Bubblewrap Appreciation Day
Some of the History of Tipping
THE HISTORY of tipping is as clouded in mystery as the rules that currently govern it. There is some evidence that tipping has its roots in the Roman Empire. An oft-repeated story is that tipping–supposedly an acronym for “to insure promptitude”–became common in the “penny universities” (coffeehouses) of 16th-century England.
Another explanation is that “tips” of gold were thrown by horse-bound feudal lords to the unsavory peasants in the streets, as payment for safe passage. English etymology would support this theory in its suggestion that the word was originally medieval street talk for “hand it over.”
Those opposed to tipping have predecessors in the Anti-Tipping Society of America, an alliance of 100,000 traveling salesmen who from 1905 to 1919 managed to have the custom abolished in seven states. Practitioners of tipping once honed the custom to a kind of high art, carrying separate billfolds and change purses expressly intended for service payment. Today the custom has degenerated to simple mathematical computations (e.g., twice the tax, rounded out), the result often left on the table in crumpled bills or artlessly added to the credit card bill.
“People are always putting emphasis on money,” explains Michele Maussion Wilson, an etiquette consultant who conducts popular table manners classes in Scottsdale, Ariz. “I think that in that run for the money we lose something that is gracious and elegant. Tipping is an act of kindness in a world that has become too fast and rude. It is an antidote to rudeness.” Put more directly, Wilson adds, “Waiters are not your dogs. You can treat them with respect.”
Wilson advocates never leaving less than 15 percent. She usually leaves more. “Tipping is part of your pleasure. It makes you feel good,” she says. “And you must never simply leave the money on the table and walk away. You don’t wave the money about. You discreetly leave it beneath the bill. Then you gain their eye contact, and you say, ‘Thank you for your kind attention this evening.’ It’s so easy to do and it means so much.”
Recent studies reveal that the amount of a tip often reflects factors other than the tipper’s generosity or the server’s ability. According to a Cornell University report, servers who introduce themselves by name receive an average tip 53 percent greater than the tip for those who do not; servers who squat next to the table while talking with customers–thereby improving eye contact–up their tips from 15 percent to 18 percent; those who write “Thank you” on the back of the check receive about an 18 percent tip, the same amount female servers get by drawing a happy face, whereas males who do so decrease their tips by 3 percent; the use of tip trays bearing credit card logos increases tips by up to 25 percent, even when customers pay cash; tips soar by 140 percent for servers who simply smile; and those who casually touch customers (e.g., once on the shoulder, twice on the palm of the hand when giving change) add to their tips by 42 percent, women customers being a bit more generous than men.
“IF YOU TIP less than 15 percent, it’s assumed that you felt the service was well below expectations,” says David Bynum, assistant director of Food Services at Santa Rosa’s Flamingo Hotel, who adds that he’s seen a slight shift upward from 15 percent. The currently acceptable rate for tipping a bellman, by the way, is a dollar per bag, and more if services beyond the norm are required, such as helping with a wheelchair or conveying a pet to the customer’s room. Bynum’s largest tip came when he offered to fix a guest’s television set. He received $100.
“The man who gets the most satisfactory results is not always the man with the most brilliant single mind, but rather the man who can best coordinate the brains and talents of his associates.”
~ W. Alton Jones
arbitrary /ˈ [ahr-bi-trer-ee] –adjective
Subject to individual will or judgment without restriction; contingent solely upon one’s discretion: an arbitrary decision.
Decided by a judge or arbiter rather than by a law or statute.
Having unlimited power; uncontrolled or unrestricted by law; despotic; tyrannical: an arbitrary government.
Capricious; unreasonable; unsupported: an arbitrary demand for payment.
Mathematics. Undetermined; not assigned a specific value: an arbitrary constant.
1595 – William Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet is probably first performed.
1677 – Royal Commissioners John Berry and Francis Moryson come to Jamestown Virginia to conduct an inquiry into the rebellion led by Nathaniel Bacon. Bacon’s Rebellion can be attributed to a myriad of causes, all of which led to dissent in the Virginia colony.
1802 – John Beckley became the first Librarian of Congress.
1813 – Jane Austin published “Pride and Prejudice,” a blend of instruction and moral entertainment.
1820 - Britain’s King George III (King during the Revolutionary War) died insane at Windsor Castle. In 2005 scientists reported high levels of arsenic in the hair of King George III and said the deadly poison may be to blame for the bouts of apparent madness he suffered.
1834 – US President Andrew Jackson orders first use of federal soldiers to suppress a labor dispute. Workers on the then-unfinished Chesapeake and Ohio Canal rioted after a planned strike was brutally extinguished.
1845 – The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe is published in the New York Evening Mirror.
1850 – Henry Clay introduced in the Senate a compromise bill on slavery which included the admission of California into the Union as a free state.
1856 – Queen Victoria institutes the Victoria Cross.
1861 – Kansas admitted as the 34th state.
1863 – The Bear River Massacre, also called the Battle of Bear River and the Massacre at Boa Ogoi, took place today, between the United States Army and the Shoshone Indians at the confluence of the Bear River and Beaver Creek (now Battle Creek) near Preston in present day Franklin County, Idaho. The detachment of the U.S. Army was led by Col. Patrick Edward Connor as a part of the Bear River Expedition against Shoshone Chief Bear Hunter.
1865 – William Quantrill and his Confederate raiders attack Danville, Kentucky. Quantrill is killed in the raid.
1877 – Congress determines Presidential election between Hayes-Tilden. Rutherford B. Hayes was selected as President.
1885 – The Senate decides not to ratify the 1884 treaty which authorizes the building of a canal across Nicaragua.
1886 – Karl Benz patents the first successful gasoline-driven automobile.
1891 – Liliuokalani is proclaimed Queen of Hawaii, its last monarch.
1900 – The American League is organized in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with 8 founding teams.
1904 – First athletic letters were given to the University of Chicago football team.
1907 - Charles Curtis of Kansas becomes the first Native American U.S. Senator.
1916 – World War I: Paris is first bombed by German zeppelins.
1919 – 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. The amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale and transportation of alcoholic beverages.
1920 – Walt Disney starts first job as an artist; $40 week with Kansas City Slide Co.
1921 - A hurricane-force windstorm with gusts of more than 100 miles per hour strikes the Washington coast. Mill stacks are toppled along with power and telephone lines.
1924 – Ice cream cone rolling machine patented by Carl Taylor, Cleveland, Ohio.
1926 – Violette Neatley Anderson became the first Black woman admitted to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court.
1929 – The Seeing Eye Dog organization is formed. The first guide dog training schools were established in Germany during the First World War, to enhance the mobility of returning veterans who were blinded in combat. The United States followed suit in 1929 with The Seeing Eye in Morristown, New Jersey. The first guide dogs in Britain were German Shepherds. Three of these first were Judy, Meta and Folly who were handed over to their new owners, veterans blinded in World War I, on 6 October 1931. This was followed, in 1934, by the start of The Guide Dogs for the Blind Association in Great Britain.
1933 – President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany.
1936 – The first members of the Baseball Hall of Fame, including Ty Cobb and Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson and Walter Johnson were named in Cooperstown, New York.
1938 – Tommy Dorsey and his orchestra waxed the famous “Song of India“. Edison Records introduced Edison Gold Moulded Records, cylinder records of improved hard black wax, capable of being played hundreds of times before wearing out. “Waxing” was the process of recording.
1943 – World War II: The first day of the Battle of Rennell Island, U.S. cruiser Chicago is torpedoed and heavily damaged by Japanese bombers.
1944 – World War II: The battleship USS Missouri is launched. The Missouri was the last battleship built by the United States, and was the site of the surrender of the Empire of Japan which ended World War II.
1944 – World War II: The Battle of Cisterna takes place in central Italy.
1944 – World War II: At Anzio the Allied forces now number 69,000 troops with 508 guns and 237 tanks.
1945 – The Coast Guard-manned attack cargo vessel USS Serpens exploded off Guadalcanal due to unknown causes. Only two men aboard survive.
1945 – Lionel Barrymore became host of the “Lux Radio Theatre” on radio this day. Actually, he replaced the previous host named Cecil B. DeMille.
1948 – Commissioner Happy Chandler fines the Yankees, Cubs, & Phillies $500 each for signing high school players.
1949 – “The Newport News” was commissioned as the first air-conditioned naval ship in Virginia.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “A Little Bird Told Me” by Evelyn Knight, “Far Away Places” by Margaret Whiting, “Buttons and Bows” by Dinah Shore and “I Love You So Much It Hurts” by Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1953 – First movie in Cinemascope (The Robe) premieres. Full Movie (2:08:05)
1956 – One of the last of radio’s popular series programs, “Indictment”, debuted.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Singing the Blues” by Guy Mitchell, “Don’t Forbid Me” by Pat Boone, “Jamaica Farewell” by Harry Belafonte and “Singing the Blues” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.
1958 – Police capture Charles Starkweather in Wyoming. He was a spree killer who murdered 11 victims in Nebraska and Wyoming during a road trip with his underage girlfriend Caril Ann Fugate. He became a national fascination, eventually inspiring the films The Sadist, Badlands and Natural Born Killers and the Bruce Springsteen song “Nebraska“.
1959 – Sleeping Beauty, an animated feature produced by Walt Disney based upon a fairy tale, is released.
1963 – First inductees into the Pro Football Hall of Fame are announced. The Inaugural class (1963) consisted of: Sammy Baugh, Bert Bell, Joe Carr, Earl (Dutch) Clark, Harold (Red) Grange, George Halas, Mel Hein, Wilbur (Pete) Henry, Robert (Cal) Hubbard, Don Hutson, Earl (Curly) Lambeau, Tim Mara, George Preston Marshall, John (Blood) McNally, Bronko Nagurski, Ernie Nevers and Jim Thorpe.
1964 – Most lopsided high-school basketball score-211-29 (Louisiana)
1964 – Olympic Games: Winter Olympic Games – The IX Olympic Winter Games open in Innsbruck, Austria.
1964 – “Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb” is released in the United States.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Downtown” by Petula Clark, “You’ve Lost that Lovin’ Feelin’” by The Righteous Brothers, “The Name Game” by Shirley Ellis and “You’re the Only World I Know” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1966 – The first of 608 performances of “Sweet Charity” opens at the Palace Theatre in New York City.
1966 – “We Can Work It Out” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1966 – The Bobby Fuller Four’s “I Fought The Law” was released.
1967 - The “ultimate high” of the hippie era, the Mantra-Rock Dance, takes place in San Francisco and features Janis Joplin, Grateful Dead, and Allen Ginsberg.
1968 – A court convened in Vietnam for the murder of Cambodian, triple agent Inchin Lam, by Special Forces Captain John J. McCarthy Jr. Murder charges were later dropped due to exculpatory evidence and proven prosecutorial fraud on the court.
1968 – In his annual budget message, President Lyndon B. Johnson asks for $26.3 billion to continue the war in Vietnam, and announces an increase in taxes.
1969 – The “Glen Campbell Goodtime Hour” debuted on CBS-TV.
1969 – An undersea oil well off Santa Barbara, Ca., suffered a blowout and over the next 11 days released some 200,000 gallons of oil that spread over 800 square miles of ocean and soiled 35 miles of coastline.
1972 – “American Pie” by Don McLean topped the charts.
1973 – Johnny Rivers strikes gold record for “Rockin’ Pneumonia and the Boogie Woogie Flu”
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Superstition” by Stevie Wonder, “Crocodile Rock” by Elton John, “Your Mama Don’t Dance” by Kenny Loggins & Jim Messina and “(Old Dogs-Children And) Watermelon Wine” by Tom T. Hall all topped the charts.
1973 – Emily Howell Warner (b.1939) became the first woman pilot permanently employed by a commercial airline. Her first flight as co-pilot was on the Frontier Airlines DHC-6 Twin Otter August 1, 1974.
1977 – “Car Wash” by Rose Royce topped the charts.
1977 - Freddie Prinze (b.1954), American comedian and TV actor, shot himself and died. His work included the TV show “Chico & the Man” (1974-1977).
1978 – Sweden outlaws aerosol sprays due to their harmful effect on the ozone layer, becoming the first nation to enact such a ban.
1979 – SCHOOL SHOOTING – Brenda Ann Spencer kills nine people and wounds two in a shooting spree at Cleveland Elementary School in San Diego, California. She told police she did it because, “I don’t like Mondays.”
1979 – President Jimmy Carter commuted the sentence of Patty Hearst (24) from seven to two years. She had served 23 months in prison.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “(Just Like) Starting Over” by John Lennon, “Love on the Rocks” by Neil Diamond, “The Tide is High” by Blondie and “9 to 5” by Dolly Parton all topped the charts.
1983 – “Down Under” by Men At Work topped the charts.
1985 – The Dow Jones industrial average peaked at 1,292.62.
1985 – In San Francisco the US Army trucked the historic Goldie Shack from 485 34th Ave. to the Presidio, where it will be stored and eventually reopened to the public. It was one of 5,610 shacks built in 1906-1907 to house earthquake refugees.
1987 – “Physician’s Weekly” announced that the smile on the face of Leonardo DeVinci’s Mona Lisa was caused by a “…facial paralysis resulting from a swollen nerve behind the ear.”
1989 – The Orlando Arena, now titled the TD Waterhouse Centre, opens in Downtown Orlando. The TD Waterhouse Centre is currently the home to the Orlando Magic of the NBA and the Orlando Predators of the AFL.
1989 – Billy Joel sang the U.S. national anthem at Super Bowl XXIII.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Two Hearts” by Phil Collins, “When I’m with You” by Sheriff, “When the Children Cry” by White Lion and “Deeper Than the Holler” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.
1990 - Former Exxon Valdez skipper Joseph Hazelwood went on trial in Anchorage, Alaska, on charges stemming from the nation’s worst oil spill; Hazelwood later was acquitted of the major charges and convicted of a misdemeanor.
1991 – Iraq War: A few hours after darkness fell on Jan. 29, a column of several dozen Iraqi tanks approached the abandoned Saudi town of Khafji.
1992 -Russian President Boris Yeltsin unveiled an ambitious plan to cut nuclear weapons spending and said his republic’s weapons would no longer be aimed at any U.S. targets.
1993 – President Clinton announced that he was ordering the draft of a formal directive by July 15 to end the longstanding ban on homosexuals in the U.S. military.
1994 – Mary Wilson, formerly with the Supremes, was injured when her jeep hit a freeway median and flipped over while driving outside of Los Angeles. Her 14-year old son was killed in the accident.
1995 - Super Bowl XXIX was played between the San Francisco 49ers and the San Diego Chargers. The 49ers won with a final score of 49-26. The head coaches were George Seifert for the 49ers and Bobby Ross for the Chargers. The game was played at Joe Robbie Stadium in Miami, FL before 74,107 fans and the MVP was 49ers’ QB Steve Young . The Referee was Jerry Markbreit. Face Value Tickets were $200. The 49ers became the first NFL team to win five Super Bowl titles.
1996 - A Navy F-14 fighter jet crashed in Nashville, Tennessee, demolishing three houses and killing five people.
1996 – Garth Brooks refused to accept his American Music Award for Favorite Overall Artist. Brooks said that Hootie and the Blowfish had done more for music that year than he did.
1998 – In Birmingham, Alabama, a bomb explodes at an abortion clinic, killing one and severely wounding another. Serial bomber Eric Robert Rudolph is suspected as the culprit.
1998 - The judge in the Paula Jones case ruled that allegations in the current Clinton-Lewinsky scandal will not be admitted in the Jones case.
1999 – The U.S. Senate delivered subpoenas for Monica Lewinsky and two presidential advisers for private, videotaped testimony in the Clinton impeachment trial.
2000 – Joe Montana and Ronnie Lott, architects of San Francisco’s Super Bowl dynasty, were among five individuals elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame.
2001 – Pres. Bush signed an executive order creating a new White House Office of Faith-based and Community Initiatives.
2001 – DaimlerChrysler announced it was eliminating 26,000 jobs at its money-losing Chrysler division.
2001 - Al DeGuzman (19) was arrested in San Jose after a photo lab clerk reported pictures of him in front of an arsenal of weapons. A 158-page diary was found labeled “Plan X2” for a Jan 30 attack at De Anza College in Cupertino. DeGuzman was found guilty in 2002 of 108 felony accounts. He was sentenced to 7 years in prison.
2002 – In his State of the Union Address, United States President George W. Bush describes “regimes that sponsor terror” as an Axis of Evil, in which he includes Iraq, Iran and North Korea.
2003 - The Congressional Budget Office predicted the current year’s federal deficit would soar to $199 billion even without President Bush’s new tax cut plan or war against Iraq.
2003 - In Kinston, NC, six people were killed and dozens injured in an explosion at West Pharmaceuticals.
2004 – A whale explodes in the town of Tainan, Taiwan. A build-up of gas in the decomposing 56-foot long Sperm whale is suspected of causing the explosion.
2004 - A report submitted today to the State of Maryland states that the electronic voting machines made by Diebold Election Systems ”have such poor computer security and physical security that an election could be disrupted or even stolen by corrupt insiders or determined outsiders”. The machines have been purchased by a number of states in the United States.
2005 - Ashley McElhiney, the first female coach of a men’s pro basketball team, was fired after an on-court dispute with Sally Anthony, co-owner of the Nashville Rhythm of the ABA.
2005 - Procter & Gamble plan to purchase competitor Gillette in a deal worth $52.4 billion. Industry experts, including Gillette CEO Jim Kilts, expect further industry consolidation this year, spurred in part by a 40% rise in oil prices last year and the need to gain clout against economic giant Wal-Mart.
2006 – ABC News co-anchor Bob Woodruff and his cameraman Doug Vogt are severely injured in Iraq following a car blast.
2006 - The Mexican government said the US Border Patrol in New Mexico arrested Francisco Javier Gutierrez, a Mexican immigration official, who was allegedly trying to help a group of illegal immigrants sneak into the US.
2007 - Lauren Nelson, an aspiring Broadway star, was crowned Miss America, the second year in a row that a Miss Oklahoma has won the crown.
2007 – Kentucky Derby (2006) winner Barbaro was euthanized because of medical complications eight months after his gruesome breakdown at the Preakness.He shattered his leg two weeks after that race in the 2006 Preakness Stakes, ending his racing career and eventually leading to his death.
2008 - Voters in Florida go to the polls to determine presidential nominees.
2008 - Pres. Bush signed an executive order for federal agencies to ignore “earmarks” that aren’t explicitly enacted into law.
2008 - The United States House of Representatives passes a $146 billion economic stimulus package.
2009 – Gov. Blagojevich was removed from office and barred from future state employment by Illinois State Senate. Without a dissenting vote, the Illinois State Senate found Rod R. Blagojevich guilty of abuse of his office. He was the eighth governor in United States history to be removed, and the first in 21 years.
2009 – President Barack Obama signed the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Restoration Act, an equal pay bill, into law, declaring that it’s a family issue, not just a women’s issue.
2009 – A California judge ruled that Gov. Schwarzenegger can force state workers to take furloughs to help close the budget gap.
2010 – President Barack Obama engaged in a rare face-to-face showdown with Republican critics and testily accused them of trying to block his policies while urging them to “join with me” in creating jobs.
2010 - The United States approves a US$6 billion arms sales package to Taiwan.
2010 – A US storm that toppled power lines, closed major highways and buried parts of the southern Plains in heavy ice and snow began moving into the South, leaving tens of thousands of people in the dark. Nearly 142,000 homes and businesses in Oklahoma were without power.
2010 – In Mexico, a Texas man and his girlfriend were sentenced to nine years in prison for recruiting Mexican women to give birth in the US and sell their babies to couples there. Amado Torres, of Harlingen, Texas, and Maria Isabel Hernandez, of Mexico, had allegedly paid women up to $3,000 for their newborns.
2011 – Wall Street firm Goldman Sachs triples the base salary of its chief executive Lloyd Blankfein to $2 million, up from $600,000, after the bank’s profit falls by 38 per cent.
2012 – Police confront protesters with tear gas and stun grenades in Oakland, California; more than 100 arrests are made.
2012 – At least ten people die in an accident on the Interstate 75 south of Gainesville, Florida.
1737 – Thomas Paine, American revolutionary leader, political philosopher.
1843 – William McKinley, 25th President of the United States of America (1897-1901).
1874 – John Davison Rockefeller, Jr., American industrialist.
1880 – W.C. Fields, American comedian and actor.
1927 – Edward Abbey, an American author and essayist noted for his advocacy of environmental issues and criticism of public land policies.
1954 – Oprah Winfrey, American talk show host, actress, media mogul.
|FUNK, LEONARD A., JR.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 508th Parachute Infantry, 82d Airborne Division. Place and date: Holzheim, Belgium, 29 January 1945. Entered service at: Wilkinsburg, Pa. Birth: Braddock Township, Pa. G.O. No.: 75, 5 September 1945. Citation: He distinguished himself by gallant, intrepid actions against the enemy. After advancing 15 miles in a driving snowstorm, the American force prepared to attack through waist-deep drifts. The company executive officer became a casualty, and 1st Sgt. Funk immediately assumed his duties, forming headquarters soldiers into a combat unit for an assault in the face of direct artillery shelling and harassing fire from the right flank. Under his skillful and courageous leadership, this miscellaneous group and the 3d Platoon attacked fifteen houses, cleared them, and took thirty prisoners without suffering a casualty. The fierce drive of Company C quickly overran Holzheim, netting some eighty prisoners, who were placed under a four-man guard, all that could be spared, while the rest of the understrength unit went about mopping up isolated points of resistance. An enemy patrol, by means of a ruse, succeeded in capturing the guards and freeing the prisoners, and had begun preparations to attack Company C from the rear when 1st Sgt. Funk walked around the building and into their midst. He was ordered to surrender by a German officer who pushed a machine pistol into his stomach. Although overwhelmingly outnumbered and facing almost certain death, 1st Sgt. Funk, pretending to comply with the order, began slowly to unsling his submachine gun from his shoulder and then, with lightning motion, brought the muzzle into line and riddled the German officer. He turned upon the other Germans, firing and shouting to the other Americans to seize the enemy’s weapons. In the ensuing fight twenty-one Germans were killed, many wounded, and the remainder captured. 1st Sgt. Funk’s bold action and heroic disregard for his own safety were directly responsible for the recapture of a vastly superior enemy force, which, if allowed to remain free, could have taken the widespread units of Company C by surprise and endangered the entire attack plan.
The Challenger Disaster
Data Privacy Day
The Challenger Disaster
The first Space Shuttle Disaster was Challenger which was lost during an explosion as it took off from Cape Canaveral on January 28, 1986, killing all seven people on board. NASA suspended shuttle flights for two years.
The Space Shuttle Challenger Mission (Flight STS-51L) was the 25th Space Shuttle mission and the 10th launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger.
It was launched from Pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center in Florida at 11:38am EST. This mission was highly publicized because it was the first time a school teacher was allowed to travel in space. Christa McAuliffe, a high school teacher from New Hampshire was to be the the first civilian in space. She was selected from more than 11,000 applicants.
The crew of Space Shuttle Challenger consisted of 7 astronauts:
- Francis R. Scobee – Mission Commander
- Michael J. Smith – Pilot
- Gregory B. Jarvis – Payload Specialist 1
- Christa McAuliffe - Payload Specialist 2
- Judith A. Resnik – Mission Specialist 1
- Ellison S. Onizuka – Mission Specialist 2
- Ronald E. McNair – Mission Specialist 3
The Challenger cargo included two satellites in the cargo bay and equipment in the crew compartment for experiments that would be carried out during the mission. The payloads flown on Space Shuttle Challenger Mission 51-L included:
- a NASA communications satellite that was to have been placed in a geosynchronous orbit with the aid of a booster called the Inertial Upper Stage. The satellite would have supported communications with the Space Shuttle and up to 23 other spacecraft.
- Spartan satellite that would be deployed into orbit carrying special instruments for the observation of Halley’s Comet. Spartan satellite was to have been deployed into low Earth orbit using the remote manipulator system.
- Halley’s Comet Experiment Deployable, a free-flying module designed to observe tail and coma of Halleys comet with two ultraviolet spectrometers and two cameras.
Space Shuttle Challenger Mission 51 L History
Shuttle Mission 51-L was originally scheduled for July, 1985. The astronaut crew were assigned in January 1985, however, the launch was rescheduled to late November 1985 due to changes in payloads. The November launch date slipped due to delays.
The launch was re-scheduled for January 22, however, the date slipped to January 23, then January 24, due to delays in mission 61-C. Launch was reset for January 25 because of bad weather at the transoceanic abort landing (TAL) site in Dakar, Senegal. To utilize Casablanca (not equipped for night landings) as alternate TAL site, T-zero was moved to a morning lift-off time. The launch was postponed another day when launch processing was unable to meet the new morning lift-off time. Prediction of unacceptable weather at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) led to the launch being rescheduled for 9:37 a.m. EST, January 27.
The launch was delayed 24 hours again when the ground servicing equipment hatch closing fixture could not be removed from the orbiter hatch. The fixture was sawed off and an attaching bolt drilled out before closeout was completed. During the delay, cross winds exceeded return-to-launch-site limits at KSC’s Shuttle Landing Facility. The launch on January 28 was delayed two hours when a hardware interface module in the launch processing system, which monitors the fire detection system, failed during liquid hydrogen tanking procedures.
After several launch delays, NASA officials overruled the concerns of the engineers and ordered a lift off on a cold morning, at 11:38:00 a.m. EST on January 28, 1986 . The mission ended in tragedy. Challenger disintegrated into a ball of fire. The accident occurred 73 seconds into flight, at an altitude of 46,000 feet (14, 020 meters) and at about twice the speed of sound.
Cause of the Disaster
The main cause of the explosion was the failure of the aft joint seal in the right SRB due to the cold weather. A combustion gas leak through the right Solid Rocket Motor aft field joint initiated at or shortly after ignition eventually weakened and/or penetrated the External Tank initiating vehicle structural break-up and loss of the Space Shuttle Challenger during STS Mission 51-L.
Orbiter Did not explode
Challenger itself did not explode, but various structural failures caused the orbiter to break apart. Although the Challenger disintegrated almost without warning, the crew may have briefly been aware that something was wrong. The crew cabin tore lose from the rest of the shuttle and soared through the air. It took almost three minutes for the cabin to fall into the Atlantic Ocean, where it smashed on impact, killing the seven crew members.
Space Shuttle SRB’s
A full year before Challenger was launched, a major fault was discovered in the design of the solid rocket boosters – the SRB’s. These 2 immensely powerful rockets are strapped to the side of the External Tank and accelerate the shuttle clear of the Earth’s atmosphere. 2 minutes after launch, the SRB’s release from the Shuttle, dropping to the ocean and are collected for reuse. The SRB’s were built for NASA by a contractor, Morton Thiokol, Inc.
All shuttle missions were halted while a special commission appointed by President Reagan determined the cause of the accident and what could be done to prevent such disasters from happening again. It was headed by former secretary of state William Rogers the commission included former astronaut Neil Armstrong and former test pilot Chuck Yeager.
In June 1986, the commission reported that the accident was caused by a failure of O rings in the shuttle’s right solid rocket booster. These rubber rings sealed the joint between the two lower segments of the booster. Design flaws in the joint and unusually cold weather during the launch caused the O rings to allow hot gases to leak out of the booster through the joint. Flames from within the booster streamed past the failed seal and quickly expanded the small hole. The flaming gases then burned a hole in the shuttle’s external fuel tank. The flames also cut away one of the supporting beams that held the booster to the side of the external tank. The booster tore loose and ruptured the tank. The propellants from the tank formed a giant fireball as structural failures tore the vehicle apart.
The commission said NASA’s decision to launch the shuttle was flawed. Top level decision makers had not been informed of problems with the joints and O rings or the possible damaging effects of cold weather. The Commission also concluded that there was a serious flaw in the decision making process leading up to the launch of flight 51-L.
Shuttle designers made several technical modifications, including an improved O ring design and the addition of a crew bail-out system. Although such a system would not work in all cases, it could save lives of shuttle crew members in certain situations. Procedural changes included stricter safety reviews and more restrictive launching conditions.
Shuttle resumes flight
The entire space shuttle program was grounded during the commission’s investigation and did not resume flying until shuttle designers made several technical modifications and NASA management implemented stricter regulations regarding quality control and safety. The space shuttle resumed flying on September 29, 1988 with the launch of the redesigned shuttle Discovery on STS-26 mission. In 1991, the shuttle Endeavour joined the fleet to replace the Challenger, again bringing the number of ships to four.
The Obama Administration finally brought the Space Shuttle Program to an end on July 21st, 2011
“We need quiet time to examine our lives openly and honestly… spending quiet time alone gives your mind an opportunity to renew itself and create order.”
~ Susan Taylor
sunder SUN-dur, transitive verb:1. To break apart; to separate; to divide; to sever.
2.To become parted, disunited, or severed.Sunder is from Old English sundrian
1521 – Diet of Worms begins, lasting until May 25. The Diet of Worms was a general assembly (a Diet) of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire that took place in Worms, a small town on the Rhine river located in what is now Germany. It was conducted from January 28 to May 25, 1521, with Emperor Charles V presiding. Although other issues were dealt with at the Diet of Worms, it is most memorable for addressing Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation.
1547 – Edward VI becomes King, and the first Protestant ruler of England.
1573 – Articles of Warsaw Confederation are signed, sanctioning freedom of religion in Poland.
1596 - English navigator Sir Francis Drake (50) died off the coast of Panama of a fever; he was buried at sea.
1613 – Galileo may have unknowingly viewed undiscovered planet Neptune
1754 – Horace Walpole, in a letter to Horace Mann, coins the word serendipity.
1760 – Pownal, Vermont created by Benning Wentworth as one of the New Hampshire Grants.
1782 – Congress approved the Great Seal of the United States.
1788 – The first penal colony is founded at Botany Bay, Australia.
1791 – Alexhander Hamilton provides plans for dollar currency and US Mint. Following the Revolutionary War, the U.S. seemed as though as it would adopt copper as its coin of choice.
1813 – Pride and Prejudice is first published in the United Kingdom.
1820 – Russian expedition led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev discovered the Antarctic continent approaching the Antarctic coast.
1851 - Northwestern University, near Chicago, was chartered.
1855 – The first locomotive runs from the Atlantic to the Pacific on the Panama Railway.
1858 – John Brown organized a plan to raid the Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry.
1873 – French chemist Louis Pasteur patents a process of brewing beer and ale.
1878 – The Yale News becomes the first daily, college newspaper in the United States.
1878 – The first commercial telephone exchange in the U.S. was installed at New Haven, Connecticut, and served twenty-one subscribers connected by a single strand of iron wire. The first operator was George W. Coy. Coy designed and built the world’s first switchboard for commercial use.
1880 - Henry Casebolt, San Francisco inventor of the cable car grip, sold his interest in the Sutter Street Railway.
1886 – Benz patents his internal combustion engine powered automobile.
