American Chocolate Week
Act Happy Week
National Chocolate Covered Raisin Day
With the volumes of information we have to digest every day, from the newspaper in the morning, to the long-winded emails from well-meaning colleagues, and all the reports, proposals, periodicals, and letters we are sent, reading is one of the most used skills we possess.
It’s also a skill that most of us take for granted by the time we reach the age of eleven or twelve. After all, it seems that if you can read and comprehend textbooks, you must be a good reader.
Unlike most other skills which we try to become better and better at, reading is one that people don’t think about as much as they should. Given the time that reading consumes in our daily lives, it is actually a skill that we can, and should, improve upon.
But what does becoming a better reader involve? In short, getting faster and more efficient at it, while still understanding what you’re reading in sufficient detail. The best starting point for doing this is to unlearn poor reading habits.
Breaking Poor Reading Habits
Habit: Reading word by word
This is how children are taught to read, but when you concentrate on separate words you often miss the overall concept of what is being said. People who read each word as a distinct unit comprehend less than those who read faster by “chunking” words together in blocks.
Solution: Speed reading involves reading blocks of words at one time and comprehending the meaning of the word group. Think of viewing a digital image. There are millions of pixels that only make sense when they are seen together. In the same way, our brains can comprehend ideas better when it takes in a group of words at one time.
Practice expanding the number of words that you read at a time. You may also find that you can increase the number of words read by holding the text a little further from your eyes. The more words you can read in each block, the faster you will read!
This is the habit of pronouncing each word in your head as you read it. Most people do this to some extent or another. When you sub-vocalize you “hear” the word being spoken in your mind. This takes much more time than is necessary because you can comprehend a word much quicker than your can say it.
Solution: To turn off the voice in your head you have to first acknowledge that you do it (how did you read the first part of this article?) and then you have to practice not doing it. When you sit down to read, tell yourself that you will not sub-vocalize. You have to practice and practice this until this bad habit is erased. Reading blocks of words also helps as you can’t “say” a block of words.
Eliminating sub-vocalization alone can increase your reading speed by an astounding amount. Otherwise, you are limited to reading at the same pace as talking which is about 250-350 words per minute. If you are an efficient scanner, you may increase this rate to between 400 and 500 words per minute. The only way to break through this barrier is to stop saying the words in your head as you read. If you can train yourself to simply scan the words without thinking about the pronunciation, you will increase your speed significantly.
Habit: Inefficient eye motion
Slow readers tend to focus on each word and work their way across each line. The eye can actually span about 1.5 inches at a time which, for an average page, encompasses four or five words. Related to this is the fact that most readers don’t use their peripheral vision to see words at the ends of the line.
Solution: Soften your gaze when you read. By relaxing your face and expanding your gaze, you will begin to see blocks of words instead of each word as distinct unit. When you get good at this your eyes will drift across the page. When you get close to the end of the line, let your peripheral vision take over to see the last set of words. This way you can quickly scan across and down to the next line.
This is unnecessary re-reading of material. Sometimes people get in the habit of skipping back to words they just read and other times they jump back a few sentences just to make sure that they read something right. When you “skip back” like this you lose the flow and structure of the text and your overall understanding of the subject decreases.
Solution: Be very conscious of regression and do not allow yourself to re-read material. To reduce the number of times that your eyes skip back to a previous sentence, run a pointer along the line as you read. This could be a finger, or a pen or pencil. Your eyes will follow the tip of your pointer, smoothing the flow of your reading. The speed at which you read using this method will largely depend on the speed at which you move the pointer.
Habit: Poor Concentration
If you’ve tried to read while the TV is on, or when there is lots of activity around you, you know how hard it is to concentrate on one word, let alone on many sentences strung together. Reading has to be done in environment where external distractions are at a minimum.
Solution: Stop multitasking while reading. If you are attempting to speed read, this is particularly important because when you use the speed reading techniques of chunking blocks of words and ceasing to sub-vocalize, you may have “read” one or two pages before you realize you haven’t understood something properly. Pay attention to internal distractions as well. If you are rehashing a heated discussion you had earlier, or wondering what to make for dinner, this will also limit your ability to process more information.
Sub-vocalization actually forces your brain to attend to what you are reading and that is why people often report they can read and listen to the radio or watch TV at the same time. To become an efficient reader you need to stop doing these things all together.
Habit: Approaching reading linearly
We are taught to read across and down, taking in every word, sentence, paragraph, page, and chapter in order. When you do this, though, you pay the same attention to supplementary and superfluous material as you do to the critical portions. There is usually far more information written than you actually need to understand.
Solution: Stop reading a book like you would listen to a speech. Scan the page for headings and look for the bullet points or things in bold. There is no rule saying you have to read in the order the author presents the information. Do a quick scan of the page and decide quickly what is necessary and what isn’t. Skim over the fluff and pay attention to the key material.
As you read, look for the little extras that authors add to make their writing interesting and engaging. If you get the point, there is no need to read the example, anecdote, or metaphor. Similarly, decide what you need to re-read as well. It is far better to read the one critical paragraph twice than to read all eight paragraphs describing that same concept.
Copyright MindTools, Inc.
Phillipians 1: 3-6
3 I thank my God upon every remembrance of you, 4 always in every prayer of mine making request for you all with joy, 5 for your fellowship in the gospel from the first day until now, 6 being confident of this very thing, that He who has begun a good work in you will complete it until the day of Jesus Christ;
“When once a republic is corrupted, there is no possibility of remedying any of the growing evils but by removing the corruption and restoring its lost principles; every other correction is either useless or a new evil.”
— Thomas Jefferson –
There’s no such thing as Perfection. But, in striving for perfection, we can achieve excellence.”
apposite \AP-uh-zit\, adjective:
Being of striking appropriateness and relevance; very applicable; apt.
Apposite comes from Latin appositus, past participle of apponere, “to set or put near,” from ad-, “to, toward” + ponere, “to put, to place.”
1663 – Charles II of England awarded lands known as Carolina in America to eight members of the nobility who assisted in his restoration.
1661 – William Leddra became the last Quaker to be hanged in Boston. Quakers were last hanged on Boston Common.
1663 – The Province of Carolina is granted by charter to eight Lords Proprietor in reward for their assistance in restoring Charles II of England to the throne. The province went from the Atlantic to the Mississippi and from the Ohio River to the bottom of current day Georgia.
1664 – A charter to colonize Rhode Island was granted to Roger Williams.
1688 – Governor Edmund Andros issues an order placing the militia of the New England colonies under his own direct control.
1765 – The Kingdom of Great Britain passes the Quartering Act that requires the Thirteen Colonies to house British troops.
1813 – David Melville, Newport RI, patents apparatus for making coal gas & patented the gas streetlight.
1825 – The Mexican state of Tejas-Coahuilla officially declares itself open to US settlers.
1828 – Philadelphia & Columbia Railway (first state owned) authorized. The system opened in 1834, consisting of the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad from Philadelphia west to Columbia on the Susquehanna River.
1832 – In Hiram, Ohio a group of men beat, tar and feather Mormon leader Joseph Smith, Jr..
1832 – As part of Jackson’s continuing effort to move Native American tribes, the Creeks sign a treaty to cede their territory east of the Mississippi to the US.
1864 – Civil War: A closely coordinated Army-Navy expedition departed Beaufort, North Carolina, on board side-wheel steamer U.S.S. Britannia.
1865 – Civil War: U.S.S. Republic, Acting Ensign John W. Bennett, was dispatched up the Cape Fear River from Wilmington to check reports that detachments of General Wheeler’s cavalry were operating in the area.
1868 – Metropolitan Life Insurance Company is formed.
1882 – Robert Koch announces the discovery of the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis).
1883 – First telephone call between New York & Chicago .
1896 – A. S. Popov makes the first radio signal transmission in history.
1898 – First automobile sold was a Winton to Robert Allison . He lived in Port Carbon, Pa., and was 70 years old at the time. The company later bought back the car and donated it to the Museum in 1929.
1900 – New York City Mayor Robert Anderson Van Wyck breaks ground for a new underground “Rapid Transit Railroad” that would link Manhattan and Brooklyn.
1903 – George Dewey commissioned Admiral of the Navy with the date of rank, 2 March 1899. He was the only person to hold this rank. The rank was cancelled on January 16th, 1917 when Admiral Dewey died.
1906 – “Census of the British Empire” showed England ruled 1/5 of the world.
1912 – The “Bread and Roses” textile workers strike in Lawrence, Mass., ended.
1913 – Home of vaudeville, Palace Theatre, New York City, opens starring Ed Wynn.
1920 – First US Coast Guard Air Station established in Morehead City NC. It borrowed a few Curtiss HS-2L flying-boats and possibly one or two Aeromarine Model 40’s from the US Navy. However, funds were not provided to support the operation and the station was closed on 1 July 1921.
1932 – Belle Baker hosted a radio variety show from a moving train … a first for radio broadcasting.
1934 – US declares the Philippines to become independent when Congress passed the Tydings-McDuffie Act allowing the Philippines to become a self-governing commonwealth.
1934 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt lit the Easter Cross on Mount Davidson via telegraph from the White House eight days before Easter.
1935 – Major Bowes’ Original Amateur Hour goes national on NBC Radio Network. The show was one of the most popular programs broadcast in the 1930s and 1940s.
1936 – The longest game in NHL history was played between Detroit and Montreal. Detroit scored at 16:30 of the sixth overtime and won the game 1-0.
1938 – The U.S. asked that all powers help refugees fleeing from the Nazis.
1941 – Glenn Miller began work on his first motion picture for 20th Century Fox. The film was “Sun Valley Serenade“. (1:22:30)
1942 – World War II: American positions on Bataan and Corregidor are attacked by Japanese aircraft and artillery.
1944 – World War II: Ardeatine Massacre: German troops kill 335 Italian partisans, who the day before killed 33 German soldiers [policemen] in Rome.
1944 – World War II: In an event later dramatized in the movie The Great Escape, 76 prisoners begin breaking out of Stalag Luft III.
1944 – World War II: On Bougainville, significant Japanese resistance ends. American forces do not attempt to clear the Japanese remnants from the island.
1944 – World War II: The 22nd Marine Regiment captured Ebon and Namu Atolls in the Marshall Islands.
1945 – World War II: The US 9th Army begins to cross the Rhine a little to the south of the British and Canadians forces.
1945 – World War II: US Task Force 58 (Admiral Mitscher) conduct air raids on Okinawa. The island is also bombarded by five battleships and eleven destroyers under the command of Admiral Lee.
1945 – World War II: Largest one-day airborne drop: 600 transports and 1300 gliders.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Anniversary Song” by Dinah Shore, “ Managua, Nicaragua” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Stuart Wade), “Oh, But I Do” by Margaret Whiting/DorisDay and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1947 – Congress proposes two-term limitation on the Presidency .
1951 – Korean War: ROK Army units crossed the 38th parallel.
1953 – Korean War: The 2nd Infantry Division’s artillery units began to support the embattled 7th Infantry Division on Pork Chop Hill, firing 15,000 rounds in one week.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes, “Sincerely” by McGuire Sisters, “Darling Je Vous Aime Beaucoup” by Nat ‘King’ Cole and “In the Jailhouse Now” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1955 – The Tennessee Williams play, “Cat on a Hot Tin Roof” (1:41:26), opened on Broadway. The hit ran for 694 shows and won the Critics’ Circle Award as the Best American Play.
1955 – The first seagoing oil drill rig (for drilling in over 100 feet of water) was placed in service by the U.S. company C.G. Glasscock Drilling Co.
1958 – Elvis Presley is officially inducted into the U.S.Army. He reported to local draft board 86 in Memphis, TN. Although he had been drafted the previous December, the army granted him a deferral so he could finish shooting his film, King Creole. He became US 53310761.
1960 – US appeals court ruled the novel, “Lady Chatterly’s Lover” by D.H. Lawrence, to be not obscene.
1964 – Kennedy half-dollar was issued.
1965 – NASA spacecraft Ranger 9, equipped to convert its signals into a form suitable for showing on domestic television, brings images of the Moon into ordinary homes before crash landing. It crashed 10 miles NE of crater Alphonsus.
1966 – Selective Service announced college deferments based on performance.
1967 – Vietnam War: Viet Cong ambushed a truck convoy damaging 82 of the 121 trucks.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Me and Bobby McGee” by Janis Joplin, “She’s a Lady” by Tom Jones, “Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)” by The Temptations and “I’d Rather Love You” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1973 – Kenyan track runner Kip Keino defeats Jim Ryun at the first-ever professional track meet in Los Angeles, California.
1975 – Vietnam War: The North Vietnamese “Ho Chi Minh Campaign” begins.
1977 – Cuba and the United States enter into direct negotiations when the two nations discuss fishing rights.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tragedy” by Bee Gees, “What a Fool Believes” by The Doobie Brothers, “Heaven Knows” by Donna Summer with Brooklyn Dreams, “I Just Fall in Love Again” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.
1980 – ABC’s nightly Iran Hostage crisis program was renamed “Nightline.”
1985 – The Golden Raspberry Awards were presented to parody the Oscar Awards. The movie, “Bolero”, won the big award, for John and Bo (I’m a 10!) Derek; winning honors for worst director and worst actress, respectively.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lean on Me” by Club Nouveau, “Let’s Wait Awhile“ by Janet Jackson, “Nothing’s Gonna Stop Us Now” by Starship and “I’d Still Be Loving You” by Restless Heart all topped the charts.
1988 – Former national security aides Oliver L. North and John M. Poindexter and businessmen Richard V. Secord and Albert Hakim pleaded innocent to Iran-Contra charges.
1989 – Good Friday Oil Spill. The nation’s worst oil spill occurred as the supertanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on a reef in Alaska’s Prince William Sound and began leaking 11 million gallons of crude (240,000 barrels of oil).
1991 – General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the American commander of Operation Desert Storm, told reporters in Saudi Arabia the United States was closer to establishing a permanent military headquarters on Arab soil.
1992 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis blasted off with seven astronauts on the first shuttle mission devoted to the environment.
1993 – Mahmoud Abouhalima, a cab driver implicated in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, was flown back to the United States from Egypt. Abouhalima was later convicted of conspiracy and sentenced to life in prison.
1996 – U.S. astronaut Shannon Lucid transfers to the Russian space station Mir from the U.S. Space Shuttle Atlantis for a planned five-month stay. Lucid was the first female U.S. astronaut to live in a space station.
1998 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Jonesboro massacre: Two students, Mitchell Johnson (13) and Andrew Golden (11), opened fire on a group of schoolchildren from a nearby woods and killed four girls and one teacher and wounded 11 others. Both boys were later convicted of murder and were incarcerated until they turned 21.The older boy was angry at a girl who had broken up with him.
1999 – The US Supreme Court ruled to uphold an 1837 treaty with the Chippewa Indians for hunting and fishing on 13 million acres of public land in Minnesota.
1999 – In California a robber managed to steal $2.3 million from a Loomis armored truck as it traveled on I-80 between San Francisco and Sacramento. The heist was not reported until May 6.
2000 – A US federal judge awarded former hostage Terry Anderson $341 million from Iran, holding Iranian agents responsible for Anderson’s nearly seven years of captivity in Lebanon.
2001 – U.S. skater Michelle Kwan won her fourth World Figure Skating title; Irina Slutskaya of Russia was second, and American Sarah Hughes earned the bronze.
2002 – Halle Berry becomes the first African-American woman to win an Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in the movie “Monster’s Ball,” Denzel Washington became the second African-American actor, after Sidney Poitier, to win in the best actor category.
2003 – Hasan Akbar, a Muslim soldier with the 101st Airborne, kills two fellow soldiers in a grenade attack at Camp Pennsylvania, Kuwait.
2003 – Gulf War: In the sixth day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US forces began strikes against the Medina Division of the Republican Guard guarding Baghdad.
2003 – Gulf War: After Coalition forces have pushed further into Iraq securing most of the southern oilfields over the weekend, Kuwaiti fire fighters are able to enter Iraq and are able to extinguish one of the wellhead fires.
2003 – Gulf War: Iraqi state television showed two men,Chief Warrant Officer David Williams and Chief Warrant Officer Ronald D. Young Jr. spent three weeks in captivity before they were released along with five other POWs.
2004 – Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow: The United States Supreme Court hears oral arguments over the constitutionality of the “under God” clause of the Pledge of Allegiance.
2004 – The last episode of the Disney children’s television series, “Lizzie McGuire”, airs.
2004 – A NASA unpiloted X-43A jet, part of its Hyper-X program, reached a record speed of 5,200 mph, Mach 6.83, after a rocket boosted it to 3,500 mph. It used a new engine called a supersonic-combustion ramjet, or scramjet.
2004 – A group of large employers proposed “scorecards” for doctors in an effort help employees choose doctors based on quality care.
2005 – The U.S. Supreme Court denied an appeal from the parents of Terri Schiavo to have a feeding tube reinserted into the severely brain-damaged woman.
2005 – The US FDA approved Boniva, a monthly pill to help women fight osteoporosis.
2005 – NBC’s successful comedy “The Office” premiered.
2006 – Space Exploration Technology’s Falcon 1, a partly reusable commercial rocket developed by this California entrepreneur, failed during its maiden launch from a Pacific island.
2006 – It was reported that Iraqi documents captured by US forces in 2003 say Russian intelligence had sources inside the American military that enabled it to feed information about U.S. troop movements and battle plans to Saddam Hussein.
2006 – Hannah Montana starts with its first episode.
2006 – Scientists reported glaciers and ice sheets were melting faster than previously thought and could raise sea levels by 13-20 feet by the end of the century.
2006 – Protests against the US immigration reform bill H.R. 4437 are held in several US cities. 500,000 people march in Los Angeles, California, 50,000 in Denver, Colorado, and 20,000 in Phoenix, Arizona, protesting proposed legislation that includes construction of a security wall along the United States-Mexico border.
2006 – A gunman killed six people at a party and then himself in the Capitol Hill massacre in Seattle, Washington.
2007 – It was reported that the total number of books in existence was estimated to be about 65 million.
2008 – Relatives of victims of the Virginia Tech massacre report that the Government of Virginia will offer victims compensation of $100,000 to forestall law suits.
2008 – In Detroit, Mich., Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick (37) was charged with eight felonies in an obstruction of justice case that involved a romantic affair with a chief of staff.
2008 – Al-Qaida deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahri called on Muslims in a new audiotape to strike Jewish and American targets in revenge for Israel’s recent offensive in the Gaza Strip.
2009 -Immaculata University discovers the mass grave of 57 Irish immigrants in East Whiteland Township, Pennsylvania. The workers came to Philadelphia from Counties Donegal, Tyrone, and Derry to work in Pennsylvania’s growing and new railroad industry. Less than two months after their arrival, all 57 are believed to have died during the second cholera pandemic.
2009 – US Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner called on Congress to grant him new powers to regulate huge financial companies like insurance giant AIG, whose failure would pose a grave danger to the US financial system and the broader economy.
2009 – Project Gun Runner (Fast and Furious) was launched under the orders of President Barack Obama with the knowledge of Attorney General Eric Holder. Deputy Attorney General David Ogden announced the Obama Administration’s new and aggressive ‘comprehensive plan’.The plan was aimed at disrupting gun trafficking between the United States and Mexico.
2009 – The US federal government announces a plan to increase security along its border with Mexico.
2010 – More than one-million baby slings made by Infantino were recalled in the US after claims linking them to three infant deaths.
2010 – Go Daddy, the largest domain name registration company in the world, announces it will cease registering websites in China after the Chinese government required customers to provide photographs and other identifying information before registering.
2010 – President Barack Obama’s administration named 54 alleged Mexican drug cartel lieutenants and enforcers as drug kingpins under a law that allows the US government to freeze their bank accounts and penalize their business associates.
2011 – The United States Census Bureau confirms that New York City is the largest city in the US with 8,175,133 residents at the time of the 2010 United States Census on April 1.
2011 – The Air Force says six pilots who participated in a spectacular flyover before an Iowa football game have been disciplined for flying too low and too fast. The lead pilot is giving up his right to fly military aircraft. The Air Force says the four Talon T-38 Trainer jets flew just 16 feet above the stadium’s press box and at 400 mph (max allowable is 300) when they wowed 70,000 fans inside Kinnick Stadium before Iowa hosted Ohio State on Nov. 20.
2012 – Voters in Louisiana go to the polls for the Louisiana Republican primary with Rick Santorum winning.
2012 – Former Vice President Dick Cheney receives a heart transplant from an unknown donor.
2013 – Mississippi House of Representatives member Jessica Upshaw (51) dies reportedly after being shot in the head. Upshaw was found dead in the home of former Mississippi State Representative Clint Rotenberry in Mendenhall, Mississippi. Police investigated her death, an apparent gunshot suicide.
2014 – In Santa Barbara CA a professor of pornography and black studies at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) has been charged with robbery, battery and vandalism after stealing and destroying a pro-life banner and physically attacking a 16-year-old pro-life advocate at a campus event.
2016 – A local Doctor was shot and killed by a patient The 73-year old shooter walked into the doctor’s office, and killed the doctor with a single shot to the head while he treated others in his office near East Jefferson General Hospital in New Orleans.
1795 – John Keats, English poet.
1860 – Juliette Low, American, founder of the Girl Scouts.
1874 – Harry Houdini (Erik Weisz), Hungarian-born American magician and escape artist.
1887 – Chiang Kai-shek, first constitutional president of the Republic of China and army general.
1912 – Dale Evans (Frances Butts), American singer-songwriter, actress, wife of Roy Rogers.
1931 – Dan Rather, American TV journalist.
1936 – Michael Landon, American TV actor, producer and director.
*BRYANT, WILLIAM MAUD
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 5th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces. Place and Date: Long Khanh Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 24th, 1969. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Born: 16 February 1933, Cochran, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sfc. Bryant, assigned to Company A, distinguished himself while serving as commanding officer of Civilian Irregular Defense Group Company 321, 2d Battalion, 3d Mobile Strike Force Command, during combat operations. The battalion came under heavy fire and became surrounded by the elements of three enemy regiments. Sfc. Bryant displayed extraordinary heroism throughout the succeeding 34 hours of incessant attack as he moved throughout the company position heedless of the intense hostile fire while establishing and improving the defensive perimeter, directing fire during critical phases of the battle, distributing ammunition, assisting the wounded, and providing the leadership and inspirational example of courage to his men. When a helicopter drop of ammunition was made to re-supply the beleaguered force, Sfc. Bryant with complete disregard for his safety ran through the heavy enemy fire to retrieve the scattered ammunition boxes and distributed needed ammunition to his men. During a lull in the intense fighting, Sfc. Bryant led a patrol outside the perimeter to obtain information of the enemy. The patrol came under intense automatic weapons fire and was pinned down. Sfc. Bryant single-handedly repulsed one enemy attack on his small force and by his heroic action inspired his men to fight off other assaults. Seeing a wounded enemy soldier some distance from the patrol location, Sfc. Bryant crawled forward alone under heavy fire to retrieve the soldier for intelligence purposes. Finding that the enemy soldier had expired, Sfc. Bryant crawled back to his patrol and led his men back to the company position where he again took command of the defense. As the siege continued, Sfc. Bryant organized and led a patrol in a daring attempt to break through the enemy encirclement. The patrol had advanced some 200 meters by heavy fighting when it was pinned down by the intense automatic weapons fire from heavily fortified bunkers and Sfc. Bryant was severely wounded. Despite his wounds he rallied his men, called for helicopter gunship support, and directed heavy suppressive fire upon the enemy positions. Following the last gunship attack, Sfc. Bryant fearlessly charged an enemy automatic weapons position, overrunning it, and single-handedly destroying its three defenders. Inspired by his heroic example, his men renewed their attack on the entrenched enemy. While regrouping his small force for the final assault against the enemy, Sfc. Bryant fell mortally wounded by an enemy rocket. Sfc. Bryant’s selfless concern for his comrades, at the cost of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*COKER, RONALD L.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company M, 3d Battalion, 3d Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 24th, 1969. Entered service at: Denver, Colo. Born: 9 August 1947, Alliance, Nebr. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a rifleman with Company M in action against enemy forces. While serving as point man for the 2d Platoon, Pfc. Coker was leading his patrol when he encountered five enemy soldiers on a narrow jungle trail. Pfc. Coker’s squad aggressively pursued them to a cave. As the squad neared the cave, it came under intense hostile fire, seriously wounding one Marine and forcing the others to take cover. Observing the wounded man lying exposed to continuous enemy fire, Pfc. Coker disregarded his safety and moved across the fire-swept terrain toward his companion. Although wounded by enemy small-arms fire, he continued to crawl across the hazardous area and skillfully threw a hand grenade into the enemy positions, suppressing the hostile fire sufficiently to enable him to reach the wounded man. As he began to drag his injured comrade toward safety, a grenade landed on the wounded Marine. Unhesitatingly, Pfc. Coker grasped it with both hands and turned away from his wounded companion, but before he could dispose of the grenade it exploded. Severely wounded, but undaunted, he refused to abandon his comrade. As he moved toward friendly lines, two more enemy grenades exploded near him, inflicting still further injuries. Concerned only for the safety of his fellow Marine, Pfc. Coker, with supreme effort continued to crawl and pull the wounded Marine with him. His heroic deeds inspired his fellow Marines to such aggressive action that the enemy fire was suppressed sufficiently to enable others to reach him and carry him to a relatively safe area where he succumbed to his extensive wounds. Pfc. Coker’s indomitable courage, inspiring initiative and selfless devotion to duty upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
*SINGLETON, WALTER K.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company A, 1st Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Gio Linh District, Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 24th, 1967. Entered service at: Memphis, Tenn. Born: 7 December 1944, Memphis, Tenn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Singleton’s company was conducting combat operations when the lead platoon received intense small arms, automatic weapons, rocket, and mortar fire from a well entrenched enemy force. As the company fought its way forward, the extremely heavy enemy fire caused numerous friendly casualties. Sensing the need for early treatment of the wounded, Sgt. Singleton quickly moved from his relatively safe position in the rear of the foremost point of the advance and made numerous trips through the enemy killing zone to move the injured men out of the danger area. Noting that a large part of the enemy fire was coming from a hedgerow, he seized a machinegun and assaulted the key enemy location, delivering devastating fire as he advanced. He forced his way through the hedgerow directly into the enemy strong point. Although he was mortally wounded, his fearless attack killed eight of the enemy and drove the remainder from the hedgerow. Sgt. Singleton’s bold actions completely disorganized the enemy defense and saved the lives of many of his fellow Marines. His daring initiative selfless devotion to duty and indomitable fighting spirit reflected great credit upon himself and the Marine Corps, and his performance upheld the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
*PETERS, GEORGE J.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company G, 507th Parachute Infantry, 17th Airborne Division. Place and date: Near Fluren, Germany, March 24th, 1945. Entered service at: Cranston, R.I. Birth: Cranston, R.I. G.O. No.: 16, 8 February 1946. Citation: Pvt. Peters, a platoon radio operator with Company G, made a descent into Germany near Fluren, east of the Rhine. With ten others, he landed in a field about seventy-five yards from a German machinegun supported by riflemen, and was immediately pinned down by heavy, direct fire. The position of the small unit seemed hopeless with men struggling to free themselves of their parachutes in a hail of bullets that cut them off from their nearby equipment bundles, when Pvt. Peters stood up without orders and began a one-man charge against the hostile emplacement armed only with a rifle and grenades. His single-handed assault immediately drew the enemy fire away from his comrades. He had run halfway to his objective, pitting rifle fire against that of the machinegun, when he was struck and knocked to the ground by a burst. Heroically, he regained his feet and struggled onward. Once more he was torn by bullets, and this time he was unable to rise. With gallant devotion to his self-imposed mission, he crawled directly into the fire that had mortally wounded him until close enough to hurl grenades which knocked out the machinegun, killed two of its operators, and drove protecting riflemen from their positions into the safety of a woods. By his intrepidity and supreme sacrifice, Pvt. Peters saved the lives of many of his fellow soldiers and made it possible for them to reach their equipment, organize, and seize their first objective.
National Puppy Day
Near Miss Day
A near miss is defined as an unplanned event that did not result in injury, illness, or damage – but had the potential to do so. Only a fortunate break in the chain of events prevented an injury, fatality or damage. The term is used widely in the United States and is almost immediately recognized by most individuals. Other terms that can be and have been used are “close call” or “barely missed”.
In most cases near misses are good. Certainly they are better than the actual disaster but they are also better than having the event not occur. A near miss brings to our immediate attention that a process needs further scrutiny. It brings with the desire to plan, creative thought and adrenaline. When those three are brought together, future near misses and actual disasters can be avoided. The negative side of near misses can be anger, blame, regret, remorse, fear, all of which drastically impede the improvement process. In terms of human lives and property damage, near misses are cheaper, zero-cost learning tools for safety and security than actual injury or property loss. An event that does not occur will not bring these forces into play.
Many industries have formal programs to review near misses to watch for trends and, hopefully, prevent actual incidents from occurring. Major industries included in this group are Aviation, Fire-Fighters, Healthcare and Rail Systems. While those are excellent to prevent major disasters, individual can prevent problems from occurring in their own lives by playing “what-if” games.
The simplest way is to get into the habit of asking the question “What if I (do something this way)? When answering that question, look for safer and more secure ways of doing things. RULE 1: There is no such thing as a stupid idea. Often times the best idea comes from a string of lesser ideas.
1 John 4:11-12 NKJV
Beloved, if God so loved us, we also ought to love one another. No one has seen God at any time. If we love one another, God abides in us, and His love has been perfected in us.
“It cannot be emphasized too strongly or too often that this great nation was founded, not by religionists, but by Christians; not on religions, but on the gospel of Jesus Christ. For this very reason Peoples of other faiths have been afforded asylum, prosperity, and freedom of worship here.”
Patrick Henry (5 time Governor of Virginia)
“It’s not the size of the dog in the fight, it’s the size of the fight in the dog.”
~ Mark Twain
Buckley’s chance (BUK-leez chans) noun
No chance at all (or only a very slim chance). It is also called “Buckley’s and none” or “Buckley’s hope”.
1066 – 18th recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet. In October of this year was also the Battle of Hastings.
1713 – The capture of the Tuscarora tribe’s stronghold of Fort Nohuke by South Carolinian forces ends Tuscarora raids.
1775 – Revolutionary War: Patrick Henry delivers his famous speech -“give me liberty or give me death” at St. John’s Church in Richmond, Virginia.
1780 – Revolutionary War: British forces under Banastre Tarleton, moving to Charleston, scatter Colonial Militia at Bee’s Plantation, SC.
1794 – Josiah Pierson patents a “cold-header” (rivet) machine.
1794 – Lieutenant-General Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland.
1806 – After traveling through the Louisiana Purchase and reaching the Pacific Ocean, explorers Lewis and Clark and their “Corps of Discovery” begin their arduous journey home.
1815 – War of 1812 – USS Hornet captures HMS Penguin in battle lasting 22 minutes.
1836 – The first “powered” coining press to be used at the United States Mint in
Philadelphia was invented by Francis Beale.
1839 – First recorded use of “OK” [oll korrect] (Boston’s Morning Post).
1840 – John William Draper takes first successful photo of the Moon (daguerrotype).
1857 – Elisha Otis’s first elevator is installed at 488 Broadway New York City.
1858 – Streetcar patented by Eleazer A Gardner of Philadelphia.
1861 – Could this be why trains are called trains? London’s first tramcars, designed by Mr. Train of New York, began operating.
1861 – John D. Defrees became the first Superintendent of the United States Government Printing Office.
1862 – Civil War: The Battle of Kernstown, Va., began. Winchester, Va., was another embattled town. Confederate General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson faced his only defeat at the Battle of Kernstown, Va.
