National Go Barefoot Day
Say Something Nice Day
Electric Toy Trains
Not only do electric powered toy trains offer a lot of fun for the entire family, they have a history which is virtually as rich as the one shared through the real railroads.
The first toy trains first appeared in the marketplace from the 1860’s. These trains were easy designs that had been made of wood and metal. It truly is doubtful that the designers had any inkling of what their straightforward floor toys would evolve into.
The Marklin corporation saw a need for a collection of regular gauges for toy trains in 1891. When they very first implemented these normal gauges it was for the wind-up (also called clockwork) trains the Marklin Organization produced. The same standards are still used for today’s electric powered trains.
The first electrical toy to educate was launched towards the world in 1901. The product was from the Lionel toy business. At the beginning this train was only intended to be used as a window display. It wasn’t until sometime later that consumers were definitely more interested in the window display than from the merchandise.
It was during the 1920’s that electric powered toy trains became definitely well-known. At the time all the kids wanted them, but only the rich kids could afford them.
Smaller scaled electric toy trains were presented to get them into the hands of everyone. These trains were usually O gauge and HO gauge. Most of these trains could only be purchased as kits that were then put together by adults with a lot of patience.
World War II stopped the output of toy electric trains from 1941 through 1945.
When output of toy electrical trains resumed after the war, the interest in the trains took off. Through the 1950’s they were the hottest toy among boys inside the United States. They had also become more affordable. At that time the largest toy train manufacturer was Lionel. By the middle on the 1950’s there was a plain division between toy electrical trains that have been designed by adults and toy electric trains that were definitely developed with young children in mind.
The N scale train was launched in 1965. The N scale was only one half the size of the O trains. Three years later the G scale train was released. The G scale train is still a popular choice among garden railroaders. The G scale train was presented by Germany’s LGB business. The G scale trains permit collectors to include true scenery to their layouts in addition to topography. Some individuals incorporate garden trains directly into their home landscape gardening.
Marklin created a train that was even smaller then the N scale train in the 1970’s. This train was called the Z scale. During this period improvements in technology and electronics could be viewed through the toy electric powered trains.
Realistic sounds and digital control systems have been put into the electric powered toy trains in 1980’s. It can be estimated that there are over a half million train collectors in the US and Canada.
Galatians 5:1, ESV
“For freedom Christ has set us free; stand firm therefore, and do not submit again to a yoke of slavery.”
“Among the natural rights of the colonists are these: First a right to life, secondly to liberty, and thirdly to property; together with the right to defend them in the best manner they can.”
~ Samuel Adams
“I like thinking of possibilities. At any time, an entirely new possibility is liable to come along and spin you off in an entirely new direction. The trick, I’ve learned, is to be awake to the moment.”
~ Doug Hall
bombast BOM-bast, noun:
Pompous or pretentious speech or writing.
Bombast comes from Medieval French bombace, “cotton, hence padding,” from Late Latinbombax, “cotton.”
1495 – First written record of Scotch Whiskey appears in Exchequer Rolls of Scotland.
1638 – First earthquake recorded in US, at Plymouth, MA. In the Algonquian language this word for earthquake is NANAMKIPODA. When translated it simply means “when the earth shakes.” The very fact that the Native Americans of New England have a word for earthquake shows us that, if not a common occurrence, they at the very least experienced earthquakes from time to time.
1657 – First Quakers arrived in New Amsterdam (NY).
1660 – Mary Dyer hanged for defying a law banning Quakers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1711 – The Queen Anne Act, known as The British Post Office Act of 1710, took effect in North America on June 1, 1711. It created a formula that was used to improve the colonial postal system and remained in effect in North America until 1789.
1774 – Revolutionary War: The Boston Port Bill, the first bill of the Intolerable Acts (called by the Colonists) became effective. It closed Boston harbor until restitution for the destroyed tea was made (It passed Mar. 25, 1774).
1779 – Revolutionary War: Benedict Arnold, a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, was court-martialed for malfeasance.
1783 – Last British troops sailed from New York.
1789 – The first U.S. congressional act on administering oaths became law.
1792 – Kentucky admitted as the 15th state of the United States.
1796 – Tennessee admitted as the 16th state of the United States.
1796 – In accordance with the Jay Treaty, all British troops were withdrawn from U.S. soil.
1808 – First US land-grant university founded at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio.
1809 – Allardyce Barclay begins a bet of walking 1 mile every hour for 1,000 hours. In addition to making a lot of money, he lost 32 pounds in weight.
1812 – War of 1812: U.S. President James Madison asks the Congress to declare war on the United Kingdom.
1813 – War of 1812: James Lawrence, the mortally-wounded commander of the USS Chesapeake, cries out “Don’t give up the ship!”
1821 – Governor Andrew Jackson officially receives the Florida territory from the Spanish. As no provisions have yet been made for a territorial government, Jackson will act as a quasi-military commander.
1831 – James Clark Ross discovers the North Magnetic Pole.
1843 – Sojourner Truth leaves NY to begin her career as antislavery activist.
1855 – William Walker (1824-1860), US adventurer, stormed into Granada, Nicaragua, and declared himself president. He reestablished slavery and planned an 18-mile canal from Lake Nicaragua to the Pacific.
1861 – Civil War: The first skirmish of the Civil War took place at the Fairfax Court House, Virginia. This battle produced the first Confederate combat casualty, Captain John Quincy Marr.
1861 – Civil War: US & Confederacy simultaneously stop mail interchange.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of Seven Pines or (Battle of Fair Oaks) – Engagement ends inconclusively, with both sides claiming victory.
1862 – Civil War: Slavery was abolished in all U.S. possessions.
1862 – Civil War: General Robert E. Lee assumed command of the Confederate Army outside Richmond after General Joe Johnston was injured at Seven Pines. Robert E. Lee received a field command: the Army of Northern Virginia.
1863 – Civil War: The anti-Lincoln Copperhead “Chicago Times” is suppressed by order of General Ambrose Burnside, but the order is revoked on 4 June by Lincoln.
1863 – Civil War: The Confederate Navy Department assumed complete control of the Selma, Alabama, Iron Works.
1864 – Civil War: Confederates attack Union troops at the strategic crossroads of Cold Harbor, less than a dozen miles from Richmond.
1864 – Civil War: Shenandoah Valley campaign began.
1868 – Treaty of Bosque Redondo signed allowing the Navajos to return to their lands in Arizona and New Mexico.
1868 – The Texas constitutional convention met in Austin.
1868 – Fifteenth President of the United States James Buchanan dies.
1869 – Thomas Edison receives a patent for his electric voting machine.
1871 – 1871 Korean Conflict: RADM Rodgers lands in Korea with a party of sailors and Marines and captures five forts to secure protection for U.S. citizens after Americans were fired upon and murdered.
1877 – US troops authorized to pursue bandits into Mexico.
1880 – The U.S. census stood at 50,155,783.
1880 – Paddy Ryan won the world heavyweight boxing title by beating up Joe Goss in the 87th round.
1886 – The railroads of the Southern United States convert 11,000 miles of track from a five foot rail gauge to standard gauge, beginning May 31.
1888 – California got its first seismographs as three of the devices were installed at the Lick Observatory at Mount Hamilton, Ca.
1890 – The United States Census Bureau begins using Herman Hollerith’s tabulating machine to count census returns.The US census stood at 62,622,250.
1898 – Trans-Mississippi International Exposition opens in Omaha.The Exposition showcased the developed West from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Coast. During the four months of the Exposition, over 2,600,000 people came to view it’s 4,062 exhibits.
1905 – Lewis & Clark Centennial Exposition opens in Portland, Oregon.
1909 – Pres. William Howard Taft touched a key in Washington, DC, sending a signal to Seattle, opening the Alaska-Yukon Pacific Expo at the Seattle World’s Fair, as well as a signal to NYC initialing the New York to Seattle Automobile Race.
1911 – First US group insurance policy written, Passaic, NJ. The Equitable Life Assurance Society of New York issued a “yearly renewable term employees’ policy” to the Pantasote Leather Co. and its 121 employees.
1914 – General Order 99 prohibits alcohol on board naval vessels, or at navy yards or stations.
1915 – First contract for lighter-than-air craft for Navy.
1916 – The National Defense Act increased the strength of the U.S. National Guard by 450,000 men.
1916 – Louis Brandeis becomes the first Jew appointed to the United States Supreme Court.
1918 – World War I: Western Front: Battle for Belleau Wood – Allied Forces under John J. Pershing & James Harbord engage Imperial German Forces under Wilhelm, German Crown Prince. Marine Captain Lloyd Williams when advised to withdraw, replies, “Retreat, Hell! We just got here!”
1921 – A race riot erupted in Tulsa, Oklahoma. 85 people were killed. On this morning , a young Black man named Dick Rowland was riding in the elevator in the Drexel Building at Third and Main. The white elevator operator, Sarah Page, claimed that Rowland grabbed her arm, causing her to flee in panic.
1924 – Congress establishes the Border Patrol, under the jurisdiction of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. Previously, border duty was done sporadically by the Army or the militia of the border states.
1925 – Lou Gehrig plays the first game in his streak of 2,130 consecutive games; it was the longest such streak until broken by Cal Ripken Jr. in 1995.
1927 – The Delta King steamboat made its maiden voyage from San Francisco to Sacramento, Ca. Its twin, the Delta Queen, followed the next day. The 81-mile trip took nearly all night.
1929 – Vivian Bales left Albany, Georgia on a 5,000 mile motorcycle tour. She was popularly known during her time as the “Enthusiast Girl” and was one of the first well-known women riders. She traveled for 78 days and even met President Hoover.
1935 – At Yankee Stadium, the Brooklyn Bombers (NY Yankees) hit a record six solo home runs in beating Boston, 7-2.
1935 – The Ingersoll-Waterbury Company reported that it had produced 2.5 million Mickey Mouse watches during its two-year association with Disney.
1936 – The Queen Mary arrived in New York on its maiden voyage.
1936 – The Lux Radio Theater moved from New York City to Hollywood. Cecil B. DeMille, the program’s host on the NBC Blue network, introduced Clark Gable and Marlene Dietrich in The Legionnaire and the Lady.
1938 – The first issue of “Action Comics” was published including Superman Comics launched. Jerry Siegel created Superman in 1934 after he dreamed about the Biblical story of Moses, whose parents abandoned him as a baby in order to save his life. This became the plot of the first Superman story.
1938 – Baseball helmets were worn for the first time.
1939 – First televised heavyweight boxing match-Max Baer vs Lou Nova. The fight ended with Nova winning in 11 rounds.
1939 – The Douglas DC-4 made its first passenger flight from Chicago to New York.
1941 – World War II: Battle of Crete ends as Crete capitulates to Germany.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: The Farhud, a pogrom in Iraqi Jews, took place in Baghdad.
1942 – The US Supreme Court, in Skinner v. Oklahoma ex rel. Williamson, struck down Oklahoma’s Habitual Criminal Sterilization Act.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: The Warsaw paper Liberty Brigade publishes the first news of the concentration camps. It makes public the news of the gassing of tens of thousands of Jews at Chelmno, a death camp in Poland-almost seven months after extermination of prisoners began.
1942 – World War II: Twenty-five American submarines from various forces assume stations around Midway.
1943 – World War II: British Overseas Airways Corporation Flight 777 is shot down over the Bay of Biscay by German Junkers Ju 88s, killing actor Leslie Howard and leading to speculation the downing was an attempt to kill British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
1943 – More than 500,000 coal miners go on strike after protracted wage negotiations break down. Most return to work by June 7th when talks resume.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “Long Ago and Far Away” by Helen Forrest & Dick Haymes, “I’ll Get By” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Dick Haymes), “I’ll Be Seeing You” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Frank Sinatra) and “Straighten Up and Fly Right” by King Cole Trio all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: The French resistance was warned by a coded message from the British that the D-Day invasion was imminent.
1944 – World War II: Forces of the US 5th Army advance toward Rome.
1944 – ZP-14 Airships complete first crossing of Atlantic by non-rigid lighter-than-air aircraft.
1944 – Siesta was abolished by the government of Mexico.
1945 – World War II: There are reports of discontent among the Japanese troops, something previously unheard of in the Imperial Army. Elements of the US 1st Marine Division cross the Koruba river, south of Naha. The forces of the US 24th Corps pursue the retreating Japanese while elements mop up around Shuri.
1945 – World War II: During a thunderstorm, twenty-seven P-51 fighters collide en route to Osaka. American aircraft drop over 3000 tons of incendiary bombs on Osaka.
1946 – “Assault” wins Belmont Stakes & Triple Crown.
1946 – The Coast Guard returned to operation under the Treasury Department after the end of World War II.
1947 – Corning Glass Works develops photosensitive glass.
1947 – STAR TREK TIMELINE: (Approximately) A Ferengi shuttle from the 24th century crashes on Earth near Roswell,N.M. leading to unofficial first contact between Humans and Ferengi. The “aliens” eventually escape and the event is covered up by the USA. (Deep Space 9: “Little Green Men”). On July 8, 1947, the Roswell Army Air Field (RAAF) public information officer Walter Haut in Roswell, New Mexico, issued a press release stating that personnel from the field’s 509th Bomb Group had recovered a crashed “flying disk” from a ranch near Roswell.
1948 – The US Coast Guard Training Center at Cape May, New Jersey, was established as a receiving center for the initial classification, outfitting, and indoctrination of recruits.
1948 – “We The People”, TV Talk Show, radio from ’36; debuted on CBS.
1949 – Newsweek becomes the first magazine on microfilm offered to subscribers. The weekly publication cost $15 a year.
1951 – First self-contained titanium plant opened Henderson, Nevada.
1951 – Korean War: Operation PILEDRIVER began as elements of the I and IX Corps advanced towards the Wyoming Line, some 30 kilometers north in the “Iron Triangle.”
1951 – Korean War: One flight of F-86s from the 336th FIS escorting B-29s engaged eighteen MiG-15s, destroying two.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss of Fire” by Georgia Gibbs, “Blue Tango” by The Leroy Anderson Orchestra, “Be Anything” by Eddy Howard and “The Wild Side of Life” by Hank Thompson all topped the charts.
1953 – Raymond Burr made his network-TV acting debut. It was in “The Mask of Medusa” on ABC-TV’s “Twilight Theater.”
1953 – Korean War: Air battles raging over “MiG Alley” produced five F-86 Sabre jet aces during this month, more than any other month of the war.
1954 – In the Peanuts comic strip, Linus’ security blanket made its debut.
1954 – Korean War: First test of a steam catapult from USS Hancock takes place.
1955 – “The Sky’s The Limit”, TV Game Show; last aired on NBC. It was cancelled for low ratings.
1957 – Don Bowden is the first US runner to break the 4 minute mile. He ran the last lap in 58.1 seconds!
1957 – “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1959 – “The Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton topped the charts.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cathy’s Clown” by The Everly Brothers, “He’ll Have to Stay” by Jeanne Black, “Paper Roses” by Anita Bryant and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling” by Hank Locklin all topped the charts.
1960 – The ABC Television Network reached 100 affiliates.
1961 – FM multiplex stereo broadcasting debuted in Schenectady, NY, Los Angeles and Chicago.
1962 – “The Dinah Shore Show” (TV Variety) aired for the last time on NBC after 10 years.
1962 – Adolf Eichmann is hanged in Israel.
1962 – USAF Major Robert M White takes the X-15 to 132,618 feet.
1963 – “I Love You Because” by Al Martino peaked at #3 , “It’s My Party” by Lesley Gore peaked at #1 and “Two Faces Have I“ by Lou Christie peaked at #6.
1963 – Governor George Wallace vowed to defy an injunction that ordered the integration of the University of Alabama.
1964 – The Beatles released the single “Sweet Georgia Brown“/”Take Out Some Insurance On Me Baby.”
1964 – Top U.S. officials concerned about the Vietnam War gather for two days of meetings in Honolulu. Attendees included Secretary of State Dean Rusk, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Gen. William Westmoreland, Gen. Maxwell Taylor, and CIA Director John McCone, among others.
1967 – Beatles release Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band in US & goes gold.
1967 – Mayor-council form of government instituted for Washington, DC.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS- “Mrs. Robinson” by Simon & Garfunkel, “The Good, the Bad and the Ugly” by Hugo Montenegro, “Yummy Yummy Yummy” by Ohio Express and “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro all topped the charts.
1971 – The two-room shack in Tupelo, Mississippi, where Elvis Presley was born, was opened to the public as a tourist attraction.
1973 – Paul McCartney & Wings release “Live & Let Die.”
1973 – The James Bond movie “Live and Let Die” opened.
1974 – Heimlich maneuver for rescuing choking victims published in the journal Emergency Medicine.
1974 – “The Streak” by Ray Stevens hits #1.
1975 – California Angel Nolan Ryan fourth no-hitter beats Baltimore Orioles, 1-0.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Hangover” by Diana Ross, “Get Up and Boogie (That’s Right)” by Silver Convention, “Misty Blue” by Dorothy Moore and “One Piece at a Time” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1978 – The U.S. reported the finding of wiretaps in the American embassy in Moscow.
1978 – The TV Crime Drama “Baretta,” starring Robert Blake, aired for the last time on ABC.
1980 – Ted Turner’s Cable News Network (CNN) begins broadcasting. The network vowed to stay on the air until the world ends.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Let’s Hear It for the Boy” by Deniece Williams, “Time After Time” by Cyndi Lauper, “Oh Sherrie” by Steve Perry and “As Long as I’m Rockin’ with You” by John Conlee all topped the charts.
1984 – “Tattletales” second run, TV Game Show; last aired on CBS.
1989 – Former Sunday school teacher John E. List, sought for 18 years in the slayings of his mother, wife and three children in Westfield, N.J., was arrested in Richmond, Va. List was later sentenced to life in prison.
1990 – George H. W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev sign a treaty to end chemical weapon production.
1990 – E! Entertainment Television was launched.
1991 – NASA scrubbed the launch of the space shuttle “Columbia” after a navigational unit failed.
1992 – The E-Bulb Lamp, a 20-year light bulb, was introduced by Pierre Villere.
1993 – Connie Chung joined Dan Rather as co-anchor of the “CBS Evening News”. She was dropped from the show two years later in May, 1995.
1993 – The US Supreme Court ruled that a criminal conviction must be overturned if the jury received a constitutionally flawed definition of “beyond reasonable doubt.”
1994 – Fox Channel, Cable Network, debuted.
1995 – The US Postal Service issued a 32 cent stamp honoring the late Marilyn Monroe.
1996 – A nine-dish array of radio telescopes was dedicated in Shasta Court, CA at Berkeley’s Hat Creek Observatory.
1997 – The “General Hospital” soap opera spin-off “Port Charles” debuted as a movie on ABC, then joined the ABC daytime lineup the following day.
1998 – A $124 million suit was brought against Goodyear Tire & Rubber that alleged discrimination towards black workers.
1998 – In Michigan a new $22 million Kellogg’s Cereal City USA opened in Battle Creek. It was owned by the non-profit Heritage Center Foundation.
1998 – In Philadelphia the largest transit union went on strike and shut down a system that served 435,000 people a day.
1999 – In Little Rock, Ark., nine people died when an American Airlines jet carrying 145 people crashed into a light tower on landing in stormy weather. The toll climbed to eleven after two initial survivors died.
2000 – At Los Alamos hard drives with classified nuclear secrets were discovered missing. They were found June 16 behind a photocopier.
2001 – Logging trucks were set on fire to protest logging on the slopes of Mount Hood, Oregon. four activists including Michael Scarpitti were charged. In 2004 Scarpitti was arrested in Vancouver, BC, while trying to shoplift some bolt cutters.
2002 – President Bush told West Point graduates the United States would strike pre-emptively against suspected terrorists if necessary to deter attacks on Americans, saying “the war on terror will not be won on the defensive.”
2004 – A US federal judge declared the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act unconstitutional, saying the measure infringed on women’s right to choose.
2005 – The longest oil/natural gas explosion in the Houston, Texas area occurred in Crosby, Texas. The drill was owned by the Louisiana Oil and Gas Company.
2005 – Ninety-one year old Mark Felt reveals he was ‘Deep Throat” from the Watergate era.
2006 – Texas Gov. Rick Perry announced a plan to use night-vision Webcams along the border and let Internet users serve as volunteer sentinels.
2006 – Katharine Close, a 13-year-old New Jersey girl making her fifth straight appearance at the Scripps National Spelling Bee, rattled off “ursprache” to claim the title of America’s best speller. For the first time in its 81-year history, the final rounds of the spelling bee were broadcast live on prime-time network TV.
2007 – Jack Kevorkian was released from prison after serving eight years of his ten to twenty-five year prison term for second-degree murder in the 1998 death of Thomas Youk, 52, of Oakland County, Michigan.
2007 – The US government warned consumers to avoid using toothpaste made in China because it may contain a poisonous chemical used in antifreeze.
2007 – The Swords of Truth, an Islamic group, threatened to behead female TV broad-casters if they don’t wear strict Islamic dress, frightening reporters and signaling a further shift toward extremism in the Gaza Strip.
2008 – In California a fire ripped through the back lot of Universal Studios destroying film-set facades, videos and movie reels.
2008 – The Phoenix Mars Lander became the first NASA spacecraft to scoop Martian soil.
2009 – General Motors filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection as part of the Obama administration’s plan to shrink the automaker to a sustainable size and give a majority ownership stake to the federal government.
2009 – Judge clears sale of Chrysler to Fiat. The federal judge cleared a path for Chrysler to exit bankruptcy by approving a sale of most of the carmaker’s assets to a new entity to be run by Italy’s Fiat.
2009 – MUSLIM SHOOTING – In Arkansas Pvt. William Long (23) of Conway was shot and killed outside an Army-Navy Career Center in a west Little Rock shopping center. Pvt. Quinton Ezeagwula (18) of Jacksonville, Ark., was wounded. The next day Muslim convert Abdulhakim Muhammad (23) of Little Rock was charged for the shootings.
2009 – The first event, a George Strait concert, was held at Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, TX.
2011 – The cleanup efforts begin in Joplin, Missouri, after the recent Joplin tornado with the death toll confirmed at 134.
2011 – The 2011 New England tornado outbreak occurs with one tornado hitting the City of Springfield, MA, with injuries reported and significant property damage. The tornado eventually went on to Monson, causing devastation. The tornado traveled thirty-nine miles from Westfield to Charlton, MA. The Governor of Massachusetts Deval Patrick declares a state of emergency following the impact of the tornadoes. At least four deaths occurred, with one person reported dead in a car that overturned in West Springfield.
2012 – The US Food and Drug Administration sued to secure supplies of a drug used in lethal injections. Sodium thiopental (aka – Sodium Pentothal) is used in many states to anesthetize prisoners before the administration of other chemicals that extinguish life. Supplies have dwindled in the US after a judge banned its importation in March.
2012 – Johan Santana pitches a no-hitter against the St. Louis Cardinals, the first in New York Mets history.
2013 – The One World Trade Center opens in Lower Manhattan, New York City.
1815 – Philip Kearny, American general (d. 1862)
1831 – John Bell Hood, American Confederate general (d. 1879)
1833 – John Marshall Harlan, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1911)
1843 – Henry Faulds, Scottish fingerprinting pioneer (d. 1930)
1844 – John J. Toffey, American CIVIL WAR hero (d. 1911)
1890 – Frank Morgan, American actor (d. 1949)
1898 – Molly Picon, American actress (d. 1992)
1907 – Frank Whittle, English inventor of the jet engine. (d. 1996)
1921 – Nelson Riddle, American bandleader and arranger (d. 1985)
1926 – Andy Griffith, American actor
1926 – Marilyn Monroe, American actress (d. 1962)
1934 – Pat Boone, American singer
1948 – Tom Sneva, American race car driver and Indianapolis 500 winner (1983) 1953 – David Berkowitz, American serial killer (Son of Sam)
Rank and organization: Surgeon, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Fair Oaks, Va., June 1st, 1862. Entered service at: New York. Born: Newark, N.J. Date of issue: 21 July 1897. Citation: Removed severely wounded officers and soldiers from the field while under a heavy fire from the enemy, exposing himself beyond the call of duty, thus furnishing an example of most distinguished gallantry.
HASKELL, FRANK W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 3d Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Fair Oaks, Va., June 1st, 1862. Entered service at: Waterville, Maine. Born: 1843, Benton, Maine. Date of issue: 8 December 1898. Citation: Assumed command of a portion of the left wing of his regiment, all the company officers present having been killed or disabled, led it gallantly across a stream and contributed most effectively to the success of the action.
HENRY, GUY V.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 40th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Cold Harbor, Va., June 1st, 1864. Entered service at: Reading Pa. Birth: Fort Smith, Indian Ter. Date of issue: 5 December 1893. Citation: Led the assaults of his brigade upon the enemy’s works, where he had 2 horses shot under him.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company K, 1 6th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Cold Harbor, Va., June 1st, 1864. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Birth: Liberty, N.Y. Date of issue: 4 December 1893. Citation: Led the brigade skirmish line in a desperate charge on the enemy’s masked batteries to the muzzles of the guns, where he was severely wounded.
HOWARD, OLIVER O.
Rank and organization: Brigadier General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Fair Oaks, Va., June 1st, 1862. Entered service at: Maine. Born: 8 November 1830, Leeds, Maine. Date of issue: 29 March 1893. Citation: Led the 61st New York Infantry in a charge in which he was twice severely wounded in the right arm, necessitating amputation.
O’BEIRNE, JAMES R.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company C, 37th New York Infantry.Place and date: At Fairfax, Va., June 1st, 1861. Entered service at: New York. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 20 January 1891. Citation: Gallantly maintained the line of battle until ordered to fall back.
TOMPKINS, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Fairfax, Va., June 1st, 1861. Entered service at: Brooklyn, N.Y. Birth: Fort Monroe, Va. Date of issue: 13 November 1893. Citation: Twice charged through the enemy’s lines and, taking a carbine from an enlisted man, shot the enemy’s captain.
What You Think Upon Grows Day
World No-Tobacco Day
Founded in 1800 by Swiss immigrant Joseph Johns, Johnstown began to prosper with the building of the Pennsylvania Main Line Canal in 1836 and the arrival of the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Cambria Iron Works in the 1850s. By 1889, Johnstown was a town of Welsh and German immigrants. With a population of 30,000, it was a growing industrial community known for the quality of its steel. The high, steep hills of the narrow Conemaugh Valley and the Allegheny Mountains range to the east kept development close to the riverfront areas, and subjected the valley to large amounts of runoff from rain and snowfall. The area surrounding Johnstown is prone to flooding due to its position at the confluence of the Stony Creek and Little Conemaugh River, forming the Conemaugh River. The upstream watersheds of that river include an extensive drainage basin of the Allegheny plateau. Adding to these factors, artificial narrowing of the riverbed for the purposes of early industrial development made the city even more flood-prone. The Conemaugh River immediately downstream of Johnstown is hemmed in by steep mountainsides for approximately 10 miles (16 km). Today, a plaque at the scenic overlook on Pennsylvania Route 56 about 4 miles (6 km) outside of Johnstown cites this gorge as the deepest river gap in the entire United States east of the Rocky Mountains.
High above the city, the South Fork Dam was built by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania between 1838 and 1853, as part of a cross-state canal system, the Main Line of Public Works. Johnstown was the eastern terminus of the Western Division Canal, and the reservoir behind the dam, Lake Conemaugh, supplied it with water. As railroads superseded canal barge transport, the canal was abandoned by the Commonwealth and sold to the Pennsylvania Railroad. The dam and lake were part of the purchase, and the railroad sold them to private interests.
On May 28, 1889, a storm formed over Nebraska and Kansas, moving east. When the storm struck the Johnstown-South Fork area two days later it was the worst downpour that had ever been recorded in that part of the country. The U.S. Army Signal Corps estimated that 6 to 10 inches (150 to 250 mm) of rain fell in 24 hours over the entire region. During the night small creeks became roaring torrents, ripping out trees and debris. Telegraph lines were downed and rail lines were washed away. Before daybreak the Conemaugh River that ran through Johnstown was about to burst its banks.
On the morning of May 31, 1889, in a farmhouse on a hill just above the South Fork Dam, Elias Unger, the president of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club at the time, awoke to the sight of Lake Conemaugh swollen after a night-long heavy rainfall. Unger ran outside in the still-pouring rain to assess the situation and saw that the water was nearly cresting the dam. Unger quickly assembled a group of men to try to save the face of the dam by trying to unclog the spillway which was blocked by the broken fish trap and debris caused by the swollen waterline. Other men tried digging another spillway at the other end of the dam to relieve the pressure but without success. Most remained on top of the dam, some plowing earth to raise it, while others tried to pile mud and rock on the face to save the eroding wall.
At around 3:10 p.m. (15:10), the South Fork Dam burst, allowing the 20 million tons of Lake Conemaugh to cascade down the Little Conemaugh River. It took about 40 minutes for the entire lake to drain of the water. The first town to be hit by the flood was the small town of South Fork. Fortunately, the town was on high ground and most of the people ran farther up the nearby hills when they saw the dam literally spill over. Despite 20 to 30 houses being destroyed or washed away, only four people were killed.
The total death toll was 2,209, making the disaster the largest loss of civilian life in the United States at the time. It was later surpassed by the 1900 Galveston hurricane and the 9/11 attacks. (Coincidentally, one of the hijacked airliners crashed near Shanksville, just 20 miles south of Johnstown).
“True republicanism is the sovereignty of the people. There are natural and imprescriptible rights which an entire nation has no right to violate.”
~ Marquis de Lafayette
At the center of your being you have the answer; you know who you are and you know what you want.”
~ Lao Tzu
farrago fuh-RAH-go; fuh-RAY-go, noun:
A confused mixture; an assortment; a medley.
Farrago comes from the Latin farrago, “a mixed fodder for cattle,” hence “a medley, a hodgepodge,” from far, a sort of grain.
1578 – In 1578, the Catacombs of Rome were discovered by accident. A sepulchral chamber was opened by some laborers digging for pozzolana earth.
1634 – Massachusetts Bay colony annexed the Maine colony.
1665 – Jerusalem’s rabbi Sjabtai Tswi proclaimed himself Messiah.
1759 – The Province of Pennsylvania bans all theater productions.
1775 – Revolutionary War: The Mecklenburg Resolutions adopted urging the American Colonies to declare independence from Great Britain.
1790 – The United States enacts its first copyright statute, the Copyright Act of 1790.
1831 – James Ross discovers North Magnetic pole.
1837 – Astor Hotel opened in New York City. It later became the Waldorf-Astoria. John Jacob Astor bought up foreclosed properties during the financial bust and sold them for ten-fold profits.
1854 – Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed by U.S. Congress.
1859 – Philadelphia A’s organize to play “town ball” became baseball 20 years later.
1861 – Civil War: Gen. PGT Beauregard was given command of Confederate Alexandria Line.
1861 – Civil War: Postmaster General Blair announces end of postal connection with South.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of Seven Pines or (Battle of Fair Oaks) – Confederate forces under Joseph E. Johnston & G. W. Smith engage Union forces under George B. McClellan outside Richmond, Virginia.
1863 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Carondelet, already downriver from Vicksburg, moved in to Perkins Landing and laid down heavy fire to rescue the Army trapped on shore awaiting transport.
