You Lonesome Tonight?” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.

1961 – Ernie Davis became the first Black to win the Heisman Trophy.

1963 – First million copy record prior to release “I Want to Hold Your Hand.

1963 – Cape Canaveral, Florida, was renamed Cape Kennedy. The name was changed back to Cape Canaveral in 1973 by a vote of residents.

1963 – Willie Nelson made his debut on the Grand Ole Opry.

1964 – Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 4 probe toward Mars.

1964 – “Leader of the Pack” by Shangri-Las topped the charts.

1964 – Vietnam War: National Security Council members agree to recommend that US President Lyndon B. Johnson adopt a plan for a two-stage escalation of bombing in North Vietnam.

1965 – Vietnam War: In response to U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson’s call for “more flags” in Vietnam, Philippines President Elect Ferdinand Marcos announces he will send troops to help fight in South Vietnam.

1966 – Several groups earned gold records. The Righteous Brothers received one for their album “Soul and Inspiration“,” The Monkees for “I’m a Believer,” and  The New Vaudeville Band for “Winchester Cathedral“.

1967 – “Nature” carries the announcement of the discovery of pulsars (pulsating radio sources). The first pulsar was discovered by a graduate student, Jocelyn Bell, then working under the direction of Prof. A. Hewish.

1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Incense and Peppermints” by Strawberry Alarm Clock,The Rain, the Park & Other Things” by The Cowsills, “Daydream Believer” by The Monkees and “It’s the Little Things” by Sonny James all topped the charts.

1970 – “I Think I Love You” by the Partridge Family topped the charts.

1970 – George Harrison’s “My Sweet Lord” was released.

1974 – John Lennon performs onstage at Madison Square Garden in New York City with Elton John, as a result of losing a wager that his song “Whatever Gets You Thru the Night” (which Elton also played and sang on) would hit #1 on the pop chart (on November 11). This would also be Lennon’s final concert appearance.

1974 – Bowie Kuhn suspends George Steinbrenner for two years as a result of Steinbrenner’s conviction for illegal campaign contributions to Richard Nixon and others.

1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “That’s the Way (I like It)” by KC & The Sunshine Band, Fly, Robin, Fly” by Silver Convention, “The Way I Want to Touch You” by Captain & Tennille and “Rocky” by Dickey Lee all topped the charts.

1975 – President Gerald Ford nominated Federal Judge John Paul Stevens to the U.S. Supreme Court seat vacated by William O. Douglas.

1975 – “As the World Turns”  and “The Edge of Night”, the final two American soap operas that had resisted going to pre-taped broadcasts, air their last live episodes.

1977 – “The Honeymooners Christmas,” (25:58) directed by Jackie Gleason, aired on

1979 – Billy Smith becomes the first goalie in NHL history to score a goal in a game.

1979 – “Young Maverick”, a TV Western Drama, made its debut on CBS.

1981 – Alabama football coach Paul ‘Bear’ Bryant won his 315th victory.

1981 – “Physical” by Olivia Newton-John topped the charts.

1981 – “Open All Night” (TV Comedy) debut on ABC.

1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “All Night Long (All Night)” by Lionel Richie, “Say Say Say by Paul McCartney & Michael Jackson, “Uptown Girl” by Billy Joel and “Holding Her and Loving You” by Earl Thomas Conley all topped the charts.

1983 – The space shuttle Columbia blasted into orbit, carrying six astronauts who conducted experiments using the $1 billion Spacelab in the shuttle’s cargo bay.

1984 – Over 250 years after their deaths, William Penn and his wife Hannah Callowhill Penn are made honorary citizens of the United States.

1985 – Astronauts aboard the space shuttle Atlantis celebrated Thanksgiving with a dinner of irradiated turkey and freeze-dried vegetables, and launched a satellite from the cargo bay.

1987 – “The Time of My Life” by Bill Medley & Jennifer Warnes topped the charts.

1990 – Margaret Thatcher formally tenders her resignation to The Queen and leaves Downing Street for the last time. John Major is elected her successor.

1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “When a Man Loves a Woman” by Michael Bolton, “Set Adrift on Memory Bliss” by PM Dawn, “That’s What Love is For” by Amy Grant and “Shameless” by Garth Brooks all topped the charts.

1992 – “I Will Always Love You” by Whitney Houston hit #1 on the pop singles chart.

1994 – John Magoch and his armored car disappeared from outside Dillard’s at Arrowhead Towne Center, in Glendale, AZ. Hours later, Magoch was found dead in the parked van, its engine running, in a Sun City, AZ church parking lot. He had a bullet hole in his head.

1995 – U.S. President Bill Clinton signs a highway bill that ends the federal 55 mph speed limit.

1996 – A stuck hatch on the space shuttle Columbia prevented two astronauts from going on a spacewalk. A second planned spacewalk also had to be canceled; engineers later discovered a loose screw had jammed the hatch mechanism.

1999 – Hsing-Hsing, the popular giant panda who arrived in America in 1972 as a symbol of US-China detente, was euthanized at age 28. Officials at Washington’s National Zoo decided to end the panda’s life because of his deteriorating health.

2000 – George W. Bush’s lawyers asked the U.S. Supreme Court to bring “legal finality” to the presidential election by ending any further ballot recounts; Al Gore’s team countered that the nation’s highest court should not interfere in Florida’s recount dispute.

2001 – Officials recovered the body of CIA officer Johnny “Mike” Spann from a prison compound in Mazar-e-Sharif after northern alliance rebels backed by U.S. airstrikes and special forces quelled an uprising by Taliban and al-Qaida prisoners.

2003 – In Ohio authorities said for the first time they had linked the Nov. 25 death of Gail Knisley to at least one of 10 other reports of shots fired at vehicles along I-270.

2003 – The US suspended $49 million in aid payments to Nicaragua’s judiciary, a day after the court told America to stay out of its business.

2003 – It was reported that the New Zealand mud snail had invaded trout streams in Northern California. They were capable of stripping entire river systems of algae and had already infested trout streams in Montana.

2004 – A private jet crashed while taking off in Montrose, CO, killing two crewmen and Edward Ebersol (14), the son of NBC Sports chairman Dick Ebersol, who escaped with his other son Charles.

2005 – A new phenomenon called “Cyber Monday” took effect as millions of Americans returned to work after the Thanksgiving and used office computers to shop for Christmas presents.

2005 – Randy “Duke” Cunningham (63), a Republican US congressman, resigned after pleading guilty in San Diego, Ca., to taking 2.4 million dollars in bribes in return from a military contractor to influence the award of defense deals.

2006 – A US federal judge said the government discriminates against blind people by printing money in bills that all feel the same, and ordered the Treasury Dept. to fix the problem.

2006-In San Francisco Genevieve Paez (53) was shot execution style outside her home in Visitacion Valley. She worked as a customer service supervisor for the US Postal Service.

2007 – In Minnesota a fire at a pipeline from Canada that feeds oil to the US killed two people.

2007 – O.J. Simpson pleaded not guilty in Las Vegas to charges of kidnapping and armed robbery stemming from a confrontation with sports memorabilia dealers. Simpson and a co-defendant were convicted in October, 2008.

2007 – An Oakland, Ca., city auditor’s report said employees were allowed to cash out unused vacation time and received millions of dollars in perks, much of it not subject to scrutiny.

2007 – Nazi documents stored in a vast warehouse in Germany were unsealed, opening a rich resource for Holocaust historians and for survivors to delve into their own tormented past. Inquiries were handled by the archive’s 400 staff members in the German spa town of Bad Arolsen (WSW of Berlin).

2008 – This day was marked as Native American Heritage Day. US federal legislation set aside the day after Thanksgiving — for this year only — to honor the contributions American Indians have made to the US.

2008 – Space shuttle Endeavour and its crew of seven departed the international space station, ending a 12-day visit.

2008 – In New York Jdimytai Damour (34), a Long Island Wal-Mart worker, was killed after a crowd of post-Thanksgiving shoppers burst through the doors at the suburban Valley Stream store and knocked him down.

2010 – Wikileaks releases 250,000 messages sent by U.S. embassies, including messages discussing corruption, criticisms of the UK, Guantánamo Bay prison camp, a Chinese cyber attack, the relationship between Vladimir Putin and Silvio Berlusconi, and a possible unified Korea.

2012 –  Motivational speaker Zig Ziglar died after a battle with pneumonia, in Plano, Texas. “Though his time on earth has ended, he is speaking with Jesus now in his heavenly home.” “The angels in heaven are rejoicing and his family is celebrating a life well lived.”

2012 –  The Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree, a world-wide symbol of the holidays in New York City was lit. This year’s tree arrived at Rockefeller Center on Wednesday, November 14, 2012. Once the tree is in place, it will be decorated with more than 30,000 multi-colored, energy-efficient LED lights, and crowned by a Swarovski star.



1489 – Margaret Tudor, wife of James IV of Scotland (d. 1541)
1628 – John Bunyan, English cleric and author (d. 1688)
1837 – John Wesley Hyatt, American inventor of celluloid (d. 1920)
1853 – Helen Magill White, first American woman to earn a Ph.D. (d. 1944)
1866 – Henry Bacon, American architect (d. 1924) is best remembered for his severe Greek Doric Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. (built 1915–1922), which was his final project.
1936 – Gary Hart, American politician
1949 – Alexander Godunov, Russian composer and ballet dancer (d. 1995)
1949 – Paul Schaffer, Canadian-born musician and composer, bandleader on “The Late Show with David Letterman.”
1962 – Jon Stewart, American comedian, actor, and television host






Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Korea,  November 28th,  1950. Entered service at: Dover, N.J. Born: 4 November 1929, New York, N.Y. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a rifleman with Company F, in action against enemy aggressor forces. When all the other members of his fire team became casualties, creating a gap in the lines, during the initial phase of a vicious attack launched by a fanatical enemy of regimental strength against his company’s hill position, Pvt. Cafferata waged a lone battle with grenades and rifle fire as the attack gained momentum and the enemy threatened penetration through the gap and endangered the integrity of the entire defensive perimeter. Making a target of himself under the devastating fire from automatic weapons, rifles, grenades, and mortars, he maneuvered up and down the line and delivered accurate and effective fire against the onrushing force, killing fifteen, wounding many more, and forcing the others to withdraw so that reinforcements could move up and consolidate the position. Again fighting desperately against a renewed onslaught later that same morning when a hostile grenade landed in a shallow entrenchment occupied by wounded Marines, Pvt. Cafferata rushed into the gully under heavy fire, seized the deadly missile in his right hand and hurled it free of his comrades before it detonated, severing part of one finger and seriously wounding him in the right hand and arm. Courageously ignoring the intense pain, he staunchly fought on until he was struck by a sniper’s bullet and forced to submit to evacuation for medical treatment. Stouthearted and indomitable, Pvt. Cafferata, by his fortitude, great personal valor, and dauntless perseverance in the face of almost certain death, saved the lives of several of his fellow Marines and contributed essentially to the success achieved by his company in maintaining its defensive position against tremendous odds. His extraordinary heroism throughout was in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.



Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company E, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division ( Rein ). Place and date: North of Yudam-ni, Korea, November 27th and November 28th,  1950. Entered service at: Greenville, S.C. Born: 21 June 1920, Greenville, S.C. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as leader of a machine gun section in Company E, in action against enemy aggressor forces. With the company’s defensive perimeter overrun by a numerically superior hostile force during a savage night attack north of Yudam-ni and his platoon commander seriously wounded, S/Sgt. Kennemore unhesitatingly assumed command, quickly reorganized the unit and directed the men in consolidating the position. When an enemy grenade landed in the midst of a machine gun squad, he bravely placed his foot on the missile and, in the face of almost certain death, personally absorbed the full force of the explosion to prevent injury to his fellow Marines. By his indomitable courage, outstanding leadership and selfless efforts in behalf of his comrades, S/Sgt. Kennemore was greatly instrumental in driving the enemy from the area and upheld the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.



Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1839, Boston, Mass. Accredited to. Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as coxswain on board the U.S. Sloop John Adams, Sullvan’s Island Channel, November 28th, 1864. Taking part in the boarding of the blockade runner Beatrice while under heavy enemy fire from Fort Moultrie, O’Brien, who was in charge of one of the boarding launches, carried out his duties with prompt and energetic conduct. This action resulted in the firing of the Beatrice and the capture of a quantity of supplies from her.

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Unerased History – November 27th

Posted by Wayne Church on November 27, 2015 in 11 - November, Blog by month |
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National Day of Listening

  Pins and Needles Day


The Art of Listening

“Friends, Romans, Countrymen lend me your ears!” This is the first line of the funeral oration by Marc Antony from William Shakespeare’s “Julius Caesar.” When this is said it can be said in many ways from sounding like a sportscaster to someone who has lost a dear friend. The ability and need to communicate touches every area of our lives. Everything we do in life requires communication with others. In this case, it is how people hear this to determine its communication effect.

As a long-term member of Toastmasters International  it has long been a goal to effectively communicate to my audience.Much of communication theory focuses on how to speak to others and how to convey your message. But, communication is really a two-way process. It is an activity, not a one-time event. The listener’s role is as central to the communication process as the speaker’s role.

In the Toastmasters model positions such as ah-counter, evaluator and individual evaluators all are designed to train people in listening skills as well as speaking skills. For example, the ah-counter position is to listen for speaking fillers such as ah, um, er, ya-know, give a sound and then report at the end of the meeting. This helps not just speakers but audiences to learn how to listen. Since listening is as important as speaking in the communication process, if you wanted to improve your listening skills, where would you begin? Here are a few ideas and suggestions you can use:

Exercise active listening skills.. Try nodding your head to show interest. Try making eye contact with the speaker. Even though you are sitting and listening quietly, this may be enough for the speaker to feel that they are being understood.

Important in listening is how and what makes you tick. We are the product of how we were brought up and where, of our culture, of our experiences, of our education and anything and everything that makes us unique. Our uniqueness can sometimes be an obstacle to being an effective listener. As you listen, try to remain open to what you are hearing and withhold evaluation or judgment. Become aware of what your triggers are in the communication process and what shuts your listening down.

Observe your own and other people’s listening habits. Ask yourself what it feels like when someone really listens to you and when they don’t. Make a list of any behaviors that you find irritating in the listening habits of other people and then examine your own listening behavior. See if you just might exhibit any of the behaviors you find annoying.

Create a checklist of habits you want to change. Also, acknowledge yourself for listening habits you have that do work for you. This type of thorough self-exploration is another way to learn about your filters and your barrier or triggers as a listener. Once you identify and reduce what gets in the way of your ability to hear, you’ll increase your effectiveness as a listener.

Listen without formulating a response to the speaker. As listeners we think about 500 words per minute while the normal speaking rate is about 125 to 150 words per minute. That creates a lot of room for creative thought and for your mind to wander! Try to hear everything that is being said, listen to the entire message and then respond. The temptation is to fill the extra space with your own thoughts and/or responses to what is being said will take you out of the current conversation. And, you may miss valuable information because you’ve moved on to a new topic – without the speaker.

Listen with empathy. Empathy is an imaginative process. Empathy is emptying the mind and listening with the whole being. Empathy is a respectful understanding of what others are experiencing. True empathy is the ability to fully understand and accept another.  Learn to listen for: What’s not being said? What’s in the way? What’s missing? What’s needed right now? What’s most important to the speaker?

Become aware of the speaker’s non-verbal communication. One estimate has it that 75% of all communication is non-verbal. Beyond the words is a host of clues as to what the speaker is communicating. Is the speaker’s posture rigid or relaxed? Does the speaker maintain eye contact?  Does the speaker’s vocal tone and intonation match the words they are using? Do the speaker’s movements match with the message the words are conveying? Is the verbal and non-verbal communication consistent?

Create an environment for the listening to occur. Remove distractions. Limit side conversations

We all need to feel that we are being heard and understood. It is a basic human need that is as primary a need as having enough water, food or air to survive. So, try out any of these suggestions and you will experience more of a connection to those around you.