1865 – Civil War: General Sherman and Cox’s troops reached Goldsboro, NC.
1867 – Congress passed a second Reconstruction Act over President Johnson’s veto.
1868 – Gov. Henry Haight signed an act that created the Univ. of California and wed the insolvent College of California to the state with the promised backing of 150,000 acres of federal land.
1880 – John Stevens of Neenah, WI patented the device which was called a grain crushing mill. It boosted flour production efficiency by 70% and produced flour of a superior quality.
1882 – Secretary of the Navy Hunt issues General Order No. 292 creating Office of Naval Intelligence.
1888 – Morrison R. Waite (b.1816), US Supreme Court Chief Justice (1874-1888), died after serving for 14 years. He interpreted constitutional amendments after the Civil War.
1889 – Land Run: President Benjamin Harrison opens Oklahoma to white settlement starting on April 22.
1896 – The Raines Law is passed by the New York State Legislature, restricting Sunday sale of alcohol to hotels.
1901 – Dame Nellie Melba, revealed the secret of her now famous toast.
1901 – A group of U.S. Army soldier led by Brig. Gen. Frederick Funston captured Emilio Aguinaldo, the leader of the Philippine Insurrection of 1899.
1903 – The Wright Brothers apply for a patent on their invention of one of the first successful airplanes.
1903 – U.S. troops were sent to Honduras to protect the American consulate during revolutionary activity.
1908 – American diplomat Durham Stevens is attacked by Korean assassins Jeon Myeong-un and Jang In-hwan, leading to his death in a hospital two days later.
1909 – Theodore Roosevelt leaves New York for a post-presidency safari in Africa. The trip is sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and National Geographic Society.
1909 – British Lt. Shackleton found the magnetic South Pole.
1910 – First race at Los Angeles Motordrome (first US auto speedway). It introduced a brand-new concept in the construction of speedways– a one-mile, steeply banked circular track with a wood surface patterned after board bicycle tracks.
1912 – Lawrence Luellen and Hugh Moore begin distributing the cone shaped drinking cup called the “Health Kup” and special dispensers through their Individual Drinking Cup Co. Later name changed to Dixie Cups.
1913 – A strong tornado swept through Omaha, Neb., on Easter Sunday leaving over 100 fatalities and millions of dollars in damage.
1917 – In the Midwest U.S., four tornadoes kill 211 people over a four day period.
1917 – Launching of USS New Mexico, first dreadnought with turboelectric drive. A dreadnought is a battleship armed with six or more guns having calibers of 12 inches or more.
1921 – Arthur G. Hamilton set a new parachute record when he safely jumped from 24,400 feet.
1922 – The first airplane landed at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, DC.
1923 – Frank Silver & Irving Conn release “Yes, We Have No Bananas.” (Great pictures of early 20h century NY)
1925 – The state of Tennessee enacted a law that made it a crime for a teacher in any state-supported public school to teach any theory that was in contradiction to the Bible’s account of man’s creation.
1932 – In the U.S., the Norris-LaGuardia Act established workers’ right to strike.
1932 – The executive committee of the DAR (Daughters of the American Revolution) ruled to exclude African-Americans from appearing at Constitution Hall.
1933 – The Reichstag passes the Enabling act of 1933, making Adolf Hitler dictator of Germany.
1935 – Signing of the Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.
1938 – Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis frees 74 St Louis Cardinals minor leaguers.
1940 – First radio broadcast of “Truth or Consequences” on CBS.
1942 – World War II: In the Indian Ocean, Japanese forces capture the Andaman Islands.
1942 – World War II: The US government began moving the first of some 112,000 Japanese-Americans from their West Coast homes to detention centers.
1943 – World War II: Axis forces manage to hold the American advance near El Guettar.
1944 – World War II: On Bougainville, Japanese forces attack American positions without making any progress. Heavy Japanese losses are reported.
1944 – World War II: US destroyers shell the Japanese seaplane base on Elouae in the St. Matthias Islands.
1944 – Nicholas Alkemade falls 18,000 feet without a parachute and lives. He survived with nothing worse than a somewhat twisted ankle.
1945 – World War II: US Task Force 58 (Admiral Mitscher) conduct air raids on Okinawa.
1945 – World War II: Largest operation in Pacific war: 1,500 US Navy ships bombed Okinawa.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh, What It Seemed to Be” by The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Marjorie Hughes), “Personality” by Johnny Mercer, “Day by Day” by Frank Sinatra and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1948 – John Cunningham set a world altitude record with his De Havilland Vampire jet airplane at 54,492′.
1950 – “Beat the Clock“ premiered on CBS-TV.
1950 – “Great to Be Alive” opened at Winter Garden Theater in New York City for 52 performances.
1951 – Korean War: Operation TOMAHAWK, the second airborne operation of the war and the largest in one day, involved 120 C-119s and C-46s, escorted by sixteen F-51s.
1951 – Korean War: U.S. paratroopers descended from flying boxcars (Fairchild C-119) in a surprise attack.
1956 – “West Side Story,” a musical play by Leonard Bernstein, was copyrighted.
1957 – US Army sells last homing pigeons. Used during WW I and WW II for undetectable communication, they were replaced with more modern means.
1958 – First launching of simulated Polaris missile from submerged tactical launcher facility off CA.
1960 – Elvis Presley ends two-year hitch in US Army.
1961 – Elvis Presley recorded “Can’t Help Falling in Love.”
1961 – One of the first American casualties in Southeast Asia, an intelligence-gathering plane en route from Laos to Saigon is shot down over the Plain of Jars in central Laos.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hey! Baby” by Bruce Channel, “Midnight in Moscow” by Kenny Ball & His Jazzmen, “Don’t Break the Heart that Loves You” by Connie Francis and “That’s My Pa” by Sheb Wooley all topped the charts.
1962 – NS Savannah, the first nuclear-powered cargo-passenger ship, was launched as a showcase for Dwight D. Eisenhower’s Atoms for Peace initiative.
1962 – William DeWitt bought the Cincinnati Reds for $4,625,000.
1963 – “Our Day Will Come” by Ruby & the Romantics topped the charts.
1963 – The Beach Boys released “Surfin’ U.S.A.”
1963 – An indoor pole vault record was set by John Pennel in Memphis, TN. He cleared 16 feet, 3 inches.
1965 – NASA launches Gemini 3, the United States’ first two-man space flight (crew: Gus Grissom and John Young). Young sneaked a corned beef sandwich on board, for which he was later reprimanded.
1967 – Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. called the Vietnam War the biggest obstacle to the civil rights movement.
1968 – Reverend Walter Fauntroy became the first non-voting congressional delegate from Washington DC, since Reconstruction.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel, “The Rapper” by The Jaggerz, “Give Me Just a Little More Time” by Chairmen of the Board and “The Fightin’ Side of Me” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1970 – US performed a nuclear test in the Emery Series at the Nevada Test Site.
1971 – The US Congress proposed the 26th Amendment lowering the voting age from 21 to 18. It was ratified on July 1, 1971.
1972 – Evel Knievel broke 93 bones after successfully jumping 35 cars.
1972 – The U.S. called a halt to the peace talks on Vietnam being held in Paris.
1973 – The last airing of “Concentration” took place. The show had been on NBC for 15 years.
1973 – The soap opera “Love is a Many Splendored Thing” ended after a 5 1/2 year run.
1973 – US performed a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1974 – “Dark Lady” by Cher topped the charts.
1978 – US performed nuclear test in the Cresset/Quicksilver Series at the Nevada Test Site.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Night Fever” by Bee Gees, “Stayin’ Alive” by Bee Gees, “Lay Down Sally” by Eric Clapton and “Mamas Don’t Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Cowboys” by Waylon & Willie all topped the charts.
1981 – CBS Television announced plans to reduce “Captain Kangaroo” to a 30-minute show.
1981 – U.S. Supreme Court upheld a law making statutory rape a crime for men but not women. The Court also ruled that states could require, with some exceptions, parental notification when teen-age girls seek abortions.
1983 – President Ronald Reagan makes his initial proposal to develop technology to intercept enemy missiles (“Star Wars”).
1983 – Dr. Barney Clark died after 112 days with a permanent artificial heart.
1985 – US performed nuclear test in the Grenadier/Charioteer Series at the Nevada Test Site.
1985 – “Can’t Fight This Feeling” by REO Speedwagon topped the charts.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS -“These Dreams” by Heart, “Secret Lovers” by Atlantic Starr, “Rock Me Amadeus” by Falco and “What’s a Memory like You (Doing in a Love like This)” by John Schneider all topped the charts.
1986 – In the 6th Golden Raspberry Awards the film “Rambo: First Blood Part II” won.
1987 – US offered military protection to Kuwaiti ships in the Persian Gulf.
1987 – The soap opera “Bold and Beautiful” premiered.
1987 – Jerry Collins, a millionaire greyhound racetrack owner, donated $1.3 million to help evangelist Oral Roberts reach his goal of raising $8 million for medical scholarships.
1989 – Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann announce cold fusion at the University of Utah.
1992 – Florida Marlins begin selling tickets.
1993 – New York Knicks and the Phoenix Suns get into a major brawl.
1994 – A US Air Force F-16 aircraft collides with a USAF C-130 at Pope Air Force Base and then crashes, killing a group of 24 United States Army soldiers on the ground. It was later referred to the Green Ramp disaster.
1994 – Wayne Gretzky sets NHL record with 802 goals scored.
1996 – “Because You Loved Me” by Celine Dion topped the charts.
1997 – The American Cancer Society recommended that women begin annual mammograms at age 40.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that term limits for state lawmakers were constitutional.
1998 – The movie “Titanic” won 11 Oscars at the Academy Awards.
1998 – The California State Supreme Court ruled that the Boy Scouts were a private organization and not subject to the state’s anti-discrimination laws.
1999 – The US Senate voted 58-41 to support US participation in a NATO bombing of Serbia.
2001 – Mississippi Gov. Ronnie Musgrove signed a law that mandated public schools to display “In God We Trust” in classrooms, cafeterias and auditoriums.
2002 – It was reported a the Air Force Academy had implicated 38 cadets in a drug scandal that began in Dec 2000.
2003 – A Maryland nurse died five days after being vaccinated for smallpox. A second nurse died Mar 27.
2003 – TERRORIST ATTACK: Iraq War: Hasan Akbar, a Muslim soldier with the 101st Airborne, kills two fellow soldiers in a grenade attack at Camp Pennsylvania, Kuwait.
2003 – Iraq War: In Nasiriyah, Iraq, eleven soldiers of the 507th Maintenance Company as well as eighteen U.S. Marines are killed during the first major conflict of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
2003 – A 2000-pound meteorite explodes over Chicago shortly before midnight, raining fragments over the city.
2004 – The US Coast Guard said it had seized over 14.5 tons of cocaine from 3 fishing boats off Mexico and Ecuador over the last 2 months.
2004 – Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and Secretary of State Colin Powell defend their pre-September 11 actions, saying that even if Osama bin Laden had been killed, the attacks on the World Trade Center and The Pentagon would have still occurred.
2004 – The last episode of the Disney children’s television series, Lizzie McGuire, airs.
2005 – The United States 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, in a 2-1 decision, refuses to order the reinsertion of Terri Schiavo’s feeding tube. The Florida Legislature decided not to intervene in the epic struggle over the brain-damaged woman; Schiavo’s parents then filed a request with the Supreme Court.
2005 – An explosion occurs at a BP oil refinery in Texas City, Texas kills 15 workers and injured 170 .
2005 – Truck driver Tyrone Williams was convicted in a federal court in Houston for his role in the 2003 deaths of nineteen illegal immigrants he was smuggling across Texas.
2006 – The US CDC said a new form of TB, called Extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB), posed challenges to efforts to bring the disease under control.
2006 – Police took DNA samples from forty-six members of the Duke University lacrosse team after a woman hired to dance for a party charged she’d been raped.
2006 – Desmond T. Doss Sr. (87), a conscientious objector whose achievements as a noncombatant earned him a Medal of Honor in World War II, died in Piedmont, Ala.
2007 – The US House voted for the first time to clamp a cutoff deadline on the Iraq war, agreeing by a thin margin to pull combat troops out by next year and pushing the new Democratic-led Congress ever closer to a showdown with President Bush.
2007 – In Florida the aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy was decommissioned after nearly forty years of service.
2007 – The United States Senate votes 52-47 to approve a budget plan that aims to achieve a balanced budget within five years and aims to find offsets for tax cuts passed in President Bush’s first term.
2008 – U.S. military casualties in the Iraq War reach 4,000.
2008 -The Alaska Ranger, a 189-foot fishing vessel, sank off the Aleutian Islands, killing the captain and four crew members. Forty-two crew members were rescued.
2008 – In Wisconsin Madeline Neumann (11) died of complication from diabetes after her parents prayed in lieu of seeking medical help. Both parents were charged with reckless homicide.
2009 – US District Judge Edward Korman ordered the FDA to make the emergency contraceptive pill, marketed as Plan B, available to 17-year-olds without prescription within 30 days from the date of his ruling.
2009 – FedEx Express Flight 80 crashes at Narita International Airport in Tokyo, Japan, killing both pilots.
2009 – Alaska’s Mount Redoubt volcano erupted five times overnight, sending an ash plume more than nine miles into the air in the volcano’s first emissions in nearly twenty years.
2010 – The US issues new warnings of Al-Qaeda threats to attack ships off coast of Yemen.
2010 – Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShip Two is shown on its maiden flight from the Mojave Air and Spaceport in Mojave, California.
2010 – President Barack Obama signed a historic $938 billion health care overhaul that guarantees coverage for 32 million uninsured Americans and will touch nearly every citizen’s life, presiding over the biggest shift in US domestic policy since the 1960s and capping a divisive, yearlong debate that could define the November elections.
2011 – Reagan National Airport’s air traffic control supervisor on duty reportedly fell asleep during the night shift. Two aircraft on approach to the airport were unable to contact anyone in the control tower and subsequently landed unassisted.
2011 – English-American actress Elizabeth Taylor dies at the age of 79 in Los Angeles.
2011 – The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit refuses to allow same-sex marriages to resume in the US state of California while it considers the constitutionality of Proposition 8.
2012 – Army Staff Sgt. Robert Bales is charged with 17 counts of murder and various other charges, including attempted murder, in connection with the March 11 shooting deaths of Afghan civilians.
2012 – The Financial Services Committee of the United States House of Representatives receives a memo quoting Edith O’Brien, the treasurer of defunct broker MF Global, to the effect that Jon S. Corzine was personally ordering the transfer of customers’ money to a brokerage account with JP Morgan Chase last October.
2013 – President Barack Obama concludes his visit to the Middle East with a trip to the famous ruins of the ancient city of Petra in Jordan.
2013 – The US Senate approves its first budget in four years by a margin of 50–49.
2014 – The U.S. Geological Survey has recorded 15 earthquakes in Oklahoma since about 9:30 p.m. Friday, the largest being a magnitude 4.0.
2016 – Convicted gunman sues former congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords for emotional and psychological distress. Jared Lee Loughner is serving seven life sentences for the shooting that killed six and wounded 13, including Giffords. He seeks $25 million in damages.
1645 – William Kidd, Pirate Legend From Scotland (d. 1701)
1823 – Schuyler Colfax, Vice President of the United States (d. 1885)
1862 – Nathaniel Reed, American outlaw turned evangelist (d.1950)
1904 – H. Beam Piper, American science fiction author (d. 1964)
1905 – Joan Crawford, American actress (d. 1977)
1922 – Marty Allen, American comedian and actor
1924 – Bette Nesmith Graham, American inventor (d. 1980)
1937 – Craig Breedlove, American land speed record holder
1937 – Robert Gallo, American physician
1938 – Maynard Jackson, first African American mayor of Atlanta (d. 2003)
1952 – Kim Stanley Robinson, American author
1957 – Amanda Plummer, American actress
1965 – Sarah Buxton, American actress
1973 – Jason Kidd, American basketball player
1976 – Keri Russell, American actress
FITZMAURICE, MICHAEL JOHN
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Troop D, 2d Squadron, 17th Cavalry, 101st Airborne Division. Place and date: Khe Sanh, Republic of Vietnam, March 23rd, 1971. Entered service at: Jamestown, N. Dak. Born: 9 March 1950, Jamestown, N. Dak . Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Fitzmaurice, 3d Platoon, Troop D, distinguished himself at Khe Sanh. Sp4c. Fitzmaurice and three fellow soldiers were occupying a bunker when a company of North Vietnamese sappers infiltrated the area. At the onset of the attack Sp4c. Fitzmaurice observed three explosive charges which had been thrown into the bunker by the enemy. Realizing the imminent danger to his comrades, and with complete disregard for his personal safety, he hurled two of the charges out of the bunker. He then threw his flak vest and himself over the remaining charge. By this courageous act he absorbed the blast and shielded his fellow-soldiers. Although suffering from serious multiple wounds and partial loss of sight, he charged out of the bunker, and engaged the enemy until his rifle was damaged by the blast of an enemy hand grenade. While in search of another weapon, Sp4c. Fitzmaurice encountered and overcame an enemy sapper in hand-to-hand combat. Having obtained another weapon, he returned to his original fighting position and inflicted additional casualties on the attacking enemy. Although seriously wounded, Sp4c. Fitzmaurice refused to be medically evacuated, preferring to remain at his post. Sp4c. Fitzmaurice’s extraordinary heroism in action at the risk of his life contributed significantly to the successful defense of the position and resulted in saving the lives of a number of his fellow soldiers. These acts of heroism go above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service, and reflect great credit on Sp4c. Fitzmaurice and the U.S. Army.
*CARTER, EDWARD A., Jr.
A career Army noncommissioned officer. Place and Date: March 23rd, 1945, near Speyer, Germany. Born: May 26, 1916 in Los Angeles, California. He was the son of missionary parents who went to the Far East and finally settled in Shanghai, China.
Citation: For extraordinary heroism in action on 23 March 1945, near Speyer, Germany. When the tank on which he was riding received heavy bazooka and small arms fire, Sergeant Carter voluntarily attempted to lead a three-man group across an open field. Within a short time, two of his men were killed and the third seriously wounded. Continuing on alone, he was wounded five times and finally forced to take cover. As eight enemy riflemen attempted to capture him, Sergeant Carter killed six of them and captured the remaining two. He then crossed the field using as a shield his two prisoners from which he obtained valuable information concerning the disposition of enemy troops. Staff Sergeant Carter’s extraordinary heroism was an inspiration to the officers and men of the Seventh Army Infantry Company Number 1 (Provisional) and exemplify the highest traditions of the Armed Forces.
SPURLING, ANDREW B.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 2d Maine Cavalry. Place and date: At Evergreen, Ala., March 23rd, 1865. Entered service at: Maine. Birth: Cranberry Isles, Maine. Date of issue: 10 September 1897. Citation: Advanced alone in the darkness beyond the picket line, came upon three of the enemy, fired upon them (his fire being returned), wounded two and captured the whole party.
In the 30’s and 40’s crime gangs were very much individual groups surrounding one major leader. When that leader was killed or died there were turf and lots of rival gang members were murdered. It was a very bad “business model.” Today we have what is left of the “Syndicate”. A crime model built on a business model very similar to an American Corporation with divisions and definable structure answering to a “board of directors.”
It also probably lengthened the life span of many criminals because it had a structure. The idea first came from two “innovative” mobsters, “Lucky” Luciano and Johnny Torrio. One of the first concepts that they had to get past was all the indiscriminate killing. There needed to be “order.” This “order was brought to the forefront as the brain child of both Torrio and Luciano and existed until the death of Albert Anastasia, the “Lord High Executioner” of the Syndicate in 1950s. This is the story of Murder, Inc. from its beginning.
At the height of its efficiency, Murder, Inc. was probably responsible for a thousand killings from coast to coast. Guns and knives were used, of course, but so were more imaginative methods like cremation, slow strangling, quicklime and live burial. Some killers liked the icepick — properly inserted into the ear, a skilled killer could scramble a bum’s brains and make it look like a cerebral hemorrhage. One gangster who had cheated his compatriots out of their take of a gambling operation was stabbed and then tied to a pinball machine and dumped into a lake. Until it was broken by a stool pigeon with first-hand knowledge of dozens of killings, Murder, Inc. operated quietly and ruthlessly, rubbing out gangsters who had run afoul of the cartel and lawmen who threatened its existence.
The story of of Murder, Inc. involves remorseless killers and tough, fearless lawmen; of unbelievable brutality committed in the name of greed and of devotion to the rule of law.
8 Finally, brethren, whatever things are true, whatever things are noble, whatever things are just, whatever things are pure, whatever things are lovely, whatever things are of good report, if there is any virtue and if there is anything praiseworthy—meditate on these things. 9 The things which you learned and received and heard and saw in me, these do, and the God of peace will be with you.
“The virtues of men are of more consequence to society than their abilities; and for this reason, the heart should be cultivated with more assiduity than the head.”
– Noah Webster, On the Education of Youth in America, 1788
“The way to happiness: keep your heart free from hate, your mind from worry. Live simply, expect little, give much. Fill your life with love. Scatter sunshine. Forget self, think of others. Do as you would be done by. Try this for a week and you will be surprised.”
~Norman Vincent Peale
relegate REL-uh-gayt, transitive verb:
1. To assign to an inferior position, place, or condition.
2. To assign to an appropriate category or class.
3. To assign or refer (a matter or task, for example) to another for appropriate action.
4. To send into exile; to banish
Relegate is from the past participle of Latin relegare, “to send away, to remove, to put aside, to reject,” from re- + legare, “to send with a commission or charge.”
238 – Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor.
1457 – Gutenberg Bible became the first printed book.
1621 – The Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony sign a peace treaty with Massasoit of the Wampanoags.
1622 – Jamestown massacre: Algonquian Indians kill 347 English settlers around Jamestown, Virginia, a third of the colony’s population.
1630 – Massachusetts Bay Colony outlaws the possession of cards, dice, and gaming tables.
1638 – Anne Hutchinson is expelled from Massachusetts Bay Colony for religious dissent. John Winthrop, who had replaced Vane as governor, put Hutchinson on trial for heresy. He charged her with violating the Bible’s commandment to “honor thy father and mother,” arguing that Hutchinson had undermined the fathers of the church with her preaching.
1733 – Joseph Priestly invented carbonated water (seltzer).
1765 – The Parliament of Great Britain passes the Stamp Act, which introduced a tax to be levied directly on its American colonies. The legislation levied a direct tax on all materials printed for commercial and legal use in the colonies, from newspapers and pamphlets to playing cards and dice.
1775 – British statesman Edmund Burke made a speech in the House of Commons, urging the government to adopt a policy of reconciliation with America.
1778 – Captain Cook sights Cape Flattery in Washington State.
1790 – Thomas Jefferson began serving as America’s first Secretary of State under the Constitution. This appointment had been made by President George Washington and approved by the U. S. Senate in September of 1789.
1794 – The U.S. Congress banned U.S. vessels from supplying slaves to other countries.
1820 – U.S. Navy officer Stephen Decatur, hero of the Barbary Wars, is mortally wounded in a duel with disgraced Navy Commodore James Barron at Bladensburg, Maryland.
1841 – Cornstarch patented (Orlando Jones).
1857 – First department store elevator for passengers installed. It was installed at E.V. Haughwout & Co. in New York City. Elisha Graves Otis was the inventor, who had sold his first safety elevator machine for freight only four years earlier.
1861 – First US nursing school chartered. The Woman’s Hospital of Philadelphia was established and began a training school for nurses two years later. It was the first known chartered school for nurses.
1865 – Civil War: Raid at Wilson’s: Chickasaw, AL, to Macon, GA.
1871 – In North Carolina, William Woods Holden becomes the first governor of a U.S. state to be removed from office by impeachment.
1872 – Illinois became the first state to require sexual equality in employment.
1874 – The Young Men’s Hebrew Association was organized in New York City.
1882 – Congress passed the Edmunds Act, which was actually a series of amendments to the Morrill Act. It restated that polygamy was a felony punishable by five years of imprisonment and a $500 fine.
1894 – Hockey’s first Stanley Cup championship game was played; the home team Montreal Amateur Athletic Association defeated the Ottawa Capitals, 3-1.
1895 – First display (a private screening) of motion pictures by Auguste and Louis Lumière.
1903 – New York Highlanders (Yankees) tickets first go on sale.
1903 – Niagara Falls ran out of water due to a drought.
1910 – In Liberia, a telegraph cable linked Tenerife and Monrovia. This is included because of the relationship of Liberians to US African Americans.
1915 – The term “Naval Aviator” replaces former “Navy Air Pilot” for officers qualified as aviators.
1917 – The first Coast Guard aviators graduated from Pensacola Naval Aviation Training School. Third Lieutenant Elmer Stone became Naval Aviator #38 (and later Coast Guard Aviator #1).
|1923 – The first radio broadcast of ice hockey is made by Foster Hewitt.
1929 – A US Coast Guard vessel sank a Canadian schooner suspected of carrying liquor.
1933 – President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signs into law a bill legalizing the sale of beer and wine up to 3.2% alcohol.
1934 – The first Masters golf championship began in Augusta, GA.
1934 – Philippine independence was granted by the US and was guaranteed to begin in 1945.
1935 – In New York, blood tests were authorized as evidence in court cases.
1941 – Washington’s Grand Coulee Dam begins to generate electricity.
1943 – World War II: the entire population of Khatyn in Belarus is burnt alive by German occupation forces.
1944 – German Admiral Doenitz orders all U-boats to disperse from groups and work singly. This decision represents the final victory of the Allied escort forces over the German U-boats.
1945 – The Arab League is founded when a charter is adopted in Cairo, Egypt.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “A Little on the Lonely Side” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Jimmy Brown), “Accentuate the Positive” by Johnny Mercer, “My Dreams are Getting Better All the Time” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day) and “There’s a New Moon Over My Shoulder” – Jimmie Davis all topped the charts.
1946 – First US rocket to leave the Earth’s atmosphere (50 miles up).
1947 – President Harry Truman orders loyalty checks of federal employees. This in response to the “Commie scare’.
1948 – “The Voice of Firestone” airs for the first time. It was the first commercial radio program to be carried simultaneously on both AM and FM radio stations.
1951 – Korean War: Eighth Army reached the 38th parallel, as it had in fall 1950, after the Inchon invasion.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1952 – Six new Marine battalions and Marine air groups were activated on the West Coast, giving the Corps the full authorized limit of three divisions and three wings.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Till I Waltz Again with You – Teresa Brewer , “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” by Perry Como, “Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page and “Kaw-Liga” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: Chinese forces, supported by artillery and mortar fire, assaulted Hill Hedy and Bunker Hill. Hand-to-hand combat ensued before the enemy was finally forced to disengage.
1954 – First shopping mall opened in Southfield MI . John Graham Jr. designed this modern shopping center with two rows of stores on either side of an open-air pedestrian mall and anchored by department stores at each end.
1955 – Linda Stout became the first person at Mayo Clinic, and the second person in the world, to have open-heart surgery with the aid of a heart-lung bypass machine.
1956 – Perry Como became the first TV variety-show host to book a rock and roll act.
1956 – Sammy Davis, Jr. starred in the play, “Mr. Wonderful”, in New York City. The critics were unkind, saying that they didn’t care for the production. Audiences, however, gave it ‘thumbs up’ and the show went on to be one of Broadway’s more popular musicals.
1957 – An earthquake, centered in Daly City, Ca., hit the San Francisco Bay Area and caused extensive damage to Mary’s Help Hospital.
1958 – South Carolina police pulled over Alabama boat and car racer J. Wilson Morris for exceeding the speed limit, as Morris attempted to race across the state in record time.
1958 – “Tequila” by the Champs topped the charts.
1960 – Arthur Leonard Schawlow & Charles Hard Townes receive the first patent for a laser.
1962 – The play, “I Can Get It For You Wholesale”, opened on Broadway.
1968 – Vietnam War: President Lyndon B. Johnson announces the appointment of Gen. William Westmoreland as Army Chief of Staff; Gen. Creighton Abrams replaced him as commander of U.S. forces in Vietnam.
1969 – UCLA defeated Purdue 92-72 to win the NCAA basketball championship. The Bruins were the first team to win three consecutive championships.
1972 – Equal Rights Amendment is passed by the U.S. Senate and sent to the states for ratification. It was not ratified by the states. It fell three states short of the 2/3 majority it required.
1972 – The Supreme Court’s Eisenstadt vs. Baird decision struck down a law that banned the distribution of birth control devices to unmarried people.
1975 – A fire at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant in Decatur, Alabama causes dangerous lowering of cooling water levels. It caused $10 million in damage and knocked the reactor out of service for over a year.
1975 – “My Eyes Adored You” by Frankie Valli topped the charts.
1977 – Comedienne Lily Tomlin made her debut on Broadway in “Lily Tomlin on Stage” in New York.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Theme from “A Star is Born” (Evergreen)” by Barbra Streisand, “Fly like an Eagle” by Steve Miller, “Rich Girl” by Daryl Hall & John Oates and “Southern Nights” by Glen Campbell all topped the charts.
1977 – President Carter proposed the abolition of the Electoral College.
1978 – Karl Wallenda of the The Flying Wallendas dies after falling off a tight-rope between two hotels in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
1980 – Pink Floyd’s single “Another Brick in the Wall,” tops the charts.
1981 – First class postage raised to 18¢ from 15¢.
1981 – RCA first put on sale the SelectaVision VideoDisc, exactly 10 years after RCA applied for the first patents.
1982 – Third Space Shuttle mission – Columbia 3 launched.
1982 – The US submarine Jacksonville collided with a Turkish freighter near Virginia.
1984 – Teachers at the McMartin preschool in Manhattan Beach, California are charged with Satanic ritual abuse of the children in the school. The charges are later dropped as completely unfounded.
1986 – “These Dreams” by Heart topped the charts.
1987 – A 3,100-ton pile of rotting garbage left Islip, New York looking for a landfill. It came back after being refused by several states and three countries.
|1989 – Clint Malarchuk of the Buffalo Sabres suffers a near-fatal injury when another player accidentally slits his throat with a hockey stick.
1989 – Ann Harrison (15) was abducted as she waited for a school bus in front of her home in Raytown, Missouri. African-Americans Roderick Nunley and Michael Taylor forced her into a stolen car, raped and stabbed her to death.
1989 – NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle announces retirement as NFL commissioner after 29 years.
1990 – A jury in Anchorage, Alaska, found former tanker captain Joseph Hazelwood innocent of three major charges in connection with the Exxon Valdez oil spill, but convicted him of a minor charge of negligent discharge of oil.
1990 – Microsoft Windows 3.0 was released.
1990 – The Major League umpires announce that they will boycott exhibition games.
1991 – Pamela Smart, a high school teacher, was found guilty in New Hampshire of manipulating her student-lover to kill her husband.
1992 – USAir Flight 405 crashes shortly after liftoff from New York City’s LaGuardia Airport, leading to a number of studies into the effect that ice has on aircraft.
1993 – The Intel Corporation ships the first Pentium chips (80586), featuring a 60 MHz clock speed, 100+ MIPS, and a 64 bit data path.
1993 – Cleveland Indians pitchers Steve Olin and Tim Crews were killed in a boating accident in Florida. Bob Ojeda was seriously injured in the accident.
1995 – Shouting erupted in the U.S. House of Representatives as Democrats bitterly accused majority Republicans of trying to ram through a mean-spirited welfare overhaul bill.
1996 – Shannon Lucid, astronaut, went into space on the shuttle Atlantis. She transferred to the Russian Mir space station and broke the US space endurance record of 115 days on 7/15/96.
