National Horseradish Month
Compliment Your Mirror Day
Pickett’s Division was one of the largest in the Army of Northern Virginia (CSA). Having been assigned to defenses in the Richmond area in 1863, Pickett’s troops were veterans of several campaigns and joined the army as it made its way toward Maryland and Pennsylvania. Pickett was anxious that he would not get to see any of the fighting during the campaign and was “filled with excitement” when he was ordered to move his three brigades to the front lines on the morning of July 3rd. With all preparations completed, Pickett’s soldiers marched across the shell-swept field, temporarily broke the Union line, and returned to Seminary Ridge, broken and shattered. The charge had lasted barely 50 minutes, but Pickett’s Virginians had achieved a remarkable high point of honor and glory in southern heritage and the story of Gettysburg. Pickett lost over one half of his division in killed, wounded, and captured including all three of his brigadier generals in the charge. It was ironic to some that with so much destruction in the ranks and among the high-ranking officers, General Pickett escaped the battle without a scratch.
“It was our own moral failure and not any accident of chance, that while preserving the appearance of the Republic we lost its reality.”
~ Marcus Tullius Cicero
donnybrook DON-ee-brook, noun:
1. A brawl; a free-for-all.
2. A heated quarrel or dispute.
1608 - The city of Quebec was founded as a trading post by Samuel de Champlain. The French adventurer Etienne Brule accompanied Champlain to North America and was reportedly eaten by the Huron Indians. This is included because at the time there was no US Canadian border.
1754 – French and Indian War: George Washington surrendered the small, circular Fort Necessity (later Pittsburgh) in southwestern Pennsylvania to the French, leaving them in control of the Ohio Valley. This marked the beginning of the French and Indian War also called the 7 Years’ War.
1767 – Pitcairn Island is discovered by Midshipman Robert Pitcairn on an expeditionary voyage commanded by Philip Carteret.
1775 – Revolutionary War: George Washington takes command of the Continental Army at Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1778 – Revolutionary War: British forces massacre 360 men, women and children in the Wyoming Valley massacre. The Battle of Wyoming was an encounter between American Patriots and Loyalists accompanied by Iroquois raiders that took place in Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania. They were were killed at an outpost called Wintermoot’s Fort after they were drawn out of the protection of the fort and ambushed.
1806 – Michael Keens exhibits first cultivated strawberry.
1819 – The first savings bank in the United States (The Bank of Savings in New York City) opens.
1839 – The first state normal school in the United States, the forerunner to today’s Framingham State College, opens in Lexington, Massachusetts with 3 students.
1848 – Slaves are freed in the Danish West Indies (now U.S. Virgin Islands) by Peter von Scholten.
1852 – Congress establishes the United States’s 2nd mint in San Francisco, California.
1861 – Civil War: US Colonel Jackson received his CSA commission as brigadier general.
1861 - Pony Express arrived in San Francisco with overland letters from New York.
1863 – Civil War: The final day of the Battle of Gettysburg culminates with Pickett’s Charge. The Charge left some 7,000 of 13,000 [15,000] Confederate troops dead. The Union and Confederate armies suffered an estimated 50-51 thousand casualties in the Gettysburg conflict. It was the bloodiest battle the country had yet seen.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Chattahoochee River, GA, began and lasted until July 9.
1864 – Civil War: At Harpers Ferry, WV, Federals evacuated in face of Early’s advance.
1871 – The Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad Company introduced the first narrow-gauge locomotive. It was called the “Montezuma.”
1871 - Jesse James robbed a bank in Corydon, Iowa, of $45,000.
1878 – John Wise flew the first dirigible in Lancaster, PA.
1880 – “Science” began publication. Thomas Edison had provided the principle funding.
1884 – Dow Jones published its first stock average.
1886 – Karl Benz officially unveils the Benz Patent Motorwagen – the first purpose-built automobile.
1886 – The New York Tribune becomes the first newspaper to use a linotype machine, eliminating typesetting by hand.
1890 – Idaho is admitted as the 43rd U.S. state. It was the the last of the 50 states to be explored by whites.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The Spanish fleet, led by Pascual Cervera y Topete, is destroyed by the U.S. Navy in Santiago, Cuba.
1899 - The nation’s first juvenile court opened on the West Side after reformers like Jane Addams pushed the Illinois legislature to recognize that children were developmentally different from adults.
1901 – The Wild Bunch, led by Butch Cassidy, committed its last American robbery near Wagner, MT. They took $65,000 from a Great Northern train.
1903 – The first cable across the Pacific Ocean was spliced between Honolulu, Midway, Guam and Manila.
1915 – US military forces occupied Haiti, and remained until 1934.
1916 – First of three fatal shark attacks occurred near NJ shore (4 die). Probably the events that created the story line for “Jaws.”
1918 - The Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the oldest US environmental conservation law, prohibited killing or harassing birds migrating across international borders.
1922 – “Fruit Garden and Home” magazine debuts… two years later Better Homes and Gardens.
1924 – Clarence Birdseye founded the General Seafood Corp.
1927 – Ensign Charles L. Duke, in command of CG-2327, boarded the rumrunner Greypoint in New York harbor and single-handedly captured the vessel, its 22-man crew, and its cargo of illegal liquor.
1929 - Dunlop Latex Development Laboratories made foam rubber.
1930 – The U.S. Congress created the U.S. Veterans Administration.
1932 – First Sunday game at Fenway Park, Yanks beat Red Sox 13-2.
1937 - Del Mar race track opened in sunny Del Mar, California.
1939 - Chic Young’s comic strip character, “Blondie” was first heard on CBS radio. Later, the popular comic strip would become a TV favorite,
1939 – World War II: Europe: Ernst Heinkel demonstrated an 800-kph rocket plane to Hitler.
1940 – Bud Abbott and Lou Costello debuted with their network radio show on NBC. “Who’s On First“
1941 - Cab Calloway and his orchestra recorded the standard, “St. James Infirmary“, for Okeh Records.
1943 – World War II: Liberator bombers sank the Nazi submarine U-628.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be Seeing You” by Bing Crosby, “Long Ago and Far Away” by Helen Forrest & Dick Haymes, “Amor” by Bing Crosby and “Straighten Up and Fly Right” by King Cole Trio all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: Minsk was liberated from Nazi control by Soviet troops during Operation Bagration.
1945 – World War II: U.S. troops landed at Balikpapan and took Sepinggan airfield on Borneo in the Pacific.
1945 - Victor Borge was first heard on NBC radio. The network gave the comedian/pianist the summer replacement slot for “Fibber McGee and Molly”.
1945 – The first passenger car built since February 1942 was driven off the assembly line. It was a Ford and was driven off the assembly line in Detroit.
1947 – Cleveland Indians purchase Larry Doby’s contract, the first black in the American League.
1948 - Kidnapper Caryl Chessman was sentenced to death.
1950 – Korean War: American and North Korean forces clashed for the first time in the Korean War. U.S. carrier-based planes attacked airfields in the Pyongyang-Chinnampo area of North Korea in the first air-strike of the Korean War.
1950 – Korean War: U.S. carrier-based planes attacked airfields in the Pyongyang-Chinnampo area of North Korea in the first air-strike of the War.
1950 – Lieutenant (Junior Grade) Leonard H. Plog, flying a F9F Panther jet fighter, shot down a Yak-9P, claiming the first U.S. Navy aerial victory of the Korean War.
1950 - President Truman signed Public Law 600. It provided federal statutory authorization for the people of Puerto Rico to write their own constitution.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss of Fire” by Georgia Gibbs, “A Guy is a Guy” by Doris Day, “Be Anything” by Eddy Howard and “That Heart Belongs to Me” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1952 – Puerto Rico’s Constitution is approved by the Congress of the United States.
1952 - Dr. Forest Dewey Dodrill (1902-1997) of Wayne State Univ. used a mechanical heart pump to operate on a patient at Detroit’s Harper Hospital. This was regarded as the world’s first successful use of a mechanical pump in open-heart surgery.
1953 - Harry Belafonte was shown with actress Janet Leigh and film star Tony Curtis on the cover of “Ebony” magazine. It was the first time a black person and two Caucasians were seen together on a U.S. magazine cover.
1954 – “Little Things Mean a Lot” by Kitty Kallen topped the charts.
1954 - In Salem Mass., champion female athlete Mildred “Babe” Didrikson Zaharias (1911-1956) won the US Women’s Open. She had just come back from a battle with cancer, yet won the event by 12 strokes.
1958 - “The Andy Williams Show” premiers on ABC (later on CBS & NBC).
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Everybody’s Somebody’s Fool” by Connie Francis, “Alley-Oop” by Hollywood Argyles, “Because They’re Young” by Duane Eddy and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling” by Hank Locklin all topped the charts.
1962 – Jackie Robinson became the first Black to be inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame.
1965 – “I Can’t Help Myself (Sugar Pie Honey Bunch)” by the Four Tops topped the charts.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “This Guy’s in Love with You” by Herb Alpert, “The Horse” by Cliff Nobles & Co. , “Angel of the Morning” by Merrilee Rush & The Turnabouts and “D-I-V-O-R-C-E” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1969 - Brian Jones (27), founder of the Rolling Stones (1962), was found dead at the bottom of Cotchford Farm swimming pool.
1971 – “It’s Too Late” by Carole King topped the charts.
1973 – Clint Holmes received a gold record for his hit single, “Playground in My Mind“.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Silly Love Songs” by Wings, “Get Up and Boogie (That’s Right)” by Silver Convention, “Misty Blue” by Dorothy Moore and “All These Things” by Joe Stampley all topped the charts.
1976 – Brian Wilson rejoined The Beach Boys.
1976 – Entebbe: 103 hostages were rescued by an Israeli commando unit at the raid on Entebbe airport in Uganda. The hostages had been taken from an Air France jetliner.
1978 - The US Supreme Court, in Federal Communications Commission v. Pacifica Foundation, upheld an FCC ban on George Carlin’s “seven dirty words” and other indecencies on radio, and TV “when there is a reasonable risk that children may be in the audience.” The ban was upheld on the grounds that broadcasters had a “uniquely pervasive presence in the lives of all Americans.
1979 – President Jimmy Carter signs the first directive for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul.
1979 - Dan White, convicted of voluntary manslaughter in the shooting deaths of San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk, was sentenced to seven years and eight months in prison. He served five years.
1981 – The Associated Press ran its first story about two rare illnesses afflicting homosexual men. One of the diseases was later named AIDS.
1982 - Pete Rose of the Philadelphia Phillies connected for hit #3,786. It moved Rose into second place in the career-hits column of the record books.
1982 – “Don’t You Want Me” by The Human League topped the charts.
1982 - Mumia Abu-Jamal (b.1954), radio reporter and former Black Panther, was convicted for the 1981 murder of police officer Daniel Faulkner in Pittsburgh.
1983 – Calvin Smith of US becomes the fastest man alive (22.5 mph for 100 m).
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Reflex” by Duran Duran, “Dancing in the Dark” by Bruce Springsteen, “When Doves Cry” by Prince and “I Can Tell by the Way You Dance (You’re Gonna Love Me Tonight)” by Vern Gosdin all topped the charts.
1984 - The US Supreme Court ruled that Jaycees may be forced to admit women as members.
1986 – President Ronald Reagan presides over the relighting of the renovated Statue of Liberty.
1987 – British millionaire Richard Branson and Per Lindstrand became the first to cross the Atlantic by hot-air balloon, named Virgin Atlantic Flyer.
1988 – United States Navy warship USSVincennes mistook an Iran Air jetliner to be an Iranian F-15 fighter aircraft during the Iran-Iraq conflict and shoots down Iran Air Flight 655 over the Persian Gulf, killing all 290 people aboard.
1989 - By a 5-4 decision, the US Supreme Court upheld abortion restrictions in the state of Missouri. The court ruled that states do not have to provide funds for abortions.
1991 – President George Bush formally inaugurated the Mount Rushmore National Memorial in South Dakota.
1991 - A Fort Worth, Texas, police officer was videotaped beating a handcuffed prisoner in his patrol car. The officer was suspended, but later reinstated after a grand jury refused to indict him.
1994 – Thirty-one people died in three separate crashes in the deadliest traffic day in Texas history. A total of 46 were killed statewide.
1996 – Stone of Scone returned to Scotland.
1996 - The Clinton administration awarded a $1 million grant to the Univ. of Alabama for an experiment that would test for illicit drug use of everyone arrested in Birmingham.
1996 – US Secret Service agents claimed to have broken up an operation by a New York couple that used monitoring equipment to steal 80,000 cellular phone numbers and ID codes from motorists on an expressway that passed their apartment building.
1996 - Lockheed Martin Corp. won a $1 billion federal contract to build the next-generation space shuttle.
1996 - A jokester lit firecrackers in a fireworks store in Scottown, Ohio. A blaze erupted and nine people were killed and eleven injured as they stampeded out.
1997 – President Clinton made his first formal response to the charges of sexual harassment from Paula Jones. He denied all the charges and asked that the judge dismiss the case.
1997 - Lockheed Martin Corp., the nation’s biggest defense contractor, announced its purchase of Northrop Grumman Corp. for $11.2 billion. The merger, however, fell apart over antitrust concerns.
1998 - A Western Water Policy Review Commission reported that farms and ranches, which soak up to 78% of the West’s available water, must give some up to the growing cities and restore degraded ecosystems.
1998 - Residents in northeastern Florida continued to evacuate because of wildfires closing in from three directions.
1999 - Benjamin Nathaniel Smith fired at Asians and Blacks in Springfield, and Champaign-Urbana, Illinois.
2000 - A 1970’s steel observation tower that preservationists said had desecrated the battlefield of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania was demolished.
2001 - In Columbus, Ohio, Brian Dalton (22) was sentenced to 10 years in prison for fiction writing in his journal about sexually abusing and torturing children.
2002 – Steve Fossett became the first person to fly a balloon solo around the world.
2002 - Columbia Pictures publicly distributed Men in Black II into movie theaters.
2002 - The Tennessee Legislature passed a one-cent sales tax increase, the highest in state history, and ended a partial government shutdown.
2003 - The US government put a $25 million bounty on Saddam Hussein and $15 million on his sons. US troops killed eleven Iraqis who ambushed a convoy outside Baghdad.
2005 - Roger Federer won his third consecutive Wimbledon title by beating Andy Roddick 6-2, 7-6 (2), 6-4.
2005 - NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft collided with the comet Tempel 1, half the size of Manhattan. The goal of the mission was to find the building blocks of life on Earth.
2006 - The Space Shuttle Discovery’s launch on STS-121 is thrown in doubt when a three-inch crack is found in the foam insulation of its external tank. Despite the crack, NASA decides to proceed with the launch, scheduled for 2:38 PM ET on july 4th, which would be the first manned launch on the US Independence Day.
2006 – Asteroid labeled as 2004 XP14 flies 268,624 miles by Earth.
2006 – A US federal judge issued a temporary retraining order barring the Navy from using a type of high-intensity sonar that could harm marine animals during war games that began last week in the Pacific Ocean.
2007 – A Los Angeles jury awarded $6.2 million to firefighter Brenda Lee, who said she was harassed by colleagues because she is black and a lesbian.
2008 - NASA announces discovery of water in the atmosphere of Mercury by its MESSENGER probe.
2008 – Larry Harmon (83) wasn’t the original Bozo the Clown, but he was the real one. Harmon, who portrayed the wing-haired clown for more than half a century, died of congestive heart failure.
2008 – US employers cut payrolls by 62,000 in June, the sixth straight month of nationwide job losses, underscoring the economy’s fragile state. The unemployment rate held steady at 5.5 percent.
2009 – Alaska Gov. Sarah Palin announced her decision to leave office more than a year early, effective July 26. The announcement left open the possibility of a presidential run.
2009 – The “Dog Days of Summer” officially begin and continue to August 11. This period got its name from the Egyptian belief that the Dog Star, Sirius, added heat to Earth as it rose and fell with the sun during this period.
2009 – In Washington State, the two-week Operation Arctic Chill seized 23 guns including a .50 Desert Eagle pistol and an AK-47-type assault rifle from a drug trafficking ring that was directed by a cartel in Jalisco, Mexico.
2010 – The US government said it is handing out nearly $2 billion for new solar plants that President Barack Obama says will create thousands of jobs and increase the use of renewable energy sources.
2010 – The US Drug Enforcement Administration said it has helped seize a submarine capable of transporting tons of cocaine.
2010 - Poland and the United States sign a deal in Kraków allowing the United States to position an American anti-missile shield in Poland to defend Europe from the perceived threat of Iran and other countries: Russia objects.
2011 – Storms in the region of Washington, D.C. in the US kill one person in Montgomery County and cuts power to 40,000 homes.
2012 - American gambler Antonio Esfandiari wins the 2012 World Series of Poker $1,000,000 Buy-In “The Big One for One Drop” with the highest prize money in poker of $18.3 million.
1728 – Robert Adam, Scottish architect (d. 1792)
1738 – John Singleton Copley, American painter (d. 1815)
1878 – George M. Cohan, American actor, director, singer and dancer (d. 1942) 1906 – Jack Earle, American actor and sideshow performer (d. 1952)
1908 – M. F. K. Fisher, American writer (d. 1992)
1913 – Dorothy Kilgallen, American columnist and television game show panelist known nationally for her coverage of the Sam Sheppard trial. (d. 1965)
1930 – Tommy Tedesco, American musician (d. 1997)
1933 – Edward Brandt, American doctor and public health official (d. 2007)
1935 – Harrison Schmitt, American astronaut and politician
1940 – Lamar Alexander, American politician
1947 – Dave Barry, American humorist and author
1947 – Betty Buckley, American actress
1956 – Montel Williams, American talk show host
1962 – Tom Cruise, (born Thomas Cruise Mapother IV), American actor
1970 – Shawnee Smith, American actress
1976 – Andrea Barber, American actress
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 4th Battalion, 503d Infantry, 173d Airborne Brigade. Place and Date: Binh Dinh Province, Republic of Vietnam, 3 July 1969. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 4 January 1950, Minneapolis, Minn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Blanchfield distinguished himself while serving as a rifleman in Company A on a combat patrol. The patrol surrounded a group of houses to search for suspects. During the search of one of the huts, a man suddenly ran out toward a nearby tree line. Sp4c. Blanchfield, who was on guard outside the hut, saw the man, shouted for him to halt, and began firing at him as the man ignored the warning and continued to run. The suspect suddenly threw a grenade toward the hut and its occupants. Although the exploding grenade severely wounded Sp4c. Blanchfield and several others, he regained his feet to continue the pursuit of the enemy. The fleeing enemy threw a second grenade which landed near Sp4c. Blanchfield and several members of his patrol. Instantly realizing the danger, he shouted a warning to his comrades. Sp4c. Blanchfield unhesitatingly and with complete disregard for his safety, threw himself on the grenade, absorbing the full and fatal impact of the explosion. By his gallant action and self-sacrifice, he was able to save the lives and prevent injury to four members of the patrol and several Vietnamese civilians in the immediate area. Sp4c. Blanchfield’s extraordinary courage and gallantry at the cost of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company D, 2d Battalion, 3d Infantry, 199th Infantry Brigade. Place and date: Long Khanh, Providence, Republic of Vietnam, 3 July 1969. Entered service at: Richmond, Va. Born: 15 April 1949, Richmond, Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Cpl. Folland distinguished himself while serving as an ammunition bearer with the weapons platoon of Company D, during a reconnaissance patrol mission. As the patrol was moving through a dense jungle area, it was caught in an intense crossfire from heavily fortified and concealed enemy ambush positions. As the patrol reacted to neutralize the ambush, it became evident that the heavy weapons could not be used in the cramped fighting area. Cpl. Folland dropped his recoilless rifle ammunition, and ran forward to join his commander in an assault on the enemy bunkers. The assaulting force moved forward until it was pinned down directly in front of the heavily fortified bunkers by machine gun fire. Cpl. Folland stood up to draw enemy fire on himself and to place suppressive fire on the enemy positions while his commander attempted to destroy the machine gun positions with grenades. Before the officer could throw a grenade, an enemy grenade landed in the position. Cpl. Folland alerted his comrades and his commander hurled the grenade from the position. When a second enemy grenade landed in the position, Cpl. Folland again shouted a warning to his fellow soldiers. Seeing that no one could reach the grenade and realizing that it was about to explode, Cpl. Folland, with complete disregard for his safety, threw himself on the grenade. By his dauntless courage, Cpl. Folland saved the lives of his comrades although he was mortally wounded by the explosion. Cpl. Folland’s extraordinary heroism, at the cost of his life, was in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflects great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant (J.G.), U.S. Navy, Navy helicopter rescue unit. Place and date: North Korea, 3 July 1951. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif. Birth: London, England. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with a Navy helicopter rescue unit. Although darkness was rapidly approaching when information was received that a Marine aviator had been shot down and was trapped by the enemy in mountainous terrain deep in hostile territory, Lt. (J.G.) Koelsch voluntarily flew a helicopter to the reported position of the downed airman in an attempt to effect a rescue. With an almost solid overcast concealing everything below the mountain peaks, he descended in his unarmed and vulnerable aircraft without the accompanying fighter escort to an extremely low altitude beneath the cloud level and began a systematic search. Despite the increasingly intense enemy fire, which struck his helicopter on one occasion, he persisted in his mission until he succeeded in locating the downed pilot, who was suffering from serious burns on the arms and legs. While the victim was being hoisted into the aircraft, it was struck again by an accurate burst of hostile fire and crashed on the side of the mountain. Quickly extricating his crewmen and the aviator from the wreckage, Lt. (J.G.) Koelsch led them from the vicinity in an effort to escape from hostile troops, evading the enemy forces for nine days and rendering such medical attention as possible to his severely burned companion until all were captured. Up to the time of his death while still a captive of the enemy, Lt. (J.G.) Koelsch steadfastly refused to aid his captors in any manner and served to inspire his fellow prisoners by his fortitude and consideration for others. His great personal valor and heroic spirit of self-sacrifice throughout sustain and enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company G, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Korea, 3 July 1952. Entered service at: Cumberland, Md. Born. 16 August 1926, Cumberland, Md. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a squad leader of Company G, in action against enemy aggressor forces. When his platoon was subjected to a devastating barrage of enemy small-arms, grenade, artillery, and mortar fire during an assault against strongly fortified hill positions well forward of the main line of resistance, S/Sgt. Shuck, although painfully wounded, refused medical attention and continued to lead his machine gun squad in the attack. Unhesitatingly assuming command of a rifle squad when the leader became a casualty, he skillfully organized the two squads into an attacking force and led two more daring assaults upon the hostile positions. Wounded a second time, he steadfastly refused evacuation and remained in the foremost position under heavy fire until assured that all dead and wounded were evacuated. Mortally wounded by an enemy sniper bullet while voluntarily assisting in the removal of the last casualty, S/Sgt. Shuck, by his fortitude and great personal valor in the face of overwhelming odds, served to inspire all who observed him. His unyielding courage throughout reflects the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U .S. Marine Corps. Born: 14 March 1892, Detroit, Mich. Accredited to: Michigan. G.O. NO.: 244, 30 October 1916. Citation: During an engagement at Guayacanas, Dominican Republic on 3 July 1916, Cpl. Glowin participated in action against a considerable force of rebels on the line of march. See Winans, Roswell
Rank and organization: Brigadier General (then First Sergeant), U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Guayacanas, Dominican Republic, 3 July 1916. Entered service at: Washington. Born. 9 December 1887, Brookville, Ind. G.O. No.: 244, 30 October 1916. Citation: During an engagement at Guavacanas on 3 July 1916, 1st Sgt. Winans participated in action against a considerable force of rebels on the line of march. During a running fight of 1,200 yards, our forces reached the enemy entrenchments and Cpl. Joseph A. Gowin, U.S.M.C., placed the machinegun, of which he had charge, behind a large log across the road and immediately opened fire on the trenches. He was struck once but continued firing his gun, but a moment later he was again struck and had to be dragged out of the position into cover. 1st Sgt. Winans, U.S.M.C., then arrived with a Colt’s gun which he placed in a most exposed position, coolly opened fire on the trenches and when the gun jammed, stood up and repaired it under fire. All the time Glowin and Winans were handling their guns they were exposed to a very heavy fire which was striking into the logs and around the men, seven men being wounded and one killed within twenty feet. 1st Sgt. Winans continued flring his gun until the enemy had abandoned the trenches.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 22 March 1875, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 526, 9 August 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during action at the Battle of Santiago de Cuba, 3 July 1898. Braving the fire of the enemy, MacNeal displayed gallantry throughout this action.
Rank and organization: Quarter Gunner, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Kentucky. Accredited to: Kentucky. G.O. No.: 180, 10 October 1872. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Plymouth, Hamburg Harbor, 3 July 1871. Jumping overboard at the imminent risk of his life, Holt, with a comrade, rescued from drowning one of a party who was thrown from a shore boat into a four-knot, running tide while the boat was coming alongside the ship.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Birth: Plybin, France. Entered service at: Brest, France. G.O. No.: 180, 10 October 1872. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Plymouth, Hamburg Harbor, 3 July 1871. Jumping overboard at the imminent risk of his life, Tobin, with a comrade, rescued from drowning one of a party who was thrown from a shore boat into a 4-knot running tide while the boat was coming alongside the ship.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company L, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Hell Canyon, Ariz., 3 July 1869. Entered service at. ——. Birth: Sussex County, N.J. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Conspicuous gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company L, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Hell Canyon, Ariz., 3 July 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Prussia. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company L, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Hell Canyon, Ariz., 3 July 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 14th Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Berlin, Conn. Birth: Burlington, Conn. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 16th North Carolina regiment (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company C, 12th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Burlington, Vt. Birth: Burlington, Vt. Date of issue: 27 June 1892. Citation: Passed through a murderous fire of grape and canister in delivering orders and re-formed the crowded lines.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company A, 126th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Penn Yan, N.Y. Born: August 1842, Hammondsport, N.Y. Date of issue: 6 March 1869. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 14th Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Berlin, Conn. Birth: Burlington, Conn. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 16th North Carolina regiment (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company C, 12th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Burlington, Vt. Birth: Burlington, Vt. Date of issue: 27 June 1892. Citation: Passed through a murderous fire of grape and canister in delivering orders and re-formed the crowded lines.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company A, 126th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Penn Yan, N.Y. Born: August 1842, Hammondsport, N.Y. Date of issue: 6 March 1869. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 71st Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 2 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 9th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.), wresting it from the color bearer.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 19th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at:——. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 19th Virginia regiment (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 126th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: The colors being struck down by a shell as the enemy were charging, this soldier rushed out and seized it, exposing himself to the fire of both sides.
Rank and organization: Musician, Company B, 73d Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 1-3 July 1863. Entered service at: Chillicothe, Ohio. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Voluntarily took a rifle and served as a soldier in the ranks during the first and second days of the battle. Voluntarily and at his own imminent peril went into the enemy’s lines at night and, under a sharp fire, rescued a wounded comrade.
Rank and organization: Color Sergeant, Company A, 19th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Lynn, Mass. Birth. Portsmouth, N.H. Date of issue. December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company K, 14th Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Sprague, Conn. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 52d North Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Battery A, 4th U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 24 August 1897. Citation: All the officers of his battery having been killed or wounded and five of its guns disabled in Pickett’s assault, he succeeded to the command and fought the remaining gun with most distinguished gallantry until the battery was ordered withdrawn.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 14th Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Bridgeport, Conn. Birth: Bucksport, Me. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: During the highwater mark of Pickett’s charge on 3 July 1863 the colors of the 14th Tenn. Inf. C.S.A. were planted 50 yards in front of the center of Sgt. Maj. Hincks’ regiment. There were no Confederates standing near it but several were Iying down around it. Upon a call for volunteers by Maj. Ellis, commanding, to capture this flag, this soldier and two others leaped the wall. One companion was instantly shot. Sgt. Maj. Hincks outran his remaining companion running straight and swift for the colors amid a storm of shot. Swinging his saber over the prostrate Confederates and uttering a terrific yell, he seized the flag and hastily returned to his lines. The 14th Tenn. carried twelve battle honors on its flag. The devotion to duty shown by Sgt. Maj. Hlncks gave encouragement to many of his comrades at a crucial moment of the battle.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 19th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Newburyport, Mass. Birth: Newburyport, Mass. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 57th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.). He also assisted in taking prisoners.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 1st Delaware Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Kent County, Del. Birth: Smyrna, Del. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 1st Delaware Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Wilmington, Del. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 8th Ohio Infantry.
Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Freemont, Sandusky County, Ohio. Birth: Germany. Date of issue. 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of two flags.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company H, 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Born: 5 February 1836, West Hill, Pa. Date of issue 21 July 1897. Citation: Without orders, led a charge of his squadron upon the flank of the enemy, checked his attack, and cut off and dispersed the rear of his column.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 99th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 1-3 July 1863. Entered service at: Vanango County, Pa. Birth: Steuben County, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 February 1866. Citation: Gallant and courageous conduct as color bearer. (This noncommissioned officer carried the colors of his regiment through 13 engagements.)
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 1st Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: St. Anthony Falls, Minn. Birth: Maine. Date of issue: 9 April 1890. Citation: Taking up the colors where they had fallen, he rushed ahead of his regiment, close to the muzzles of the enemy’s guns, and engaged in the desperate struggle in which the enemy was defeated, and though severely wounded, he held the colors until wounded a second time.
Rank and organization: Private, Troop H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Fairfield, Pa., 3 July 63. Entered service at: —–. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 12 July 1895. Citation: Seized the regimental flag upon the death of the standard bearer in a hand_to_hand fight and prevented it from falling into the hands of the enemy.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 108th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Penfield, N.Y. Birth: Penfield, N.Y. Date of issue: 10 March 1896 Citation: Voluntarily and under a severe fire brought a box of ammunition to his comrades on the skirmish line.
Rank and organization: Major, 19th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Brighton, Mass. Date of issue: 6 October 1891. Citation: Conspicuous bravery on the third day of the battle on the countercharge against Pickett’s division where he fell severely wounded within the enemy’s lines.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 8th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Toledo Ohio. Birth: Maine. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 19th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Roxbury, Mass. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 57th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 20th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Terre Haute, Vigo County, Ind. Birth: Frankfort County, Ky. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 21st North Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 1st Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at. St. Paul, Minn. Birth: Burlington, Vt. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 28th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date. At Sailors Creek, Va., 6 April 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ocean County, N.J. Date of issue: 3 July 1865. Citation: Capture of flag; and was the first man over the works in the charge.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 1st Pennsylvania Rifles. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Perrysville, Pa. Birth: Juniata County, Pa. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 15th Georgia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Colonel, 16th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Springfield, Vt. Born: 5 December 1835, Brentwood, N.H. Date of issue: 8 September 1891. Citation: Rapidly assembled his regiment and charged the enemy’s flank; charged front under heavy fire, and charged and destroyed a Confederate brigade, all this with new troops in their first battle.
Rank and organization. Private, Company B, 126th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Milo, N.Y. Birth: Geneva, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Brigadier General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 15 February 1835, New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 28 September 1891. Citation: Distinguished personal gallantry in leading his men forward at a critical period in the contest.
Rank and organization: Major, 1st Vermont Cavalry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Waterbury, Vt. Born: 14 December 1837, Waterbury, Vt. Date of issue: 8 September 1891. Citation: Led the second battalion of his regiment in a daring charge.
Rank and organization. Sergeant, Company B, 59th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ohio. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of a Georgia regiment.
WILSON, CHARLES E.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., 6 April 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Bucks County, Pa. Date of issue: 3 July 1865. Citation: Charged the enemy’s works, colors in hand, and had two horses shot from under him.
I Forgot Day
“Algebra is a branch of mathematics that uses basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division to solve problems called equations. Inequations, letters represent unknown numbers. However, a letter can stand for one number in one equation and for a different number in another formula. Algebra employs symbols which have special meanings and are governed by five basic “”laws.”” The basic components of algebra are the “”variable,”” a letter whose value can change without affecting the balance of the equation; and the “”constant,”” a number whose value never changes. The letter “”x”” is most commonly used to express an unknown number, as x – x = 0. That means that any number subtracted from itself leaves a remainder of 0. Scientists and businesspeople use algebra to solve problems that arithmetic alone cannot.”
