Unerased History – April 4th

Posted by Wayne Church on April 4, 2016 in 04 - April, Blog by month |
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Chocolate Milk Powder Day (Debut 1828)

Student Government Day

 Chocolate Facts & Trivia:

Chocoholic: – n [chocolate + -oholic (as in alcoholic)](1968): a person who craves or compulsively consumes chocolate. – Webster’s Dictionary

Did you know that the Aztecs considered all chocolate an aphrodisiac? Because of this, all foods made with chocolate were strictly forbidden to women.
Chocolate is old-school Viagra. Montezuma reputedly chugged a cup of chocolate before entering his harem, while Casanova called chocolate the “elixir of love” and drank it instead of champagne.Although chocolate is not an aphrodisiac, chocolate contains phenylethylamine (PEA), a natural substance that is reputed to stimulate the same reaction in the body as falling in love. So – heartbreak and loneliness are great excuses for chocolate gorging!

Christopher Columbus is said to have brought back cacao beans to King Ferdinand from his fourth visit to the New World around 1502, but they were overlooked in favor of the many other treasures he had found. Records suggest that he didn’t particularly like the Aztec delicacy of “hot chocolate”- a thick cocoa drink laced with ground chiles and dyed red to look like blood – but recognizing its potential he took a load of cocoa beans back to Spain.

The early Spanish explorers thought the primary (if not only) use of chocolate was medicinal. Chocolate drinks were developed in Spain that were seasoned with pepper, vanilla, sugar and cinnamon or mixed with beer or wine. They became such a hit that Spanish society ladies had them served during Mass.

The first attempt at making a solid chocolate product came in the 1700’s, when Mexican nuns raised money for their convent by producing and exporting solid chocolate bars.

The first “chocolate box” was introduced by Richard Cadbury in 1868, when he decorated a candy box with a painting of his young daughter holding a kitten in her arms. Cadbury also introduced the first Valentine’s Day candy box.

Scripture of the Day

Romans 1:20

For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that people are without excuse.


Founders Thoughts

James_Madison_03-150“It will be of little avail to the people that the laws are made by men of their own choice, if the laws be so voluminous that they cannot be read, or so incoherent that they cannot be understood; if they be repealed or revised before they are promulgated, or undergo such incessant changes that no man who knows what the law is today can guess what it will be to-morrow.”
–James Madison, Federalist #62, Feb. 27, 1788


Everything can be taken from a man but one thing; the last of the human freedoms–to choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances, to choose one’s own way.”

~ Viktor Frankl


Rodomontade \rod-uh-muhn-TADE; roh-duh-; -TAHD\, noun:

Vain boasting; empty bluster; pretentious, bragging speech; rant.


1581 – Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I.

1687 – King James II ordered that his declaration of indulgence be read in church.

1776 – The first Columbus, a 24-gun armed ship, was built at Philadelphia in 1774 as Sally; purchased for the Continental Navy in November 1775, Captain Abraham Whipple in command.

1788 – Last of the Federalist essays was published.

1812 – U.S. President James Madison enacted a ninety-day embargo on trade with the United Kingdom.

1812 – The territory of Orleans became the 18th U.S. state and will become known as Louisiana.

1818 – The United States Congress adopts the flag of the United States with 13 red and white stripes and one star for each state (then 20).

1832 – Charles Darwin aboard HMS Beagle reached Rio de Janeiro.

1841 – William Henry Harrison dies of pneumonia becoming the first President to die in office and the one with the shortest term served (31 days).

1848 – Thomas Douglas became the first San Francisco public teacher.

1850 – Los Angeles, California is incorporated as a city.

1859 – Bryant’s Minstrels debut “Dixie” in New York City in the finale of a blackface minstrel show.

1859 – Daniel Emmett introduced “I Wish I was in Dixie’s Land.” Just two years later, the song became the CIVIL WAR song of the Confederacy..

1862 – Civil War:  the Battle of Yorktown began as Union General George B. McClellan closed in on Richmond,VA.

1862 – Civil War:  The U.S.S. Carondelet,. Commander Walke, shrouded by a heavy storm at night, successfully ran past Island No. 10, Mississippi River, and reached Major General John Pope’s army at New Madrid.

1865 – Civil War:  A day after Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln visits the Confederate capital.

1865 – Civil War: Lee’s army arrived at the Amelia Courthouse.

1887 – Argonia, Kansas elects Susanna M. Salter as the first female mayor in the United States.

1891 – Distinguished American actor Edwin Booth made his final stage appearance. This last appearance was in Brooklyn Academy of Music as Hamlet.

1911 – Hugh Chalmers, automaker, suggests idea of baseball MVP.

1914 – The first known serialized moving picture opened in New York City. “The Perils of Pauline” starring Pearl White is considered the most famous suspense serial in cinema history. Week after week, Pauline evades attempts on her life. She fights pirates, Indians, gypsies, rats, sharks, and her dastardly guardian. Her most familiar plight is being tied to railroad tracks with a rapidly approaching train.

1916 – US Senate agrees (82-6) to participate in WWI. The House agreed, 373-50 on April 6.

1918 – World War I: Second Battle of the Somme ends.

1921 – The US Navy Department completes the first helium production plant in Fort Worth, Texas.

1922 – First radio station in the US to have “W” call letters. WAAB, Baton Rouge, Louisiana was the first to begin with a “W”.

1932 – Vitamin C 1st isolated, C C King, University of Pittsburgh.

1932 – George Bernard Shaw’s “Too True to be Good” premieres in New York City.

1938 – After seven years of singing on the radio, Kate Smith began a new noontime talk show.

1939 – Glenn Miller recorded his theme song, “Moonlight Serenade.”

1940 – Richard Rodgers’ and Lorenz Hart’s “Higher & Higher,” premiered in New York City.

1941 – World War II: Field Marshal Erwin Rommel captured the British held town of Benghazi in North Africa.|

1944 – World War II: British troops captured Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

1944 – World War II: The Bucharest marshalling yards are bombed by heavily escorted bombers of the US 15th Air Force. A total of 20 aircraft are lost. Civilian casualties are reported to amount to 2942 killed and 2126 injured.

1945 – World War II: American troops liberate Ohrdruf forced labor camp in Germany.

1945 – World War II: Soviet Army takes control of Hungary.

1945 – World War II: US 9th Army units have reached the river Weser opposite Hameln. Troops from US 3rd Army capture Kassel while other units take Gotha and advance near Erfurt. The Nazi gold reserves are captured in the salt mine at Merkers.

1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, the forces of US 10th Army begin to meet the first real Japanese resistance on the ground.

1948 – Elder baseball owners race from home to 1st base in one of the slowest sprints in history. 84-year-old Connie Mack, owner of the Philadelphia Athletics, and 78-year-old Clark Griffith, owner of the Washington Senators, raced from home plate to first base in a pre-game exhibition. It was a tie.

1949 – Twelve nations sign the North Atlantic Treaty creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.

1950 – CHART TOPPERS – If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton, “Dearie” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Kenny Gardner Trio), “Music, Music, Music” by Teresa Brewer and “Long Gone Lonesome Blues” by Hank Williams all topper the charts.

1953 – “The Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page topped the charts.

1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tequila” by The Champs, “He’s Got the Whole World (In His Hands)by Laurie London, “Lollipop” by Chordettes and “Oh Lonesome Me” by Don Gibson all topped the charts.

1959 – “Venus” by Frankie Avalon topped the charts.

1959 –  Buddy Holly’s “It Doesn’t Matter Anymore” hit #13. It was his first posthumous hit.

1960 –  Elvis Presley recorded “Are You Lonesome Tonight.”

1964 – The Beatles occupy the top five positions on the Billboard Hot 100 pop chart. They were: 1) Can’t Buy Me Love, 2) Twist and Shout, 3) She Loves You, 4) I Want to Hold Your Hand & 5) Please Please Me.

1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler, (You’re My) Soul and Inspiration” by The Righteous Brothers, “Daydream” by The Lovin’ Spoonful and “Waitin’ in Your Welfare Line” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1967 – Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers his “Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence” (56:49) speech in New York City’s Riverside Church.

1967 – Johnny Carson quit “The Tonight Show.” He returned three weeks later after getting a raise of $30,000 a week.

1967 – “CHINOOK II” ended in Vietnam (17 Feb – 4 Apr).

1967 – The U.S. lost its 500th plane over Vietnam.

1968 – Bobby Goldsboro received a gold record for the single, “Honey“.

1968 – Civil rights leader Martin Luther King, 39, was assassinated while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tenn. James Earl Ray (d.1998) confessed and pleaded guilty in Mar, 1969.

1968 – NASA launches Apollo 6.

1969 – Dr. Denton Cooley implants the first temporary artificial heart.  The patient, Haskell Karp, lived for 65 hours on an artificial heart.

1970 – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel topped the charts.

1971 – “Follies” opens at Winter Garden Theater New York City for 524 performances.

1971 – Veterans stadium in Philadelphia, PA, was dedicated this day.

1972 – First electric power plant fueled by garbage begins operating.

1973 – The World Trade Center in New York is officially dedicated.

1973 – A Lockheed C-141 Starlifter, dubbed the Hanoi Taxi,  famous for bringing back the first returned prisoners of war, makes the last flight of Operation Homecoming.

1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sunshine on My Shoulders” by John Denver, “Hooked on a Feeling” by Blue Swede, “Bennie & The Jets” by Elton John and “Would You Lay with Me (In a Field of Stone)by Tanya Tucker all topped the charts.

1974 – Hank Aaron ties Babe Ruth’s home-run record by hitting his 714th.

1975 – Microsoft is founded as a partnership between Bill Gates and Paul Allen.

1975 – Vietnam War: Operation Baby Lift – An  Air Force C-5A Galaxy crashes near Saigon, South Vietnam shortly after takeoff, transporting orphans – 172 die.

1975 – The first group of boat people from Vietnam began arriving in Malaysia. More than 1 million people fled from the close of the war to the early 1980s.

1977 – The Coast Guard designated its first female Coast Guard aviator, Janna Lambine. She was Coast Guard Aviator #1812.

1981 – “Rapture” by Blondie topped the charts.

1981 – Henry Cisneros became the first Mexican-American elected mayor of a major U.S. city, which was San Antonio, TX.

1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Love Rock ’N Roll” by Joan Jett & The Blackhearts, “We Got the Beat” by the Go-Go’s, “Make a Move on Me” by Olivia Newton-John and “Bobbie Sue” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.

1983 – At Cape Canaveral, the space shuttle Challenger took off on its first flight and the first US female into space was Sally Ride.

1984 – President Ronald Reagan calls for an international ban on chemical weapons.

1984 – Bob Bell retired as Bozo the Clown on WGN-TV in Chicago, IL.

1984 – Winston Smith in Orwell’s “1984” begins his secret diary.

1985 – Gary Dotson, who served six years of a prison sentence for rape, was freed on bail from the Joliet Correctional Center in Illinois after his accuser, Cathleen Crowell Webb, testified that the attack had never occurred.

1987 – “Nothing’s Gonna Stop Us Now” by Starship topped the charts.

1987 – The U.S. charged the Soviet Union with wiretapping a U.S. Embassy.

1988 – Arizona Governor Evan Mecham was voted out of office by the Arizona Senate. Mecham was found guilty of diverting state funds to his auto business and of trying to impede an investigation into a death threat to a grand jury witness.

1989 – Kareem Abdul-Jabbar’s last NBA game in Seattle.|

1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Black Velvet” by Alannah Myles, “Love Will Lead You Back” by Taylor Dayne, “I Wish It Would Rain Down” by Phil Collins and “Hard Rock Bottom of Your Heart” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.

1990 –  Gloria Estefan left the hospital after being injured in a bus crash on March 20.

1991 – Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania and six others are killed when a helicopter collides with their plane over an elementary school in Merion, Pennsylvania.

1992 – Bill Clinton campaign acknowledged that he had received an induction notice in April 1969 while attending college in Oxford, England; Clinton said the notice arrived after he was due to report, and that his local draft board had told him he could complete the school term.

1994 – Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark found Netscape Communications Corporation under the name “Mosaic Communications Corporation.”

1995 – U.S. Senator Alfonse D’Amato ridiculed judge Lance Ito using a mock Japanese accent on a nationally syndicated radio program. D’Amato apologized two days later for the act.

1995 – It was reported that Nuclear Matrix Proteins that act as a type of scaffolding for DNA were being used as markers for cancer. They were also thought to help turn genes off and on.

1996 – Comet Hyakutake was imaged by the USA Asteroid Orbiter Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous.

1995 – ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT: Francisco Martin Duran, who had raked the White House with semiautomatic rifle fire on October 29,1994, was convicted in Washington of trying to assassinate President Clinton. Duran was later sentenced to 40 years in prison.

1996 – US intelligence indicated the Libya was building a chemical weapons plant at Tarhunah, 40 miles southeast of Tripoli. The plant was reportedly designed to replace a plant a Rabta, 55 miles SW of Tripoli, where Libya insists that only pharmaceuticals are produced.

1997 – Braves officially open Turner Field against Cubs.

1997 – Space shuttle Columbia blasted off from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on what was supposed to have been a 16-day mission. However, a defective power generator forced the shuttle’s return four days later.

1998 –  “All My Life” by K-Ci & Jojo topped the charts.

1998 – Richard Butler, chief arms inspector in Iraq, refused to certify the Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction have been destroyed.

2001 – Hideo Nomo became the fourth pitcher in major league history to throw a no-hitter in both leagues with Boston’s 3-to-0 victory over Baltimore. Nomo, who threw a no-hitter for Los Angeles in 1996, joined Cy Young, Jim Bunning and Nolan Ryan as the only pitchers with no-hitters in both leagues.

2001 – US diplomats met with 24 US crew members held by the Chinese military on Hainan island.

2001 – The US Pentagon reportedly destroyed its last canister of napalm, a jellied gasoline used extensively during the Vietnam war. It was developed in 1942 by Harvard and Army chemists who combined naphthene and palmitate. It was made by Dow Chemical from 1965-1969.

2002 – An Iraqi defector tells Vanity Fair that Iraq is developing a long-range ballistic missile system that could carry weapons of mass destruction up to 700 miles.

2002 – It was reported that Saddam Hussein of Iraq had raised financial payments to the relatives of suicide bombers from $10k to $25k.

2003 – In the 17th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom thousands of Iraqis fled Baghdad as US forces seized the international airport to the west and armored convoys pressed in from the south.

2003 – A Marine unit found concentrations of cyanide and mustard-gas agents in the Euphrates River near Nasiriyah.

2004 Muqtada al-Sadr issued a call to his followers to “terrorize your enemy.” Gunmen opened fire on the Spanish garrison in the holy city of Najaf during a huge demonstration by followers of al-Sadr, an anti-American Shiite Muslim cleric.

2005 – The US Supreme Court ruled that IRAs can’t be seized in bankruptcies.

2006 – Republican Rep. Tom DeLay of Texas, the House of Representatives’ fallen majority leader, announced the end of a re-election fight he was in jeopardy of losing and said he would soon step down from the US Congress.

2007 – Film director Robert Clark (67), best known for the holiday classic “A Christmas Story” (1983), was killed in southern California with his son in a head-on crash with a vehicle steered into the wrong lane by a drunken driver.

2008 – US airline Skybus announces that it will be shutting down Saturday and cancels all flights.

2008 – The raid on the FLDS owned ranch called the YFZ Ranch in Texas, 401 children were taken into custody. 133 woman were taken into state custody also, the total number of woman and children is 534.

2009 – MASS SHOOTING: In Pittsburgh, Pa., Richard Poplawski (23) shot and killed three police officers, who were responding to a domestic violence disturbance.

2011 – A possible tornado hits an automotive plant in Hopkinsville, Kentucky near Nashville, injuring seven people. Storms kill eight people in Northern Georgia, one in Mississippi and another in Tennessee. A record number of American storm reports in a 24-hour period is set, likely in part due to increased reporting.

2011 – Barack Obama is to run for a second term as President of the United States next year, his campaign announces.

2011 – The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame announces its induction class of 2011, which will be formally inducted in August. The class includes Dennis Rodman, Chris Mullin, Tex Winter, Herb Magee, Tara VanDerveer, Artis Gilmore, Arvydas Sabonis,Teresa Edwards, Reece “Goose” Tatum and Tom “Satch” Sanders.

2012 – The first deployment of US Marines arrives in the Australian city of Darwin, Northern Territory.

2012 –  Parents at a Massachusetts elementary school were left fuming after teachers removed the word ‘God’ from the Lee Greenwood song ‘God Bless the U.S.A.’ – then pulled it from a school concert when they complained. Children at Stall Brook Elementary School in Bellingham were reportedly told to sing ‘We love the U.S.A.’ instead of God Bless the U.S.A. – the original title of the popular country song.

2013 – American Pulitzer Prize-winning film reviewer Roger Ebert dies at the age of 70 following a battle with cancer.

2013 – Colorado lawmakers attempted to ban welfare recipients from withdrawing
their benefits at ATMs located inside strip clubs. The bill was killed by
Democrats today.

2013 -The Hubble Space Telescope observes the most distant supernova on record.



186 – Caracalla, Roman emperor (d. 217)
1718 – Benjamin Kennicott, English churchman and Hebrew scholar (d. 1783)
1821 – Linus Yale, Jr., American inventor and manufacturer (d. 1868)
1884 – Isoroku Yamamoto, Japanese naval commander (d. 1943)
1895 – Arthur Murray, American dance teacher (d. 1991)
1902 – Stanley G. Weinbaum, American science-fiction author (d. 1935)
1906 – John Cameron Swayze, American journalist (d. 1995)
1908 – Ernestine Gilbreth Carey, American memoirist (Cheaper by the Dozen) (d. 2006)
1924 – Gil Hodges, American baseball player and manager (d. 1972)
1931 – Bobby Ray Inman, American admiral and intelligence director
1932 – Richard Lugar, American politician
1932 – Anthony Perkins, American actor (d. 1992)
1938 – A. Bartlett Giamatti, American university president and Commissioner of Baseball (d. 1989)
1948 – Berry Oakley, American bassist (The Allman Brothers Band) (d. 1972)
1958 – Mary-Margaret Humes, American actress
1965 – Robert Downey Jr., American actor





Rank and Organization: Sergeant First Class, United States Army. Born: September 24th, 1969 in El Paso, TX.
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Sergeant First Class Paul R. Smith distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with an armed enemy near Baghdad International Airport, Baghdad, Iraq on April 4th, 2003. On that day, Sergeant First Class Smith was engaged in the construction of a prisoner of war holding area when his Task Force was violently attacked by a company-sized enemy force. Realizing the vulnerability of over one-hundred fellow soldiers, Sergeant First Class Smith quickly organized a hasty defense consisting of two platoons of soldiers, one Bradley Fighting Vehicle and three armored personnel carriers. As the fight developed, Sergeant First Class Smith braved hostile enemy fire to personally engage the enemy with hand grenades and anti-tank weapons, and organized the evacuation of three wounded soldiers from an armored personnel carrier struck by a rocket propelled grenade and a 60mm mortar round. Fearing the enemy would overrun their defenses, Sergeant First Class Smith moved under withering enemy fire to man a .50 caliber machine gun mounted on a damaged armored personnel carrier. In total disregard for his own life, he maintained his exposed position in order to engage the attacking enemy force. During this action, he was mortally wounded. His courageous actions helped defeat the enemy attack, and resulted in as many as fifty enemy soldiers killed, while allowing the safe withdrawal of numerous wounded soldiers. Sergeant First Class Smith’s extraordinary heroism and uncommon valor are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, the Third Infantry Division “Rock of the Marne,” and the United States Army.






Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 1st Battalion, 82nd Division. Place and date: April 4, 1969, Ap Tan Hoa, Vietnam Born: February 24, 1938, Juncos, Puerto Rico Entered Service At: Chicago, IL  Departed: Yes (04/04/1969)  Date of Issue: 03/18/2014

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:

Staff Sergeant Felix M. Conde-Falcon distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an acting Platoon Leader in Company D, 1st Battalion, 505th Infantry Regiment, 3d Brigade, 82d Airborne Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Ap Tan Hoa, Republic of Vietnam on April 4, 1969. While entering a heavily wooded section on the route of advance, Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon and his company encountered an extensive enemy bunker complex, later identified as a battalion command post. Following tactical artillery and air strikes on the heavily-secured enemy position, Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon’s platoon was selected to assault and clear the bunker fortifications. Moving out ahead of his platoon, Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon charged the first bunker, heaving grenades as he went. As the hostile fire increased, he crawled to the blind side of an entrenchment position, jumped to the roof, and tossed a grenade into the bunker aperture. Without hesitating, he proceeded to two additional bunkers, both of which he destroyed in the same manner as the first. Rejoining his platoon, Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon advanced about one hundred meters through the trees before coming under intense hostile fire. Selecting three men to accompany him, he maneuvered toward the enemy’s flank position. Carrying a machinegun, he single-handedly assaulted the nearest fortification, killing the enemy inside before running out of ammunition. After returning to the three men with his empty weapon and taking up an M-16 rifle, he concentrated on the next bunker. Within ten meters of his goal, Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon was shot by an unseen assailant and soon died of his wounds. Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.






Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 23 January 1868, Croton Falls, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the presence of the Enemy in battle while with the Eighth Army Corps on 25, 27, 29 March, and April 4th, 1899.





Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. (Enlisted as Joseph Melvin). Born: 28 August 1876, Cohoes, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy in battles, while with the Eighth Army Corps on 25, 27, and 29 March, and on April 4th, 1899.





Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 2d New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox campaign, Va., April 4th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Putnam County, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of engineer flag, Army of Northern Virginia.




Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 1st Louisiana Cavalry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 4th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: Captured the flag of the 6th Alabama Cavalry.



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Unerased History – April 3rd

Posted by Wayne Church on April 3, 2016 in 04 - April, Blog by month |
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Pony Express Day
Tweed Day

The Pony Express

 The key issue was communications. Amazingly no one in the government had ever even considered how to get information from the East Coast to the West Coast quickly. Here it was, the Civil War was brewing and no one had any idea on how to get information back and forth to California. Remember the California had only been a state ten years when the planning for the war had started. Because California was a “Northern” state (slavery not permitted) there had to be a fast way to communicate.  In comes William H. Russell, William B. Waddell, and Alexander Majors. They planned a means of taking mail across the country by men on horseback. They called it the Pony Express.

The Pony Express consisted of relays of men riding horses carrying saddlebags of mail across a 2000-mile trail. The pony riders covered 250 miles in a 24-hour day. The service opened officially on April 3, 1860, when riders left simultaneously from St. Joseph, Missouri, and Sacramento, California. The first westbound trip was made in 9 days and 23 hours and the eastbound journey in 11 days and 12 hours. Eventually, the Pony Express had more than 100 stations, 80 riders, and between 400 and 500 horses.


The express route was extremely hazardous, but only one mail delivery was ever lost. The service lasted only 19 months until October 24, 1861, when the completion of the Pacific Telegraph line ended the need for its existence. The romantic drama surrounding the Pony Express has made it a part of the legend of the American West.


The route of the Pony Express was brutally simple: west out of St. Joseph, the eastern portion of the route followed the Oregon Trail from Kansas through what is now Nebraska and Wyoming. The rider would pass by many of the landmarks then familiar to thousands of overland travelers.

Proceeding up the Little Blue River to Fort Kearney, the route then continued up the Platte River passing Courthouse Rock, Chimney Rock, and Scotts Bluff to Fort Laramie; then along the Sweetwater River passing Independence Rock, Devil’s Gate, and Split Rock, to Fort Caspar, through South Pass to Fort Bridger and Salt Lake City, across the Great Basin and Utah-Nevada Desert, skirting Lake Tahoe, over the rugged Sierra Nevada mountains into California as fast as man and horse could go, day and night. The entire trip of the Pony Express would be cutting the time of mail and news delivery to the west coast by more than half.


Scripture of the Day

John 1:1-5

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. In him was life,and that life was the light of all mankind. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.


Founders Thoughts

Thomas PaineThomas Paine (1737–1809). Common Sense. 1776.
“SOME writers have so confounded society with government, as to leave little or no distinction between them; whereas they are not only different, but have different origins. Society is produced by our wants, and government by wickedness; the former promotes our happiness positively by uniting our affections, the latter negatively by restraining our vices. The one encourages intercourse, the other creates distinctions. The first is a patron, the last a punisher.
Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one; for when we suffer, or are exposed to the same miseries by a government, which we might expect in a country without government, our calamity is heightened by reflecting that we furnish the means by which we suffer. Government, like dress, is the badge of lost innocence; the palaces of kings are built on the ruins of the bowers of paradise. For were the impulses of conscience clear, uniform, and irresistibly obeyed, man would need no other lawgiver; but that not being the case, he finds it necessary to surrender up a part of his property to furnish means for the protection of the rest; and this he is induced to do by the same prudence which in every other case advises him out of two evils to choose the least.”


“It is inevitable that some defeat will enter even the most victorious life. The human spirit is never finished when it is defeated… it is finished when it surrenders.”

~ Ben Stein



nocebo (no-SEE-bo) noun

A substance producing harmful effects in someone because it is believed to be harmful, but which in reality is harmless.Nocebo comes from the Latin nocebo (I will harm), from nocere (to harm). It is modeled after  placebo (I will please).]

33 – Christ was crucified (according to astronomers Humphreys and Waddington). The date is highly debated.

1776 – Harvard College conferred the first honorary Doctor of Laws degree to George Washington.

1790 – Revenue Marine Service (US Coast Guard) was created.

1796 – The first elephant was shipped to the US from Bengal, India, by Broadway showman Jacob Croninshield.

1797 –  Captain Thomas Truxtun issued first known American signal book using numerary system.

1800 – Martha Washington became the first U.S. President’s wife to be allowed to ‘frank’ mail.

1817 – The “Peace Establishment Act” reduced the Marine Corps to 50 officers and 942 enlisted.

1829 – James Carrington of Wallingford, CT patented the coffee mill.

1847 – Marines and Sailors from the USS Portsmouth landed and captured San Lycas, Mexico.

1854 – The San Francisco Mint opened at 608 Commercial St. It issued $4 million in gold coins this year. An Indian princess appeared on gold dollars.

1860 – The first successful Pony Express run from Saint Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California begins.

1862 – Civil War: Slavery was abolished in Washington, DC.

1865 – Civil War: Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederate States of America. This is the most significant sign yet that the Confederacy is nearing its final days.

1865 – Civil War: Battle at Namozine Church, Virginia (Appomattox Campaign).

1866 – Rudolph Eickemeyer and G. Osterheld of Yonkers, New York patented a blocking and shaping machine for hats.

1868 – An earthquake estimated at magnitude 7.9 hit the Big Island of Hawaii. 46 people were killed in the resulting tsunami at Keauhou and 31 died in a landslide at Kapapala.

1882 – Wood block alarm invented, when alarm rang, it dropped 20 wood blocks. The blocks were suspended over one’s bed, it dropped the blocks on the occupant’s head when tripped.

1882 – Jesse James, living in St. Joseph, Missouri under his pseudonym “Thomas Howard” was shot by Robert Ford. Ford was a member of Jesse’s gang whom Jesse regarded as a friend. Ford shot Jesse in the back while Jesse was hanging a picture.

1885 – Gottlieb Daimler is granted a German patent for his engine design.

1895 – Trial of the libel case instigated by Oscar Wilde begins, eventually resulting in his imprisonment on charges of homosexuality.

1910 – Highest mountain in North America, Alaska’s Mount McKinley climbed. The lower north peak was first climbed by a group of climbers bringing a 6 by 12 foot American flag and a 14-foot spruce pole.

1911 – The US Supreme Court ruled against Dr. Miles Medical Co., which had sued a distributor for selling at cut rate prices. In 1937 Congress passed the Free Trade Law letting states selectively allow price fixing to protect small retailers.

1926 – Second flight of a liquid-fueled rocket by Robert Goddard. Goddard launched a rocket in a flight that covered a distance of 50 feet in 4.2 seconds.

1930 – The first of two Academy Awards banquets this year was held in Los Angeles at the Fiesta Room of the Ambassador Hotel. The awards were given for films released between 2 August 1928 and 31 July 1929.

1933 – First airplane flight over Mount Everest. Due to downdrafts and lack of altitude they did not make it over the top but came within 2,000’ of it.

1933 – First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt informed newspaper reporters that beer would be served at the White House. This followed the March 22 legislation that legalized “3.2” beer.

1933 – The dirigible Akron crashed into the Atlantic off of New Jersey and killed 73 0f the 76 men aboard.

1936 – Al Carr KOs Lew Massey on 1 punch, :07 of the 1st round (shortest boxing bout with gloves).

1936 – Bruno Richard Hauptmann is electrocuted for the kidnapping and death of Charles Augustus Lindbergh II, the baby son of pilot Charles Lindbergh.

1939 – “Mr. District Attorney” was heard for the first time on NBC radio. The serial about the ‘champion of the people’ was originally a 15-minute nightly program. In June of 1939, the program went to a half-hour weekly format. “Mr. District Attorney” aired until 1952.

1942 – “People Are Funny” was first heard on NBC radio. Contestants on the original People Are Funny were picked from the studio audience by host Art Linkletter prior to the filming of each week’s episode.

1942 – World War II: Japanese forces begin an assault on the United States and Filipino troops on the Bataan Peninsula.

1942 – World War II: ADM Nimitz named Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas, a joint command, and retained his other title, Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Fleet.

1943 – World War II: Attacks by American General Patton’s 2nd Corps around El Guettar are held by the Axis defenders.

1944 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that black citizens are eligible to vote in all elections, including primaries. The Smith vs. Allwright decision ruled “white primaries” unconstitutional.

1944 – World War II: The B-17 and B-24 bombers of the US 15th Air Force drop 1100 tons of bombs on rail and industrial targets in Budapest.

1945 – World War II: Nazis began evacuation of camp Buchenwald.

1946 – Japanese Lt. General Masaharu Homma is executed in the Philippines for leading the Bataan Death March.

1948 – President Harry S. Truman signs the Marshall Plan, authorizing $5 billion in aid for 16 countries.

1948 – The first US figure skating championships were held.

1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cruising Down the River” by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: The Skyliners), Far Away Places” by Margaret Whiting, “Red Roses for a Blue Lady by Vaughn Monroe and “Candy Kisses” by George Morgan all topped the charts.

1949 – Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis debuted on NBC radio.

1951 – Korean War: Eighth Army, led by the 1st Cavalry Division, crossed the 38th parallel.

1951 – Korean War: Air Force Captain Robert H. Moore, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, shot down his fifth enemy plane and became the ninth ace of the War.

1953 – “TV Guide” publishes first national issue. A picture of the first cover featured Lucy and Desi Arnaz’ baby (I Love Lucy). The publication reached a circulation of 1,500,000 readers in its first year.

1954 – “Make Love to Me!” by Jo Stafford topped the charts.

1955 – Fred Astaire appeared on television for the first time on “The Toast of the Town,” with host, Ed Sullivan.

1955 – The American Civil Liberties Union announces it will defend Allen Ginsberg’s book Howl against obscenity charges.

1956 – Elvis Presley performed on “The Milton Berle Show.” The show was broadcast live from the aircraft carrier USS Hancock. Elvis played the songs “Heartbreak Hotel,” “Money, Honey,” and “Blue Suede Shoes.

1956 – Hudsonville-Standale Tornado: The western half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan is struck by a deadly F5 tornado.

1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Little Darlin’” by The Diamonds, “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley, “Gone” by Ferlin Husky and “There You Go” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.

1961 – “Blue Moon” by Marcels topped the charts.

1965 – First atomic powered spacecraft (SNAP) launched. The US SNAP-10A launched in 1965 was a 45 kWt thermal nuclear fission reactor which produced 650 watts using a thermoelectric converter and operated for 43 days but was shut down due to a satellite (not reactor) malfunction. It remains in orbit.

1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Stop! In the Name of Love” by the Supremes, I’m Telling You Now” by Freddie & The Dreamers, “Shotgun” by Jr. Walker & The All Stars and “King of the Road” by Roger Miller all topped the charts.