And, if all else fails just remember these words by Epictetus, an ancient Greek philosopher and you are guaranteed to improve your listening skills: “Nature gave us one tongue and two ears so we could hear twice as much as we speak.”

Scripture of the Day

Founders Thoughts


Guard well your spare moments. They are like uncut diamonds. Discard them and their value will never be known. Improve them and they will become the brightest gems in a useful life.”

~ Ralph Waldo Emerson

Svelte (svelt)   adjective:

1.Slender; lithe.
2.Graceful; suave.
•From French svelte (slender), from Italian svelto (slender), past participle of svellere (to pull out or stretch), from Latin exvellere, from ex- (out) vellere (to pull). First recorded use: 1817.


43 B.C.E. – Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus formed the triumvirate of Rome.

1095Pope Urban II called for the first crusade to free the Holy land from Islamic occupation.

1582 – William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway.

1703 – The first Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed in the Great Storm of 1703.

1779 – The College of Philadelphia, considered a Royalist institution, was converted into the University of the State of Pennsylvania, thus creating both America’s first state school and first official university. In 1791, the school became a privately endowed institution and took the name of the University of Pennsylvania.

1804 – Pres. Jefferson issued a nationwide proclamation to military and public officials warning of a conspiracy to attack Spanish territory in Texas. He had opened negotiations with Spain to purchase Texas territory west of New Orleans. Jefferson had heard rumors that Aaron Burr had begun plotting an invasion of Texas.

1817 – US soldiers attacked a Florida Indian village and began the Seminole War.

1826 – Jebediah Smith and his expedition reached San Diego, becoming the first Americans to cross the southwestern part of the U.S.

1839 – In Boston, Massachusetts, the American Statistical Association is founded.

1841 – The liberators of the ship Amistad set sail for Africa aboard the “Gentleman.”

1852 – Ada Lovelace (b.1815), Lord Byron’s daughter and the inventor of computer language, was bled to death by physicians at age 36. She had helped Charles Babbage develop his “Analytical Engine,” that performed mathematical calculations through the use of punched cards.

1863 – Civil War: Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and several of his men escape the Ohio state prison and return safely to the South.

1863 – Civil War: Battle of Payne’s Farm, Va. Payne’s Farm and New Hope Church were the first and heaviest clashes of the Mine Run Campaign.

1864 – Civil War: Battles at Waynesboro, Georgia. (2nd Day)

1864 – Civil War: An explosion and fire destroyed General Butler’s headquarters steamer Greyhound, on the James River, Virginia, and narrowly missed killing Butler, Major General Schenck, and Rear Admiral Porter.

1868 – Indian Wars: Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer’s 7th Cavalry killed Chief Black Kettle (b.1801) and 103 Cheyenne (mostly women and children) on the Washita River near present day Cheyenne, Oklahoma.

1870 – New York Times dubs baseball “The National Game.”

1871 – Ku Klux Klan trials began in Federal District Court in Columbia, SC.

1879 – Virgil Earp became a Deputy U.S. Marshal.

1887 – U.S. Deputy Marshal Frank Dalton, brother of the three famous outlaws, was killed in the line of duty near Fort Smith, Ark.

1889 – First permit issued to drive a car through Central Park (Curtis Brady).

1894 – Mildred Lord was granted a patent for a washing machine.

1895 – At the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, Alfred Nobel signs his last will and testament, setting aside his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after he dies.

1896 – Richard Strauss’ “Also Sprach Zarathustra” (Thus Spake Zarathustra) debuted in Frankfurt. It was later (1968) used as a theme in “2001- A Space Odyssey.”

1898 – The SS Portland, under Capt. Hollis H. Blanchard, sank overnight in the Portland Gale off New England and all 192 people aboard were killed.

1901 – The Army War College was established in Washington, D.C.

1909 – U.S. troops land in Bluefields, Nicaragua, to protect American interests there.

1910 – New York’s Penn Station opens as world’s largest railway terminal. The 28-acre train and transportation facility is still the busiest Amtrak rail station in the U.S.

1911 – Audience threw over-ripe vegetables at actors for the first recorded time in US. The act involved The Cherry Sisters. They were so awful it was described to be like a car wreck.

1924 – In New York City the first Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade is held.

1926 – Louis ‘Satchmo’ Armstrong recorded “You Made  Me Love You“.

1928 – Patent for a permanent wave machine which could wave the hair of both white and Black people. U.S. Patent 1,693,515 Marjorie Joyner was employed by the Madame C.J. Walker Cosmetic Company and assigned her patent rights to that company.

1930 – “The First Nighter” first appeared on the Blue Network. It continued with some interruptions until 1953.

1934 – Bank robber Baby Face Nelson dies in a shoot-out called  “The Battle of Barrington”with the FBI.

1935 – “Eeny Meeny Miney Mo” was recorded by Ginger Rogers and Johnny Mercer.

1939 – The play “Key Largo,” by Maxwell Anderson, opened in New York.

1941 – The State of Jefferson seceded from Oregon and California. Jefferson was the winning name for a new state made of California’s northern Siskiyou, Del Norte and Trinity counties along with Oregon’s southern Curray County.

1942 – World War II: The French navy at Toulon scuttled its ships and submarines to keep them out of the hands of the Nazis.

1944 – World War II: The second B-29 Superfortress bombing raid on Tokyo targets the Musashi aircraft engine plant.

1944 – World War II: The battleship USS Colorado and 2 light cruisers are damaged in Kamikaze attacks.

1945 – C.A.R.E. (Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere) was founded by Wallace Campbell to provide relief to survivors of World War II. The relief came in “CARE Packages”, which were U.S. Army surplus 10-in-1 food parcels left over from the planned U.S. invasion of Japan.

1947 – Joe DiMaggio wins his 3rd MVP, beating Ted Williams by one vote.

1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Harbor Lights” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Tony Alamo), “Nevertheless” by Jack Denny, “All My Love” by Patti Page and “I’m Moving On” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.

1950 – Korean War: Eighth Army’s 2nd, 24th and 25th Infantry Divisions began withdrawing to the south of the Chongchon River in the face of the Chinese offensive.

1950 – Korean War: East of the Chosin River, Chinese forces annihilated an American task force. Col. Barber (d.2002 at 82) and 220 soldiers in Fox Company withstood a 5-day assault to protect an escape pass.

1951 – Korean War: Cease-fire and demarcation zone accord was signed in Panmunjom, Korea.

1951 – At White Sands, NM a Nike Ajax missile intercepted an aircraft flying at 15 miles range, 33,000 feet altitude, and 300 miles per hour, marking the first successful kill of an aerial target by a U.S. guided missile.

1951 – Hosea Richardson became the first Black horse racing jockey to be licensed in Florida.

1954 – Alger Hiss is released from prison after serving 44 months for perjury.

1954 – “I Need You Now” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.

1957 – Army withdrew from Little Rock, Ark., after the Central High School integration.

1957 – Dorothy Height, YMCA official, elected president of the National Council of Negro Women.

1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Only Make Believe” by Conway Twitty, “To Know Him, is to Love Him” by The Teddy Bears, “One Night” by Elvis Presley and “City Lights” by Ray Price all topped the charts.

1960 Gordie Howe becomes first NHLer to score 1,000 points .

1960 – CBS radio cancelled “Have Gun Will Travel.”

1961 – Navy reports first use of its cyclotron at Harvard University to treat a human brain tumor. After three treatments, the tumor of the 2-year old patient shrank by eighty percent.

1961 – Gordie Howe becomes first to play in 1,000 NHL games and he scores his 600th goal.

1963 – President Lyndon B. Johnson delivered his first address to a joint session of Congress.

1965 – Vietnam War: The Pentagon tells U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson that if planned operations were to succeed, the number of American troops in Vietnam has to be increased from 120,000 to 400,000.

1965 – “I Hear a Symphony” by the Supremes topped the charts.

1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Keep Me Hangin’ On” by The Supremes, “Good Vibrations” by The Beach Boys, “Devil with a Blue Dress On & Good Golly Miss Molly” by Mitch Ryder & The Detroit Wheels and “Somebody Like Me” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1966 – In highest-scoring NFL game, Washington Redskins defeat NY Giants 72-41.

1967 – Beatles release “Magical Mystery Tour“.

1967 – The Association earned a gold record for the hit “Never My Love“. The group also earned worldwide fame for other hits including “Windy“, “Cherish” and “Along Comes Mary“.

1970 – Pope Paul VI, visiting the Philippines, was attacked at the Manila airport by a Bolivian painter disguised as a priest.

1971 –  “Theme From Shaft” by Isaac Hayes topped the charts.

1973 – The Twenty-fifth Amendment: The United States Senate votes 92 to 3 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President of the United States (on December 6, the House confirmed him 387 to 35).

1973 – Neil Simon’s “Good Doctor,” premiered in New York City.

1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Can Help” by Billy Swan, “Do It (’Til You’re Satisfied)” by B.T. Express, “Longfellow Serenade” by Neil Diamond and “Trouble in Paradise” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.

1976 – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)” by Rod Stewart topped the charts.

1978 – San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and City Supervisor Harvey Milk, a gay-rights activist, were shot to death inside City Hall by former supervisor Dan White.

1980 – Dave Williams (Chicago Bears) became the first player in NFL history to return a kick for touchdown in overtime.

1982 – CHART TOPPERS -“Truly” by Lionel Richie, “Gloria” by Laura Branigan, “Mickey” by Toni Basil and “It Ain’t Easy Bein’ Easy” by Janie Fricke  all topped the charts.

1988 – The United States was hit by a flood of worldwide criticism for its refusal a day earlier to allow PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat to address the United Nations.

1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Takes Time” by Mariah Carey, “More Than Words Can Say” by Alias, “I’m Your Baby Tonight” by Whitney Houston and “Come Next Monday” by K.T. Oslin all topped the charts.

1990 – The Conservative Party chose John Major to succeed former British prime minister Margaret Thatcher as party leader.

1991 – Both houses of the U.S. Congress approved legislation authorizing $70 billion in borrowing authority for the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) because of the savings and loan failures.

1992 – President-elect Clinton met for more than an hour with former President Reagan in Los Angeles.

1996 – Evan C. Hunziker, an American jailed by North Korea on spy charges, was set free, ending a three-month ordeal.

1996 – A federal judge blocked enforcement of a California initiative to dismantle affirmative action, saying civil rights groups had a “strong probability” of proving it unconstitutional.

1997 – Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York was marred when a wind gust knocked part of a lamppost onto a 34-year-old woman, fracturing her skull and leaving her in a coma for almost a month.

1997 – In Denver five skinheads beat up a 26-year-old black woman who was shopping at a 7-Eleven. All 5 were captured and arraigned in court.

1997 – Gold closed below $300 for the first time since 1985 to $296.

1998 – Shoppers on Black Friday crowded shopping centers and the new Furby toys, a furry talking toy, was creating a mania. Black Friday was used to describe the big shopping day following Thanksgiving that put stores into the black.

1998 – In Texas, Martin E. Gurule became the first inmate to escape from Death Row at Huntsville.

2001 – A hydrogen atmosphere is discovered on the extrasolar planet Osiris by the Hubble Space Telescope, the first atmosphere detected on a planet outside our solar system.

2002 – President Bush gave the go-ahead to open U.S. highways to Mexican trucks.

2003 – Pres. Bush flew to Iraq under extraordinary secrecy and security to spend Thanksgiving with US troops.

2003 – Researchers in Cleveland reported on a gene that causes heart attacks.

2004 – U.S. Army deserter Charles Jenkins was released from a military jail after serving 25 days for abandoning his squadron and crossing the border into North Korea in 1965. Thirty-nine years living in North Korea was considered part of time-served.

2005 – The first partial human face transplant is completed in Amiens, France. Isabelle Dinoire received the lips, nose and chin of a brain-dead woman in a 15-hour operation.

2005 – In Santa Maria, Ca., a Greyhound bus overturned, killing two people and injuring dozens of others.

2006 – An early morning fire at a group home for the mentally disabled in southwest Missouri killed ten residents and a caretaker and sent at least a dozen more to a hospital.

2007 – A Somali immigrant, Nuradin Abdi, was sentenced to ten years in prison for plotting to blow up an Ohio shopping mall.

2007 – In Florida Pro Bowl safety Sean Taylor died after he was shot in his home by an apparent intruder, leaving the Washington Redskins in mourning for a teammate who seemed to have reordered his life since becoming a father.

2007 – Cessna said it will turn over complete production of its new Cessna 162 SkyCatcher to a Chinese partner, Shenyang Aircraft Corporation.

2008 – Macy’s held its 82nd Thanksgiving Day parade in New York City.

2008 – An SUV plunged off an overpass in northern Colorado and hit a concrete embankment in a fiery crash, killing all seven people inside it, including two young children.

2009 – Tiger Woods ran his SUV into a fire hydrant and a tree outside his Florida home. This took place just days after the National Enquirer claimed he had an affair with Rachel Uchitel, the 33-year-old golf champ.

2009 – Space shuttle Atlantis and its seven astronauts completing STS-129 returned to Earth with a smooth touchdown at Cape Canaveral, Fla., to end an “amazing” flight that resupplied the International Space Station.

2010 – TERRORISM: Somali-born teenager Mohamed Osman Mohamud is arrested in Portland, Oregon, for allegedly plotting a bombing attack on a Christmas tree lighting ceremony.

2012 – The remains of Yasser Arafat are exhumed as part of an investigation into how the Palestinian leader died in November 2004.

2013 – OBAMACARE: The small business exchange is delayed another year.

2013 – U.S. Bankruptcy Court Judge Sean Lane, who is overseeing the case of the bankruptcy reorganization of American Airlines, gives his required approval to the American Airlines–US Airways merger.

2013 – In Tucson, AZ, three girls that had been held hostage by their knife-wielding stepfather were rescued. They had been held captive for several months or more in extremely dirty conditions (possibly up to two years), subjected to long barrages of loud music or static, fed only once a day and having gone up to four months without a bath.



1701 – Anders Celsius, Swedish astronomer and thermometer inventor.
1843 – Cornelius Vanderbilt, American businessman.
1853 – Bat Masterson, American Wild West gambler, saloonkeeper, lawman, and editor.
1909 – James Agee, American Pulitzer Prize-winning author.
1912 – David Merrick, American Broadway producer.
1917 – Buffalo Bob (Smith), American TV host.
1940 – Bruce Lee (Liu Yuen Kam), Chinese-born American actor, martial arts expert.
1942 – Jimi Hendrix, American guitarist and singer.
1957 – Caroline Kennedy Schlossberg, daughter of President John F.Kennedy.




Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, commanding officer, Company E, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Ipsok, Korea,  November 27th, 1950. Entered service at: Gilroy, Calif. Born: 12 September 1918, Clairton, Pa. G.O. No.: 58, 2 August 1951. Citation: Capt. Desiderio distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the repeated risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. His company was given the mission of defending the command post of a task force against an enemy breakthrough. After personal reconnaissance during darkness and under intense enemy fire, he placed his men in defensive positions to repel an attack. Early in the action he was wounded, but refused evacuation and despite enemy fire continued to move among his men checking their positions and making sure that each element was prepared to receive the next attack. Again wounded, he continued to direct his men. By his inspiring leadership he encouraged them to hold their position. In the subsequent fighting when the fanatical enemy succeeded in penetrating the position, he personally charged them with carbine, rifle, and grenades, inflicting many casualties until he himself was mortally wounded. His men, spurred on by his intrepid example, repelled this final attack. Capt. Desiderio’s heroic leadership, courageous and loyal devotion to duty, and his complete disregard for personal safety reflect the highest honor on him and are in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the U.S. Army.




Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 22d Infantry, 4th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Grosshau, Germany, November 27th,1944. Entered service at: Sugarland, Tex. Born: 20 January 1920, Villa de Castano, Mexico. G.O. No.: 74, 1 September 1945. Citation: While an acting squad leader of Company B, 22d Infantry, on 27 November 1944, near Grosshau, Germany, he single-handedly assaulted two enemy machinegun emplacements. Attacking prepared positions on a wooded hill, which could be approached only through meager cover, his company was pinned down by intense machinegun fire and subjected to a concentrated artillery and mortar barrage. Although painfully wounded, he refused to be evacuated and on his own initiative crawled forward alone until he reached a position near an enemy emplacement. Hurling grenades, he boldly assaulted the position, destroyed the gun, and with his rifle killed three of the enemy who attempted to escape. When he rejoined his company, a second machinegun opened fire and again the intrepid soldier went forward, utterly disregarding his own safety. He stormed the position and destroyed the gun, killed three more Germans, and captured four prisoners. He fought on with his unit until the objective was taken and only then did he permit himself to be removed for medical care. S/Sgt. (then private) Garcia’s conspicuous heroism, his inspiring, courageous conduct, and his complete disregard for his personal safety wiped out two enemy emplacements and enabled his company to advance and secure its objective.




Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Ringgold, Ga., November 27th, 1863. Entered service at: Syracuse, N.Y. Birth: Syracuse, N.Y. Date of issue: 28 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and battery guidon.





Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 5th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Raccoon Ford, Va., November 27th, 1863. Entered service at. Cuba, N.Y. Birth. Cattaraugus County, N.Y. Date of issue. 20 August 1894. Citation. After his command had retreated, this soldier, voluntarily and alone, returned to the assistance of a comrade and rescued him from the hands of three armed Confederates.





Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 90th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Mine Run, Va., November 27th,1863. Entered service at: Berks County, Pa. Born: 13 October 1840, Russia. Date of issue: 23 June 1896. Citation: Voluntarily extinguished the burning fuse of a shell which had been thrown into the lines of the regiment by the enemy.


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Unerased History – November 26th

Posted by Wayne Church on November 26, 2015 in 11 - November, Blog by month |
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National Cake Day 




Needs No Batteries- Yeah Right!!!!

Electricity has fascinated human kind since our ancestors first witnessed lightning. In ancient Greece, Thales observed that an electric charge could be generated by rubbing amber, for which the Greek word is electron.

In 1938 a jar was found just outside Baghdad, Iraq (that may be, could be or is believed to be) the first battery. The jar is about 2000 years old from the Parthian period. The jar is composed of a clay jar with a stopper made of asphalt. Sticking through the asphalt is an iron rod surrounded by a copper cylinder. When filled with vinegar – or any other electrolytic solution – the jar produces about 1.1 volts. But, such ancient knowledge in the history of electricity bears no known continuous relationship to the development of modern batteries. Its form, though, is nearly identical to the principles that are in use today.
Beginning his work in 1794, Volta observed the electrical interaction between two different metals submerged near each other in an acidic solution. Based on this principle, his first battery consisted of a series of alternating copper and zinc rings in an acid solution known as an electrolyte. His device for generating a consistent flow of electricity was invented in 1800. He called his invention a column battery, although it came to be commonly known as the Volta battery, Voltaic cell or Voltaic pile.

Volta’s discovery of a means of converting chemical energy into electrical energy formed the basis for nearly all modern batteries. Volta researched the effects which different metals produced when exposed to salt water. In 1801, Volta demonstrated the Voltaic cell to Napoleon Bonaparte (who later ennobled him, Count, for his discoveries).

Scripture of the Day


Founders Thoughts


“Wherever there is danger, there lurks opportunity; whenever there is opportunity, there lurks danger. The two are inseparable. They go together.”

 ~ Earl Nightingale


proclivity pro-KLIV-uh-tee, noun:
A natural inclination; predisposition.

Proclivity comes from Latin proclivitas, from proclivis, “inclined,” from pro-, “forward” + clivus, “a slope.”


1716 – A lion was first exhibited in the U.S., in Boston.

1774 – A congress of colonial leaders criticized British influence in the colonies and affirmed their right to “Life, liberty and property.”

1778 – Captain Cook discovered Maui in the Sandwich Islands, later named Hawaii.

1789 – A national Thanksgiving Day is observed in the United States as recommended by President George Washington and approved by Congress.

1783 – The city of Annapolis, Maryland, was the first peacetime U.S. capital.

1789 – President Washington set aside this day to observe the adoption of the Constitution of the United States.

1789 – George Washington proclaimed this a National Thanksgiving Day in honor of the new Constitution. He made it clear that the day should be one of prayer and giving thanks to God, to be celebrated by all the religious denominations. This date was later used to set the date for Thanksgiving.

1825 – The first college social fraternity, Kappa Alpha, was started at Union College in Schenectady, New York.

1832 – First streetcar railway in America starts operating (New York City) (12cent fare).

1842 – The University of Notre Dame is founded.

1846 – Sarah Josepha Hale, editor of the influential Godey’s Lady’s Book, began a tireless campaign to establish a national Thanksgiving holiday in November. She was the editor and founder of the Ladies’ Magazine in Boston. It was because of her editorials and letters to President Lincoln that he made his proclamation on October 3, 1863, which designated the last Thursday of November as Thanksgiving Day.

1860 – A newspaper print of newly elected President Abraham Lincoln clearly showed the beginnings of a beard. He started to grow it when a supporter said he would look better with one.

1861 – West Virginia was created as a result of dispute over slavery with Virginia.

1862 – Charles Dodgson (AKA Lewis Carroll) sends the handwritten manuscript of Alice’s Adventures Underground to 10-year-old Alice Liddell. (see 1865)

1863 – The first of our modern annual Thanksgivings was held as President Lincoln  proclaimed on October 3, 1863 .

1863 – Civil War: Mine Run – Union forces under General George Meade position against troops led by Confederate General Robert E. Lee. This followed months of inaction after Gettysburg.

1864 – Civil War: Skirmish at Sylvan Brutal and Waynesboro, Georgia.

1864 – Colonel Kit Carson led the attack in the First Battle of Adobe Walls, NM. He led a column of 335 officers and men of the First New Mexico Volunteer Cavalry and they surprised an encampment of Kiowa Indians. He was leter forced to retreat when counter-attacked by hundreds of Comanches.

1865 – “Alice in Wonderland” by Lewis Carroll was published in US.

1867 – The refrigerated railroad car was patented by J.B. Sutherland of Detroit, Michigan.

1895 – Russell Penniman received a patent for transparent photographic film.

1896 – A.A. Stagg of the University of Chicago creates the football huddle.

1896 – The University of Chicago defeated the University of Michigan, 7-6, at the Chicago Coliseum. It was the first major college football game played indoors.

1917 – The National Hockey League is formed, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, and Toronto Arenas as its first teams.

1922 – British archaeologists Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon became the first to enter King Tutankhamen’s tomb in over 3000 years.

1922 – “Toll of the Sea  (54:34) debuts as the first general release film to use two-tone Technicolor (The Gulf Between was the first film to do so but it was not widely distributed).

1933 – Fifteen thousand people in San Jose, California, storm the jail where Thomas Thurmond and John Holmes are being held as suspects in the kidnapping and murder of Brooke Hart, the 22-year-old son of a local storeowner. The mob of angry citizens proceeded to lynch and strip the accused men and then pose them for pictures.

1933 – A judge in New York ruled the James Joyce book “Ulysses” was not obscene and could therefore be published in the United States.

1940 – Xavier Cugat and his orchestra recorded “Orchids in the Moonlight” on the Columbia label.

1940 – World War II (Europe): The half-million Jews of Warsaw, Poland, were forced by the Nazis to live within a walled ghetto. For perspective on the conditions, New York City, America’s most populous city, there are 26,401 people per square mile. In this ghetto there were 384,615 per square mile. The ghetto was fifteen times as populous as New York. Conditions were horrible beyond imagination.

1941 – President Franklin Roosevelt established the fourth Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day. In 1789, President George Washington proclaimed Nov. 26 to be Thanksgiving Day. It was the first U.S. holiday by presidential proclamation. Abraham Lincoln changed it to the last Thursday in November and then Roosevelt moved it to the fourth Thursday in November.

1941 – World War II: Attack on Pearl Harbor – A fleet of six aircraft carriers commanded by Japanese Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo leaves Hitokapu Bay for Pearl Harbor under strict radio silence.

1941 – World War II: The Hull Note Ultimatum is delivered to Japan by the United States. It was an edict that “the government of Japan will withdraw all military, naval, air and police forces from China and Indochina.”

1942 – World War II: Holocaust: 572 Norwegian Jews were deported to Auschwitz on the cargo vessel Donau. This was the first step on the journey to the death camp Auschwitz. Altogether the total number of Jews deported from Norway was 767. Twenty-five of the deported survived.

1942 – World War II: President Franklin Roosevelt ordered gas rationing to begin on December 1st.

1942 – The film “Casablanca” with Ingrid Bergman and Humphrey Bogart was made. It had its world premiere at the Hollywood Theater in New York City just as Allied Expeditionary Forces landed in North Africa.

1943 – World War II: The HMT Rohna, a British transport ship carrying American soldiers, was hit by a German missile off Algeria; 1,138 men were killed, including 1,015 American troops.

1943 – World War II: Edward H “Butch” O’Hare, US Navy pilot, Lt Commander (Chicago Airport named for him) and the U.S. Navy’s first flying ace and Medal of Honor recipient in World War II. died in battle. Butch O’Hare’s final action took place on the night of November 26, 1943, while he was leading the U.S. Navy’s first-ever nighttime fighter attack launched from an aircraft carrier. During this encounter with a group of Japanese torpedo bombers, O’Hare’s F6F Hellcat was shot down; his aircraft was never found.

1944 – World War II: A German V-2 rocket hits a Woolworth’s shop on New Cross High Street, United Kingdom, killing 168 shoppers.

1944 – World War II: The US 8th Air Force attacks Hanover (Misburg oil plant), Hamm (the marshalling yards) and Bielefeld (the railway viaduct). The Americans destroyed 138 German fighters for the loss of 36 bombers and 7 fighters.

1945 – “Bride and Groom” debuted on the NBC Blue network.

1949 – “Twenty Questions” had its TV premiere.

1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Cry, Joe” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Betty Brewer), “I Can Dream, Can’t I?” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Jack Leonard), “A Dreamer’s Holiday” by Perry Como and  “Slipping Around” by Margaret Whiting & Jimmy Wakely  all topped the charts.

1950 – Korean War: Troops from the People’s Republic of China move into North Korea and launch a massive counterattack against South Korean and American forces (Battle of Chosin Reservoir), ending any hopes of a quick end to the conflict. It results in the UN troops being pushed completely out of North Korea.

1952 – The first modern 3-D film “Bwana Devil” starred Robert Stack premiered. It was made in 3-D by cameraman Lothrop Worth (d.2000 at 96) and inspired a series of 1950s 3-D movies also including “The House of Wax” and “The Creature from the Black Lagoon.” To watch this or the full movie you will need “3D glasses” from the 50’s. Newer ones don’t work.

1955 – “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford topped the charts.

1956 – “The Price is Right” (29:29) premiered on TV
1956 – Bandleader Tommy Dorsey died in Greenwich, Conn., a week after his 51st birthday.

1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley, “You Send Me” by Sam Cooke, “My Special Angel” by Bobby Helms and “Wake Up Little Susie” by The Everly Brothers all topped the charts.

1960 – “Stay” by Maurice Williams topped the charts.

1961 – Professional Baseball Rules Committee voted 8-1 against legalizing the spitball.

1962 – The Beatles recorded “Please Please Me” during their first recording session.

1962 – Arlo Guthrie (17) was arrested in Stockbridge, Mass., for dumping some trash following a Thanksgiving feast at a restaurant run by Alice Brock. He wrote a song about the event that became a folk classic and was turned into a movie in 1969. Alice’s Restaurant (23 minutes)

1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Hear a Symphony” by The Supremes, “1-2-3” by Len Barry, “Rescue Me” by Fontella Bass and “May the Bird of Paradise Fly Up Your Nose” by “Little” Jimmy Dickens all topped the charts.

1965 – France successfully launched the Diamant-A rocket into space, becoming the world’s third space power after the Soviet Union and the United States.

1968 – Vietnam War: United States Air Force helicopter pilot James P. Fleming rescues an Army Special Forces unit pinned down by Viet Cong fire and is later awarded the Medal of Honor. (See citation below in Medal of Honor Recipients.)

1969 – Lottery for Selective Service draftees executive order #11497 was signed by President Nixon.

1969 – The Heisman Trophy was awarded to Steve Owens of Oklahoma as the nation’s outstanding college football player. Owens scored more touchdowns and gained more yardage than any previous player in collegiate history.

1970 – In Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, 1.5 inches  of rain fell in a minute, the heaviest rainfall ever on record.

1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Photograph” by Ringo Starr, “Top of the World” by Carpenters, “Space Race” by Billy Preston and  “Paper Roses” by Marie Osmond all topped the charts.

1973 – President Nixon’s personal secretary, Rose Mary Woods, told a federal court that she’d accidentally caused part of the 18 1/2-minute gap in a key Watergate tape.

1975 – Lynette Alice Fromme, also known as “Squeaky” Fromme, a follower of Charles Manson, was found guilty of attempting to assassinate President Gerald R. Ford.

1975 – Fred Lynn becomes the first rookie to win MVP honors, taking the American League award.

1976 – Catholicism ceased to be the state religion of Italy.

1977 – “You Light Up My Life” by Debbie Boone topped the charts.

1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Physical” by Olivia Newton-John, “Waiting for a Girl like You” by Foreigner, “Here I Am (Just When I Thought I was Over You)” by Air Supply and “All My Rowdy Friends (Have Settled Down)” by Hank Williams, Jr. all topped the charts.

1983 – Brinks Mat robbery: In London, 6,800 gold bars worth nearly £26 million are taken from the Brinks Mat vault at Heathrow Airport.

1983 – “All Night Long (All Night)” by Lionel Richie topped the charts.

1983 – Angela Bugay of Antioch, Ca., 5-years-old, was found in a shallow grave in Concord, Ca. She had been kidnapped a week earlier. Larry Graham, who dated Angela’s mother, was later arrested as a suspect and prosecutors in 1995 received a court order to draw his blood for DNA evidence. In 1996 police matched the DNA of Graham, with samples recovered from the girl’s body and arrested him on charges of murder. Use of the DNA evidence was cleared in 1998. Graham was convicted Aug 20, 2002, and sentenced to death Oct 22.  He was found dead in his cell at San Quentin State Prison , an apparent suicide, on June 16, 2009.

1985 – Space shuttle Atlantis makes second flight and carries seven astronauts.

1985 – The rights to Ronald Reagan’s autobiography were acquired by Random House for $3,000,000.

1986 – US President Ronald Reagan announces the members of what will become known as the Tower Commission. It’s mission, to investigate his National Security Council staff in the wake of the Iran-Contra affair.

1987 – Cuban detainees concerned about the possibility of being sent back to Cuba continued to hold hostages at a prison in Atlanta and a detention center in Oakdale, La.

1988 – The U.S. denied an entry visa to PLO chairman Yasser Arafat, who was seeking permission to travel to New York to address the U.N. General Assembly.

1988 – “Bad Medicine” by Bon Jovi topped the charts.

1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Blame It on the Rain” by Milli Vanilli, “Love Shack” by The B-52’s, “(It’s Just) The Way That You Love Me” by Paula Abdul and “Yellow Roses” by Dolly Parton all topped the charts.

1990 – The Delta II rocket makes its maiden flight.

1991 – The Custer Battlefield was renamed Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument.

1991 – The Stars and Stripes were lowered for the last time at Clark Air Base in Angeles City, Philippines, as the United States abandoned one of its oldest and largest overseas installations, which was damaged by Mount Pinatubo’s eruption.