Many people are afraid of this type match and yet they use it in a lot of different ways in every day life. For example, you want to go to the store to buy some potato chips. You count the money that you have and it is $5.25. You know that potato chips are $1.50 a bag, how many bags can you buy. The algebraic formula for that is 1.5x = 5.25. First you find “x” by dividing both sides of the formula by “1.5″ That means 1.5x becomes “x” and 5.25 becomes 3.5 or for $5.25 you can buy 3 bags and have some change. Algebra, in its simplest form, is used by people every day.
“A mathematician is a blind man in a dark room looking for a black cat which isn’t there.” ~Charles R Darwin
“Happy are those who dream dreams and are ready to pay the price to make them come true.”
~ Leon J. Suenes
melee MAY-lay; may-LAY, noun:
1. A fight or hand-to-hand struggle in which the combatants are mingled in one confused mass.
2. A confused conflict or mingling.
1698 – Thomas Savery patents the first steam engine
1679 – Europeans first visit Minnesota and see headwaters of Mississippi in an expedition led by Daniel Greysolon de Du Luth.
1775 - George Washington arrived in Boston and took over as commander-in-chief of the new Continental Army.
1776 – First vote on the Declaration of Independence.
1776 – The Continental Congress adopts Richard Henry Lee’s resolution severing ties with Great Britain although the wording of the formal Declaration of Independence is not approved until July 4. The resolution said that “these United Colonies are, and of right, ought to be, Free and Independent States.”
1777 – Vermont becomes the first American territory to abolish slavery.
1788 – The Constitution of the United States of America went into effect after nine states ratified it.
1807 - In the wake of the Chesapeake incident, in which the crew of a British frigate boarded an American ship and forcibly removed four suspected deserters, President Thomas Jefferson ordered all British ships to vacate U.S. territorial waters.
1808 – Simon Fraser reaches the Pacific Ocean near New Westminster, British Columbia.
1839 – Twenty miles off the coast of Cuba, African slaves, led by Joseph Cinque, killed Ramon Ferrer, and took possession of his ship, La Amistad. Cinque ordered the navigator to take them back to Africa but after 63 days at sea the ship was intercepted by Lieutenant Gedney, of the United States brig Washington, half a mile from the shore of Long Island.
1843 – An alligator falls from the sky during a Charleston SC thunderstorm.
1850 – The self-contained gas mask is patented by Benjamin J. Lane.
1850 - Sir Robert Peel (b.1788), former British prime minister (1834-35 and 1841-46), died. He founded the Conservative Party and the London Police Force whose officers were called “bobbies.”
1857 – New York City’s first elevated railroad opened for business.
1862 – Lincoln signs act granting land for state agricultural colleges.
1862 – Civil War: Flag Officer L. M. Goldsborough’s fleet covered the withdrawal of General McClellan’s army after a furious battle with Confederate forces under General Robert E. Lee at Malvern Hill.
1863 – Civil War: The Union left flank held at Little Round Top during the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg. Union Gen. Daniel Sickles was severely wounded and had his leg amputated.
1864 - Statuary Hall in US Capitol was established. The National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol is comprised of statues donated by individual states to honor persons notable in their history. The entire collection now consists of 100 statues contributed by 50 states. All 50 states have contributed two statues each.
1864 – Civil War: Congress passes the Wade-Davis Bill, requiring a majority of a seceded state’s white citizens to take an oath of loyalty to the Constitution and guarantee black equality, but President Abraham Lincoln pocket vetoes the harsh plan for dealing with the defeated Confederate states.
1864 – Civil War: Gen. Early and Confederate forces reached Winchester.
1867 - New York City’s first elevated railroad officially opened for business. Commuters soon called the mode of transportation the El.
1872 – Elijah McCoy patents first self-lubricating locomotive engine. The quality of his inventions helped coin the phrase “the real McCoy”.
1872 - Jacob W. Davis of Reno, Nevada, sent Levi Strauss & Co. in San Francisco a sample of his work pants and a business proposal for Strauss to apply for a patent in exchange for a half share in the patent. Davis soon sold his half share to Strauss and moved to San Francisco to supervise the manufacture of the work pants.
1874 - Colonel Custer departed from Fort Abraham Lincoln with some 1,000 soldiers and 70 Indian scouts on a 1200 mile expedition to chart the Black Hills of eastern Wyoming western South Dakota, land which belonged to the Sioux. The expedition returned on August 30.
1878 – The Brighton Beach Line (now the BMT Brighton Line) opens in the then-city of Brooklyn.
1880 - In San Francisco, St. Ignatius College opened for classes at its new campus at Van Ness and Hayes.
1881 – Charles J. Guiteau shoots and fatally wounds U.S. President James Garfield at the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Depot in Washington, D.C., The President eventually dies from infection on September 19.
1890 – The U.S. Congress passes the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
1894 - The government obtained an injunction against striking Pullman Workers.
1897 – Italian scientist Guglielmo Marconi obtains patent for radio in London.
1900 – Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin first airship LZ-1, flies.
1900 – The second modern Olympic Games opened in Paris.
1902 - John J. McGraw became manager of the New York Giants and stayed for 30 years.
1907 – Emil Haefely obtained a patent for a method of wrapping electrical conductors.
1912 - In San Francisco Mary’s Help Hospital opened at 145 Guerrero St. It was made possible by a bequest from Catherine Birdsall Johnson (d.1893).
1917 - Race riots erupted in East St. Louis, Illinois. The official death toll was put at 48, but as many as 200 were believed killed.
1921 – J. Andrew White announced the Dempsey-Carpentier fight in Jersey City and was thereby credited with being the first professional radio announcer. This was the first million dollar gate boxing match.
1923 – Commissioning of Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC.
1924 - The first day of transcontinental airmail service brought news to San Francisco mailed from New York after 34 hours and 45 minutes.
1926 – US Army Air Corps created.
1926 - An Act of Congress (Public Law 446-69th Congress (44 Stat. 780)) which established the Soldier’s Medal for acts of heroism not involving actual conflict with an enemy and the Distinguished Flying Cross was established in the Air Corps Act (Act of Congress, Public Law No. 446, 69th Congress).
1929 - Ruby Keeler starred in Flo Ziegfeld’s production of “Show Girl” which opened in New York City.
1932 - New York Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt won the nomination for president on the fourth ballot at the Democratic convention in Chicago.
1933 - Baseball great Carl Hubbell of the New York Giants hurled 18 innings of shutout ball to lead the Giants to a 1-0 win over St. Louis in the first half of a doubleheader at the Polo Grounds in New York.
1937 -Amelia Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan left Lae in Papua, New Guinea and disappeared over the Pacific Ocean while attempting to make the first round-the-world flight at the equator.
1939 - “The Aldrich Family” debuted on NBC radio. Mother Aldrich was heard to call, “Hen-ree! Henry Aldrich!”
1939 – At Mount Rushmore, Theodore Roosevelt’s face was dedicated.
1940 - The Lake Washington Floating bridge in Seattle was dedicated.
1942 - Jo Stafford joined Tommy Dorsey and his orchestra for “Manhattan Serenade“, which was recorded for Victor Records.
1942 – World War II: Allied convoys QP-13 and PQ-17 passed each other while the German battleships Tirpitz and Hipper prepared to attack PQ-17 in the North Atlantic.
1943 – World War II: The U.S. Army Air Corps 99th Fighter Squadron, the first of the all-black Tuskegee Airmen to see combat, had been based in Africa for four months when they were assigned to escort 16 B-25 Mitchell bombers on a routine mission over Sicilian targets.
1943 – World War II: The American buildup on Rendova Island continues but the Japanese garrison continues to resist. During the night a Japanese naval force bombards the American positions with little effect.
1944 – World War II: There is an Allied landing on Numfoor Island with about 7100 troops.
1944 – World War II: As part of Operation Gardening, the British and American strategy to lay mines in the Danube River by dropping them from the air, American aircraft also drop bombs and leaflets on German-occupied Budapest.
1945 – World War II: The submarine USS Barb fires rockets on Kaihyo Island, off the east coast of Karafuto (Sakhalin) Island. It is the first American underwater craft to fire rockets in shore bombardment.
1946 - CBS signed Arthur Godfrey to do a weekly nighttime radio show. Godfrey was soon hosting one of radio’s top shows, “Talent Scouts”.
1946 – VX-3 is established to evaluate adaptability of helicopters to naval purposes.
1947 – An object crashed near Roswell, NM. The U.S. Army Air Force insisted it was a weather balloon, but eyewitness accounts led to speculation that it might have been an alien spacecraft. In the Star Trek time line these were two Ferengi according to “Little Green Men”, the 80th episode of the television series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, the seventh episode of the fourth season.
1949 – “Riders in the Sky” by Vaughan Monroe topped the charts.
1949 - “Red Barber’s Clubhouse” sports show premiered on CBS (later NBC) TV.
1950 – USS Juneau and two British ships sink five of six attacking North Korean torpedo boats and gunboats. This is the only significant naval engagement of the Korean War.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Too Young” by Nat King Cole, “Mister and Mississippi” by Patti Page, “On Top of Old Smokey” by The Weavers (vocal: Terry Gilkyson) and “I Want to Be with You Always” by Lefty Frizzell all topped the charts.
1951 – NBC radio presented “Bob and Ray” (Bob Elliott and Ray Goulding) on a network radio show.
1955 - “Ah one anna two…” ABC Television premiered “The Lawrence Welk Show”. In Welk’s 24-piece band was the ‘Champagne Lady’, Alice Lon.
1955 – “Learnin’ the Blues” by Frank Sinatra topped the charts.
1956 – Elvis Presley records “Hound Dog” & “Don’t Be Cruel“.The songs, “Hound Dog” by Lieber and Stoller and “Don’t Be Cruel” written by Otis Blackwell (d.2002 at 70).
1957 – First sub powered by liquid metal cooled reactor completed – USS Seawolf.
1957 – First submarine designed to fire guided missiles launched, USS Grayback.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Personality” by Lloyd Price, “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka, “Lipstick on Your Collar” by Connie Francis and “The Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton all topped the charts.
1959 – The
1960 – “Everybody’s Somebody’s Fool“ by Connie Francis topped the charts.
1961 - Novelist Ernest Hemingway shot himself in the head at his home in Ketchum, Idaho. Boozing and physical trauma led to depression, electroshock therapy and suicide.
1962 – The first Wal-Mart store opens for business in Rogers, Arkansas.
1963 - President John F. Kennedy met Pope Paul the Sixth at the Vatican, the first meeting between a Roman Catholic US chief executive and the head of the Catholic Church.
1964 – President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964 meant to prohibit segregation in public places.
1966 – “Strangers in the Night” by Frank Sinatra topped the charts.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Windy” by The Association, “Little Bit o’ Soul” by The Music Explosion, “San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)” by Scott McKenzie and “All the Time” by Jack Greene all topped the charts.
1967 – Vietnam War: U.S. Marine Corps launched Operation Buffalo in response to the North Vietnamese Army’s efforts to seize the Marine base at Con Thien.
1967 – Vietnam War: During Operation Bear Claw, Seventh Fleet Amphibious Force conducts helicopter assault 12 miles inland at Con Thien.
1973 - Swede Savage (b.1946), American race car driver, died 33 days after suffering injuries at the Indianapolis 500.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Will Keep Us Together” by The Captain & Tennille, “When Will I Be Loved” by Linda Ronstadt, “Wildfire” by Michael Murphey, “Tryin’ to Beat the Morning Home” by T.G. Sheppard all topped the charts
1976 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled the death penalty was not inherently cruel or unusual.
1977 – “Gonna Fly Now (Theme From Rocky)“ by Bill Conti topped the charts.
1979 – The first U.S. coin to honor a woman, the Susan B. Anthony dollar, is introduced.
1979 - The US Supreme Court in Jones v Wolf said a court could look into a church property dispute but only if it studied the relevant documents in a neutral and non-religious spirit.
1980 – President Jimmy Carter reinstated draft registration for males 18 years of age.
1981 - The Continental Airlines Arena, part of the Meadowlands Sports complex in East Rutherford, NJ, opened with a concert by Bruce Springsteen.
1982 - Larry Walters (1949-1993), a Los Angeles truck driver, flew 16,000 feet into the air with 42 helium balloons attached to a lawn chair. Walters surprised an airline pilot, who radioed the control tower that he had just passed a guy in a lawn chair with a gun. The weapon was to shoot balloons and descend. Walters paid a $1,500 penalty for violating air traffic rules. Eleven years later, he committed suicide at age 44.
1982 - A bomb exploded in the hands of Prof. Diogenes Angelakos (d.1997 at 77) in Berkeley. It was later attributed to the Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Flashdance…What a Feeling” by Irene Cara, “Electric Avenue” by Eddy Grant, “Every Breath You Take” by The Police and “Love is on a Roll” by Don Williams all topped the charts.
1984 – Epic records set a record as two million copies of the Jacksons’ new album, “Victory”, were shipped to stores.
1985 – General Motors announced that it was installing electronic road maps as an option in some of its higher-priced cars.
1987 - Eighteen illegal immigrants were found dead inside a locked boxcar near Sierra Blanca, Texas, in what authorities called a botched smuggling attempt; a nineteenth man survived.
1988 – “Dirty Diana” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rush, Rush” by Paula Abdul, “Unbelievable” by EMF, “Power of Love/Love Power” by Luther Vandross and “The Thunder Rolls” by Garth Brooks all topped the charts.
1992 - The US Labor Department reported that the nation’s unemployment rate the previous month had risen to an eight-year high of 7.8 percent, compared to 7.5 percent in May.
1993 – Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman, some of whose followers were accused in the bombing of the World Trade Center, surrendered to immigration officials in New York City.
1993 - The White House (Clinton) acknowledged that it had erred in firing seven travel office employees and urging the FBI to investigate them.
1994 - A USAir DC-9 Flight 1016 crashed in poor weather at Charlotte-Douglas International Airport in North Carolina, killing 37 of the 57 people aboard.
1996 - USfederal officials announced the arrest of 12 members of a militia unit, called Viper Militia, that had planned to bomb government offices in the Phoenix area.
1996 - Electricity and phone service was knocked out for millions of customers from Canada to the Southwest after power lines throughout the West failed on a record-hot day.
1996 - Seven years after they shot their parents to death in the family’s Beverly Hills mansion, Lyle and Erik Menendez were sentenced to life in prison without parole.
1997 - The US began a round of underground nuclear weapons-related tests in Nevada.
1997 – A federal judge in New York ruled that the military policy, “don’t ask, don’t tell,” is unconstitutional and only serves to cater to the biases of many heterosexuals.
1997 – A Montana court voided a 24-year-old ban on homosexual sex, concluding that the government has no business meddling in the sexual activity of consenting adults.
1997 – Two Union Pacific trains collided five miles north of Rossville, Kan., when an engineer overshot a siding a struck an oncoming train six cars behind the locomotive; the engineer died in the wreck.
1997 – Severe thunder storms tore through Michigan’s lower peninsula and killed at least seven people.
1998 - Apologizing to viewers and Vietnam veterans for “serious faults” in its reporting, Cable News Network retracted a story alleging U.S. commandos had used nerve gas to kill American defectors during the war.
2001 – AbioCor self contained artificial heart created and it was implanted at Jewish Hospital to Robert L. Tools (59). Tools lived 151 days with the device and died Nov 30.
2001 - Missouri Gov. Bob Holden( D), signed legislation to ban the execution of mentally retarded inmates. This was the 16th state to do so.
2002 – Steve Fossett becomes the first person to fly solo around the world nonstop in a balloon.
2002 – Nicotine water is ruled illegal by the Food and Drug Administration.
2002 - The Hayman fire in Colorado was declared under control. It had burned 137,760 acres over 24 days.
2003 – There are reports of the discovery of a possible new type of subatomic particle, a pentaquark.
2004 - In Kansas City, Kansas, Elijah Brown (21), an employee at the ConAgra Foods meat-packing plant, went on a shooting rampage that left five dead including himself. A sixth person died overnight.
2004 - Entertainer Bill Cosby, in an appearance with Jesse Jackson, criticizes the African-American community, saying illiterate blacks are “going nowhere” and advising unemployed black men to “stop beating up your women”.
2004 – Several Democratic Party members of the U.S. House of Representatives request that the United Nations send observers to monitor the November 2 presidential election, citing the disputed 2000 presidential outcome.
2005 - Shasta Groene, an 8-year-old girl kidnapped six weeks earlier, was rescued at a Denny’s restaurant in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho.
2005 - Former World No.1 Venus Williams comes back from match point down to defeat Lindsay Davenport in the longest ever Wimbledon Ladies’ final of all time (4-6 7-6 9-7).
2007 - President George W. Bush commuted a 30-month jail term imposed on a former top White House aide Lewis ‘Scooter’ Libby for lying to federal investigators, sparking outrage from opposition Democrats.
2007 - President George W. Bush holds talks with the President of Russia Vladimir Putin in Kennebunkport, Maine discussing missile defense and Iran.
2007 - Arizona Governor Janet Napolitano signed a bill imposing stiff penalties on employers who hire illegal immigrants.
2008 - Thirty-one years after its launch, the Voyager 2 spacecraft sends a detailed view of the shock wave that marks the thinning of the solar wind, the charged particles streaming from the sun.
2008 - The US lifted a moratorium on applications to build solar power plants on public lands in six Western states.
2008 - In California Hans Florine (44) and Yuji Hirayama (39) broke a World Record for the fastest climb up the Nose of El Capitan (2:43:33) in Yosemite National Park. On Oct 12 they broke the record again with a time of 2:37:5. On Nov 6, 2010, climbers Dean Potter and Sean Leary broke the record with a time of 2:36:45.
2008 – In Colorado Springs Colorado, presidential candidate Barack Obama said: “we can no longer continue to rely on the military in order to achieve the national security objectives that we’ve set. We’ve gotta have a civilian national security force that is just as powerful, just as strong, just as well funded as our military.”
2009 – The American economy shed 467,000 jobs last month, and the unemployment rate rose to 9.5 percent, its highest level in 26 years, the Labor Department reported.
2009 – In New York City federal marshals seized convicted financier Bernard Madoff’s $7 million Manhattan penthouse and forced his wife to move out and leave her possessions behind, including a fur coat she had asked to take with her.
2009 - The US Armed Forces launch Operation Strike of the Sword against the Taliban in Helmand, Afghanistan.
2010 - Russian cargo ship Progress fails to dock with the International Space Station.
2010 - President Barack Obama signs into law the CISAD Act, which bans US banks from doing business with foreign banks that provide services to Iran’s elite Revolutionary Guards.
2011 – ExxonMobil workers attempt to contain an oil spill on the Yellowstone River in Montana.
2012 – An Oregon town has reportedly canceled its annual fireworks show out of concern the Fourth of July pyrotechnics will scare sea birds roosting nearby. Town officials in Depoe Bay have announced the cancellation of the annual pre-Independence Day fireworks show on July 3 following pressure from federal wildlife managers who said the noise disrupts sea birds in the area.
2013 – OBAMACARE: The White House delays for one year the law’s requirement that employers provide coverage to workers. This was done without Congressional approval.
1492 – Elizabeth Tudor, English princess (d. 1495)
1665 – Samuel Penhallow, English-born American colonist and historian (d. 1726)
1820 – George Law Curry, Newspaper publisher and Governor of Oregon (d. 1878) 1865 – Lily Braun, German writer (d. 1916)
1877 – Hermann Hesse, German-born writer, Nobel laureate (d. 1962)
1881 – Royal H. Weller, American politician (d. 1929)
1906 – Hans Bethe, German-born nuclear physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 2005)
1908 – Thurgood Marshall, American Supreme Court Justice (d. 1993)
1914 – Frederick Fennell, American conductor (d. 2004)
1919 – Jean Craighead George, American writer
1925 – Medgar Evers, American civil rights activist (d. 1963)
1927 – Gene Ray, Founder of the Time Cube website and proponent of Time Cube philosophy
1929 – Imelda Marcos, First Lady of the Philippines
1932 – Dave Thomas, American fast food entrepreneur (d. 2002)
1937 – Richard Petty, American race car driver
1939 – John H. Sununu, White House Chief of Staff under George HW Bush
1939 – Paul Williams, American singer (The Temptations) (d. 1973)
1946 – Richard Axel, American scientist, Nobel laureate
1948 – Gene McFadden, American songwriter (d. 2006)
1956 – Jerry Hall, American actress
1964 – José Canseco, Cuban-born American baseball player
1964 – Ozzie Canseco, Cuban-born American baseball player
1980 – Nicole Manske, American beauty queen and motorsports television commentator
1982 – Olivia Munn, American television hostess
1983 – Michelle Branch, American singer (The Wreckers)
GREER, ALLEN J.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 4th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near Majada, Laguna Province, Philippine Islands, 2 July 1901. Entered service at: Memphis, Tenn. Birth: Memphis, Tenn. Date of issue: 10 March 1902. Citation: Charged alone an insurgent outpost with his pistol, killing one, wounding two, and capturing three insurgents with their rifles and equipment.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Troop B, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Patian Island, Philippine Islands, 2 July 1909. Entered service at: Leavenworth, Kans. Birth: Leavenworth, Kans. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: While in action against hostile Moros, voluntarily advanced alone, in the face of a heavy fire, to within about fifteen yards of the hostile position and refastened to a tree a block and tackle used in checking the recoil of a mountain gun.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Patian Island, Philippine Islands, 2 July 1909. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: Fort Sheridan, Ill. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: While in action against hostile Moros, when the machinegun detachment, having been driven from its position by a heavy fire, one member being killed, did, with the assistance of an enlisted man, place the machinegun in advance of its former position at a distance of about twenty yards from the enemy, in accomplishing which he was obliged to splice a piece of timber to one leg of the gun tripod, all the while being under a heavy fire, and the gun tripod being several times struck by bullets.
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
WELBORN, IRA C.
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 9th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Santiago, Cuba, 2 July 1898. Entered service at: Mico, Miss. Birth: Mico, Miss. Date of issue: 21 June 1899. Citation: Voluntarily left shelter and went, under fire, to the aid of a private of his company who was wounded.
ALLEN, NATHANIEL M.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company B, 1st Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 29 March 1899. Citation: When his regiment was falling back, this soldier, bearing the national color, returned in the face of the enemy’s fire, pulled the regimental flag from under the body of its bearer, who had fallen, saved the flag from capture, and brought both colors off the field.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 82d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 6 February 1888. Citation: Captured the flag of the 7th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.), being twice wounded in the effort.
CARLISLE, CASPER R.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, Independent Pennsylvania Light Artillery. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Allegheny County, Pa. Birth: Allegheny County, Pa. Date of issue: 21 December 1892. Citation: Saved a gun of his battery under heavy musketry fire, most of the horses being killed and the drivers wounded.
CHAMBERLAIN, JOSHUA L.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 20th Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Brunswick, Maine. Born: 8 September 1828, Brewer Maine. Date of issue: 11 August 1893. Citation: Daring heroism and great tenacity in holding his position on the Little Round Top against repeated assaults, and carrying the advance position on the Great Round Top.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 125th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Chatham, N.Y. Birth: Chatham, N.Y. Date of issue: 11 June 1895. Citation: Seized the colors and advanced with them after the color bearer had been shot.
FASSETT, JOHN B.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company F, 23d Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 29 December 1894. Citation: While acting as an aide, voluntarily led a regiment to the relief of a battery and recaptured its guns from the enemy.
FURMAN, CHESTER S.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 6th Pennsylvania Reserves. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Columbia, Pa. Date of issue: 3 August 1897. Citation: Was one of six volunteers who charged upon a log house near Devil’s Den, where a squad of the enemy’s sharpshooters were sheltered, and compelled their surrender.
GAGE, RICHARD J.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 104th Illinois Infantry Place and date: Elk River, Tenn., 2 July 1863. Entered service at. Ottawa, Ill. Birth: Grafton County, N.H. Date of issue: 30 October 1897. Citation: Voluntarily joined a small party that, under a heavy fire, captured a stockade and saved the bridge.
HART, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 6th Pennsylvania Reserves. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Cumberland, Md. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 3 August 1897. Citation: Was one of six volunteers who charged upon a log house near the Devil’s Den, where a squad of the enemy’s sharpshooters were sheltered, and compelled their surrender.
HOLLAND, LEMUEL F.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 104th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Elk River, Tenn., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: La Salle County, Ill. Birth. Burlington, Ohio. Date of issue: 30 October 1897. Citation: Voluntarily joined a small party that, under a heavy fire, captured a stockade and saved the bridge.
Rank and organization. Sergeant, Company E, 72d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Dunkirk, N.Y. Birth:——. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: In a charge of his regiment this soldier captured the regimental flag of the 8th Florlda Infantry (C.S.A.).
HOUGHTON, GEORGE L.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 104th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Elk River, Tenn., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Brookfield, Cook County, Ill. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 27 March 1900. Citation: Voluntarily joined a small party that, under a heavy fire, captured a stockade and saved the bridge.
JOHNSON, WALLACE W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 6th Pennsylvania Reserves. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Waverly, N.Y. Birth: Newfield, N.Y. Date of issue: 8 August 1900. Citation: With five other volunteers gallantly charged on a number of the enemy’s sharpshooters concealed in a log house, captured them, and brought them into the Union lines.
KNOX, EDWARD M.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 15th New York Battery. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 18 October 1892. Citation: Held his ground with the battery after the other batteries had fallen back until compelled to draw his piece off by hand; he was severely wounded.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company A, 13th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Burlington, Vt. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 28 October 1893. Citation: Gallantry in the recapture of four guns and the capture of two additional guns from the enemy; also the capture of a number of prisoners.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 104th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Elk River, Tenn., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Brookfield, La Salle County, Ill. Birth: Brookfield, La Salle County, Ill. Date of issue: 17 September 1897. Citation: Voluntarily led a small party and, under a heavy fire, captured a stockade and saved the bridge.
MEARS, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 6th Pennsylvania Reserves. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Bloomsburgh, Pa. Birth: Bloomsburgh, Pa. Date of issue: 16 February 1897. Citation: With five volunteers he gallantly charged on a number of the enemy’s sharpshooters concealed in a log house, captured them, and brought them into the Union lines.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company A, 140th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863; At Reams Station, Va., 25 August 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Green County, Pa. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: While a sergeant and retiring with his company before the rapid advance of the enemy at Gettysburg, he and a companion stopped and carried to a place of safety a wounded and helpless comrade; in this act both he and his companion were severely wounded. A year later, at Reams Station, Va., while commanding a skirmish line, voluntarily assisted in checking a flank movement of the enemy, and while so doing was severely wounded, suffering the loss of an arm.
POSTLES, JAMES PARKE
Rank and organization: Captain, Company A, 1st Delaware Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Wilmington, Del. Born: 28 September 1840, Camden, Del. Date of issue: 22 July 1892. Citation: Voluntarily delivered an order in the face of heavy fire of the enemy.
PURMAN, JAMES J.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company A, 140th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Greene County, Pa. Birth: ——. Dare of issue: 30 October 1896. Citation: Voluntarily assisted a wounded comrade to a place of apparent safety while the enemy were in close proximity; he received the fire of the enemy and a wound which resulted in the amputation of his left leg.
REED, CHARLES W.
Rank and organization: Bugler, 9th Independent Battery, Massachusetts Light Artillery. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Charlestown, Mass. Date of issue: 16 August 1895. Citation: Rescued his wounded captain from between the lines.
ROOSEVELT, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company K. 26th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Bull Run, Va., 30 August 1862. At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Chester Pa. Birth: Chester, Pa. Date of issue: 2 July 1887. Citation: At Bull Run, Va., recaptured the colors, which had been seized by the enemy. At Gettysburg captured a Confederate color bearer and color, in which effort he was severely wounded.
ROUSH, J. LEVI
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 6th Pennsylvania Reserves. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Bedford County, Pa. Date of issue: 3 August 1897. Citation: Was one of six volunteers who charged upon a log house near the Devil’s Den, where a squad of the enemy’s sharpshooters were sheltered, and compelled their surrender.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 104th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Elk River, Tenn., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Ottawa, Ill. Birth: England. Date of issue: 30 October 1897. Citation: Voluntarily joined a small party that, under a heavy fire, captured a stockade and saved the bridge.
SICKLES, DANIEL E.
Rank and organization: Major General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 30 October 1897. Citation: Displayed most conspicuous gallantry on the field vigorously contesting the advance of the enemy and continuing to encourage his troops after being himself severely wounded.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 104th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Elk River, Tenn., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Manlius, Ill. Birth: Fulton County, Ohio. Date of issue: 30 October 1897. Citation: Voluntarily joined a small party that, under a heavy fire, captured a stockade and saved the bridge.
SMALLEY, REUBEN S.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 104th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Elk River, Tenn., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Brookfield, La Salle County, Ill. Birth: Washington County, Pa. Date of issue: 30 October 1897. Citation: Voluntarily joined a small party that, under a heavy fire, captured a stockade and saved the bridge.
SMITH, THADDEUS S.
Rank and organization. Corporal, Company E, 6th Pennsylvania Reserve Infantry. Place and date. At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Franklin County, Pa. Date of issue: 5 May 1900. Citation: Was one of six volunteers who charged upon a log house near the Devil’s Den, where a squad of the enemy’s sharpshooters were sheltered, and compelled their surrender.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 55th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 23 June 1896. Citation: Voluntarily took an advanced position on the skirmish line for the purpose of ascertaining the location of Confederate sharpshooters, and under heavy fire held the position thus taken until the company of which he was a member went back to the main line.
TOZIER, ANDREW J.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company I, 20th Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 2 July 1863. Entered service at: Plymouth, Maine. Birth: Monmouth, Maine. Date of issue: 13 August 1898. Citation: At the crisis of the engagement this soldier, a color bearer, stood alone in an advanced position, the regiment having been borne back, and defended his colors with musket and ammunition picked up at his feet.
ZIP Code Day
Second Half of the Year Day
1. WILL THE REAL DUMMY PLEASE STAND UP?
AT&T fired President John Walter after nine months, saying he lacked Intellectual leadership. He received a $26 million severance package.
Perhaps it’s not Walter who’s lacking intelligence.
2. WITH A LITTLE HELP FROM OUR FRIENDS.
Police in Oakland, CA spent two hours attempting to subdue a gunman who had barricaded himself inside his home. After firing ten tear gas canisters, officers discovered that the man was standing beside them in the police line, shouting, “Please come out and give yourself up.”
3. WHAT WAS PLAN B?
An Illinois man, pretending to have a gun, kidnapped a motorist and forced him to drive to two different automated teller machines, wherein the kidnapper proceeded to withdraw money from his own bank accounts.
4. THE GETAWAY!
A man walked into a Topeka, Kansas, Kwik Stop and asked for all the money in the cash drawer. Apparently, the take was too small, so he tied up the store clerk and worked the counter himself for three hours until police showed up and grabbed him.
5. DID I SAY THAT?
Police in Los Angeles had good luck with a robbery suspect who just couldn’t control himself during a lineup. When detectives asked each man in the lineup to repeat the words: “Give me all your money or I’ll shoot,” the man shouted, “That’s not what I said!”
6. ARE WE COMMUNICATING?
A man spoke frantically into the phone: “My wife is pregnant and her contractions are only two minutes apart.” ” Is this her first child?” the Doctor asked.
“No!” the man shouted. ” This is her husband!”
7. NOT THE SHARPEST TOOL IN THE SHED!
In Modesto, CA, Steven Richard King was arrested for trying to hold up a Bank of America branch without a weapon. King used a thumb and a finger to simulate a gun. Unfortunately, he failed to keep his hand in his pocket.
8. THE GRAND FINALE!!!
Last summer, down on Lake Isabella, located in the high desert, an hour east of Bakersfield, CA, some folks, new to boating, were having a problem. No matter how hard they tried they couldn’t get their brand new 22 foot boat going. It was very sluggish in almost every maneuver, no matter how much power they applied. After about an hour of trying to make it go they pulled into a nearby marina, thinking someone there may be able to tell them what was wrong. A thorough topside check revealed everything in perfect working condition The engine ran fine, the out-drive went up and down, and the propeller was the correct size and pitch. So, one of the marina guys jumped in the water to check underneath. He came up choking on water, he was laughing so hard.
NOW REMEMBER THIS IS TRUE.
Under the boat, still strapped securely in place, was the trailer!
“Strategic planning is worthless–unless there is first a strategic vision.”
~ John Naisbitt
circumlocution sir-kuhm-loh-KYOO-shuhn, noun:
The use of many words to express an idea that might be expressed by few; indirect or roundabout language.
1520 – La Noche Triste: Joint Mexican Indian force led by Aztecs under Cuitláhuac defeat Spanish Conquistadors under Hernán Cortés.