1997 – Tara Lipinski, age 14 years and 10 months, becomes the youngest champion of the women’s world figure skating competition.
1997 – The Comet Hale-Bopp has its closest approach to earth.
1997 – “Can’t Nobody Hold Me Down” by Puff Daddy topped the charts.
1999 – The Volantor, a flying car, was described. It was designed by Paul Moller of Davis, Ca., and estimated to have range of 900 miles.
2000 – The US Senate voted to abolish the Social Security income penalty for people aged 65-69. Pres. Clinton promised to sign the bill. The penalty had reduced benefits by $1 for every $3 eared above $17,000.
2001 – SCHOOL SHOOTING – In California Jason Hoffman (18) opened fire at Granite Hills High School in El Cajon, San Diego County. 10 people were injured. Hoffman reached a plea agreement and faced at least 27 years in prison. Hoffman hanged himself and was found dead in his cell Oct 29.
2002 – The U.S. Postal Rate Commission approved a request for a postal rate increase of first-class stamps from 34 cents to 37 cents by June 30.
2003 – Iraq War: Three Iraqi sailors were captured in the northern Persian Gulf, the first prisoners of war (POWs) taken by Coast Guard forces deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
2003 – Estimates of between 125,000 and 250,000 people march for peace in New York City. The march was organized by the group United for Peace and Justice.
2004 – Testimony begins in the state murder trial of convicted Oklahoma City bombing accomplice, Terry Nichols, in McAlester, Oklahoma.
2004 – Ahmed Yassin, co-founder and leader of the Palestinian Sunni Islamist militant group Hamas, and bodyguards are killed in the Gaza Strip when hit by Israeli Air Force AH-64 Apache fired Hellfire missiles.
2005 – In Afghanistan US warplanes killed five suspected Taliban or al-Qaida militants near the Pakistani border after guerrillas launched an overnight rocket and gun attack on American and Afghan military positions.
2005 – Iraqi and U.S. forces killed 80 militants in a battle west of Tikrit.
2005 – A federal judge in Florida refused to order the reinsertion of Terri Schiavo’s feeding tube, denying an emergency request from the brain-damaged woman’s parents.
2005 – Anna Ayala of Las Vegas claimed that she bit into a piece of human finger while eating chili at a Wendy’s restaurant in San Jose, Ca. Ayala was arrested on Apr 21 on suspicion of attempted grand theft.
2006 – Three Christian Peacemaker Teams hostages are freed by British forces in Baghdad after 118 days captivity and the death of their colleague, American Tom Fox.
2007 – A senior U.S. District Judge, Lowell Reed Jr., strikes down the Child Online Protection Act, which made it an offense for commercial website operators to allow minors to access “harmful” material.
2007 – In science it was discovered that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is identified as the part of the human brain that combines logic and emotion in order to make moral decisions.
2009 – A Pilatus PC-12 crashes near Butte, Montana, killing at least seventeen people. The PC-12 is a single-engine turboprop passenger and cargo aircraft manufactured by Pilatus Aircraft of Switzerland.
2009 – Four police officers are killed in Oakland, CA. The officers were killed by a convicted felon wanted on a no-bail warrant for a parole violation. The convicted felon, Lovelle Mixon, initially shot and killed two Oakland police officers during a traffic stop, then killed two more when SWAT team officers attempted to apprehend him two hours later.
2009 – Alaska’s Mount Redoubt volcano erupts. Mount Redoubt has erupted four other times since 1900: in 1902, 1922, 1966, 1989. In the 1989 eruption it caught KLM Flight 867, a Boeing 747 aircraft, in its plume (the flight landed safely at Anchorage).
2010 – The United States House of Representatives passes the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.
2011 – During Libyan Civil War, two US airmen safely eject prior to their F-15E crashing near Benghazi, Libya, due to mechanical failure.
2011 – Dennis Daugaard, the Governor of South Dakota, signs an abortion bill requiring women to undertake counselling and wait for 72 hours, the longest period in the US.
2012 – The Los Angeles County Coroner’s Office says that Whitney Houston’s official cause of death (02/11/2012) was drowning as a result of cocaine use.
2013 – Actor and director Jake McClain has taken on the monumental task of tweeting every single word of the 906-page “Obamacare” health reform law in hopes of drawing attention to the bill’s content, which he argues is detrimental to the nation’s fiscal health.
2013 – At the Starbucks annual shareholders meeting today, CEO Howard Schultz sent a clear message to anyone who supports traditional marriage over gay marriage: we don’t want your business.
2014 – Idaho Governor Butch Otter signed into law S1332, a bill which will effectively nullify federal gun laws. The nullification legislation will prohibit state enforcement of any future federal act that relates to firearms, accessories or ammunition.
2014 – Officials reported 25 people have died, 90 are missing and 35 more “probably missing”, in Saturday’s deadly landslide near Oso, Washington as some 200 rescuers continued to sort through the massive debris field. The disaster scene, a 25-mile drive east of Arlington, WA, has been compared to the eruption of Mount St. Helens.
1599 – Anthony van Dyck, Flemish painter (d. 1641)
1723 – Charles Carroll, American statesman (d. 1783)
1812 – Stephen Pearl Andrews, American abolitionist (d. 1886)
1817 – Braxton Bragg, American Confederate general (d. 1876)
1868 – Robert Millikan, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1953)
1887 – Chico Marx, American comedian and actor (d. 1961)
1907 – James Gavin, American general and ambassador (d. 1990)
1908 – Louis L’Amour, American author (d. 1988)
1912 – Karl Malden, American actor
1917 – Virginia Grey, American actress (d. 2004)
1923 – Marcel Marceau, world renown French Mime (d. 2007)
1930 – Pat Robertson, American televangelist
1931 – William Shatner, Canadian actor
1934 – Orrin Hatch, American politician
1935 – M. Emmet Walsh, American actor
1946 – Rudy Rucker, American author
1948 – Wolf Blitzer, American television journalist
1952 – Bob Costas, American sports commentator
1955 – Pete Sessions, American politician
1957 – Stephanie Mills, American actress and singer
1971 – Will Yun Lee, American actor
1976 – Reese Witherspoon, American actress
McNERNEY, DAVID H.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 1st Battalion, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division. Place and date: Polei Doc, Republic of Vietnam, March 22nd, 1967. Entered service at: Fort Bliss, Tex. Born: 2 June 1931, Lowell, Mass. Citation: 1st Sgt. McNerney distinguished himself when his unit was attacked by a North Vietnamese battalion near Polei Doc. Running through the hail of enemy fire to the area of heaviest contact, he was assisting in the development of a defensive perimeter when he encountered several enemy at close range. He killed the enemy but was painfully injured when blown from his feet by a grenade. In spite of this injury, he assaulted and destroyed an enemy machinegun position that had pinned down five of his comrades beyond the defensive line. Upon learning his commander and artillery forward observer had been killed, he assumed command of the company. He adjusted artillery fire to within twenty meters of the position in a daring measure to repulse enemy assaults. When the smoke grenades used to mark the position were gone, he moved into a nearby clearing to designate the location to friendly aircraft. In spite of enemy fire he remained exposed until he was certain the position was spotted and then climbed into a tree and tied the identification panel to its highest branches. Then he moved among his men readjusting their position, encouraging the defenders and checking the wounded. As the hostile assaults slackened, he began clearing a helicopter landing site to evacuate the wounded. When explosives were needed to remove large trees, he crawled outside the relative safety of his perimeter to collect demolition material from abandoned rucksacks. Moving through a fusillade of fire he returned with the explosives that were vital to the clearing of the landing zone. Disregarding the pain of his injury and refusing medical evacuation 1st Sgt. McNerney remained with his unit until the next day when the new commander arrived. First Sgt. McNerney’s outstanding heroism and leadership were inspirational to his comrades. His actions were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
The Great Dayton Flood of 1913
The Great Dayton Flood of 1913 flooded Dayton, Ohio, and the surrounding area with water from the Great Miami River. It caused the greatest natural disaster in Ohio history. The flood was created by a series of three winter storms that hit the region in March 1913. Within three days, 8-11 inches of rain fell throughout the Great Miami River watershed on frozen ground, resulting in more than 90% runoff that caused the river and its tributaries to overflow. The existing series of levees failed, and downtown Dayton experienced flooding up to 20 feet deep. The entire Miami Valley faced its greatest challenge. The rain produced 3,000 square miles of flooding, twenty-nine feet deep in many places. Swift currents carried homes, livestock, automobiles, and in some cases, people, to untimely deaths. Despite countless acts of bravery and heroism, more than 300 lost their lives.
The following events took place between March 21 and 26 in 1913:
Friday, March 21, 1913
The first storm arrives with strong winds with temperatures at 60 degrees.
The area experiences a sunny day until the second storm arrives, dropping temperatures to the 20s causing the ground to freeze.
Sunday, March 23, 1913 (Easter Sunday)
The third storm brings rain to the entire Ohio River valley area. The saturated and frozen land can’t absorb any more water, and nearly all of the rain becomes runoff that flows into the Great Miami River and its tributaries.
March 24, 1913
7:00 am – After a day and night of heavy rains with precipitation between 8-11 inches, the river reaches its high stage for the year at 11.6 feet and continues to rise.
March 25, 1913
Midnight – The Dayton Police are warned that the Herman Street levee was weakening and they start the warning sirens and alarms.
5:30 am – The City Engineer, Gaylord Cummin, reports that water is at the top of the levees and is flowing at 100,000 cubic feet per second, an unprecedented rate.
6:00 am – Water overflowing the levees begins to appear in the city streets.
8:00 am – The levees on the south side of the downtown business district fail and flooding begins downtown.
Water levels continue to rise throughout the day.
March 26, 1913
1:30 am – The waters crest, reaching up to 20 feet (6.1 m) deep in the downtown area.
Later that morning, a gas explosion downtown near the intersection of 5th Street and Wilkinson starts a fire that destroys most of a city block. The open gas lines were responsible for several fires throughout the city. The fire department was unable to reach the fires and many additional buildings were lost.
Psalm 46: 1-3
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Therefore we will not fear, though the earth give way and the mountains fall into the heart of the sea, though its waters roar and foam and the mountains quake with their surging. “Selah”
“To avoid domestic tyranny, the people must be armed to stand upon [their] own Defense; which if [they] are enabled to do, [they] shall never be put upon it, but [their] Swords may grow rusty in [their] hands; for that Nation is surest to live in Peace, that is most capable of making War; and a Man that hath a Sword by his side, shall have least occasion to make use of it.”
~ John Trenchard (1662–1723)
“Opportunities are usually disguised as hard work, so most people don’t recognize them.”
~ Ann Landers
factitious fak-TISH-uhs, adjective:
1. Produced artificially, in distinction from what is produced by nature.
2. Artificial; not authentic or genuine; sham.
Factitious comes from Latin facticius, “made by art, artificial,” from the past participle of facere, “to make.”
630 – Byzantine emperor Heraclius restores the True Cross to Jerusalem.
1349 – Three thousand Jews were killed in Black Death riots in Efurt, Germany.
1617 – Pocahontas (Rebecca Rolfe age 21)) died of either small pox or pneumonia while in England with her husband, John Rolfe. She was buried at St. George’s Church on this day.
1788 – Almost the entire city of New Orleans, LA, was destroyed by fire. Eight hundred fifty-six buildings were destroyed. It spanned the south central French Quarter from Burgundy to Chartres Street, almost to the riverfront buildings.
1790 – Thomas Jefferson reports to President Washington in New York as Secretary of State.
1791 – Hopley Yeaton of New Hampshire was commissioned as “Master of a Cutter in the Service of the United States for the Protection of the Revenue.” This first commission of a seagoing officer of the United States was signed by George Washington and attested to by Thomas Jefferson.
1806 – Lewis and Clark began their trip home after an 8,000 mile trek of the Mississippi basin and the Pacific Coast.
1826 – The Rensselaer School in Troy, NY, was incorporated. The school became known as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and was the first engineering college in the U.S.
1844 – The original date predicted by William Miller for the return of Christ.
1851 – Yosemite Valley was discovered in California. Fifty-eight men of the Mariposa Battalion under Major James D. Savage were the first whites to enter Yosemite Valley.
1859 – Zoological Society of Philadelphia, first in US, incorporated.
1864 – Civil War: The first (and possibly last) printing of a Civil War newspaper called the Red River Rover. According to the “Saluatory” it was printed on the paper of the Louisiana Democrat.
1864 – Civil War: Battle at Henderson’s Hill (Bayou Rapids), Louisiana.
1865 – Civil War: Union gunboats supported the landing of troops of General Canby’s command at Dannelly’s Mills on the Fish River, Alabama.
1866 – The US Congress authorized national soldiers’ homes.
1868 – The first club for professional women was formed in New York City by writer, Jennie June Croly. The organization was called the Federation of Women’s Clubs (GFWC).
1871 – Journalist Henry Morton Stanley begins his trek to find the missionary and explorer David Livingstone.
1891 – The Hatfield – McCoy feud ends. It apparently all started over a pig. In the fall of 1878, Randolph McCoy sued Floyd Hatfield for stealing his hog.
1902 – In New York, Murray Hill (Park Avenue) mansions were destroyed when a subway tunnel roof caved in. The tunnel roof had cracked.
1904 – At Carnegie Hall, Richard Strauss conducted the world premiere of his Symphonia Domestica. It was his fifth of seven appearances at Carnegie Hall.
1905 – Sterilization legislation was passed in the State of Pennsylvania. The governor vetoed the measure.
1906 – Ohio passed a law that prohibited hazing by fraternities after two fatalities.
1910 – The U.S. Senate granted former President Teddy Roosevelt a yearly pension of $10,000.
1913 – Over 360 are killed and 20,000 homes destroyed in the Great Dayton Flood in Dayton, Ohio.
1917 – Loretta Walsh becomes first woman Navy petty officer when sworn in as Chief Yeoman.
1918 – World War I: Second Battle of the Somme begins.
1919 – Navy installs and tests Sperry gyrocompass, in first instance of test of aircraft gyrocompass.
1924 – First foreign language course broadcast on US radio (WJZ, New York NY).
1924 – Massachusetts Investors Trust becomes first mutual fund set up in US.
1928 – President Calvin Coolidge gave the Congressional Medal of Honor to Charles Lindbergh for his first trans-Atlantic flight.
1933 – Construction of Dachau, the first Nazi Germany concentration camp, is completed.
1935 – Shah Reza Pahlavi formally asks the international community to call Persia by its native name, Iran, which means ‘Land of the Aryans’.
1935 – Incubator ambulance service began in Chicago, IL.
1939 – “God Bless America” was recorded by Kate Smith. This song was written by Irving Berlin in 1918 as a tribute by a successful immigrant to his adopted country. Ms. Smith introduced the song on her Thursday, November 10, 1938 radio show.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust: Massacre of the town of Kalavryta, Greece by German Nazi troops.
1944 – CHARTS TOPPERS – “Mairzy Doats” by The Merry Macs, “Besame Mucho” by The Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Bob Eberly & Kitty Kallen), “Poinciana” by Bing Crosby and “They Took the Stars Out of Heaven” by Floyd Tillman all topped the charts.
1944 – Charles Chaplin went on trial in Los Angeles, accused of transporting former protegee Joan Barry across state lines for immoral purposes. Chaplin was acquitted.
1945 – World War II: British troops liberate Mandalay, Burma.
1945 – World War II: Allied bombers began four days of raids over Germany.
1945 – World War II: The Japanese 5th Air Force deploys the first Ohka piloted rocket bombs, slung under Misubishi bombers, against the American fleet. The flight of 18 aircraft is intercepted by carrier aircraft and all but one are shot down.
1945 – Bureau of Aeronautics initiates rocket-powered surface-to-air guided missile development by awarding contract to Fairchild.
1945 – General A. A. Vandergrift, 18th Commandant of the Marine Corps, became the first Marine four-star general on active duty.
1946 – The Los Angeles Rams signed Kenny Washington. Washington was the first Black American player to join a National Football League team since 1933.
1947 – Pres. Truman signed Executive Order 9835 requiring all federal employees to swear allegiance to the United States.
1947 – James Baskett (1904-1948) was given a Special Academy Award for his part in Disney’s “Song Of The South”. He was the second American of African descent to receive an Academy Award. Baskett was also the first American of African descent hired by Disney. Unfortunately Baskett was unable to attend the premiere in Atlanta because he was unable to get accommodations.
1948 – “Stop the Music” with Bert Parks premieres on ABC radio.
1951 – Korean War: The 1st Cavalry Division recaptured Chunchon. The Chinese 3rd Field Army appeared in Korean combat for the first time.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cry” by Johnnie Ray, “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr, “Anytime” by Eddie Fisher and “(When You Feel like You’re in Love) Don’t Just Stand There” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1952 – Approximately thirty-one storms crossed six states killing 340 in the south central United States.
1952 – Alan Freed presents the Moondog Coronation Ball, the first rock and roll concert, in Cleveland, Ohio. (39 Videos)
1953 – “The Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1953 – Air Force Captains Manuel J. Fernandez, Jr., 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, and Harold Fischer, 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, qualified as the fourth and fifth “double aces” of the war. An “ace” has shot down five enemy aircraft; a double ace, 10.
1953 – The Boston Celtics beat Syracuse Nationals (111-105) in four overtimes to eliminate them from the Eastern Division Semifinals. A total of seven players (both teams combined) fouled out of the game.
1953 – NBA record 106 fouls & 12 players foul out (Boston-Syracuse).
1955 – NBC-TV presented the first “Colgate Comedy Hour” with Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis.
1955 – Brooklyn Bulletin asks Dodger fans not to call their team “Bums.”
1957 – Shirley Booth made her TV acting debut in “The Hostess with the Mostest” on “Playhouse 90” on CBS.
1959 – “Venus” by Frankie Avalon topped the charts.
1960 – The first lunch counters were integrated in San Antonio, Texas.
1961 – Art Modell purchases Cleveland Browns for the then record $3,925,000.
1962 – A bear becomes the first creature to be ejected at supersonic speeds. She landed safely, and became the first living creature to survive a parachute jump from a plane flying faster than sound.
1962 – Philadelphia retires pitcher Robin Roberts’ #36.
1963 – The Alcatraz federal prison island in San Francisco Bay was emptied of its last inmates at the order of Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy.
1964 – Beatles’ “She Loves You” single goes #1 & stays #1 for 2 weeks.
1965 – Ranger program: NASA launches Ranger 9 which is the last in a series of unmanned lunar space probes.
1965 – Martin Luther King Jr leads 3,200 people on the start of the third and finally successful civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama.
1966 – Supreme Court reversed Massachusetts ruling that “Fanny Hill” is obscene.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “(Sittin’ On) The Dock of the Bay” by Otis Redding, “Love is Blue” by Paul Mauriat, “Simon Says” by 1910 Fruitgum Co. and “A World of Our Own” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1968 – “Royals” chosen as the name of new Kansas City American League Baseball franchise.
1970 – Vinko Bogataj crashes during a ski-jumping championship in Germany; his image becomes that of the “agony of defeat guy” in the opening credits of ABC’s Wide World of Sports.
1970 – The Beatles established a new record. “Let It Be” entered the “Billboard” chart at number six. This was the highest debuting position ever for a record.
1970 – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel topped the charts.
1970 – “ABC” by the Jackson Five was released.
1971 – Daniel Ellsberg obtained a copy of the Pentagon Papers, commissioned by then-Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, from his former pentagon colleagues and showed it to Neil Sheehan, a young New York Times reporter, at Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1972 – Vietnam War: In Cambodia, more than 100 civilians are killed and 280 wounded as communist artillery and rockets strike Phnom Penh and outlying areas in the heaviest attack since the beginning of the war in 1970.
1972 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Dunn v. Blumstein that states could not require one year of residency for voting eligibility.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “December 1963 (Oh, What a Night)” by The Four Seasons, “Dream Weaver” by Gary Wright, “Lonely Night (Angel Face)” by Captain & Tennille and “Faster Horses (The Cowboy and the Poet)” by Tom T. Hall all topped the charts.
1980 – US President Jimmy Carter announces a United States boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow to protest the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan.
1980 – On the season finale of the soap opera Dallas, the infamous character J.R. Ewing is shot by an unseen assailant, leading to the catchphrase “Who Shot JR?”
1981 – “Keep On Loving You” by REO Speedwagon topped the charts.
1982 – Donny Osmond starred in the title role on Broadway of “Little Johnny Jones.”
1983 – Only known typo on Time Magazine cover (control=contol), all recalled.
1984 – NFL owners passed the infamous anti-celebrating rule. This is usually referred to as the “Mark Gastineau Rule” because a major reason why this change was made was to stop him from performing his signature “Sack Dance” every time after he sacked an opposing quarterback.
1984 – A Soviet submarine crashed into the USS Kitty Hawk off the coast of Japan.
1987 – “Lean on Me” by Club Nouveau topped the charts.
1987 – Dean Paul Martin (Dino, b.1951), the son of singer Dean Martin, died when his National Guard F-4 Phantom fighter jet crashed in a mountainous area of California, killing him and his RIO (Radar Intercept Officer), Ramon Ortiz.
1989 – Sports Illustrated reports allegations tying baseball player Pete Rose to baseball gambling.
1989 – Dick Clark announced that he would no longer be hosting the show “American Bandstand.” He had been the host for 33 years.
1990 – “Sydney” starring Valerie Bertinelli premiered on CBS-TV.
1991 – Twenty-seven people were lost at sea when two U.S. Navy anti-submarine planes collided.
1992 – “Save the Best for Last” by Vanessa Williams topped the charts.
1992 – During a debate in Buffalo, N.Y., Democratic presidential front-runner Bill Clinton sought to turn the tables on rival Jerry Brown by accusing the former California governor of hypocrisy on the issue of campaign contributions.
1994 – Steven Spielberg won his first Oscars. They were for best picture and best director for “Schindler’s List.” (You Tube has removed all full movies)
1994 – Bill Gates of Microsoft and Craig McCaw of McCaw Cellular Communications announced a $9 billion plan that would send 840 satellites into orbit to relay information around the globe.
1995 – New Jersey officially dedicated the Howard Stern Rest Area along Route 295.
1996 – General Motors and the United Auto Workers reached a settlement in a 17-day brake-factory strike that idled more than 177,000 employees and brought the world’s top automaker to a near standstill.
1997 – In Chicago three white teenagers attacked and severely injured a 13-year-old African-American boy. Lenard Clark (13) was left brain-damaged.
1999 – Bertrand Piccard and Brian Jones become the first to circumnavigate the Earth in a hot air balloon.
1999 – In Alaska an avalanche killed at least four snowmobilers at the Turnagain Pass in Chugach National Forest.
2000 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration had overstepped its regulatory authority when it attempted to restrict the marketing of cigarettes to youngsters.
2000 – A US Federal Judge ruled that Elian Gonzalez should be returned to his father in Cuba.
2001 – Space Shuttle Discovery glided to a predawn touchdown, bringing home the first residents of the International Space Station.
2001 – The Supreme Court ruled that hospitals cannot test pregnant women for drug use without their consent.
2001 – The US State Dept. ordered the expulsion of five suspected Russian spies and informed Moscow that as many as fifty intelligence officers using diplomatic cover would have to leave over the next few months.
2002 – In Pakistan, Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh along with three other suspects are charged with murder for their part in the kidnapping and killing of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.
2002 – Marjorie Knoller, whose two huge dogs mauled neighbor Diane Whipple to death in their San Francisco apartment building, was convicted in Los Angeles of murder and involuntary manslaughter; her husband, Robert Noel, was found guilty of involuntary manslaughter.
2003 – A young man from LA visiting Las Vegas won a world record $39 million on a slot machine.
2003 – The Bush administration seizes $US 1.7 billion in Iraqi assets already frozen in the US, saying it will use the money for humanitarian purposes in Iraq.
2003 – An Illinois court ordered the tobacco company Philip Morris to pay $10.1 billion for misleading consumers with the word “light.” The company appeals.
2003 – The House approved a $2.2 trillion budget embracing President Bush’s tax-cutting plan.
2004 – Jimmy Carter, former US president and 2002 Nobel Peace Prize winner, vehemently condemns George W. Bush and Tony Blair for waging an unnecessary war “based upon lies and misinterpretations” in order to oust Saddam Hussein.
2005 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In northern Minnesota Jeff Weise (16) gunned down five students, a teacher and an unarmed security officer at Red Lake High School. The high school was on the Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota, where about 5,000 Native Americans live. The teen’s grandfather and his grandfather’s wife also were found dead, and the boy killed himself.
2005 – Pres. Bush signed an emergency bill called the “Palm Sunday Compromise” to permit the reinsertion of a feeding tube to keep Terri Schiavo alive in Florida.
2006 – Jack Dorsey tweeted the first ever tweet on Twitter. This is considered Twitter’s birthday. The service started out as an off-hand project from the creators of podcasting company Odeo.
2006 – Pres. Bush said that the war in Iraq might outlast his presidency. Bush predicted American forces would remain in Iraq for years and that it would be up to a future president to decide when to bring them all home.
2006 – President Bush welcomed Liberia’s Pres. Ellen Johnson Sirleaf to the White House, calling Africa’s first democratically elected female head of state “a pioneer.”
2007 – In Texas investigators said Timothy Wayne Shepherd (27) confessed to strangling Tynesha Stewart (19) because he was angry she had begun a new relationship. Shepherd had dismembered and burned her body on a patio grill.
2007 – Sonia Falcone, former Miss Bolivia (1988), was ordered to leave the United States after pleading guilty to employing four illegal immigrants as household servants at her $10.5 million mansion in Paradise Valley, AZ.
2008 – Two companies that provide workers for the State Department said they fired or otherwise punished those who improperly accessed the passport records of the three major presidential candidates. The security breaches touched off demands for a congressional investigation.
2008 – Daniel Wortham (39), a plumber in Washington state, was killed by his daughter (16) and her boyfriend, Edmund Washington (17), after returning home from work.
2009 – Five thousand people are temporarily evacuated from Wind Gap, Pennsylvania, after a tank truck carrying hydrofluoric acid overturns.
2009 – In Oakland, Ca., Lovelle Mixon (26), a parolee with an “extensive criminal history,” opened fire at a routine traffic stop killing Sgt. Mark Dunakin (40) and Officer John Hege (41). He later killed Sgt. Ervin Romans (43) and Sgt. Daniel Sakai (35), two members of a SWAT team searching for him.
2010 – President Barack Obama announced that he will reaffirm a ban on using federal funds to pay for abortions, which convinced some holdout Democrats to support the healthcare overhaul but riled Republicans who said the decision could be easily reversed.
2011 – The U.S. Supreme Court declines to take an appeal from an appellate court ruling that ordered the disclosure of information about the Federal Reserve’s emergency lending to banks during the 2008 financial crisis. The Supreme Court’s refusal means the ruling of the court below stands.
2011 – The perjury trial of baseball star Barry Bonds begins in federal court in San Francisco.
2011 – Surgeons at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, perform the first full face transplant in the United States.
2012 – The National Football League on Wednesday suspended New Orleans Saints Coach Sean Payton for a year without pay for his role in the team’s bounty program, which promised money to players if they knocked opponents out of games.
2012 – Denver Broncos trade quarterback Tim Tebow to the New York Jets for a fourth-round draft pick.
2013 – President Barack Obama, in a formal visit to Israel and the Palestinian territories, states that “Palestinians deserve a state of their own”.
1685 – Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer (d. 1750)
1713 – Francis Lewis, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1803) 1863 – George Owen Squier, American inventor and Major General in U.S. Signal Corp(d.1934)
1869 – Florenz Ziegfeld, theater producer (d. 1932)
1880 – Gilbert M. ‘Broncho Billy’ Anderson, American actor (d. 1971)
1904 – Forrest Mars Sr., American candymaker (d. 1999)
1922 – Russ Meyer, American film director and producer (d. 2004)
1932 – Walter Gilbert, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
1945 – Rose Stone, American musician (Sly & the Family Stone)
1961 – Shawn Lane, American guitar virtuoso (d. 2003)
1962 – Matthew Broderick, American actor
1962 – Rosie O’Donnell, American comedian, actress, talk show host, and publisher
1974 – Laura Allen, American actress
1978 – Kevin Federline, American dancer/hip hop artist
*HOSKING, CHARLES ERNEST, JR.
Rank and organization: Master Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces. Place and date: Phuoc Long Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 21st, 1967. Entered service at: Fort Dix, N.J. Born: 12 May 1924, Ramsey, N.J. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. M/Sgt. Hosking (then Sfc.), Detachment A-302, Company A, greatly distinguished himself while serving as company advisor in the III Corps Civilian Irregular Defense Group Reaction Battalion during combat operations in Don Luan District. A Viet Cong suspect was apprehended and subsequently identified as a Viet Cong sniper. While M/Sgt. Hosking was preparing the enemy for movement back to the base camp, the prisoner suddenly grabbed a hand grenade from M/Sgt. Hosking’s belt, armed the grenade, and started running towards the company command group which consisted of two Americans and two Vietnamese who were standing a few feet away. Instantly realizing that the enemy intended to kill the other men, M/Sgt. Hosking immediately leaped upon the Viet Cong’s back. With utter disregard for his personal safety, he grasped the Viet Cong in a “Bear Hug” forcing the grenade against the enemy soldier’s chest. He then wrestled the Viet Cong to the ground and covered the enemy’s body with his body until the grenade detonated. The blast instantly killed both M/Sgt. Hosking and the Viet Cong. By absorbing the full force of the exploding grenade with his body and that of the enemy, he saved the other members of his command group from death or serious injury. M/Sgt. Hosking’s risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in the highest tradition of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
*JOHNSTON, DONALD R.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company D, 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Tay Ninh Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 21st, 1969. Entered service at: Columbus, Ga. Born: 19 November 1947, Columbus, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Johnston distinguished himself while serving as a mortarman with Company D, at a fire support base in Tay Ninh Province. Sp4c. Johnston’s company was in defensive positions when it came under a devastating rocket and mortar attack. Under cover of the bombardment, enemy sappers broke through the defensive perimeter and began hurling explosive charges into the main defensive bunkers. Sp4c. Johnston and six of his comrades had moved from their exposed positions to one of the bunkers to continue their fight against the enemy attackers. As they were firing from the bunker, an enemy soldier threw three explosive charges into their position. Sensing the danger to his comrades, Sp4c. Johnston, with complete disregard for his safety, hurled himself onto the explosive charges, smothering the detonations with his body and shielding his fellow soldiers from the blast. His heroic action saved the lives of 6 of his comrades. Sp4c. Johnston’s concern for his fellow men at the cost of his life were in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
If the sun were just a tiny point of light and Earth had no atmosphere, then day and night would each be exactly 12 hours long on a spring equinox day, but to begin with, as seen from Earth, the sun is nearly as large as a little fingertip held at arm’s length, or half a degree wide. Sunrise is defined as the moment the top edge of the sun appears to peek over the horizon. Sunset is when the very last bit of the sun appears to dip below the horizon.
The vernal equinox, however, occurs when the center of the sun crosses the Equator. Plus, Earth’s atmosphere bends the sunlight when it’s close to the horizon, so the golden orb appears a little higher in the sky than it really is. As a result, the sun appears to be above the horizon a few minutes earlier than it really is.The length of day and night may not be equal on the vernal equinox, but that doesn’t make the first day of spring any less special.
This photo is a picture of Venus over a one-year period. Where the lines cross is the equinoxes. Note that it forms the mark of “infinity.”
Some more facts:
The fall and spring equinoxes, for starters, are the only two times during the year when the sun rises due east and sets due west.
The equinoxes are also the only days of the year when a person standing on the Equator can see the sun passing directly overhead.
