The Burr Conspiracy
On February 19th, 1807 the soldiers from Ft. Stoddert, Louisiana Territory, captured the fugitive Aaron Burr former Vice President,on a muddy road near the hamlet of Wakefield, Washington County, Alabama. Burr’s fall from grace seemed total. The former vice president, who at one time, dressed as magnificently as any head of state, wore a battered beaver hat and ragged wool coat. The man who had charmed women by the score, sported a scruffy crop of whiskers. Aaron Burr had traveled West just six months before to carve out his own empire. Now, he would return East to stand trial for treason in Richmond, Va.
It has been over 200 years but the exact details of what became known as the Burr Conspiracy remain unknown. But the conspiracy probably began sometime in early 1804, just months before Burr killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel. It is believed that Aaron Burr’s attempt to detach the Western states and the Louisiana Territory from the Union were his attempt to regain his pre-eminence. Vice President Burr’s political hopes in the East were fading by then. And after he killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel on July 11, they would die completely. But Burr saw a chance to revive his fortunes. If the East wouldn’t crown him, the West just might.
Burr turned to the newly acquired Territory of Louisiana. The land was mostly unsettled and its borders were disputed by Spain. Many of its residents talked openly of secession and Burr believed that with a relatively small and well-armed military force, he could pry territory from Louisiana and build his own empire.
Burr would need an army to accomplish his objectives. He had many co-conspirators but the obvious one was General James Wilkinson, Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Army. Wilkinson had befriended Burr during the Revolutionary War and after the war Burr convinced President Jefferson to give the governorship of Northern Louisiana to Wilkinson.
Wilkinson represented a logical choice for Burr even though he had some significant faults such as the fact that he was arrogant, unscrupulous, and he was overly fond of liquor. As commander-in chief, however, Wilkinson controlled the military and could move about the West without suspicion to cultivate alliances. Burr needed to search for supporters with even more power.
In August 1804 the vice president contacted Anthony Merry, Britain’s Minister to the United States. Burr offered to help Britain take Western territory from the United States. Merry immediately sent a dispatch to Britain, detailing Burr’s offer to “effect a separation of the western part of the United States” from the rest of the country. In return, Burr wanted money and ships to carry out his conquest.
In April, 1805, shortly after his term as vice president ended, Burr journeyed West on a reconnaissance mission. In town after town, he dropped hints of the expedition to come. And in town after town, he met men that he believed would support him in his enterprise. One of these men, Harman Blennerhassett, would prove a loyal follower.
Blennerhassett, an eccentric Irish gentleman, had come to the United States with a fortune in hand. On a small island in the Ohio River near Marietta, he had built himself a mansion. There, with his wife and children, he lived a life of luxury. But thanks to Aaron Burr’s scheme, Blennerhassett’s paradise would soon crumble.
Problems still remained. Support from the British had not yet arrived. In fact, it never would — nor would assistance from Spain. Rumors about Burr’s plans began to circulate and had even been published in Eastern newspapers. Unshaken, Burr continued his quest for support.
Meanwhile, the border conflict with Spain had begun to heat up. This fit perfectly into Burr’s plan. Jefferson would order Wilkinson to Louisiana with U.S. troops. In the name of U.S. sovereignty, Wilkinson and Burr could attack Texas or even Mexico. Burr could then declare himself ruler of the conquered lands.
Finally ready to move forward, Burr sent a coded letter to Wilkinson outlining his plans. The document would become known as the Cipher Letter, and would figure prominently at Burr’s treason trial. Burr set out from Pittsburgh in August, 1806. His first stop was Blennerhassett’s, where he ordered the Irishman to outfit his island as a military encampment.
As Burr hobnobbed around Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, the trickle of rumors about him became a torrent. Particularly problematic for Burr was the U.S. Court in Frankfort, Kentucky. Burr was called by the court three times to answer charges of treason. Each time he was acquitted.