1656 – The first Quakers, Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, arrived in Boston and were promptly arrested.
1775 – The Continental Congress resolves to recruit Indian nations to the American side in their dispute with the British, should the British take native allies of their own.
1797 – Congress passed “An Act providing a Naval Armament,” empowered the President to “cause the said revenue cutters to be employed to defend the seacoast and to repel any hostility to their vessels and commerce, within their jurisdiction, having due regard to the duty of said cutters in the protection of the revenue.”
1782 – American privateers attack Lunenburg, Nova Scotia.
1800 – First convoy duty; USS Essex escorts convoy of merchant ships from East Indies to U.S.
1801 – U.S. squadron under Commodore Dale enters Mediterranean to strike Barbary Pirates.
1847 – The U.S. Post Office issued its first adhesive stamps.Ben Franklin graced the nickel stamp while George Washington was pictured on the ten-cent stamp.
1858 – The joint reading of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace’s papers on evolution to the Linnean Society.
1859 – First intercollegiate baseball game, Amherst beats Williams 73-32
1862 - Civil War: The Battle of Malvern Hill takes place, the final battle in the Seven Days Campaign, part of the George B. McClellan’s Peninsula Campaign.
1862 – Civil War: To help pay for the Civil War, the U.S. Congress established the Bureau of Internal Revenue on this day. President Abraham Lincoln signed the bill into law.
1862 – Congress outlaws polygamy.
1862 – Internal Revenue Law imposes first income tax.. The tax was imposed by Congress to finance the Union’s waging of the Civil War. It levied a 3% tax on incomes above $600, rising to 5% for incomes above $10,000.
1863 – Civil War: The largest military conflict in North American history begins this day when Union and Confederate forces collide at Gettysburg. The epic battle lasted three days and resulted in a retreat to Virginia by Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia.
1863 – Free city delivery of mail begins in 49 US cities; postage 3¢ / oz. The service was a tremendous success, and by 1869 revenues from City Free Delivery superseded costs ten times over.
1870 – The United States Department of Justice formally comes into existence.
1874 – The first zoo in the United States opened in Philadelphia, PA. Over 3,000 visitors paid 25 cents (adults) or 10 cents (children) to see the one-thousand animals housed in the Philadelphia Zoological Society zoo.
1881 – The world’s first international telephone call takes place between St. Stephen, New Brunswick, Canada, and Calais, Maine, United States.
1889 – US mint at Carson City, Nevada reopens.
1892 – The Homestead Strike, a strike by the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers against the Carnegie Steel Company, begins.
1893 – The first bicycle race track in America to be made out of wood was opened in San Francisco, CA.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The Battle of San Juan Hill was fought in Santiago de Cuba. Theodore Roosevelt and his “Rough Riders” waged a victorious assault.
1899 – The Father of Gospel Music, Thomas Dorsey, born in Villa Rica, GA.
1905 – The USDA Forest Service was created within the Department of Agriculture. The agency was given the mission to sustain healthy, diverse, and productive forests and grasslands for present and future generations.
1907 – World’s 1st air force was established as part of the US Army.
1909 – Thomas Edison began commercially manufacturing his new “A” type alkaline storage batteries.
1910 – Chicago’s Comiskey Park opens.
1911 – Trial of first Navy aircraft, Curtiss A-1. The designer, Glenn Curtiss, makes first flight in Navy’s first aircraft, A-1, at Lake Keuka, NY.
1916 - Dwight David Eisenhower married Mamie Geneva Doud. It was the same day that Ike was promoted to first lieutenant in the U.S. Army.
1916 – World War I: The massive Allied offensive known as the Battle of the Somme began in France. The battle was the first to use tanks.
1917 – Race riot, East St. Louis, Illinois. Estimates of number killed ranged from forty to two hundred. Martial law was declared.
1918 – USS Covington hit without warning by two torpedoes from German Submarine U-86 and sank the next day.
1921 – The Coast Guard’s first air station, located at Morehead City, North Carolina, was closed due to a lack of funding.
1924 – Roland Hayes, who was born in a Georgia cabin in 1887, was named a soloist with the Boston Symphony Orchestra.
1931 – United Airlines began service (as Boeing Air Transport).
1932 – NY Governor FDR nominated for president at the Dem Convention in Chicago.
1934 – The Federal Communications Commission replaced the Federal Radio Commission as the regulator of broadcasting in the United States.
1934 – First x-ray photo of entire body, Rochester, NY.
1935 - Benny Goodman and his band recorded the “King Porter Stomp” for Victor Records.
1940 – In Washington, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge was opened to traffic. The bridge (“Galloping Gertie”) collapsed during a wind storm on November 7, 1940. The great span’s short life ended in disaster.
1941 – Aircraft from the United States Navy start antisubmarine patrols from bases in Newfoundland.
1941 – Bulova Watch Company sponsored the first TV commercial in New York City, NY. The price for that first commercial was $9.00. NBC broadcast the commercial sanctioned by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
1941 – First commercial TV license granted-W2XBS-WNBT (NBC) & WCBW (CBS) NYC
1943 – The U.S. Government began automatically withholding federal income tax from paychecks.
1946 – President Harry Truman signed Public Law 476 that incorporated the Civil Air Patrol as a benevolent, nonprofit organization. The Civil Air Patrol was created on December 1, 1941.
1946 – The U.S. exploded a 20-kiloton atomic bomb near Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean.
1948 - The five-cent subway ride came to an end in New York City. The price doubled to a dime this day.
1950 – Task Force Smith, two companies of the 24th Infantry Division’s 21st Infantry Regimentarrived in South Korea to stem the tide of the advancing North Korean army.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bewitched” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Mary Lou Williams), “My Foolish Heart” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Eileen Wilson), “I Wanna Be Loved” by The Andrews Sisters and “Why Don’t You Love Me” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1951 – Bob Feller set a major league baseball record as he pitched his third no-hitter for the Cleveland Indians.
1952 – Silly Putty was trademark registered.
1956 - Elvis Presley got an invitation from Steve Allen to appear on “The Tonight Show”. The song has performed was “Hound Dog.”
1956 – The Highway Revenue Act of 1956 was put into effect by Congress.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hard Headed Woman” by Elvis Presley, “Yakety Yak” by The Coasters, “Patricia” by Perez Prado and “Guess Things Happen that Way” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1958 – Flooding of the St. Lawrence Seaway begins.
1961 – The first community air-raid shelter was built. The shelter in Boise, ID had a capacity of 1,000 people and family memberships sold for $100.
1961 – “Quarter to Three” by Gary “US” Bonds topped the charts.
1963 – ZIP Codes are introduced for United States mail.
1963 – Beatles record “She Loves You” & “I’ll Get You“.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Paperback Writer” by The Beatles, “Strangers in the Night” by Frank Sinatra, “Red Rubber Ball” by The Cyrkle and “Take Good Care of Her” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1966 – The Medicare federal insurance program went into effect.
1966 – The U.S. Marines launched Operation Holt in an attempt to finish off a Vietcong battalion in Thua Thien Province in Vietnam.
1967 – “Windy” by the Association topped the charts.
1967 – Scott McKenzie scored his first hit with the single, “San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)“
1968 – The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty was signed by 60 countries. It limited the spreading of nuclear material for military purposes. On May 11, 1995, the treaty was extended indefinitely.
1968 – The CIA’s Phoenix Program is officially established. The Program was designed to identify and “neutralize” (via infiltration, capture, terrorism, or assassination) the civilian infrastructure supporting the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF or Viet Cong) insurgency.
1968 – The Nuclear non-proliferation treaty is signed in Washington, London and Moscow by sixty-two countries.
1968 – Formal separation of the United Auto Workers from the AFL-CIO.
1972 – “Song Sung Blue” by Neil Diamond topped the charts.
1972 – Ms. magazine begins publishing.
1972 – Date of rank of Rear Admiral Samuel Lee Gravely, Jr., who was first U.S. Navy Admiral of African-American descent.
1973 - Golfer Bruce Crampton tied for fourth place in the Western Open golf tournament, bringing his career earnings to over a million dollars. Crampton became the first non-American golfer to reach that mark.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sundown” by Gordon Lightfoot, “Be Thankful for What You Got” by William DeVaughn “If You Love Me (Let Me Know)” by Olivia Newton-John and “Room Full of Roses” by Mickey Gilley all topped the charts.
1976 – Kenneth Gibson, mayor of Newark, became the first black president of the U.S. Conference of Mayors.
1979 – Sony introduces the Walkman.
1979 – Susan B. Anthony was commemorated on a U.S. coin, the Susan B. Anthony dollar.
1980 – President Jimmy Carter signed legislation that provided for 2 acres of land near the Lincoln Memorial for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.
1981 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that candidates for federal office had an “affirmative right” to go on national television.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ebony and Ivory” by Paul McCartney with Stevie Wonder, “Don’t You Want Me” by The Human League, “Rosanna” by Toto and “Slow Hand” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1984 – The PG-13 rating is introduced by the MPAA.
1985 - Robin Yount of the Milwaukee Brewers got hit #1,800 of his career, leading the ‘Brew Crew’ past the Boston Red Sox 5-1.
1987 – American radio station WFAN in New York City is launched as the world’s first all-sports radio station.
1987 – John Kevin Hill, at age 11, became the youngest to fly across the U.S. when he landed at National Airport in Washington, DC.
1989 – “Baby Don’t Forget My Number” by Milli Vanilli topped the charts.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Step By Step” by New Kids on the Block, “Do You Remember?” by Phil Collins, “I’ll Be Your Shelter” by Taylor Dayne and “Love Without End, Amen” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1991 - Court TV was born. The cable TV network broadcasts entire trials, both famous and low profile.
1991 – Clarence Thomas is nominated to the Supreme Court by President George Bush.
1993 – The space shuttle Endeavour returned safely from a 10-day mission.
1995 – Legendary radio disk jockey Wolfman Jack, born Robert Smith, dies. Brooklyn-born Smith became famous when he was broadcasting from Mexico in the 1960s.
1996 – Twelve members of an Arizona anti-government group, the Viper Militia, were charged with plotting to blow up government buildings.
1997 – The People’s Republic of China resumes sovereignty over the city-state of Hong Kong, ending 156 years of British colonial rule.
1998 - “Armageddon” opened in U.S. theatres. The plot: Asteroid on collision course with Earth had to be knocked off course with a nuclear explosion.
1999 – The U.S. Justice Department released new regulations that granted the attorney general sole power to appoint and oversee special counsels.
2000 – Vermont’s civil unions law goes into effect.
2003 – A female employee at a Colorado resort goes to police to file sexual misconduct charges against basketball star Kobe Bryant.
2004 – The US Coast Guard began boarding foreign vessels as int’l. security rules went into effect.
2004 – A defiant Saddam Hussein rejected charges of war crimes and genocide in a court appearance, telling a judge “this is all theater, the real criminal is Bush.”
2004 - The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code, a set of security restrictions designed by the UN’s International Maritime Organization in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks, goes into effect.
2005 - General Motors Corp. announces that it had its best month in 19 years in June 2005, increasing total deliveries by 41% against June 2004.
2005 - U.S. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor announces her retirement after 24 years of service on the Court.
2005 - Much of the government of Minnesota shuts down as the state legislature fails to pass a budget by the end of the fiscal year.
2007 - An evacuation is made of the American Airlines terminal of JFK airport because of a suspicious package. The package was found at 10:20 AM local time, and bomb squad was sent to the scene. The package turned out to be carrying cologne, so the terminal was cleared and operations returned to normal within an hour.
2008 - Starbucks announces that it will close 600 underperforming coffee shops in the United States.
2009 - Spaceflightnow.com reported that TerreStar-1, the largest commercial telecommunication satellite ever built, is successfully launched.
2009 – The Car Allowance Rebate System (CARS), colloquially known as “Cash for Clunkers”, was a $3 billion U.S. federal scrapping program intended to provide economic incentives to U.S. residents to purchase a new, more fuel-efficient vehicle when trading in a less fuel-efficient vehicle.This was the official start date but claims were not processed until 7/24/2009.
2010 - Animal welfare groups sue BP for burning endangered sea turtles and ask the court to stop the controlled burning of spilled oil in the Gulf of Mexico, claiming BP is violating the Endangered Species Act and other laws.
2011 – Owners in the NBA commence a lockout after failing to reach a collective bargaining agreement with players.
2011 – The government of Minnesota is to shut down as a result of a budget dispute between Democratic Governor Mark Dayton and the Republican Legislature.
2012 - Tiger Woods wins the AT&T National passing Jack Nicklaus for PGA Tour wins and is now second behind Sam Snead.
1807 – Thomas Green Clemson, American university founder (d. 1888)
1899 – Thomas A. Dorsey, American composer (d. 1993)
1906 – Estée Lauder, American entrepreneur (d. 2004)
1909 – Bill Stern, American sportscaster (d. 1971)
1915 – Joseph Ransohoff, American neurosurgeon (d. 2001)
1916 – Olivia de Havilland, British-born actress
1926 – Robert Fogel, Nobel laureate
1934 – Jamie Farr, American actor
1934 – Sydney Pollack, American film director (d. 2008)
1939 – Karen Black, American actress
1942 – Andraé Crouch, American singer
1942 – Mike Malloy, American talk radio host
1947 – Shirley Hemphill, American actress (d. 1999)
1952 – Dan Aykroyd, Canadian actor
1961 – Diana, Princess of Wales (d. 1997)
1961 – Carl Lewis, American athlete
1971 – Steven W. Bailey, American actor
1977 – Liv Tyler, American actress
Three major events occurred on this day in history, the Spanish-American War, the Battle of Malvern Hill and Gettysburg.
On April 21, 1898, the United States declared war against Spain following the sinking of the Battleship Maine in the Havana harbor on February 15, 1898. The U.S. also supported the ongoing struggle of Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines for independence against Spanish rule. This would be the first war ever fought overseas by the United States and it involved campaigns in both Cuba and the Philippine Islands.
The majority of Spanish-American War soldiers were volunteers who were from all over the United States for their part in, as Secretary of State John Hay called it, a “splendid little war.”
War began in Cuba in June when the Marines captured Guantánamo Bay and U.S. troops landed at Siboney and Daiquirí, east of Santiago, Cuba. U.S. troops attacked the San Juan heights on July 1, 1898.
Dismounted cavalry troopers, including the African-American Ninth and Tenth cavalries and the Rough Riders commanded by Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt went up against Kettle Hill while the forces led by Brigadier General Jacob Kent charged up San Juan Hill and pushed Spanish troops further inland while inflicting 1,700 casualties.
The Spanish fleet guarding the Philippines was defeated by the U.S. Navy under the command of Commodore George Dewey on May 1, 1898. President McKinley authorized the assembling of troops in order to mount a campaign against the capital of Manila not realizing Dewey’s win.
The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898. The war established the independence of Cuba, ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States, and allowed the US to purchase the Philippines Islands from Spain for $20 million.
The war cost the United States $250 million and 3,000 lives, 90% of whom perished from yellow fever, typhoid fever and other infectious diseases. Pennsylvania was one of the largest contributors of men during the Spanish American War with almost 17,000 Pennsylvanians serving in the Pennsylvania Volunteers, and many more in the Federal army and navy.
To research for more information about the Pennsylvania Volunteers go to:
Not only does this include the rosters, it has some interesting letters and reports of the conflicts themselves from the various commanders.
The following men received the Medal of Honor for actions on this day.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 10th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Santiago, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at:______. Birth: Laramie County, Wyo. Date of issue: 3 July 1902. Citation: Left cover and, under fire, rescued a wounded comrade from drowning.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 17th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At El Caney, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: ______. Birth: Wayne County, Ill. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and while under heavy fire of the enemy.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 17th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At El Caney, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: ______. Birth: Armstrong, Pa. Date of issue: 24 June 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and under heavy fire from the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 10th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Santiago, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: Nashville, Tenn. Born: 13 February 1874, Smithville, Tenn. Date of issue: 22 June 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and under heavy fire from the enemy.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 10th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Santiago, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: ______. Birth: Alexandria, Ind. Date of issue: 22 June 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and under heavy fire of the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 21st U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Santiago, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 22 June 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and under heavy fire from the enemy.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 21st U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Santiago, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: Newcastle, Maine. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 22 June 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and while under heavy fire from the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 21st U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Santiago, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: Plattsburg, N.Y. Birth: Rome, N.Y. Date of issue: 22 June 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and while under heavy fire of the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 17th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At El Caney, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: Millville, Ind. Birth: Milton, Ind. Date of issue: 22 June 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and under heavy fire from the enemy.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 17th U .S. Infantry. Place and date: At El Caney, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at:______. Birth: Benleyville, Ky. Date of issue: 21 June 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and under heavy fire from the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 10th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Santiago de Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: Buffalo, N.Y. Birth: Buffalo, N.Y. Date of issue: 22 June 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and under heavy fire of the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 21st U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Santiago de Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 22 June 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and while under heavy fire from the enemy.
Rank and organization: Captain and Assistant Adjutant General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: Near Santiago, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 9 July 1902. Citation: Distinguished gallantry in encouraging those near him by his bravery and coolness after being shot through the head and entirely without sight.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 10th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Santiago, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: Louisville, Ky. Birth: Louisville, Ky. Date of issue: 22 June 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and under heavy fire from the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 21st U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Santiago, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 22 June 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and under heavy fire from the enemy.
Rank and organization: Musician, Company H, 21st U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Santiago, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at New York, N.Y. Birth: Brooklyn, N.Y. Date of issue: 22 June 1899 Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and under heavy fire from the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 10th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Santiago, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: Lapeer, Mich. Birth: Lapeer, Mich. Date of issue: 22 June 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and while under heavy fire of the enemy.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 13th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Santiago, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Passaic, N.J. Date of issue: 22 June 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and under heavy fire from the enemy.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 17th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At El Caney, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: Dalmatia, Pa. Birth: Dalmatia, Pa. Date of issue: 21 August 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines and under heavy fire of the enemy.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 17th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At El Caney, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: Fort D. A. Russell, Wyo. Birth: Fort D. A. Russell, Wyo. Date of issue: 21 June 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines under heavy fire of the enemy.
The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, March 3, 1863, has awarded in the name of The Congress the Medal of Honor to
LIEUTENANT COLONEL THEODORE ROOSEVELT
UNITED STATES ARMY
for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt distinguished himself by acts of bravery on 1 July, 1898, near Santiago de Cuba, Republic of Cuba, while leading a daring charge up San Juan Hill. Lieutenant Colonel Roosevelt, in total disregard for his personal safety, and accompanied by only four or five men, led a desperate and gallant charge up San Juan Hill, encouraging his troops to continue the assault through withering enemy fire over open countryside. Facing the enemy’s heavy fire, he displayed extraordinary bravery throughout the charge, and was the frst to reach the enemy trenches, where he quickly killed one of the enemy with his pistol, allowing his men to continue the assault. His leadership and valor turned the tide in the Battle for San Juan Hill. Lieutenant Colonel Roosevelt’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 17th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At El Caney, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: Westover, Pa. Birth: Cherry Tree, Pa. Date of issue: 21 August 1899. citation. Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines under heavy fire from the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 17th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At El Caney, Cuba, 1 July 1898. Entered service at: Canton, Ohio. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 22 June 1899. Citation: Gallantly assisted in the rescue of the wounded from in front of the lines under heavy fire of the enemy.
Rank and organization: Watertender, U.S. Navy. Born: 1861, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 482, 1 November 1897. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Puritan at the time of the collapse of one of the crown sheets of boiler E of that vessel, 1 July 1897. Wrapped in wet cloths to protect his face and arms, Ahern entered the fireroom, crawled over the tops of the boilers and closed the auxiliary stop valve, disconnecting boiler E and removing the danger of disabling the other boilers.
Rank and organization: Boilermaker, U.S. Navy. Born: 1 March 1864, Danzig, Germany. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.. 482, November 1897. Citation: For gallant conduct while serving on board the U.S.S. Puritan and at the time of the collapse of one of the crown sheets of boiler E on that vessel, 1 July 1897. Wrapping wet cloths about his face and arms, Wilson entered the fireroom and opened the safety valve, thus removing the danger of disabling the other boilers.
Malvern Hill was the sixth and last of the Seven Days’ Battles. On July 1, 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee launched a series of disjointed assaults on the nearly impregnable Union position on Malvern Hill. The casualties for the Confederates were 17,583 without gaining an inch of ground. Despite his victory, McClellan withdrew to entrench at Harrison’s Landing on James River, where his army was protected by gunboats. This ended the Peninsula Campaign. When McClellan’s army ceased to threaten Richmond, Lee sent Jackson to operate against Maj. Gen. John Pope’s army along the Rapidan River, thus initiating the Northern Virginia Campaign.
The Seven Days’ Battles , June 25-July 1, 1862, were a series of battles in the American CIVIL WAR that took place near the city of Richmond, Virginia. The most important encounters were the battles of Mechanicsville, June 26; Gaines’s Mill, June 27; and Malvern Hill, July 1. Despite huge losses suffered by the Confederate forces, the Union army withdrew because of overcaution by its generals, thus ending the Peninsular Campaign (the Union offensive against Richmond, the Confederate capital). One year later on this date, Gettysburg would be fought.
The following men received the Medal of Honor for their actions:
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 1st New York Artillery. Place and date: At White Oak Swamp, Va., 30 June 1862. At Malvern Hill, Va., 1 July 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Continued to fight after being severely wounded.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 29th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Malvern Hill, Va., 1 July 1862. Entered service at:——. Birth: Scituate, Mass. Date of issue: 1 April 1898. Citation: Although wounded and carried to the rear, he secured a rifle and voluntarily returned to the front, where, failing to find his own regiment, he joined another and fought with it until again severely wounded and taken prisoner.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 69th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Malvern Hill, Va., 1 July 1862. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 2 August 1897. Citation: Having been wounded and directed to the rear, declined to go, but continued in action, receiving several additional wounds, which resulted in his capture by the enemy and his total disability for military service.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 1st U.S. Sharpshooters. Place and date: At Malvern Hill, Va., 1 July 1862. Entered service at: Rutland, Vt. Birth:——. Date of issue: 11 March 1893. Citation: At a critical moment brought up two regiments, which he led against the enemy himself, being severely wounded.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant and Adjutant, 9th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Malvern Hill, Va., 1 July 1862. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 11 March 1896. Citation: Voluntarily took command of the 9th Massachusetts while adjutant, bravely fighting from 3 p.m. until dusk, rallying and re-forming the regiment under fire; twice picked up the regimental flag, the color bearer having been shot down, and placed it in worthy hands.
Gettysburg was fought in the North and was an offensive measure by the Confederacy to bring the war out of Virginia. It was the hope of Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee to make the people in the North weary of the war. President Lincoln hoped this would be the decisive battle that would end the war. Although a victory for the North, General Meade did not pursue and squandered the opportunity. This battle is also famous for Pickett’s Charge in which his Confederate soldiers were valiantly attempting to take the Union position but received a horrendous number of casualties.
The Union Commanders were General Meade in overall command with Generals Buford, Reynolds, Doubleday, Hancock and others in charge of different units. The Confederate Commanders were General Robert E. Lee in overall command with Generals Longstreet, Hill, Ewell, Heth, Pickett, Stuart and others in charge of different units.
The Union fielded approximately 95,000 soldiers while the Confederacy fielded approximately 75,000. In just three days, July 1 through July 3, the Union lost 23, 040 men. The Confederacy lost between 22,000 and 25,000 of its complement.
The men of the Union Army who received the Medal of Honor include:
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 7th Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 1 July 1863. Entered service at: Boscobel, Wis. Birth: Grant County, Wis. Date of issue: 29 June 1866. Citation: Unsurpassed courage in battle, where he had both eyes shot out.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company E, 88th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 1 July 1863. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 30 April 1892. Citation: Assisted in the capture of a Confederate flag by knocking down the color sergeant.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 150th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 1 July 1863. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Born: 17 July 1839, Meadville, Pa. Date of issue: 27 May 1905. Citation: While engaged in repelling an attack of the enemy, received a severe wound of the right arm, but instead of retiring remained at the front in command of the regiment.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company D, 45th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 1 July 1863. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth:——. Date of issue: 27 May 1892. Citation: Gallantry in flanking the enemy and capturing a number of prisoners and in holding a part of the town against heavy odds while the Army was rallying on Cemetery Hill.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 150th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 1 July 1863. Entered service at: Meadville, Pa. Birth: Beaver County, Pa. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Specially brave and meritorious conduct in the face of the enemy. Awarded under Act of Congress, January 25, 1907.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 143d Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 1 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Wilkes_Barre, Pa. Date of issue: 30 October 1896. Citation: At great risk of his life went to the assistance of a wounded comrade, and while under fire removed him to a place of safety.
Rank and organization: Major, 90th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 1 July 1863. Entered service at: Pennsylvania. Born: 2 March 1836, Plumsteadville, Bucks County, Pa. Date of issue: 21 July 1894. Citation: Voluntarily led the regiment under a withering fire to a position from which the enemy was repulsed.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 6th Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 1 July 1863. Entered service at: DeSoto, Vernon County, Wis. Birth: Gurney, Ohio. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 2d Mississippi Infantry (C.S.A.).
Leap Second Time Adjustment Day
The early episodes there was just Ralph & Alice. One of the skits was Ralph coming home from work and Alice baked some bread. Of course Ralph was steamed, and full of flour. The cop was played by Art Carney.
Actress Elaine Stritch played the roll of Trixie Norton only once before being replaced by Joyce Randolph.
Audrey Meadows was at first turned down for the part of Alice Kramden. As Mr. Gleason needed a replacement for Pert Kelton he said Mrs. Meadows was all wrong, she was too young and too pretty. Mrs Meadows had a photographer come to her house the next morning to take pictures of her as she just woke up with no makeup and her hair was not all done up. She was holding pots and pans. Mr. Gleason loved them, and she was hired as Alice.
Whole families would come to the theater for the late night show. At least eleven hundred tickets were given out for every performance. People would line up at 11:A.M. for a show that began at 8 P.M. The line would run from Broadway to Eleventh AVE., across Fifty -second Street and up to Fifty Third. The folks on line would be laughing out loud before they got through the doors.
The sets were painted cardboard and the apartment doors opened out instead of in. he main kitchen/living room set was only 20-by-30 feet. The Kramden apartment was modeled on the flat on Chauncey Street in Bushwick, Brooklyn, where Jackie Gleason and his mother had lived.
When Jackie knew he was going to miss his lines, he would rub his stomach.
200 videos starting with the classic Golf Game
“Obstacles are those frightful things you see when you take your eyes off your goal.”
~ Henry Ford
dragoon druh-GOON verb
1 : to subjugate or persecute by harsh use of troops
2 : to force into submission or compliance especially by violent measures
3: a military group known for its violence against enemy non-combatants (i.e., Revolutionary War and the British Dragoons)
An example of this type of troop can be seen in the Patriot with Mel Gibson
1520 – The Spaniards are expelled from Tenochtitlan (current Mexico City).
1805 – The U.S. Congress organizes the Michigan Territory.
1815 – USS Peacock takes HMS Nautilus, last action of the War of 1812.
1834 – Congress creates Indian Territory. This land was described as being “all that part of the United States west of the Mississippi and not within the states of Missouri and Louisiana, or the territory of Arkansas.”
1834 – Congress placed the Marine Corps under Navy jurisdiction.
1841 – The Erie Railroad rolled out its first passenger train on this day. The locomotive “Rockland” pulled the train and the trip was from Piermont, NY to Ramapo, NY. The journey of about 20 miles took 65 minutes.
1859 – Acrobat Charles Blondin is the first to cross Niagara Falls on a tightrope.
1860 – The 1860 Oxford evolution debate at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History takes place.
1863 – Civil War: Union and Confederate cavalries clashed at Hanover, Pennsylvania.
1864 – President Abraham Lincoln grants Yosemite Valley to California for “public use, resort and recreation”.
1865 – Eight alleged conspirators in assassination of Lincoln were found guilty after kangaroo court-martial and brutal treatment by military officers.
1876 – Wounded soldiers from the Battle of the Little Big Horn reach the steamboat Far West.
1882 – Charles J. Guiteau is hanged in Washington, D.C. for the shooting death of President James Garfield.
1893 – Excelsior diamond (blue-white 995 carats) discovered.
1896 – William Hadaway was issued a patent for the electric stove.
1900 – Four German liners burn at Hoboken Docks NJ, 326 die.
1905 – Albert Einstein publishes the article “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”, in which he introduces special relativity.
1906 – The United States Congress passes the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act.
1908 – An explosion in Siberia, which knocked down trees in a 40-mile radius and struck people unconscious some 40 miles away. It was believed by some scientists to be caused by a falling fragment from a meteorite.
1921 – Documents were signed forming the Radio Corporation of America, better known as RCA.
1921 – U.S. President Warren G. Harding appoints former President William Howard Taft Chief Justice of the United States.
1934 – The Night of the Long Knives, Adolf Hitler’s violent purge of his political rivals in Germany, takes place.
1934 – NFL’s Portsmouth Spartans become Detroit Lions.
1936 – “Gone With the Wind” by Margaret Mitchell, published. Set against a backdrop of the US Civil War, “Gone With the Wind” tells the story of Southern belle Scarlett O’Hara and her stormy relationship with the debonair Rhett Butler. History of “Gone With The Wind”
1936 – 40 hour work week law approved.
1941 – World War II- Atlantic: Operation Barbarossa – Germany captures Lviv, Ukraine.
1942 – World War II- Atlantic: U boats (700,000 ton) sunk this month.
1943 – World War II- Pacific: Operation Chronicle commences. It was the name given to the landing of Allied forces on Woodlark Island and Kiriwina.
1943 – World War II- Pacific: General Douglas MacArthur launches Operation Cartwheel, a multi-pronged assault on Rabaul and several islands in the Solomon Sea in the South Pacific.
1943 – World War II- Pacific: American forces land on several islands of the New Georgia group. Rendova island is targeted.
1944 – World War II-Atlantic: The Battle of Cherbourg ends with the fall of the strategically valuable port to American forces.
1944 – The United States breaks diplomatic relations with Finland.
1945 – On Okinawa, American forces complete mopping-up operations (June 23-30) in which 8975 Japanese are reported killed and 2902 captured.
1948 – Transistor as a substitute for Radio tubes announced (Bell Labs).The two inventors were John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, scientists at the Bell Telephone Laboratory in Murray Hill, NJ.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Some Enchanted Evening” by Perry Como, “Again by Doris Day (Gordon Jenkins Orchestra), “Bali Ha’i “by Perry Como and “One Kiss Too Many” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: Marine Corps Captain Edwin B. Long scored the first night kill of the Korean War and the first in a F7F Tigercat victory ever by downing a PO-2 near Kimpo.
1951 – “Too Young” by Nat ‘King’ Cole topped the charts.
1951 – NAACP began frontal attack on segregation and discrimination at elementary and high school levels, arguing that segregation was discrimination in cases before three-judge federal courts in South Carolina and Kansas.
1951 – “Victor Borge Show,” last airs on NBC-TV. If you have never seen or heard of him, here is the “Dance of the Comedians.”
1952 – “The Guiding Light” soap opera moves from radio to TV.
1953 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Lieutenant Henry “Hank” Buttleman, 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, became the 36th and youngest ace of the Korean War, having just turned 24. He accomplished this feat only 12 days after his first kill. (An ace has five kills.)
1953 – The first Chevrolet Corvette rolls off the assembly line in Flint, Michigan.
1956 – A TWA Super Constellation and a United Airlines DC-7 (Flight 718) collide above the Grand Canyon in Arizona, United States, killing all 128 on board the two planes.
1956 – “I’ll Be Home” by Pat Boone topped the charts.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Letters in the Sand” by Pat Boone, “Teddy Bear “ by Elvis Presley, “It’s Not for Me to Say” by Johnny Mathis and “Four Walls” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1957 – The American occupation headquarters in Japan was dissolved.
1958 – The U.S. Congress passed a law authorizing the admission of Alaska as the 49th state in the Union.
1960 – US stopped sugar imports from Cuba.
1962 – “I Can’t Stop Loving You” by Ray Charles topped the charts.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mr. Tambourine Man” by The Byrds, “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction” by The Rolling Stones, “Wonderful World” by Herman’s Hermits and “Before You Go” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 – NFL grants Atlanta Falcons a franchise.