On the Northern Hemisphere’s vernal equinox day, a person at the North Pole would see the sun skimming across the horizon, beginning six months of uninterrupted daylight and a person at the South Pole would also see the sun skim the horizon, but it would signal the start of six months of darkness.
“The Constitution shall never be construed….to prevent the people of the United States who are peaceable citizens from keeping their own arms.”
It’s simply a matter of doing what you do best and not worrying about what the other fellow is going to do.”
~ John R. Amos
sine qua non sin-ih-kwah-NON; -NOHN; sy-nih-kway-, noun:
An essential condition or element; an indispensable thing.
Sine qua non is from the Late Latin, literally “without which not.”
1345 – Saturn/Jupiter/Mars-conjunction; thought “cause of plague epidemic.” Albertus Magnus said that the conjunction of Mars and Jupiter causes a great pestilence in the air, especially when they come together in a hot, wet sign, as was the case in 1345. It occurred again on March 14, 2012.
1602 – The Dutch East India Company is established.
1616 – Sir Walter Raleigh is freed from the Tower of London after 13 years of imprisonment. He was to seek gold in Guyana.
1760 – The “Great Fire” of Boston, Massachusetts destroys 349 buildings. No one knows what started the fire. Open fires were part of everyday life in colonial Boston. The fire raged for ten hours.
1800 – Volta’s battery announced.
1816 – US Supreme Court affirms its right to review state court decisions. In Martin v Hunter’s Lessee (1816) the state of Virginia, via its highest state court, claimed that state governments and the federal government were equal and therefore the Supreme Court had no jurisdiction over the highest court of a state. Marshall stated that every state had lost part of its sovereignty when it accepted the Constitution and therefore all states were subject to the rulings of the Supreme Court.
1836 – Mexican-American War: At Coleto Creek, Texas, Colonel James Fannin after being surrounded by Mexican forces under General Urrea, agreed to surrender to Colonel Juan Jose Holzinger.
1841 – Edgar Allen Poe’s “The Murders in the Rue Morgue”, considered the first detective story, was published.
1852 – Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin subtitled “Life Among the Lowly,” was first published.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Pensacola, Florida- evacuated by Federals (Union).
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Bentonville, N.C.
1865 – Civil War: A plan by John Wilkes Booth to abduct U.S. President Abraham Lincoln was ruined when Lincoln changed his plans and did not appear at the Soldier’s Home near Washington, DC.
1868 – Jesse James Gang robs the Southern Deposit Bank in Russellville KY of $14,000. Russellville is located at 36°50′33″N 86°53′34″W.
1878 – Thomas Fisher, an alleged member of the Molly McGuires, was hung at the Carbon County Prison of Mauch Chunk, Pa. He had been convicted of the murder of Morgan Powell, a supervisor for the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company.
1886 – First AC power plant in US begins commercial operation, Massachusetts. Its creator, George Westinghouse began a new direction in his career.
1890 – The Blair Bill provided federal support for education and allocated funds to reduce illiteracy among the freedmen was defeated in the Senate, 37-31.
1891 – The first computing scale company was incorporated in Dayton, OH.
1896 – U.S. Marines landed in Corinto, Nicaragua to protect U.S. citizens in the wake of a revolution.
1897 – The first U.S. orthodox Jewish Rabbinical seminary was incorporated in New York.
1897 – The first intercollegiate basketball game that used five players per team was held. The contest was Yale versus Pennsylvania. Yale won by a score of 32-10.
1899 – At Sing Sing prison, Martha M. Place became the first woman to be executed in the electric chair. She was put to death for the murder of her stepdaughter.
1900 – Wireless transmission of electricity patented.
1911 – The National Squash Tennis Association was formed in New York City.
1914 – In New Haven, Connecticut, the first international figure skating championship takes place.
1916 – Albert Einstein publishes his general theory of relativity.
1917 – Gideon Sundback, Swedish-born engineer, patented an all-purpose zipper while working for the Automatic Hook and Eye Co. of Hoboken, New Jersey. The zipper name was coined by B.F. Goodrich in 1923, who used it to fasten rubber galoshes.
1922 – The USS Langley is commissioned as the first United States Navy aircraft carrier.
1922 – U.S. President Warren G. Harding ordered U.S. troops back from the Rhineland.
1924 – The Virginia Legislature passed SB 281, “An ACT to provide for the sexual sterilization of inmates of State institutions in certain cases”, henceforth referred to as “The Sterilization Act”.
1930 – Clessie Cummins sets diesel engine speed record of 129.39 kph.
1933 – Giuseppe Zangara is executed in Florida’s electric chair for fatally shooting Anton Cermak in an assassination attempt against President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1933 – The first German concentration camp was completed at Dachau.
1934 – Female Babe Didrickson pitches hitless inning in exhibition game against Brooklyn Dodgers.
1934 – The first test of a practical radar apparatus was made by Rudolf Kuhnold in Kiel Harbour, Germany, Chief of the German Navy Signals Research Department.
1936 – Benny Goodman and his orchestra recorded “Christopher Columbus” on Victor Records.
1939 – Naval Research Lab recommends financing research program to obtain power from uranium.
1939 – Franklin D. Roosevelt named William O. Douglas to the Supreme Court. He replaced Louis D. Brandeis (1856-1941), appointed in 1916, who retired.
1941 – World War II: Sabotage was discovered on an Italian vessel at Wilmington, North Carolina. The Coast Guard investigated all Italian and German vessels in American ports and took into “protective custody” 28 Italian vessels, two German and 35 Danish vessels.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: In Zgierz, Poland, 100 Poles are taken from a labor camp and shot by the Germans.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: in Rohatyn, western Ukraine, the German SS murder 3,000 Jews, including 600 children, annihilating 70% of Rohatyn’s Jewish ghetto.
1942 – World War II: General Douglas MacArthur, at Terowie, South Australia, makes his famous speech regarding the fall of the Philippines, in which he says: “I came out of Bataan and I shall return”.
1943 – World War II: German U-384 was bombed and sank.
1943 – World War II: Colonel Rudolf von Gertsdorff, General Kluge’s chief of intelligence, tried to kill Hitler in the Zeughaus.
1943 – World War II: The Allies attacked Field Marshall Erwin Rommel’s forces on the Mareth Line in North Africa.
1943 – World War II: Marine “Avengers” conducted the first aerial mine-laying mission.
1944 – The US 4th Marine Division (General Noble) lands on Emirau Island, in the Matthias group. There is no Japanese resistance.
1944 – Mount Vesuvius, Italy explodes.
1947 – 180-metric ton blue whale (record) caught in South Atlantic.
1947 – An explosion in a coal mine in Centralia, Illinois kills 111.
1948 – With a Musicians Union ban lifted, the first telecasts of classical music in the United States, under Eugene Ormandy and Arturo Toscanini, are given on CBS and NBC.
1950 – Dr. Ralph Bunche receives the Nobel Peace Prize for his work as a mediator in the Palestine crisis. He is the first Black to be so honored.
1951 – Korean War: The battleship USS Missouri fired 246 tons of 16-inch shells and 2,000 rounds of 5-inch ammunition on Wonsan, North Korea in the heaviest such attack of the war.
1952 – The United States Senate ratifies a peace treaty with Japan.
1953 – Senator Edwin C Johnson offers a bill to ban radio-TV broadcasts of major league games.
1953 – Korean War: The Joint Chiefs of Staff approved Operation MOOLAH. This was an effort to entice MiG pilots to defect with their aircraft and in return receive political asylum and a monetary reward.
1954 – First newspaper vending machine used (Columbia, Pennsylvania).
1954 – “King and I” closed at St. James Theater in New York City after 1246 performances.
1957 – In Washington State the Dalles Dam backed up the Columbia River to reap the benefits of hydroelectric power. It took just six hours for the islands of Celilo Falls to disappear.
1958 – 50″ snow across the Mason-Dixon line.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Venus” by Frankie Avalon, “Charlie Brown” by The Coasters, “Alvin’s Harmonica” by David Seville & The Chipmunks and “Don’t Take Your Guns to Town” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1959 – Bobby Rydell made his first TV appearance, on “American Bandstand.”
1959 – The Longshore Union president, Harry Bridges, issued the same challenge he received in Russia: Within 10 years the Soviet Union will give its workers the highest standard of living in the world, the highest wages, the shortest work week, the best free medical care, the best education, and no unemployment.
1960 – Elvis Presley made his first post-Army recording.
1961 – “Surrender” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1961 – Ricky Nelson recorded “Hello Mary Lou.”
1963 – The first “Pop Art” exhibit began in New York City.
1965 – “Eight Days a Week” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1965 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson orders 4,000 troops to protect the Selma-Montgomery civil rights marchers.
1969 – US president Nixon proclaimed he would end the Vietnam War in 1970.
1969 – The Chicago 8 were indicted in aftermath of Chicago Democratic convention.
1970 – Students struck at the University of Michigan and demanded increased Black enrollment. The strike ended April 2, after the administration agreed to meet their demands.
1971 – “Me and Bobby McGee” by Janis Joplin topped the charts.
1972 – Ringo Starr released “Back Off, Boogaloo.”
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Black Water” by The Doobie Brothers, “My Eyes Adored You” by Frankie Valli, “Lady Marmalade” by LaBelle and “Before the Next Teardrop Falls” by Freddy Fender all topped the charts.
1976 – Patricia Hearst was convicted of armed robbery for her role in the hold up of a San Francisco Bank.
1976 – “December, 1963 (Oh, What a Night)” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1979 -The first fully functional space shuttle orbiter, Columbia, is delivered to the John F. Kennedy Space Center to be prepared for its first launch.
1981 – Jean Harris, former girls’ school headmistress, was sentenced in White Plains, New York, to 15 years to life in prison for slaying “Scarsdale Diet” author Dr. Herman Tarnower.
1982 – The U.S. made an appeal to the International Court concerning the American Hostages in Iran. UN Secretary General Kurt Waldheim warns U.S. not to use force in attempt to free American hostages in Iran.
1982 – “I Love Rock ‘n’ Roll” by Joan Jett & the Blackhearts topped the charts.
1982 – U.S. scientists returned from Antarctica with the first land mammal fossils found there.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Billy Jean” by Michael Jackson, “Shame on the Moon” by Bob Seger & The Silver Bullet Band, “Do You Really Want to Hurt Me” by Culture Club and “I Wouldn’t Change You If I Could” by Ricky Skaggs all topped the charts.
1984 – The U.S. Senate rejected an amendment to permit spoken prayer in public schools.
1985 – Libby Riddles becomes the first woman to win the 1,135-mile Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race. The next three were won by Susan Butcher.
1985 – For the first time in its 99-year history, Avon representatives received a salary. Up to that time they had been paid solely on commissions.
1985 – CBS-TV presented “The Romance of Betty Boop.” (23:41)
1986 – Fallon Carrington and Jeff Colby were wed on the TV drama “The Colby’s“. “The Colby’s” was an offshoot of “Dynasty”.
1987 – The Food and Drug Administration approves the anti-AIDS drug, AZT.
1988 – Eight-year-old DeAndra Anrig found herself airborne when the string of her kite was snagged by an airplane flying over Shoreline Park in Mountain View, Calif. Not seriously hurt, she was lifted 10 feet off the ground and carried 100 feet until she let go.
1989 – Baseball announces Reds manager Pete Rose is under investigation.
1989 – A Washington, DC, district court judge blocked a curfew imposed by Mayor Barry and the City Council.
1990 – Los Angeles Lakers retire Kareem Abdul-Jabbar’s #33.
1990 – Gloria Estefan and her band are injured in a bus accident near Scranton, PA.
1991 – Court awards Peggy Lee $3 million in contract violation suit against Disney.
1991 – Eric Clapton’s 4 year old son, Conor, died after falling from a 53rd story New York City apartment window.
1991 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously that employers could not exclude women from jobs where exposure to toxic chemicals or radiation could potentially damage a fetus.
1991 – A US jet fighter shot down an Iraqi warplane in the first air attack since the Gulf War cease-fire.
1992 – Janice Pennington was awarded $1.3 million for accident on the set of the “Price is Right” TV show.
1992 – The US Congress passed, and President Bush immediately vetoed, a Democratic tax cut for the middle class that would have been funded by a tax hike on the rich.
1995 – Beatles song, “Free As A Bird” is released.
1995 – A sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway kills 12 and wounds 1,300 persons. More than 5500 were sickened by small doses of the gas. This caused the US security management industry to review our security plans.
1995 – Dow-Jones hits 4083.68 (record).
1996 – In Los Angeles, Erik and Lyle Menendez were found guilty of first-degree murder in the killing of their parents.
1996 – The Mt. Zion Baptist Church in Ruleville, Miss., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1997 – Liggett Group, the maker of Chesterfield cigarettes, settled 22 state lawsuits by admitting the industry marketed cigarettes to teenagers and agreed to warn on every pack that smoking is addictive.
1998 – An Indiana man, Chris Dean (35), was arrested for sending the pipe bomb that killed Christopher Marquis of Vermont.
1999 – Legoland California, the first and only Legoland outside of Europe, opens in Carlsbad, California.
1999 – Bertrand Piccard and Brian Jones became the first men to circumnavigate the Earth in a hot air balloon. The non-stop trip began on March 3 and covered 26,500 miles.
2000 – Jamil Abdullah Al-Amin, a former Black Panther once known as H. Rap Brown, is captured after a gun battle that leaves a Georgia sheriff’s deputy dead.
2000 – The Clinton administration moved to phase out the fuel additive MTBE to avoid further contamination of groundwater.
2000 – In Texas Robert Wayne Harris (28) shot five people to death and critically injured one person at the Mi-T-Fine Car Wash in Irving. He had recently been fired for exposing himself to two women at the business.
2001 – Power-strapped California saw a second day of rolling blackouts.
2001 – The skipper of the USS Greeneville took the stand in a Navy court and accepted sole responsibility for the Feb. 9 collision of his submarine with a Japanese trawler off Hawaii that killed nine Japanese.
2002 – The US Senate approved the bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002. It was better remembered as the McCain-Feingold bill on campaign finance reform after its senatorial sponsors. Pres. Bush planned to sign it. In 2003 a three-judge panel ruled most of the provisions unconstitutional.
2002 – US began war games with South Korea, the biggest ever.
2002 – Arthur Andersen pled innocent to charges that it had shredded documents and deleted computer files related to the energy company Enron.
2002 – At Fort Drum, NY, a soldier was killed and fourteen were injured when two artillery shells fell far short of their target.
2003 – Space shuttle Columbia’s data recorder (“black box”) was found near Hemphill, Texas.
2003 – At 5:34 AM Baghdad time on 20 March, 2003 (9:34 PM, 19 Mar 2003, EST) the Iraq Invasion began. Operation Iraqi Freedom began with a few targeted strikes in Baghdad against Saddam Hussein, targeting him personally with a barrage of cruise missiles and bombs as a prelude to invasion.
2003 – About 600 US and Romanian ground troops in Afghanistan began Operation Valiant Strike, an intensified search for Taliban, al Qaeda and loyalists to Gulbuddin Hekmatyar.
2004 – The US military charged six soldiers with abusing inmates at Abu Ghraib prison.
2004 – The House of Representatives of US state of Georgia passes a ban on genital piercings for women, including consenting adults, as part of a bill to ban female genital mutilation as performed by some Muslim populations, among others.
2004 – A quickly spreading Internet worm destroyed or damaged tens of thousands of personal computers worldwide morning by exploiting a security flaw in a firewall program designed to protect PCs from online threats.
2006 – Otto Zehm (36), a mentally ill man, died after being struck and tasered at a convenience store in Spokane, Wa. In 2011 officer Karl Thompson was found guilty of using violating Zehm’s civil rights by using excessive force and making a false statement.
2007 – In Arizona the Hualapai Indian tribe invited a select few to the unveiling of the horseshoe-shaped deck over the Grand Canyon in advance of a public opening planned for March 28. The deck, which juts 70 feet beyond the canyon’s edge, will accommodate up to 120 guests at a time.
2007 – The second flight of Space Exploration Technologies’ (SpaceX) low-cost Falcon 1 rocket reached 200 miles altitude but did not make it to orbit due to the premature shutdown of its second-stage Kestrel engine.
2007 – Pres. Bush vowed that his top aides will not testify under oath before congressional committees on the scandal involving the firing of eight US attorneys.
2008 – North Carolina lawmakers voted 109-5 to boot Rep. Thomas Wright, a Wilmington Democrat, from office for mishandling $340,000 in loans and contributions.
2008 – In North Carolina Darryl Turner was killed after being shocked by a police officer’s Taser. In 2011 a jury ordered Taser Int’l. to pay Turner’s family $10 million.
2009 – House passes heavy tax on bonuses at rescued firms. the House voted 328 to 93 to levy a 90 percent tax on bonuses paid by any company owing more than $5 billion in bailout money.
2009 – The USS Hartford, a submarine, and the USS New Orleans, an amphibious ship, collided in the Strait of Hormuz. Fifteen sailors aboard the Hartford were slightly injured but able to return to duty. No injuries were reported aboard the New Orleans.
2009 – The US Postal Service said it will reduce management by 15%, offer early retirement to 150,000 workers and close 6 of 80 district offices in response to the slowing economy and losses last year of $2.8 billion.
2010 – The Plastiki, a boat with hull built of 12,500 plastic bottles, departed from Sausalito, Ca. to Australia.Plastiki arrived in Sydney Harbour on July 26, 2010.
2010 – A teenager is arrested in New Jersey, United States in connection with the recent Wal-Mart announcement telling “all blacks” to leave the shop.
2012 – The Denver Broncos announce they have signed star free agent quarterback Peyton Manning to a $96-million five-year deal.
2012 – John Carter records one of the biggest losses in cinema history, forcing Disney to take a $200 million writedown. John Carter was a 2012 American science fantasy film directed by Andrew Stanton; adapted from the first book in the fictional Barsoom series of novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs entitled, A Princess of Mars.
2012 – Voters in the US state of Illinois go to the polls for the Republican primary with Mitt Romney projected as the winner.
2012 – Ross Mirkarimi, the head of the Sheriff’s Department in San Francisco is put on probation for three years for false imprisonment of his wife on New Years Eve 2011.
2013 – Scientists debate the possibility that the Voyager 1 spacecraft, launched in September 1977, may have left the Solar System.
1823 – Ned Buntline, American publisher (d. 1886)
1831 – Solomon L. Spink, U.S. Congressman (d. 1881).
1834 – Charles W. Eliot, President of Harvard University (d. 1926)
1856 – Frederick Winslow Taylor, American inventor (d. 1915) was the first man in recorded history that deemed work deserving of systematic observation and study.
1903 – Edgar Buchanan, American actor (d. 1979)
1906 – Ozzie Nelson, American bandleader and actor (d. 1975)
1918 – Jack Barry, American TV host (d. 1984)
1920 – Pamela Harriman, British-American diplomat (d. 1997)
1922 – Ray Goulding, American comedian (d. 1990)
1922 – Carl Reiner, American film director
1925 – John Ehrlichman, American political figure (d. 1999)
1928 – Fred Rogers, American TV host (d. 2003)
1931 – Hal Linden, American actor
1934 – Willie Brown, American politician
1936 – Vaughn Meader, American comedian (d. 2004)
1945 – Pat Riley former American National Basketball Association player and is the current team president of the Miami Heat.
1957 – Spike Lee, American film director
HAGEMEISTER, CHARLES CHRIS
Rank and organization: Specialist Fifth Class (then Sp4c.) U .S. Army, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and date: Binh Dinh Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 20th,1967. Entered service at: Lincoln, Nebr. Born: 21 August 1946, Lincoln, Nebr. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While conducting combat operations against a hostile force, Sp5c. Hagemeister’s platoon suddenly came under heavy attack from three sides by an enemy force occupying well concealed, fortified positions and supported by machine guns and mortars. Seeing two of his comrades seriously wounded in the initial action, Sp5c. Hagemeister unhesitatingly and with total disregard for his safety, raced through the deadly hail of enemy fire to provide them medical aid. Upon learning that the platoon leader and several other soldiers also had been wounded, Sp5c. Hagemeister continued to brave the withering enemy fire and crawled forward to render lifesaving treatment and to offer words of encouragement. Attempting to evacuate the seriously wounded soldiers, Sp5c. Hagemeister was taken under fire at close range by an enemy sniper. Realizing that the lives of his fellow soldiers depended on his actions, Sp5c. Hagemeister seized a rifle from a fallen comrade, killed the sniper, three other enemy soldiers who were attempting to encircle his position and silenced an enemy machine gun that covered the area with deadly fire. Unable to remove the wounded to a less exposed location and aware of the enemy’s efforts to isolate his unit, he dashed through the fusillade of fire to secure help from a nearby platoon. Returning with help, he placed men in positions to cover his advance as he moved to evacuate the wounded forward of his location. These efforts successfully completed, he then moved to the other flank and evacuated additional wounded men despite the fact that his every move drew fire from the enemy. Sp5c. Hagemeister’s repeated heroic and selfless actions at the risk of his life saved the lives of many of his comrades and inspired their actions in repelling the enemy assault. Sp5c. Hagemeister’s indomitable courage was in the highest traditions of the U.S. Armed Forces and reflect great credit upon himself.
KAWAMURA, TERRY TERUO
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, 173d Engineer Company, 173d Airborne Brigade, Republic of Vietnam. Place and date: Camp Radcliff, Republic of Vietnam, March 20th, 1969. Entered service at: Oahu, Hawaii. Born. 10 December 1949, Wahiawa, Oahu, Hawaii. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Cpl. Kawamura distinguished himself by heroic action while serving as a member of the 173d Engineer Company. An enemy demolition team infiltrated the unit quarters area and opened fire with automatic weapons. Disregarding the intense fire, Cpl. Kawamura ran for his weapon. At that moment, a violent explosion tore a hole in the roof and stunned the occupants of the room. Cpl. Kawamura jumped to his feet, secured his weapon and, as he ran toward the door to return the enemy fire, he observed that another explosive charge had been thrown through the hole in the roof to the floor. He immediately realized that two stunned fellow soldiers were in great peril and shouted a warning. Although in a position to escape, Cpl. Kawamura unhesitatingly wheeled around and threw himself on the charge. In completely disregarding his safety, Cpl. Kawamura prevented serious injury or death to several members of his unit. The extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by Cpl. Kawamura are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
VILLEGAS, YSMAEL R.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company F, 127th Infantry, 32d Infantry Division. Place and date: Villa Verde Trail, Luzon, Philippine Islands, March 20th, 1945. Entered service at: Casa Blanca, Calif. Birth: Casa Blanca, Calif. G.O. No.: 89, 19 October 1945. Citation: He was a squad leader when his unit, in a forward position, clashed with an enemy strongly entrenched in connected caves and foxholes on commanding ground. He moved boldly from man to man, in the face of bursting grenades and demolition charges, through heavy machinegun and rifle fire, to bolster the spirit of his comrades. Inspired by his gallantry, his men pressed forward to the crest of the hill. Numerous enemy riflemen, refusing to flee, continued firing from their foxholes. S/Sgt. Villegas, with complete disregard for his own safety and the bullets which kicked up the dirt at his feet, charged an enemy position, and, firing at point-blank range killed the Japanese in a foxhole. He rushed a second foxhole while bullets missed him by inches, and killed one more of the enemy. In rapid succession he charged a third, a fourth, a fifth foxhole, each time destroying the enemy within. The fire against him increased in intensity, but he pressed onward to attack a sixth position. As he neared his goal, he was hit and killed by enemy fire. Through his heroism and indomitable fighting spirit, S/Sgt. Villegas, at the cost of his life, inspired his men to a determined attack in which they swept the enemy from the field.
The Story of San Juan
Capistrano’s Mission Swallows
The miracle of the “Swallows” of Capistrano takes place each year at the Mission San Juan Capistano, on March 19th, St. Joseph’s Day.As the little birds wing their way back to the most famous Mission in California, the village of San Juan Capistrano takes on a fiesta air and the visitors from all parts of the world, and all walks of life, gather in great numbers to witness the “miracle” of the return of the swallows.
Each year the “Scout Swallows” precede the main flock by a few days and it seems to be their chief duty to clear the way for the main flock to arrive at the “Old Mission” of Capistrano.
With the arrival of early dawn on St. Joseph’s Day, the little birds begin to arrive and begin rebuilding their mud nests, which are clinging to the ruins of the old stone church of San Juan Capistrano. The arches of the two story, high vaulted Chapel were left bare and exposed, as the roof collapsed during the earthquake of 1812.
This Chapel, said to be the largest and most ornate in any of the missions, now has a more humble destiny–that of housing the birds that St. Francis loved so well.
After the summer spent within the sheltered walls of the Old Mission in San Juan Capistrano, the swallows take flight again, and on the Day of San Juan, October 23, they leave after circling the Mission bidding farewell to the “JEWEL OF ALL MISSIONS” San Juan Capistrano, California.
Sponsored by the San Juan Capistrano Fiesta Association
The Ink Spots – When The Swallows Come Back To Capistrano
The Lennon Sisters – When the Swallows Come Back to Capistrano
Romans 8:28 NKJV
“And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to His purpose.”
“Religion and virtue are the only foundations, not of republicanism and of all free government, but of social felicity under all government and in all the combinations of human society.”
“Love yourself first and everything else falls into line. You really have to love yourself to get anything done in this world.”
virago vuh-RAH-go; vuh-RAY-go, noun:
1. A woman of extraordinary stature, strength, and courage.
2. A woman regarded as loud, scolding, ill-tempered, quarrelsome, or overbearing.
Virago comes from Latin virago, “a man-like woman, a female warrior, a heroine” from vir, “a man.”
721BC – The earliest recorded lunar eclipse as described in Ptolemy’s Almagest, based on Babylonian sources.
1628 – Massachusetts colony founded by Englishmen. They were granted rights to the area between the Charles and Merrimack rivers and westward to the Pacific Ocean.
1687 – Explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle, searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River, is murdered by his own men.
1748 – The English Naturalization Act passed granting Jews right to colonize in America.
1776 – St. Joseph’s Day – This is the day that the swallows traditionally return to the Mission San Juan Capistrano in California. It has happened every March 19th since 1776 (with very few exceptions.)
1776 – The Continental Congress authorizes privateering raids on British shipping. American privateers were a significant presence at sea, and played an important role in the success of the Revolution.
1822 – Boston MA incorporated as a city.
1831 – First US bank robbery (City Bank, New York/$245,000.) The perpetrator was Edward Smith who was eventually arrested, convicted, and sentenced to five years in Sing Sing prison.
1850 – Phineas Quimby was issued a patent for a steering machine. Quimby was a watch and clockmaker by trade and held several patents.
1862 – Civil War: Union Flag Officer Foote’s forces attacking Island No. 10 continued to meet with strong resistance from Confederate batteries.
1863 – Civil War: The SS Georgiana, said to have been the most powerful Confederate cruiser, is destroyed on her maiden voyage with a cargo of munitions, medicines and merchandise then valued at over $1,000,000. The wreck was discovered on the same day and month, exactly 102 years later by then teenage diver and pioneer underwater archaeologist E. Lee Spence.
1864 – Montana vigilantes lynched Jack Slade (33), a hell-raising freight hauler. Mark Twain had encountered Slade in 1861 and included him in his book “Roughing It” (1872).
1865 – Civil War: The Battle of Bentonville begins. By the end of the battle two days later, Confederate forces had retreated from Four Oaks, North Carolina.
1865 – Civil War: Confederate General Joseph Johnston makes a desperate attempt to stop Union General Sherman’s “March To The Sea” but his army could not stop the advance of Sherman’s army.
1879 – Jim Currie opened fire on the actors Maurice Barrymore and Ben Porter near Marshall, TX. The shots wounded Barrymore and killed Porter.
1883 – Jan Matzeliger invents first machine to manufacture entire shoes.
1895 – The Los Angeles Railway was established to provide streetcar service.
1898 – USS Oregon departs San Francisco for 14,000 mile trip around South America to join U.S. Squadron off Cuba.
1903 – The U.S. Senate ratified the Cuban treaty, gaining naval bases in Guantanamo and Bahia Honda.
1908 – The state of Maryland barred Christian Scientists from practicing without medical diplomas.
1915 – Pluto is photographed for the first time but is not recognized as a planet.
1916 – Eight American planes (Curtiss JN4D Jennys) take off in pursuit of Pancho Villa, the first United States air-combat mission in history.
1917 – US Supreme Court upheld 8-hour work day for railroad workers. It reaffirmed the Adamson Act that established an eight-hour workday, with additional pay for overtime work.
1917 – Navy Department authorizes enrollment of women in Naval Reserve with ratings of yeoman, radio electrician, or other essential ratings.
1918 – The U.S. Congress establishes time zones and approves Daylight Savings Time.
1918 – Ensign Stephen Potter becomes first US pilot to shoot down a German seaplane.
1920 – The United States Senate rejects the Treaty of Versailles for the second time (first time was on November 19, 1919). The vote was 49-35, short of the two-thirds majority needed for approval.
1924 – U.S. troops are rushed to Tegucigalpa as rebel forces take the Honduran capital.
1928 – “Amos & Andy” debuts on radio (NBC Blue Network-WMAQ Chicago.)
1931 – Nevada legalizes gambling. It was the second time and was to raise tax revenues and stabilize the state’s economy. Gov. Fred B. Balzar signed a measure legalizing casino gambling.
1941 – World War II: The 99th Pursuit Squadron also known as the Tuskegee Airmen, the first Black unit of the Army Air Corp, is activated.
1941 – Jimmy Dorsey and his orchestra recorded “Green Eyes” featuring Helen O’Connell.
1942 – President Franklin Delano Roosevelt orders men between 45 & 64 to register for non- military duty.
1942 – The Thoroughbred Racing Association was formed in Chicago.
1942 – The Secretary of the Navy gave Civil Engineering Corps command of the Seabees.
1943 – Frank Nitti, the Chicago Outfit Boss after Al Capone, commits suicide at the Chicago Central Railyard.
1944 – World War II: Nazi forces occupy Hungary.
1945 – World War II: Off the coast of Japan, a kamikaze dive bomber hits the aircraft carrier USS Franklin, killing 724 of her crew. Badly damaged, the ship is able to return to the U.S. under her own power. (*Other sources say 832 killed)
1945 – World War II: US Task Force 58 (Admiral Mitscher) conducts air raids naval bases in the Inland Sea, with Kure specifically targeted. Six Japanese carriers and three battleships are reported damaged.
1945 – World War II: US 7th Army forces complete the capture of Saarlouis. Fighting in Saarbrucken and the towns to the east continues. US 3rd Army continues to advance east and southeast toward the Rhine River.
1945 – World War II: Adolf Hitler issues his “Nero Decree” ordering all industries, military installations, shops, transportation facilities and communications facilities in Germany to be destroyed as the Allies approach.
1948 – Lee Savold knocked out Gino Buonvino in 54 seconds of the first round of their prize fight at Madison Square Gardens.
1949 – First museum devoted exclusively to atomic energy, Oak Ridge, TN.
1949 – “Cruising Down the River” by Blue Barron topped the charts.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Said My Pajamas” by Tony Martin & Fran Warren, “Music, Music, Music” by Teresa Brewer, “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton and “Chatanoogie Shoe Shine Boy” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1951 – Herman Wouk’s “Caine Mutiny” is published.
1952 – The 1,000,000th Jeep was produced.
1953 – First time Academy Awards ceremony was broadcast on television and it was to celebrate its silver anniversary . “The Greatest Show on Earth” was named best picture of 1952. Gary Cooper & Shirley Booth won for best actor and actress.