1887 – In a snowstorm at Fort Keogh, Montana, the world’s largest snowflakes are reported, being 15 inches wide and 8 inches thick.
1901 – The American League formally organizes. Teams were limited to fourteen players and play 140 games per season. The eight charter teams included: the Baltimore Orioles, Boston Americans, Chicago White Stockings, Cleveland Blues, Detroit Tigers, Milwaukee Brewers, Philadelphia Athletics, and Washington Senators.
1902 – The Carnegie Institution is founded in Washington, DC with a $10 million gift from Andrew Carnegie.
1904 – Enrico Caruso signed his first contract with Victor Records.
1908 – Author and activist Julia Ward Howe, composer of “The Battle Hymn of the Republic,” became the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters.
1909 – United States troops leave Cuba after being there since the Spanish-American War and ended direct control over the island-nation.
1911 - In San Francisco 143 people were taken prisoner following a raid on gambling at a poolroom at Fourth and Mission streets run by Brophy & Collins.
1914 – Beverly Hills, California, is incorporated. It was part of the original Spanish Land Grant and the site was called El Rancho Rodeo de Las Aguas until 1906, when the community was laid out and renamed.
1915 – The Coast Guard was created by an act of Congress, to fight contraband trade and aid distressed vessels at sea. It was created from Life Saving & Revenue Cutter services.
1915 – World War I: The merchant frigate Willaim P. Frye was stopped by a German cruiser in the South Atlantic off the Brazilian coast and ordered to jettison its cargo, wheat bound for Britain. Later the Germans sank the ship.
1915 - Pres. Wilson refused to prohibit the immigration of illiterates.
1916 – Louis D. Brandeis becomes the first Jewish Justice appointed to the United States Supreme Court. He was a private practice attorney and leader in the US Zionist movement.
1917 – United States ends search for Pancho Villa. He stood accused of leading a bloody raid against Columbus, New Mexico.
1917 – Municipally owned streetcars take to the streets of San Francisco.
1921 – The National Football League franchise in Decatur, Illinois was transferred this day to Chicago. The team took the name Chicago Bears.
1922 - The American Pro Football Association was renamed “National Football League.”
1932 – First US state unemployment insurance act enacted-Wisconsin.
1934 - The first US rope ski tow began operation at Woodstock, Vermont.
1935 – Iceland becomes the first country to legalize abortion.
1936 - While in the prison shower, kidnapper and murderer Richard Loeb was fatally assaulted by another inmate, James Day, with a straight razor. Day was not convicted for the assault, which he claimed was in self-defense
1938 – The first ski tow in America begins operation in Vermont.
1938 – The World Land Speed Record on a public road is broken by driver Rudolf Caracciola in the Mercedes-Benz W195.
1938 – Crystal Byrd Fauset, first Black woman elected to a state legislature, was elected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives.
1940 – “Beat the Band” made its debut on NBC radio.
1942 – World War II: The Eighth Bomber Command (Later redesignated 8th AF in February 1944) activated as part of the U.S. Army Air Forces at Hunter Field in Savannah, Ga.
1942 – World War II: “Sighted Sub, Sank Same” was the message sent. Donald Francis Mason was an enlisted pilot flying a Lockheed “Hudson” PBO-1 based at Argentia, Newfoundland. Mason spotted a German submarine and dove to attack at low altitude. He dropped two depth charges which straddled the periscope.
1942 – World War II: The 4th Marine Regiment was assigned to support Philippine Scouts on Bataan.
1944 - Matthew Henson received a joint medal from Congress as co-discoverer of the North Pole.
1944 – World War II: U-271 & U-571 sank off Ireland.
1945 – World War II: Allied supplies began reaching China over the newly reopened Burma Road.
1945 – World War II: The US 8th Air Force conducts raids on the Ruhr industrial area and the Rhine with 1000 bombers. Oil plants and bridges are the nominal targets.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Golden Earrings” by Peggy Lee, “How Soon” by Jack Owens, “Ballerina” by Vaughn Monroe and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1949 - NY Giants signed their first Black players, Monte Irvin & Ford Smith.
1950 – “I Can Dream, Can’t I?” by the Andrews Sisters topped the charts.
1953 - J. Fred Muggs (the chimp) joined NBC’s “Today Show.”
1955 - The U.S. Congress passed a bill allowing mobilization of troops if China should attack Taiwan.
1956 - Elvis Presley recorded his television debut for “Stage Show” hosted by Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey.
1956 – The Brooklyn Dodgers (‘da Bums’) hires circus clown Emmett Kelly to be their mascot the year before they moved to Los Angeles.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Memories are Made of This” by Dean Martin, “The Great Pretender” by The Platters, “Moritat (A Theme from ’The Three Penny Opera’)” by Dick Hyman and “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford all topped the charts.
1956 - Iva Toguri D’Aquino (1916-2006), a Japanese-American suspected of being wartime radio propagandist “Tokyo Rose,” was released from prison at Alderson, W. Virginia.
1958 – Dodger catcher Roy Campanella is paralyzed in an automobile
wreck. He would never return to play again. In 1959 Topps Chewing Gum Company issued a baseball card in his honor featuring Campanella in a wheelchair with the phrase “Symbol of Courage.”
1958 – Construction began on first private thorium-uranium nuclear reactor. The design and construction was executed by the Babcock and Wilcox Co. for the Consolidated Edison Co. The Indian Point 1 operating licence was dated March 26, 1962 and its shutdown date was October 31, 1974.
1960 – First photograph bounced off Moon, Washington, DC.
1961 – Niagara Falls hydroelectric project begins producing power.
1961 – “Wonderland by Night” by Bert Kaempfert topped the charts.
1963 – Black student Harvey Gantt entered Clemson College in South Carolina, the last state to hold out against integration.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “There! I’ve Said It Again” by Bobby Vinton, “I Want to Hold Your Hand” by The Beatles, “Surfin’ Bird” by The Trashmen and “Love’s Gonna Live Here” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1964 - The Soviets downed a U.S. jet over East Germany killing three.
1965 – General Motors reported the biggest profit of any U.S. company in history.
1966 – “I’m a Believer” by the Monkees topped the charts.
1966 – Vietnam: Operation “Double Eagle.” Largest amphibious landing since Korea. D-Day. It was a dismal day with low overcast and light rain.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “American Pie” by Don McLean, “Let’s Stay Together” by Al Green, “Day After Day” by Badfinger and “Carolyn” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1973 – Ron Howard appears on M*AS*H in “Sometimes You Hear the Bullet”
1973 – CBS-TV debuted “Barnaby Jones.”
1973 – Vietnam War: A cease-fire officially went into effect. The Vietnam War resulted in the death of 58,153 (58,167)
1977 - A heavy blizzard began in Eastern Canada and the US. It claimed as many as 100 lives. This was the only blizzard declared a natural and national disaster by the American and Canadian governments.
1978 - Fire swept through the historic downtown Coates House hotel in Kansas City, Mo., killing twenty people.
1979 – “Wiz” closes at Majestic Theater New York City, NY after 1672 performances.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock with You” by Michael Jackson, “Do that to Me One More Time” by The Captain & Tennille, “Coward of the County” by Kenny Rogers and “I’ll Be Coming Back for More” by T.G. Sheppard all topped the charts.
1980 – Six Americans who had fled the U.S. embassy in Tehran, Iran, on November 4, 1979, left Iran using false Canadian diplomatic passports. The Americans had been hidden at the Canadian embassy in Tehran.
1980 – The Coast Guard Cutter Blackthorn sank in Tampa Bay after colliding with the tanker Capricorn.23 Coast Guard personnel were killed in the tragedy.
1981 - William J. Casey (1913-1987) became the thirteenth director of CIA replacing Adm. Stansfield Turner.
1982 – US Army general James L. Dozier is rescued by Italian anti-terrorism forces after forty-two days of captivity under the Red Brigades.
1983 – May 19th Communist Organization bombed the federal building on Staten Island, N.Y.
1986 – Space Shuttle program: STS-51-L mission (Space Shuttle Challenger disaster) – Space Shuttle Challenger breaks apart 73 seconds after liftoff killing all seven astronauts onboard, including Christa McAuliffe, who was supposed to be the first teacher in space. Failure blamed on leaking Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Way You Make Me Feel” by Michael Jackson, “Need You Tonight” by INXS, “Could’ve Been” by Tiffany and “Where Do the Nights Go” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1988 - A thirteen-day standoff in Marion, Utah, between police and a polygamist clan ended in gunfire that killed a state corrections officer and seriously wounded the group’s leader, Addam Swapp.
1988 - Public Service of New Hampshire filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. This was the first American utility since the Depression to go bankrupt, mostly because of unexpected costs of a nuclear plant.
1990 – Super Bowl XXIV was played between the San Francisco 49ers and the Denver Broncos. The 49ers won and the final score was 55-10. The head coaches were George Seifert for San Francisco and Dan Reeves for Denver. It was played in the Louisiana Superdome, New Orleans, LA before 72,919 fans and the MVP was Joe Montana was the 49ers quarterback. The Referee was Dick Jorgenson. Face Value Tickets were $125.
1991 - Harold “Red” Grange (b.1903), three-time All-American, died. He is credited with establishing professional football as a popular spectator sport.
1993 - Funeral services were held in Washington for former Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall.
1994 – The first trial of accused murderer Lyle Menendez ends in a mistrial. He and his brother Erik are later found guilty and sentenced to life in prison without parole.
1996 - Super Bowl XXX was played between the Dallas Cowboys and the Pittsburgh Steelers. The Cowboys won with a final score of 27-17. The head coaches were Barry Switzer for the Cowboys and Bill Cowher for the Steelers. It was played at Sun Devil Stadium in Tempe, AZ before 76, 347 fans and the MVP was Dallas cornerback Larry Brown. The Referee was Red Cashion. Face Value Tickets were $350, $250 and $200.This was Dallas’ third Super Bowl victory in four years.
1997 - O.J. Simpson’s fate was placed in the hands of a civil court jury that was charged with deciding whether Simpson should be held liable for the slayings of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman. The jury found that Simpson was liable, and ordered him to pay $33.5 million.
1998 – Gunmen hold at least 400 children and teachers hostage for several hours at an elementary school in Manila, Philippines.
1998 – Andy Nelson and navigator Bertrand Piccard, in the Breitling Orbiter II set the world record for endurance at nine days and 17 hours – or, to be exact, 233 hours and 55 minutes. But the journey was stopped when they were not allowed to over-fly China.
1998 -Michelangelo’s “Christ & the Woman of Samaria” sold for $7.4 million.
1999 – Ford Motor Company announced the purchase of Sweden’s Volvo AB for $6.45 billion.
1999 - The Senate voted 54-44 to allow the video-taping of witness depositions for the Clinton impeachment trial.
2001 - Super Bowl XXXV was played between the Baltimore Ravens and the New York Giants. The Ravens won with a final score of 34-7. The head coaches were Brian Billick for the Ravens and Jim Fassel for the Giants. The game was played in Raymond James Stadium, Tampa, FL before 71,921 fans and the MVP was Ray Lewis, Ravens linebacker. The Referee was Gerald Austin. Face Value Tickets were $325.
2002 – Toys R Us Inc. announced that it would be closing 27 Toys R Us stores and 37 Kids R Us stores in order to cut costs and boost operating profits.
2003 - Oregon voters defeated a proposed 3-year income tax hike designed to forestall $310 million in cuts to schools and social services.This forced the first layoffs in the Oregon State Police since its creation in 1931.
2003 - John Philip Thompson (77) died. He expanded his family’s business into the nationwide 7-Eleven chain.
2004 - David Kay, former head of the CIA’s weapons search team in Iraq, told Congress no weapons of mass destruction had been found and that prewar intelligence was “almost all wrong.”
2005 – Senate Democrats criticized President Bush’s plan to add personal accounts to Social Security and accused his administration of improperly using the Social Security Administration to promote the idea.
2007 - YouTube’s founder says people who upload their own videos to the site will get a share of the ad revenue.
2008 – It was reported that security costs for California Gov. Schwarzenegger and other top state officials approached $38 million a year.
2008 – In San Francisco one worker was killed and two others badly injured when a five-story tower of a decommissioned power plant collapsed during demolition in the Hunters Point neighborhood.
2009 – President Barack Obama signed requests from Kentucky Gov. Steve Beshear and Arkansas Gov. Mike Beebe for federal emergency declarations as crews worked around the clock to resurrect power lines downed by thick ice in both states.
2009 – Peanut Corp. expanded its recall to all peanut products produced at its Blakely, Ga., plant since Jan 1, 2007, due to a salmonella outbreak.
2009 - Winter storms across the Midwestern United States have killed 19 people and cut electricity to 600,000 homes and businesses from Oklahoma to West Virginia.
2010 – In Arizona police Lt. Eric Shuhandler (42) was shot in the face as he walked back toward a pickup after finding the passenger had an arrest warrant. Shuhandler, the father of two girls, was rushed to a hospital, where he died shortly before midnight.
2011 – Hundreds of people attend an event at Kennedy Space Center in the U.S. state of Florida to mark the 25th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.
2011 - A 450 year-old Madonna and Child work sells for $16.9 million at Sotheby’s in New York, a new auction record for Titian.
2012 - Approximately 300 people are arrested in Oakland, California during Occupy Oakland protests.
2014 – Winter blast hits the Deep South. Wind chill factor in New Orleans is 19 degrees and in Atlanta, GA at 10 degrees.
2014 – President Obama signed another executive order to hike the minimum wage for federal contract workers to $10.10 per hour (whopping 39 PER CENT increase).
1841 – Henry Morton Stanley, Welsh-born explorer and journalist famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone. (d. 1904)
1855 – William Seward Burroughs I, American inventor. Initially a bank clerk, he invented a “calculating machine” designed to ease the monotony of clerical work. Founder of the Burroughs Corporation (d. 1898)
1864 – Charles W. Nash, co-founder of Nash Motors, which would become American Motors as well as co-founder of Buick (d. 1948)
1864 – Herbert Akroyd Stuart, English engineer – inventor of the first compression ignition engine (d. 1927)
1887 – Arthur Rubinstein, was a Polish-American pianist who is widely considered as one of the greatest piano virtuosi of the 20th century. (d. 1982)
1890 – Robert Stroud, American convict, the Birdman of Alcatraz (d. 1963)
1919 – Francis Gabreski, was the top American fighter ace in Europe during World War II, a jet fighter ace in Korea, and a career officer in the United States Air Force with more than 26 years service. (d. 2002)
1936 – Alan Alda- He is well known for his role as “Hawkeye Pierce” in the television series M*A*S*H. During the 1970s and ’80s, he was viewed as the archetypal sympathetic male.
1949 – Gregg Popovich, is the head coach of the National Basketball Association’s San Antonio Spurs.
1954 – Rick Warren, is the founder and senior pastor of the evangelical megachurch, Saddleback Church, in Lake Forest, California, the fourth largest church in the United States in 2008. He is perhaps most famously known for the subsequent devotional The Purpose Driven Life, which has sold over 20 million copies, becoming one of the best selling non-fiction books of all time.
1980 – Nick Carter, is a musician, and pop singer. He is a member of the musical group The Backstreet Boys.
*GIBSON, ERIC G.
Rank and organization. Technician Fifth Grade, U.S. Army, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Isola Bella, Italy, 28 January 1944. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Nysund, Sweden. G.O. No.: 74, 11 September 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. On 28 January 1944, near Isola Bella, Italy, Tech. 5th Grade Gibson, company cook, led a squad of replacements through their initial baptism of fire, destroyed four enemy positions, killed five and captured two German soldiers, and secured the left flank of his company during an attack on a strongpoint. Placing himself fifty yards in front of his new men, Gibson advanced down the wide stream ditch known as the Fossa Femminamorta (Grave of the female dead), keeping pace with the advance of his company. An enemy soldier allowed Tech. 5th Grade Gibson to come within twenty yards of his concealed position and then opened fire on him with a machine pistol. Despite the stream of automatic fire which barely missed him, Gibson charged the position, firing his submachine gun every few steps. Reaching the position, Gibson fired pointblank at his opponent, killing him. An artillery concentration fell in and around the ditch; the concussion from one shell knocked him flat. As he got to his feet Gibson was fired on by two soldiers armed with a machine pistol and a rifle from a position only seventy-five yards distant. Gibson immediately raced toward the foe. Halfway to the position a machinegun opened fire on him. Bullets came within inches of his body, yet Gibson never paused in his forward movement. He killed one and captured the other soldier. Shortly after, when he was fired upon by a heavy machinegun two-hundred yards down the ditch, Gibson crawled back to his squad and ordered it to lay down a base of fire while he flanked the emplacement. Despite all warning, Gibson crawled one hundred twenty-five yards through an artillery concentration and the cross fire of two machineguns which showered dirt over his body, threw two hand grenades into the emplacement and charged it with his submachine gun, killing two of the enemy and capturing a third. Before leading his men around a bend in the stream ditch, Gibson went forward alone to reconnoiter. Hearing an exchange of machine pistol and submachine gun fire, Gibson’s squad went forward to find that its leader had run thirty-five yards toward an outpost, killed the machine pistol man, and had himself been killed while firing at the Germans.
Holocaust Memorial Day
Thomas Crapper Day
Introduction to the Holocaust
The Holocaust (also called Shoah in Hebrew) refers to the period from January 30, 1933, when Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany, to May 8, 1945 (VE Day), when the war in Europe ended. During this time, Jews in Europe were subjected to progressively harsh persecution that ultimately led to the murder of 6,000,000 Jews (1.5 million of these being children) and the destruction of 5,000 Jewish communities. These deaths represented two-thirds of European Jewry and one-third of world Jewry. The Jews who died were not casualties of the fighting that ravaged Europe during World War II. Rather, they were the victims of Germany’s deliberate and systematic attempt to annihilate the entire Jewish population of Europe, a plan Hitler called the“Final Solution” (Endlosung).
After its defeat in World War I, Germany was humiliated by the Versailles Treaty, which reduced its prewar territory, drastically reduced its armed forces, demanded the recognition of its guilt for the war, and stipulated it pay reparations to the allied powers. The German Empire destroyed, a new parliamentary government called the Weimar Republic was formed. The republic suffered from economic instability, which grew worse during the worldwide depression after the New York stock market crash in 1929. Massive inflation followed by very high unemployment heightened existing class and political differences and began to undermine the government.
On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler, leader of the National Socialist German Workers (Nazi) Party, was named chancellor by president Paul von Hindenburg after the Nazi party won a significant percentage of the vote in the elections of 1932. The Nazi Party had taken advantage of the political unrest in Germany to gain an electoral foothold. The Nazis incited clashes with the communists, who many feared, disrupted the government with demonstrations, and conducted a vicious propaganda campaign against its political opponents-the weak Weimar government, and the Jews, whom the Nazis blamed for Germany’s ills.
Propaganda: “The Jews Are Our Misfortune”
A major tool of the Nazis’ propaganda assault was the weekly Nazi newspaper Der Stürmer (The Attacker). At the bottom of the front page of each issue, in bold letters, the paper proclaimed, “The Jews are our misfortune!” Der Stürmer also regularly featured cartoons of Jews in which they were caricatured as hooked-nosed and apelike. The influence of the newspaper was far-reaching: by 1938 about a half million copies were distributed weekly.
Soon after he became chancellor, Hitler called for new elections in an effort to get full control of the Reichstag, the German parliament, for the Nazis. The Nazis used the government apparatus to terrorize the other parties. They arrested their leaders and banned their political meetings. Then, in the midst of the election campaign, on February 27, 1933, the Reichstag building burned. A Dutchman named Marinus van der Lubbe was arrested for the crime, and he swore he had acted alone. Although many suspected the Nazis were ultimately responsible for the act, the Nazis managed to blame the Communists, thus turning more votes their way.
The fire signaled the demise of German democracy. On the next day, the government, under the pretense of controlling the Communists, abolished individual rights and protections: freedom of the press, assembly, and expression were nullified, as well as the right to privacy. When the elections were held on March 5, the Nazis received nearly 44 percent of the vote, and with 8 percent offered by the Conservatives, won a majority in the government.
The Nazis moved swiftly to consolidate their power into a dictatorship. On March 23, the Enabling Act was passed. It sanctioned Hitler’s dictatorial efforts and legally enabled him to pursue them further. The Nazis marshaled their formidable propaganda machine to silence their critics. They also developed a sophisticated police and military force.
The Sturmabteilung (S.A., Storm Troopers), a grassroots organization, helped Hitler undermine the German democracy. The Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei, Secret State Police), a force recruited from professional police officers, was given complete freedom to arrest anyone after February 28. The Schutzstaffel (SS, Protection Squad) served as Hitler’s personal bodyguard and eventually controlled the concentration camps and the Gestapo. The Sicherheitsdienst des ReichsführersSS (S.D., Security Service of the SS) functioned as the Nazis’ intelligence service, uncovering enemies and keeping them under surveillance.
With this police infrastructure in place, opponents of the Nazis were terrorized, beaten, or sent to one of the concentration camps the Germans built to incarcerate them. Dachau, just outside of Munich, was the first such camp built for political prisoners. Dachau’s purpose changed over time and eventually became another brutal concentration camp for Jews.
By the end of 1934 Hitler was in absolute control of Germany, and his campaign against the Jews in full swing. The Nazis claimed the Jews corrupted pure German culture with their “foreign” and “mongrel” influence. They portrayed the Jews as evil and cowardly, and Germans as hardworking, courageous, and honest. The Jews, the Nazis claimed, who were heavily represented in finance, commerce, the press, literature, theater, and the arts, had weakened Germany’s economy and culture. The massive government-supported propaganda machine created a racial anti-Semitism, which was different from the longstanding anti-Semitic tradition of the Christian churches.
The superior race was the “Aryans,” the Germans. The word Aryan, “derived from the study of linguistics, which started in the eighteenth century and at some point determined that the Indo-Germanic (also known as Aryan) languages were superior in their structures, variety, and vocabulary to the Semitic languages that had evolved in the Near East. This judgment led to a certain conjecture about the character of the peoples who spoke these languages; the conclusion was that the ‘Aryan’ peoples were likewise superior to the ‘Semitic’ ones” (Leni Yahil, The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, New York: Oxford University Press, 1990, p. 36).
This article is duplicated from the Jewish Virtual Library and they own all the copyrights.
“The future is something which everyone reaches at the rate of sixty minutes an hour, whatever he does, whoever he is.”
~C. S. Lewis
supine soo-PYN; SOO-pyn, adjective:
1. Lying on the back, or with the face upward.
2.Indolent; listless; inactive; mentally or morally lethargic.
Supine derives from Latin supinus, “lying on the back.”
98 - Trajan succeeded his adoptive father Nerva as Roman emperor; under his rule the Roman Empire would reach its maximum extent.
661 - Ali ibn Abu Talib, caliph of Islam (656-61), was murdered in Kufa, Iraq. Caliph Ali, son-in-law of Mohammed, was assassinated and his followers (Shiites) broke from the majority Muslim group. A member of the anarchist sect of Kharajites assassinated Ali. This sect believed that there are no verdict’s but Allah’s.
1606 – Gunpowder Plot: The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins, and ending in their execution on January 31.
1662 – First American lime kiln begins operation. In January of 1662, permission to burn lime was given by the town of Providence, Rhode Island, to Thomas Hackelton.
1671 – Welsh pirate Captain Henry Morgan (1635-1688) landed at Panama City.
1776 - Revolutionary War: Henry Knox’s “noble train of artillery” arrives in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1778 – Capt. Nichols and 26 Marines captured Fort Nassau in the Bahamas. The fort was held by the British.
1785 – The University of Georgia is founded, the first public university in the United States.
1823 - President Monroe appointed first US ambassadors to South America.
1825 – U.S. Congress approves Indian Territory (in what is present-day Oklahoma), clearing the way for forced relocation of the Eastern Woodland Indians on the “Trail of Tears.” The tribes forced out included the Iroquois made up of the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, the Mohawk, the Algonquian and the Cherokees.
1862 – Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln issued General War Order No. 1, setting in motion the Union armies.
1870 – Kappa Alpha Theta, the first women’s sorority, was founded at Indiana Asbury University (now DePauw University) in Greencastle, IN.
1880 – Thomas Edison files a patent for his electric incandescent lamp. In 2014, the lights became illegal at the behest of the Democrat Party.
1888 – In Washington, D.C., the National Geographic Society is founded. It first magazine was published Oct 1, 1888.
1894 – First college basketball game, University of Chicago beats Chicago YMCA 19 to 11. These were still the “peach basket” days and someone had to get the ball out of the basket between scores.
1900 – Boxer Rebellion: Foreign diplomats in Peking, China demand that the Boxer rebels be disciplined.
1904 – Willie Vanderbilt (1878-1944) reached 92.3 mph in his new German motorcar at the Daytona Beach Road Course at Ormond Beach, Florida, establishing a new land speed record.
1915 – United States Marines occupy Haiti.
1916 – President Woodrow Wilson opened a preparedness program.
1918 – “Tarzan of the Apes”, first Tarzan film, premieres at Broadway Theater. Elmo Lincoln was the first Tarzan. Part 1 Full Movie
1925 – Anchorage, Alaska, delivered a diphtheria antitoxin to Nenana. Dr. Curtis Welch in Nome had begun diagnosing cases of diphtheria. An emergency delivery of serum against the disease was arranged by dogsled. 20 mushers rushed the serum 674 miles from Nenana to Nome in 5 days. In honor of that event, Alaska conducts the annual Iditarod.
1926 – John Baird, a Scottish inventor, demonstrated a pictorial transmission machine called television.
1926 - US Senate agreed to join the World Court.
1927 – United Independent Broadcasters Inc. started a radio network with contracts with 16 stations. The company later became Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS).
1939 – United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt approves the sale of U.S. war planes to France.
1939 – First flight of the Lockheed P-38 Lightning.
1941 – World War II: Fighting at Derna, Libya, begins. Following the capture of Tobruk, two brigades of the 6th Australian Division under Major General Iven Mackay pursue the Italians westwards and encounters an Italian rear guard at Derna.
1941 – World War II: Attack on Pearl Harbor – U.S. Ambassador to Japan Joseph C. Grew passes on to Washington a rumor overheard at a diplomatic reception about a planned surprise attack upon Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
1943 – World War II: First All-American air raid against Germany. The VIII Bomber Command dispatched ninety-one B-17s and B-24s to attack the U-Boat construction yards at Wilhelmshaven, Germany.
1944 – World War II: The Soviet Union announced the end of the deadly German siege of Leningrad, which had lasted 880 days with 600,000 killed.
1945 – World War II: The Red Army arrived at Auschwitz and Birkenau in Poland, and found the Nazi concentration camp and crematorium. It is now believed that one million Jews were murdered here, up to 75,000 Polish Christians, 21,000 Gypsies, and 15,000 Soviet POWs.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “For Sentimental Reasons” by Nat King Cole, “A Gal in Calico” by Johnny Mercer, “Ole Buttermilk Sky” by The Kay Kyser Orchestra (vocal: Mike Douglas & The Campus Kids) and “Rainbow at Midnight” by Ernest Tubb all topped the charts.
1948 – Wire Recording Corporation of America announced the first magnetic tape recorder. The ‘Wireway’ machine with a built-in oscillator sold for $149.50.
1948 – First locomotive to carry 1,000,000 pounds (450,000 kg) operates.
1951 – Atomic testing began in the Nevada desert as an Air Force B-50D from a base in New Mexico dropped a one-kiloton nuclear bomb on Frenchman Flats, Clark County, 65 miles NW of Las Vegas. Over the next 40 years 928 nuclear devices were exploded at the site.
1951 – “Peter Pan” closed at Imperial Theater NYC after 320 performances.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mr. Sandman” by The Chordettes, “Let Me Go, Lover!” by Teresa Brewer, “Earth Angel (Will You Be Mine)” by The Penguins and “Loose Talk” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1956 - Elvis Presley’s “Heartbreak Hotel” and “I Was the One” was released by RCA. It sold over 300,000 copies in its first three weeks on the market.
1958 – A bombing occurred in the American Embassy compound in Ankara, Turkey.
1959 – NASA selected 110 candidates for the first U.S. space flight.
1961 – “Sing Along with Mitch” [Miller] premieres on NBC TV.
1962 – “Peppermint Twist ” by Joey Dee & the Starliters topped the charts.
1962 - The San Francisco Bay Area hosted the “Chubby Checker Twist Party” at the Cow Palace with 17,000 fans.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Walk Right In” by The Rooftop Singers, “Hey Paula” by Paul & Paula, “Tell Him” by The Exciters and “The Ballad of Jed Clampett” by Flatt & Scruggs all topped the charts.
1967 – Project Apollo: Apollo 1 – Astronauts Gus Grissom, Edward White and Roger Chaffee are killed in a flash fire that suddenly broke out in the vehicle’s command module and killed its crew. The fire was during a test of the spacecraft at the Kennedy Space Center. A spark ignited the spacecraft’s 20psi pure oxygen atmosphere, and the hatch could only be opened from the outside.
1967 – The US, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union sign the Outer Space Treaty in Washington, D.C., banning deployment of nuclear weapons in space, and limiting use of the Moon and other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes.More than sixty nations sign on to this treaty.
1967 – New Orleans Saints sign their first player (Paige Cothren-kicker).
1968 – Otis Redding’s “(Sittin’ On) The Dock of the Bay” was released.
1969 – The present-day Hetch Hetchy Moccasin Powerhouse, rated at 100,000KVA was completed and placed in operation.
1969 - Byron Vaughn Booth and fellow convict Clinton Robert Smith, escaped from the California Institution for Men at Chino. The next day they bought a ticket for a flight from Los Angeles to Miami with a connection in New Orleans. National Airlines Flight 64 was hijacked over the Gulf of Mexico after the plane left New Orleans. The plane ended up landing at Camaguey, Cuba, where Cuban officials removed the hijackers.
1970 – The movie rating system modified “M” for Mature rating to “PG” for Parental Guidance.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Knock Three Times” by Dawn, “Lonely Days” by Bee Gees, “Stoney End” by Barbra Streisand and “Rose Garden” by Lynn Anderson all topped the charts.
1973 – Paris Peace Accords officially end the Vietnam War, Colonel William B. Nolde is killed becoming the conflict’s last recorded American combat casualty. The U.S. military draft ended.
1974 – Ann Peebles performed “I Can’t Stand the Rain” on “American Bandstand.”
1975 – The Senate began an investigation of activities by the FBI and the CIA. On November 20, the committee released its report, charging both U.S. government agencies with illegal activities. The committee was under the chairmanship of Idaho Senator Frank Church, with Texas Senator John Tower as vice-chairman.
1976 – Mal Evans, a Beatle’s bodyguard and road manager, was killed in a confrontation with Los Angeles police.
1976 – “Laverne & Shirley” spin-off from “Happy Days” premieres on ABC TV.