1991 – School administration handed out condoms to thousands of New York City high school students.

1992 – Queen Elizabeth II announced she would start paying taxes on her personal income and take her children off the national payroll.

1994 – Margaret Garrish, a 72-year-old Detroit woman, committed suicide in the presence of Dr. Jack Kevorkian.

1995 – Two men set fire to a subway token booth in the Brooklyn borough of New York City. The clerk inside was fatally burned. On December 14th 18-year-old James Irons was arrested for the attack. He was charged with second-degree murder. The victim of the attack, Harry P. Kaufman, a 50-year-old clerk who suffered second- and third-degree burns from his head to his knees, died Sunday.

1996 – The Sands Hotel in Las Vegas was blown up to make room for the new 6,000 room Venetian resort.

1997 – In the Aleutian Islands 800 miles southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, the freighter, Kuroshima, ran aground off Dutch Harbor in heavy winds. Two crewmen were reported dead and 10,000 gallons of oil was reported to have leaked.

1998 – Hulk Hogan announced that he was retiring from pro wrestling and would run for president in 2000.

1999 – In New Jersey a small plane crashed in Newark. Pilot Itzhak Jacoby (56), his wife Gail and daughter Atira (13) were killed. 22 people were injured on the ground.

2000 – Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris certified Gov. George W. Bush as winner in the state’s presidential election, 2,912,790 to 2,912,253, a 537-vote margin. Ralph Nader received 97,488 votes.

2001 – President Bush appealed to Congress to outlaw human cloning after scientists in Worcester, Mass., reported they had created the first cloned human embryo.

2001 – In Pensacola, Fla., Terry Lee King was murdered and his house set afire. His two sons, Derek (14) and Alex (13) confessed to the murder.

2001 – Iraq: After nine days of heavy fighting and American aerial bombardment, Taliban fighters surrendered to Northern Alliance forces. The Taliban surrendered the border town of Spin Buldak as US Marines directed air attacks on a column of enemy vehicles.

2002 – President George W. Bush signed into law a bill that created the Department of Homeland Security, the largest reorganization of the federal government in fifty years.

2002WorldCom and the government settled a civil lawsuit over the company’s $9 billion accounting scandal.

2003 – Concorde makes its last ever flight. Concorde featured a maximum speed over twice the speed of sound at Mach 2.04, with seating for 92 to 128 passengers. First flown in 1969, Concorde entered service in 1976 and continued commercial flights for 27 years until 2003.

2003 – Human rights activist Gao Zhan pleaded guilty in Alexandria, Va., to illegally selling American high-tech items with potential military uses to China. She had been recently freed from a Chinese prison after the US government interceded on her behalf. Strange way to say thanks!!

2004 – A Cyprus-registered tanker spilled 30,000 gallons of crude oil into the Delaware River between Philadelphia and southern New Jersey, creating a 20-mile-long slick that killed dozens of birds and threatened other wildlife.

2004 – In New York City a man jumped to his death from the 86th-floor observation deck at the Empire State Building.

2005 – A U.S. Marine died when his vehicle was hit by a roadside bomb near Camp Taqaddum, 45 miles west of Baghdad. Iraqi police arrested eight Sunni Arabs in the northern city of Kirkuk for allegedly plotting to assassinate the investigating judge who prepared the case against Saddam Hussein.

2005 – The US military said four US soldiers face disciplinary action for burning the bodies of two Taliban rebels, but they will not be charged with crimes because their actions were motivated by hygienic concerns.

2007 – A new report said the US District of Columbia has the highest rate of AIDS of any city in the country.

2007 – Roger Lee Dillon (22), his girlfriend, Nicole N. Boyd (24), and Dillon’s mother, Sharon Lee Gregory (48), stole $7.4 million in cash and checks from an Ohio AT armored car company. They were arrested Dec 1 in West Virginia.

2007 – Mississippi Sen. Trent Lott announced his retirement after a 35-year career in Congress.

2007 – Washington Redskins star safety Sean Taylor was mortally wounded when he was shot during a botched armed robbery at his home in Palmetto Bay, Fla. Taylor died the next day.

2008 – Edna Parker (115), the world’s oldest person, died in Shelbyville, Indiana.

2009 – In Jupiter, Florida, three women and a child, Makayla Sitton, in bed were shot to death during a family Thanksgiving gathering.

2009 – The Univ. of Michigan announced that football player Charles Woodson is donating $2 million to its new Mott Children’s Hospital and Women’s Hospital.

2010 – Country music singer Willie Nelson is charged with marijuana possession.

2011 – NASA launches the robotic Mars Science Laboratory, the largest rover yet sent to Mars, with the aim of finding evidence for past or present life on Mars.

2011 –  NBA team owners and players reach an agreement to end the 149-day NBA lockout and to begin the current NBA season on Christmas Day.

2012 –  NASA and Roscosmos announce that veteran spaceflyers Scott Kelly and Mikhail Korniyenko will carry out the first year-long mission to the International Space Station in 2015.

2012 -The Northside Independent School District in San Antonio, TX is requiring students to wear a card with has a microchip in it that can be tracked throughout the school. Starting this fall, all students at John Jay High School and Anson Jones Middle School are required to carry them  and they are tracked by the dozens of electronic readers installed in the schools’ ceiling panels.

2013 – A nurse is dead and four other people are wounded after an attack at the Ambulatory Surgery Center at Good Shepherd Medical Center in Longview, TX. The suspect, identified as Kyron Rayshaun Templeton, 22, of Longview was taken into custody a short while later on Sixth Street in Longview. He is now charged with murder and four counts of aggravated assault. He is being held on $2.6 million bond.


1607 – John Harvard, English clergyman and scholar, whose bequest permitted the establishment of Harvard College.
1731 – William Cowper, English poet.
1827 – Ellen Gould White, American, founder of the Seventh Day Adventists.
1832 – Mary Edwards Walker, American physician, women’s right leader.
1876 – Willis Haviland Carrier, American, inventor of the first air conditioning system.
1909 – Eugene Ionesco, Romanian-born French playwright, often called the “Father of the Absurd,”
1922 – Charles Schulz, American cartoonist, creator of the “Peanuts” comic strip.






Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Air Force, 20th Special Operations Squadron. Place and date: Near Duc Co, Republic of Vietnam,  November 26th, 1968. Entered service at: Pullman, Wash. Born: 12 March 1943, Sedalia, Mo. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Fleming (then 1st Lt.) distinguished himself as the Aircraft Commander of a UH-1F transport Helicopter. Capt. Fleming went to the aid of a six-man special forces long range reconnaissance patrol that was in danger of being overrun by a large, heavily armed hostile force. Despite the knowledge that one helicopter had been downed by intense hostile fire, Capt. Fleming descended, and balanced his helicopter on a river bank with the tail boom hanging over open water. The patrol could not penetrate to the landing site and he was forced to withdraw. Dangerously low on fuel, Capt. Fleming repeated his original landing maneuver. Disregarding his own safety, he remained in this exposed position. Hostile fire crashed through his windscreen as the patrol boarded his helicopter. Capt. Fleming made a successful takeoff through a barrage of hostile fire and recovered safely at a forward base. Capt. Fleming’s profound concern for his fellowmen, and at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Air Force and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.





Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company A, 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Near Hansan-ni, Korea, November 26th, 1950. Entered service at: Roaring Springs, Tex. Born: 18 August 1921, Indian Gap, Tex. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as leader of a rifle platoon of Company A, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Leading his platoon in point position during a patrol by his company through a thickly wooded and snow-covered area in the vicinity of Hansan-ni, 1st Lt. Mitchell acted immediately when the enemy suddenly opened fire at pointblank range, pinning down his forward elements and inflicting numerous casualties in his ranks. Boldly dashing to the front under blistering fire from automatic weapons and small arms, he seized an automatic rifle from one of the wounded men and effectively trained it against the attackers and, when his ammunition was expended, picked up and hurled grenades with deadly accuracy, at the same time directing and encouraging his men in driving the outnumbering enemy from his position. Maneuvering to set up a defense when the enemy furiously counterattacked to the front and left flank, 1st Lt. Mitchell, despite wounds sustained early in the action, reorganized his platoon under the devastating fire, and spearheaded a fierce hand-to-hand struggle to repulse the onslaught. Asking for volunteers to assist in searching for and evacuating the wounded, he personally led a party of litter bearers through the hostile lines in growing darkness and, although suffering intense pain from multiple wounds, stormed ahead and waged a single-handed battle against the enemy, successfully covering the withdrawal of his men before he was fatally struck down by a burst of small-arms fire. Stouthearted and indomitable in the face of tremendous odds, 1st Lt. Mitchell, by his fortitude, great personal valor and extraordinary heroism, saved the lives of several marines and inflicted heavy casualties among the aggressors. His unyielding courage throughout reflects the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.






Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 23d Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kujangdong, Korea, November 26th,1950. Entered service at: Carrolton, Miss. Born: 15 October 1928, Carrolton, Miss. G.O. No.: 39, 4 June 1951. Citation: Sgt. Pittman, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. He volunteered to lead his squad in a counterattack to regain commanding terrain lost in an earlier engagement. Moving aggressively forward in the face of intense artillery, mortar, and small-arms fire he was wounded by mortar fragments. Disregarding his wounds he continued to lead and direct his men in a bold advance against the hostile standpoint. During this daring action, an enemy grenade was thrown in the midst of his squad endangering the lives of his comrades. Without hesitation, Sgt. Pittman threw himself on the grenade and absorbed its burst with his body. When a medical aid man reached him, his first request was to be informed as to how many of his men were hurt. This intrepid and selfless act saved several of his men from death or serious injury and was an inspiration to the entire command. Sgt. Pittman’s extraordinary heroism reflects the highest credit upon himself and is in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the military service.




 Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company K, 47th Infantry, 9th Infantry Division. Place and date: Frenzenberg Castle, Weisweiler, Germany, November 26th,1944. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Baltimore, Md. G.O. No.: 43, 30 May 1445. Citation: Attached to the 2d Battalion of the 47th Infantry on 26 November 1944, for the attack on Frenzenberg Castle, in the vicinity of Weisweiler, Germany, Company K, after an advance of 1,000 yards through a shattering barrage of enemy artillery and mortar fire, had captured two buildings in the courtyard of the castle but was left with an effective fighting strength of only thirty-five men. During the advance, Pfc. Sheridan, acting as a bazooka gunner, had braved the enemy fire to stop and procure the additional rockets carried by his ammunition bearer who was wounded. Upon rejoining his company in the captured buildings, he found it in a furious fight with approximately seventy enemy paratroopers occupying the castle gate house. This was a solidly built stone structure surrounded by a deep water-filled moat twenty feet wide. The only approach to the heavily defended position was across the courtyard and over a drawbridge leading to a barricaded oaken door. Pfc. Sheridan, realizing that his bazooka was the only available weapon with sufficient power to penetrate the heavy oak planking, with complete disregard for his own safety left the protection of the buildings and in the face of heavy and intense small-arms and grenade fire, crossed the courtyard to the drawbridge entrance where he could bring direct fire to bear against the door. Although handicapped by the lack of an assistant, and a constant target for the enemy fire that burst around him, he skillfully and effectively handled his awkward weapon to place two well-aimed rockets into the structure. Observing that the door was only weakened, and realizing that a gap must be made for a successful assault, he loaded his last rocket, took careful aim, and blasted a hole through the heavy planks. Turning to his company he shouted, “Come on, let’s get them!” With his .45 pistol blazing, he charged into the gaping entrance and was killed by the withering fire that met him. The final assault on Frezenberg Castle was made through the gap which Pfc. Sheridan gave his life to create.




Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 19th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Passi, Island of Panay, Philippine Islands, November 26th, 1899. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: New South Wales. Date of issue: 26 June 1900. Citation: While crossing a river in face of the enemy, this officer plunged in and at the imminent risk of his own life saved from drowning an enlisted man of his regiment.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company L, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Arizona, November 26th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Baltimore, Md. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.




Rank and organization: Major, 2d West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Sinking Creek Valley, Va., November 26th, 1862. Entered service at: Ironton, Ohio. Birth: England. Date of issue: 22 July 1890. Citation: Distinguished services in raid, where with twenty men, he charged and captured the enemy’s camp, five-hundred strong, without the loss of man or gun.

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Unerased History – November 25th

Posted by Wayne Church on November 25, 2015 in 11 - November, Blog by month |
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International Aura Awareness Day
D.B. Cooper Day 

D.B. Cooper

D. B. Cooper, aka “Dan Cooper”, is a pseudonym given to a notorious aircraft hijacker who on November 24, 1971, after receiving a ransom payout of $200,000, leapt from the back of a Boeing 727 as it was flying over the Pacific Northwest. No conclusive evidence has ever surfaced regarding Cooper’s whereabouts, and several theories offer competing explanations of what happened after his famed jump. The only clues to have turned up in the case are ambiguous: around $6,000 that washed up on the banks of the Columbia River, and part of a sign believed to be from the rear stairway of the plane from which Cooper jumped. The nature of Cooper’s escape and the uncertainty of his fate continue to intrigue people. Today, the Cooper case remains the world’s only unsolved hijacking.

This gets even more fascinating. Click here to read “Skullduggery by Parachute.”

Scripture of the Day



Founders Thoughts




The universe is full of magical things patiently waiting for our wits to grow sharper.”

~ Eden Phillpotts

suhb-OL-tuhrn; SUHB-uhl-tuhrn, adjective:

1. Ranked or ranged below; subordinate; inferior.
2. (Chiefly British) Ranking as a junior officer; being below the rank of captain.
3. (Logic) Asserting only a part of what is asserted in a related proposition.
4. A person holding a subordinate position.
5. (Chiefly British) A commissioned military officer below the rank of captain.
6. (Logic) A subaltern proposition.

Subaltern derives from Late Latin subalternus, “subordinate,” from Latin sub-, “under” + Latin alternus, “alternate,” from alter, “other.”


2348 BC – Biblical scholars have long asserted this to be the day of the Great Deluge, or Flood.

1602 – Explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno gave Santa Catalina Island its present name.

1703 – The Great Storm of 1703, the greatest windstorm ever recorded in the British Isles, reaches its peak intensity and maintains it through November 27. Winds gust up to 120 mph, and 9,000 people perish in the mighty gale.

1715 – Thomas Masters, who became the first American to be granted an English patent, was the first to master the fine art of cleaning and curing Indian corn.

1758 – The British captured Fort Duquesne in the French and Indian War.

1783 – The British evacuated New York City, their last military position of the Revolutionary War. General George Washington entered the city in triumph. The British had captured the city in 1776 and held it for seven years.

1792 – The Farmer’s Almanac was first published.

1817 – First sword swallower in US performs (New York City). His name was Sena Sama and he was from Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.

1834 – The first printed American bill of fare is issued by New York’s 5-year-old Delmonico’s Restaurant at 494 Pearl Street and lists as one of its most expensive dishes “hamburger steak.” The bill of fare (the word menu will not be coined until next year) offers a “regular dinner” at 12 cents and lists hamburger steak at 10 cents.

1837 – William Crompton of Taunton, MA patented the silk, power loom.

1841 The rebel slaves who seized a Spanish slave ship, the Amistad, two years earlier were freed by the US Supreme Court despite Spanish demands for extradition.

1863 – Civil War: Battle of Missionary Ridge – At Missionary Ridge in Tennessee, Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant break the Siege of Chattanooga by routing Confederate troops under General Braxton Bragg.

1864 – Civil War: A Confederate plot to burn New York City failed. The fires began. And before the night was over almost every hotel in New York City had been set ablaze. The leader of the “fire brigade” was a Confederate by the name of Robert Kennedy.

1864 – Confederate Cavalry under “Fighting Joe” Wheeler retreated at Sandersville, Georgia.

1867 – Alfred Nobel invents dynamite.