1863 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Pawnee and the U.S.S. E.B. Hale supported an Army reconnaissance to James Island, South Carolina, and covered the troop landing.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Cold Harbor – The Army of Northern Virginia under Robert E. Lee engages the Army of the Potomac under Ulysses S. Grant & George G. Meade.
1868 – First Memorial Day parade held in Ironton OH.
1870 – Edward de Semdt patents asphalt pavement.
1870 – Congress passed the first Enforcement Act which provided stiff penalties for public officials and private citizens who deprived citizens of the suffrage and civil rights. The measure authorized the use of the U.S. Army to protect the rights of Blacks.
1879 – New York’s Madison Square Garden opened.
1880 – League of American Wheelmen (first US bicycle association), forms in Newport RI.
1881 – Booker T. Washington was recommended by General Armstrong for the principalship of the newly planned Tuskegee Institute.
1884 – Dr John Harvey Kellogg patents “flaked cereal.”
1889 – Over 2,200 people die after a dam break sends a 60-foot (18-meter) wall of water over the town of Johnstown, PA.
1892 – Lea & Perrins Worcestershire Sauce became a registered trademark.
1894 – The US Senate passed a resolution encouraging Hawaii to establish its own form of government without interference from the US.
1900 – Boxer Rebellion: Sailors and Marines from USS Newark and USS Oregon arrive at Peking, China with other sailors and Marines from Britain, France, Russia, Italy and Japan to protect U.S. and foreign diplomatic legations from the Boxers.
1907 – Taxis first began running in New York City.
1909 – The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) held its first conference at the United Charities Building in New York City.
1911 – R.M.S. Titanic launched.
1913 – The 17th Amendment to the Constitution, providing for the popular election of U.S. senators, was declared in effect.
1916 – World War I: Battle of Jutland – The British Grand Fleet under the command of Sir John Jellicoe & Sir David Beatty engage the Kaiserliche Marine under the command of Reinhard Scheer & Franz von Hipper in the largest naval battle of the war, which proves indecisive.
1921 – A race riot occurs in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The official death toll is 39, but recent investigations suggest the actual toll may be much higher. Greenwood, the black section of town, was burned.
1927 – The last Ford Model T rolls off the assembly line after a production run of 15,007,003 vehicles.
1928 – First aerial cross of the Pacific takes off from Oakland, CA. The pilots were Charles Kingsford-Smith and Charles Ulm. The flight took 83 hours flying time to cover the 7,388 miles from Oakland, California, to Brisbane, stopping in Hawaii and Fiji en route.
1930 – Golfing great Bobby Jones captured the first leg of the golfing grand slam.
1937 – Brooklyn Dodgers snap New York Giant Carl Hubbell’s 24-game winning streak winning 10-3 in the first of a doubleheader. The Giants won the second game 5-4.
1940 – President Roosevelt introduces a “billion-dollar defense program” which is designed to boost the United States military strength significantly.
1941 – The first issue of the still popular “Parade: The Weekly Picture Newspaper” went on sale.
1941 – High-jumping standards were instituted using electric eye detectors. Four parallel beams of light, one inch apart, were used to record the height of each jump.
1942 – World War II: Imperial Japanese Navy midget submarines begin a series of attacks on Sydney, Australia.
1943 – The “Archie” comic strip was first broadcast on the Radio. It on the Blue Network and ran on various networks until September 5, 1953. “Archie Andrews” was a direct spin-off of the popular teenage comic strip created by Bob Montana.
1944 – World War II: USS England sank a record six Japanese submarines in just 13 days.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, the US 6th Marine Division (part of US 3rd Amphibious Corps) encounters Japanese rearguards near Hill 46. Japanese forces pull out of Shuri.
1945 – World War II: On Negros, organized Japanese resistance ends. On Luzon, a regiment of the US 37th Division begins moving northward from Santa Fe through the Cagayan valley.
1948 – The Coast Guard assumed command of the former Navy base at Cape May, New Jersey, and formally established its east coast recruit training center there the next day.
1949 – Charley Lupica – a true Cleveland Indian’s fan. Charley Lupica begins his stay on 4-foot-square platform platform atop a 60′ pole, vowing to stay until the Indians clinched the pennant. (They don’t, and he comes down 117 days later.)
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “On Top of Old Smokey” by The Weavers (vocal: Terry Gilkyson), “Too Young” by Nat King Cole’ “Mockingbird Hill” by Patti Page and “I Want to Be with You Always” by Lefty Frizzell all topped the charts.
1952 – “A Guy Is a Guy” by Doris Day topped the charts.
1955 – The U.S. Supreme Court ordered that all states must end racial segregation “with all deliberate speed.”
1958 – “All I Have to Do Is Dream” by the Everly Brothers topped the charts.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kansas City” by Wilbert Harrison, “Dream Lover” by Bobby Darin, “Personality” by Lloyd Price and “The Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton all topped the charts.
1961 – Dick Dale invents “surf music” with “Let’s Go Trippin.”
1961 – Chuck Berry’s amusement park, Berryland in St Louis, opens.
1961 – Judge Irving Kaufman ordered Board of Education of New Rochelle, N.Y., to integrate schools.
1962 – Holocaust: Adolph Eichmann (b.1906), Gestapo official and Nazi war criminal, was hanged near Tel Aviv, Israel, for his role in the Nazi murder of over one million Jews.
1964 – The longest major-league baseball doubleheader (to the time) ended in 19 hours, 16 minutes. The New York Mets and the San Francisco Giants battled it out at Shea Stadium in New York. The first game of the doubleheader set a major-league mark for the longest game (by time) as the Giants beat the Mets 8-6.
1965 – Vietnam: U.S. planes bomb an ammunition depot at Hoi Jan, west of Hanoi, and try again to drop the Than Hoa highway bridge.
1965 – Jim Clark becomes first foreigner in 49 years to win Indianapolis 500.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Groovin’” by The Young Rascals, “Respect” by Aretha Franklin, “I Got Rhythm” by The Happenings and “Sam’s Place” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1969 – “Gitarzan” by Ray Stevens peaks at #8.
1969 – Stevie Wonder releases “My Cherie Amour.”
1969 – “Get Back” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1970 – The US Supreme Court ordered that states must end racial segregation “with all deliberate speed.”
1971 – In accordance with the Uniform Monday Holiday Act passed by the U.S. Congress in 1968, observation of Memorial Day occurs on the last Monday in May for the first time, rather than on the traditional Memorial Day of May 30.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Before the Next Teardrop Falls” by Freddy Fender, “How Long” by Ace, “Sister Golden Hair” by America and “Thank God I’m a Country Boy” by John Denver all topped the charts.
1977 – The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System completed.
1980 – “Funky Town” by Lipps, Inc. topped the charts.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Flashdance…What a Feeling” by Irene Cara, “Overkill” by Men At Work, “Time (Clock of the Heart)“by Culture Club and “You Take Me for Granted” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1983 – American League president Lee MacPhail suspends Yankees owner George Steinbrenner. He was suspended for one week, citing “repeated problems” with Steinbrenner’s public criticism of umpires.
1985 – Forty-one tornadoes hit Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, and Ontario, leaving 76 dead.
1986 – “Greatest Love of All” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1986 – Bobby Rahal is first to average over 170 mph in the Indianapolis 500.
1988 – The Coast Guard Cutter Fir became the oldest cutter in commission after the Coast Guard Cutter Ingham was decommissioned this day.
1989 – US House Speaker Jim Wright, dogged by questions about his ethics, announced he would resign. Thomas Foley succeeded him.
1990 – President Bush and his wife, Barbara, welcomed Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev in a ceremony on South Lawn of the White House. The two leaders and their aides then held talks on German reunification.
1990 – “Seinfeld“, starring Jerry Seinfeld, debuted on NBC.
1990 – In New York City, the Zodiac killer shot a 3rd victim. Joseph Ponce died from his wound on June 24.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Don’t Wanna Cry” by Mariah Carey, “More Than Words” by Extreme, “I Wanna Sex You Up” by Color Me Badd and “In a Different Light” by Doug Stone all topped the charts.
1993 – President Clinton paid a Memorial Day visit to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, where some in the crowd jeered him for avoiding military service. “Disagreement is freedom’s privilege,” Clinton exhorted critics.
1994 – U.S. Rep. Dan Rostenkowski, D-Ill., maintaining his innocence, was indicted on 17 felony counts alleging he’d plundered nearly $700,000 from the government.
1994 – The United States announced it was no longer aiming long-range nuclear missiles at targets in the former Soviet Union.
1995 – Senator Bob Dole (Kansas) accused Hollywood of promoting violence, rape and casual sex in music and movies saying “the mainstreaming of deviancy must come to an end.”
1997 – Rosie Will Monroe (76), “Rosie the Riveter” (WWII icon), died. During WW II she worked as a riveter at the Willow Run Aircraft Factory in Ypsilanti, Michigan, building B-29 and B-24 bombers for the Air Force.
1998 – Storms tore from Pennsylvania through New England, killing several people and knocking out power for nearly one-million customers.
1999 – During a Memorial Day visit to Arlington National Cemetery, President Clinton asked Americans to reconsider their ambivalence about Kosovo, calling it “a very small province in a small country. But it is a big test of what we believe in.”
1999 – It was reported that Mike Moshier (51), founder of Millennium Jet Inc. in Santa Clara, Ca., had developed the SoloTrek XFV, a single passenger flying vehicle, that could fly at 80 mph for up to 90 minutes as high as 10,000 feet on a single tank of 87-octane gas.
2001 – Veteran FBI agent Robert Hanssen pleaded innocent to charges of spying for Moscow. He later changed his plea to guilty and was sentenced to life in prison.
2001 – Timothy McVeigh decided to seek a postponement of his execution “to promote integrity in the criminal justice system.”
2001 – Microsoft released its new Office XP for Windows software.
2002 -The US State Dept. urged some 60,000 Americans in India to leave over concerns of war between India and Pakistan.
2002 – Vermont Gov. Howard Dean filed papers with the Federal Election Commission for “Dean for America” presidential-campaign organization.
2002 – A three-judge federal panel in Philadelphia ruled that public libraries cannot be forced to install software that blocks sexually explicit Web sites.
2003 – Eric Rudolph, the longtime fugitive charged in the 1996 Olympic Park bombing and in attacks at an abortion clinic and a gay nightclub, was arrested in the mountains of North Carolina.
2003 – Air France planned to ground its last 5 Concorde airplanes. The Air France Concorde, the world’s fastest and most luxurious passenger jet, flew from New York to Paris for the last time.
2003 – President George W. Bush visits the location of the former death camp at Auschwitz. He is only the second president to do so, after Gerald Ford toured the camp in 1975.
2004 – Iraq War: U.S. troops clashed with Shiite militiamen in the holy city of Kufa for a second day in fighting that killed two Americans. In Baghdad, a car bomb exploded near the headquarters of the U.S. coalition, killing at least two people and injuring more than 20.
2004 – In Memorial Day tributes, President Bush declared that “America is safer” because of its fighting forces.He honored the United States’ war dead of past conflicts, and says that “two terror regimes are gone forever” in Iraq and Afghanistan as US deaths there climb to 1,000.
2005 – Vanity Fair Magazine revealed that W. Mark Felt (91), former FBI official, was the Watergate whistleblower Deep Throat, who helped bring down Pres. Nixon in 1974.
2005 – The US Supreme Court overturned the 2002 criminal Enron-related conviction of Arthur Andersen LLP ruling that the trial judge erred by granting the government’s request to loosen the standard jury instructions.
2006 – NBC’s “Today” show threw a going-away party for 15-year host Katie Couric, who left to become anchor of “The CBS Evening News.”
2007 – Former Presidents Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton and George H.W. Bush attended the dedication of the Billy Graham Library in Charlotte, N.C.
2007 – Evan O’Dorney (13) won the Scripps National Spelling Bee when he correctly spelled the word “serrefine.”
2007 – In an unannounced vote, the Philadelphia City Council voted to evict the Cradle of Liberty Council Boy Scouts from the building they have occupied since 1928.
2008 – The US shuttle Discovery made a successful launch from Florida. It carried a Japanese research laboratory and key parts to fix a broken toilet in the International Space Station.
2008 – Obama said he has resigned his 20-year membership in the Trinity United Church of Christ in Chicago “with some sadness” in the aftermath of inflammatory remarks by his longtime pastor, the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, and more recent fiery remarks at the church by a visiting priest.
2009 – Coast Guard Cutter Boutwell arrived in the port of Tubruq, Libya, during her around-the-world cruise, becoming the first U.S. military ship to visit Libya in more than 40 years.
2009 – In Kansas abortion Dr. George Tiller (67) was shot and killed while serving as an usher during morning services in the foyer of Reformation Lutheran Church in Wichita.
2009 – A robotic vehicle named Nereus, funded by the National Science Foundation’s Division of Ocean Sciences, made the deepest ocean dive ever – 6.8 miles.
2010 – The US Congress allowed emergency health care assistance for unemployed workers to expire, and seemed unwilling to renew it despite pleas from President Barack Obama.
2010 – It was reported that Google is phasing out the internal use of Microsoft’s ubiquitous Windows operating system because of security concerns.
2011 – Curt Zimbelman, the mayor of the US town of Minot, North Dakota orders the mandatory evacuation of streets near the flooding Souris River.
2011 – The names of 123 victims of the tornado that hit the US city of Joplin, Missouri are released.
2012 – A three-judge panel of the 1st U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled unanimously today that a part of the federal Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) is unconstitutional — and that it should not impede any state that wishes to create same-sex marriage.
2012 – A 91-year-old Florida man who won a Bronze star serving in World War II was told by the state of Florida he must prove he is a citizen or he will be removed from voter rolls.
2012 – In defiance of the Declaration of Independence, the US House of Representatives fails to muster the two-thirds majority necessary to pass in the House a bill to ban abortions based on the gender of the fetus.
2013 – Asteroid 1998 QE2, as the asteroid is designated, will pass Earth at what NASA calls a “safe distance” of about 3.6 million miles — 15 times the distance to the moon, but nonetheless a near miss in astronomical terms — at just before 5 p.m. Eastern.
2013 – Four Houston firefighters died after a hotel wall collapsed while they were battling a major blaze. Six other firefighters are being treated at local hospitals. One of them is in critical condition with burns in an intensive care unit. “Today is going to go down … as the worst day in the history of the Houston fire department,” Mayor Annise Parker.
2013 – Louisiana State Senator Elbert Guillory switched his party affiliation from the Democrat to the Republican party, becoming the first black Republican in the Louisiana legislature since Reconstruction. “I am as of this day joining Fredrich Douglass as a Republican.
2014 – Taliban officials freed Army Sgt. Bowe Bergdahl today after holding him captive for nearly five years. Bergdahl’s release was in exchange for the release of five Afghan detainees held in the U.S. prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, according the The Associated Press.
1819 – Walt Whitman, American poet (d. 1892)
1894 – Fred Allen, American comedian (d. 1956)
1898 – Dr. Norman Vincent Peale, American clergyman (d. 1993)
1901 – Alfredo Antonini, American conductor and composer (d. 1983)
1908 – Don Ameche, American actor (d. 1993)
1930 – Clint Eastwood, American film director and actor
1938 – Johnny Paycheck, American singer (d. 2003)
1938 – Peter Yarrow, American folk singer (Peter, Paul and Mary)
1943 – Sharon Gless, American actress
1943 – Joe Namath, American football player
1945 – Bernard Goldberg, American journalist
1961 – Lea Thompson, American actress
1965 – Brooke Shields, American model
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company G, 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team. Place and date: Near Wontong-ni, Korea, May 31st, 1951. Entered service at: Fowler, Calif. Born: 14 April 1931, Colton, Calif. G.O. No.: 40, 21 April 1962. Citation: Cpl. Hernandez, a member of Company G, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. His platoon, in defensive positions on Hill 420, came under ruthless attack by a numerically superior and fanatical hostile force, accompanied by heavy artillery, mortar, and machine gun fire which inflicted numerous casualties on the platoon. His comrades were forced to withdraw due to lack of ammunition but Cpl. Hernandez, although wounded in an exchange of grenades, continued to deliver deadly fire into the ranks of the onrushing assailants until a ruptured cartridge rendered his rifle inoperative. Immediately leaving his position, Cpl. Hernandez rushed the enemy armed only with rifle and bayonet. Fearlessly engaging the foe, he killed six of the enemy before falling unconscious from grenade, bayonet, and bullet wounds but his heroic action momentarily halted the enemy advance and enabled his unit to counterattack and retake the lost ground. The indomitable fighting spirit, outstanding courage, and tenacious devotion to duty clearly demonstrated by Cpl. Hernandez reflect the highest credit upon himself, the infantry, and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Private, First Class, U.S. Army, Company G, 382d Infantry, 96th Infantry Division. Place and date: Hen Hill, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, May 31st, 1945. Entered service at: Santa Ana, Calif. Birth: San Bernardino, Calif. G.O. No.: 97, 1 November 1945. Citation: He was a rifleman when his platoon spearheaded an attack on Hen Hill, the tactical position on which the entire Naha-Shuri-Yonaburu line of Japanese defense on Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, was hinged. For twelve days our forces had been stalled, and repeated, heavy assaults by one battalion and then another had been thrown back by the enemy with serious casualties. With five comrades, Pfc. Craft was dispatched in advance of Company G to feel out the enemy resistance. The group had proceeded only a short distance up the slope when rifle and machinegun fire, coupled with a terrific barrage of grenades, wounded 3 and pinned down the others. Against odds that appeared suicidal, Pfc. Craft launched a remarkable one-man attack. He stood up in full view of the enemy and began shooting with deadly marksmanship wherever he saw a hostile movement. He steadily advanced up the hill, killing Japanese soldiers with rapid fire, driving others to cover in their strongly disposed trenches, unhesitatingly facing alone the strength that had previously beaten back attacks in battalion strength. He reached the crest of the hill, where he stood silhouetted against the sky while quickly throwing grenades at extremely short range into the enemy positions. His extraordinary assault lifted the pressure from his company for the moment, allowing members of his platoon to comply with his motions to advance and pass him more grenades. With a chain of his comrades supplying him while he stood atop the hill, he furiously hurled a total of two cases of grenades into a main trench and other positions on the reverse slope of Hen Hill, meanwhile directing the aim of his fellow soldiers who threw grenades from the slope below him. He left his position, where grenades from both sides were passing over his head and bursting on either slope, to attack the main enemy trench as confusion and panic seized the defenders. Straddling the excavation, he pumped rifle fire into the Japanese at pointblank range, killing many and causing the others to flee down the trench. Pursuing them, he came upon a heavy machinegun which was still creating havoc in the American ranks. With rifle fire and a grenade he wiped out this position. By this time the Japanese were in complete rout and American forces were swarming over the hill. Pfc. Craft continued down the central trench to the mouth of a cave where many of the enemy had taken cover. A satchel charge was brought to him, and he tossed it into the cave. It failed to explode. With great daring, the intrepid fighter retrieved the charge from the cave, relighted the fuse and threw it back, sealing up the Japs in a tomb. In the local action, against tremendously superior forces heavily armed with rifles, machineguns, mortars, and grenades, Pfc. Craft killed at least twenty-five of the enemy; but his contribution to the campaign on Okinawa was of much more far-reaching consequence for Hen Hill was the key to the entire defense line, which rapidly crumbled after his utterly fearless and heroic attack.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, 135th Infantry, 34th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Lanuvio, Italy, May 31st, 1944. Entered service at: Central, S.C. Birth: Six Miles, S.C. G.O. No.: 6, 24 January 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. In its attack on a strong point, an infantry company was held up by intense enemy fire. The group to which Pvt. Smith belonged was far in the lead when attacked by a force of eighty Germans. The squad leader and one other man were seriously wounded and other members of the group withdrew to the company position, but Pvt. Smith refused to leave his wounded comrades. He placed them in the shelter of shell craters and then alone faced a strong enemy counterattack, temporarily checking it by his accurate rifle fire at close range, killing and wounding many of the foe. Against overwhelming odds, he stood his ground until shot down and killed, rifle in hand.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 37th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Williamsburg, Va., 5 May 1862. At Fair Oaks, Va., May 30th – May 31st, 1862. At Big Shanty, Ga., 14-15 June 1864. Entered service at: Freehold, N.J. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 13 February 1891. Citation: At Williamsburg, Va., assisted in driving rebel skirmishers to their main line. Participated in action, at Fair Oaks, Va., though excused from duty because of disability. In a charge with his company at Big Shanty, Ga., was the first man on the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 7th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Fair Oaks, Va., May 31st, 1862. Entered service at: Jonesville, Mich. Birth: Scipio, Mich. Date of issue: 17 August 1895. Citation: Although wounded, he continued fighting until, fainting from loss of blood, he was carried off the field.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 7th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Fair Oaks, Va., May 31st, 1862. Entered service at: Gifford, Mich. Birth: Erie County, N.Y. Date of issue: 24 October 1895. Citation: Continued fighting, although wounded, until he fainted from loss of blood.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army. . Place and date: Near Bethesda Church, Va., May 31st, 1864. Entered service at: Chattanooga, Tenn. Birth: Kingston, Tenn. Date of issue: 27 October 1897. Citation: Exposed himself to great danger by voluntarily making his way through the enemy’s lines to communicate with Gen. Sheridan. While rendering this service he was captured, but escaped; again came in contact with the enemy, was again ordered to surrender, but escaped by dashing away under fire.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company C, 37th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fair Oaks, Va., May 31st, and June 1st, 1862. Entered service at: New York. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 20 January 1891. Citation: Gallantly maintained the line of battle until ordered to fall back.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 104th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Fair Oaks, Va., May 31st, 1862. Entered service at:——. Birth: Bucks County, Pa. Date of issue: 12 May 1894. Citation: While carrying the regimental colors on the retreat he returned to face the advancing enemy, flag in hand, and saved the other color, which would otherwise have been captured.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company I, 7th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Fair Oaks, Va., May 31st, 1862. Entered service at: Galesburg, Mich. Birth: Kalamazoo, Mich. Date of issue: 12 June 1895. Citation: Lt. Shafter was engaged in bridge construction and not being needed there returned with his men to engage the enemy participating in a charge across an open field that resulted in casualties to 18 of the 22 men. At the close of the battle his horse was shot from under him and he was severely flesh wounded. He remained on the field that day and stayed to fight the next day only by concealing his wounds. In order not to be sent home with the wounded he kept his wounds concealed for another three days until other wounded had left the area.
Memorial Day (Traditional)
LAST SURVIVING US WAR VETERANS
American Revolution (1775–1783)
Last veteran, Daniel F. Bakeman, died 4/5/1869, age 109 (1759-1869)
Last official veteran, Lemuel Cook, died 5/20/1866, age 107 (1759–1866)
Last widow, Catherine S. Damon, died 11/11/1906, age 92
Last dependent, Phoebe M. Palmeter, died 4/25/1911, age 90
War of 1812 (1812–1815)
Last veteran, Hiram Cronk, died 5/13/1905, age 105 (1800-1905)
Last widow, Carolina King, died 6/28/1936, age unknown
Last dependent, Esther A. H. Morgan, died 3/12/1946, age 89
Black Hawk War
Last Veteran, Henry L. Riggs (1812–1911), age 99
Indian Wars (c. 1861–1898)
Last veteran, Fredrak Fraske, died 6/18/1973, age 101 (1872-1973)
John Daw, age 95 (1870–1965)
Dewey Beard (1857–1955) — Native American from Lakota tribe. Last survivor of Battle of the Little Big Horn. He also fought at Wounded Knee.
Mexican War (1846–1848)
Last veteran, Owen Thomas Edgar, died 9/3/1929, age 98 (1831-1929)
Last widow, Lena James Theobald, died 6/20/1963, age 89
Last dependent, Jesse G. Bivens, died 11/1/1962, age 94
Civil War (1861–1865)
Last Union veteran, Albert Woolson, died 8/2/1956, age 106 (1850-1956),
Last Confederate veteran, John Salling, died 3/16/1958, age 112
Spanish-American War (1898)
Last veteran, Nathan E. Cook, died 9/10/1992, age 106 (1885-1992)
Last surviving US African-American veteran, Jones Morgan, age 101 (1882–1993)
World War I
Last male veteran, Frank Buckles, born 1901. age110 (1901 –2011)
Last female veteran, Charlotte Louise Berry Winters, age 110 (1897-2007),
World War II
16,112,566 individuals were members of the United States armed forces during World War II. There were 291,557 battle deaths, 113,842 other deaths in service (non-theater), and 670,846 non-mortal woundings. In November 2011, the Department of Veterans Affairs estimated that approximately 1,711,000 American veterans were still living. During this conflict 464 United States military personnel received the Medal of Honor, 266 of them posthumously. Additionally, the only Medal of Honor recipient in the history of the United States Coast Guard received the Medal for his actions during this war. As of March 3, 2012, there were 12 living World War II Medal of Honor recipients and as of June 3, 2014 that number is seven.
This number has not been totaled yet and there is a search on now trying to find them. During this conflict 146 men received the Medal of Honor albeit 108 were posthumously given. As of June 3rd, 2014, nine were still surviving.
According to the US Census Bureau, of the 2.8 million in country Vietnam veterans, 1,027,000 were alive as of the 2000 Census. It is notable that over 15 million claim to be Vietnam veterans. Of those, the Medal of Honor has been awarded to 257 men, 162 posthumously. As of June 3, 2014 there are 55 surviving Medal of Honor recipients.
War On Terror (WOT)
As of June 3rd, 2014 there have been fourteen Medals of Honor awarded. Seven of these medals were given posthumously and seven recipients are surviving.
John 8:12 English Standard Version (ESV)
“I am the light of the world. Whoeverfollows me will not walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.”
“When the government violates the people’s rights, insurrection is, for the people and for each portion of the people, the most sacred of the rights and the most indispensible of duties.”
~ Marquis de Lafayette
“Nothing is worth more than this day. You cannot relive yesterday. Tomorrow is still beyond your reach.”
~ Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
constitutional \kon-stih-TOO-shuhn-uhl; -TYOO-\, noun:
A walk taken for one’s health.
1431 – Hundred Years’ War: In Rouen, France, 19-year-old Joan of Arc burned at the stake by an English-dominated tribunal.
1498 – Columbus departs with six ships for his third trip to America. Columbus left the port of Sanlucar in southern Spain.
1539 – In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal of finding gold.
1783 – The first daily newspaper was published in the U.S. by Benjamin Towner called “The Pennsylvania Evening Post.”
1806 – Andrew Jackson kills Charles Dickinson in a duel after the man had accused Jackson’s wife of bigamy.
1814 – War of 1812: Navy gunboats capture three British boats on Lake Ontario near Sandy Creek, NY.
1821 – James Boyd patents rubber fire hose. He invented it to replace riveted leather hose. Leather hose had many drawbacks, including drying out, cracking and bursting from excessive pressure.
1848 – Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ratified. The US paid Mexico $15,000,000 and excused $3,200,000 in debt. The purchasing power of that money today (2011) would be $527,000,000. The marker is just north of Casa Grande, AZ at the rest stop on I-10.
1848 – William G Young patents ice cream freezer.
1854 – The Kansas-Nebraska Act becomes law establishing the US territories of Nebraska and Kansas.
1861 – Civil War: U.S.S. Merrimack, scuttled and burned at Norfolk Navy Yard, was raised by Confederates.
1861 – Civil War: Union troops occupy Grafton, Virginia.
1862 – Civil War: Confederates abandon the city of Corinth.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of Front Royal, VA. Confederate forces, spearheaded by the Louisiana “Tigers” and the 1st Maryland, surprised and overran the pickets of a 1,000-man Union garrison under Col. Kenly at Front Royal.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Bethesda Church, VA. Opposing armies faced each other across Totopotomoy Creek, a Union cavalry division under Brig. Gen. Alfred T. A. Torbert collided with a cavalry brigade under Brig. Gen. Matthew C. Butler at Matadequin Creek, near the Old Church crossroads. After sharp dismounted fighting, the outnumbered Confederates were driven back to within 1.5 miles of Old Cold Harbor, which preceded the Union capture of that important crossroads the following day.
1864 – Civil War: John Loomis, a deserter from C.S.S. Hampton, reported that three ironclads and six wooden gunboats, all armed with torpedoes, had passed the obstructions at Drewry’s Bluff and were below Fort Darling, awaiting an opportunity to attack.
1865 – William Clarke Quantrill (27), criminal, Confederate bushwhacker, died.
1868 – Decoration Day (the predecessor of the modern “Memorial Day”) observed in the United States for the first time by “Commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic” John A. Logan’s proclamation on May 5.
1879 – New York City’s Gilmores Garden is renamed Madison Square Garden by William Henry Vanderbilt and is opened to the public at 26th Street and Madison Avenue.
1879 – An F4 tornado strikes Irving, Kansas, killing 18 and injuring 60.
1883 – In New York City, a rumor that the Brooklyn Bridge is going to collapse just one week after opening causes a stampede which crushes twelve people.
1889 – The brassiere is invented.
1894 – Bobby Lowe is first to hit four homeruns in a single baseball game.
1896 – First documented auto accident occurred in New York City. A Duryea Motor Wagon, driven by Henry Wells from Springfield, MA collided with a bicycle ridden by Evylyn Thomas of New York City.
1898 – Morris William Travers, an English chemist, while working with Sir Willam Ramsay in London, discovered the element krypton. The name derives from the Greek word for “hidden.”
1903 – In Riverdale, NY, the first American motorcycle hill climb was held.
1904 – Frank Chance gets hit by pitch five times in a doubleheader.
1908 – First federal workmen’s compensation law approved.
1909 – Frank “Home Run” Baker’s first career homerun.
1909 – First NAACP conference.
1911 – At the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, the first Indianapolis 500 ends with Ray Harroun becoming the first winner of the 500-mile auto race in his Marmon Wasp. Harroun’s average speed was 74.59 miles per hour.
1912 – The U.S. Marines were sent to Nicaragua to protect American interests.
1914 – New & then largest Cunard ocean liner RMS Aquitania, 45,647 tons, sails on her maiden voyage from Liverpool, England to New York City.
1921 – The U.S. Navy transferred the Teapot Dome oil reserves to the Department of the Interior.
1922 – In Washington, D.C., Daniel Chester French created the famous sculpture of Abraham Lincoln and it was dedicated by Chief Justice William Howard Taft.
1927 – Walter Johnson records 110th & last shutout of his career.
1932 – Socal, formerly Standard Oil of California, discovered oil in Bahrain. This was the first middle eastern oil discovered by an American firm.
1933 – Sally Rand made a name for herself at Chicago’s Century of Progress Exposition.
1935 – Babe Ruth’s final game, goes hitless for Braves against Phillies.
1935 – America’s Town Meeting of the Air was heard on radio for the first time. The NBC program continued for 21 years.
1937 – The Memorial Day Massacre took place. Ten union demonstrators were killed and 84 wounded when police opened fire in front of the South Chicago Republic Steel plant.
1938 – Joyce Jordan, Girl Intern was first heard interning on CBS radio. The serial later evolved into The Brighter Day (1948).
1941 – World War II: Germany captures Crete.
1941 – World War II: Manolis Glezos and Apostolos Santas climb on the Athenian Acropolis, tear down the nazi swastika and replace it with the Greek flag.
1942 – World War II: Four Japanese submarines arrive too late to intercept the American task forces destined for Midway.