1965 – “Wooly Bully” by Sam the Sham and the Pharaoh’s was released.

1967 – Vietnam War: The U.S. State Department said that Hanoi might be brainwashing American prisoners.

1968 – Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his I’ve Been to the Mountaintop (43:15) speech just 24 hours before he was assassinated.

1969 – Vietnam War: U.S. Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird announces that the United States will start to “Vietnamize” the war effort. By that, he meant that the responsibility for the fighting would be gradually transferred to the South Vietnamese as they became more combat capable.

1971 – “Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)by the Temptations topped the charts.

1972 – The United States prepares hundreds of B-52s and fighter-bombers for possible air strikes to blunt the recently launched North Vietnamese “Easter Offensive.”

1973 – CHART TOPPERS – Killing Me Softly with His Song” by Roberta Flack, “Also Sprach Zarathustra (2001) by Deodato, “Neither One of Us (Wants to Be the First to Say Goodbye)” by Gladys Knight & The Pips and “Keep Me in Mind” by Lynn Anderson all topped the charts.

1973 – The first cellular telephone was developed by Dr. Martin Cooper of Motorola. It was 9″ by 5″by 1.75″ and weighed 2.5 lbs. The prototype offered a talk time of just 30 minutes and took 10 hours to re-charge.

1973 – Francis W. Dorion was granted a patent for a “dual razor blade assembly”.

1974 – The Super Outbreak occurs, the biggest tornado outbreak in recorded history. The death toll is 315, with nearly 5,500 injured. There were 148  tornadoes  confirmed in 13 US states including Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, and New York.

1974 – A tape from the SLA announced Patty Hearst’s decision to “stay and fight” with the SLA. This was a classic example of the “Stockholm Syndrome” at work.

1976 – “Disco Lady” by Johnny Taylor topped the charts.

1978 –  Cher’s TV special with guest Rod Stewart aired on ABC.

1979 – Jane M. Byrne (D) was elected as the first woman mayor of Chicago, defeating Republican Wallace D. Johnson.

1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rapture” by Blondie, Woman” by John Lennon, “The Best of Times” by Styx and “Texas Women” by Hank Williams, Jr. all topped the charts.

1982 – “I Love Rock ‘n’ Roll” by Joan Jett & the Blackhearts topped the charts.

1982 – John Chancellor stepped down as anchor of the “The NBC Nightly News.” Roger Mudd and Tom Brokaw became the co-anchors of the show.

1983 – Martin Cooper, Motorola project manager, demonstrated the first mobile phone, the DynaTAC 8000x. It was designed by Rudy Krolopp.

1984 – Coach John Thompson of Georgetown University became the first African-American coach to win an NCAA basketball tournament.

1985 – The landmark Brown Derby restaurant in Hollywood closed after 56 years in business. All of the furnishings were kept, including famous Booth #5 — where Clark Gable proposed to Carole Lombard.

1986 – The U.S. national debt hit $2 trillion.

1987 – Stock prices rocketed on Wall Street as the Dow Jones industrial average soared 69.89 points, ending the day at a record 2,390.34.

1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Eternal Flame” by Bangles, “Girl You Know It’s True” by Milli Vanilli, “The Look” by Roxette and “Baby’s Gotten Good at Goodbye” by George Strait all topped the charts.

1989 – The University of Michigan Wolverines won the NCAA championship by defeating Seton Hall in overtime, 80-79.

1992 – President Bush, speaking in Philadelphia, said members of Congress should shorten their annual sessions and retire after 12 years, calling for changes in “a failed status quo”; Democratic leaders accused Bush of “scapegoating.”

1992 – First five coed recruit companies from Orlando, FL Naval Training Center graduate.

1993 – The Norman Rockwell Museum opened in Stockbridge, MA.

1994 – First roster of Silver Bullets (all-female pro baseball team) announced. The team played together until 1997.

1994 – Frank Wells, president of the Walt Disney Co., died in helicopter crash while returning from a ski trip in Nevada’s Ruby Mountains.

1995 – Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor became the first woman to preside over the court.  She sat in for Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist.

1995 – UCLA defeated Arkansas, 89-78, to win the NCAA basketball championship.
1995 – Former United Way of America President William Aramony was convicted in Alexandria, Va., of 25 counts of fraud for stealing nearly $600,000 dollars from the nation’s biggest charity.

1996 – Much of North America was treated to a total lunar eclipse.

1996 – Suspected “Unabomber” Theodore Kaczynski is arrested at his Montana cabin.

1996 – A United States Air Force airplane carrying Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown crashes near Dubrovnik,  Croatia, killing all 35 on board.

1997 – About 2,000 youngsters in California and Georgia lined up for shots to protect them against hepatitis from a contaminated shipment of frozen strawberries.

1998 – The Dow Jones industrial average climbed above 9,000 for the first time.

1998 – Douglas Fred Groat, a disgruntled spy fired by the CIA, was charged with espionage and extortion. Groat later pleaded guilty to extortion, and was sentenced to five years in prison.

1999 – In Louisiana a tornado hit north of Shreveport and 10 people were reported killed with some 100 injured.

2000 – In Indianapolis,  Michigan State beat the Florida Gators for the NCAA basketball championship, 89-to-76.

2000 – The Nasdaq set a one-day record when it lost 349.15 points to close at 4,233.68.

2000 – United States v. Microsoft: Microsoft is ruled to have violated United States antitrust laws by keeping “an oppressive thumb” on its competitors.

2001 – President Bush warned China it risked damaging relations with the United States unless it quickly released the American crew of a damaged Navy spy plane. The plane had made an emergency landing in China after colliding with a Chinese fighter.

2001 – US agents seized over seven tons of marijuana from a tractor-trailer at the Tijuana border. It was believed to be the largest seizure along the US-Mexican border and was valued at $12.1 million.

2001 – A US fishing boat, the Arctic Rose out of Seattle, sank in the Bering Sea and all 15 aboard died.

2003 – Moving with a sense of wartime urgency, the House and Senate separately agreed to give President Bush nearly $80 billion to carry out the battle against Iraq and meet the threat of terrorism.

2003 – In the 16th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US Marines and infantry moved with surprising speed toward Baghdad.

2003 – Atlantic magazine editor Michael Kelly, 46, became the first American journalist to be killed while covering the Iraq war when his Army Humvee came under fire and rolled into a canal.

2003 – Dr. Julie Gerberding, a director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, states her concern that SARS threatens to become a global pandemic.

2004 – The US Postal Service unveiled a new John Wayne commemorative postage stamp for its annual “Legends of Hollywood” issue at a private fund-raiser.

2004 – A judge in New York declares a mistrial after eleven days of deliberations in the case of former Tyco International chairman and chief executive Dennis Kozlowski and former chief financial officer Mark Swartz after a juror received either a “threatening or coercive” letter in the previous 24 hours.

2005 – In Arizona Minuteman anti-immigrant activists began showing up to guard the border against illegal crossings.

2005 – Various world leaders express their condolences for the death of Pope John Paul II, including Queen Elizabeth II, John Howard, Tony Blair, George W. Bush, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi and Lawrence Gonzi. He lies in state in the Clementine Room of the Apostolic Palace for a private viewing, a ceremony to confirm and certify the death of the Pontifex Maximus.

2006 – The jury in the first phase of the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui has decided that he is eligible for the death penalty.

2006 – In Boston a 10-ton construction platform collapsed and fell 13 stories killing 3 people on Boylston St.

2006 – Florida beat UCLA, 73-57, to win its first NCAA title in men’s basketball.

2006 – Charles Barkley, Dominique Wilkins and Joe Dumars were among six people elected to the Basketball Hall of Fame.

2007 – President Bush denounced Democrats for going on spring break without approving money for the Iraq war; he also criticized House Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s trip to Syria.

2008 – The whistleblowers who exposed maintenance and inspection problems at Southwest Airlines told Congress their jobs were threatened and their reports of noncompliance were ignored for years by their superiors.

2008 – ATA Airlines discontinued all flights and filed for bankruptcy.

2008 – Jules Verne, the first European Automated Transfer Vehicle, successfully performs a fully automated docking with the International Space Station.

2009 – MASS SHOOTING: Fourteen people die and 26 are injured during a shooting at the American Civic Association in Binghamton, New York. ( an immigration services center).

2009 – US administration officials said President Obama planned to lift some curbs on travel to Cuba, including a ban on family travel and remittances to Cuba.

2009 – The regulator of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac released a letter disclosing bonus awards of more than $210 million through next year to more than 7,600 employees.

2009 –  Iowa’s Supreme Court legalizes same-sex marriage.

2009 – The United States economy lost 663,000 jobs in March, raising the unemployment rate to 8.5%.

2010 – The Apple iPad went on sale.

2011 – Taylor Swift wins the Entertainer of the Year award at the Academy of Country Music Awards 2010 with Miranda Lambert winning four awards including Female Vocalist of the year.

2012 – Federal Appeals Court orders Justice Department to explain whether the Obama administration believes judges can strike down federal laws.

2012 – Tornadoes tore through the Dallas area, tearing roofs off homes, tossing trucks into the air and leaving flattened tractor trailers strewn along highways and parking lots.

2012 –  President Barack Obama officially secures the nomination of the Democratic Party with wins in the Democratic Party primaries in Wisconsin, Maryland and Washington DC.

2012 – In basketball, the Baylor Lady Bears win the 2012 NCAA Women’s Division I Basketball Tournament, defeating the Notre Dame Fighting Irish women’s basketball team 80-61.

2013 –  NBC announces the departure of Jay Leno from the The Tonight Show in spring 2014. Leno is to be replaced by Jimmy Fallon, host of Late Night with Jimmy Fallon.

2013 – The US plans to set up a missile defense system in Guam. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel describes North Korea as a “real and clear danger”.

2013 – Mingo County Sheriff (WVa) Eugene Crum,  with a reputation for cracking down on drug dealers was shot in the head at point-blank range and killed outside The Mingo county courthouse during his lunch break. Since April 2, 2012, 28 police officers have been killed nationwide.

2014 – Comedian David Letterman, host of CBS’s Late Show with David Letterman, announces his planned retirement in 2015.

2015 – An American sailor (Louis Jordan) who was lost for 66 days in the Atlantic Ocean is found by a German tanker. He survived on a diet of solely raw fish and rainwater.

2016 – Joe Medicine Crow: Native American Historian and Last Plains Indian War Chief Dies at 102. He died at a Billings, Montana, hospice center. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009.





1715 – William Watson, English physician and scientist (d. 1787)

1783 – Washington Irving, American author (d. 1859)
1822 – Edward Everett Hale, American writer (d. 1909)
1823 – William Marcy Tweed, American political boss (d. 1878)
1898 – George Jessel, American comedian (d. 1981)
1898 – Henry Luce, American publisher (d. 1967)
1904 – Iron Eyes Cody, American actor (d. 1999)
1904 – Russel Wright, American industrial designer (d. 1976)
1905 – Robert Frederick Sink, United States Army Officer (d. 1965)
1916 – Herb Caen, American newspaper columnist (d. 1997)
1924 – Marlon Brando, actor (On the Waterfront, The Godfather), was born in Omaha, Neb. (d. 2004)
1924 – Doris Von Kappelhoff [Doris Day], American singer and actress, was born in Cincinnati, Oh.
1926 – Gus Grissom, American astronaut (d. 1967)
1930 – Lawton Chiles, U.S. (Florida) Senator and Governor (d. 1998)
1934 – Jane Goodall, English zoologist
1941 – Jan Berry, American musician (d. 2004)
1942 – Wayne Newton, American singer
1943 – Doreen Tracey, English-born Mouseketeer
1944 – Tony Orlando, American musician
1956 – Ray Combs, American game show host and comedian (d. 1996)
1961 – Eddie Murphy, American actor and comedian




Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 13th Infantry, 8th Infantry Division. Place and date: Birken, Germany,  April 3rd,  1945. Entered service at: Roseville, Mich. Birth: Huntington, W. Va. G.O. No.: 21, 26 February 1946. Citation: Pfc. Wetzel, an acting squad leader with the Antitank Company of the 13th Infantry, was guarding his platoon’s command post in a house at Birken, Germany, during the early morning hours of 3 April 1945, when he detected strong enemy forces moving in to attack. He ran into the house, alerted the occupants and immediately began defending the post against heavy automatic weapons fire coming from the hostile troops. Under cover of darkness the Germans forced their way close to the building where they hurled grenades, two of which landed in the room where Pfc. Wetzel and the others had taken up firing positions. Shouting a warning to his fellow soldiers, Pfc. Wetzel threw himself on the grenades and, as they exploded, absorbed their entire blast, suffering wounds from which he died. The supreme gallantry of Pfc. Wetzel saved his comrades from death or serious injury and made it possible for them to continue the defense of the command post and break the power of a dangerous local counterthrust by the enemy. His unhesitating sacrifice of his life was in keeping with the U.S. Army’s highest traditions of bravery and heroism.




Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 126th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 3rd,  1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Lancaster, Pa. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.





Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company B, 1st New Jersey Veteran Battalion. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 3rd, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Elizabeth, N.J. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag of 46th North Carolina (C.S.A.).


BRIGGS, ELIJAH A.State of Connecticut



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company B, 2d Connecticut Heavy Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 3rd, 1865. Entered service at: Salisbury, Conn. Birth: Salisbury, Conn. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag.





Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 11, April 3rd, 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Louisville at New Madrid, Missouri, through 7 April, and helped to prevent southern ships from ascending the river. Carrying out his duties through the thick of battle and acting as captain of a 9-inch gun, Brynes consistently showed “Attention to duty, bravery, and coolness in action against the enemy.”


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Unerased History – April 2nd

Posted by Wayne Church on April 2, 2016 in 04 - April, Blog by month |
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Publicity Stunt Week–April 1-7
Fun at Work Day

1974 Super Tornado Outbreak

The Super Outbreak is the largest tornado outbreak on record for a single 24-hour period. From April 3 to April 4, 1974, there were 148 tornadoes confirmed in 13 US states, including Illinois,  Indiana,  Michigan,  Ohio,  Kentucky,  Tennessee,  Alabama,  Mississippi,  Georgia,  North Carolina,  Virginia,  West Virginia, and  New York. It extensively damaged approximately 900 square miles along a total combined path length of 2,600 miles.  Fatalities were between 315 and 330 and damages totaled (1n 20005 dollars) $3.5 billion dollars.

The Super Outbreak of tornadoes of 3–4 April 1974 remains the most outstanding severe convective weather episode of record in the continental United States. The outbreak far surpassed previous and succeeding events in severity, longevity and extent.

A powerful spring-time low pressure system developed across the plains on April 1. While moving into the Mississippi and Ohio Valley areas, a surge of very moist air intensified the storm further while there were sharp temperature differences between both sides of the system. NOAA officials were expecting a severe weather outbreak on April 3, but not as bad as what ultimately occurred. Several F2 and F3 tornadoes had struck portions of the Ohio Valley and the South in a separate, earlier outbreak on April 1st and 2nd. This earlier storm system included three killer tornadoes in Kentucky, Alabama, and Tennessee. The town of Campbellsburg, KY, population 705, and just 38 miles NE of Louisville, was hard-hit in this earlier outbreak, with a large portion of the town destroyed by an F3 tornado. Between the two outbreaks, an additional tornado was reported in Indiana in the early morning hours of April 3, several hours before the official start of the outbreak.

On Wednesday, April 3, severe weather watches already were issued from the morning from south of the Great Lakes, while in portions of the Upper Midwest, snow was reported, with heavy rain falling across central Michigan and much of Ontario. St. Louis, Missouri was pounded by a very severe thunderstorm early in the afternoon which, while it did not produce a tornado, did include damaging baseball-sized hailstones.

By the early afternoon, numerous super-cells and clusters of thunderstorms developed and the outbreak began quickly, with storms developing in central Illinois and a secondary zone developing near the Appalachians across eastern Tennessee, central Alabama, and northern Georgia. The worst of the outbreak shifted towards the Ohio Valley between 4:30pm and 6:30pm EDT where it produced four of the six F5s over a span of just two hours when three powerful super-cells traveled across the area—one in central and southern Ohio, a second one across southern Indiana and Ohio, and a third one in northern Kentucky.


Scripture of the Day


2 Chronicles 7:14 New King James Version (NKJV)

14 if My people who are called by My name will humble themselves, and pray and seek My face, and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin and heal their land.


Founders Thoughts


Thomas Paine“Those who expect to reap the blessings of freedom, must, like men, undergo the fatigue of supporting it.”

~Thomas Paine



Most people give up just when they’re about to achieve success. They quit on the one yard line. They give up at the last minute of the game, one foot from a winning touchdown.”

~ H. Ross Perot



To reschedule an event to an earlier time.

[Modeled after the word postpone, from Latin pre- (before) + ponere (to put).]


68 – Galba, governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Roman emperors begun with Julius Caesar and Augustus.

1513 – Juan Ponce de Leon sets foot on Florida at St. Augustine becoming the first European known to do so.

1781 – Frigate Alliance captures two British privateers, Mars and Minerva.

1792 – The Coinage Act is passed establishing the United States Mint at Philadelphia. The act also authorized $10 Eagle, $5 half-Eagle & 2.50 quarter-Eagle gold coins & silver dollar, dollar, quarter, dime & half-dime to be minted.

1827 – Joseph Dixon begins manufacturing lead pencils.

1827 – First Naval Hospital construction begun at Portsmouth, VA.

1845 – H L Fizeau & J Leon Foucault take first photo of the Sun.  The original image was a little over 12 centimeters in diameter.

1863 – Civil War: Richmond Bread Riot: Food shortages incite hundreds of angry women to riot in Richmond, Virginia and demand the Confederate government to release emergency supplies.

1863 – Civil War: The Alligator, a US Navy submarine (never commissioned) that was being towed to South Carolina to be used in the taking of Charleston; she was lost due to bad weather off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina;

1864 – Civil War:  Skirmish at Crump’s Hill (Piney Woods), Louisiana.

1864 – Civil War: Skirmish at Spoonville-Antoine, Arkansas.

1865 – Civil War: US Maj Gen James H Wilson’s cavalry captures Selma, AL.

1865 – Civil War: The Siege of Petersburg is broken – Union troops capture the trenches around Petersburg, Virginia, forcing Confederate General Robert E. Lee to retreat.

1865 – Civil War:  Confederate President Jefferson Davis and most of his Cabinet flee the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia.

1865 – Civil War: Confederate Secretary of the Navy Mallory ordered the destruction of the James River Squadron and directed its officers and men to join General Lee’s troops then in the process of evacuating Richmond and retreating westward toward Danville.

1866 – Civil War: U.S. President Andrew Johnson declares war to be over.

1870 – Victoria Claflin Woodhull (1838-1927) became the first woman to run for president of the United States when she announced her candidacy for the 1872 election.

1872 – George B Brayton patents gasoline powered streetcar.

1882 – Jesse James, American outlaw, shot in the back of the head by Robert Ford (b. 1847) Ford was just under 21 years old and did it to collect a reward. He himself was killed by age 30.
1889 – Charles Hall patented an inexpensive method for the production of aluminum.

1896 – Madison Square Garden in New York City hosted the season premiere of the Barnum and Bailey Circus. The circus featured a Duryea horseless carriage.

1898 – Adoption of U.S. Naval Academy coat of arms.

1900 – The Foraker Act passes through Congress, giving Puerto Ricans limited self-rule.

1902 – “Electric Theatre”, the first full-time movie theater in the United States, opens in Los Angeles, California. Thomas Tally’s Electric Theater was dedicated solely to the exhibition of motion pictures. He sought to provide a wholesome environment for the middle class family. Admission was 10 cents.

1910 – Karl Harris perfected the process for the artificial synthesis of rubber.

1912 – Titanic undergoes sea trials under its own power.

1914 – The U.S. Federal Reserve Board announced plans to divide the country into 12 districts.

1917 – World War I: At 8:30 p.m. President Woodrow Wilson, delivered his message before a joint session of Congress and recommended that a state of war be declared between the United States and the imperial German government.

1917 – The first woman ever elected to the U.S. Congress, Jeannette Rankin, takes her seat as a representative from Montana.

1921 – Professor Albert Einstein lectures in New York City on his new theory of relativity.

1924 – Congress appropriated ($13,000,000) to the Cutter Revenue Service for ten air stations and equipment. Congress first authorized the stations on 29 August 1916 but did not provide for sufficient funding until this date.

1931 – Virne “Jackie” Mitchell became the second woman to play for an all-male pro baseball team. In an exhibition game against the New York Yankees, she struck out both Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig in an exhibition game in Chattanooga, Tennessee.

1932 – Aviator Charles Lindbergh and Dr. John Condon turns over $50,000 in ransom to an unidentified man in a New York cemetery. His child was not returned and was found dead the next month.

1942 – World War II: In response to Pearl Harbor, the USS Hornet with Jimmy Doolittle’s B-25s departed from San Francisco.

1942 – Glenn Miller and his orchestra recorded “American Patrol“.

1942 – World War II: US bombers from India attack Japanese shipping in the Andaman Islands.

1943 – World War II: American aircraft conduct eight raids on Kiska and one on Attut in the Aleutians.

1944 – World War II: The 22nd Marine Regiment secured Majit Island in the Marshall Islands.

1944 – World War II: Merrill’s Marauders heavily engaged at Nhpum Ga, Burma.

1947 – “The Big Story” was first heard on NBC radio. It stayed on the air for eight years.

1948 –CHART TOPPERS – “Now is the Hour” by Bing Crosby, I’m Looking Over a Four Leaf Clover” by The Art Moonie Orchestra, “Beg Your Pardon” by Francis Craig and “Anytime” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1949 – “Cruising Down the River” by Blue Barron topped the charts.

1951 –   General Dwight Eisenhower assumed command of all allied forces in the Western Mediterranean area and Europe.

1951 – First Navy use of jet aircraft as a bomber, launched from a carrier, USS Princeton.

1951 – Korean War: Far East Air Force flew 1,245 sorties in the third highest daily total in the war.

1954 – Plans to build Disneyland were first announced . Original plans called for a 9 million dollar 45-acre park, but by opening day the park covered 160 acres and had cost 17 million.

1955 – “Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes topped the charts.

1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Poor People of Paris by Les Baxter, “Heartbreak Hotel” by Elvis Presley, “Rock Island Line” by Lonnie Donegan and “Blue Suede Shoes” by Carl Perkins all topped the charts.

1956 – Soap operas “As the World Turns” (28:44) & “Edge of Night” (28:31) premiere on TV.

1958 – National Advisory Council on Aeronautics renamed NASA.

1958 – Wind speed reaches 286 mph in tornado in Wichita Falls TX (record).

1960 – Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith topped the charts.

1963 – Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King began the first non-violent campaign in Birmingham, AL.

1963 – “Best Foot Forward” with Liza Minnelli opened in New York City.

1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “She Loves You” by The Beatles, “Twist and Shout” by The Beatles, Suspicion” by Terry Stafford and “Saginaw, Michigan” by Lefty Frizzell all topped the charts.

1964 – The Beach Boys recorded “I Get Around.”

1965 – Freddie & the Dreamers recorded “Do The Freddie.

1966 – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler topped the charts.

1968 – The influential science-fiction film “2001: A Space Odyssey,” produced and directed by Stanley Kubrick, had its world premiere in Washington.

1971 –  The ABC sci-fi soap opera “Dark Shadows,” which premiered in 1966, aired for the last time.

1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “A Horse with No Name” by America, “Puppy Love” by Donny Osmond, “Mother and Child Reunion” by Paul Simon and “My Hang-Up is You” by Freddie Hart alltopped the charts.

1972 – Tennessee Williams’ “Small Craft Warnings,” premiered in New York City.

1972 – Actor Charlie Chaplin returns to the United States for the first time since being labeled a communist during the Red Scare in the early 1950s .

1972 – John Lennon and Yoko Ono held a news conference in New York to discuss their appeal of the Immigration Department’s decision to deport John.

1972 – Vietnam War: The Easter Offensive begins – North Vietnamese soldiers of the 304th Division take the northern half of Quang Tri Province.

1973 – Launch of the LexisNexis computerized legal research service.

1973 – CBS radio begins on the hour news 24 hours a day.

1975 – Vietnam War: Thousands of civilian refugees flee from the Quang Ngai Province in front of advancing North Vietnamese troops.

1977 – “Rich Girl” by Daryl Hall & John Oates topped the charts.

1977 – Stevie Wonder’s tribute to Duke Ellington, “Sir Duke“, was released.

1978 – TV show “Dallas” premiered on CBS as a 5 week mini-series. It was produced by Leonard Katzman (1927-1996) and ran through May, 1991.

1978 – Velcro was first marketed.

1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Another Brick in the Wall” by Pink Floyd, “Working My Way Back to You/Forgive Me, Girl by the Spinners, “Call Me” by Blondie and I’d Love to Lay You Down” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.

1980 – President Jimmy Carter signs the Crude Oil Windfall Profits Tax Act in an effort to help the U.S. economy rebound.

1980 – Wayne Gretzky becomes first teenager to score 50 goals in a season.

1982 – In exhibition game A’s pitcher Steve McCatty comes to bat using a toy bat. It was a protest against not being allowed to use DH or Designated Hitters. Jim Quick, the home plate umpire, refused to allow the 15″ bat and McCatty was called out on three strikes.

1982 – The newest addition to the Coast Guard’s air fleet, the HU-25A Guardian, was dedicated and christened at Aviation Training Center Mobile.

1983 – “Billie Jean” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.

1983 – The New Jersey Transit strike that began on March 1 came to an end.

1984 – John Thompson became the first African American coach to lead his team to the NCAA college basketball championship.

1985 – The NCAA Rules Committee adopted the 45-second shot clock for men’s basketball to begin in the 1986 season.

1986 – George Corley Wallace (1919-1998), Governor of Alabama (Dem.), announced his retirement.

1986 – On a TWA airliner flying from Rome to Athens a bomb exploded under a seat killing four Americans.

1987 – IBM introduces PS/2 & OS/2. The PS/2 series of personal computers was heralded (in 1987) as IBM’s answer to the clone manufacturers.

1987 – The speed limit on U.S. interstate highways was increased to 65 miles per hour in limited areas.

1987 – The Prince album “Sign O’ The Times” by Shiela E.” was released worldwide.

1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Man in the Mirror” by Michael Jackson, “Get Outta My Dreams, Get Into My Car” by Billy Ocean, “I Want Her by Keith Sweat and “Love Will Find Its Way to You” by Reba McEntire all topped the charts.

1989 – An editorial in the “New York Times” declared that the Cold War was over.

1990 – The University of Nevada at Las Vegas won the NCAA college basketball championship, defeating Duke 103-73.

1992 – In New York, Mafia boss John Gotti is convicted of murder and racketeering and is later sentenced to life in prison.

1992 – The space shuttle Atlantis returned from a nine-day mission.

1993 – Ellie Nesler (1952-2008) shot and killed Daniel Driver in a Jamestown, Ca., courtroom. Driver had been accused of molesting her son and three other boys. She was sentenced to 10 years in prison.

1994 – In California, Preston Tate was shot and killed by guards during an allegedly staged fight at the Corcoran State Prison.

1995 – Baseball owners accepted the players’ union offer to play without a contract, ending the longest and costliest strike in the history of professional sports.

1996 – A federal appeals court rejected New York state laws banning doctor-assisted suicide, saying it would be discriminatory to let people disconnect life support systems while refusing to let others end their lives with medication.

1997 – Tennessee accepts the 15th Amendment.

1997 – An Air Force A-10 Thunderbolt jet with four 500- pound bombs was lost over the Colorado Rockies. It was piloted by Capt. Craig Button (32). Wreckage of the plane was found Apr 20 on the sheer face of New York Mountain [Gold Dust Peak], 15 miles from Vail.

1998 – A new wing opened at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum opened in Cleveland, OH.

1998 – California agreed to settle a sexual harassment lawsuit brought by three female prison workers for $4.3 million.

1998 – In Kansas City it was reported that the SubTropolis underground business complex had some 4.3 million sq. feet of mine space converted to warehouse, office and factory use with 50 enterprises employing 1300 people. The underground industrial park began in 1945 as a limestone mine.

1999 – Sec. of Energy Bill Richardson ordered the computer systems at Los Alamos laboratory to be shut down due to security leaks.

1999 – Allied aircraft resumed bombing in Iraq after a two-week lull.

2000 – More than 600 people set out on a five-day, 120-mile protest march to Columbia, South Carolina, to urge state lawmakers to move the Confederate flag from the Statehouse dome.

2000 – It was reported that a Nov. 1999, 79-page CIA report: “International Trafficking in Women to the United States: A Contemporary Manifestation of Slavery,” claimed 50,000 victims per year in the US.

2001 – Pres. Bush demanded that the Chinese release the US Navy crew and spy plane that had made an emergency landing on China’s Hainan Island after colliding with a Chinese fighter.

2001 – The town of Edgar Springs, Mo., was named the population center of the US. It marked the point where the US would balance if its 281 million population were equally distributed. The actual center was 3 miles east of town. In 2010 it moved to Texas County, MO, 2.7 miles NE of Plato, MO.

2003 – On the 15th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom American forces crossed the Tigris River in the drive toward the Iraqi capital and destroyed the Baghdad Division of Iraq’s Republican Guard.

2003 Seven US Army soldiers were killed when their Black Hawk helicopter was shot down.

2003 – A US B-52 bomber dropped 2 new CBU-105 bombs on the first 30 vehicles of an Iraqi armored convoy approaching a small American reconnaissance unit. The bombs each released 10 submunitions, each of which ejected 4 disks that used infra-red scanners to locate the vehicles. Soldiers in the remaining 70 vehicles surrendered immediately.

2003 – PFC Jessica Lynch is rescued from the Hussein Hospital in Nasiryah where she has been held since 23 March. This is the first POW rescue by the US military since WWII.

2004 – The US Customs and Border Protection Agency begin patrols with unmanned aerial vehicles to identify illegal immigrants at U.S. land borders.

2004 – Federal commissioners investigating the September 11, 2001 attacks look into the 6,000 documents from former President Bill Clinton’s presidential archive.

2004 – Washington announced plans to fingerprint and photograph millions of travelers to the United States. The measure, which will take effect by Sept. 30, affected citizens in 27 countries who had been allowed to travel within the US without a visa for up to 90 days.

2004 – At least two Shiite Muslim followers of militant Iraqi cleric, Moqtada Sadr, are killed early in the day after throwing themselves in front of United States tanks during a demonstration in Baghdad.

2005 – James Stewart Jr. becomes first African American to win a major motor sports event.

2005 – Scientists at the California Institute of Technology devise a method to weigh the smallest mass ever, a cluster of xenon atoms weighing a few zeptograms, or billionths of a trillionth of a gram.

2006 – Former Majority Leader Tom DeLay announces his resignation from the United States House of Representatives.

2006 – Thunderstorms packing tornadoes and hail as big as softballs ripped through eight US states, killing at least 27 people. Tennessee was hit hardest, with tornadoes striking five western counties and killing 23 people, including an infant. Severe thunderstorms, many producing tornadoes, also struck parts of Iowa, Kentucky, Arkansas, Missouri, Ohio, Illinois and Indiana. Strong wind was blamed or at least three deaths in Missouri.

2007 – The US Supreme Court rules that the Environmental Protection Agency has the authority to regulate the emission of greenhouse gases and must do so unless it can provide some scientific reason proving otherwise.

2007 – Chicago’s police superintendent, Philip Cline, announced his retirement after two videos emerged of off-duty police officers beating civilians.

2007 – The University of Florida Gators defeat the Ohio State Buckeyes 84-75 in the 2007 NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Tournament championship game, becoming the first school in Division I history to win both the men’s college basketball and college football titles in the same academic year.

2008 – In Arkansas three men were presumed drowned when scaffolding underneath an Arkansas River bridge collapsed. They were working on a project to install a water main beneath the bridge for the Central Arkansas Water utility.