1967 – Major Robert H. Lawrence, Jr. announced as the first African-American to qualify for training in the US space program.He never made it to space. He died on December 8, 1967 on a training flight in a Starfighter jet that crashed at Edwards Air Force Base, CA.
1970 – First baseball game at Cincinnati’s Riverfront Stadium.
1971 – The crew of the Soviet Soyuz 11 spacecraft are killed when their air supply escapes through a faulty valve.
1971 – Ohio ratifies the 26th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, lowering the voting age to 18, thereby putting the amendment into effect.
1971 – The U.S. Supreme Court allowed the New York Times to continue publishing the Pentagon Papers.
1972 – One leap second is added to the UTC time system.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Give Me Love (Give Me Peace on Earth)” by George Harrison, “Will It Go Round in Circles” by Billy Preston, “Kodachrome” by Paul Simon and “Don’t Fight the Feelings of Love” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1973 – Biggest U.S. tanker “Brooklyn” christened (230,000 ton).
1974 – A black man shot and killed Mrs. Martin Luther King Sr. and deacon Edward Boykin during church services at Ebenezer Baptist Church, Atlanta. The assailant, Marcus Chennault of Dayton, Ohio, was later convicted and sentenced to death.
1977 – President Jimmy Carter announced his opposition to the B-1 bomber.
1977 – US Railway Post Office final train run (NY to Wash DC).
1979 – “Ring My Bell” by Anita Ward topped the charts.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes, “A Woman Needs Love (Just Like You Do)” by Ray Parker, Jr. and Raydio, “The One that You Love” by Air Supply and “Blessed are the Believers“ by Anne Murray all topped the charts.
1982 – Federal Equal Rights Amendment fails 3 states short of ratification.
1985 – Thirty-nine American hostages from a hijacked TWA jetliner are freed in Beirut after being held for 17 days.
1985 – Yul Brynner left his role as the King of Siam after 4,600 performances in “The King and I.”
1986 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules that states could outlaw homosexual acts between consenting adults.
1988 – Brooklyn dedicates a bus depot honoring Jackie Gleason.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Satisfied” by Richard Marx, “Buffalo Stance” by Neneh Cherry, “Baby Don’t Forget My Number” by Milli Vanilli and “I Don’t Want to Spoil the Party” by Roseanne Cash all topped the charts.
1990 – “Step by Step” by New Kids on the Block topped the charts.
1993 – Thirteen US helicopters attack a Somali compound.
1994 – Pre-trial hearings open in LA against OJ Simpson.
1994 – The U.S. Figure Skating Association stripped Tonya Harding of the 1994 national championship and banned her from the organization for life for an attack on rival Nancy Kerrigan.
1998 – Officials confirmed that the remains of a Vietnam War serviceman buried in the Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National Cemetery were identified as those of Air Force pilot Michael J. Blassie.
1998 – Linda Tripp begins to testify before a grand jury about the Lewinsky case.
2000 – President Clinton signed the E-Signature bill to give the same legal validity to an electronic signature as a signature in pen and ink.
2003 – Scientists calculate the age of the universe at 13.7 billion years. They used the 16-foot, 1,800-pound Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) to orbit the Sun and to scan the universe for the faint afterglow of Creation by measuring variations in radiation temperature of up to 20 millionths of a degree.
2005 – The US Federal Reserve raised interest rates by a quarter point. It marked the 9th increase since tightening began in 2004.
2005 – At El Cajon, CA, five illegal immigrants were killed and six others injured when their van collided with a pickup truck shortly after it sped around a border checkpoint.
2006 – Former NYC Police Commissioner Bernard Kerik, whose Homeland Security nomination was withdrawn because of ethics questions, pleaded guilty to misdemeanor charges of accepting $165,000 in improper gifts while serving as a top city official.
2006 – Cuban librarians criticized attempts by the Miami-Dade County school board to ban a children’s book that presents a positive depiction of life on the communist-run island.
2008 – President Bush signed legislation to pay for the war operations in Iraq and Afghanistan for the rest of his presidency and beyond, hailing the $162 billion plan as a rare product of bipartisan cooperation.
2008 – Missouri Gov. Mat Blunt signed a bill outlawing cyberbullying. The bill updated state laws against harassment by removing the requirement that the communication be written or made over the telephone.
2008 – Chrysler announces that it will indefinitely close a minivan plant in South St. Louis, Missouri and cut production at another due to falling demand for large vehicles.
2009 – Boston disbanded its mounted police unit due to budget cuts. Founded in 1873 it was the first mounted unit in the country.
2009 – U.S. forces pull out of Baghdad and leave major cities across Iraq.
2010 – The United States government is sued by ten plaintiffs, including an American citizen, challenging the country’s no-fly list.
2012 – Governors in Virginia, West Virginia and Ohio, declare state of emergency after powerful storms sweep through eastern US, resulting in at least nine deaths and leaving millions without power.
2013 – The City of Prescott, AZ is mourning the loss of 19 firefighters in the Yarnell Hill Fire. It was Prescott’s Hot Shot Fire Crew. Their average age, 22. The Town of Yarnell appears to have been burned down. The community of 600 has had 200 homes burned. It is the worst loss of U.S. firefighters in a wildfire in 80 years.
1899 – Madge Bellamy, American actress (d. 1990)
1899 – Harry Shields, American jazz clarinetist (d. 1971)
1912 – Dan Reeves – Owner of the Cleveland/Los Angeles Rams (d. 1971)
1913 – Harry Wismer, owner of the New York Jets (d. 1967)
1917 – Susan Hayward, American actress (d. 1975)
1917 – Lena Horne, American actress and singer
1919 – Ed Yost, American inventor (d. 2007)
1934 – Harry Blackstone Jr., American magician (d. 1997)
1943 – Florence Ballard, American singer (The Supremes) (d. 1976)
1957 – Sterling Marlin, American race car driver (NASCAR)
1966 – Mike Tyson, American former boxer
*LONG, DONALD RUSSELL
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Troop C, 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, 30 June 1966. Entered service at: Ashland, Ky. Born: 27 August 1939, Blackfork, Ohio. G.O. No.: 13, 4 April 1968. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Troops B and C, while conducting a reconnaissance mission along a road were suddenly attacked by a Viet Cong regiment, supported by mortars, recoilless rifles and machine guns, from concealed positions astride the road. Sgt. Long abandoned the relative safety of his armored personnel carrier and braved a withering hail of enemy fire to carry wounded men to evacuation helicopters. As the platoon fought its way forward to resupply advanced elements, Sgt. Long repeatedly exposed himself to enemy fire at point blank range to provide the needed supplies. While assaulting the Viet Cong position, Sgt. Long inspired his comrades by fearlessly standing unprotected to repel the enemy with rifle fire and grenades as they attempted to mount his carrier. When the enemy threatened to overrun a disabled carrier nearby, Sgt. Long again disregarded his own safety to help the severely wounded crew to safety. As he was handing arms to the less seriously wounded and reorganizing them to press the attack, an enemy grenade was hurled onto the carrier deck. Immediately recognizing the imminent danger, he instinctively shouted a warning to the crew and pushed to safety one man who had not heard his warning over the roar of battle. Realizing that these actions would not fully protect the exposed crewmen from the deadly explosion, he threw himself over the grenade to absorb the blast and thereby saved the lives of eight of his comrades at the expense of his life. Throughout the battle, Sgt. Long’s extraordinary heroism, courage and supreme devotion to his men were in the finest tradition of the military service, and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
FADDEN, HARRY D.
INTERIM 1901 – 1911
Rand and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 17 September 1882, Oregon. Accredited to: Washington. G.O. No.: 138, 31 July 1903. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Adams, for gallantry, rescuing O.C. Hawthorne, landsman for training, from drowning at sea, 30 June 1903.
Rank and organization: Private, Troop H, 10th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Tayabacoa, Cuba, 30 June 1898. Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Birth: Washington, D.C. Date of issue: 23 June 1899. Citation: Voluntarily went ashore in the face of the enemy and aided in the rescue of his wounded comrades; this after several previous attempts at rescue had been frustrated.
Rank and organization: Private, Troop M, 10th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Tayabacoa, Cuba, 30 June 1898. Entered service at: Dinwiddie County, Va. Birth: Dinwiddie County, Va. Date of issue: 23 June 1899. Citation: Voluntarily went ashore in the face of the enemy and aided in the rescue of his wounded comrades; this after several previous attempts had been frustrated.
Rank and organization: Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 29 March 1861, Copenhagen, Denmark. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 45, 30 April 1901. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Wompatuck, Manzanillo, Cuba, 30 June 1898. Serving under the fire of the enemy, Muller displayed heroism and gallantry during this period.
Rank and organization: Private, Troop G, 10th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Tayabacoa, Cuba, 30 June 1898. Entered service at: Paterson, N.J. Birth: Paterson, N.J. Date of issue: 23 June 1899. Citation. Voluntarily went ashore in the face of the enemy and aided in the rescue of his wounded comrades; this after several previous attempts at rescue had been frustrated.
Rank and organization: Private, Troop M, 10th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Tayabacoa, Cuba, 30 June 1898. Entered service at: Paterson, N.J. Birth: Paterson, N.J. Date of issue: 23 June 1899. Citation: Voluntarily went ashore in the face of the enemy and aided in the rescue of his wounded comrades; this after several previous attempts at rescue had been frustrated.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 1st New York Artillery. Place and date: At White Oak Swamp, Va., 30 June 1862. At Malvern Hill, Va., 1 July 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Continued to fight after being severely wounded.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 5th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Hanover Courthouse, Va., 30 June 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 11 February 1878. Citation: Capture of battle flag.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company B, 11th Pennsylvania Reserves. Place and date: At Glendale, Va., 30 June 1862. Entered service at: Indiana, Pa. Birth:——. Date of issue: 30 March 1898. Citation: While pursuing one of the enemy’s sharpshooters, encountered two others, whom he bayoneted in hand-to-hand encounters; was three times wounded in action.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 4th U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At White Oak Swamp Bridge, Va., 30 June 1862. Entered service at: New York. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 2 April 1898. Citation: This officer, when his captain was wounded, succeeded to the command of two batteries while engaged against a superior force of the enemy and fought his guns most gallantly until compelled to retire.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 1st New York Infantry. Place and date: At Glendale, Va., 30 June 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 March 1865. Citation: This soldier, a drummer boy, took the gun of a sick comrade, went into the fight, and when the color bearers were shot down, carried the colors and saved them from capture.
Rank and organization: Captain, and aide-de-camp U.S. Volunteers Place and date: At White Oak Swamp, Va., 30 June 1862. Entered service at: California. Born: 21 March 1838, Canada. Date of issue: 10 March 1891. Citation: Under fire of the enemy, successfully destroyed a valuable train that had been abandoned and prevented it from falling into the hands of the enemy.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 11th Pennsylvania Reserves. Place and date: At Charles City Crossroads, Va., 30 June 1862. Entered service at: Indiana County, Pa. Birth: Prussia. Date of issue: 17 July 1866. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Light Battery F, 5th U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At White Oak Swamp Bridge, Va.. 30 June 1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 4 April 1898. Citation: Was one of a party of three who, under heavy fire of advancing enemy, voluntarily secured and saved from capture a field gun belonging to another battery, and which had been deserted by its officers and men.
Library Legislative Day
One of the most touching, patriotic events that occurs in American society is the salute. We salute the American Flag as a sign of respect and patriotism, military enlisted salute military officers, military officers salute higher ranked officers, etc. We also have salutes by flag, by aircraft and by guns.
The firing of guns is seen as a great honor bestowed upon both military and political officials. Firing guns at the approach of a party demonstrates not only a welcome but also respect and trust. The practice of firing gun salutes was well established by the 1500’s, although gun salutes had existed for centuries. Later, the number of guns to fire was designated for various ceremonies, honors and officials — in relation to their importance and position. The firing of three rifle volleys (rounds) over the graves of fallen armed forces members and political leaders can be traced to the European dynastic wars, when fighting was halted to remove the dead and wounded. Once an area was cleared of casualties, three volleys were sent into the air as a signal to resume fighting.
The United States fired a “national salute,” on special occasions and during times of mourning, of one gun for each state in the union until 1841, when the salute was standardized at 21 guns. It was customary at that time, when naval vessels were visiting foreign ports, to salute the flag of that nation with the number of guns present in the foreign country’s national salute. It would have been difficult, if not impossible, for vessels visiting the United States to fire a salute that, in 1841, doubled the number of guns prescribed by most other nations (42 as compared to 21). Also, it would have been internationally discourteous to offer a salute to a foreign port with fewer guns then prescribed by our own national salute. On August 18, 1875, the United States formally adopted the 21-gun salute, the number prescribed by Britain, France and other nations.
As naval customs evolved the 21-gun salute came to be reserved for heads of state, with fewer rounds used to salute lower ranking officials. Today, deputy heads of state (e.g. the Vice President of the United States), Presidential cabinet members, and officers with 5 stars receive 19 rounds; 4-stars receive 17 rounds; 3-stars receive 15; 2-stars receive 13; and a 1-star general or admiral receives 11. These same standards are currently adhered to by ground-based saluting batteries. Multiples of 21-gun salutes may be fired for particularly important celebrations.
No one can explain why the number 21 was chosen for national salutes. In ancient cultures, numerology, the study of numbers, developed symbolism behind most numbers. These cultures believed the number seven to be sacred because God finished Creation in seven days and God is in three parts, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, therefore, it is believed, that twenty-one meant God’s Creation. Others believe that it is the sum total of then numbers 1776, our founding year. There are other gun salutes that vary from five guns (the lowest) to 21 guns (the highest) by increments of two, and are prescribed in accordance with occasion and level of importance of those honored. It is generally believed that gun salutes are set off in odd numbers because of an old naval superstition that even numbers are unlucky.
“We cannot change our past. We can not change the fact that people act in a certain way. We can not change the inevitable. The only thing we can do is play on the one string we have, and that is our attitude.”
~ Charles R. Swindoll
A very small person.
[After Lilliput, a fictional island nation in Jonathan Swift's satirical novel Gulliver's Travels. Everything was diminutive in Lilliput -- its inhabitants were six inches in height.]
1502 – Christopher Columbus arrived at Santo Domingo, Hispaniola, on his 4th voyage to the new world.
1504 – Diego Mendez, one of Columbus’s captains, returned to Jamaica with a small caravel and rescued the Columbus expedition. Mendez had managed to take a canoe from Jamaica to Hispaniola where he chartered the rescue ship.
1534 – Jacques Cartier makes the European discovery of Prince Edward Island.
1541 – The Spanish first crossed the Arkansas River. Francisco Vazquez de Coronado continued to explore the American southwest. He left New Mexico and crossed Texas, Oklahoma and east Kansas.
1613 – The Globe Theatre in London, England burns to the ground. Shakespeare rebuilt it on the same foundation.
1652 – Massachusetts declared itself an independent commonwealth.
1767 – The British Parliament approved the Townshend Revenue Acts. The acts imposed import duties on glass, lead, paint, paper and tea shipped to America.
1776 – The Virginia constitution was adopted and Patrick Henry was made governor.
1776 – Misión San Francisco de Asís was founded under the direction of Father Junipero Serra and is both the oldest original intact Mission in California and the oldest building in San Francisco.
1804 – Privates John Collins and Hugh Hall of the Lewis and Clark Expedition were found guilty by a court-martial consisting of members of the Corps of Discovery for getting drunk on duty. Collins received 100 lashes on his back and Hall received 50.
1820 – Revenue cutter Dallas captured the 12-gun brig-of-war General Ramirez, which was loaded with 280 slaves, off St. Augustine.
1835 – William Travis raises a volunteer army of 25 soldiers and prepares to liberate the city of Anahuac, determined to win independence for the Mexican State of Texas.
1850 – Coal is discovered on Vancouver Island.
1860 – The first iron-pile lighthouse was completed at Minot’s Ledge, MA.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate General Robert E. Lee attacks Union General George McClellan as he is pulling his army away from Richmond, Virginia, in retreat during the Seven Days’ Battles.
1862 – Civil War:Union forces continued to fall back from Richmond, but put up a fight at the Battle of Savage’s Station on day 5 of the 7 Days Battle.
1863 – Civil War: George A. Custer (23) was appointed Union Brevet Brig-general.
1863 – Civil War: Battle at Westminster, Maryland: Federal assault.
1863 – Civil War: Lee ordered his forces to concentrate near Gettysburg, PA.
1888 – First (known) recording of classical music made, Handel’s Israel in Egypt on wax cylinder.
1897 – The Chicago Cubs scored 36 runs in a game against Louisville, setting a record for runs scored by a team in a single game.
1905 – Archibald Wright “Moonlight” Graham (1876-1965) of the New York Giants played for two innings in right field in his only professional baseball game on this day and was promptly forgotten until 1989 when the movie “Field of Dreams” was released.
1906 – Mesa Verde National Park was established.
1906 – Congress enacted the Hepburn Act, which prohibited railroads from offering discounted rates to large shippers and authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to set maximum freight charges for railroads.
1915 – Juicy Fruit chewing gum was trademark registered.
1916 – Boeing aircraft flies for the first time.
1918 – Marines landed at Vladivostok, Russia, to protect the American Consulate.
1925 – Marvin Pipkin filed for a patent for the frosted electric light bulb.
1925 – An earthquake ravaged Santa Barbara, California, causing millions in property damage.
1927 – First test of Wallace Turnbull’s Controllable pitch propeller.
1928 – Albert Hegenberger and Lester Maitland accomplished the first nonstop flight across the Pacific.
1929 – First high-speed jet wind tunnel completed Langley Field, CA.
1931 – Florida state record high temperature of 109° in Monticello.
1932 – “Vic and Sade” which debuted on the NBC Blue radio.
1936 – Empire State Building emanates high definition TV-343 lines.
1937 – Joseph-Armand Bombardier receives patent for sprocket and track traction system used in snow vehicles.
1938 – Olympic National Park, Washington and Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, were established.
1939 – Dixie Clipper completes first commercial plane flight to Europe.
1940 – U.S. passes Alien Registration Act requiring Aliens to register.
1940 – In the Batman Comics, mobsters rubbed out a circus highwire team known as the Flying Graysons, leaving their son Dick (Robin) an orphan.
1941 – Joe DiMaggio extends his hitting streak to 42 breaking George Sisler’s record. In game two of a double-header he collected a seventh-inning single off of Walt Masterson to set the record at 42 games.
1943 – World War II: A squadron of American cruisers and destroyers shells the Japanese base at Shortland while other vessels lay mines in the area. A US convoy heading for New Georgia is sighted by the Japanese but it is mistakenly believed to be carrying supplies to Guadalcanal.
1943 – World War II: Germany began withdrawing U-boats from North Atlantic in anticipation of the Allied invasion of Europe.
1944 – CDR Frank A. Erickson landed a helicopter on the flight deck of Coast Guard Cutter Cobb. This was the first rotary-wing shipboard landing by Coast Guard personnel.
1945 – World War II: President Truman approves the plan, devised by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to invade Japan. The plan calls for 5 million troops, mostly Americans.
1947 – “Strike It Rich” debuts on CBS radio. Known as “The quiz show with a heart” and the contestants who appeared on the show were people in need of money or down on their luck.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Nature Boy” by Nat King, “Toolie Oolie Doolie” by The Andrews Sisters, “Woody Woodpecker Song” by The Kay Kaiser Orchestra and “Bouquet of Roses” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1949 – US troops withdraw from Korea after WW II.
1950 – Korean War: U.S. President Harry S. Truman authorized a sea blockade of Korea andair operations against targets located in North Korea.
1950 – President Truman ordered a naval blockade of the Korean coast. Meanwhile, the USS Juneau, fired on enemy shore targets in the first U.S. Naval engagement of the Korean War.
1952 – The USS Oriskany was the first aircraft carrier to sail around Cape Horn. The ship was named for the Revolutionary War Battle of Oriskany. Sunk as part of a pilot program to create artificial reefs 17 May 2006.
1953 – The Federal Highway Act authorized the construction of 42,500 miles of freeway from coast to coast. It was signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
1954 – The Atomic Energy Commission, by a vote of 4 to1 decided against reinstating Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer’s access to classified information.
1955 – “Rock Around the Clock” by Billy Haley and His Comets top the pop music charts.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Wayward Wind” by Gogi Grant, “I Almost Lost My Mind” by Pat Boone, “Picnic” by The McGuire Sisters and “Crazy Arms” by Ray Price all topped the charts.
1956 - Charles Dumas, makes first high jump over 7′ in Los Angeles, CA.
1956 – The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 is signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, officially creating the United States Interstate Highway System. The Act authorized a 42,500 mile network linking major urban centers. 90% of the cost was to be borne by the federal government.
1957 – “Love Letters in the Sand” by Pat Boone topped the charts.
1957 – Buddy Holly recorded the song “Peggy Sue.”
1958 – A bomb exploded at the Bethel Baptist Church in Birmingham, AL; there were no injuries.
1962 – Frank Howard, hits the 5,000th Dodger home run.
1963 – Beatles’ first song “From Me to You” hits the UK charts.
1963 – “Sukiyaki” by Kyu Sakamoto topped the charts. English Version
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “A World Without Love” by Peter & Gordon, “I Get Around” by The Beach Boys, “My Boy Lollipop” by Millie Small and “Together Again” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1964 – First draft of Star Trek’s pilot “The Cage” released. It was never shown until 1988.
1964 – Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed after 83-day filibuster in Senate.
1965 – USAF Capt Joseph Henry Engle reaches 280,623 feet in the X-15.
1966 – Vietnam War: The U.S. bombed fuel storage facilities near the North Vietnamese cities of Hanoi and Haiphong.
1967 – Jayne Mansfield, at age 34, and two male companions died when their car struck a trailer truck east of New Orleans.
1968 – “This Guy’s in Love with You” by Herb Alpert topped the charts.
1968 – “Tip-Toe Thru’ The Tulips With Me” by Tiny Tim peaks at #17
1969 – First Jewish worship service at White House.
1969 – Shorty Long drowned when his boat capsized off Sandwich Island in Ontario, Canada. He was 29 years old.
1970 – Vietnam War: U.S. ground combat troops end two months of operations in Cambodia and return to South Vietnam.Military officials reported 354 Americans had been killed and 1,689 were wounded in the operation.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Candy Man” by Sammy Davis, Jr., “Song Sung Blue” by Neil Diamond, “Outta-Space” by Billy Preston and “That’s Why I Love You Like I Do” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1972 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Furman v. Georgia that the death penalty could constitute “cruel and unusual punishment”.
1972 - The US Supreme Court ruled in Branzburg v. Hayes that “The First Amendment does not relieve a newspaper reporter of the obligation that all citizens have to respond to a grand jury subpoena and answer questions relevant to a criminal investigation.
1974 – “Sundown” by Gordon Lightfoot topped the charts.
1974 - In Fresno, Ca., Clarence Ray Allen (44) robbed Fran’s market. Soon after Mary Sue Kitts (17) was murdered on orders from Allen (44) for revealing Allen’s role in a robbery.
1978 - Bob Crane (b.1928), the man who played Colonel Robert Hogan in the TV show “Hogan’s Heroes,” was found bludgeoned to death in Scottsdale, AZ.
1979 - Bond movie “Moonraker” premieres in U.S.
1980 — CHART TOPPERS – “Coming Up” by Paul McCartney & Wings, “The Rose” by Bette Midler, “It’s Still Rock & Roll to Me” by Billy Joel and “Trying to Love Two Women” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1983 – Angel Cordero wins his 5,000th horse race.
1984 – Pete Rose plays in record 3,309th game, surpassing Carl Yastrzemski.
1985 – “Heaven” by Bryan Adams topped the charts.
1985 – NASA launches Intelsat VA.
1986 – Sparky Anderson is first to win 600 games as manager in both leagues.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Foolish Beat” by Debbie Gibson, “Dirty Diana” by Michael Jackson, “Make It Real” by The Jets and “He’s Back and I’m Blue” by The Desert Rose Band all topped the charts.
1988 – The US Supreme Court, in Morrison v. Olson, upheld the power of independent counsels in a 7-1 decision to prosecute illegal acts by high-ranking government officials.
1990 – Fernando Valenzuela of the Los Angeles Dodgers and Dave Stewart of the Oakland A’s became the first pitchers to hurl no-hitters in both the National and American Leagues on the same day.
1992 – Doctors in Pittsburgh reported the world’s first transplant of a baboon liver into a human patient. The recipient, a 35-year-old man, survived for three months.
1992 – A divided US Supreme Court ruled that women have a constitutional right to abortion, but the justices also weakened the right as defined by the Roe vs. Wade decision.
1993 – Aerosmith released their single “Cryin’.”
1993 - A one-day stock transaction netted Sen. Alfonse D’Amato a profit of $37,125. D’Amato was the ranking Republican on the Senate Banking Committee and appeared to have gotten special consideration in getting shares on the IPO of Computer Marketplace.
1993 - Joel Rifkin pleaded innocent at an arraignment in Mineola, N.Y., to one count of murder, a day after police found a woman’s body in his pickup truck. Rifkin, who later confessed to killing seventeen women, is serving multiple life sentences.
1994 – Arizona state record high temperature of 128° in Lake Havasu.
1994 – US reopened Guantanamo Naval Base to process refugees.
1995 – The shuttle Atlantis and the Russian space station Mir docked, forming the largest man-made satellite ever to orbit the Earth.
1996 – Superman’s Action Comic #1 (1938) auctioned at Sotheby at $61,900.
1998 – With negotiations on a new labor agreement at a standstill, the National Basketball Association (NBA) announced that a lockout would be imposed at midnight.
1998 - Manufacturing on the single-seat Sparrow, 3-wheel vehicle was scheduled to commence in Hollister, Ca. The 960 pound electric vehicle was designed for a range of 60 miles on a single charge with a top speed of 60 mph. It was priced at $12,900. The company went bankrupt in the next four years.
2001 - The National Japanese American Memorial opened in Washington DC. It was privately funded.
2002 – U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney, serves as Acting President for two and a half hours, while President George W. Bush undergoes a colonoscopy procedure.
2003 – Hollywood legend Katherine Hepburn died at the age of 96 after a six-decade career in which she won a record four Oscars for best actress.
2003 - In Chicago a wooden third-floor porch packed with dozens of friends in their early 20s collapsed, killing twelve as it collapsed onto porches below.
2004 - The US Supreme Court rules 5–4 in Ashcroft v. ACLU that the Child Online Protection Act is likely in violation of the First Amendment’s guarantee of free speech. The case will be reheard at a lower court.
2005 - The US Capitol in Washington D.C. was briefly evacuated due to an aircraft that entered restricted airspace.
2006 - The US House of Representatives votes to end a 25-year ban on off-shore drilling.
2006 – Thirteen people are dead from rains on the East Coast. The storm system over the weekend, has been blamed for five deaths in Pennsylvania, four in Maryland, one in Virginia and three in New York.
2006 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld that President George W. Bush’s plan to try Guantanamo Bay detainees in military tribunals violates U.S. and international law.
2006 – The tribal council of the Oglala Sioux Tribe in South Dakota impeached Cecilia Fire Thunder for soliciting donations for an abortion clinic without council approval.
2006 - Google Inc. introduced an online payment service to rival PayPal.
2007 – Apple Inc. released the iPhone for the United States market.
2007 – The American bald eagle, declared endangered in 1967, is again flourishing and no longer imperiled, the U.S. Interior Department announced.
2007 – Four men were indicted on charges with conspiring to “cause death, serious bodily injury and extensive destruction” at New York City’s JFK Airport.
2008 – US researchers reported that a drug called lodamin, developed using nanotechnology and a fungus that contaminated a lab experiment, may be broadly effective against a range of cancers.
2008 – A helicopter ferrying a patient with a medical emergency from the Grand Canyon collided into another chopper carrying a patient near a northern Arizona hospital, leaving six people dead and three critically injured including a nurse.
2009 – Bernard L. Madoff on Monday received 150 years in prison, the maximum sentence for perpetrating one of the biggest investment frauds in Wall Street history and will spend the rest of his life in prison.
2009 – The Supreme Court ruled that white firefighters in New Haven, Conn., were unfairly denied promotions because of their race, reversing a decision that Sonia Sotomayor, a Supreme Court nominee, endorsed as an appeals court judge.
2009 – It was reported that a grasshopper invasion was under way in Utah. This year’s invasion is in Tooele County west of Salt Lake City.
2011 – A wildfire worsens near major a nuclear weapons research lab at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico; residents express concern about contamination.
2011 – A lawsuit of $25 million is brought by the mother of a U.S. teen, who was kidnapped, bound and forced to consume alcoholic substances before his death at a fraternity house, against the group responsible for his ordeal.
1803 – John Newton Brown, American publisher (d. 1868)
1858 – George Washington Goethals, American army engineer (d. 1928)
1868 – George Ellery Hale, (d. 1938) American solar astronomer
1881 – Harry Frazee, American baseball team owner, Boston Red Sox from 1916-1923 (d. 1929)
1901 – Nelson Eddy, American singer
1903 – Alan Blumlein, English electronics engineer (d. 1942)
1919 – Slim Pickens, (d. 1983) American rodeo performer, and film and television actor.
1936 – Harmon Killebrew, Major League Baseball player and member of the National Baseball Hall of Fame.
1941 – Stokely Carmichael, Trinidadian-American activist (d. 1998)
1955 – Charles J. Precourt, American astronaut.
1972 – Samantha Smith, American activist (d. 1985)
*BENNETT, STEVEN L.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Air Force. 20th Tactical Air Support Squadron, Pacific Air Forces. Place and Date: Quang Tri, Republic of Vietnam, 29 June 1972. Entered service at: Lafayette, La. Born: 22 April 1946, Palestine, Tex. Citation: Capt. Bennett was the pilot of a light aircraft flying an artillery adjustment mission along a heavily defended segment of route structure. A large concentration of enemy troops was massing for an attack on a friendly unit. Capt. Bennett requested tactical air support but was advised that none was available. He also requested artillery support but this too was denied due to the close proximity of friendly troops to the target. Capt. Bennett was determined to aid the endangered unit and elected to strafe the hostile positions. After 4 such passes, the enemy force began to retreat. Capt. Bennett continued the attack, but, as he completed his fifth strafing pass, his aircraft was struck by a surface-to-air missile, which severely damaged the left engine and the left main landing gear. As fire spread in the left engine, Capt. Bennett realized that recovery at a friendly airfield was impossible. He instructed his observer to prepare for an ejection, but was informed by the observer that his parachute had been shredded by the force of the impacting missile. Although Capt. Bennett had a good parachute, he knew that if he ejected, the observer would have no chance of survival. With complete disregard for his own life, Capt. Bennett elected to ditch the aircraft into the Gulf of Tonkin, even though he realized that a pilot of this type aircraft had never survived a ditching. The ensuing impact upon the water caused the aircraft to cartwheel and severely damaged the front cockpit, making escape for Capt. Bennett impossible. The observer successfully made his way out of the aircraft and was rescued. Capt. Bennett’s unparalleled concern for his companion, extraordinary heroism and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty, at the cost of his life, were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Air Force.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 1st Battalion (Airborne), 506th Infantry, 101st Airborne Division (Airmobile). Place and date: Near Dak To, Quang Trang Province, Republic of Vietnam, 29 June 1968. Entered service at: Cleveland, Ohio. Born: 13 September 1947, Cleveland, Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Herda (then Pfc.) distinguished himself while serving as a grenadier with Company A. Company A was part of a battalion-size night defensive perimeter when a large enemy force initiated an attack on the friendly units. While other enemy elements provided diversionary fire and indirect weapons fire to the west, a sapper force of approximately 30 men armed with hand grenades and small charges attacked Company A’s perimeter from the east. As the sappers were making a last, violent assault, 5 of them charged the position defended by Sp4c. Herda and 2 comrades, 1 of whom was wounded and lay helpless in the bottom of the foxhole. Sp4c. Herda fired at the aggressors until they were within 10 feet of his position and 1 of their grenades landed in the foxhole. He fired 1 last round from his grenade launcher, hitting 1 of the enemy soldiers in the head, and then, with no concern for his safety, Sp4c. Herda immediately covered the blast of the grenade with his body. The explosion wounded him grievously, but his selfless action prevented his 2 comrades from being seriously injured or killed and enabled the remaining defender to kill the other sappers. By his gallantry at the risk of his life in the highest traditions of the military service, Sp4c. Herda has reflected great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
MORRIS, CHARLES B.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant (then Sgt.), U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion (Airborne), 503d Infantry, 173d Airborne Brigade (Separate). Place and Date: Republic of Vietnam, 29 June 1966. Entered service at: Roanoke, Va. Born: 29 December 1931, Carroll County, Va. C.O. No.: 51, 14 December 1967. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Seeing indications of the enemy’s presence in the area, S/Sgt. Morris deployed his squad and continued forward alone to make a reconnaissance. He unknowingly crawled within twenty meters of an enemy machinegun, whereupon the gunner fired, wounding him in the chest. S/Sgt. Morris instantly returned the fire and killed the gunner. Continuing to crawl within a few feet of the gun, he hurled a grenade and killed the remainder of the enemy crew. Although in pain and bleeding profusely, S/Sgt. Morris continued his reconnaissance. Returning to the platoon area, he reported the results of his reconnaissance to the platoon leader. As he spoke, the platoon came under heavy fire. Refusing medical attention for himself, he deployed his men in better firing positions confronting the entrenched enemy to his front. Then for eight hours the platoon engaged the numerically superior enemy force. Withdrawal was impossible without abandoning many wounded and dead. Finding the platoon medic dead, S/Sgt. Morris administered first aid to himself and was returning to treat the wounded members of his squad with the medic’s first aid kit when he was again wounded. Knocked down and stunned, he regained consciousness and continued to treat the wounded, reposition his men, and inspire and encourage their efforts. Wounded again when an enemy grenade shattered his left hand, nonetheless he personally took up the fight and armed and threw several grenades which killed a number of enemy soldiers. Seeing that an enemy machinegun had maneuvered behind his platoon and was delivering the fire upon his men, S/Sgt. Morris and another man crawled toward the gun to knock it out. His comrade was killed and S/Sgt. Morris sustained another wound, but, firing his rifle with one hand, he silenced the enemy machinegun. Returning to the platoon, he courageously exposed himself to the devastating enemy fire to drag the wounded to a protected area, and with utter disregard for his personal safety and the pain he suffered, he continued to lead and direct the efforts of his men until relief arrived. Upon termination of the battle, important documents were found among the enemy dead revealing a planned ambush of a Republic of Vietnam battalion. Use of this information prevented the ambush and saved many lives. S/Sgt. Morris’ gallantry was instrumental in the successful defeat of the enemy, saved many lives, and was in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Santa Maria River, Ariz., 29 June 1869. Entered service at:——. Birth: Broome County, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in killing an Indian warrior and capturing pony and effects.