1942 – World War II: 1000 British bombers launch a 90-minute attack on Cologne, Germany.
1942 – World War II: US aircraft carrier Yorktown left Pearl Harbor.
1943 – World War II: American forces secured the Aleutian island of Attu from the Japanese. American losses are reported as 600 dead and 1200 wounded. Japanese losses are given as 2350 killed (including many suicides) and 28 wounded.
1943 – World War II: Dr. Josef Mengele arrived at Auschwitz as research assistant to Dr. Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, American forces reach Shuri, south of the former Japanese positions. Two battalions of US Marines reach the southeast edge of Naha.
1946 – Bama Rowell hit a home run at Ebbets Field which broke the Bulova clock on the stadium’s scoreboard, shattering the clock’s glass. Although Bulova promised a free watch to anyone who hit the clock, Rowell didn’t receive his watch until 41 years later, on Bama Rowell Day in Citronelle, Alabama.
1948 – A dike along the flooding Columbia River breaks, obliterating Vanport, Oregon within minutes. Fifteen people die and tens of thousands are left homeless.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Foolish Heart” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Eileen Wilson), “Bewitched” by The Bill Snyder Orchestra, “It Isn’t Fair” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Don Cornell) and “Birmingham Bounce” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: Far East Air Forces had flown 200,000 sorties in the Korean War during some 330 consecutive days of combat operations.
1953 – First major league network baseball game-Cleveland 7, Chicago 2.
1953 – “Song From Moulin Rouge (Where Is Your Heart)” by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1955 – Bill Vukovich, Auto racer, killed during 1955 Indianapolis 500 (b. 1918). Medical personnel confirmed that the two-time defending champion was partially decapitated during contact with the bridge.
1956 – Mickey Mantle misses by 18″ hitting first homerun out of Yankee Stadium.
1956 – Bus boycott began in Tallahassee, Florida.
1957 – In California Santa’s Village, a Christmas theme park, opened in Scotts Valley. It filed for bankruptcy in 1977 and finally closed in 1979.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “All I Have to Do is Dream” by The Everly Brothers, “Return To Me” by Dean Martin, “Do You Want to Dance” by Bobby Freeman and “Just Married” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.
1958 – Memorial Day: The remains of two unidentified American servicemen, killed in action during World War II and the Korean War, are buried at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington National Cemetery.
1959 – “Kansas City” by Wilbert Harrison topped the charts.
1960 – “Cathy’s Clown” by The Everly Brothers topped the charts.
1964 – Beatles’ “Love Me Do” single goes #1.
1964 – Giants sweep Mets 5-3 & 8-6 in 23 innings.
1965 – Vivian Malone (later Vivian Malone Jones) became the first black graduate of the University of Alabama with a degree in Business Management.
1965 – Vietnam War: Viet Cong offensive began against US base at Da Nang.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “When a Man Loves a Woman” by Percy Sledge, “A Groovy Kind of Love” by The Mindbenders, “Paint It Black” by The Rolling Stones and “Distant Drums” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1966 – Surveyor 1 was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida settling down on the Moon at a site called Flamsteed in Oceanus Procellarum on June 2. Surveyor 1 sent 11,240 pictures, revealing details as small as 2 millimeters (1/12th inch). The lander operated until January 7, 1967.
1967 – At the Ascot Park in Gardena, California, daredevil Evel Knievel jumps his motorcycle over 16 cars lined-up in a row.
1967 – Yankee Whitey Ford, nearing 41, announces his retirement from baseball.
1970 – Baseball All-Star voting is returned to fans.
1970 – “Everything Is Beautiful” by Ray Stevens topped the charts.
1971 – Willie Mays hits his 638th homerun, sets National League record of 1,950 runs scored.
1971 – Mariner 9 launched to Map 70% of the surface and study temporal changes in the atmosphere and surface of Mars.
1972 – In Tel Aviv, members of the Japanese Red Army carry out the Lod Airport Massacre, killing 24 people and injuring 78 others.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Streak” by Ray Stevens, “Dancing Machine” by The Jackson 5, “The Show Must Go On” by Three Dog Night and “No Charge” by Melba Montgomery all topped the charts.
1975 – Alice Cooper received a gold record for the album, “Welcome to My
1976 – Bobby Unser sets world record for the fastest pit stop (4 seconds).
1979 – Ted Coombs begins a 5,193 mile roller skate from Los Angeles to New York City and back to Yates Center, Kansas .
1981 – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes topped the charts.
1981 – US performed a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ebony and Ivory” by Paul McCartney with Stevie Wonder, “Don’t Talk to Strangers” by Rick Springfield, “I’ve Never Been to Me” by Charlene and “Just to Satisfy You” by Waylon & Willie all topped the charts.
1982 – Closest Indianapolis 500, Gordon Johncock beats Rick Mears by 0.16 seconds.
1985 – ABC-TV announced that every World Series would be aired in prime time.
1986 – A tour bus went out of control on a mountain road and plunged into the Walker River near the California-Nevada border killing 21 elderly passengers.
1987 – North American Philips Company unveils compact disc video.
1987 – “With or Without You” by U2 topped the charts.
1989 – Bobby Brown released “On Our Own.”
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Vogue” by Madonna, “All I Wanna Do is Make Love to You” by Heart’ , “Hold On” by Wilson Phillips and “Walkin’ Away” by Clint Black all topped the charts.
1991 – The US Supreme Court ruled that prosecutors can be sued for the legal advice they give police and can be forced to pay damages when that advice leads to someone’s rights being violated.
1996 – The Coast Guard Cutter Yocona was decommissioned in Kodiak, Alaska. She had been in Coast Guard service since 1946.
1996 – The House called off a contempt-of-Congress vote after President Clinton’s aides turned over 1,000 pages of papers and a long-sought list of documents in the travel office firings.
1997 – Jesse K. Timmendequas was convicted in Trenton, NJ, of raping and strangling a 7-year-old neighbor, Megan Kanka. The 1994 murder inspired “Megan’s Law,” requiring that communities be notified when sex offenders move in.
1997 – Jonathan Levin, 31-year-old Bronx high-school teacher, was killed by a former student, Corey Arthur (19). Arthur and Montoun Hart had withdrawn $800 withdrawn from an ATM on Mr. Levin’s card.
1998 – A tornado tore through Spencer, S.D., killing six people. It destroyed 90% of the town.
1999 – Kenny Brack won the crash-marred Indianapolis 500, driving a car owned by racing legend A.J. Foyt.
1999 – Astronauts from the space shuttle “Discovery” rigged cranes and other tools to the exterior of the international space station during a spacewalk; then, the astronauts entered the orbiting outpost for three days of making repairs and delivering supplies.
2001 – Moses Malone and college coaches Mike Krzyzewski and John Chaney entered the Basketball Hall of Fame.
2002 – In New York City a solemn, wordless ceremony was held to mark the end of the cleanup at the World Trade Center site.
2002 – Attorney General John Ashcroft issued new terror-fighting guidelines allowing FBI agents to visit Internet sites, libraries, churches and political organizations as part of an effort to preempt terrorist strikes.
2002 – In Oregon three of nine hikers were killed while climbing Mt. Hood. An Air Force Pave Hawk rescue helicopter crashed in an attempt to rescue the climbers.
2003 – The US government lowered the terrorist threat level from orange to yellow.
2003 – Peter Jennings was sworn in as a U.S. citizen.
2003 – Finding Nemo was released into theaters.
2004 – In Hawaii lava from the Kilauea eruption, reaches the ocean.
2004 – Buddy Rice won the Indianapolis 500 in the rain.
2004 – An F2 tornado affected portions of the Indianapolis Metropolitan Area on the same day the Indianapolis 500 was taking place. The tornado missed the Indianapolis Motor Speedway by six miles and forced post-racing events to be held indoors.
2005 – Natalee Holloway disappeared on the last night of a trip to Aruba to celebrate her graduation from an Alabama high school. She was never found.
2006 – US Air Force Gen. Michael Hayden was sworn in as CIA director.
2006 – John Allen Muhammad was convicted of six Maryland sniper killings. He was already condemned to death in Virginia for his 2002 murder spree. On June 1 he was sentenced to 6 consecutive life terms without parole.
2006 – The FBI said it had found no trace of Jimmy Hoffa after digging up a suburban Detroit horse farm.
2006 – Treasury Secretary John Snow resigned, allowing President Bush to nominate Goldman Sachs Chairman Henry M. Paulson Jr. (b.1946) as his replacement.
2007 – Microsoft introduced a computer designed like a table with a touch-screen called Surface. It was aimed for use in hotels and casinos.
2007 – Motorola announced plans to cut 7,500 jobs and reduce costs by $1 billion through the end of this year and next. The company also announced that a shareholder proposal to have a say on executive pay passed by 51.8%.
2007 – Robert Alan Soloway (27), described as one of the world’s most prolific spammers, was arrested in Seattle, Wa. Federal authorities said computer users across the Web could notice a decrease in the amount of junk e-mail.
2007 – Motorola announced plans to cut 7,500 jobs and reduce costs by $1 billion through the end of this year and next.
2008 – Sameer Mishra wins the 81st Scripps National Spelling Bee, the winning word was “guerdon”, a noun meaning a reward.
2008 – A construction crane collapsed on New York’s Upper East Side, smashing into a 23-story apartment building before crashing onto the street below and killing two workers.
2008 – In Florida, two veteran police officers were charged with providing protection for purported shipments of cocaine and stolen goods in what was actually an undercover FBI operation.
2008 – A jury in Syracuse, NY, found Hewlett-Packard guilty of infringing a patent for data processing held by Cornell Univ. and ordered the company to pay Cornell $184 million.
2009 -In Arizona a home invasion in rural Arivaca left Brisenia Flores (9) and her father Raul Flores Jr., dead.
2010 – BP declaring failure in its latest attempt to plug the uncontrolled gusher feeding the worst oil spill in US history, the company is turning to yet another mix of risky undersea robot maneuvers and long shot odds to keep crude from flowing into the Gulf.
2011 – Space Shuttle Endeavour undocks from the International Space Station to return to earth on its final mission.
2011 – Ohio State football head coach Jim Tressel resigns amidst a scandal over NCAA rules violations committed by him and members of the team.
2012 – Sen. Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.) has called on the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to review whether metal grill brushes are safe for consumer use, after reports that some metal bristles broke off the brush and were swallowed, sending two men to the hospital.
2014 – The VA hospital in Iron Mountain, Michigan, where an altar, cross and statues of Jesus and Mary are being scrupulously hidden behind a curtain are hidden inside a Christian chapel.
2014 – Fifty-four-year-old Gary Dudek, of Wallingford, PA, has been charged with theft, stealing more than $350,000 worth of human skin over a period of several years. In addition he was charged with receiving stolen property and tampering with records.
1886 – Randolph Bourne, American writer (d. 1918)
1896 – Howard Hawks, American film director (d. 1977)
1908 – Mel Blanc, (1:09:30)American voice actor (d. 1989)
1909 – Benny Goodman, American clarinetist and bandleader (d. 1986)
1912 – Julius Axelrod, American biochemist and Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2004)
1918 – Bob Evans, American restaurateur (d. 2007)
1927 – Clint Walker, American actor
1943 – Gale Sayers, American football player
1944 – Meredith MacRae, American actress (d. 2000)
1964 – Wynonna Judd, American Country/Bluegrass Singer
ASTON, EDGAR R.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At San Carlos, Ariz., May 30th, 1868. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Clermont County, Ohio. Date of issue: 28 July 1868. Citation: With two other men he volunteered to search for a wagon passage out of a 4,000-foot valley wherein an infantry column was immobile. This small group passed six miles among hostile Apache terrain finding the sought passage. On their return trip down the canyon they were attacked by Apaches who were successfully held at bay.
CUBBERLY, WILLIAM G.
INDIAN WAR PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At San Carlos, Ariz., May 30th, 1868. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Butler County, Ohio. Date of issue: 28 July 1868. Citation: With 2 other men he volunteered to search for a wagon passage out of a 4,000-foot valley wherein an infantry column was immobile. This small group passed 6 miles among hostile Apache terrain finding the sought passage. On their return trip down the canyon they were attacked by Apache who were successfully held at bay.
Rank and organization: Brigadier General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Harpers Ferry, W. Va., May 26th to May 30th, 1862. Entered service at: Deerfield, Mass. Birth: Greenfield, Mass. Date of issue: 25 April 1893. Citation: Distinguished gallantry and good conduct in the defense.
“Holiday of Some Sort Day’
WWII and M&M’s
After Forrest Mars, Sr. witnessed soldiers eating bite-sized chocolates covered in a sugar coating during the Spanish Civil War in the late 1930s, he brought the idea back to the United States and started manufacturing his own version, called M&M’s.
In 1941, M&M’s were included in U.S. soldiers’ rations during World War II. During WW II M&M’s were sold exclusively to the military. Good in nearly any environment, including hot summers, M&M’s became very popular. The imprint of an “M” on the candies first occurred in 1950. One M was for Forrest E. Mars Sr., and one for Bruce Murrie, the son of Hershey’s Chocolate president William F. R. Murrie.
” Without morals a republic cannot subsist any length of time; they therefore who are decrying the Christian religion, whose morality is so sublime and pure…are undermining the solid foundation of morals, the best security for the duration of free governments.”
[Charles Carroll : To James McHenry on November 4, 1800.]
Charles Carroll – signer of the Declaration of Independence
“Get through the rough spots today by looking forward to the moment when you can say “All finished!”
~ E.R. Haas
sinecure SY-nih-kyur; SIN-ih-, noun:
An office or position that requires or involves little or no responsibility, work, or active service.
526 – Antioch struck by earthquake; about 250,000 die.
1677 – Treaty of Middle Plantation establishes peace between the Virginia colonists and the local Native Americans.
1765 – Patrick Henry in a speech denouncing the Stamp Act to the Virginia House of Burgesses. He is believed to have said, “If this be treason, make the most of it!” Henry was irate about the Stamp Act, which had just been enacted by the British Parliament. He urged the Burgesses to approve several resolutions that he had drafted. And he gave a speech in defense of them. That speech compared the British King George III to Julius Caesar.
1780 – Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton brutally massacred Colonel Abraham Buford’s Continentals even after the Continentals surrendered. 113 Americans were killed.
1781 – Frigate Alliance captures HMS Atalanta and Trepassy off Nova Scotia.
1787 – Virginia Plan proposed at the Constitutional Convention.
1790 – Rhode Island becomes the last of the original thirteen colonies to ratify the Constitution and is admitted as the 13th U.S. state.
1827 – First nautical school opened in Nantucket, MA.
1843 – John C. Fremont left St. Louis on a much more ambitious journey to explore the Oregon country.
1848 – Wisconsin is admitted as the 30th U.S. state.
1848 – The Californian newspaper complained that everybody in the state was under the spell of gold fever and announced suspension of publication because the staff was heading out to participate. The Californian and the California Star were based in San Francisco.
1849 – A patent for lifting vessels was granted to Abraham Lincoln.
1861 – Civil War: Dorothea Dix offered to help set up hospitals for Union Army.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate General P.T. Beauregard retreated to Tupelo, Mississippi. He had taken command of the Trans-Mississippi area after the death of General Albert Sidney Johnson.
1865 – Civil War: President Andrew Johnson issues amnesty plan. The proclamation granted general amnesty to Confederates. The amnesty excluded high ranking Confederates and large property owners, who had to apply individually to the President for a pardon.
1886 – Chemist John Pemberton places his first advertisement for Coca-Cola, the ad appearing in the “Atlanta Journal.”
1900 – Trademark “Escalator” registered by Otis Elevator Co.
1910 – An airplane raced a train — and won! The airplane pilot Glenn Curtiss won a $10,000 prize.
1911 – The first running of the Indianapolis 500 took place. It is the crossroads of 16th Street and Georgetown Road in Speedway, Indiana where the rounded rectangle finds home.
1911 – In San Francisco the amusement park known as “The Chutes,” located on Fillmore Street, burned down. There would not be another amusement park in the city for over 20 years.
1912 – Fifteen women were dismissed from their jobs at the Curtis Publishing Company in Philadelphia, PA for dancing the Turkey Trot. There were news reports of dancers being fined because “their Turkey Trots were interpreted by the courts as disorderly conduct.” Turkey Trot Music
1914 – Ocean liner RMS Empress of Ireland sinks in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; 1,024 lives lost.
1916 – Official flag of President of US adopted. By Executive Order 2390 President Wilson ordered the adoption of a single design to be used by both services: blue with the coat of arms from the Presidential seal (rather than that from the national coat of arms) with a white star in each corner.
1916 – U.S. forces invaded Dominican Republic and remained until 1924.
1919 – Einstein’s theory of general relativity is tested (later confirmed) by Arthur Eddington’s observation of a total solar eclipse.
1922 – US Supreme Court rules organized baseball not subject to antitrust laws.
1932 – World War I Veterans begin to assemble in Washington, DC in the Bonus Army to request cash bonuses promised to them to be paid in 1945.
1942 – Bing Crosby, the Ken Darby Singers and the John Scott Trotter Orchestra record the best-selling “White Christmas” Christmas album in history, for Decca Records in Los Angeles.
1942 – The movie “Yankee Doodle Dandy” with James Cagney premieres at a war-bonds benefit in New York.
1942 – World War II: The German Army completed its encirclement of the Kharkov region of the Soviet Union. The Red Army had lost over 250,000 men including many prisoners.
1943 – “The Million Dollar Band” was heard for the first time on NBC radio.
1943 – Norman Rockwell’s portrait of “Rosie the Riveter” appeared on the cover of “The Saturday Evening Post.” Rockwell’s model was Mary Keefe (19) of Arlington, Vermont. In 2002 the painting sold at auction for $4,959,500.
1943 – World War II: Meat and cheese began to be rationed in US.
1944 – World War II: On Biak Island, as well as Arare on the mainland, the American beachheads are heavily attacked by Japanese forces. The Japanese garrison on Biak makes use of tanks to force the US 162nd Regiment back towards its landing zone.
1944 – World War II: The American escort carrier “Block Island” and a destroyer are sunk by U-549 before it is itself sunk.
1944 – World War II: About 400 American bombers attack German synthetic fuel works and oil refineries at Polits and other locations. The damage caused sets back aircraft fuel production.
1945 – World War II: American B-29 Superfortress bombers drop incendiaries on Yokohama, burning 85 percent of the port area.
1945 – World War II: US First Marine division conquered Shuri-castle in Okinawa. Shuri Castle is believed to have been built by King Satto at the end of the 14th century.
1947 -The OPA, which issued WW II rationing coupons, disbands.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Riders in the Sky” by Vaughn Monroe, “Again” by Doris Day, “Some Enchanted Evening” by Perry Como and “Lovesick Blues” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1949 – Lieutenant F. X. Riley, believed to be the first Coast Guardsman to earn an advanced degree under US Coast Guard sponsorship through night class attendance, received his MA degree in Public Administration from American University in Washington, D.C.
1949 – Candid Camera, TV comedy Variety, moves to NBC.
1951 – First time a flight to the North Pole is done in single engine plane by Captain CF Blair.
1951 – Bonus baby Billy Joe Davidson signs with the Indianapolis Indians for $120,000. He never made it to the majors.
1953 – Korean War: Surface elements carried the brunt of naval operations with strikes against Pukchong and Wonsan as adverse weather temporarily suspended air operations.
1953 – Sir Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay are the first people to reach the summit of Mount Everest, on Tenzing Norgay’s (adopted) 39th birthday.
1953 – First episode of the “I Love Lucy” television series was registered.
1954 – “Wanted” by Perry Como topped the charts.
1957– CHART TOPPERS – “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley, “Love Letters in the Sand” by Pat Boone, “A White Sport Coat (And a Pink Carnation)” by Marty Robbins and “Four Walls” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1957 – NYC Mayor Robert Wagner tries to keep the Giants & Dodgers in New York.
1960 – Everly Brothers “Cathy’s Clown” hits #1.
1961 – “Travelin’ Man” by Ricky Nelson topped the charts.
1962 – Buck (John) O’Neil became the first black coach in major league baseball when he accepted the job with the Chicago Cubs.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Help Me, Rhonda” by The Beach Boys, “Back in My Arms Again” by The Supremes, “Wooly Bully” by Sam The Sham and The Pharoahs and “Girl on the Billboard” by Del Reeves all topped the charts.
1965 – Phillies Dick Allen hits 529′ homerun out of Connie Mack Stadium.
1968 – President Johnson signed the Truth in Lending Act into law.
1969 – The debut album “Crosby, Stills and Nash” was released.
1970 – Mike Cuellar of Baltimore became one of just 11 major-league hurlers since 1900 to strike out four batters in one inning — because the catcher dropped the third strike of the third out.
1971 – “Brown Sugar” by the Rolling Stones topped the charts.
1972 – Paul McCartney released his version of the nursery rhyme, “Mary Had A Little Lamb.”
1972 – Twenty-six people are killed and dozens more injured when three Japanese gunmen opened fire on crowds at Lod International Airport in Tel Aviv, Israel.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Frankenstein” by The Edgar Winter Group, “My Love” by Paul McCartney & Wings, “Daniel” by Elton John and “Satin Sheets” by Jeanne Pruett all topped the charts.
1973 – Columbia Records fired president Clive Davis for misappropriating $100,000 in funds. Davis went on to start Arista records.
1973 – Tom Bradley is elected the first black mayor of Los Angeles, California.
1974 – President Nixon agreed to turn over 1,200 pages of edited Watergate transcripts.
1976 – “Love Hangover” by Diana Ross topped the charts.
1977 – A J Foyt wins Indianapolis 500 (average speed of 161.331 mph) for a record fourth time.
1977 – Janet Guthrie becomes first woman to drive in the Indianapolis 500. Since Guthrie, Desire Wilson, Lyn St. James and Sarah Fisher have entered the race.
1977 – Sue Press is first woman golfer to hit consecutive holes-in one.
1977 – The NBC 24 hour News & Information Service ended on radio.
1978 – The US Postal Service issued the first alphabet stamp, the A stamp, when the first-class rate went from 13 to 15 cents, after being 13¢ for 3 years. The series ended with the H stamp in 1999 with rates up to 33 cents.
1979 – US District Judge John Wood (b.1916) was assassinated in San Antonio as he was about to preside in a drug conspiracy trial against Jimmy Chagra.
1980 – Larry Bird beats out Magic Johnson for NBA rookie of year.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes, “Being with You” by Smokey Robinson, “Stars On 45 Medley” by Stars on 45 and “Seven Year Ache” by Rosanne Cash all topped the charts.
1981 – The U.S. performed a nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site.
1982 – “Ebony and Ivory” by Paul McCartney & Stevie Wonder topped the charts.
1984 – Boston Red Sox retires player numbers #9 (Ted Williams) & #4 (Joe Cronin).
1986 – Colonel Oliver North told National Security Advisor William McFarlane that profits from weapons sold to Iran were being diverted to the Contras.
1987 – Michael Jackson attempts to buy Elephant Man’s remains.
1987 – A jury in Los Angeles found “Twilight Zone” movie director John Landis and four associates innocent of involuntary manslaughter in the movie-set deaths of actor Vic Morrow and two children.
1987 – Robin Ventura set a college baseball record with hits in 58 games.Ventura had an NCAA-record 58-game hitting streak (since surpassed) in 1987, shattering the previous record of 47.
1988 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan begins his first visit to the Soviet Union as he arrives in Moscow for a superpower summit with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.
1988 – NBC aired “To Heal A Nation,” the story of Jan Scruggs’ effort to build the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Forever Your Girl” by Paula Abdul, “Rock On” by Michael Damian, “Soldier of Love” by Donny Osmond and “After All This Time” by Rodney Crowell all topped the charts.
1990 – Dow Jones average hits a record 2,870.49.
1990 – Rickey Henderson steals record 893rd base, breaking Ty Cobb’s record.
1994 – “Joseph & the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat” closed at Minskoff Theater in New York City after 223 performances.
1994 – Khallid Abdul Muhammad, a former spokesman for the Nation of Islam, was shot and wounded after delivering a speech at the University of California, Riverside, CA.
1995 – The last three bodies were recovered from the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City.
1996 – The Endeavor space shuttle landed after a 10-day mission. It went be overhauled for a space-station assembly mission in 1997.
1997 – Jeff Buckley (30), musician, drowned while swimming with a friend off Mud Island in Memphis.
1998 – In Colorado three men shot and killed police officer Dale Claxton of Cortez when he stopped them in a suspected stolen water truck.
1999 – Space Shuttle Discovery completes the first docking with the International Space Station.
1999 – The body of Philip “Taylor” Kramer (Iron Butterfly) was found in a valley in Malibu, CA. He had been missing since 1995.
1999 – It was reported that the US Defense Dept. had ordered 9,000 Purple Hearts from Graco Industries near Houston to “replenish its supply.”
2000 – The space shuttle Atlantis landed at Cape Canaveral in the early morning dark after a successful overhaul of the International Space Station.
2001 – U.S. Supreme Court rules that disabled golfer Casey Martin could use a cart to ride in tournaments.
2001 – In New York, four followers of Osama bin Laden were convicted of a global conspiracy to murder Americans. The crimes included the 1998 bombings of two U.S. embassies in Africa that killed 224 people.
2002 – FBI Director Robert Mueller acknowledged that the bureau did not pursue “red flags” in the weeks before Sep 11, and suggested for the first time that investigators might have uncovered the plot if they had been more diligent about pursuing leads.
2002 – Pres. Bush moved to prevent oil drilling off the Florida coast and in the Everglades. Payments of $115 and $120 million would be made to buy back drilling rights. Florida Gov. Jeb Bush said it was good public policy.
2002 – War on Terror: The US offered a reward for as much as $5 million for the capture of Abu Sayyaf leaders in the Philippines.
2003 – NASA officials release experimental findings on the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster proving that the insulation known to have hit the leading edge of Columbia‘s left wing could have created a gap in between protective heat panels.
2004 – The World War II Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C. with 200,000 in attendance.
2004 – U.S. District Judge Nancy Gertner (in Massachusetts) rules that stating that someone is homosexual does not constitute libel or slander.
2005 – Dan Wheldon won the Indianapolis 500 as Danica Patrick’s electrifying run fell short. She finished fourth.
2007 – The US officials confirmed that immigration visa fees would rise by an average of 66% effective July 30.
2007 – Andrew Speaker (31), a lawyer from Atlanta with a rare and dangerous form of tuberculosis, ignored doctors’ advice and took two trans-Atlantic flights, leading to the first US government-ordered quarantine since 1963.
2007 – Cindy Sheehan, the soldier’s mother who had galvanized an anti-war movement with her monthlong protest outside President Bush’s ranch, announced her “resignation” as the public face of the movement.
2008 – Police in San Jose, Ca., said some 80 people had $45,000 drained from their bank accounts after thieves pulled debit card data from an Arco station at 5755 Camden Ave. A covert card-reading device allowed thieves to collect debit card and pin data. Similar thefts had also been reported in Los Altos and Southern California.
2008 – Harvey Korman (1927), comedian, died in LA. He had won four Emmys for his outrageously funny contributions to “The Carol Burnett Show” and played a conniving politician to hilarious effect in “Blazing Saddles.”
2009 – President Barack Obama said the nation for too long has failed to adequately protect the security of its computer networks. He will name a new cyber czar to take on the job.
2009 – In Texas a Houston jury convicted Philippe Padieu (53) of Houston to 45 years in prison for knowingly infecting 6 women with the AIDS virus.
2009 – Puerto Rico fired nearly 8,000 government workers, the start of a wave of layoffs aimed at closing a budget deficit as the island struggles through its third year of recession.
2010 – British Petroleum’s effort fails to plug the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, which is the worst in U.S. history, and is fouling marshland and beaches, as estimates of how much oil is leaking grow more dire.
2011 – Dan Wheldon wins his second Indianapolis 500 on the 100th anniversary of the race. J.R. Hildebrand looked set to win the 2011 Indy 500, but banged into the wall and finished second.
2015 – A group of motorcyclists in Arizona plan to host an anti-Muslim demonstration outside of the Islamic Community Center in Phoenix. Dubbed as “Freedom of Speech Rally Round 2,” a reference to American blogger Pamela Geller’s deadly “Draw Muhammad” cartoon contest in Garland, Texas earlier this month.
2015 – The White House announced that Cuba was removed from a list of state sponsors of terrorism. This latest act will complete the normalization that President Obama has been trying to achieve between the political leaders of Havana and DC. The process began on April 14th and required a 45- day congressional notification period and was officially rescinded by Secretary of State Kerry.
1736 – Patrick Henry, American patriot, statesman, and orator (d. 1799)
1893 – Max Brand, American author and war correspondent (d. 1944)
1903 – Bob Hope, British-born comedian and actor (d. 2003)
1917 – John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 35th President of the United States (d. 1963)
1937 – Charles W. Pickering, American judge
1939 – Al Unser, Sr., American race car driver
1955 – John Hinckley, Jr., American attempted assassin of Ronald Reagan
1958 – Annette Bening, American actress
1961 – Melissa Etheridge, American musician
1979 – Casey Sheehan, American soldier; son of Cindy Sheehan (d. 2004)
*GALT, WILLIAM WYLIE
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 168th Infantry, 34th Infantry Division. Place and date: At Villa Crocetta, Italy, May 29th, 1944. Entered service at: Stanford, Mont. Birth: Geyser, Mont. G.O. No.: 1, 1 February 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Galt, Battalion S3, at a particularly critical period following two unsuccessful attacks by his battalion, of his own volition went forward and ascertained just how critical the situation was. He volunteered, at the risk of his life, personally to lead the battalion against the objective. When the lone remaining tank destroyer refused to go forward, Capt. Galt jumped on the tank destroyer and ordered it to precede the attack. As the tank destroyer moved forward, followed by a company of riflemen, Capt. Galt manned the .30-caliber machinegun in the turret of the tank destroyer, located and directed fire on an enemy 77mm. anti-tank gun, and destroyed it. Nearing the enemy positions, Capt. Galt stood fully exposed in the turret, ceaselessly firing his machinegun and tossing hand grenades into the enemy zigzag series of trenches despite the hail of sniper and machinegun bullets ricocheting off the tank destroyer. As the tank destroyer moved, Capt. Galt so maneuvered it that forty of the enemy were trapped in one trench. When they refused to surrender, Capt. Galt pressed the trigger of the machinegun and dispatched every one of them. A few minutes later an 88mm shell struck the tank destroyer and Capt. Galt fell mortally wounded across his machinegun. He had personally killed forty Germans and wounded many more. Capt. Galt pitted his judgment and superb courage against overwhelming odds, exemplifying the highest measure of devotion to his country and the finest traditions of the U.S. Army.