2009 –  The FBI is probing an Internet leak of the upcoming film X-Men Origins: Wolverine.

2009 – A federal grand jury issued a 75-page indictment charging former Illinois Gov. Rod Blagojevich with racketeering, extortion and fraud.

2009 – United States Federal Judge John D. Bates rules that enemy combatants incarcerated at the U.S. Air Base in Bagram, Afghanistan, have rights to legal trials.

2010 – Three men are charged with murder in the fatal stabbings of two men on a New York City subway over the weekend.

2010 – Record rains cause flooding across New England, with Rhode Island hit the hardest. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) officials say as many as 200,000 people in Rhode Island could be affected.

2012 –  SCHOOL SHOOTING: Six students and one employee died when a gunman opened fire at Christian-based Oikos University in Oakland, Calif. Three other people were wounded.

2012 – In basketball, the Kentucky Wildcats win the 2012 NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Tournament, defeating the Kansas Jayhawks 67-59.

2013 – The wrongful death of Michael Jackson trial gets underway with jury selection.

2013 – Tonya S. Bundick is charged in connection with seventy  arsons  in Virginia. The fires began in November 2012 and continued until the last was set April 1, 2013.

2014 – 2014 Fort Hood shooting: A shooting is reported at the Fort Hood Army Base near the US town of Killeen, Texas with reports of at least four deaths, including the gunman, and 14 injuries.

2015 – A black judge, Louisville Judge Olu Stevens, in Kentucky gives two home invaders and armed robbers a light sentence because he feels that their three-year-old white victim was a “racist”. He made that decision because in her victim statement the little girl said she is now afraid of black people after they broke into her home and threatened her with a gun.



742 – Charlemagne (d. 814)

1912 – Herbert Mills, American singer (The Mills Brothers) (d. 1989)
1743 – Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President of the United States (Old style date) (d. 1826)
1805 – Hans Christian Andersen, Danish writer (d. 1875)
1814 – Erastus Brigham Bigelow, American inventor (d. 1879) was an American inventor of weaving machines. Bigelow was born in West Boylston, Massachusetts.
1862 – Nicholas Murray Butler, president of Columbia University, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1947)
1869 – Hughie Jennings, American baseball player and manager (d. 1928)
1875 – Walter Chrysler, American automobile pioneer (d. 1940)
1908 – Buddy Ebsen, American actor and dancer (d. 2003)

1920 – Jack Webb, American actor, director, and producer (d. 1982)
1938 – Whirlaway, American thoroughbred racehorse, 1941 Triple Crown Winner (d. 1953)
1939 – Marvin Gaye, American singer (d. 1984)
1945 – Linda Hunt, American actress She is currently portraying the role of Henrietta “Hetty” Lange, Office of Special Projects Operations Manager on the CBS Television series NCIS: Los Angeles.
1945 – Reggie Smith, American baseball player
1945 – Don Sutton, American baseball player
1947 – Emmylou Harris, American singer





Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company L, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Apache Creek, Ariz., April 2nd,  1874. Entered service at:——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallantry in action.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company K, 39th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Bloomington, Ill. Birth: Woodford County, Ill. Date of issue: 12 May 1865. Citation: Gallantry as color bearer in the assault on Fort Gregg.




Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 12th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Northampton, Pa. Date of issue: 12 May 1865. Citation: Conspicuous gallantry as color bearer in the assault on Fort Gregg.


 State of Connecticut

Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 2d Rhode Island Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: South Kingston, R.I. Birth: Griswold, Conn. Date of issue: 2 March 1895. Citation: Planted the flag upon the parapet while the enemy still occupied the line; was the first of his regiment to enter the works




Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Westerly, R.I. Birth: Westerly, R.I. Date of issue: 20 June 1866. Citation: Was one of a detachment of 20 picked artillerymen who voluntarily accompanied an infantry assaulting party, and who turned upon the enemy the guns captured in the assault.



Rank and organization: Major and Assistant Adjutant General, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Mississippi. Place and date: At Harpeth River, Tenn., 17 December 1864; at Selma, Ala., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Wilkes Barre, Pa. Birth: Luzerne County, Pa. Date of issue: 30 March 1898. Citation: Obtained permission from the corps commander to advance upon the enemy’s position with the 4th U.S. Cavalry, of which he was a lieutenant; led an attack upon a battery, dispersed the enemy, and captured the guns. At Selma, Ala., charged, at the head of his regiment, into the second and last line of the enemy’s works.



Rank and organization: Surgeon, 48th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Born: 12 May 1838, Ireland. Date of issue: 21 July 1897. Citation: Removed severely wounded officers and soldiers from the field while under a heavy fire from the enemy, exposing himself beyond the call of duty, thus furnishing an example of most distinguished gallantry.




Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 18th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Hanover, N.H. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Brought off from the picket line, under heavy fire, a comrade who had been shot through both legs.




Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 6th Maryland Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Carroll County, Md. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Was the first enlisted man of the 3d Division to mount the parapet of the enemy’s line.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 4th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1862. Entered service at: Mason City, W. Va. Birth:——. Date of issue: 10 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”






Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 18th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Hanover, N.H. Birth: Hanover, N.H. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Brought off from the picket line, under heavy fire, a comrade who had been shot through both legs.



Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Pawtucket, R.I. Birth: Pawtucket, R.I. Date of issue: 2 November 1887. Citation: Was one of a detachment of twenty  picked artillerymen who voluntarily accompanied an infantry assaulting party, and who turned upon the enemy the guns captured in the assault.


Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company F, 4th New York Heavy Artillery. Place and date: At South Side Railroad, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Born: 26 July 1842, Albany, N.Y. Date of issue: 17 January 1895. Citation: Raised the fallen colors and, rushing forward in advance of the troops, placed them on the enemy’s works.





Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company I, 12th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Ohio County, W. Va. Birth: Ohio County, W. Va. Date of issue: 12 May 1865. Citation: Seized the colors of his regiment after two color bearers had fallen, bore them gallantly, and was among the first to gain a foothold, with his flag, inside the enemy’s works.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company K, 1st Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: St. Johnsbury, Vt. Birth: Parishville, N.Y. Date of issue: 24 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.



 State of Connecticut

Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Charleston, R.I. Birth: Stonington, Conn. Date of issue: 28 June 1892. Citation: Was one of a detachment of twenty picked artillerymen who voluntarily accompanied an infantry assaulting party and who turned upon the enemy the guns captured in the assault.




Rank and organization: Captain, Company B, 116th U.S. Colored Troops, Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Barre, Vt. Born: 11 April 1844, Piermont, N.H. Date of issue: 24 March 1892. Citation: Voluntarily passed between the lines, under a heavy fire from the enemy, and obtained important information.




Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 211th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Westmoreland County, Pa. Date of issue: 20 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.



Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 4th lowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Selma, Ala., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Independence, Buchanan County, lowa. Birth: Carroll County, Ind. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of silk Confederate States flag and two staff officers.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 99th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., 12 May 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Lancaster County, Pa. Date of issue: 2 April 1878. Citation: Capture of flag of 2nd Louisiana Tigers (C.S.A.) in a hand-to-hand contest.



Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 40th New Jersey Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Newark, N.J. Born: 4 April 1840, Germany. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 18th North Carolina (C.S.A.) within the enemy’s works.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 61st Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va.,April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 16 January 1894. Citation: Carried the colors 50 yards in advance of his regiment, and after being painfully wounded attempted to crawl into the enemy’s works in an endeavor to plant his flag thereon.



Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 95th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va.,April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 28 March 1879. Citation: Bravely assisted in the capture of one of the enemy’s guns; with the first troops to enter the city, captured the flag of the Confederate customhouse.


Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 34th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Berkshire County, Mass. Birth: Livingston, N.Y. Date of issue: 12 May 1865. Citation: Was among the first to enter Fort Gregg, clearing his way by using his musket on the heads of the enemy.

 State of Connecticut

Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 2d Connecticut Heavy Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Salisbury, Conn. Birth: Sharon, Conn. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.




Rank and organization: Captain, Company H, 5th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Windham, Vt. Birth: Windham, Vt. Date of issue: 30 July 1890. Citation: Among the first to mount the enemy’s works in the assault, he received a serious bayonet wound in the face, was struck several times with clubbed muskets, but bravely stood his ground, and with his sword killed the man who bayoneted him.


Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 5th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Salisbury, Vt. Born: 18 January 1841, Bolton, N.Y. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 23d Tennessee Infantry (C.S.A.) with several of the enemy.




Rank and organization: Corporal, Company K, 211th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Westmoreland County, Pa. Date of issue: 20 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.




Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Providence, R.I. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 16 June 1866. Citation: Was one of a detachment of twenty picket artillerymen who voluntarily accompanied an infantry assaulting party and who turned upon the enemy the guns captured in the assault.



Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company E, 3d Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Woodstock, Vt. Birth: Pomfret, Vt. Date of issue: 30 September 1893. Citation: When the lines were wavering from the well-directed fire of the enemy, this officer, acting adjutant of the regiment, sprang forward, and with encouraging words cheered the soldiers on and, although dangerously wounded, refused to leave the field until the enemy’s works were taken.


Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 23d Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 12 May 1865. Citation: Conspicuous gallantry as color bearer in the assault on Fort Gregg.



Rank and organization: Captain, Company A, 208th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Perrysburg, Pa. Date of issue: 19 July 1895. Citation: Prevented a retreat of his regiment during the battle.


Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 158th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Battery Gregg, near Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Newton, N.J. Date of issue: 12 May 1865. Citation: Carried the colors in advance of the line of battle, the flagstaff being shot off while he was planting it on the parapet of the fort.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 34th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Spencer, Mass. Birth: Spencer, Mass. Date of issue: 12 May 1865. Citation: In the assault on Fort Gregg, bore the regimental flag bravely and was among the foremost to enter the work.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 207th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Sedgwick, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Pennsylvania. Birth: York County, Pa. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: The color bearer falling, pierced by 7 balls, he immediately sprang forward and grasped the colors, planting them upon the enemy’s forts amid a murderous fire of grape, canister, and musketry from the enemy.


Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 110th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Montgomery County, Ohio. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.


Rank and organization: Corporal, Company K, 100th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 12 May 1865. Citation: Gallantry as color bearer in the assault on Fort Gregg.




Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Coventry, R.I. Birth: Coventry, R.I. Date of issue: 16 June 1866. Citation: Was one of a detachment of 20 picked artillerymen who voluntarily accompanied an infantry assaulting party and who turned upon the enemy the guns captured in the assault.


Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 205th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Mifflin County, Pa. Date of issue: 20 May 1865. Citation: After his regiment began to waiver he rushed on alone to capture the enemy flag. He reached the works and the Confederate color bearer who, at bayonet point, he caused to surrender with several enemy soldiers. He kept his prisoners in tow when they realized he was alone as his regiment in the meantime withdrew further to the rear.



Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 122d Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at. ——. Birth: Muskingum County, Ohio. Date of issue: 16 April 1891. Citation: Capture of division flag of General Heth.



Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 148th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 21 September 1888. Citation: Capture of flag of 8th Mississippi Infantry (C.S.A.).


Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 93d Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Lebanon County, Pa. Birth: Lebanon County, Pa. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Sergeant Marquette, although wounded, was one of the first to plant colors on the enemy’s breastworks.




Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 61st Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Westmoreland County, Pa. Date of issue: 13 February 1891. Citation: Voluntarily took the colors, whose bearer had been disabled, and, although himself severely wounded, carried the same until the enemy’s works were taken.




Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 61st Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa. Birth: Pittsburgh, Pa. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 7th Tennessee Infantry (C.S.A.).



Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 12th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Ohio County, W. Va. Birth: Ohio County, W. Va. Date of issue: 12 May 1865. Citation: Conspicuous gallantry as color bearer in the assault on Fort Gregg.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 23d Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 12 May 1865. Citation: One of the three soldiers most conspicuous for gallantry in the final assault.





Rank and organization: Color Sergeant, Company D, 89th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 12 May 1865. Citation: Gallantry as color bearer in the assault on Fort Gregg.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 110th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Piqua, Ohio. Birth. Bracken County, Ky. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.



Rank and organization: Captain, Company B, 1st Maine Veteran Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Lyndon, Maine. Birth: Byron, Maine. Date of issue: 23 October 1891. Citation: With 6 men, captured 69 Confederate prisoners and recaptured several soldiers who had fallen into the enemy’s hands.



Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 4th lowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Selma, Ala., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at. Henry County, lowa. Birth: Franklin, Ohio. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of standard of 12th Mississippi Cavalry (C.S.A.).



Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 61st Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa. Birth: Tarentum, Pa. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of the flag of the Tennessee Brigade (C.S.A.).


Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: West Greenwich, R.I. Birth: Coventry, R.I. Date of issue: 20 June 1866. Citation: Was one of a detachment of twenty picked artillerymen who voluntarily accompanied an infantry assaulting party and who turned upon the enemy the guns captured in the assault.




Rank and organization: Major, 61st Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Born: 28 March 1836, Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 28 November 1892. Citation: Carried the colors at the head of the column in the assault after two color bearers had been shot down.


Rank and organization: Corporal, Company B, 2d Rhode Island Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865, at Sailors Creek, Va., 6 April 1865. Entered service at: Providence, R.I. Birth. England. Date of issue: 29 May 1867. Citation. Planted the first color on the enemy’s works. Carried the regimental colors over the creek after the regiment had broken and been repulsed.



Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 148th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Sutherland Station, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Ulysses, Pa. Birth: Wyoming County, N.Y. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.





Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company F, 120th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Catskill, N.Y. Birth. Catskill, N.Y. Date of issue: 4 April 1898. Citation: While acting as aide to a general officer, voluntarily accompanied a regiment in an assault on the enemy’s works and acted as leader of the movement which resulted in the rout of the enemy and the capture of a large number of prisoners.


Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Coventry, R.I. Birth: Coventry, R.I. Date of issue: 4 March 1886. Citation: Was one of a detachment of 20 picked artillerymen who voluntarily accompanied an infantry assaulting party, and who turned upon the enemy the guns captured in the assault.


Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 12th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Battery Gregg, near Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Harrison, W. Va. Date of issue: 3 April 1867. Citation: Capture of flag.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 5th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Stowe, Vt. Birth: Stowe, Vt. Date of issue: 28 October 1891. Citation: First to scale the enemy’s works and plant the colors thereon.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 43d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of two markers.



Rank and organization: Major, 6th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Vermont. Birth: Cavendish, Vt. Date of issue: 12 August 1892. Citation: With the assistance of a few men, captured two pieces of artillery and turned them upon the enemy.



Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 4th lowa Cavalry. Place and date. At Selma, Ala., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Mt. Pleasant, lowa. Born: 29 May 1838, Green County, Pa. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag (supposed to be 11th Mississippi, C.S.A., and bearer.


Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 116th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Monroe County, Ohio. Date of issue: 12 May 1865. Citation: Was twice knocked from the parapet of Fort Gregg by blows from the enemy muskets but at the third attempt fought his way into the works.

 State of Connecticut

Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 37th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Spotsylvania, Va., 12 May 1864; At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Springfield, Mass. Birth: Jewett City, Conn. Date of issue: 19 November 1897. Citation: At the risk of his own life, at Spotsylvania, 12 May 1864, assisted in carrying to a place of safety a wounded and helpless officer. On 2 April 1865, advanced with the pioneers, and, under heavy fire, assisted in removing two lines of chevaux_de_frise; was twice wounded but advanced to the third line, where he was again severely wounded, losing a leg.


 State of Connecticut

Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 10th Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Sprague, Conn. Birth: Lyme, Conn. Date of issue: 12 May 1865. Citation: Gallantry as color bearer in the assault on Fort Gregg.



Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 116th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Mason County, W. Va. Date of issue: 12 May 1865. Citation: In the assault on Fort Gregg, this soldier climbed upon the parapet and fired down into the fort as fast as the loaded guns could be passed up to him by comrades.


Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 37th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Williamstown, Mass. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.




Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 11th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., April 2nd,  1865. Entered service at: Parkersburg, W. Va. Birth: Switzerland. Date of issue: 13 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company B, 95th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va.,April 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Philadelphia Pa. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 25 June 1880. Citation: Was among the first to penetrate the enemy’s lines and himself captured a gun of the two batteries captured.

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Unerased History – April 1st

Posted by Wayne Church on April 1, 2016 in 04 - April, Blog by month |
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April Fools Day
“Sorry Charlie” Day

Charlie the Tuna

There he is on the bottom of the ocean resting on a can of Starkist Tuna. You can see the plants moving with the currents. He is thehipster” wearing a Greek fisherman’s hat and glasses or, like in the picture, the look of having “good taste.” His goal is to be caught by the StarKist company. Charlie believes that he is so hip and cultured that he has “good taste,” and he is thus the perfect tuna for StarKist.  Charlie is always rejected in the form of a note attached to a fish hook that says, “Sorry, Charlie.”




The reason given by the narrator (voiced by Danny Dark) for the rejection was that  StarKist was “not looking for tuna with good taste but rather for tuna that tasted good.””Sorry, Charlie” became closely associated with StarKist and was also a popular American catchphrase. Whenever someone had to deliver bad news they would close their delivery with this phrase or, if the news was anticipated, this phrase would deliver the negative news..
American hip-hop star Chali 2na chose his rap name by slightly modifying the name Charlie Tuna, a nickname his uncle gave him in his youth. American football head coach Bill Parcells earned the nickname “The Big Tuna” when he responded to an obviously false statement from a player with the incredulous “Who do you think I am? Charlie the Tuna?”.Charlie appeared in more than 85 advertisements for StarKist until the 1980s, when the campaign was retired. Charlie made a comeback in 1999, when StarKist revived him to introduce their new line of healthier tuna products. He has been the mascot of the company since then.


Scripture of the Day

Psalm 14: 1 – 3

[ To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David. ] The fool has said in his heart, “There is no God.” They are corrupt, They have done abominable works, There is none who does good. 2 The Lord looks down from heaven upon the children of men, To see if there are any who understand, who seek God. 3 They have all turned aside, They have together become corrupt; There is none who does good, No, not one.


Founders Thoughts


Daniel Webster“If we and our posterity…live always in the fear of God and shall respect His Commandments…we may have the highest hopes of the future fortunes of our country…. But if we…neglect religious instruction and authority; violate the rules of eternal justice, trifle with the injunctions of morality, and recklessly destroy the constitution which holds us together, no man can tell how sudden a catastrophe may overwhelm us and bury all our glory in profound obscurity.”

Daniel Webster, Addressing the New York Historical Society, 1852,



Don’t be afraid of the space between your dreams and reality. If you can dream it, you can make it so.”

~Belva Davis


Job’s comforter

A person who tries to console or help someone who not only fails but ends up making the person feel worse.

Originally there was not just one, but three Job’s comforters. In the Biblical story.     These people tried to console Job, an upright person, that his troubles must be divine retribution for his sins.


1621 – The Plymouth, MA, colonists created the first treaty with Native Americans.

1683 – Roger Williams (b.1603) died in poverty in Rhode Island. Williams died at Providence between 16 January and 16 April 1683/84, his wife Mary having predeceased him in 1676. Williams was the first champion of complete religious toleration in America.
1724 – Jonathan Swift published Drapier’s letters.
1760 – One of the first reportings of All Fools’ Day was in “Poor Robin’s Almanack” (no, not Poor Richard; but Poor Robin) on this day. Poor Robin said, “The first of April, some do say, is set apart for All Fools’ Day, but why the people call it so, nor I nor they themselves do know.” What is an April Fool? Someone who you trick into doing or saying something ludicrous, nonsensical, or fake. In other words, someone you make out to be a fool. Since this is pretty ludicrous, and you’re reading it, could it be that you’re an April Fool?
1778 – Oliver Pollock, a New Orleans businessman, created the “$” symbol.

1789 – In New York City, the United States House of Representatives holds its first quorum and elects Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania as its first House Speaker.

1826 – Samuel Morey patents the internal combustion engine.

1853 – Cincinnati became the first U.S. city to pay fire fighters a regular salary.

1854 – Hard Times begins serialisation in Charles Dickens magazine, Household Words.
1857 – Herman Melville publishes “The Confidence-Man.”

1862 – Civil War: Shenandoah Valley campaign, Jackson’s Battle of Woodstock, VA.

1863 – Civil War:  The first wartime conscription law goes into effect in the U.S.

1864 – The first travel accident policy was issued to James Batterson by the Travelers Insurance Company.

1865 – Civil War:  Battle of Five Forks – In Siege of Petersburg, Confederate General Robert E. Lee begins his final offensive.

1865 – Civil War: Battle at Blakely, Alabama.

1866 – US Congress rejected presidential veto and gave all equal rights.

1867 – Blacks voted in the municipal election in Tuscumbia, AL.

1872 – The first edition of “The Standard” was published.

1876 – The first official National League (NL) baseball game took place. Boston beat Philadelphia 6-5.

1878 – The first large-scale Easter Monday egg roll was held on White House lawn under President Rutherford B. Hayes and his wife Lucy.

1878 – In Lincoln, N.M., the Regulators, including Billy the Kid, ambushed and killed Sheriff William Brady, a James Dolan supporter, along with a deputy.

1889 – The first dishwashing machine was marketed (in Chicago).

1891 – The Wrigley Company is founded in Chicago, Illinois.

1893 –  The rank of Chief Petty Officer in the United States Navy is established.

1894 – The manufacture and sale of Kinetoscopes and films were assigned to the Edison Manufacturing Company, thus moving them out of the experimental laboratory.

1909 – A US federal opium law went into effect. In San Francisco,  Internal Revenue agents prepared for the law by seizing and destroying all the opium cans they find in the Chinese quarter.

1916 – The first US national women’s swimming championships was held.

1920 – Germany’s Workers Party changed its name to Nationalist Socialist German Worker’s Party (Nazis).

1924 – Adolf Hitler is sentenced to five years in jail for his participation in the “Beer Hall Putsch”. However, he spends only nine months in jail, during which he writes the book Mein Kampf.

1927 – The first automatic record changer was introduced by His Master’s Voice.

1929 – Louie Marx introduced the Yo-Yo.

1930 – Leo Hartnett of the Chicago Cubs broke the altitude record for a catch by catching a baseball dropped from the Goodyear blimp 800 feet over Los Angeles, CA.  He caught the ball cleanly, saying, “Eeeeooooww!”. His injuries included a broken jaw.

1931 – Jackie Mitchell became the first female in professional baseball when she signed with the Chattanooga Baseball Club.

1931 – In New York City  the Empire State Building opened a month ahead of schedule. A dirigible mast established the height at 1,250 feet above street level.

1933 – The recently elected Nazis under Julius Streicher organize a one-day boycott of all Jewish-owned businesses in Germany, ushering in the series of anti-Semitic acts that will gradually, yet ultimately lead to the Holocaust.

1934 – Two Texas Highway Patrol officers, E.B. Wheeler (26) and H.D. Murphy (24), were killed by Henry Methvin, a gang member of Bonnie and Clyde, as they approached the gang’s car near Grapevine, Texas.

1935 – The first radio tube to be made of metal was announced.

1938 – The first commercially successful fluorescent lamps were introduced.

1938 – The Baseball Hall of Fame opened in Cooperstown, NY.

1941 – The first contract for advertising on a commercial FM radio station began on W71NY in New York City.

1941 – US Navy took over Treasure Island in San Francisco Bay.

1944 – World War II: Accidental American bombing of the Swiss city of Schaffhausen. The bombers were lost.

1945 – World War II: Operation Iceberg – American assault on Okinawa began with 150,000 Army soldiers and Marines. It was the last campaign of World War II. The island was defended by 100,000 Japanese troops and auxiliaries. It took three months of heavy fighting to secure the island. US casualties numbered 68,000 with 8,000 dead.

1946 – Aleutian Island earthquake: A 7.8 magnitude earthquake near the Aleutian Islands.  The earthquake also triggered a Pacific-wide tsunami that killed 165 people and caused over $26 million in damages. Tidal waves struck the Hawaiian islands, resulting in more than 170 deaths. 91 people were killed in Hilo.

1946 – Weight Watchers was formed.

1946 – A U.S. mine worker strike idled 400,000 miners.

1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Anniversary Song” by Dinah Shore, “How are Things in Glocca Morra” by Buddy Clark, “Managua, Nicaragua” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Don Rodney) and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.

1948 – Berlin Airlift – Military forces, under direction of the Soviet-controlled government in East Germany, set-up a land blockade of West Berlin.

1949 – “Happy Pappy” premiered. It was the first all-African American cast variety show.

1952 – The Big Bang theory was proposed in “Physical Review” by Alpher, Bethe & Gamow.

1953 – The U.S. Congress created the Department of Health Education and Welfare.

1954 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorizes the creation of the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado.

1954 – WQED, operated by the Metropolitan Pittsburgh Educational Station, was the first community-sponsored educational television station in America.

1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes, “Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White” by Perez Prado, “Dance with Me Henry (Wallflower)by Georgia Gibbs and “In the Jailhouse Now” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.

1955 – “One Man’s Family” (29:21) was seen on TV for the final time after a six-year run on NBC-TV.

1956 – Chet Huntley began his successful news career with NBC. He started as a reporter and analyst of the Sunday news series, “Outlook”.

1957 – Jamestown Festival Park, commemorating the 350th anniversary of Jamestown’s founding opened. Name changed to Jamestown Settlement in 1990.

1960 – The U.S. launched TIROS-1. It was the first weather satellite.

1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “He’s So Fine” by The Chiffons, “South Street” by The Orlons, “Rhythm of the Rain” by  The Cascades, and “Still” by Bill Anderson all topped the charts.

1963 – Workers of the International Typographical Union ended their strike that had closed nine New York City newspapers. The strike ended 114 days after it began on December 8, 1962.

1963 – The Soap operas “General Hospital” and “Doctors” premiered on television.
1967 – The United States Department of Transportation begins operation.
1968 – Vietnam War: The U.S. Army launched Operation Pegasus to reopen a land route to the besieged Khe Sanh Marine base.
1970 – President Richard Nixon signs the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act into law, requiring the Surgeon General’s warnings on tobacco products and banning cigarette advertisements on television and radio in the United States starting on January 1, 1971.
1970 – The U.S. Army charged Captain Ernest Medina in the My Lai massacre.
1970 – American Motors Corp. (AMC) introduced the compact Gremlin for $1879. It was designed by Richard Teague on the back of a Northwest Airlines sickness bag. The last Gremlin was made in 1978.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Me and Bobby McGee” by Janis Joplin, “Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)” by The Temptations, “Proud Mary” by Ike & Tina Turner and “After the Fire is Gone” by Conway Twitty & Loretta Lynn all toppe the charts.
1971 – President Richard M. Nixon ordered Lt. William Calley transferred from prison to house arrest at Fort Benning, Georgia, pending appeal.
1972 – The Hollies released “Long, Cool Woman In a Black Dress.
1976 – Apple Computer is formed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.
1976 – Conrail takes over operations from six bankrupt railroads in the northeastern U.S.
1976 – Jovian-Plutonian gravitational effect is first reported by the astronomer Patrick Moore.
1977 – The U.S. Senate followed the example of the House by adopting a stringent code of ethics requiring full financial disclosure and limits on outside income.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tragedy” by Bee Gees, “What a Fool Believes” by The Doobie Brothers, Sultans of Swing” by Dire Straits and “I Just Fall in Love Again” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.
1979 – Iran was proclaimed to be an Islamic Republic by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini after the fall of the Shah.
1980 – New York City’s Transit Worker Union 100 begins a strike lasting 11 days.
1981 – Jack Welch began his term as the head of General Electric.
1984 – Marvin P. Gay Sr. (d.1998 at 84) shot and killed his son, Motown singer Marvin Gaye during an argument in Los Angeles. It was one day before the singer’s 45th birthday.
1985 – World oil prices dropped below $10 a barrel.
1986 – The U.S. submarine Nathaniel Green ran aground in the Irish Sea.
1986 – Crude oil prices fell below $11 a barrel.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lean on Me” by Club Nouveau, “Nothing’s Gonna Stop Us Now” by Starship, “Tonight, Tonight, Tonight” by Genesis and “Small Town Girl” by Steve Wariner all topped the charts.
1987 – Steve Newman became the first man to walk around the world. The walk was 22,000 miles and took 4 years.
1990 – The US Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $3.80 an hour.
1990 – CBS fired sportscaster Brent Musburger (b.1939).
1991 – Duke defeated the University of Kansas 72-to-65 to win the NCAA college basketball championship.
1991 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that jurors could not be barred from serving due to their race.
1992 – Players began the first strike in the 75-year history of the National Hockey League (NHL).
1996 – The Mare Island Naval Shipyard in Vallejo, Ca., was decommissioned.
1996 – In Spokane, Wa., a US Bank branch was robbed and bombed. In 1997 three members of an anti-government militia were convicted for this and another robbery and three bombings.
1996 – The average price for a home in the US was $141,000 in the first quarter of this year.
1997 – The US Library of Congress began its Today in History web site @ http://www.loc.gov.
1997 – Federal authorities cautioned that thousands of schoolchildren across the nation might have been exposed to the hepatitis A virus by eating frozen strawberries imported from Mexico and processed in the U.S.
1998 – A federal judge dismissed the Paula Jones’ sexual harassment lawsuit against U.S. President Clinton saying that the claims fell “far short” of being worthy of a trial.
2000 – Michelle Kwan won her third World Figure Skating title.
2001 – An EP-3E United States Navy plane collides with a Chinese People’s Liberation Army fighter jet. The Navy crew makes an emergency landing in Hainan, People’s Republic of China and is detained.
2001 – Notre Dame won its first national championship in women’s basketball, defeating Purdue, 66-64.
2002 – Maryland won its first NCAA men’s basketball championship with a 64-52 victory over Indiana.
2002 – The 1897 Michigan law against swearing in front of women and children was declared unconstitutional.
2003 – In the 14th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom American soldiers on the road to Baghdad fought bloody street-to-street battles with militants loyal to Saddam Hussein.
2003 – Pfc. Jessica Lynch (19), part of the 507th Maintenance Company captured on Mar 23, was rescued in a U.S. commando raid on an Iraqi hospital in Nasiriyah. Eleven bodies were also recovered and eight were identified as US personnel.
2003 – The US Supreme Court hears oral arguments for Grutter v. Bollinger, (regarding the University of Michigan Law Schools’ affirmative action admissions policy), and Gratz and Hamacher v. Bollinger, (examining the university’s undergraduate admissions policy.)
2004 – Google introduces its Gmail product to the public. The launch is met with skepticism on account of the launch date.
2004 – U.S. President George W. Bush signed the Unborn Victims of Violence Act. The bill made it a crime to harm a fetus during an assault on a pregnant woman.
2004 – Gateway Inc. announced that it would be closing all of its 188 stores on April 9. It still makes computers but not in retail outlets.
2004 – Neil H. Shubin of the University of Chicago reports in the journal Nature the discovery of a 365-million-year-old forelimb in Pennsylvania, representing the evolution of fish to land-dwelling animals.
2005 – The Minuteman Project starts a month-long patrolling of the U.S.-Mexico border in Arizona for illegal immigrants, with about 100 volunteers, some of them armed.
2005 – President Clinton’s former national security adviser, Sandy Berger, pleaded guilty to sneaking classified documents out of the National Archives; he was later sentenced to two years’ probation.
2006 – Former hostage Jill Carroll arrived in Germany, where she strongly disavowed statements she had made during captivity in Iraq and shortly after her release, saying she had been repeatedly threatened.
2007 – Morgan Pressel became the youngest major champion in LPGA Tour history with a game well beyond her 18 years, closing with a 3-under-par 69 at the Kraft Nabisco Championship.
2007 – In Charlotte, North Carolina, two police officers shot during a struggle with a suspect outside an apartment complex died, and a suspect was charged with murder.
2008 – A top US immigration official said Washington has started deportation proceedings against thousands of Vietnamese living illegally in the US under a pact between the two countries.
2008 – Virginia’s Gov. Timothy Kaine ordered a moratorium on executions until the US Supreme Court decides whether lethal injections are constitutional.
2009 –  The 72-year-old American soap opera Guiding Light will broadcast its final episode on September 18.
2009 –  A computer virus called Conficker was spread through millions of computers, getting onto their computers and destroying files, and sharing information. This was supposed to be a April Fools’ Day Joke.
2010 –  Aretha Franklin and Michael Jackson are inducted into the Hall of Fame at New York’s Apollo Theater.
2010 – US President Barack Obama called on Chinese President Hu Jintao to join forces on the Iranian nuclear standoff as he stepped up efforts to block Tehran’s atomic program.
2010 – The US national board for ACORN, the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now.
2011 –  Penélope Cruz becomes the first Spanish actress to receive a star in the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
2011 –  A 6 foot hole appears at 36,000 feet aboard Southwest Airlines Flight 812, a Boeing 737 enroute from Phoenix, Arizona to Sacramento, California; the plane lands safely in Yuma, Arizona.
2011 – The US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration reports that the number of traffic deaths has fallen to 32,788 in 2010, the lowest level since 1949.
2012 – The 2012 Academy of Country Music Awards is held in Las Vegas, Nevada, with the Eli Young Band winning song of the year for “Crazy Girl” and Taylor Swift winning Entertainer of the Year.
2013 – Production of the American reality TV show Buckwild is suspended after cast member Shain Gandee and two other people are found dead.
2013 – Arapahoe County (CO) District Attorney George Brauchler decides, after speaking with survivors and relatives of the deceased, to pursue the death penalty against James Eagan Holmes, the perpetrator of the 2012 Aurora (CO) shooting; the case is given to a new judge.
2013 – OBAMACARE: The law says small businesses can give employees a menu of health plans. Instead, the White House announces that the Obamacare marketplaces, set to open on Oct. 1, won’t be able to handle so many choices and restricts employers to offering a single plan. (One of the first signs that planning for the Obamacare rollout isn’t going smoothly.)