1867 – US Congress commission looked into impeachment of President Andrew Johnson.

1874 – The United States Greenback Party is established as a political party consisting primarily of farmers affected by the Panic of 1873. The Panic of 1873 was a serious downturn in the economy of the United States that was precipitated by the bankruptcy on September 18, 1873 of the Philadelphia banking firm Jay Cooke and Company.

1876 – Indian Wars: In retaliation for the American defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, United States Army troops the leadership of General Ranald Mackenzie sack Chief Dull Knife’s sleeping Cheyenne village at the headwaters of the Powder River.

1884 – The first U.S. patent for the process of evaporated milk was issued to John Meyenberg, a Swiss immigrant, of St Louis, Missouri.

1897 – Spain granted Puerto Rico autonomy.

1903 – In San Francisco Alexander Garnett shot and killed Major J.W. McClung at the Palace Hotel apartment of Mrs. Lillian Hitchcock Coit. Coit soon left the city and spent the next 6 years in Paris.

1908 – The first issue of The Christian Science Monitor was published.

1920 – The first radio play-by-play broadcast of a collegiate football game occurred when Texas University met Mechanical College of Texas. It was broadcast by WTAW of College Station, TX.

1920 – The first Thanksgiving Parade was held in Philadelphia.

1922 – Archaeologist Howard Carter entered King Tut’s tomb.

1923 – Transatlantic broadcasting from England to America for the first time.

1926 – The worst, deadliest tornado outbreak in U.S. November history strikes on Thanksgiving day. Twenty-seven twisters of great strength reported in the midwest, including the strongest November tornado, an F4, that devastates Heber Springs, Arkansas. Fifty-one deaths in Arkansas alone, seventy-six deaths and over 400 injuries in all.

1940 – U of Michigan retires Tom Harmon’s #98. Harmon played college football at the University of Michigan from 1938-1940 and won the Heisman Trophy his senior season.

1940 –  World War II: First flight of the deHavilland Mosquito and Martin B-26 Marauder.

1940 – Woody Woodpecker first appears, in the film Knock Knock”.

1941 – World War II: The US Navy begins to establish compulsory convoying for merchant ships in the Pacific.

1941 – World War II: German Jews in Netherlands were declared stateless.

1943 – World War II: German submarine U-600 sank in the Atlantic Ocean.

1943 – World War II: Battle of Cape St. George, 5 destroyers of Destroyer Squadron 23 (Captain Arleigh Burke) intercept five Japanese destroyers and sink three and damage one without suffering any damage.

1943 – World War II: Bombers of the US 14th Air Force, based in China, raid the Japanes held island of Formosa for the first time. An estimated 42 Japanese aircraft are destroyed on the ground at Shinchiku airfield.

1944 – CBS radio presented “The FBI in Peace and War” (28.06) for the first time. It was inspired by Frederick Lewis’ Collins’ book of the same name.

1944 – World War II: Bombers of the US 8th Air Force raid the oil plant at Leuna and the Bingen railroad marshalling yards.

1944 – World War II: A German V-2 rocket hits a Woolworth’s store in Deptford, UK, killing 160 shoppers.

1944 – World War II: Two Japanese planes struck the USS Intrepid aircraft carrier in kamikaze attacks that left 69 dead and 35 injured.

1945 – “The Brooklyn Pinafore” airs on radio. It was a spoof of the Gilbert and Sullivan classic, “H.M.S. Pinafore” and was broadcast on radio on “The Fred Allen Show”.

1946 – Supreme Court granted Oregon Indians land payment rights from the U.S. government.

1947 – Red Scare: The “Hollywood Ten” are blacklisted by Hollywood movie studios. The first systematic Hollywood blacklist was instituted  the day after ten writers and directors were cited for contempt of Congress for refusing to give testimony to the House Committee on Un-American Activities.

1948 – Cable television was invented by Leroy “Ed” Parsons, (1907-89), who sold electronics and ran a radio station in Astoria, Oregon.

1948 – CHART TOPPERS –  “Buttons and Bows” by Dinah Shore, “On a Slow Boat to China” by The Kay Kaiser Orchestra (vocal: Harry Babbitt & Gloria Wood), “Hair of Gold, Eyes of Blue” by Gordon MacRae and “One Has My Name (The Other Has My Heart)” by Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.

1949 – “Rudolph, the Red-Nosed Reindeer” hits the charts. It was originally an advertising jingle for a Montgomery Ward promotional children’s book.

1950 – Korean War: The Chinese released 57 U.S. prisoners in a propaganda move.

1950 – “Harbor Lights” by Sammy Kaye topped the charts.

1950 – The “Storm of the Century”, a violent snowstorm, paralyzes the northeastern United States and the Appalachians, bringing winds up to 100 mph and sub-zero temperatures. Pickens, West Virginia records 57 inches of snow. 323 people die due to the storm.

1951 – Cleveland Browns penalized a record 209 yards against Chicago Bears.

1952 – Agatha Christie’s play “The Mousetrap” opened at London’s Ambassadors Theatre — starting the longest continuous run of any theatrical show in the world. It is still playing (2013) and it completed its 25,000th showing on November 18th, 2012.

1952 – George Meany was appointed chairman of the  American Federation of Labor (AFL.)

1952 – Korean War: After 42 days of fighting, the Battle of Triangle Hill ends as American and South Korean units abandon their attempt to capture the “Iron Triangle”.

1953 – “Guys & Dolls” closed at 46th St Theater NYC after 1200 performances.

1955 – Interstate Commerce Commission banned segregation in buses and waiting rooms involved in interstate travel.

1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Me Tender” by Elvis Presley, “Cindy, Oh Cindy” by Eddie Fisher, “Hey! Jealous Lover” by Frank Sinatra and “Singing the Blues” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.

1956 – Fidel Castro and his 81 rebel exiles departed Mexico to liberate Cuba from the corrupt dictatorship of Fulgencia Batista. Che Guevara had recently joined Fidel and his band of Cuban rebel exiles as their doctor.

1957 – President Eisenhower suffered a minor stroke.

1960 – “Amos ‘n’ Andy” (Anatomy of a Controversy 48:20) made its last broadcast on CBS radio.

1960 – CBS ended last 4 radio soap operas (Ma Perkins, Right to Happiness, Young Dr Malone & 2nd Mrs. Burton).

1960 – The first atomic reactor for research and development began operation at Richland, WA. The plant was built to determine the suitability of plutonium as a reactor fuel.

1961 – Commissioning of USS Enterprise (CVA(N)-65), the first nuclear powered aircraft carrier, at Newport News, VA.

1961 – NBA’s Bob Cousy becomes 2nd player to score 15,000 points.

1961 – “Big Bad John” by Jimmy Dean topped the charts.

1963 – Assassinated President John F. Kennedy was buried with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery. During the funeral procession “Little John” saluted his father. His grave is host to an eternal flame originally lit by Jacqueline Kennedy.

1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “Baby Love” by The Supremes, “Come a Little Bit Closer” by Jay & The Americans, “Ringo” by Lorne Greene and “I Don’t Care (Just as Long as You Love Me)” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1967 – “Incense and Peppermints” by the Strawberry Alarm Clock topped the charts.

1969 – Pres. Nixon announced an unconditional renunciation of biological weapons.

1970 – , Walter Hickel (1919-2010), former governor of Alaska and US Secretary of the Interior, was fired by Pres. Nixon after sending Nixon a letter critical of how the president handled student protests following the National Guard shootings at Kent State.

1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Can See Clearly Now” by Johnny Nash, “I’d Love You to Want Me” by Lobo, “Summer Breeze” by Seals & Crofts and “She’s Too Good to Be True” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.

1973 – Maximum speed limits in the United States were cut to 55 mph by an act of Congress.

1973 – In response to the 1973 oil crisis, President Richard M. Nixon called for a Sunday ban on the sale of gasoline to consumers.

1973 – Albert DeSalvo, Boston strangler, was stabbed to death in prison.

1974 – The British government outlawed the IRA in all of Great Britain, including Northern Ireland, after IRA bombs hurt and killed many in Birmingham, England.

1975 – Robert S. Ledley was granted a patent for “diagnostic X-ray systems” known as CAT-Scans.

1976 – OJ Simpson gains 273 yards for Buffalo vs Detroit.

1978 – “MacArthur Park” by Donna Summer topped the charts.

1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Woman in Love” by Barbra Streisand, “The Wanderer” by Donna Summer, “Another One Bites the Dust” by Queen and “Lady” by Kenny Rogers all topped the charts.

1980 – No Más Fight: Sugar Ray Leonard regains the WBC world welterweight boxing title in a bout against Roberto Duran. Roberto Duran abruptly quit in the eighth round at the Louisiana Superdome.

1984 – William Schroeder of Jasper, Ind., became the 2nd man to receive a Jarvik-7 artificial heart, at Humana Hospital Audubon in Kentucky. He lived 620 days on the device.

1986 – President Ronald Reagan and Attorney General Edwin Meese divulged that profits from secret arms sales to Iran had been diverted to Nicaraguan rebels, revealing the Iran-Contra Affair.

1987 – Harold Washington, the first black mayor of Chicago (1983-1987), died at age 65 after suffering a heart attack in his City Hall office.

1988 – “CHART TOPPERS -“Bad Medicine” by Bon Jovi, “Desire” by U2, “Baby, I Love Your Way/Freebird Medley (Free Baby)” by Will To Power and “I’ll Leave This World Loving You” by Ricky Van Shelton all topped the charts.

1989 – “Blame It on the Rain” by Milli Vanilli topped the charts.

1995 – “Exhale (Shoop Shoop)” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.

1996 – Testifying for a second day at a civil trial, O.J. Simpson again denied killing Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman, but couldn’t explain how blood believed to be the victims’ got into his Bronco, or how he suffered hand cuts.

1996 –  An ice storm strikes the central U.S. killing 26 people. A powerful windstorm affects Florida and winds gust over 90 mph, toppling trees and flipping trailers.

1997 In Russia Richard Bliss (29), an employee of Qualcomm Comm., was arrested for spying while performing land surveys using satellite receivers in Rostov-on-Don.

1997In the SF Bay Area police began searching for Thomas Franklin Wheelock (20), who was suspected of murdering his Armored Transport partner, Rodrigo Cortez(30), and escaping with $300,000. Most of the money was found in a Sacramento motel.

1998In Michigan a prosecutor brought charges of first-degree murder against Dr. Jack Kevorkian  for administering a lethal injection last Sept. to a terminally ill man who wished to die.

1999 – Six-year-old Cuban refugee Elián González was rescued by two fishermen off the coast of Florida.

2000 – Hundreds of military veterans and retirees, angered by the rejection of overseas absentee ballots in Florida, held a noisy demonstration in Pensacola, one of several rallies Republicans and Democrats staged across Florida.

2001 – US landed near Kandahar marking the first major use of US ground troops in Afghanistan.

2001 – Scientists at Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Mass., said they created the world’s first cloned human embryo, which they let grow for just a few hours.

2002 – Pres. Bush signed into law the Department of Homeland Security and named Tom Ridge as head of the Cabinet-level office.

2002 – US federal investigators reported that they had uncovered the largest identity theft ring ever seen. They alleged that 3 men had victimized over 30,000 people and caused the loss of millions.

2002 – Space shuttle Endeavour arrived at the international space station, delivering one American and two Russians, and another girder for the orbiting outpost.

2003 – Annualized Q3 growth rate in the US gross domestic product exceeds 8%, the highest rate of growth since the Reagan administration.

2003 – Officials in Yemen arrested Mohammed Hamdi al-Ahdal, a top al-Qaida member suspected of masterminding the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole and the 2002 bombing of a French oil tanker off Yemen’s coast.

2003 – The US Senate gave final congressional approval to historic Medicare legislation combining a new prescription drug benefit with measures to control costs before the baby boom generation reaches retirement age.

2003 – Gail Knisley (62) was shot and killed while riding in a car on a highway in Columbus, Ohio. It was the only fatality in a series of shootings that terrified area drivers. A suspect, Charles A. McCoy Jr., was arrested March 17, 2004.

2005 – It was reported that thieves in Baltimore had stolen some 130 aluminum light poles over a period of a  few weeks.

2005 – Massachusetts’ attorney general said it is opening an investigation into several supermarkets that opened on Thanksgiving in defiance of the state’s Puritan-era blue laws.

2006 – In New York City Sean Bell (23) and two other unarmed men in a car were killed hours before Bell was to have married the mother of his two children. The confrontation with police stemmed from an undercover operation by seven officers investigating the Kalua Cabaret in Queens.

2006 – BYU’s football program beat Utah 33-31 on a game-winning touchdown catch by wide receiver Johnny Harline.

2007 – A wildfire in Malibu, California, destroys 51 structures, including 49 homes. The fire has also burned 4,720 acres and caused the evacuation of 10,000 people. It is currently 40% contained, being fueled by Santa Ana winds that gusted up to 60 mph  on November 24.

2008 – President-elect Barack Obama has decided to keep Robert Gates as the United States Secretary of Defense and tap Marine General James L. Jones as National Security Advisor.

2009 – US federal prosecutors said a young woman from Mexico was smuggled over the border and forced to work as a prostitute for years in Brooklyn, and the remains of an infant were found in concrete at the home where she was held prisoner.

2009 – Toyota said it would fix accelerator pedals on 4.26 million vehicles to prevent them from becoming stuck and leading to unintentional acceleration.

2010 –  Del Monte Foods is purchased in a US$5 billion leveraged buyout led by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts.

2010 – The US Government sets aside an area in Alaska more than twice the size of Michigan as a “critical habitat” for polar bears.

2012 – A man in Lithonia, GA, dies after Walmart employees tackle him to the ground for suspected shoplifting of two DVDs on Black Friday.

2013 – The Hunger Games: Catching Fire becomes the biggest North American November film release, grossing $161 million in the U.S. and Canada over its first weekend.

2013 – Ohio Attorney General Mike DeWine announces that four Steubenville, Ohio, City Schools employees, including Superintendent Michael McVey, have been indicted on felony and/or misdemeanor charges (obstruction, making false statements, etc.) relating to the 2012 Steubenville rape case.

2013 – A Parsons, Kansas manhunt begins in the U.S. for David Cornell Bennett, Jr. who is alleged to have stalked and killed a mother and her three young children.

2014 – The St. Louis suburb of Ferguson braces for another night of violence following the decision by a grand jury not to indict a police officer in relation to the shooting of Michael Brown.




1778 – Mary Anne Schimmelpenninck, (d. 1856) She was a British Christian writer in the anti-slavery movement. Her family considered her a “mischief-maker”, with Francis Galton saying that she “broke off eleven marriages”.
1835 – Andrew Carnegie, American industrialist, philanthropist.
1844 – Carl Benz, German engineer and car manufacturer.
1846 – Carry Nation, American temperance advocate.
1874 – Joe Gans, American boxer (d. 1910)
1914 – Joe DiMaggio, American baseball Hall-of-Famer.
1941 – Percy Sledge, American musician
1960 – Amy Grant, American singer
1960 – John F. Kennedy, Jr., attorney, cofounder of “George” magazine, son of President John F. Kennedy.




 FORSYTH, THOMAS H.State of Connecticut
INTERIM 1871 – 1898


Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company M, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Powder River, Wyo., November 25th, 1876. Entered service at:——. Birth: Hartford, Conn. Date of issue: 14 July 1891. Citation: Though dangerously wounded, he maintained his ground with a small party against a largely superior force after his commanding officer had been shot down during a sudden attack and rescued that officer and a comrade from the enemy.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 15th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Allen County, Ind. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 28 September 1897. Citation: As color bearer, led his regiment in the assault, and, though wounded, carried the flag forward to the enemy’s works, where he was again wounded. In a brigade of eight regiments, this flag was the first planted on the parapet.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 11th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Troy, Ohio. Birth: ——. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Though severely wounded, was first of his regiment on the summit of the ridge, planted his colors inside the enemy’s works, and did not leave the field until after he had been wounded five times.





Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 35th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Ohio. Born: 22 July 1835, West Stockbridge, Mass. Date of issue: 15 November 1893. Citation: Led his regiment in the face of a severe fire of the enemy; was severely wounded.





Rank and organization: Captain, Company K, 100th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Indianapolis, Ind. Birth:——. Date of issue: 16 May 1899. Citation: To encourage his men whom he had ordered to lie down while under severe fire, and who were partially protected by slight earthworks, himself refused to lie down, but walked along the top of the works until he fell severely wounded.





Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 15th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Zanesville. Born: 2 October 1844, New Concord, Ohio. Date of issue: 27 March 1890. Citation: Upon reaching the ridge through concentrated fire, he approached the color bearer of the 9th Mississippi Infantry (C.S.A.), demanded his surrender with threatening gesture and took him prisoner with his regimental flag.






Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 80th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at:——. Birth: Newcomerstown, Ohio. Date of issue: 30 March 1898. Citation: This soldier, while his regiment was falling back, seeing the two color bearers shot down, under a severe fire and at imminent peril recovered both the flags and saved them from capture.






Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company G, 15th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Westville, LaPorte County, Ind. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 15 February 1897. Citation: Seized the colors from the color bearer, who had been wounded, and, exposed to a terrible fire, carried them forward, planting them on the enemy’s breastworks.





Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 11th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at:——. Born: 1840, England. Date of issue: 12 January 1892. Citation: Scaled the enemy’s works and in a hand-to-hand fight helped capture the flag of the 18th Alabama Infantry (C.S.A.).



Rank and organization:. Private, Company H, 11th Ohio Infantry Place and date. At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Ohio. Born. 17 February 1843, Urbana, Ohio. Date of issue: 29 July 1892. Citation: Scaled the enemy’s works and in a hand-to-hand fight helped capture the flag of the 18th Alabama Infantry (C.S.A.).






Rank and organization: Major, 100th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Chattanooga, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Goshen Ind. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 24 August 1896. Citation: While in command of the regiment bravely exposed himself to the fire of the enemy, encouraging and cheering his men.






Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company C, 13th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Amboy, Ill. Born: 14 January 1842, Buffalo, N.Y. Date of issue: 4 April 1898. Citation: While commanding his company, deployed as skirmishers, came upon a large body of the enemy, taking a number of them prisoner. Lt. Josselyn himself shot their color bearer, seized the colors and brought them back to his regiment.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 36th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Rutland, Ill. Birth: Schenectady, N.Y. Date of issue: 4 April 1900. Citation: Sprang over the works just captured from the enemy, and calling upon his comrades to follow, rushed forward in the face of a deadly fire and was among the first over the works on the summit, where he compelled the surrender of a Confederate officer and received his sword.






Rank and organization: Musician, Company G, 37th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Maumee, Ohio. Birth: Maumee, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 August 1895. Citation: Seized a musket and joined in the charge in which he was severely wounded.






Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, and Adjutant, 24th Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Milwaukee, Wis. Birth: Springfield, Mass. Date of issue: 30 June 1890. Citation: Seized the colors of his regiment at a critical moment and planted them on the captured works on the crest of Missionary Ridge.






Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Chickamauga, Ga., 19 September 1863; At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Glencoe, Minn. Birth: Maine. Date of issue: 2 April 1898. Citation: While in arrest at Chickamauga, Ga., left his place in the rear and voluntarily went to the line of battle, secured a rifle, and fought gallantly during the two-day battle; was released from arrest in recognition of his bravery. At Missionary Ridge commanded his company and gallantly led it, being among the first to enter the enemy’s works; was severely wounded, losing an arm, but declined a discharge and remained in active service to the end of the war.






Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 37th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Maumee, Ohio. Birth: Tiffin, Ohio. Date of issue: 9 November 1895. Citation:  Rescued a wounded comrade under terrific fire.







and organization: Private, Company K, 31st Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Missionary Ridge, Tenn., November 25th, 1863. Entered service at: Springfield, Ohio. Birth: Clark County, Ohio. Date of issue: 25 November 1895. Citation: After two color bearers had fallen, seized the flag and carried it forward, assisting in the capture of a battery. Shortly thereafter he captured the flag of the 41st Alabama and the color bearer.


Capturing the Flag


Receiving a Medal of Honor for any activity is simply ordinary people doing extremely extraordinary things. We tend to look at things such as capturing a flag as fairly simple events when that is far from the truth. First, the flags captured in these contexts are powerful symbols of the organization displaying it. During the CIVIL WAR it was an extreme honor to capture the enemy’s flag and a disgrace to lose your own. To take your enemy’s flag was also a very important mark of success.


Second, in addition to the emotional aspects, having your flag stolen would be tantamount to losing a very important communication device. To the soldiers in the battle it said, “Here are your leaders and they are still standing.” It gave a focal point or a rallying point to those in battle but away from their leaders.


Finally it was a sense of pride that transcended the battle and the war and all of the following history. There is still (2010) contention between states over these banners, guidons and flags from the CIVIL WAR. This demonstrates the military and emotional importance of these pieces of cloth.


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Unerased History – November 24th

Posted by Wayne Church on November 24, 2015 in 11 - November, Blog by month |
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OH MY!!! Only 30 shopping days to Christmas

Bob Hope Military Monday



The point of Thanksgiving is to remember the things we have to be grateful for. It’s our special time to give thanks… not just for the obvious, like food, but for the thousands of fortunate moments, the multitude of blessings that we receive each year.Think of all the good things that happened because something bad happened first. For example, “If that slow driver hadn’t pulled in front of me, I would have gotten a speeding ticket.” “If I hadn’t tripped on the playground, I would never have met such a nice person.” “If I hadn’t experienced unemployment, I would never have acquired the skills that got me a more fulfilling job.”

On a vacation trip through Vicksburg, MS, we passed an elderly woman whose car apparently had just broke down on the side of the freeway. My son, 4, said, “Dad we should go back and help her.” We went to the next exit, up and over the bridge and back down on to the freeway. When we got back to the Vicksburg exit we repeated that so we could get back to the same spot. We did but she and the car were gone. We had lost almost an hour but it completely dissipated when Mark said, ” Don’t worry Dad we probably missed a bad accident or something.” Oh what a blessing that was!!!

Don’t focus on what you don’t have. Focus on what you do have. For example: “I’m so fortunate to have a warm place to sleep in the winter.” “I’m so fortunate to live in a safe neighborhood where I can take walks.” “I’m so fortunate to be able to see the beauty around me.” “I am so fortunate to have my family and especially my wife or my husband.”

Think about people you’ve known that have made you thankful for their existence. They can be family, friends or simply people that you’ve read about or seen on television, that you know by Facebook or other social media. Imagine how many other people there are who might be equally as wonderful. You just haven’t met them yet. You know that a stranger is a friend that you have not met.

Think about people who have made life hard for you. Now think about the things you accomplished because of them. Did you finish something because they said that you couldn’t? Did you get better at something because they made fun of you when you did it badly? Did their cruel actions make you vow never to treat others that way? Even the negative forces in your life can be hidden blessings, worthy of your gratitude.

Think about the animals that have given you joy: Dogs that love you with every inch of their hearts, cats that think your lap is the best place to nap in the whole world, birds whose songs uplift your spirit, squirrels whose antics put a grin on your face.

Think about the places that make you smile: A favorite hangout, a wooded trail, an exciting city, a great spot from which to view the sky, a hill that you once rolled down. Give thanks for all these things.

Give thanks to the Lord who has given you all these things by giving you the one thing that you needed to experience them all and that  is LIFE!!!

Now pass it on. True gratitude involves action. Lend a hand. Pitch in. Make a gift. Give your time. Listen. Give back as often as you can. Even a friendly greeting can make all the difference in the world. SMILE!!!!!


Scripture of the Day


Founders Thoughts




” Most of us, swimming against the tides of trouble the world knows nothing about, need only a bit of praise or encouragement — and we will make the goal. “

~ Jerome P. Fleishman

TREN-chuhr-muhn, noun:

A hearty eater.

Trencherman is from trencher, “a wooden board or platter on which food is served or carved” (from Medieval French trencheoir, from Old French trenchier, “to cut,” from Latin truncare, “to lop off, to shorten by cutting”) + man. It is related to trench, “a hole cut into the ground.”

1248 –  In the middle of the night a mass on the north side of Mont Granier suddenly collapsed, in one of the largest historical avalanches known in Europe.

1639 – Jeremiah Horrocks observes the transit of Venus (November 24 in the Julian calendar, or December 4 in the Gregorian calendar).

1642 – Dutch navigator Abel Tasman discovered Van Diemen’s Land which he named after his captain; later it was renamed Tasmania.

1703 – First Lutheran pastor ordained in America, Justus Falckner at Philadelphia.

1832 – South Carolina passed an Ordinance of Nullification. The US government had enacted a tariff. South Carolina nullified it and threatened to secede. The doctrine of nullification involved an argument concerning the nature of the union as defined by the writers of the Constitution and addressed the question: “Was the US a compact of sovereign states, each retaining ultimate authority, or was the US one nation formed by the people through the writing of the Constitution?”

1835 – Texas Rangers, a mounted police force, was authorized by the Texas Provisional Government. Rangers served primarily as volunteers since government offers of payment rarely materialized. The affairs of this group provided the basis for “The Lone Ranger.”

1859 – British naturalist Charles Darwin published “The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection” which explained his groundbreaking theory of evolution.

1861 – Civil War: Landing party from U.S.S. Flag, Commander J. Rodgers, U.S.S. Augusta, Pocahontas, Seneca, and Savan­nah, took possession of the Tybee Island, Savannah Harbor.

1862 – Civil War: U.S.S. Monticello, Lieutenant Commander Braine, destroyed two Confederate salt works near Little River Inlet, North Carolina.

1863 – Civil War: Battle of Lookout Mountain – Near Chattanooga, Tennessee, Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant capture Lookout Mountain and begin to break the Confederate siege of the city led by General Braxton Bragg. The battle for Lookout Mountain was fought in a layer of fog whose lower level began at the Cravens House, used as Rebel headquarters.

1863 – Civil War: Union Army troops commenced sinking piles as obstructions in the Stono River above Legareville, South Carolina.

1864 – Kit Carson and his 1st Cavalry, New Mexico Volunteers, attacked a camp of Kiowa Indians in the First Battle of Adobe Walls.

1871 – The National Rifle Association was incorporated in New York City, and its first president was  Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside. Another founder was Union General Willam Church.

1874 – Robert B. Elliott, Black American, elected Speaker of the lower house of the South Carolina legislature.

1896 – Vermont passed the first statute extending the privilege of absentee voting to both civilians and military personnel. Most legislation pertaining to absentee voting has been introduced during wartime, when large numbers of eligible voters have been serving their country in the Armed Forces.

1903 – Clyde Coleman of New York City patents the automobile electric starter.

1906 – A 13-6 victory by the Massillon Tigers over their rivals, the Canton Bulldogs, for the “Ohio League” Championship, leads to accusations that the championship series was fixed and results in the first major scandal in professional American football.

1904 – The first successful caterpillar track is made.

1918 – Frank O. King premiered his comic strip “Gasoline Alley” in the Chicago Tribune. He aged his characters over time.

1927 – In California troops battled 1,200 inmates after Folsom prisoners revolted. On Thanksgiving Day there was a prison break at Folsom. One prisoner was shot in the ensuing uprising and five others were later hung.

1930 – Ruth Nichols becomes the first woman pilot on a transcontinental air flight.

1932 – In Washington, D.C., the FBI Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory (better known as the FBI Crime Lab) officially opens.

1938 – Clifford Odets’ “Rocket to the Moon,” premiered in New York City.

1938 – Mexico seized oil land adjacent to Texas.

1939 – In Czechoslovakia, the Gestapo executed 120 students who were accused of anti-Nazi plotting.

1940 – World War II: Nazis closed off the Jewish ghetto in Warsaw, Poland. Over the next three years the population dropped from 350,000 to 70,000 due to starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps.

1941 – World War II: Holocaust:  “Life Certificates” were issued to some Jews of Vilna. The rest were exterminated.

1943 – World War II: Japanese forces mount a small attack on the American divisions on Bougainville. The US Marines hold.

1943 – World War II: The USS Liscome Bay is torpedoed near Tarawa and sinks, killing 650 men.

1944 – World War II: Bombing of Tokyo – The first bombing raid since Capt. Jimmy Doolittle’s raid in 1942 against the Japanese capital from the east and by land was made by 111 American aircraft.

1944 – World War II: The US 3rd Army captures crossings over the Saar River, about 25 miles north of Saarbrucken.

1944 – World War II: Heinrich Himmler ordered the destruction of the Auschwitz and Birkenau crematoriums.

1947 – After refusing to co-operate with the House Un-American Activities Committee concerning allegations of Communist influence in the movie industry, the United States House of Representatives votes 346 to 17 to approve citations of contempt of Congress against the so-called “Hollywood 10”.

1947 – John Steinbeck’s novel “The Pearl” published.

1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Do” by Dinah Shore, “Near You” by The Francis Craig Orchestra (vocal: Bob Lamm), “The Whiffinpoof Song” by Bing Crosby and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1950 – The musical comedy, “Guys and Dolls”, opened on Broadway.

1950 – The “Storm of the Century”, a violent snowstorm, takes shape on this date before paralyzing the northeastern United States and the Appalachians the next day, bringing winds up to 100 mph and sub-zero temperatures. Pickens, West Virginia, records 57 inches of snow. 353 people would die as a result of the storm.

1951 – The Broadway play Gigi opens with little-known actress Audrey Hepburn in the title role.

1951 – “Sin (It’s No Sin)” by Eddy Howard topped the charts.

1953 – Walter O’Malley named Walston Alston to replace Charlie Dressen, who wanted a multi-year contract, a Dodger taboo. Alston served under 23 consecutive one-year contracts.

1954 – First US Presidential airplane christened. The presidential call sign, Air Force One, was established for security purposes during the administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower.

1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford, “Autumn Leaves by Roger Williams, “Love and Marriage” by Frank Sinatra and “Love, Love, Love” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.

1956 – “Love Me Tender” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.

1956 – “Pajama Game” closed at St James Theater New York City after 1063 performances.

1958 – Jackie Wilson’s “Lonely Teardrops” was released.

1958 – Richie Valens released “Donna” and “La Bamba“.

1958 – “It’s Only Make Believe” by Conway Twitty topped the charts.

1959 – The new TV show Twilight Zone ran “The Time Element” (51:57)about a bartender returning to Pearl Harbor Dec 6, 1941.

1960 – Wilt Chamberlain pulls down 55 rebounds in a game (NBA record).

1962 – “Big Girls Don’t Cry” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.

1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Leaving It Up to You” by Dale & Grace, “Washington Square” by The Village Stompers, “She’s a Fool” by Lesley Gore and “Love’s Gonna Live Here” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1963 – Jack Ruby shot and mortally wounded Lee Harvey Oswald, the accused assassin of President John F. Kennedy, in the Dallas police station in a scene captured on live television. (In 1979, the House Assassination’s Committee concludes that Kennedy likely was killed as part of a larger conspiracy. It may even have included members of organized crime.) The whole event was broadcast on television.

1963 – Vietnam War: Newly sworn-in US President Lyndon B. Johnson confirms that the United States intends to continue supporting South Vietnam both militarily and economically.

1964 – USS Princeton (LPH-5) completes seven-days of humanitarian relief to South Vietnam which suffered damage from typhoon and floods.

1964 – Residents of Wash DC were permitted to vote for the first time since 1800.

1966 – Four-hundred die of respiratory failure & heart attack in killer New York City smog. It was caused by a temperature inversion trapping the urban air pollution for three days.