*MORELAND, WHITT L.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Company C, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Kwagch’i-Dong, Korea, May 29th, 1951. Entered service at: Austin, Tex. Born: 7 March 1930, Waco, Tex. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an intelligence scout attached to Company C, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Voluntarily accompanying a rifle platoon in a daring assault against a strongly defended enemy hill position, Pfc. Moreland delivered accurate rifle fire on the hostile emplacement and thereby aided materially in seizing the objective. After the position had been secured, he unhesitatingly led a party forward to neutralize an enemy bunker which he had observed some 400 meters beyond, and moving boldly through a fire-swept area, Almost reached the hostile emplacement when the enemy launched a volley of handgrenades on his group. Quick to act despite the personal danger involved, he kicked several of the grenades off the ridge line where they exploded harmlessly and, while attempting to kick away another, slipped and fell near the deadly missile. Aware that the sputtering grenade would explode before he could regain his feet and dispose of it, he shouted a warning to his comrades, covered the missile with his body and absorbed the full blast of the explosion, but in saving his companions from possible injury or death, was mortally wounded. His heroic initiative and valiant spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of certain death reflect the highest credit upon Pfc. Moreland and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
INTERIM 1901 – 1911
Rank and organization: Watertender, U.S. Navy. Born: 7 February 1865, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 72, 6 December 1901. Second award. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Vicksburg, for heroism in the line of his profession at the time of the accident to the boilers, May 29th, 1901.
NOLAN, JOSEPH A.
Rank and organization: Artificer, Company B, 45th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Labo, Luzon, Philippine Islands, May 29th, 1900. Entered service at: South Bend, Ind. Birth: Elkhart, Ind. Date of issue: 14 March 1902. Citation: Voluntarily left shelter and at great personal risk passed the enemy’s lines and brought relief to besieged comrades.
INDIAN WAS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 9th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Mimbres Mountains, N. Mex., May 29th, 1879; at Cuchillo Negro River near Ojo Caliente, N. Mex., 27 September 1879. Entered service at:——. Birth: Prince Georges County, Md. Date of issue: 6 January 1882. Citation: Bravery in action.
THEY SAID IT DID NOT MATTER, NONE OF IT MATTERED… THAT’S WHAT THEY SAID
THEY REMAINED SMUG, AND SCATTERED…TIL THE LADY LAY DEAD (Statue of Liberty)
When Obama wrote a book and said he was mentored as a youth by Frank
(Frank Marshall Davis), an avowed Communist, people said it didn’t matter.
When it was discovered that his grandparents were strong socialist, sent Obama’s mother to a socialist school and introduced Frank Marshall Davis to young Obama, people said it didn’t matter.
When people found out that he was enrolled as a Muslim child in school and his father and step father were both Muslims, people said it didn’t matter.
When he wrote in another book he authored I will stand with them (Muslims) should the political winds shift in an ugly direction, people said it didn’t matter.
When in his book Obama admittedly said he chose Marxist friends and professors in college, people said it didn’t matter.
When he traveled to Pakistan after college on an unknown national passport, people said it didn’t matter.
When he sought the endorsement of the Marxist party in 1996 as he ran for the Illinois Senate, people said it didn’t matter.
When Obama sat in a Chicago Church for twenty years and listened to a preacher spew hatred for America and preach black liberation theology, people said it didn’t matter.
When an independent Washington organization that tracks senate voting records gave him the distinctive title as the most liberal senator, people said it didn’t matter.
When the Palestinians in Gaza set up a fund raising telethon to raise money for his election campaign, people said it didn’t matter.
When his voting record supported gun control, people said it didn’t matter.
When he refused to disclose who donated money to his election campaign as other candidates had done people said it didn’t matter.
When he received endorsements from people like Louis Farrakhan and Moammar Kadafi and Hugo Chavez, people said it didn’t matter.
When it was pointed out that he was a total newcomer and had absolutely no experience at anything except community organizing, people said it didn’t matter.
When he chose friends and acquaintances such as Bill Ayers and Bernadine Dohrn who were revolutionary radicals, people said it didn’t matter..
When his voting record in the Illinois senate and in the U.S. Senate came into question, people said it didn’t matter.
When he refused to wear a flag lapel pin and did so only after a public outcry, people said it didn’t matter.
When people started treating him as a Messiah and children in schools were taught to sing his praises, people said it didn’t matter.
When he stood with his hands over his groin area for the playing of the National Anthem and Pledge of Allegiance, people said it didn’t matter.
When he surrounded himself in the White house with advisors who were pro gun control, pro abortion, pro homosexual marriage and wanting to curtail freedom of speech to silence the opposition, people said it didn’t matter.
When he aired his views on abortion, homosexuality and a host of other issues, people said it didn’t matter.
When he said he favors sex education in Kindergarten including homosexual indoctrination, people said it didn’t matter.
When his background was either scrubbed or hidden and nothing could be found about him, people said it didn’t matter.
When the place of his birth was called into question and he refused to produce a birth certificate, people said it didn’t matter.
When he had an association in Chicago with Tony Rezko, a man of questionable character who is now in prison and had helped Obama to a sweet deal on the purchase of his home, people said it didn’t matter.
When it became known that George Soros, a multi-billionaire Marxist, spent a fortune to get him elected, people said it didn’t matter.
When he started appointing czars who are radicals, revolutionaries, and even avowed Marxist/Communist, people said it didn’t matter.
When he stood before the nation and told us that his intentions were to fundamentally transform this nation into something else, people said it didn’t matter.
When it became known that he had trained ACORN workers in Chicago and served as an attorney for ACORN, people said it didn’t matter.
When he appointed a cabinet members and several advisers who were tax cheats and Marxists, people said it didn’t matter.
When he appointed a science czar, John Holdren, who believes in forced abortions, mass sterilizations and seizing babies from teen mothers, people said it didn’t matter.
When he appointed Cass Sunstein as regulatory czar and he believes in Explicit Consent harvesting human organs without family consent and to allow animals to be represented in court while banning all hunting, people said it didn’t matter..
When he appointed Kevin Jennings a homosexual, and organizer of a group called gay, lesbian, and Transgender Education network as safe school czar and it became known that he had a history of bad advice to teenagers, people said it didn’t matter.
When he appointed Mark Lloyd as diversity czar and he believed in curtailing free speech, taking from one and giving to another to spread the wealth and admires Hugo Chavez, people said it didn’t matter.
When Valerie Jarrett was selected as Obama’s senior White House adviser and she is an avowed Socialist, MAO ADMIRER, people said it didn’t matter.
When Anita Dunn, White House Communications director said Mao Tse Tung was her favorite philosopher and the person she turned to most for inspiration, people said it didn’t matter.
When he appointed Carol Browner as global warming czar, and she is a well known socialist working on Cap and Trade as the nation’s largest tax, people said it doesn’t matter.
When he appointed Van Jones, an ex-con and avowed Communist as green energy czar who was forced to resign when Jones history was made known, by a patriot, Glenn Beck, people said it didn’t matter.
When Tom Daschle, Obama’s pick for health and human services secretary, could not be confirmed because he was a tax cheat, people said it didn’t matter.
When as a counterfeit president of the United States Obama bowed to the King of Saudi Arabia, people said it didn’t matter.
When he traveled around the world criticizing America and never once talking of her greatness, people said it didn’t matter.
When his actions concerning the Middle East seemed to support the Palestinians over America’s long time friend Israel, people said it doesn’t matter.
When he took American tax dollars to resettle thousands of Palestinians from Gaza to the United States, people said it doesn’t matter.
When he upset the Europeans by removing plans for a missile defense system against the Russians, people said it doesn’t matter.
When Obama played politics in Afghanistan by not sending our troops what field commanders said we needed to win, people said it didn’t matter.
When he started spending us into a debt that was so big we could not pay it off, people said it didn’t matter.
When he took a huge spending bill under the guise of stimulus and used it to pay off organizations, unions and individuals that got him elected, people said it didn’t matter.
When he took over insurance companies, car companies, banks and other financial institutions, people said it didn’t matter.
When he took away student loans from the banks and put it through the government, people said it didn’t matter.
When he designed plans to take over the health care system and put it under government control, people said it didn’t matter.
When he set into motion a plan to take over the control of all energy in the United States through Cap and Trade, people said it didn’t matter.
When he finally completed his transformation of America into a Socialist State people finally woke up but it was too late.
…and, when We the People stood massively against socialized medicine he told his congress “THOSE PEOPLE DON’T MATTER”
1 Chronicles 4:9-10 King James Version (KJV)
And Jabez was more honorable than his brethren: and his mother called his name Jabez, saying, Because I bare him with sorrow.
And Jabez called on the God of Israel, saying, Oh that thou wouldest bless me indeed, and enlarge my coast, and that thine hand might be with me, and that thou wouldest keep me from evil, that it may not grieve me! And God granted him that which he requested.
“To the kindly influence of Christianity we owe that degree of civil freedom, and political and social happiness which mankind now enjoys. In proportion as the genuine effects of Christianity are diminished in any nation, either through unbelief, or the corruption of its doctrines, or the neglect of its institutions; in the same proportion will the people of that nation recede from the blessings of genuine freedom, and approximate the miseries of complete despotism. All efforts to destroy the foundations of our holy religion, ultimately tend to the subversion also of our political freedom and happiness. Whenever the pillars of Christianity shall be overthrown, our present republican forms of government, and all the blessings with flow from them, must fall with them.”
~ Jedediah Morse
“Every tomorrow has two handles. We can take hold of it with the handle of anxiety or the handle of faith.”
~ Henry Ward Beecher
ratiocination \rash-ee-ah-suh-NAY-shun; rash-ee-oh-\, noun:
The process of reasoning.
Ratiocination is from Latin rationcinatio, from ratiocinari, “to compute, to calculate, to reason,” from ratio, “reckoning, calculation, reason,” from reri, “to reckon, to think.”
1564 – John Calvin (54), one of the dominant figures of the Protestant Reformation, died in Geneva.
1647 – In Salem, Massachusetts, Achsah Young became the first recorded American woman to be executed for being a “witch.”
1647 – Peter Stuyvesant was inaugurated as Director-General of New Netherland.
1679 – England’s House of Lords passed the Habeas Corpus Act (have the body) to prevent false arrest and imprisonment.
1668 – Three colonists were expelled from Massachusetts for being Baptists.
1796 – The first U.S. patent for a piano was issued in the U.S. to James Sylvanus McLean of New Jersey, for “an improvement in piano fortes.” The first piano-like instrument known in the U.S. was called a spinet, described in the Boston Gazette of September 18, 1769, and was built by John Harris.
1813 – War of 1812: In Canada, American forces capture Fort George.
1848 – The San Francisco-based California Star complained that everybody in the state was under the spell of gold fever.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of Hanover Court House, VA (Slash Church, Peake’s Station).
1863 – Civil War: Confederate defenders turned back a major assault on Port Hudson, inflicting severe losses on the Union Army.
1863 – Civil War: U.S.S. Cincinnati moved to rake some rifle pits which had barred the Army’s progress before Vicksburg.
1863 – Civil War: Chief Justice Roger B. Taney issues ex parte Merryman, challenging the authority of Abraham Lincoln and the military to suspend the writ of habeas corpus in Maryland.
1873 – The first Preakness [horserace] was held at Pimlico, Md. It later became part of the Triple Crown. Edward R. Bradley’s Kalitan was the first winner.
1890 – Two U.S. patents for the first jukebox were issued to Louis Glass and his business associate, William S. Arnold concerning a “coin actuated attachment for phonographs.” Their first jukebox was a coin-operated Edison Class M Electric Phonograph with oak cabinet placed in the Palais Royale Saloon in San Francisco.
1896 – The F4-strength St. Louis-East St. Louis Tornado hits in St. Louis, Missouri and East Saint Louis, Illinois, killing at least 255 people and incurring $2.9 billion in damages (1997 USD).
1901 – The Edison Storage Battery Company was organized.
1904 – National League record of five stolen bases in a game (Dennis McGann, New York Giants).
1907 – A Bubonic plague outbreak begins in San Francisco, California.
1908 – Congress passes the “Second Dick Act,” one of a series of laws enacted between 1903 and 1916 that completely restructured the old “militia” into the modern “National Guard.” This law requires the federal government to call forth the Guard in case of emergency before accepting any volunteers for military service.
1911 – The Coney Island attraction “Dreamland” was destroyed by fire. The biggest ballroom in the world was located at the end of the Dreamland Pier from 1904-1911.
1919 – Charles Strite patents pop-up toaster with timing mechanism. In 1925, using a redesigned version of Strite’s toaster, the Waters-Genter Company of Minneapolis, MN began to market the first household toaster – called the Toastmaster – that could brown bread on both sides simultaneously, set the heating element on a timer, and eject the toast when finished.
1919 – First Lieutenant Elmer F. Stone, USCG, piloting the Navy’s flying boat NC-4 in the first successful trans-Atlantic flight, landed in the Tagus River estuary near Lisbon, Portugal.
1926 – Bronze figures of Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer were erected in Hannibal, MO.
1927 – The Ford Motor Company ceases manufacturing the Ford Model T and begins to retool plants to make Ford Model A’s.
1927 – The cargo steamer Indiana Harbor ran aground on the northern California Humboldt coast. Radio operator Joseph E. Croney remained at his post for 72 hours while the ship was pounded.
1930 – The 1,046 feet tall Chrysler Building in New York (tallest man-made structure at the time) opens to the public.
1930 – Masking tape was patented by inventor Richard G. Drew of St. Paul, Minnesota. He assigned the rights to the 3M Company, which marketed the tape from September 8, 1930 under the trademark “Scotch.”
1931 – First full scale wind tunnel for testing airplanes, Langley Field VA. In the 30-ft high by 60-ft wide tunnel, flying characteristics of full-size airplanes were tested in air speeds up to 115-mph.
1931 – Auguste Piccard and Charles Knipfer took man’s first trip into the stratosphere when they rode their balloon to an altitude of 51,800 feet (nearly 10 miles above the earth).
1933 – The U.S. Federal Securities Act is signed into law requiring the registration of securities with the Federal Trade Commission.
1933 – The Walt Disney Company releases the cartoon The Three Little Pigs, with its hit song “Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?”
1933 – The Century of Progress World’s Fair opens in Chicago.
1935 – The US Supreme Court declares the National Industrial Recovery Act to be unconstitutional in the case A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, (295 U.S. 495).
1937 – In California, the Golden Gate Bridge opens to pedestrian traffic, creating a vital link between San Francisco and Marin County. More than 200,000 walked across the new bridge, then they let a cavalcade of automobiles go and then pedestrian traffic again.
1937 – Giants Carl Hubbell wins his 24th consecutive game (since July 17, 1936) when Mel Ott hits a 9th-inning home run for a 3-2 victory over the Reds.
1939 – DC Comics publishes its second superhero in Detective Comics #27; he is Batman, one of the most topical comic book superheroes of all time.
1940 – World War II: 97 out of 99 members of a Royal Norfolk Regiment unit are massacred while trying to surrender at Dunkirk. The German commander, Captain Fritz Knoechlein, is eventually hanged for war crimes.
1941 – World War II: U.S. President Roosevelt proclaims an “unlimited national emergency”. It was in response to the carnage being wrought by German U-Boats in the North Atlantic. We were only moths away from being in the Second World War.
1941 – World War II: The German battleship Bismarck is sunk in the North Atlantic killing almost 2,100 men.
1942 – German General Erwin Rommel began a major offensive in Libya with his Afrika Korps.
1942 – World War II: Nazi overlord and SS general Reinhard Heydrich was killed in Prague by Czech commandos, who had parachuted into Czechoslovakia and ambushed his car. Hitler promptly ordered the deaths of 10,000 residents of Lidice, near Prague. Heydrich died of his wounds a week later.
1942 – World War II: The Japanese invasion fleet for Midway puts to sea from Saipan and Guam with troop transports carrying 5000 men. They are escorted by cruisers and destroyers. Likewise, the invasion force for the Aleutians sets sail in two groups from Ominato.
1942 – World War II: The damaged USS Yorktown arrives at Pearl Harbor and repairs begin immediately.
1943 – World War II: On Attu, American forces make some progress along the Clevesy Pass. Japanese are driven off of Fish Hook Ridge in heavy fighting. In addition, Americans begin work on an airfield at Alexai Point.
1943 – US forbids racial discrimination in war industry.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, American forces attacking southward, continue to encounter heavy Japanese resistance. Japanese aircraft begin a two-day series of strikes against the Allied naval forces around the island. The US destroyer Drexler is sunk.
1945 – World War II: The US 25th Division, part of the US 1st Corps, takes Santa Fe on Luzon. There is still heavy fighting in several parts of Mindanao.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Linda” by Buddy Clark with the Ray Noble Orchestra, “My Adobe Hacienda” by Eddy Howard, “Heartaches” by The Ted Weems Orchestra (whistler: Elmo Tanner) and “What is Life Without Love” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 – The Air Force received its first production Republic F-105B Thunderchief.
1950 – Frank Sinatra made his TV debut on NBC’s “Star-Spangled Review.”
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White” by Perez Prado, “Unchained Melody” by Les Baxter, “Learnin’ the Blues” by Frank Sinatra and “In the Jailhouse Now” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1957 – “That’ll be the Day“, by The Crickets featuring Buddy Holly, was released.
1958 – The F-4 Phantom II flies for the first time.
1958 – Ernest Green and 600 whites graduated from Little Rock’s Central High School. Green became the first Black Central High graduate.
1961 – “Mother-in-Law” by Ernie K. Doe topped the charts.
1961 – Johnny Cash appeared on NBC’s “The Deputy.”
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “If You Wanna Be Happy” by Jimmy Soul, “Surfin’ USA” by The Beach Boys, “Foolish Little Girl “by The Shirelles and “Lonesome 7-7203 “by Hawkshaw Hawkins all topped the charts.
1963 – Three New Jersey businessmen purchase the NHL Colorado Rockies and get approval to move them to the New Jersey Meadowlands (Devils).
1964 – James Bond in “From Russia With Love” premieres in US.
1965 – United States warships begin bombardments of National Liberation Front targets within South Vietnam for the first time.
1967 – “Groovin‘” by the Young Rascals topped the charts.
1967 – The U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) is christened by Jacqueline Kennedy and her daughter Caroline.
1968 – George Halas retired as head coach of the Chicago Bears.
1968 – Future President George W. Bush enlists in the Texas Air National Guard.
1968 – Memorial Day was celebrated. The last Monday of the month was set aside in 1968 to remember those who had died in the service of their country.
1969 – Construction of Walt Disney World began in Florida.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Joy to the World” by Three Dog Night, “Brown Sugar” by The Rolling Stones, “Me and You and a Dog Named Boo” by Lobo and “I Won’t Mention It Again” by Ray Price all topped the charts.
1972 – “Oh Girl” by the Chi-Lites topped the charts.
1977 – New York City fines George Willig for climbing the World Trade Center. His fine was $1.10, a penny a floor.
1977 – The film “Smokey and the Bandit” opened in movie theaters and was the #2 hit of the year behind “Star Wars.” It starred Burt Reynolds and Jackie Gleason.
1978 – “With a Little Luck” by the Wings topped the charts.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Reunited” by Peaches & Herb, “Hot Stuff” by Donna Summer, “Love You Inside Out” by Bee Gees and “If I Said You Had a Beautiful Body Would You Hold It Against Me” by Bellamy Brothers all topped the charts.
1981 – John Hinckley (b.1955), awaiting trial for the attempted assassination of President Reagan, tried to commit suicide by overdosing on Tylenol.
1986 – Diving on the Spanish ship “Atocha” site, Mel Fisher finds a jar containing 2300 emeralds.It had sunk in the 17th century.
1987 – Yankee Phil Niekro is the third pitcher to make 700th starts. The other two were Young & Sutton.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “With or Without You” by U2, “The Lady in Red” by Chris DeBurgh, “You Keep Me Hangin’ On” by Kim Wilde and “Can’t Stop My Heart from Loving You” by The O’Kanes all topped the charts.
1989 – “Forever Your Girl” by Paula Abdul topped the charts.
1993 – The US House of Representatives (Democrat) approved a massive deficit-reduction, tax-increase bill by a vote of 219-213.
1994 – “Flintstones” live action movie opens in theaters.
1994 – Nobel Prize-winning author Alexander Solzhenitsyn returned to Russia. He had been in exile for two decades.
1995 – In Charlottesville, Virginia, actor Christopher Reeve is paralyzed from the neck down after falling from his horse in a riding competition.
1996 – An oil spill in Galveston Bay stretched for five miles after a barge broke up that was carrying 700,000 gallons of heavy fuel oil. The barge was owned by Buffalo Marine Services Inc.
1997 – Arie Luyendyk won the Indianapolis 500 for the second time.
1997 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules that Paula Jones can pursue her sex harassment lawsuit against President Bill Clinton while he is in office.
1997 – Marv Albert, NBC sportscaster, was arrested on charges of sexual assault.
1997 – A tornado hit Jarrell, Texas, and left 27 people dead. It cut a swath from Austin to Waco.
1998 – The sexual harassment suit of Paula Jones against President Clinton was scheduled to start.
1998 – Oklahoma City bombing: Michael Fortier is sentenced to 12 years in prison and fined $200,000 for failing to warn authorities about the terrorist plot.
1999 – The space shuttle Discovery was launched from Kennedy Space Center in Florida with seven astronauts from the US, Canada and Russia. The shuttle was on a 10-day mission to stock the new space station.
1999 – In North Korea US inspectors found an empty tunnel at a suspected nuclear arms site.
2000 – A freight train derailed near Eunice, La., and some 3,500 people were evacuated due to the release of methyl chloride, acrylic acid, toluene diisocyanate, and dichloropropane.
2000 – The wreck of the Carpathia, the steamer that rescued passengers of the Titanic in 1912, was found in 500 feet of water, 120 miles south of Fastnet, Ireland.
2002 – President Bush commemorated Memorial Day at Normandy American Cemetery in France, where he honored the 9,387 men and women buried there.
2004 – London police arrested Abu Hamza al-Masri, a radical Muslim cleric suspected of helping the deadly 2000 suicide attack on the USS Cole. The US sought his extradition on terrorism charges.
2004 – NASA announces the first Spitzer Space Telescope has found a planet that appears to be less than a million years old.
2005 – Pfizer Inc. acknowledged rare cases of blindness in men taking its impotence drug Viagra and said it is in talks with US regulators to change the drug’s label.
2005 – In North Carolina Junior Allen (65) walked out of prison after 35 years in prison for stealing a black-and-white television set.
2007 – Dario Franchitti won a rain-abbreviated Indianapolis 500.
2008 – The US Supreme Court strengthened civil rights laws for workers over retaliation in bias cases relating to race and anti-age discrimination.
2009 – In Florida a demolition crew sank the USS Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg seven miles off Key West, where it will become one of the world’s largest man made reefs. The WWII ship was last used by the Air Force to track missiles and spacecraft.
2009 – President Barack Obama nominates Hispanic Roman Catholic theologian Miguel H. Diaz as Ambassador to the Holy See.
2010 – BP was having difficulty plugging its gushing deepwater Gulf of Mexico well in the latest attempt to control the source of a catastrophic five-week-old oil spill. President Obama extended a moratorium on new deepwater oil drilling and ordered floating rigs to stop work on 33 exploratory wells.
2010 – Off-duty police officer Donald J. Moore stopped Abraham Dickan, a 79-year-old man who decided to shoot up an AT&T store in New York Mills, New York. Moore was in the store when Dickan entered brandishing a .357 magnum and a hit list of employees he planned to kill in his pocket. Moore heard Dickan’s gun go off, drew his own personal weapon, and killed Dickan on scene. One AT&T employee was injured in the shooting.
2010 – The Gulf of Mexico oil spill is now the worst oil spill in U.S. history, surpassing the worst previous spill, the Exxon Valdez wreck on the Alaska coast in 1989, according to scientists’ latest estimates.
2010 – In Florida a Delta 4 rocket at Cape Canaveral carried a new generation GPS satellite into space. A dozen such Boeing-built satellites will be launched over the next several years to replace the 20-year-old systems now in service.
2011 – A wildfire causes the evacuation of hundreds of homes in Lake Isabella, California.
2011 – Arizona Attorney General Tom Horne takes the United States Department of Justice to court over the states medical marijuana laws.
2011 – Space Shuttle Endeavour crewmembers Mike Fincke and Greg Chamitoff undertake what is expected to be the last spacewalk ever conducted by a space shuttle crew.
2011 – The Boston Bruins defeat the Tampa Bay Lightning 1-0 in the Eastern Conference of National Hockey League to progress to the 2011 Stanley Cup Finals against the Vancouver Canucks.
2013 – Tenth anniversary of the first release of WordPress, the platform on which this blog is built.
1738 – Nathaniel Gorham, American politician (d. 1796)
1794 – Cornelius Vanderbilt, American entrepreneur (d. 1877)
1819 – Julia Ward Howe, American composer (d. 1910)
1837 – Wild Bill Hickok, American gunfighter (d. 1876)
1911 – Hubert H. Humphrey, American politician (d. 1978)
1912 – Sam Snead, American golfer (d. 2002)
1921 – Caryl Chessman, American robber and rapist (d. 1960)
1923 – Henry Kissinger, United States Secretary of State, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
1935 – Lee Meriwether, Miss America and actress
1936 – Louis Gossett Jr., American actor
.1956 – Cynthia McFadden, American television anchor
*FLEEK, CHARLES CLINTON
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U .S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 27th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Binh Duong Province, Republic of Vietnam, May 27th, 1969. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Born: 28 August 1947, Petersburg, Ky. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Fleek distinguished himself while serving as a squad leader in Company C, during an ambush operation. Sgt. Fleek’s unit was deployed in ambush locations when a large enemy force approached the position. Suddenly, the leading enemy element, sensing the ambush, halted and started to withdraw. Reacting instantly, Sgt. Fleek opened fire and directed the effective fire of his men upon the numerically superior enemy force. During the fierce battle that followed, an enemy soldier threw a grenade into the squad position. Realizing that his men had not seen the grenade, Sgt. Fleek, although in a position to seek cover, shouted a warning to his comrades and threw himself onto the grenade, absorbing its blast. His gallant action undoubtedly saved the lives or prevented the injury of at least eight of his fellow soldiers. Sgt. Fleek’s gallantry and willing self-sacrifice were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army .
PHIPPS, JIMMY W.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company B, 1st Engineer Battalion, 1st Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and date: Near An Hoa, Republic of Vietnam, May 27th, 1969. Entered service at: Culver City, Calif. Born: 1 November 1950, Santa Monica, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a combat engineer with Company B in connection with combat operations against the enemy. Pfc. Phipps was a member of a two-man combat engineer demolition team assigned to locate and destroy enemy artillery ordnance and concealed firing devices. After he had expended all of his explosives and blasting caps, Pfc. Phipps discovered a 175mm high-explosive artillery round in a rice paddy. Suspecting that the enemy had attached the artillery round to a secondary explosive device, he warned other Marines in the area to move to covered positions and prepared to destroy the round with a hand grenade. As he was attaching the hand grenade to a stake beside the artillery round, the fuse of the enemy’s secondary explosive device ignited. Realizing that his assistant and the platoon commander were both within a few meters of him and that the imminent explosion could kill all three men, Pfc. Phipps grasped the hand grenade to his chest and dived forward to cover the enemy’s explosive and the artillery round with his body, thereby shielding his companions from the detonation while absorbing the full and tremendous impact with his body. Pfc. Phipps’ indomitable courage, inspiring initiative, and selfless devotion to duty saved the lives of two Marines and upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country .
CUTTER, GEORGE W.
INTERIM AWARDS 1871-1898
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1849, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 176, 9 July 1872. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Powhatan, Norfolk, Va., May 27th, 1872. Jumping overboard on this date, Cutter aided in saving one of the crew of that vessel from drowning.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Northampton, Mass. Born: 1841, Canada. Date of issue: 24 November 1916. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Served as quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Cincinnati during the attack on the Vicksburg batteries and at the time of her sinking, May 27th, 1863. Engaging the enemy in a fierce battle, the Cincinnati, amidst an incessant fire of shot and shell, continued to fire her guns to the last, though so penetrated by enemy shellfire that her fate was sealed. Conspicuously cool in making signals throughout the battle, Bois, after all the Cincinnati’s staffs had been shot away, succeeded in nailing the flag to the stump of the forestaff to enable this proud ship to go down, “with her colors nailed to the mast.”
DELAND, FREDERICK N.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 40th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Port Hudson, La., May 27th, 1863. Entered service at: ——. Born: 25 December 1843, Sheffield, Mass. Date of issue: 22 June 1896. Citation: Volunteered in response to a call and, under a heavy fire from the enemy, advanced and assisted in filling with fascines a ditch which presented a serious obstacle to the troops attempting to take the works of the enemy by assault.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Scotland. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Cincinnati during the attack on the Vicksburg batteries and at the time of her sinking, May 27th, 1863. Engaging the enemy in a fierce battle, the Cincinnati, amidst an incessant fire of shot and shell, continued to fire her guns to the last, though so penetrated by enemy shellfire that her fate was sealed. Serving courageously throughout this action, Dow carried out his duties to the end on this proud ship that went down with “her colors nailed to the mast.”
HAMILTON, THOMAS W.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1833, Scotland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Serving as quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Cincinnati during the attack on the Vicksburg batteries and at the time of her sinking, May 27th, 1863. Engaging the enemy in a fierce battle, the Cincinnati, amidst an incessant fire of shot and shell, continued to fire her guns to the last although so penetrated by enemy shell fire that her fate was sealed. Conspicuously gallant during this action, Hamilton, severely wounded at the wheel, returned to his post and had to be sent below, to hear the incessant roar of guns as the gallant ship went down, “her colors nailed to the mast.”
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Biography not available. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Cincinnati during the attack on the Vicksburg batteries and at the time of her sinking, May 27th,1863. Engaging the enemy in a fierce battle, the Cincinnati, amidst an incessant fire of shot and shell, continued to fire her guns to the last, though so penetrated by shell fire that her fate was sealed. Serving bravely during this action, Jenkins was conspicuously cool under the fire of the enemy, never ceasing to fight until this proud ship went down, “her colors nailed to the mast.”
JOHNS, HENRY T.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 49th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Port Hudson, La., May 27th, 1863. Entered service at: Hinsdale, Mass. Birth: ——. Date of issue. 25 November 1893. Citation: Volunteered in response to a call and took part in the movement that was made upon the enemy’s works under a heavy fire there from of a mile in advance of the general assault.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 60th New York Infantry. Place and date: At New Hope Church, Ga., May 27th,1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: St. Lawrence, N.Y. Date of issue: 6 April 1892. Citation: Voluntarily exposed himself to the fire of a Confederate sharpshooter, thus drawing fire upon himself and enabling his comrade to shoot the sharpshooter.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837, Cincinnati, Ohio. Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Cincinnati during the attack on the Vicksburg batteries and at the time of her sinking, May 27th, 1863. Engaging the enemy in a fierce battle, the Cincinnati amidst, an incessant fire of shot and shell, continued to fire her guns to the last, though so penetrated by shellfire that her fate was sealed. Serving bravely during this action, McHugh was conspicuously cool under the fire of the enemy, never ceasing to fire until this proud ship went down, “her colors nailed to the mast.”
PUTNAM, EDGAR P.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 9th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Crumps Creek, Va., May 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Stockton, N.Y. Birth: Stockton, N.Y. Date of issue: 13 May 1892. Citation: With a small force on a reconnaissance drove off a strong body of the enemy, charged into another force of the enemy’s cavalry and stampeded them, taking twenty-seven prisoners.
RUTHERFORD, JOHN T.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company L, 9th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Yellow Tavern, Va., 11 May 1864; At Hanovertown, Va., May 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Canton, N.Y. Birth:——. Date of issue: 22 March 1892. Citation: Made a successful charge at Yellow Tavern, Va., 11 May 1864, by which ninety prisoners were captured. On 27 May 1864, in a gallant dash on a superior force of the enemy and in a personal encounter, captured his opponent.