1834 – Big Jim Fisk, American entrepreneur (d. 1872)
1854 – Bill Traylor, American artist (d. 1949)
1883 – Lon Chaney, Sr., American actor (d. 1930)
1885 – Wallace Beery, American actor (d. 1949)
1897 – Nita Naldi, American actress (d. 1961)
1898 – William James Sidis, American genius (d. 1944)
1908 – Abraham Maslow, American psychologist (d. 1970)
1928 – George Grizzard, American actor (d. 2007)
1929 – Jane Powell, American dancer, actress, and singer
1929 – Bo Schembechler, American football coach (d. 2006)
1930 – Grace Lee Whitney, American actress
1932 – Debbie Reynolds, American actress
1938 – Ali MacGraw, American actress
1950 – Samuel Alito, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
1952 – Annette O’Toole, American actress
1971 – Jessica Collins, American actress
1973 – Rachel Maddow, American radio personality and political analyst
1982 – Sam Huntington, American actor





Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 5th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces. Place and date: Kontum Province, Republic of Vietnam, April 1st, 1970. Entered service at: Buffalo, N.Y. Born: 29 August 1947, Rochester, N.Y. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Beikirch, medical aidman, Detachment B-24, Company B, distinguished himself during the defense of Camp Dak Seang. The allied defenders suffered a number of casualties as a result of an intense, devastating attack launched by the enemy from well-concealed positions surrounding the camp. Sgt. Beikirch, with complete disregard for his personal safety, moved unhesitatingly through the withering enemy fire to his fallen comrades, applied first aid to their wounds and assisted them to the medical aid station. When informed that a seriously injured American officer was lying in an exposed position, Sgt. Beikirch ran immediately through the hail of fire. Although he was wounded seriously by fragments from an exploding enemy mortar shell, Sgt. Beikirch carried the officer to a medical aid station. Ignoring his own serious injuries, Sgt. Beikirch left the relative safety of the medical bunker to search for and evacuate other men who had been injured. He was again wounded as he dragged a critically injured Vietnamese soldier to the medical bunker while simultaneously applying mouth-to-mouth resuscitation to sustain his life. Sgt. Beikirch again refused treatment and continued his search for other casualties until he collapsed. Only then did he permit himself to be treated. Sgt. Beikirch’s complete devotion to the welfare of his comrades, at the risk of his life are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the U.S. Army.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company E, 2d Battalion, 8th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Tay Ninh province, Republic of Vietnam, April 1st,1970. Entered service at: Tawas City, Mich. Born: 5 June 1950, Toronto, Canada. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Lemon (then Sp4c.), Company E, distinguished himself while serving as an assistant machine gunner during the defense of Fire Support Base Illingworth. When the base came under heavy enemy attack, Sgt. Lemon engaged a numerically superior enemy with machine gun and rifle fire from his defensive position until both weapons malfunctioned. He then used hand grenades to fend off the intensified enemy attack launched in his direction. After eliminating all but 1 of the enemy soldiers in the immediate vicinity, he pursued and disposed of the remaining soldier in hand-to-hand combat. Despite fragment wounds from an exploding grenade, Sgt. Lemon regained his position, carried a more seriously wounded comrade to an aid station, and, as he returned, was wounded a second time by enemy fire. Disregarding his personal injuries, he moved to his position through a hail of small arms and grenade fire. Sgt. Lemon immediately realized that the defensive sector was in danger of being overrun by the enemy and unhesitatingly assaulted the enemy soldiers by throwing hand grenades and engaging in hand-to-hand combat. He was wounded yet a third time, but his determined efforts successfully drove the enemy from the position. Securing an operable machine gun, Sgt. Lemon stood atop an embankment fully exposed to enemy fire, and placed effective fire upon the enemy until he collapsed from his multiple wounds and exhaustion. After regaining consciousness at the aid station, he refused medical evacuation until his more seriously wounded comrades had been evacuated. Sgt. Lemon’s gallantry and extraordinary heroism, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the U.S. Army.



Spanish-American War


Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 3 June 1872, England. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Philadelphia, Samoa, Philippine Islands, April 1st, 1899. Serving in the presence of the enemy on this date, Fisher distinguished himself by his conduct.


Spanish-American War

Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 14 July 1869, Koenigsberg, Germany. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy at Samoa, Philippine Islands, April 1st,1899.



Spanish-American War

Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 12 January 1867, Kingston-upon-Hull, England. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy at Samoa, Philippine Islands, April 1st,1899.

Spanish-American War

Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 29 June 1860, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy at Samoa, Philippine Islands, April 1st, 1899.





Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At O’Fallons Creek, Mont., April 1st,1880. Entered service at: Malden, Mass. Born: 22 February 1856, Dead River, Maine. Date of issue: 7 February 1895. Citation: Fearless exposure and dashing bravery in cutting off the Indians’ pony herd, thereby greatly crippling the hostiles.






Rank and organization: Captain, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At O’Fallons Creek, Mont., April 1st, 1880. Entered service at: Minnesota. Birth: Illinois. Date of issue: 27 November 1894. Citation: Surprised the Indians in their strong position and fought them until dark with great boldness.




Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Engineers. Place and date: At Five Forks, Va., April 1st, 1865. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 7 September 1897. Citation: With one companion, voluntarily advanced in a reconnaissance beyond the skirmishers, where he was exposed to imminent peril; also, in the same battle, rode to the front with the commanding general to encourage wavering troops to resume the advance, which they did successfully.




Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company H, 1st West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Five Forks, Va., April 1st,1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Bristol, Pa. Date of issue: 23 October 1897. Citation: At a critical stage of the battle, without orders, led a successful advance upon the enemy.



Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company G, 17th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Five Forks, Va., April 1st,1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Waynesboro, Pa. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: As 1 of the first of Devin’s Division to enter the works, he fought in a hand-to-hand struggle with a Confederate to capture his flag by superior physical strength.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company I, 11th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Five Forks, Va., April 1st,1865. Entered service at: Allegheny County, Pa. Birth: Stark County, Ohio. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.



Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 146th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Five Forks, Va., April 1st, 1865. Entered service at: Sangersfield, N.Y. Birth: Wales, England. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.




Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 185th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Five Forks, Va., April 1st, 1865. Entered service at: Salina, N.Y. Birth: Cicero, N.Y. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.



Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company F, 20th Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Five Forks, Va., April 1st,1865. Entered service at: Winterport, Maine. Birth: Winterport, Maine. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: During a rush at the enemy, Lt. Fernald seized, during a scuffle, the flag of the 9th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).



Rank and organization: First Lieutenant and Adjutant, 30th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Berryville, Va., April 1st, 1865. Entered service at: Lowell, Mass. Birth: Springfield, Vt. Date of issue: 16 October 1897. Citation: Accompanied only by an orderly, outside the lines of the Army, he gallantly resisted an attack of five of Mosby’s cavalry, mortally wounded the leader of the party, seized his horse and pistols, wounded three more, and, though wounded himself, escaped.



Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 32d Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Five Forks, Va., April 1st, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: South Scituate, Mass. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.



Rank and organization: Colonel, 146th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Five Forks, Va., April 1st, 1865. Entered service at: Utica, N.Y. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 14 August 1891. Citation: The first to enter the enemy’s works, where he captured two flags.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 15th New York Heavy Artillery. Place and date: At Five Forks, Va., April 1st, 1865. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag.




Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company G, 7th Maryland Infantry. Place and date: At Five Forks, Va., April 1st, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Frederick, Md. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag.



Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company G, 146th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Five Forks, Va., April 1st,1865. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 7th Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: At Gravelly Run, Va., March 31st and April 1st, 1865. Entered service at: West Point Township, Columbia County, Wis. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: On 31 March 1865, with a comrade, recaptured a Union officer from a detachment of 9 Confederates, capturing 3 of the detachment and dispersing the remainder, and on 1 April 1865, seized a stand of Confederate colors, killing a Confederate officer in a hand_to_hand contest over the colors and retaining the colors until surrounded by Confederates and compelled to relinquish them.



Rank and organization: Captain, Company D, 157th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Five Forks, Va., April 1st,1865. Entered service at: ——. Born: 1838, Chester County, Pa. Date of issue: 27 April 1865. Citation: Capture of the flag of the 16th South Carolina Infantry, in hand_to_hand combat.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 140th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Five Forks, Va., April 1st, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Wayne, N.Y. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Captured the flag of the 9th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.) in hand-to_hand combat.



Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 191st Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Five Forks, Va., April 1st, 1865. Entered service at: Reading, Pa. Birth: Equinunk, Pa. Date of issue: 27 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.



Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st Maryland Infantry. Place and date. At Five Forks, Va., April 1st, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 April 1865. Citation. Capture of flag.



Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 115th New York Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Gates, Fla., April 1st, 1864. Entered service at: Johnsonville, N.Y. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 2 May 1890. Citation: Was a volunteer in the surprise and capture of the enemy’s picket.



Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 4th New York Heavy Artillery. Place and date: At White Oak Road, Va., April 1st, 1865. Entered service at: Port Jarvis, N.Y. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 22 April 1896. Citation: Made a hazardous reconnaissance through timber and slashings preceding the Union line of battle, signaling the troops and leading them through the obstruction.




Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 4th New York Heavy Artillery. Place and date: At White Oak Road, Va., April 1st, 1865. Entered service at: Sandy Creek, N.Y. Birth: Sandy Creek, N.Y. Date of issue: 22 April 1896. Citation: Made a hazardous reconnaissance through timber and slashings, preceding the Union line of battle, signaling the troops and leading them through the obstructions.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 4th Maryland Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 1st,1865. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Chester County, Pa. Date of issue: 22 April 1871. Citation: Was one of the three soldiers most conspicuous in the final assault.



Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company B, 19th New York Cavalry ( 1st New York Dragoons). Place and date: At Five Forks, Va., April 1st, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Springport, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: While advancing in front of his company and alone, he found himself surrounded by the enemy. He accosted a nearby enemy flag_bearer demanding the surrender of the group. His effective firing of one shot so demoralized the unit that it surrendered with flag.

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Unerased History – March 31st

Posted by Wayne Church on March 31, 2016 in 03 - March, Blog by month |
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Glider Flight

For many centuries, humans have tried to fly just like the birds and have studied the flight of birds. Wings made of feathers or light weight wood have been attached to arms to test their ability to fly. The results were often disastrous as the muscles of the human arms are not like a birds and cannot move with the strength of a bird.

The first real studies of flight were done by Leonardo da Vinci in the 1480’s. He had over 100 drawings that illustrated his theories on bird and mechanical flight. The drawings illustrated the wings and tails of birds, ideas for man carrying machines, and devices for the testing of wings.

Sir George Cayley is considered the father of aerodynamics. Cayley experimented with wing design, distinguished between lift and drag, formulated the concepts of vertical tail surfaces, steering rudders, rear elevators, and air screws. George Cayley worked to discover a way that man could fly. Cayley designed many different versions of gliders that used the movements of the body to control. A young boy, whose name is not known, was the first to fly one of Cayley’s gliders, the first glider capable of carrying a human.

German engineer, Otto Lilienthal was the first person to design a glider that could
fly a person and was able to fly long distances.

Sir George Cayley lived and worked at Brompton Hall and conducted his flying trials in Brompton Dale. In 1853, he sent his coachman across the dale on what is said to be the first true glider flight in history -the coachman afterwards gave in his notice.

In 1883, John J. Montgomery flew a glider 600 feet in San Diego, CA . It was the first controlled-wing glider flight in history.

Gliders continued to be developed until World War II. Glider flight was used to deliver troops into Europe. On 6 September 1943, the Central Flying Command at Randolph Field, Texas, directed Sheppard to establish a Glider Classification School for training glider pilots. Sheppard was now home to two of the three schools that glider student pilots attended.

A glider is a special kind of aircraft that has no engine. There are many different types of gliders. Paper airplanes are the simplest gliders to build and fly. Balsa wood or styrofoam toy gliders are an inexpensive vehicle for students to have fun while learning the basics of aerodynamics. Hang-gliders are piloted aircraft having cloth wings and minimal structure. Some hang-gliders look like piloted kites, while others resemble maneuverable parachutes. Sailplanes are piloted gliders that have standard aircraft parts, construction, and flight control systems, but no engine. The Space Shuttle returns to earth as a glider; the rocket engines are used only during liftoff. Even the Wright Brothers gained piloting experience through a series of glider flights from 1900 to 1903.

In flight, a glider has three forces acting on it as compared to the four forces that act on a powered aircraft. Both types of aircraft are subjected to the forces of lift, drag, and weight. The powered aircraft has an engine that generates thrust, while the glider has no thrust.

In order for a glider to fly, it must generate lift to oppose its weight. To generate lift, a glider must move through the air. The motion of a glider through the air also generates drag. In a powered aircraft, the thrust from the engine opposes drag, but a glider has no engine to generate thrust. With the drag unopposed, a glider quickly slows down until it can no longer generate enough lift to oppose the weight, and it then falls to earth.

For paper airplanes and balsa gliders, the aircraft is given an initial velocity by throwing the aircraft. Some larger balsa gliders employ a catapult made from rubber bands and a tow line to provide velocity and some initial altitude. Hang-glider pilots often run and jump off the side of a hill or cliff to get going. Some hang-gliders and most sailplanes are towed aloft by a powered aircraft and then cut loose to begin the glide.

The powered aircraft that pulls the glider aloft gives the glider a certain amount of potential energy. The glider can trade the potential energy difference from a higher altitude to a lower altitude to produce kinetic energy, which means velocity. Gliders are always descending relative to the air in which they are flying.


Scripture of the Day

Proverbs 28:3-5

A ruler who oppresses the poor is like a driving rain that leaves no crops.

Those who forsake instruction praise the wicked, but those who heed it resist them.

Evildoers do not understand what is right,but those who seek the Lord understand it fully.



Founders Thoughts

John Jay “As to the position that “the people always mean well,” that they always mean to say and do what they believe to be right and just – it may be popular, but it can not be true. The word people applies to all the individual inhabitants of a country. . . . That portion of them who individually mean well never was, nor until the millennium will be, considerable. Pure democracy, like pure rum, easily produces intoxication and with it a thousand pranks and fooleries. I do not expect mankind will, before the millennium, be what they ought to be and therefore, in my opinion, every political theory which does not regard them as being what they are, will prove abortive. Yet I wish to see all unjust and unnecessary discriminations everywhere abolished, and that the time may come when all our inhabitants of every color and discrimination shall be free and equal partakers of our political liberties.”

~John Jay


“There is no nonsense so errant that it cannot be made the creed of the vast majority by adequate governmental action.”

~ Bertrand Russell



entreat \en-TREET\, intransitive verb:
To make an earnest petition or request; to plead.

transitive verb:
To ask earnestly; to beseech; to petition for.

Entreat derives from Medieval French entraiter, from en- (from Latin in-), intensive prefix + traiter, “to treat,” from Latin tractare, frequentative of trahere, “to draw, to pull, to drag.”



1492 – Queen Isabella of Castille issues the Alhambra decree , ordering her 150,000 Jewish subjects to convert to Christianity or face expulsion.

1717 – A sermon on “The Nature of the Kingdom of Christ” by Benjamin Hoadly, the Bishop of Bangor, provoked the Bangorian Controversy.

1736 – Bellevue Hospital Center, most often referred to as simply”Bellevue”, was founded and now is the oldest public hospital in the United States.

1741 – Succession of suspicious fires and reports of slave conspiracies
created hysteria in New York in March and April. Thirty-one slaves and five whites were executed.

1774 – Revolutionary War: In response to the continuing rebelliousness of the Massachusetts colony, an angry British parliament passes a series of Coercive Acts. Great Britain orders the port of Boston, Massachusetts closed in the Boston Port Act.

1777Abigail Adams encouraged her husband John to give women voting privileges in the new American government.

1801 – Lt Col Commandant William W. Burrows rode with president Thomas Jefferson to look for “a proper place to fix the Marine Barracks on.” President Jefferson was a personal friend of the Commandant, and deeply interested in the welfare of the Corps. They chose a square in Southeast Washington, bounded by 8th and 9th streets, and ” I ” streets, because it lay near the Navy Yard and was within easy marching distance of the Capitol.

1841 – First performance of Robert Schumann’s first Symphony in B.

1850 – United States Population: 23,191,876. Black population: 3,638,808 (15.7 per cent).

1850 – Massachusetts Supreme Court rejected the argument of Charles Sumner in the Boston school integration suit and established the “separate but equal” precedent.

1854 – Commodore Matthew Perry signs the Treaty of Kanagawa with the Japanese government, opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade.

1858 – SS New York is launched. It is a passenger cargo vessel. It was sold to Edward Bates of Liverpool in 1874 and later wrecked near Staten Island.

1862 – Civil War: Skirmishing between Rebels and Union forces took place at Island 10 on the Mississippi River.

1863 – Civil War: Confederate troops opened a sustained attack and siege of the Union position at Washington, North Carolina.

1863 – Civil War: Battle of Grand Gulf,  MS & Dinwiddie Court House,  VA.

1865 – Civil War: Battle of Boydton, VA (White Oaks Roads, Dinwiddie Court House).

1865 – Civil War: The final offensive of the Army of the Potomac moves against the left flank of Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia.

1865 – Confederate Major General Pickett moved to Five Forks, VA abandoning the defense of Petersburg.

1880 – Wabash, IN becomes the first town completely illuminated by electric lighting.

1889 – The Eiffel Tower is officially opened.

1896 – Whitcomb Judson, Chicago IL, patents a hookless fastening (zipper).

1900 – The W.E. Roach Company was the first automobile company to advertise in a national magazine. One couldn’t miss their advertising slogan, “Automobiles that give satisfaction!” The car company advertised in the “Saturday Evening Post.”

1901 – U.S. Navy Seaman Alphonse Gerandy, serving on the US Petrel, risked his own life to safe crewmen during a fire. His Medal of Honor was presented in 1902.

1903 –  Richard Pearse allegedly makes a powered flight in an early aircraft.

1906 – The Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (later National Collegiate Athletic Association) is established to set rules for amateur sports in the United States.

1909 – Baseball rules players who jump contracts are suspended for 5 years.

1916 – General Pershing and his army routed Pancho Villa’s army in Mexico.

1917 – The United States takes possession of the Danish West Indies after paying $25 million to Denmark, and renames the territory the United States Virgin Islands.

1918 – Daylight saving time goes into effect in the United States for the first time.

1923 – First dance marathon-New York City – Alma Cummings sets record of 27 hours.

1930 – President Hoover nominated Judge John J. Parker of North Carolina for a seat on the U.S. Supreme Court. The NAACP launched a national campaign against the appointment. Parker was not confirmed by the Senate.

1930 – The Motion Pictures Production Code is instituted, imposing strict guidelines on the treatment of sex, crime, religion and violence in film for the next thirty eight years.

1931 – Cab Calloway recorded “Minnie the Moocher“-the first jazz album to sell a million copies.

1931 – Famed Notre Dame football coach Knute Rockne and seven other men perished in an airplane crash. He was travelling on business from Kansas City to Los Angeles on TWA Flight 599. The plane had only been airborne a short time when it lost a wing. It crashed on a farm near Bazaar, KS.

1932 – Ford publicly unveils its V-8 engine.

1933 – The Civilian Conservation Corps is established with the mission to relieve rampant unemployment.

1933 – German Republic gave dictatorial power to Hitler.

1933 – First newspaper published on pine pulp paper, “Soperton News” (Georgia).

1937 – Phil Harris recorded “That’s What I Like About the South“.

1940 – The New York Municipal Airport, opened in October, 1939, was renamed La Guardia airport, after the mayor, who had been a bomber pilot in World War I.

1941 – World War II: Germany began a counter offensive in North Africa.

1942 -World War II: Japanese forces invade Christmas Island, then of British possession.

1942 – World War II: Holocaust: In Ivano-Frankivsk (then called Stanislawow), western Ukraine, German Gestapo organize the first deportation of 5.000 Jews from Stanislawow ghetto to Belzec death camp. It was one of the biggest transports to Belzec in the first phase of the camp.

1943 –World War II: An American battalion occupies positions around Morobe at the mouth of the Waria River. Morobe Province is a province on the northern coast of Papua New Guinea.

1944 – World War II: Hungary ordered all Jews to wear yellow stars.

1945 – World War II: US naval forces, including Task Force 58 and TF52, continue air strikes on Okinawa while TF54 continues bombarding the island. Japanese Kamikaze and submarine attacks continue.

1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh, What It Seemed to Be” by The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Marjorie Hughes), “Day by Day” by Frank Sinatra, “Personality” by Johnny Mercer and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.

1949 – Winston Churchill declared that the A-bomb was the only thing that kept the USSR from taking over Europe.

1951 – Korean War: Operation RIPPER was officially terminated as Eighth Army fought its way back to the 38th parallel.

1951 – The first commercial United States made computer, the UNIVAC I, is delivered to the United States Census Bureau.

1952 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.

1952 – Korean War: The Kimpo Provisional Regiment was organized by and within the U.S. 1st Marine Division for the defense of the Kimpo peninsula.

1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Make Love to Me!by Jo Stafford, “Wanted” by Perry Como, “Answer Me, My Love” by Nat ‘King’ Cole and “Slowly” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.

1955 – Chase National (3rd largest bank) and Bank of the Manhattan Company (15th largest bank) merged to form Chase Manhattan.

1957 – The original version of Rodgers and Hammerstein’s “Cinderella+,” starring Julie Andrews, aired live in color on CBS.  Full Movie

1958 – US Navy formed the Atomic Sub Division and included America’s first nuclear sub, the USS Nautilus.

1960 – Eighteen students suspended by Southern University. Southern University students rebelled March 31, boycotted classes and requested withdrawal slips. Rebellion collapsed after death of professor from heart attack.

1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Break the Heart that Loves You” by Connie Francis, “Johnny Angel” by Shelley Fabares, “Dream Baby” by Roy Orbison and “She’s Got You” by Patsy Cline all topped the charts.

1963 – Los Angeles ended streetcar service after 90 years.

1965 – US ordered the first combat troops to Vietnam.

1966 – The Soviet Union launches Luna 10 which later becomes the first space probe to enter orbit around the Moon.

1968 – President Lyndon B. Johnson announces a partial halt of bombing missions over North Vietnam and proposes peace talks.

1970 –CHART TOPPERS – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel, Let It Be” by The Beatles, “Instant Karma (We All Shine On)by John Ono Lennon and “The Fightin’ Side of Me” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.

1970 – Explorer 1 re-enters the Earth’s atmosphere (after 12 years in orbit).

1970 – Vietnam War: The U.S. forces in Vietnam downed a MIG-21, the first since September 1968.

1970 – A bankruptcy referee granted the owner of the Seattle Pilots permission to sell the major-league baseball franchise to investors in Milwaukee, WI. The Pilots became the Milwaukee Brewers because the Milwaukee Braves had decided to move to Atlanta.

1971 – Poseidon (C-3) missile becomes operational when USS James Madison began her 3rd patrol carrying 16 tactical Poseidon missiles.

1971 – US Lt. William Calley (b.1943) was sentenced to life for the My Lai Massacre. After an order of house arrest, President Nixon reduced his sentence with a presidential pardon.

1972 – Vietnam War: North Vietnamese Army launches ground assaults against South Vietnamese positions in Quang Tri Province.

1973Ken Norton defeated Muhammad Ali in a 12-round split decision. Ali had his jaw broken during the fight.

1975The TV show Gunsmoke, which premiered in 1955, aired its last original episode.

1976 – The New Jersey Supreme Court allowed the removal of the respirator that assisted Karen Ann Quinlan, who had been comatose since Apr 15, 1975. Quinlan, who remained comatose, died Jul 11, 1985.

1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Night Fever” by Bee Gees, “Stayin’ Alive” by the Bee Gees, “Lay Down Sally” by Eric Clapton and  “Mamas Don’t Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Cowboys” by Waylon & Willie all topped the charts.

1980 – The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific railroad operates its final train after being ordered to liquidate its assets due to bankruptcy and debt owed to creditors.

1980 –  Iranian officials say American hostages may be handed over to government by militants holding U.S. embassy, as militant leaders meet with President Bani-Sadr.

1980 – President Carter signed the Depository Institutions Deregulation And Monetary Control Act, which deregulated interest rates.

1981 – In the 1st Golden Raspberry Awards the film “Can’t Stop the Music” won as worst film of 1980.

1982 – In California an avalanche at the Alpine Meadows ski resort killed 7 people.

1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Me Amadeus” by Falco, “R.O.C.K. in the U.S.A.by John Cougar Mellencamp, “Kiss” by Prince & The Revolution and “Don’t Underestimate My Love for You” by Lee Greenwood all topped the charts.

1987 – Indiana University won the NCAA basketball finals with a last-second, corner shot by Keith Smart.

1987 – The judge in the “Baby M” case in Hackensack, N.J., awarded custody of the girl born under a surrogate-motherhood contract to her father, William Stern, instead of the surrogate, Mary Beth Whitehead.

1989 – The FBI announced it would conduct a criminal investigation into the massive oil spill in Alaska’s Prince William Sound.

1992 – The USS Missouri (BB-63), the last active United States Navy Battleship, is decommissioned in Long Beach, California. This was the ship on which Japan signed its WWII surrender.

1992 – The U.N. Security Council voted to ban flights and arms sales to Libya, branding it a terrorist state for shielding six men accused of blowing up Pan Am Flight 103 and a French airliner.

1993 – Actor Brandon Lee (28) was killed during the filming of a movie in Wilmington, N.C., by a prop gun that fired part of a dummy bullet instead of a blank.

1995 – Coast Guard Communication Area Master Station Atlantic sent a final message by Morse Code and then signed off, officially ending more than 100 years of telegraph communication.

1995 – In Corpus Christi, Texas, Latin superstar Selena Quintanilla Perez is shot and killed two weeks before her 24th birthday by Yolanda Saldivar, the president of her own fan club.

1995 – US baseball players agreed to end their 232-day strike after a judge granted a preliminary injunction against club owners.

1997 – In the US men’s NCAA Basketball Finals, Arizona beat Kentucky 84-79 in overtime.

1997 – The Supreme Court ruled that the government can force cable television systems to carry local broadcast stations.

1997 – Jury selection began in Denver in the trial of accused Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh.

1998 – Netscape releases the code base of its browser under an open-source license agreement; the project is given the code name Mozilla and would eventually be spun off into the non-profit Mozilla Foundation.

1998 – For the first time in history, the Clinton administration released a detailed financial statement for the federal government showing its assets and liabilities.

1999 – Four New York City police officers were charged with murder for killing Amadou Diallo, an unarmed African immigrant, in a hail of bullets. They were acquitted in Feb 2000.

2003 – In the 13th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US-led troops fought pitched battles with Saddam Hussein’s Republican Guard within 50 miles of the capital.

2003 NBC said it severed its relations with reporter Peter Arnett after he told Iraqi television that the US war plan against Saddam Hussein had failed.

2004 – Iraq: In Fallujah, Iraq, 4 American private military contractors working for Blackwater USA, are killed and their bodies mutilated by cheering crowds.after being ambushed.

2004 – The US Navy closed Naval Station Roosevelt Roads, its last base in Puerto Rico. It was transferred to a special naval agency that will coordinate the closing process. The base had been used for six decades to keep watch over the Caribbean.

2004 – Air America Radio went live in 3 of largest US markets with a left-leaning, round-the-clock, talk format featuring Al Franken and Janeane Garofalo. Air America was conceived by Anita and Sheldon Drobny of Chicago.

2005 – A US Commerce Dept. study on Internet traffic, ordered in 1998, was published under the title “Signposts in Cyberspace.”

2005 – Terri Schiavo (41), the severely brain-damaged woman who spent 15 years connected to a feeding tube in an epic legal and medical battle that went all the way to the White House and Congress, died in Florida, 13 days after the tube was removed.

2005 – A US presidential commission reported that US intelligence agencies were wrong in their prewar assessment of Iraq’s nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.

2007 – It was reported that Antarctica held about 90% of the world’s ice.

2008 – Aloha Airlines, a bankrupt airline, permanently ends passenger service.

2008 – Gregg Bergersen (51), a Pentagon weapons analyst, pleaded guilty to giving classified information about US and Taiwanese military communications systems to Tai Kuo, a New Orleans furniture salesman working with the Chinese government.

2009 – The US Government Accountability Office released a report saying 4 countries designated a terrorism sponsors received $55 million from a US supported program promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy under the IAEA’s Technical Cooperation program. Between 1997 and 2007 Iran received over $15 million, $14 million went to Syria, while Sudan and Cuba received over $11 million each.

2011 – Jet engine explodes, injuring 10 on the flight deck of the USS John C. Stennis. Four Sailors were flown to Naval Medical Center San Diego, where they were in stable condition. The six others were treated for burn injuries onboard the carrier. None of the injuries was life threatening.

2012 – Kentucky advances to NCAA men’s basketball final after beating Louisville, 69 – 61.

2012 – Winning tickets for $640-million Mega Millions jackpot are sold in Kansas, Illinois and Maryland.

2012 –   A Shelby County, TN mother faces contempt-of-court charges and possible jail time for baptizing her two children without the knowledge or consent of her ex-husband.

2012 – The Department of Homeland Security and its Immigration and Customs Enforcement office is getting an “indefinite delivery” of an “indefinite quantity” of .40 caliber bullets from defense contractor ATK. U.S. agents will receive a maximum of 450 million rounds over five years, according to a press release on the deal. By 2013 that quantity had increased to 1.6 billion rounds.

2013 – Mayflower oil spill: An Exxon Mobil crude oil pipeline ruptures near the town Of Mayflower, Arkansas, spilling thousands of barrels from the Wabasca oil field (the tar sands).

2013 – Three people are killed and more than 25 people are injured in a 100-vehicle pileup near the Virginia-North Carolina border.

2014 – Mexican federal officers arrested Marine Corps Sgt. Andrew Tahmooressi for weapons possession. Some 50 days later, Sgt. Tahmooressi faces a six to 21 year sentence for the mistake.