HICKEY, DENNIS W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 2d New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Stony Creek Bridge, Va., 29 June 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Troy, N.Y. Date of issue: 18 April 1891. Citation: With a detachment of three men, tore up the bridge at Stony Creek being the last man on the bridge and covering the retreat until he was shot down.
Rank and organization: Major, 88th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Savage Station, Va., 29 June 1862. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 13 September 1833, Ireland. Date of issue: 18 February 1891. Citation: Led his regiment on the enemy’s battery, silenced the guns, held the position against overwhelming numbers, and covered the retreat of the 2d Army Corps.
WHITAKER, EDWARD W.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company E, 1st Connecticut Cavalry. Place and date: At Reams Station, Va., 29 June 1864. Entered service at: Ashford, Conn. Born: 15 June 1841, Killingly, Conn. Date of issue: 2 April 1898. Citation: While acting as an aide voluntarily carried dispatches from the commanding general to Gen. Meade, forcing his way with a single troop of Cavalry, through an Infantry division of the enemy in the most distinguished manner, though he lost half his escort.
Route 66 Day
Special Recreation Day for the Disabled
One World Trade Center (formerly Freedom Tower)
The Freedom Tower is the skyscraper is being built to replace the Twin Towers according to a revised design released in June 2005. The new design retains essential elements of the original plan– soaring 1,776 feet into the sky, its illuminated mast evoking the Statue of Liberty’s torch — but features a smaller, cubic base set back further from West Street to protect the building against future attacks.
Rising from its square base — which will be constructed of impermeable concrete and steel — the redesigned Freedom Tower will taper into eight tall isosceles triangles, forming a perfect octagon at its center. An observation deck will be located 1,362 feet above ground and there will be a square glass parapet at 1,368 feet, the heights of the original Twin Towers. From these, an illuminated spire containing a television antenna will rise to a final height of 1,776 feet. The tower is expected to open in the fourth quarter of 2013.
“I am still determined to be cheerful and happy, in whatever situation I may be; for I have also learned from experience that the greater part of our happiness or misery depends upon our dispositions, and not upon our circumstances.”
~ Martha Washington (1732 – 1802)
fastidious• fas-TID-ee-us adjective
1 : having high and often unpredictable standards
2 : showing a meticulous or demanding attitude
“fastidious” once meant “haughty,” “disgusting,” and “disgusted,” although those uses are now archaic or obsolete. The word came to be applied to someone who is squeamish or overly difficult to please, and later, to work which reflects a demanding or precise attitude.
1451 - An eclipse occurred that allegedly prevented the outbreak of war between the Mohawk and the Seneca Indians.
1776 – Revolutionary War: Thomas Hickey, Continental Army private and bodyguard to General George Washington, was hanged for mutiny and sedition. He was executed before a crowd of 20,000 spectators.
1776 – American Colonists repulsed a British sea attack on Charleston, SC.
1776 - Jefferson’s document was placed before the Congress after some minor changes by Adams and Franklin. This event was immortalized in the painting by John Trumball.
1778 – Revolutionary War: Battle of Monmouth fought between the American Continental Army under George Washington and the British Army led by Sir Henry Clinton. Washington appoints Molly Pitcher a sergeant.
1778 - Revolutionary War: Mary “Molly Pitcher” Hays McCauley, wife of an American artilleryman, carried water to the soldiers during the Battle of Monmouth and, supposedly, took her husband’s place at his gun after he was overcome with heat.
1787 - Founding Father Benjamin Franklin calling the Constitutional Convention to prayer after several weeks of difficult discussions and frequent impasses. The Founders well understood the need to seek God and the important part that God played both in establishing this nation and in the writing of the Constitution.
1794 – Joshua Humphreys appointed master builder to build Navy ships at an annual salary of $2,000.
1814 – War of 1812: USS Wasp captures HMS Reindeer.
1820 – Tomato is proven nonpoisonous.
1836 – James Madison (85), the fourth president of the United States (1809-17), died in Montpelier, Va. His writings included the 29 Federalist essays.
1846 – Adolphe Sax was awarded a patent for the saxophone. He had invented the instrument in the mid 1840′s by combining the clarinet’s single reed and mouthpiece with a widened oboe’s conical bore.
1855 – The Sigma Chi Fraternity was founded at Miami University.
1861 – Civil War: Side-wheel steamer St. Nicholas, making scheduled run between Baltimore and Georgetown, D.C., was captured by Confederates. The boarders got on posing as passengers at the steamer’s various stopping points on the Potomac River.
1862 – Civil War: At Garnett’s and Golding’s farms, fighting continued for a fourth day between Union and Confederate forces during the “Seven Days in Virginia.”
1863 – Civil War: General Meade replaced General Hooker three days before the Battle of Gettysburg.
1865 – Civil War: CSS Shenandoah captures eleven American whalers in one day.
1865 – Civil War: The Army of the Potomac is disbanded.
1874 - The Freedmen’s Bank, created to assist former slaves in the United States, closed. African American depositors lost approximately three million dollars.
1887 – Minot, North Dakota incorporated as a city.
1892 - The Sierra Club was organized in San Francisco by John Muir.
1894 – U.S. President Grover Cleveland signed an act of Congress making Labor Day an official US holiday.
1902 – The U.S. Congress passes the Spooner Act, authorizing President Theodore Roosevelt to acquire rights from Colombia for the Panama Canal.
1902 - The Dick Act of 1902 also known as the Efficiency of Militia Bill H.R. 11654, passed today, invalidates all so-called gun-control laws. It also divides the militia into three distinct and separate entities. The three classes that H.R. 11654 provides for are the organized militia, henceforth known as the National Guard of the State, Territory and District of Columbia, the unorganized militia and the regular army. The militia encompasses every able-bodied male between the ages of 18 and 45.
1904- The SS Norge runs aground and sinks close to Rockall, on St Helen’s Reef. The final death toll was 635, among them 225 Norwegians. Rockall is a small, uninhabited, rocky islet in the north Atlantic Ocean.
1904 - Blind-deaf student Helen Keller graduated with honors from Radcliffe College.
1907 - The Washington Nationals stole thirteen bases in a single baseball game against the New York Highlanders.
1911 – Samuel J. Battle became the first African-American policeman in New York City.
1914 – Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his wife Sophie are assassinated in Sarajevo by young Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip , the casus belli of World War I.
1917 - The Raggedy Ann doll created for American writer Johnny Gruelle’s daughter, Marcella, when she brought him an old hand-made rag doll and he drew a face on it. From his bookshelf, he pulled a book of poems by James Whitcomb Riley, and combined the names of two poems, “The Raggedy Man” and “Little Orphan Annie.” Marcella died at age thirteen after being vaccinated at school for smallpox without her parents’ consent. Authorities blamed a heart defect, but her parents blamed the vaccination. Gruelle became an opponent of vaccination, and the Raggedy Ann doll was used as a symbol by the anti-vaccination movement.
1918- The Chemical Warfare Service was established.
1918 – World War I : The Battle of Cantigny began as American troops captured the French town from the Germans; the Americans were able to resist German counterattacks in the days that followed.
1918 – World War I: The US Marines took the Bois de Belleau.
1919 – The Treaty of Versailles is signed in Paris, formally ending World War I between Britain, France, Italy, the United States and allies on the one side and Germany and Austria Hungary on the other side.
1920 - The Democrats opened their convention, the first in the West, in San Francisco. James Cox of Ohio was elected presidential candidate on the 44th ballot on July 6. This was seventy-four years after California became a state.
1922 – 18-year-old Ralph Samuelson rides world’s first water skis.
1923 - Attorney General Henry M. Daugherty said it is legal for women to wear trousers anywhere.
1924 - A tornado struck Sandusky & Lorain, Ohio, killing 93.
1926 - The US Customs Court was created by congress.
1929 - The first all-color talking picture, “On with the Show,” opened in New York.
1934 – President Roosevelt signed into law the National Housing Act, which established the Federal Housing Administration.
1935 – President Franklin Roosevelt ordered a federal gold vault to be built at Fort Knox, Kentucky.
1937 - In a poll conducted by a New York City newspaper, players for the Giants, Yankees and Dodgers said they opposed the proposed baseball players’ union.
1937 - President Roosevelt pushed a button in Washington signaling that vehicular traffic could cross the just-opened Golden Gate Bridge in California. Cars were charged 50 cents each way.
1938 - The U.S. Congress created the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) to insure construction loans.
1939 – The Dixie Clipper (Pan American Airways ) inaugurated the first transatlantic airplane passenger service leaving from Port Washington terminal, Manhasset Bay, Long Island Sound. The process started on March 20th, airmail on May 20th and then this flight.
1940 – The Republican Convention, held in Philadelphia, nominated Wendall Willkie (d.1944) for US president.
1940 - Irving Berlin’s musical “Louisiana Purchase,” premiered in New York City.
1940 – Quiz Kids, a popular radio-TV series of the 1940s and 1950s, was created by Chicago public relations and advertising man Louis G. Cowan. Originally sponsored by Alka-Seltzer, the series was first broadcast on NBC from Chicago airing as a summer replacement show for Alec Templeton Time.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: German and Romanian soldiers killed 11,000 Jews in Kishinev.
1942 – Dumont TV network begins (WABD NY).
1942 – World War II: German troops launched an offensive to seize Soviet oil fields in the Caucasus and the city of Stalingrad.
1943 – “The Dreft Star Playhouse” debuted on NBC radio.
1944 – “The Alan Young Show” debuted on NBC radio.
1944 - The Republican national convention in Chicago nominated New York Gov. Thomas E. Dewey for president and Ohio Gov. John W. Bricker for vice president.
1945 – World War II: U.S. General Douglas MacArthur announced the end of Japanese resistance in the Philippines.
1945 - In California the engine of Helldiver aircraft from an aircraft carrier failed and the pilot ditched the plane in a San Diego reservoir. The pilot and gunner swam to shore.
1946 - The US Army Air Force initiated the Nuclear Energy for the Propulsion of Aircraft program (NEPA). Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corp. was selected to study the possibility of developing a long range strategic bomber powered by a nuclear reactor.
1947- CHART TOPPERS – “I Wonder, I Wonder, I Wonder” by Eddy Howard, “Peg o’ My Heart” by The Harmonicats, “Mam’selle” by Art Lund and “It’s a Sin” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 - Football star Tom Harmon announced his retirement from professional football.
1949 – The last U.S. combat troops were called home from Korea, leaving only 500 advisers.
1950 – Korean War: Seoul is captured by troops from North Korea. General Douglas MacArthur arrived in South Korea as Seoul fell.
1950 – Korean War: Detachment X, 35 men of the 507th Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion, were the first U.S. ground force unit to arrive in Korea.
1950 – Korean War: Sergeant Leroy Deans, Korean Military Advisory Group, received a wound in the eye thereby earning the first ground combat Purple Heart of the Korean War.
1950 – Korean War: Far East Air Force aircraft dropped the first psychological warfare leaflets over Korea.
1951 – “Amos ’n’ Andy” moved to CBS-TV from radio.
1952 – “Here in My Heart” by Al Martino topped the charts.
1954 – Camden, SC hits record high temperature of 111°.
1954 - US Sen. John F. Kennedy wrote a letter to Gunilla von Post, a Swedish woman he had met on the French Riviera in August 1953, and suggested sailing with her for 2 weeks around the Mediterranean. Kennedy was 36 when he met Post (21).
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White” by Perez Prado, “Rock Around the Clock” by Bill Haley & His Comets, “Unchained Melody” by Al Hibler and “Live Fast, Love Hard, Die Young” by Faron Young all topped the charts.
1956 – First atomic reactor built for private research operates Chicago, IL. The reactor resided there for two decades, until it was officially decommissioned in the mid 1970s. Experts decided that the risk of accidentally decimating the City of Chicago was too great.
1958 – “Purple People Eater” by the Sheb Wooley topped the charts.
1959 - Monkeys Able & Baker were launched 300 miles into space on a Jupiter missile and became the first animals retrieved from a space mission.
1960 – In Cuba, Fidel Castro confiscated American-owned oil refineries without compensation.
1961 - San Francisco lawyer Willie Brown (27) charged that he has been rebuffed by salesmen while trying to look at a model home in the Forest Knolls tract of San Francisco.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sukiyaki” by Kyu Sakamoto,” Blue on Blue” by Bobby Vinton, “Those Lazy by Hazy – Crazy Days of Summer “ by Nat King Cole and “Act Naturally “ by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1963 - Dow Jones went public. 110,000 shares of Dow Jones common stock were sold to the public.
1964 – Malcom X forms the Organization of Afro-American Unity.
1965 – Vietnam War: In the first major offensive ordered for U.S. forces, 3,000 troops of the 173rd Airborne Brigade–in conjunction with 800 Australian soldiers and a Vietnamese airborne unit–assault a jungle area known as Viet Cong Zone D, 20 miles northeast of Saigon.
1965 - The first commercial telephone conversation over a satellite took place over Early Bird I between America and Europe.
1967 - Francis Chichester (1901-1972), English aviator and sailor, arrived home at Plymouth from a round-the-world, one man sailboat trip.
1967 – Fourteen people were shot in race riots in Buffalo, New York.
1968 - President Johnson signed the Uniform Monday Holiday Act.
1968 – Daniel Ellsberg was indicted for leaking the Pentagon Papers.
1969 – In the early hours eight police officers raided the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in New York City’s Greenwich Village. The Stonewall Riots were a series of violent conflicts between LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) individuals and New York City police officers.
1969 – “Love Theme From Romeo & Juliet” by Henry Mancini topped the charts.
1970 – Muhammed Ali, formerly Cassius Clay, stood before the Supreme Court regarding his refusal of induction into the Army during the Vietnam War.
1970 - USS James Madison (SSBN-627) completes conversion to Poseidon missile capability.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Too Late” – “I Feel the Earth Move” by Carole King, “Indian Reservation” by Paul Revere and the Raiders, “Treat Her Like a Lady” by Cornelius Brothers & Sister Rose and “When You’re Hot, You’re Hot” by Jerry Reed all topped the charts.
1971 - President Richard Nixon ordered John Haldeman to do more wiretapping and political espionage against the Democrats. The orders were recorded on tape.
1971 – The U.S. Supreme Court overturned the draft evasion conviction of Muhammad Ali.
1971 – Daniel Ellsburg was arrested for leaking the Pentagon Papers to the press.
1971 - Audie Murphy (b.1926), WW II hero and actor, was killed in plane crash near Roanoke, Va.
1971 - The US Supreme Court ruled in Lemon vs. Kurtzman that public aid to parochial schools in unconstitutional.
1972 - President Nixon announced that no new draftees would be sent to Vietnam.
1972 - Operatives working for the Committee to Re-elect the President (CRP) burglarized the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Washington, DC, Watergate office complex.
1974 - “Magic Show” opened at Cort Theater in New York City for 1,859 performances.
1975 – “Love Will Keep Us Together” by Captain & Tennille topped the charts.
1976 – The first women entered the U.S. Air Force Academy.
1976 - President Gerald Ford signed the Medical Device Amendments which established a product approval process overseen by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with the authority to regulate medical devices. Sales of silicone breast implants, already on the market, were allowed to continue without proof of safety.
1977 - The US Supreme Court allowed Federal control of Nixon tapes and papers.
1977 - One hundred sixty-five people were killed when fire raced through the Beverly Hills Supper Club in Southgate, Ky.
1978 – The United States Supreme Court, in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke bars quota systems in college admissions. Bakke, a white man, argued he had been a victim of reverse racial discrimination.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hot Stuff” by Donna Summer, “Ring My Bell” by Anita Ward, “The Logical Song” by Supertramp and “Nobody Likes Sad Songs” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1979 - OPEC raised oil prices. The price of a barrel of oil increased 50% since a year earlier.
1980 -”Coming Up (Live at Glasgow)” by Paul McCartney & Wings topped the charts.
1983 – The Mianus River Bridge collapses over the Mianus River in Connecticut, killing three drivers in their vehicles.
1984 - President Reagan led a state funeral at Arlington National Cemetery at the Tomb of the Unknowns for an unidentified American soldier killed in the Vietnam War. The remains were unearthed in 1998 for DNA testing and possible identification. They were later identified as those of Air Force First Lieutenant Michael J. Blassie, and were sent to St. Louis for hometown burial.
1985 – Route 66 decertified as a U.S. highway. Route 66 started in Chicago, Illinois and continued into Santa Monica, California. To travel from one end of Route 66 to the other, one would go through eight states and three time zones.
1985 - David Jacobsen, director of the American University Hospital in Beirut, Lebanon, was abducted by pro-Iranian kidnappers. He was freed 17 months later.
1986 – “On My Own” by Patti LaBelle & Michael McDonald topped the charts.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Wanna Dance with Somebody (Who Loves Me) “ by Whitney Houston, “In Too Deep” by Genesis, “Alone” by Heart and “Forever and Ever, Amen” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.
1988 – The worst confined-space industrial acciden
in U.S. history occurs at a metal-plating plant in Auburn, Indiana, killing five.
1988 - The US federal government sued the International Brotherhood of Teamsters to force reforms on the nation’s largest labor union. The two sides reached a settlement in March, 1989.
1990 – Paperback Software International Ltd. found guilty by a U.S. court of copyright violation for copying the appearance and menu system of Lotus 1-2-3 in its competing spreadsheet program.
1990 - Jurors in the drug and perjury trial of Washington DC Mayor Marion S. Barry Jr. viewed a videotape showing Barry smoking crack cocaine during an FBI hotel-room sting operation.
1991 – A 5.8-magnitude quake under the San Gabriel Mountains in Southern California kills two people.
1991 – In Detroit, a white woman was attacked by a group of black women at a downtown fireworks display in an incident captured on amateur video. Five women later pleaded no contest to charges stemming from the assault.
1992 – A 7.3-magnitude earthquake strikes in Landers, California, and a second, at 6.5 magnitude, hits the San Gabriel mountains. The quakes kill a Yucca Valley boy, injure 400 and cause $100 million in damage.
1992 - A 35-year-old man at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center became the first recipient of a baboon liver transplant; he lived ten more weeks.
1993 – US helicopters attack Somali positions killing two gunmen.
1993 - The US Supreme Court kept alive a “racial gerrymandering” case, saying congressional districts designed to benefit racial minorities may violate white voters’ rights.
1994 – Members of the Aum Shinrikyo cult release sarin gas attack at Matsumoto, Japan, 7 persons killed, 660 injured. The event sends a worldwide scare to cities with subways.
1994 - President Clinton became the first chief executive in U.S. history to set up a personal legal defense fund and ask Americans to contribute to it.
1995 - The US House (R) overwhelmingly approved a constitutional amendment to protect the American flag from desecration. However, the amendment was defeated in the Senate (R).
1995 - The New York Times received the Unabomber manifesto.
1995 - Webster Hubbell, the former number-three official at the Justice Department, was sentenced to twenty-one months in prison for bilking clients of the law firm where he and Hillary Rodham Clinton were partners.
1996 – The Citadel voted to admit women, ending a 153-year-old men-only policy at the South Carolina military school.
1997 - Mike Tyson vs Evander Holyfield II (6:09) – Tyson is disqualified in the 3rd round for biting a piece from Holyfield’s ear.
1998 - Storms in the Midwest and East coast left 21 people dead.
1998 - Major Gen’l. Marion Carl (82), a WW II fighter pilot, was fatally shot at his home in southern Oregon during a robbery. Jesse Stuart Fanus (19) was later arrested for the murder. In 1999 he was sentenced to death but the governor of Oregon has put the death penalty on hold. In 2014 he was still alive on Oregon’s death row!!!
1999 - Announcing even bigger projected budget surpluses, President Clinton said the government could drastically reduce the national debt while still buttressing Social Security and Medicare.
2000 – U.S. Supreme Court Upholds Two Key Abortion Rights. A bitterly divided Supreme Court handed abortion rights advocates a double victory yesterday, striking down a state law that banned the controversial procedure known to critics as “partial birth” abortion and upholding another state law that restricts protests outside abortion clinics. Read the Court’s Decision:
Stenberg v. Carhart (Partial-term abortion state ban struck down) and Hill v. Colorado(Protests outside abortion clinics.)
2000 – Boy Scouts Of America v. Dale – The Supreme Court ruled that the Boy Scouts of America was within its rights when the organization expelled an adult Scout leader because he is gay.
2000 – Cuban exile Elián González returns to Cuba following a Supreme Court order.
2001 – U.S. Appeals Court overturns a lower court’s order to break up Microsoft in an antitrust case.
2001 - NY Gov. George Pataki signed legislation that banned the use of handheld cell phones by drivers, effective Nov 1. Emergencies were exempted.
2003 – Iraqi War: After days of intense searching by ground and air, U.S. forces found the bodies of two soldiers missing north of Baghdad.
2003 - The Mississippi River Museum and Aquarium opened in Dubuque, Iowa.
2004 – The U.S. resumed diplomatic ties with Libya after a 24-year break.
2004 – The US Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that detainees at Guantanamo must have access to the US legal system. The Court ruled that the war on terrorism did not give the government a “blank check” to hold a US citizen and foreign-born terror suspects in legal limbo.
2004 - In Texas two freight trains collided in San Antonio and one engineer was killed. Derailed train cars released clouds of chlorine gas and ammonium nitrate. two people died from the toxic gases.
2005 – A final design for Manhattan’s Freedom Tower is formally unveiled.
2005 – In Alabama a jury acquitted former CEO Richard Scrushy of federal corporate corruption charges in a $2.7 billion accounting fraud at HealthSouth.
2005 - Google unveiled a free 3-D satellite mapping technology.
2005 – In Alabama a jury acquitted former CEO Richard Scrushy of federal corporate corruption charges in a $2.7 billion accounting fraud at HealthSouth.
2006 - “Miracle on Ice” coach Herb Brooks and Patrick Roy, the NHL’s winningest goaltender, were among four honorees elected to the Hockey Hall of Fame.
2006 - The National Basketball Association (NBA) approved switching to a synthetic basketball that promised improved control and more dunks next season.
2006 - At least sixteen deaths in northeastern states were blamed on the stormy weather and three people were missing.
2007 – The American bald eagle was removed from the endangered species list.
2007 – President Bush’s immigration plan to legalize as many as 12 million unlawful immigrants while fortifying the border collapsed in the Senate.
2007 – Bruce Kennedy (b.1938), former CEO of Alaska Airlines (1979-1991), was killed when his Cessna 182 crashed in Cashmere, Wash.
2007 – The Supreme Court in a 5-4 decision condemned race-based school enrollment plans in Louisville, Ky., and Seattle, but stopped short of banning it.
2007 – The Supreme Court struck down an anti-trust rule nearly a century old, saying that it is no longer automatically unlawful for manufacturers and distributors to agree on setting minimum retail prices.
2008 – President George W. Bush declared a state of emergency in California and ordered federal aid to help authorities battle more than 1,000 wildfires burning out of control.
2008 – In Mountain View, Ca., Omar Aquino (24) and his sister, Teresa Sanchez (27), were killed in their home. Police later said they were the victims of a conspiracy that included seven youths and young adults communicating with cellular text messages.
2008 - The Los Angeles Dodgers become only the fifth team in modern major league baseball history to win a game in which they didn’t get a hit, defeating the Anaheim Angels 1-0.
2009 – It was reported that bark beetles were killing millions of pine trees from Colorado to Canada. Over 7 million acres of forest in the US have been declared all but dead. 22 million more acres were expected to die over the next 15 years.
2009 – Billy Mays (50), known to television viewers as the OxiClean guy, died of a heart attack at his Tampa home. An autopsy later showed that cocaine use contributed to his heart disease.
2010 – The Supreme Court held that Americans have the right to own a gun for self-defense anywhere they live. The court, in the case of McDonald v. City of Chicago, forever changed the terms of debate over the right to bear arms. The 5-4 vote extended principles the court laid out in 2008, when it struck down a handgun ban in Washington, D.C.
2010 – The US Supreme Court in Christian Legal Society vs. Martinez (08-1371) ruled that a public university is not required to subsidize student groups with discriminatory membership policies.
2010 – The FBI announced the arrests of ten alleged deep cover Russian agents after tracking the suspects for years. They were accused of attempting to infiltrate US policymaking circles while posing as ordinary citizens.
2010 – Robert C. Byrd (b.1917), the longest serving member of the US Senate, died. The fiery orator and hard-charging power broker had steered billions of federal dollars to his beloved West Virginia.
2011 – The crew of the International Space Station rush to a rescue shuttle amid concern of the need for a possible emergency evacuation back to Earth as a piece of space debris hurtles dangerously close.
2011 – Los Alamos National Laboratory, a major U.S. nuclear weapons research facility, is shut down and is to remain closed as fire fighters battle a raging wildfire nearby.
2012 – The Supreme Court voted 6-3 that the Stolen Valor Act of 2006 infringes upon speech protected by the First Amendment. The law, which was enacted amid the U.S. wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, targeted those who made bogus claims about receiving the Medal of Honor or other military decorations.
2012 – Chief Justice Roberts joined the left of the Supreme Court in a dramatic 5-4 decision to uphold President Obama’s Obamacare individual mandate is not constitutional under the Constitution’s Commerce Clause, but is reasonably considered a tax valid under Congress’ authority to “lay and collect taxes.”
2013 - The USDA approves a plant to slaughter horses for meat in New Mexico.
2013 - Gold falls below $1200 per ounce for the first time since 2010.
1577 – Peter Paul Rubens, (d. 1640) seventeenth-century Flemish Baroque painter
1703 – John Wesley, English founder of Methodism (d. 1791)
1824 – Paul Broca, French physician (d. 1880)
1873 – Alexis Carrel, French surgeon and biologist, Nobel laureate (d. 1944)
1891 – Carl Spaatz, American Air Force general (d. 1974)
1902 – Richard Rodgers, American composer (d. 1979)
1906 – Maria Goeppert-Mayer, theoretical physicist (d. 1972)
1932 – Pat Morita, American actor (d. 2005)
1941 – Joseph Goguen, American computer scientist (d. 2006)
1946 – Gilda Radner, American comedienne (d. 1989)
1948 – Kathy Bates, American actress
1960 – John Elway, American football player
1966 – John Cusack, American actor
Rank and Organization: Lieutenant, United States Navy. Born: Smithtown, NY on May 7th, 1976. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as the leader of a special reconnaissance element with Naval Special Warfare Task Unit Afghanistan on 27 and 28 June 2005. While leading a mission to locate a high-level anti-coalition militia leader, Lieutenant Murphy demonstrated extraordinary heroism in the face of grave danger in the vicinity of Asadabad, Konar Province, Afghanistan. On 28 June 2005, operating in an extremely rugged enemy-controlled area, Lieutenant Murphy’s team was discovered by anti-coalition militia sympathizers, who revealed their position to Taliban fighters. As a result, between thirty and forty enemy fighters besieged his four-member team. Demonstrating exceptional resolve, Lieutenant Murphy valiantly led his men in engaging the large enemy force. The ensuing fierce firefight resulted in numerous enemy casualties, as well as the wounding of all four members of the team. Ignoring his own wounds and demonstrating exceptional composure, Lieutenant Murphy continued to lead and encourage his men. When the primary communicator fell mortally wounded, Lieutenant Murphy repeatedly attempted to call for assistance for his beleaguered teammates. Realizing the impossibility of communicating in the extreme terrain, and in the face of almost certain death, he fought his way into open terrain to gain a better position to transmit a call. This deliberate, heroic act deprived him of cover, exposing him to direct enemy fire. Finally achieving contact with his Headquarters, Lieutenant Murphy maintained his exposed position while he provided his location and requested immediate support for his team. In his final act of bravery, he continued to engage the enemy until he was mortally wounded, gallantly giving his life for his country and for the cause of freedom. By his selfless leadership, courageous actions, and extraordinary devotion to duty, Lieutenant Murphy reflected great credit upon himself and upheld the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 5th Battalion, 7th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and Date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, 28 June 1968. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 20 December 1942, Salinas, Puerto Rico. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Santiago-Colon distinguished himself at the cost of his life while serving as a gunner in the mortar platoon of Company B. While serving as a perimeter sentry, Sp4c. Santiago-Colon heard distinct movement in the heavily wooded area to his front and flanks. Immediately he alerted his fellow sentries in the area to move to their foxholes and remain alert for any enemy probing forces. From the wooded area around his position heavy enemy automatic weapons and small-arms fire suddenly broke out, but extreme darkness rendered difficult the precise location and identification of the hostile force. Only the muzzle flashes from enemy weapons indicated their position. Sp4c. Santiago-Colon and the other members of his position immediately began to repel the attackers, utilizing hand grenades, antipersonnel mines and small-arms fire. Due to the heavy volume of enemy fire and exploding grenades around them, a North Vietnamese soldier was able to crawl, undetected, to their position. Suddenly, the enemy soldier lobbed a hand grenade into Sp4c. Santiago-Colon’s foxhole. Realizing that there was no time to throw the grenade out of his position, Sp4c. Santiago-Colon retrieved the grenade, tucked it in to his stomach and, turning away from his comrades, absorbed the full impact of the blast. His heroic self-sacrifice saved the lives of those who occupied the foxhole with him, and provided them with the inspiration to continue fighting until they had forced the enemy to retreat from the perimeter. By his gallantry at the cost of his life and in the highest traditions of the military service, Sp4c. Santiago-Colon has reflected great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1852, Sweden. Accredited to: New York. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Powhatan, 28 June 1878. Acting courageously, Anderson rescued from drowning W. H. Moffatt, first class boy.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Plymouth, Mass. Born: 9 July 1838, Plymouth, Mass. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Sciota prior to the battle Vicksburg, on 28 June 1862. Struck by a bullet which severed his left arm above the elbow, Hathaway displayed exceptional courage as his ship sustained numerous damaging hits from stem to stern while proceeding down the river to fight the battle of Vicksburg.