STRONG, JAMES N.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 49th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Port Hudson, La., May 27th, 1863. Entered service at: Pittsfield, Mass. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 25 November 1893. Citation: Volunteered in response to a call and took part in the movement that was made upon the enemy’s works under a heavy fire therefrom in advance of the general assault.
WARREN, FRANCIS E.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 49th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Port Hudson, La., May 27th, 1863. Entered service at: Hinsdale, Mass. Birth: Hinsdale, Mass. Date of issue: 30 September 1893. Citation: Volunteered in response to a call, and took part in the movement that was made upon the enemy’s works under a heavy fire therefrom in advance of the general assault.
Civil Air Patrol
In the late 1930s, more than 150,000 volunteers with a love for aviation argued for an organization to put their planes and flying skills to use in defense of their country. As a result, the Civil Air Patrol was born one week prior to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Thousands of volunteer members answered America’s call to national service and sacrifice by accepting and performing critical wartime missions. Assigned to the War Department under the jurisdiction of the Army Air Corps, the contributions of Civil Air Patrol, including logging more than 500,000 flying hours, sinking two enemy submarines, and saving hundreds of crash victims during World War II, are well documented.
After the war, a thankful nation understood that Civil Air Patrol could continue providing valuable services to both local and national agencies. On July 1, 1946, President Harry Truman signed Public Law 476 incorporating Civil Air Patrol as a benevolent, nonprofit organization. On May 26, 1948, Congress passed Public Law 557 permanently establishing Civil Air Patrol as the auxiliary of the new U.S. Air Force. Three primary mission areas were set forth at that time: aerospace education, cadet programs, and emergency services.
CAP’s aerospace education efforts focus on two different audiences: volunteer CAP members and the general public. The programs ensure that all CAP members (seniors and cadets) have an appreciation for and knowledge of aerospace issues. To advance within the organization, members are required to participate in the educational program. Aerospace educators at CAP’s National Headquarters at Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala., provide current materials that reflect the highest standards of educational excellence. Aerospace education is divided into two parts: internal and external.
The internal aerospace education program has two parts as well: cadet and senior. Cadets complete aerospace education as one of the requirements to progress through the achievement levels of the cadet program. Senior members have a responsibility to become knowledgeable of aerospace issues and the AE program that CAP provides. They are further encouraged to share the information obtained with their local communities and school systems.
CAP’s external aerospace programs are conducted through our nation’s educational system. Each year, CAP sponsors many workshops in states across the nation, reaching hundreds of educators and thereby thousands of young people. These workshops highlight basic aerospace knowledge and focus on advances in aerospace technology. CAP’s aerospace education members receive more than 20 free aerospace education classroom materials.
To learn more about CAP’s aerospace education programs, products, and other resources available to our members, go to www.capmembers.com/ae. For information about joining as an aerospace education member (AEM) and to join online, go to www.capmembers.com/joinaem.
Acts 13:15 – New International Version
After the reading from the Law and the Prophets, the leaders of the synagogue sent word to them, saying, “Brothers, if you have a word of exhortation for the people, please speak.”
“Public utility pleads most forcibly for the general distribution of the Holy Scriptures. The doctrine they preach, the obligations they impose, the punishment they threaten, the rewards they promise, the stamp and image of divinity they bear, which produces a conviction of their truths, can alone secure to society, order and peace, and to our courts of justice and constitutions of government, purity, stability and usefulness. In vain, without the Bible, we increase penal laws and draw entrenchments around our institutions. Bibles are strong entrenchments. Where they abound, men cannot pursue wicked courses, and at the same time enjoy quiet conscience.”
~ James McHenry – Signer of the Constitution
“With everything that has happened to you, you can either feel sorry for yourself or treat what has happened as a gift. Everything is either an opportunity to grow or an obstacle to keep you from growing. You get to choose.”
~ Wayne Dyer
susurrus \su-SUHR-uhs\, noun:
A whispering or rustling sound; a murmur.
Susurrus comes from the Latin susurrus, “a murmuring, a whispering, a humming.”
1521 – Martin Luther was banned by the Edict of Worms because of his religious beliefs and writings.
1538 – Geneva expels John Calvin and his followers from the city. Calvin lives in exile in Strasbourg for the next three years.
1607 – Approximately 200 Indian warriors stormed the unfinished stockade at Jamestown, Va. Two settlers were killed and ten seriously wounded before they were repulsed by cannon fire from the colonists’ three moored ships.
1637 – Pequot War: A combined Protestant and Mohegan force under German Captain John Mason attacks a Pequot village in Connecticut, massacring approximately 500 Native Americans at their village at Mystic. The survivors were parceled out to other tribes. Those given to the Mohegans eventually became the Mashantucket Pequots.
1647 – Alse Young becomes the first person executed as a witch in the American colonies, when she is hanged in Hartford, Connecticut.
1647 – Massachusetts disallows priest access to the colony. Although no Jesuit was executed for defying the ban, the legacy of anti-Catholicism in Massachusetts survived for generations.
1736 – British and Chickasaw soldiers repel a French and Choctaw attack on the Chickasaw village of Ackia, near present-day Tupelo, Mississippi. The French, under Louisiana governor Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, had sought to link Louisiana with Acadia and the other northern colonies of New France.
1781 – Bank of North America incorporates in Philadelphia. When shares in the bank were sold to the public, Bank of North America became the country’s first initial public offering. It was succeeded in its role as central bank by the First Bank of the United States in 1791.
1790 – Territory South of the Ohio River by Congress, more commonly known as the Southwest Territory, was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from today, until June 1, 1796, when it was admitted to the United States as the State of Tennessee.
1805 – Lewis & Clark first see the Rocky Mountains.
1819 – The first steam-propelled vessel to attempt a trans-Atlantic crossing, the 350-ton Savannah, departed from Savannah, Ga., May 26 and arrived in Liverpool, England, Jun 20.
1830 – The Indian Removal Act is passed by the U.S. Congress; it is signed into law by President Andrew Jackson two days later.
1836 – The U.S. House of Representatives adopted what has been called the Gag Rule.
1853 – Major Jacob Zeilin (in charge of Marines) arrived with Commodore Matthew C. Perry’s squadron at Okinawa.
1857 – Dred Scott and his family are emancipated by the Blow family, his original owners.
1857 – Robert Mushet received a patent for methods of manufacturing steel.
1859 – Captain James Simpson and his party, looking for the shortest route across Nevada, crossed the Hickison Summit into Big Smoky Valley. Their path was later followed by the Pony Express (1860) and the Overland Mail and Stage (1861).
1861 – Civil War: Postmaster General Blair announced the end of postal connection with South.
1861 – Civil War: Union blockaded New Orleans, LA., and Mobile, AL.
1864 – Anxious to create new free territories during the Civil War, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln signs an act establishing the Montana Territory. However, as Montana was on the unstable frontier, it did little to add to the integrity of the Union.
1864 – Civil War: A joint Army-Navy expedition advanced up the Ashepoo and South Edisto Rivers, South Carolina, with the object of cutting the Charleston and Savannah Railroad.
1864 – Civil War: There was a skirmish along the Totopotomoy Creek, Virginia.
1865 – Civil War: Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith, commander of the Confederate Trans-Mississippi division, is the last general of the Confederate Army to surrender, at Galveston, Texas.
1865 – Civil War: Confederate Lt. Gen. S.B. Buckner and Union Maj. Gen P. J. Osterhaus conclude surrender terms for all Confederate forces west of the Mississippi.
1868 – The impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson ends, with Johnson being found not guilty by one vote.
1869 – Boston University is chartered by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
1874 – Second Preakness: William Donohue aboard “Culpepper” wins in 2:56.5
1883 – Eleventh Preakness: G Barbee aboard “Jacobus” wins in 2:42.5
1887 – Racetrack betting becomes legal in New York state.
1896 – Charles Dow publishes the first edition of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The Dow set up an index of twelve industrial companies that began at 40.94.
1896 – First American intercollegiate bicycle race was held in Manhattan Beach NY.
1898 – 32nd Belmont: F Littlefield aboard “Bowling Brook” wins in 2:32.
1903 – Start of Sherlock Holmes “Adventure of Three Gables” .
1907 – Chicago White Sox Ed Walsh no-hits New York Highlanders, 8-1 in 5 inning game washed out by rain.
1911 – First Indianapolis 500 auto race is run.
1917 – A powerful F4 tornado rips Mattoon, Illinois apart, killing 101 persons and injuring 689. It was the world’s longest-lasting tornado, lasting for over 7 hours and traveling 293 miles, spreading death and destruction along its path.
1917 – St. Louis Cardinals Walt Cruise hit the first homerun out of Braves Field into the “Jury Box”, the 25-cent stands in right field past the 402 foot mark.
1924 – President Calvin Coolidge signs Immigration law: restricting immigration.
1925 – Tigers’ Ty Cobb is the first to collect 1,000 extra-base hits (ends 1,139).
1927 – Ford Motor Company manufactures its 15 millionth Model T automobile. Henry Ford watched the car roll off the assembly line at his factory in Highland Park, Michigan.
1928 – Andrew Payne ran 3,422 miles in 84 days to win the Bunion Derby. The race would be run in laps, following Highway 66 from its Los Angeles and continue to Oklahoma. The runners would then pass over the Mississippi River at St. Louis, go to Chicago, to New York State’s Route 17, and finish in New York City. More than 20,000 spectators watched as the 55 survivors left for the final lap into New York City.
1930 – Supreme Court rules buying liquor does not violate the Constitution.
1931 – A microfilm camera was patented by New York City banker, George L. McCarthy. He developed the first practical commercial microfilm use in the 1920’s and was issued a patent in 1925 for his Checkograph machine.
1937 – Lionel Hampton and his band recorded “Flying Home.”
1937 – San Francisco Bay’s Golden Gate Bridge opens.
1938 – The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was formed. Although HUAC investigated disloyalty among fascists as well as communists, it concentrated almost exclusively on the latter.
1940 – World War II: Battle of Dunkirk – In France, Allied forces begin a massive evacuation from Dunkirk.
1940 – First successful helicopter flight in US: Vought-Sikorsky US-300 designed by Igor Sikorsky.
1941 – American Flag House (Betsy Ross’ Home) given to the City of Philadelphia.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: Belgium Jews are required by Nazis to wear a Jewish star.
1942 – World War II: Battle of Bir Hakeim. Afrika Korps vs British army.
1942 – World War II: Japanese Admiral Nagumo’s First Carrier Fleet sails for Midway. His task force contains the carriers Akagi, Kaga, Soryu and Hiryu with two battleships, cruisers and destroyers as escort.
1942 – World War II: US Task Force 16, with the aircraft carriers Enterprise and Hornet, returns to Pearl Harbor. The Japanese believe that these ships are still active in the South Pacific.
1943 – Edwin Barclay of Liberia becomes first president of a black country to visit US.
1944 – World War II: USS England sinks fifth Japanese submarine in one week.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, American bombers and artillery attack Japanese troops withdrawing from the Shuri Line.
1945 – About 464 American B-29 Superfortress bombers fire-bombed Tokyo with about 4000 tons of incendiaries (fire bombs). Parts of the imperial palace were damaged as was the nearby business district of Marunouchi, which was the targeted area.
1945 – Saturday Evening Post presented Norman Rockwell’s “Rosie the Riveter” as its cover photo.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Gypsy” by The Ink Spots, “All Through the Day” by Perry Como, “Laughing on the Outside” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Billy Williams) and “New Spanish Two Step” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1946 – Patent filed in US for H-Bomb.
1948 – The U.S. Congress passes Public Law 557 which permanently establishes the Civil Air Patrol as an auxiliary of the United States Air Force.
1950 – “The Third Man Theme” by Guy Lombardo topped the charts.
1951 – “How High the Moon” by Les Paul & Mary Ford topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: U.N. Forces drove the communists’ back across the 38th parallel on most of the Korean battlefields.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wanted” by Perry Como, “Little Things Mean a Lot” by Kitty Kallen, “Man Upstairs” by Kay Starr and “I Really Don’t Want to Know” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1954 – One of USS Bennington’s catapults exploded. Secondary explosions killed 103 crewmen and injured 201 others. She proceeded to Quonset Point, R. I., to land her injured.
1956 – “Heartbreak Hotel” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1956 – The first trailer bank opened for business in Locust Grove, Long Island, NY. The 46-foot-long trailer took in $100,000 in deposits its first day.
1959 – In a singular performance, Harvey Haddix of the Pirates pitches a perfect game against Milwaukee for 12 innings, only to lose in the 13th.
1959 – The word “Frisbee” became a registered trademark of Wham-O.
1961 – USAF B-58 Hustler flown from Carswell Air Force Base, Tex., to Le Bourget, Paris, in record 6 hours 15 minutes, covering distance from New York to Paris in 3 hours 20 minutes. This flight commemorated the 34th anniversary of Charles A. Lindbergh’s transatlantic crossing on May 20-21, 1927.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Stranger on the Shore” by Mr. Acker Bilk, “I Can’t Stop Loving You” by Ray Charles, “Old Rivers” by Walter Brennan and “She Thinks I Still Care” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1965 – The Rolling Stones appeared on “Shindig!” along with Jackie De Shannon, Sonny and Cher and Jimmy Rodgers.
1969 – Apollo 10 returns to earth after a successful eight-day test of all the components needed for the forthcoming first manned moon landing.
1969 – Operation Pipestone Canyon began when the 1st Battalion, 26th Marines and 3d Battalion, 5th Marines began sweeps in the Dodge City/Go Noi areas southwest of Da Nang.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “American Woman/No Sugar Tonight” by The Guess Who, “Turn Back the Hands of Time” by Tyrone Davis, “Everything is Beautiful” by Ray Stevens and “My Love” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1972 – The first round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I) ends with President Richard M. Nixon and General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev signing the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty , the SALT Accord and the Interim Agreement on Strategic Offensive Arms.
1973 – “Frankenstein” by the Edgar Winter Group topped the charts.
1973 – Deep Purple’s single “Smoke On The Water” was released.
1973 – Chicago White Sox beat the Cleveland Indians, 6-3, in 21 innings (game complete 5/28).
1973 – Kathy Schmidt set an American women’s javelin record with a throw of 207 feet, 10 inches.
1974 – Indianapolis 500: Johnny Rutherford wins in 3:09:10.094 (158.59 mph)
1977 – George Willig climbs the South Tower of New York City’s World Trade Center. New York City Mayor Abraham Beame fined him $1.10, one cent for each of the skyscraper’s 110 stories.
1977 – “Beatlemania” opens in Winter Garden Theater on Broadway.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “With a Little Luck” by Wings, “Too Much, Too Little, Too Late” by Johnny Mathis/Deniece Williams, “You’re The One That I Want” by John Travolta & Olivia Newton-John and “She Can Put Her Shoes Under My Bed (Anytime)” by Johnny Duncan all topped the charts.
1978 – In Atlantic City, New Jersey, Resorts International, the first legal casino in the eastern United States, opens.
1978 – Unabomber – The first of many bombs sent out by Theodore John Kaczynski AKA, the Unabomber. This first one was at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. It was “sent” to materials engineering professor Buckley Crist at Northwestern University. It was found in a parking lot on campus and “returned” to Mr. Crist. Terry Marker, campus police officer was injured in the explosion.
1979 – “Reunited” by Peaches & Herb topped the charts.
1981 – Fourteen people were killed when a Marine jet crashed onto the flight deck of the aircraft carrier USS Nimitz off Florida.
1984 – “Let’s Hear It for the Boy” by Denice Williams topped the charts.
1984 – A Frisbee is kept aloft for 1,672 seconds (27.9 minutes) in Philadelphia.
1984 – Floods kill 14 in Tulsa Okla. The floods were created by the 13 inches of rain that fell.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Greatest Love of All” by Whitney Houston, “Live to Tell” by Madonna, “On My Own” by Patti LaBelle & Michael McDonald and “Tomb of the Unknown Love” by Kenny Rogers all topped the charts.
1987 – The US Supreme Court ruled that “dangerous defendants” can be held without bail.
1989 – Reports began circulating that House Majority Whip Tony Coelho would resign to spare himself and the Democratic Party the ordeal of an investigation into his ethics.
1990 – Philadelphia Phillies retire Mike Schmidt’s uniform #20.
1990 – “Vogue” by Madonna topped the charts.
1991 – Rick Mears became the third driver to win the Indianapolis 500 four times.
1992 – Charles Geschke, co-founder of Adobe Systems, Inc. was kidnapped at gunpoint from the Adobe parking lot in Mountain View, California. The kidnappers wanted $650,000 and hold him hostage in a rented house in Hollister, California. The FBI rescues him four days later.
1992 – The White House announced that the Coast Guard was returning a group of Haitian refugees picked up at sea to their homeland under a new executive order signed by President Bush.
1993 – Long fly ball by Indians’ Carlos Martinez bounces off Jose Canseco’s head and into the stands for a home run. The Indians defeat the Rangers, 7-6.
1996 – Indianapolis 500: Buddy Lazier wins in 3:22:45.753 (147.96 mph)
1996 – A police sergeant searching the murky waters where ValuJet Flight 592 crashed into the Florida Everglades, killing all 110 people aboard, found the cockpit voice recorder.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules that Ellis Island, the historic gateway for millions of immigrants, is mainly in the state of New Jersey, not New York.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that police officers in high-speed chases are liable for bystander injuries only if their “actions shock the conscience.”
1998 – The Grand Princess cruise ship made its inaugural cruise. The ship weighs in at 109,000 tons and cost approximately $450 million making it the largest and most expensive cruise ship ever built.
1999 – House Republicans pushed through legislation that would put new obstacles in the way of spending government surpluses that came from Social Security taxes.
2000 – The “Killer Resume” computer virus began to circulate.
2000 – In Florida, Nathaniel Brazill, a 13-year-old student, shot and killed teacher Barry Grunow (35) on the last day of classes at Lake Worth Community Middle School after the teacher refused to let him talk with two girls in his classroom.
2001 – Republicans and moderate Democrats drove a sweeping $1.35 trillion, ten-year tax cut through Congress, handing President Bush a political triumph.
2002 – The Mars Odyssey finds signs of huge water ice deposits on the planet Mars.
2002 – Indianapolis 500: Helio Castroneves won his second straight Indianapolis 500 despite a protest filed by Paul Tracy. He wins in 3:00:10.871 (166.50 mph).
2002 – In Oklahoma a barge hit an I-40 bridge over the Arkansas River and 14 people were killed. A 500-600-foot section of the 1,988-foot bridge collapsed after Joe Dedmon, Capt. of the Robert Y. Love tugboat, apparently blacked out.
2003 – FBI and state police issued fugitive and murder warrants for Derrick Todd Lee, a prime suspect in the killings of 5 women in south Louisiana.
2004 – The New York Times publishes an admission of journalistic failings, claiming that its flawed reporting and lack of skeptism towards sources during the buildup to the 2003 war in Iraq helped promote the belief that Iraq possessed large stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction.
2004 – The U.S. Army veteran Terry Nichols is found guilty of 161 state murder charges for helping carry out the Oklahoma City bombing.
2004 – The US government planned to set a limit on how much salt American should consume to 2,300 mg a day.
2004 – The FBI issued an alert warning of a possible major terrorist attack in the US this summer. Photos of seven suspects were released.
2005 – Investigators confirmed five cases in which military personnel mishandled the Qurans of Muslim prisoners at Guantanamo Bay, but said they had found no “credible evidence” that a holy book was flushed in a toilet.
2005 – In Tennessee four lawmakers and a member of a powerful political family were indicted on charges of taking bribes in a FBI sting dubbed “Tennessee Waltz.” State Sen. John Ford had received payments totaling $55,000 and boasted to undercover agents: “You are talking to the guy that makes the deals.”
2006 – US Air Force General Michael Hayden won confirmation to be the 20th CIA director in a 78-15 Senate vote.
2009 – President Barack Obama tapped federal appeals judge Sonia Sotomayor for the Supreme Court, making her the first Hispanic in history picked to be a justice.
2009 – The Supreme Court of California upholds Proposition 8, the state’s ban on same-sex marriage.
2009 – The California Supreme Court ruled 6-1 to uphold proposition 8, the November initiative that amended the state constitution to define marriage as the union of a man and a woman. The court said same-sex couple married before Nov. 4 remain legally wed.
2010 – Space Shuttle Atlantis completes its final scheduled mission after landing at Kennedy Space Center, Florida.
2011 – Severe storms in the Atlanta, Georgia, kill at least three people and leave 193,000 people without power.
2011 – The United States House of Representatives votes overwhelmingly against funding the involvement of ground troops in Libya.
2011 – The Miami Heat wins the Eastern Conference in the NBA and will meet the Dallas Mavericks in the 2011 NBA Finals.
2012 – The Miami cannibal attack occurred. Rudy Eugene assaulted Ronald Poppo on the MacArthur Causeway in Miami,Florida. Eugene (who was himself stripped nude) accused Poppo of stealing his Bible, beat him unconscious, removed Poppo’s pants, and bit off most of Poppo’s face above the beard, including his left eye, leaving him blind in both.
2013 – Indianapolis 500: Tony Kanaan wins in 2:40:03.4181 (187.43 mph) *
2013 – A 17-year-old American boy, Grant Acord, is arrested and charged with attempted aggravated murder for planning to blow up his school, West Albany High School, in Albany, Oregon. Six explosives were found in his bedroom.
1764 – Edward Livingston, American jurist and statesman (d. 1836)
1877 – Isadora Duncan, American dancer (d. 1927)
1886 – Al Jolson, American singer (d. 1950)
1907 – John Wayne, American actor (d. 1979)
1912 – Jay Silverheels, American actor, “Tonto” (d. 1980)
1920 – Peggy Lee, American singer (d. 2002)
1923 – James Arness, American actor
1926 – Miles Davis, American musician (d. 1991)
1949 – Hank Williams Jr., American singer
1951 – Sally Ride, American astronaut
1964 – Lenny Kravitz, American musician
PETRY, LEROY A.
Rank and Organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 2d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment. Place and Date: Paktya Province, Afghanistan, May 26th, 2008. Entered service at New Mexico. Born: 29 July 1979, Santa Fe New Mexico. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty, Staff Sergeant Leroy A. Petry distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action with an armed enemy in the vicinity of Paktya Province, Afghanistan, on May 26, 2008. As a Weapons Squad Leader with D Company, 2nd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, Staff Sergeant Petry moved to clear the courtyard of a house that potentially contained high-value combatants. While crossing the courtyard, Staff Sergeant Petry and another Ranger were engaged and wounded by automatic weapons fire from enemy fighters. Still under enemy fire, and wounded in both legs, Staff Sergeant Petry led the other Ranger to cover. He then reported the situation and engaged the enemy with a hand grenade, providing suppression as another Ranger moved to his position. The enemy quickly responded by maneuvering closer and throwing grenades. The first grenade explosion knocked his two fellow Rangers to the ground and wounded both with shrapnel. A second grenade then landed only a few feet away from them. Instantly realizing the danger, Staff Sergeant Petry, unhesitatingly and with complete disregard for his safety, deliberately and selflessly moved forward, picked up the grenade, and in an effort to clear the immediate threat, threw the grenade away from his fellow Rangers. As he was releasing the grenade it detonated, amputating his right hand at the wrist and further injuring him with multiple shrapnel wounds. Although picking up and throwing the live grenade grievously wounded Staff Sergeant Petry, his gallant act undeniably saved his fellow Rangers from being severely wounded or killed. Despite the severity of his wounds, Staff Sergeant Petry continued to maintain the presence of mind to place a tourniquet on his right wrist before communicating the situation by radio in order to coordinate support for himself and his fellow wounded Rangers. Staff Sergeant Petry’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service, and reflect great credit upon himself, 75th Ranger Regiment, and the United States Army.
*MARTINEZ, JOE P .
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company K, 32d Infantry, 7th Infantry Division. Place and date: On Attu, Aleutians, May 26th, 1943. Entered service at: Ault, Colo. Birth: Taos, N. Mex. G.O. No.: 71, 27 October 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy. Over a period of several days, repeated efforts to drive the enemy from a key defensive position high in the snow-covered precipitous mountains between East Arm Holtz Bay and Chichagof Harbor had failed. On 26 May 1943, troop dispositions were readjusted and a trial coordinated attack on this position by a reinforced battalion was launched. Initially successful, the attack hesitated. In the face of severe hostile machinegun, rifle, and mortar fire, Pvt. Martinez, an automatic rifleman, rose to his feet and resumed his advance. Occasionally he stopped to urge his comrades on. His example inspired others to follow. After a most difficult climb, Pvt. Martinez eliminated resistance from part of the enemy position by BAR fire and hand grenades, thus assisting the advance of other attacking elements. This success only partially completed the action. The main Holtz-Chichagof Pass rose about 150 feet higher, flanked by steep rocky ridges and reached by a snow-filled defile. Passage was barred by enemy fire from either flank and from tiers of snow trenches in front. Despite these obstacles, and knowing of their existence, Pvt. Martinez again led the troops on and up, personally silencing several trenches with BAR fire and ultimately reaching the pass itself. Here, just below the knifelike rim of the pass, Pvt. Martinez encountered a final enemy-occupied trench and as he was engaged in firing into it he was mortally wounded. The pass, however, was taken, and its capture was an important preliminary to the end of organized hostile resistance on the island.
NEWMAN, BERYL R.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 133d Infantry, 34th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Cisterna, Italy, May 26th, 1944. Entered service at: Baraboo, Wis. Birth: Baraboo, Wis. G.O. No.: 5, 15 January 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty on 26 May 1944. Attacking the strongly held German Anzio-Nettuno defense line near Cisterna, Italy, 1st Lt. Newman, in the lead of his platoon, was suddenly fired upon by two enemy machineguns located on the crest of a hill about 100 yards to his front. The four scouts with him immediately hit the ground, but 1st Lt. Newman remained standing in order to see the enemy positions and his platoon then about 100 yards behind. Locating the enemy nests, 1st Lt. Newman called back to his platoon and ordered one squad to advance to him and the other to flank the enemy to the right. Then, still standing upright in the face of the enemy machinegun fire, 1st Lt. Newman opened up with his tommygun on the enemy nests. From this range, his fire was not effective in covering the advance of his squads, and one squad was pinned down by the enemy fire. Seeing that his squad was unable to advance, 1st Lt. Newman, in full view of the enemy gunners and in the face of their continuous fire, advanced alone on the enemy nests. He returned their fire with his tommygun and succeeded in wounding a German in each of the nests. The remaining two Germans fled from the position into a nearby house. Three more enemy soldiers then came out of the house and ran toward a third machinegun. 1st Lt. Newman, still relentlessly advancing toward them, killed one before he reached the gun, the second before he could fire it. The third fled for his life back into the house. Covering his assault by firing into the doors and windows of the house, 1st Lt. Newman, boldly attacking by himself, called for the occupants to surrender to him. Gaining the house, he kicked in the door and went inside. Although armed with rifles and machine pistols, the eleven Germans there, apparently intimidated, surrendered to the lieutenant without further resistance, 1st Lt. Newman, single-handed, had silenced three enemy machineguns, wounded two Germans, killed two more, and took eleven prisoners. This demonstration of sheer courage, bravery, and willingness to close with the enemy even in the face of such heavy odds, instilled into these green troops the confidence of veterans and reflects the highest traditions of the U.S. Armed Forces.
National Missing Childrens Day
National Tap Dance Day
Uninformed researchers of computer (computador) history would probably note the first computer in the mid 1930`s. In reality, this history dates nearly 2000 years ago with the invention of the abacus where the user programmed beads using formulated constructs.
Although many historians caution against the use of the word computer (computador) except to define 20th century computers, a broader understanding illuminates an instrument designed by a Frenchman and which functioned as a calculator and was designed for a tax collector in the 1600`s. Improvements to this calculator continued through the 19th century.
Similar work was underway in England and with the support of the government a `mechanical` calculator was invented. It was powered by steam and supported a fixed program for its use. This calculator went through many changes until an automatic calculator was invented. Following this flurry of discovery and invention, little changed until the early 1900`s when detailed mechanical and transportation work required complex mathematical calculations (especially calculus).
Two Census Bureau workers began to look for a means of accurately calculating information. They conceived the idea of a punch card which would be inserted into the computer (computador), read, and stored. The greatest advantage of these still slow moving machines was the ability to store large amounts of information with ease and accuracy.
The early 1940`s and the imminent World War, brought the military into the computer era (computador). New weapons requiring computer technology for effectiveness, were needed, designed and produced. These were large floor model machines and utilized the floor space of an average one family home (about 2,000 square feet). One independent computer (computador) was not adequate and a means was found to link computers which produced a more accurate and clear channel of information. These devices were not only cumbersome but they required rewiring and rechanneling for each program. Greater inventions were in progress. These new computers (computador) would be equipped with memory capacity and worker faster than any in existence at the time.
In 1947, the first modern programmable computers (computador) were designed. They contained RAM (Random Access Memory) and made it possible to access information in seconds. This technology continued to be tested and improved into the 1950`s when magnetic core memory and a transistor circuit element were discovered. These increased the memory capacity and functionality of the computers (computador). On the down side the cost to operate these machines was astronomical. By nearly sheer determination alone, these devices evolved into amazing machines able to work with a number of programs simultaneously while giving the impression that only one program was in use.
As recently as the 1960`s computers (computador) were more available and the price had become nearly reasonable for businesses. Their use however, was confined mostly to mathematically based operations such as billing, accounting, and payroll. One of the major purchasers of these devices was hospitals which stored date from patients, inventory, billing, treatments, and the like.
By the 1980`s smaller individual computers (computador) were being produced. Technology continued to astound the general public as the microchip came into existence permitting personal computers to be sold with accompanying program disks for downloading. A glance around most medium to large companies would reveal many desk top computers in use.
It would be impossible to track the history of computers (computador) without acknowledging Apple Computer and IBM for their leading edge and evolving technology. Radio Shack coupled with Apple Computer (computador) produced video games for the computer (a move from the arcade).
The ability for businesses and individuals to access the worldwide web gave birth to new and innovative marketing and communication with inquirers and/or clients. Today it is inconceivable that one attempt to research something on line and not find multiple references there. The momentum has only continued to mount and new upgrades are available nearly by the day.
“Strangers are welcome because there is room enough for them all, and therefore the old Inhabitants are not jealous of them; the Laws protect them sufficiently so that they have no need of the Patronage of great Men; and every one will enjoy securely the Profits of his Industry. But if he does not bring a Fortune with him, he must work and be industrious to live.”
Benjamin Franklin, Those Who Would Remove to America, February, 1784
“The secret of living a life of excellence is merely a matter of thinking thoughts of excellence. Really, it’s a matter of programming our minds with the kind of , information that will set us free.”
~ Charles R. Swindoll
capacious \kuh-PAY-shuhs\, adjective:
Able to contain much; roomy; spacious.
Capacious is derived from Latin capax, capac-, “able to hold or contain.”
585 BC – The first known prediction of a solar eclipse was made in Greece.
1420 – Henry the Navigator is appointed governor of the Order of Christ.
1521 – The Diet of Worms ends when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issues the Edict of Worms, declaring Martin Luther an outlaw.
1659 – Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth.