1968 – Three Latins hijacked a US B-707 jet, from New York’s Kennedy Int’l. to Cuba. Pena Soltren, a US citizen, and two accomplices used weapons hidden in a diaper bag to hijack Pan Am Flight 281.

1969 – Apollo 12, the second manned mission to the Moon, successfully returned to Earth.

1969 – U.S. Army officials announce 1st Lt. William Calley will be court-martialed for the premeditated murder of 109 Vietnamese civilians at My Lai.

1970 – Stanford’s QB Jim Plunkett wins Heisman Trophy.

1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Theme from Shaft” by Isaac Hayes, “Baby I’m-A Want You by Bread, “Have You Seen Her” by Chi-Lites and “Daddy Frank (The Guitar Man)” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.

1971 – Hijacker D.B. Cooper parachuted from a Northwest Airlines 727 over Washington state with $200,000 in ransom. He was never found. In 2011 evidence was presented that Lynn Doyle Cooper (d.1999) of Oregon, a Korean war veteran, was the hijacker.

1971 – A prison rebellion took place at Rahway State Prison, NJ.

1972 – A Friday night show that would compete head-to-head with NBC’s “Midnight Special” premiered. “In Concert” featured Chuck Berry, Alice Cooper, Blood Sweat and Tears, Seals and Crofts and Poco.

1973 – “Photograph” by Ringo Starr topped the charts.

1976 – NBA Atlanta Hawks end a 28 game road losing streak.

1977 – Greece announced the discovery of the tomb of King Philip II, father of Alexander the Great.

1979 – The United States government admitted that thousands of troops in Vietnam were exposed to the toxic Agent Orange.

1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “No More Tears (Enough Is Enough)” by Barbra Streisand & Donna Summer, “Babe” by Styx, “Please Don’t Go” by K.C. & The Sunshine Band and “Come with Me” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.

1982 – FCC dropped limits on the duration and frequency of TV ads.

1984 – “Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go” by Wham! topped the charts.

1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mony Mony “Live” by Billy Idol, “(I’ve Had) The Time of My Life” by  Bill Medley & Jennifer Warnes, “Heaven is a Place on Earth” by Belinda Carlisle and “I Won’t Need You Anymore (Always and Forever)” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.

1986 – First day issue of the American Eagle silver dollar. It sold out on its first day.

1987 – The United States and the Soviet Union agreed to scrap shorter- and medium-range missiles.

1990 – “Love Takes Time” by Mariah Carey topped the charts.

1991 – The space shuttle Atlantis blasted off from Cape Canaveral with six astronauts and a military satellite.

1992 – Marines lowered the flag at Subic Bay, U.S. Naval Facility, Republic of the Philippines, for the last time during ceremonies to turn over the facility to the government of the Philippines. The withdrawal ended almost a century of U.S. presence in that nation.

1993 – The “Brady Bill” was passed by the U.S. Congress. The battle over the bill had been long and loud since its introduction in 1987.

1996 – Barry Sanders (Detroit Lions) set an NFL record when he recorded his eighth straight 1,000-yard season.

1997 – Space-walking astronauts from the shuttle Columbia grabbed a spinning satellite with their hands, enabling the cockpit crew to use the shuttle’s robot arm to return it to the cargo bay.

1998 – America Online announced that it would buy Netscape Communications for $10 billion.

1998 – Bill Gates, chairman of Microsoft Corp., donated $20 million to the Seattle Public Library system.

1999 – It was reported that US married couples with children comprised 26% of the population as opposed to 45% in 1972.

2000 – The PlayStation 2 is released in Europe, for around €449/£299.

2000 – The U.S. Supreme Court stepped into the bitter, overtime struggle for the White House, agreeing to consider George W. Bush’s appeal whether the extended Florida ballot counting violates federal law.

2001 – Heavy storms hit the US and at least 12 people were killed in the lower Mississippi valley.

2002 – Space Shuttle Endeavour lifts off on mission STS-113, the final successful shuttle flight before the ill-fated STS-107 Columbia mission.

2003 – A jury in Virginia Beach, Virginia, sentenced John Allen Muhammad to death for the series of Washington-area sniper shootings.

2003 – A new US FCC regulation allowed cell phone users to transfer their numbers to a different carrier beginning today.

2003 – Warren Spahn (82), the Hall of Fame pitcher who won more games than any other left-hander in history, died in Broken Arrow, Ok.

2004 – The US military ended a nine-year peacekeeping role in Bosnia but kept on a small contingent to hunt down top war crimes suspects Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic.

2004 – In Fallujah the US military uncovered the largest arms cache yet inside the mosque of an insurgent leader.

2005 – A giant balloon in the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York snagged a street light and caused part of it to fall, injuring a woman and a child.

2006 – In Chicago a gunman who took his neighbor hostage for 23 hours over Thanksgiving ended the standoff by killing the woman and himself.

2007 – In southern California a fast-moving wildfire destroyed more than a dozen homes and spread through the canyons and hills above Malibu, forcing dozens of residents to flee ahead of the flames. Fifty-three homes were destroyed with seven square miles scorched.

2008 – The US government won a terrorism conviction against Texas-based Holy Land, what had been the nation’s largest Muslim charity, and five of its leaders for funneling millions of dollars to the Palestinian militant group Hamas.

2010 – The US Federal Transit Administration sent an invoice to New Jersey for some $271 million for work done on the cancelled $8.7 billion Hudson River rail tunnel connecting the state with NY.

2010 – Former US House of Representatives Majority Leader and former Dancing with the Stars contestant Tom DeLay is convicted of money laundering and conspiracy in relation to Republican fundraising for the 2002 Texas state elections.

2010 –   In Virginia 5 Somali men, accused of attacking the USS Nicholas on April 1, were convicted on federal piracy charges. On March 14, 2011, the 5 men were sentenced to life in prison.

2012 – Retail analysis says more Americans went out to shop (as opposed to shopping online) on Black Friday, 23 November. However, total sales decreased 1.8% from the previous Black Friday.

2012 – The NHL cancels all games through 14 December, plus the 2013 NHL All-Star Game scheduled for 27 January in Columbus, Ohio, due to the 2012 NHL lockout.

2012 – In a Springfield, Massachusetts a natural gas explosion leveled two buildings and many more buildings are damaged. At least 18 people are injured.

2014 – A grand jury in St. Louis County, Missouri decides not to indict police officer Darren Wilson in relation to the shooting of Michael Brown in the suburb of Ferguson. Protests turn violent following the announcement despite a request by President Obama and Brown’s family for any protests to be peaceful.


1784 – Zachary Taylor, 12th President of the United States of America (1849-50).
1806 – William Webb Ellis, credited with the invention of Rugby (d. 1872)
1853 – Bat Masterson, American gunfighter (d. 1921)
1868 – Scott Joplin, American ragtime music composer and pianist.
1877 – Alben W. Barkley, Vice President of the United States (d. 1956)
1888 – Dale Carnegie, American lecturer and author.
1897 – Lucky Luciano, American gangster (d. 1962)
1925 – William F. Buckley, conservative commentator who founded National Review in 1955.
1942 – Marlin Fitzwater, White House Press Secretary





Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company F, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kowang-San, Korea, November 23rd and  November 24th, 1951. Entered service at: Jefferson, S.C. Born: 27 October 1929, Chesterfield County, S.C. G.O. No.: 2, 7 January 1953. Citation: Pfc. Knight, a member of Company F, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. He occupied a key position in the defense perimeter when waves of enemy troops passed through their own artillery and mortar concentrations and charged the company position. Two direct hits from an enemy emplacement demolished his bunker and wounded him. Disregarding personal safety, he moved to a shallow depression for a better firing vantage. Unable to deliver effective fire from his defilade position, he left his shelter, moved through heavy fire in full view of the enemy and, firing into the ranks of the relentless assailants, inflicted numerous casualties, momentarily stemming the attack. Later during another vicious onslaught, he observed an enemy squad infiltrating the position and, counterattacking, killed or wounded the entire group. Expending the last of his ammunition, he discovered three enemy soldiers entering the friendly position with demolition charges. Realizing the explosives would enable the enemy to exploit the breach, he fearlessly rushed forward and disabled two assailants with the butt of his rifle when the third exploded a demolition charge killing the three enemy soldiers and mortally wounding Pfc. Knight. Pfc. Knight’s supreme sacrifice and consummate devotion to duty reflect lasting glory on himself and uphold the noble traditions of the military service.



INTERIM 1871-1898



Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1825, Malta. Citation: For courage and fidelity displayed in the loss of the U.S.S. Huron, November 24th,  1877.  While on a scientific trip to Cuba, Huron ran aground off Nags Head, North Carolina in heavy weather, and was wrecked shortly after 1 a.m. next morning. For a time, her crew worked in relatively little danger, attempting to free their ship, but she soon heeled over, carrying 98 officers and men to their deaths.






Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Lookout Mountain, Tenn., November 24th,  1863. Entered service at: Syracuse, N.Y. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 28 June 1865. Citation: Capture of Confederate flag (Bragg’s army).




Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Lookout Mountain, Tenn., November 24th,  1863. Entered service at: Syracuse, N.Y. Birth: Syracuse, N.Y. Date of issue: 12 January 1892. Citation: Waved the colors to save the lives of the men who were being fired upon by their own batteries, and thereby drew upon himself a concentrated fire from the enemy.




Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company E, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Lookout Mountain, Tenn., November 24th, 1863. Entered service at: Pompey, N.Y. Birth: Pompey, N.Y. Date of issue: 24 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag (Bragg’s army).


Receiving a Medal of Honor for any activity is simply ordinary people doing extremely extraordinary things. We tend to look at things such as capturing a flag as fairly simple events when that is far from the truth. First, the flags captured in these contexts are powerful symbols of the organization displaying it. During the CIVIL WAR it was an extreme honor to capture the enemy’s flag and a disgrace to lose your own. To take your enemy’s flag was also a very important mark of success.

Second, in addition to the emotional aspects, having your flag stolen would be tantamount to losing a very important communication device. To the soldiers in the battle it said, “Here are your leaders and they are still standing.” It gave a focal point or a rallying point to those in battle but away from their leaders.

Finally it was a sense of pride that transcended the battle and the war and all of the following history. There is still (2010) contention between states over these banners, guidons and flags from the CIVIL WAR. This demonstrates the military and emotional importance of these pieces of cloth.


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Unerased History – November 23rd

Posted by Wayne Church on November 23, 2015 in 11 - November, Blog by month |
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Fibonacci Day
National Adoption Day

Black Friday

The day after Thanksgiving is commonly called Black Friday. Usually Black is not with many things that are positive but I think it could be when I heard a statistic that said many small businesses make 40% of their annual profit on that one day. In history, though, there have been a number of events that happened on a Friday and are thus known as Black Friday:

  • Black Friday (1869), a financial crisis in the United States
  • Black Friday (1889), the day of the Johnstown Flood.
  • Black Friday (1929), a stock market crash in the United States
  • Black Friday (1939), a day of devastating fires in Australia
  • Black Friday (1945), largest air battle over Norway, over Sunnfjord
  • Hollywood Black Friday (1945), the day the six-month-old Confederation of Studio Unions (CSU) strike boiled over into a bloody riot at the Warner Bros. studios leading to the eventual breakup of the CSU.
  • Black Friday (1978), a massacre of protesters in Iran
  • Black Friday (1982), known in Britain after Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, sparking the Falklands Wa
  • rOther uses of the term include:
  • Black Friday, a name used for any Friday which falls on the 13th of a month
  • Black Friday (shopping), the day after Thanksgiving Day in the United States, the first shopping day of the Christmas season and one of the busiest shopping days of the year
  • “Black Friday” is the name given to the last Friday before Christmas in the United Kingdom. It is a day when widespread anti-social behaviour due to public alcohol consumption is expected to occur, and police are given additional powers to combat it.
  • Black Friday (1940 film), a science-fiction/horror film starring Boris Karloff, Stanley Ridges and Bela Lugosi
  • “Black Friday”, a title of a song by Grinspoon
  • “Black Friday”, a title of a song by Steely Dan
  • “Black Friday”, a title of a song by Megadeth
  • “Black Friday Rule”, a title of a song by Flogging Molly
  • “Black Friday”, the nickname for game 3 of the 1977 National League Championship Series, Philadelphia Phillies fans gave the nickname because the Phillies blew an early lead against the Los Angeles Dodgers and a controversial call was made during the game
  • “Black Friday”, a title of a poem written by Dennis Rader, the BTK killer


Scripture of the Day

Proverbs 9: 9 – 12

Give instruction to a wise man, and he will be yet wiser: teach a just man, and he will increase in learning.

10 The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom: and the knowledge of the holy is understanding.

11 For by me thy days shall be multiplied, and the years of thy life shall be increased.

12 If thou be wise, thou shalt be wise for thyself: but if thou scornest, thou alone shalt bear it.

Founders Thoughts



“Gratitude unlocks the fullness of life. It turns what we have into enough, and more. It turns denial into acceptance, chaos to order, confusion to clarity. It can turn a meal into a feast, a house into a home, a stranger into a friend. Gratitude makes sense of our past, brings peace for today, and creates a vision for tomorrow.”

 ~ Melody Beattie

ef‧fer‧vesce  /ef‧fer‧ves‧cence, noun

to give off bubbles of gas, as fermenting liquors.

—Related forms
as a verb
to issue forth in bubbles.
to show enthusiasm, excitement, liveliness, etc.: The parents effervesced with pride over their new baby.
as an adjective
He has such an effervescent personality

[Origin: 1695–1705; < L effervēscere, equiv. to ef- ef- + ferv- hot (see fervent) + -ēscere -esce]

1499 – Pretender to the throne Perkin Warbeck is hanged for reportedly attempting to escape from the Tower of London. He had invaded England in 1497, claiming to be the lost son of King Edward IV of England.

1654 – French mathematician, scientist, and religious philosopher Blaise Pascal experiences an intense vision that marks him for life.

1765 – Frederick County, Md., became the first colonial entity to repudiate the British Stamp Act.

1783 – Annapolis, Md., became the US capital until June 1784.

1785 – John Hancock was elected president of the Continental Congress for the second time.

1808 – Zebulon Pike reaches his peak.

1835 – Henry Burden patents Horseshoe manufacturing machine, Troy, NY.

1837 – William Crompton of Taunton, MA patented the silk, power loom.

1848 – The Female Medical Educational Society was established.

1849 – Harvard chemistry Professor John Webster murdered Dr. George Parkman. Dental identification played a key role in the trial.

1852 – Just past midnight, a sharp jolt causes Lake Merced to drop 30′. A severe earthquake created a fissure a half mile wide and three hundred yards long through which the waters of Lake Merced flowed to the sea.

1863 – Civil War: Union forces struck out and captured Orchard Knob and Lookout Mountain.

1863 – Civil War:   Battle of Chattanooga began. Union forces drove the Confederates away and set the stage for Union General William Sherman’s triumphant March to the Sea.

1864 – Civil War:  The Battle at Ball’s Ferry, Georgia, left 30 casualties.

1868 – Louis Ducos du Hauron patents trichrome color photo process.

1869 – In Dumbarton, Scotland, the clipper Cutty Sark is launched – one of the last clippers ever to be built, and the only one still surviving to this day.

1874 – Farmer Joseph Glidden’s patent for barbed wire was granted. Glidden designed a simple wire barb that attached to a double-strand wire, as well as a machine to mass-produce the wire.

1876 – William Marcy “Boss” Tweed, leader of New York City’s corrupt Tammany Hall political organization during the 1860s, was turned in to authorities in New York City after his capture in Spain.

1876 – The first intercollegiate football association was established  by Columbia, Harvard & Princeton  in Springfield, MA.

1887 – Notre Dame played its inaugural game, the Irish lost to the University of Michigan Wolverines by a score of 8-0. Their first win came in the final game of the 1888 season when the Irish defeated Harvard Prep by a score of 20-0.