1978 - The Illinois Supreme Court ruled that Nazis can display the Swastika in a march in Skokie, Illinois.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Le Freak” by Chic, “Y.M.C.A.” by Village People, “Da Ya Think I’m Sexy?” by Rod Stewart and “Why Have You Left the One You Left Me For” by Crystal Gayle all topped the charts.
1981 – President Reagan greeted the 52 former American hostages released by Iran at the White House.
1983 – World’s longest underwater tunnel (33.5 miles) opens in Japan connecting the islands of Honshu and Hokkaido.
1984 – Carl Lewis beats his own indoor world jumping record by 9¼ inches (23.5 centimeters) with a 28-foot, 10¼-inch (8.795-meter) jump.
1984 - Michael Jackson suffers second degree burns to his scalp during the filming of a Pepsi commercial in the Shrine Auditorium, Los Angeles, CA.
1985 - A secret three-day military satellite mission of the space shuttle Discovery ended with a landing in Florida.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “At This Moment” by Billy Vera & The Beaters, “Open Your Heart” by Madonna, “Control” by Janet Jackson and “Cry Myself to Sleep” by The Judds all topped the charts.
1988 - The US Senate Judiciary Committee unanimously approved the nomination of Judge Anthony M. Kennedy to the Supreme Court.
1991 –Super Bowl XXV was played between the New York Giants and the Buffalo Bills. The game was won by New York with a final score of 20-19. The head coaches were Bill Parcells for New York and Marv Levy for Buffalo. The game was played in Tampa Stadium, Tampa, FL before 73,813 fans and the MVP was Otis Anderson, Giants running back. The Referee was Jerry Seeman. Face Value Tickets were $150.00. The stadium was under extra-tight security because of fears of possible Iraqi-sponsored terrorism.
1992 – Former world boxing champion Mike Tyson went on trial for allegedly raping an 18-year-old contestant in the 1991 Miss Black America Contest. On Feb 10 he was found guilty.
1992 - Democratic presidential candidate Bill Clinton and Gennifer Flowers accused each other of lying in a renewed dispute over her assertion that they’d had a 12-year affair.
1993 - American-born sumo wrestler Akebono Tarō becomes the first foreigner to be promoted to the sport’s highest rank of yokozuna.
1993 – Fired insurance man in Tampa, FL killed three former bosses, wounded two more and then commits suicide. The former claims manager, Paul Calden, carried a grudge and a gun into his old office building ans started shooting.
1995 - About 5,000 mourners gathered at the site of the Nazi death camp Auschwitz to commemorate the 50th anniversary of its liberation.
1996 - Germany first observes International Holocaust Remembrance Day.
1996 - Mark Bechard invaded a convent in Waterville, Maine, stabbing and beating four nuns, killing two of them with two others injured, including one left in a coma. Mark Bechard was later found not criminally responsible because of mental illness.
1997 - Little Richard was scheduled to receive the Award of Merit at the 24th annual American Music Awards. His hits included “Tutti Frutti,” “Good Golly Miss Molly,” and “Long Tall Sally.”
1997 – It is revealed that French museums have nearly 2,000 pieces of art that were stolen by Nazis.
1998 – American First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton appears on The Today Show, calling the attacks against her husband part of a vast right-wing conspiracy.
1999 – The U.S. Senate blocked dismissal of the impeachment case against President Clinton in two votes along party lines, 56-44 and voted for new testimony from Monica Lewinsky and two other witnesses.
1999 - Over 100,000 people gathered at the TransWorld Dome in St. Louis to see Pope John Paul II.
2000 - The US and China agreed to resume normal military ties.
2001 – Ten members of the Oklahoma State University men’s basketball team and support staff die in a plane crash in Colorado just south of Denver.
2001 - Lynn Swann and Ron Yary were both elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame on in their fourteenth year of eligibility.
2001 - In New Hampshire two Dartmouth professors, Half and Susanne Zantop, were found slain. James Parker (16) and Robert Tulloch (17), suspects in the murder, were arrested in Indiana February 19th.
2002 – The New England Patriots upset the Pittsburgh Steelers, 24-17, to win the AFC championship and the St. Louis Rams defeated the Philadelphia Eagles, 29-24, to win the NFC championship. The Super Bowl will be played February 3rd.
2003 - In Florida over 800 doctors staged a brief walkout to protest rising malpractice insurance costs.
2003 - The first selections for the National Recording Registry are announced by the Library of Congress.
2003 - The Bush administration moved toward a military showdown with Iraq and suggested a decision could come as early as next week.
2004 - The case against Martha Stewart (62) began in New York City. Prosecutors alleged that Stewart intended to commit securities fraud in her Dec 21, 2001, sale of ImClone Systems shares. She was convicted the following March and sentenced to five months in prison.
2004 - A new Windows computer virus, a self-propagating worm known as Mydoom or Novarg, continued to spread over the Internet.
2005 - P&G (Proctor & Gamble) announced a $55 billion deal to buy the Gillette Corporation.
2005 - Holocaust survivors, former Red Army soldiers, leaders of more than forty countries, and other people gather in Oświęcim, Poland for the 60th anniversary of the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp where more than one million people were killed.
2006 – Western Union ends more than 150 years of telegram service. Beginning in 1854, the company began transmitting and transcribing telegraphed messages and delivering them to customers across the country.
2006 – A US government report said economic growth slowed sharply in the fourth quarter to the weakest pace in three years as consumers spent less robustly, growth in home building eased and businesses were less eager to boost investments.
2007 – In Oregon the new $57 million Portland Aerial Tram officially began operations. Two 78-passenger cabins carried commuters from the Banks of the Willamette to the campus of the Oregon Health and Sciences Univ. on Marquam Hill.
2009 – President Barack Obama chose an Arabic-language satellite TV network for his first formal television interview as president, delivering a message to the Muslim world that “Americans are not your enemy.”
2009 – In California federal prosecutors said purchasing managers for Kraft Foods and Frito-Lay have admitted to taking $318,000 in bribes from Randall Rahal, a former sales broker for SK Foods of Lemoore, a major Central California tomato processor.
2009 – Near Los Angeles police found the bodies of seven people at a home in Wilmington. Ervin Lupoe (40) killed his five children and his wife before turning the gun on himself. Both adults were recently fired from their hospital jobs.
2009 - Two crew members escape a FedEx ATR 42 that crashed at Texas’s Lubbock Preston Smith International Airport.
2010 – President Barack Obama, facing a divided Congress and a dissatisfied nation, unveiled a jobs-heavy agenda in his State of the Union address.
2010 – Apple Inc CEO Steve Jobs took the wraps off a sleek tablet that it called the iPad, pitching the new gadget at $499.,
2010 - Long time anti-gun advocate state senator R.C. Soles, 74, shot one of two intruders at his home just outside Tabor City, N.C. about 5 p.m. The intruder, Kyle Blackburn, was taken to a South Carolina hospital, but the injuries were not reported to be life-threatening.
2011 – Internet retailer Overstock.com has amended its complaint in a long-standing lawsuit against Goldman Sachs and Merrill Lynch to demand treble damages under New Jersey’s racketeering statute. Merrill Lynch is a subsidiary of Bank of America.
2011 – The Illinois Supreme Court rules that Rahm Emanuel, former Chief of Staff to President Barack Obama, is eligible to run for Mayor of Chicago.
2012 – NASA stopped taking applications for being an astronaut.
2012 – Two sacks of cocaine are accidentally delivered to the United Nations Headquarters in New York City.
2012 – Twitter alters technology to enable country-specific censorship of messages.
2014 - Southwest Airlines today confirmed industry speculation by announcing the first international routes it will fly with its own planes. The first international airports to see regularly scheduled commercial service on Southwest-branded planes will be Aruba, Montego Bay (Jamaica) and Nassau in the Bahamas, July 1.
1756 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer. He was was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era
1795 - Eli Whitney Blake, American inventor, invented the Mortise lock (d. 1886).
1826 – Richard Taylor (d. 1897) He was an American plantation owner, politician, military historian and Confederate general during the American Civil War. He was the son of President Zachary Taylor.
1832 – Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, British author who wrote under the pen name Lewis Carroll.
1832 – Lewis Carroll (pseudonym of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), English writer, mathematician, and photographer. (Alice In Wonderland)
1850 – Samuel Gompers, American labor union leader, first president of the American Federation of Labor.
1859 – Kaiser Wilhelm II, German emperor during World War I, forced to abdicate in 1918.
1885 – Jerome (David) Kern, American musical comedy composer.
1900 – Hyman Rickover, U.S. Navy admiral and nuclear engineer (“Father of the Nuclear Navy”).
1901 – Art Rooney,(d. 1988) American football coach, founded the Pittsburgh Steelers.
1908 – William Randolph Hearst Jr., American media mogul.
1908 – Hot Lips Page, American trumpet player, singer, and bandleader (d. 1954) (Music: Sheikh of Araby)
1918 – Skitch (Lyle) Henderson, American bandleader, TV musical director. (Music: The Very Thought of You)
1921 - Donna Reed, American actress (d. 1986). She was most notably remembered as Donna Stone, an American middle class mother in the sitcom The Donna Reed Show (1958–1966),
1938 – Troy Donahue (Merle Johnson), was an American actor of film and television considered a male sex symbol of the 1950′s and 1960′s.
1948 – Mikhail Baryshnikov, Russian-born American ballet dancer, ballet director, actor.
1959 – Keith Olbermann, American news anchor, commentator and radio sportscaster.
*EVANS, DONALD W., JR.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 12 Infantry, 4th Infantry Division. Place and date: Tri Tam, Republic of Vietnam, 27 January 1967. Entered service at: Covina, Calif. Born: 23 July 1943, Covina, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. He left his position of relative safety with his platoon which had not yet been committed to the battle to answer the calls for medical aid from the wounded men of another platoon which was heavily engaged with the enemy force. Dashing across one-hundred meters of open area through a withering hail of enemy fire and exploding grenades, he administered lifesaving treatment to one individual and continued to expose himself to the deadly enemy fire as he moved to treat each of the other wounded men and to offer them encouragement. Realizing that the wounds of one man required immediate attention, Sp4c. Evans dragged the injured soldier back across the dangerous fire-swept area, to a secure position from which he could be further evacuated Miraculously escaping the enemy fusillade, Sp4c. Evans returned to the forward location. As he continued the treatment of the wounded, he was struck by fragments from an enemy grenade. Despite his serious and painful injury he succeeded in evacuating another wounded comrade, rejoined his platoon as it was committed to battle and was soon treating other wounded soldiers. As he evacuated another wounded man across the fire covered field, he was severely wounded. Continuing to refuse medical attention and ignoring advice to remain behind, he managed with his waning strength to move yet another wounded comrade across the dangerous open area to safety. Disregarding his painful wounds and seriously weakened from profuse bleeding, he continued his lifesaving medical aid and was killed while treating another wounded comrade. Sp4c. Evan’s extraordinary valor, dedication and indomitable spirit saved the lives of several of his fellow soldiers, served as an inspiration to the men of his company, were instrumental in the success of their mission, and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
ROBINSON, JAMES H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 3d Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At Brownsville, Ark., 27 January 1865. Entered service at: Victor, Mich. Birth. Oakland County, Mich. Date of issue: 4 April 1865. Citation: Successfully defended himself, single-handed against seven guerrillas, killing the leader (Capt. W. C. Stephenson) and driving off the remainder of the party.
National Peanut Brittle Day
Toad Hollow Day of Encouragement
The Library of Congress
The Library of Congress was established by an act of Congress in 1800 when President John Adams signed a bill providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. The legislation described a reference library for Congress only, containing “such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress – and for putting up a suitable apartment for containing them therein…”
Established with $5,000 appropriated by the legislation, the original library was housed in the new Capitol until August 1814, when invading British troops set fire to the Capitol Building, burning and pillaging the contents of the small library.
Within a month, retired President Thomas Jefferson offered his personal library as a replacement. Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating books, “putting by everything which related to America, and indeed whatever was rare and valuable in every science”; his library was considered to be one of the finest in the United States. In offering his collection to Congress, Jefferson anticipated controversy over the nature of his collection, which included books in foreign languages and volumes of philosophy, science, literature, and other topics not normally viewed as part of a legislative library. He wrote, “I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection; there is, in fact, no subject to which a Member of Congress may not have occasion to refer.”
In January 1815, Congress accepted Jefferson’s offer, appropriating $23,950 for his 6,487 books, and the foundation was laid for a great national library. The Jeffersonian concept of universality, the belief that all subjects are important to the library of the American legislature, is the philosophy and rationale behind the comprehensive collecting policies of today’s Library of Congress.
Ainsworth Rand Spofford, Librarian of Congress from 1864 to 1897, applied Jefferson’s philosophy on a grand scale and built the Library into a national institution. Spofford was responsible for the copyright law of 1870, which required all copyright applicants to send to the Library two copies of their work. This resulted in a flood of books, pamphlets, maps, music, prints, and photographs. Facing a shortage of shelf space at the Capitol, Spofford convinced Congress of the need for a new building, and in 1873 Congress authorized a competition to design plans for the new Library.
In 1886, after many proposals and much controversy, Congress authorized construction of a new Library building in the style of the Italian Renaissance in accordance with a design prepared by Washington architects John L. Smithmeyer and Paul J. Pelz.
The Congressional authorization was successful because of the hard work of two key Senators: Daniel W. Voorhees (Indiana), who served as chairman of the Joint Committee from 1879 to 1881, and Justin S. Morrill (Vermont), chairman of Senate Committee on Buildings and Grounds.
In 1888, General Thomas Lincoln Casey, chief of the Army Corps of Engineers, was placed in charge of construction. His chief assistant was Bernard R. Green, who was intimately involved with the building until his death in 1914. Beginning in 1892, a new architect, Edward Pearce Casey, the son of General Casey, began to supervise the interior work, including sculptural and painted decoration by more than 50 American artists.
When the Library of Congress building opened its doors to the public on November 1, 1897, it was hailed as a glorious national monument and “the largest, the costliest, and the safest” library building in the world.
Today’s Library of Congress is an unparalleled world resource. The collection of more than 144 million items includes more than 33 million cataloged books and other print materials in 460 languages; more than 63 million manuscripts; the largest rare book collection in North America; and the world’s largest collection of legal materials, films, maps, sheet music and sound recordings.
“Whatever failures I have known, whatever errors I have committed, whatever follies I have witnessed in private and public life have been the consequence of action without thought.”
~ Bernard M. Baruch
dilli or dilly (DIL-ee) noun
Someone or something that is remarkable or unusual.[Shortening of delightful or delicious.]
0066 – 5th recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet. Of note, this would be four years before the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. and before the death of John the Apostle.
1500 – Vicente Yáñez Pinzón becomes the first European to discover Brazil.
1531 – Lisbon, Portugal hit by an earthquake–thousands die.
1564 – The Council of Trent issued its conclusions in the Tridentinum, establishing a distinction between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism.
1654 – Approximately 150 Jewish families of Portuguese background fled the city of Recife, Brazil. By September, a number of these refugees had established the first community of Jews in the future United States. They were known as Sephardim (Jews of Spanish-Portuguese extraction) and moved into what is now the Southwest (AZ, NM, Texas).
1700 – The magnitude 9 Cascadia Earthquake took place off the west coast of the North America, as evidenced by Japanese records. It triggered tsunami that damages villages in Japan.
1784 – Benjamin Franklin writes a letter to his daughter expressing disappointment over the selection of the eagle as the symbol of the United States; he wanted the turkey.
1802 – The U.S. Congress passes an act calling for a library to be established within the U.S. Capitol; eventually this becomes the Library of Congress.
1808 – Rum Rebellion, the only successful (albeit short-lived) armed takeover of the government in Australia.
1837 – Michigan is admitted as the 26th U.S. state.
1838 – The first Prohibition law in the United States was passed in Tennessee, making it a misdemeanor to sell alcoholic beverages in taverns and stores.
1841 – The United Kingdom formally occupies Hong Kong, which China had ceded.
1848 – Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) of Massachusetts presented an essay at the Concord Lyceum that explained his motives for refusing to pay taxes. In 1849 it was published as “Resistance to Civil Government.”
1861 – Civil War: The state of Louisiana secedes from the Union. It is the sixth state to do so.
1863 – Civil War: General Ambrose Burnside is relieved of command of the Army of the Potomac after the disastrous Fredericksburg campaign. He is replaced by Joseph Hooker.
1863 – Civil War: Massachusetts Governor receives permission from Secretary of War to raise a militia organization for men of African descent.
1864 – Civil War: The Battle of Athens, GA. Early in the morning 600 Confederate cavalrymen attacked Athens, which was being held by a Union force of only 100. Even though the Union defenders had no fortifications and were outnumbered six to one, they were able to repulse the Confederate attack and force them into a retreat after a two-hour battle.
1870 – State of Virginia rejoins the Union.
1871 – US income tax repealed. It was used to finance the CIVIL WAR.
1875 – A patent was granted to George F. Green of Kalamazoo, Michigan for the electric dentist’s drill.
1886 – Karl Benz patented the first automobile.
1904 – The emperor of Addis Ababa, Abyssinia, decorated Marine Captain G. C. Thorpe for escorting diplomats 500 miles through the desert.
1905 – The Cullinan Diamond, was found by Frederick Wells, surface manager of the Premier Diamond Mining Company in Cullinan, Gauteng, South Africa, on June 25, 1905, and is the largest rough gem-quality diamond ever found, at 3,106.75 carats (621.35 g). Although a carbonado found in Brazil weighed more than 3,600 carats (720 g), no gem-quality material could be extracted from it. The stone was named after Sir Thomas Cullinan, the owner of the diamond mine.
1907 – The Short Magazine Lee-Enfield Mk III is officially introduced into British Military Service, and remains the oldest military rifle still in official use.
1909 – Milk-Bone Brand was trademark registered.
1911 – Glenn H. Curtiss flies the first successful seaplane. He flew San Diego to and from the battleship USS Pennsylvania.
1913 – The body of John Paul Jones is laid in its final resting place in the Chapel of Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD.
1920 – Former Ford Motor Co. executive Henry Leland launches The Lincoln Motor Co., which he’d later sell to his former employer.
1934 – The Apollo Theater opens in Harlem, New York City.
1939 – Filming begins on “Gone With the Wind”
1940 – World War II: Nazis forbade Polish Jews to travel on trains.
1942 – World War II: The first American forces arrive in Europe landing in Northern Ireland.
1943 – World War II: The first OSS (Office of Strategic Services) agent parachutes behind Japanese lines in Burma.
1944 – World War II: On New Britain, there is a heavy bombing raid on the Japanese base at Rabaul, by US aircraft. Many Japanese planes are claimed to be shot down.
1945 – World War II: Units of US 3rd Army in the Ardennes have now crossed the Clerf River in several areas and are attacking all along the front of US 3rd and 12th Corps.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Symphony” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Clyde Rogers), “I Can’t Begin to Tell You” by Bing Crosby with the Carmen Cavallaro Orchestra, “Let It Snow” by Vaughn Monroe and “You Will Have to Pay” by Tex Ritter all topped the charts.
1947 – “The Greatest Story Ever Told” was first heard on ABC radio.
1948 – Executive Order 9981, to end segregation in US Armed Forces is signed by President Harry Truman.
1949 – USS Norton Sound, first guided-missile ship, launches first guided missile, Loon.
1950 – The American Associated Insurance Companies, of St. Louis, MO, issued the first baby sitter’s insurance policy.
1951 – Korean War: U.S. warships bombarded Inchon for the second time during the war. The first was during the initial allied invasion, Sept. 15, 1950.
1953 – The last F4U Corsair rolled off the Chance Vought Aircraft Company production line.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Stranger in Paradise” by Tony Bennett, “Oh! My Pa-Pa” by Eddie Fisher, “At the Darktown Strutters’ Ball” by Lou Monte and “Bimbo” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1956 – Buddy, Sonny Curtis, and Don Guess begin their first recording sessions for Decca at (Owen) Bradley’s Barn in Nashville under the name Buddy and The Two Tones.
1959 – “Alcoa Presents” was seen for the first time on ABC-TV. The program was based on true events that were strange, frightening and unexplainable in terms of normal human experience. This was on at the same time as “Twilight Zone” and was a very similar show.
1960 – Pete Rozelle elected NFL commissioner on the 23rd ballot.
1961 – John F. Kennedy appoints Janet G. Travell to be his physician. This is the first time a woman holds this appointment.
1961 – First live, nationally televised Presidential news conference (JFK).
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Twist” by Chubby Checker, “Peppermint Twist” by Joey Dee & The Starliters, “Can’t Help Falling in Love” by Elvis Presley and “Walk on By” by Leroy Van Dyke all topped the charts.
1962 – Ranger program: Ranger 3 is launched to study the moon. The space probe later missed the moon by 22,000 miles (35,400 km). Later this was a lead-in to the TV program “Buck Rogers In The Twentieth Century.”
1963 – “Walk Right In” by the Rooftop Singers topped the charts.
1963 – Major League Rules Committee votes to expand strike zone.
1964 – Eighty-four people were arrested in a segregation protest in Atlanta.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Raindrop Keep Fallin’ on My Head” by B.J. Thomas, “Venus” by The Shocking Blue, “I Want You Back” by The Jackson 5 and “Baby, Baby (I Know You’re a Lady)” by David Houston all topped the charts.
1970 – U.S. Navy Lt. Everett Alvarez Jr. spends his 2,000th day in captivity in Southeast Asia. First taken prisoner when his plane was shot down on August 5, 1964, He was finally released in 1973.
1972 – Stewardess Vesna Vulovic survives 33,335 feet fall without parachute. The DC 9 jet airliner blew up, probably as the result of a terrorist bomb.
1974 – “You’re Sixteen” by Ringo Starr topped the charts.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Baby Come Back” by Player, “Here You Come Again” by Dolly Parton, “You’re in My Heart (The Final Acclaim)” by Rod Stewart and “What a Difference You’ve Made in My Life” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1979 – The Gizmo guitar synthesizer was first demonstrated.
1979 – “The Dukes of Hazzard” premieres on CBS
1980 – Israel and Egypt establish diplomatic relations.
1983 – Lotus 1-2-3 is released.
1984 – CBS television debuted Mickey Spillane’s “Mike Hammer.”
1986 – Super Bowl XX was played between the Chicago Bears and the New England Patriots. The Bears won with a final score of 46-10. The head coaches were Mike Ditka for Chicago and Raymond Berry for New England. The game was played at the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans, LA before 73,818 fans and the MVP was Richard Dent, Bears defensive end. The Referee was Red Cashion. Face Value Tickets were $75.00.
1986 – Halley’s Comet is visible in the night sky as it passes in its 76-year orbit around the sun.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “That’s What Friends are For” by Dionne & Friends, “Burning Heart” by Survivor , “Talk to Me” by Stevie Nicks and “Never Be You” by Rosanne Cash all top the charts.
1988 – Andrew Lloyd Webber’s musical, “The Phantom of the Opera”, opens for the first time on Broadway. Full Movie (1:20:42)
1990 – Elaine Weddington Steward was named assistant general manager of the Boston Red Sox, making her the first Black woman executive of a professional baseball organization.
1990 – Attorneys for Manuel Noriega challenged the jurisdiction of U.S. courts to try the deposed Panamanian leader on drug-trafficking charges, and said Noriega should be declared a prisoner of war.
1992 – Boris Yeltsin announces that Russia is going to stop targeting United States cities with nuclear weapons.
1992 – Super Bowl XXVI was played between the Washington Redskins and the Buffalo Bills. The game was won by the Redskins and the final score was 37-24. Joe Gibbs was the head coach for Washington and Marv Levy for the Bills. The game was played at the Humphrey Metrodome in Minneapolis, MN before 63,130 fans. The MVP was Mark Rypie, quarterback for the Redskins. The Referee was Jerry Markbreit. Face Value Tickets were $150.
1997 – Super Bowl XXXI was played between the Green Bay Packers and the New England Patriots. The game was won by the Packers with a final score of 37-24. Head Coaches were Bill Parcells for Green Bay and Mike Holmgren for New England. The game was played in the Louisiana Superdome, New Orleans, LA before 72,301 fans and the MVP was Desmond Howard, Kick/Punt returned for Green Bay. The Referee was Gerald Austin. Face Value Tickets were $275.
1998 – Lewinsky scandal: On American television, U.S. President Bill Clinton denies having had “sexual relations” with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky.
2001 – President George W. Bush renewed his pledge to build a missile defense system and to reduce the nuclear arsenal.
2001 – Diane Whipple (33), Lacrosse coach, died after being mauled by two dogs in her San Francisco Pacific Heights apartment. The dogs, under the control of Marjorie Knoller, were later found to be owned by two Aryan Brotherhood prison gang members and kept by attorneys Robert Noel (59) and Marjorie Knoller (45).
2003 – Super Bowl XXXVII was played between the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and the Oakland Raiders. The game was won by the Buccaneers with a final score of 48-21.The head coaches were John Gruden for Tampa and Bill Callahan for Oakland. The game was played in Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego, CA before 67,603 fans and the MVP was Dexter Jackson, Safety for the Buccaneers. The Referee was Bill Carollo. Face Value Tickets were $500 and $400. Rioting erupted on Oakland streets following the Raiders’ Super Bowl loss.
2005 – Glendale train crash: Two trains derail killing eleven and injuring 200 in Glendale, California, near Los Angeles.
2005 – Condoleezza Rice is sworn in as U.S. Secretary of State, becoming the first African American woman to hold the post.
2005 – A helicopter crash in eastern Iraq kills 31 United States Marines.
2005 – In Ohio an employee at the Toledo North Assembly Jeep plant shot three co-workers, killing one, before taking his own life.
2006 – Western Union discontinues use of its telegram service.
2006 – President Bush said that Hamas cannot be a partner for Middle East peacemaking without renouncing violence.
2006 – The US federal deficit was projected to widen to $360 billion in fiscal 2006.
2006 – Mexico said it will suspend its plan to distribute maps to migrants wanting to cross the US border illegally. An official said the decision was made because the maps would show anti-immigrant groups where migrants likely would gather.
2007 – The Maine Legislature overwhelmingly passed a resolution objecting to the Real ID Act of 2005. The federal law sets a national standard for driver’s licenses and requires states to link their record-keeping systems to national databases.
2007 – Dr. Robert Bohannon, a Durham, North Carolina, molecular scientist, has come up with a way to add caffeine to baked goods, without the bitter taste of caffeine.
2008 – Miss Michigan Kirsten Haglund, a 19-year-old aspiring Broadway star, was crowned Miss America 2008.
2009 – Fannie Mae estimated that it would need a capital infusion of 11-16 billion dollars from the US Treasury to cover losses related to home mortgage defaults.
2009 – Two Pennsylvania judges were charged with taking $2.6 million in kickbacks to send teenagers to two privately run youth detention centers. (Luzerne County Judges Mark Ciavarella (58) and Michael Conahan (56))
2009 – Nicholas Cosmo, founder of Agape World Inc., was arrested for running a Ponzi scheme that bilked investors of an estimated $370 million.
2009 – Nadya Suleman (33) gave birth to eight babies, only the second time in history octuplets have survived more than a few hours. The woman already had six other children and never expected to have eight more when she took fertility treatment.
2010 – It was announced that James Cameron’s movie “Avatar” had become the highest-grossing film worldwide.
2011 - President Barack Obama delivers the annual State of the Union address calling on the United States Congress to improve the nation’s “crumbling” infrastructure, saying it will create jobs and help the nation compete in the global economy.
2012 – Illumina, a U.S. based gene sequencing company, adopts a poison pill strategy to defend its independence against a hostile bid by Roche Holding.
1813 – Juan Pablo Duarte, Dominican founding father (d. 1876)
1826 – Julia Dent Grant, First Lady of the United States (d. 1902)
1880 – Douglas MacArthur, U.S. Army General and Commander of Allied Forces, World War II.
1891 - Frank Costello, Italian-American mob boss (d. 1973)
1892 - Bessie Coleman, American pilot (d. 1926)
1901 – Stuart Symington, American politician (d. 1988)
1905 - Maria von Trapp, Austrian-American singer (d. 1987) Story of The Sound of Music fame.
1923 – Anne Jeffreys, American actress Star in the “Topper” sitcom of the 60’s
1925 – Paul Newman, American Academy Award-winning actor, food entrepreneur.
1935 – Bob Uecker, a former Major League Baseball player.
1944 - Angela Davis, American communist activist and author
1955 – Eddie Van Halen, a Dutch guitarist and a founding member of the rock band Van Halen.
1958 – Ellen DeGeneres, American actress, comedian, and talk show host.
1961 – Wayne Gretzky, Canadian-born hockey star.
1989 - Emily Hughes, American figure skater
|MURPHY, AUDIE L.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company B 1 5th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Holtzwihr France, 26 January 1945. Entered service at: Dallas, Tex. Birth: Hunt County, near Kingston, Tex. G.O. No.. 65, 9 August 1945. Citation 2d Lt. Murphy commanded Company B, which was attacked by six tanks and waves of infantry. 2d Lt. Murphy ordered his men to withdraw to prepared positions in a woods, while he remained forward at his command post and continued to give fire directions to the artillery by telephone. Behind him, to his right, one of our tank destroyers received a direct hit and began to burn. Its crew withdrew to the woods. 2d Lt. Murphy continued to direct artillery fire which killed large numbers of the advancing enemy infantry. With the enemy tanks abreast of his position, 2d Lt. Murphy climbed on the burning tank destroyer, which was in danger of blowing up at any moment, and employed its .50 caliber machinegun against the enemy. He was alone and exposed to German fire from three sides, but his deadly fire killed dozens of Germans and caused their infantry attack to waver. The enemy tanks, losing infantry support, began to fall back. For an hour the Germans tried every available weapon to eliminate 2d Lt. Murphy, but he continued to hold his position and wiped out a squad which was trying to creep up unnoticed on his right flank. Germans reached as close as ten yards, only to be mowed down by his fire. He received a leg wound, but ignored it and continued the single-handed fight until his ammunition was exhausted. He then made his way to his company, refused medical attention, and organized the company in a counterattack which forced the Germans to withdraw. His directing of artillery fire wiped out many of the enemy; he killed or wounded about fifty. 2d Lt. Murphy’s indomitable courage and his refusal to give an inch of ground saved his company from possible encirclement and destruction, and enabled it to hold the woods which had been the enemy’s objective.
National Speak Up and Succeed Day
A Room of One’s Own Day
Anyone swimming the English Channel usually crosses the Strait of Dover (the narrowest portion of the English Channel) and covers approximately 21 miles from England to France. Some people swim more than 21 miles because the tides are very strong and the surface of the sea can move many miles from side to side. Swimming the English Channel is one of the more difficult long-distance swims, because the swimmer encounters many rough conditions along the way. The water is cold, waves can reach up to six feet, and the wind can be quite strong. The English Channel is also one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world, so the swimmer must watch out for sea vessels. The first male to swim across the English Channel was Matthew Web on August 25, 1875; the first female to do so was Gertrude Ederle on August 6, 1926.
This is a step by step guide towards Swimming the English Channel with the Channel Swimming Association Ltd.