1954 – Joey Giardello knocks out Willie Tory in round seven at Madison Square Garden in the first televised prize boxing fight shown in color.
1954 – First rocket-driven sled on rails was tested in Alamogordo NM.
1955 – “Sincerely” by the McGuire Sisters topped the charts.
1956 – Biggest NBA margin of victory: Minnesota Lakers-133, St Louis Hawks-75 by then record 58 points.
1957 – Elvis Presley bought the mansion he called Graceland.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t/I Beg of You” by Elvis Presley, “Sweet Little Sixteen” by Chuck Berry, “Dinner with Drac (Part 1)” by John Zacherle and “Ballad of a Teenage Queen” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1958 – The film “South Pacific,” adapted from the Rodgers and Hammerstein stage musical, was released.
1958 – The Monarch Underwear Company fire leaves 24 dead and 15 injured. It occurred at 623 Broadway in Manhattan. Six of the injured were hurt when they leaped from the building and missed fire nets.
1960 – Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1963 – In Costa Rica, President John F. Kennedy and six Latin American presidents pledged to fight Communism.
1964 – Sean Connery began shooting his role in “Goldfinger.”
1965 – The wreck of the SS Georgiana, valued at over $50,000,000 and said to have been the most powerful Confederate cruiser, was discovered by then teenage diver and pioneer underwater archaeologist E. Lee Spence exactly 102 years after its destruction. (See today in 1863)
1966 – Texas Western becomes the first college basketball team to win the Final Four, to start five black players. In 2006 the film “Glory Road” depicted the story of the winning team.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler, “19th Nervous Breakdown” by The Rolling Stones, “Nowhere Man” by The Beatles and “Waitin’ in Your Welfare Line” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1968 – Howard University students in Washington DC staged rallies, protests and a 5-day sit-in, laying siege to the administration building, shutting down the university in protest over its ROTC program, and demanding a more Afrocentric curriculum.
1972 – Los Angeles Lakers beat Golden State Warriors, 162-99, by then record 63 points.
1975 – Pennsylvania is first state to allow girls to compete with boys in High School sports.
1977 – “Love Theme From A Star Is Born (Evergreen)” by Barbra Streisand topped the charts.
1977 – The last episode of “The Mary Tyler Moore Show” aired.
1979 – The United States House of Representatives begins broadcasting its day-to-day business via the cable television network C-SPAN.
1980 – The US appealed to the International Court of Justice on hostages in Iran.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Centerfold” by The J. Geils Band, “Open Arms” by Journey, “I Love Rock ’N Roll” by Joan Jett & The Blackhearts and “Blue Moon with Heartache” by Roseanne Cash all topped the charts.
1983 – “Billie Jean” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1984 – The TV show “Kate & Allie” premiered.
1984 – A Mobile oil tanker spilled 200,000 gallons into the Columbia River.
1985 – IBM announced that it was planning to stop making the PCjr. In the 16 months it was for sale it only sold 240,000 units.
1985 – In a legislative victory for President Reagan, the Senate voted, 55-45, to authorize production of the MX missile. The Senate mix was 53 Republicans and 47 Democrats.
1987 – Televangelist Jim Bakker resigns as head of the PTL Club due to a brewing sex scandal involving Jessica Hahn, a former church secretary from Oklahoma. He hands over control to Jerry Falwell.
1988 – “Never Gonna Give You Up” by Rick Astley topped the charts.
1989 – Boeing V-22 Osprey VTOL aircraft makes maiden flight.
1991 – NFL owners strip Phoenix of 1993 Super Bowl game due to Arizona not recognizing Martin Luther King Day.
1991 – Brett Hull, of the St. Louis Blues, became the third National Hockey League (NHL) player to score 80 goals in a season.
1993 – US Supreme Court Justice Byron R. White announced plans to retire. His departure paved the way for Ruth Bader Ginsburg to become the court’s second female justice.
1995 – Michael Jordan rejoins Chicago Bulls after 17 months, beats Pacers.
1997 – The US Supreme Court heard arguments on Internet indecency.
1997 – It was reported that purple grape juice slows the activity of blood platelets by about 75% and thus reduces the risk of heart attacks. Red wine and aspirin slowed platelet activity by about 45%.
1998 – President Clinton eased US restrictions on humanitarian aid and travel to Cuba. Cuban-American households would be allowed to send back $1,200 a year.
1998 – Rupert Murdoch’s Fox Group won approval to buy the Los Angeles Dodgers for a record $350 million.
2000 – In Nevada five youths on a juvenile offenders cleanup crew were killed by a speeding minivan on I-15 in Las Vegas.
2001 – California officials orders the first two days of rolling blackouts. The state’s two biggest utility companies, Pacific Gas and Electric and Southern California Edison were ordered to cut a total of 500 megawatts of electricity, enough power for roughly 500,000 homes.
2002 – U.S. invasion of Afghanistan: Operation Anaconda ends (started on March 2) after killing 500 Taliban and al Qaeda fighters with only eleven Allied troop fatalities.
2002 – US intelligence analyst Ana Belen Montes pleaded guilty in federal court to spying for Cuba; she was later sentenced to 25 years in prison.
2002 – Scientists reported that the Larsen B ice shelf in Antarctica, covering some 1,250 square miles, had collapsed into small icebergs over the last 35 days.
2002 – Carly Fiorina, head of Hewlett-Packard, claimed victory by a slim margin in a proxy battle to buy Compaq Computer. Some $180 million was reportedly spent in the effort to win votes.
2003 – President Bush ordered the start of war against Iraq. Because of the time difference, it was early March 20 in Iraq. Operation Iraqi Freedom began with a few US targeted strikes in Baghdad against Saddam Hussein.
2003 – Dwight Watson, who had driven a tractor into the Constitution Gardens pond on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., surrendered to federal authorities. The 48 hour standoff severely disrupted the business and traffic of downtown D.C.
2003 – Iraqi President Saddam Hussein appears on national television and rejects the US ultimatum to leave the country or face war. He says “this battle will be Iraq’s last battle against the tyrannous villains and the last battle of aggression undertaken by America against the Arabs”.
2003 – A Cuban airliner was hijacked to Key West. Six hijackers took control of the plane without telling the twenty-five passengers and six crew members about their asylum plans. The six were later convicted of federal hijacking charges.
2004 – The newspaper USA Today admits that a former reporter, Jack Kelley, invented or distorted important parts of at least eight major stories.
2004 – Scientists reported that Earth may be in the middle its 6th big extinction event, which began some 50,000 years ago. A recent survey indicated population extinctions in all the main ecosystems of Britain.
2005 – In Colorado an explosion at the Electric Mountain Lodge, 230 miles SW of Denver, left 3 children dead. Propane gas was suspected.
2007 – President Bush marked the fourth anniversary of the start of the Iraq war with a plea for patience to let his revised battle plan work; Congress’ new Democratic leaders retorted that no patience remained.
2007 – The US Supreme Court hears Morse v. Frederick, in which an Alaskan high school student argues free speech rights in connection with his displaying a banner reading “Bong Hits 4 Jesus” in front of a Juneau high school.
2007 – The Airbus 380 makes a publicity flight with Lufthansa to New York and then Chicago.
2008 – Flooding forced hundreds of people to flee their homes and closed scores of roads across a wide swath of the US midsection as a huge storm system poured as much as 10 inches of rain on the region. Flooding was reported in parts of Arkansas, southern Illinois, southern Indiana, Missouri and Kentucky with over a dozen deaths.
2009 – Pres. Obama appeared on The Tonight Show With Jay Leno” and captured some 11.2% of TV households in 56 US markets.
2009 – The US House of Representatives votes to levy a 90% tax on executive compensation from companies aided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.
2009 – Josias Kumpf (83), a former Nazi concentration-camp guard, was deported from Wisconsin to Austria, despite objections from his lawyer that the guard was simply present at the Trawniki Labor Camp in Poland but committed no acts of persecution.
2010 – A judge in the United States rejects a $657.5 million deal for 10,000 people involved in the aftermath of 9/11.
2010 – In Las Vegas a fire at the private Gilcrease Nature Sanctuary killed over 250 exotic birds and a dog.
2011 – The US Navy fires Tomahawk cruise missiles at Gaddafi’s air defenses as Operation Odyssey Dawn gets underway.
2012 – Wendy’s becomes the second best selling hamburger chain in the USA, overtaking Burger King.
2012 – The US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit rules against a First Amendment free speech challenge to a regulation by the Food and Drug Administration requiring that tobacco companies put graphic images on their cigarette packaging. The imagery is designed to discourage smoking.
2013 – In Ohio, Thomas Lane receives three life sentences for the child murders at Chardon High School that he committed in February 2012 as a 17-year-old.
2013 – The United States Supreme Court holds in a 6–3 decision that the first-sale doctrine applies to the domestic sale of foreign copies of copyrighted work lawfully made abroad. The doctrine is one of the specific statutory restrictions which Congress has placed on the exclusive rights of copyright owners.
1590 – William Bradford, Pilgrim and First Governor of the Plymouth Colony (d. 1657).
1734 – Thomas McKean, American lawyer and signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1817).
1813 – David Livingstone, Scottish missionary and explorer (d. 1873)
1848 – Wyatt Earp (Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp), later U.S. Marshal, was born the son of a Sheriff in Illinois. He fought at the Gunfight at the OK Corral and Paula Mitchell Marks later wrote “And Die in the West,” an account of the incident.
1860 – William Jennings Bryan, 41st United States Secretary of State, orator, statesman, known as “The Great Communicator,” (d. 1925)
1864 – Charles Marion Russell, American artist (d. 1926)
1883 – Joseph Stilwell, U.S. general (d. 1946)
1891 – Earl Warren, 14th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1974)
1892 – James Van Fleet, American general (d. 1992)
1904 – John Sirica, the Chief Judge for the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, where he became famous for his role in the Watergate scandal. (d. 1992)
1916 – Irving Wallace, American novelist (d. 1990)
1925 – Brent Scowcroft, US National Security Advisor
1944 – Sirhan Sirhan, Palestinian-born assassin. Murderer of Robert Kennedy.
1947 – Glenn Close, American actress
1955 – Bruce Willis, American actor
1966 – James “Big Jim” Wright, American record producer
BUCHA, PAUL WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Company D, 3d Battalion. 187th Infantry, 3d Brigade, 101st Airborne Division. Place and Date: Near Phuoc Vinh, Binh Duong Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 16th to March 19th, 1968. Entered service at: U .S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y. Born: 1 August 1943, Washington, D.C. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Bucha distinguished himself while serving as commanding officer, Company D, on a reconnaissance-in-force mission against enemy forces near Phuoc Vinh, The company was inserted by helicopter into the suspected enemy stronghold to locate and destroy the enemy. During this period Capt. Bucha aggressively and courageously led his men in the destruction of enemy fortifications and base areas and eliminated scattered resistance impeding the advance of the company. On 18 March while advancing to contact, the lead elements of the company became engaged by the heavy automatic weapon, heavy machine gun, rocket propelled grenade, Claymore mine and small-arms fire of an estimated battalion-size force. Capt. Bucha, with complete disregard for his safety, moved to the threatened area to direct the defense and ordered reinforcements to the aid of the lead element. Seeing that his men were pinned down by heavy machine gun fire from a concealed bunker located some forty meters to the front of the positions, Capt. Bucha crawled through the hail of fire to single-handedly destroy the bunker with grenades. During this heroic action Capt. Bucha received a painful shrapnel wound. Returning to the perimeter, he observed that his unit could not hold its positions and repel the human wave assaults launched by the determined enemy. Capt. Bucha ordered the withdrawal of the unit elements and covered the withdrawal to positions of a company perimeter from which he could direct fire upon the charging enemy. When one friendly element retrieving casualties was ambushed and cut off from the perimeter, Capt. Bucha ordered them to feign death and he directed artillery fire around them. During the night Capt. Bucha moved throughout the position, distributing ammunition, providing encouragement and insuring the integrity of the defense. He directed artillery, helicopter gunship and Air Force gunship fire on the enemy strong points and attacking forces, marking the positions with smoke grenades. Using flashlights in complete view of enemy snipers, he directed the medical evacuation of three air-ambulance loads of seriously wounded personnel and the helicopter supply of his company. At daybreak Capt. Bucha led a rescue party to recover the dead and wounded members of the ambushed element. During the period of intensive combat, Capt. Bucha, by his extraordinary heroism, inspirational example, outstanding leadership and professional competence, led his company in the decimation of a superior enemy force which left 156 dead on the battlefield. His bravery and gallantry at the risk of his life are in the highest traditions of the military service, Capt. Bucha has reflected great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*McMAHON, THOMAS J.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 1st Infantry, 196th Infantry Brigade, Americal Division. Place and date: Quang Tin province, Republic of Vietnam, March 19th, 1969. Entered service at: Portland, Maine. Born: 24 June 1948, Washington, D.C. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. McMahon distinguished himself while serving as medical aid man with Company A. When the lead elements of his company came under heavy fire from well-fortified enemy positions, three soldiers fell seriously wounded. Sp4c. McMahon, with complete disregard for his safety, left his covered position and ran through intense enemy fire to the side of one of the wounded, administered first aid and then carried him to safety. He returned through the hail of fire to the side of a second wounded man. Although painfully wounded by an exploding mortar round while returning the wounded man to a secure position, Sp4c. McMahon refused medical attention and heroically ran back through the heavy enemy fire toward his remaining wounded comrade. He fell mortally wounded before he could rescue the last man. Sp4c. McMahon’s undaunted concern for the welfare of his comrades at the cost of his life are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*RAY, DAVID ROBERT
Rank and organization: Hospital Corpsman Second Class, U.S. Navy, 2d Battalion, 11th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and Date: Quang Nam Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 19th, 1969. Entered service at: Nashville, Tenn. Born: 14 February 1945, McMinnville, Tenn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a HC2c. with Battery D, 2d Battalion, at Phu Loc 6, near An Hoa. During the early morning hours, an estimated battalion-sized enemy force launched a determined assault against the battery’s position, and succeeded in effecting a penetration of the barbed-wire perimeter. The initial burst of enemy fire caused numerous casualties among the marines who had immediately manned their howitzers during the rocket and mortar attack. Undaunted by the intense hostile fire, HC2c. Ray moved from parapet to parapet, rendering emergency medical treatment to the wounded. Although seriously wounded himself while administering first aid to a Marine casualty, he refused medical aid and continued his lifesaving efforts. While he was bandaging and attempting to comfort another wounded marine, HC2c. Ray was forced to battle two enemy soldiers who attacked his position, personally killing one and wounding the other. Rapidly losing his strength as a result of his severe wounds, he nonetheless managed to move through the hail of enemy fire to other casualties. Once again, he was faced with the intense fire of oncoming enemy troops and, despite the grave personal danger and insurmountable odds, succeeded in treating the wounded and holding off the enemy until he ran out of ammunition, at which time he sustained fatal wounds. HC2c. Ray’s final act of heroism was to protect the patient he was treating. He threw himself upon the wounded Marine, thus saving the man’s life when an enemy grenade exploded nearby. By his determined and persevering actions, courageous spirit, and selfless devotion to the welfare of his Marine comrades, HC2c. Ray served to inspire the men of Battery D to heroic efforts in defeating the enemy. His conduct throughout was in keeping with the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
BURR, HERBERT H.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 41st Tank Battalion, 11th Armored Division. Place and date: Near Dorrmoschel, Germany, March 19th. 1945. Entered service at: Kansas City, Mo. Birth: St. Joseph, Mo. G.O. No.: 73, 30 August 1945. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry during action when the tank in which he was bow gunner was hit by an enemy rocket, which severely wounded the platoon sergeant and forced the remainder of the crew to abandon the vehicle. Deafened, but otherwise unhurt, S/Sgt. Burr immediately climbed into the driver’s seat and continued on the mission of entering the town to reconnoiter road conditions. As he rounded a turn he encountered an 88-mm. antitank gun at pointblank range. Realizing that he had no crew, no one to man the tank’s guns, he heroically chose to disregard his personal safety in a direct charge on the German weapon. At considerable speed he headed straight for the loaded gun, which was fully manned by enemy troops who had only to pull the lanyard to send a shell into his vehicle. So unexpected and daring was his assault that he was able to drive his tank completely over the gun, demolishing it and causing its crew to flee in confusion. He then skillfully sideswiped a large truck, overturned it, and wheeling his lumbering vehicle, returned to his company. When medical personnel who had been summoned to treat the wounded sergeant could not locate him, the valiant soldier ran through a hail of sniper fire to direct them to his stricken comrade. The bold, fearless determination of S/Sgt. Burr, his skill and courageous devotion to duty, resulted in the completion of his mission in the face of seemingly impossible odds.
GARY, DONALD ARTHUR
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Junior Grade, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Franklin. Place and date: Japanese Home Islands near Kobe, Japan, March 19th, 1945. Entered service at: Ohio. Born: 23 July 1903, Findlay, Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as an engineering officer attached to the U.S.S. Franklin when that vessel was fiercely attacked by enemy aircraft during the operations against the Japanese Home Islands near Kobe, Japan, 19 March 1945. Stationed on the third deck when the ship was rocked by a series of violent explosions set off in her own ready bombs, rockets, and ammunition by the hostile attack, Lt. (j.g.) Gary unhesitatingly risked his life to assist several hundred men trapped in a messing compartment filled with smoke, and with no apparent egress. As the imperiled men below decks became increasingly panic stricken under the raging fury of incessant explosions, he confidently assured them he would find a means of effecting their release and, groping through the dark, debris-filled corridors, ultimately discovered an escapeway. Stanchly determined, he struggled back to the messing compartment 3 times despite menacing flames, flooding water, and the ominous threat of sudden additional explosions, on each occasion calmly leading his men through the blanketing pall of smoke until the last one had been saved. Selfless in his concern for his ship and his fellows, he constantly rallied others about him, repeatedly organized and led fire-fighting parties into the blazing inferno on the flight deck and, when firerooms No.1 and No.2 were found to be inoperable, entered the No. 3 fireroom and directed the raising of steam in No.1 boiler in the face of extreme difficulty and hazard. An inspiring and courageous leader, Lt. (j.g.) Gary rendered self-sacrificing service under the most perilous conditions and, by his heroic initiative, fortitude, and valor, was responsible for the saving of several hundred lives. His conduct throughout reflects the highest credit upon himself and upon the U.S. Naval Service.
O’CALLAHAN, JOSEPH TIMOTHY
Rank and organization: Commander (Chaplain Corps), U.S. Naval Reserve, U.S.S. Franklin. Place and date: Near Kobe, Japan, March 19th, 1945. Entered service at: Massachusetts. Born: 14 May 1904, Boston, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as chaplain on board the U.S.S. Franklin when that vessel was fiercely attacked by enemy Japanese aircraft during offensive operations near Kobe, Japan, on 19 March 1945. A valiant and forceful leader, calmly braving the perilous barriers of flame and twisted metal to aid his men and his ship, Lt. Comdr. O’Callahan groped his way through smoke-filled corridors to the open flight deck and into the midst of violently exploding bombs, shells, rockets, and other armament. With the ship rocked by incessant explosions, with debris and fragments raining down and fires raging in ever-increasing fury, he ministered to the wounded and dying, comforting and encouraging men of all faiths; he organized and led firefighting crews into the blazing inferno on the flight deck; he directed the jettisoning of live ammunition and the flooding of the magazine; he manned a hose to cool hot, armed bombs rolling dangerously on the listing deck, continuing his efforts, despite searing, suffocating smoke which forced men to fall back gasping and imperiled others who replaced them. Serving with courage, fortitude, and deep spiritual strength, Lt. Comdr. O’Callahan inspired the gallant officers and men of the Franklin to fight heroically and with profound faith in the face of almost certain death and to return their stricken ship to port.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 31st Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: At Bentonville, N.C., March 19th, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Lafayette County, Wis. Date of issue: 16 June 1865. Citation: Entirely unassisted, brought from the field an abandoned piece of artillery and saved the gun from falling into the hands of the enemy.
CLUTE, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 14th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Bentonville, N.C., March 19th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Marathon, Mich. Date of issue: 26 August 1898. Citation: In a charge, captured the flag of the 40th North Carolina (C.S.A.), the flag being taken in a personal encounter with an officer who carried and defended it.
DOUGALL, ALLAN H.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant and Adjutant, 88th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Bentonville, N.C., March 19th, 1865. Entered service at: New Haven, Allen County, Ind. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 16 February 1897. Citation: In the face of a galling fire from the enemy he voluntarily returned to where the color bearer had fallen wounded and saved the flag of his regiment from capture.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 14th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Bentonville, N.C., March 19th, 1865. Entered service at: Cockery, Mich. Birth: Oswego County, N.Y. Date of issue: 27 April 1896. Citation: Rushed into the midst of the enemy and rescued the colors, the color bearer having fallen mortally wounded.
Absolutely Incredible Kid Day
Celebrated since 1996, Absolutely Incredible Kid Day® (AIKD) is a special day to recognize the absolutely incredible kids in our lives. Whether it’s your own child, your grandchild or even a friend’s child, Camp Fire USA asks you to take the time to write them a note that tells them how important they are to you.
What is Absolutely Incredible Kid Day?
What is so special about writing a letter?
A letter is personal, tangible and something a child can hold on to for years to come. Simply slip a note in your child’s backpack or lunch bag…maybe even under their pillow. Mail letters to your nieces, nephews, brothers and sisters and see how your words can brighten the days of the special children in your life.
What is the goal of Absolutely Incredible Kid Day?
Let’s get everyone involved so that every child sees how remarkable they are in the eyes of the adults in their lives. Writing a letter really can make a difference by encouraging children with positive words of encouragement.
Simply click on the link above to open the PDF file. Don’t have Adobe Acrobat Reader? Download it here for free!
Copied from: http://www.campfireusadallas.org/AIK/index.htm
Proverbs 3: 5-6
Trust in the Lord with all your heart, And lean not on your own understanding;
6 In all your ways acknowledge Him,And He shall direct[a] your paths.
Now inscribed on the Library of Congress, James Madison’s words are as true today as they were in 1829: “The happy Union of these States is a wonder; their Constitution a miracle; their example the hope of Liberty throughout the world.” In forging such a nation, the Founding Fathers were the most exemplary of leaders.
The power of purpose: It was through persecution, hardships, and struggles whereby the Founders rallied and mutually pledged their “reliance on the protection of Divine Providence” in declaring our independence. The innumerable lessons our Founders taught us transcend political ideology and religious creed. The rally today is for leaders with purpose, backed by the power of their convictions, faith, and sacrifice, to make a difference in the world. Just as the Founders were men of clear purpose and mission, successful management today charts a clear course with the right women and men in place with the necessary tools to achieve their goals.
Our Founders were leadership pioneers; let us honor their memory as we celebrate.
“If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew to serve your turn long after they are gone, and so hold on when there is nothing in you except the will which says to them: ‘Hold on!'”
~ Rudyard Kipling
Perdurable pur-DUR-uh-bul; pur-DYUR-, adjective:
Very durable; lasting; continuing long.
37 – The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius’ will and proclaims Caligula emperor.
1229 – Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor declares himself King of Jerusalem during the Sixth Crusade.
1314 – Jacques de Molay, the 23rd and the last Grand Master of the Knights Templar, is burned at the stake.
1541 – Hernando de Soto observed the first recorded flood of the Mississippi River.
1644 – In Virginia the Opechancanough Indians rise up against the settlers but after two years they will be defeated decisively.
1673 – John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton sells his part of New Jersey to the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers.
1692 – Pennsylvania is declared a royal colony and New York governor Benjamin Fletcher is declared governor of Pennsylvania, depriving William Penn of his proprietary powers.
1766 – Revolutionary War: The British Parliament repeals the Stamp Act, which had been very unpopular in the British colonies. The Stamp Act was passed on March 22, 1765, leading to an uproar in the colonies over an issue that was to be a major cause of the Revolution: taxation without representation.
1781 – Revolutionary War: British General Cornwallis retreats to Willmington to wait for reinforcements from General Clinton.
1781 – Charles Messier rediscovers global cluster M92. M92 is located in a relatively blank area of Hercules north of the well-known “Keystone” asterism. It can be found by drawing an imaginary line from the NW corner “Keystone” star Eta Herculis (η Her), magnitude 3.5, to star Iota Herculis (ι Her) at magnitude 3.8. About 60% of the way along this line is M92.
1813 – David Melville of Newport, Rhode Island patented the gas streetlight.
1818 – Congress passes the first Pension Act, which provides lifetime pensions authorized for veterans of the War for Independence with nine months Continental service in need of assistance.
1834 – The first railroad tunnel in the U.S. was completed. The work was in Pennsylvania between Hollidaysburg and Johnstown, Pennsylvania. Driven through slate, the Staple Bend Tunnel was 901 feet long, 25 feet wide and 21 feet high and lined throughout with masonry 18 inches thick. It was for the Allegheny Portage Railroad, the first railroad to go west of the Alleghany Mountains.
1850 – American Express is founded by Henry Wells and William Fargo.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate women rioted in Salisbury, N.C. to protest the lack of flour and salt in the South.
1865 – Civil War: The Congress of the Confederate States of America adjourns for the last time.
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Wilson’s raid to Selma, AL.
1874 – Hawaii signs a treaty with the United States granting exclusive trading rights.
1877 – Civil rights leader and Gospel minister Frederick Douglass became the first Black confirmed by the U. S. Senate to serve in a presidential appointment.
1881 – PT Barnum & James A. Bailey’s Greatest Show on Earth opens (Madison Square Garden).
1890 – The first US state naval militia was organized in Massachusetts.
1893 – Former Governor General Lord Stanley pledges to donate a silver challenge cup, later named after him, as an award for the best hockey team in Canada; originally presented to amateur champions, the Stanley Cup has been awarded to the top pro team since 1910, and since 1926, only to National Hockey League teams.
1895 – Two hundred Blacks left Savannah, Ga., for Liberia.
1899 – Phoebe, a moon of Saturn is discovered by William Henry Pickering.
1902 – Enrico Caruso becomes first well-known performer to make a record. The recording of “Vesti la giubba” from Leoncavallo’s “Pagliacci” was the world’s first gramophone record to sell a million copies.
1905 – Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt were married.
1909 – Einar Dessau of Denmark uses a short-wave radio transmitter, becoming the first radio broadcaster. He broadcast six miles and became the first “ham” operator.
1910 – Rose O’Neill’s Kewpie doll was patented. The original Kewpie dolls were made from china or bisque materials.
1910 – The first opera ever given in English at the Met and the first by an American composer was performed. It was the one-act opera, “The Pipe of Desire,” by Boston composer Frederick Shepherd Converse and librettist George Edward Barton.
1911 – Theodore Roosevelt opened the Roosevelt Dam in Arizona. It was the largest dam in the U.S. at the time.
1915 – World War I: Massive naval attack in Battle of Gallipoli. Three battleships are sunk during a failed British and French naval attack on the Dardanelles.
1917 – World War I: The Germans sank the U.S.S Illinois, without any type of warning. The U-Boat was the UC-21 commanded by Reinhold Saltzwedel.
1918 – The first seagoing ship made of concrete was launched at Redwood City, CA, near San Francisco. The ship was named “Faith” cost $750,000 to build.
1922 – The first public celebration of Bat mitzvah, for the daughter of Rabbi Mordecai Kaplan, is held in New York City.
1924 – The Soldier’s Bonus Bill is passed by the House. It offers 20-year annuities for veterans and will cost $2,000,000,000. The Senate will concur on 23 April, but Coolidge will veto it. Congress will override the veto.
1925 – The Tri-State Tornado hits the Midwestern states of Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana, killing 695 people and injured some 13,000 people. They caused $17 million in property damage.
1931 – First handheld electric shavers, complete with a small internal motor go on sale in US (Schick).
1931 – Jackie Mitchell became the second female in professional baseball as she signed with the Chattanooga Lookouts, a Tennessee Class AA minor league team.
1937 – The New London School explosion kills three hundred, mostly children. A natural gas leak caused an explosion, destroying the school in New London, Texas, a community in Rusk County previously known as “London”. As of 2014, this event is the third deadliest disaster in the history of Texas, after the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, and the 1947 Texas City Disaster.
1938 – New York first required serological blood tests of pregnant women.
1938 – Mexico nationalizes all oil properties of the US and other foreign-owned companies. There will be no financial settlement until 1943 when Mexico paid the US $24 million for all its equipment etc.
1939 – Georgia finally ratified the Bill of Rights, 150 years after the birth of the federal government. Connecticut and Massachusetts, the only other states to hold out, also accepted the Bill of Rights in this year.
1940 – “Light of the World” was first heard on NBC radio. The soap opera was unique in that it featured the Bible as the center of the story line.
1940 – World War II: Axis Powers – Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini meet at the Brenner Pass in the Alps and agree to form an alliance against France and the United Kingdom.
1940 – Glen Gray and his orchestra recorded “No Name Jive” on Decca Records.
1942 – WW II: The third military draft began in the U.S. because of World War II.
1942 – WW II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order No. 9102, “Establishing the War Relocation Authority in the Executive Office of the President and Defining its Functions and Duties.” The War Relocation Authority was created to “Take all people of Japanese descent into custody, surround them with troops, prevent them from buying land, and return them to their former homes at the close of the war.”
1942 – Two Black players, Jackie Robinson & Nate Moreland, tryout with the White Sox. Both were dismissed without an offer.
1943 – WW II: The US 2nd Corps (commanded by General Patton) captures Gafsa and advances toward El Guettar.
1944 – WW II: Allied destroyers bombard the Japanese base at Wewak during the night
1944 – The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Italy kills 26 and causes thousands to flee their homes.
1944 – A small riot broke out in a Chicago department store, as thousands of customers fought over a shipment of 1,500 alarm clocks offered for sale. Clocks had not been available in stores since 1942.
1945 – World War II: 1,250 American bombers with some 700 escorting fighters, drop 3000 tons of bombs on Berlin.
1945 – World War II: First time that the Douglas AD-4 Skyraider took to the sky. Designed near the end of World War II, the Skyraider was used by the United States Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force. It was used in combat for the first time in the Korean War.
1945 – There are American landings on Panay by 14,000 men of US 40th Infantry Division (General Brush) in the area near Iloilo. There is little initial opposition from the Japanese garrison.
1945 – Maurice “Rocket” Richard becomes the first NHL player to score 50 goals.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Powder Your Face with Sunshine” by Evelyn Knight. “Far Away Places” by Margaret Whiting, “Cruising Down the River” by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: The Skyliners) and “Don’t Rob Another Man’s Castle” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1950 – “Music! Music! Music!” by Teresa Brewer topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: Following the withdrawal of communist forces, Seoul was again in U.N. hands.
1952 – Korean War: There was a Communist offensive in Korea.
1952 – First plastic lens for cataract patients fitted (Philadelphia). They were invented by an English physician named Harold Ridley.
1953 – The Eisenhower Administration protests the Soviet Union’s firing on a US bomber over international water.
1953 – National League approves Boston Braves move to Milwaukee (first shift since 1903).
1954 – RKO Pictures becomes the first motion picture studio to be owned by an individual. At a cost of nearly $24 million, Howard Hughes had gained near total control of RKO.
1958 – Dodgers announces mascot/clown Emmett Kelly will not perform in 1958. It was a move to change their image (“Dem bums”), now that they were in Los Angeles.
1959 – Boston Celtics’ Bill Sharman begins record of 56 straight free-throws.
1959 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs a bill into law allowing for Hawaiian statehood, which would become official on August 21.
1961 – “Pony Time” by Chubby Checker topped the charts.
1963 – The U.S. Supreme Court handed down the Miranda decision concerning legal council for defendants.