1721 – John Copson became America’s first insurance agent. It was near Penn’s Landing in Philadelphia, that he became the first American to open an insurance office. Strictly speaking, Copson was a broker of marine policies.
1738 – A treaty between Pennsylvania and Maryland ends the Conojocular War with settlement of a boundary dispute and exchange of prisoners.
1787 – In Philadelphia, PA, delegates convene a Constitutional Convention to write a new Constitution for the United States. George Washington presides.Nine states had to approve the Constitution before it could go into effect. After a long and often bitter debate, eleven states ratified the Constitution, which instituted a new form of government for the United States.
1793 – Father Stephen Theodore Badin became the first US Roman Catholic priest ordained.
1844 – First telegraphed news dispatch is published in Baltimore Patriot.
1844 – The gasoline engine was patented by Stuart Perry.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson wins a victory on his campaign in the Shenandoah Valley.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of Winchester, VA.
1863 – Civil War: Federal authorities in Tennessee turned over former Ohio congressman Clement L. Vallandigham to the Confederates. President Abraham Lincoln had changed his sentence to banishment from the United States after his conviction of expressing alleged pro-Confederate sentiments.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of New Hope Church, Ga. Joseph E. Johnston tried to halt Sherman’s advance on Atlanta at the Hell Hole.
1865 – Civil War: In Mobile, Alabama, 300 are killed when an ordnance depot explodes.
1876 – First tie in National League history The game was between the Athletics & Louisville. The final score was 2-2 in 14 innings.
1877 – Training of the first class of Revenue Cutter cadets began on the school-ship Dobbin at Curtis Bay, Maryland, with nine cadets, three officers, one surgeon, six warrant officers and seventeen crew members.
1895 – Playwright, poet and novelist Oscar Wilde is convicted of “committing acts of gross indecency with other male persons” and sentenced to serve two years in prison.
1898 – First US troop transport to Manila left San Francisco.
1900 – Eyre M Shaw, 78, becomes oldest gold medalist in the Olympics.
1900 – President William McKinley signed the Lacey Act, 16 U.S.C. § 3371–3378, to defend fauna from poachers. It banned the illegal commercial transportation of wildlife. The conservation law was introduced by Iowa Rep. John F. Lacey.
1910 – Walter R. Brookins made the first airplane flight at night.
1919 – Casey Stengel releases a sparrow from under his baseball cap.
1922 – Babe Ruth suspended one day & fined $200 for throwing dirt on an umpire.
1925 – John T. Scopes is indicted for teaching Darwin’s theory of evolution.
1927 – The Ford Motor Company announced that the Model A would replace the Model T.
1927 – The “Movietone News” was shown for the first time at the Sam Harris Theatre in New York City.
1932 – Goofy, aka Dippy Dawg, first appears in ‘Mickey’s Revue‘ by Walt Disney.
1935 -“The greatest day in the history of track,” according to “The NY Times”. Jesse Owens of Ohio State University breaks five world records and ties a sixth at the Big Ten Conference Track and Field Championships in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
1935 – Babe Ruth hit his final homerun, his 714th, and set a record that would stand for 39 years.
1936 – The Remington Rand strike, led by the American Federation of Labor, begins. The strike is notorious for spawning the “Mohawk Valley formula,” a corporate plan for strikebreaking to discredit union leaders and much more.
1937 – First airmail letter to circle the globe returns to New York.
1940 – World War II: The Battle of Dunkirk begins.
1942 – World War II: American submarines move into patrol positions as part of the countermeasures to the expected Japanese attack on Midway.
1943 – There was a riot at Mobile, Al., shipyard over upgrading twelve Black workers.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dream” by The Pied Pipers, “Candy” by Johnny Mercer & Jo Stafford, “Sentimental Journey” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day) and “At Mail Call Today” by Gene Autry all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: The American armed forces Chiefs of Staff set November 1, 1945 as the start date for the invasion of Japan — Operation Olympic.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, the US 4th Marine Regiment eliminates the Japanese casemates and underground positions on Machishi Hill. The US 29th Regiment secures Naha.
1946 – Holocaust: Marcel Petiot (b.1897), a French doctor, was beheaded for offering Jews an escape to Argentina, then killing them and getting rid of their bodies, many by incineration. The remains of twenty-six people were found in his home, but he was suspected of killing more than sixty people.
1948 – Andrew Moyer was granted a patent for a method of mass production of penicillin.
1950 – Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel opened in New York City. The tunnel is officially known as the Hugh L. Carey Tunnel and it is a toll road in New York City which crosses under the East River at its mouth, connecting the Borough of Brooklyn on Long Island with the Borough of Manhattan.
1951 – Korean War: Eighteen U.S. Marines and one U.S. Army infantryman captured during the Chosin/Changjin Reservoir campaign were returned to U.N. control.
1951 – New York Giant Willie Mays first major league game. He goes 0 for 5.
1952 – Korean War: The USS Iowa made its heaviest attack to date against the industrial seaport of Chongjin.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Song from Moulin Rouge” by The Percy Faith Orchestra, “I Believe” by Frankie Laine, “April in Portugal by” The Les Baxter Orchestra and “Mexican Joe” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1953 – At the Nevada Test Site, the United States conducts its first and only atomic gun test.
1954 – Robert Capa (40), war photographer for Life Magazine, was accidentally killed in Vietnam when he stepped on a land mine.
1955 – A night time F5 tornado strikes the small city of Udall, Kansas, killing 80 and injuring 273. It was the deadliest tornado to ever occur in the state and the 23rd deadliest in the U.S.
1957 – “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1959 – US Supreme Court ruled that Louisiana’s prohibition of black-white boxing was unconstitutional.
1961 – President John F. Kennedy announces before a special joint session of Congress his goal to initiate a project to put a “man on the moon” before the end of the decade.
1961 – NASA civilian pilot Joseph A Walker takes X-15 to 107,500 feet. All of these X-15 tests were preludes to a man in space. This altitude is only twenty miles up and the arbitrary space line is 62 miles.
1962 – The Isley Brothers release “Twist & Shout.”
1962 – US performed an atmospheric nuclear test at Christmas Island.
1962 – AFL-CIO started campaign for a 35-hour work week.
1963 – “If You Wanna Be Happy” by Jimmy Soul topped the charts.
1964 – The US Supreme Court ruled that closing schools to avoid desegregation is unconstitutional.
1965 – Cassius Clay (later Muhammad Ali) KOs Sonny Liston in first round (1:42) for the heavyweight boxing title. Lewiston, Maine was so far off the beaten track that many of the boxing writers claimed not even to know where it was. The smallest audience ever to see a modern world heavyweight championship bout – just 2434 people witnessed the fight.
1966 – Explorer 32 launches. It was a satellite launched by the United States to study the Earth’s upper atmosphere.
1967 – John Lennon takes delivery of his psychedelic painted Rolls Royce.
1968 – The Gateway Arch, part of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial in St. Louis, MO, was dedicated Vice President Hubert Humphrey and Interior Secretary Stewart Udall.
1968 – “Tighten Up” by Archie Bell & the Drells topped the charts.
1968 – Rolling Stones release “Jumping Jack Flash.”
1968 – Vietnam War: The communists launch their third major assault of the year on Saigon.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Get Back” by The Beatles, “Love (Can Make You Happy)” by Mercy, “Oh Happy Day” by The Edwin Hawkins’ Singers and “My Life (Throw It Away if I Want To)” by Bill Anderson all topped the charts.
1969 – The Hollies recorded “He Ain’t Heavy, He’s My Brother” with Elton John on piano.
1969 – “Midnight Cowboy” was released with an X rating. It was based on the novel by James Leo Herlihy and became the only X-rated film to win an Oscar.
1970 – Boeing Computer Services was founded.
1972 – US performed a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1973 – US launches the first Skylab. The crew was Commander: Captain Charles Conrad Jr.USN, Pilot: Paul J. Weitz and Science Pilot: Joseph P. Kerwin. The first Skylab crew’s most urgent job was to repair the space station. Skylab’s meteorite-and-sun shield and one of its solar arrays had torn loose during launch, and the remaining primary solar array was jammed.
1974 – “The Streak” by Ray Stevens tops the charts.
1975 – The Golden Gate Warriors won the NBA title in a four-game sweep over the Washington Bullets.
1976 – US Representative Wayne L. Hays, Democrat from Ohio, admitted to a “personal relationship” with Elizabeth Ray, a committee staff member who claimed she’d received her job in order to be Hays’ mistress.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sir Duke” by Stevie Wonder, “Couldn’t Get It Right” by Climax Blues Band, “I’m Your Boogie Man” by KC & The Sunshine Band and “Luckenbach, Texas (Back to the Basics of Love)” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1977 – “Brady Bunch Hour” last aired on ABC-TV.
1978 – Star Wars released. It ushered in the era of the blockbuster. The film grossed over $450 million in United States theaters alone.
1978 – A package bomb injured Terry Marker, a Northwestern Univ. security guard. It was later attributed to the Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski.
1979 – American Airlines Flight 191: In Chicago, a DC-10 crashes during takeoff at O’Hare International Airport killing 271 on board and two people on the ground.
1981 – Al Unser becomes first Indianapolis 500 winner to be disqualified. He was dropped from the first place to second for passing other cars illegally under a yellow caution flag. Later it was determined that the penalty was too severe and he was fined $40,000 and returned to first place.
1981 – Daniel Goodwin, scales outside of Chicago’s Sears Tower in seven hours. He was arrested for trespassing and only released after paying a fine. He uses the pseudonym of “Spidey Dan”.
1982 – Ferguson Jenkins becomes the seventh pitcher to strike out 3,000 batters.
1983 – “Return of the Jedi” (Star Wars 4) was released.
1983 – The first National Missing Children’s Day was observed under a proclamation by President Reagan. This marked the May 25, 1979, date when Etan Patz (6) disappeared while walking to the bus stop on his way to school in Manhattan.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Everything She Wants” by Wham!, “Everybody Wants to Rule the World” by Tears for Fears, “Axel F” by Harold Faltermeyer and “Radio Heart” by Charly McClain all topped the charts.
1986 – “Hands Across America” – Seven million people hold hands from California to New York.
1988 – Debbie Gibson’s “Foolish Beat” hit #1, making her the youngest artist to write, sing and produce a #1 hit. She was 17 years old at the time.
1989 – Mariners trade Mark Langston to Montréal for Randy Johnson.
1989 – Weird Al Yankovic recorded “She Drives Like Crazy.”
1989 – Eastern Airlines graduated its first class of non-union pilots.
1991 – “I Don’t Wanna Cry” by Mariah Carey topped the charts.
1992 – Jay Leno becomes permanent host of “The Tonight Show”. Johnny Carson retired May 22, 1992, and was replaced by Jay Leno.
1993 – The US White House announced it was putting five fired employees of its travel office on paid leave during an investigation of accusations of financial mismanagement.
1996 – President Clinton, honoring the men and women who died in military service, used his weekly radio address to defend America’s global military role, saying it “is making our people safer and the world more secure.”
1997 – Minnesota Twins retire Kirby Puckett’s uniform #34. Puckett was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame on the first ballot in 2001, becoming the third-youngest living electee in baseball history.
1997 – Todd & Mel Stottlemyre become first father & son to win 100 games.
1997 – Sen. Strom Thurmond, R-SC, became the longest-serving senator in U.S. history.
1999 – The United States House of Representatives released the Cox Report which detailed the People’s Republic of China’s nuclear espionage against the U.S. over the prior two decades. China stole design secrets for nuclear warheads that included every weapon in the current US nuclear arsenal. The systematic espionage campaign was dated back to the 1970s. Stolen technology included data on an Army antitank weapon, fighter airplanes and all the elements needed to launch a major nuclear attack.
2001 – 32-year-old Erik Weihenmayer, of Boulder, Colorado, becomes the first blind person to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
2001 – Sherman Bull, 64, of New Canaan, CT, became the oldest climber to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
2003 – In Miami an explosion on the cruise ship SS Norway, formerly the SS France, killed four boiler-room crew members.
2005 – Voyager 1, the most distant man-made object, is on the verge of leaving our Solar System.
2005 – The US Senate confirmed Texas Supreme Court Judge Priscilla Owen to serve on the US Court of Appeals in New Orleans.
2005 – Iraq: About 1,000 US Marines, sailors and soldiers encircled Haditha city in the troubled Anbar province.
2006 – Scientists confirm the theory that HIV originated among wild chimpanzees in Cameroon.
2006 – In Houston, former Enron Corp. chiefs Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling were convicted of conspiracy and fraud for the downfall of Enron.
2006 – A major power outage stranded thousands of rush-hour commuters between New York and Washington, stopping trains inside sweltering tunnels and forcing many passengers to get out and walk.
2006 – In the biggest IPO of the year, MasterCard Inc. (MA) sold shares for 46% of its equity. The IPO at $39 closed at $46.
2007 – In central Texas two days of storms and flooding left five people dead and one missing.
2008 – NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander landed in the arctic plains of Mars.
2008 – Powerful storms packing large hail, heavy rain and tornadoes made for a deadly Memorial Day weekend across the nation’s midsection, killing at least seven people in Iowa and a 2-year-old child in Minnesota. In Iowa, 222 homes were destroyed.
2010 – Obama’s EPA barred Texas from issuing an operating permit to a refinery on Corpus Christi and said it would do the same to dozens in other cases in which it believes the state is violating the Clean Air Act.
2010 – In Alaska several thousand barrels of crude spilled from the trans-Alaska pipeline and overflowed a storage tank. The spill was in a containment area with an impermeable liner.
2010 – A white teacher in Dahlonega, Georgia is suspended after permitting non-black students to bring bed sheets and cone-shaped party hats to school to dress in the traditional costume of the white supremacist organisation Ku Klux Klan for a film project.
2011 – Talk show host Oprah Winfrey presents her final Oprah Winfrey Show, after 25 years on air.
2011 – Powerful storms and tornadoes continue across the Central United States, claiming at least 10 more lives across Arkansas, Kansas and Oklahoma.
2011 – Jared Lee Loughner, accused of murder in the 2011 Tucson shootings, is found to be incompetent to face a trial because of mental health issues.
2012 – SpaceX completed the first ever commercial hook up with the International Space Station. Together with Virgin Galactic, there are now two commercial spaceships in the world.
2015 – Officer Nigel Benner was shot and killed while making a traffic stop near the intersection of Pinetree Road and Southern Road in Rio Rancho, NM at approximately 8:15 pm. After making contact with the two occupants the vehicle fled before it stopped again. One of the subjects opened fire on Officer Benner, wounding him, before fleeing again. Officer Benner was transported to UNM Hospital where he succumbed to his wounds.
1725 – Samuel Ward, American politician (d. 1776)
1783 – Philip Pendleton Barbour, Virginia politician and U.S. Supreme Court justice (d. 1841)
1803 – Ralph Waldo Emerson, American essayist and philosopher (d. 1882)
1897 – Gene Tunney, American heavyweight champion (d. 1978)
1898 – Bennett Cerf, American publisher, TV personality (d. 1971)
1929 – Beverly Sills, American soprano (d. 2007)
1939 – Dixie Carter, American actress
*ADAMS, WILLIAM E.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army, A/227th Assault Helicopter Company, 52d Aviation Battalion, 1st Aviation Brigade. Place and Date: Kontum Province, Republic of Vietnam, May 25th, 1971. Entered Service at: Kansas City, Mo. Born: 16 June 1939, Casper, Wyo. Citation: Maj. Adams distinguished himself on 25 May 1971 while serving as a helicopter pilot in Kontum Province in the Republic of Vietnam. On that date, Maj. Adams volunteered to fly a lightly armed helicopter in an attempt to evacuate three seriously wounded soldiers from a small fire base which was under attack by a large enemy force. He made the decision with full knowledge that numerous antiaircraft weapons were positioned around the base and that the clear weather would afford the enemy gunners unobstructed view of all routes into the base. As he approached the base, the enemy gunners opened fire with heavy machine guns, rocket-propelled grenades and small arms. Undaunted by the fusillade, he continued his approach determined to accomplish the mission. Displaying tremendous courage under fire, he calmly directed the attacks of supporting gunships while maintaining absolute control of the helicopter he was flying. He landed the aircraft at the fire base despite the ever-increasing enemy fire and calmly waited until the wounded soldiers were placed on board. As his aircraft departed from the fire base, it was struck and seriously damaged by enemy anti-aircraft fire and began descending. Flying with exceptional skill, he immediately regained control of the crippled aircraft and attempted a controlled landing. Despite his valiant efforts, the helicopter exploded, overturned, and plummeted to earth amid the hail of enemy fire. Maj. Adams’ conspicuous gallantry, intrepidity, and humanitarian regard for his fellow man were in keeping with the most cherished traditions of the military service and reflected utmost credit on him and the U S. Army.
Rank and organization: Coal Heaver, U.S. Navy. Born: 30 June 1839, Delaware. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Wyalusing and participating in a plan to destroy the rebel ram Albermarle in Roanoke River, May 25th, 1864. Volunteering for the hazardous mission, C.H. Baldwin participated in the transfer of two torpedoes across an island swamp. Weighted by a line which was used to transfer the torpedoes, he swam the river and, when challenged by a sentry, was forced to abandon the plan after erasing its detection and before it could be carried to completion. Escaping the fire of the muskets, C.H. Baldwin spent two days and nights of hazardous travel without food, and finally arrived, fatigued, at the mother ship.
Rank and organization: Fireman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, Pennsylvania. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864 Citation: On board the U.S.S. Wyalusing, Crawford volunteered May 25th, 1864, in a night attempt to destroy the rebel ram Albemarle in the Roanoke River. Taking part in a plan to explode the rebel ram Albemarle, Crawford executed his part in the plan with perfection, but upon being discovered, was forced to abandon the plan and retire leaving no trace of the evidence. After spending two hazardous days and nights without food, he gained the safety of a friendly ship and was then transferred back to the Wyalusing. Though the plan failed his skill and courage in preventing detection were an example of unfailing devotion to duty.
Rank and organization: Fireman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Wyalusing and participated in a plan to destroy the rebel ram Albemarle in Roanoke River, May 25th, 1864. Volunteering for the hazardous mission, Lafferty participated in the transfer of two torpedoes across an island swamp and then served as sentry to keep guard of clothes and arms left by other members of the party. After being rejoined by others of the party who had been discovered before the plan could be completed, Lafferty succeeded in returning to the mother ship after spending twenty-four hours of discomfort in the rain and swamp.
Rank and organization: Coal Heaver, U.S. Navy. Born: 1839. England. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Wyalusing and participating in a plan to destroy the rebel ram Albemarle in Roanoke River, May 25th, 1864. Volunteering for the hazardous mission, Lloyd participated in the transfer of two torpedoes across an island swamp. Serving as boatkeeper, he aided in rescuing others of the party who had been detected before the plan could be completed, but who escaped, leaving detection of the plan impossible. By his skill and courage, Lloyd succeeded in returning to the mother ship after spending twenty-four hours of discomfort in the rain and swamp.
LLOYD, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born. 1831, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Wyalusing during an attempt to destroy the rebel ram Albemarle in Roanoke River, May 25th, 1864, Lloyd participated in this daring plan by swimming the Roanoke River heavily weighted with a line which was used for hauling torpedoes across. Thwarted by discovery just before the completion of the plan, Lloyd cut the torpedo guiding line to prevent detection of the plan by the enemy and again swam the river, narrowly escaping enemy musket fire and regaining the ship in safety.
History of Names
Early in prehistory, descriptive names were used continuously. Eventually, a collection of names were formed that identified that particular culture. Today, the meanings of many names are not known, due to the aging history of a name. As time goes on, languages change, and words that formed the original name are often unrecognizable.
The rise in Christianity transformed the history of names. Christians were encouraged to name their children after saints and martyrs of the church. Because of this influence, we now see names such as Mary, Martha, Joseph, James, Mark, Paul, and John prominent among many cultures. These names were spread by early missionaries throughout Europe.
By the Middle Ages, Christian names were seen predominantly. Each culture had its collection of names, which were a combination of native and early Christian names. However, the naming pools continued to evolve. Modern names often bear little resemblance of their predecessors. Surprisingly, the early Christian names changed very little in comparison.
Bynames are additional identifiers used to distinguish two people with the same name. From these bynames, surnames were developed. Surnames are a comparatively recent development. These usually started out as being specific to a person and then became inherited from father to son. This was a common practice between the twelfth and sixteenth century. This practice was adopted first by the aristocracy and later on by the peasants. Bynames came in various types. The patronymic referred to the father, a matronymic referred to the mother, a locative or toponymic indicated where a person was from,and an epithet described the person in some way ( such as their occupation, office, or status).
Patronymics are common in almost all European cultures. For example, a man named Ivan whose father’s name is Nikolay would be known as Ivan Nikolayevich or “Ivan, son of Nikolay”. In Gaelic, the prefix “Mac” is used to form a patronym. An example would be “MacKenzie” – son of Kenneth. The use of the matronymic is much less common.
Common occupational names included Baker, Shepherd, Carpenter, and Wright.
The Romans adopted surnames as far back as 2,000 years ago, while other areas of the world were slower to begin using surnames. However, by the Middle Ages, they were used regularly, first by the nobility and then by the gentry. Following the fall of the Roman Empire, Ireland was one of the first countries to adopt surnames. These Irish surnames are found as early as the tenth century.
Today’s names are influenced by celebrities, common popular names, and biblical names.
…13But Moses said to the people, “Do not fear! Stand by and see the salvation of the LORD which He will accomplish for you today; for the Egyptians whom you have seen today, you will never see them again forever. 14“The LORD will fight for you while you keep silent.”
“If moral precepts alone could have reformed mankind, the mission of the Son of God into our world would have been unnecessary.”
~ Benjamin Rush
“Guard well your spare moments. They are like uncut diamonds. Discard them and their value will never be known. Improve them and they will become the brightest gems in a useful life.”
~ Ralph Waldo Emerson
thaumaturgy \THAW-muh-tuhr-jee\, noun:
The performance of miracles or magic.
Thaumaturgy comes from the Greek words for “wonder” (thauma) and “work” (ergon). A practitioner of thaumaturgy is a thaumaturgist or thaumaturge.
1607 – Captain Christopher Newport and 105 followers found the colony of Jamestown at the mouth of the James River on the coast of Virginia.They had left England with 144 members, 39 died on the way over.
1610 – Sir Thomas Gates institutes “laws divine moral and marshal,” a harsh civil code for Jamestown.
1624 – After years of unprofitable operation Virginia’s charter was revoked and it became a royal colony.
1626 – Peter Minuit buys Manhattan for goods to the value of 60 Dutch guilders, which in the 19th century was estimated to be the equivalent of $24 (or $1000 USD in 2006).
1689 – The English Parliament passes the Act of Toleration protecting Protestants. Roman Catholics were intentionally excluded.
1738 – John Wesley is converted, essentially launching the Methodist movement; the day is celebrated annually by Methodists as Aldersgate Day.
1764 – Bostonian lawyer James Otis denounced “taxation without representation” and called for the colonies to unite in demonstrating their opposition to Britain’s new tax measures.
1818 – General Andrew Jackson captured Pensacola, Florida.
1830 – “Mary Had a Little Lamb” by Sarah Josepha Hale is published.
1830 – The first revenue trains in the United States begin service on the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road between Baltimore, Maryland and Ellicott’s Mills, Maryland.
1830 – The first passenger railroad service in the U.S. began service.
1844 – First message sent by the electric telegraph: Samuel F. B. Morse sends the message “What hath God wrought” (a Bible quotation, Numbers 23:23) from the Old Supreme Court Chamber in the United States Capitol to his assistant, Alfred Vail, in Baltimore, Maryland. The message was composed by Annie G. Ellsworth, the daughter of Mr Ellsworth of the U. S. Patent office, a friend of Morse’s.
1846 – Mexican-American War: General Zachary Taylor captures Monterrey.
1856 – The Potawatomi Massacre took place in Kansas. John Brown, American abolitionist and horse thief, presided over the hacking to death with machetes of five unarmed pro-slavery Border Ruffians in Potawatomi, Kansas.
1861 – Civil War: Commander Rowan, commanding U.S.S. Pawnee, demanded surrender of Alexandria, Virginia.
1861 – Civil War: Shortly after Union troops quietly occupied Alexandria, Va., 24-year-old Colonel Elmer E. Ellsworth and a handful of friends from the 11th New York Regiment impulsively entered the Marshall Hotel to forcibly remove a Confederate flag from the roof. Hotel proprietor James W. Jackson shot and mortally wounded Ellsworth as he descended the stairs, flag in hand. Jackson himself was then shot by a Union soldier. Only weeks after the outbreak of the Civil War, both the North and the South had received the first martyrs to their respective causes.
1863 – Civil War: Bushwackers led by Captain William Marchbanks attacked a Federal militia party in Nevada, Missouri.
1863 – Confederates fired on the commissary and quartermaster boat of the Marine Brigade under Brigadier General A. V. Ellet above Austin, Mississippi.
1864 – Accurate gunfire from wooden steamer U.S.S. Dawn, compelled Confederate troops to break off an attack on the Union Army position at Wilson’s Wharf on the James River. Other ships quickly moved to support the troops.
1869 – First voyage down Colorado River. Civil War veteran John Wesley Powell and a ragtag band of nine mountain men embarked on the last great quest in the American West. No one had ever explored the fabled Grand Canyon until this trip.
1878 – CA Parker (Harvard) wins first American bike race, Beacon Park Boston.
1883 – The Brooklyn Bridge, hailed as the “eighth wonder of the world,” in New York City is opened to traffic after 14 years of construction by President Arthur & Governor Cleveland. A total of 150,300 people crossed the bridge on opening day on foot. Each person was charged one cent to cross.The bridge opened to vehicles at 5:00 p.m. and a total of 1,800 vehicles crossed on the first day. Vehicles were charged five cents to cross.
1890 – George Train & Sam Wall sailed around the world in record 67 days, Tacoma-Tacoma.
1899 – W. T. McCullough of Boston, MA opened the first public garage. McCullough advertised the garage’s opening as a “stable for renting, sale, storage, and repair of motor vehicles.” This became the first US auto repair shop.
1902 – Cleveland Indians’ Bill Bradley is the first American Leaguer to hit a homer in 4 consecutive games. The record was not matched until Babe Ruth did it June 25, 1918.
1914 – Thomas Edison invents telescribe to record telephone conversations.
1915 – World War I: Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary.
1917 – World War I: First U.S. convoy to cross North Atlantic during World War I leaves Hampton Roads, VA.
1921 – The trial of Sacco and Vanzetti opens. They were suspected anarchists who were convicted of murdering two men during a 1920 armed robbery of a shoe factory in South Braintree,Massachusetts.
1927 – The final levee breach of the 1927 flood occurred at McCrea, Louisiana, on the east bank of the Atchafalaya levee. The flood along the Mississippi killed some 500 people and displaced thousands. The levee system broke in 145 places and caused 27,000 square miles of flooding in Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi and Tennessee.
1928 – Record 12 future Hall of Famers take the field, as Yankees beat A’s 9-7. [HOFs: Earle Combs, Leo Durocher, Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Tony Lazzeri, and Waite Hoyt for New York; Ty Cobb, Tris Speaker, Mickey Cochrane, Al Simmons, Eddie Collins, Lefty Grove, and Jimmie Foxx for the A’s.]
1929 – Detroit Tigers beats Chicago White Sox, 6-5, in 21 innings. This was the the longest game-3 hours and 31 minutes-ever seen to date at Comiskey Park.
1930 – Saturday Evening Post presented Norman Rockwell’s “Gary Cooper in Makeup” as its cover photo.
1931 – First air-conditioned train installed-B&O Railroad.
1935 – First major league night baseball game is played in Cincinnati, Ohio, with the Cincinnati Reds beating the Philadelphia Phillies 2-1 at Crosley Field.
1938 – A U.S. patent was issued for a Coin Controlled Parking Meter to Carl C. McGee of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The invention was designed for “measuring the time of occupancy or use of parking or other space, for the use of which it is desirous an incidental charge be made upon a time basis.”
1939 – First and only use of VADM Allan McCann’s Rescue Chamber to rescue 33 men from sunken USS Squalus (SS-192).
1940 – First night game at New York’s Polo Grounds (Giants 8, Braves 1).
1940 – Igor Sikorsky performs the first successful single-rotor helicopter flight.
1940 – World War II: Europe: Hitler ordered a halt to his forces converging on Dunkirk and the British, who were backed to the sea.
1941 – World War II: Europe: In the North Atlantic, the German Battleship Bismarck sinks the HMS Hood killing 1,416 die and three survive on what was the pride of the Royal Navy.
1942 – When the Royal Canadian Air Force’s 115th Fighter Squadron lands at Alaska’s Annette Island, a US Customs officer refuses to let the pilots out of their planes until they pay duty on their arms and equipment.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust: Josef Mengele becomes chief medical officer of the Auschwitz concentration camp.
1943 – World War II: Pacific – On Attu American forces make some progress along the Clevesy Pass. There is heavy fighting over Fish Hook Ridge.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “Long Ago and Far Away” by Helen Forrest & Dick Haymes, “San Fernando Valley” by Bing Crosby, “I’ll Get By” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Dick Haymes) and “Straighten Up and Fly Right” by King Cole Trio all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: On Kyushu, aircraft from US Task Force 58 raid several airfields used by the Kamikaze forces attacking American naval forces around Okinawa. Meanwhile about 520 US bombers strike Tokyo, dropping some 3646 tons of bombs.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, during the night, Japanese paratroopers on a suicide mission are landed on American held Yontan airfield and destroy a significant number of aircraft before being wiped out.
1949 – The Soviet Union ends the 11-month Berlin Blockade.
1950 – Nat ‘Sweetwater’ Clifton becomes the first black player in the NBA.
1951 – Willie Mays begins playing for the New York Giants.
1951 – Racial segregation in Washington D.C. restaurants was ruled illegal.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss of Fire” by Georgia Gibbs, “Blue Tango” by The Leroy Anderson Orchestra, “Be Anything” by Eddy Howard and “The Wild Side of Life” by Hank Thompson all topped the charts.
1952 – “A Guy Is a Guy” by Doris Day topped the charts.
1954 – IBM announces vacuum tube “electronic” brain that could perform 10 million operations an hour.
1954 – First rocket attains 150 mile altitude, White Sands NM.
1954 – The first traveling sidewalk in a railroad station. Under the name “the travelator” the H&M installed a pedestrian beltway in this Tubes station.This was two decades in advance of such conveyances appearing in airports throughout the world. The travelator was basically a 227 foot moving sidewalk running on a 10% ascending grade in the passage leading from the platform mezzanine level to the Erie Railroad Station.
1958 – “All I Have to Do Is Dream” by the Everly Brothers topped the charts.
1958 – United Press International is formed through a merger of the United Press and the International News Service.
1959 – First house with built-in bomb shelter exhibited in Pleasant Hills PA.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cathy’s Clown” by The Everly Brothers, “Good Timin’ “by Jimmy Jones, “Cradle of Love” by Johnny Preston and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling” by Hank Locklin all topped the charts.
1961 – Freedom Riders are arrested in Jackson, Mississippi for “disturbing the peace” after disembarking from their bus.
1962 – Project Mercury: American astronaut Scott Carpenter orbits the Earth three times in the Aurora 7 space capsule.