1. Consult our website: www.channelswimmingassociation.com
2. Contact us at: email@example.com
3. Request and send payment for the Information/Registration Pack £39. This can be paid for using your credit card or a cheque/money order payable to the Channel Swimming Association Ltd. For relays only one information pack is necessary and it is the responsibility of the team leader to make sure that all members read it.
4. Join the Association as an Associate Member.
5. Book your CSA Registered Pilot as early as possible, preferably in the year preceding your proposed swim date, to get the best tides and optimum window. Note that our pilots are currently taking bookings for 3 years ahead. Expect to pay in the region of £2350.
6. Register your swim and pay the Association fees to the Channel Swimming Association Secretary as soon as possible but before the 30th April. Solo swim fees will be approximately £400, this includes administration fee, observer fee and Association membership.
7. Relays get the lowest fees by registering before the 1st April.
8. Try to train in cool/cold water (56-60°F) whenever possible.
9. Complete your 6 hour swim in cold water, 60°F or less and get it verified.
10. Arrange for your medical between January and March in the year you intend to swim.
11. Arrange your accommodation. Please note that accommodation prior to the run up to the Olympic Games on the 27th July until the 12th August is likely to be MUCH MORE EXPENSIVE than at any other time. Folkestone and Dover are only 1 hour from London.
12. Advise the Secretary and the Swimmer Liaison Officer of your arrival and contact numbers.
13. Remember that there is only one Channel Swimming Association and that we are the only organisation with 85 years of experience of helping Channel swimmers achieve their dreams.
14. All successful swims are recorded in the Association Handbook, price £15.
15. If you have any questions or concerns we probably have International Representatives in your country or possibly even your area and you are encouraged to make contact with them.
To get started, contact our Swim Secretary here.
“Never underestimate the power of dreams and the influence of the human spirit . . .
The potential for greatness lives within each of us.”
discomfit dis-KUHM-fit; dis-kuhm-FIT, transitive verb:
1. To make uneasy or perplexed, or to put into a state of embarrassment; to disconcert; to upset.
2. To thwart; to frustrate the plans of.
3. (Archaic). To defeat in battle.
1775 – Revolutionary War: Americans dragged cannon uphill to fight the British at Gun Hill Road, Bronx.
1787 – American Daniel Shays leads rebellion to seize Federal arsenal to protest debtor’s prisons. This is commonly called Shay’s Rebellion. Small farmers in Springfield, Massachusetts led by Daniel Shays continued their revolt against tax laws.
1795 - The Royal Chapel at Carmel, Ca., was dedicated with a Mass of Thanksgiving. A major renovation was undertaken in 1856.
1799 – First US patent for a seeding machine, Eliakim Spooner, Vermont.
1846 - The dreaded Corn Laws, which taxed imported oats, wheat and barley, were repealed by the British Parliament.
1851 – Sojourner Truth addresses first Black Women’s Rights Convention (Akron, Ohio)
1858 – The Wedding March by Felix Mendelssohn becomes a popular wedding recessional after it is played on this day at the marriage of Queen Victoria’s daughter, Victoria, and Friedrich of Prussia.
1861 – President Abraham Lincoln picked Ferdinand Schavers, an African-American, as his first bodyguard. He appointed William H. Seward as his Secretary of State.
1863 – Civil War: Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker assumed command and undertook the reorganization of the demoralized Army of the Potomac.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Kingston, NC.
1870 – G.D. Dows patented the ornamental soda fountain.
1877 – Congress determined the presidential election between Rutherford B. Hayes (R) and Samuel J. Tilden. Tilden won the popular votes, while Hayes won the electoral votes.Tilden was the first candidate for the Presidency of the United States to not be elected despite receiving an absolute majority of the votes.
1878 - Off of San Francisco the 3-masted clipper ship King Philip, built in Maine in 1856, was towed by a tug through the Golden Gate and laid anchor to allow the tug to assist a nearby vessel. The anchor failed and the King Philip drifted onto sand at Ocean Beach, where it foundered. Remnants of the ship appeared in 1980 and again in 2007.
1881 – Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell form the Oriental Telephone Company.
1890 – Nellie Bly completes her round-the-world journey in 72 days. She was an American journalist, author, industrialist, and charity worker. She is most famous for an undercover exposé in which she faked insanity to study a mental institution from within. She is also well-known for this record-breaking trip around the world.
1881 – Michael Brassill obtained a patent for a candlestick.
1890 – Nellie Bly beats Phileas Fogg’s time around world by 8 days (72 days). She was an American journalist, author, industrialist, and charity worker. She is most famous for an undercover exposé in which she faked insanity to study a mental institution from within. She is also well-known for this record-breaking trip around the world.
1890 – The United Mine Workers of America was founded.
1900 – The US 56th Congress refused to seat Brigham H. Roberts, Mormon Democrat from Utah, because of his polygamy.
1904 – One-hundred seventy-nine coal miners were entombed in an explosion in Cheswick, Pennsylvania.
1905 – First auto to exceed 100 mph (161 kph), A G MacDonald, Daytona Beach. The car was equipped with a 6 cylinder engine of about 848 cubic inches (6 x 5 inch), was rated 100hp.
1915 – Alexander Graham Bell inaugurates U.S. transcontinental telephone service.Bell placed the first ceremonial cross-continental call from New York to his old colleague Thomas Watson in San Francisco.
1915 - John D. Rockefeller Jr. testifies before the U.S. Commission on Industrial Relations. He softens his position on labor unions.
1917 – The Danish West Indies (now the Virgin Islands) is sold to the United States for $25 million.
1919 – The League of Nations is founded.
1924 - The first Winter Olympic games opened in Chamonix, France.
1927 – Jack Benny married Sadye Marks on this day. Sadye changed her name to Mary Livingstone.
1930 – New York police routed a Communist rally at the Town Hall.
1937 – “The Guiding Light” airs on radio for the first time. In 1952 it moves to CBS television, where it remains until Sept. 18, 2009 making this show the longest running broadcast program in United States radio and television history.
1940 – Mary Martin recorded “My Heart Belongs to Daddy“.
1940 – HOLOCAUST: Nazis established a Jewish ghetto in Lodz, Poland.
1942 – World War II: Thailand declares war on the United States and United Kingdom.
1945 – World War II: Battle of the Bulge ends.
1945 – Grand Rapids MI becomes first US city to fluoridate its water.
1945 – Dan Topping, Del Webb & Larry MacPhail purchase New York Yankees for $2.8 million.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Fence Me In” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “There Goes that Song Again” by Russ Morgan, “I’m Making Believe” by Ella Fitzgerald & The Ink Spots and “I’m Wastin’ My Tears on You” by Tex Ritter all topped the charts.
1946 – The United Mine Workers rejoined the American Federation of Labor.
1947 - American gangster Al Capone died of syphilis in Miami Beach, Fla., at age 48.
1949 – At the Hollywood Athletic Club the first Emmy Awards are presented. Only shows that have been produced in Los Angeles County, California and broadcast on the four TV stations in Los Angeles are eligible for the awards.
1949 – The first Israeli election — David Ben-Gurion becomes Prime Minister.
1949 – Axis Sally, who broadcasted Nazi propaganda to U.S. troops in Europe, stood trial in the United States for war crimes.
1950 – A federal jury in New York City found former State Department official Alger Hiss guilty of perjury.
1950 _ The federal minimum wage was raised to $.75 per hour.
1951 – Korean War: The U.S. Eighth Army in Korea launched Operation Thunderbolt, a counter attack to push the Chinese Army north of the Han River.
1952 – The Autronic Eye, an automatic car headlamp beam control was introduced to the public by General Motors. A phototube atop the left end of the dashboard, just inside the windshield, dimmed the lights upon the approach of an oncoming car, and back to bright when the traffic had passed.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Why Don’t You Believe Me” by Joni James, “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” by Perry Como, “Keep It a Secret” by Jo Stafford and “I’ll Go On Alone” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.
1955 – Columbia University scientists develop an atomic clock. In 1999 improvements to the atomic clock now2 produce an accuracy to about one second in 20 million years, making it the most accurate clock ever made. Current (2011) technology says that the clock will not gain or lose one second in 138 million years. Download synchronizer for Atomic Clock free!!
1958 – “At the Hop” by Danny and the Juniors topped the charts
1959 – First transcontinental commercial jet flight (American Airlines Boeing 707). American Airlines opened the jet age in the United States with the first scheduled transcontinental flight of a Boeing 707 from LA to NY for $301 ($2,250 in 2011 dollars.)
1960 – The National Association of Broadcasters reacts to the Payola scandal by threatening fines for any disc jockeys who accepted money for playing particular records. The term “Payola” has come to refer to any secret payment made to cast a product in a positive light (such as obtaining positive reviews).
1961 – In Washington, D.C. John F. Kennedy delivers the first live presidential television news conference.
1961 – Walt Disney’s “101 Dalmations” released
1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wonderland by Night” by Bert Kaempfert, “Exodus” by Ferrante & Teicher, “Calcutta” by Lawrence Welk and “North to Alaska” by Johnny Horton all topped the charts.
1964 – Beatles first US #1, “I Want to Hold your Hand” (Cashbox)
1964 – “There! I’ve Said it Again” by Bobby Vinton
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Heard it Through the Grapevine” by Marvin Gaye, “Crimson and Clover” by Tommy James & The Shondells, “Everyday People” by Sly & The Family Stone and “Daddy Sang Bass” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1970 - The Robert Altman film “M*A*S*H” premiered in New York City.
1971 – Charles Manson and three female members of his “family” were found guilty of one count of conspiracy to commit murder and seven counts of murder in the first degree. They were all sentenced to death for the 1969 killings. The sentences were later commuted to life sentences.
1971 - The Philadelphia mint made its first trial strike of the Eisenhower dollar.
1972 – Pres. Nixon made public the secret talks from May 31, 1971, that included a cease-fire-in-place, US withdrawal, and the return of prisoners from North Vietnam.
1972 - Shirley Chisholm, the first Black woman elected to U.S. Congress, announced her candidacy for president as Democrat.
1974 – Ray Kroc, CEO (McDonald’s), buys San Diego Padres for $12 million to prevent its move to Washington, D.C.
1975 – “Please Mr. Postman” by the Carpenters topped the charts.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Wish” by Stevie Wonder, “Car Wash” by Rose Royce, “Dazz” by Brick and “I Can’t Believe She Give It All to Me” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1978 – Muriel Humphrey was appointed to fill the Senate seat left vacant by the death of her husband, Hubert H. Humphrey of Minnesota.
1980 – Highest speed attained by a warship, 104 mph, USN hovercraft.
1980 – A US-Mexico Extradition Treaty, signed by Pres. Carter in 1978, went into effect. It allowed Mexico to refuse extradition of suspects facing the death penalty in the US.
1980 - Robert L. Johnson launched Black Entertainment Television (BET). It began as a two-hour-a-week service that aired every Friday evening.
1981 – The 52 Americans held hostage by Iran for 444 days arrived in the US and were reunited with their families.
1981 – Super Bowl XV was played between the Oakland Raiders and the Philadelphia Eagles. The Raiders won with a final score of 27-10. The head coaches were Tom Flores for Oakland and Dick Vermiel for Philadelphia. The game was played Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans, LA before 76,135 fans and the MVP was Jim Plunkett, quarterback for the Raiders. The Referee was Ben Dreith. Face Value Tickets were $40.00.
1983 - Klaus Barbie, Nazi SS chief of Lyon in Nazi-France, was arrested in Bolivia.
1984 – President Reagan endorsed the development of the first U.S. permanently manned space station.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Like A Virgin” by Madonna, “All I Need” by Jack Wagner, “You’re the Inspiration” by Chicago and “How Blue” by Reba McEntire all topped the charts.
1987 – Super Bowl XXI was played between the New York Giants and the Denver Broncos. The Giants won with a final score of 39-20. The head coaches were Bill Parcells for New York and Dan Reeves for Denver. The game was played in the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, CA before 101,063 fans and the MVP was Phil Simms, quarterback for the Giants. The Referee was Jerry Markbreit. The Face Value Tickets were $75.00.The game featured TV commercials that cost $550,000 for 30 seconds.
1988 – In his final State of the Union address, President Reagan declared America was “strong, prosperous, at peace.”
1988 - Vice President George Bush and Dan Rather clashed on “The CBS Evening News” as the anchorman attempted to question the Republican presidential candidate about his role in the Iran-Contra affair.
1989 – Michael Jordan scores his 10,000th NBA point in his 5th season.
1989 - The US Senate Armed Services Committee opened confirmation hearings on the nomination of John Tower to be Secretary of Defense.
1990 – An Avianca Boeing 707 ran out of fuel and crashed in Cove Neck, N.Y.; 73 of the 161 people aboard were killed.
1991 – Iraq- GULF WAR: Iraq sabotaged Kuwait’s main supertanker loading pier, dumping an estimated 460 million gallons of crude oil into the Persian Gulf.
1992 – “Don’t Let the Sun Go Down” by George Michael & Elton John topped the charts
1993 – Sears announces it is closing its catalog sales department after 97 years.
1993 - President Clinton appointed his wife, Hillary, to head a committee on health-care reform.
1993 – Five people were shot outside CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia resulting in two murders. Mir [Amil] Aimal Kasi, a Pakistani national, was tracked down for the shooting in 1997 in Afghanistan and returned to the US. He was convicted of murder in 1997 and was executed Nov 14, 2002.
1993 - Lance Cpl. Anthony D. Botello (21) of Wilburton, Oklahoma, was killed by a sniper in Mogadishu, Somalia.
1994 – President Clinton delivered his State of the Union address in which he challenged Congress to pass comprehensive health care reforms.
1994 – The United States launched Clementine I, an unmanned spacecraft that was to study the moon before it was “lost and gone forever.”
1995 – The Norwegian Rocket Incident: Russia almost launches a nuclear attack after it mistakes Black Brant XII, a Norwegian research rocket, for a US Trident missile.
1995 – Extensive flooding hit the streets of Las Vegas and many casinos had water dripping onto gambling tables.
1995 - The defense gave its opening statement in the O.J. Simpson trial in Los Angeles, saying Simpson was the victim of a “rush to judgment” by authorities who had mishandled evidence and ignored witnesses.
1996 - Wells Fargo won the battle to acquire First Interstate of Los Angeles in a $11.6 billion pact.
1996 - Billy Bailey became the last person to be hanged in the United States of America. Bailey had killed two elderly people in their own home shortly after he had robbed a liquor store.
1997 - Responding to recent cases of deadly food poisoning, President Clinton promised to seek $43 million dollars to implement an early warning system for food contamination.
1998 - Super Bowl XXXII was played between the Denver Broncos and the Green Bay Packers. The Broncos won with a final score of 31-24. The head coaches were Mike Shanahan for Denver and Mike Holmgren for the Packers. The game was played at Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego, California before 68,912 and the MVP was John Elway, quarterback for the Broncos. The referee was Ed Hochuli, Face Value Tickets were $275.00.
1998 – “Grease” closed at Eugene O’Neill Theater NYC after 1,503 performances.
1998 - American astronaut Andrew Thomas moved from the space shuttle Endeavour into the Russian space station Mir as the relief for David Wolf.
1999 – In Louisville, KY, man received the first hand transplant in the United States. The operation took 14 1/2 hours.
1999 – The Supreme Court ruled, 5-4, that the 2000 census could not use statistical sampling to enhance its accuracy. The Court also upheld rules to let new local phone companies connect to the Bell companies at low cost.
1999 - Abecnego Monje Ortiz (18) was shot in the back by a US DEA agent as he crossed the Rio Grande in an inner tube with 14 others near Eagle Pass, Texas. In 2001 the DEA agreed to pay Ortiz $1.75 million to help pay medical costs. The DEA agent was sentenced in 2000 to 15 years in prison.
2000 – Martina Navratilova entered the International Tennis Hall of Fame.
2000 - Under government orders, the Florida relatives of Elian Gonzalez agreed to make the boy available for a meeting with his Cuban grandmothers at a neutral site.
2000 - In Texas, a tanker truck with 9000 gallons of furfural overturned and spilled the toxic chemical, which is used in manufacturing, into a drainage ditch that flows into San Martin Lake. An estimated 6 million fish and dozens of ducks were soon found dead.
2001 – A minor earthquake hit northeastern Ohio. The quake measured only 4.2 on the Richter Scale.
2001 – Alan Greenspan said budget surpluses were growing enough to allow a tax cut and still eliminate the national debt by the end of the decade.
2001 - A jury in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., found thirteen-year-old Lionel Tate guilty of first-degree murder in the death of a six-year-old family friend. Tate had said he accidentally killed the girl while imitating moves by pro wrestlers.
2002 - In Cambridge, Mass., Thomas Junta was sentenced six to ten years in prison for beating another man to death at their sons’ hockey practice.
2002 - In Pittsburgh two masked gunmen killed two men and a young girl in a sandwich shop. Witnesses said they appeared to be targeting a man in a wheelchair, Thomas Mitchell (31). Killed as well were Parrish Freeman (35) and his daughter Taylor Coles (8).
2003 – A computer worm slowed Internet traffic. The “slammer” virus sought vulnerable Microsoft “SQL Server 2000″ software.
2003 - NASA launched a spacecraft into orbit to measure all the radiation streaming toward Earth from the sun. The small satellite is called Sorce — for Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment.
2004 – Opportunity rover (MER-B) lands on surface of Mars.
2004 - In Greenville, SC, a fire at a Comfort Inn left six people dead.
2005 - The US Congressional Budget Office predicted the government will accumulate another $855 billion in deficits over the next decade.
2005 - Legislators in San Francisco, Ca., voted 8-3 to ban smoking in public parks, becoming the first major American city to embrace such an expansive ban on tobacco use.
2006 – Republicans John McCain and Tom Coburn said they’re putting their colleagues on notice: They will challenge special projects that senators insert into spending bills until the practice stops.
2006 – US authorities discovered what they say is the largest and most sophisticated tunnel under their border with Mexico, one that was used by drug trafficking gangs. The tunnel began near Tijuana’s airport and ended 2,400 feet away in a warehouse on the US side of the border. The find included two tons of marijuana.
2006 – Hattie McDaniel, the first African-American actress to win an Academy Award, was honored with a U.S. Postal Service commemorative stamp.
2006 - ”Survivor” Richard Hatch was convicted in Providence, R.I., of failing to pay taxes on his $1 million winnings. He was later sentenced to more than four years in prison.
2007 - Ford Motor Co. lost $5.8 billion in the fourth quarter amid slumping sales and huge restructuring costs, pushing the automaker’s deficit for the year to $12.7 billion, the largest in its 103-year history.
2007 - Scientists reported that they had built the densest memory chip to date. It measured about 100 million bits per square centimeter, about 40 times as much as current memory chips. The chip was about the size of a white blood cell and held about 160,000 bits.
2008 - Ohio Congressman Dennis Kucinich withdraws his candidacy for US President.
2008 - A fire at the Monte Carlo Resort and Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada causes the entire building to be evacuated.
2010 – In Arlington, TX, the International Bowling Museum and Hall of Fame had its grand opening.
2010 – In Pennsylvania Andrea Curry-Demus (40) was found to be mentally ill but guilty of second degree murder and kidnapping for luring a pregnant teenager to her apartment, cutting out the baby and killing the mother.
2010 – Live Nation and Ticketmaster complete their merger, following an agreement with the United States Department of Justice to divest some interests.
2011 - The Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission, a panel appointed by the United States Congress to study the causes of the 2007-08 financial crisis, refers certain cases of potentially criminal action to the Justice Department. The names of the suspected individuals have not been disclosed.
2011 – A U.S. judge sentences Ahmed Ghailani, the first Guantanamo detainee to have a civilian trial in America, to life imprisonment for conspiracy to destroy government buildings. He was found “not guilty” of 285 other charges filed against him, including 200 counts of murder and dozens of other charges.
2012 – U.S. special forces swooped into Somalia in a pair of helicopters in a daring overnight raid to rescue two kidnapped aid workers — an American and a Dane — and killed several gunmen in the operation.
2013 - A federal appeals court today, overturned President Obama’s controversial recess appointments from last year, ruling he abused his powers and acted when the Senate was not actually in a recess.The judges ruled that the appointments he made to the National Labor Relations Board are illegal, and hence the five-person board did not have a quorum to operate. On January 13th, 2014, the Supreme Court heard arguments in this case.
1741 – Benedict Arnold, American general notorious for treason (d. 1801)
1825 – George Pickett, American Confederate General (d. 1875)
1860 – Charles Curtis, 31st Vice President of the United States (d. 1936) He was the first person with acknowledged non-European ancestry to reach either of the two highest offices in the United States government’s executive branch.
1913 – Luis Marden was an American photographer, explorer, writer, filmmaker, diver, navigator, and linguist who worked for National Geographic Magazine. , (d. 2003)
1916 – Frank “Pop” Ivy, was a football player and coach who holds the unique distinction of being the only person ever to serve as a head coach in the National Football League, the American Football League and the Canadian Football League. (d. 2003)
1918 – Ernie Harwell, American baseball sportscaster and spent 42 of his 55 years as a sportscaster calling the game of baseball for the Detroit Tigers.
1924 – Lou Groza was an American football placekicker who played his entire career for the Cleveland Browns. (d. 2000)
1931 – Dean Jones, is best known for his leading roles in several Walt Disney movies between 1965 and 1977 including the Love Bug.
1941 – Buddy Baker, American race car driver A.K.A. “Leadfoot”
1941 – Gregory Sierra, is an American actor known for his roles as Detective Sergeant Chano Amenguale on Barney Miller and as Julio Fuentes, the Puerto Rican neighbor on Sanford and Son, where his character was often the brunt of racist insults and jokes via the show’s main character, Fred G. Sanford (portrayed by Redd Foxx).
1954 – Richard Finch, American bass player (KC and the Sunshine Band)
1966 – Chet Culver, American politician, governor of Iowa
*MILLER, ROBERT J.
Rank and Organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Special Forces Operational Detachment Alpha 3312, Special Operations Task Force 33. Place and date: Konar Province, Afghanistan 25 January 2008. Entered service at: Oviedo, Florida. Born: 14 October 1983. Citation: Robert J. Miller distinguished himself by extraordinary acts of heroism while serving as the Weapons Sergeant in Special Forces Operational Detachment Alpha 3312, Special Operations Task Force-33, Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force-Afghanistan during combat operations against an armed enemy in Konar Province, Afghanistan on January 25, 2008. While conducting a combat reconnaissance patrol through the Gowardesh Valley, Staff Sergeant Miller and his small element of U.S. and Afghan National Army soldiers engaged a force of 15 to 20 insurgents occupying prepared fighting positions. Staff Sergeant Miller initiated the assault by engaging the enemy positions with his vehicle’s turret-mounted Mark-19 40 millimeter automatic grenade launcher while simultaneously providing detailed descriptions of the enemy positions to his command, enabling effective, accurate close air support. Following the engagement, Staff Sergeant Miller led a small squad forward to conduct a battle damage assessment. As the group neared the small, steep, narrow valley that the enemy had inhabited, a large, well-coordinated insurgent force initiated a near ambush, assaulting from elevated positions with ample cover. Exposed and with little available cover, the patrol was totally vulnerable to enemy rocket propelled grenades and automatic weapon fire. As point man, Staff Sergeant Miller was at the front of the patrol, cut off from supporting elements, and less than 20 meters from enemy forces. Nonetheless, with total disregard for his own safety, he called for his men to quickly move back to covered positions as he charged the enemy over exposed ground and under overwhelming enemy fire in order to provide protective fire for his team. While maneuvering to engage the enemy, Staff Sergeant Miller was shot in his upper torso. Ignoring the wound, he continued to push the fight, moving to draw fire from over one hundred enemy fighters upon himself. He then again charged forward through an open area in order to allow his teammates to safely reach cover. After killing at least 10 insurgents, wounding dozens more, and repeatedly exposing himself to withering enemy fire while moving from position to position, Staff Sergeant Miller was mortally wounded by enemy fire. His extraordinary valor ultimately saved the lives of seven members of his own team and 15 Afghanistan National Army soldiers. Staff Sergeant Miller’s heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty, and at the cost of his own life, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the United States Army.
*BEAUDOIN, RAYMOND O.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company F, 119th Infantry, 30th Infantry Division. Place and date: Hamelin, Germany, 6 April 1945. Entered service at: Holyoke, Mass. Birth: Holyoke, Mass. G.O. No.: 9, 25 January 1946. Citation: He was leading the 2d Platoon of Company F over flat, open terrain to Hamelin, Germany, when the enemy went into action with machineguns and automatic weapons, laying down a devastating curtain of fire which pinned his unit to the ground. By rotating men in firing positions he made it possible for his entire platoon to dig in, defying all the while the murderous enemy fire to encourage his men and to distribute ammunition. He then dug in himself at the most advanced position, where he kept up a steady fire, killing six hostile soldiers, and directing his men in inflicting heavy casualties on the numerically superior opposing force. Despite these defensive measures, however, the position of the platoon became more precarious, for the enemy had brought up strong reinforcements and was preparing a counterattack. Three men, sent back at intervals to obtain ammunition and reinforcements, were killed by sniper fire. To relieve his command from the desperate situation, 1st Lt. Beaudoin decided to make a one-man attack on the most damaging enemy sniper nest ninety yards to the right flank, and thereby divert attention from the runner who would attempt to pierce the enemy’s barrier of bullets and secure help. Crawling over completely exposed ground, he relentlessly advanced, undeterred by eight rounds of bazooka fire which threw mud and stones over him or by rifle fire which ripped his uniform. Ten yards from the enemy position he stood up and charged. At point-blank range he shot and killed two occupants of the nest; a third, who tried to bayonet him, he overpowered and killed with the butt of his carbine; and the fourth adversary was cut down by the platoon’s rifle fire as he attempted to flee. He continued his attack by running toward a dugout, but there he was struck and killed by a burst from a machinegun. By his intrepidity, great fighting skill, and supreme devotion to his responsibility for the well-being of his platoon, 1st Lt. Beaudoin single-handedly accomplished a mission that enabled a messenger to secure help which saved the stricken unit and made possible the decisive defeat of the German forces.
|FLUCKEY, EUGENE BENNETT
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy, Commanding U.S.S. Barb. Place and date: Along coast of China, 19 December 1944 to 15 February 1945. Entered service at: Illinois. Born: S October 1913, Washington, D.C. Other Navy award: Navy Cross with 3 Gold Stars. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Barb during her 11th war patrol along the east coast of China from 19 December 1944 to 15 February 1945. After sinking a large enemy ammunition ship and damaging additional tonnage during a running two-hour night battle on 8 January, Comdr. Fluckey, in an exceptional feat of brilliant deduction and bold tracking on 25 January, located a concentration of more than thirty enemy ships in the lower reaches of Nankuan Chiang (Mamkwan Harbor). Fully aware that a safe retirement would necessitate an hour’s run at full speed through the uncharted, mined, and rock-obstructed waters, he bravely ordered, “Battle station–torpedoes!” In a daring penetration of the heavy enemy screen, and riding in five fathoms of water, he launched the Barb’s last forward torpedoes at 3,000-yard range. Quickly bringing the ship’s stern tubes to bear, he turned loose four more torpedoes into the enemy, obtaining eight direct hits on six of the main targets to explode a large ammunition ship and cause inestimable damage by the resultant flying shells and other pyrotechnics. Clearing the treacherous area at high speed, he brought the Barb through to safety and four days later sank a large Japanese freighter to complete a record of heroic combat achievement, reflecting the highest credit upon Comdr. Fluckey, his gallant officers and men, and the U.S. Naval Service.
|FOSS, JOSEPH JACOB
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Marine Fighting Squadron 121, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. Place and date: Over Guadalcanal, 9 October to 19 November 1942, 15 and 23 January 1943. Entered service at: South Dakota. Born: 17 April 1 915, Sioux Falls, S. Dak. Citation: For outstanding heroism and courage above and beyond the call of duty as executive officer of Marine Fighting Squadron 121, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, at Guadalcanal. Engaging in almost daily combat with the enemy from 9 October to 19 November 1942, Capt. Foss personally shot down twenty-three Japanese planes and damaged others so severely that their destruction was extremely probable. In addition, during this period, he successfully led a large number of escort missions, skillfully covering reconnaissance, bombing, and photographic planes as well as surface craft. On 15 January 1943, he added three more enemy planes to his already brilliant successes for a record of aerial combat achievement unsurpassed in this war. Boldly searching out an approaching enemy force on 25 January, Capt. Foss led his eight F-4F Marine planes and four Army P-38′s into action and, undaunted by tremendously superior numbers, intercepted and struck with such force that four Japanese fighters were shot down and the bombers were turned back without releasing a single bomb. His remarkable flying skill, inspiring leadership, and indomitable fighting spirit were distinctive factors in the defense of strategic American positions on Guadalcanal.
*VALDEZ, JOSE F.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 7th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Rosenkrantz, France, 25 January 1945. Entered service at: Pleasant Grove, Utah. Birth: Governador, N. Mex. G. O. No.: 16, 8 February 1946. Citation: He was on outpost duty with five others when the enemy counterattacked with overwhelming strength. From his position near some woods five-hundred yards beyond the American lines he observed a hostile tank about seventy-five yards away, and raked it with automatic rifle fire until it withdrew. Soon afterward he saw three Germans stealthily approaching through the woods. Scorning cover as the enemy soldiers opened up with heavy automatic weapons fire from a range of thirty yards, he engaged in a fire fight with the attackers until he had killed all three. The enemy quickly launched an attack with two full companies of infantrymen, blasting the patrol with murderous concentrations of automatic and rifle fire and beginning an encircling movement which forced the patrol leader to order a withdrawal. Despite the terrible odds, Pfc. Valdez immediately volunteered to cover the maneuver, and as the patrol one by one plunged through a hail of bullets toward the American lines, he fired burst after burst into the swarming enemy. Three of his companions were wounded in their dash for safety and he was struck by a bullet that entered his stomach and, passing through his body, emerged from his back. Overcoming agonizing pain, he regained control of himself and resumed his firing position, delivering a protective screen of bullets until all others of the patrol were safe. By field telephone he called for artillery and mortar fire on the Germans and corrected the range until he had shells falling within fifty yards of his position. For fifteen minutes he refused to be dislodged by more than two-hundred of the enemy; then, seeing that the barrage had broken the counter attack, he dragged himself back to his own lines. He died later as a result of his wounds. Through his valiant, intrepid stand and at the cost of his own life, Pfc. Valdez made it possible for his comrades to escape, and was directly responsible for repulsing an attack by vastly superior enemy forces.
Rank and organization: Fireman First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 3 October 1873, Lodi, N.J. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 182, 20 March 1905. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Iowa, 25 January 1905. Following the blowing out of the manhole plate of boiler D of that vessel, Behne displayed extraordinary heroism in the resulting action.