1963 – The US Supreme Court made its Gideon v Wainwright ruling which said poor defendants have a constitutional right to an attorney.
1965 – Poppin’ Fresh Pillsbury DoughBoy “born.” The Pillsbury Doughboy was created by an ad agency called Leo Burnett. Pacific Data Images, created the animated version of the figure for the commercials and the name of the artist who actually first drew Poppin’ Fresh (the Pillsbury Doughboy) was Martin Nodell.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Eight Days a Week” by The Beatles, “Stop! In the Name of Love” by The Supremes, “The Birds and the Bees” by Jewel Akens and “I’ve Got a Tiger by the Tail” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1966 – Scott Paper begins selling paper dresses for $1. The “Paper Caper” was the nation’s first paper dress, was introduced by Scott Paper as a promotional gimmick for its consumer products.
1967 – The Supertanker Torrey Canyon runs aground off the Cornish coast.
1968 – The U.S. Congress repeals the requirement for a gold reserve to back US currency.
1969 – Vietnam War: U.S. B-52 bombers are diverted from their targets in South Vietnam to attack suspected communist base camps and supply areas in Cambodia for the first time in the war.
1970 – Mail service paralyzed by first major postal strike. The strike had been brewing by months of stalling by union leaders and government officials. With no rights to collective bargaining, and having not seen wages increase between 1967 and 1969, anger among postal workers had been simmering for years.
1970 – Brook Benton received a gold record for the hit single, “Rainy Night in Georgia.”
1972 – “Heart of Gold” by Neil Young topped the charts.
1972 – The USS Jesse L. Brown, the first U.S. naval ship to be named after a Black naval officer is launched.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Killing Me Softly with His Song” by Roberta Flack, “Love Train” by O’Jays, “Also Sprach Zarathustra (2001)” by Deodato and “Teddy Bear Song” by Barbara Fairchild all topped the charts.
1974 – Most OPEC nations end a five-month oil embargo against the United States, Europe and Japan.
1974 – U.S. Navy sent to sweep mines from Suez Canal.
1977 – US restricted citizens from visiting Cuba, Vietnam, N. Korea and Cambodia.
1978 – “Night Fever” by the Bee Gees topped the charts.
1980 – John Favara struck and killed Frank Gotti (12), the son of mobster John Gotti, as the boy darted in front of his car on a minibike in Brooklyn. Favara disappeared on July 28. In 2009 it was reported that mobster Charles Carneglia (62) had killed Favara and dissolved his body in acid.
1981 – The U.S. disclosed that there were biological weapons tested in Texas in 1966.
1985 – Baseball Commissioner Peter Ueberroth reinstates Willie Mays & Mickey Mantle. They had been banned from association with organized baseball by Bowie Kuhn due to their employment by Atlantic City casinos.
1986 – Treasury Department announces plans to alter paper money. Anti-counterfeiting experts were redesigning all US Currency from the $1 bill to the $100. Changes discussed were watermarks, security threads, printing that couldn’t be seen when bills were laid flat, special color tints, holograms, and razor-thin prisms that created changing color patterns.
1987 – Superconductivity discovered. It was first discovered in 1911but only at temperatures of 4 degrees above absolute zero. The discovery announced here was based on a ceramic that could produce superconductivity at temperatures as warm as 30 degrees above absolute zero. Superconductivity is reached when a material has an electrical resistance of exactly zero and no interior magnetic field (the Meissner effect).
1987 – Susan Butcher won her second consecutive Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, covering the distance from Anchorage to Nome, Alaska, in 11 days, 2 hours, 5 minutes and 13 seconds.
1989 – The space shuttle Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base in California, completing a five-day mission.
1989 – California Quake amusement ride opens at Universal Studios.
1989 – Investor group led by George W Bush purchases controlling interest of Texas Rangers.
1990 – In the largest art theft in US history, 12 paintings, collectively worth around $300 million, are stolen from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston, Massachusetts.
1990 – In Tampa, FL, a little league player was killed after being hit with a pitch.
1991 – Philadelphia ’76ers retire Wilt Chamberlain’s #13 jersey.
1992 – Leona Helmsley was sentenced to 4 years in prison for tax evasion. She had a reputation for tyrannical behavior that earned her the nickname “Queen of Mean”. Her trouble with the IRS started when she was quoted as saying, “We don’t pay taxes. Only the little people pay taxes …”,
1994 – The space shuttle Columbia returned from a two-week mission.
1995 – Michael Jordan announced that he was ending his 17-month NBA retirement.
1998 – The New York City Board of Education voted to require its schoolchildren to wear uniforms. The dress code would begin in 1999.
1999 – A US federal judge ordered US telephone companies to pay $6.2 million owed to Cuba to the families of three Cuban Americans killed in 1996.
2001 – An Amtrak train bound for the Bay Area derailed in Iowa and one person was killed with 96 injured.
2002 – Britain planned to send 1,700 troops to Afghanistan to join the 6,300 US forces.
2002 – In Ohio Brittanie Cecil (13) died two days after being hit by a hockey puck while watching an NHL game between the Columbus Blue Jackets and Calgary Flames. It was apparently the first such fan fatality in NHL history.
2002 – The FBI “Operation Candyman” snared over 90 people following a 14-month investigation of child pornography over the Internet.
2003 – The Iraq War begins.
2003 – Iraq War: Approximately $900 million was taken from Iraq’s Central Bank by Saddam Hussein and his family only hours before the bombing started.
2003 – Olympic gold medal figure skater Sarah Hughes won the Sullivan Award as the nation’s top amateur athlete.
2003 – FBI agents raid the corporate headquarters of HealthSouth Corporation in Birmingham, Alabama on suspicion of massive corporate fraud led by the company’s top executives.
2003 – A jury in Corpus Christi, Texas, cleared Bayer Corp. of liability in a $560 million lawsuit that accused the pharmaceutical giant of ignoring research linking the cholesterol-lowering drug Baycol to dozens of deaths.
2003 – In Salt Lake City, Brian Mitchell and Wanda Barzee were charged with aggravated kidnapping, sexual assault and burglary in the abduction of Elizabeth Smart.
2004 – Addressing thousands of soldiers at Fort Campbell, Ky., President Bush warned that terrorists could never be appeased and said there was no safety for any nation that “lives at the mercy of gangsters and mass murderers.”
2004 – A 100-foot diameter asteroid passed within 26,500 miles of Earth, the closest-ever brush on record by a space rock.
2004 – Cleanup work at Love Canal has been completed, federal officials said. The EPA says it should be taken off the Superfund list.
2005 – Terri Schiavo’s feeding tube is removed at the request of her husband.
2005 – Wal-Mart agreed to pay a record $11 million to settle a civil immigration case for using illegal immigrants to clean floors at stores in 21 states.
2005 – Former Connecticut three-term Gov. John G. Rowland was sentenced to a year in prison after pleading guilty to a single federal corruption charge.
2006 – The USS Cape St. George, a Ticonderoga-class cruiser and the USS Gonzalez, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer, engaged pirate vessels after receiving fire from them. They killed one and captured 12 of the pirates.
2008 – The United States Embassy in Yemen is closed after three mortar shells detonate near the embassy compound. Two people are killed in the attack.
2008 – Barack Obama addressed his problem with pastor Jeremiah Wright in a speech in Philadelphia and turned to a broad discussion of race, a subject untouched so far in his campaign.
2009 – Governor Bill Richardson signs House Bill 285, repealing capital punishment in New Mexico.
2009 – The White House endorsed a bill to triple the size of the AmeriCorps program and expand service opportunities for students and seniors.
2009 – The US government sued Union Pacific in San Diego and Houston saying the rail company had failed to prevent smuggling of illegal drugs by rail into the US from Mexico.
2010 – President Obama signed a $17.6 billion job-creation measure a day after it was passed by Congress.
2010 – Astronauts from the US and Russia landed safely in northern Kazakhstan’s chilly steppes after spending almost six months on the International Space Station.
2011 – Former US Secretary of State Warren Christopher died.
2012 – Voters in the US territory of Puerto Rico go to the polls for the Republican primary with Mitt Romney winning all of the delegates.
2013 – The trial of Dr. Kermit Gosnell, Philadelphia started today. Gosnell is charged with murdering seven babies who were born after viability in his rundown abortion facility. Gosnell is charged with killing the babies by “plunging scissors into their necks and ‘snipping’ their spinal cords.” Main stream media has largely ignored this case so far.
1496 – Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England and queen consort of Louis XII of France (d. 1533)
1603 – Simon Bradstreet, Massachusetts Bay colonist (d. 1693)
1782 – John C. Calhoun, 7th Vice President of the United States (d. 1850)
1837 – Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th President of the United States (d. 1908)
1848 – Nathanael Herreshoff, American naval architect (d. 1938)
1858 – Rudolf Diesel, German inventor (d. 1913)
1869 – Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1940)
1898 – Jake Swirbul, American aircraft manufacturer (d. 1960)
1901 – William H. Johnson, African-American artist of the Harlem Renaissance (d. 1970)
1909 – Ernest Gallo, American winemaker (d. 2007)
1922 – Fred Shuttlesworth, American civil rights movement leader
1923 – Andy Granatelli, American motorsports entrepreneur
1926 – Peter Graves, American actor
1927 – George Plimpton, American writer and actor (d. 2003)
1932 – John Updike, American author
1938 – Charley Pride, American musician
1941 – Wilson Pickett, American singer (d. 2006)
1945 – Michael Reagan, American radio host and adopted son of Ronald Reagan
1950 – John Hartman, American drummer (Doobie Brothers )
1951 – Bill Frisell, American jazz musician
1963 – Vanessa L. Williams, American beauty queen, actress, and singer
1970 – Queen Latifah, American singer and actress
1975 – Brian Griese, American football player
*MATHIS, JACK W.
WW II (Air Mission)
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 359th Bomber Squadron, 303d Bomber Group. Place and date: Over Vegesack, Germany, March 18th, 1943. Entered service at: San Angelo, Tex. Born: 25 September 1921, San Angelo, Tex. G.O. No.: 38, 12 July 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy over Vegesack, Germany, on 18 March 1943. 1st Lt. Mathis, as leading bombardier of his squadron, flying through intense and accurate antiaircraft fire, was just starting his bomb run, upon which the entire squadron depended for accurate bombing, when he was hit by the enemy antiaircraft fire. His right arm was shattered above the elbow, a large wound was torn in his side and abdomen, and he was knocked from his bomb sight to the rear of the bombardier’s compartment. Realizing that the success of the mission depended upon him, 1st Lt. Mathis, by sheer determination and willpower, though mortally wounded, dragged himself back to his sights, released his bombs, then died at his post of duty. As the result of this action the airplanes of his bombardment squadron placed their bombs directly upon the assigned target for a perfect attack against the enemy. 1st Lt. Mathis’ undaunted bravery has been a great inspiration to the officers and men of his unit.
McGEE, WILLIAM D.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Medical Detachment, 304th Infantry, 76th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Mulheim, Germany, March 18th, 1945. Entered service at: Indianapolis, Ind. Birth: Indianapolis, Ind. G.O. No.: 21, 26 February 1946. Citation: A medical aid man, he made a night crossing of the Moselle River with troops endeavoring to capture the town of Mulheim. The enemy had retreated in the sector where the assault boats landed, but had left the shore heavily strewn with antipersonnel mines. Two men of the first wave attempting to work their way forward detonated mines which wounded them seriously, leaving them bleeding and in great pain beyond the reach of their comrades. Entirely on his own initiative, Pvt. McGee entered the minefield, brought out one of the injured to comparative safety, and had returned to rescue the second victim when he stepped on a mine and was severely wounded in the resulting explosion. Although suffering intensely and bleeding profusely, he shouted orders that none of his comrades was to risk his life by entering the death-sown field to render first aid that might have saved his life. In making the supreme sacrifice, Pvt. demonstrated a concern for the well-being of his fellow soldiers that transcended all considerations for his own safety and a gallantry in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service.
MURPHY, FREDERICK C.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Medical Detachment, 259th Infantry, 65th Infantry Division. Place and date: Siegfried Line at Saarlautern, Germany, March 18th, 1945. Entered service at: Weymouth, Mass. Birth: Boston, Mass. G.O. No.: 21, 26 February 1946. Citation: An aid man, he was wounded in the right shoulder soon after his comrades had jumped off in a dawn attack 18 March 1945, against the Siegfried Line at Saarlautern, Germany. He refused to withdraw for treatment and continued forward, administering first aid under heavy machinegun, mortar, and artillery fire. When the company ran into a thickly sown antipersonnel minefield and began to suffer more and more casualties, he continued to disregard his own wound and unhesitatingly braved the danger of exploding mines, moving about through heavy fire and helping the injured until he stepped on a mine which severed one of his feet. In spite of his grievous wounds, he struggled on with his work, refusing to be evacuated and crawling from man to man administering to them while in great pain and bleeding profusely. He was killed by the blast of another mine which he had dragged himself across in an effort to reach still another casualty. With indomitable courage, and unquenchable spirit of self-sacrifice and supreme devotion to duty which made it possible for him to continue performing his tasks while barely able to move, Pfc. Murphy saved many of his fellow soldiers at the cost of his own life.
TREADWELL, JACK L.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Company F, 180th Infantry, 45th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Nieder-Wurzbach, Germany, March 18th, 1945. Entered service at: Snyder. Okla. Birth: Ashland, Ala. G.O. No.: 79, 14 September 1945. Citation: Capt. Treadwell (then 1st Lt.), commanding officer of Company F, near Nieder-Wurzbach, Germany, in the Siegfried line, single-handedly captured 6 pillboxes and 18 prisoners. Murderous enemy automatic and rifle fire with intermittent artillery bombardments had pinned down his company for hours at the base of a hill defended by concrete fortifications and interlocking trenches. Eight men sent to attack a single point had all become casualties on the hare slope when Capt. Treadwell, armed with a submachinegun and handgrenades, went forward alone to clear the way for his stalled company. Over the terrain devoid of cover and swept by bullets, he fearlessly advanced, firing at the aperture of the nearest pillbox and, when within range, hurling grenades at it. He reached the pillbox, thrust the muzzle of his gun through the port, and drove four Germans out with their hands in the air. A fifth was found dead inside. Waving these prisoners back to the American line, he continued under terrible, concentrated fire to the next pillbox and took it in the same manner. In this fort he captured the commander of the hill defenses, whom he sent to the rear with the other prisoners. Never slackening his attack, he then ran across the crest of the hill to a third pillbox, traversing this distance in full view of hostile machine gunners and snipers. He was again successful in taking the enemy position. The Germans quickly fell prey to his further rushes on three more pillboxes in the confusion and havoc caused by his whirlwind assaults and capture of their commander. Inspired by the electrifying performance of their leader, the men of Company F stormed after him and overwhelmed resistance on the entire hill, driving a wedge into the Siegfried line and making it possible for their battalion to take its objective. By his courageous willingness to face nearly impossible odds and by his overwhelming one-man offensive, Capt. Treadwell reduced a heavily fortified, seemingly impregnable enemy sector.
WILKIN, EDWARD G.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company C, 157th Infantry, 45th Infantry Division. Place and date: Siegfried Line in Germany, March 18th, 1945. Entered service at: Longmeadow, Mass. Birth: Burlington, Vt. G.O. No.: 119, 17 December 1945. Citation: He spearheaded his unit’s assault of the Siegfried Line in Germany. Heavy fire from enemy riflemen and camouflaged pillboxes had pinned down his comrades when he moved forward on his own initiative to reconnoiter a route of advance. He cleared the way into an area studded with pillboxes, where he repeatedly stood up and walked into vicious enemy fire, storming one fortification after another with automatic rifle fire and grenades, killing enemy troops, taking prisoners as the enemy defense became confused, and encouraging his comrades by his heroic example. When halted by heavy barbed wire entanglements, he secured bangalore torpedoes and blasted a path toward still more pillboxes, all the time braving bursting grenades and mortar shells and direct rifle and automatic-weapons fire. He engaged in fierce fire fights, standing in the open while his adversaries fought from the protection of concrete emplacements, and on one occasion pursued enemy soldiers across an open field and through interlocking trenches, disregarding the crossfire from two pillboxes until he had penetrated the formidable line two hundred yards in advance of any American element. That night, although terribly fatigued, he refused to rest and insisted on distributing rations and supplies to his comrades. Hearing that a nearby company was suffering heavy casualties, he secured permission to guide litter bearers and assist them in evacuating the wounded. All that night he remained in the battle area on his mercy missions, and for the following two days he continued to remove casualties, venturing into enemy-held territory, scorning cover and braving devastating mortar and artillery bombardments. In three days he neutralized and captured six pillboxes single-handedly, killed at least nine Germans, wounded thirteen, took thirteen prisoners, aided in the capture of fourteen others, and saved many American lives by his fearless performance as a litter bearer. Through his superb fighting skill, dauntless courage, and gallant, inspiring actions, Cpl. Wilkin contributed in large measure to his company’s success in cracking the Siegfried Line. One month later he was killed in action while fighting deep in Germany.
St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland, was not actually Irish. He was born on March 17 around AD 389, somewhere in Roman Britain, possibly near Dumbarton, Scotland. At 16, Irish raiders looking for slaves captured him and he was taken there to tend sheep. After six years of slavery, he ran away and ended up wandering through southern Gaul (France) and Italy. There, he had a vision from God that told him to return to Ireland and convert the pagans to Christianity. Returning to Ireland around 432, St. Patrick did missionary work until he died in 461 (some sources say 493). Using 389 as birth that means he was either 72 or 104 at his death.Patrick began his missionary work in the Lecale peninsular, preaching, converting pagans and baptizing.
He established himself securely in the area with the help of his friend Dichu, Patrick’s first convert. Dichu was an influential chieftain in the region. Dichu granted Patrick abarn for a Christian establishment, where Ireland’s first
Christians worshipped. The rustic association has been preserved in the name, which has remained ever since Sabhall or Saul, borrowed from the Latin stabulum meaning cattle-stall or sheep-fold.
Patrick returned often to Saul to rest between journeys. He died in Saul on 17 March 461 and was buried there. The country of Ireland went into mourning. The mythology surrounding his life became ever more ingrained in the Irish culture: Perhaps the most well known legend is that he explained the Holy Trinity (Father, Son and Holy Spirit) using the three leaves of a native Irish clover, the shamrock.
Since around the ninth or 10th century, people in Ireland have been observing the Roman Catholic feast day of St. Patrick on March 17. Interestingly, however, the first parade held to honor St. Patrick’s Day took place not in Ireland but in the United States. On March 17, 1762, Irish soldiers serving in the English military marched through New York City. Along with their music, the parade helped the soldiers reconnect with their Irish roots, as well as with fellow Irishmen serving in the English army.
3 Trust in the Lord, and do good; Dwell in the land, and feed on His faithfulness.
Now inscribed on the Library of Congress, James Madison’s words are as true today as they were in 1829: “The happy Union of these States is a wonder; their Constitution a miracle; their example the hope of Liberty throughout the world.” In forging such a nation, the Founding Fathers were the most exemplary of leaders.
The fulfillment of faith: To their credit, the Founders understood and valued the practice of faith. In their wisdom the founders recognized the truth that we are all “created equal and endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights” by which we live our lives and practice our faith, whether or in a higher power or ideals greater than ourselves. Stepping back to contemplate allows us to see the world around us, and the people entrusted to our leadership, in a more meaningful way. The executive model today is not so much an “independence from” mentality as it is a “responsibility toward” philosophy. Thoughtful leaders seek to be a blessing and to serve causes greater than self; wise ones remember the source.
“We have always found the Irish a bit odd. They refuse to be English.”
– Winston Churchill
a wooden club or cudgel, typically made from a stout knotty stick with a large knob on the end, that is associated with Ireland and Irish folklore.
180 – Marcus Aurelius dies. Commodus is now the only emperor of the Roman Empire.
461 – According to tradition, St. Patrick (b.c389), the patron saint of Ireland, died in Saul, County Down.
1190 – Crusaders completed the massacre of Jews of York, England.
1737 – First St Patrick’s Day celebration in America. It took place in Boston, Massachusetts.
1756 – St. Patrick’s Day is celebrated in New York City for the first time It waas held at the Crown and Thistle Tavern, near Wall Street, in 1756. NYC’s St. Patrick’s Day Parade remains true to its roots as a true marchers parade by not allowing floats, automobiles and other commercial aspects in the Parade.
1766 – Britain repealed the Stamp Act that had caused resentment in the North American colonies. It then passes the Declaratory Act, which asserts Great Britain’s right to pass any laws governing the American colonies.
1775 – The Transylvania Purchase, the largest private or corporate real estate transaction in United States history between the Transylvania Company, led by Richard Henderson of North Carolina, and the Cherokee Indians for over 20 million acres of land-all the lands of the Cumberland River watershed and extending to the Kentucky River-for 2000 pounds sterling and goods worth 8000 pounds. Richard Henderson, a North Carolina judge representing the Transylvania Company, met with three Cherokee Chiefs (Oconistoto, chief warrior and first representative of the Cherokee Nation or tribe of Indians, and Attacuttuillah and Sewanooko). It was known as the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals or The Henderson Purchase. The purchase was later declared invalid by the Continental Congress but the land cession was not reversed.
1776 – Revolution: British forces evacuate Boston, Massachusetts after George Washington and Henry Knox place artillery overlooking the city.
1780 – Revolutionary War: George Washington grants the Continental Army a holiday “as an act of solidarity with the Irish in their fight for independence”.
1811 – The USS New Orleans becomes the first practical sidewheel steamboat in the US.
1845 – The rubber band is patented.
1845 – Bristol baker, Henry Jones, patents self-rising flour.
1854 – First park land purchased by a US city, Worcester MA.
1860 – The Japanese ship Kanrin Maru, under Admiral Yoshitake Kimura, entered the Golden Gate after a 37-day voyage, on a diplomatic mission to San Francisco. It was the first Japanese ship to cross the Pacific. Three sailors died while the ship was in port. It set sail to return to Japan on May 8.
1863 – Civil War: Union cavalry attack Confederate cavalry at Kelly’s Ford, Virginia.
1865 – Civil War: A naval expedition, led by Lieutenant Commander Thomas H. Eastman, destroyed a supply base, near Montrose, VA on the peninsula between the Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers, that had been supporting Confederate guerrillas.
1868 – Postage stamp canceling machine patent issued.
1870 – Wellesley College was incorporated by the Massachusetts legislature under its first name, Wellesley Female Seminary.
1871 – National Association of Professional BaseBall players organized.
1876 – Indian Wars: Gen. Crook destroyed Cheyenne and Ogallala-Sioux Indian camps.
1884 – John Joseph Montgomery made the first glider flight in Otay, California.
1886 – In Carrollton, Mississippi a convict, Will McKinney, who was about 19, and those who died as a result of what happened on the second floor of the courthouse today, were black. McKinney had been convicted during the October 1885 session of circuit court of manslaughter in the death of a young man named Charlie Broadway and was serving a 12-month sentence. The grand jury wrote that on the night of Feb. 18, 1886, a crowd of armed, masked men forced Sheriff T.T. Hamilton to give them the keys to the jail. They took McKinney outside, where they shot and hung him to death.
1897 – Motion pictures of a bare-knuckles championship prize fight were taken for the first time as ‘Sunny’ Bob Fitzsimmons knocked out ‘Gentleman’ Jim Corbett for the world heavyweight title.
1898 – First practical submarine first submerges, New York NY (for 1 hour 40 minutes).
1906 – The Phi Kappa Tau Fraternity is founded at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio.
1906 – President Theodore Roosevelt first likened crusading journalists to a man with “the muckrake in his hand” in a speech to the Gridiron Club in Washington, DC, as he criticized what he saw as the excesses of investigative journalism.
1907 – America’s first bowling tournament for ladies began in St. Louis, MO this day. Almost 100 women participated in the event.
1910 – Campfire Girls organization announced by Mrs Luther Halsey Gulick. It was formed in Lake Sebago, Maine. It was formally presented to the public exactly two years later.
1912 – Luther Gulick, M.D. and his wife Charlotte announce the formation of Camp Fire Girls (now Camp Fire USA).
1917 – Delta Phi Epsilon is founded at New York University Law School.
1917 – First exclusively women’s bowling tournament begins in St Louis.
1917 – WW I: The Germans sank the U.S.S City of Memphis, without any type of warning. The U-Boat was the UC-66 commanded by Herbert Pustkuchen.
1918 – WW I: The 5th Marine Regiment was the first Marine unit to move into WW I front-line trenches.
1927 – The Teapot Dome and Elk hills naval oil reserve, which had featured in the scandals of the Harding Administration, are returned to the jurisdiction of the Navy Department. The Supreme Court has ruled that the Mammoth Company has received them under fraudulent contracts which rendered ownership invalid.
1929 – General Motors acquires German auto manufacturer Adam Opel.
1930 – Al Capone was released from jail.
1933 – Comedian Phil Baker was heard on network radio for the first time when “The Armour Jester” was heard on the NBC Blue network.
1934 – Thousands of Blacks battled the police in New York in protest of the Scottsboro trial. The Scottsboro Boys were nine black defendants in a 1931 rape case initiated in Scottsboro, Alabama. The case was heard by the United States Supreme Court twice and the decisions established the principles that criminal defendants are entitled to effective assistance of counsel and that people may not be de facto excluded from juries because of their race.
1937 – Amelia Earhart took off from Oakland, CA in an attempt to become the first pilot to fly around the globe at the equator.
1941 – In Washington, D.C., the National Gallery of Art is officially opened by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: The first Jews from the Lviv Ghetto (western Ukraine) are gassed at the Belzec death camp (eastern Poland). The Nazis also began deporting Jews to the Belsen camp.
1942 – World War II: Gen. Douglas MacArthur arrived in Australia to become supreme commander of Allied forces in the southwest Pacific theater during World War II.
1943 – World War II: The German occupation authority closed Lithuanian schools of higher education and the Academy of Education.
1944 – World War II: The U.S. bombed Vienna.
1944 – World War II: The battle for Cassino continues. Indian and New Zealander troops of US 5th Army mount attacks on the southwest of the town and along Snake’s Head Ridge to Point 593. German forces mount attacks against Castle Hill and Hangman’s Hill.
1944 – On Manus Island, US forces reach their primary objective and take Lorengau airfield.
1945 – World War II: The Ludendorff Bridge in Remagen, Germany collapses, ten days after its capture.
1947 – XB-45, first US 4-engine jet bomber, makes first test flight, Muroc CA.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Now is the Hour” by Bing Crosby, “I’m Looking Over a Four Leaf Clover” by The Art Moonie Orchestra, “Beg Your Pardon” by Francis Craig and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1950 – University of California, Berkeley researchers announce the creation of element 98, which they name “Californium”.
1951 – Korean War: The Chinese engage two fresh armies against the U.N. forces in an attempt to delay their advance.
1951 – Korean War: The newly trained ROK 8th Division replaced the U.S. 1st Marine Division in the Punchbowl area.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1952 – A US ban on the word “tornado” was lifted. The ban had started in 1886 when the US Army, which handled weather forecasting, determined that the harm done by predicting a tornado would be greater than that done by the tornado itself.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – ” Lisbon Antigua” by Nelson Riddle, “Why Do Fools Fall in Love” by Frankie Lymon & The Teenagers, “Hot Diggity (Dog Ziggity Boom)” by Perry Como and “Heartbreak Hotel” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.
1958 – The United States launches the Vanguard 1 satellite. It measured the Earth’s shape.
1958 – “Tequila” by the Champs topped the charts.
1959 – The USS Skate became the first submarine to surface at the North Pole. The ships crew held a funeral service and scattered the ashes of explorer Hubert Wilkins (d.1958), who had attempted the feat in 1931.
1960 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the National Security Council directive on the anti-Cuban covert action program that will ultimately lead to the Bay of Pigs Invasion.
1961 – New York DA arrests professional gamblers who implicate Seton Hall players.
1962 – “Hey! Baby” by Bruce Channel topped the charts.
1962 – After requesting the evacuation of a seriously injured crewman, the Russian merchant vessel Dbitelny transferred the patient to the Coast Guard LORAN station on St. Paul Island in the Bering Sea. Meanwhile, a Coast Guard aircraft flew a US Navy doctor and a hospital corpsman there to perform an emergency operation. Afterwards, the injured man was flown to Elmendorf Air Force Base, where he was admitted to the US Air Force hospital.
1963 – Bob Cousy plays his last NBA game. His nicknames included “The Houdini of the Hardwood”.”Mr. Basketball”.”The Cooz.”
1966 – Off the coast of Spain in the Mediterranean, the Alvin submarine finds a missing American hydrogen bomb.
1967 – Snoopy and Charlie Brown of “Peanuts” were on the cover of “LIFE” magazine.
1967 – Vietnam War: The first woman Marine to report to Vietnam for duty, Master Sergeant Barbara J. Dulinsky, began her 18-hour flight to Bien Hoa, 30 miles north of Saigon.
1969 – Golda Meir, a Milwaukee high school teacher, becomes the first female Prime Minister of Israel.
1970 – US Postal workers defied their unions, federal anti-strike laws, the military and the Nixon government to carry out the first national strike by federal employees against the United States government in history. Letter carriers voted March 17th, 1970, to strike, and set up picket lines around the city’s post offices which were honored by 25,000 drivers and clerks, bringing postal operations to a standstill.
1970 – My Lai massacre: The United States Army charges 14 officers with suppressing information related to the incident.
1970 – Peter O’Malley becomes CEO of Los Angeles Dodgers.
1972 – U.S. President Nixon asked Congress to halt busing in order to achieve desegregation.
1973 – Burst of Joy is a Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph by Associated Press photographer Slava “Sal” Veder was taken at Travis Air Force Base in California. The photograph came to symbolize the end of United States involvement in the Vietnam War, and the prevailing sentiment that military personnel and their families could begin a process of healing after enduring the horrors of war.
1973 – The first American prisoners of war (POWs) were released from the “Hanoi Hilton” in Hanoi, North Vietnam.
1973 – “Killing Me Softly with His Song” by Roberta Flack topped the charts.
1974 – Arab oil ministers, with the exception of Libya, announced the end the oil embargo on the US.
1975 – The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific railroad enter third and final bankruptcy, and William M. Gibbons selected as receiver and trustee for the railroad.
1979 – “I Will Survive” by Gloria Gaynor topped the charts.
1979 – The US Supreme Court in Wilkerson v. Utah ruled that Utah could use a firing squad for capital punishment.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Crazy Little Thing Called Love” by Queen, “Longer” by Dan Fogelberg, “Another Brick in the Wall” by Pink Floyd and “My Heroes Have Always Been Cowboys” by Willie Nelson all topped the charts.
1980 – In Iran, militants refuse to turn hostages over to government until parliament convenes in May.
1984 – “Jump” by Van Halen topped the charts.
1985 – U.S. President Reagan agreed to a joint study with Canada on acid rain.
1985 – William Schroeder set a record for heart transplant patients as he reached his 113th day of life with the artificial organ.
1985 – Serial killer Richard Ramirez, the “Night Stalker”, commits his first two murders in Los Angeles, California murder spree.
1987 – A US federal appeals court cleared the way for the perjury indictment of former White House aide Michael Deaver (b.1938). He was later convicted of three of five perjury counts and fined $100,000.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Never Gonna Give You Up” by Rick Astley, “I Get Weak” by Belinda Carlisle, “Man in the Mirror” by Michael Jackson and “Too Gone Too Long” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.
1988 – Highest scoring NCAA basketball game: Loyola-Marymount 119, Wyoming 115.
1988 – President Reagan orders U.S. soldiers to Palmerola Air Base in Honduras in a show of strength.