By the beginning of December, 1806, Burr’s plan was in total collapse, although he didn’t know it. Wilkinson, who by now believed Burr’s plan would fail, opted to save his own hide. On October 9, he had sent a letter to President Thomas Jefferson outlining the conspiracy, but without naming Burr. Jefferson responded with a cease and desist order. Burr was not named specifically, but he didn’t need to be. The newspapers were full of treason talk, and Burr’s name was prominently featured.
On December 9, 1806, authorities struck the first blow against Burr. Ohio militiamen captured most of his boats and supplies at a Marietta boatyard. On December 11, the militia raided Blennerhassett’s Island, but most of the men had already fled downriver. Blennerhassett’s mansion was ransacked.
When Burr rendezvoused with Blennerhassett on the Ohio River near the end of December, he expected to meet a small army. Instead, he met a force of less than 100 men. A less ambitious (or wiser) leader would have quit. But Burr proceeded, picking up what new recruits he could as they drifted down the Mississippi.
At Bayou Pierre, just 30 miles above New Orleans, the final blow came. A friend handed Burr a New Orleans newspaper. It announced a reward for the capture of Aaron Burr and reproduced in full a translation of the coded letter Burr had sent to Wilkinson.
Burr surrendered to authorities at Bayou Pierre and was arraigned before a grand jury. Burr and his men insisted that they had no intention of attacking U.S. territory, and the jury failed to return an indictment. Still, one of the two judges involved in the case ordered Burr returned to the courtroom. Convinced he would be railroaded, Burr fled into the wilderness. On February 13, 1807, a soaking wet and bedraggled Burr was captured and carried back to the federal court at Richmond, Virginia, to face trial for treason.
This was truly the trial of the century, and Aaron Burr battled for his life. Both the prosecution and the defense used the Cipher Letter to try and prove their case. But in the end, the Cipher Letter took a back seat to another, even more renowned document: the Constitution, which defines treason very specifically. Supreme Court Justice John Marshall insisted on absolute adherence to this strict definition, that there had to be an overt act but Burr’s actions did not meet that requirement. As a result he was acquitted.
But if Burr was victorious in court, he lost in the court of public opinion. Across America he was burned in effigy. Several states filed additional charges against him, and he lived in fear for his life. Wisely, Burr fled again — this time to Europe, where he tried without success to convince Britain and France to support other North American invasion plots.
After four years in exile, Aaron Burr returned to America again. In mid-1812, the country was on the brink of war with Britain, and the Burr Conspiracy seemed ancient history. Aaron Burr put up his shingle in New York as an attorney and found ready business. He would live the rest of his life in relative obscurity, his dreams of empire forever undone.
Matthew 5: 13 – 16:
“You are the salt of the earth. But if the salt loses its saltiness, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything, except to be thrown out and trampled underfoot. 14 You are the light of the world. A town built on a hill cannot be hidden. 15 Neither do people light a lamp and put it under a bowl. Instead they put it on its stand, and it gives light to everyone in the house. 16 In the same way, let your light shine before others, that they may see your good deeds and glorify your Father in heaven.”
“To lay taxes to provide for the general welfare of the United States, that is to say, ‘to lay taxes for the purpose of providing for the general welfare.’ For the laying of taxes is the power, and the general welfare the purpose for which the power is to be exercised. They are not to lay taxes ad libitum for any purpose they please; but only to pay the debts or provide for the welfare of the Union.”
– Thomas Jefferson
(1743-1826), US Founding Father, drafted the Declaration of Independence, 3rd US President
“Never do today what you can put off till tomorrow. Delay may give clearer light as to what is best to be done.”
~ Aaron Burr
1401 – William Sawtree, first English religious martyr, was burned in London.
1545 – Pierre Brully, [Peter Brulius], Calvinist minister, was burned to death.
1674 – England and the Netherlands sign the Peace of Westminster, ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War. A provision of the agreement transfers the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam to England, which renamed it New York.
1803 – Congress voted to accept Ohio’s borders and constitution. However, Congress did not get around to formally ratifying Ohio statehood until 1953.