1596 – René Descartes, French mathematician (d. 1650)
1794 – Thomas McKean Thompson McKennan, American politician (d. 1852)
1855 – Alfred E. Hunt, founder of Alcoa (d. 1899)
1878 – Jack Johnson, American boxer (d. 1946)
1916 – John H. Wood, Jr., American federal judge (d. 1979)
1924 – Leo Buscaglia, American author (d. 1998)
1924 – Charles Guggenheim, American film director/producer (d. 2002)
1928 – Lefty Frizzell, American singer and songwriter (d. 1975)
1928 – Gordie Howe, Canadian ice hockey player
1929 – Liz Claiborne, Belgian-born American fashion designer (d. 2007)
1934 – Richard Chamberlain, American actor
1934 – Shirley Jones, American singer and actress
1935 – Herb Alpert, American trumpeter and band leader
1942 – Michael Savage, American talk radio host and commentator
1948 – Al Gore, former Vice President of the United States and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
1948 – Rhea Perlman, American actress
1957 – Marc McClure, American actor
1958 – Tony Cox, American actor
1965 – Steven T. Seagle, American comic-book writer







Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Battery A, 1st Battalion, 92d Artillery. Place and date: Kontum Province, Republic of Vietnam,  March 31st, 1971. Entered service at: Salt Lake City, Utah. Born: 25 April 1945, Columbus, Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. 1st Lt. Thacker, Field Artillery, Battery A, distinguished himself while serving as the team leader of an Integrated Observation System collocated with elements of two Army of the Republic of Vietnam units at Fire Base 6. A numerically superior North Vietnamese Army force launched a well-planned, dawn attack on the small, isolated, hilltop fire base. Employing rockets, grenades, flame-throwers, and automatic weapons, the enemy forces penetrated the perimeter defenses and engaged the defenders in hand-to-hand combat. Throughout the morning and early afternoon, 1st Lt. Thacker rallied and encouraged the U.S. and Republic of Vietnam soldiers in heroic efforts to repulse the enemy. He occupied a dangerously exposed observation position for a period of four hours while directing friendly air strikes and artillery fire against the assaulting enemy forces. His personal bravery and inspired leadership enabled the outnumbered friendly forces to inflict a maximum of casualties on the attacking enemy forces and prevented the base from being overrun. By late afternoon, the situation had become untenable. 1st Lt. Thacker organized and directed the withdrawal of the remaining friendly forces. With complete disregard for his personal safety, he remained inside the perimeter alone to provide covering fire with his M-16 rifle until all other friendly forces had escaped from the besieged fire base. Then, in an act of supreme courage, he called for friendly artillery fire on his own position to allow his comrades more time to withdraw safely from the area and, at the same time, inflict even greater casualties on the enemy forces. Although wounded and unable to escape from the area himself, he successfully eluded the enemy forces for 8 days until friendly forces regained control of the fire base. The extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by 1st Lt. Thacker were an inspiration to his comrades and are in the highest traditions of the military service .


INTERIM 1901 – 1911



Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 April 1870, Bellfast, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 85, 22 March 1902. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Petrel for heroism and gallantry, fearlessly exposing his own life to danger in saving others on the occasion of the flre on board that vessel, March 31st,  1901.


INTERIM 1901 – 1911



Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 21 January 1868, Guadaloupe, West Indies. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 85, 22 March 1902. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Petrel, for heroism and gallantry, fearlessly exposing his own life to danger for the saving of others, on the occasion of the fire on board that vessel, March 31st,  1901.


INTERIM 1901 – 1911



Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. (Served as Theis, Louis F., during first enlistment.) Born: 19 June 1876, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 85, 22 March 1902. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Petrel; for heroism and gallantry, fearlessly exposing his own life to danger for the saving of the others on the occasion of the fire on board that vessel, March 31st,  1901.





Rank and organization: Chief Master-at-Arms, U.S. Navy. Born: 12 June 1871, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 525 29 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. New York off the coast of Jamaica, March 31st,  1899. Showing gallant conduct, Stokes jumped overboard and assisted in the rescue of Peter Mahoney, watertender, U.S. Navy.




Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company K, 15th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Dinwiddie Courthouse, Va., March 31st,  1865. Entered service at: Brooklyn, N.Y. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 15 December 1898. Citation: While acting as aide to General Custer, took a flag from the hands of color bearer, rode in front of a line that was being driven back and, under a heavy fire, rallied the men, re-formed the line, and repulsed the charge.


 HOOPER, WILLIAM B.State of Connecticut


Rank and organization: Corporal, Company L, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date: At Chamberlains Creek, Va., March 31st,  1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Willimantic, Conn. Date of issue: 3 July 1865. Citation: With the assistance of a comrade, headed off the advance of the enemy, shooting two of his color bearers; also posted himself between the enemy and the led horses of his own command, thus saving the herd from capture.




Rank and organization: Major and Quartermaster, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: Near Dinwiddie Courthouse, Va., March 31st,  1865. Entered service at: Brooklyn, N.Y. Born: 22 December 1837, Portland, Maine. Date of issue: 23 September 1897. Citation: While serving as a volunteer aide, carried orders to the reserve brigade and participated with it in the charge which repulsed the enemy.





Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 111th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., March 31st,  1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Oneida County, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 41st Alabama Infantry (C.S.A.), together with the color bearer and one of the color guard.




Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 7th Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: At Gravelly Run, Va., March 31st,  1865. Entered service at: Columbia County, Wis. Birth: Danube, N.Y. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: With a comrade, attempted capture of a stand of Confederate colors and detachment of nine Confederates, actually taking prisoner three members of the detachment, dispersing the remainder, and recapturing a Union officer who was a prisoner in hands of the detachment.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company L, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date: At Chamberlains Creek, Va., March 31st,  1865. Entered service at: Jersey City, N.J. Birth: England. Date of issue: 3 July 1865. Citation: With the assistance of one comrade, headed off the advance of the enemy, shooting two of his color bearers; also posted himself between the enemy and the lead horses of his own command, thus saving the herd from capture.


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Unerased History – March 30th

Posted by Wayne Church on March 30, 2016 in 03 - March, Blog by month |
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Doctor’s Day

Grass is Always Browner on the Other Side of the Fence Day


History of the Lead Pencil


Lead pencils, of course, contain no lead. The writing medium is graphite, a form of carbon. Writing instruments made from sticks cut from high quality natural graphite mined at Cumberland in England and wrapped in string or inserted in wooden tubes came into use around 1560. The term “black lead pencil” was in use by 1565.  By 1662, pencils were produced in Nuremberg, in what is now Germany, apparently by gluing sticks of graphite into cases assembled from two pieces of wood. By the early 18th century, wood-cased pencils that did not require the high quality graphite available only in England were produced in Nuremberg with cores made by mixing graphite, sulfur and various binding agents. These German pencils were inferior to English pencils, which continued to be made with sticks cut from natural graphite into the 1860s.  The 1855 catalog of Waterlow & Sons, London, offered “Pure Cumberland Lead Pencils.”

In 1795, French chemist Nicholas Jacques Conté received a patent for the modern process for making pencil leads by mixing powdered graphite and clay, forming sticks, and hardening them in a furnace. The brittle ceramic leads…were inserted in wooden cases of a modified design, one used by some early German pencil makers to encase their sulfur-and-graphite leads. The piece of wood into which the leads were placed has a groove about twice as deep as the thickness of the rod of lead. A slat of wood was then glued in over the lead to completely fill the groove, and the pencil was ready to be finished to the desired exterior shape.”

Early American settlers depended on pencils from overseas until the Revoluntionary War cut off imports. William Monroe, a Concord, Massachusetts cabinet-maker, is credited with making America’s first wood pencils in 1812. Another Concord native, famous author Henry David Thoreau, was also famous for his pencil-making prowess.

A common urban legend states that, faced with the fact that ball-point pens will not write in zero-gravity, NASA spent a large amount of money to develop a pen that would write in the conditions experienced during spaceflight (the result purportedly being the Fisher Space Pen), while the Soviet Union took the simpler (and cheaper) route of just using pencils.

Russian cosmonauts used pencils, and grease pencils on plastic slates until also adopting a space pen in 1969 with a purchase of 100 units for use on all future missions. NASA programs previously used pencils (for example a 1965 order of mechanical pencils) but because of the substantial dangers that broken-off pencil tips and graphite dust pose in zero gravity to electronics and the flammable nature of the wood present in pencils a better solution was needed. NASA never approached Paul Fisher to develop a pen, nor did Fisher receive any government funding for the pen’s development. Fisher invented it independently, and then asked NASA to try it. After the introduction of the AG7 Space Pen, both the American and Soviet (later Russian) space agencies adopted it.


Scripture of the Day

Psalm 86: 7-9

In the day of my trouble I shall call upon You, For You will answer me. There is no one like You among the gods, O Lord, Nor are there any works like Yours. All nations whom You have made shall come and worship before You, O Lord, And they shall glorify Your name.…


Founders Thoughts


John Jay“”Providence has given to our people the choice of their rulers. And it is the duty as well as the privilege and interest, of a Christian nation to select and prefer Christians for their rulers.”

John Jay to Jedidiah Morse February 28, 1797


“Demand the best from yourself, because others will demand the best from you… Successful people don’t simply give a project hard work. They give it their best work.”

 ~ Win Borden

dapple \DAP-uhl\, noun:

A small contrasting spot or blotch.
A mottled appearance, especially of the coat of an animal (as a horse).

transitive verb:
To mark with patches of a color or shade; to spot.

intransitive verb:
To become dappled.

Marked with contrasting patches or spots; dappled.

Dapple derives from Old Norse depill, “a spot.”

240 – First recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet.

1492 – King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella signed a decree expelling all Jews from Spain. Jews numbered about 80,000 and it was estimated that about half chose to convert to Catholicism.

1638 – The first permanent white settlement was established in Delaware. Swedish Lutherans who came to Delaware were the first to build log cabins in America.

1769 – Baltimore merchants join the non-importation movement by banning the purchase of English goods until the repeal of the Townshend Acts.

1775 – Revolutionary War: King George III endorses the New England Restraining Act, which forbids the New England colonies from trading with any other countries except England after July 1.

1775 – Revolutionary War: King George III bans colonists from fishing in the North Atlantic after July 20th.

1814 – In the Battle at Horseshoe Bend, Alabama, Andrew Jackson beat the Creek Indians.

1820A group of New England missionaries arrives on the Hawaiian Islands, to be greeted by King Kamehameha II.

1822 – Florida Territory created in the United States.

1842 – Anesthesia (ether) is used for the first time in an operation by Dr. Crawford Long. The patient was Mr. James M. Venable.

1852 – Ohio made it illegal for children under 18 and women to work more than 10 hours a day.

1855 – The “CIVIL WAR” did not start in 1861. One of the earliest events was called “Bleeding Kansas” and it occurred when “Border Ruffians” from Missouri invaded Kansas and forced election of a pro-slavery legislature.

1858 – Hymen Lipman patents a pencil with an attached eraser.

1864 – Civil War:  After landing at Cherry Grove, Virginia, shortly before dawn, sailors from the U.S.S. Minneapolis silently surrounded the Confederate headquarters and took 20 prisoners.

1864 – Civil War: Skirmish at Mount Elba, Arkansas.

1867 – Alaska is purchased for $7.2 million, about 2 cent/acre, by United States Secretary of State William H. Seward. The news media call this Seward’s Folly and President Andrew Johnson’s “polar bear garden.”

1867 – Congress approved the Lincoln Memorial.

1868 – U.S. Senate convened as a court to hear charges against President Andrew Johnson.

1870 – Texas is readmitted to the Union following Reconstruction. It is the last one to be readmitted.

1870 – The 15th Amendment, granting African-American men the right to vote was formally adopted into the U.S. Constitution.

1889 – John T Reid opens first US golf course (Yonkers NY).

1903 – Regular news service began between New York and London on Marconi’s wireless. On March 30, 1903, The Times in London became the first newspaper to establish an ongoing arrangement with the Marconi Telegraph Company for the regular transmission of news between the United States and the UK.

1903 – U.S. troops sent to Santo Domingo,  Dominican Republic to protect American interests during revolutionary activity.

1909 – In New York, the Queensboro Bridge opens, linking Manhattan & Queens.

1909 – In Oklahoma, Seminole Indians revolted against meager pay for government jobs.

1910 – Mississippi Legislature founded The University of Southern Mississippi.

1916 – Pancho Villa killed 172 at the Guerrero garrison in Mexico.

1923 – The Cunard liner “Laconia” arrived in New York City, becoming the first passenger ship to circumnavigate the world, a cruise of 130 days.

1931 – In Scottsboro, Ala., nine young black men were indicted for rape. By the end of April all were tried, convicted and sentenced to death, except for one age 13, who was sentenced to life in prison. The US Supreme Court later overturned the convictions, but they were convicted at a second trial, even though one of the accused said no rape had occurred. The sentences were again overturned.

1939 – The Heinkel He-100 fighter sets the world airspeed record of 463 mph. The Heinkel company is most closely associated with aircraft used by the Luftwaffe during World War II.

1941 – National Urban League presented one-hour program over a national radio network and urged equal participation for African-Americans in national defense program.

1941 – World War II: The German Afrika Korps under General Erwin Rommel began its first offensive against British forces in Libya.

1941 – World War II: The U.S. seized Italian, German and Danish ships in 16 ports.

1942 – Coast Guard was designated as a service of the Navy to be administered by the Commandant of Coast Guard under the direction of the Secretary of the Navy, similar to the administration of the Marine Corps.

1942 – World War II: Holocaust: German SS murdered 200 inmates of Trawniki labor camp.

1943 – Rodgers and Hammerstein’s first collaboration, “Oklahoma”, opened on Broadway.

1944 – World War II: Allied bombers conduct their most severe bombing run on Sofia, Bulgaria.

1944 – World War II: The largest Bomber Command loss of World War II occurred today when the Allies lost 95 bombers. The aircraft were dispatched along the English eastern coast. A total of 795 aircraft are involved, including 572 Lancasters, 214 Halifaxes and 9 Mosquitos. The bombers meet resistance at the coasts of Belgium and the Netherlands from German fighters.

1944 – “Gobbledygook” was coined by US Rep. Maury Maverick, a Texas Democrat, in a memo banning “gobbledygook language” at the Smaller War Plants Corporation. It was a reaction to his frustration with the “convoluted language of bureaucrats.”

1944 – World War II: The U.S. fleet attacked Palau, near the Philippines. This was the first use of torpedo squadrons from carriers to drop aerial mines (Palau Harbor).

1944 – World War II: US forces occupy Pityilu Island to the north of Manus Island.

1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Dreams are Getting Better All the Time” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day), “A Little on the Lonely Side” by The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Paul Allen), “Accentuate the Positive” by Johnny Mercer and “Shame on You” by Spade Cooley all topped the charts.

1945 – World War II: Soviet Union forces invade Austria and take Vienna, Polish and Soviet forces liberate Gdańsk.

1945 – World War II: A defecting German pilot delivers a Messerschmitt Me 262A-1 to Americans.

1945 – World War II: In American air raids on the northern ports, the German cruiser Koln and 14 U-boats are sunk.

1945 – World War II: A Japanese Kamikaze plane badly damages the cruiser USS Indianapolis.

1945 – World War II: Two hundred eighty-nine anti-fascists were murdered by Nazis in Rombergpark,  Dortmund.

1946 – The Allies seized 1,000 Nazis attempting to revive the Nazi party in Frankfurt.

1950 –  President Truman denounced Senator Joe McCarthy as a saboteur of U.S. foreign policy.

1950 – The invention of the phototransistor was announced. This was a transistor operated by light rather than electric current, invented by Dr. John Northrup Shive of the Bell Telephone Laboratories

1951 – Korean War: The heaviest air attack of the war was staged by 38 B-29’s on twin bridges over the Yalu River at Sinuiju, dropping some 280 tons of bombs. Escorting F-80s and F-86s engaged enemy MiG-15 jets, destroying three and damaging six.

1951 – Remington Rand delivers the first UNIVAC I computer to the United States Census Bureau. UNIVAC I used 5,200 vacuum tubes, weighed 29,000 pounds (13 metric tons), consumed 125 kW, and could perform about 1,905 operations per second running on a 2.25 MHz clock. The main memory consisted of 1000 words of twelve characters. When representing numbers, they were written as eleven decimal digits plus sign.

1952 – A fire completely destroyed the headquarters of the 7th Cavalry Regiment at Camp Crawford, Japan. Many of the regiment’s souvenirs, some dating back to the time of Custer, were lost in the blaze.

1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Till I Waltz Again with You” by Teresa Brewer, “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” by Perry Como, “Pretend” by Nat King Cole and “Kaw-Liga” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.

1953 – Einstein published his most recent equations for a unified field theory as an appendix to the fourth edition of The Meaning of Relativity.

1956 – Woody Guthrie’s song, “This Land Is Your Land” was copyrighted.

1957 – “Butterfly” by Andy Williams and “Party Doll” by Buddy Knox topped the charts.

1958 – The Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater gave its initial performance. It is a modern dance company based in New York, New York.

1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Surrender” by Elvis Presley, “Dedicated to the One I Love” by The Shirelles, “Apache” by Jorgen Ingmann and “Don’t Worry” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.

1961 – NASA civilian pilot Joseph A Walker takes X-15 169,600′.

1963  – “He’s So Fine” by the Crystals topped the charts.

1963 – Leslie Gore first appeared on ABC’s “American Bandstand.” Full Album  (42:46)

1964 – “Jeopardy” aired on NBC-TV for the first time. Merv Griffin (1925-2007) created the TV game show “Jeopardy.” He sold the rights for the show to Coca-Cola for $250 million in 1986. Since 1984 with Alex Trebek as host.

1964 – John Glenn withdrew from the Ohio race for U.S. Senate because of injuries suffered in a fall.

1965 – Vietnam War: A car bomb explodes in front of the U.S. Embassy in Saigon, killing 19 Vietnamese, 2 Americans, and 1 Filipino; 183 others were injured.

1966 – Vietnam War: The 7th Marine Regiment terminated Operation Indiana in Vietnam.

1968 – (Sittin’ on) The Dock of the Bay” by Otis Redding topped the charts.

1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dizzy” by Tommy Roe, “Traces” by Classics IV featuring Dennis Yost, “Time of the Season” by The Zombies and “Who’s Gonna Mow Your Grass” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1970 –  “Another World – Somerset” debuted on NBC-TV.

1972 – Vietnam War: The Easter Offensive begins after North Vietnamese forces cross into the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) of South Vietnam.

1973 – Ellsworth Bunker resigned as US ambassador to South Vietnam. He was succeeded by Graham A. Martin.

1974 – “Sunshine on My Shoulders” by John Denver topped the charts.

1975 – As the North Vietnamese forces moved toward Saigon, desperate South Vietnamese soldiers mobbed rescue jets. Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap masterminded the North Vietnamese victory.

1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rich Girl” by Daryl Hall & John Oates, “Dancing Queenby Abba, “Don’t Give Up on Us” by David Soul and “Southern Nights” by Glen Campbell all topped the charts.

1981 – President Ronald Reagan was shot by John Hinckley Jr. outside a Washington hotel. White House press secretary James Brady, a Secret Service agent and a Washington police officer also were wounded. Hinckley was found not guilty by reason of insanity.

1982 – Space Shuttle program: STS-3 Mission completed with the landing of Columbia at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. It was its third and its longest test flight after eight days in space.

1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “One More Night” by Phil Collins, “Lovergirl” by Teena Marie, “We are the World” by USA for Africa and “Seven Spanish Angels” by Ray Charles with Willie Nelson all topped the charts.

1987 – Vincent Van Gogh’s “Sunflowers” was bought for $39.85 million.

1988 – US House Democratic and Republican leaders said that they had agreed in principle on a package of about $50 million to aid the Nicaraguan rebels.

1989 –  Gladys Knight performed solo for the first time since her grammar school years without The Pips during a gig in Las Vegas.

1990 – Jack Nicklaus made his debut in the “Seniors” golf tournament.

1990 – Idaho Gov. Cecil Andrus vetoed a highly restrictive state abortion measure, saying the bill gave a woman and her family no flexibility in cases of rape and incest.

1991 – “Coming Out of the Dark” by Gloria Estefan topped the charts.

1991 – Patricia Bowman, a resident of Jupiter, Florida, told authorities she’d been raped hours earlier by William Kennedy Smith, the nephew of Senator Edward Kennedy, at the family’s Palm Beach estate.

1992 – “The Silence of the Lambs” won five Oscars at the 64th annual Academy Awards, including best picture, best actress for Jodie Foster and best actor for Anthony Hopkins.

1993 – In the Peanuts comic strip, Charlie Brown hit his first home run.

1993 – Washington attorney Robert Altman went on trial in New York City, charged with wrongdoing in connection with the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI). He was later acquitted.

1994 – The Clinton administration announced it was lifting virtually all export controls on non-military products to China and the former Soviet bloc.

1995 – The compromise “don’t ask, don’t tell, don’t pursue” policy allowing homosexuals to serve in the military under certain conditions was struck down by a federal judge in New York as unconstitutional.

1996 – The space shuttle Atlantis narrowly avoided having to make an emergency landing when its cargo-bay doors wouldn’t open at first to release built-up heat.

1996 – In the NCAA basketball finals, Kentucky beat Syracuse, 76-67.

1996 – The El Bethal Church in Satartia, Miss., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.

1998 – In eastern Arizona nearly a dozen Mexican gray wolves were released into the White Mountains after an absence of 30 years.

1998 – In Columbia Falls, Mont., it was reported that $100 million would be distributed amongst 1000 employees of the Columbia Falls Aluminum plant. Roberta Gilmore led a winning legal suit that claimed the company did not divvy out profits to workers as promised.

1998 – The Univ. of Kentucky beat the Utah Utes 78-69 at the Alamodome in San Antonio for the NCAA men’s basketball finals. It was Kentucky’s 7th national title.

1999 – A jury in Oregon hit Philip Morris with an $81 million verdict for damages in the lung cancer death of Jesse Williams who died of lung cancer after smoking Marlboros for four decades.

2001 –  LeAnn Rimes reached an out of court settlement with her father and her former manager. The suit claimed that the two had stolen $12 million from her.

2002 – An unmanned U.S. spy plane crashed at sea in the Southern Philippines.

2003 – Former baseball player Jack Clark, hitting instructor with the Los Angeles Dodgers and former star of the Boston Red Sox and San Diego Padres, suffers a motorcycle accident on his way to Bank One Ballpark in Phoenix, breaking eight ribs. Initially listed in critical condition, he was later updated to stable condition.

2003 – In the 12th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom an Iraqi general, captured by British forces in southern Iraq, was pressed to provide information.

2004 – President Bush agreed to do what he had insisted for weeks he would not: allow National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice to testify publicly and under oath before an independent panel investigating the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks.

2004 – New Jersey physicist Greg Olsen pays $20 million to conduct environmental research for eight days aboard the International Space Station.

2004 – AT&T officially began to offer phone calls via the Internet (VOIP) in 2 state, New Jersey and Texas.

2005 – Under heavy protection, First Lady Laura Bush visited the capital of Afghanistan, where she talked with Afghan women freed from Taliban repression and urged greater rights.

2005 – The US Supreme Court ruled that federal law allows people 40 and over to file age bias claims over salary and hiring even if employers never intended any harm.

2006 – Jill Carroll, a Christian Science Monitor journalist abducted in Iraq on January 7, is released.

2006 – The Massachusetts Supreme Court said gay couples can’t marry in Massachusetts if they are from US states where same-sex unions are prohibited.

2006 – US Major League Baseball began its investigation into alleged steroid use by Barry Bonds and others.

2006 – U.S. Representative Jean Schmidt has been claiming a degree in secondary education from the University of Cincinnati she did not receive.

2007 – President Bush went to Walter Reed Army Medical Center, where he apologized to troops for shoddy conditions in outpatient housing.

2007 – A video purportedly showing the beheading of a drug cartel hit man appeared on video-sharing Web site YouTube, and its makers called on Mexicans to kill more members of the gang.

2007 – “Back to the Future the Ride” closes at Universal Studios Florida.

2007 –  It was reported that shark overfishing has led scallops to decline because their predators, mainly rays, aren’t being eaten.

2008 – Aloha Airlines, a Hawaii based airline which operates inter-island and trans-Pacific flights, has suspended all passenger services due to bankruptcy.

2008 – WrestleMania XXIV takes place from the Citrus Bowl with an all-time attendance record for the stadium at over 70,000 people.2009 – President Obama signed legislation setting aside over 2 million acres as protected wilderness.

2009 – President Barack Obama said that neither General Motors nor Chrysler has proposed sweeping enough changes to justify further large federal bailouts, and demanded “painful concessions” from creditors, unions and others as their price for survival.

2009 – In an unprecedented interference with private ownership, the White House ousted the GM Chairman Rick Wagoner as it rejected GM and Chrysler’s restructuring plans.

2009 –  An “Open Cloud” manifesto was published. IBM and other tech companies issued a statement of principles that called for keeping cloud computing services as open as possible.

2010 – Pres. Obama signed into law the final changes to the sweeping medical plan approved by lawmakers last week, along with reforms in college student loan programs.

2010 –  A gunman sprayed bullets from a moving vehicle into a crowd in southeastern Washington D.C., killing four and wounding at least five others, before leading police on a chase into neighboring Maryland. Three people were arrested in the drive-by shooting.

2011 – 45,000 Inca artifacts taken by Yale University from Machu Pichu almost a century ago, and described by the president as “the dignity and pride of Peru”, arrive in Lima after a long campaign by Peruvians to have them returned.

2011 – Reuters reports that President Barack Obama has signed an order authorizing covert help for the rebels.

2011 –  Google announces plans to make  Kansas City, Kansas the first site in its ultra-high speed broadband network.

2011 –  Obama Administration endorses Pickens plan for natural gas vehicles.

2012 –  VISA and MasterCard warn banks across the United States about a “massive” breach of security with more than ten million credit card numbers potentially compromised.

2012 -The Mega Millions jackpot in the United States is up to $640 million, becoming the world’s largest lottery jackpot.

2013 – Three people are shot (one critically) at three stores at the Edgewood Towne Center shopping plaza near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

2013 – The University of Michigan wins the 2013 NCAA Men’s Swimming and Diving Championships.


1746 – Francisco Goya, was a Spanish painter and printmaker. Goya was a court painter to the Spanish Crown and a chronicler of history. He has been regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and as the first of the moderns. (d. 1828)
1820 – Anna Sewell, British author best known as the author of the classic novel “Black Beauty”. (d. 1878)
1853 – Vincent van Gogh, Dutch painter (d. 1890)
1857 – Leon Charles Thevenin, French telegraph engineer (d. 1926)
1902 – Brooke Astor, was an American philanthropist and socialite who was the chairwoman of the Vincent Astor Foundation (d. 2007)
1903 – Countee Cullen, was an American Romantic poet. Cullen was one of the leading African American poets of his time, associated with the generation of black poets of the Harlem Renaissance. (d. 1946)
1913 – Richard Helms, American CIA director (d. 2002)
1913 – Frankie Laine, American singer (d. 2007)
1919 – McGeorge Bundy, American National Security Advisor (d. 1996)
1927 – Peter Marshall, American game show host
1929 – Richard Dysart, American actor is probably best known for his role as Leland McKenzie on the NBC legal drama L.A. Law.
1930 – John Astin is best known for the role of Gomez Addams on The Addams Family and similarly eccentric comedic characters.1930 – Rolf Harris, Australian artist and entertainer 1937 – Warren Beatty, American actor and director
1940 – Jerry Lucas in a former basketball player and is now a memory education expert. In 1996, the NBA’s 50th anniversary, he was named one of the 50 greatest players in National Basketball Association history.
1941 – Graeme Edge, British musician (Moody Blues)
1949 – Naomi Sims, American fashion model and businesswoman. She was also Miss Black America in 1969.
1962 – M C Hammer, American rap musician. He became a preacher in the late 1990s and as of 2008 works as a co-founder of a dance website, television show host and CEO, still performing occasionally at concerts and other functions.
1968 – Celine Dion, Canadian singer. In April 2007 Sony BMG announced that Celine Dion had sold over 200 million albums worldwide
1970 – Secretariat was an American thoroughbred racehorse. Secretariat won the 1973 Triple Crown, becoming the first Triple Crown winner in 25 years,  (d. 1989)






Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, 3d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam,  March 30th, 1967. Entered service at: Buffalo, N.Y. Born: 14 February 1943, Niagara Falls, N.Y. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Company #1 was establishing night ambush sites when the command group was attacked by a reinforced North Vietnamese company supported by heavy automatic weapons and mortar fire. 2d Lt. Bobo immediately organized a hasty defense and moved from position to position encouraging the outnumbered Marines despite the murderous enemy fire. Recovering a rocket launcher from among the friendly casualties, he organized a new launcher team and directed its fire into the enemy machine gun positions. When an exploding enemy mortar round severed 2d Lt. Bobo’s right leg below the knee, he refused to be evacuated and insisted upon being placed in a firing position to cover the movement of the command group to a better location. With a web belt around his leg serving as a tourniquet and with his leg jammed into the dirt to curtain the bleeding, he remained in this position and delivered devastating fire into the ranks of the enemy attempting to overrun the Marines. 2d Lt. Bobo was mortally wounded while firing his weapon into the main point of the enemy attack but his valiant spirit inspired his men to heroic efforts, and his tenacious stand enabled the command group to gain a protective position where it repulsed the enemy onslaught. 2d Lt. Bobo’s superb leadership, dauntless courage, and bold initiative reflected great credit upon himself and upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.





Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company K, 18th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Eisern, Germany, March 30th,  1945. Entered service at: Brooklyn, N.Y. Birth: Brooklyn, N.Y. G.O. No.: 88, 17 October 1945. Citation: He was an acting platoon sergeant with Company K, near Eisern, Germany. When his company encountered an enemy battalion and came under heavy small-arms, machinegun, and mortar fire, the 2d Platoon was given the mission of flanking the enemy positions while the remaining units attacked frontally. S/Sgt. Peterson crept and crawled to a position in the lead and motioned for the 2d Platoon to follow. A mortar shell fell close by and severely wounded him in the legs, but, although bleeding and suffering intense pain, he refused to withdraw and continued forward. Two hostile machineguns went into action at close range. Braving this grazing fire, he crawled steadily toward the guns and worked his way alone to a shallow draw, where, despite the hail of bullets, he raised himself to his knees and threw a grenade into the nearest machinegun nest, silencing the weapon and killing or wounding all its crew. The second gun was immediately turned on him, but he calmly and deliberately threw a second grenade which rocked the position and killed all four Germans who occupied it. As he continued forward he was spotted by an enemy rifleman, who shot him in the arm. Undeterred, he crawled some twenty yards until a third machinegun opened fire on him. By almost superhuman effort, weak from loss of blood and suffering great pain, he again raised himself to his knees and fired a grenade from his rifle, killing three of the enemy guncrew and causing the remaining one to flee. With the first objective seized, he was being treated by the company aid man when he observed one of his outpost men seriously wounded by a mortar burst. He wrenched himself from the hands of the aid man and began to crawl forward to assist his comrade, whom he had almost reached when he was struck and fatally wounded by an enemy bullet. S/Sgt. Peterson, by his gallant, intrepid actions, unrelenting fighting spirit, and outstanding initiative, silenced three enemy machineguns against great odds and while suffering from severe wounds, enabling his company to advance with minimum casualties.





Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company K 18th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Eisern, Germany, March 30th,  1945. Entered service at: West Winfield, N.Y. Birth: Pittsburgh, Pa. G.O. No.: 88, 17 October 1945. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry during an attack on powerful enemy positions. He courageously exposed himself to withering hostile fire to rescue two wounded men and then, although painfully wounded himself, made a third trip to carry another soldier to safety from an open area. Ignoring the profuse bleeding of his wound, he gallantly led men of his platoon forward until they were pinned down by murderous flanking fire from two enemy machineguns. He fearlessly crawled alone to within thirty feet of the first enemy position, killed the crew of four and silenced the gun with accurate grenade fire. He continued to crawl through intense enemy fire to within twenty feet of the second position where he leaped to his feet, made a lone, ferocious charge and captured the gun and its nine-man crew. Observing another platoon pinned down by two more German machineguns, he led a squad on a flanking approach and, rising to his knees in the face of direct fire, coolly and deliberately lobbed three grenades at the Germans, silencing one gun and killing its crew. With tenacious aggressiveness, he ran toward the other gun and knocked it out with grenade fire. He then returned to his platoon and led it in a fierce, inspired charge, forcing the enemy to fall back in confusion. 1st Lt. Will was mortally wounded in this last action, but his heroic leadership, indomitable courage, and unflinching devotion to duty live on as a perpetual inspiration to all those who witnessed his deeds.