BRESNAHAN, PATRICK FRANCIS
Rank and organization: Watertender, U.S. Navy. Born: 1 May 1872, Peabody, Mass. Accredited to: Vermont. G.O. No.: 182, 20 March 1905. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Iowa for extraordinary heroism at the time of the blowing out of the manhole plate of boiler D on board that vessel, 25 January 1905.
Rank and organization: Fireman First Class, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: New York. Born: 3 January 1880, Trieste, Austria. G.O. No.: 182, 20 March 1905. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Iowa for extraordinary heroism at the time of the blowing out of the manhole plate of boiler D on board that vessel, 25 January 1905.
Rank and organization: Boilermaker, U.S. Navy. Born: 21 February 1850, Ireland. Accredited to: South Carolina. G.O. No.: 182, 20 March 1905. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Iowa, for extraordinary heroism at the time of the blowing out of the manhole plate of boiler D on board that vessel, 25 January 1905.
JOHANNESSEN, JOHANNES J.
Rank and organization: Chief Watertender, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 May 1872, Bodo, Norway. Enlisted at: Yokohama, Japan. G.O. No.: 182, 20 March 1905. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Iowa, for extraordinary heroism at the time of the blowing out of the manhole plate of boiler D on board that vessel, 25 January 1905.
Rank and organization: Chief Carpenter’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 11 November 1884, Gerdonen, Germany. Enlisted at: Marseilles, France. G.O. No.: 173, 6 October 1904. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Raleigh, for heroism in rescuing shipmates overcome in double bottoms by fumes of turpentine, 25 January 1904.
National Nurse Anesthetists Week 25-31
Belly Laugh Day
National Compliment Day
Boy Scouts, the First Ten Years
Scouting began in England in 1907-08, created by General Robert Baden-Powell. B-P, a 50-year old bachelor at the time, was one of the few heroes to come out of Britain’s South African (‘Boer’) War. He was known primarily for his unusual ideas about military scouting, explained in his book Aids to Scouting. Startled to discover that many boys were using his military book as a guide to outdoor activities, he began to think how he could convert his concepts of army scouting for men to “peace scouting” for boys. Gathering ideas from many sources (including Ernest Thompson Seton, who had founded a boys organization in the US), he tested his program on a group of boys on Brownsea Island in 1907. The island camp was successful, so B-P rewrote his military book, calling it Scouting for Boys. The climate was right for a youth program like Scouting, and it spread quickly around the British commonwealth, then to other countries.
The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) was founded by Chicago publisher William Boyce on February 8, 1910. At that time in the US, there were several other loosely structured outdoor-oriented youth organizations, some using the name “Boy Scout” and some using other names, and there were already a number of troops in existence using some variation of the British Scout program. Boyce’s key contribution was to organize the BSA as a business. He incorporated the organization (in Washington, DC, rather than Chicago), recruited key youth professionals (in particular from the YMCA) to design and operate the program, and he provided key funding for the infant organization.
YMCA— To a great extent, the YMCA operated the BSA during its first year, particularly YMCA executive Edgar Robinson, who first suggested to Boyce that the YMCA was well positioned to provide structure and leadership to his fledgling Boy Scouts of America. Robinson set up the first BSA office next to his in Manhattan, and recruited YMCA official John Alexander to be the BSA’s first ‘managing secretary’.
Early Actions. The new BSA quickly established a national office, developed a temporary handbook, sought out Baden-Powell’s endorsement (which they got), and continued the effort begun by Boyce to get a Congressional Charter from the US Congress (which they got in 1916). They also began an active campaign to absorb all other Scout-type youth organizations into the BSA, often simply inviting rival leaders to be members of the new BSA National Council. Indeed, only one such organization held out past 1912—publisher William Randolph Hearst’s militaristic ‘US Boy Scout’ (also called the ‘American Boy Scout’) organization (founded only three months after the BSA, in May, 1910, and later a member of the Order of World Scouts, a mostly British program in competition with Baden-Powell’s program). Resorting to the federal courts, and aided by their Congressional Charter and testimony from Baden-Powell, the BSA obtained a favorable ruling against the “US Boy Scout” in 1919.
Three people influenced the BSA’s development more than any others: Ernest Thompson Seton, James West, and to a lesser extent, Daniel Beard.
“Uncle Dan” Beard (Daniel Carter Beard) was beloved by millions of American Boy Scouts during his lifetime. A well-known artist and outdoorsman, he had founded a Scout-like organization called the Sons of Daniel Boone in 1905. While it had much in common with Boy Scouting, it lacked organizational structure (it was promoted through several magazines). It does not appear that Baden-Powell used any of Dan Beard’s literature as he formulated his ideas for Boy Scouting.
Ernest Thompson Seton was a famous writer and artist, had founded a loosely structured boys’ program called the Woodcraft Indians in 1902. Seton had also visited England in 1904, where he met with Baden-Powell and gave him a copy of his manual for the Woodcraft Indians. B-P used many of Seton’s ideas as he developed his Boy Scouting program. Indeed, Seton’s introduction to the Original Edition of the BSA’s Boy Scout Handbook makes it clear that he considered himself to be the real founder of the World Scouting movement: “In 1904, I went to England to carry on the work [of fostering a "Woodcraft and Scouting movement"] there, and, knowing General R. S. S. Baden-Powell as the chief advocate of scouting in the British Army, invited him to cooperate with me, in making the movement popular. Accordingly, in 1908 he organized his Boy Scout movement, incorporating the principles of the [Woodcraft] Indians with other ethical features bearing on savings banks, fire drills, etc., as well as by giving it a partly military organization, and a carefully compiled and fascinating book.” When William Boyce incorporated the Boy Scouts of America in 1910, Seton joined the new organization and became the BSA’s first Chief Scout (from 1910 to 1915).
James West was a Washington, DC, attorney active in juvenile cases. Recruited in 1911 as Executive Secretary, West soon changed his title to Chief Scout Executive. West created a well-organized national structure that was a key to the BSA’s growth and reputation. Although he had intended to make Scouting only a temporary diversion from his legal career, West remained Chief Scout Executive from 1911 until his retirement in 1943.
In those early days there were a lot of power struggles. West and Seton (and also Beard) fought constantly over the direction of the BSA. The story of their rivalry, and how it affected the young BSA, is fascinating [see The Scouting Party, 2010, by Scott & Murphy]. West was the organizer, and had the support of the executive board on the direction that BSA should go. Beard ultimately found a niche writing for Boys Life magazine and making appearances around the country. Seton’s ideas, however, were too often contrary to what West and the board believed, and ultimately Seton was forced to resign from the BSA (December, 1915). Per Seton’s request, all the chapters he had authored for the Boy Scout Handbook (Handbook for Boys) were removed with the 14th printing in 1916, and replaced with similar chapters by other authors. Nevertheless, neither world Scouting nor the BSA would be what they are without Seton’s contributions.
“A hug is a great gift – one size fits all, and it’s easy to exchange.”
incipient in-SIP-ee-uhnt, adjective:
Beginning to exist or appear.
41 – Gaius Caesar (Caligula), known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. Claudius succeeds his nephew.
1639 – Representatives from three Connecticut towns banded together to write the Fundamental Orders, the first constitution in the New World.
1656 – Jacob Lumbrozo, first Jewish doctor in US, arrived in Maryland.
1722 – Edward Wigglesworth appointed first US divinity professor (Harvard)
1776 – Revolutionary War: Col. Henry Knox arrives at Cambridge, Massachusetts with the artillery that he has transported from Fort Ticonderoga.
1826 – Mississippi College is founded in Clinton, becoming the first college in the state of Mississippi.
1847 – Fifteen hundred New Mexican Indians and Mexicans were defeated by US Col. Price.
1848 – California Gold Rush: James W. Marshall finds gold at Sutter’s Mill near Sacramento.
1861 – Civil War: Georgia troops seize the Federal arsenal in Augusta. The U. S. Arsenal on Walton Way is the only United States arsenal in the south, east of the Mississippi.
1865 – Civil War: A Confederate fleet attempted to raid City Point, Va. Most of the fleet ran aground. Two ironclads make a desperate attempt to push through to the supply center.
1865 – Civil War: The Confederate Congress agrees to continue prisoner exchanges, opening a process that had operated only sporadically for three years.
1871 – Charles Goodyear, Jr. patented the Goodyear Welt, a machine for sewing boots and shoes.
1876 – Bat Masterson had a legendary gunfight in Sweetwater, Texas. A cavalry soldier named King and a woman named Mollie Brennan were killed, Masterson was seriously wounded in the hip in a saloon.
1895 – Hawaii’s Queen Lili’uokalani formally abdicated her throne and swore allegiance to the Republic of Hawaii.
1899 – Rubber heel patented by Humphrey O’Sullivan.
1903 – U.S. Secretary of State John Hay and British Ambassador Herbert created a joint commission to establish the Alaskan border.
1907 – Robert Baden-Powell founds the Boy Scout movement.
1907 – Glenn Curtiss, an engineer who got his start building motors for bicycles, set an unofficial land-speed record on a self-built V-8 motorcycle on this day: 136.29mph.
1908 – Boy Scouts movement begins in England with the publication of the first installment of Robert Baden-Powell’s Scouting for Boys.
1910 – Louis Paulhan, French aviator, made an aerial display at the Tanforan Race Track in San Bruno, Ca., before a crowd of 75,000. He flew his biplane 1,300 (700) feet high at 70 mph.
1911 – U.S. Cavalry was sent to preserve the neutrality of the Rio Grande during the Mexican Civil War.
1916 – In Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad, the Supreme Court of the United States declares the federal income tax constitutional.
1922 – Eskimo Pie patented by Christian K Nelson of Iowa (not an Eskimo).
1925 – A motion picture of a solar eclipse was taken by the U.S. Navy from the dirigible Los Angeles. The craft was at an elevation of about 4,500-ft and positioned about 19 miles east of Montauk Point, Long Island, NY.
1930 – Primo Carnera made his American boxing debut by knocking out Clayton ‘Big Boy’ Patterson in one minute, ten seconds of the opening round in a match in New York City. Patterson was so embarrassed he changed his name to Rocky Balboa.
1935 – First canned beer, “Krueger Cream Ale”, is sold by Kruger Brewing Co.
1936 – Benny Goodman and his orchestra recorded one of the all-time greats, “Stompin’ at the Savoy“, on Victor Records.
1936 – Congress passes the Adjusted Compensation Act by overriding President Roosevelt’s veto. The bill allows for immediate cash redemption of the bonus certificates held by veterans of World War I.
1942 – “Abie’s Irish Rose” (29:26) was first heard on NBC radio this day replacing “Knickerbocker Playhouse”.
1942 – World War II: A special court of inquiry into America’s lack of preparedness for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor placed much of the blame on Rear Adm. Husband E. Kimmel and Lt. Gen. Walter C. Short, the Navy and Army commanders.
1942 – World War II: Battle of Makassar Strait, destroyer attack on Japanese convoy in first surface action in the Pacific during World War II. Four Dutch and American destroyers attack Japanese troop transports off Balikpapan sinking five ships.
1943 – World War II: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill conclude a conference in Casablanca.
1943 - World War II: Hitler ordered Nazi troops at Stalingrad to fight to death.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Heart Tells Me” by The Glen Gray Orchestra (vocal: Eugenie Baird), “Shoo, Shoo, Baby” by The Andrews Sisters, “My Ideal” by The Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Bob Eberly), and “Pistol Packin’ Mama” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: The Anzio beachhead continues to expand, but slowly.
1947 – NFL adds 5th official (back judge) & allows sudden death in playoffs.
1948 – IBM dedicated its “SSEC” in New York City. The Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator handled both data and instructions using electronic circuits made with 13,500 vacuum tubes and 21,000 relays. It occupied three sides of a 30-ft x 60-ft room.
1950 – Jackie Robinson signs highest contract ($35,000) in Dodger history.
1951 – Korean War: General Matthew B. Ridgway and Major General Earl E. Partridge personally reconnoitered the front lines in a T-6 Texan aircraft prior to the Jan. 25 dawn attack on communist Chinese forces, Operation THUNDERBOLT.
1952 – First NFL team in Texas, Dallas Texans formerly New York Yankees.
1952 – The U.S. 24th Infantry Division announced the first use in Korea of scout dogs.
1952 – Korean War: Air Force Captains Dolphin D. Overton III and Harold E. Fischer Jr., both of the 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, became the 24th and 25th aces of the war.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Slowpoke” by Pee Wee King, “Sin (It’s No)” by Eddy Howard, “Shrimp Boats” by Jo Stafford and “Let Old Mother Nature Have Her Way” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1955 – The rules committee of major-league baseball announced a plan to strictly enforce the rule that required a pitcher to release the ball within 20 seconds after taking his position on the mound.
1958 – The first man-made nuclear fusion occurred when two light atoms were bashed together to create a heavier atom after heating to 100,000,000 degrees.
1959 – “Smoke Gets In Your Eyes” by The Platters topped the charts.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Running Bear” by Johnny Preston, “The Big Hurt” by Miss Toni Fisher, “Go, Jimmy, Go” by Jimmy Clanton and “El Paso” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.
1961 – A B-52 carrying two nuclear bombs near Goldsboro, North Carolina encountered a violent gust. The giant plane rolled completely over, came upright, and continued rolling inverted a second time before whipping into a vicious flat spin and breaking up.
1962 – Jackie Robinson is first Black elected to Baseball Hall of Fame
1964 – CBS-TV acquired the rights to televise the National Football League’s 1964-1965 regular season. The move cost CBS $14.1 million a year. The NFL stayed on CBS for 30 years.
1964 – Willie Shoemaker topped Eddie Arcaro’s career earnings record by riding four winners at Santa Anita race track in California. Shoemaker’s total earnings reached $30,040,005.
1965 – Winston Churchill died at the age of 90.
1966 – Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, in a memorandum to President Johnson, recommends raising the number of U.S. troops in Vietnam to more than 400,000 by the end of the year.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Judy in Disguise (With Glasses)” by John Fred & His Playboy Band, “Chain of Fools” by Aretha Franklin, “Green Tambourine” by The Lemon Pipers and “Sing Me Back Home” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1970 – “Raindrops Keep Falling on My Head” by B. J. Thomas topped the charts
1972 – Japanese Sgt. Shoichi Yokoi is found hiding in a Guam jungle, where he had been since the end of World War II. He was unaware that World War II had ended.
1972 – The U.S. Supreme Court struck down laws that denied welfare benefits to people who had resided in a state for less than a year.
1975 – A Puerto Rican terrorist group detonates a bomb at Fraunces Tavern in New York City, killing four people.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Theme from Mahogany (Do You Know Where You’re Going To)” by Diana Ross, “Love Rollercoaster” by Ohio Players, “Love to Love You Baby” by Donna Dummer and “Convoy” by C.W. McCall all top the charts.
1977 – Howard T Ward becomes Georgia’s first Black Superior Court Judge.
1978 – A nuclear-powered Soviet satellite plunged through Earth’s atmosphere and disintegrated. The radioactive debris was scattered over parts of Canada’s Northwest Territory.
1980 – A 5.8-magnitude quake rocks the Livermore area east of San Francisco, California, damaging a nuclear weapons laboratory.
1982 - Super Bowl XVI (Full-time game not on YouTube) was played between the San Francisco 49ers and the Cincinnati Bengals. The 49ers won with a final score of 26-21. The head coaches were Bill Walsh for San Francisco and Forrest Gregg for Cincinnati. The game was played in the Pontiac Silverdome in Pontiac, MI before 81,270 fans and the MVP was Joe Montana, quarterback for the 49ers. The Referee was Pat Haggerty. Face Value Tickets were $40.00.
1984 – The first Apple Macintosh goes on sale.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Owner of a Lonely Heart” by Yes, “Karma Chameleon” by Culture Club, “Talking in Your Sleep” by The Romantics and “In My Eyes” by John Conlee all topped the charts.
1985 – The space shuttle Discovery was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on the first secret, all-military shuttle mission.
1985 – Penny Harrington became the first woman police chief of a major city. She assumed the duties as head of the Portland, Oregon, force of 940 officers and staff.
1986 – Voyager 2 passes within 81,500 km (50,680 miles) of Uranus.
1987 – About 20,000 civil rights demonstrators marched through predominantly white Forsyth County, Ga., a week after a smaller march was disrupted by Ku Klux Klan members and supporters.
1989 – Ted Bundy, the confessed serial killer, was put to death in Florida’s electric chair for the 1978 kidnap-murder of 12-year-old Kimberly Leach.
1989 – Physicians first reported a case of AIDS transmitted by heterosexual oral sex.
1991 – Iraqi War: Helicopters from USS Leftwich and USS Nicholas recapture first Kuwaiti territory from Iraqis.
1992 – The state of Arkansas executed convicted cop-killer Rickey Ray Rector after Gov. Bill Clinton refused to intervene.
1993 – The first African-American to sit on the Supreme Court, Thurgood Marshall, died.
1994 – The Supreme Court ruled unanimously that protesters who block access to abortion clinics or in other ways conspire to stop women from having abortions may be sued under federal anti-racketeering statutes.
1995 – The prosecution gave its opening statement at the O.J. Simpson murder trial.
1995 – President Clinton appealed for common ground as he delivered his second State of the Union address, this time before a Republican-led Congress.
1996 – Specialist Michael New was discharged from the US Army after a court-martial jury convicted him for disobeying lawful orders. He refused to wear a UN beret for a peacekeeping mission in the former Yugoslavia.
1997 – The White House released guest lists showing that in the year and a-half before his re-election, President Clinton invited more than 400 of his party’s top financial supporters to coffee klatches for informal policy chats.
1999 – Iraqi War: US jets attacked two Iraqi surface-to-air missile batteries after encountering radar detection in the northern no-fly zone.
2000 – The U.S. Supreme Court upheld a Missouri law that limited the contributions that individuals could donate to a candidate during a single election.
2000 – Iowa Caucuses: Vice Pres. Al Gore won over Bill Bradley 63 to 35%; Texas Gov. George W. Bush won over Steve Forbes 41 to 30%.
2002 – The U.S. Congress began a hearing on the collapse of Enron Corp.
2003 – The United States Department of Homeland Security officially begins operation. Tom Ridge was sworn in as the first Director.
2004 – NASA’s Opportunity rover landed on Mars.
2006 – US Supreme Court nominee Samuel Alito won a 10-8 party-line approval from the Senate Judiciary Committee.
2006 – Disney announced that it had agreed to acquire Pixar Animation Studios in a stock deal valued at $7.4 billion.
2006 – A Mexican government commission said it will distribute at least 70,000 maps showing highways, rescue beacons and water tanks in the Arizona desert to curb the death toll among illegal border crossers.
2007 – The Democratic-controlled Senate Foreign Relations Committee dismissed President Bush’s plans for a troop buildup in Iraq as “not in the national interest” of the United States.
2009 – In Las Vegas, Miss Indiana Katie Stam was crowned Miss America 2009 by Miss America 2008 Kirsten Haglund.
2010 – Supreme Court on Thursday ruled that the government may not ban political spending by corporations in candidate elections.
2011 – Appeals Court in Illinois throws Rahm Emanuel off the Chicago mayoral ballot because he did not meet the law regarding residency prior to an election. The court later reversed its decision.
2012 - Apple Inc. announces that the technology generated over $127 billion in revenue during 2011. Apple sold over 37 million iPhones and over 15 million iPads during the fourth quarter of 2011.
2012 - President Barack Obama presents his 2012 State of the Union Address to the United States Congress.
1670 – William Congreve, English playwright (d. 1729) “Hell hath no fury as a woman scorned.”
1732 – Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, French playwright (d. 1799) was a watch-maker, inventor, musician, politician, fugitive, spy, publisher, arms-dealer, and revolutionary (both French and American).
1754 – Andrew Ellicott, American surveyor (d. 1820) was a U.S. surveyor who helped map many of the territories west of the Appalachians, surveyed the boundaries of the District of Columbia, continued and completed Peter (Pierre) Charles L’Enfant’s work on the plan for Washington, D.C., and served as a teacher in survey methods for Meriwether Lewis.
1862 – Edith Wharton, American writer (d. 1937) Wharton was born Edith Newbold Jones to the wealthy New York family often associated with the phrase “Keeping up with the Joneses”.
1873 – Leon Czolgosz, American anarchist, assassin of U.S. President William McKinley (d. 1901)
1905 – J. Howard Marshall, American billionaire (d. 1995) was a wealthy magnate, American oil business executive, and university professor.
1916 – Jack Brickhouse, (d. 1998) was an American sports broadcast announcer. Known primarily for his enthusiastic coverage of Chicago Cubs games on television from the late 1940s until the early 1980s
1917 – Ernest Borgnine, American actor, better known by his stage name Ernest Borgnine, is an American Golden Globe-, BAFTA- and Academy Award-winning actor.
1918 – Oral Roberts, is an American Pentecostal televangelist. He is also a leader in the charismatic movement and a powerful orator.
1939 – Ray Stevens, is an American country music and pop singer-songwriter known for his novelty songs as well as more serious works.
1941 – Neil Diamond, is one of pop music’s most enduring and successful singer-songwriters.
1943 – Sharon Tate, American actress and Manson murder victim (d. 1969)
1949 – John Belushi ( d. 1982) was an Emmy Award-winning American comedian, actor and musician, notable for his work on Saturday Night Live, National Lampoon’s Animal House, and The Blues Brothers.
1968 – Mary Lou Retton, is an American gymnast. She was the first female gymnast outside Eastern Europe to win the Olympic all-around title.
|*HANSON, ROBERT MURRAY
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 4 February 1920, Lucknow, India. Accredited to: Massachusetts. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Air Medal. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life and above and beyond the call of duty as fighter pilot attached to Marine Fighting Squadron 215 in action against enemy Japanese forces at Bougainville Island, 1 November 1943; and New Britain Island, 24 January 1944. Undeterred by fierce opposition, and fearless in the face of overwhelming odds, 1st Lt. Hanson fought the Japanese boldly and with daring aggressiveness. On 1 November, while flying cover for our landing operations at Empress Augusta Bay, he dauntlessly attacked 6 enemy torpedo bombers, forcing them to jettison their bombs and destroying 1 Japanese plane during the action. Cut off from his division while deep in enemy territory during a high cover flight over Simpson Harbor on 24 January, 1st Lt. Hanson waged a lone and gallant battle against hostile interceptors as they were orbiting to attack our bombers and, striking with devastating fury, brought down four Zeroes and probably a fifth. Handling his plane superbly in both pursuit and attack measures, he was a master of individual air combat, accounting for a total of twenty-five Japanese aircraft in this theater of war. His great personal valor and invincible fighting spirit were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
Rank and organization: Technician 4th Grade, U.S. Army, Medical Detachment, 161st Infantry, 25th Infantry Division . Place and date: Binalonan, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 18-24 January 1945. Entered service at: Ronan, Mont. Birth: Knox City, Mo. G.O. No.: 55, 13 July 1945. Citation: He was medical aid man with Company C during the fighting in Binalonan, Luzon, Philippine Islands. On the 18th, he observed two wounded men under enemy fire and immediately went to their rescue. After moving one to cover, he crossed twenty-five yards of open ground to administer aid to the second. In the early hours of the 24th, his company, crossing an open field near San Manuel, encountered intense enemy fire and was ordered to withdraw to the cover of a ditch. While treating the casualties, Technician Parrish observed two wounded still in the field. Without hesitation he left the ditch, crawled forward under enemy fire, and in two successive trips brought both men to safety. He next administered aid to twelve casualties in the same field, crossing and re-crossing the open area raked by hostile fire. Making successive trips, he then brought three wounded in to cover. After treating nearly all of the thirty-seven casualties suffered by his company, he was mortally wounded by mortar fire, and shortly after was killed. The indomitable spirit, intrepidity, and gallantry of Technician Parrish saved many lives at the cost of his own.
Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 April 1870, Germany. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 202, 6 April 1916. Citation: On board the U.S.S. New York, for entering a compartment filled with gases and rescuing a shipmate on 24 January1916.
On that day, a sanitary tank which collected runoff from the torpedo room, anchor chain locker, and anchor engine room was scheduled for a routine cleaning. The tank was inadequately ventilated, and the air inside was discovered to be too foul for men to enter. After allowing the empty tank to air out, the three-man cleaning crew was ordered to commence work. A hose was run to the tank from an ammunition handling room, of which Smith was in charge, and one sailor, Ordinary Seaman Peter J. Walsh, descended into the tank to begin cleaning. Walsh was quickly overcome by fumes and fell unconscious to the bottom of the chamber. His two companions rushed to the handling room where Smith was working and shut off the hose. While one of the men tried unsuccessfully to save Walsh, Smith gathered a rope and prepared to make his own rescue attempt.
Short and stocky, Smith struggled to fit his 192-pound frame through the small hatch into the tank. Making it through with great difficulty, he climbed to the bottom and tied the rope to Walsh’s limp body. While ascending out of the tank, he too was overcome by the noxious gases and was pulled through the hatch unconscious by his fellow sailors. Both Smith and Walsh were taken to sick bay and resuscitated by use of a Pulmotor device. An officer on the New York stated that “Smith not only saved the life of Walsh, who could not have been resuscitated if he had been allowed to remain any longer, but he took a very great risk of not being able to get back himself through the manhole on account of his being so stout.”
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 9th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Florida Mountains, N. Mex., 24 January 1877. Entered service at: Prince Georges County, Md. Birth: Madison County, Va. Date of issue: 26 June 1879. Citation: While part of a small detachment to persuade a band of renegade Apache Indians to surrender, his group was surrounded. Cpl. Greaves in the center of the savage hand-to-hand fighting, managed to shoot and bash a gap through the swarming Apaches, permitting his companions to break free .
New Madrid Earthquakes
It’s happened before 1811-1812
The geologic record of pre-1811 earthquakes reveals that the New Madrid seismic zone has repeatedly produced sequences of major earthquakes, including several of magnitude 7 to 8, over the past 4,500 years.
In the 1811-1812 sequence there were three very large earthquakes that are usually referred to as the New Madrid earthquakes, after the Missouri town that was the largest settlement on the Mississippi River between St. Louis, Missouri and Natchez, Mississippi. On the basis of the large area of damage (230,000 square miles), the widespread area of perceptibility (1.9 square miles), and the complex physical geographic changes that occurred, the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812 rank as some of the largest in the United States since its settlement by Europeans. They were by far the largest east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada. The area of strong shaking associated with these shocks is two to three times as large as that of the 1964 Alaska earthquake and 10 times as large as that of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. There were no seismographs in North America at that time, and very few people in the New Madrid region so the estimated magnitudes of this series of earthquakes vary considerably and depend on modern researchers’ interpretations of journals, newspaper reports, and other accounts of the ground shaking and damage. The magnitudes of the three principal earthquakes of 1811-1812 described below are the preferred values taken from research involved with producing the 2008 USGS National Seismic Hazard Map (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1128/).
The first principal earthquake, M7.7, occurred at about 2:15 am (local time) in northeast Arkansas on December 16, 1811. The second principal shock, M7.5, occurred in Missouri on January 23, 1812, and the third, M7.7, on February 7, 1812, along the Reelfoot fault in Missouri and Tennessee. The earthquake ground shaking was not limited to these principal main shocks, as there is evidence for a fairly robust aftershock sequence. The first and largest aftershock occurred on December 16, 1811 at about 7:15 am. At least three other large aftershocks are inferred from historical accounts on December 16 and 17. These three events are believed to range between M6.0 and 6.5 in size and to be located in Arkansas and Missouri. This would make a total of seven earthquakes of magnitude M6.0-7.7 occurring in the period December 16, 1811 through February 7, 1812. In total, Otto Nuttli reported more than 200 moderate to large aftershocks in the New Madrid region between December 16, 1811, and March 15, 1812: ten of these were greater than about 6.0; about one hundred were between M5.0 and 5.9; and eighty-nine were in the magnitude 4 range. Nuttli also noted that about eighteen hundred earthquakes of about M3.0 to 4.0 during the same period.
The first earthquake of December 16, 1811 caused only slight damage to man-made structures, mainly because of the sparse population at the epicenter. The extent of the area that experienced damaging earth motion, which produced Modified Mercalli Intensity greater than or equal to VII, is estimated to be 230,000 square miles. However, shaking strong enough to alarm the general population (intensity greater than or equal to V) occurred over an area of 2.5 million square kilometers.
The earthquakes caused the ground to rise and fall – bending the trees until their branches intertwined and opening deep cracks in the ground. Deep seated landslides occurred along the steeper bluffs and hillslides; large areas of land were uplifted permanently; and still larger areas sank and were covered with water that erupted through fissures or craterlets. Huge waves on the Mississippi River overwhelmed many boats and washed others high onto the shore. High banks caved and collapsed into the river; sand bars and points of islands gave way; whole islands disappeared. Surface fault rupturing from these earthquakes has not been detected and was not reported, however. The region most seriously affected was characterized by raised or sunken lands, fissures, sinks, sand blows, and large landslides that covered an area of 78,000 – 129,000 square kilometers, extending from Cairo, Illinois, to Memphis, Tennessee, and from Crowley’s Ridge in northeastern Arkansas to Chickasaw Bluffs, Tennessee. Only one life was lost in falling buildings at New Madrid, but chimneys were toppled and log cabins were thrown down as far distant as Cincinnati, Ohio, St. Louis, Missouri, and in many places in Kentucky, Missouri, and Tennessee.
The Lake County uplift, about 50 kilometers long and 23 kilometers wide, stands above the surrounding Mississippi River Valley by as much as 10 meters in parts of southwest Kentucky, southeast Missouri, and northwest Tennessee. The uplift apparently resulted from vertical movement along several, ancient, subsurface faults. Most of the uplift occurred during prehistoric earthquakes. A strong correlation exists between modern seismicity and the uplift, indicating that stresses that produced the uplift may still exist today.
Within the Lake County uplift, Tiptonville dome, which is about 14 kilometers in width and 11 kilometers in length, shows the largest upwarping and the highest topographic relief. It is bounded on the east by 3-m high Reelfoot scarp. Although most of Tiptonville dome formed between 200 and 2,000 years ago, additional uplifting deformed the northwest and southeast parts of the dome during the earthquakes of 1811-1812.
A notable area of subsidence that formed during the February 7, 1812, earthquake is Reelfoot Lake in Tennessee, just east of Tiptonville dome on the downdropped side of the Reelfoot scarp. Subsidence there ranged from 1.5 to 6 meters, although larger amounts were reported.
Other areas subsided by as much as 5 meters, although 1.5 to 2.5 meters was more common. Lake St. Francis, in eastern Arkansas, which was formed by subsidence during both prehistoric and the 1811-1812 earthquakes, is 64 kilometers long by 1 kilometer wide. Coal and sand were ejected from fissures in the swamp land adjacent to the St. Francis River, and the water level is reported to have risen there by 8 to 9 meters.
Large waves (seiches) were generated on the Mississippi River by seismically-induced ground motions deforming the riverbed. Local uplifts of the ground and water waves moving upstream gave the illusion that the river was flowing upstream. Ponds of water also were agitated noticeably.