1962 – USS Gurke notices signals from twelve men from Truk who were caught in a storm, drifted at sea for two months before being stranded on a island for one month.
1964 – The longest homerun (471′) hit to date was in Baltimore’s Memorial Stadium by Harmon Killebrew.
1965 – Supreme Court declared a federal law allowing the post office to intercept communist propaganda as unconstitutional.
1966 – The Broadway musical “Mame” opened with Angel Lansbury and Bea Arthur at Winter Garden Theater in New York City for 1508 performances.
1967 – AFL grants a franchise to the Cincinnati Bengals.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tighten Up” by Archie Bell & The Drells, “Mrs. Robinson” by Simon & Garfunkel, “A Beautiful Morning” by The Rascals and “I Wanna Live” by Glen Campbell all topped the charts.
1968 – FLQ separatists bomb the U.S. consulate in Quebec City.
1974 – Last episode of the hugely successful “Dean Martin Show” on NBC.
1975 – “Shining Star” by Earth Wind & Fire topped the charts.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Silly Love Songs” by Wings, “Love Hangover” by Diana Ross, “Fooled Around and Fell in Love” by Elvin Bishop and “After All the Good is Gone” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1976 – First commercial SST flight to North America (Concorde to Washington DC).
1976 – In France, two California wines won a tasting event over several French classics for the first time.
1977 – Armored car guards Russell Dempsey and Cecil Newkirk were on duty for Purolator Courier. They were driving along I-17 when a vehicle they believed was a police car pulled them over. After pulling over, they were ordered by the men they believed were police officers to open the truck, after which the Poland brothers took over. One of the Poland brothers continued to drive the fake police vehicle while the other beat the couriers and took over control of the truck. The two brothers then drove the vehicles to a remote area of Bumblebee, AZ. They abandoned the truck. In the remote area, the Poland brothers beat the couriers to death, took the money, totaling $300,000, and then took the bodies of the couriers to Lake Mead, where using a rented boat, they dumped the bodies wrapped in plastic.
1980 – “Call Me” by Blondie topped the charts.
1980 – The International Court of Justice calls for the release of United States embassy hostages in Tehran, Iran. Iran refused and the hostages would not be freed until the following January.
1983 – The US Supreme Court ruled, in Bob Jones University v. United States, that the government can deny tax breaks to schools that racially discriminate against students. This upheld a 1970 ruling.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hello” by Lionel Richie, “Let’s Hear It for the Boy” by Deniece Williams, “Time After Time” by Cyndi Lauper and “To All the Girls I’ve Loved Before” by Julio Iglesias & Willie Nelson all topped the charts.
1986 – “Greatest Love of All” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1987 – An estimated quarter-million people crowded onto San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge to celebrate the structure’s 50th birthday a few days before the actual anniversary.
1988 – John Moschitta set record for fast talking: 586 words per minute. John was the voice of Blurr in Transformers: The Movie and The Transformers. He is listed in Guinness World Records as the fastest speaker and usually credited alongside Steve Woodworth as one of the fastest talkers in human history.
1988 – President Reagan vetoed legislation that would have strengthened the nation’s ability to defend itself and its industries against trading practices of other nations that were deemed unfair.
1989 – “Indiana Jones & the Last Crusade” premieres.
1989 – New York Yankee hurler Lee Gutterman sets record of pitching 30-2/3 innings.
1990 – A car carrying American Earth First! activists Judi Bari and Darryl Cherney explodes in Oakland, California, critically injuring both.
1992 – Al Unser Jr. became the first second-generation winner of the Indianapolis 500. His father four-time winner Al Unser finished third.
1993 – Microsoft launched Windows NT.
1994 – Four men convicted of bombing the World Trade Center in 1993 are each sentenced to 240 years in prison.
1995 – “Hollywood Madam” Heidi Fleiss was sentenced to three years in prison and fined $1,500 for running a call-girl ring that catered to the rich and famous.
1996 – The Pleasant Hill Baptist Church in Lumberton, N.C., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1996 – A fire destroyed a $5 million cooling tower at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant in Athens, Ala. At least three fires have occurred here since 1975. The towers are used on hot days to cool water returned to the Tennessee River.
1997 – “Mmm Bop” by Hanson topped the charts.
1997 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis returned to Earth, bringing with it NASA astronaut Jerry Linenger, who had spent four months aboard the Russian Mir space station.
1998 – In Danville, Ill, an explosion occurred at the First Assembly of God Church and injured 33 members, mostly teenagers. The cause was not yet immediately known. The cause was determined the next day to have been a bomb.
1999 – The US Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that schools can be held liable for students sexually harassing other students. The court also ruled that police violate the 4th Amendment right to privacy when they allow the media into people’s homes to document arrests and raids.
1999 – Mike Tyson, American boxer, walked out of a Rockville, Md., jail after serving 3 1/2 months behind bars for assaulting two motorists over a fender-bender.
2000 – Isiah Thomas, Bob McAdoo and Tennessee women’s coach Pat Summitt were elected to the Basketball Hall of Fame.
2000 – New US $5 and $10 bills were scheduled to be shipped to banks. The engravings of Lincoln and Hamilton would be larger and off center.
2000 – Two gunmen killed five workers in a Wendy’s restaurant in the Queens borough of New York City. John Taylor (36) and Craig Godineaux (31) were arrested two days later. Taylor was sentenced to death in 2002.
2001 – The Democrats gain control of the U.S. Senate for the first time since 1994 when Senator James Jeffords of Vermont abandons the Republican Party and declares himself an independent.
2001 – It was reported that St. Jude Medical had designed a new aortic connector to make operations easier in bypass surgery.
2002 – US Olympic Committee president Sandra Baldwin resigned, a day after she admitted lying about her academic credentials.
2003 – The $16 million Nevada Museum of Art opened in Reno.
2004 – Pres. Bush offered a 5 step plan in Iraq: 1) hand over authority to a sovereign Iraqi government; 2) Help establish security; 3) Continue rebuilding the infrastructure; 4) Encourage more international support; 5) Move toward a national election.
2004 – The FBI admitted mistakenly linking an American lawyer’s fingerprint to one found near the scene of a terrorist bombing in Spain.
2005 – Breaking years of gridlock, the Senate cleared the way for confirmation of Priscilla Owen to the US appeals court following a compromise on President Bush’s current and future judicial nominees.
2005 – Texas lawmakers tentatively voted to give juries the option of sentencing murderers to life in prison without parole.
2006 – Pogo (48), one of the oldest gorillas in the world, died at the San Francisco Zoo.
2006 – The ABC News claims that Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Dennis Hastert is under investigation for corruption, but the Justice Department issues a denial.
2007 – Pres. Bush nominated James Holsinger, a cardiologist from Kentucky, as the new US surgeon general.
2007 – Ohio death row inmate Christopher Newton was executed by injection; it took him sixteen minutes to die, more than twice the usual amount of time, once chemicals began flowing into his veins.
2007 – Ancestry.com unveiled over 90 million US war records that were dated back to 1607.
2008 – Dick Martin (86), the zany half of the comedy team whose “Rowan and Martin’s Laugh-In,” died in Santa Monica, Ca.
2008 – Two people from Colorado die in a tornado south of Pratt, Kansas as more than a dozen tornadoes hit Kansas.
2009 – The space shuttle Atlantis and its seven astronauts landed at Edwards Air Force Base in California ending a thirteen-day mission that repaired and enhanced the Hubble Space Telescope. Stormy weather in Florida prevented a return to NASA’s home base.
2010 – President Obama signed into law the Lord’s Resistance Army Disarmament and Northern Uganda Recovery Act.
2010 – The US Supreme Court ruled that a group of African Americans may sue the city of Chicago for discriminatory use of an application test that kept them from being hired as firefighters.
2010 – Twentieth Century Fox’s hit TV show 24 went completely off the air.
2011 – Television personality Oprah Winfrey records the final episode of The Oprah Winfrey Show.
2011 – The search in Joplin, Missouri continues looking for survivors of the 2011 Joplin tornado as 1,500 people are still unaccounted for in town.
2011 – President Barack Obama meets Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and senior royals at the start of a three-day state visit to the United Kingdom.
2012 – The US National Hurricane Center advises that Hurricane Bud has formed off the Pacific Ocean coast of Mexico and has reached category two strength.
2012 – Elton John checks into Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, due to a respiratory infection, according to the singer’s publicist.
2013 – Republican Kansas Governor Sam Brownback signed a bill aimed at keeping state courts and agencies from using Islamic or other non-U.S. laws when making decisions drawing criticism from a national Muslim group.
2014 – President Obama signed a pair of bills conferring the Congressional Gold Medal on two legendary groups of World War II pilots. The honorees are members of the “Doolittle Raiders,” pilots who engineered a famous bombing raid on Tokyo, and the elite group known as the American Fighter Aces.
1854 – John Riley Banister, American law officer and cowboy (d. 1918)
1863 – George Grey Barnard, American sculptor (d. 1938)
1868 – Charles E. Taylor, First aircraft maintenance professional (d. 1956)
1870 – Benjamin Cardozo, American jurist (d. 1938)
1879 – H. B. Reese, American inventor of Reese’s and founder (d. 1956)
1891 – William F. Albright, American archeologist and Biblical scholar (d. 1971)
1895 – Samuel Irving Newhouse, American publisher (d. 1979)
1909 – Wilbur Mills, American politician (d. 1992)
1911 – Barbara West, English survivor of the Titanic sinking (d. 2007)
1934 – Jane Byrne, American politician
1935 – Joan Micklin Silver, American director
1941 – Bob Dylan, American singer and songwriter
1944 – Patti LaBelle, American singer
1945 – Priscilla Presley, American actress
1955 – Rosanne Cash, American singer
1965 – John C. Reilly, American actor
1966 – Ricky Craven, American NASCAR driver
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 2d Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: An Loc Province, Republic of Vietnam, 24 May 1969. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Born: 18 July 1947, Jackson, Mich. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. S/Sgt. Bondsteel distinguished himself while serving as a platoon sergeant with Company A, near the village of Lang Sau. Company A was directed to assist a friendly unit which was endangered by intense fire from a North Vietnamese Battalion located in a heavily fortified base camp. S/Sgt. Bondsteel quickly organized the men of his platoon into effective combat teams and spearheaded the attack by destroying 4 enemy occupied bunkers. He then raced some 200 meters under heavy enemy fire to reach an adjoining platoon which had begun to falter. After rallying this unit and assisting their wounded, S/Sgt. Bondsteel returned to his own sector with critically needed munitions. Without pausing he moved to the forefront and destroyed 4 enemy occupied bunkers and a machine gun which had threatened his advancing platoon. Although painfully wounded by an enemy grenade, S/Sgt. Bondsteel refused medical attention and continued his assault by neutralizing 2 more enemy bunkers nearby. While searching one of these emplacements S/Sgt. Bondsteel narrowly escaped death when an enemy soldier detonated a grenade at close range. Shortly thereafter, he ran to the aid of a severely wounded officer and struck down an enemy soldier who was threatening the officer’s life. S/Sgt. Bondsteel then continued to rally his men and led them through the entrenched enemy until his company was relieved. His exemplary leadership and great personal courage throughout the 4-hour battle ensured the success of his own and nearby units, and resulted in the saving of numerous lives of his fellow soldiers. By individual acts of bravery he destroyed 10 enemy bunkers and accounted for a large toll of the enemy, including 2 key enemy commanders. His extraordinary heroism at the risk of his life was in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Warrant Officer (then Sergeant First Class), U.S. Army, Advisory Team 162, U.S. Military Assistance Command. Place and Date: Northeast of Katum, Republic of Vietnam, 24 May 1970. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif. Born: 19 November 1938, Albuquerque, N. Mex. Citation: WO Rocco distinguished himself when he volunteered to accompany a medical evacuation team on an urgent mission to evacuate eight critically wounded Army of the Republic of Vietnam personnel. As the helicopter approached the landing zone, it became the target for intense enemy automatic weapons fire. Disregarding his own safety, WO Rocco identified and placed accurate suppressive fire on the enemy positions as the aircraft descended toward the landing zone. Sustaining major damage from the enemy fire, the aircraft was forced to crash land, causing WO Rocco to sustain a fractured wrist and hip and a severely bruised back. Ignoring his injuries, he extracted the survivors from the burning wreckage, sustaining burns to his own body. Despite intense enemy fire, WO Rocco carried each unconscious man across approximately twenty meters of exposed terrain to the Army of the Republic of Vietnam perimeter. On each trip, his severely burned hands and broken wrist caused excruciating pain, but the lives of the unconscious crash survivors were more important than his personal discomfort, and he continued his rescue efforts. Once inside the friendly position, WO Rocco helped administer first aid to his wounded comrades until his wounds and burns caused him to collapse and lose consciousness. His bravery under fire and intense devotion to duty were directly responsible for saving three of his fellow soldiers from certain death. His unparalleled bravery in the face of enemy fire, his complete disregard for his own pain and injuries, and his performance were far above and beyond the call of duty and were in keeping with the highest traditions of self-sacrifice and courage of the military service.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 15th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Cisterna di Littoria, Italy, 24 May 1944. Entered service at: St. Clairsville, Ohio. Birth: St. Clairsville, Ohio. G.O. No.: 89, 19 October 1945. Citation: Near Cisterna di Littoria, Italy, he charged 200 yards over flat, coverless terrain to destroy an enemy machinegun nest during the second day of the offensive which broke through the German cordon of steel around the Anzio beachhead. Fully thirty yards in advance of his squad, he ran into withering enemy machinegun, machine-pistol and rifle fire. Three times he was struck by bullets and knocked to the ground, but each time he struggled to his feet to continue his relentless advance. With one shoulder deeply gashed and his right arm shattered, he continued to rush directly into the enemy fire concentration with his submachinegun wedged under his uninjured arm until within 15 yards of the enemy strong point, where he opened fire at deadly close range, killing two Germans and forcing the remaining ten to surrender. He reorganized his men and, refusing to seek medical attention so badly needed, chose to lead the way toward another strong point 100 yards distant. Utterly disregarding the hail of bullets concentrated upon him, he had stormed ahead nearly three-fourths of the space between strong points when he was instantly killed by hostile enemy fire. Inspired by his example, his squad went on to overwhelm the enemy troops. By his supreme sacrifice, superb fighting courage, and heroic devotion to the attack, Sgt. Antolak was directly responsible for eliminating twenty Germans, capturing an enemy machinegun, and clearing the path for his company to advance.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company F, 15th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Cisterna di Littoria, Italy, 24 May 1944. Entered service at: Fort Meade, Fla. Birth: Fort Meade, Fla. G.O. No.: 87, 14 November 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. Pvt. Mills, undergoing his baptism of fire, preceded his platoon down a draw to reach a position from which an attack could be launched against a heavily fortified strongpoint. After advancing about 300 yards, Pvt. Mills was fired on by a machinegun only S yards distant. He killed the gunner with 1 shot and forced the surrender of the assistant gunner. Continuing his advance, he saw a German soldier in a camouflaged position behind a large bush pulling the pin of a potato-masher grenade. Covering the German with his rifle, Pvt. Mills forced him to drop the grenade and captured him. When another enemy soldier attempted to throw a hand grenade into the draw, Pvt. Mills killed him with 1 shot. Brought under fire by a machinegun, 2 machine pistols, and 3 rifles at a range of only 50 feet, he charged headlong into the furious chain of automatic fire shooting his M 1 from the hip. The enemy was completely demoralized by Pvt. Mills’ daring charge, and when he reached a point within 10 feet of their position, all 6 surrendered. As he neared the end of the draw, Pvt. Mills was brought under fire by a machinegunner 20 yards distant. Despite the fact that he had absolutely no cover, Pvt. Mills killed the gunner with 1 shot. Two enemy soldiers near the machinegunner fired wildly at Pvt. Mills and then fled. Pvt. Mills fired twice, killing 1 of the enemy. Continuing on to the position, he captured a fourth soldier. When it became apparent that an assault on the strongpoint would in all probability cause heavy casualties on the platoon, Pvt. Mills volunteered to cover the advance down a shallow ditch to a point within 50 yards of the objective. Standing on the bank in full view of the enemy less than 100 yards away, he shouted and fired his rifle directly into the position. His ruse worked exactly as planned. The enemy centered his fire on Pvt. Mills. Tracers passed within inches of his body, rifle and machine pistol bullets ricocheted off the rocks at his feet. Yet he stood there firing until his rifle was empty. Intent on covering the movement of his platoon, Pvt. Mills jumped into the draw, reloaded his weapon, climbed out again, and continued to lay down a base of fire. Repeating this action 4 times, he enabled his platoon to reach the designated spot undiscovered, from which position it assaulted and overwhelmed the enemy, capturing 22 Germans and taking the objective without casualties.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Cisterna di Littoria, Italy, 23-24 May 1944. Entered service at: Scobey, Mont. Born: 9 October 1918, Clinton, Okla. G.O. No.: 83, 27 October 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. On 23 May 1944, at 12 noon, Pfc. (now T/Sgt.) Schauer left the cover of a ditch to engage 4 German snipers who opened fire on the patrol from its rear. Standing erect he walked deliberately 30 yards toward the enemy, stopped amid the fire from 4 rifles centered on him, and with 4 bursts from his BAR, each at a different range, killed all of the snipers. Catching sight of a fifth sniper waiting for the patrol behind a house chimney, Pfc. Schauer brought him down with another burst. Shortly after, when a heavy enemy artillery concentration and 2 machineguns temporarily halted the patrol, Pfc. Schauer again left cover to engage the enemy weapons single-handed. While shells exploded within 15 yards, showering dirt over him, and strings of grazing German tracer bullets whipped past him at chest level, Pfc. Schauer knelt, killed the 2 gunners of the machinegun only 60 yards from him with a single burst from his BAR, and crumpled 2 other enemy soldiers who ran to man the gun. Inserting a fresh magazine in his BAR, Pfc. Schauer shifted his body to fire at the other weapon 500 yards distant and emptied his weapon into the enemy crew, killing all 4 Germans. Next morning, when shells from a German Mark VI tank and a machinegun only 100 yards distant again forced the patrol to seek cover, Pfc. Schauer crawled toward the enemy machinegun. stood upright only 80 yards from the weapon as its bullets cut the surrounding ground, and 4 tank shells fired directly at him burst within 20 yards. Raising his BAR to his shoulder, Pfc. Schauer killed the 4 members of the German machinegun crew with 1 burst of fire.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 11th New York Infantry. Place and date: Alexandria, Va., 24 May 1861. Entered service at: Troy, N.Y. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 26 January 1877. Citation: Killed the murderer of Colonel Ellsworth at the Marshall House Alexandria, Va. This was the first CIVIL WAR deed to merit the Medal of Honor.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company B, 34th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Ashepoo River, S.C., 24 May 1864. Entered service at: New York. Born: 4 October 1842, West Kill, N.Y. Date of issue: 21 January 1897. Citation: Voluntarily commanded a boat crew, which went to the rescue of a large number of Union soldiers on board the stranded steamer Boston, and with great gallantry succeeded in conveying them to shore, being exposed during the entire time to heavy fire from a Confederate battery.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 4th Massachusetts Cavalry. Place and date: At Ashepoo River, S.C., 24 May 1864. Entered service at: Fall River, Mass. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 21 January 1897. Citation: Volunteered as a member of a boatcrew which went to the rescue of a large number of Union soldiers on board the stranded steamer Boston, and with great gallantry assisted in conveying them to shore, being exposed during the entire time to a heavy fire from a Confederate battery.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 4th Massachusetts Cavalry. Place and date: At Ashepoo River, S.C., 24 May 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New Bedford, Mass. Date of issue: 21 January 1897. Citation: Volunteered as a member of a boatcrew which went to the rescue of a large number of Union soldiers on board the stranded steamer Boston, and with great gallantry assisted in conveying them to shore, being exposed during the entire time to a heavy fire from a Confederate battery.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 4th Massachusetts Cavalry. Place and date: At Ashepoo River, S.C., 24 May 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Dartmouth, Mass. Date of issue: 21 January 1897. Citation: Volunteered as a member of a boat crew which went to the rescue of a large number of Union soldiers on board the stranded steamer Boston and with great gallantry assisted in conveying them to shore, being exposed during the entire time to a heavy fire from a Confederate battery.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 170th New York Infantry. Place and date: At North Anna River, Va., 24 May 1864. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 15 January 1897. Citation: This officer, commanding the regiment, kept it on the field exposed to the fire of the enemy for three hours without being able to fire one shot in return because of the ammunition being exhausted.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 4th Massachusetts Cavalry. Place and date: At Ashepoo River, S.C., 24 May 1864. Entered service at: Spencer, Mass. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 21 January 1897. Citation: Volunteered as a member of a boat crew which went to the rescue of a large number of Union soldiers on board the stranded steamer Boston, and with great gallantry assisted in conveying them to shore, being exposed during the entire time to a heavy fire from a Confederate battery.
National Polka Day
Catch-18 (Catch-22 pic)
Joseph Heller’s famous novel, Catch-22, was first published in 1961. Set in World War II, the book is a comic satirical novel about bureaucracy. The phrase “Catch 22″ in the novel is used to denote the vicious circle of military bureaucracy. The term “Catch 22″ has made it into mainstream usage to mean any two choices that are mutually dependent (for example, which came first: the chicken or the egg?). As time goes on it has picked up another meaning which is, “You’re crazy if you do and crazy if you don’t.”However, the term we now know as “Catch 22″ was almost “Catch 18″ for Heller had originally chosen Catch-18 as the title of the book. Unfortunately for Heller, Leon Uris published his Mila 18 novel just before Heller’s book was to be published. Heller’s publisher didn’t think it would be good to have two books out at the same time with “18” in the title. Attempting to come up with another name, Heller and his publisher considered Catch-11, Catch-17, and Catch-14 before deciding on the title we all know, Catch-22.
A catch-22 is a paradoxical situation in which an individual cannot avoid a problem because of contradictory constraints or rules. Most of the time these situations are such that solving one part of a problem only creates another problem, which ultimately leads back to the original problem. Catch-22s often result from rules, regulations, or procedures that an individual is subject to but has no control over.
From the book we see several examples:
The “Catch-22″ is that “anyone who wants to get out of combat duty isn’t really crazy.” Hence, pilots who request a mental fitness evaluation are sane, and therefore must fly in combat. At the same time, if an evaluation is not requested by the pilot, he will never receive one and thus can never be found insane, meaning he must also fly in combat. Therefore, Catch-22 ensures that no pilot can ever be grounded for being insane even if he is.
Many of these situations are based on the case of John Yossarian, a U.S. Army Air Forces bombardier who wants to be grounded from combat flight. Very similar to the modern day “Murphy’s Laws” many or most of these “laws” were not expostulated by Murphy himself but they “fit the mold.”
In chapter six of the book, Yossarian is told that Catch-22 requires him to do anything his commanding officer tells him to do, regardless of whether these orders contradict orders from the officer’s superiors. This is a situation that is very similar to what many go through in the workforce of today.
Just like Murphy’s Laws, there are many other situations that lend themselves to fitting “Catch-22.” Here are just a few:
Begging the question – The first known definition in the West is by Aristotle around 350 BC, in his book Prior Analytics. Begging the question is related to the circular argument, circulus in probando (Latin, “circle in proving”) or circular reasoning, though these are considered absolutely different by Aristotle.
Game of Chicken – Two participants desire a positive outcome by taking an action, yet if taken by both the result is devastatingly negative.
Deadlock – in computing, when two processes reach a standstill or impasse, each waiting for the other to finish.
Gift of the Magi – Where two people in love with each other sell their belongings to buy gifts for each other, only to end up giving gifts related to the belonging they have sacrificed. (ie. A man sells a pocket watch to buy a brush for his wife. The wife then sells her long beautiful hair to buy a chain for the man’s pocket watch.)
Cadmean victory – A victory leading to one’s own ruin. On seeking to establish a city, Cadmus required water from a spring guarded by a monster snake. He sent his companions to slay the snake, but they all perished. Although Cadmus eventually proved victorious, the victory was at the cost of lives of those who were to benefit from the new settlement.
Kobayashi Maru – a scenario in Star Trek involving a choice between death of civilians or of the civilians and the officers who try to save them.
Lesser of two evils principle – a choice between two undesirable outcomes.
Necessary Evil – anything which, despite being considered to have undesirable qualities, is preferable to its absence or alternative.
Morton’s Fork – a choice between two equally unpleasant alternatives.
There are many more of these situations.
-1 Peter 3:15-16
“But in your hearts revere Christ as Lord. Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have. But do this with gentleness and respect, keeping a clear conscience, so that those who speak maliciously against your good behavior in Christ may be ashamed of their slander.”
“ At the time of the adoption of the constitution, and of the amendment to it, now under consideration [i.e., the First Amendment], the general, if not the universal sentiment in America was, that Christianity ought to receive encouragement from the state, so far as was not incompatible with the private rights of conscience, and the freedom of religious worship.”
~ Justice Joseph Story, [Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States p. 593]
“One can never consent to creep when one feels an impulse to soar.”
– Helen Keller
seriatim sir-ee-AY-tim; -AT-im, adverb:
In a series; one after another.
Seriatim derives from the Latin series, meaning “row, chain,” and is formed on the same model as verbatim (“word for word”) and literatim (“letter for letter”).
1701 – After being convicted of piracy and of murdering William Moore, Captain William Kidd is hanged in London.
1779 – Benedict Arnold, military governor of Philadelphia, wrote a query to the British asking what they would pay for his services. He had already begun trading with the British for personal profit and faced charges.
1783 – James Otis, Jr., the American revolutionary, “often mentioned to friends and relatives that … he hoped his death would come from a bolt of lightning.” His hope was fulfilled when lightning struck the chimney of a friend’s house in whose doorway he was standing.
1785 – Benjamin Franklin announces his invention of bifocals.
1788 – South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify U.S. Constitution.
1827 – The first nursery school in the U.S. was established in New York City.
1832 – Samuel Sharp was hanged in Jamaica for leading a slave rebellion. He is survived by his immortal declaration: “I would rather die upon yonder gallows than live in slavery.”
1846 – Mexican-American War: President Mariano Paredes of Mexico unofficially declares war on the United States.
1850 – The US Navy sends USS Advance and USS Rescue to attempt rescue of Sir John Franklin’s expedition, lost in Arctic.
1861 – Civil War: Virginia citizens voted 3 to 1 in favor of secession, becoming the last Confederate state.
1861 – Civil War: Pro Union and pro Confederate forces clashed in Clarksburg, West Virginia.
1861 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Mississippi was forced to put back into Boston for repairs because of sabotage damage to her condensers.
1862 – Civil War: Stonewall Jackson took Fort Royal, Virginia, in the Valley Campaign. Jackson captured 691 federal soldiers. His success was based on information from Confederate spy Isabella Boyd.
1863 – Organization of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Battle Creek, Michigan.
1863 – Civil War: The Siege of Port Hudson takes place.
1864 – Civil War: U.S.S. Columbine, Acting Ensign Sanborn, was captured after a heated engagement with Confederate batteries and riflemen at Horse Landing, near Palatka, Florida.
1865 – Flag flown at full staff over White House, first time since Lincoln was assassinated.
1865 – Victory parade in Washington DC. and at 9:00 am, the signal gun sounded to begin this, the Last Review of the Army of the Potomac.
1867 – Jesse James-gang rob bank in Richmond MO (2 die, $4,000 taken.)
1868 – Kit Carson (b.1809), American scout and frontiersman, died at Fort Lyon, Colorado.
1873 – First Preakness: G Barbee aboard “Survivor” wins in 2:43. Two years before the Kentucky Derby was run for the first time, Pimlico introduced its new stakes race. The Preakness Stakes is a prestigious Grade I stakes race 1 3/16 mile thoroughbred horse race for three-year-olds, held on the third Saturday in May of each year at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore, Maryland. Colts and geldings carry 126 pounds; fillies 121 lb. The Preakness Stakes has been termed “The Run for the Black-Eyed Susans” because a horseshoe of black-eyed susans (Rudbeckia hirta), the state flower of Maryland, is traditionally placed around the winner’s neck.
1876 – Boston’s Joe Borden pitched the very first no-hitter in the history of the National League.
1879 – The first U.S. veterinary school was established by Iowa State University.
1899 – US Marines arrived to secure Cavite Naval Base, Philippines.
1900 – Sergeant William Harvey Carney becomes the first Black to be awarded the Medal of Honor, for his heroism in and for his actions that day in recovering and returning the unit’s U.S. Flag to Union lines during the Assault on the Battery Wagner during the Civil War.
1901 – American forces captured Filipino rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo.
1903 – The first cross-country automobile trip started in San Francisco. The vehicle was a Cleveland-made Winton automobile. Dr. H. Nelson Jackson, a physician from Burlington, VT, and his chauffeur, Sewell K. Croker drove it in a 1903 Winton with a 2-cyl., 20-hp engine.
1903 – First direct primary election law in US adopted by Wisconsin.
1908 – Part of the Great White Fleet arrived in Puget Sound, WA.
1911 – New York Public Library building at 5th Avenue dedicated by President Taft.
1915 – World War I: Italy joins the Allies after they declare war on Austria-Hungary.
1922 – “Daylight Saving Time” was debated in the first debate ever to be heard on radio in Washington, DC.
1922 – Walt Disney incorporates his first film company Laugh-O-Gram Films. Disney told interviewers later that he was inspired to draw Mickey by a tame mouse at his desk at Laugh-O-Gram Studio in Kansas City, Missouri.
1922 – “Abie’s Irish Rose” opened at the the Fulton Theatre in New York City. It continued for 2,327 performances and numerous revivals as well. It is estimated that some 50,000,000 people have seen the play performed somewhere in the world.
1926 – Hack Wilson is first to hit a homerun off Wrigley Field scoreboard. The Cubs score seven runs in the eighth inning to win 14-8.
1928 – Fritz von Opel reaches 143 mph in experimental rocket car. It was the RAK 2, driven by 24 solid-rockets.
1929 – The first talking cartoon of Mickey Mouse, “The Karnival Kid“, is released.
1930 – The Patent Act of 1930 permitted patenting of certain plants to help American culture. This law established patent rights for developers of new varieties of many asexually propagated plants, for example apple trees and rose bushes that are propagated by cutting pieces of the stem rather than by germinating seeds.
1930 – Lieutenant Commander Elmer F. Stone received a medal from Congress for extraordinary achievement in making the first successful trans-Atlantic flight in 1919. Stone was the pilot of the Navy’s NC-4.
1934 – Wallace Carothers manufactures first nylon called polymer 66. Necessity is the mother of invention, the reason this was developed was our political and trade troubles with Japan, the United States’ main source of silk, that fiber was getting harder and more expensive to come by. Dupont set out to relieve that problem.
1934 – American bank robbers Clyde Champion Barrow and his companion, Bonnie Parker, were shot to death by Texas Rangers in an ambush near Sailes, Bienville Parish, Louisiana.The bank robbers were riding in a stolen Ford Deluxe.
1934 – The Auto-Lite Strike culminates in the “Battle of Toledo”, a five-day melée between 1,300 troops of the Ohio National Guard and 6,000 picketers.
1938 – “LIFE” magazine’s cover pictured Errol Flynn as a glamour boy.
1938 – Singer Ray Eberle signed on as vocalist with the Glenn Miller Orchestra for $35 a week. Eberle’s first session with Miller included, “Don’t Wake Up My Heart“, for Brunswick Records.