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Unerased History – March 29th

Posted by Wayne Church on March 29, 2016 in 03 - March, Blog by month |
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Vietnam Veterans Day
National Mom & Pop Business Day




If 99.9% is good enough

In the 1990’s there was a great push for 100% customer satisfaction. Out of those great debates on just what that meant came the following information. While the info is dated, the idea still comes through that 100% should mean 100% and no less.

If 99.9% is good enough, then in the USA….

  • Two million documents will be lost by the IRS this year.
  • 811,000 faulty rolls of 35mm film will be loaded this year.
  • 22,000 checks will be deducted from the wrong bank accounts in the next 60 minutes.
  • 1,314 phone calls will be misplaced by telecommunication services every minute.
  • 12 babies will be given to the wrong parents each day.
  • 268,500 defective tires will be shipped this year.
  • 14,208 defective personal computers will be shipped this year.
  • 103,260 income tax returns will be processed incorrectly this year.
  • 2,488,200 books will be shipped in the next 12 months with the wrong cover.
  • 5,517,200 cases of soft drinks produced in the next 12 months will be flatter than a bad tire.
  • Two plane landings daily at O’Hare International Airport in Chicago will be unsafe.
  • 3,056 copies of tomorrow’s Wall Street Journal will be missing one of the three sections.
  • 18,322 pieces of mail will be mishandled in the next hour.
  • 291 pacemaker operations will be performed incorrectly this year.
  • 880,000 credit cards in circulation will turn out to have incorrect cardholder information on their magnetic strips.
  • $9,690 will be spent today, tomorrow, next Thursday, and every day in the future on defective, often unsafe sporting equipment.
  • 55 malfunction automatic teller machines will be installed in the next 12 months.
  • 20,000 incorrect drug prescriptions will be written in the next 12 months.
  • 114,500 mismatched pairs of shoes will be shipped this year.
  • $761,900 will be spent in the next 12 months on tapes and compact discs that won’t play.
  • 107 incorrect medical procedures will be performed by the end of the day today.
  • 315 entries in Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language will turn out to be misspelled.
  • 268,500 defective tires will be shipped this year.

The business concept behind this piece is the “rule of nines.” In the real world, it’s impossible to achieve a 100% accuracy rate on anything of significant quantity, but you can get to 99% or 99.9% or 99.999999999999999%. The rule of nines states that the more nines you add, the more costly and complex the guarantee is.
To someone who doesn’t understand business process, 99.9% may sound like an extremely high ratio. In reality, it may or may not be, depending on the context. If the police solve 99.9% of all crimes, that’s pretty good, and I doubt that any major city’s cops have that good a record. And a 99.9% recovery rate for cancer is also much better than reality. However, the OP states some cases where 99.9% may not be very good. Having too much tolerance for error or having too little tolerance can both be detrimental to a product or service, and it’s a business decision to determine how many nines to build into a process.


Scripture of the Day

1 Thessalonians 5:16-18

“Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances; for this is God’s will for you in Christ Jesus.”


Founders Thoughts


“The only way to be loved is to be and to appear lovely; to possess and display kindness, benevolence, tenderness; to be free from selfishness and to be alive to the welfare of others.”

~ John Jay


“Worry is like a rocking chair; It gives you something to do, but doesn’t get you anywhere.”

 ~  Incompertus Scriptor


segue \SEG-way; SAYG-way\, intransitive verb:
To proceed without interruption; to make a smooth transition.


An instance or act of segueing; a smooth transition.

Segue is from the Italian, meaning “there follows,” from seguire, “to follow,” from Latin sequi.


1638 – Swedish colonists establish the first settlement in Delaware, naming it New Sweden.

1673 – The English Parliament passed the Test Act. It in effect excluded Roman Catholics from public functions. King Charles II was unable to stop the action.
1676 – Wampanoag allies including the Narragansetts destroyed Providence, Rhode Island. The house of Roger Williams was destroyed as he negotiated with Indian leaders on the outskirts of town.
1791 – Pres. George Washington and French architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant examined the a site along the Potomac River that would become the US capital. Maryland and Virginia had ceded land to the federal government to form the District of Columbia.
1799 – New York passes a law aimed at gradually abolishing slavery in the state.
1806 – Construction is authorized of the Great National Pike, better known as the Cumberland Road, becoming the first United States federal highway. It was later lengthened, paved and renamed U.S. 40, but was eclipsed in the 1960s by Interstate 70, a parallel superhighway.
1812 – The first White House wedding took place, when Lucy Payne Washington (First Lady Dolly Madison’s sister) married Supreme Court Justice Thomas Todd.
1847 – Mexican-American War: 12,000 US forces led by General Winfield Scott occupied the city of Vera Cruz after Mexican defenders capitulated.
1848 – Niagara Falls stops flowing for 40 hours due to an ice jam upriver from the falls.
1852 – Ohio makes it illegal for children under 18 & women to work more than 10 hours a day.
1860 – The USS Powhatan arrived in San Francisco as part of a diplomatic mission from Japan. It carried official envoys including Niimi Buzennokami, the first Japanese ambassador to the US.
1862 – Civil War: The westernmost skirmish of this war occurred in a place called Stanwix Station, AZ. A detachment of 272 Union troops discovered a small detachment of Confederates (10) burning the hay at this location on the Butterfield Stage Line. One Union private was injured and the Confederates “high-tailed” it to Tucson, AZ under the command of 2nd Lt. John W. Swilling. Swilling would shortly become the original founder of Phoenix, AZ.
1864 – Civil War:  Union General Steele’s troops reached Arkadelphia, Arkansas.
1864 – Civil War:  The low level of the Red River continued to hinder Rear Admiral Porter’s efforts to get his gun-boats above the rapids at Alexandria for the assault on Shreveport.
1865 – Civil War:  The Battle of Appomattox Court House begins. The Appomattox campaign in  Virginia left 7582 killed.
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Quaker Road, Va.
1865 – Civil War: The final campaign of the war begins in Virginia when Union troops of General Ulysses S. Grant move against the Confederate trenches around Petersburg.
1867 – Congress approves Lincoln Memorial.
1867 – The United States purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million dollars.
1882 – The Knights of Columbus was granted a charter by the state of Connecticut.
1886 – Dr. John Pemberton brews the first batch of Coca-Cola in a backyard in Atlanta, Georgia. It was marketed as a “brain tonic” and claimed to relieve exhaustion.
1893 – US Congressman James Blount arrived in Hawaii to investigate the change in government. He later reported to Congress that annexation to the US was being forced and that the people of Hawaii supported their queen.
1898 – Lieutenants David Jarvis and Ellsworth P. Bertholf and Surgeon Dr. Samuel J. Call of the USRC Bear reached Point Barrow after a 2,000 mile “mush” from Nunivak Island that first started on 17 December 1897, driving reindeer as food for 97 starving whalers caught in the Arctic ice.
1911 – The M1911 .45 ACP pistol becomes the official U.S. Army side arm.
1912 – The U.S. sent rifles to the Mexican ambassador in Mexico City and readied U.S. ships to transport troops to fight the rebels. 
1912 – Captain Robert Scott perishes at the South Pole. Scott’s journal contained the final lines: ‘Had we lived I should have had a tale to tell of the hardihood, endurance and courage of my companions which would have stirred the heart of every Englishman’, and ending with the words, ‘We shall stick it out to the end, but we are getting weaker of course and the end cannot be far. It seems a pity, but I do not think I can write more. For God’s sake, look after our people. R. Scott’.
1917 – WW I: Marines garrisoned St. Croix to deny harbor to German submarines.
1917 –  Man o’ War, the famous American race horse, was foaled.
1927 – Major Henry O’Neil de Hane Segrave became the first man to break the 200 mph barrier. Driving a 1,000 horsepower Mystery Sunbeam, Segrave averaged 203.79mph on the course at Daytona Beach, Florida.
1932 – Jack Benny made his radio debut. He opened the show saying, “Ladies and gentlemen, this is Jack Benny talking. There will be a slight pause while you say, ‘Who cares?”‘ He agreed to join then newspaper columnist, Ed Sullivan, on his radio interview show.
1936 – In Germany, Adolf Hitler receives 99% of the votes in a referendum to ratify Germany’s illegal reoccupation of the Rhineland, receiving 44.5 million votes out of 45.5 million registered voters.
1937 – The radio serial, “Our Gal Sunday”, debuted. This was the story of an orphan girl named Sunday from the little mining town of Silver Creek, Colorado, who in young womanhood married England’s richest, most handsome lord, Lord Henry Brinthrope.
1941 – World War II: British Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy forces defeat those of the Italian Regia Marina off the Peloponnesus coast of Greece in the Battle of Cape Matapan.
1941 – The North American Radio Broadcasting Agreement goes into effect at 03:00 local time.
1942 – World War II: The Bombing of Lübeck in World War II was the first major success for the RAF Bomber Command against Germany and a German city.
1942 – World War II: German submarine U-585 sank.
1943 – World War II: Meat, butter & cheese rationed in US during WWII (1.7 lbs/week, 4.4 lbs. for GI’s).
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “Besame Mucho” by The Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Bob Eberly & Kitty Kallen), “Mairzy Doats” by The Merry Macs, “Poinciana” by Bing Crosby and “So Long Pal” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: German SS as well as Hitler Youth members shot at least 57 laborers in woods near the small town of Deutsch Schuetzen, later part of Austria.
1945 – World War II: American landings in the northwest of the island Negros. The landing force, part of the US 185th Infantry Regiment, encounters heavy Japanese resistance on the island.
1945 – World War II: General George S. Patton’s 3rd Army captures Frankfurt.
1945 – World War II: Last day of V-1 flying bomb attacks on England.
1950 – New York’s “Mad Bomber” strikes again. Police frantically search Grand Central Station in New York City for a bomb after receiving a threatening note.The bomb was found and taken care of by the bomb squad. This man planted 33 bombs in 16 years.
1951 – Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage. They were executed in June 1953.
1951 – Rodgers and Hammerstein’s musical “The King and I” starring Gertrude Lawrence and Yul Brynner opened at the St James Theater on Broadway and ran for 1246 performances.
1951 – Korean War: The Chinese rejected MacArthur’s offer for a truce in Korea.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr, “Anytime” by Eddie Fisher, “Please, Mr. Sun” by Johnnie Ray and “(When You Feel like You’re in Love) Don’t Just Stand There by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Lieutenant Colonel George L. Jones, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, became the 30th ace of the Korean War.
1957 – The New York, Ontario and Western Railway makes its final run, the first major U.S. railroad to be abandoned in its entirety.
1958 – “Tequila” by the Champs topped the charts.
1959 – “Some Like it Hot” with Marilyn Monroe & Jack Lemmon premieres.
1960 – Launch of first fully integrated Fleet Ballistic Missile from USS Observation Island. These were the first nuclear-tipped missles.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Theme from “A Summer Place“” by Percy Faith, Wild One” by Bobby Rydell, “Puppy Love” by Paul Anka and “He’ll Have to Go” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1961 – The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, allowing residents of Washington, D.C. to vote in presidential elections.
1962 –  Gene Chandler received a gold record for “Duke of Earl.”
1962 – Jack Paar hosted NBC’s “Tonight” show for the final time. He was succeeded by Johnny Carson who stayed to 1992. He left behind a salary of $250,000 and an estimated audience of eight-million people.
1962 – Cuba opened the trial of the Bay of Pigs invaders.
1967 – The first nationwide strike in the 30-year history of the American Federation of Television occurred and lasted for 13 days.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – (Sittin’ On) The Dock of the Bay” by Otis Redding, “Love is Blue” by Paul Mauriat, “La – La – Means I Love You” by The Delfonics and “A World of Our Own” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1968 – Students seized a building at Maryland’s Bowie State College.
1969 – “Dizzy” by Tommy Roe topped the charts
1971 – Lt. William Calley Jr., of the U.S. Army, was found guilty of the premeditated murder of at least 22 Vietnamese civilians. He was sentenced to life imprisonment. The trial was the result of the My Lai massacre in Vietnam on March 16, 1968.
1971 – A Los Angeles, California jury recommends the death penalty for Charles Manson and three female followers.
1973 – Vietnam War: The last United States combat soldiers leave South Vietnam.
1974 – NASA’s Mariner 10 becomes the first spaceprobe to fly by Mercury. It was launched on November 3, 1973.
1974 – Eight Ohio National Guardsmen were indicted on charges stemming from the shooting deaths of four students at Kent State University on May 4, 1970.
1975 – “Lady Marmalade” by Labelle topped the charts.
1975 – Vietnam War: Evacuation of Danang by sea began.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “December 1963 (Oh, What a Night)” by The Four Seasons, “Dream Weaver” by Gary Wright, “Lonely Night (Angel Face)by Captain & Tennille and “Til the Rivers All Run Dry” by Don Williams all topped the charts.
1976 – The Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area Transit Authority ran its first Metrorail passenger train.
1976 – In Memphis, Bruce Springsteen jumped a fence at Graceland in an attempt to see his idol, Elvis Presley.
1979 – The Committee on Assassinations Report issued by U.S. House of Representatives stated the assassination of President John F. Kennedy was the result of a conspiracy.
1979 – Emmett Kelly (b.1898), American circus clown (Weary Willy), died in Arizona.
1980 – “Another Brick in the Wall (Part II)” by Pink Floyd topped the charts.
1982 – The soap opera “Search for Tomorrow” changed from CBS to NBC.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Jump” by Van Halen, “Somebody’s Watching Me” by Rockwell, “Footloose” by Kenny Loggins and “Roll On (Eighteen Wheeler)” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1984 – NFL Baltimore Colts move to Indianapolis under cover of night.
1985 – The Nantucket I was decommissioned, the last lightship in service with the Coast Guard.
1987 -The NCAA Women’s Basketball Rules Committee adopted the 3-point field-goal shot from the same 19-feet-9-inch distance the men used.
1987 – Hulk Hogan took 11 minutes, 43 seconds to pin Andre the Giant before 93,136 Wrestlemania III fans at the Silverdome in Pontiac, MI. The event was the biggest indoor sports/entertainment promotion ever.
1989 – Michael Milken, junk bond king, was indicted in New York City for racketeering.
1990 – Recording companies agree to put a warning label on music products that contain potentially offensive lyrics.
1991 – General H. Norman Schwarzkopf publicly apologized to President Bush for questioning his judgment about calling a cease-fire in the Gulf War.
1992 – Democratic presidential front-runner Bill Clinton said “I didn’t inhale and I didn’t try it again” in reference to when he had experimented with marijuana.
1992 – The film “Hudson Hawk” won the 12th Golden Raspberry Award as worst picture.
1994 – Dallas Cowboys coach Jimmy Johnson resigned, capping a longstanding feud with team owner Jerry Jones.
1995 – The U.S. House of Representatives rejected a constitutional amendment that would have limited terms to 12 years in the  House and Senate.
1996 – Cleveland Browns choose new name, Baltimore Ravens.
1997 – According to Monica Lewinsky she and Pres. Clinton had their last sexual encounter.
1997 – In Jacksonville, Fla., Philip N. Johnson staged a Loomis, Fargo & Co. armored car robbery for $22 million. He was arrested Aug 30 at a border crossing in Texas.
1998 – Tennessee won the woman’s college basketball championship over Louisiana. Tennessee had set a NCAA record with regular season record or 39-0.
1998 – In Minnesota twisters from St. Peter to Comfrey damaged an estimated 819 homes and left 2 people dead.
1999 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes at 10006.78 – above the 10,000 mark for the first time ever.
1999 – Connecticut beat top-ranked Duke, 77-to-74, for its first NCAA basketball championship.
1999 – It was reported that the US government knowingly risked the lives of thousands of workers over the last 50 years by allowing them to be exposed to dangerous levels of beryllium, a metal critical to the military.
1999 – The Melissa computer virus, first reported Mar 26, was spreading and infecting E-mail in tens of thousands of computers.
1999 – In Michigan five people died in Osseo following an explosion and fire at the Independence Professional Fireworks Co.
2000 – The Patent and Trademark Office became the “United States Patent and Trademark Office” and began operations as a Performance-Based Organization.
2000 – A federal judge ruled that President Clinton “committed a criminal violation of the Privacy Act” by releasing personal letters to undermine the credibility of Kathleen Willey, one of his accusers in the Lewisky Scandal.
2000 – The US Supreme Court affirmed cities’ power to ban nude dancing in a 6-3 decision.
2001 – James Kopp, the fugitive wanted in the 1998 slaying of Dr. Barnett Slepian, a Buffalo, N.Y., abortion provider, was captured in France.
2001 – Release of the game Tribes 2 for the PC.
2001 – Sega’s video game system, the Dreamcast, was officially discontinued.
2003 – In the 11th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom a suicide bomber driving a taxi killed four American soldiers at a checkpoint near Najaf, Iraq. US jets destroyed a building in Basra where paramilitary fighters were meeting and 200 were reported killed.
2003 – Two US special forces soldiers were killed and another wounded in an ambush in southern Afghanistan. Fighting there killed four Taliban with 6 captured.
2004 – Massachusetts lawmakers approved a proposed constitutional amendment to ban gay marriage and legalize civil unions, sending the issue to the next legislative session.
2004 – Scientists discover methane in the Martian atmosphere and state it could mean there is life on the Red Planet. The only known source for methane is rotting plants (coal mines) and animal flatulence.
2005 – At the New York-Presbyterian-Weill Cornell Medical Center, Neil Young has successful surgery for a brain aneurysm using a minimally invasive neuro-radiological procedure. He is a musician who helped form Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young as well as Buffalo Springfield.
2005 – New York’s top court ruled that an out-of-state programmer must pay state taxes on his full salary despite working mostly via computer.
2005 – As Terri Schiavo entered her 12th full day without food or water, the Rev. Jesse Jackson prayed with her parents and joined conservatives in calling for Florida lawmakers to order her feeding tube reinserted.
2006 – Jack Abramoff, the US lobbyist who spawned a congressional corruption scandal, drew a 6-year prison term in a Florida fraud case.
2007 – A defiant, Democratic-controlled Senate approved legislation 51-47, joining the Democratic-controlled House of Representatives, that calls for the U.S. to withdraw all troops from Iraq by March 31, 2008 while continuing to fund the war through 2009 and allowing upwards of 80,000 troops to remain.
2007 – West Virginia beat Clemson, 78-73, for its first NIT title in 65 years.
2007 – A spring storm in the US spawned some 65 tornadoes from South Dakota to Texas leaving four people dead.
2009 – A gunman (Robert Stewart (45)) opened fire at a North Carolina nursing home Sunday morning, killing at least six people and wounding several others.
2009 – U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has told a Planned Parenthood convention that reproductive rights, as well as women’s rights and empowerment, are key issues in President Barack Obama’s foreign policy.
2009 – General Motors Chairman/CEO Rick Wagoner resigns under pressure from the Obama White House.
2009 – In North Dakota the bloated Red River briefly breached a dike, pouring water into a school campus.
2009 – The mysterious boom and flash of light seen over parts of Virginia was not a meteor, but actually exploding space junk from the second stage of a Russian Soyuz rocket, launched March 26, falling back to Earth.
2010 – Nine members of the Hutaree militia are arrested in the United States on allegations of a plot to kill policemen then to attack the funerals, in preparation for a war against all levels of American government.
2010 – A patent on two human genes is struck down by a judge in U.S. District Court in Manhattan.
2011 –  Nine hospital patients in Alabama die after being treated with I.V.feeding bags.  The manufacturer has withdrawn the product.
2011 –  Arrest warrants are issued for Tampa Bay Buccaneers cornerback Aqib Talib and his mother on charges of aggravated assault with a deadly weapon in Garland, Texas.
2013 – After 25 years on the air, the American TV show America’s Most Wanted is cancelled.
2013 – Scientists from New Jersey Institute of Technology’s Swarm Lab announce that they have created robotic ants that behave very similarly to real ants.


1602 – John Lightfoot, English churchman donated all his Old Testament books to to Harvard College but they were all lost in the Harvard Great Fire of 1764.(d. 1675)
1668 – Thomas Coram, Founder of the Foundling Hospital. Foundling Hospital was founded to look after unwanted children in Lamb’s Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury, England. It is said to be the world’s first incorporated charity. (d. 1751)
1790 – John Tyler, 10th President of the United States. He was the first ever to obtain that office by succession following the death of President William Henry Harrison in 1841. (d. 1862)
1867 – Cy Young, American baseball player In honor of Young’s contributions to Major League Baseball, the Cy Young Award, an annual award given to the pitcher voted the most effective in each of the two leagues, was created in 1956. (d. 1955)
1874 – Lou Hoover, Wife of Herbert Hoover and First Lady of the United States (d. 1944)
1888 – Enea Bossi, Italian-American engineer and aviation pioneer. He is best-known for designing the Budd BB-1 Pioneer, the first stainless steel aircraft (d. 1963)
1889 – Warner Baxter, American actor known for his role as The Cisco Kid in In Old Arizona. For that role, he won the second Academy Award for Best Actor ever given. (d. 1951)
1895 – Ernst Jünger, German author (d. 1998)
1916 – Eugene McCarthy, American politician (d. 2005)
1917 – Man o’ War, is the greatest American thoroughbred racehorse of all time. During his career just after World War I, he won 20 of 21 races and $249,465 in purses. (d. 1947)
1918 – Pearl Bailey, American singer and actress (d. 1990) Pearl Bailey (d.1990), singer and actress, was born. “There is a way to look at the past. Don’t hide from it. It will not catch you if you don’t repeat it.” “A man without ambition is dead. A man with ambition but no love is dead. A man with ambition and love for his blessings here on earth is ever so alive.”
1918 – Sam Walton was an American businessman and entrepreneur who founded two American retailers, Wal-Mart and Sam’s Club. (d. 1992)
1934 – Paul Crouch, American televangelist is the co-founder, chairman and president of the Trinity Broadcasting Network (TBN), the world’s largest Christian television network.
1941 – Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr., American astrophysicist, Nobel laureate
1945 – Walt Frazier, American basketball player is considered one of the best point guards in the history of the game.
1954 – Dianne Kay, American actress best known for her role as Nancy Bradford on the ABC television show Eight is Enough (1977-1981).
1954 – Karen Ann Quinlan, American right-to-die cause célèbre (d. 1985)
1956 – Patty Donahue, American singer was the lead singer of the 1980s New Wave rock group The Waitresses. (d. 1996)
1965 – William Oefelein, American Astronaut . He flew as pilot of the STS-116 space shuttle mission.
1976 – Jennifer Capriati is a former World No. 1 American women’s tennis player.





Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 38th Armored Infantry Battalion, 7th Armored Division. Place and date: Kirchain, Germany,  March 29th, 1945. Entered service at: Kingston, N.Y. Birth: Kingston, N.Y. G.O. No.: 119, 17 December 1945. Citation: He was a squad leader when the task force to which his unit was attached encountered resistance in its advance on Kirchain, Germany. Between the town’s outlying buildings 300 yards distant, and the stalled armored column were a minefield and two bridges defended by German rocket-launching teams and riflemen. From the town itself came heavy small-arms fire. Moving forward with his men to protect engineers while they removed the minefield and the demolition charges attached to the bridges, S/Sgt. Dietz came under intense fire. On his own initiative he advanced alone, scorning the bullets which struck all around him, until he was able to kill the bazooka team defending the first bridge. He continued ahead and had killed another bazooka team, bayoneted an enemy soldier armed with a panzerfaust and shot two Germans when he was knocked to the ground by another blast of another panzerfaust. He quickly recovered, killed the man who had fired at him and then jumped into waist-deep water under the second bridge to disconnect the demolition charges. His work was completed; but as he stood up to signal that the route was clear, he was killed by another enemy volley from the left flank. S/Sgt. Dietz by his intrepidity and valiant effort on his self-imposed mission, single-handedly opened the road for the capture of Kirchain and left with his comrades an inspiring example of gallantry in the face of formidable odds.






Rank and organization: Colonel, 155th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Lewis’ Farm, Va., March 29th, 1865. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa. Birth: Pittsburgh, Pa. Date of issue: 17 September 1897. Citation: Seeing a brigade forced back by the enemy, he seized his regimental color, called on his men to follow him, and advanced upon the enemy under a severe fire. The whole brigade took up the advance, the lost ground was regained, and the enemy was repulsed.


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Unerased History – March 28th

Posted by Wayne Church on March 28, 2016 in 03 - March, Blog by month |
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US Supreme Court Decides Stump v. Sparkman (1978)

Stump v. Sparkman is the leading US Supreme Court decision on judicial immunity. In 1971, Judge Harold D. Stump granted a mother’s petition to have a tubal ligation performed on her 15-year-old daughter, whom the mother alleged was “somewhat retarded.” The petition was granted the same day that it was filed. The judge did not hold a hearing to receive evidence or appoint a lawyer to protect the daughter’s interests. The daughter underwent the surgery a week later, having been told that she was to have her appendix removed.
The daughter married two years later. Failing to become pregnant, she learned that she had been sterilized during the 1971 operation. The daughter and her husband sued the judge and others associated with the sterilization in federal district court.

The district court found that the judge was immune from suit. The Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the decision, holding that the judge had lost his immunity because he failed to observe “elementary principles of due process” when he ordered the sterilization. Finally, in 1978, the U.S. Supreme Court, in a 5-3 decision, reversed the Court of Appeals, announcing a test for deciding when judicial immunity should apply and holding that the judge could not be sued.

Prior to Sparkman, the doctrine of judicial immunity from federal civil rights suits dates only from the 1967 Supreme Court decision in Pierson v. Ray, 386 U.S. 547 (1967), which found a  Mississippi justice ofthe peace immune from a civil rights suit when he tried to enforce illegal segregation laws. Until this time, several courts had concluded that Congress never intended to immunize state-court judges from federal civil rights suits.

Although this sounds as if judges can do no wrong, that is not necessarily the case.  Here is a selection of case/reference citations regarding judicial immunity when personally suing a Judge for money damages. These references come from the collection of former Phoenix, AZ Attorney Robert A. Hirschfeld, JD. Make sure to read the whole case on these examples before making any decisions on whether they apply to to your case:

When a judge knows that he lacks jurisdiction, or acts in the face of clearly valid statutes expressly depriving him of jurisdiction, judicial immunity is lost. Rankin v. Howard, (1980) 633 F.2d 844, cert den. Zeller v. Rankin, 101 S.Ct. 2020, 451 U.S. 939, 68 L.Ed 2d 326. A judge must be acting within his jurisdiction as to subject matter and person, to be entitled to immunity from civil action for his acts. Davis v. Burris, 51 Ariz. 220, 75 P.2d 689 (1938)

A Judge is not immune for tortious acts committed in a purely Administrative, non-judicial capacity. Forrester v. White, 484 U.S. at 227-229, 108 S.Ct. at 544-545; Stump v. Sparkman, 435 U.S. at 380, 98 S.Ct. at 1106. Mireles v. Waco, 112 S.Ct. 286 at 288 (1991). Administrative-capacity torts by a judge do not involve the “performance of the function of resolving disputes between parties, or of authoritatively adjudicating private rights,” and therefore do not have the judicial immunity of judicial acts. It is said that absolute judicial immunity is favored as public policy, so that judges may fearlessly, and safe from retribution, adjudicate matters before them. True. But equally important, is the public expectation that judicial authority will only be wielded by those lawfully vested with such authority.


Scripture of the Day

Jeremiah 29:11

“For I know the plans I have for you declares the Lord; plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future.”


Founders Thoughts


Thomas Jefferson“The beauty of the second amendment is that it will not be needed until they try to take it.”

– Thomas Jefferson



“The best thing you can do is to get good at being you.”

~Dennis the Menace



superfluous soo-PER-floo-us, adjective:

More than is wanted or is sufficient; rendered unnecessary by superabundance; unnecessary; useless; excessive.

Superfluous comes ultimately from the Latin superfluus, from superfluo, superfluere, to overflow, from super-, over, above + fluo, fluere, to flow.