History of the shocks
1811, December 16, 08:15 UTC Northeast Arkansas – the first main shock
2:15 am local time
This powerful earthquake was felt widely over the entire eastern United States. People were awakened by the shaking in New York City, Washington, D.C., and Charleston, South Carolina. Perceptible ground shaking was in the range of one to three minutes depending upon the observers location. The ground motions were described as most alarming and frightening in places like Nashville, Tennesse, and Louisville, Kentucky. Reports also describe houses and other structures being severely shaken with many chimneys knocked down. In the epicentral area the ground surface was described as in great convulsion with sand and water ejected ten or more feet into the air (liquefaction).
1811, December 16, 13:15 UTC Northeast Arkansas – the “Dawn” Aftershock
7:15 am local time
A large event felt on the East Coast that is sometimes regarded as the fourth principal earthquake of the 1811-1812 sequence. The event is described as “severe” at New Bourbon, Missouri, and was described by boatman John Bradbury, who was moored to a small island south of New Madrid, as “terrible, but not equal to the first”. Hough believes that this large aftershock occurred around dawn in the New Madrid region near the surface projection of the Reelfoot fault.
1812, January 23, 15:15 UTC, New Madrid, Missouri
9:15 am local time,
The second principal shock of the 1811-1812 sequence. It is difficult to assign intensities to the principal shocks that occurred after 1811 because many of the published accounts describe the cumulative effects of all the earthquakes and because the Ohio River was iced over, so there was little river traffic and fewer human observers. Using the December 16 earthquake as a standard, however, there is a general consensus that this earthquake was the smallest of the three principals. The area of maximum damage was characterized by general ground warping, ejections, fissuring, severe landslides, and caving of stream banks.
1812, February 7, 09:45 UTC, New Madrid, Missouri
3:45 am local time,
The third principal earthquake of the 1811-1812 series. Several destructive shocks occurred on February 7, the last of which equaled or surpassed the magnitude of any previous event. The town of New Madrid was destroyed. At St. Louis, many houses were damaged severely and their chimneys were thrown down. The maximum damage area was characterized by general ground warping, ejections, fissuring, severe landslides, and caving of stream banks.
Were this to occur today (2010), a magnitude 7.6 earthquake in the New Madrid Seismic Zone will cause major damage near the fault system in the Missouri Bootheel, northeast Arkansas and western Kentucky and Tennessee. Significant damage is expected to extend north of St. Louis up the Mississippi River valley, up the Ohio and Wabash River valleys to near Owensboro, Kentucky and Indianapolis, Indiana and down the Mississippi River valley to near Greenville, Mississippi. Significant damage is also expected in about 15 additional counties each in southern Illinois, western Kentucky and Tennessee, northeastern Arkansas and northwestern Mississippi and in about five counties in southeast Missouri outside the Bootheel.
“Treat everyone you meet as though they are the most important person you’ll meet that day.”
perfunctory pur-FUNGK-tuh-ree, adjective:
1. Done merely to carry out a duty; performed mechanically or routinely.
2.Lacking interest, care, or enthusiasm; indifferent.
393 – Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his nine year old son Honorius co-emperor.
1510 – Henry VIII of England, then 18 years old, appears incognito in the lists at Richmond, and is applauded for his jousting before he reveals his identity.
1556 – The deadliest earthquake in history, the Shaanxi earthquake, hits Shaanxi province, China. The death toll may have been as high as 830,000.
1571 – The Royal Exchange opens in London. It was founded by financier Thomas Gresham, and opened by Queen Elizabeth I.
1656 – Blaise Pascal publishes the first of his Lettres provinciales.
1775 – The Georgia Colony adopts a revised version of the Continental Association which mandates a nonimportation policy and a trade embargo against Britain to force a repeal of the Coercive Acts of 1774.
1789 – Georgetown College becomes the first Roman Catholic college in the United States in the city of Washington, D.C.
1812 – A 7.8 earthquake shakes New Madrid, Missouri
1845 – The U.S. Congress decided all national elections would be held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November.
1849 – Elizabeth Blackwell is awarded her M.D. by the Medical Institute of Geneva, New York, becoming the United States’ first female doctor.
1855 – The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, Minnesota, a crossing made today by the Father Louis Hennepin Bridge.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate General John Bell Hood is officially removed as commander of the Army of Tennessee.
1864 – Civil War: President Lincoln announced today a plan which would allow slaveowners in Union territory to manumit their slaves, then re-hire them as free laborers to get plantations and farms back into production.
1865 – Civil War: Battle of City Point, VA (James River, Trent’s Reach).
1870 – In Montana, U.S. cavalrymen kill 173 Native Americans, mostly women and children, in the Marias Massacre. Colonel Eugene Baker orders his men to attack a sleeping camp of peaceful Blackfeet along the Marias River in northern Montana.
1897 – Elva Zona Heaster is found dead in Greenbrier County, West Virginia. The resulting murder trial of her husband is perhaps the only case in United States history where the alleged testimony of a ghost helped secure a conviction.
1907 – Charles Curtis of Kansas becomes the first Native American U.S. Senator. He resigned in March of 1929 to become U.S. President Herbert Hoover’s Vice President.
1909 – First radio rescue at sea. Jack Binns transmitted the Morse code distress signal of the day, CQD (“seek you;” the D stood for urgent).
1922 – The first successful test of insulin on a human patient with diabetes occurred when a second dose of insulin was administered to dangerously ill Leonard Thompson (14).
1932 – New York Gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt announced his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination.
1937 – The Ohio River crests at 72.7′ during the flood of this year. It was the highest recorded up to that time. All construction done after this date had to take into account “1937 Highwater”.
1941 – Charles Lindbergh testifies before the U.S. Congress and recommends that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Adolf Hitler.
1941 – The play, “Lady in the Dark” premiered.
1941 – Ground breaking for NACA (now NASA) Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, OH.
1943 – World War II: British forces capture Tripoli in Libya from the Nazis.
1943 – World War II: HOLOCAUST: Jewish-led Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
1943 – World War II: Australian and American forces finally defeat the Japanese army in Papua. This turning point in the Pacific War marks the beginning of the end of Japanese aggression.
1943 – World War II: On Guadalcanal, American forces begin to make rapid gains because of the Japanese withdrawal toward the Cape Esperance positions. The Americans fail to realize the significance.
1943 – Duke Ellington plays at Carnegie Hall in New York City for the first time.
1944 – World War II: There are approximately 50,000 Allied troops concentrated in the Anzio beachhead.
1945 – World War II: St. Vith falls to the attack of tank units from US 18th Corps. The German forces are falling back over the River Our from throughout the Ardennes salient but are losing heavily to Allied air attacks.
1950 – NFL rule changes open way for 2-platoon system (offense & defense).
1950 – The Knesset passes a resolution that states Jerusalem is the capital of Israel.
1951 – Korean War: Thirty-three F-84s of the U.S. Air Force’s 27th Fighter-Escort Wing engaged 30 MiG-15s in a dogfight over the skies of Sinuiju.
1951 – Korean War: U.S. First Marine Division elements attacked guerrilla concentrations in the vicinity of Andong.
1951 – President Truman created the Commission on Internal Security and Individual Rights, to monitor the anti-Communist campaign.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tennessee Waltz” by Patti Page, “The Thing” by Phil Harris, “A Bushel and a Peck” by Perry Como & Betty Hutton and “The Shot Gun Boogie” by Tennessee Ernie Ford all topped the charts.
1953 – NFL Dallas Texans become Baltimore Colts (now Indianapolis Colts).
1954 – “Oh! My Papa” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes” by The Platters, “My Happiness” by Connie Francis, “Donna” by Ritchie Valens and “Billy Bayou” by Jim Reeves all top the charts.
1960 – The bathyscaphe USS Trieste breaks a depth record by descending to 35,798 feet (6.8 miles) in the Pacific Ocean.
1961 – In Times Film Corp. v. Chicago, the city’s censorship code was once again contested and upheld. The United States Supreme Court ruled that municipal censors could screen and, therefore, prevent a movie from being shown if it was found “obscene.”
1962 – Jackie Robinson became the first Black elected to Baseball Hall of Fame.
1964 – The 24th Amendment to the United States Constitution, prohibiting the use of poll taxes in national elections, is ratified.
1965 – “Downtown” by Petula Clark topped the charts.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m a Believer” by The Monkees, “Tell It Like It Is” by Aaron Neville, “Georgy Girl” by The Seekers and “There Goes My Everything” by Jack Greene.
1968 – A sub-chaser accosted the Pueblo and demanded to know its identity. In response, Commanding Officer Lloyd M. Bucher ordered that the U.S. flag be raised. The North Korean vessel then ordered the ship to stand down or be fired upon. North Korea seizes the USS Pueblo, claiming the ship had violated their territorial waters while spying. The crew was released 11 months later.
1969 – NASA unveiled a moon-landing craft.
1971 – Alaska sets the lowest temperature ever recorded in both Alaska and the US at -80oF in Prospect Creek Camp.
1971 – “Knock Three Times” by Dawn topped the charts.
1973 – President Richard Nixon announces that a peace accord has been reached in Vietnam.
1975 – “Barney Miller” premiered on ABC with James Gregory (d.2002 at 90) as Inspector Luger. The series ended in 1982 after 172 episodes.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mandy” by Barry Manilow, “Please Mr. Postman” by the Carpenters, “Laughter in the Rain” by Neil Sedaka and “Kentucky Gambler” by Merle Haggard all top the charts.
1977 – The TV mini-series “Roots,” began airing on ABC. The show was based on the Alex Haley novel.
1979 – Willie Mays, former outfielder for the SF Giants, was elected to baseball’s Hall of Fame.
1980 – President Jimmy Carter made his State of the Union address. His new American policy came to be known as the “Carter Doctrine.” It was a pledge to defend US interests in the Persian Gulf, using military force if necessary.
1983 – “The A-Team” debuted on TV.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Down Under” by Men at Work, “The Girl is Mine” by Michael Jackson /Paul McCartney, “Dirty Laundry” by Don Henley and “(Lost His Love) On Our Last Date” by Emmylou Harris all topped the charts.
1985 – O.J. Simpson becomes the first Heisman Trophy winner elected to the Football Hall of Fame.
1986 – U.S. began maneuvers off the Libyan coast. Following Libyan involvement in murderous attacks at the El Al counters at the Vienna and Rome airports in 1985, and after a considerable portion of Libya’s involvement in international terrorism had become public knowledge
1986 – The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducts its first members: Chuck Berry, James Brown, Ray Charles, Fats Domino, the Everly Brothers, Buddy Holly, Jerry Lee Lewis and Elvis Presley.
1991 – “Seinfeld” debuts on NBC-TV.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Will Never Do (Without You)” by Janet Jackson, “The First Time” by Surface, “Sensitivity” by Ralph Tresvant and “Unanswered Prayers” by Garth Brooks all top the charts.
1991 – Iraq War: Iraqi military forces deliberately create a huge oil spill in the Persian Gulf, the largest oil spill on record. U.S. officials term the spill an act of “environmental terrorism.”
1995 – The US Supreme Court ruled that companies accused of firing employees illegally could not escape liability by later finding a lawful reason to justify the dismissal.
1996 – The first version of the Java programming language was released.
1996 – The US Army disclosed that it had 30,000 tons of chemical weapons stored in Utah, Alabama, Maryland, Kentucky, Indiana, Arkansas, Colorado and Oregon.
1996 – Sandra Jensen became the first person with Down syndrome to receive a new heart and lung transplant. The surgery was done at Stanford Univ.
1997 – Madeleine Albright becomes the first woman to serve as United States Secretary of State.
1997 – A judge in Fairfax, VA, sentenced Mir Aimal Kasi to death for an assault rifle attack outside the CIA headquarters in 1993 that killed two men and wounded three other people.
1999 – Clinton impeachment: Chief Judge Norma Holloway ordered Monica Lewinsky to submit to questioning from House Republican managers or Kenneth Starr.
2002 – “American Taliban” John Walker Lindh returns to the United States in FBI custody. Lindh was charged with conspiring to kill U.S. citizens, providing support to terrorists and engaging in prohibited transactions with the Taliban while a member of the al-Quaida terrorist organization in Afghanistan.
2002 – Reporter Daniel Pearl was kidnapped in Karachi, Pakistan. He was subsequently murdered .
2003 - Fast food restaurant chain McDonald’s reports a quarterly loss for the first time. The loss amounted to US$344 million. Shares in the company fell around 3% on the news.
2003 – Final communication between Earth and Pioneer 10 .
2003 – North Korea announced that it would consider sanctions an act of war for their reinstatement of its nuclear program.
2004 - NASA’s Spirit rover communicated with Earth in a signal detected by NASA’s Deep Space Network antenna complex near Madrid, Spain, at 12:34 Universal Time (4:34 am PST) this morning.
2005 – The Philadelphia Eagles defeated the Atlanta Falcons 27-10 to win the NFC championship game; the New England Patriots won the AFC championship by beating the Pittsburgh Steelers, 41-27. The Superbowl will be played on February 6th.
2005 – Johnny Carson (b.1925), the 30-year host of the “Tonight Show,” died. Carson’s death was the result of complications from emphysema.
2005 - The U.S. military is planning to deploy remote-controlled robots armed with machine guns and night vision to combat insurgents in Iraq.
2006 – West Virginia lawmakers passed a bill requiring mines to use electronic devices to track trapped miners and to stockpile oxygen to help keep them alive.
2006 - Ford Motor Company announces plans to close 14 plants and cut up to 30,000 jobs (25% of its workforce) by 2012.
2007 - President George W. Bush delivers the 2007 State of the Union Address, in which he remains steadfast to his Iraq policies, but also reaches out to political opponents by proposing environmental and social reforms.
2008 – The US Congressional Budget Office estimated that the deficit for the current budget year will jump to about $250 billion, citing the weakening economy. This figure does not reflect at least $100 billion in red ink from an economic stimulus measure in the works.
2008 - Scaled Composites SpaceShipTwo, being built for Virgin Galactic to become the world’s first commercial spacecraft, is unveiled, and will begin test flights in mid-2008.
2009 - The number of unique Internet users reached one billion in December 2008.
2009 – President Barack Obama struck down the Bush administration’s “global gag rule,” a ban on giving federal money to international groups that perform abortions or provide abortion information.
2010 - The American Civil Liberties Union condemns a U.S. Justice Department report that suggested 47 Guantánamo Bay detainees should be held indefinitely without trial.
2010 - A strong weather system leaves damage in California and Arizona after producing flooding rains, strong winds, and a rare outbreak of tornadoes in the region.
2011 – The mystery is over. In the Conference Championship football games today, Pittsburgh Steelers beat New York Jets 24-19 to win AFC championship game and the Green Bay Packers beat Chicago Bears 21-14 to win NFC championship game. The Superbowl will be played on February 6th.
2011 – Lance Armstrong ends his international cycling career after a final race in Australia.
2013 - 80-year-old Petula Clark, of “Downtown” fame, releases surprisingly awesome new song, “Cut Copy Me.”
2013 - Singer Alex Sparrow is seriously injured and in intensive care in Los Angeles,CA, after a high speed car crash.
2013 - The US Armed Forces overturns its ban on women serving in combat, reversing a 1994 rule, and potentially clearing the way for women to serve in front-line units and elite commando forces.
1737 – John Hancock, American statesman (d. 1793) He is perhaps most famous for his prominent signature on the Declaration of Independence.
1855 – John Moses Browning, American inventor (d. 1926) was an American firearms designer who developed many varieties of firearms, cartridges, and gun mechanisms, many of which are still in use around the world.
1884 – Ralph DePalma, (d. 1956) was an Italian-American racecar driving champion, most notably winner of the 1915 Indianapolis 500.
1897 – Sir William Samuel Stephenson, was a Canadian soldier, airman, businessperson, inventor, spymaster, and the senior representative of British intelligence for the entire western hemisphere during World War II.
1898 - Randolph Scott, American actor (d. 1987)
1907 - Dan Duryea, American actor (d. 1968)
1913 - Wally Parks, American businessman, founded the National Hot Rod Association (d. 2007)
1915 – Potter Stewart, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1985)
1916 – David Douglas Duncan is an American photojournalist and among the most influential photographers of the 20th century. He is best known for his dramatic combat photographs.
1919 – Ernie Kovacs, was an American comedian whose uninhibited, often ad-libbed, and visually experimental comic style came to influence numerous television comedy programs for years after his early death in an automobile accident. (d. 1962)
1936 – Bob Moses, American educator and 1960s Civil Rights Movement activist
1940 – Johnny Russell was an American country singer, songwriter, and comedian famous for his song Act Naturally, which was made famous by Buck Owens, who recorded it in 1963, and The Beatles in 1965. (d. 2001)
1943 – Gil Gerard is an American actor. He is most famous for his role as Captain William “Buck” Rogers in the 1979-1981 television series Buck Rogers in the 25th Century.
1950 – Richard Dean Anderson is an American television actor. He played the title character in the television series MacGyver and, more recently, Jack O’Neill in Stargate SG-1.
1951 - Chesley Sullenberger, American pilot and captain.
1974 - Tiffani Thiessen, American actress
|FOSS, JOSEPH JACOB
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Marine Fighting Squadron 121, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. Place and date: Over Guadalcanal, 9 October to 19 November 1942, 15 and 23 January 1943. Entered service at: South Dakota. Born: 17 April 1 915, Sioux Falls, S. Dak. Citation: For outstanding heroism and courage above and beyond the call of duty as executive officer of Marine Fighting Squadron 121, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, at Guadalcanal. Engaging in almost daily combat with the enemy from 9 October to 19 November 1942, Capt. Foss personally shot down twenty-three Japanese planes and damaged others so severely that their destruction was extremely probable. In addition, during this period, he successfully led a large number of escort missions, skillfully covering reconnaissance, bombing, and photographic planes as well as surface craft. On 15 January 1943, he added three more enemy planes to his already brilliant successes for a record of aerial combat achievement unsurpassed in this war. Boldly searching out an approaching enemy force on 25 January, Capt. Foss led his eight F-4F Marine planes and four Army P-38′s into action and, undaunted by tremendously superior numbers, intercepted and struck with such force that four Japanese fighters were shot down and the bombers were turned back without releasing a single bomb. His remarkable flying skill, inspiring leadership, and indomitable fighting spirit were distinctive factors in the defense of strategic American positions on Guadalcanal.
|HAMILTON, PIERPONT M.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date: Near Port Lyautey, French Morocco, 8 November 1942. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 3 August 1898, Tuxedo Park, N.Y. G.O. No.: 4, 23 January 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty. On 8 November 1942, near Port Lyautey, French Morocco, Lt. Col. Hamilton volunteered to accompany Col. Demas Craw on a dangerous mission to the French commander, designed to bring about a cessation of hostilities. Driven away from the mouth of the Sebou River by heavy shelling from all sides, the landing boat was finally beached at Mehdia Plage despite continuous machinegun fire from three low-flying hostile planes. Driven in a light truck toward French headquarters, this courageous mission encountered intermittent firing, and as it neared Port Lyautey a heavy burst of machinegun fire was delivered upon the truck from pointblank range, killing Col. Craw instantly. Although captured immediately, after this incident, Lt. Col. Hamilton completed the mission .
Rank and organization: Master Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 302d Infantry, 94th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Tettington, Germany, 23 January 1945. Entered service at: Bayonne, N.J. Birth: Bayonne, N.J. G.O. No.: 95, 30 October 1945. Citation: M/Sgt. Oresko was a platoon leader with Company C, in an attack against strong enemy positions. Deadly automatic fire from the flanks pinned down his unit. Realizing that a machinegun in a nearby bunker must be eliminated, he swiftly worked ahead alone, braving bullets which struck about him, until close enough to throw a grenade into the German position. He rushed the bunker and, with pointblank rifle fire, killed all the hostile occupants who survived the grenade blast. Another machinegun opened up on him, knocking him down and seriously wounding him in the hip. Refusing to withdraw from the battle, he placed himself at the head of his platoon to continue the assault. As withering machinegun and rifle fire swept the area, he struck out alone in advance of his men to a second bunker. With a grenade, he crippled the dug-in machinegun defending this position and then wiped out the troops manning it with his rifle, completing his second self-imposed, one-man attack. Although weak from loss of blood, he refused to be evacuated until assured the mission was successfully accomplished. Through quick thinking, indomitable courage, and unswerving devotion to the attack in the face of bitter resistance and while wounded, M /Sgt. Oresko killed twelve Germans, prevented a delay in the assault, and made it possible for Company C to obtain its objective with minimum casualties.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1848, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Kearsarge at Shanghai, China, 23 January 1875. Displaying gallant conduct, Dempsey jumped overboard from the Kearsarge and rescued from drowning one of the crew of that vessel.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1858 New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S. Training Ship Portsmouth, at the Washington Navy Yard, 23 January 1882, and endeavoring to rescue Thomas Duncan, carpenter and caulker, who had fallen overboard.
Answer Your Cats Questions Day
Celebration of Life Day
ARMY CHAPLAINCY – PART II
The history of the Chaplaincy from this time on is full of uncertainties. Chaplains were omitted from the Act to Ascertain and Fix the Military Establishment of the United States, approved 30 May 1796. But two years later provision was made for four chaplains. Each was to receive the pay and privileges of a major. In spite of this, when detailed rosters were drawn up by Lieutenant General George Washington and Inspector General Alexander Hamilton for a Provisional Army for a possible war with France, no chaplains were included. Washington may have assumed that each brigadier general would nominate the chaplain authorized by Congress. The story from 1799 to the War of 1812 is almost a blank except for an act of 12 April 1808 authorizing brigade chaplains. The War Department records were destroyed in 1814 when the British burned Washington, D.C. In 1856, the Adjutant General could find no list of chaplains prior to 2 April 1813.
The names of only eleven Regular Army chaplains who served in the War of 1812 have survived. Militia regiments, though, were usually accompanied by chaplains. Chaplain James J. Wilmer of Maryland is the only chaplain known to have died in service during this war. In a law passed on January l8l3, Congress provided for one chaplain for each brigade, with the pay and privileges of a major of infantry. By an act of 18 April 1814, provision was made for regimental chaplains with the pay of a captain of infantry. No names of Roman Catholic chaplains have been found in the records of this war, although Roman Catholic historians assume that priests were present on the battlefield of New Orleans.
Army reorganization after the war retained four chaplains. Brigade chaplains were authorized in 1816, but this act was repealed two years later, and the four active duty chaplains were honorably discharged. Between 1818 and 1838 there seems to have been no provision for brigade or regimental chaplains. Chaplains continued to serve the military, but primarily with state militias. The Act for Regulating the Staff of the Army approved 14 April 1818, permitted “one chaplain, stationed at the Military Academy at West Point, who shall also be Professor of Geography, History, and Ethics, with the pay and emoluments allowed the Professor of Mathematics.” There had been at least one Regular Army chaplain stationed at the Academy since the appointment of Adam Empie as Chaplain and Professor of Ethics on 9 August 1813. For the next 20 years (1818-1838) the West Point chaplain was the only chaplain in the Regular Army.
The Civil War was the most significant historical event affecting nineteenth century America, very much as the Revolution was in the eighteenth century. And just as the Revolution saw the involvement of the chaplain, so did the CIVIL WAR; but on a scale that dwarfed that of 1776. The size of the Civil War was of such a magnitude, and the destruction so great, that the conflict has been justly called the first modern war.
Civil War chaplains fell into three general categories: regimental, post, and hospital. The 30 post chaplain positions mentioned earlier still existed, although with added war duties. The greatest influx of chaplains came with the calling up of troops from the States. According to the old militia laws, each regiment was to have a chaplain. On 22 July 1861, when 500,000 volunteers were called to the colors, there was a clear need for more chaplains. Appointment was vested in the regimental commander on a vote of the field officers and company commanders. A chaplain had to be a regularly ordained minister of a Christian denomination and received the pay and allowances of a captain of cavalry.For almost four years huge volunteer armies of citizen-soldies grappled with each other in a series of campaigns and battles over a vast geographical area. Governors, regimental or post officers, and the Federal authorities appointed an estimated 3000 chaplains to the Union forces. The names of slightly over 2300 of these chaplains are known to us. This was the largest number of chaplains serving at any one time in the listed 1079 on active duty. There were 930 regimental chaplains, 117 hospital chaplains, and 32 post chaplains. Sixty-six chaplains died in the service of their country during this conflict, including Chaplain U.P. Gardner of the 13th Kansas Infantry who, after identifying himself as a chaplain, was shot down by a member of Quantrell’s guerrilla raiders on 22 November 1864, in the Cherokee country. The raider was a 17-year-old by the name of Jesse James. On the Confederate side existing army records are also incomplete as to the number of chaplains, but somewhere between 600 and 1000 served in that capacity. We know the names of 25 Confederate chaplains who died in the war.
By the act of 3 August 1861, regimental chaplains were provided for the Regular Army. These were to be “regularly ordained ministers of some Christian denomination and were to be selected and appointed as the President may direct.” The qualification section was changed on 17 July 1862, to read:
That no person shall be appointed a chaplain in the United States Army who is not a regularly ordained minister of some religious denomination, and who does not present testimonials of his good standing as such minister, with a recommendation of his appointment as an Army chaplain from some authorized ecclesiastical body, or not less than five accredited ministers belonging to said religious denomination.
This change was brought about as a result of a request made to President Lincoln by the Board of Delegates of American Israelites to make provisions for Jewish chaplains. The manner of appointing and commissioning chaplains in the volunteer regiments varied widely, and many served without commissions. Most states provided for commissioning by the Governor, using the same form of commission as that given to chaplains. Wisconsin and Rhode Island commissioned some but not others. New Hampshire gave a commission for the chaplain to hold office at the discretion of the colonel of the regiment.
“Your purpose explains what you are doing with your life. Your vision explains how you are living your purpose. Your goals enable you to realize your vision.”
~ Bob Proctor
Previse (pri-VYZ) verb tr.
To foresee or to forewarn.[From Latin praevisus, past participle of praevidere (to foresee), from pre- (before) + videre (to see). Ultimately from the Indo-European root weid- (to see) that is the source of words such as wise, view, supervise,
1506 – The Swiss Guard mercenaries, summoned by Pope Julius II to protect the pope and the Vatican, arrived in Rome.
1510 – Jews are expelled from Colmar Germany.
1673 – Postal service between New York & Boston inaugurated
1690 – At Onandaga, New York, the Iroquois Nation renews its allegiance to the English crown.
1775 – Marshal Oscar von Lubomirski expelled Jews from Warsaw, Poland.
1807 – President Thomas Jefferson exposed a plot by Aaron Burr to form a new republic in the Southwest.
1813 – War of 1812: British forces under Henry Proctor along with Indian allies under Tecumseh defeated a U.S. contingent planning an attack on Fort Detroit.
1813 – War of 1812: A combined British and Indian force attacked an American militia retreating from Detroit near Frenchtown, later known as Monroe, Mich. Only 33 men of some 700 men escaped the battle of the River Raisin. Over 400 Kentucky frontiersmen were killed.
1814 – The first Knights Templar grand encampment in US held in New York City.
1831 – Charles Darwin takes his Bachelors of Art exam
1850 – Alta California becomes a daily paper. It is the first one in California.
1857 – National Association of Baseball Players founded, NY
1862 – Civil War: Confederate government raised the premium for volunteers from $10 to $20.
1863 – Civil War: attempting to outflank Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, General Ambrose Burnside led his army on a march north to Fredericksburg, but foul weather bogged his army down in what became known as “Mud March.”
1879 – James Shields began a term as a U.S. Senator from Missouri. He had previously served Illinois and Minnesota. He was the first Senator to serve three states.
1881 – Ancient Egyptian obelisk “Cleopatra’s Needle” erected in Central Park.
1889 – Columbia Phonograph was formed in Washington, D.C.
1890 – The United Mine Workers of America was founded in Columbus, Ohio.
1895 – “Lifebuoy” soap was trademark registered
1895 – The threat of the much-dreaded and socially unacceptable B.O. (body odor) is coined.
1895 – The National Association of Manufacturers was organized in Cincinnati, OH.
1906 - SS Valencia runs aground on rocks on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, killing more than 130. She was an iron-hulled passenger steamer that served the California–Alaska route. She was not equipped with a double bottom and, like other early iron steamers, her hull compartmentalization was primitive.
1907 – The Richard Strauss opera “Salome” made its American debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York; its racy content (including the Dance of the Seven Veils) sparked outrage.
1908 – Katie Mulcahey became the first woman to go to jail for violating the new Sullivan Act in New York. She spent a night in jail because she could not pay the $5 fine.
1917 – World War I: President Woodrow Wilson calls for “peace without victory” in Europe.
1924 – KGO-AM in San Francisco CA begins radio transmissions..
1931 – Clyde McCoy and his orchestra recorded “Sugar Blues“. The tune became McCoy’s theme song,
1934 – In Tucson, Arizona, a fire broke out at the Hotel Congress, where members of the Dillinger gang were staying. Firefighters salvaged baggage belonging to the gang and the next day one of the firefighters spotted one the gang’s mug shots in an issue of True Detective magazine. Within a few days five members of the Dillinger gang were arrested including John Dillinger and girlfriend Evelyn Frechette.
1938 – “Our Town,” by Thornton Wilder, was performed publicly for the first time, in Princeton, NJ.
1939 – Aquatic Park, near Fisherman’s Wharf, San Francisco, is dedicated
1939 – Uranium atom first split, Columbia University
1941 – World War II: The United Kingdom captures Tobruk from Nazi forces.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: First mass killing of Jews in Romania.
1944 – World War II: The Allies commence Operation Shingle which was an amphibious assault on Anzio, Italy under the command Major General John P. Lucas.
1946 – Creation of the Central Intelligence Group, forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency.
1947 – KTLA, the first commercial television station west of the Mississippi River, begins operation in Hollywood, California.
1949 – Police broke into Rm. 203 of the Mark Twain Hotel in San Francisco and arrested Billie Holiday (1915-1959) and her manager, John Levy, on charges of possession of opium.
1949 – James Robert Gladden becomes first African American certified in orthopedic surgery.
1949 – “A Little Bird Told Me” by Evelyn Knight topped the charts
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dear Hearts and Gentle People” by Dinah Shore, “A Dreamer’s Holiday” by Perry Como, “The Old Master Painter” by Snooky Lanson and “Chattanoogie Shoe Shine Boy” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1951 – Fidel Castro was ejected from a Winter League baseball game after hitting a batter. He later gave up baseball for politics.
1953 – The Arthur Miller drama “The Crucible” opened on Broadway.
1956 – Raymond Burr starred as Captain Lee Quince in the “Fort Laramie” debut on CBS radio.
1957 – The New York City “Mad Bomber,” George P. Metesky, was arrested in Waterbury, Connecticut and was charged with planting more than 30 bombs.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “At the Hop” by Danny & The Juniors, “Oh, Boy!” by The Crickets, “Don’t/I Beg of You” by Elvis Presley and “Great Balls of Fire” by Jerry Lee Lewis all topped the charts.