“Happy Birthday to You” Day
Decide to Be Married Day
Happy Birthday Facts
The song was originally called Good Morning to All and was used to greet schoolchildren in the morning. The melody for the famous song was first penned by two sisters, Mildred and Patty Hill Another Hill sister (Jessica) published and copyrighted the song in 1935. ‘Happy Birthday’ became the first song to be performed in outer space when it was performed by the astronauts on Apollo IX in 1969. Time Warner reportedly paid $25 million for the rights to the song in 1988. The copyright is currently owned by TimeWarner and licensed and enforced by ASCAP In its long history, only two lawsuits have been brought for illegal singing of the song. Annual royalties of the song are estimated at around $2 million. The copyright will not expire until at least 2030 There is much debate and controversy about the validity of this copyright for such a simple and old song. This copyright is the main reason you never hear waiters singing the song to patrons in restaurants. They usually sing some alternate, corporate-approved birthday song. “The real contest is always between what you’ve done and what you’re capable of doing. You measure yourself against yourself and nobody else.”
~ Geoffrey Gaberino
conundrum kuh-NUN-drum noun
1 : a riddle whose answer is or involves a pun
2 a : a question or problem having only a conjectural answer *b : an intricate and difficult problem
1652 - New Amsterdam (later New York City) passed the first speed limit law in the colonies (later the US.)
1776 - Thomas Hickey, who plotted to hand George Washington over to British, was hanged.
1778 – The Liberty Bell came home to Philadelphia after the British left.
1787 – Edward Gibbon completed “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” 1829 – English scientist James Smithson leaves a will that eventually funds the establishment of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, in a country he never visited.
1833 - Prudence Crandall, a white woman, was arrested for conducting an academy for black women in Canterbury, Conn. The academy was eventually closed.
1839 - The Spanish coasting vessel La Amistad (The Friendship) set sail from Cuba to Porta Prince with a load of African slaves. Cinque, originally Senghbe, and over fifty other Africans had been kidnapped in Sierra Leone and sold into slavery in Cuba. They were carried on a Spanish ship, the Tecora, to Cuba. Cinque and forty-nine other slaves and four children were placed on the ship La Amistad destined for Haiti. They revolted, killed the captain, and ordered the crew back to Africa but the ship sailed north and ran aground. It was captured by the US Navy on August 26.
1844 – Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and his brother Hyrum Smith, are murdered by a mob at the Carthage, Illinois jail. 1847 – New York and Boston were linked by telegraph wires.
1862 – Civil War: Confederates broke through the Union lines at the Battle of Gaines’ Mill on the third day of the Seven Days Battle in Virginia.
1863 - Civil War: There was a skirmish at Fairfax Courthouse in Virginia.
1864 - Civil War: Union General William T. Sherman launches a major attack on Confederate General Joseph Johnston’s army at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain in Georgia.
1867 – The Bank of California is created.
1874 - Using new high-powered rifles to devastating effect, 28 buffalo hunters repulse a much larger force of attacking Indians at an old trading post in the Texas panhandle called Adobe Walls.
1876 - Dave Force of the Philadelphia Athletics was the first National Leaguer to get six hits in a nine inning game.
1885 – Chichester Bell and Charles S. Tainter applied for a patent for the gramophone. It was granted on May 4, 1886.
1893 – Crash of the New York Stock Exchange. By year’s end, 600 banks and 74 railroads had gone out of business. The value of the U.S. silver dollar fell to less than 60 cents in gold.
1896 – The crew of the Lifesaving Station at Fourth Cliff, Massachusetts, responded to a traffic accident in front of the station.
1898 – The first solo circumnavigation of the globe is completed by Joshua Slocum from Briar Island, Nova Scotia in a 37-foot rebuilt fishing boat called the Spray. 1899 - The plague came ashore in San Francisco. Political leaders overrode health officials and denied its presence. The governor declared it a felony to publish its existence. By 1904 more than 100 people had died of “syphilitic septicemia,” the official pseudonym of plague.
1901 – In Havana, Cuba, U.S. Army physician James Carroll allowed an infected mosquito to feed on him in an attempt to isolate the means of transmission of yellow fever.
1905 – (June 14 according to the Julian calendar): Battleship Potemkin uprising: sailors start a mutiny aboard the Battleship Potemkin, denouncing the crimes of autocracy, demanding liberty and an end to war.
1905 - The dawn of the twentieth century witnessed a sustained burst of progressive activities as various disenfranchised elements of American society pushed to assert their rights. This was especially true in the world of organized labor, as workers marshaled their forces in the battle against Big Business.
1915 – Temperature hits 100° in Fort Yukon, AK. Average maximum temperature is 31 and the average minimum is 11.
1916 - The 4th Marine Regiment defeated Dominican rebels in a stand-up bayonet attack.
1917 – World War I: Hank Gowdy became the first baseball player to enter WW I military service.
1918 – World War I: Two German pilots were saved by parachutes for the first time.
1922 – American Library Association (ALA) awards the first Newbery Medal, honoring the year’s best children’s book, to The Story of Mankind by Hendrik Willem van Loon.
1923 – Capt. Lowell H. Smith and Lt. John P. Richter perform the first ever aerial refueling in a DH-4B biplane.
1924 – Democrats offered Mrs. Leroy Springs for vice presidential nomination. She was the first woman considered for the job.
1927 – The U.S. Marines adopted the English bulldog as their mascot.
1929 – Bell Labs demonstrates a color TV system for the first time.
1931 – Igor Sikorsky filed U.S. Patent 1,994,488, which marked the breakthrough in helicopter technology.
1934 - The US Federal Savings & Loan Association created.
1939 – First night game at Cleveland Municipal Stadium (Indians 5, Tigers 0).
1940 – World War II: Europe: Germans set up two-way radio communication in their newly occupied French territory, employing their most sophisticated coding machine, Enigma, to transmit information.
1941 – World War II: Europe: German troops capture the city of Białystok during Operation Barbarossa.
1942 – World War II: The FBI announced the capture of eight Nazi saboteurs who had been put ashore from two submarines, one off New York’s Long Island and the other off of Florida. The men were tried by a military court and six were secretly executed in a DC jail.
1942 – World War II: Coast Guard Cutter Mojave rescues 293 men from the torpedoed transport “Chatham”, in the Strait of Belle Isle.
1942 – World War II: The Battle of the Eastern Solomons. Japanese submarine I-26 damages the USS Saratoga. It will remain out of action until October. The USS Wasp is now the only operational US carrier in the Pacific.
1944 – World War II: American forces of 7th Corps (part of US 1st Army) complete the capture of Cherbourg.
1944 – World War II: USS Stingray (SS-186) lands men and supplies on Luzon, Philippines to support guerilla operations against the Japanese.
1945 – World War II: The American carrier USS Bunker Hill is struck by a Kamikaze plane, killing 373 men.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Gypsy” by The Ink Spots, “They Say It’s Wonderful” by Frank Sinatra, “All Through the Day” by Perry Como and “New Spanish Two Step” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1949 – “Captain Video and His Video Rangers” premiered on the Dumont Television Network.
1949 – Walter Baade discovers asteroid Icarus inside orbit of Mercury.
1950 – Korean War: Just two days after communist North Korean forces invaded South Korea, the United Nations Security Council approves a resolution put forward by the United States calling for armed force to repel the North Korean invaders. 1950 – Korean War: Flying a F-82G Twin Mustang in a defensive mission over Kimpo Airfield, Lieutenant William G. “Skeeter” Hudson, 68th Fighter (All-Weather) Squadron, destroyed a Yak-7U fighter and was officially credited with the first aerial victory of the Korean War. Lieutenant Carl Fraser occupied the second cockpit as copilot.
1950 – Korean War: A patrol of F80C Shooting Stars from the 35th Fighter-Bomber Squadron intercepted eight Ilyushin IL-10 fighters over Kimpo. Captain Raymond E. Schillereff and Lieutenant Robert H. Dewald each scored single victories while Lieutenant Robert E. Wayne claimed a pair IL-10s. These were the first air-to-air victories achieved by jet fighters in U.S. Air Force history.
1953 – “Song From Moulin Rouge (Where Is Your Heart)” by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Little Things Mean a Lot” by Kitty Kallen, “Three Coins in the Fountain” by The Four Aces, “Hernando’s Hideaway” by Archie Bleyer and “I Don’t Hurt Anymore” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1955 – The first “Wide Wide World” was broadcast on NBC-TV. Dave Garroway, of the “Today” show, was the program host.
1955 - First automobile seat belt legislation was enacted in Illinois.
1955 – The state of Illinois enacted the first automobile seat belt legislation.
1956 – Clarence Henry released “Ain’t Got No Home” to radio.
1956 - Martin Luther King was the featured speaker at the NAACP convention held at the San Francisco Civic Auditorium.
1957 – Hurricane Audrey kills 500 people in Louisiana and Texas.
1958 – NBC’s “Matinee Theatre” was seen for the final time.
1958 - Cuban rebel forces kidnapped twenty-nine US sailors and Marines and held them until Jul 18.
1959 – “Battle of New Orleans“ by Johnny Horton topped the charts.
1959 – The play, “West Side Story,” with music by Leonard Bernstein, closed after 734 performances on Broadway.
1960 – “Everybody’s Somebody’s Fool” by Connie Francis topped the charts.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Can’t Stop Loving You” by Ray Charles, “The Stripper” by David Rose, “Palisades Park” by Freddy Cannon and “She Thinks I Still Care” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1962 – NASA civilian test pilot Joe Walker in X-15 reaches a speed of 4,104 mph (Mach 5.92).
1962 – The United States launched the Mariner 2 space probe with an Atlas D booster.
1963 - USAF Major Robert A. Rushworth in X-15 reached 53.9 miles. Outer space is generally held to be 62 miles.
1964 – “A World Without Love” by Peter & Gordon topped the charts.
1966 – The first broadcast of Dark Shadows, a science fiction soap opera, is aired on ABC-TV.
1967 – The world’s first ATM is installed in Enfield, London. The device was invented by John Sheppard-Barron. The machine operated on a voucher system and the maximum withdrawal was $28. The first one in the U.S., Chemical Bank installed the first ATM at its branch in Rockville Centre, New York, September 2nd, 1969.
1967 – Two hundred people were arrested during a race riot in Buffalo, NY.
1968 – Vietnam War: U.S. forces begin to evacuate Khe Sanh, 14 miles below the Demilitarized Zone and six miles from the Laotian border.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Love You Save“by The Jackson 5, “Mama Told Me (Not to Come)” by Three Dog Night, “Ball of Confusion” by The Temptations and “Hello Darlin’” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1973 – Former White House counsel John Dean reveals Nixon’s “enemies list.” 1973 – President Richard Nixon vetoed a Senate ban on Cambodia bombing. 1974 – President Richard Nixon visits the U.S.S.R..
1976 – Air France Flight 139 (Tel Aviv-Athens-Paris) is hijacked en route to Paris by the PLO and redirected to Entebbe, Uganda.
1977 – U.S. Supreme Court in Bates v. State Bar of Arizona (5-4) ruled that advertising by lawyers was protected under the First Amendment.
1977 - Illinois reinstated the capital punishment.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Shadow Dancing” by Andy Gibb, “Baker Street” by Gerry Rafferty, “It’s a Heartache” by Bonnie Tyler, “I’ll Be True to You” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1978 - US Seasat 1, the 1st oceanographic satellite, was launched into polar orbit. 1979 – U.S. Supreme Court ruled private employers could give special preferences to blacks to eliminate “manifest racial imbalance” in traditionally white-only jobs. 1980 – President Carter signed legislation reviving draft registration.
1982 - The 4th Space Shuttle Mission-Columbia 4, was launched.
1982 - The Broadway show “Dancin’” closed at the Ambassador Theater after 1,774 performances.
1984 – Supreme Court ends NCAA monopoly on college football telecasts. In the case of the National Collegiate Athletic Association v. the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma, the National Collegiate Athletic Association had unreasonably restrained trade in the televising of college football games.
1985 – U.S. Route 66 ceases to be an official U.S. highway. The legendary Route 66 originally stretched from Chicago to Santa Monica, Calif.
1985 - The U.S. House of Representatives voted to limit the use of combat troops in Nicaragua.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “On My Own” by Patti LaBelle & Michael McDonald, “There’ll Be Sad Songs (To Make You Cry)” by Billy Ocean, “Crush on You” by The Jets and “Mama’s Never Seen Those Eyes” by The Forester Sisters all topped the charts.
1987 – “I Wanna Dance with Somebody“ by Whitney Houston topped the charts. 1988 - Mike Tyson retained the undisputed heavyweight crown as he knocked out Michael Spinks 91 seconds into the first round of a championship fight in Atlantic City, N.J.
1989 - President Bush, criticizing a Supreme Court decision upholding the right to desecrate the American flag as a form of political protest, called for a constitutional amendment to protect the Stars and Stripes.
1990 - NASA announced that a flaw in the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope was preventing the instrument from achieving optimum focus.
1991 – Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, the first black to sit on the nation’s highest court, announced his retirement.
1991 - The US Supreme Court ruled that juries considering life or death for convicted murderers may take into account the victim’s character and the suffering of relatives.
1992 – The body of kidnapped Exxon executive Sidney J. Reso was found buried in a makeshift grave in a state park in New Jersey. Arthur and Irene Seale were later convicted and sentenced to prison for the crime.
1992 – President Bush ordered federal troops to Florida for emergency relief in the wake of Hurricane Andrew.
1993 – Iraq War: US warships fired 24 Tomahawk cruise missiles at intelligence headquarters in Baghdad in retaliation for the assassination plot.
1995 – Space shuttle Atlantis blasted off from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on a historic mission to dock with the Russian space station Mir. The flight was also the 100th U.S.-piloted space mission.
1995 - The San Francisco Chronicle received a message from the Unabomber threatening to blow up a plane by the July Fourth weekend. The Unabomber later called the threat a prank.
1996 - The GM North Tarreytown Assembly Plant produced its last minivan prior to closure for the remaining 2,100 workers.
1997 - The Supreme Court threw out a key part of the Brady gun-control law, saying the federal government could not make local police decide whether people are fit to buy handguns. However, the court left intact the five-day waiting period for gun purchases.
1997 - It was reported that researchers have discovered the first defective gene that causes Parkinson’s disease. The mutated gene produces a defective version of the brain protein alpha synuclein.
1998 - Heavy thunderstorms in the Northeast and Midwest left at least 5 people dead. The annual Ben & Jerry’s One World One Heart festival at Sugarbush, Vermont, was cancelled.
1999 – A boarding team from the CGC Munro discover 172 illegal Chinese migrants aboard the fishing vessel Chih Yung off the coast of Mexico.
1999 - Juli Inkster shot a 6-under 65 to win the LPGA Championship, becoming the second woman to win the modern career Grand Slam. The first was Pat Bradley.
2000 - US House Republicans cut a deal to allow direct sales of food to Cuba for the first time in four decades.
2001 – Intel unveiled a 2-GHz Pentium 4 chip.
2002 - A US Air Force pilot was killed when his A10 “Warthog” crashed during a training mission in eastern France.
2002 - The US Supreme Court ruled to allow random drug searches in public schools on students who engage in extracurricular activities.
2002 – The US Supreme Court upheld a Cleveland school voucher program in Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris.
2003 – The United States National Do Not Call Registry, formed to combat unwanted telemarketing calls and administered by the Federal Trade Commission, enrolls almost three-quarters of a million phone numbers on its first day.
2004 - Insurgents threatened to behead Cpl. Wassef Ali Hassoun, a U.S. Marine who’d vanished in Iraq, in a videotaped that aired on Arab television.
2005 - The US Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that Kentucky cannot display framed copies of the Ten Commandments in county courthouses, and allowed the Texas statehouse to keep the commandments as part of a display on its grounds.
2005 - The US Supreme Court also ruled that cable-TV companies are not required to share their high-speed Internet connections with rivals. 2005 - Wal-Mart heir John T. Walton (58), crashed and died while at the controls of a homemade, experimental aircraft near Jackson Hole Airport, Wyoming. His net worth was over $18 billion. Walton supported efforts to educate low-income children.
2006 - A constitutional amendment to ban desecration of the American flag died in a US Senate cliffhanger, falling one vote short of the 67 needed to send it to states for ratification.
2006 - US Surgeon General Richard Carmona issued a report that said secondhand smoke dramatically increases the risk of heart disease and lung cancer in nonsmokers.
2006 – “Railroad Killer” Angel Maturino Resendiz, linked to fifteen murders, was executed in Texas for the slaying of physician Claudia Benton in 1998.
2007 - Don Harvey and his wife, Joyce, of Oklahoma won the a $105.8 million Powerball lottery. They chose to receive a $33.3 million lump sum after taxes instead of the full amount paid out over 29 years.
2007 - Nevada Solar One, the first large CSP (concentrating solar power) plant built since the 1980s, went online with a capacity to generate 64 megawatts. 2007 - Torrential storms flooded parts of central Texas, stranding people on roofs, in trees and in vehicles. Constant downpours claimed eleven lives in the last eleven days.
2008 - US National Guard leaders ended a 5-day convention with their spouses in St. Thomas as their equipment accounts tallied a $47.5 billion deficit.
2008 - The US CDC said at least 810 Americans have been sickened by the strain Salmonella Saintpaul in tomatoes.
2008 - Archbishop Raymond Burke of St. Louis, a church law expert known for his tough stance that politicians who support abortion rights be denied Holy Communion, was named to head the Vatican’s supreme court.
2008 – Bill Gates steps down as Chairman of Microsoft Corporation to work full time for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
2011 – The Los Angeles Dodgers file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.
2011 - The Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico is temporarily closed due to the Las Conchas Wildfire burning nearby. A state of emergency is declared with mandatory evacuations.
2011 – In a 7-2 decision, the Supreme Court of the United States in Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association strikes down a 2005 California law prohibiting minors’ access to violent or offensive video games, citing them as protected speech under the First Amendment.
2011 – Near-Earth Asteroid 2011 MD passed within 7,500 miles of the Earth’s surface at about 13:00 EDT flying over the South Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Antarctica.
2012 - Thirty-two thousand people in Colorado Springs, CO flee from the Waldo Canyon Fire that has destroyed hundreds of homes.
2012 - An 11-year-old girl, Ashton Jojo, vacationing with her family at a miniature golf course at Orange Lake Resort, in Orange County, Florida, is accidentally electrocuted after she falls into a 2-foot deep pond at the course while looking for her lost golf ball.
2012 - The Indiana Pacers team president Larry Bird resigns, with Donnie Walsh being named to replace him.
2012 – In the movie “Back To The Future“, this is the date that he traveled to in his time machine. His arrival time was 01:21 a.m. The time machine was built out of a DeLorean car.
1880 – Helen Keller, American deaf and blind activist (d. 1968)
1888 – Antoinette Perry, American theater director (d. 1946}
1899 – Juan Trippe, American airline entrepreneur (d. 1981)
1913 – Willie Mosconi, American billiards player (d. 1993)
1927 – Bob Keeshan, He is most famous as the title character of the children’s television program Captain Kangaroo, which became an icon for millions of baby boomers during its 30-year run from 1955-1984. (d. 2004)
1930 – Ross Perot, American businessman and politician
1942 – Bruce Johnston, American musician (The Beach Boys)
1951 – Julia Duffy, American actress
1956 – Brad Childress, American football coach
1956 – Ted Haggard, American evangelical preacher
1959 – Lorrie Morgan, American country music singer
1963 – Johnny Benson, American NASCAR driver
1986 – Drake Bell, musician/ songwriter /actor, best known for his role on Nickelodeon’s Drake & Josh
BOWEN, HAMMETT L., JR.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 2d Battalion, 14th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and Date: Binh Duong Province, Republic of Vietnam, 27 June 1969.Entered service at: Jacksonville, Fla. Born: 30 November 1947, Lagrange, Ga. Citation: S/Sgt. Bowen distinguished himself while serving as a platoon sergeant during combat operations in Binh Duong Province, Republic of Vietnam. S/Sgt. Bowen’s platoon was advancing on a reconnaissance mission into enemy controlled terrain when it came under the withering crossfire of small arms and grenades from an enemy ambush force. S/Sgt. Bowen placed heavy suppressive fire on the enemy positions and ordered his men to fall back. As the platoon was moving back, an enemy grenade was thrown amid S/Sgt. Bowen and three of his men. Sensing the danger to his comrades, S/Sgt. Bowen shouted a warning to his men and hurled himself on the grenade, absorbing the explosion with his body while saving the lives of his fellow soldiers. S/Sgt. Bowen’s extraordinary courage and concern for his men at the cost of his life served as an inspiration to his comrades and are in the highest traditions of the military service and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Brigadier General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Gaines Mill, Va., 27 June 1862.Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Born: 31 October 1831, Utica, N.Y. Date of issue: 26 September 1892. Citation: Seized the colors of the 83d Pennsylvania Volunteers at a critical moment and, under a galling fire of the enemy, encouraged the depleted ranks to renewed exertion.
Black holes aren’t just science fiction, scientists actually think they occur. The theory behind their existence is of massive stars dying and collapsing in on themselves to form a super heavy, mega dense entities. These entities become so tightly packed that they suck in everything around them and thus become a black hole.
To get an idea of their gravitational pull (or sucking power) even light which we know to be the fastest thing in the universe can’t escape them. So what happens to objects that go through a black hole, well the honest truth is we don’t know, however there are theories of time travel, dimensional travel and many other weird and wonderful theories.
Some believe that these black holes could actually be the openings to what science fiction calls “wormholes.” These are supposed to give fast access to other galaxies, times, etc. This is all really just fun for most people. The real fact of the matter is that the closest “black hole to earth” is 26,000 light years away, near the center of the Milky Way. To use a storyline from “Star Trek”, at Warp 7 (supposedly the fastest one can travel) or seven times the speed of light, it would take 3,714 years to get there and that is 92 generations of people that have to be born, grow, live and die all in that one spaceship.
If we were logical, the future would be bleak indeed. But we are more than logical. We are human beings, and we have faith, and we have hope….
~ Jacques-Yves Cousteau
non sequitur NAHN-SEK-wuh-ter noun
1 : an inference that does not follow from the premises
2 : a statement (as a response) that does not follow logically from or is not clearly related to anything previously said
1284 – According to legend, the Pied Piper lures 130 children away from Hamelin.
1498 – Toothbrush was invented. In China the first toothbrushes with hog bristles began to show up. Hog bristle brushes remained the best until the invention of nylon.
1604 – French explorer Samuel de Champlain, Pierre Dugua and 77 others landed on the island of St. Croix and made friends with the native Passamaquoddy Indians. It later became part of Maine on the US-Canadian border.
1721 – Dr. Zabdiel Boylston gave the first smallpox inoculations in America in Boston. The epidemic had arrived by ship from Barbados.
1753 – The Liberty Bell last Week was raised and fix’d in the Statehouse Steeple, the new great Bell, cast here by Pass and Stow, weighing 2080 lbs. The steeple had been built in March of 1753 by Edmund Woolley, a member of Philadelphia’s Carpenters’ Company, and the master-builder who had overseen the construction of the State House. Pass and Stow charged slightly over 36 Pounds for their repair job. According to their bill, the Bell weighed 2,081 pounds. This was reported in the New York Mercury.
1797 – Charles Newbold patents first cast-iron plow.
1804 – The Lewis and Clark Expedition reached the mouth of the Kansas River after completing a westward trek of nearly 400 river miles.
1819 – The bicycle was patented by W.K. Clarkson, Jr. of New York City.
1848 – The first national law came in to effect banning the importation of adulterated drugs. It, was a chronic public health problem that finally got Congressional attention.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia strikes Union General George B. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac, beginning the Seven Days’ Battles.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate General Jubal Early and his Confederate forces moved into Gettysburg, PA
1870 – The Christian holiday of Christmas is declared a federal holiday in the United States.
1870 – First section of the Atlantic City Boardwalk opens to the public.
1876 – In the wake of Custer’s death, Major Marcus Reno takes command of the surviving soldiers of the 7th Cavalry.
1884 - Congress authorizes commissioning of Naval Academy graduates as ensigns.
1891 – The United States Marine Corps established its first post at Port Royal, South Carolina, later known as Parris Island.
1894 – The American Railway Union, with 125,000 workers led by Eugene Debs, called a general strike in sympathy with Pullman workers.
1894 – Karl Benz of Germany received a US patent for a gasoline-driven auto.
1896 – The first movie theater in US opened and charged 10 cents for admission. The earliest documented account of an exhibition of projected motion pictures in the United States was in June 1894 in Richmond, Indiana by Charles Francis Jenkins.
1900 – Dr Walter Reed begins research that beats Yellow Fever.
1900 – The United States announced that it would send troops to fight against the Boxer rebellion in China.
1916 – Cleveland Indians experiment with numbers on their jerseys (one game).They were pinned to their sleeves.
1917 – World War I: The first American troops, who were called “Doughboys” by other Allied troops, arrived in Europe They were to fight alongside Britain, France, Italy, and Russia against Germany, and Austria-Hungary.
1918 – World War I, Western Front: Battle for Belleau Wood – Allied Forces under John J. Pershing and James Harbord defeat Imperial German Forces under Wilhelm, German Crown Prince. At Belleau Woods, France after beating off some early morning counterattacks, Major Maurice Shearer sends signal, “Woods now entirely -US Marine Corps.”
1919 – First issue of NY Daily News is published. The News carried the well-known slogan “New York’s Picture Newspaper” from 1920 to 1991.
1924 – American occupying forces leave the Dominican Republic.
1925 – Charlie Chaplin’s comedy, “The Gold Rush,” premiered in Hollywood at Grauman’s Egyptian Theatre in Hollywood. FULL MOVIE (1:35:23)
1927 – The Cyclone roller coaster opens on Coney Island.
1927 – Direct commercial radio service between the Philippines and the US was inaugurated with a message from Manila to SF.
1933 – “The Kraft Music Hall” premiered on the NBC Radio Network.
1934 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Federal Credit Union Act, which establishes credit unions.
1936 – Initial flight of the Focke-Wulf Fw 61, the first practical helicopter.
1942 – The Grumman F6F Hellcat fighter was flown for the first time.
1944 – World War II: Coast Guard LCDR Quentin R. Walsh and his small commando/reconnaissance unit forced the surrender of Fort du Homet, a Nazi stronghold at Cherbourg, France, and captured 300 German soldiers and liberated 50 U.S. paratroopers who had been captured on D-Day.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sentimental Journey” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day), “Dream “ by The Pied Pipers, “Laura” by The Woody Herman Orchestra and “At Mail Call Today” by Gene Autry (Slim Whitma) all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: US Marines land on Kume Island, where a new radar station is installed.
1945 – American B-29 Superfortress bombers launch the first in a series of nighttime raids against Japanese oil refineries.
1945 – The United Nations Charter is signed in San Francisco.
1948 – The Western allies begin an airlift to Berlin after the Soviet Union blockades West Berlin.
1948 – William Shockley filed the original patent for the grown junction transistor, the first bipolar junction transistor.
1950 – Korean War: Far East Air Forces cargo planes began the evacuation of 700 U.S. State Department and Korean Military Advisory Group employees and their families. FEAF also sent ten F-51 Mustang fighters to the ROK forces.
1950 – Korean War: President Truman authorized the US Air Force and Navy to enter the Korean conflict.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Song from Moulin Rouge” by The Percy Faith Orchestra, “April in Portugal “ by The Les Baxter Orchestra, “Ruby” by Richard Hayman and “Take These Chains from My Heart” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1954 – “Little Things Mean a Lot” by Kitty Kallen topped the charts.
1957 – Hurricane Audrey hit Louisiana earlier than expected. It left at least 390 people dead with 192 missing in Louisiana and Texas.
1959 – The Saint Lawrence Seaway opens, opening North America’s Great Lakes to ocean-going ships.
1959 – CBS journalist Edward R. Murrow interviewed Lee Remick. It was his 500th and final guest on “Person to Person.”
1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Quarter to Three” by U.S. Bonds, “Raindrops” by Dee Clark, “Tossin’ and Turnin’ “ by Bobby Lewis and “Hello Walls” by Faron Young all topped the charts.
1962 – NAVFAC Cape Hatteras makes first Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) detection of a Soviet diesel submarine.
1963 – John F. Kennedy speaks the famous words “Ich bin ein Berliner” on a visit to West Berlin.
1964 – Beatles release “A Hard Day’s Night” album.
1965 – “Mr. Tambourine Man” by the Byrds topped the charts.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Get Back” by The Beatles, “Love Theme from Romeo & Juliet” by Henry Mancini, “Bad Moon Rising” by Creedence Clearwater Revival and “Running Bear” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1970 – Frank Robinson hits two consecutive grand slams as Orioles beat Senators 12-2. He is only the seventh major leaguer to do so.
1971 – “It’s Too Late” by Carole King topped the charts.
1971 – “Man of La Mancha” closed at ANTA Wash Square Theater in New York City after 2329 performances.
1971 – The U.S. Justice Department issued a warrant for Daniel Ellsberg, accusing him of giving away the Pentagon Papers.
1973 – Former White House counsel John W. Dean told the Senate Watergate Committee about an “enemies list” kept by the Nixon White House.
1974 – The Universal Product Code is scanned for the first time by Sharon Buchanon the first cashier to scan a package of Wrigley’s chewing gum at the Marsh Supermarket in Troy, Ohio.
1975 – Two FBI agents and a member of the American Indian Movement are killed in a shootout on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota; Leonard Peltier is later convicted of the murders in a controversial trial.
1976 – “Silly Love Songs” by the Wings topped the charts.
1976 – One hundred fifty-seven women entered the Air Force Academy with the Class of 1980. The women were initially segregated from the rest of the Cadet Wing, but were fully integrated into their assigned squadrons after the first year.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Got to Give It Up (Pt. I)” by Marvin Gaye, “Gonna Fly Now (Theme from “Rocky”)” by Bill Conti, “Undercover Angel “ by Alan O’Day and “Luckenbach, Texas (Back to the Basics of Love)” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1977 – Forty-two people were killed when a fire sent toxic smoke pouring through the Maury County Jail in Columbia, Tenn.
1978 – First dedicated oceanographic satellite named SEASAT 1 was launched.
1979 – Muhammad Ali, at 37 years old, announced that he was retiring as world heavyweight boxing champion.
1981 – Mrs. Virginia Campbell took her clipped coupons and rebates and bought some groceries at a supermarket in mountain Home, ID. A lot of them. Checkers totaled some $24,460 worth, in fact! How much did Campbell end up paying with all of those coupons and rebates? Only 67 cents!
1982 – “Ebony and Ivory“ by Paul McCartney & Stevie Wonder topped the charts.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Heaven” by Bryan Adams, “Sussudio” by Phil Collins, “Raspberry Beret” by Prince & The Revolution and “Little Things” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1985 – Wilbur Snapp was ejected after playing “Three Blind Mice” during a baseball game. The incident followed a call made by umpire Keith O’Connor.
1985 – “Big River”, later to be a Tony Award-winning cast album, became the first cast soundtrack LP to be recorded in Nashville, TN.
1986 – The U.S. Supreme Court in Ford v. Wainwright, ruled on the mentally impaired person’s competence to be executed.
1987 – The movie “Dragnet” opened in the U.S.
1987 – US Supreme Court Justice Lewis F. Powell Jr. announced his retirement, leaving a vacancy that was filled by Anthony M. Kennedy.
1990 - On June 26, 1990, an armored car was on the way to a scheduled delivery in Rochester, New York. Inside the truck was nearly $11 million dollars in cash. Just after 7:00 AM, the armored truck made an unauthorized stop at a convenience store. The driver, Albert Ranieri, waited in the truck. A guard, who we will call Mary Wilson, went inside the store. The truck was robbed of $11 million dollars.
1991- A Kentucky medical examiner announced that test results showed President Zachary Taylor had died in 1850 of natural causes—and not arsenic poisoning, as speculated by a writer.
1992 – Navy Secretary H. Lawrence Garrett III resigned, accepting responsibility for a “leadership failure” that resulted in the Tailhook sex-abuse scandal.
1992 – The US Supreme Court ruled that fund soliciting can be banned at airports.
1993 – The U.S. launches a missile attack targeting Baghdad intelligence headquarters in retaliation for a thwarted assassination attempt against former President George H.W. Bush in April in Kuwait.
1995 – The Supreme Court ruled, 6-to-3, that public schools can require drug tests for its athletes.
1995 – In San Francisco a demonstration occurred on behalf of Abu-Jamal, convicted in the 1981 killing of a Philadelphia police officer. Police arrested 279 demonstrators.
1996 – The U.S. Supreme Court ordered the Virginia Military Institute to admit women or forgo state support.