37 – Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate.
193 – Roman Emperor Pertinax is assassinated by Praetorian Guards, who then sell the throne in an auction to Didius Julianus. Sound like Chicago?
1774 – Britain passed the Coercive Act against Massachusetts. This revoked the Massachusetts colonial charter and removed certain democratic elements of the government.
1776 – Juan Bautista de Anza finds the site for the Presidio of San Francisco.
1797 – Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire patents a washing machine.
1799 – New York State abolished slavery.
1800 – Essex becomes first U.S. Navy vessel to pass Cape of Good Hope.
1804 – Ohio passed law restricting movement of Blacks.
1814 – War of 1812: HMS Phoebe and Cherub capture USS Essex off Valparaiso, Chile. Before capture, Essex had captured 24 British prizes during the War of 1812. Two-thirds of Essex’s crew is killed but 13-year old Midshipman David Farragut survives.
1834 – The US Senate censures President Andrew Jackson for his actions in de-funding the Second Bank of the United States.
1845 – Mexico dropped diplomatic relations with US.
1846 – US troops commanded by General Zachary Taylor move onto the left bank of the Rio Grande River, considered Mexican territory.
1854 – The Crimean War began with Britain and France declaring war on Russia. The importance to America in this war was it was the first time that weather reports and statistics were kept to try to determine future weather trends.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of Glorieta Pass – in New Mexico, Union forces stop the Confederate invasion of New Mexico territory. The battle began on March 26.
1864 – Civil War: A group of Copperheads attack Federal soldiers in Charleston, IL. Five were killed and twenty were wounded. The Copperheads were a vocal group of Democrats in the Northern United States who opposed the American Civil War.
1865 – Outdoor advertising legislation was enacted in New York State. The law banned “painting on stones, rocks and trees.”
1870 – One hundred twenty-nine Marines seized and destroyed illicit distilleries in “Irishtown” (Brooklyn), New York.
1885 – US Salvation Army was officially organized. Under the leadership of Captains William Evans, Hannah Simpson Evans, and Edwin Gay, the Salvation Army came to Chicago.
1891 – First world weightlifting championship held.
1898 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a child born in the U.S. to Chinese immigrants was a U.S. citizen. This meant that they could not be deported under the Chinese Exclusion Act.
1899 – William Fleming received a patent for a player piano using electricity.
1908 – Automobile owners lobbied the U.S. Congress, supporting a bill that called for vehicle licensing and federal registration.
1910 – Theodore Roosevelt gave his “Law and Order in Egypt” speech at Cairo Univ.
1911 – In New York, suffragists performed the political play “Pageant of Protest.”
1917 – Jews were expelled from Tel Aviv and Jaffa by Turkish authorities.
1920 – Palm Sunday tornado outbreak of 1920 affects the Great Lakes region and Deep South states with at least 38 significant tornadoes. This event inspired the tornado scene in “The Wizard of Oz.”
1921 –   President Warren Harding named William Howard Taft as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court.
1922 – Bradley A. Fiske of Washington, D.C. patented a microfilm reading device.
1928 – J.L. Rutledge, Pacific Air Transport pilot, ran out of fuel and parachuted from his plane near Orinda, Ca. The plane crashed nearby and he retrieved the mail and delivered it to the Orinda post office.
1933 – German Reichstag conferred dictatorial powers on Hitler.
1933 – In Germany, the Nazis ordered a ban on all Jews in businesses, professions and schools.
1935 – Goddard uses gyroscopes to control a rocket.
1938 – The US Supreme Court in Lovell v City of Griffin declared that it is unconstitutional to require someone to get a government permit to engage in free speech.
1939 – Hal Kemp and his orchestra recorded “Three Little Fishies” for Victor Records
1941 – World War II: Battle of Cape Matapan – in the Mediterranean Sea, British Admiral Andrew Browne Cunningham leads the Royal Navy in the destruction of three major Italian heavy cruisers and two destroyers.
1941 – Gossip columnist Louella Parsons hosted “Hollywood Premiere” for the first time on CBS radio who appeared in dramatized stories.
1945 – World War II: Marburg is taken by US 3rd Corps (part of US 1st Army) which has made a rapid advance from the Remagen bridgehead.
1945 – World War II: US naval forces, including Task Force 58 and Task Force 52, continue air strikes on Okinawa while Task Force 54 continues bombarding the island. Japanese Kamikaze and submarine attacks continue.
1946 – The U S State Department releases the Acheson-Lilienthal Report, outlining a plan for the international control of nuclear power.
1947 – The American Helicopter Society revealed a flying device that could be strapped to a person’s body.
1949 – Sec. of Defense James Forrestal resigned due to a mental breakdown. He was worn out by his futile efforts to bring about the unification of the armed services.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “If” by Perry Como, “Be My Love” by Mario Lanza, Mockingbird Hill” by Patti Page and “The Rhumba Boogie” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1953 – “The Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: Air Force Colonel James K. Johnson, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, became the 29th ace of the Korean War.
1957 – First National Curling Championship held.
1958 – Eddie Cochran recorded “Summertime Blues.”
1958 –  Private Elvis Presley earned a marksman’s medal with a carbine and achieved ‘sharpshooter’ level with a pistol and has been named acting assistant leader of his squad.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Venus” by Frankie Avalon, “Tragedy” by Thomas Wayne, Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods and “Don’t Take Your Guns to Town” by Johnny Cash  all topped the charts.
1962 – The  Air Force announced research into the use of lasers to intercept missiles and satellites.
1963 – AFL’s New York Titans become the New York Jets.
1964 – “She Loves You” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1966 – Gary Lewis and the Playboys recorded “Green Grass.”
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Happy Together” by The Turtles, “Dedicated to the One I Love” by The Mamas & The Papas, “There’s a Kind of Hush” by Herman’s Hermits and “I Won’t Come in While He’s There” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1967 –  Van Morrison recorded “Brown Eyed Girl.”
1967 – Raymond Burr starred in a TV movie titled “Ironside”.
1968 – Vietnam War: The U.S. lost its first F-111 aircraft in the war when it vanished while on a combat mission. North Vietnam claimed that they had shot it down.
1968 –  In Memphis, TN,  a riot erupted during a protest march in support of striking sanitation workers led by Martin Luther King.
1969 – Dwight D. Eisenhower, the 34th president of the United States and one of the most highly regarded American generals of World War II, dies in Washington, D.C., at the age of 78.
1970 – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel topped the charts.
1971 – CBS aired the final broadcast of its Ed Sullivan Show. Reruns and pre-emptions aired in that time slot throughout the following April and May, and in June.
1972 – Wilt Chamberlain plays his last professional basketball game.
1974 – A streaker ran onto the set of “The Tonight Show starring Johnny Carson”
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Eyes Adored You” by Frankie Valli, “Lady Marmalade” by LaBelle, “Lovin’ You” by Minnie Riperton and “Before the Next Teardrop Falls” by Freddy Fender
1978 – The US Supreme Court hands down 5-3 decision in Stump v. Sparkman, 435 U.S. 349, a controversial case involving involuntary sterilization and judicial immunity.
1979 – At 4 a.m. the worst accident in the history of the U.S. nuclear power industry begins when a pressure valve in the Unit-2 reactor at Three Mile Island fails to close, resulting in the evaporation of some contaminated water causing a nuclear meltdown.
1981 – “Rapture” by Blondie topped the charts.
1982 – First NCAA Women’s Basketball Championship: Louisiana Tech beats Cheney 76-62.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Billy Jean” by Michael Jackson, “Do You Really Want to Hurt Me” by Culture Club, “Hungry like the Wolf “ by Duran Duran and “Swingin’” by John Anderson all topped the charts.
1985 – Bill Cosby broke more records with “The Cosby Show” on NBC-TV. The program was the highest-rated program of any network series since 1983.
1986 – The U.S. Senate passed $100 million aid package for the Nicaraguan contras.
1986 – More than 6,000 radio stations of all format varieties played “We are the World” simultaneously at 10:15 a.m. EST.
1987 – “Lean on Me” by Club Nouveau topped the charts.
1990 – President George H. W. Bush posthumously awards Jesse Owens the Congressional Gold Medal.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “One More Try” by Timmy -T-, “Coming Out of the Darkby Gloria Estafan, “This House” by Tracie Spencer and “Loving Blind” by Clint Black all topped the charts.
1991 – The U.S. embassy in Moscow was severely damaged by fire.
1990 – Michael Jordan scores 69 points, this was the fourth time he scores 60 points in a game.
1993 – The last A-6E Intruder departed from Marine Corps service.
1995Loomis guard Rick Price was shot in the head and killed during an armored car robbery in Sonoma, Ca. Bank robber William Crouch was also killed by a second guard and alleged accomplice Joan Carrafa of Glen Ellen was later arrested.
1996 – Congress passed the line-item veto, giving the president power to cut government spending by scrapping specific programs.
1996 – The space shuttle Atlantis astronauts said goodbye to the crew of Russia’s space station Mir and then flew away, leaving Shannon Lucid behind for a five-month stay in orbit.
2000 – A Murray County, Georgia, school bus is hit by a CSX freight train (3 children die in this accident).
2000 – A tornado hit fort Worth, Texas, and four people were killed with over 100 injured. It cut a 2-mile swath and inflicted $450 million in damages.
2001 – The US Senate voted to double the “hard money” contribution limits to candidates and political parties.
2001 – A federal appeals court in San Francisco threw out a record $107 million verdict against anti-abortion activists, ruling that a Web site and wanted posters branding abortion doctors “baby butchers” and criminals were protected by the First Amendment.
2002 – The National Museum of American History put a cornet that had belonged to Louis Armstrong on display.
2000 – In a unanimous ruling, the Supreme Court sharply curtailed police power to rely on anonymous tips to stop and search people.
2002 – Matthew J. Bourgeois (35), a Navy Seal from Tallahassee, was killed by a land mine in Kandahar.
2002 – Walter Hewlett, a director of Hewlett-Packard Co., claimed HP used corporate assets to entice and coerce certain financial institutions to vote for the merger with Compaq Corp.
2003 – In a “friendly fire” incident, two A-10 Thunderbolt II attack aircraft from the United States Idaho Air National Guard’s 190th Fighter Squadron attack British tanks participating in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, killing British soldier Matty Hull.
2003 – In the 10th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom the biggest bombs dropped on Baghdad so far, two 4,700-pound “bunker busters,” struck a communications tower.
2005 – The Colorado Supreme Court threw out the death penalty in a rape-and-murder case because five of the jurors had consulted the Bible and quoted Scripture during deliberations.
2006 – President Bush announced that White House chief of staff Andy Card has resigned and will be replaced by budget director Joshua Bolten.
2007 – Circuit City, a US electronics retailer, fired 3,400 of its highest paid hourly workers and planned to hire replacements wiling to work for less. The laid-off workers were to get a severance package and a chance to reapply for their former jobs at lower pay.
2007 – Discount retailer TJX Cos. revealed that information from at least 45.7 million credit and debit cards was stolen over an 18-month period.
2008 – The US Transportation Security Administration said it will change they way its officers search passengers with body piercings after a Texas woman complained she was forced to remove a nipple ring with pliers in order to board an airplane.
2008 – The grey wolf of the northern Rocky Mountains was taken off the federal protection list after reaching a population of some 1,500 in the greater Yellowstone region. Wolves were reintroduced in 1995 after disappearing from the area in 1926.
2009 – The Space Shuttle Discovery landed in Florida following a 13-day mission to the International Space Station (ISS).
2009 – In North Dakota the Red River crested at 12:15 a.m. at 40.82 feet, more than 22 feet above flood stage.
2010 –  President Barack Obama made a surprise visit to Afghanistan for a firsthand look at the eight-year-old war he inherited and dramatically escalated.
2010 – The TV program 24 is cancelled.
2011 –  Volkswagen recalls 71000 2011 model Jetta sedans due to a wiring problem.
2011 –  The Governor of  Michigan Rick Snyder signs legislation lowering the period that jobless workers can claim state unemployment benefits from 26 weeks to 20 weeks.
2012 – The Mega Millions jackpot in the United States hits a record $500 million dollars, a world record in lottery history.
2012 –  The United States suspends planned food aid to North Korea, after the latter plans to launch a rocket next month.
2013 – Barbara Walters, longtime newswoman and host of the American talk show The View, announces plans to retire in May 2014.
2013 – New research suggests that the cloth in the Shroud of Turin likely dates from between 300 BC and 400 AD.
2014 –  US Geological Survey records a 5.1 magnitude earthquake in the Los Angeles area of California.
2016 – Winston Moseley, killer of Kitty Genovese, died today after nearly 52 years in prison. Genovese’s murder sparked psychological research on the bystander effect, as it was believed many witnesses ignored her calls for help.
2016 – The Alaska village of Nelson Lagoon is coated in volcanic ash after an especially vigorous and ongoing eruption of Mount Pavlof.
2016 – The United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. is on lockdown following reports of shots fired at the Capitol Visitor Center. The White House, in what appears to be an unrelated incident, was briefly locked down. An armed man was shot by police, is in police custody, and is undergoing surgery at MedStar Washington Hospital Center.



 1652 – Samuel Sewall was a Massachusetts judge, best known for his involvement in the Salem witch trials, for which he later apologized (d. 1730)

1793 – Henry Schoolcraft, American geographer and geologist. In 1832 he discovered the source of the Mississippi River. (d. 1864)
1836 – Frederick Pabst was a German-American brewer who founded the Pabst Brewing Company. (d. 1904)
1842 – William Harvey Carney, was an African-American soldier during the  Civil War who received the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Battle of Fort Wagner. (d. 1908)
1890 – Paul Whiteman, was an American bandleader and orchestral director.
He was the leader of the most popular dance bands in the United States during the 1920s (d. 1967)
1899 – August Anheuser Busch, Jr., brewing magnate and American baseball executive (d. 1989)
1905 – Marlin Perkins, TV host (Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom), was born in Carthage, Mo.
1910 – Jimmie Dodd, was best known as the MC of the popular 1950s Disney TV show The Mickey Mouse Club (d. 1964)
1922 – Joey Maxim, was an American boxer. He was a light heavyweight champion of the world. He took the ring-name Joey Maxim from the Maxim gun, the world’s first self-acting machine gun (d. 2001)
1955 – Reba McEntire is an American country music artist and actress.
1975 – Derek Hill, is an American racing driver. He is the son of 1961 Formula One World Champion Phil Hill.






Rank and organization: Corpsman, United States Navy, serving with Company C, First Battalion, Seventh Marines. Place and date: Quang Ngai Province Republic of Vietnam,  March 28th, 1966. Entered service at: Coral Gables, Florida. Born: January 20, 1945 Clearwater, Florida. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as Corpsman with Company C, First Battalion, Seventh Marines against elements of a North Vietnam Aggressor (NVA) battalion. Petty Officer Ingram accompanied the point platoon as it aggressively dispatched an outpost of an NVA battalion. The momentum of the attack rolled off a ridge line down a tree covered slope to a small paddy and a village beyond. Suddenly, the village tree line exploded with an intense hail of automatic rifle fire from approximately one-hundred North Vietnamese regulars. In mere moments, the platoon ranks were decimated. Oblivious to the danger, Petty Officer Ingram crawled across the bullet spattered terrain to reach a downed Marine. As he administered aid, a bullet went through the palm of his hand. Calls for “CORPSMAN” echoed across the ridge. Bleeding, he edged across the fire swept landscape, collecting ammunition from the dead and administering aid to the wounded. Receiving two more wounds before realizing the third wound was life-threatening, he looked for a way off the face of the ridge, but again he heard the call for corpsman and again, he resolutely answered. Though severely wounded three times, he rendered aid to those incapable until he finally reached the right flank of the platoon. While dressing the head wound of another corpsman, he sustained his fourth bullet wound. From sixteen hundred hours until just prior to sunset, Petty Officer Ingram pushed, pulled, cajoled, and doctored his Marines. Enduring the pain from his many wounds and disregarding the probability of his demise, Petty Officer Ingram’s intrepid actions saved many lives that day. By his indomitable fighting spirit, daring initiative, and unfaltering dedications to duty, Petty Officer Ingram reflected great credit upon himself and upheld the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Vegas Hill, Korea, March 28th, 1953. Entered service at. Van Nuys, Calif. Born: 31 December 1931, Van Nuys, Calif. Award presented: 29 March 19S4. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a squad leader of Company F, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Participating in a counterattack against a firmly entrenched and well-concealed hostile force which had repelled 6 previous assaults on a vital enemy-held outpost far forward of the main line of resistance Sgt. Matthews fearlessly advanced in the attack until his squad was pinned down by a murderous sweep of fire from an enemy machine gun located on the peak of the outpost. Observing that the deadly fire prevented a corpsman from removing a wounded man lying in an open area fully exposed to the brunt of the devastating gunfire, he worked his way to the base of the hostile machine gun emplacement, leaped onto the rock fortification surrounding the gun and, taking the enemy by complete surprise, single-handedly charged the hostile emplacement with his rifle. Although severely wounded when the enemy brought a withering hail of fire to bear upon him, he gallantly continued his valiant l-man assault and, firing his rifle with deadly effectiveness, succeeded in killing two of the enemy, routing a third, and completely silencing the enemy weapon, thereby enabling his comrades to evacuate the stricken marine to a safe position. Succumbing to his wounds before aid could reach him, Sgt. Matthews, by his indomitable fighting spirit, courageous initiative, and resolute determination in the face of almost certain death, served to inspire all who observed him and was directly instrumental in saving the life of his wounded comrade. His great personal valor reflects the highest credit upon himself and enhances the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.





Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 194th Glider Infantry, 17th Airborne Division. Place and date: Near Lembeck, Germany, March 27th to  March 28th, 1945. Entered service at: Riverton, W. Va. Birth: Cherrygrove, W. Va. G.O. No.: 89, 19 October 1945. Citation: He displayed extraordinary heroism and gallantry in action on 27-28 March 1945, in Germany. Following an airborne landing near Wesel, his unit was assigned as the assault platoon for the assault on Lembeck. Three times the landing elements were pinned down by intense automatic weapons fire from strongly defended positions. Each time, T/Sgt. Hedrick fearlessly charged through heavy fire, shooting his automatic rifle from his hip. His courageous action so inspired his men that they reduced the enemy positions in rapid succession. When six of the enemy attempted a surprise, flanking movement, he quickly turned and killed the entire party with a burst of fire. Later, the enemy withdrew across a moat into Lembeck Castle. T/Sgt. Hedrick, with utter disregard for his own safety, plunged across the drawbridge alone in pursuit. When a German soldier, with hands upraised, declared the garrison wished to surrender, he entered the castle yard with four of his men to accept the capitulation. The group moved through a sally port, and was met by fire from a German self-propelled gun. Although mortally wounded, T/Sgt. Hedrick fired at the enemy gun and covered the withdrawal of his comrades. He died while being evacuated after the castle was taken. His great personal courage and heroic leadership contributed in large measure to the speedy capture of Lembeck and provided an inspiring example to his comrades.


INTERIM 1871 – 1898


Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company I, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Colorado Valley, Tex., March 28th,  1872. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 27 April 1872. Second award. Citation: In pursuit of a band of cattle thieves from New Mexico.




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Unerased History – March 27th

Posted by Wayne Church on March 27, 2016 in 03 - March, Blog by month |
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Dancing Cow YoYo and Skill Toys Week

Quirky Country Music Titles Day

Easter Sunday 2016


 1964 Great Alaskan Earthquake

JC Penny Building in Anchorage

Good Friday Earthquake of 1964

The Alaskan earthquake occurred on Good Friday, March 27, 1964, at 5:36 PM local time. It was the largest earthquake ever recorded in North America. The USGS gives it a 9.2 intensity. The earthquake lasted for between three and five minutes.

The epicenter was located between Valdez and Anchorage, near Prince William Sound. It occurred on a thrust fault. This fault was a subduction zone, where the Pacific plate plunges underneath the North American plate. The first slip occurred at a depth of approximately 16 miles, which is a shallow depth.

The sudden uplift of the Alaskan seafloor caused a tsunami, which was responsible for 122 of the 131 deaths and it reached speeds over 400 miles per hour. The tsunami reached the Hawaiian Islands and also struck Crescent City, California, killing ten people. Giant redwood logs from a nearby sawmill were thrust into the city streets. A total of 16 people died in Oregon and California.

Seiches, a sloshing of water back and forth,  occurred in rivers, lakes, bayous, and protected harbors and waterways along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas, causing minor damage. The earthquake also caused ground liquefaction, whereby the soil and sand temporarily turned from a solid to a liquid state.

Rockslides and avalanches occurred as a result of the liquefaction. Some of the landslides occurred in Anchorage, particularly at Turnagain Heights. Soft clay bluffs at this location collapsed during the strong ground motion. About 75 homes were destroyed.

The property damage cost was about $311 million. Much of the property damage occurred in Anchorage. For example, the J.C. Penney Company building and the Four Seasons apartment building were damaged beyond repair.

The Penney’s building facade consisted of massive concrete panels, which were five inches thick. The panels broke off from the building and fell into the street. A woman driving by was struck and killed in her car. A young man crouching on the street was also killed.

Several schools in Anchorage were also destroyed, including the Government Hill elementary school. Fortunately, the schools were closed due to the Good Friday holiday.

The area where there was significant damage covered about 130,000 square kilometers. The area in which it was felt was about 1,300,000 square kilometers (all of Alaska, parts of Canada, and south to Washington). The four minute duration of shaking triggered many landslides and avalanches. Major structural damage occurred in many of the major cities in Alaska. The damage totalled 300-400 million dollars (1964 dollars).

The 68 foot tall concrete control tower at Anchorage International Airport toppled over, killing the air traffic controller.

In addition, water, sewer, and gas lines ruptured. Telephone and electrical service was also disrupted.


Scripture of the Day


Deuteronomy 31:6

“Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid or terrified because of them, for the Lord your God goes with you; he will never leave you nor forsake you.”


Founders Thoughts


John Adams” You ask, how has it happened that all Europe has acted on the principle, “that Power was Right.” Power always sincerely, conscientiously, de tres bon foi, believes itself right. Power always thinks it has a great soul and vast views, beyond the comprehension of the weak. Power must never be trusted without a check.”

– John Adams, letter to Thomas Jefferson, February 2, 1816;



“A certain amount of opposition is a great help to a man. Kites rise against, not with the wind.”

 ~John Neal


ersatz AIR-sahts; UR-sats, adjective:
Being a substitute or imitation, usually an inferior one



1513 (not 1512 as often cited) – Explorer Juan Ponce de León sights North America (specifically Florida) for the first time, mistaking it for another island.

1780 – Revolutionary War: The Battle of Rantowle’s Bridge. Three hundred American cavalry, consisting of Lt. Col. William Washington’s 3rd Continental Light Dragoons, the 1st Continental Light Dragoons, under Lt. Col. Anthony White, Pulaski’s Legion cavalry under Major Pierre-François Vernier, and probably as well Col. Daniel Horry’s South Carolina light horse, conducted a twelve-mile ride towards the British lines.

1790 – The shoestring (string and shoe holes) was first invented in England. Before shoestrings, shoes were commonly fastened using padlocks.

1794 – The United States Government establishes a permanent navy and authorizes the building of six frigates. These ships were used primarily to end the threat of the Barbary pirates. The Constitution had 55 Marines assigned as part of its 450-man crew. The first detachment arrived at Edmond Hart’s Shipyard in Boston.

1799 – USS Constitution recaptures American sloop Neutrality from France.

1802 – The Treaty of Aliens between France, Spain, England, and the Netherlands ends European hostilities, offering US shipping a break from trade restraints.

1812 – Hugh McGary Jr. established what is now Evansville, Indiana on a bend in the Ohio River.

1813 – War of 1812: In a US attack on Fort George, near the mouth of the Niagara River, LTC Winfield Scott with a 4000-man force captures the 1600-man British garrison under General John Vincent.

1814 – War of 1812: In central Alabama, U.S. forces under General Andrew Jackson defeat the Creek at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.

1834 – Andrew Jackson is censured by the U.S. Senate for his actions regarding the U.S. National Bank.

1836 – Texas Revolution: Goliad massacre – Antonio López de Santa Anna orders the Mexican army to kill about 400 Texas POWs at Goliad, Texas.

1841 – First US steam fire engine tested, New York NY. Designed and built by Paul R. Hodge, it was 14 feet long, weighed about 8 tons, and required two horses to pull it on level ground. A boiler was mounted on two small wheels at the front and two huge wheels in the rear.

1846 – Mexican-American War: Siege of Fort Texas.  This was the beginning of active campaigning by the armies of the United States and Mexico during the Mexican-American War.

1849 – Joseph J. Couch received the first U.S. patent for a steam-powered percussion rock drill (No. 6,237) as “improved machinery for drilling rocks. The drill was driven by steam power and acted independently of gravity.

1850 – The party of Dr. Thadeus Hildreth found a 22-pound gold nugget in Tuolemne County, Ca.

1851 – First reported case of Europeans seeing Yosemite Valley.

1855 – Abraham Gesner received the first U.S. patent for a process to obtain oil from bituminous shale and cannel coal for the purpose of illumination, which he called kerosene.

1860 – M L Byrn patents “covered gimlet screw with a ‘T’ handle” (corkscrew).

1861 – African American demonstrators in Charleston staged ride-ins on street cars.

1862 – Civil War:  Flag Officer Du Pont reported to Secretary of the Navy Welles that Confederate batteries on Skiddaway and Green Islands, Georgia, had been withdrawn and placed nearer Savannah.

1863 – Civil War:  Confederate Pres. Jefferson Davis called for this to be a day of fasting and prayer.

1863 – Civil War: U.S.S. Pawnee, Commander Balch, supported an Army landing on Cole’s Island, South Carolina; Balch joined the Army command ashore for a reconnaissance of the island.

1865 –  Civil War:Combined Army-Navy operations, the latter commanded by Rear Admiral Thatcher, aimed at capturing the city of Mobile commenced. The objective was Spanish Fort, located near the mouth of the Blakely River and was the key to the city’s defenses.

1865 –  Civil War:President Lincoln meets with Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman at City Point, Virginia, to plot the last stages of the war.

1866 – Andrew Rankin patents the urinal.

1866 –  U.S. President Andrew Johnson vetoed the civil rights bill, which later became the 14th amendment.

1868 – The Lake Ontario Shore Railroad Company is organized in Oswego, New York.

1880 – USS Constellation departs New York with food for famine victims in Ireland.

1884 – A mob in Cincinnati, Ohio, attacks members of a jury who had returned a verdict of manslaughter in a clear case of murder. Over several days they would riot and destroy the courthouse. The riot was based on a murder that occurred on December 24, 1883, a young white German named William Berner and his accomplice, Joe Palmer, an African American, robbed and murdered their employer, a livery stable owner in the West End.

1886 –  Famous Apache warrior, Geronimo, surrenders to the U.S. Army, ending the main phase of the Apache Wars.

1890 – A tornado strikes Louisville, Kentucky, killing 76 and injuring 200.

1901 – Filipino rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo was captured by the U.S.

1904 – Mary Jarris “Mother” Jones was ordered by Colorado state authorities to leave the state. She was accused of stirring up striking coal miners.

1912 – First Japanese cherry blossom trees planted in Washington DC. The famous trees, a gift from Japan signal the coming of Spring with an explosion of life and color surrounding the Jefferson Memorial on the Tidal Basin in a sea of pale pink and white.

1915 – “Typhoid Mary” was quarantined in a cottage in the Bronx. Her name was Mary Mallon, and she was a large and fiery Irish-American woman about 40 years old.  She worked as a cook for the wealthy in New York City, and every household she worked in seemed to suffer an outbreak of typhoid fever.

1930 – First US radio broadcast from a ship at sea.

1931 – John McGraw says night baseball will not catch on. John Joseph McGraw , nicknamed “Little Napoleon” and “Muggsy,” was a Major League Baseball player and manager.

1933 – Polyethylene discovered by Reginald Gibson & Eric William Fawcett.

1933 – About 55,000 people staged a protest against Hitler in New York City.

1938 – The U.S. stopped buying Mexican silver in reprisal for the Mexican seizure of American oil companies.

1939 – First NCAA Men’s Basketball Championship: University of Oregon beats Ohio State 46-33.

1941 – Tokeo Yoshikawa arrived in Oahu, HI, and began spying for Japan on the U.S. Fleet at Pearl Harbor.

1942 – World War II: Allies raided the Nazi submarine base at St. Nazaire, France.

1943 – “Blue Ribbon Town” (29:13) was first heard on CBS radio. The show ran from March 27, 1943 to June 17, 1944, but it became widely known as the program that introduced audiences to the one, the only, Groucho Marx.

1943 – World War II: US began an assault on Fondouk-pass, Tunisia.

1944 – World War II: Holocaust – One-thousand Jews left Drancy, France, for the Auschwitz concentration camp.

1944 – World War II: Holocaust – Forty Jewish policemen were shot in the Riga Latvia ghetto by the Gestapo.

1944 – World War II: Holocaust – Thousands of Jews were murdered in Kaunas, Lithuania.

1945 – Ella Fitzgerald & Delta Rhythm Boys record “It’s Only a Paper Moon“.

1945 – World War II: Operation Starvation, the aerial mining of Japan’s ports and waterways begins.

1945 – World War II: General Dwight D. Eisenhower told reporters in Paris that German defenses on the Western Front had been broken.

1945 – World War II:  Iwo Jima was occupied, after 22,000 Japanese and 6,000 US killed.

1945 – World War II: US 9th Army begins to penetrate south into the Ruhr industrial area. US 3rd Army has now crossed the Main both west of Frankfurt, where Wiesbaden is attacked, and to the east.

1945 – World War II: The last German V2 rocket lands southeast of London at Orpington. The V2 campaign has killed over 2700 British civilians and injured 6500. As well as the 1115 launched at British targets, a further 2050 were aimed at Antwerp, Brussels and Liege.

1945 – Cebu City is captured by the US landing force.

1950 – CHART TOPPERS –Music, Music, Music” by Teresa Brewer, “There’s No Tomorrow” by Tony Martin, “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton and “Chattanooga Shoe Shine Boy” by Red Foley all topped the charts.

1950 – Jazz pianist, Erroll Garner became one of the first jazz instrumentalists to give a solo concert. In 1954, he wrote the song “Misty.”

1951 –  Frank Sinatra recorded “I’m a Fool to Want You.”

1951 – Korean War: Carrier Group 101, the first all-Reserve naval air group, entered the war aboard the USS Boxer. Two days later, the group flew its first combat missions.

1952 – Korean War: The U.S. Eighth Army reached the 38th parallel in Korea, the original dividing line between the two Koreas.

1953 – Korean War: The 5th Marines, supported by the 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, in the first full day of fighting after the Chinese assault the previous evening of Outpost Vegas on Korea’s western front, counterattacked to regain enemy-held positions.

1953 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Lieutenant Colonel James P. Hagerstrom, 18th Fighter-Bomber Wing, flying his F-86 Sabre “MiG Poison,” qualified as the 28th ace of the Korean War.

1954 – “Make Love to Me!” by Jo Stafford topped the charts.

1955 – Steve McQueen made his network TV debut on “Goodyear Playhouse.”

1956 – US seized the US communist newspaper “Daily Worker.”

1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t/I Beg of You” by Elvis Presley. “Tequila” by The Champs, “Breathless” by Jerry Lee Lewis and “Ballad of a Teenage Queen” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.

1958 – The U.S. announced a plan to explore space near the moon.

1958 – CBS Labs announce new stereophonic records.

1958 – The Havana Hilton opened. Cuba, at the time, was one of America;s playgrounds.

1964 – The Good Friday Earthquake, the most powerful earthquake in U.S. history at a magnitude of 9.2 strikes South Central Alaska, killing 125 people and inflicting massive damage to the city of Anchorage.

1965 – “Stop! In the Name of Love” by the Supremes topped the charts.

1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler, 19th Nervous Breakdown” by The Rolling Stones, “Nowhere Man” by The Beatles and “Waitin’ in Your Welfare Line” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1967 –  The Young Rascals recorded “Groovin’.”

1969 – Mariner 7 is launched.

1970 – The Concorde makes its first supersonic flight.

1971 – “Me and Bobby McGee” by Janis Joplin topped the charts.

1971 – UCLA became the first team ever to win five consecutive NCAA basketball titles. The Bruins defeated Villanova 68-62.

1972 – Elvis Presley recorded “Burning Love.” It would turn out to be his last major hit.

1972 – Adolph Rupp retires after 42 years of coaching University of Kentucky.

1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dark Lady” by Cher, “Sunshine on My Shoulders” by John Denver, “Mockingbird” by Carly Simon & James Taylor and “There’s a Honky Tonk Angel (Who’ll Take Me Back In)” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.

1975 – Work began on the Alaskan oil pipeline.

1976 – The first 4.6 miles of the Washington D.C. Metro subway system opens.

1976 – “December, 1963 (Oh, What a Night)” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.

1976 – Pittsburgh quarterback Terry Bradshaw’s  recording of “I’m So Lonesome I Could Cry” reached #17, the highest position the country classic had ever reached on the country charts.

1977 – Tenerife disaster: Two Boeing 747 airliners collide on a foggy runway on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, killing 583 (all 247 on KLM and 335 on PAN AM) and 61 survived on a PAN AM flight.

1979 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled 8-1 that police could not stop motorists at random to check licenses and registrations unless there was reason to believe a law had been broken.

1980 –  Mount St. Helens, dormant for 123 years, erupted with ash and steam.A loud explosion was heard from the direction of Mt. St. Helens. Although the volcano was shrouded in clouds, a summit eruption was verified by a news team from the Vancouver Columbian. As they circled the summit in an airplane, they spotted a dense column of ash rising through the clouds to a height of about 2000 m.

1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Love Rock ‘n’ Roll” by Joan Jett & the Blackhearts, Open Arms” by Journey, “We Got the Beat” by Go-Go’s and “She Left Love All Over Me” by Razzy Bailey  all topped the charts.

1982 – The musical “Best Little Whorehouse in Texas” closed at 46th St in New York City after 1577 performances.

1984 –  Cyndi Lauper released “Time After Time.”

1987 – The Marine Corps charged that Sgt. Clayton J. Lonetree, a Marine guard, had escorted Soviet agents through the U.S. Embassy in Moscow — an accusation that was later dropped, although Lonetree was convicted of espionage.

1989 – The U.S. anti-missile satellite failed the first test in space.

1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Black Velvet by Alannah Myles, “Love Will Lead You Back” by Taylor Dayne, “I Wish It Would Rain Down” by Phil Collins and “Hard Rock Bottom of Your Heart” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.

1990 – The United States begins broadcasting TV Martí to Cuba in an effort to bridge the information blackout imposed by the Castro regime.

1990 – Harold Osrow and Zvi Bleier received a patent for a portable ice cream machine.

1992 – Police in Philadelphia, PA, arrested a man with AIDS on charges that he may have infected several hundred teenage boys with HIV through sexual relations.

1992 – Democratic presidential front-runner Bill Clinton, campaigning in New York, apologized for recently golfing at an all-white club.

1994 – One of the biggest tornado outbreaks in recent memory hits the Southeastern United States. One tornado slams into a church in Piedmont, Alabama during Palm Sunday services killing 20 and injuring 90.

1996 – The Gay’s Hill Baptist Church in Millen, Ga., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.

1998 – The Food and Drug Administration approves Viagra for use as a treatment for male impotence, the first pill to be approved for this condition in the United States.