1959 - In the Knox Mine Disaster, water breaches the River Slope Mine near Pittston City, Pennsylvania in Port Griffith; 12 miners are killed.
1959 – Buddy Holly made his last recordings alone with an acoustic guitar and tape recorder. The songs were released posthumously.
1959 – The Adolph Coors Co. of Golden, Colombia, introduced the aluminum beer can.
1960 – Paul Pender beats Sugar Ray Robinson for middleweight boxing title
1961 – Wilma Rudolph, set a world indoor record in the women’s 60-yard dash. She ran the race in 6.9 seconds.
1962 – Gene Chandler made his TV debut on “American Bandstand.”
1962 – The Organization of American States suspends Cuba’s membership.
1962 – Cleveland Indians pitcher Bob Feller was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, NY.
1963 – The Drifters recorded “On Broadway.”
1963 – Gerry & the Pacemakers held their first recording session. They produced “Away from You” and “Pretend.”
1964 – World’s largest cheese (15,723 kg) manufactured, Wisconsin
1966 – The Beach Boys recorded “Wouldn’t It Be Nice“.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Sounds of Silence” by Simon & Garfunkel, “We Can Work It Out” by The Beatles, “No Matter What Shape (Your Stomach’s In)” by The T-Bones and “Giddyup Go” by Red Sovine all topped the charts.
1968 – “Rowan & Martin’s Laugh-In”, debuted on NBC TV “from beautiful downtown Burbank”. The weekly show used 260 pages of jokes in each hour-long episode.
1968 – Apollo 5 launched to Moon; unmanned lunar module tests made.
1968 – NBA announces it will expand to Milwaukee & Phoenix.
1968 – Vietnam War: Operation Igloo White, a US electronic surveillance system to stop communist infiltration into South Vietnam begins installation.
1969 – Roy Campanella & Stan Musial elected to baseball Hall of Fame
1970 – The first regularly scheduled commercial flight of the Boeing 747 began in New York City and ended in London about 6 1/2 hours later.
1972 – The TV series “Emergency” premiered on NBC with Julie London and Bobby Troup. It ran until 1977.
1972 – “American Pie” by Don McLean topped the charts.
1973 – The Supreme Court in a 7-2 ruling handed down its Roe vs. Wade decision, which legalized abortion, using a trimester approach. The court ruled that a woman’s right to privacy encompasses her decision to terminate a pregnancy. Since this decision 55, 000, 000 Americans have been murdered.
1973 – Joe Frazier lost the first fight of his professional career to George Foreman. Hehad been the undefeated heavyweight world champion since February 16, 1970 when he knocked out Jimmy Ellis.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Show and Tell” by Al Wilson, “Smokin’ in the Boys Room” by Brownsville Station, “I’ve Got to Use My Imagination” by Gladys Knight & The Pips, “I Love” by Tom T. Hall all topped the charts.
1975 – The US Supreme Court in the Goss vs. Lopez case ruled that students had the right to due process, informal hearings were considered sufficient, when threatened with suspension of more than 10 days.
1977 – “I Wish” by Stevie Wonder topped the charts.
1980 – Andrei Sakharov is arrested in Moscow.
1980 – PGA begins a senior golf tour.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Physical” by Olivia Newton-John, “Waiting for a Girl Like You” by Foreigner, “Centerfold” BY The J. Geils Band and “I Wouldn’t Have Missed It for the World” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1983 – The Steven Spielberg film, “E.T.: The Extra Terrestrial“, became the top movie moneymaker.
1983 – Bjorn Borg retired from tennis. He had set a record by winning 5 consecutive Wimbledon championships.
1983 – “Down Under” by Men At Work topped the charts.
1984 – The Apple Macintosh, the first consumer computer to popularize the computer mouse and the graphical user interface, was introduced during Super Bowl XVIII with its famous “1984″ television commercial.
1984 – Super Bowl XVIII: The game was played between the Los Angeles Raiders 38 and the Washington Redskins 9 .The head coaches were Tom Flores for Los Angeles and Joe Gibbs for Washington. The game was played in the Tampa Stadium in Tampa, FL and the MVP was Marcus Allen. Barry Manilow sang the U.S. national anthem. Tickets were $60.
1985 – A cold wave damaged 90% of Florida’s citrus crop.
1987 – Pennsylvania State Treasurer R. Budd Dwyer shoots and kills himself at a press conference on live national television, leading to debates on boundaries in journalism.
1988 – Mike Tyson TKOs Larry Holmes in four rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.
1988 – A US federal appeals court ruled that court appointment of independent counsels to investigate allegations of wrongdoing by high-ranking government officials was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court upheld the law the following June.
1989 – Clarence Willi Norris, last surviving member of the Scottsboro Boys, died at age 76 while a patient at the Bronx Community Hospital.
1989 – Super Bowl XXIII was played between the San Francisco 49ers and the Cincinnati Bengals. The 49ers won with a final score of 20-16. The head coaches were Bill Walsh for San Francisco and Sam Wyche for Cincinnati. The game was played at Joe Robbie Stadium in Miami, FL before 75,129 fans and the MVP was Jerry Rice, San Francisco wide receiver. The Referee was Jerry Seeman. Face Value Tickets were $100.00. This was The 49ers third Super Bowl win. Some said the Bengals lost “the best Super Bowl ever played.”
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “How Am I Supposed to Live Without You” by Michael Bolton, “Pump Up the Jam” by Technotronic featuring Felly, “Everything” by Jody Watley, “Nobody’s Home” by Clint Black all topped the charts.
1990 – Robert Tappan Morris, Jr. is convicted of releasing the 1988 Internet worm. The Internet or Morris worm was one of the first computer worms distributed via the Internet; it is considered the first worm and was the first to gain mainstream media attention. It also resulted in the first conviction in the US under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. It was released from MIT on November 22, 1988.
1991 – Gulf War. Three SCUDs and one Patriot missile hit Ramat Gan in Israel, injuring 96 people. Three elderly people die of heart attacks.
1992 – Space Shuttle program: STS-42 Mission – Dr. Roberta Bondar becomes the first Canadian woman in space.
1992 – President Bush named Andrew H. Card Jr. to be transportation secretary.
1994 – “Schindler’s List,” Steven Spielberg’s drama about the Holocaust, won Golden Globes for best dramatic picture and best director.
1995 – The Macedonia Baptist Church in Manning, S.C., burned down. Four Klansmen were later arrested and convicted.
1995 – Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy died at the family compound in Hyannis Port, Mass., at age 104.
1996 – Clinton declared Pennsylvania a disaster area after floods on the Susquehanna and other rivers killed eight and forced 100,000 people to leave their homes.
1997 – The U.S. Senate confirmed Madeleine Albright as the first female secretary of state.
1997 – Space Shuttle Atlantis returns to earth successfully.
1997 – American Lottie Williams was reportedly the first human to be struck by a remnant of a space vehicle after re-entering the earth’s atmosphere. At 3 a.m., while walking in a park in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
1997 – A jury in Florida ruled that Owens-Corning Fiberglass Co. must pay $31 million to a Mississippi man dying of cancer from exposure to asbestos.
1998 – Theodore Kaczynski plead guilty to federal charges for his role as the Unabomber. He agreed to life in prison without parole.
1999 – Sen. Robert C. Byrd, D-WVa, abruptly called for dismissal of charges against President Clinton to “end this sad and sorry time for our country.”
2000 – Elian Gonzalez’s grandmothers met privately with U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno as they appealed for help in removing the boy from his Florida relatives and reuniting him with his father in Cuba.
2001 – Lawyers suing Enron Corp. asked a court to prevent further shredding of documents due to the pending federal investigation.
2001 – Acting on a tip, authorities captured four of the “Texas 7″ in Woodland Park, CO, at a convenience store. A fifth convict killed himself inside a motor home.
2002 – Pres. Bush banned US funding for overseas abortion counseling.
2002 – Kmart Corporation becomes the largest retailer in United States history to file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.
2002 – Amazon.com announced that it had posted its first net profit in the fourth quarter (quarter ending December 31, 2001).
2002 – AOL Time Warner filed suit against Microsoft in federal court seeking damages for harm done to AOL’s Netscape Internet Browser when Microsoft began giving away its competing browser.
2003 – Last successful contact with the spacecraft Pioneer 10, one of the most distant man-made objects.
2003 - A large Arctic air mass over much of central North America brings severe cold and wind chill over much the northern United States for several days.
2003 – Bill Maudlin (b.1921), WW-II era cartoonist, died in Newport Beach, Ca. In 1945 he won a Pulitzer Prize for his war cartoons and later authored “Up Front,” a collection of cartoons and an essay on war.
2004 - Mars Exploration Rover Mission: MER-A Spirit rover stops transmitting meaningful data and has thought to have gone into safe mode. The cause of this is unknown but the rover is still able to send back a simple acknowledgement tone.
2005 - The Washington Post alleges that the Pentagon is running a military organization known as the Strategic Support Branch which is under the direct control of U.S. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld. Allegedly it is used to bypass the limitations of working with the Central Intelligence Agency.
2005 - U.S. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld cancels his attendance at the Munich Security Conference in February due to a war crimes investigation filed against him in Germany by the New York-based Center for Constitutional Rights in connection with detainee abuses at Iraq’s Abu Ghraib prison.
2006 - Kobe Bryant scores 81 points against the Toronto Raptors, the second highest in NBA history, next to Wilt Chamberlain’s 100.
2007 – The US Supreme Court struck down a California sentencing law because it allowed judges to add years to a prison term based on their own fact finding. The court said juries must rule on any evidence used to justify longer prison terms.
2007 – Federal officials had arrested 119 people in Contra Costa County, Ca., in a weeklong immigration crackdown that was part of “Operation Return to Sender.”
2008 - Former Tennessee Senator Fred Thompson withdraws his candidacy from the presidential campaign.
2009 – President Obama signed an executive order to shutter Guantanamo within one year, fulfilling his campaign promise to close a facility that critics around the world say violates the rights of detainees. Obama also banned the CIA from operating secret prisons.
2009 – Microsoft announces it will cut 5,000 jobs, due to a rapid decline in demand for personal computers.
2009 – General Motors receives a second loan installment of $5.4 billion.
2010 – A U.S. Justice Department task force recommends 47 Guantanamo Bay detainees should be held indefinitely without charge.
2010 – Former U.S. Air Force lieutenant colonel James Fondren is sentenced to three years in prison for providing classified documents to Chinese spy Tai Shen Kuo.
2012 – Representative Gabrielle Giffords of Arizona announces her resignation from office to focus on her recovery after surviving an attempted assassination in 2011.
2012 – The New York Giants and New England Patriots advance to Super Bowl XLVI.
2012 – Former Penn State football coach Joe Paterno dies from complications associated with lung cancer.
1561 – Sir Francis Bacon, (d. 1626) an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, lawyer, jurist, and author.
1788 – George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (Lord Byron), English poet (d. 1824)
1874 – Edward Harkness, (d. 1940) was an American philanthropist. He was the second-largest shareholder in Standard Oil.
1890 – Fred M. Vinson, 13th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1953)
1906 – Robert E. Howard, (d. 1936) was an American author who wrote pulp fiction in a diverse range of genres. He created — in the pages of the Depression-era pulp magazine Weird Tales — Conan the Cimmerian, a.k.a. Conan the Barbarian, a character whose pop-culture imprint might be compared to such icons as Tarzan of the Apes, Count Dracula, Sherlock Holmes, and James Bond.
1907 – Douglas Corrigan, (d. 1995) was an American aviator born in Galveston, Texas, nicknamed “Wrong Way”.
1934 – Bill Bixby, (d. 1993) was an American film and television actor, director and frequent game show panelist.
1937 – Joseph Wambaugh, is an American writer known for his fictional and non-fictional accounts of police work in the United States.
1959 – Linda Blair, is an American actress most famous for her role as the possessed child, Regan in the 1973 film The Exorcist, and its sequel, Exorcist II: The Heretic.
1965 – Diane Lane is an American film actress.
|McCALL, THOMAS E.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company F, 143d Infantry, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near San Angelo, Italy, 22 January 1944. Entered service at: Veedersburg, Ind. Birth: Burton, Kans. G.O. No.: 31, 17 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. On 22 January 1944, Company F had the mission of crossing the Rapido River in the vicinity of San Angelo, Italy, and attacking the well-prepared German positions to the west. For the defense of these positions the enemy had prepared a network of machinegun positions covering the terrain to the front with a pattern of withering machinegun fire, and mortar and artillery positions zeroed in on the defilade areas. S/Sgt. McCall commanded a machinegun section that was to provide added fire support for the riflemen. Under cover of darkness, Company F advanced to the river crossing site and under intense enemy mortar, artillery, and machinegun fire crossed an ice-covered bridge which was continually the target for enemy fire. Many casualties occurred on reaching the west side of the river and reorganization was imperative. Exposing himself to the deadly enemy machinegun and small arms fire that swept over the flat terrain, S/Sgt. McCall, with unusual calmness, encouraged and welded his men into an effective fighting unit. He then led them forward across the muddy, exposed terrain. Skillfully he guided his men through a barbed-wire entanglement to reach a road where he personally placed the weapons of his two squads into positions of vantage, covering the battalion’s front. A shell landed near one of the positions, wounding the gunner, killing the assistant gunner, and destroying the weapon. Even though enemy shells were falling dangerously near, S/Sgt. McCall crawled across the treacherous terrain and rendered first aid to the wounded man, dragging him into a position of cover with the help of another man. The gunners of the second machinegun had been wounded from the fragments of an enemy shell, leaving S/Sgt. McCall the only remaining member of his machinegun section. Displaying outstanding aggressiveness, he ran forward with the weapon on his hip, reaching a point thirty yards from the enemy, where he fired two bursts of fire into the nest, killing or wounding all of the crew and putting the gun out of action. A second machinegun now opened fire upon him and he rushed its position, firing his weapon from the hip, killing four of the guncrew. A third machinegun, fifty yards in rear of the first two, was delivering a tremendous volume of fire upon our troops. S/Sgt. McCall spotted its position and valiantly went toward it in the face of overwhelming enemy fire. He was last seen courageously moving forward on the enemy position, firing his machinegun from his hip. S/Sgt. McCall’s intrepidity and unhesitating willingness to sacrifice his life exemplify the highest traditions of the Armed Forces.
|DAVIS, JOSEPH H.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Born: 22 July 1860, Philadelphia, Pa. (Letter, Mate J. W. Baxter, U.S. Navy, No. 8985, 25 January 1886.) Citation: On board the U.S. Receiving Ship Dale off the Wharf at Norfolk, Va., 22 January 1886. Jumping overboard from the ferryboat, Davis rescued from drowning John Norman, ordinary seaman.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Tonto Creek, Ariz., 22 January 1873. Entered service at ——. Birth: Frederick, Md. Date of issue: 12 August 1875. Citation. Gallantry in action in which he was killed.
|LEWIS, WILLIAM B.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Bluff Station, Wyo., 20-22 January 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 28 March 1879. Citation: Bravery in skirmish.
Rank and organization: Cabin Boy, U.S. Navy. Born: 1850, Portland, Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Pontoosuc during the capture of Fort Fisher and Wilmington, 24 December 1864 to 22 January 1865. Carrying out his duties faithfully during this period, C.B. Angling was recommended for gallantry and skill and for his cool courage while under the fire of the enemy throughout these various actions.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Pontoosuc during the capture of Fort Fisher and Wilmington, 24 December 1864, to 22 January 1865. Carrying out his duties faithfully during this period, Betham was recommended for gallantry and skill and for his cool courage while under the fire of the enemy throughout these various actions.
|BLAIR, ROBERT M.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1836, Peacham, Vt. Accredited to: Vermont. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Pontoosuc during the capture of Fort Fisher and Wilmington, 24 December 1864 to 22 January 1865. Carrying out his duties faithfully throughout this period, Blair was recommended for gallantry and skill and for his cool courage while under the fire of the enemy throughout these actions.
|CAMPBELL, JAMES A.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 2d New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Woodstock, Va., 22 January 1865; At Amelia Courthouse, Va., 5 April 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 30 October 1897. Citation: While his command was retreating before superior numbers at Woodstock, Va., he voluntarily rushed back with one companion and rescued his commanding officer, who had been unhorsed and left behind. At Amelia Courthouse he captured two battle flags.
No Name Calling Week 21-25
National Hugging Day
The History of the Army Chaplaincy
The heritage of the United States Army Chaplaincy reaches far back into the dim recesses of history. In times of turmoil, trouble, and terror mankind always looks to religion and religious figures for comfort. War is no exception. Both ancient and modern societies have turned to religion in periods of conflict. Communities always have extended the comfort of religion to those serving in the heart of battle. From what we know of societies prior to written history, it is likely that priests and other religious figures petitioned gods and spirits for victory in war.
The Old Testament often refers to priests accompanying troops into battle. “And it shall be when ye are come nigh unto the battle,” states the Pentateuch, Deuteronomy 20:2-4, “that the priest shall approach and speak unto the people.” Another well-known example is found in Joshua 6:2-5. In this passage, seven priests, each carrying a ram’s horn, march around the walls of Jericho daily for six days. They are followed by other priests carrying the Ark of the Covenant and finally the troops. On the seventh day, the procession marched around the city seven times while the priests blew the horns. After the sound of the horns, the troops shouted, whereupon the walls collapsed and the city was taken.
The modern chaplaincy’s roots are essentially medieval Catholic in origin. The Council of Ratisbon (742 AD) first officially authorized the use of chaplains for armies, but prohibited “the servants of God” from bearing arms or fighting. The word chaplain itself also dates from this period. A fourth century legend held that a pagan Roman soldier called Martin of Tours encountered a beggar shivering from the cold and gave him part of his military cloak. That night he had a vision of Christ dressed in the cloak. As a result, Martin was converted to Christianity. He devoted his life to the church, and after his death was canonized. Martin of Tours later became the patron saint of France and his cloak, now a holy relic, was carried into battle by the Frankish kings. This cloak was called in Latin the “cappa”. Its portable shrine was called the “capella” and its caretaker priest, the “cappellanus”. Eventually, all clergy affiliated with military were called “capellani,” or in French “chapelains”, hence chaplains.
From 1689 to 1763, the colonists took part in four great wars against the French: King William’s War (l689-l697); Queen Anne’s War (l702-l7l3); King George’s War (l744-l748); and the French and Indian War (l754-l763). In each of these conflicts, chaplains accompanied their men on the campaigns and in battle.
The story of the Revolutionary War chaplains begins at Lexington Green and Concord Bridge on 19 April l775. A number of New England clerics served at Concord: William Emerson, later to die while on active duty; Joseph Thaxter, soon to be wounded at Bunker Hill; Edmund Foster, a theological student; and the Reverend Doctor Philips Payson. The latter three not only ministered to the minutemen but also “shouldered their muskets, and fought like common soldiers.” It was written of Rev. Payson: “Seizing a musket he put himself at the head of a party, and led them forward to the attack.” William Emerson served at Concord in the capacity of a chaplain only, and so has the distinction of being the first Revolutionary War chaplain.
When George Washington assumed command of the Continental Army at Cambridge, Massachusetts, chaplains were already present for duty. Washington could count fifteen chaplains serving with the twenty-three regiments gathered around Boston. The Continental Congress gave the chaplains its official recognition on 29 July l775, when it voted pay for various officers and enlisted personnel in the Continental Army not previously covered in its resolution of l6 July. The reference is to dollars per month, and it reads: “Chaplain 8.” This was the first official recognition of chaplains by an American government. As such it is considered the birth date of the chaplaincy. Nearly a year later General George Washington issued the following General Order:
New York, July 9th, l776
The Honorable Continental Congress having been pleased to allow a Chaplain to each Regiment, with the pay of Thirty-Three Dollars and one third dollars per month – The Colonels or commanding officers of each regiment are directed to procure Chaplains accordingly; persons of good Characters and exemplary lives – To see that all inferior officers and soldiers pay them a suitable respect and attend carefully upon religious exercises. The blessing and protection of Heaven are at all times necessary but especially so in times of public distress and danger -The General hopes and trusts, that every officer and man, will endeavor so to live, and act as becomes a Christian Soldier defending the dearest Rights and Liberties of his country.
From 1775 to 1783 the chaplains’ story parallels that of the Revolutionary Army. Between 222 and 238 served in the American cause. Chaplains were to be found in every campaign and on every battlefield in the long conflict: Bunker Hill, Quebec, White Plains, Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, Saratoga, Monmouth, King’s Mountain, Camden, and Yorktown.
The history of the Chaplaincy from this time on is full of uncertainties. Chaplains were omitted from the Act to Ascertain and Fix the Military Establishment of the United States, approved 30 May 1796. But two years later provision was made for four chaplains. Each was to receive the pay and privileges of a major. In spite of this, when detailed rosters were drawn up by Lieutenant General George Washington and Inspector General Alexander Hamilton for a Provisional Army for a possible war with France, no chaplains were included. Washington may have assumed that each brigadier general would nominate the chaplain authorized by Congress. The story from 1799 to the War of 1812 is almost a blank except for an act of 12 April 1808 authorizing brigade chaplains. The War Department records were destroyed in 1814 when the British burned Washington, D.C. In 1856, the Adjutant General could find no list of chaplains prior to 2 April 1813.
“Actions have consequences…first rule of life. And the second rule is this – you are the only one responsible for your own actions.”
~ Holly Lisle, Fire In The Mist, 1992
bivouac BIV-wak, BIV-uh-wak, noun:
1. An encampment for the night, usually under little or no shelter.
1. To encamp for the night, usually under little or no shelter.
Bivouac comes from French bivouac, from German Beiwache, “a watching or guarding,” from bei, “by, near” + wachen, “to watch.”
1189 – Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. .
1525 – The Swiss Anabaptist Movement is born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptize each other in the home of Manz’s mother in Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union.
1648 – In Maryland, the first woman lawyer in the colonies, Margaret Brent, was denied a vote in the Maryland Assembly.
1677 – First medical publication in America (pamphlet on smallpox), Boston
1773 – Poet Phillis Wheatley, born a slave in 1754, was freed and her first book of poetry, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, was published. The book of poetry is said to have been widely acclaimed in the United States and England.
1785 – Chippewa, Delaware, Ottawa, and Wyandot Indians signed the treaty of Fort McIntosh, ceding present-day Ohio to the United States.
1789 – The first American novel, The Power of Sympathy or the Triumph of Nature Founded in Truth, is printed in Boston, Massachusetts. The author was WH Brown .
1793 – After being found guilty of treason by the French Convention, Louis XVI of France is guillotined.
1799 – Edward Jenner’s smallpox vaccination is introduced.
1830 – Portsmouth (Ohio) Blacks forcibly deported by order of city officials.
1853 – Russell L. Hawes patents the envelope-folding machine.
1861 – Civil War: Senator Jefferson Davis of Mississippi delivered his farewell address to the Senate before leaving to become President of the Confederacy..
1865 – For the first time, an oil well was drilled by torpedoes. It was near Titusville, PA.
1880 – First US sewage disposal system separate from storm drains, Memphis TN.
1887 – The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) is formed.
1899 – Opel Motors opens for business. is an automobile manufacturer based in Germany. The company was founded on January 21, 1863 and began making automobiles in 1899. Opel was acquired by General Motors in 1929 and continues as a subsidiary. Opel is GM’s largest European brand and with Vauxhall forms GM’s core European business.
1903 – “Wizard of Oz” premieres in New York City NY
1908 – New York City passes the Sullivan Ordinance, making it illegal for women to smoke in public, only to have the measure vetoed by the mayor.
1910 – Angel Island opened as an immigration processing and detention center and became known as the Ellis Island of the West. It processed some 1 million people until 1940. 50,000 Chinese entered the US through Angel Island. It closed after a fire in 1940.
1911 – The first Monte Carlo Rally. The Monte Carlo Rally (officially Rallye Automobile Monte Carlo) is a rallying event organized each year by the Automobile Club de Monaco who also organize the F1 Grand Prix of Monaco and the Monaco Kart Cup. The rally takes place along the French Riviera in the Principality of Monaco and southeast France.From its inception in 1911 by Prince Albert I, this rally, under difficult and demanding conditions, was an important means of testing the latest improvements and innovations to automobiles.
1915 – Kiwanis International founded in Detroit, Michigan. The name was taken from an old Indian term which, when translated, means “we make ourselves known.” Allen Browne in Dec, 1914, had proposed a fraternal club for business and professional men.
1924 – Vladimir Lenin dies and Joseph Stalin begins to purge his rivals to clear way for his leadership.
1933 – The All Black American Bridge Association was founded.
1939 – Arlen and Harburg’s song “Somewhere Over the Rainbow” was copyrighted.
1946 – “The Fat Man” debuted on ABC radio.
1949 – First inaugural parade televised (Harry Truman)
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Buttons and Bows” by Dinah Shore, “A Little Bird Told Me” by Evelyn Knight, “On a Slow Boat to China” by The Kay Kyser Orchestra (vocal: Harry Babbitt & Gloria Wood) and “I Love You So Much It Hurts” by Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1950 – Former State Department official Alger Hiss is convicted of perjury.
1951 – Korean War: Large numbers of MiG-15s attacked USAF jets, shooting down one F-80 and one F-84. Lt. Col. William E. Bertram of the 27th FEG shot down a MiG-15 to score the first USAF aerial victory by an F-84 ThunderJet.
1953 – Korean War: Aircraft from three carriers continue relentless assaults against communist supply buildups near Hungnam and Wonsan. Meanwhile, Air Force F-86 Sabre jets downed seven MiGs and damaged three others in a trio of engagements.
1954 – The first nuclear-powered submarine, the USS Nautilus, is launched in Groton, Connecticut by Mamie Eisenhower, then the First Lady of the United States.
1954 – The gas turbine automobile was introduced in New York City. This packed a lot of punch, with a 370 horsepower, ‘whirlfire’ turbopower jet to power it.
1956 – “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford topped the charts.
1957 – Singer Patsy Cline appeared on Arthur Godfrey’s nighttime TV show. She warbled the classic, “Walking After Midnight“, which quickly launched her career.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Singing the Blues” by Guy Mitchell, “The Banana Boat Song” by The Tarriers, “Young Love” by Tab Hunter and “Singing the Blues” by Marty Robbins all top the chart.
1958 – James Grover Tarver (b.1885), Texas-born giant, died in Arkansas. He had grown to be 8 feet 4 inches tall and traveled with the Ringling Bros. and other circuses.
1959 – The Kingston Trio received a gold record for “Tom Dooley“.
1961 – USS George Washington completes first operational voyage of fleet ballistic missile submarine staying submerged 66 days.
1964 – Carl T. Rowan succeeded Edward R. Murrow as head of the United States Information Agency (USIA), which managed the worldwide Voice of America.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Come See About Me” by The Supremes, “Love Potion Number Nine” by The Searchers, “Downtown” by Petula Clark and “Once a Day” by Connie Smith all topped the charts.
1967 – “I’m a Believer” by The Monkees topped the charts.
1968 – Simon & Garfunkel release the Original Soundtrack to “The Graduate” (47:51), which quickly goes to #1 on the pop charts and which will bring Simon a Grammy for Best Original Score.
1968 – Vietnam War: Battle of Khe Sanh – North Vietnamese forces attacked a US Marine base; the Marines were able to hold their position until the siege was lifted 2 1/2 months later. It was the longest and bloodiest battle of the Vietnam War.
1968 – A B-52 bomber loaded with hydrogen bombs crashed at North Star Bay, Greenland.
1969 – Vietnam War: Coast Guard Petty Officers Willis Goff and Larry Villareal took a 14-foot Boston whaler ashore south of Cahm Ran Bay to rescue nine ARVN troops. In the face of heavy automatic weapons fire, all nine men were evacuated in two trips. For their actions Goff and Villareal were each awarded the Silver Star for their actions. The citation stated, “The nine men would have met almost certain death or capture without the assistance of the two Coast Guardsmen.”
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “You’re So Vain” by Carly Simon, “Superstition” by Stevie Wonder, “Crocodile Rock” by Elton John and “Soul Song” by Joe Stampley all topped the charts.
1974 – The U.S. Supreme Court decided that pregnant teachers could no longer be forced to take long leaves of absence.
1976 – Commercial service of Concorde begins with London-Bahrain and Paris-Rio routes.
1977 – President Jimmy Carter pardons nearly all American Vietnam War draft evaders, some of whom had emigrated to Canada.
1977 – President Carter urged 65 degrees as the maximum heat in homes to ease the energy crisis.
1978 – Bee Gees’ “Saturday Night Fever” album goes #1 for 24 weeks.
1978 – “Baby Come Back” by Player topped the charts.
1979 – Super Bowl XIII (Full game not available on YouTube) was played between the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Dallas Cowboys. The Steelers won with a final score of 35-31.The head coaches were Chuck Noll for Pittsburgh and Tom Landry for Dallas. The game was played in the Orange Bowl, Miami, FL before 79,484 fans and the MVP was Terry Bradshaw, quarterback for the Steelers. The Referee was Pat Haggerty. Face Value Tickets were $30. The Steelers became the first team to win three Super Bowls.
1979 – Neptune becomes outermost planet (Pluto moves closer)
1980 – Les Henson, Virginia Tech, makes 89′ 3″ basketball field goal. Courts at the collegiate level are 84 feet and professional courts are 94 feet.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “(Just Like) Starting Over” by John Lennon, “Love on the Rocks” by Neil Diamond, “The Tide is High” by Blondie and “I Love a Rainy Night” by Eddie Rabbitt all topped the charts.
1985 – Because January 20 had fallen on a Sunday, Ronald Reagan’s public inaugural ceremony (for his second term as President) was moved to Monday, January 21. Due to bad weather, the ceremony was held indoors in the United States Capital Rotunda.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Two Hearts” by Phil Collins, “Don’t Rush Me” by Taylor Dayne, “Armageddon It” by Def Leppard and “She’s Crazy for Leavin’” by Rodney Crowell all top the charts.
1991 – Iraq War: During the Gulf War, Iraq announced it had scattered prisoners of war at targeted areas; President Bush denounced Iraq’s treatment of POW’s, and said Iraqi President Saddam Hussein would be held responsible.
1992 – The Supreme Court agreed to review a Pennsylvania law imposing waiting periods and other restrictions on abortions. The court later upheld most of the restrictions while reaffirming women’s constitutional right to abortion.
1994 – A jury in Manassas, Va., acquitted Lorena Bobbitt by reason of temporary insanity of maliciously wounding her husband John, whom she’d accused of sexually assaulting her.
1997 – Newt Gingrich becomes the first leader of the United States House of Representatives to be internally disciplined for ethical misconduct.
1997 – The Democratic National Committee announced it would no longer accept money from people or companies with foreign ties and would limit contributions from labor unions and wealthy benefactors.
1998 – President Bill Clinton angrily denied reports he’d had an affair with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky and had tried to get her to lie about it.