1996 – The US Supreme court gave political parties a free speech right to spend more money for candidate promotion. The vote struck down a limit on party spending enacted after Watergate in 1974.
1996 – The US Senate Science, Technology and Space subcommittee sent a live audio feed over the Internet for the first time.
1996 – The $1.6 billion Galileo spacecraft was expected to fly to within 527 miles of Ganymede, the largest moon of Jupiter. It was scheduled to photograph Jupiter and four of its 16 moons.
1997 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules that the Communications Decency Act violates the First Amendment. It is now legal to distribute indecent material on the Internet.
1997 – The Supreme Court ruled that terminally ill Americans had no constitutional right to doctor-assisted suicide, but did nothing to bar states from legalizing the process.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that employers are always potentially liable for supervisor’s sexual misconduct toward an employee.
2000 – Dickerson v. United States The Supreme Court rules police still must warn criminal suspects of their “right to remain silent” when questioned, in a ruling that gave new constitutional luster to its landmark Miranda decision of 1966.
2000 – The Supreme Court struck down California’s system of “blanket primaries.” It ruled that political parties have the right to exclude nonparty members from choosing their candidates.
2000 – The Human Genome Project and Celera Genomics Corp. jointly announced that they had created a working draft of the human genome.
2002 – WorldCom Inc. filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.
2002 – The Ninth US Circuit Court in SF ruled that the “under God” phrase in the Pledge of Allegiance is an endorsement of religion and violates the Constitution. It was unconstitutional because of the words “under God” inserted by Congress in 1954. The US Supreme Court overturned the decision in 2004 on a technicality.
2003 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Lawrence v. Texas that gender-based sodomy laws are unconstitutional.
2003 – A jury in Fort Worth, Texas, convicted former nurse’s aide Chante Mallard of murder for hitting a homeless man with her car, driving home with his mangled body jammed in the windshield and leaving him to die in her garage. Mallard was later sentenced to 50 years in prison.
2006 – The US Supreme Court ruled that Vermont’s 1997 limits on contributions and spending in political campaigns are too low and improperly hinder the ability of candidates to raise money and speak to voters.
2006 – More than a foot of rain inundated Washington DC, toppling a 100-year-old elm tree on the White House lawn and causing flooding that closed major government departments.
2007 – The body of Alyssa Heberton-Morimoto, a summer intern for the Colorado Geologic Survey, was found in an isolated part of the San Isabel National Forest, 75 miles southwest of Denver.
2008 – The US Supreme Court (DC v Heller) ruled 5-4 that Americans have a right to own guns for self-defense and hunting, the justices’ first major pronouncement on gun rights in US history.
2009 – In Georgia regulators shut down the Community Bank of West Georgia, marking the 41st failure this year of a federally insured bank.
2010 – Former Vice President Dick Cheney, who has a long history of heart problems, is hospitalized.
2011 – The size of the wildfire near Santa Fe, NM is more than 6,800 acres, but authorities say that’s due to burnout operations. Firefighters conducted the burnouts Friday night and the fire now is at 6,802 acres and remains 18 percent contained.
2012 – The full House of Representatives voted to hold Attorney General Eric Holder in contempt of Congress over the Justice Department’s decision to withhold documents related to the failed Fast and Furious gunwalking operation. By a vote of 255 to 67, House members voted to hold Holder in contempt, disregarding a protest walkout led by the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC).
2013 - Supreme Court strikes down provision of Defense of Marriage Act that denied federal benefits to legally married same-sex couples.
1819 – Abner Doubleday, American Major General (d. 1893)
1892 – Pearl S. Buck, American writer, Nobel laureate (d. 1973)
1898 – Willy Messerschmitt, German aircraft designer (d. 1978)
1898 – Chesty Puller, the most decorated Marine in history (d. 1971)
1906 – Viktor Schreckengost, American industrial designer (d. 2008)
1909 – Colonel Tom Parker, Elvis Presley’s manager (d. 1997)
*MURANAGA, KIYOSHI K.
Private First Class Kiyoshi K. Muranaga distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on 26 June 1944, near Suvereto, Italy. Private First Class Muranaga’s company encountered a strong enemy force in commanding positions and with superior firepower. An enemy 88mm self-propelled gun opened direct fire on the company, causing the men to disperse and seek cover. Private First Class Muranaga’s mortar squad was ordered to action, but the terrain made it impossible to set up their weapons. The squad leader, realizing the vulnerability of the mortar position, moved his men away from the gun to positions of relative safety. Because of the heavy casualties being inflicted on his company, Private First Class Muranaga, who served as a gunner, attempted to neutralize the 88mm weapon alone. Voluntarily remaining at his gun position, Private First Class Muranaga manned the mortar himself and opened fire on the enemy gun at a range of approximately 400 yards. With his third round, he was able to correct his fire so that the shell landed directly in front of the enemy gun. Meanwhile, the enemy crew, immediately aware of the source of mortar fire, turned their 88mm weapon directly on Private First Class Muranaga’s position. Before Private First Class Muranaga could fire a fourth round, an 88mm shell scored a direct hit on his position, killing him instantly. Because of the accuracy of Private First Class Muranaga’s previous fire, the enemy soldiers decided not to risk further exposure and immediately abandoned their position. Private First Class Muranaga’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
CALLEN, THOMAS J.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date. At Little Big Horn, Mont., 25-26 June 1876. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 24 October 1896. Citatlon: Volunteered and succeeded in obtaining water for the wounded of the command; also displayed conspicuously good conduct in assistlng to drive away the Indians.
GOLDIN, THEODORE W.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Troop G, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., 26 June 1876. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 25 July 1855, Avon, Rock County, Wis. Date of issue: 21 December 1895. Citation: One of a party of volunteers who, under a heavy fire from the Indians, went for and brought water to the wounded .
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 9th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Florida Mountains, N. Mex., 24 January 1877. Entered service at: Prince Georges County, Md. Birth: Madison County, Va. Date of issue: 26 June 1879. Citation: While part of a small detachment to persuade a band of renegade Apache Indians to surrender, his group was surrounded. Cpl. Greaves in the center of the savage hand-to-hand fighting, managed to shoot and bash a gap through the swarming Apaches, permitting his companions to break free .
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., 25-26 June 1876. Entered service at: Mt. Vernon, Ky. Birth: Lancaster County, Ky. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Voluntarily brought water to the wounded under fire.
STIVERS, THOMAS W.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., 25-26 June 1876. Entered service at: Mt. Vernon, Ky. Birth: Madison County, Ky. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Voluntarily brought water to the wounded under fire.
WELCH, CHARLES H.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., 25-26 June 1876. Entered service at: Ft. Snelling, Minn. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue 5 October 1878. Citation: Voluntarily brought water to the wounded under fire.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Maintop, U.S. Navy. Born: 1828, New Orleans, La. Accredited to: Louisiana. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Serving as captain of the maintop of the U.S.S. Pawnee in the attack upon Mathias Point, 26 June 1861, Williams told his men, while lying off in the boat, that every man must die on his thwart sooner than leave a man behind. Although wounded by a musket ball in the thigh he retained the charge of his boat; and when the staff was shot away, held the stump in his hand, with the flag, until alongside the Freeborn.
Take Your Dog To Work Day
The Battle of Little Bighorn
The white men were disrespecting the Indians sacred grounds in the Black Hills, an offense that the Indians considered a capital offense. Hatred for the white man had grown to the point that, defiantly, the Sioux and Cheyenne left their reservations. It was now late 1875.
Custer took the field for the last time after the discovery of gold in the Black Hills of the Dakotas (by an expedition he led). White prospectors flooded onto Sioux land. The Army was ordered to force the Sioux onto reservations to make way for miners. Pushing west across the Great Plains in June of 1876, Custer’s command was looking for a fight. After marching 72 miles in three days, they found it on the Little Bighorn.The Army saw the need to force the Indians back on to their reservations. The Army sent three columns to attack in coordinated fashion. One of them was led by Lt. Colonel George Custer and the Seventh Cavalry.
On June 25th, 1876 Custer spotted a Sioux village about fifteen miles from the reservation. It was along the Rosebud River.It was one of the largest Indian camps the Plains had ever seen–around 7,000 strong, made up of Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho bands. In addition to the village, Custer spotted about forty warriors nearby.This was the setting for the Battle of the Little Bighorn, also known as Custer’s Last Stand and, by the Native Americans involved, the Battle of the Greasy Grass.
Orders were received to wait until the rest of the troops arrived but Colonel George Armstrong Custer was petulant to say the best so he decided to attack. Brimming with confidence and afraid the Indians would escape, he split his troops into three columns to encircle them.
There were a number of problems that were lurking before that some good intelligence would have taken care of. Facts such as the number of warriors in the village numbered three times his strength and the terrain included a maze of bluffs and ravines that had to be negotiated in order to attack.
Colonel Custer divided his troops into three groups. The first group, under Captain Frederick Benteen, was tasked with preventing the villages escape through the upper valley of the Little Bighorn River. The second group, under Major Marcus Reno, was tasked to pursue the warriors, cross the river, and charge the Indian village from the south in a coordinated effort with Custer’s troops. He hoped to strike the Indian encampment at the northern and southern ends simultaneously.
Reno’s squadron of 175 soldiers attacked the southern end. Quickly finding themselves in a desperate battle with little hope of any relief, Reno halted his charging men before they could be trapped, fought for ten minutes in dismounted formation, and then withdrew into the timber and brush along the river. When that position proved indefensible, they retreated uphill to the bluffs east of the river, pursued hotly by a mix of Cheyenne and Sioux.
Just as they finished driving the soldiers out, the Indians found roughly 210 of Custer’s men coming towards the other end of the village, taking the pressure off of Reno’s men. Cheyenne and Sioux together crossed the river and slammed into the advancing soldiers, forcing them back to a long high ridge to the north. Meanwhile, another force, largely Oglala Sioux under Crazy Horse’s command, swiftly moved downstream and then doubled back in a sweeping arc, enveloping Custer and his men in a pincer move. They began pouring in gunfire and arrows. As the Indians closed in, Custer ordered his men to shoot their horses and stack the carcasses to form a wall, but they provided little protection against bullets. He found himself surrounded by well-armed Indians atop what is today called Custer Hill. In less than an hour, Custer and his men were killed in the worst American military disaster ever.
Most historians agree the battle was quick. Custer was found two days later, stripped naked and shot in the left temple and chest. Every one of his 210 men was killed.
Mark Kellogg was a newspaper reporter killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Kellogg rode with George Armstrong Custer during the battle and was evidently one of the first men killed by the Sioux and Cheyenne. His dispatches were the only press coverage of Custer and his men in the days leading up to the battle. As a newspaper stringer whose reports were picked up around the country, Kellogg is considered the first Associated Press correspondent to die in the line of duty.
Colonel John Gibbon, whose men arrived at the battle on the second day and also helped bury the dead, said he found Kellogg’s body in a ravine where a number of men from Company E died. Kellogg’s body was scalped and missing an ear; he was identified by the boots he wore.
“Football combines the two worst features of modern American life; it’s violence punctuated by committee meetings.”
~ George Will
onus OH-nuss noun
1 : burden
2 : a disagreeable necessity : obligation
3 : blame
1096 – The First Crusaders slaughtered the Jews of Werelinghofen, Germany.
1503 – Christopher Columbus beached his sinking ships in St. Anne’s Bay, Jamaica, and spent a year shipwrecked and marooned there before returning to Spain.
1630 – The fork was introduced to American dining by Governor Winthrop of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1672 – First recorded monthly Quaker meeting in US was held in Sandwich, Mass.
1749 – Massachusetts residents were asked to fast due to a severe drought.
1788 – Virginia becomes the tenth state to ratify the United States Constitution.
1798 – US passed the Alien Act allowing the president to deport dangerous aliens.
1844 – President John Tyler took Julia Gardiner as his bride, thus becoming the first U.S. President to marry while in office.
1862 – Civil War: The first day of the Seven Days Campaign began with fighting at Oak Grove, Virginia, with Robert E. Lee commanding the Confederate Army for the first time.
1864 – Civil War: Union troops surrounding Petersburg, VA, began building a mine tunnel underneath the Confederate lines.
1867 – Lucien B. Smith patented the first barbed wire.
1868 – The U.S. Congress enacted legislation granting an eight-hour day to workers employed by the Federal government.
1868 – The states of Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina were readmitted to the Union.
1876 – Lt. Col. Custer and the 210 men of U.S. 7th Cavalry were killed by Sioux and Cheyenne Indians at Little Big Horn in Montana. The event is known as “Custer’s Last Stand.” Interesting ly, The only survivor was a horse named, “Comanche.”
1877 – In Philadelphia, PA, Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated the telephone for Sir William Thomson (Baron Kelvin) and Emperor Pedro II of Brazil at the Centennial Exhibition.
1910 - Congress established a postal savings system in post offices, effective January 1, 1911. It paid 2% interest on deposits not to exceed $2,500. In 1966 post offices stopped taking deposits.
1910 – The Mann Act was passed in the US. It forbade transporting women across state lines for immoral purposes.
1913 - Civil War veterans begin arriving at the Great Reunion of 1913.
1917 – World War I: The first American fighting troops landed in France.
1918 – World War I: At Belleau Woods, major fourteen-hour bombardment starting at 0300 makes clearance of the remaining woods possible. The following attack swamps the remaining machine gun outposts of the enemy. Marines and Army machine-gunners participate in the assault.
1919 – First advanced monoplane airliner flight (Junkers F13).
1921 - Samuel Gompers was elected head of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) for the fortieth time.
1929 – President Hoover authorizes building of Boulder Dam (Hoover Dam).
1937 – Cubs switch-hitter Augie Galan becomes the first NL player to hit HRs from both sides of the plate in the same game as Chicago beats Brooklyn 11-2.
1938 – Federal minimum wage law guarantees workers 25 cents per hour.
1938 – The US Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 was enacted.
1941 - A new group was added to the Marine Corps family. Executive Order #8802 was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to erase discrimination in the Armed Forces. This paved the way for black Americans to enlist in the Marines.
1942 – “It Pays to Be Ignorant” debuts on WOR Radio and the Mutual Broadcasting System.
1942 – World War II: Major General Dwight D. Eisenhower takes command of U.S. forces in Europe.
1943 – World War II: Arthur Seyss-Inquart ordered a mass arrest of Dutch physicians.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust: Crematory III at Birkenau, Poland, was finished.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be Seeing You” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Frank Sinatra), “I’ll Get By” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Dick Haymes), “Swinging on a Star-Going My Way” by Bing Crosby and “Straighten Up and Fly Right” by King Cole Trio all topped the charts.
1944 - The final page of the comic Krazy Kat was published, exactly two months after its author George Herriman died.
1945 – World War II: On Luzon, Tuguegarao is captured by the American forces, of the US 37th Division, in the Cagayan valley.
1945 – World War II: Imperial General Headquarters in Tokyo announced the fall of Okinawa.
1947- The “Diary of Anne Frank” under the title “The Diary of a Young Girl” is published.
1948 - The Republican national convention in Philadelphia chose California Gov. Earl Warren to be Thomas E. Dewey’s running mate.
1948- Truman signed Displaced Persons Bill allowing 205,000 Europeans to come to the US.
1948 – The Soviet Union tightened its blockade of Berlin by intercepting river barges heading for the city.The Berlin airlift begins.
1948 – Joe Louis KOs Jersey Joe Walcott in eleven rounds to retain championship.
1949 – “Long-Haired Hare“ is released in Theaters starring Bugs Bunny.
1949 – “Riders in the Sky” by Vaughan Monroe topped the charts.
1950 – The Korean War begins with the invasion of South Korea by North Korea. The United States, acting under the auspices of the United Nations, quickly sprang to the defense of South Korea and fought a bloody and frustrating war for the next three years.
1951 – First color TV broadcast-CBS’ Arthur Godfrey from NYC to 4 cities: Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss of Fire” by Georgia Gibbs, “I’m Yours” by Don Cornell, “Be Anything” by Eddy Howard and “The Wild Side of Life” by Hank Thompson all topped the charts.
1955 – “Learnin’ the Blues” by Frank Sinatra topped the charts.
1955 – “Can Can” closed at Shubert Theater NYC after 892 performances.
1958 – Mackinac Straits Bridge, Michigan dedicated as “the world’s longest suspension bridge between anchorages”
1959 – Charles Starkweather, spree murderer, was executed.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cathy’s Clown” by The Everly Brothers, “Everybody’s Somebody’s Fool “ by Connie Francis, “Swingin’ School” by Bobby Rydell and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling” by Hank Locklin all topped the charts.
1960 - Two cryptographers working for the United States National Security Agency left for vacation to Mexico, and from there defected to the Soviet Union.
1961 – Pat Boone spent this day at number one for one last time with “Moody River.”
1962 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the use of unofficial non-denominational prayer in public schools was unconstitutional. Thomas Jefferson speaks through the sands of time: ‘Can the liberties of a nation be secure when we have removed a conviction that these liberties are the gift of God? Indeed I tremble
for my country when I reflect that God is just, that his justice cannot sleep forever.’”
1963 - The Joint Service Commendation Medal was Authorized by the Secretary of Defense.The JSCM shall be awarded only to members of the Armed Forces of the United States who, after January 1, 1963, distinguished themselves by meritorious achievement or service.
1964 – President Lyndon Johnson ordered 200 naval personnel to Mississippi to assist in finding three missing civil rights workers.
1965 – Vietnam War: Two Viet Cong terrorist bombs rip through a floating restaurant on the Saigon River. Thirty-one people, including nine Americans, were killed in the explosions. Dozens of other diners were wounded, including 11 Americans.
1966 – Beatles’ “Paperback Writer,” single goes #1.
1967 – The Beatles perform their new song, “All You Need Is Love,” during a live international telecast
1967 – Mohammed Ali (Cassius Clay) was sentenced to 5 years for draft evasion.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “This Guy’s in Love with You” by Herb Alpert, “MacArthur Park” by Richard Harris, “The Look of Love” by Sergio Mendes & Brazil ’66 and “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro all topped the charts.
1968 – Bobby Bonds hits a grand slam in his first major league game with the Giants. The only other player to hit a grand slam in his first major league game was William Duggleby of the Philadelphia Nationals, who achieved the feat in 1898.
1969 – The Guess Who from Canada received a gold record for “These Eyes.”
1969 – The Hollies recorded “He Ain’t Heavy, He’s My Brother,” with Elton John playing piano.
1970 – The U.S. Federal Communications Commission handed down legislative ruling 35 FR 7732, making it illegal for radio stations to put telephone calls on the air without the permission of the person being called.
1973 – John Dean begins testimony before Senate Watergate Committee. He implicated many administration officials, including himself, Nixon fundraiser and former Attorney General John Mitchell, and Nixon himself. He was the first administration official to accuse Nixon of direct involvement with Watergate.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Silly Love Songs” by Wings, “Get Up and Boogie (That’s Right)” by Silver Convention, “Misty Blue” by Dorothy Moore and “El Paso City” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.
1976 – Missouri Governor Christopher S. Bond issues an executive order rescinding the Extermination Order, formally apologizing on behalf of the state of Missouri for the suffering it had caused the Latter Day Saints.
1977 – “Got to Give it Up” by Marvin Gaye topped the charts.
1977 – Roy C Sullivan of VA is struck by lightning for the 7th time! In his lightning encounters from 1942 to 1977, Roy had his hair set alight, lost his big toe nail and eyebrows, and suffered injuries to his arms, legs, chest, and stomach.
1980 – Miami Dolphins quarterback Bob Grieseannounced his retirement from professional football after 14 years.
1981 – Microsoft is restructured to become an incorporated business in its home state of Washington.
1981 – The Supreme Court decided that male-only draft registration was constitutional.
1981 – HMH-464 at MCAS New River, North Carolina, received its first CH-53E “Super Stallion.”
1983 – “Flashdance…What a Feeling” by Irene Cara topped the charts.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Reflex” by Duran Duran, “Dancing in the Dark” by Bruce Springsteen, “Self Control “ by Laura Branigan and “When We Make Love” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1985 – ABC’s “Monday Night Football” began with a new line-up. The trio was Frank Gifford, Joe Namath and O.J. Simpson.
1985 – New York Yankees officials enacted the rule that mandated that the team’s bat boys were to wear protective helmets during all games.
1986 – Congress approved $100 million in aid to the Contras fighting in Nicaragua.
1988 – “Foolish Beat” by Debbie Gibson topped the charts.
1988 – American-born Mildred Gillars, better known during World War II as “Axis Sally” for her Nazi propaganda broadcasts, died in Columbus, Ohio, at age 87. Gillars had served 12 years in prison for treason.
1989 – A judge in Cincinnati temporarily blocked a hearing by baseball Commissioner A. Bartlett Giamatti into allegations that Cincinnati Reds manager Pete Rose had gambled on baseball games.
1990 – Phoenix, AZ reaches 120o. This is one day before it reached its all-time record of 122o. Aircraft were grounded because there was no test data for temperatures above 120o.
1990 – NBC decides to air episodes of “Quantum Leap” for 5 straight days. Quantum Leap was a science fiction television series that ran for 97 episodes from March 1989 to May 1993.
1990 – The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the right of an individual, whose wishes are clearly made, to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. “The right to die” decision was made in the Curzan vs. Missouri case.
1992 – The space shuttle Columbia, carrying seven astronauts, blasted off on a two-week mission.
1992 - Both houses of Congress rushed to pass a back-to-work order ending a national rail strike; President Bush signed it June 26.
1996 – The Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia kills 19 U.S. servicemen and injured over 500 Saudis and Americans.
1996 – The music industry threatened to sue hundreds of individual computer users who were illegally sharing music files online.
1997 – An unmanned Progress spacecraft collides with the Russian Space station, Mir.
1997 – It was reported that a man from Rio Vista, Ca., was doing a good business selling the moon’s real estate. Dennis Hope was charging $15.99 for 1,777 acres of lunar land plus tax and shipping.
1997 – The Supreme Court struck down the 1993 Religious Freedom Restoration Act. It said Congress had intruded on the authority of local officials. The legislation had instructed government officials to bend the rules for persons whose actions are based on their religion.
1997 - An auction of Princess Diana’s 79 cocktail and evening dresses brought in $3.26 million.
1998 – In Clinton v. City of New York, the US Supreme Court decides that the Line Item Veto Act of 1996 is unconstitutional.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court rejected the line-item veto thereby striking down presidential power to cancel specific items in tax and spending legislation.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that those infected with HIV are protected by the Americans With Disabilities Act.
1998 – Microsoft’s “Windows 98″ was released to the public.
1998 - A planet, 1.9 times bigger than Jupiter, was reported found to be circling the small star Gliese 876, 15 light-years from Earth. Travelling at the speed-of-light, it would take only 1.5 million years to get there.
1999 - The San Antonio Spurs won their first NBA title as they beat the New York Knicks 78-77 in their 5th game.
2000 – A Florida judge approved a class-action lawsuit to be filed against American Online (AOL) on behalf of hourly subscribers who were forced to view “pop-up” advertisements.
2000 – In Puerto Rico US Navy bombing in Vieques resumed with nonexplosive dummy bombs after 37 demonstrators were arrested. A fatal accident had prompted a yearlong occupation by protesters.
2000 – Juli Inkster became the first player in 16 years to successfully defend the LPGA Championship.
2002 – A federal judge in Alexandria, Va., refused to accept a no-contest plea from Zacarias Moussaoui, accused of conspiracy in the Sept. 11 attacks, and instead entered an innocent plea on his behalf.
2002 – Three American mountain climbers were swept away by an avalanche on Peru’s highest peak and are feared dead. Two other climbing expeditions saw the Americans disappear in the avalanche. Identities were never confirmed.
2002 - President Bush surveyed a huge wildfire in Arizona by air and declared the region a disaster area.
2003 – The US Federal Reserve cut short-term interest rates by one-quarter percent. The new 1% rate was the lowest since 1958.
2005 – Gov. Rod Blagojevich signed a new state law that requires Illinois to divest about $1 billion worth of pension investments in companies that do business in Sudan to protest the ongoing humanitarian crisis in the country’s Darfur region.
2005 - The NAACP selected retired Verizon executive Bruce S. Gordon to be its new president.
2006 – In Denver, Colorado, Michael Ford burst into a sprawling Safeway Inc. warehouse, killing one person, wounding five others and sending terrified workers fleeing the building. The attacker was later killed in a shootout with police.
2007 – In California a forest fire raged out of control for a second day near Lake Tahoe. The seven-day Angora fire destroyed 254 homes burning 3,100 acres with damages estimated at over $150 million.
2007 – A Washington DC judge rejected a lawsuit by Roy Pearson, who sought $54 million for a pair of pants lost by the Custom Cleaners dry cleaning firm in 2005. Pearson’s claim had been reduced from $67 million.
2008 -An employee of Atlantis Plastics shot and killed five people after an argument, which ended in the gunman’s suicide in Henderson, Kentucky.
2008 – The US Supreme Court ruled the death penalty cannot be imposed for child rape.
2008 – In Cleveland, Ohio, three teenagers beat a homeless man to death as passers-by slowed to watch the attack, some of which was caught on videotape. Anthony Waters (42) suffered a lacerated spleen and broken ribs during the attack and died at a hospital.
2008 - The US Supreme Court overturned the $2.5 billion in punitive damages that Exxon Mobil Corp had been ordered to pay for the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill off Alaska. Punitive damages were reduced to $507.5 million.
2009 – Famous actress Farrah Fawcett, 1970s sex symbol and TV star of “Charlie’s Angels” (1976), died in Santa Monica, Ca. of cancer at age 62.
2009 – Supreme Court rules strip-search of a girl was unconstitutional. Upholding a lower court decision, the Supreme Court ruled that officials at an Arizona public school violated a 13-year-old student’s constitutional rights when they subjected her to a search of her bra and underpants for prescription and over-the-counter drugs that were forbidden by school rules.
2009 – Rock singer Michael Jackson dies at age 50 from a heart attack. Later, the LA coroner confirmed that Jackson’s death was ruled a homicide caused by a mixture of propofol and lorazepam administered by Dr. Conrad Murray.
2010 – President Barack Obama declared victory after congressional negotiators reached a dawn agreement on a sweeping overhaul of rules overseeing Wall Street. The congressional compromise overhauled the US banking system and called for an international effort to prevent future economic meltdowns.
2011 – The death toll from the California Zephyr Amtrak train colliding with a truck in the U.S. state of Nevada rises to six, with two dozen passengers unaccounted for.
2011 – The number of adults with diabetes in the world has more than doubled since 1980, according to a new study.
2012 - The final steel beam of 4 World Trade Center is lifted into place in a ceremony.
2012 - The US Supreme Court rules that the sentence of life imprisonment without parole cannot be automatically given to a minor at all, extending its earlier restrictions on its automatic use in cases involving minors.
2012 - President Obama signed an Executive Order that officially put the US into a state of National Emergency. Such a step is the natural precursor to the legitimization of the institution of MARTIAL LAW.
2012 - The Supreme Court handed down its decision on the Arizona immigration lawy, striking some portions of the law in a 5-3 ruling but unanimously upholding immigration status checks by law enforcement. The Obama Administration countered by announcing it would tell Arizona to release most of the people whose status was in question.
2012 – Palm City, Florida, a woman is hospitalized and her two dogs killed after they were attacked by a swarm of what appeared to be Africanized bees.
2013 - The Supreme Court in a 5-4 ruling struck down a key part of the Voting Rights Act (Section 4), ruling unconstitutional a provision of the landmark civil rights legislation used to promote the political power of minority voters across large swaths of the southern United States for nearly forty years.
1865 – Robert Henri, American painter (d. 1929)
1886 – Henry H. Arnold, American Army Air Force commander (d. 1950)
1903 – Anne Revere, American actress (d. 1990)
1925 – June Lockhart, American actress
1933 – James Meredith, American civil rights activist
1939 – Harold Melvin, American musician (Harold Melvin & the Blue Notes) (d. 1997)
1945 – Carly Simon, American singer
1947 – Jimmie Walker, American actor (Good Times)
1970 – Ariel Gore, American journalist and author
1979 – Katie Doyle, American actress and reality television star
*EPPERSON, HAROLD GLENN
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 14 July 1923, Akron, Ohio. Accredited to: Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 1st Battalion, 6th Marines, 2d Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on the Island of Saipan in the Marianas, on 25 June 1944. With his machinegun emplacement bearing the full brunt of a fanatic assault initiated by the Japanese under cover of predawn darkness, Pfc. Epperson manned his weapon with determined aggressiveness, fighting furiously in the defense of his battalion’s position and maintaining a steady stream of devastating fire against rapidly infiltrating hostile troops to aid materially in annihilating several of the enemy and in breaking the abortive attack. Suddenly a Japanese soldier, assumed to be dead, sprang up and hurled a powerful hand grenade into the emplacement. Determined to save his comrades, Pfc. Epperson unhesitatingly chose to sacrifice himself and, diving upon the deadly missile, absorbed the shattering violence of the exploding charge in his own body. Stouthearted and indomitable in the face of certain death, Pfc. Epperson fearlessly yielded his own life that his able comrades might carry on the relentless battle against a ruthless enemy. His superb valor and unfaltering devotion to duty throughout reflect the highest credit upon himself and upon the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
*KELLY, JOHN D.
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant (then Corporal), U.S. Army, Company E, 314th Infantry, 79th Infantry Division. Place and date: Fort du Roule, Cherbourg, France, 25 June 1944. Entered service at: Cambridge Springs, Pa. Birth: Venango Township, Pa. G.O. No.: 6, 24 January 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 25 June 1944, in the vicinity of Fort du Roule, Cherbourg, France, when Cpl. Kelly’s unit was pinned down by heavy enemy machinegun fire emanating from a deeply entrenched strongpoint on the slope leading up to the fort, Cpl. Kelly volunteered to attempt to neutralize the strongpoint. Arming himself with a pole charge about ten feet long and with fifteen pounds of explosive affixed, he climbed the slope under a withering blast of machinegun fire and placed the charge at the strongpoint’s base. The subsequent blast was ineffective, and again, alone and unhesitatingly, he braved the slope to repeat the operation. This second blast blew off the ends of the enemy guns. Cpl. Kelly then climbed the slope a third time to place a pole charge at the strongpoint’s rear entrance. When this had been blown open he hurled hand grenades inside the position, forcing survivors of the enemy guncrews to come out and surrender The gallantry, tenacity of purpose, and utter disregard for personal safety displayed by Cpl. Kelly were an incentive to his comrades and worthy of emulation by all.
OGDEN, CARLOS C.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company K, 314th Infantry, 79th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Fort du Roule, France, 25 June 1944. Entered service at: Fairmont, Ill. Born: 19 May 1917, Borton, Ill. G.O. No.: 49, 28 June 1945. Citation: On the morning of 25 June 1944, near Fort du Roule, guarding the approaches to Cherbourg, France, 1st Lt. Ogden’s company was pinned down by fire from a German 88-mm. gun and two machineguns. Arming himself with an M-1 rifle, a grenade launcher, and a number of rifle and handgrenades, he left his company in position and advanced alone, under fire, up the slope toward the enemy emplacements. Struck on the head and knocked down by a glancing machinegun bullet, 1st Lt. Ogden, in spite of his painful wound and enemy fire from close range, continued up the hill. Reaching a vantage point, he silenced the 88mm. gun with a well-placed rifle grenade and then, with handgrenades, knocked out the two machineguns, again being painfully wounded. 1st Lt. Ogden’s heroic leadership and indomitable courage in alone silencing these enemy weapons inspired his men to greater effort and cleared the way for the company to continue the advance and reach its objectives.
INTERIM AWARDS 1871-1898
Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1854, Boston, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S.S. Saratoga, off Coasters Harbor Island, R.I., 25 June 1881, and sustaining until picked up by a boat from the ship, Frank Gallagher, second class boy, who had fallen overboard.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Oswego, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Brought water for the wounded under a most galling fire.
BRANT, ABRAM B.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Brought water for the wounded under a most galling fire.
CRISWELL, BANJAMIN C.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at:——. Birth: Marshall County, W. Va. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Rescued the body of Lt. Hodgson from within the enemy’s lines; brought up ammunition and encouraged the men in the most exposed positions under heavy fire.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company B, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Hudson, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Declined to leave the line when wounded in the neck during heavy fire and fought bravely all next day.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 15 October 1878. Citation: Voluntarily brought water to the wounded under fire.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Cincinnati, Ohio. Date of issue: S October 1878. Citation: With 3 comrades during the entire engagement courageously held a position that secured water for the command.