1939 – The U.S. Navy submarine USS Squalus sinks off the coast of New Hampshire during a test dive, causing the death of 26 sailors. The remaining 32 crewmen and one passenger are rescued the following day using a diving bell designed by Charles “Swede” Momsen.This was the first successful undersea rescue operation to retrieve a sunken submarine crew. the survivors were rescued from 240 feet down. The previous record was 20 feet.
1939 – Hitler proclaimed he wants to move into Poland.
1940 – Tommy Dorsey and His Orchestra, the Pied Pipers and featured soloist Frank Sinatra recorded “I’ll Never Smile Again” in New York for RCA.
1943 – World War II: Approximately 826 Allied bombers attacked Dortmund.
1944 – World War II: The US 6th Corps in the Anzio beachhead launches an attack on Cisterna.
1944 – World War II: US Task Group 58.2 (Admiral Montgomery) launches air raids on Japanese positions on Wake Island.
1945 – World War II: Heinrich Himmler, the head of the SS, commits suicide while in Allied custody.
1945 – World War II: American attacks bring shipping at Yokohama to a halt.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, after occupying Naha, the US 6th Marine Division (part of US 3rd Amphibious Corps) encounters heavy Japanese resistance to attempts to advance further south.
1945 – World War II: At Flensburg, the successor government of the Third Reich, including Karl Donitz, the nominal Fuhrer, as well as the German military leadership, are all arrested on the orders of General Eisenhower.
1946 – The end of World War II unleashed a torrent of labor activity.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mockingbird Hill” by Patti Page, “On Top of Old Smokey” by The Weavers (vocal: Terry Gilkyson), “Too Young” by Nat King Cole and “Kentucky Waltz” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: Eighth Army advanced toward the Kansas and Wyoming Lines to the base of the Iron Triangle against stiffening enemy resistance. By the end of May, the communists had suffered 17,000 killed and an equal number were taken prisoner.
1953 – “Song From Moulin Rouge (Where Is Your Heart)” by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1953 – Schools first used Cliff’s Notes.
1958 – Explorer 1 ceases transmission. The satellite was launched from Cape Canaveral (now Cape Kennedy) in Florida at 10:48 P.M. EST on 31 January 1958 by the Jupiter-C vehicle–a special modification of the Redstone ballistic missile–that was designed, built, and launched by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) under the direction of Dr. Wernher Von Braun. Jupiter-C, a direct descendant of the German A-4 (V-2) rocket, was originally developed in 1955-1956 as a high-performance rocket for testing purposes.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Happy Organ” by Dave ‘Baby’ Cortez, “A Teenager in Love” by Dion & The Belmonts, “Dream Lover” by Bobby Darin and “The Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton all topped the charts.
1959 – “Kansas City” by Wilbert Harrison topped the charts.
1960 – A tidal wave, due to a 9.5 earthquake off Chile, hit Hilo, Hawaii. It killed 61 people, wiped out the beaches and destroyed 537 buildings. It went on to hit Japan.
1960 – Prime Minister of Israel David Ben-Gurion announces that Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann had been captured.
1960 – WRCA radio changes call letters back to WNBC (NYC).
1960 – “Stuck on You” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1960 – “Cathy’s Clown” by the Everly Brothers topped the charts.
1962 – Joe Pepitone became the second Yankee to hit two homeruns in a single inning . The first was Joe DiMaggio.
1962 – The National Basketball Association (NBA) agreed to transfer the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, CA. The team became the San Francisco Warriors (and later the Golden State Warriors).
1962 – Launch of Aurora 7 (Mercury 7), piloted by LCDR Malcolm Scott Carpenter, USN, who completed 3 orbits in 4 hours, 56 minutes at an altitude up to 166.8 statute miles at 17,549 mph. He was picked up by HSS-2 helicopters from USS Intrepid (CVS-11). The capsule was recovered by USS John R. Pierce (DD-753).
1964 – “My Guy” by Mary Wells topped the charts.
1966 – The Beatles release “Paperback Writer.”
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Groovin’ “by The Young Rascals, “Respect” by Aretha Franklin, “I Got Rhythm” by The Happenings and “Sam’s Place” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1967 – Vietnam War: A public controversy over the M-16, the basic combat rifle in Vietnam, begins after Representative James J. Howard (D-New Jersey) reads a letter to the House of Representatives in which a Marine in Vietnam claims that almost all Americans killed in the battle for Hill 881 died as a result of their new M-16 rifles jamming.
1969 – The Who release the rock opera “Tommy.” The whole play (1:15:02)
1970 – “American Woman” by Guess Who topped the charts.
1971 – North Vietnamese demolition experts infiltrate the major U.S. air base at Cam Ranh Bay, blowing up six tanks of aviation fuel, which resulted in the loss of about 1.5 million gallons. U.S. commander Creighton Abrams criticized the inadequate security.
1972 – Heavy U.S. air attacks that began with an order by President Richard Nixon on May 8 are widened to include more industrial and non-military sites.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Shining Star” by Earth, Wind & Fire, “Before the Next Teardrop Falls” by Freddy Fender, “Jackie Blue” by Ozark Mountain Daredevils and “I’m Not Lisa” by Jessi Colter all topped the charts.
1975 – “(Hey, Won’t You Play) Another Somebody Done Somebody Wrong Song” by BJ Thomas strikes gold.
1977 – The US Supreme Court refuses to hear appeals of Watergate wrong doers H R Halderman, John Ehrlichman & John Mitchell.
1981 – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes topped the charts.
1982 – START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) missile reduction treaty signed.
1982 – Colin Wilson rides a surfboard 2.92 miles. (4.7 km)
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Let’s Dance” by David Bowie, “Flashdance…What a Feeling” by Irene Cara ,“Little Red Corvette” by Prince and “Common Man” by John Conlee all topped the charts.
1984 – Detroit Tigers win American League record tying their sixteenth straight road game.
1985 – Thomas Patrick Cavanagh was sentenced to life in prison for trying to sell Stealth bomber secrets to the Soviet Union.
1987 – “With or Without You” by U2 topped the charts.
1987 – Rescue workers and survivors searched through the rubble of a killer tornado in Saragosa, Texas, that had claimed 30 lives.
1988 – The V-22 Osprey, the world’s first production tilt-rotor aircraft, made its debut at Bell Helicopter Textron’s Arlington, Texas, facility.
1989 – Cleveland loses to Detroit 7-2 to drop its record to 21-22, but remains in first place in the American League East by percentage points. It is the latest in a season a sub-.500 team has ever been in first place.
1990 – Clinton’s campaign for a fifth term as governor of Arkansas received a $60,000 loan from the Perry County Bank. More cash was requested a few days later.
1990 – Neil Bush, son of the president, denied any wrongdoing as a director of a failed Denver savings-and-loan in testimony before Congress. The cost of rescuing US savings & loan failures was put at up to $130 billion.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Like the Way (The Kissing Game)” by Hi-Five, “Touch Me (All Night Long)” by Cathy Dennis, “Here We Go” by C + C Music Factory Presents Freedom Williams and Zelma Davis and “If I Know Me” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1991 – In a 5 to 4 vote, the US Supreme Court upheld regulations barring federally subsidized family planning clinics from discussing abortion with pregnant women, or from telling women where they could get abortions.
1994 – “Star Trek The Next Generation” finale airs this week in syndication.
1994 – Funeral services were held at Arlington National Cemetery for former first lady Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis.
1995 – Oklahoma City bombing: In Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, the remains of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building is imploded.
1996 – The Mt. Tabor Baptist Church in Cerro Gordo, N.C., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1998 – “My All” by Mariah Carey topped the charts.
1999 – Gerry Bloch, at age 81, became the oldest climber to scale El Capitan in Yosemite National Park. He broke his own record that he set in 1986 when he was 68 years old.
1999 – In Iraq US planes bombed Iraqi defense systems.
2001 – The US Senate passed an 11-year, $1.35 trillion tax cut bill.
2001 – In Arizona twelve illegal Mexican immigrants were found dead due to dehydration. Two more were found dead the next day. In 2002 Jesus Lopez-Ramos, one of three smugglers, was sentenced to sixteen years in prison.
2002 – The Pentagon reported that the Defense Dept. sprayed live nerve and biological agents over Navy ships in 6 six tests between 1964-1968.
2002 – Sam Snead (89), golfing legend, died.
2003 – US defense officials reported that American troops had confiscated gold bars valued at $34 million from a truck in northern Iraq.
2003 – US Congress passes a $350 billion tax cut plan. The plan is less than half the size of President Bush’s original proposal. Vice President Dick Cheney casts the deciding vote, breaking the 50–50 tie in the Senate.
2004 – In Iraq US troops battled fighters loyal to a radical Muslim cleric in his stronghold of Kufa, and at least 32 insurgents were killed.
2006 – A US federal agency charged that employees at mortgage giant Fannie Mae manipulated accounting so that executives could collect millions in bonuses as senior management deceived investors and stonewalled regulators.
2006 – In California the Hercules City Council voted unanimously to use eminent domain to prevent Wal-Mart from building a bog box store on a 17-acre lot near the city’s waterfront on the San Francisco Bay.
2006 – Washington Mutual Inc., the nation’s largest savings and loan, notified 1,400 workers in Washington and Florida that they will lose their jobs as part of the company’s cost-saving strategy.
2006 – MIT unveiled its first working prototype of its $100 laptop designed for the Third World under an initiative named “One Laptop Per Child.”
2008 – Vallejo, Ca., officially declared Chapter 9 bankruptcy as it faced a $16 million deficit with no money in reserve for fiscal year 2008-2009.
2008 – In Kansas at least seventeen tornadoes touched ground, one of which killed two people in a car 75 miles west of Wichita.
2010 – The US government threatened to remove BP (British Petroleum) from efforts to seal a blown-out oil well in the Gulf of Mexico if it doesn’t do enough to stop the leak, though it acknowledged only the company and the oil industry have the needed know-how.
2010 – In New Jersey a crowd of some 30-35 thousand gathered at the Statehouse in Trenton to protest Gov. Chris Christie’s proposed budget cuts. Christie has called for workers to accept wage freezes and contribute to their health benefits.
2011 – The death toll from the Joplin, Missouri, tornado reaches 116, becoming the deadliest single US tornado since 1947.
2011 – Steve Ballmer, the CEO of Microsoft, promises that Windows 8 will be on the market in 2012.
2012 – Georgia-native Phillip Phillips is crowned the eleventh American Idol. Runner-up Jessica Sanchez is the first contestant of Asian ancestry to advance in the finals.
2012 – Hewlett-Packard plans to cut 27,000 jobs, or 8% of their workforce.
2013 – The National Council of the Boy Scouts of America revised its century-old policy to allow “open and avowed” homosexuals to join its programs. The new policy maintains the exclusion of adult leaders who are openly homosexual, however.
2013 – In Mount Vernon, Wash. an Interstate 5 bridge collapsed over the Skagit River, about 60 miles north of Seattle. Numerous vehicles plummeted into the water.
2014 – In Isla Vista, CA, a college student who posted videos that documented his rage against women for rejecting him killed six people and wounded 13 others during a spasm of terror.
2014 – Christopher Hubbart, a sexually violent predator dubbed the ‘Pillowcase Rapist,’ has spent nearly two decades in mental institutions after admitting to sexually assaulting more than three dozen women throughout California between 1971 and 1982. A judge has ruled him to be released into the community of Palmdale, CA.
1810 – Margaret Fuller, American journalist and feminist (d. 1850)
1820 – James Buchanan Eads, American engineer and inventor (d. 1887)
1824 – Ambrose Burnside, American Union Civil War general (d. 1881)
1875 – Alfred P. Sloan, American long-time president and chairman of General Motors (d. 1966)
1883 – Douglas Fairbanks, American actor (d. 1939)
1893 – Ulysses S. Grant IV, American geologist and paleontologist (d. 1977)
1910 – Scatman Crothers, American actor and musician (d. 1986)
1910 – Artie Shaw, American clarinetist and bandleader (d. 2004)
1933 – Joan Collins, English actress
1934 – Robert Moog, American inventor (d. 2005)
1952 – “Marvelous” Marvin Hagler, American boxer
1958 – Drew Carey, American actor, comedian, and game show host
1963 – Wally Dallenbach Jr., American race car driver and announcer
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company G, 7th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Changyong-ni, Korea, May 22 to May 23rd, 1951. Born: April 29, 1933, Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Entered Service at: New York Departed: Yes (03/19/1967) Date Issued: 3/18/2014
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Private Demensio Rivera distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an automatic rifleman with 2d Platoon, Company G, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Changyong-ni, Korea on May 23, 1951. Early that morning, a large hostile force emerged from a dense fog and viciously attacked Private Rivera and his comrades. Private Rivera immediately responded by firing with deadly accuracy until his weapon jammed. Without hesitating, he threw his rifle down and began to engage the enemy with his pistol and grenades. At one point, Private Rivera fearlessly crawled from his emplacement to engage an infiltrating enemy soldier in fierce hand-to-hand combat. With only the sound of footsteps and obscure shadows to guide his aim, Private Rivera held his position against tremendous odds, inflicting numerous casualties on the enemy until he found himself without ammunition of any kind except one grenade. Displaying a peerless fighting spirit and an utterly selfless devotion to duty, Private Rivera pulled the pin from his last grenade and calmly waited for the enemy to reach his position. As enemy troops leaped inside his bunker, Private Rivera activated the grenade with the full knowledge that it meant his almost certain death. When the debris from the explosion had cleared, friendly forces recovered a severely wounded Private Rivera and discovered the bodies of four dead or dying enemy soldiers surrounding him. Private Rivera’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
BARFOOT, VAN T.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 157th Infantry, 45th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Carano, Italy, May 23rd,1944. Entered service at: Carthage, Miss. Birth: Edinburg, Miss. G.O. No.: 79, 4 October 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty on 23 May 1944, near Carano, Italy. With his platoon heavily engaged during an assault against forces well entrenched on commanding ground, 2d Lt. Barfoot (then Tech. Sgt.) moved off alone upon the enemy left flank. He crawled to the proximity of one machinegun nest and made a direct hit on it with a hand grenade, killing two and wounding three Germans. He continued along the German defense line to another machinegun emplacement, and with his tommygun killed two and captured three soldiers. Members of another enemy machinegun crew then abandoned their position and gave themselves up to Sgt. Barfoot. Leaving the prisoners for his support squad to pick up, he proceeded to mop up positions in the immediate area, capturing more prisoners and bringing his total count to seventeen. Later that day, after he had reorganized his men and consolidated the newly captured ground, the enemy launched a fierce armored counterattack directly at his platoon positions. Securing a bazooka, Sgt. Barfoot took up an exposed position directly in front of three advancing Mark VI tanks. From a distance of 75 yards his first shot destroyed the track of the leading tank, effectively disabling it, while the other two changed direction toward the flank. As the crew of the disabled tank dismounted, Sgt. Barfoot killed three of them with his tommygun. He continued onward into enemy terrain and destroyed a recently abandoned German fieldpiece with a demolition charge placed in the breech. While returning to his platoon position, Sgt. Barfoot, though greatly fatigued by his Herculean efforts, assisted two of his seriously wounded men 1,700 yards to a position of safety. Sgt. Barfoot’s extraordinary heroism, demonstration of magnificent valor, and aggressive determination in the face of pointblank fire are a perpetual inspiration to his fellow soldiers.
DERVISHIAN, ERNEST H.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 34th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Cisterna, Italy, May 23rd, 1944. Entered service at: Richmond, Va. Birth: Richmond, Va. G.O. No.: 3, 8 January 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty on 23 May 1944, in the vicinity of Cisterna, Italy. 2d Lt. Dervishian (then Tech. Sgt.) and four members of his platoon found themselves far ahead of their company after an aggressive advance in the face of enemy artillery and sniper fire. Approaching a railroad embankment, they observed a force of German soldiers hiding in dugouts. 2d Lt. Dervishian, directing his men to cover him, boldly moved forward and firing his carbine forced ten Germans to surrender. His men then advanced and captured fifteen more Germans occupying adjacent dugouts. The prisoners were returned to the rear to be picked up by advancing units. From the railroad embankment, 2d Lt. Dervishian and his men then observed nine Germans who were fleeing across a ridge. He and his men opened fire and three of the enemy were wounded. As his men were firing, 2d Lt. Dervishian, unnoticed, fearlessly dashed forward alone and captured all of the fleeing enemy before his companions joined him on the ridge. At this point four other men joined 2d Lt. Dervishian’s group. An attempt was made to send the four newly arrived men along the left flank of a large, dense vineyard that lay ahead, but murderous machinegun fire forced them back. Deploying his men, 2d Lt. Dervishian moved to the front of his group and led the advance into the vineyard. He and his men suddenly became pinned down by a machinegun firing at them at a distance of 15 yards. Feigning death while the hostile weapon blazed away at him, 2d Lt. Dervishian assaulted the position during a halt in the firing, using a hand grenade and carbine fire, and forced the four German crewmembers to surrender. The four men on the left flank were now ordered to enter the vineyard but encountered machinegun fire which killed one soldier and wounded another. At this moment the enemy intensified the fight by throwing potato-masher grenades at the valiant band of American soldiers within the vineyard. 2d Lt. Dervishian ordered his men to withdraw; but instead of following, jumped into the machinegun position he had just captured and opened fire with the enemy weapon in the direction of the second hostile machinegun nest. Observing movement in a dugout two or three yards to the rear, 2d Lt. Dervishian seized a machine pistol. Simultaneously blazing away at the entrance to the dugout to prevent its occupants from firing and firing his machinegun at the other German nest, he forced forced Germans in each position to surrender. Determined to rid the area of all Germans, 2d Lt. Dervishian continued his advance alone. Noticing another machinegun position beside a house, he picked up an abandoned machine pistol and forced six more Germans to surrender by spraying their position with fire. Unable to locate additional targets in the vicinity, 2d Lt. Dervishian conducted these prisoners to the rear. The prodigious courage and combat skill exhibited by 2d Lt. Dervishian are exemplary of the finest traditions of the U.S. Armed Forces.
*DUTKO, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Ponte Rotto, Italy, May 23rd, 1944. Entered service at: Riverside, N.J. Birth: Dilltown, Pa. G.O. No.: 80, 5 October 1944. citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty, on 23 May 1944, near Ponte Rotto, Italy. Pfc. Dutko left the cover of an abandoned enemy trench at the height of an artillery concentration in a single-handed attack upon three machineguns and an 88mm. mobile gun. Despite the intense fire of these four weapons which were aimed directly at him, Pfc. Dutko ran ten yards through the impact area, paused momentarily in a shell crater, and then continued his one-man assault. Although machinegun bullets kicked up the dirt at his heels, and 88mm. shells exploded within thirty yards of him, Pfc. Dutko nevertheless made his way to a point within thirty yards of the first enemy machinegun and killed both gunners with a hand grenade. Although the second machinegun wounded him, knocking him to the ground, Pfc. Dutko regained his feet and advanced on the 88mm. gun, firing his Browning automatic rifle from the hip. When he came within ten yards of this weapon he killed its five-man crew with one long burst of fire. Wheeling on the machinegun which had wounded him, Pfc. Dutko killed the gunner and his assistant. The third German machinegun fired on Pfc. Dutko from a position twenty yards distant wounding him a second time as he proceeded toward the enemy weapon in a half run. He killed both members of its crew with a single burst from his Browning automatic rifle, continued toward the gun and died, his body falling across the dead German crew.
*FOWLER, THOMAS W.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 1st Armored Division. Place and date: Near Carano, Italy, May 23rd, 1944. Entered service at: Wichita Falls, Tex. Birth: Wichita Falls, Tex. G.O. No.: 84, 28 October, 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty, on 23 May 1944, in the vicinity of Carano, Italy. In the midst of a full-scale armored-infantry attack, 2d Lt. Fowler, while on foot, came upon two completely disorganized infantry platoons held up in their advance by an enemy minefield. Although a tank officer, he immediately reorganized the infantry. He then made a personal reconnaissance through the minefield, clearing a path as he went, by lifting the antipersonnel mines out of the ground with his hands. After he had gone through the 75-yard belt of deadly explosives, he returned to the infantry and led them through the minefield, a squad at a time. As they deployed, 2d Lt. Fowler, despite small arms fire and the constant danger of antipersonnel mines, made a reconnaissance into enemy territory in search of a route to continue the advance. He then returned through the minefield and, on foot, he led the tanks through the mines into a position from which they could best support the infantry. Acting as scout 300 yards in front of the infantry, he led the two platoons forward until he had gained his objective, where he came upon several dug-in enemy infantrymen. Having taken them by surprise, 2d Lt. Fowler dragged them out of their foxholes and sent them to the rear; twice, when they resisted, he threw hand grenades into their dugouts. Realizing that a dangerous gap existed between his company and the unit to his right, 2d Lt. Fowler decided to continue his advance until the gap was filled. He reconnoitered to his front, brought the infantry into position where they dug in and, under heavy mortar and small arms fire, brought his tanks forward. A few minutes later, the enemy began an armored counterattack. Several Mark Vl tanks fired their cannons directly on 2d Lt. Fowler’s position. One of his tanks was set afire. With utter disregard for his own life, with shells bursting near him, he ran directly into the enemy tank fire to reach the burning vehicle. For a half-hour, under intense strafing from the advancing tanks, although all other elements had withdrawn, he remained in his forward position, attempting to save the lives of the wounded tank crew. Only when the enemy tanks had almost overrun him, did he withdraw a short distance where he personally rendered first aid to nine wounded infantrymen in the midst of the relentless incoming fire. 2d Lt. Fowler’s courage, his ability to estimate the situation and to recognize his full responsibility as an officer in the Army of the United States, exemplify the high traditions of the military service for which he later gave his life.
HALL, GEORGE J.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, 135th Infantry, 34th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Anzio, Italy, May 23rd, 1944. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Born: 9 January 1921, Stoneham, Mass. G.O. No.: 24, 6 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. Attacking across flat, open terrain under direct enemy observation, S/Sgt. Hall’s company was pinned down by grazing fire from three enemy machineguns and harassing sniper fire. S/Sgt. Hall volunteered to eliminate these obstacles in the path of advance. Crawling along a plowed furrow through furious machinegun fire, he made his way to a point within hand grenade range of one of the enemy positions. He pounded the enemy with four hand grenades, and when the smoke had died away, S/Sgt. Hall and two dead Germans occupied the position, while four of the enemy were crawling back to our lines as prisoners. Discovering a quantity of German potato-masher grenades in the position, S/Sgt. Hall engaged the second enemy nest in a deadly exchange of grenades. Each time he exposed himself to throw a grenade the Germans fired machinegun bursts at him. The vicious duel finally ended in S/Sgt. Hall’s favor with five of the enemy surrendered and five others lay dead. Turning his attention to the third machinegun, S/Sgt. Hall left his position and crawled along a furrow, the enemy firing frantically in an effort to halt him. As he neared his final objective, an enemy artillery concentration fell on the area, and S/Sgt. Hall’s right leg was severed by a shellburst. With two enemy machineguns eliminated, his company was able to flank the third and continue its advance without incurring excessive casualties. S/Sgt. Hall’s fearlessness, his determined fighting spirit, and his prodigious combat skill exemplify the heroic tradition of the American Infantryman.
*KESSLER, PATRICK L.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company K, 30th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Ponte Rotto, Italy, May 23rd, 1944. Entered service at: Middletown, Ohio. Birth: Middletown, Ohio. G.O. No.: 1, 4 January 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Kessler, acting without orders, raced fifty yards through a hail of machinegun fire, which had killed five of his fellow soldiers and halted the advance of his company, in order to form an assault group to destroy the machinegun. Ordering three men to act as a base of fire, he left the cover of a ditch and snaked his way to a point within fifty yards of the enemy machinegun before he was discovered, whereupon he plunged headlong into the furious chain of automatic fire. Reaching a spot within six feet of the emplacement he stood over it and killed both the gunner and his assistant, jumped into the gun position, overpowered and captured a third German after a short struggle. The remaining member of the crew escaped, but Pfc. Kessler wounded him as he ran. While taking his prisoner to the rear, this soldier saw two of his fellow soldiers killed as they assaulted an enemy strongpoint, fire from which had already killed ten men in the company. Turning his prisoner over to another man, Pfc. Kessler crawled 35 yards to the side of one of the casualties, relieved him of his BAR and ammunition and continued on toward the strongpoint, 125 yards distant. Although two machineguns concentrated their fire directly on him and shells exploded within ten yards, bowling him over, Pfc. Kessler crawled seventy-five yards, passing through an antipersonnel minefield to a point within fifty yards of the enemy and engaged the machineguns in a duel. When an artillery shell burst within a few feet of him, he left the cover of a ditch and advanced upon the position in a slow walk, firing his BAR from the hip. Although the enemy poured heavy machinegun and small arms fire at him, Pfc. Kessler succeeded in reaching the edge of their position, killed the gunners, and captured thirteen Germans. Then, despite continuous shelling, he started to the rear. After going twenty-five yards, Pfc. Kessler was fired upon by two snipers only 100 yards away. Several of his prisoners took advantage of this opportunity and attempted to escape; however, Pfc. Kessler hit the ground, fired on either flank of his prisoners, forcing them to cover, and then engaged the two snipers in a fire fight, and captured them. With this last threat removed, Company K continued its advance, capturing its objective without further opposition. Pfc. Kessler was killed in a subsequent action.
SJOGREN, JOHN C.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 160th Infantry, 40th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near San Jose Hacienda, Negros, Philippine Islands, May 23rd,1945. Entered service at: Rockford, Mich. Birth: Rockford, Mich. G.O. No.: 97, 1 November 1945. Citation: He led an attack against a high precipitous ridge defended by a company of enemy riflemen, who were entrenched in spider holes and supported by well-sealed pillboxes housing automatic weapons with interlocking bands of fire. The terrain was such that only one squad could advance at one time; and from a knoll atop a ridge a pillbox covered the only approach with automatic fire. Against this enemy stronghold, S/Sgt. Sjogren led the first squad to open the assault. Deploying his men, he moved forward and was hurling grenades when he saw that his next in command, at the opposite flank, was gravely wounded. Without hesitation he crossed twenty yards of exposed terrain in the face of enemy fire and exploding dynamite charges, moved the man to cover and administered first aid. He then worked his way forward and, advancing directly into the enemy fire, killed eight Japanese in spider holes guarding the approach to the pillbox. Crawling to within a few feet of the pillbox while his men concentrated their bullets on the fire port, he began dropping grenades through the narrow firing slit. The enemy immediately threw two or three of these unexploded grenades out, and fragments from one wounded him in the hand and back. However, by hurling grenades through the embrasure faster then the enemy could return them, he succeeded in destroying the occupants. Despite his wounds, he directed his squad to follow him in a systematic attack on the remaining positions, which he eliminated in like manner, taking tremendous risks, overcoming bitter resistance, and never hesitating in his relentless advance. To silence one of the pillboxes, he wrenched a light machinegun out through the embrasure as it was firing before blowing up the occupants with handgrenades. During this action, S/Sgt. Sjogren, by his heroic bravery, aggressiveness, and skill as a soldier, single-handedly killed forty-three enemy soldiers and destroyed nine pillboxes, thereby paving the way for his company’s successful advance.
Rank and organization: Chief Machinist’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Place and date: At sea following sinking of the U.S.S. Squalus, May 23rd, 1939. Entered service at: Indianapolis, Ind. Born: 16 September 1900, Harrisburg, Ill. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Navy-Marine Corps Medal. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. Squalus on 13 May 1939. During the rescue operations, Badders, as senior member of the rescue chamber crew, made the last extremely hazardous trip of the rescue chamber to attempt to rescue any possible survivors in the flooded after portion of the Squalus. He was fully aware of the great danger involved in that if he and his assistant became incapacitated, there was no way in which either could be rescued. During the salvage operations, Badders made important and difficult dives under the most hazardous conditions. His outstanding performance of duty contributed much to the success of the operations and characterizes conduct far above and beyond the ordinary call of duty.
CRANDALL, ORSON L.
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Place and date: At sea following sinking of U.S.S. Squalus, May 23rd, 1939. Born: 2 February 1903, St. Joseph, Mo. Entered service at: Connecticut. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a master diver throughout the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. Squalus on 23 May 1939. His leadership and devotion to duty in directing diving operations and in making important and difficult dives under the most hazardous conditions characterize conduct far above and beyond the ordinary call of duty.
McDONALD, JAMES HARPER
Rank and organization: Chief Metalsmith, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Area at sea of sinking of the U.S.S. Squalus, May 23rd, 1939. Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Born: 15 July 1900, Scotland. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a master diver throughout the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. Squalus on 23 May 1939. His leadership, masterly skill, general efficiency, and untiring devotion to duty in directing diving operations, and in making important and difficult dives under the most hazardous conditions, characterize conduct far above and beyond the ordinary call of duty.
INTERIM 1920 – 1940
Rank and organization: Torpedoman First Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Area at sea of the sinking of the U.S.S. Squalus, May 23rd, 1939. Entered service at: Massachusetts. Born: 12 August 1910, Worcester, Mass. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. Squalus on 23 May 1939. Mihalowski, as a member of the rescue chamber crew, made the last extremely hazardous trip of the rescue chamber to attempt the rescue of any possible survivors in the flooded after portion of the Squalus. He was fully aware of the great danger involved, in that, if he and the other member of the crew became incapacitated, there was no way in which either could be rescued. During the salvage operations Mihalowski made important and difficult dives under the most hazardous conditions. His outstanding performance of duty contributed much to the success of the operations and characterizes conduct far above and beyond the ordinary call of duty.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company A, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sycamore Canyon, Ariz., May 23rd,1872. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Consplcuous gallantry in a charge upon the Tonto Apaches.
BRYANT, ANDREW S.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 46th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At New Bern, N.C., May 23rd, 1863. Entered service at: Massachusetts. Born: 3 March 1841, Springfield, Mass. Date of issue: 13 August 1873. Citation: By his courage and judicious disposition of his guard of sixteen men, stationed in a small earthwork at the head of the bridge, held in check and repulsed for a half hour a fierce attack of a strong force of the enemy, thus probably saving the city New Bern from capture.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 182d New York Infantry. Place and date: At North Anna River, Va., May 23rd,1864. Entered service at: Staten Island, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 25 October 1867. Citation: Voluntarily and at the risk of his life carried orders to the brigade commander, which resulted in saving the works his regiment was defending.
KIRK, JONATHAN C.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company F, 20th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At North Anna River, Va., May 23rd,1864. Entered service at: Wilmington, Ohio. Birth: Clinton County, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 June 1894. Citation: Volunteered for dangerous service and single-handedly captured thirteen armed Confederate soldiers and marched them to the rear.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Co. H, and 2d Lt. Co. M, 1st Maryland Inf. Place and date: At Front Royal, Va., May 23rd, 1862. At Weldon Railroad, Va., 19 August 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Washington, D.C. Date of issue: 2 August 1897. Citation: When a sergeant, at Front Royal, Va., he was painfully wounded while obeying an order to burn a bridge, but, persevering in the attempt, he burned the bridge and prevented its use by the enemy. Later, at Weldon Railroad, Va., then a lieutenant, he voluntarily took the place of a disabled officer and undertook a hazardous reconnaissance beyond the lines of the army; was taken prisoner in the attempt.