1988 – Apple filed suit against Microsoft, alleging copyright infringement in the Windows GUI.
1989 – The Senate unanimously confirmed Wyoming Congressman Dick Cheney to be secretary of defense, following the failed nomination of former Sen. John Tower.
1990 – “Escapade” by Janet Jackson topped the charts.
1991 – Gulf War: Allied commanders from the Gulf War held a second round of cease-fire talks with Iraqi officers; the Iraqis were told they could not move their warplanes inside Iraq for any reason.
1993 – Helen Hayes (92), the “First Lady of the American Theater,” died in Nyack, N.Y.
1995 – US approves first chicken pox vaccine, Varivax by Merck & Co.
1996 – The $16 mil Museum of Television and Radio was christened in Beverly Hills.
1998 – Washington Mutual announced it had agreed to buy H.F. Ahmanson and Co. for $9.9 billion dollars. The deal created the nation’s seventh-largest banking company.
1998 – Jeff King battled through blowing snow and poor visibility to earn his third victory in the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race.
1999 – Instant replay was voted back in the National Football League for the 1999 season.
1999 – A large prairie fire around Thedford, Nebraska burned tens of thousands of acres and killed one volunteer firefighter.
2000 – Smith and Wesson signed an unprecedented agreement with the Clinton administration to, among other things, include safety locks with all of its handguns to make them more childproof; in return, the agreement called for federal, state and city lawsuits against the gun maker to be dropped.
2000 – Ford Motor Co. acquired Land Rover from BMW.
2000 – Boeing Co. agreed to settle a 38-day strike by its engineers. It was the largest white-collar walkout in US history.
2000 – A bankruptcy plan for Iridium Corp. was approved. Its satellites would be allowed to burn up in the atmosphere.
2002 – Iraq War – US troops killed sixteen al-Qaeda fighters in the Gardez region.
2002 – It was reported that McDonald’s Corp. had agreed to give $410 million to vegetarian groups, Hindu and Sikh organizations and to pay $4,000 to 12 plaintiffs to settle a suit over the use of beef tallow in french fries.
2003 – Pres. Bush gave Saddam Hussein 48 hours to go into exile or face military onslaught. Iraq rejected Bush’s ultimatum, saying that a U.S. attack to force Saddam from power would be “a grave mistake.”
2003 – The US orders its non-essential diplomats and the families of all embassy staff in Israel, Syria and Kuwait to leave.
2003 – Washington, D.C., tobacco farmer Dwight Ware Watson, claiming to be carrying bombs, drove a tractor and trailer into a pond on the National Mall.
2003 – Homeland Security Department commences Operation Liberty Shield, an increase in protective measures to defend the homeland coinciding with the commencement of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
2004 – Major league Baseball banned THG, a steroid at the center of a criminal probe involving a San Francisco area lab.
2005 – US Congressional hearings began on steroid use among baseball players.
2006 – US Federal regulators reported the deaths of two more women who had taken the abortion pill RU-486; Planned Parenthood, which had provided the pills to the women, said it would immediately stop disregarding the approved instructions for the drug’s use.
2008 – New York State Governor Eliot Spitzer resigns after a scandal involving a high-end prostitute. David Paterson becomes acting New York State governor.
2008 – A judge awarded Heather Mills a total of $48.6 million in the financial settlement of her divorce from former Beatle Paul McCartney. This was a fifth of what she had demanded.
2008 – Barack Obama gives a major speech addressing race and racial divisions in Philadelphia.
2009 – The Seattle Post-Intelligencer publishes its final print edition and becomes an online newspaper.
2010 – President Barack Obama announces that the United States will pursue aggressive sanctions to prevent Iran from getting a nuclear weapon that could potentially spark a nuclear arms race in the Middle East.
2011 – The House today voted to end federal funding to National Public Radio. Republican supporters said it made good fiscal sense, and Democratic opponents called it an ideological attack that would deprive local stations of access to programs such as “Car Talk” and “All Things Considered.”
2011 – The New York Times newspaper announces it is to start charging people who access content on its website.
2011 – NASA’s MESSENGER space probe becomes the first space craft ever to enter into orbit around Mercury.
2013 -Following a train derailment, Amtrak temporarily suspends service along the busy New York-to-Boston route.
2013 – Two members of the Steubenville High School football team have been found guilty of raping a sixteen-year-old girl in Steubenville, Ohio.
2014 – A 4.4-magnitude earthquake struck Los Angeles at 06:25 local time (13:25 GMT) , rattling nerves but as yet causing no reported injuries or deaths. Local broadcaster KCBS was in the middle of its morning news program when presenters felt the earthquake jolt their studio.
1777 – Roger Brooke Taney, 5th Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court (d. 1864)
1804 – Jim Bridger, American trapper and explorer (d. 1881)
1834 – Gottlieb Daimler, German engineer and inventor (d. 1900)
1866 – Pierce Butler, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1939)
1881 – Walter Rudolf Hess, Swiss physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1973) He mapped the areas of the brain involved in the control of internal organs.
1894 – Paul Green, American writer (d. 1981)
1902 – Bobby Jones, American golfer (d. 1971)
1907 – Sonny Werblin, former owner of the New York Jets (d. 1991)
1919 – Nat King Cole, American singer (d. 1965)
1930 – James Irwin, American astronaut (d. 1991)
1936 – Ken Mattingly, American astronaut
1937 – Adam Wade, American singer and actor
1945 – Michael Hayden, General USAF, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
1949 – Patrick Duffy, American actor
1951 – Kurt Russell, American actor
1955 – Gary Sinise, American actor
1959 – Danny Ainge, American basketball player and coach
1962 – Clare Grogan, Scottish actress-singer
1964 – Rob Lowe, American actor
1976 – Brittany Daniel, American actress
1976 – Cynthia Daniel, American actress and photographer
*DEVORE, EDWARD A., Jr.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 4th Battalion, 39th Infantry, 9th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Saigon, Republic of Vietnam, March 17th, 1968. Entered service at: Harbor City, Calif. Born: 15 June 1947, Torrance, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. DeVore, distinguished himself by exceptionally valorous actions on the afternoon of 17 March 1968, while serving as a machine gunner with Company B, on a reconnaissance-in-force mission approximately five kilometers south of Saigon. Sp4c. DeVore’s platoon, the company’s lead element, abruptly came under intense fire from automatic weapons, Claymore mines, rockets and grenades from well-concealed bunkers in a nipa palm swamp. One man was killed and three wounded about twenty meters from the bunker complex. Sp4c. DeVore raced through a hail of fire to provide a base of fire with his machine gun, enabling the point element to move the wounded back to friendly lines. After supporting artillery, gunships and air strikes had been employed on the enemy positions, a squad was sent forward to retrieve their fallen comrades. Intense enemy frontal and enfilading automatic weapons fire pinned down this element in the kill zone. With complete disregard for his personal safety, Sp4c. DeVore assaulted the enemy positions. Hit in the shoulder and knocked down about thirty-five meters short of his objectives, Sp4c. DeVore, ignoring his pain and the warnings of his fellow soldiers, jumped to his feet and continued his assault under intense hostile fire. Although mortally wounded during this advance, he continued to place highly accurate suppressive fire upon the entrenched insurgents. By drawing the enemy fire upon himself, Sp4c. DeVore enabled the trapped squad to rejoin the platoon in safety. Sp4c. DeVore’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty in close combat were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, the 39th Infantry, and the U.S. Army.
BRYAN, WILLIAM C.
Rank and organization: Hospital Steward, U.S. Army. Place and date: At Powder River, Wyo., March 17th, 1876. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Born: 9 September 1850, Zanesville, Ohio. Date of issue: 15 June 1899. Citation: Accompanied a detachment of cavalry in a charge on a village of hostile Indians and fought through the engagements, having his horse killed under him. He continued to fight on foot, and under severe fire and without assistance conveyed two wounded comrades to places of safety, saving them from capture.
Rank and organization: Blacksmith, Company M, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Powder River, Mont., March 17th, 1876. Entered service at:——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 16 October 1877. Citation: During a retreat he selected exposed positions, he was part of the rear guard.
Rank and organization: Private, Company M, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Powder River, Mont., March 17th, 1876. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 16 October 1877. Citation: Being the only member of his picket not disabled, he attempted to save a wounded comrade.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Baltimore, Md. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served as boatswain’s mate on board the U.S.S. Wyandank during a boat expedition up Mattox Creek, March 17th,1865. Rendering gallant assistance to his commanding officer, Mullen, lying on his back, loaded the howitzer and then fired so carefully as to kill and wound many rebels, causing their retreat.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: North Carolina. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Wyandank during a boat expedition up Mattox Creek, March 17th, 1865. Participating with a boat crew in the clearing of Mattox Creek, L/man Anderson carried out his duties courageously in the face of a devastating fire which cut away half the oars, pierced the launch in many places and cut the barrel off a musket being fired at the enemy.
Joseph Lister and Antiseptics
“I am a believer in the fundamental doctrines of Christianity.” ~ Joseph Lister
“Bearing in mind that it is from the vitality of the atmospheric particles that all the mischief arises, it appears that all that is requisite is to dress the wound with some material capable of killing these septic germs, provided that any substance can be found reliable for this purpose, yet not too potent as a caustic.”
“In the course of the year 1864 I was much struck with an account of the remarkable effects produced by carbolic acid upon the sewage of the town of Carlisle, the admixture of a very small proportion not only preventing all odour from the lands irrigated with the refuse material, but, as it was stated, destroying the entozoa which usually infest cattle fed upon such pastures.”
— Lord Joseph Lister
‘On a New Method of Treating Compound Fracture, Abscesses, etc: With Observations on the Conditions of Supperation’, Part 1, The Lancet (1867), 327.
Joseph Lister did not create any drugs, he was the one that established the link between lack of cleanliness in hospitals and deaths after operations. For this reason, he is known as the ‘Father of Antiseptic Surgery’.
At the time he was working in the hospitals conditions, especially in operating theatres, were very unhygienic. As a result some 50 percent of patients died due to infection after surgery. The infected wounds were generally known as ‘hospital gangrene’ or sepsis, the Greek word for ‘putrefaction’. The common belief seemed to be that sepsis was caused by the exposure of moist body tissue to air, with the resultant claim that wounds should be covered to keep the air out.
Joseph Lister was a British surgeon who was greatly influenced by the work of Louis Pasteur. In making the above observation he realized that the deaths due to infection could be reduced and eliminated if the germs present at any incident were eliminated. He used carbolic acid as an antiseptic in surgery and greatly reduced the incidence of infection. When Lister then developed his idea further, he devised a machine that pumped out a fine mist of carbolic acid into the air around an operation. The number of patients operated on by Lister who died fell dramatically.
Joseph Lister is also credited as being the first to wire fractures together and to develop dissolving sutures.
Another of his quotes was used in the making of “The Dark Territory”, “Chance favors the prepared mind.”
John 3:16 New King James Version (NKJV)
16 For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life.
The sanctity of sacrifice: In the formation of our republic and in signing the Declaration of Independence, the Founders pledged to one another, “our lives, our fortunes, our sacred honor.” The leadership principle of sacrifice is not new. Our Founders understood it well. And to that end we understand that sacrificial leadership is selfless, not self-serving. The commitment made 236 years ago reminds us that no great accomplishment comes without sacrifice and that causes greater than self are the lasting ones. Time tested through two centuries, today’s best leaders understand the power of sacrifice when it comes to building a lasting business.
Tomorrow – The fulfillment of faith:
“Here is a test to find whether your mission on earth is finished: If you are alive, it isn’t.”
~ Richard Bach
som·nil·o·quy (sŏm-nĭl’ə-kwē) n. pl. som·nil·o·quies
The act or habit of talking in one’s sleep.
From the Latin somnus-to sleep and loquī, to speak
597 BC – Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king (II Kings 24:17).
1190 – The Crusaders began the massacre of Jews in York, England.
1521 – Ferdinand Magellan reaches the Philippines.
1621 – Samoset walked into the settlement of Plymouth Colony, later Plymouth, MA. Samoset was a native from the Monhegan tribe in Maine who spoke English. He greeted the Pilgrims by saying, “Welcome, Englishmen! My name is Samoset.”
1802 – The United States Military Academy at West Point is established.
1802 – The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was established for the second time.
1827 – First Black American newspaper, Freedom’s Journal, published in New York City.
1830 – New York Stock Exchange slowest day ever (31 shares traded).
1836 – The Republic of Texas approved a constitution.
1850 – “The Scarlet Letter,” by Nathaniel Hawthorne was published.
1861 – Civil War: Edward Clark became Governor of Texas, replacing Sam Houston, who was evicted from the office for refusing to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy.
1861 – Civil War: Confederate Territory of Arizona is formed. Actually Arizona was not a separate entity at the time so it was really the southern part of the New Mexico Territory.
1862 – Civil War: Union gunboats and mortar boats under Flag Officer Foote commenced bombardment of strongly fortified and strategically located Island No. 10 in the Mississippi River.
1863 – Civil War: U.S.S. Chillicothe, Lieutenant Commander J. P. Foster, resumed the attack on Fort Pemberton, Mississippi In a brief engagement, the gunboat was struck eight times which rendered her guns unworkable and forced her to retire.
1864 – Civil War: Nine Union vessels had arrived at Alexandria, Louisiana, by morning and a landing party under Lieutenant Commander Selfridge, U.S.S. Osage, occupied the town prior to the arrival of Rear Admiral Porter and the troops.
1865 – Civil War: Union troops pushed past Confederate blockers at the Battle of Averasborough, N.C., and left 1,500 casualties.
1867 – First publication of an article by Joseph Lister outlining the discovery of antiseptic surgery, in The Lancet.
1869 – The first official speech by a Black American in Congress. Hiram R. Revels made his first speech in the Senate, opposing the readmission of Georgia without adequate safeguards for Black American citizens.
1881 – Barnum & Bailey Circus debuted.
1882 – The U.S. Senate approved a treaty allowing the United States to join the Red Cross.
1883 – Susan Hayhurst graduated from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. She was the first woman pharmacy graduate.
1900 – Ban Johnson announces the American League franchises. Franchises include Chicago, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Milwaukee, Indianapolis, Detroit, Cleveland, and Buffalo.
1910 – Barney Oldfield sets land speed record of 131.7 mph at Daytona.
1911 – Hulk of USS Maine sunk at sea in deep water with full military honors. This was the ship that sank at Havana, Cuba and precipitated the Spanish- American War.
1912 – Lawrence Oates, ill member of Scott’s South Pole expedition leaves the tent saying, “I am just going outside and may be some time.”
1913 – The 15,000-ton battleship Pennsylvania was launched at Newport News, VA.
1915 – Federal Trade Commission organizes. It is an independent agency charged with keeping American business competition free and fair.
1916 – The 7th and 10th US cavalry regiments under John J. Pershing cross the US-Mexico border to join the hunt for Pancho Villa.
1917 – WW I: The Germans sank the Steamer Vigilancia , without any type of warning, 145 miles west of Bishop’s Rock. The U-Boat was the UC-70 commanded by Otto Wünsche.
1918 – Geoffrey O’Hara’s “K-K-K-Katy” song published.
1918 – Tallulah Bankhead made her New York acting debut with a role in “The Squab Farm.”
1922 – Marines guarded the U.S. mail during a national crime wave.
1926 – Robert Goddard launches the first liquid-fueled rocket, at Auburn, Massachusetts. It goes 184 feet.
1927 – The 4th Marines sailed to Shanghai, in February 1927, to protect American citizens and property in Shanghai’s International Settlement. They landed today in 1927.
1928 – The U.S. planned to send 1,000 more Marines to Nicaragua.
1930 – USS Constitution (Old Ironsides) floated out to become a national shrine.
1937 – Former world champion hurdler, Percy Beard, was hired by the Brooklyn Dodgers to teach the faltering baseball team how to run.
1939 – NHL record 10 goals in 1 period-New York Rangers (7), New York Americans (3) & a record 26 points in the 3rd period.
1941 – A blizzard hit North Dakota and Minnesota killing 60. This storm started on the 15th.
1941 – National Gallery of Art opens in Washington DC.
1942 – Fats Waller recorded “The Jitterbug Waltz” in New York.
1942 – The first V-2 rocket test launch (exploded at liftoff).
1942 – World War II: Japanese siege guns bombard American forts in Manila Bay. One 240 mm shell detonates beneath a Fort Frank powder room, breaking up the concrete and hurling some 60 (filled) powder cans about. Miraculously, none of them explode or catch fire.
1944 – World War II: On Los Negros and Manus, American forces are advancing. Japanese resistance is increasing on Manus.
1944 – World War II: US aircraft strike a Japanese convoy off Wewak.
1944 – World War II: A US plane named “God Bless Our Ship” was hit by anti-aircraft fire over Berlin and crash-landed outside the city. Lt. George Lymburn (1924-2005) was captured and sent to Stalag Luft 1, where he was liberated by Russian soldiers in April, 1945.
1945 – World War II: The Battle of Iwo Jima ends but small pockets of Japanese resistance persist.
1945 – World War II: Würzburg, Germany is 90% destroyed, with 5,000 dead, in only 20 minutes by British bombers.
1945 – World War II: Bitche is taken as US 7th Army continues its efforts to break through the Siegfried Line.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Anniversary Song” by Dinah Shore, “Managua, Nicaragua” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Don Rodney), “Oh, But I Do” by Margaret Whiting and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1947 – Convair Liner, first US twin-engine pressurized airplane, tested. The first customer delivery was made on February 23, 1948 to American Airlines and entered service on June 1.
1947 – Margaret Truman (16) made her concert debut signing over a nationwide radio hookup with the Detroit Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Dr. Karl Krueger.
1950 – Congress voted to remove federal taxes on oleomargarine. The law was signed by President Truman.
1951 – Korean War: In the wake of allied successes of Operation RIPPER, communist forces attempted to disengage and withdraw.
1955 – President Eisenhower upheld the use of atomic weapons in case of war.
1957 – Tab Hunter’s song “Young Love” was number one in the U.S.
1958 – The Ford Motor Company produces its 50 millionth automobile, the Thunderbird, averaging almost a million cars a year since the company’s founding.
1959 – John Sailling (111), last documented Civil War vet, died.
1961 – “The Agony and the Ecstasy” was published by Irving Stone.
1962 – US Lockheed Super-Constellation disappeared above Pacific Ocean and 167 were killed.
1962 – First launching of Titan 2-rocket. This was the first full-scale test of the vehicle; it flew 8000 km out over the Atlantic Ocean.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Walk Like a Man” by the Four Seasons, “Our Day Will Come” by Ruby & The Romantics, “You’re the Reason I’m Living” by Bobby Darin and “The Ballad of Jed Clampett” by Flatt & Scruggs all topped the charts.
1963 – Peter, Paul and Mary released the single, “Puff The Magic Dragon”
1964 – President Lyndon B. Johnson submitted a $1 billion war on poverty program to Congress.
1964 – Paul Hornung & Alex Karras reinstated in NFL after 1 year suspension. They were suspended by Pete Rozelle for betting on NFL games and associating with gamblers.
1966 – Launch of Gemini 8, the 12th manned American space flight and first space docking with the Agena Target Vehicle. Former naval aviator Neil Armstrong flew on this mission which completed 7 orbits in 10 hours and 41 minutes at an altitude of 161.3 nautical miles.
1966 – Vietnam War: Col. Paul Underwood flew a bombing mission over Lai Chau Province and crashed after releasing bombs from his F-105 Thunderchief. His remains were returned to the US in 1998.
1968 – Vietnam War: In the My Lai massacre, between 350 and 500 Vietnamese villagers: men, women, and children are killed by American troops.
1968 – Vietnam War: President Lyndon B Johnson decided to send 35-50,000 more troops to Vietnam.
1968 – General Motors produces its 100 millionth automobile, the Oldsmobile Toronado.
1968 – “(Sittin’ on) The Dock of the Bay” by Otis Redding topped the charts.
1969 – Boston Bruins scores a NHL record 8 goals in 1 period.
1969 – Peter Stone & Sherman Edward’s “1776” premieres at 46th St Theater New York City for 1217 performances.
1974 – First performance at new Grand Ole Opry House at Opryland in Nashville.
1974 – “Seasons in the Sun” by Terry Jacks topped the charts.
1975 – US Mariner 10 makes 3rd & final fly-by of Mercury. The mission shows a cratered surface and a faint, mostly helium atmosphere.
1980 – A member of Iranian Revolutionary Council says US hostages suspected of spying have been kept in solitary confinement.
1982 – Claus Von Bulow was found guilty in Newport, R.I., of trying to kill his now-comatose wife, Martha, with insulin. Von Bulow was acquitted in a retrial.
1984 – William Buckley, the CIA station chief in Beirut, Lebanon, is kidnapped by Islamic fundamentalists and later dies in captivity.
1985 – Associated Press newsman Terry Anderson is taken hostage in Beirut. He is released on December 4, 1991 after 2, 455 days being blindfolded.
1985 – “A Chorus Line” played performance number 4,000 this night at NY’s Shubert Theatre.
1985 – “Can’t Fight This Feeling” by REO Speedwagon topped the charts.
1985 – Denny McLain, winner of the American League Cy Young Award in 1968, is convicted of racketeering, extortion, and cocaine possession.
1985 – “People” magazine listed the top 57 money-making show-biz stars. At the pinnacle was Paul McCartney, former Beatle and leader of the group, Wings, whose music empire was said to be worth $500 million. Bob Hope made the list with a worth of about $200 million.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Jacob’s Ladder” by Huey Lewis & The News, “Somewhere Out There” by Linda Ronstadt & James Ingram, “Let’s Wait Awhile” by Janet Jackson and “Baby’s Got a New Baby” by S-K-O all topped the charts.
1987 – “Bostonia” magazine printed an English translation of Albert Einstein’s last high school report card. The brain behind the theory of relativity did relatively well with an ‘A’ in math, of course, but a ‘D’ in French.
1988 – Iran-Contra Affair: Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North and Vice Admiral John Poindexter are indicted on charges of conspiracy to defraud the United States.
1988 – Saddam Hussein uses mustard gas to attack Kurds. In the northern Iraqi town of Halabja, nearly 5,000 people are killed.
1988 – Mickey Thompson and his wife Trudy were shot to death in their driveway. Thompson, known as the “Speed King,” set nearly 500 auto speed endurance records including being the first person to travel more than 400 mph on land.
1991 – Americans Kristi Yamaguchi, Tonya Harding and Nancy Kerrigan swept the World Figure Skating Championships in Munich, Germany.
1991 – Seven members of singer Reba McEntire’s band and her road manager were killed when their private plane crashed near California’s border with Mexico. McEntire was on a separate plane.
1992 – Matt Keough, in the dugout, is hit flush in the head by a batted ball. He is taken to the hospital and undergoes emergency surgery to remove a blood clot.
1994 – Tonya Harding pleads guilty to felony attack on Nancy Kerrigan. She avoided jail but drew a $100,000 fine.
1995 – NASA astronaut Norman Thagard became the first American to visit the Russian space station Mir.
1995 – House Republicans pushed through $17 billion in spending cuts, prompting a veto threat by the White House.
1995 – Mississippi formally ratifies the Thirteenth Amendment, becoming the last state to approve the abolition of slavery. The Thirteenth Amendment was officially ratified in 1865.
1995 – Dow-Jones hits record 4069.15.
1999 – The Nebraska Cornhuskers beat Chicago State 50-3 in an NCAA baseball game.
1999 – The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) presented the first Diamond Awards. The awards are given in recognition of albums and singles that have sold 10 million copies or more.
1999 – The Nebraska Cornhuskers beat Chicago State 50-3 in an NCAA baseball game.
1999 – The Dow Jones industrial average briefly topped the 10,000 level, reaching a high of 10,001.78 before retreating. See 1995.
2000 – Thomas Wilson Ferebee, the Enola Gay bombardier who dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, died in Windermere, Fla., at age 81.
2000 – In Georgia a gunman shot and wounded two sheriff’s deputies while being served a warrant in Atlanta at the home of Jamil Abdullah Al-Amin, formerly known as H. Rap Brown.
2002 – In Ohio Brittanie Cecil (13) was struck by a flying hockey puck during a game between the hometown Columbus Blue Jackets and the Calgary Flames; she died two days later.
2004 – Yemen authorities said nine suspects in the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole had been arrested, including eight who escaped from jail in 2003.
2004 – Mitch Seavey won the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race in nine days, 12 hours, 20 minutes and 22 seconds.
2005 – The US Senate voted 51-49 to drill for oil in Alaska.
2005 – A jury in Los Angeles acquitted actor Robert Blake of murder in the shooting death of his wife, Bonny Lee Bakley, four years earlier.
2005 – In California a judge sentenced Scott Peterson (32) to death for the 2002 murder of his wife and unborn son.
2006 – The White House issued a 49-page security strategy report that listed Iran as the single country that may pose the biggest danger to the US and reaffirmed pre-emptive military actions as a central tenet of US security policy.
2006 – US Federal drug agents raided several “marijuana candy factories” in Oakland and Emeryville, Ca., seizing hundreds of sodas and candies with such names as Trippy, Stoney Rancher, Toka-Cola and Budtela.
2006 – NASA released data backing the Big Bang theory that the universe sprang from marble size to infinity in less than a trillion-trillionth second.
2007 – JetBlue canceled 215 flights because of a winter storm on the East Coast. The storm was blamed for as many as a dozen deaths and forced more than 3,600 flight cancellations.
2007 – In Wilmington, Del., Rachel L. Holt (35), who had pleaded guilty to second-degree rape, was sentenced to 10 years in prison for having sex with a 13-year-old student.
2008 – JPMorgan said it would buy Bear Stearns for $236.2 million, $2 a share, in a stunning fall for one of the world’s largest and most venerable investment banks.
2009 – President Barack Obama blistered insurance giant AIG for “recklessness and greed” and pledged to try to block it from handing its executives $165 million in bonuses after taking billions in federal bailout money. Obama also freed billions of dollars to help the nation’s small businesses with loans.
2009 – In Michigan four teenagers were killed when their car was struck by a van driven by Frances Patricia Dingle in Roseville. Dingle was measured with a blood alcohol level of .08, twice the legal limit, and was charged with 2nd degree murder.
2009 – US researchers said a new test can accurately detect Alzheimer’s disease in its earliest stages, before dementia symptoms surface and widespread damage occurs.
2010 – DHS Secretary Janet Napolitano said she is freezing funding for the SBInet project, the virtual border fence along the US-Mexican border, due to cost overruns and missed deadlines by Boeing Corp.
2010 – NASA researchers in Antarctica discover cold-water Lysianassidae, shrimp-like amphipods, living in the water beneath the Ross Ice Shelf.
2011 – Hillary Clinton, the United States Secretary of State, states that she will not serve a second term in President Obama’s Cabinet if he is reelected in 2012 and will retire from public life.
2011 – The Governor of Michigan Rick Snyder signs legislation giving enhanced powers to emergency managers appointed to manage cities and schools including the power to terminate union contracts.
2012 – President Obama signed the Executive Order 13603 entitled National Defense Resources Preparedness (NDRP), which gave a host of government agencies control of any and all national resources in the name of martial law. It also gives the Federal government the legal authority to force any person into de facto slavery. It says the President, or those he designates, can conscript “persons of outstanding experience and ability without compensation,” in “peacetime and times of national emergency.
2013 – A tour bus carrying the Seton Hill University women’s lacrosse team veers off the Pennsylvania Turnpike and strikes a tree near Carlisle, Pennsylvania, United States, killing the team’s head coach, her unborn child, and the bus driver.
2015 – It was announced that the winter of 2014-2015 in Boston, MA set a new record for total snowfall. The new record is 108.6 inches and is compared to the old record in 1995-1996 of 107.6 inches.
1751 – James Madison, 4th President of the United States (d. 1836)
1877 – Reza Shah Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (d. 1941)
1897 – Conrad Nagel, American actor (d. 1970)
1903 – Mike Mansfield, American politician, and diplomat (d. 2001)
1906 – Henny Youngman, American comedian (d. 1998)
1912 – Pat Nixon, First Lady of the United States (d. 1993)
1916 – Mercedes McCambridge, American actress (d. 2004)
1926 – Jerry Lewis, American comedian
1927 – Daniel Patrick Moynihan, U.S. Senator from New York (d. 2003)
1932 – Walter Cunningham, American astronaut
1941 – Chuck Woolery, American game show host
1949 – Erik Estrada, Puerto Rican actor
1967 – Lauren Graham, American actress
RASCON, ALFRED V.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Reconnaissance Platoon, Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion (Airborne), 503rd Infantry,173d Airborne Brigade (Separate) Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, March 16th, 1966 Born: 1945, Chihuahua, Mexico Citation: Specialist Four Alfred Rascon, distinguished himself by a series of extraordinarily courageous acts on 16 March 1966, while assigned as a medic to the Reconnaissance Platoon, Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion (Airborne), 503rd Infantry, 173d Airborne Brigade (Separate). While moving to reinforce its sister battalion under intense enemy attack, the Reconnaissance Platoon came under heavy fire from a numerically superior enemy force. The intense enemy fire from crew-served weapons and grenades severely wounded several point squad soldiers. Specialist Rascon, ignoring directions to stay behind shelter until covering fire could be provided, made his way forward. He repeatedly tried to reach the severely wounded point machine-gunner laying on an open enemy trail, but was driven back each time by the withering fire. Disregarding his personal safety, he jumped to his feet, ignoring flying bullets and exploding grenades to reach his comrade. To protect him from further wounds, he intentionally placed his body between the soldier and enemy machine guns, sustaining numerous shrapnel injuries and a serious wound to the hip. Disregarding his serious wounds he dragged the larger soldier from the fire-raked trail. Hearing the second machine-gunner yell that he was running out of ammunition, Specialist Rascon, under heavy enemy fire crawled back to the wounded machine-gunner stripping him of his bandoleers of ammunition, giving them to the machine-gunner who continued his suppressive fire. Specialist Rascon fearing the abandoned machine gun, its ammunition and spare barrel could fall into enemy hands made his way to retrieve them. On the way, he was wounded in the face and torso by grenade fragments, but disregarded these wounds to recover the abandoned machine gun, ammunition and spare barrel items, enabling another soldier to provide added suppressive fire to the pinned-down squad. In searching for the wounded, he saw the point grenadier being wounded by small arms fire and grenades being thrown at him. Disregarding his own life and his numerous wounds, Specialist Rascon reached and covered him with his body absorbing the blasts from the exploding grenades, and saving the soldier’s life, but sustaining additional wounds to his body. While making his way to the wounded point squad leader, grenades were hurled at the sergeant. Again, in complete disregard for his own life, he reached and covered the sergeant with his body, absorbing the full force of the grenade explosions. Once more Specialist Rascon was critically wounded by shrapnel, but disregarded his own wounds to continue to search and aid the wounded. Severely wounded, he remained on the battlefield, inspiring his fellow soldiers to continue the battle. After the enemy broke contact, he disregarded aid for himself, instead treating the wounded and directing their evacuation. Only after being placed on the evacuation helicopter did he allow aid to be given to him. Specialist Rascon’s extraordinary valor in the face of deadly enemy fire, his heroism in rescuing the wounded, and his gallantry by repeatedly risking his own life for his fellow soldiers are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.