HANLEY, RICHARD P.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at:——. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation. Recaptured, singlehanded, and without orders, within the enemy’s lines and under a galling fire lasting some 20 minutes, a stampeded pack mule loaded with ammunition.
HARRIS, DAVID W.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Birth: Indianapolis, Ind. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Brought water to the wounded, at great danger to his life, under a most galling fire from the enemy.
HARRIS, WILLIAM M.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at: Mt. Vernon, Ky. Birth: Madison County, Ky. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Voluntarily brought water to the wounded under fire of the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at: ——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Brought up ammunition under a galling fire from the enemy.
HUTCHINSON, RUFUS D.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Birth: Butlerville, Ohio. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Guarded and carried the wounded, brought water for the same, and posted and directed the men in his charge under galling fire from the enemy.
MECHLIN, HENRY W. B.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Blacksmith, Company H, 7th U.S. Cavalry Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa. Born: 14 October 1851, Mount Pleasant, Westmoreland County, Pa. Date of issue: 29 August 1878. Citation: With 3 comrades during the entire engagement courageously held a position that secured water for the command.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: S October 1878. Citation: Brought up the pack train, and on the second day the rations, under a heavy flre from the enemy.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn River, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Oxfordshire, England. Date of issue: S October 1878. Citation: Voluntarily went for water and secured the same under heavy fire.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at:——. Birth: France. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Brought water to the wounded at great danger to life and under a most galling fire of the enemy.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: After having voluntarily brought water to the wounded, in which effort he was shot through the head, he made two successful trips for the same purpose, notwithstanding remonstrances of his sergeant.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Malone, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Voluntarily brought water to the wounded under fire.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Saddler, Company H, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Little Big Horn, Mont., 25 June 1876. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 5 October 1878. Citation: Volunteered with George Geiger, Charles Windolph, and Henry Mechlin to hold an exposed position standing erect on the brow of the hill facing the Little Big Horn River. They fired constantly in this manner for more than 20 minutes diverting fire and attention from another group filling canteens of water that were desperately needed.
DILLON, MICHAEL A.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 2d New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Williamsburg, Va., 5 May 1862. At Oak Grove, Va., 25 June 1862. Entered service at: Wilton, N.H. Birth: Chelmsford, Mass. Date of issue: 10 October 1889. Citation: Bravery in repulsing the enemy’s charge on a battery, at Williamsburg, Va. At Oak Grove, Va., crawled outside the lines and brought in important information.
McKEEN, NINEVEH S.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company H, 21st Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Stone River, Tenn., 30 December 1862. At Liberty Gap, Tenn., 25 June 1863. Entered service at: Marshall, Clark County, Ill. Birth: Marshall, Clark County, Ill. Date of issue: 23 June 1890. Citation: Conspicuous in the charge at Stone River, Tenn., where he was three times wounded. At Liberty Gap, Tenn., captured colors of 8th Arkansas Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1839, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as seaman on board the U.S.S. Monticello during the reconnaissance of the harbor and water defenses of Wilmington, N.C. 23 to 25 June 1864. Taking part in a reconnaissance of enemy defenses which covered a period of 2 days and nights, Sullivan courageously carried out his duties during this action, which resulted in the capture of a mail carrier and mail, the cutting of a telegraph wire, and the capture of a large group of prisoners. Although in immediate danger from the enemy at all times, Sullivan showed gallantry and coolness throughout this action which resulted in the gaining of much vital information of the rebel defenses.
TAYLOR, HENRY H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 45th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 25 June 1863. Entered service at: Galena, Jo Daviess County, Ill. Birth: Jo Daviess County, Ill. Date of issue: 1 September 1893. Citation: Was the first to plant the Union colors upon the enemy’s works.
WARD, NELSON W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company M, 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Staunton River Bridge, Va., 25 June 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Columbiana County, Ohio. Date of issue: 10 September 1897. Citation: Voluntarily took part in a charge; went alone in front of his regiment under a heavy fire to secure the body of his captain, who had been killed in the action.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1836, Scotland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as coxswain on board the U.S.S. Monticello during the reconnaissance of the harbor and water defenses of Wilmington, N.C., 23 to 25 June 1864. Taking part in a reconnaissance of enemy defenses which lasted 2 days and nights, Warren courageously carried out his duties during this action which resulted in the capture of a mail carrier and mail, the cutting of a telegraph wire, and the capture of a large group of prisoners. Although in immediate danger from the enemy, Warren showed gallantry and coolness throughout this action which resulted in the gaining of much vital information of the rebel defenses.
Rank and organization: Yoeman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, London, England. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as yeoman on board the U.S.S. Monticello during the reconnaissance of the harbor and water defenses of Wilmington, N.C., 23 to 25 June 1864. Taking part in a reconnaissance of enemy defenses which covered a period of two days and nights, Wright courageously carried out his cutting of a telegraph wire and the capture of a large group of prisoners. Although in immediate danger from the enemy at all times, Wright showed gallantry and coolness throughout this action which resulted in the gaining of much vital information of the rebel defenses.
Celebration of the Senses
National Handshake Day
FIVE QUICK QUESTIONS TO EXPOSE ANY FAKE CONSTITUTIONALIST
By J.B. Williams
February 26, 2012
Due to the unconstitutional nature of today’s lawyers, lawmakers, judges, professors and politicians, it has become politically fashionable to proclaim ones constitutional credentials, even among folks who have clearly never read the document.
Many political pundits and politicians have tried to ideologically define what it is to be, or not to be, a constitutionalist, even when they can’t pass the test themselves.
This gives true constitutionalists a unique opportunity to set the record straight today, an opportunity that only exists when people are overtly operating outside of constitutional boundaries. Such a circumstance provides an easy five question test that may deliver more than exposing a lot of faux constitutionalists…
1. Is Barack Hussein Obama II a legitimate resident of the White House based on the Article II Natural Born Citizen requirement for the offices of President and Vice President?
No, because a Natural Born Citizen of the United States must be the natural born offspring of a Father who was at the time of the child’s birth, a legal citizen of the United States and every member of the U.S. Supreme Court know it. As the society cannot exist and perpetuate itself otherwise than by the children of the citizens, those children naturally follow the condition of their fathers, and succeed to all their rights. The country of the fathers is therefore that of the children; and these become true citizens merely by their tacit consent. In order to be of the country, it is necessary that a person be born of a father who is a citizen; for, if he is born there of a foreigner, it will be only the place of his birth, and not his country. Barack Hussein Obama’s natural father was at no time in his life, a legal citizen of the United States. He was at all times, a citizen of Kenya.
Get this one wrong and there is little chance of getting anything else right.
2. Which branch of the federal government was given the most power under the U.S. Constitution?
An argument could be made that Congress holds more power than the judicial or executive branches as congress alone has the power to make law, control the purse strings, override presidential vetoes and provide oversight over both other branches. But technically speaking, none of the three branches was given more powerful than the other; they were just assigned different duties. All three branches of the federal government were designed to be co-equal parts, each providing checks and balances upon the other. Each of the three branches has very limited distinct duties and powers to carry out those constitutionally assigned duties. Only the Legislative branch has the power to create laws. The Judicial branch has the power to interpret and enforce the laws created by congress. The Executive branch is the administrative branch with the most limited scope of duties. None of the three branches has more power than another. The Constitution did not form an Oval Office dictatorship, or a nine member oligarchy of unelected and unaccountable ideologues.
3. Is the final authority in America entrusted to the Executive branch, the Legislative branch, the Judicial branch, State government, Local government or the American people?
According to the U.S. Constitution, the American people are the final authority in the United States. Next to the American people, the government body closest to the people is the more powerful government authority. Local government has the most local power, followed by the State having authority over State issues and last, with the least amount of constitutional power over individual, local and state affairs, is the Federal Government, having authority over only those enumerated duties assigned to it by the people and their States via the U.S. Constitution. The federal government cannot “mandate” anything which is beyond the enumerated scope and powers of its constitutional authority.
4. Did States lose their sovereignty and Tenth Amendment rights during the Civil War, or at any other time in U.S. history?
Of course not, although I have heard numerous alleged “constitutionalist” or “legal authorities” make this silly claim in recent years. Actually, the Supreme Court has tended to uphold the Tenth Amendment far more after the Civil War than before. The U.S. Constitution created the Federal Government to operate at the pleasure of the people and the States. It gave the Federal Government very limited specific duties and the power to carry out those duties and only those duties. The entire Constitution, including the Bill of Rights and the Tenth Amendment, remain just as much in force today as the day they were ratified. It is the right and power of the States to keep the Federal Government operating within constitutional bounds via the Tenth Amendment, without which, there is no constitution and no Federal Government.
5. Does the Federal Supremacy clause protect all possible federal actions?
No, it does not — it only protects “constitutional” federal actions. “This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.”
Unconstitutional federal acts beyond the enumerated powers, duties, scope and authority granted the federal government by the States; enjoy no such supremacy over anyone or anything. For federal laws to enjoy the protections of the supremacy clause, they must be constitutionally sound laws. This means that the law must have been created by Congress, not a court or the Oval Office.
It must have been created by legitimate legislative process. It must not infringe upon any other constitutional clause or protection in the Bill of Rights; and it must enjoy the support of the majority of the states and the people of the United States in order to comply with the General Welfare clause, which prohibits the federal government from doing anything that is at odds with the general welfare of the States and the people at large. When a dispute arises concerning the balance of powers between a State and the Federal Government, the Constitution gives the U.S. Supreme Court original jurisdiction to hear the arguments of the dispute. However, the American people have the final word on what is or is not “constitutional.”
Now, if one cannot answer all five of these questions correctly, they are NOT a “constitutionalist” and they cannot be relied upon as an authority on the Constitution or the law no matter the fancy paper on their wall.
However, there are two kinds of fake constitutionalists. The kind that cannot answer these five questions correctly, and the kind who can, but won’t take a stand to protect every clause in the Constitution and Bill of Rights as though each is the only clause that matters.
How did you score? Should you be leading American citizens, or should you sit down and shut up, allowing real constitutionalists to lead this country back to greatness?
Shouldn’t every individual seeking public office have to pass this test today? How many 2012 candidates can pass this test? I don’t take any candidate who can’t pass this simple fundamental test seriously, and in my opinion, a candidate who fails this test will fail to help our country too.
© 2012 JB Williams – All Rights Reserved
“Never give in, never give in, never, never, never, never– in nothing, great or small, large or petty– never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense.”
~ Sir Winston Churchill
972 – Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces, takes place. 1314 – First War of Scottish Independence: The Battle of Bannockburn concludes with a decisive victory of the Scottish forces led by Robert the Bruce. Scotland regains its independence in the aftermath of this battle.
1340 – Hundred Years’ War: Battle of Sluys: The French fleet is almost destroyed by the English Fleet commanded in person by Edward III of England.
1374 – A sudden outbreak of St. John’s Dance causes people in the streets of Aachen, Germany, to experience hallucinations and begin to jump and twitch uncontrollably until they collapse from exhaustion.
1441 – Eton College is founded. Eton, is a world-famous British independent school for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It was founded as the King’s College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor.
1497 – John Cabot lands on North America in Newfoundland; the first European exploration of the region since the Vikings.
1509 – Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon are crowned King and Queen of England. 1571 – Manila, the capital of the Republic of the Philippines, is founded by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi.
1664 – The colony of New Jersey is founded and was the first European settlement in the area established by the Swedes and Dutch in the early 1600s. The English later seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey, which was granted to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton as a colony. It is named after the Isle of Jersey.
1675 - King Philip’s War begins when a band of Wampanoag warriors raid the border settlement of Swansee, Massachusetts, and massacre the English colonists.
1692 – Kingston, Jamaica is founded.
1717 – The Grand Lodge of England, the first Freemasonic Grand Lodge (now the United Grand Lodge of England), is founded in London, England. Freemasons were very active in the forming of the U.S.
1748 – The Kingswood School is opened by John Wesley and his brother Charles Wesley in Bristol. The school later moved to Bath.
1778 - David Rittenhouse observes a total solar eclipse in Philadelphia. Rittenhouse (1732-1796) was not only an American astronomer, but also a mathematician and public official. He is reputed to have built the first American-made telescope and was the first director of the U.S. Mint (1792-1795).
1794 – Bowdoin College is founded. It is a private liberal arts college located in the coastal New England town of Brunswick, Maine.
1807 - A grand jury in Richmond, Va., indicted former Vice President Aaron Burr on charges of treason and high misdemeanor. He was later acquitted.
1813 – War of 1812: The Battle of Beaver Dams. An American attempt to surprise a British outpost at Beaver Dams near Fort George failed, and the Americans were ambushed by First Nation warriors, eventually surrendering to the commander of a small British detachment.
1841 - Fordham University (then St John’s College), opened in the Bronx.
1844 - Charles Goodyear was granted U.S. patent #3,633 for vulcanized rubber.
1853 – The treaty allowing the Gadsen Purchase was signed by President Franklin Pierce. The Gadsen Purchase is a 29,670-square-mile region of what is today southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico.
1861 – Civil War: Federal gunboats attacked Confederate batteries at Mathias Point, Virginia.
1861 – Civil War: Tennessee became the eleventh and last state to secede from the US.
1863 – Civil War: Planning an invasion of Pennsylvania, Lee’s army crossed the Potomac.
1864 – Civil War: Iron screw steamer U.S.S. Calypso and wooden side wheeler U.S.S. Nansemond transported and supported an Army expedition in the vicinity of New River, North Carolina.
1864 - Lieutenant Cushing with seventeen men, all from the U.S.S. Monticello, reconnoitered up Cape Fear River to within three miles of Wilmington, North Carolina.
1864 - U.S.S. Queen City lying at anchor off Clarendon, Arkansas, on the White River, was attacked and destroyed in the early morning hours by two regiments of Confederate cavalry supported by artillery.
1864 - Colorado Governor John Evans warns that all peaceful Indians in the region must report to the Sand Creek reservation or risk being attacked, creating the conditions that will lead to the infamous Sand Creek Massacre.
1873 - Mark Twain patented a scrapbook. His invention was to coat the pages of the scrapbook with mucilage or adhesive.
1882 – The National League expelled umpire Richard Higham for dishonesty. He was banned for conspiring to help throw a Detroit Wolverines game. Higham has been the only umpire banned for life.
1896 - Booker T. Washington became the first African-American to receive an honorary MA degree from Howard University.
1898 – Spanish-American War: American troops drove Spanish forces from La Guasimas, Cuba.
1901 – First exhibition of Pablo Picasso’s work opens.
1908 - The 22nd and 24th president (1893-1897) of the United States, Grover Cleveland, died in Princeton, N.J., at age 71.
1915 - More than 800 people died when the excursion steamer “Eastland” capsized at Chicago’s Clark Street dock.
1916 – Mary Pickford becomes the first female film star to get a million dollar contract.
1916 – World War I: The Battle of the Somme, also known as the Somme Offensive, begins with a week long artillery bombardment on the German Line. It was fought from July to November 1916 and was among the largest battles of the First World War. With more than 1.5 million casualties, it is also one of the bloodiest military operations recorded.
1922 - The American Professional Football Association took the name of The National Football League. The Chicago Staleys become the Chicago Bears.
1924 - The Democrats began their convention in New York’s Madison Square Garden. They were lured there by newspaper mogul Herbert Bayard Swope’s fundraising offer of $205,000.
1930 - The first radar detection of planes was made at Anacostia, DC.
1936 - Joe DiMaggio becomes the fifth to hit two HRs in one inning. The Yankees beat the St. Louis Browns 18-4
1938 – A 450 metric ton meteorite exploded approximately twelve miles above the Earth’s surface near Chicora, Pennsylvania. Only two fragments of the meteorite were found following initial investigations. Numerous reports of the Chicora Meteor mention that a cow was struck and injured by a falling stone; other accounts say that the cow was in fact killed by the stone. The meteor was an olivine-hypersthene chondrite.
1939 - Pan Am’s first US to England flight. It was a main run to Southampton.
1940 - The Republican Convention, opened in Philadelphia. TV cameras were used for the first time in a political convention.
1940 – France and Italy sign an armistice.
1941 – World War II: Europe: Holocaust: The entire Jewish male population of Gorzhdy, Lithuania, was exterminated.
1943 - Dr. William Randolph Lovelace II jumped out of a B-17 bomber flying at 40,200 feet in order to test the emergency oxygen unit he had designed with colleagues.
1943 – World War II: Allies began a ten-day fire bombing of Hamburg, Germany.
1944 – World War II: Japanese bases on Iwo Jima and Chichi Jima are raided by American carrier aircraft.The planes are from Hornet, Yorktown, Bataan and Belleau Wood.
1945 – World War II: The last of four German Ar234 jet bombers (collected by “Watson’s Wizzers” of the USAAF) lands in Cherbourg, flying from Sola in Norway. These aircraft are to be loaded onboard the British aircraft carrier HMS Reaper, along with thirty-four other advanced German aircraft, for shipment to the United States.
1945 – Moscow Victory Parade of 1945 was a victory parade held after the defeat of Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War. It was the first major Soviet event recorded on color film.
1946 - Mary McLeod Bethune was named director of the Division of Minority Affairs for the National Youth Administration by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The well-known educator thus became the first Black woman ever to head a US government agency.
1946 - Fred M. Vinson (1890-1953) was sworn in as Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court.
1947 – Kenneth Arnold, an American businessman and pilot, makes the first widely reported UFO sighting near Mount Rainier, Washington.
1948 - The Republican National Convention, meeting in Philadelphia, nominated New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey for president.
1948 – Start of the Berlin Blockade. One of the most dramatic standoffs in the history of the Cold War begins as the Soviet Union blocks all road and rail traffic to and from West Berlin. The blockade turned out to be a terrible diplomatic move by the Soviets, while the United States emerged from the confrontation with renewed purpose and confidence. It lasted to May 11th, 1949.
1949 – The first television western, Hopalong Cassidy, is aired on NBC starring William Boyd.
1950 - “I Wanna Be Loved” by the Andrews Sisters topped the charts.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Too Young” by Nat King Cole, “On Top of Old Smokey” by The Weavers (vocal: Terry Gilkyson), “How High the Moon” by Les Paul & Mary Ford and “I Want to Be with You Always” by Lefty Frizzell all top the charts.
1952 - Eddie Arcaro set a thoroughbred racing record for American jockeys by winning his 3,000th horse race.
1953 - The 6th annual World Trade Fair opened in San Francisco at the Palace Hotel with products imported from 21 nations.
1955 - Harmon Killebrew hits his first HR off pitcher Billy Hoeff. Killebrew was the Senators’ first “bonus baby” in 1954, signing a week before his 18th birthday.
1955 - Soviet MIG’s down a lightly armed US Navy patrol plane over the Bering Strait.
1957 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules that obscenity is not protected by the First Amendment in Roth v. United States.
1957 – The U.S. Supreme Court requires that an arrested person be taken before a committing magistrate “without unnecessary delay,” Mallory v. United States.
1957 - “I Love Lucy,” last aired on CBS-TV.
1957 - A 37-kiloton nuclear fission bomb, code-named Priscilla, was exploded in the Nevada desert at Frenchman Flat. The security of a bank vault was tested in the experiment.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Personality” by Lloyd Price, “Lonely Boy” by Paul Anka, “Along Came Jones” by The Coasters and “The Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton all top the charts.
1961 - “Moody River” by Pat Boone topped the charts.
1962 - The New York Yankees beat the Detroit Tigers, 9-7, after 22 innings. The game took 7 hours.
1964 - The Federal Trade Commission announced that starting in 1965, cigarette manufactures will be required to include warnings on their packaging about the harmful effects of smoking.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Groovin’” by The Young Rascals, “She’d Rather Be with Me” by The Turtles, “Windy” by The Association and “All the Time” by Jack Greene all top the charts.
1968 - Deadline for redeeming silver certificate dollars for silver bullion.
1968 - “Resurrection City,” a shantytown constructed as part of the Poor People’s March on Washington, D.C., was closed by authorities.
1970 - The film “Catch-22,” directed by Mike Nichols, opened. It was based on the novel by Joseph Heller.
1970 - The movie “Myra Breckinridge” premiered.
1970 - In a doubleheader with the Indians at Yankee Stadium, Bobby Murcer ties Lou Gehrig’s record of four straight homers.
1970 – Vietnam War: The US Senate voted overwhelmingly to repeal the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. With fresh evidence later available, claims that the Tonkin Gulf incident was deliberately provoked gained new plausibility.
1971 - The National Basketball Association modified its four-year eligibility rule to allow for collegiate hardship cases.
1972 - “I Am Woman,” by Helen Reddy, was released.
1972 - “Candy Man” by Sammy Davis, Jr. topped the charts
1972 - Baseball’s first woman umpire, Mrs. Bernice Gera called her first game. The game was a doubleheader between Auburn and Geneva (New York-Pennsylvania League). Several disputes take place and she ejects the Auburn manager.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Will Keep Us Together” by The Captain & Tennille, “When Will I Be Loved” by Linda Ronstadt, “Wildfire” by Michael Murphey and “You’re My Best Friend” by Don Williams all top the charts.
1975 - In New York, 113 people were killed when an Eastern Airlines Boeing 727 crashed while attempting to land during a thunderstorm at John F. Kennedy International Airport. The crash was later attributed to a microburst, not experienced at the control tower because of a sea breeze front.
1977 - IRS reveals Jimmy Carter paid no taxes in 1976.
1978 - “Shadow Dancing“ by Andy Gibb topped the charts.
1982 - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that no president could be sued for damages connected with actions taken while serving as President of the United States.
1982 - Pres. Reagan dismissed Gen. Alexander Haig (1924-2010) from his position as Sec. of State.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Flashdance…What a Feeling” by Irene Cara, “Time (Clock of the Heart)” by Culture Club, “Electric Avenue” by Eddy Grant and “You Can’t Run from Love” by Eddie Rabbitt all top the charts.
1983 - The US Supreme Court ruled that Congress cannot veto presidential decisions.
1983 - Don Sutton becomes eighth pitcher to strikeout 3,000 batters
1983 – Space Shuttle program: STS-7: Sally Ride, the first female American astronaut, returns to earth.
1984 - Oakland’s Joe Morgan hits his 265th career home run as a 2B, breaking Rogers Hornsby’s major-league record for that position.
1985 – STS-51-G Space Shuttle Discovery completed its mission, best remembered for having Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, the first Arab and first Muslim in space, as a Payload Specialist.
1986 - Guy Hunt elected first Republican governor of Alabama in 112 years.
1986 - US Senate approves “tax reform”. The top tax rate was lowered from 50% to 28% while the bottom rate was raised from 11% to 15%.
1989 - “Satisfied” by Richard Marx topped the charts.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rush, Rush” by Paula Abdul, “Losing My Religion” by R.E.M., “Unbelievable” by EMF and “The Thunder Rolls” by Garth Brooks all top the charts.
1991 - The US Supreme Court ruled the First Amendment did not shield news organizations from being sued when they publish the names of sources who had been promised confidentiality.
1992 - The US Supreme Court, in a 5-4 decision, strengthened its 30-year ban on officially sponsored worship in public schools, prohibiting prayer as a part of graduation ceremonies.
1993 – Yale computer science professor Dr. David Gelernter loses the sight in one eye, the hearing in one ear, and part of his right hand after receiving a mail bomb from the Unabomber.
1993 - Eight Muslim fundamentalists were arrested in New York, accused of plotting a day of bombings of the United Nations, a federal building and the Holland and Lincoln tunnels. They and two others were later convicted of seditious conspiracy.
1994 - President Clinton struck out at his conservative critics and the media, complaining in a speech in St. Louis that unfair and negative reports about him were feeding a cynical mindset in America.
1995 - The New Jersey Devils won the Stanley Cup as they completed a sweep of the Detroit Red Wings.
1995 - The Coast Guard Cutter “Juniper” was launched, the first of the new 225-foot Juniper Class buoy tenders.
1995 - In his weekly radio address, President Clinton blamed the failed nomination of Dr. Henry Foster to be surgeon general on right-wing extremists who, he said, would “stop at nothing” to outlaw abortion.
1996 - The US Post Office issued its James Dean stamp for its “Legends of Hollywood” series.
1997 - The Air Force released a report on the so-called “Roswell Incident,” suggesting the alien bodies witnesses reported seeing in 1947 were actually life-sized dummies.
1997 - A federal judge in Miami gave 40,000 Nicaraguans and other immigrants a 7-month reprieve from deportation.
1997 - It was reported that a man from Rio Vista, Ca., was doing a good business selling the moon’s real estate. Dennis Hope was charging $15.99 for 1,777 acres of lunar land plus tax and shipping.
1998 - Walt Disney World Resort admitted its 600-millionth guest.
2000 - Revising an earlier plan, President Clinton proposed using $58 billion from the growing budget surplus to help senior citizens pay for prescription drugs in 2002.
2001 - Karrie Webb won the LPGA Championship by two strokes to become the youngest woman to complete the Grand Slam.
2002 - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled 7-2 that juries, not judges, must make the decision to give a convicted killer the death penalty. The Court overturned the death sentences of at least 150 convicted killers.
2003 - Beyoncé Knowles released her debut solo album “Dangerously in Love“.
2003 - President George W. Bush outlined his blueprint for peace in the Middle East. His statement included a call on Palestinians to replace Yasser Arafat with leaders “not compromised by terror” and adopt democratic reforms that could produce an independent state within three years.
2004 - A federal appeals court struck down a Federal Communications Commission effort to make sweeping changes in media ownership rules.
2004 - Western advisers completed their handover Iraq’s remaining government ministries. The final eleven of twenty-five were handed over six days before the official end of coalition occupation.
2004 - Insurgents launched coordinated attacks against police and government buildings across Iraq. The strikes killed over 105 people, including three American soldiers. In Mosul alone four car bombs killed sixty-two people.
2004 – In New York, capital punishment is declared unconstitutional.
2005 - Paul Winchell (b.1922), ventriloquist, inventor and children’s TV show host best known for creating the lispy voice of Winnie the Pooh’s animated friend Tigger, died in LA, CA.
2006 - Patsy Ramsey (49), who was thrust into the national spotlight by the unsolved slaying of her daughter JonBenet, died in Roswell, Ga.
2007 – The Angora Fire, a wind driven fire, starts near South Lake Tahoe, California destroying 200+ structures in its first 48 hours. The fire operation area extended almost the entire length of Lake Tahoe just to the east of the lake. It was as a result of an illegal campfire. The fire cost $11.7 million to fight.
2007 - Charles W. Lindberg (86), one of the U.S. Marines who raised the first American flag over Iwo Jima during World War II, died in Edina, Minn.
2008 - In Iowa a railroad bridge collapsed into the flooded Iowa River near Columbus Junction, dropping a locomotive and its engineer into the water.
2009 - Ed Thomas, Iowa high school football coach, was shot at Aplington-Parkersburg High School while training in the school weight room. Thomas soon died of his wounds and former student Mark Becker (24) was arrested for the murder.
2009 - In Arizona Trenda Lynne Halton of Peoria was indicted for recruiting as many as 136 people to pose as college students and defrauding the government out of nearly $154,000 in student aid money.
2010 – Apple released the iPhone 4.
2010 – John Isner hit a backhand up the line to win the last of the match’s 980 points, and he beat Nicolas Mahunt in the fifth set, 70-68. The first round marathon took 11 hours, 5 minutes over three days.
2010 – President Barack Obama hosted Russian President Dmitry Medvedev at the White House. They appeared to get along like a couple of buddies.
2010 – The US Supreme Court ruled that disclosing the names of people who sign initiative petitions generally does not violate their right to free speech.
2011 – The New York Times reports that a cell phone belonging to Osama bin Laden’s courier contains contacts with Harakat-ul-Mujahedeen indicating possible ties with Pakistan’s intelligence agencies.
2011 – At least two people are killed and dozens injured after a tractor-trailer truck collides with the California Zephyr Amtrak train on US Route 95 in Nevada.
2011 – United States District Court judge Tanya Walton Pratt halts enforcement of an Indiana state law cutting funding for Planned Parenthood and other organisations that provide abortions.
2011 – The New York Senate votes to legalize same-sex marriage in New York, assuring passage of the legislation and making New York the largest state to approve such legislation since California reversed its legalization in 2008.
2012 - Tropical Storm Debby continues to organize off the coast of Florida, lashing the state with high winds and heavy rains. The outer bands of the storm spawn two tornadoes, killing one person near Sarasota.
2012 - Manitou Springs in Colorado is evacuated due to a raging wildfire just three miles from this vacation town.
2012 - Canadian-American game show personality Alex Trebek suffers a mild heart attack, but is expected to “fully recover.”
2013 - A NASA advanced ion propulsion engine has successfully operated for more than 48,000 hours, or 5 and a half years, making it the longest test duration of any type of space propulsion system demonstration project ever.
1386 – Giovanni da Capistrano, Italian saint (d. 1456) was a Franciscan friar from Italy.
1777 – John Ross, British naval officer and explorer (d. 1856)
1795 – Ernst Heinrich Weber, German anatomist and physiologist (d. 1878)
1811 – John Archibald Campbell, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1889)
1813 – Henry Ward Beecher, American clergyman and reformer (d. 1887)
1893 – Roy O. Disney, (d. 1971) co-founder of what is now The Walt Disney Company.
1895 – Jack Dempsey (d. 1983) American boxer
1897 – Daniel K. Ludwig, American shipping magnate (d. 1992)
1931 – Billy Casper, American professional golfer
1945 – George Pataki, American politician who was the 53rd Governor of New York
1946 – Ellison Onizuka (d. 1986) Japanese-American astronaut from Kealakekua, Kona, Hawaii
*BENNETT, EMORY L.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Sobangsan, Korea, 24 June 1951. Entered service at: Cocoa, Fla. Born: 20 December 1929, New Smyrna Beach, Fla. G.O. No.: 11, 1 February 1952. Citation: Pfc. Bennett a member of Company B, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against an armed enemy of the United Nations. At approximately 0200 hours, two enemy battalions swarmed up the ridge line in a ferocious banzai charge in an attempt to dislodge Pfc. Bennett’s company from its defensive positions. Meeting the challenge, the gallant defenders delivered destructive retaliation, but the enemy pressed the assault with fanatical determination and the integrity of the perimeter was imperiled. Fully aware of the odds against him, Pfc. Bennett unhesitatingly left his foxhole, moved through withering fire, stood within full view of the enemy, and, employing his automatic rifle, poured crippling fire into the ranks of the onrushing assailants, inflicting numerous casualties. Although wounded, Pfc. Bennett gallantly maintained his one-man defense and the attack was momentarily halted. During this lull in battle, the company regrouped for counterattack, but the numerically superior foe soon infiltrated into the position. Upon orders to move back, Pfc. Bennett voluntarily remained to provide covering fire for the withdrawing elements, and, defying the enemy, continued to sweep the charging foe with devastating fire until mortally wounded. His willing self-sacrifice and intrepid actions saved the position from being overrun and enabled the company to effect an orderly withdrawal. Pfc. Bennett’s unflinching courage and consummate devotion to duty reflect lasting glory on himself and the military service.
Rank and organization: Assistant Surgeon, 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry. Place and date: At Las Guasimas, Cuba, 24 June 1898. Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Birth: Chicago, Ill. Date of issue: 10 January 1906. Citation: In addition to performing gallantly the duties pertaining to his position, voluntarily and unaided carried several seriously wounded men from the firing line to a secure position in the rear, in each instance being subjected to a very heavy fire and great exposure and danger.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 12th Kentucky Infantry. Place and date: At Weldon Railroad, Va., 24 June 1864. Entered service at: Albany, Ky. Born: 21 January 1841, Fentress County, Tenn. Date of issue: 1 August 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 11th South Carolina (C.S.A.).
SMITH, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 1st Maine Cavalry. Place and date: At St. Mary’s Church, Va., 24 June 1864. Entered service at: Maine. Birth: Hollis, Maine. Date of issue: 11 April 1895. Citation: Remained in the fight to the close, although severely wounded.
WEIR, HENRY C.
Rank and organization: Captain and Assistant Adjutant General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At St. Mary’s Church, Va., 24 June 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: West Point, N.Y. Date of issue: 18 Nay 1899. Citation: The division being hard pressed and falling back, this officer dismounted, gave his horse to a wounded officer, and thus enabled him to escape. Afterwards, on foot, Captain Weir rallied and took command of some stragglers and helped to repel the last charge of the enemy.