1887 – The opera “The Trumpeter of Sackingen” first American production.

1889 – The first jukebox was installed when an entrepreneur named Louis Glass and his business associate, William S. Arnold, placed a coin-operated Edison cylinder phonograph in the Palais Royale Saloon in San Francisco. There was a coin slot for each tube. 5 cents bought a few minutes of music. The contraption took in $1,000 in six months!

1895 – The first ever Backyard Brawl rivalry match-up between Pitt Panthers and West Virginia Mountaineers takes place. The Backyard Brawl is an annual football game between the University of Pittsburgh and West Virginia University.

1897 – A pencil sharpener was patented by J.L. Love.

1898 – Andrew Beard, African-American inventor, was granted a patent (Patent # 594,059) for a railway car coupler. It was , commonly called the Jenny Coupler. It did the dangerous job of hooking railroad cars together, Beard, himself had lost a leg in a car coupling accident.

1903 – Singer Enrico Caruso made his U.S. debut at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York, in “Rigoletto.”

1903 – Colorado Governor James Peabody sends the state militia into the town of Cripple Creek to break up a miners’ strike.

1905 – Henry Watson Furness, an Indiana physician, named minister of Haiti. He was the last Black minister to Haiti in this period. President Woodrow Wilson appointed a white minister in 1913.

1909 – The Wright brothers formed a corporation for the commercial manufacture of their airplanes.

1919 – The first play-by-play football game radio broadcast took place during the Texas A&M – Texas game.

1921 – U.S. President Warren Harding signed the Willis Campell Act, better known as the anti-beer bill. It forbids doctors to prescribe beer or liquor for medicinal purposes, which was a loophole in Prohibition.

1935 – Ethel Leginska became the first woman to write an opera — and conduct it.

1936 – Henry R. Luce’s “LIFE” magazine debuted. The first cover pictured the Fort Peck Dam in Montana (part of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal program) photographed by Margaret Bourke-White. On page 2, a photo showed a doctor slapping a newborn baby — and the caption read, “LIFE begins.”

1936 – U.S. abandoned the American embassy in Madrid, Spain, which was engulfed by civil war.

1937 – John Steinbeck’s “Of Mice & Men,” premiered in New York City.

1938 – “Thanks for the Memory” was a song in the film “The Big Broadcast of 1938. The words and music were written by Leo Robin and Ralph Rainger, and was recorded by Shep Fields and his orchestra. It won the Academy Award for Best Song. Bob Hope sang the vocals and it became his signature song.

1939 – Thanksgiving. Franklin D. Roosevelt had proclaimed Thanksgiving Day a week earlier–on the fourth, not the last, Thursday of November–in an effort to encourage more holiday shopping.

1940 – World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt appoints Admiral William D. Leahy as U.S. Ambassador to Vichy France to try to prevent the French fleet and naval bases from falling into German hands.

1941 – U.S. troops moved into Dutch Guiana [Surinam] to guard the bauxite (aluminum ore) mines. The attack at Pearl Harbor is only 14 days away.

1942 – The Coast Guard Woman’s Auxiliary (SPARS) was authorized.

1942 – The film “Casablanca” premiered in New York City.

1943 – World War II: Pacific: The U.S. began its offensive against Japan in the Central Pacific by taking Tarawa Island and Makin Island in the Gilbert Islands. On Tarawa Atoll, the battle ends by noon. The US Marines have suffered 1000 killed and 2000 wounded. The Japanese garrison of 4800 troops has been annihilated. A total of 17 wounded Japanese troops and 129 Korean laborers are the only survivors.

1944 – World War II: Europe: On the right flank of the German line, the 15th Army falls back in Holland. Meanwhile, the German 7th Army launches attacks on forces of US 9th Army. To the south, French troops of US 7th Army reach Strasbourg.

1945 – Wartime rationing of food, particularly meat and butter, was ended in the U.S.

1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rumors are Flying” by Frank Sinatra (sung by Andrews Sisters), “Ole Buttermilk Sky by The Kay Kyser Orchestra (vocal: Mike Douglas & The Campus Kids), “The Whole World is Singing My Song” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day) and “Divorce Me C.O.D” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.

1947 – Washington Redskin Sammy Baugh passes for six touchdowns vs the Chicago Cardinals (45-21).

1948 – Dr. Frank G. Back of New York City patented the Zoomar lens. At some point Zoomar and Zoom lens became interchangeable.

1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Need You Now” by Eddie Fisher, “Mr. Sandman” by The Chordettes, “Teach Me Tonight” by The De Castro Sisters and “More and More” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.

1954 – For the first time, the Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above the peak it reached just before the 1929 crash.

1954 – At 0950, the 50 millionth GM body met up with the 50 millionth GM Chassis. The result a few minutes later was a 1955 Chevrolet Bel-Air. The car was painted gold and had more than 600 parts plated in 24-karat gold.

1957 – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.

1958 – “Have Gun Will Travel” premieres on radio. It was broadcast on CBS radio and starred John Dehner as Paladin. Richard Boone played Paladin on TV.

1958 – Ronald and Nancy Reagan appeared together in the “GE Theatre” production of “A Turkey for the President”.

1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Big Girls Don’t Cry” by The Four Seasons, “Return to Sender” by Elvis Presley, “Next Door to an Angel” by Neil Sedaka and “I’ve Been Everywhere” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.

1963 – “Dr. Who” premiered on British TV; it didn’t air in the U.S. until September 1975.

1963 – “I’m Leaving it up to You” by Dale & Grace topped the charts.

1963 – President John Fitzgerald Kennedy’s body, lay in repose in East Room of White House.

1964 – Beatles release “I Feel Fine” & “She’s a Woman“.

1968 – Hijacking: Five Cubans hijacked a US B-727 jet, from Chicago to Cuba.

1968 – “Hey Jude” by the Beatles topped the charts. This is the most commercially successful Beatles song. It was #1 in at least 12 countries and by the end of 1968 had sold more than 5 million copies.

1970 – Simas I. Kudirka, a Soviet fisherman, attempted to defect from his Soviet fishing vessel to the Coast  Guard Cutter Vigilant, during a meeting between the Soviets and the U.S. on fishing rights.

1970 – George Harrison released “My Sweet Lord” in the US.

1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Think I Love You” by The Partridge Family, “The Tears of a Clown” by Smokey Robinson & The Miracles, “Gypsy Woman” by Brian Hyland and “Fifteen Years Ago” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.

1974 – “I Can Help” by Billy Swan topped the charts.

1976 – Police arrested Jerry Lee Lewis outside the gates of Graceland after he showed up for the second time that night and made a scene by shouting, waving a pistol and demanding to see Elvis Presley.

1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “MacArthur Park” by Donna Summer, “Double Vision” by Foreigner, “How Much I Feel” by Ambrosia and “Sleeping Single in a Double Bed” by Barbara Mandrell all topped the charts.

1980 – One-thousand people from twenty five states gather in Philadelphia and form the National Black Independent Party.

1981 – President Ronald Reagan signs the top secret National Security Decision Directive 17 (NSDD-17), giving the Central Intelligence Agency the authority to recruit and support Contra rebels in Nicaragua.

1984 – Boston College quarterback Doug Flutie throws a game-winning 48-yard “Hail Mary pass” to Gerard Phelan to defeat the University of Miami Hurricanes 45-41. It is one of the most famous plays in American college football history.

1985 – “We Built This City” by Starship topped the charts.

1985 – Larry Wu-tai Chin, a retired CIA analyst, was arrested and accused of spying for China. He committed suicide a year after his conviction.

1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Human” by Human League, “You Give Love a Bad Name by Bon Jovi, “Word Up” by Cameo and “You’re Still New to Me” by Marie Osmond with Paul Davis all topped the charts.

1988 – Wayne Gretzky scored his 600th National Hockey League (NHL) goal.

1990 – The first all-woman expedition to the South Pole (3 Americans, 1 Japanese and 12 Russians), sets off from Antarctica on the first leg of a seventy day, 1287 kilometer ski trek.

1991 – “When a Man Loves a Woman” by Michael Bolton topped the charts.

1992 – The play “Someone Who’ll Watch Over Me” opened. This is an opening video montage to accompany drama piece ‘Someone Who’ll Watch Over Me’, set in Gaza during the war of 2009.

1995 – The Bosnian Serbs accepted a peace plan proposed during talks in Dayton, Ohio, to end the four years of conflict in the former Yugoslavia.

1998 – A U.S. federal judge rejected a Virginia county’s effort to block pornography on library computer calling the attempt unconstitutional.

1998 – The Georgia state Supreme Court invalidated Georgia’s anti-sodomy law.

1998 – The Dow Jones hit a new record high at 9,374.27.

1999 – Defense Secretary William Cohen called for a military-wide review of conduct after a Pentagon study said up to 75 percent of blacks and other ethnic minorities reported experiencing racially offensive behavior.

2001 – A crowd of 87,555 people watched the Texas Longhorns beat the Texas A&M Aggies 21-7. The crowd was the largest to see a football game in Texas.

2001 – Heavy storms hit Arkansas and at least 4 people were killed.

2001 – It was reported that Hawaii’s Supreme Court struck down the state’s sex offender registration law, declaring it unconstitutional.

2002 – NC State beats Florida State 17-7 to give the Wolfpack it’s first 10-win season in 111 years.

2003 – Adolfo “Big Al” Bruno (57), a regional Mafia boss, was killed in Springfield, Mass.

2003 – The New York Times reports that the Federal Bureau of Investigation is actively monitoring and gathering intelligence on anti-war protest movements’ activities, ostensibly to detect possible terrorist activity.

2004 – Dan Rather announced that he would step down as anchorman of “The CBS Evening News” in March 2005.

2004 – Iraq:  5,000 US Marines, British troops and Iraqi commandos launched raids and arrested suspected insurgents aimed at clearing a swath of insurgent hotbeds south of Baghdad.

2005 – The record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season continues as Tropical Storm Delta forms from a non-tropical low 1,000 nautical miles southwest of the Azores.

2005 – A federal jury in New York convicted Uzair Paracha (25), a Pakistani man detained in 2003, of providing material support to terrorists and other related charges. His father was being held as an enemy combatant at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

2005 – A commuter train slammed into several vehicles caught in a traffic jam on a busy road in Elmwood Park, Ill., starting a chain reaction that injured at least ten people.

2007 – The ice breaker/cruise ship MS Explorer sinks in the Southern Ocean after striking an iceberg. Everyone aboard is rescued.

2007 – Emily Sander (18), a Kansas college student and Internet porn star, was last seen leaving a bar in El Dorado, about 30 miles from Wichita, with a man identified as Israel Mireles (24). Her body was found Nov 29 about 50 miles east of El Dorado.

2008 – In Hollywood, Ca., Mario Majorski (48) of Oregon was shot and killed by a security guard at the Scientology Celebrity Center as he tried to attack guests with a pair of Samurai swords.

2009 – The US Consumer Product Safety Commission recalled of 2.1 million cribs following links to four infant suffocations. The drop-side cribs were made by Stork Craft Manufacturing of Canada.

2009 – Ohio police seized about 35 pipe bombs, an assortment of firearms, hundreds of rounds of ammunition at the Cuyahoga Falls apartment of Mark Campano (56), a former doctor, following two loud explosions.

2010 – Rep. Dan Maffei (D-N.Y.) conceded to his GOP challenger Tuesday afternoon, giving Republicans their 63rd pickup in the House.

2012 – Black Friday- Gun sales resulted in a record-high 154,873 background check requests, a 20 percent increase over last year’s record of 129,166.


1616 – John Wallis, English mathematician (d. 1703) He was an English mathematician who is given partial credit for the development of modern calculus. Between 1643 and 1689 he served as chief cryptographer for Parliament and, later, the royal court. He is also credited with introducing the symbol ∞ for infinity.

1749 – Edward Rutledge, U.S. statesman from South Carolina. He was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and later governor of South Carolina.
1804 – Franklin Pierce, 14th President of the United States of America (1853-57).
1859 – Billy the Kid (William Bonney), American outlaw of the Wild West.
1887 – Boris Karloff (William Henry Pratt), British actor.
1888 – Harpo Marx (Adolph Marx/Arthur Marx), American comedian.




Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company E, 398th Infantry, 100th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near St. Pravel, France,  November 23rd, 1944. Entered service at: Johnstown, Pa. Born: 8 June 1916, Johnstown, Pa. G.O. No.: 97, 1 November 1945. Citation: 1st Lt. Edward A. Silk commanded the weapons platoon of Company E, 398th Infantry, on 23 November 1944, when the end battalion was assigned the mission of seizing high ground overlooking Moyenmoutier France, prior to an attack on the city itself. His company jumped off in the lead at dawn and by noon had reached the edge of a woods in the vicinity of St. Pravel where scouts saw an enemy sentry standing guard before a farmhouse in a valley below. One squad, engaged in reconnoitering the area, was immediately pinned down by intense machinegun and automatic-weapons fire from within the house. Skillfully deploying his light machinegun section, 1st Lt. Silk answered enemy fire, but when fifteen minutes had elapsed with no slackening of resistance, he decided to eliminate the strong point by a one-man attack. Running one-hundred yards across an open field to the shelter of a low stone wall directly in front of the farmhouse, he fired into the door and windows with his carbine; then, in full view of the enemy, vaulted the wall and dashed fifty yards through a hail of bullets to the left side of the house, where he hurled a grenade through a window, silencing a machinegun and killing two gunners. In attempting to move to the right side of the house he drew fire from a second machinegun emplaced in the woodshed. With magnificent courage he rushed this position in the face of direct fire and succeeded in neutralizing the weapon and killing the two gunners by throwing grenades into the structure. His supply of grenades was by now exhausted, but undaunted, he dashed back to the side of the farmhouse and began to throw rocks through a window, demanding the surrender of the remaining enemy. Twelve Germans, overcome by his relentless assault and confused by his unorthodox methods, gave up to the lone American. By his gallant willingness to assume the full burden of the attack and the intrepidity with which he carried out his extremely hazardous mission, 1st Lt. Silk enabled his battalion to continue its advance and seize its objective.




Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 4th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near Nasugbu, Batangas, Philippine Islands, November 23rd, 1901. Entered service at: Cobleskill, N.Y. Birth: Cobleskill, N.Y. G.O. No.: 33, 1913. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: While in pursuit of a band of insurgents was the first of his detachment to emerge from a canyon, and seeing a column of insurgents and fearing they might turn and dispatch his men as they emerged one by one from the canyon, galloped forward and closed with the insurgents, thereby throwing them into confusion until the arrival of others of the detachment.




Rank and organization: Colonel, 149th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Chattanooga, Tenn., November 23rd,1863. Entered service at: Syracuse, N.Y. Born: 24 September 1833, Jamesville, Onondaga County, N.Y. Date of issue: July 1889. Citation: Although suffering severely from wounds, he led his regiment, inciting the men to greater action by word and example until again severely wounded.





Rank and organization: Paymaster’s Steward, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Ship Island Sound, La., November 23rd, 1863. Entered service at——. Born: 1840, Kittery, Maine. Date of issue: 16 April 1864. Citation: Served as paymaster’s steward on board the U.S.S. Commodore, November 1863. Carrying out his duties courageously, Seward “volunteered to go on the field amidst a heavy fire to recover the bodies of two soldiers which he brought off with the aid of others; a second instance of personal valor within a fortnight.” Promoted to acting master’s mate.






Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company G, 33d New Jersey Infantry. Place and date. At Chattanooga, Tenn., November 23rd, 1863. Entered service at: Hudson, N.J. Birth: Duchess, N.Y. Date of issue: 10 September 1897. Citation: Although excused from duty on account of sickness, went to the front in command of a storming party and with conspicuous gallantry participated in the assault of Missionary Ridge; was here wounded and permanently disabled.

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