PIERCE, FRANCIS JUNIOR
Rank and organization: Pharmacist’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy serving with 2d Battalion, 24th Marines, 4th Marine Division. Place and date: Iwo Jima, 15 and March 16th, 1945. Entered service at Iowa Born: 7 December 1924, Earlville, Iowa. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while attached to the 2d Battalion, 24th Marines, 4th Marine Division, during the Iwo Jima campaign, 15 and 16 March 1945. Almost continuously under fire while carrying out the most dangerous volunteer assignments, Pierce gained valuable knowledge of the terrain and disposition of troops. Caught in heavy enemy rifle and machinegun fire which wounded a corpsman and two of the eight stretcher bearers who were carrying two wounded Marines to a forward aid station on 15 March, Pierce quickly took charge of the party, carried the newly wounded men to a sheltered position, and rendered first aid. After directing the evacuation of three of the casualties, he stood in the open to draw the enemy’s fire and, with his weapon blasting, enabled the litter bearers to reach cover. Turning his attention to the other 2 casualties he was attempting to stop the profuse bleeding of 1 man when a Japanese fired from a cave less than twenty yards away and wounded his patient again. Risking his own life to save his patient, Pierce deliberately exposed himself to draw the attacker from the cave and destroyed him with the last of his ammunition Then lifting the wounded man to his back, he advanced unarmed through deadly rifle fire across 200 feet of open terrain. Despite exhaustion and in the face of warnings against such a suicidal mission, he again traversed the same fire-swept path to rescue the remaining Marine. On the following morning, he led a combat patrol to the sniper nest and, while aiding a stricken Marine, was seriously wounded. Refusing aid for himself, he directed treatment for the casualty, at the same time maintaining protective fire for his comrades. Completely fearless, completely devoted to the care of his patients, Pierce inspired the entire battalion. His valor in the face of extreme peril sustains and enhances the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
TAYLOR, RICHARD H.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Apia, Samoa March 16th, 1889 Born: 1871, Virginia. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 157, 20 April 1904. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Nipsic, Taylor displayed gallantry during the hurricane at Apia, Samoa, 16 March 1889.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Hold, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845 Norway Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884 Second award. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S.S Lackawanna, March 16th, 1883, at Honolulu, T.H., and rescuing from drowning Thomas Moran, landsman.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At Mason’s Hill, Va., March 16th, 1864. Entered service at: Rome, N.Y. Birth: Newark, N.J. Date of issue: 28 September 1897. Citation: Having been surprised and captured by a detachment of guerrillas, this soldier, with other prisoners, seized the arms of the guard over them, killed two of the guerrillas, and enabled all the prisoners to escape.
Ides of March Marked Murder of Julius Caesar
for National Geographic NewsMarch 12, 2004
Julius Caesar’s bloody assassination on March 15, 44 B.C., forever marked March 15, or the Ides of March, as a day of infamy. It has fascinated scholars and writers ever since. For ancient Romans living before that event, however, an ides was merely one of several common calendar terms used to mark monthly lunar events.
The ides simply marked the appearance of the full moon.
But the Ides of March assumed a whole new identity after the events of 44 B.C. The phrase came to represent a specific day of abrupt change that set off a ripple of repercussions throughout Roman society and beyond.
Josiah Osgood, an assistant professor of classics at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., said: “You can read in Cicero’s letters from the months after the Ides of March. … He even says, ‘The Ides changed everything.'”
By the time of Caesar, Rome had a long-established republican government headed by two consuls with joint powers. Praetors were one step below consuls in
the power chain and handled judicial matters. A body of citizens forming the
Senate proposed legislation, which general people’s assemblies then approved by vote. A special temporary office, that of dictator, was established for use only during times of extreme civil unrest.
The Romans had no love for kings. According to legend, they expelled their last one in 509 B.C. While Caesar had made pointed and public displays of turning down offers of kingship, he showed no reluctance to accept the office of “dictator for life” in February 44 B.C. According to Osgood, this action may have sealed his fate in the minds of his enemies. “We can see [now] that that was enough to get him killed,” Osgood said.
Caesar had pushed the envelope for some time before his death. “Caesar was the first living Roman ever to appear on the coinage,” Osgood said. Normally, the honor was reserved for deities. He notes that some historians suspect that Caesar might have been attempting to establish a cult in his honor in a move towards deification.
It is unclear if Caesar was aware of the plot to kill him on March 15 in 44 B.C. But Caesar was not oblivious to the mounting danger of a backlash, noted Charles McNelis, an assistant professor of classics and Osgood’s colleague at Georgetown University.
The plot’s conspirators, who termed themselves “the liberators,” had to move quickly. “Caesar had plans to leave Rome on March 18th for a military campaign in Parthia, the region around modern-day Iraq. So the conspirators did not have much time,” McNelis said. Whether or not Caesar was a true tyrant is debated still to this day. It is safe to say, however, that in the mind of Marcus Brutus, who helped mastermind the attack, the threat Caesar posed to the republican system was clear.
In the play by William Shakespeare we see his friend Antony called upon to do his funeral oration. I have taken out the public parts, set the stage with Brutus as Antony delivered the wry, ironic oration. Antony starts after Brutus tries to justify what he and Cassius did.
SCENE II. The Forum.
Enter BRUTUS and CASSIUS, and a throng of Citizens
We will be satisfied; let us be satisfied.
Then follow me, and give me audience, friends.
Cassius, go you into the other street,
And part the numbers.
Those that will hear me speak, let ’em stay here;
Those that will follow Cassius, go with him;
And public reasons shall be rendered
Of Caesar’s death.
The noble Brutus is ascended: silence!
Be patient till the last.
Romans, countrymen, and lovers! hear me for my
cause, and be silent, that you may hear: believe me
for mine honour, and have respect to mine honour, that
you may believe: censure me in your wisdom, and
awake your senses, that you may the better judge.
If there be any in this assembly, any dear friend of
Caesar’s, to him I say, that Brutus’ love to Caesar
was no less than his. If then that friend demand
why Brutus rose against Caesar, this is my answer:
–Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved
Rome more. Had you rather Caesar were living and
die all slaves, than that Caesar were dead, to live
all free men? As Caesar loved me, I weep for him;
as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was
valiant, I honour him: but, as he was ambitious, I
slew him. There is tears for his love; joy for his
fortune; honour for his valour; and death for his
ambition. Who is here so base that would be a
bondman? If any, speak; for him have I offended.
Who is here so rude that would not be a Roman? If
any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so
vile that will not love his country? If any, speak;
for him have I offended. I pause for a reply.
Then none have I offended. I have done no more to
Caesar than you shall do to Brutus. The question of
his death is enrolled in the Capitol; his glory not
extenuated, wherein he was worthy, nor his offences
enforced, for which he suffered death.
Enter ANTONY and others, with CAESAR’s body
Here comes his body, mourned by Mark Antony: who,
though he had no hand in his death, shall receive
the benefit of his dying, a place in the
commonwealth; as which of you shall not? With this
I depart,–that, as I slew my best lover for the
good of Rome, I have the same dagger for myself,
when it shall please my country to need my death.
Good countrymen, let me depart alone,
And, for my sake, stay here with Antony:
Do grace to Caesar’s corpse, and grace his speech
Tending to Caesar’s glories; which Mark Antony,
By our permission, is allow’d to make.
I do entreat you, not a man depart,
Save I alone, till Antony have spoke.
For Brutus’ sake, I am beholding to you.
You gentle Romans,–
Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;
I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.
The evil that men do lives after them;
The good is oft interred with their bones;
So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus
Hath told you Caesar was ambitious:
If it were so, it was a grievous fault,
And grievously hath Caesar answer’d it.
Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest–
For Brutus is an honourable man;
So are they all, all honourable men–
Come I to speak in Caesar’s funeral.
He was my friend, faithful and just to me:
But Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man.
He hath brought many captives home to Rome
Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill:
Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?
When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept:
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff:
Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man.
You all did see that on the Lupercal
I thrice presented him a kingly crown,
Which he did thrice refuse: was this ambition?
Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And, sure, he is an honourable man.
I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke,
But here I am to speak what I do know.
You all did love him once, not without cause:
What cause withholds you then, to mourn for him?
O judgment! thou art fled to brutish beasts,
And men have lost their reason. Bear with me;
My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar,
And I must pause till it come back to me.
But yesterday the word of Caesar might
Have stood against the world; now lies he there.
And none so poor to do him reverence.
O masters, if I were disposed to stir
Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage,
I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong,
Who, you all know, are honourable men:
I will not do them wrong; I rather choose
To wrong the dead, to wrong myself and you,
Than I will wrong such honourable men.
But here’s a parchment with the seal of Caesar;
I found it in his closet, ’tis his will:
Let but the commons hear this testament–
Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read–
And they would go and kiss dead Caesar’s wounds
And dip their napkins in his sacred blood,
Yea, beg a hair of him for memory,
And, dying, mention it within their wills,
Bequeathing it as a rich legacy
Unto their issue.
Have patience, gentle friends, I must not read it;
It is not meet you know how Caesar loved you.
You are not wood, you are not stones, but men;
And, being men, bearing the will of Caesar,
It will inflame you, it will make you mad:
‘Tis good you know not that you are his heirs;
For, if you should, O, what would come of it!
Will you be patient? will you stay awhile?
I have o’ershot myself to tell you of it:
I fear I wrong the honourable men
Whose daggers have stabb’d Caesar; I do fear it.
You will compel me, then, to read the will?
Then make a ring about the corpse of Caesar,
And let me show you him that made the will.
Shall I descend? and will you give me leave?
Nay, press not so upon me; stand far off.
If you have tears, prepare to shed them now.
You all do know this mantle: I remember
The first time ever Caesar put it on;
‘Twas on a summer’s evening, in his tent,
That day he overcame the Nervii:
Look, in this place ran Cassius’ dagger through:
See what a rent the envious Casca made:
Through this the well-beloved Brutus stabb’d;
And as he pluck’d his cursed steel away,
Mark how the blood of Caesar follow’d it,
As rushing out of doors, to be resolved
If Brutus so unkindly knock’d, or no;
For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar’s angel:
Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar loved him!
This was the most unkindest cut of all;
For when the noble Caesar saw him stab,
Ingratitude, more strong than traitors’ arms,
Quite vanquish’d him: then burst his mighty heart;
And, in his mantle muffling up his face,
Even at the base of Pompey’s statua,
Which all the while ran blood, great Caesar fell.
O, what a fall was there, my countrymen!
Then I, and you, and all of us fell down,
Whilst bloody treason flourish’d over us.
O, now you weep; and, I perceive, you feel
The dint of pity: these are gracious drops.
Kind souls, what, weep you when you but behold
Our Caesar’s vesture wounded? Look you here,
Here is himself, marr’d, as you see, with traitors.
Good friends, sweet friends, let me not stir you up
To such a sudden flood of mutiny.
They that have done this deed are honourable:
What private griefs they have, alas, I know not,
That made them do it: they are wise and honourable,
And will, no doubt, with reasons answer you.
I come not, friends, to steal away your hearts:
I am no orator, as Brutus is;
But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man,
That love my friend; and that they know full well
That gave me public leave to speak of him:
For I have neither wit, nor words, nor worth,
Action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech,
To stir men’s blood: I only speak right on;
I tell you that which you yourselves do know;
Show you sweet Caesar’s wounds, poor poor dumb mouths,
And bid them speak for me: but were I Brutus,
And Brutus Antony, there were an Antony
Would ruffle up your spirits and put a tongue
In every wound of Caesar that should move
The stones of Rome to rise and mutiny.
Yet hear me, countrymen; yet hear me speak.
Peace, ho! Hear Antony. Most noble Antony!
Why, friends, you go to do you know not what:
Wherein hath Caesar thus deserved your loves?
Alas, you know not: I must tell you then:
You have forgot the will I told you of.
Most true. The will! Let’s stay and hear the will.
Here is the will, and under Caesar’s seal.
To every Roman citizen he gives,
To every several man, seventy-five drachmas.
Hear me with patience.
Moreover, he hath left you all his walks,
His private arbours and new-planted orchards,
On this side Tiber; he hath left them you,
And to your heirs forever, common pleasures,
To walk abroad, and recreate yourselves.
Here was a Caesar! when comes such another?
Now let it work. Mischief, thou art afoot,
Take thou what course thou wilt!
Proverbs 2:1- 6a
My son, if you receive my words, And treasure my commands within you, 2 So that you incline your ear to wisdom, And apply your heart to understanding; 3 Yes, if you cry out for discernment, And lift up your voice for understanding, 4 If you seek her as silver, And search for her as for hidden treasures; 5 Then you will understand the fear of the Lord, And find the knowledge of God. 6 For the Lord gives wisdom;
From His mouth come knowledge and understanding;
Margaret Mead once said, “The happy Union of these States is a wonder; their Constitution a miracle;In the next four days we will look at some of the leadership principles of our Founders.
The courage of convictions: Our founders clung to and fought for the cause of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” With years of hindsight and the benefit of our modern comforts, it is hard to comprehend their sacrifices. Leadership in a global economy requires steady conviction in the face of incredible challenges. To say that our Founding Fathers were men of conviction would be an understatement, but all great leaders are. What will be the measure of your leadership?
Tomorrow: The sanctity of sacrifice
“If you view all the things that happen to you, both good and bad, as opportunities, then you operate out of a higher level of consciousness.”
~ Les Brown
argal (AHR-guhl) conjunction, adverb:
By alteration of the Latin ergo (therefore). The word argal is usually used to indicate that the reasoning presented is ludicrous.
44 BC – Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus and several other Roman senators on the Ides of March.
1493 – Christopher Columbus returns to Spain after his first trip to the Americas.
1521 – Ferdinand Magellan discovered the Philippine Islands, where he was killed by natives the following month.
1697 – A band of Abnaki Indians made a raid on Haverhill, Massachusetts. Twenty-seven women and children were killed in the raid.
1776 – South Carolina becomes the first American colony to declare its independence from Great Britain and set up its own government.
1781 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Guilford Courthouse – Near present-day Greensboro, North Carolina, 1,900 British troops under General Charles Cornwallis defeat an American force numbering 4,400.
1783 – In an emotional speech in Newburgh, New York, George Washington asks his officers not to support the Newburgh Conspiracy. The plea is successful and the threatened coup d’etat never takes place. The Newburgh Conspiracy was what appeared to be a threatened uprising in the Continental Army when the Revolutionary War was at its end. It was possibly instigated by political actors in the Congress of the Confederation.
1812 – First Russian settlement in California, Russian River. These Russians had come to hunt sea otter, to grow wheat and other crops for the Russian settlements in Alaska, and to trade with Spanish California.
1820 – Maine becomes the 23rd U.S. state.
1855 – Louisiana established the first health board to regulate quarantine. It was to enforce isolation of malaria and cholera.
1862 – Civil War: General John Hunt Morgan began four days of raids near the city of Gallatin, TN.
1862 – Civil War: After ordering ironclads U.S.S. Benton and Essex to remain at Fort De Russy in support of the Army detachment engaged in destroying the works, Rear Admiral Porter convoyed the main body of troops up the Red River toward Alexandria, Louisiana.
1864 – Civil War: Red River Campaign began as the Union forces reach Alexandria, LA.
1865 – President Abraham Lincoln delivered his Second Inaugural Address.
1867 – Michigan becomes first state to tax property to support a university.
1869 – Cincinnati Red Stockings become the first pro baseball team.
1873 – The Phi Sigma Kappa fraternity is founded at Massachusetts Agricultural College.
1875 – Archbishop of New York John McCloskey is named the first cardinal in the United States.
1892 – First escalator (inclined elevator) patented by inventor Jesse W Reno (New York NY).
1892 – New York State unveils automatic ballot booth (voting machine). The first official use of a lever type voting machine, known then as the “Myers Automatic Booth,” occurred in Lockport, New York.
1895 – Bone Mizell, the famed cowboy of Florida, appeared before a judge for altering cattle brands.
1902 – In Boston, MA, 10,000 freight handlers went back to work after a weeklong strike.
1906 – Rolls-Royce Limited is incorporated.
1912 – Pitcher Cy Young retires from baseball with 511 wins.
1913 – President Woodrow Wilson conducts the first Presidential press.
1916 – President Woodrow Wilson sends 12,000 United States troops over the U.S.-Mexico border to pursue Pancho Villa. General Pershing failed to capture the Villa dead or alive. Villa was assassinated at Parral in 1923.
1919 – The American Legion forms in Paris. It was founded by delegates from combat and service units of the American Expeditionary Force (WW I).
1930 – First streamlined submarine of the US Navy, USS Nautilus, launched.
1933 – Los Angeles Sentinel newspaper founded by Leon H. Washington. the newspaper is a weekly African-American-owned paper published in Los Angeles, California.
1933 – Spingarn Medal presented to YMCA secretary Max Yergan for his achievements as a missionary in South Africa, “representing the gift of cooperation…American Negroes may send back to their motherland.”
1933 – The NAACP began a coordinated attack on segregation and discrimination.
1934 – Henry Ford restored the $5 a day wage.
1937 – Bernard Fantus, director of therapeutics at the Cook County Hospital in Chicago, Illinois established the first hospital blood bank in the United States.
1937 – The first state contraceptive clinic opened in Raleigh, NC.
1938 – Oil was discovered in Saudi Arabia.
1939 – World War II: German troops occupy the remaining part of Bohemia and Moravia; Czechoslovakia ceases to exist.
1941 – A blizzard in North Dakota killed 151.
1941 – World War II: In an important speech Roosevelt promises that the United States will supply Britain and the Allies “aid until victory” and that there will be an “end to compromise with tyranny.”
1943 – World War II: The US 7th Fleet (Admiral Carpender) is formed to control naval operations around New Guinea.|
1944 – World War II: Battle of Monte Cassino – Allied aircraft bomb the German-held monastery and stage an assault. Cassino, Italy was destroyed.
1944 – World War II: On Bougainville, there are renewed attacks by Japanese forces against the American beachhead. US forces hold the effort.
1945 – World War II: On Iwo Jima, US 5th Amphibious Corps continues to engage the Japanese forces which are now confined a small area in the northwest of the island.
1945 – World War II: The US 7th Army launches attacks in the area around Saarbrucken and Bitche in a joint effort with US 3rd Army to eliminate German forces from the area between the Saar, Moselle and Rhine rivers.
1945 – Billboard publishes its first album chart (King Cole Trio is #1).
1945 – Brooklyn Dodgers open spring training at Bear Mountain NY.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh, What It Seemed to Be” by The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Marjorie Hughes), “Let It Snow” by Vaughn Monroe, “Symphony” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Clyde Rogers) and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1946 – For the first time, U.S. Coast Guard aircraft supplemented the work of the Coast Guard patrol vessels of the International Ice Patrol, scouting for ice and determining the limits of the ice fields from the air.
1948 – Sir Laurence Olivier was on the cover of “LIFE” magazine for his starring role in Shakespeare’s “Hamlet.”
1950 – New York City hired Dr Wallace E Howell as the city’s official “rainmaker”. His job was to create rain during a prolonged drought for which he received $100 per day.
1951 – Korean War: Eighth Army recaptured Seoul.
1951 – Korean War : U.S. Navy ships fired on Wonsan for a full seven minutes, killing an estimated 8,000 Chinese troops.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1954 – CBS television debuted its “Morning Show.” It premiered with Walter Cronkite (1916-2009) and Jack Paar (1918-2004).
1955 – The U.S. Air Force unveiled a self-guided missile.
1956 – The Lerner and Loew musical “My Fair Lady” opened starring Julie Andrews and Rex Harrison at the Mark Hellinger Theater in NYC for 2,715 performances.
1958 – Saturday Evening Post included Norman Rockwell’s “Runaway Kid and the Cop” as its cover.
1960 – The first underwater park was established as Key Largo Coral Reef Preserve.
1960 – National Observatory at Kitt Peak, Arizona dedicated.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hey! Baby” by Bruce Channel, “Midnight in Moscow” by Kenny Ball & His Jazzmen, “Don’t Break the Heart that Loves You” by Connie Francis and “Misery Loves Company” by Porter Wagoner all topped the charts.
1962 – Donald Jackson of Canada, is first to land a triple lutz ice skate jump.
1962 – Wilt Chamberlain is first to score 4,000 points in an NBA season.
1965 – President Lyndon B. Johnson, responding to the Selma crisis, tells U.S. Congress “We shall overcome” while advocating the Voting Rights Act.
1965 – TGI Friday’s first restaurant opens in New York NY.
1966 – Vietnam War: Establishment of River Squadron Five in Vietnam.
1968 – The U.S. mint halted the practice of buying and selling gold.
1968 – Bob Beamon, best known for his world record in the long jump at the Mexico Olympics in 1968, sets indoor long jump record (29′ 2.5″). This remained the world record for 22 years, 316 days.
1968 – “LIFE” magazine called Jimi Hendrix, “the most spectacular guitarist in the world.”
1969 – “Dizzy” by Tommy Roe topped the charts.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel, “Travelin’ Band/Who’ll Stop the Rain” by Creedence Clearwater Revival, “The Rapper” by The Jaggerz and “It’s Just a Matter of Time” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1971 – CBS television announced it was going to drop “The Ed Sullivan Show.”
1975 – “Black Water” by the Doobie Brothers topped the charts.
1975 – Ted Bundy victim Julie Cunningham (26) disappeared from Vail, Colo.
1977 – The first episode of “Eight is Enough” was aired on ABC-TV.
1977 – The U.S. House of Representatives began a 90-day test to determine the feasibility of showing its sessions on television.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “(Love Is) Thicker Than Water” by Andy Gibb, “Night Fever” by Bee Gees, “Lay Down Sally” by Eric Clapton and “Mamas Don’t Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Cowboys” by Waylon & Willie all topped the charts.
1980 – “Crazy Little Thing Called Love” by Queen topped the charts.
1980 – Masked terrorists believed to be Puerto Rican nationalists raid Carter campaign headquarters in Chicago and Bush campaign headquarters in New York City.
1980 – Scores injured in Klan-related incidents in Georgia, Tennessee, California, Indiana and North Carolina, in March and April.
1980 – The Penobscot Indians settle a claim for land taken in a violation of the Indian Nonintercourse Act of 1790.
1984 – The acquittal of a Miami police officer on charges of negligently killing a ghetto youth sparked a rampage by angry blacks in Miami; 550 people were arrested.
1985 – The first Internet domain name is registered to Symbolics Technologies (symbolics.com).
1986 – The AMA ruled that euthanasia was ethical on coma patients.
1988 – NFL owners approved the move of the St Louis Cardinals to Phoenix.
1989 – The U.S. Food and Drug administration decided to impound all fruit imported from Chile after two cyanide-tainted grapes were found in Philadelphia, PA.
1989 – The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs became the 14th Department in the President’s Cabinet.
1990 – The Ford Explorer was introduced to the public.
1990 – Mikhail Gorbachev is elected as the first executive president of the Soviet Union.
1991 – Four Los Angeles police officers were indicted in the beating of Rodney King on March 3.
1991 – Germany formally regains complete independence after the four post-World War II occupying powers (France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union) relinquish all remaining rights.
1993 – CBS’ “60 Minutes” aired an interview with former White House employee Kathleen Willey. Wiley said U.S. President Clinton made unwelcome sexual advances toward her in the Oval Office in 1993.
1993 – Searchers found the body of the sixth and last missing victim of the World Trade Center bombing in New York.
1994 – William Hartman was issued a patent for a method and apparatus for painting highway markings – the stripes etc.
1996 – The Liggett Group agreed to repay more than $10 million in Medicaid bills for treatment of smokers, settling lawsuits with five states.
1997 – Operation Gulf Shield begins. This operation is a counterpart to the counter narcotics operation Frontier Shield.
1999 – The US prison population was reported at 1.8 million with 668 inmates per 100,000 residents.
1999 – In Bourbonnais, Ill., the “City of New Orleans” Amtrak train derailed after hitting a truck loaded with steel. The truck was driven by John Stokes and 11 people were killed and 119 injured. A witness testified that Stokes tried to go around the crossing gates to beat the train, but the testimony was later reported as mistaken.
2000 – Iraq War: U.S. and British warplanes hit southern Iraqi targets.
2000 – In Michigan four teens beat to death and robbed Willie Jones (66) as he left the Michigan Lanes Bowling Alley in Grand Rapids. The teens then stuffed Jones into their car trunk and drove around town to show him off.
2000 – Patrick Poland was put to death by lethal injection for his role in the robbery and murder of two armored car guards on May 24th 1977.
2001 – Federal authorities confirmed that remains found on a Texas ranch were those of missing atheist leader Madalyn Murray O’Hair and two of her relatives. David Waters, the key suspect in the slayings, was sentenced to 20 years in prison on a federal extortion charge in connection with the case.
2002 – In the U.S., Burger King began selling a veggie burger. The event was billed as the first veggie burger to be sold nationally by a fast food chain.
2004 – President George W. Bush urges passage of a constitutional amendment to define marriage as between one man and one woman, as the only way to stop “municipal and judicial activists” from issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples. “If we are to prevent the meaning of marriage from being changed forever, our nation must enact a constitutional amendment.” John Kerry denounces the amendment as “toying” or “tampering” with the Constitution for partisan advantage.
2004 – Ohio police identified Charles A. McCoy Jr. (28) as the gunman in two dozen highway shootings that have terrorized motorists for months.
2005 – OPEC announces that it’s unable to control oil prices.
2005 – In Burbank, California, the last 78 General Motors EV1 vehicles were removed by General Motors from the storage lot, temporarily impeded by a group of EV1 activists, and transferred to the GM Desert Proving Grounds in Mesa, Arizona for disposal, crushing, and recycling.The General Motors EV1 was an electric car produced and leased by the General Motors Corporation from 1996 to 1999. It was the first mass-produced and purposely-designed electric vehicle of the modern era from a major automaker, and the first GM car designed to be an electric vehicle from the outset.
2006 – The FCC proposed a record fine of $3.6 million against dozens of CBS stations and affiliates in a crackdown on indecent television programming.
2006 – Lawrence Edward Woods (60), a transient with two guns, shot and killed two people inside a Denny’s restaurant in Pismo Beach, Ca. He wounded two others and then killed himself.
2007 – Iraq: Four US soldiers die in Baghdad in a car bomb attack.
2007 – In the US Senate Republicans easily turned back Democratic legislation requiring a troop withdrawal from Iraq to begin within 120 days.
2007 – In Sacramento, Ca., a fire burned hundreds of feet of a railroad trestle at the American River causing part of the bridge to collapse.
2007 – Scientists said a spacecraft orbiting Mars has scanned huge deposits of water ice at its south pole so plentiful they would blanket the planet in 36 feet of water if they were liquid.
2008 – In New York City an apartment building on Manhattan’s East Side was crushed in a giant crane collapse that killed seven people and injured seventeen.
2008 – Michael D. Griffin, the current Administrator of NASA, announces the agency will concentrate more on the outer Solar System and less on Mars exploration, due to cuts to its 2009–2012 budget.
2009 – The space shuttle Discovery and its crew of seven launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, FL bound for the International Space Station. It carried the last set of solar wings to boost the station to full power.
2010 – Honda Motor Co. notified the NHTSA it will recall 410,000 Odyssey minivans and Element small trucks, from the 2007-2008 model years, due to braking system problems.
2010 – US Senator Christopher Dodd submits a draft of a bill that would reform financial regulation, mostly in accord with the proposals of President Barack Obama’s administration.
2011 – The passing of the United States generation that fought in World War I is marked by the funeral of Frank Buckles, who died on 27 February 2011, aged 110, and was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery.
2011 – Former US mafia leader Joey Merlino of the Scarfo crime family is released from prison in Indiana and is sent to a halfway house in Florida.
2011 – The US Drug Enforcement Administration seizes the state of Georgia’s supply of a lethal injection drug due to questions over how it was imported to the US.
2011- In Atlanta, GA, a Garda guard was shot three times as he left a Kroger grocery store just after 12 p.m. at the Toco Hills Shopping Center, say law enforcement. The gunman got away after a getaway car picked him up. Investigators later found the car a short distance away from the store. The Garda guard was rushed to the hospital, where he died.
2012 – Former Governor of Illinois Rod Blagojevich arrives at a US federal prison in Colorado to begin a 14-year sentence on corruption charges.
2013 – A 19-year-old man is arrested in connection with a drive-by shooting in Washington, D.C., on March 11, that injured 13 people.
1767 – Andrew Jackson, 7th President of the United States, founder of the Democrat Party (d. 1845)
1809 – Joseph Jenkins Roberts, first President of Liberia (d. 1876)
1821 – William Milligan, Scottish theologian (d. 1892)
1835 – Eduard Strauss, Austrian composer (d. 1916)
1882 – Jim Lightbody, American runner (d. 1953)
1887 – Marjorie Merriweather Post, Socialite and businesswoman (d. 1973)
1892 – James Basevi Ord, US army officer (d. 1938)
1897 – Jackson Scholz, American runner (d. 1986)
1912 – Lightnin’ Hopkins, American musician (d. 1982)
1915 – Joe E. Ross, American actor and comedian (d. 1982)
1916 – Harry James, American musician and band leader (d. 1983)
1920 – E. Donnall Thomas, American physician,
1926 – Norm Van Brocklin, American football player (d. 1983)
1932 – Alan Bean, American astronaut
1933 – Ruth Bader Ginsburg, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
1935 – Judd Hirsch, American actor
1935 – Jimmy Swaggart, American televangelist
1941 – Mike Love Singer, songwriter: group: The Beach Boys)
1944 – Sly Stone, American musician
1968 – Mark McGrath, American musician (Sugar Ray)
*SARGENT, RUPPERT L.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company B, 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Hau Nghia Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 15th, 1967. Entered service at: Richmond, Va. Born: 6 January 1938, Hampton, Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While leading a platoon of Company B, 1st Lt. Sargent was investigating a reported Viet Cong meeting house and weapons cache. A tunnel entrance which 1st Lt. Sargent observed was booby trapped. He tried to destroy the booby trap and blow the cover from the tunnel using hand grenades, but this attempt was not successful. He and his demolition man moved in to destroy the booby trap and cover which flushed a Viet Cong soldier from the tunnel, who was immediately killed by the nearby platoon sergeant. 1st Lt. Sargent, the platoon sergeant, and a forward observer moved toward the tunnel entrance. As they approached, another Viet Cong emerged and threw two hand grenades that landed in the midst of the group. 1st Lt. Sargent fired three shots at the enemy then turned and unhesitatingly threw himself over the two grenades. He was mortally wounded, and his two companions were lightly wounded when the grenades exploded. By his courageous and selfless act of exceptional heroism, he saved the lives of the platoon sergeant and forward observer and prevented the injury or death of several other nearby comrades. 1st Lt. Sargent’s actions were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military services and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
HERRERA, SILVESTRE S.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company E, 142d Infantry, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Mertzwiller, France, March 15th, 1945. Entered service at: Phoenix, Ariz. Birth: El Paso, Tex. G.O. No.: 75, 5 September 1945. Citation: He advanced with a platoon along a wooded road until stopped by heavy enemy machinegun fire. As the rest of the unit took cover, he made a one-man frontal assault on a strongpoint and captured eight enemy soldiers. When the platoon resumed its advance and was subjected to fire from a second emplacement beyond an extensive minefield, Pvt. Herrera again moved forward, disregarding the danger of exploding mines, to attack the position. He stepped on a mine and had both feet severed but, despite intense pain and unchecked loss of blood, he pinned down the enemy with accurate rifle fire while a friendly squad captured the enemy gun by skirting the minefield and rushing in from the flank. The magnificent courage, extraordinary heroism, and willing self-sacrifice displayed by Pvt. Herrera resulted in the capture of two enemy strongpoints and the taking of eight prisoners.
SMITH, HENRY I.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company B, 7th lowa Infantry. Place and date: At Black River, N.C., March 15th, 1865. Entered service at: Shell Rock Fall, Cerro Gordo County, lowa. Born: 4 May 1840, England. Date of issue: 7 September 1894. Citation: Voluntarily and under fire rescued a comrade from death by drowning.