1998 – The FBI arrested dozens of prison guards and police officers in the Cleveland area following a 2-year sting operation on cocaine trafficking.
1999 – War on Drugs: In one of the largest drug busts in American history, the United States Coast Guard intercepts a ship with over 9,500 pounds (4,300 kg) of cocaine on board.
2002 – Canadian Dollar sets all-time low against the US Dollar (US$0.6179).
2002 – K-Mart, the 3rd largest US discount retailer, filed for bankruptcy protection. Kmart was operating 2,114 stores with 250,000 employees.
2003 – The U.S. Census Bureau announced that Hispanics had surpassed blacks as America’s largest minority group.
2003 – In Kuwait American contract worker Michael Rene Pouliat (46) was killed by gunman in an ambush near Camp Doha. Another worker was wounded. Saudi border guards arrested a Kuwaiti suspect the next day.
2003 – NATO blocked a US request to begin preparations for a military backup in the event of war with Iraq.
2004 – NASA’s MER-A (the Mars Rover Spirit) ceases communication with mission control. The problem lies with Flash Memory management and is fixed remotely from Earth on February 6th.
2008 – Marie Smith (89), a resident of southeastern Alaska, died. She was the last speaker of her native Eyak language.
2009 – The missing engine from US Airways Flight 1549 is found at the bottom of the Hudson River.
2009 - The United States Senate confirms Hillary Clinton as Secretary of State.
2009 – Obama takes the oath of office again with Chief Justice John Roberts to correct the previous day’s initial flub in wording.The Constitution prescribes the text: “I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States and will to best of my ability preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.”
2009 – President Barack Obama halts the trials of detainees at Guantánamo Bay Naval Base’s detention camp.
2010 – Virginia shootings suspect Christopher Speight is charged with first degree murder.
2011 – MSNBC terminates a contract with their highest-rated cable news host, Keith Olbermann.
2011 – Paul Volcker steps down as the head of U.S. President Barack Obama’s advisory panel, the Economic Recovery Advisory Board.
2011 – Four banks, with total assets of $2.7 billion, are ordered closed in the U.S.; 157 American banks failed last year.
2012 - Former Pennsylvania State University football coach Joe Paterno, who is suffering from lung cancer, is reported to be in grave condition.
2013 - The public portion of Barack Obama’s second inauguration takes place at nation’s capital in Washington, D.C., a day after he was officially sworn into office in the White House for his second term as President of the United States.
2014 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Gunfire left one dead and another taken into custody at Purdue University. The suspect wanted to shoot this specific victim in the Electrical Engineering Building on the Purdue campus.
1737 – Ethan Allen, American soldier, frontiersman. American Revolutionary commander of the “Green Mountain Boys” who captured Fort Ticonderoga in 1775.
1813 – John Fremont was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery.
1824 – Stonewall (Thomas) Jackson, famous Confederate General of the Civil War.
1855 – John M. Browning, US weapons manufacturer
1884 – Roger Nash Baldwin, American founder of the American Civil Liberties Union.
1927 – Telly Savalas, American Emmy Award-winning actor. He is best known for playing the title role in the popular 1970s crime drama Kojak.
1938 - Wolfman Jack, American radio host and actor (d. 1995)
1940 – Jack Nicklaus, American golf champion.
1942 - Mac Davis, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actor
1942 - Edwin Starr (d.2003) was an American soul music singer best known for his only hit,”War.”
1956 – Geena Davis, American film actress.
1960 - Toxey Haas, American businessman, founded Haas Outdoors, Inc.
1963 - Hakeem Olajuwon, American basketball player
1985 - Salvatore Giunta, American sergeant, Medal of Honor recipient
|CARY, ROBERT W.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. San Diego. Place and date: Aboard U.S.S. San Diego, 21 January 1915. Entered service at: Buncston, Mo. Birth: Kansas City, Mo. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession on the occasion of an explosion on board the U.S.S. San Diego, 21 January 1915. Lt. Comdr. Cary (then Ensign), U.S. Navy, an observer on duty in the firerooms of the U.S.S. San Diego, commenced to take the half-hourly readings of the steam pressure at every boiler. He had read the steam and air pressure on No. 2 boiler and was just stepping through the electric watertight door into No. 1 fireroom when the boilers in No. 2 fireroom exploded. Ens. Cary stopped and held open the doors which were being closed electrically from the bridge, and yelled to the men in No. 2 fireroom to escape through these doors, which three of them did. Ens. Cary’s action undoubtedly saved the lives of these men. He held the doors probably a minute with the escaping steam from the ruptured boilers around him. His example of coolness did much to keep the men in No. 1 fireroom at their posts hauling fires, although five boilers in their immediate vicinity had exploded and boilers Nos. 1 and 3 apparently had no water in them and were likely to explode any instant. When these fires were hauled under No. 1 and No. 3 boilers, Ens. Cary directed the men in this fireroom into the bunker, for they well knew the danger of these two boilers exploding. During the entire time Ens. Cary was cool and collected and showed an abundance of nerve under the most trying circumstances. His action on this occasion was above and beyond the call of duty.
Rank and organization: Fireman Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 25 November 1890, New Washington Capig, Philippine Islands. Accredited to: Philippine Islands. G.O. No.: 142, 1 April 1915. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession at the time of the boiler explosion on board the U.S.S. San Diego, 21 January 1915. Trinidad was driven out of fireroom No. 2 by the explosion, but at once returned and picked up R.E. Daly, fireman, second class, whom he saw to be injured, and proceeded to bring him out. While coming into No. 4 fireroom, Trinidad was just in time to catch the explosion in No. 3 fireroom, but without consideration for his own safety, passed Daly on and then assisted in rescuing another injured man from No. 3 fireroom. Trinidad was himself burned about the face by the blast from the explosion in No. 3 fireroom.
|BJORKMAN, ERNEST H.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 25 April 1881, Malmo, Sweden. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 145, 26 December 1903. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Leyden, 21 January 1903, Bjorkman displayed heroism at the time of the wreck of that vessel.
Rank and organization: Fireman First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 4 March 1878, Cleveland, Ohio. Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 145, 26 December 1903. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Leyden, for heroism at the time of the wreck of that vessel, 21 January 1903.
|TEYTAND, AUGUST P.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster Third Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 6 April 1878, Santa Cruz, West Indies. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 145, 26 December 1903. Citation: For heroism while serving on board the U.S.S. Leyden at the time of the wreck of that vessel, 21 January 1903.
Rank and organization: Chief Machinist, U.S. Navy. Born: 27 July 1858, Newport, R.I. Accredited to: Rhode Island. G.O. No.: 145, 26 December 1903. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Leyden; for heroism at the time of the wreck of that vessel, 21 January 1903.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Indian Scouts. Place and date: Arizona Territory, Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at: Camp Verde, Ariz. Born: 1853, Arizona Territory. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
|BAILEY, JAMES E.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Arizona Territory, Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Dexter, Maine. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company B, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Arizona Territory, Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Washington County, Md. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company I, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Arizona Territory, Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at:——. Birth: Schuyler County, Pa. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
Rank and organization: Indian Scouts. Place and date: Arizona Territory, Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at:——. Birth: Arizona. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
Rank and organization: Indian Scouts. Place and date: Arizona Territory, Winter of 1871-73. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Arizona. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Indian Scouts. Place and date: Arizona Territory, Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at:——. Birth: Arizona. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company L, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Arizona Territory, Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 12 August 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
|HUFF, JAMES W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Arizona Territory, Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at: Vanburan, Pa. Born: 7 February 1840, Washington, Pa. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
|HYDE, HENRY J.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company M, 1st U .S. Cavalry. Place and date: Arizona Territory, Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at: Princeton, 111. Birth: Bangor, Maine. Date of issue: 12 August 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Indian Scouts. Place and date: Arizona Territory, Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Arizona Territory. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
Rank and organization: Indian Scouts. Place and date: Arizona Territory, Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at:——. Birth: Arizona. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
Rank and organization: Indian Scouts. Place and date: Arizona Territory, Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Arizona. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Arizona Territory, Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company M, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Arizona Territory, Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
|ROWAND, ARCHIBALD H., JR.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 1st West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: Winter of 1864_65. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa. Born: 6 March 1845, Philadelphia, Pa., Date of issue: 3 March 1873. Citation: Was one of two men who succeeded in getting through the Confederacy’s lines with dispatches to Gen. Grant.
Inauguration Day (traditional)
Martin Luther King Day
U.S. Money History
Source: The U.S. Treasury Department, Bureau of Engraving and Printing
1690: Colonial Notes
In the early days of this nation, before and just after the American Revolution, Americans used English, Spanish, and French currencies. The Massachusetts Bay Colony issued the first paper money in the colonies that would later form the United States.
1775: Continental Currency
American colonists issued paper currency for the Continental Congress to finance the Revolutionary War. The notes were backed by the “anticipation” of tax revenues. Without solid backing and because they were easily counterfeited, the notes quickly became devalued, giving rise to the phrase “not worth a Continental.”
1781: The Nation’s First Bank
The Continental Congress chartered the Bank of North America in Philadelphia as the nation’s first “real” bank to give further financial support to the Revolutionary War.
1785: The Dollar
The Continental Congress adopted the dollar as the unit for national currency. At
that time, private bank-note companies printed a variety of notes.
1789: First Bank of the United States
After adoption of the Constitution in 1789, Congress chartered the First Bank of the United States and authorized it to issue paper bank notes to eliminate confusion and simplify trade. The bank served as the U.S. Treasury’s fiscal agent, thus performing the first central bank functions.
1792: U.S. Mint
The Federal Monetary System was established with the creation of the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia. The first American coins were struck in 1793.
1816: Second U.S. Bank
The Second Bank of the U.S. was granted a 20-year charter.
1836: State Bank Notes
With minimum regulation, a proliferation of 1,600 state-chartered, private banks issued paper money. State bank notes, with over 30,000 varieties of color and design, were easily counterfeited, which combined with bank failures to cause confusion and circulation problems.
1861: Civil War
On the brink of bankruptcy and pressed to finance the Civil War, Congress authorized the United States Treasury to issue paper money for the first time in the form of non-interest bearing Treasury Notes called Demand Notes.
Demand Notes were replaced by United States Notes. Commonly called “greenbacks” because of the green tint introduced to discourage photographic counterfeiting, they were last issued in 1971. The Secretary of the Treasury was empowered by Congress to have notes engraved and printed by private bank note companies. The notes were signed and affixed with seals by six Treasury Department employees.
The design of U.S. currency incorporated a Treasury seal, the fine-line engraving necessary for the difficult-to-counterfeit intaglio printing, intricate geometric lathe work patterns, and distinctive cotton and linen paper with embedded red and blue fibers
1864 – 1873: “In God We Trust” on coinage
The first coin to include the inscription “In God We Trust” was the two-cent coin minted during this period.
1865: Gold Certificates were issued by the Department of the Treasury against gold coin and bullion deposits and were circulated until 1933.
Secret Service : The Department of the Treasury established the United States Secret Service to control counterfeiting. At that time, one-third of all circulating currency was estimated to be counterfeit.
1866: National Bank Notes
National Bank Notes, backed by U.S. government securities, became predominant. By this time, 75 percent of bank deposits were held by nationally chartered banks. As State Bank Notes were replaced, the value of currency stabilized for a time.
1877: Bureau of Engraving and Printing
The Department of the Treasury’s Bureau of Engraving and Printing started printing all U.S. currency.
1878: Silver Certificates
The Department of the Treasury was authorized to issue Silver Certificates in exchange for silver dollars. The last issue was in the Series 1957.
1913: Federal Reserve Act
After the 1893 and 1907 financial panics, the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 was passed. It created the Federal Reserve System as the nation’s central bank to regulate the flow of money and credit for economic stability and growth. The System was authorized to issue Federal Reserve Notes. Now the only U.S. currency produced, Federal Reserve Notes, represent 99 percent of all currency in circulation.
1929: Standardized Design
Currency was reduced in size by 25 percent, and a consistent design was introduced with uniform portraits on the front and emblems and monuments on the back.
1957: “In God We Trust:” on paper money
Paper currency was first issued with the inscription “In God We Trust” in 1957. The
inscription appears on all currency Series 1963 and later.
1990: Security Thread and Micro-printing
A security thread and micro-printing were introduced to deter counterfeiting by advanced copiers and printers. The features first appeared in Series 1990 $100, $50 and the $20 notes. By Series 1993, the features appeared in all denominations except $1 notes.
1994: Currency Redesign
The Secretary of the Treasury announced that U.S. currency would be redesigned to incorporate a new series of counterfeit deterrents. The newly designed $100 was introduced in 1996, the $50 in 1997, and the $20 in 1998. The new $50 was the first to incorporate a low-vision feature, a large dark numeral on a light background on the lower right corner of the back, to help people with low vision identify the denomination.
1998: 50 State Quarters Program Act
The program is scheduled to run from 1999 until 2008, with five new quarters released every year over ten years. The 50 new quarters will feature a design that honors each state’s unique history and tradition. The quarters are being released in the order that the states joined the union.
2000: Redesign of $5 and $10 bills
The U.S. Treasury introduced redesigned $5 and $10 bills to make counterfeiting more difficult. The new notes feature oversized pictures of Abraham Lincoln and Alexander Hamilton that are slightly off-center. Other anti-counterfeiting measures include watermarks that can be seen under a light, security threads that glow when exposed to ultraviolet light and tiny printing that’s visible with the help of a magnifying glass. The $100, $50 and the $20 bill underwent similar makeovers in 1996, 1997 and 1998, respectively
There is also a statute making it illegal to damage or deface coins for a fraudulent purpose. However, while the U.S. Mint does not promote coloring, plating, or altering U.S. coins, it is not illegal to do so and there are no sanctions against such activity as long as there is no fraudulent intent.
According to the United States Mint’s 2010 report, the approximate cost of producing U.S. coins is as follows: penny = 1.8 cents; nickel = 9 cents; dime = 4.36 cents; quarter = 4.29 cents; half dollar = 9.63 cents; golden dollar = 29.6 cents.
One more piece of trivia. Using the orginal copper pennies, a penny standing on its edge is equal to 13 pennies stacked one upon another. Interesting, was this an accident or did someone design that to represent the thirteen colonies?
“We must not allow the clock and the calendar to blind us to the fact that each moment of life is a miracle and mystery.”
~ H. G. Wells
bromide BROH-myd, noun
1. A compound of bromine and another element or a positive organic radical.
2. A dose of potassium bromide taken as a sedative.
3. A dull person with conventional thoughts.
4. A commonplace or conventional saying.Bromide was formed from the first element of English bromine and the suffix -ide; the pair of bromine/bromide parallel chlorine/chloride. Bromine itself comes from French brome, from Greek bromos, “bad smell.” The adjective form is bromidic.
250 – Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Pope Fabian is martyred. Afterwards the Donatist controversy over readmitting lapsed Christians disaffects many in North Africa.
1265 – In Westminster, the first English parliament conducts its first meeting in the Palace of Westminster, now also known as the “Houses of Parliament”.
1616 – The French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived to winter in a Huron Indian village after being wounded in a battle with Iroquois in New France.
1649 – Charles I of England goes on trial for treason and other “high crimes”
1777 – Brigadier General Philemon Dickinson leads 400 “raw” men from the New Jersey militia and 50 Pennsylvania riflemen under Captain Robert Durkee in an attack against a group of 500 British soldiers foraging for food led by Lieutenant Colonel Robert Abercromby near Van Nest’s Mills in Millstone, New Jersey.
1783 – The Kingdom of Great Britain signs a peace treaty with France and Spain, officially ending hostilities in the Revolutionary War.
1801 – US Secretary of State John Marshall is appointed the Chief Justice of the United States. Marshall was nominated by President Adams to be chief justice. He was sworn in on Feb. 4, 1801. Marshall effectively created the legal framework within which free markets in goods and services could establish themselves.
1809 – First US geology book published by William Maclure
1857 – William Kelly patented the blast furnace for manufacturing steel.
1863 – CIVIL WAR: The Mud March- Union General Ambrose Burnside’s Army of the Potomac begins an offensive against General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia that quickly bogs down as several days of heavy rain turn the roads of Virginia into a muddy quagmire. The campaign was abandoned three days later.
1885 – La Marcus Thompson patents the roller coaster. It was called the Gravity Pleasure Switchback Railway. For a five-cent ticket, passengers sat sideways in cars that by gravity descended the gentle waves of the 600-foot wooden mini-railway, reaching a top speed of six miles per hour.
1887 – The United States Senate allows the Navy to lease Pearl Harbor as a naval base.
1892 – The first official basketball game took place at the YMCA gymnasium in Springfield, Massachusetts. There were two nine-man teams. A soccer ball was used and peach baskets were nailed 10 feet above the floor on the balcony.
1929 – “In Old Arizona“, the first full-length talking film filmed outdoors, is released.
1933 – First radio broadcast of “Lone Ranger” (WXYZ-Detroit)
1937 – Franklin D. Roosevelt is inaugurated for a second term as President of the United States. This is the first inauguration scheduled on January 20, following adoption of the 20th Amendment. Previous inaugurations were scheduled on March 4th.
1937 – The Ohio River flood of 1937 took place in late January and February 1937. With damage stretching from Pittsburgh to Cairo, Illinois, one million were left homeless, with 385 dead and property losses reaching $500 million, further worsened by the fact that it occurred during the Great Depression and just a few years after the Dust Bowl. It was so devastating that from then on all new construction had to be above “1937 High Water”.
1941 – Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes swears in U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt for his third term.
1942 – Harry Babbitt sang as Kay Kyser and his orchestra recorded, “Who Wouldn’t Love You“, on Columbia Records.
1942 – World War II: Nazis at the Wannsee conference in Berlin decide the “final solution to the Jewish problem”.
1944 – World War II: The Royal Air Force drops 2,300 tons of bombs on Berlin.
1944 – World War II: Allied forces began unsuccessful operations to cross the Rapido River and seize Cassino.
1945 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the only president to be elected to three terms in office, was inaugurated to his fourth term. He died three months later and was succeeded by Vice President Harry Truman.
1945 – Hungary drops out of the Second World War, agreeing an armistice with the Allies.
1946 – The first Kaiser-Frazer automobiles were introduced at New York’s Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. The Kaiser-Frazer Corporation was formed after World War II by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser and Joseph W. Frazer, president of the Graham-Paige Motor Company.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ballerina” by Vaughn Monroe, “How Soon” by Jack Owens, “Golden Earrings” – Peggy Lee and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all top the charts.
1949 – Pres. Truman was inaugurated for his second term. He presented a 4-point plan for American foreign policy.
1949 – J Edgar Hoover gives Shirley Temple a tear gas fountain pen
1953 – Dwight D. Eisenhower was inaugurated as president. He succeeded Harry S. Truman. TV coverage sent the event to 21 million sets.
1953 – A television show was transmitted from the United States to Canada for the first time. The CBS Television production of “Studio One” was transmitted to CBLT-TV in Canada.
1954 – The National Negro Network is established with 40 charter member radio stations.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Memories are Made of This” by Dean Martin, “Band of Gold” by Don Cherry, “Rock and Roll Waltz” by Kay Starr and “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford all top the charts.
1956 – Buddy Holly recorded “Blue Days Black Night” in Nashville.
1958 – The rock ’n’ roll classic, “Get a Job“, by The Silhouettes, was released.
1958 – Elvis Presley got a little greetings from Uncle Sam. The draft board in Memphis, TN ordered the King to report for duty; but allowed a 60-day deferment for him to finish the film, “King Creole“.
1961 – John F. Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th President of the United States of America. Robert Frost recited his poem “The Gift Outright” at the inauguration of President John F. Kennedy. Although Frost had written a new poem for the occasion, titled “Dedication,” faint ink in his typewriter made the words difficult to read, so he recited “The Gift Outright” from memory. The inauguration ceremonies were held on the newly renovated east front of the Capitol.
1962 – “The Twist” by Chubby Checker topped the charts
1964 – “Meet the Beatles” (33:25), the first Beatles album in the United States, is released.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “There! I’ve Said It Again” by Bobby Vinton, “Forget Him” by Bobby Rydell, “Surfin’ Bird” by The Trashmen and “Love’s Gonna Live Here” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 – The Byrds record “Mr Tambourine Man“.
1965 – The Rolling Stones and the Kinks made their first appearance on ABC-TV’s “Shindig!”
1965 – Alan Freed, the ‘Father of Rock ’n’ Roll’, died in Palm Springs, CA. Freed was one of the first radio disc jockeys to program black music, or race music, as it was termed, for white audiences.
1965 – Jet Propulsion Labs (JPL) proposes modified Apollo flight to fly around Mars & return
1968 – Game of the Century, which allowed the NCAA to gradually have influence over college sports broadcasting and introduce NCAA higher education opportunities; also a game that influenced the enactment of Title IX. UCLA Bruins faced the Houston Cougars in the first-ever nationally televised regular season college basketball game.
1969 – The first pulsar is discovered, in the Crab Nebula by University of Arizona.
1969 – Richard Nixon is inaugurated as president of the United States and says, “After a period of confrontation [in Vietnam], we are entering an era of negotiation.” He also said,” in his first inaugural address proclaimed that Americans “cannot learn from one another until we stop shouting at one another.”
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “American Pie” by Don McLean, “Let’s Stay Together” by Al Green, “Sunshine” by Jonathan Edwards and “Carolyn” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1973 – “You’re So Vain” by Carly Simon topped the charts.
1973 – Jerry Lee Lewis makes his debut at the Grand Ole Opry.
1974 – Golfing great Johnny Miller won the Tucson Open Golf Tournament and became the first pro golfer to win four consecutive major tournaments.
1977 – President Jimmy Carter was sworn in and then surprised the nation as he walks from the U.S. Capitol to the White House.
1980 – President Jimmy Carter announces US boycott of Olympics in Moscow.
1980 – Super Bowl XIV (Not Available on YouTube) was played between the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Los Angeles Rams. The Steelers won with a final score of 31-19. The head coaches were Chuck Noll for Pittsburgh and Ray Malavasi for Los Angeles. The game was played at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, CA before 103, 985 fans and the MVP was Terry Bradshaw, quarterback for the Steelers. The Referee was Fred Silva. Face Value Tickets were $30.00.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock with You” by Michael Jackson, “Do that to Me One More Time” by The Captain & Tennille, “Cruisin’ “ by Smokey Robinson and “Coward of the County” by Kenny Rogers all topped the charts.
1981 – Ronald Reagan, former Western movie actor and host of television’s popular “Death Valley Days” is sworn in as the 40th president of the United States. Minutes after Ronald Reagan’s inauguration as the 40th president of the United States, the 52 U.S. captives held at the U.S. embassy in Teheran, Iran, are released, ending the 444-day Iran Hostage Crisis.
1982 – Ozzy Osborne bit the head off of a bat in Des Moines, IA, and was hospitalized to undertake a series of rabies shots.
1985 – Super Bowl XIX (full game not available on YouTube) was played between the San Francisco Giants and the Miami Dolphins. The game was won by the Giants and the final score was 38-16. The head coaches were Bill Walsh for San Francisco and Don Shula for Miami. The game was played in Stanford Stadium in Stanford, CA before 84, 059 and the MVP was Joe Montana quarterback for the Giants. The Referee was Face Value Tickets were $60.00. It was the most-watched Super Bowl game in history including all media, seen by an estimated 115.9 million people.
1986 – Martin Luther King, Jr., day was celebrated as a federal holiday for the first time.
1986 – The United Kingdom and France announce plans to construct the Channel Tunnel.
1986 – New footage of the 1931 horror classic, “Frankenstein”, was found. It depicted the monster, played by Boris Karloff, throwing a girl into a lake and showed a hypodermic needle in the monster’s arm! Yeeeeeow! The scenes had been cut because they were considered too shocking for the 1930’s theatre crowd.
1987 – Church of England envoy Terry Waite is kidnapped. He had he travelled to Lebanon to try to secure the release of four hostages including journalist John McCarthy. He was himself held captive between 1987 and 1991.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Got My Mind Set on You” by George Harrison, “The Way You Make Me Feel” by Michael Jackson, “Need You Tonight” by INXS and “One Friend” by Dan Seals all topped the charts.
1988 – An Arizona House committee opened hearings on the possible impeachment of Gov. Evan Mecham.
1989 – George Bush was sworn in as the 41st president of the United States; Dan Quayle was sworn in as vice president. Reagan became the first president elected in a “0″ year, since 1840, to leave office alive.
1990 – “How Am I Supposed to Live Without You” by Michael Bolton hits #1.
1990 – The space shuttle Columbia returned from an 11-day mission.
1991 – During the Gulf War, Iraqi missiles were shot down by US Patriot rockets as they approached Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Iraqi television showed interviews with seven downed allied pilots, three of them Americans.
1993 – Bill Clinton was sworn in as the 42nd president of the United States. Al Gore was sworn in as vice president. The Senate confirmed Lloyd Bentsen as treasury secretary, Les Aspin as defense secretary and Warren Christopher as secretary of state.
1994 – Robert B. Fiske Jr. was appointed by Attorney General Janet Reno as the special Whitewater prosecutor to investigate President and Mrs. Clinton’s Arkansas land deals.
1994 – Shannon Faulkner became the first woman to attend classes at The Citadel in South Carolina. She joined the cadet corps in August 1995, under court order, but soon dropped out, citing isolation and stress.
1996 – The space shuttle “Endeavour” landed after a nine-day mission that included snaring a Japanese satellite.
1997 – Comet Hale-Bopp crosses Mars’ orbit
1997 – U.S. President Bill Clinton was inaugurated for his second term in office.
1997 – Edith Haisman (100), the oldest survivor of Titanic, died.
1998 – Cloned calves offer promise of medicines. The calves were cloned from the cells of cow fetuses by University of Massachusetts scientists, James Robl and Steven Stice.
1999 – President Clinton’s legal team argued its case before the Senate, saying that House-passed articles of impeachment were “flawed and unfair.”
2001 – George W. Bush succeeds Bill Clinton, becoming the 43rd President of the United States.
2001 – Michelle Kwan won her fourth straight U.S. Figure Skating Championship title while Timothy Goebel won his first men’s title.
2001 – President Bush suspended all late-term executive orders issued by Pres. Clinton.
2003 – Energizer agreed to buy the Shick-Wilkinson Sword razor business for $930 million from Pfizer as it aimed to expand beyond batteries.
2004 – Salvation Army officials announced a $1.5 billion donation by the late Joan Kroc (d.2003), heiress to the McDonald’s fortune, for 25-30 community centers.
2005 - Mars rover Opportunity uses its spectrometers to prove that Heat Shield Rock is a meteorite, the first to be found on another planet.
2005 - The Walt Disney Company announces that the water park River Country will be closed permanently.
2005 – President George W. Bush is sworn in for his second term, with a pledge to seek “freedom in all the world”.
2005 – Vice President Dick Cheney blames Saddam Hussein for the slow pace of the Iraqi reconstruction: “I think the hundreds of thousands of people who were slaughtered at the time, including anybody who had the gumption to stand up and challenge him, made the situation tougher than I would have thought.”
2006 -At 4 o’clock UTC NASA’s Pluto probe New Horizons crossed the orbit of the Moon, eight hours and thirty-five minutes after launch. This is a new Earth-to-Moon-distance flight record.
2006 - Three former workers at the Davis-Besse nuclear power plant in Ohio are indicted for repeatedly falsifying inspection reports and other information to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The plant’s owner, FirstEnergy Corporation, accepts a plea bargain and $28 million in fines in lieu of criminal prosecution.
2006 – Lawrence Franklin, a former U.S. State Department analyst and Iran expert, was sentenced to 12 years in prison for passing classified information to Israel and two pro-Israeli lobbyists.
2007 – U.S. Sen. Hillary Clinton, D-N.Y., became the first former first lady to seek the U.S. presidency when she entered the race for the 2008 Democratic nomination.
2008 – In the NFL playoffs, the New York Giants defeat the Green Bay Packers 23-20 in overtime and the New England Patriots defeat the San Diego Chargers 21-12 to advance to Super Bowl XLII.
2009 – Barack Hussein Obama inaugurated as the first African-American President of the United States. Barack Obama took the oath of office at the National Mall in Washington before what may be the largest inaugural crowd ever.
2009 - Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy suffers a seizure and collapses during a private inauguration lunch.
2010 - Christopher Speight, an American man suspected of shooting and killing eight people in Appomattox, Virginia, surrenders to police.
2011 – In a blanket assault against seven mob families in New York, New Jersey and Rhode Island, the F.B.I. and local authorities began arresting more than 100 people on charges including murder, racketeering and extortion.
2012 – President Barrack Obama marked the anniversary of Roe v. Wade by cementing one of the biggest attacks on conscience rights the country has ever seen. Starting in 2013, any organization that offers health insurance to employees will be forced to cover birth control, sterilizations, and abortifacients–no matter what their objections.
2012 - Agents of the United States charge 127 alleged mafia members in the northeast of the country.
2012 – The largest rocket ever launched from the west coast of the U.S. is launched carrying a secret payload; speculated to be a spy satellite.
2013 - Joe Flacco threw three second-half touchdown passes to lead the Baltimore Ravens to a 28-13 victory over the New England Patriots in the A.F.C. championship game in Foxborough, Mass.
2013 - San Francisco 49ers beat Atlanta Falcons 28-24 in NFC championship game, advancing to Super Bowl
2013 - A 15 year-old male shoots and kills kill his mother, father and three younger siblings. He told police he hoped to shoot up a Walmart after the family rampage and cause “mass destruction” near Albuquerque, New Mexico.
2013 - The second inauguration of Barack Obama as the President of the United States takes place in the Blue Room of the White House.
1798 – Anson Jones, 5th President of Texas (d. 1858) was a doctor, businessman, congressman, and the last president of the Republic of Texas, sometimes called the “Architect of Annexation.”
1837 – David Josiah Brewer, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1910)He was an American jurist. Brewer authored the unanimous opinion of the Court in Muller v. Oregon (1908), in support of a law restricting working hours for women.
1896 – George Burns (Nathan Birnbaum), American comedian, entertainer.
1926 – Patricia Neal, American actress
1930 – Buzz (Edwin) Aldrin Jr., is an American pilot and astronaut who was the Lunar Module Pilot on Apollo 11, the first lunar landing. He became the second human to set foot on the Moon (after Mission Commander Neil Armstrong).
1958 – Lorenzo Lamas, American actor is an American television and film actor, who is best-known for playing Jane Wyman’s young grandson, Lance Cumson, on “Falcon Crest”.
GOWAN, WILLIAM HENRY
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 2 June 1884, Rye, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 18, 19 March 1909. Citation: For bravery and extraordinary heroism displayed by him during a conflagration in Coquimbo, Chile, 20 January 1909.
WHEELER, GEORGE HUBER
Rank and organization: Shipfitter First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 26 September 1881, Charleston, S.C. Accredited to: South Carolina. G.O. No.: 18, 19 March 1909. Citation: For bravery and extraordinary heroism displayed by him during a conflagration in Coquimbo, Chile, 20 January 1909.