1998 – Robbers in Commerce, east of LA, escaped with $2.94 million in cash from a Dunbar Security armored car after shooting the driver.

1999 – A $42 million US F-117A stealth fighter was downed over Yugoslavia during continued NATO airstrikes. The American pilot was rescued by US forces. The wreckage was later believed to have been sold.

2000 – The Supreme Court decided the federal government could deny food stamps and other welfare benefits to people who live permanently in the United States but who are not citizens.

2000 – Phillips explosion of 2000 kills one and injures seventy-one in Pasadena, Texas.

2000 – Cisco Systems passed Microsoft as the most valuable company in the world.

2001 – Twelve days before his 88th birthday, Berry Thomas became the oldest bowler in America to roll a perfect 300 game.

2001 – A US federal judge ruled that the Univ. of Michigan racial criteria for accepting minority students with lower test scores than whites was invalid.

2001 – California regulators approved electricity rate hikes of up to 46 percent.

2002 – The aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt, “The Stick”, returns to Norfolk Naval yards after participating in combat and support operations in and over Afghanistan. The Stick now holds the record for a carrier’s continuous days at sea with 159, beating the USS Eisenhower’s previous record of 152 set in 1982.

2002 – The US Supreme Court ruled that illegal immigrants do not have the same rights as Americans when they are wrongly fired from US jobs.

2002 – Milton Berle (93), known as Uncle Miltie and Mr. Television, died. He rose to TV stardom as the host of Texaco Star Theater in 1948.

2003 – The Bush administration seized $1.62 billion in Iraqi assets already frozen in the US. The money would be used to help rebuild Iraq once Saddam Hussein is ousted.

2003 – In the 9th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom a British armored unit destroyed 14 Iraqi tanks trying to break out of the besieged city of Basra.

2005 – In Brazil Vitalmiro Moura, the rancher accused of ordering the killing of American nun Dorothy Stang in the Amazon rainforest six weeks ago, surrendered to police and declared his innocence.

2006 – Zacarias Moussaoui testified in his federal trail that he was the supposed to hijack a fifth airplane on September 11, 2001, and fly it into the White House.

2006 – The US Senate Judiciary Committee approved a proposal to legalize undocumented migrants and provide temporary work visas. Mexicans cheered the approval and credited huge marches of migrants across the US as the decisive factor behind the vote.

2007 – Texas Governor Rick Perry’s office said that he had signed a new law that expands Texans’ existing right to use deadly force to defend themselves “without retreat” in their homes, cars and workplaces. The new law takes affect on September 1.
2007 – NFL owners voted to make instant replay a permanent officiating tool.

2007 – US Attorney John Brownlee announced that ITT Corp. has agreed to pay a $100 million penalty for illegally sending classified night-vision technology to China and other countries.

2008 – The state of Washington became the first state in the U.S. to offer an enhanced driver’s license.

2008 – Adobe systems, the maker of the popular photo-editing software Photoshop, launched a basic version available for free online.

2008 – A US appeals Court in Philadelphia overturned the death sentence of Mumia Abu Jamal, who had been convicted of killing Officer Daniel Faulkner on Dec 9, 1981.

2009 – The Texas Board of Education approved a science curriculum opening the door for teachers and texts to raise doubts about evolution.

2009 – President Barack Obama ordered 4,000 more military troops into Afghanistan, vowing to “disrupt, dismantle and defeat” the Taliban and al-Qaida.

2009 – In North Dakota the Red River rose to a daunting 112-year high and breached one of the dikes fortifying Fargo, but the mayor pledged to “go down swinging” as he called for more evacuations and additional National Guard troops to prevent a devastating flood.

2010 –  Robert Krentz (58), a prominent Arizona rancher near the Mexican border, was shot while working at his remote cattle ranch on the Arizona-Mexico border. His family’s ranch sprawled over 35,000 acres. Investigators tracked the footprints of the suspected gunman about 20 miles south to the border with Mexico, prompting some authorities to blame smugglers or illegal immigrants for the killing.

2012 – The Department of Justice says that it will not invoke antitrust laws to stop the merger of Humana with Arcadian Management Services, two important health insurance companies.

2012 – A consortium led by former basketball star Magic Johnson wins an auction process for ownership of the Los Angeles Dodgers.

2013 – The first female Director of the US Secret Service, Julie Ann Pierson, is appointed. She served until October 1, 2014.

2013 – North Korea renews war threats against South Korea and the United States, saying conditions “for a simmering nuclear war” have been created on the Korean peninsula.

2013 – The Chicago Bulls defeated the Miami Heat 101-97, ending their winning streak at 27 games. The Heat had not lost a game since February 1st.


1813 – Nathaniel Currier, American illustrator (d. 1888)

1845 – Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1923) 1863 – Sir Henry Royce, English automobile pioneer (d. 1933)
1899 – Gloria Swanson, American actress (d. 1983)
1901 – Carl Barks, American illustrator (d. 2000)
1909 – Ben Webster, American jazz saxophonist (d. 1973)
1917 – Cyrus Vance, American politician (d. 2002)
1931 – David Janssen, American actor (d. 1980)
1937 – Thomas Aquinas Daly, American painter
1939 – Cale Yarborough, American race car driver
1943 – Phil Frank, American cartoonist (d. 2007)
1947 – Walt Mossberg, the highest-paid journalist at the Wall Street Journal





Rank and organization: Hospital Corpsman Third Class, U.S. Navy Medical Corpsman serving with a Marine rifle company. Place and date: Korea,  March 27th,  1953. Entered service at: Ludington, Michigan. Birth: Ludington, Mich. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against enemy aggressor forces during the early morning hours. Participating in a fierce encounter with a cleverly concealed and well-entrenched enemy force occupying positions on a vital and bitterly contested outpost far in advance of the main line of resistance, HC3c. Charette repeatedly and unhesitatingly moved about through a murderous barrage of hostile small-arms and mortar fire to render assistance to his wounded comrades. When an enemy grenade landed within a few feet of a Marine he was attending, he immediately threw himself upon the stricken man and absorbed the entire concussion of the deadly missile with his body. Although sustaining painful facial wounds, and undergoing shock from the intensity of the blast which ripped the helmet and medical aid kit from his person, HC3c. Charette resourcefully improvised emergency bandages by tearing off part of his clothing, and gallantly continued to administer medical aid to the wounded in his own unit and to those in adjacent platoon areas as well. Observing a seriously wounded comrade whose armored vest had been torn from his body by the blast from an exploding shell, he selflessly removed his own battle vest and placed it upon the helpless man although fully aware of the added jeopardy to himself. Moving to the side of another casualty who was suffering excruciating pain from a serious leg wound, HC3c. Charette stood upright in the trench line and exposed himself to a deadly hail of enemy fire in order to lend more effective aid to the victim and to alleviate his anguish while being removed to a position of safety. By his indomitable courage and inspiring efforts in behalf of his wounded comrades, HC3c. Charette was directly responsible for saving many lives. His great personal valor reflects the highest credit upon himself and enhances the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.




Rank and organization: Hospital Corpsman, U.S. Navy, attached as a medical corpsman to 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Korea, 26-March 27th, 1953. Entered service at: Alexandria, Va. Birth: Alexandria, Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a HC serving with the 1st Marine Division in action against enemy aggressor forces on the night of 26-27 March 1953. After reaching an intermediate objective during a counterattack against a heavily entrenched and numerically superior hostile force occupying ground on a bitterly contested outpost far in advance of the main line of resistance. HC Hammond’s platoon was subjected to a murderous barrage of hostile mortar and artillery fire, followed by a vicious assault by onrushing enemy troops. Resolutely advancing through the veritable curtain of fire to aid his stricken comrades, HC Hammond moved among the stalwart garrison of Marines and, although critically wounded himself, valiantly continued to administer aid to the other wounded throughout an exhausting four-hour period. When the unit was ordered to withdraw, he skillfully directed the evacuation of casualties and remained in the fire-swept area to assist the corpsmen of the relieving unit until he was struck by a round of enemy mortar fire and fell, mortally wounded. By his exceptional fortitude, inspiring initiative and self-sacrificing efforts, HC Hammond undoubtedly saved the lives of many marines. His great personal valor in the face of overwhelming odds enhances and sustains the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.






Rank and organization: Major General, U.S. Army, retired. Place and date: —-. Entered service at: Louisiana. Born: 27 March 1844, Newburyport, Mass. G.O. No.: 3, W.D., 1935. Act of Congress, 21 March 1935. Citation: For his life of splendid public service, begun on March 27th, 1844, having enlisted as a private in the U.S. Army on 26 July 1861, and by successive promotions was commissioned as major general 10 February 1906, and retired by operation of law on his 64th birthday.





Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company I, 23d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Turret Mountain, Ariz., March 27th, 1873. Entered service at: Lansingburg, N.Y. Birth: Brightstown, N.Y. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallantry in action.





Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Turret Mountain, Ariz., 25 and March 27th, 1873. Entered service at. ——. Birth: Decatur County, lowa. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallantry in action.


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Unerased History – March 26th

Posted by Wayne Church on March 26, 2016 in 03 - March, Blog by month |
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National Cherry Blossom Festival 26- 4/10

Legal Assistants Day
Make Up Your Own Holiday Day



We have all played the game. It isn’t complicated. Two teams form and grab two ends of a rope. The rope has a knot in the middle, and that knot is positioned over the starting point, so that neither side gets an unfair advantage in the beginning. Each side will pull desperately to try to drag the other team across the center line. When one side has successfully pulled the opposing team across the line, the pulling team wins. It is even better if the center is a muddy and messy pit!

The game is simple, but very old. According to a book from the Tang imperial dynasty of China (C7th -10th AD), tug of war (under the name “hook pulling”) was used by the military commander of the State of Chu in east central China to train warriors. Emperor Xuanzong of Tang held large-scale tug of war games, using ropes of five hundred feet with shorter ropes attached and more than five hundred people on each end of the rope. Each side positioned a team of drummers to encourage the participants.

Today, tug-of-war is a game that most adults relegate to those still in their youth, but did you know that tug-of-war used to be an official Olympic Games event?

Since tug-of-war has been a game played by adults for centuries, it became an official event at the second modern Olympic Games in 1900. However, it’s time as an official Olympic event was short-lived and it was last played at the Olympics at the 1920 Games. Tug-of-war was not the only event to be added and then later removed from the Olympic Games; golf, lacrosse, rugby, and polo also shared its fate. The sport is contested in the World Games. The Tug of War International Federation TWIF organizes World Championships for nation teams biannually, for both indoor and outdoor contests, and a similar competition for club teams.

There are numerous principles that can be used and learned in this simple game some of which include the use of force, proper resistance and mental and physical focus. In addition, concepts of center-of-gravity come in to play when one realizes that lowering personal centers makes you much more unmovable and more comfortable. You are less likely to be caught by surprise and can give occasional “breaks” to members next to you. The concept of individualized teamwork is important. This concept is similar to other team sports where highly trained and gifted athletes “give up” a little of their stardom for the good of the team.


The Tug-of-War can also be used as an analogy for when a discussion goes separate ways, where two sides are trying to win most any debate. It speaks of wars where two groups of combatants are trying to win.



Scripture of the Day

Romans 8:31-33

If God is for us, who can be against us? 32 He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things? 33 Who shall bring a charge against God’s elect? It is God who justifies.


Founders Thoughts


George Washington“If the freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter.” ~ George Washington 



“Most of the important things in the world have been accomplished by people who have kept on trying when there seemed to be no help at all.”

~ Dale Carnegie



triskaidekaphobia tris-ky-dek-uh-FOH-bee-uh, noun:

A morbid fear of the number 13 or the date Friday the 13th.


1484 – William Caxton printed his translation of Aesop’s Fables.

1701 – The English Board of Trade advises the king to create royal colonies of all of the American charter colonies.

1790 – US Congress passed a Naturalization Act. It required a 2-year residency.

1804 – Congress orders removal of Indians east of Mississippi to Louisiana.

1804 – The Louisiana Purchase was divided into the Territory of Orleans and the District of Louisiana. Orleans Territory was created on October 1, 1804 by the Organic Act of March 26, 1804, and became Louisiana, the 18th state on March 30, 1812.

1830 – The Book of Mormon is published in Palmyra, New York.

1836 – Mexican Colonel Jose Nicolas de la Portilla received orders from Gen. Santa Anna in triplicate to execute his Texan prisoners at Goliad.

1845 – Joseph Francis, New York NY, patents a corrugated sheet-iron lifeboat.

1845 – Patent awarded for adhesive medicated plaster (No. 3965), precusor of bandaid. Drs. Horace Harrell and William H. Shecut developed a process in which rubber is dissolved in a solvent then spread on fabric.

1859 – First sighting of Vulcan, a planet thought to orbit inside Mercury. In ancient Roman religion and myth, Vulcan is the god of fire including the fire of volcanoes.

1862 – Civil War: Battle of La Glorieta Pass, New Mexico Territory (Apache Canyon, Pigeon’s Ranch). It was the decisive battle of the New Mexico Campaign during the Civil War.

1863 – Voters in West Virginia approved the gradual emancipation of slaves.

1865 – Civil War: A detachment of sailors led by Acting Ensign Peyton H. Randolph of U.S.S. Benton joined troops under the command of Brigadier General B.G. Farrar. They lead a combined expedition to Trinity, Louisiana, where they captured a small number of Confederate soldiers as well as horses, arms and stores.

1872 – Black inventor, Thomas J Martin patents fire extinguisher system.

1872 – A 7.8 earthquake shook the Owens Valley, California.

1878 –  Hastings College of Law was founded. The college is now a part of the University of California. It was named after Serranus Clinton Hastings, the first chief justice of the California Supreme Court.

1885 – Eastman Film Co manufactures first commercial motion picture film.

1895 – Charles Jenkins patented a motion picture machine.It was called he Phantoscope, an early motion picture projector that enlarged film images for viewing by large groups.

1910 – The U.S. Congress passed an amendment to the 1907 Immigration Act that barred criminals, paupers, anarchists and carriers of disease from settling in the U.S.

1913 – Dayton, Ohio, was almost destroyed when Scioto, Miami, and Muskingum River reached flood stage simultaneously.

1916 – Robert Stroud stabbed and killed a prison guard in Leavenworth KS. For this crime, he was imprisoned for life, and became the “Birdman of Alcatraz,” named for the prison where he spent his sentence.

1917 – World War I: First Battle of Gaza – British troops are halted after 17,000 Turks block their advance.

1926 – The first lip-reading tournament held in America.

1926 – U.S. oil companies bought 190,000 tons of kerosene from Russia for $3.2 million.

1930 – Congress appropriates $50,000 for Inter-American highway. The objective of the Inter-American Highway was to link the United States to Mexico City and the capitol cities of the Central-America republics and Panama by paved highway.

1931 – Leo Bentley bowls 3 consecutive perfect games in Lorain, Ohio. It was unsanctioned either because the league or tournament had not agreed to be governed by the ABC prior to the event or because the lane conditions did not satisfy ABC standards.

1936 – The first telescope with a  200″ telescope lens made for the Hale telescope was shipped, Corning Glass Works, New York-Cal Tech to to Mt. Palomar Observatory in California. The lens of the Hale telescope weighed 20 tons.

1937 – Spinach growers of Crystal City TX, erect statue of Popeye. This made Popeye the first cartoon character ever immortalized in public sculpture.

1939 – Pan Am (Pan American) sent a B-314 Yankee Clipper, christened by Eleanor Roosevelt, that had left from Baltimore to Europe on a survey flight that paved the way for soon coming airmail and passenger service.

1941 – Jimmie Lunceford and his orchestra recorded the tune, “Battle Axe“, for Decca Records.

1942 – World War II: Holocaust: In Poland, Auschwitz receives its first female prisoners and the Germans began sending Jews there as well.

1942 – Twenty tons of gelignite killed twenty-one in a stone quarry in Easton, PA. Gelignite is an explosive material consisting of collodion-cotton (a type of nitrocellulose or gun cotton) dissolved in either nitroglycerine or nitroglycol and mixed with wood pulp and saltpetre (sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate).

1943 – World War II: First woman to receive air medal (US Army Nurse Elsie S Ott) It was awarded for her actions in 1943 as an air evac nurse en route from India to the U.S.

1944 – World War II: Japanese patrols again sight large American naval forces heading for Palau Island. They decide to disperse their warships.

1944 – World War II: German Wehrmacht General Anton Dostler Commander of the 75th Army Corps ordered the shooting of 15 unarmed American prisoners of war, in La Spezia, Italy.

1945 – World War II: In Iwo Jima, US forces declare the island “secure.” All Japanese resistance is gone.

1945 – World War II: In the Aleutians, the battle of Komandorski began when the Japanese attempted to reinforce a garrison at Kiska and were intercepted by a U.S. naval force.

1945 – Generals Eisenhower, Bradley, and Patton attack at Remagen on the Rhine.

1945 – The US 7th Army begins to send units of US 15th and US 6th Corps across the Rhine River between Worms and Mannheim. To the north all the Allied armies continue to advance.

1946 – International Ice Patrol resumed after being suspended during World War II.

1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cruising Down the River” by Blue Barron, “Far Away Places” by Margaret Whiting, “Powder Your Face with Sunshine” by Evelyn Knight and “Tennessee Saturday Night” by Red Foley all topped the charts.

1950 – During a radio broadcast dealing with a Senate investigation into communists in the U.S. Department of State, news is leaked that Senator Joseph McCarthy has charged Professor Owen Lattimore with being a top spy for the Soviet Union.

1951 – USAF flag approved. The flag included the coat of arms, 13 white stars and the Air Force seal on a blue background.

1953 – Jonas Salk announces his polio vaccine. Salk’s vaccine was composed of “killed” polio virus, which retained the ability to immunize without the risk of infecting the patient. Mass trials held in 1953 on 1,830,000 children proved the vaccine was safe and effective.

1954 – The U.S. set off the second H-bomb blast in four weeks in the Marshall Islands at Bikini Island. The 15-megaton device was 750 times more powerful than the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima.

1955 – “Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes topped the charts.

1956 – Medic Alert Foundation forms.It was founded in Turlock, California by Marion C. Collins, M.D., after his daughter almost died from reaction to a sensitivity test for tetanus antitoxin. MedicAlert relays each member’s key medical facts to emergency responders, so that they receive faster, safer treatment, and avoid harmful or fatal reactions.

1956 – Red Buttons made his debut as a television actor in “Studio One” on CBS television.

1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Young Love” by Tab Hunter, “Little Darlin” by The Diamonds, “Party Doll” by Buddy Knox and “There You Go” by Johnny Cash topped the charts.

1958 – The United States Army launches Explorer 3.

1960 – Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith topped the charts.

1960 – Orioles-Reds series for Havana, is moved to Miami. The Reds, with a farm club in Cuba, want the trip, but the Orioles fear increased political unrest in the area.

1960 – The University of Southern California (USC) captured the NCAA swimming title, becoming the first Pacific Coast school to do so.

1962 – The U.S. Supreme Court in Baker vs. Carr gave federal courts the power to order reapportionment of seats in a state legislature, a decision that eventually led to the doctrine of “one man, one vote.”

1964 – “Funny Girl” with Barbra Streisand opens at Winter Garden Theater NYC for 1,348 performances.  1968 Movie Trailer

1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Eight Days a Week” by The Beatles, “Stop! In the Name of Love” by The Supremes, “The Birds and the Bees” by Jewel Akens and “I’ve Got a Tiger by the Tail” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1965 – A truck loses control down Moosic Street, Scranton, Pennsylvania, killing the driver. This accident later inspired the 1974 Harry Chapin song, “30,000 Pounds of Bananas.

1966 – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler topped the charts.

1966 – Vietnam War: Operation Jackstay in Navy’s first amphibious assault in Vietnam’s inland waters.

1967 – Ten thousand people gather for one of many Central Park be-ins in New York City.

1968Vietnam War: Operation Bold Dragon III began in Mekong Delta it is under the direct control of the Chief of Naval Operations, Vietnam.

1969 – The TV movie “Marcus Welby” was seen on ABC-TV. It was later turned into a series with Robert Young and ran to 1976.

1970 – Five-hundredth nuclear explosion since 1945 was announced by the US.

1971 – “Cannon” with William Conrad premieres on CBS-TV.

1972 –  Los Angeles Lakers broke NBA record by winning 69 of 82 games (69-13) .

1972 – Evil Knievel broke his collarbone after successfully clearing 13 cars.

1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Train“ by the O’Jays, “Also Sprach Zarathustra (2001)” by Deodato, “Neither One of Us (Wants to Be the First to Say Goodbye)” by Gladys Knight & The Pips and “Teddy Bear Song” by Barbara Fairchild all topped the charts.

1973 – Soap opera “The Young and the Restless” premieres.

1974 – David Essex received a gold record for the hit, “Rock On“.

1975 – Vietnam War: The city of Hue, in northernmost South Vietnam, falls to the North Vietnamese.

1976Paul McCartney and Wings released “Wings at the Speed of Sound” album.

1977 – “Rich Girl” by Daryl Hall & John Oates topped the charts.

1977 – Focus on the Family is founded by Dr. James Dobson.

1977 – Rose Bird (1936-1999) was sworn in as Chief Justice of California. She had been confirmed on March 12.

1979 – Michigan State and Indiana State met in the all-time highest rated basketball telecast.  The NBC coverage earned a 24.1 rating. Indiana State’s unprecedented 33 consecutive-win streak came to an end as the Spartans of Michigan State won 75-64.

1979 – Anwar al-Sadat, Menachem Begin and Jimmy Carter sign the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty in Washington, DC.

1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Keep on Loving You” by REO Speedwagon, “Woman” by John Lennon, “The Best of Times” by Styx and “Angel Flying Too Close to the Ground” by Willie Nelson all topped the charts.

1981 – A jury in Los Angeles awarded entertainer Carol Burnett $1.6 million from the “National Enquirer” for an article she’d charged was libelous.

1982 – A groundbreaking ceremony for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial is held in Washington, DC. It stands as a symbol of America’s honor and recognition of the men and women who served and sacrificed their lives in the Vietnam War.

1983 – “Billie Jean” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.

1983 – The U.S. performed a nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site.

1984 – US Congress established the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to distribute funds for wildlife and environmental projects.

1987 – National Federation of High School adopts college 3 point shot (21 feet).

1988 – “Man in the Mirror” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.

1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Living Years” by Mike & The Mechanics, “Eternal Flame” by Bangles, “Girl You Know It’s True” by Milli Vanilli and “New Fool at an Old Game” by Reba McEntire all topped the charts.

1990 – “Driving Miss Daisy” won best picture at the 62nd annual Academy Awards and captured the best actress prize for Jessica Tandy.

1991 – A divided US Supreme Court ruled that criminal defendants whose coerced confessions were improperly used as evidence are not always entitled to new trials.

1992 – NHL New York Rangers clinch first NHL regular season championship in 50 years.

1992 – In Indianapolis, IN,  heavyweight boxing champion Mike Tyson was found guilty of rape. He was sentenced to 6 years in prison. He only served three.

1995 – “Defending the Caveman” opened at Helen Hayes Theater in New York City for 671 performances.

1995 – The National Labor Relations Board, in an extraordinary Sunday session, voted 3-2 to seek an injunction against baseball owners as a seven-and-a-half-month-old strike by players continued.

1997 –  “Annie” opened at Martin Beck Theater in New York City.

1997 – The 39 bodies of Heaven’s Gate members are found in a mansion in Rancho Santa Fe, CA. The group had committed suicide thinking that they would be picked up by a spaceship following behind the comet Hale-Bopp.

1998 – Unisys Corp. and Lockheed Martin Corp. pay a $3.15 million fine for selling spare parts at inflated prices to the U.S. federal government.

1998 – In Nevada a new satellite-based survey of the Yucca Mo
untain site for storing radioactive wastes indicated that the Earth’s crust at the site was stretching ten times faster than previous studies have shown.

1999 – The “Melissa worm” infects Microsoft word processing and e-mail systems around the world.

1999 – A jury in Michigan finds Dr. Jack Kevorkian guilty of second-degree murder for administering a lethal injection to a terminally ill man.

1999 – The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  (WIPP) near Carlsbad, N.M. received its first shipment of nuclear waste. The facility was completed in 1988.

2000 – The Seattle Kingdome was imploded to make room for a new football arena.The 7.9 acre roof collapsed in less than 20 seconds.

2001 –  California state regulators proposed a 40% rate increase to help remedy the state’s energy crisis.

2001 – Regional Comair pilots went on strike after failing to settle with corporate parent Delta. The three-month strike began after contract talks with the regional airline broke off.

2001 – In Scotland US Air Force F15C fighter jets were lost during training. The body of one pilot, Lt. Col. Kenneth John Hyvonen, and F-15 wreckage was found the next day. Wreckage of the second F-15 was found after 2 days. The body of Capt. Kirk Jones was found Mar 30.

2002 – The US Supreme Court upheld regulations that allowed federal housing officials to evict an entire household if even one member is arrested for drug violations.

2003 – In the 8th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom about 1,000 members of the US Army’s 173rd Airborne Brigade parachute into northern Iraq and seize control of an airfield.

2003 – The Senate approved a $2.2 trillion budget that provided less than half the $726 billion in tax cuts President Bush wanted.

2004 – West of Baghdad, U.S. Marines and gunmen fought an hour-long battle that left four Iraqis dead and six wounded. A U.S. Marine and an ABC freelance cameraman were killed during the firefight.

2004 – The FDA approved the first HIV test that uses saliva rather than blood. The 20 minute test, made by OraSure, is able to detect HIV antibodies about 6 weeks after infection.

2004 – Phoenix Catholic Bishop Thomas O’Brien was sentenced to four years’ probation and 1,000 hours of community service for a deadly hit-and-run  that killed pedestrian Jim Reed.

2006 – In Florida Paul Dana, a 30-year-old rookie in the Indy Racing League, died at Jackson Memorial Hospital from multiple trauma suffered in the crash during the final morning practice for the season-opening Toyota Indy 300.

2007 – The design for the “Forever Stamp” was unveiled by the U.S. Postal Service.

2007 – The US military concluded that high-ranking Army officers had made critical errors in reporting the friendly fire death of Army Ranger Pat Tillman in Afghanistan. The Tillman family rejected the findings.

2007 –  An American border inspector was sentenced to nearly six years in prison for taking cash and cars from smugglers, allowing them to shuttle illegal immigrants from Mexico into the United States.

2007 – A new study that suggested that an antioxidant found in blueberries and grapes may offer protection against colon cancer.

2008 – The NASA space shuttle Endeavour and its crew of seven made a night landing in Florida following a 16-day mission to the International Space Station.

2009 –  Scientists said the basic ingredients for life: warmth, water and organic chemicals, are in place on Saturn’s small moon Enceladus, in detailing the content of huge plumes erupting off its surface.

2009 –  Serial Shooter Dale Hausner receives six death sentences for six murders committed between 2005 and 2006. The Serial Shooter refers to what authorities now believe to be two men who committed multiple drive-by shootings targeting random pedestrians. The shootings occurred in Phoenix, Arizona.

2009 – The Obama administration unveiled a sweeping overhaul of the financial system designed to impose greater regulation on major players like hedge funds.

2009 – The US Internal Revenue Service announced new steps aimed at getting taxpayers hiding money in offshore accounts to pay up, promising not to file criminal charges for those who voluntarily confess to hiding money overseas.

2009 – In Brazil engine pieces from a US plane fell from the sky, hitting 22 houses and a car but sparing passengers and residents on the ground.

2010 –  The Obama administration unveiled a revamped Home Affordable Mortgage Program (HAMP).

2010 –  Hacker Albert Gonzalez (28), who participated in a cybercrime ring that stole tens of millions of credit and debit card numbers, was sentenced in US District Court to 20 years in prison.

2010 –  In south-central Kentucky eleven people were killed in a fiery crash between a tractor-trailer and a van after the truck crossed over the median on Interstate 65 near Munfordville.

2011 – A fuel fire at Miami International Airport causes flight cancellations and delays.

2011 – Geraldine Ferraro, a Democratic Party Congresswoman and the first woman to stand for Vice-President of the United States on a major party ticket dies in Boston.

2012 –  One person is killed and several homes destroyed in a wildfire outbreak in Jefferson County, Colorado.

2014 – Former Rep. Keith Farnham, 66, announced his resignation Wednesday, one day after he won the Democratic primary, running unopposed. Federal officials seized the computers of “well-liked” Democratic Rep. Keith Farnham. The Elgin Democrat resigned earlier Wednesday before the bust. Officials are looking at his WORK computers.



1749 – William Blount, American Statesman (d. 1800)
1753 – Benjamin Thompson, American physicist and inventor (d. 1814)
1773 – Nathaniel Bowditch, American mathematician and navigation expert (d. 1838)
1874 – Robert Frost, American poet (d. 1963)
1904 – Joseph Campbell, American author (d. 1987)
1911 – Tennessee Williams, American dramatist (d. 1983)
1916 – Christian B. Anfinsen, American chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1995)
1917 – Rufus Thomas, American musician (d. 2001)
1929 – Tom Foley, American politician, former Speaker of the House
1930 – Sandra Day O’Connor, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
1931 – Leonard Nimoy, American actor and director
1934 – Alan Arkin, American actor
1940 – James Caan, American actor
1943 – Bob Woodward, American journalist
1944 – Diana Ross, American singer (Supremes)
1949 – Vicki Lawrence, American actress and singer
1954 – Curtis Sliwa, American founder of the Guardian Angels
1960 – Marcus Allen, American football player
1960 – Jennifer Grey, American actress
1968 – Kenny Chesney, American singer
1973 – Lawrence E. Page, American search engine pioneer
2233 – James T. Kirk, science fiction captain of USS Enterprise (Star Trek), was born.






Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company C, 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, 9th Marine Amphibious Brigade, 3d Marine Division (Rein). Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, March 26th,  1967. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Born: 24 December 1946, Greenville, Darke, Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While participating in Operation Beacon Hill 1, the 2d Platoon was engaged in a fierce battle with the Viet Cong at close range in dense jungle foliage. Pfc. Dickey had come forward to replace a radio operator who had been wounded in this intense action and was being treated by a medical corpsman. Suddenly an enemy grenade landed in the midst of a group of Marines, which included the wounded radio operator who was immobilized. Fully realizing the inevitable result of his actions, Pfc. Dickey, in a final valiant act, quickly and unhesitatingly threw himself upon the deadly grenade, absorbing with his body the full and complete force of the explosion. Pfc. Dickey’s personal heroism, extraordinary valor and selfless courage saved a number of his fellow Marines from certain injury and possible death at the cost of his life. His actions reflected great credit upon himself, the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.




Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 4 January 1911, Bucyrus, Ohio. Appointed from. Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as platoon leader attached to Company C, 5th Pioneer Battalion, 5th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, March 26th, 1945. With his sector of the 5th Pioneer Battalion bivouac area penetrated by a concentrated enemy attack launched a few minutes before dawn, 1st Lt. Martin instantly organized a firing line with the marines nearest his foxhole and succeeded in checking momentarily the headlong rush of the Japanese. Determined to rescue several of his men trapped in positions overrun by the enemy, he defied intense hostile fire to work his way through the Japanese to the surrounded marines. Although sustaining two severe wounds, he blasted the Japanese who attempted to intercept him, located his beleaguered men and directed them to their own lines. When four of the infiltrating enemy took possession of an abandoned machinegun pit and subjected his sector to a barrage of hand grenades, 1st Lt. Martin, alone and armed only with a pistol, boldly charged the hostile position and killed all of its occupants. Realizing that his few remaining comrades could not repulse another organized attack, he called to his men to follow and then charged into the midst of the strong enemy force, firing his weapon and scattering them until he fell, mortally wounded by a grenade. By his outstanding valor, indomitable fighting spirit and tenacious determination in the face of overwhelming odds, 1st Lt. Martin permanently disrupted a coordinated Japanese attack and prevented a greater loss of life in his own and adjacent platoons. His inspiring leadership and unswerving devotion to duty reflect the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.



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