1807 – Aaron Burr, former US vice president, was arrested in Wakefield, Alabama on charges of plotting to annex Spanish territory in Louisiana and Mexico to be used toward the establishment of an independent republic. He was acquitted on the grounds that, although he had conspired against the United States, he was not guilty of treason because he had not engaged in an “overt act,” a requirement of treason as specified by the Constitution of the United States of America.
1814 – War of 1812: USS Constitution captures British brig Catherine.
1831 – First practical US coal-burning locomotive makes first trial run in Pennsylvania.
1845 – Lighthouse establishment transferred to Revenue Marine Bureau. Metal buoys were first put into service.
1846 – In Austin, Texas the newly-formed Texas state government is officially installed. The Republic of Texas government officially transfers power to the State of Texas government following Texas’ annexation by the United States. J. Pinckney Henderson took the oath of office as governor.
1847 – The Donner Party is rescued in the Sierras. It is noted that some of the survivors seem to be remarkably well-fed considering their ordeal. Rumors had it that many resorted to cannibalism to survive.
1852 – The Phi Kappa Psi fraternity is founded at Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania.
1856 – Tin-type camera patented by Hamilton Smith, Gambier, OH.
1858 – Leschi, a Nisqually American Indian leader from the Puget Sound region, was hanged a mile east of Fort Steilacoom. On June 10, 1857, he had been convicted of the murder of Abram Moses, a Territorial Militiaman, and was sentenced to hang. He was exonerated in 2004.
1859 – Daniel E. Sickles, NY congressman, was acquitted of murder on grounds of temporary insanity. This was the first time this defense was successfully used. Sickles had shot and killed Philip Barton Key, son of Francis Scott Key, author of “Star Spangled Banner.”
1861 – President-elect Lincoln traveled through New York City on his way to Washington, D.C.
1862 – Civil War: Confederates evacuated Clarksville, Tennessee.
1862 – Civil War: Trial run of two-gun ironclad U.S.S. Monitor in New York harbor.
1862 – Congress authorized cutters to enforce law forbidding importation of Chinese “coolie” labor.
1865 – Civil War: The Confederate steamer A. H. Schultz, carrying exchange prisoners between Richmond and the Varina vicinity on the James River was destroyed by a torpedo near Chaffin’s Bluff on the James River.
1866 – Congress passes the New Freedman’s Bureau bill, providing for military trials for people accused of depriving Blacks of their civil rights.
1869 – US Assay Office in Boise ID authorized. It was very costly to ship gold to the mint in San Francisco so a strong demand for either a federal mint or an assay office in Idaho.
1878 – The phonograph, “an improvement in phonograph or speaking machines,” is patented by Thomas Edison.
1881 – Kansas became the first state to prohibit all alcoholic beverages.
1884 – A series of sixty tornadoes left an estimated 800 people dead in seven US states (MS, AL, NC, SC, TN, KY and IN). It was one of the largest outbreaks in US History.
1887 – The 49th US Congress passed the Edmunds-Tucker Act. It abolished women’s suffrage, forced wives to testify against their husbands, disincorporated the LDS Church, dismantled the Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company, abolished the Nauvoo Legion, and provided that LDS Church property in excess of $50,000 would be forfeited to the United States.It is named after its sponsors, Senator George F. Edmunds of Vermont and Congressman John Randolph Tucker of Virginia. The Act was repealed in 1978.
1906 – William Kellogg established the Battle Creek Toasted Cornflake Company, selling breakfast cereals. The cereals were originally developed as a health food for psychiatric patients.Kellogg spent 2/3 of the company budget to advertise Corn Flakes.
1910 – Mary Mallon (aka Typhoid Mary) was released from 4 years of quarantine on New York’s North Brother Island. In 1914 she caused a typhus outbreak in the Sloane Maternity Hospital. She was again arrested and returned to North Brother Island where she died Nov 11, 1938.
1913 – Cracker Jack prizes are included in candy boxes for the first time.
1915 – World War I: The Battle of Gallipoli began.
1917 – World War I: American troops are recalled from the Mexican border to prepare for possible deployment to Europe. General Pershing has already been ordered off the hunt for Pancho Villa.
1921 – The U.S. Red Cross reported that approximately 20,000 children died yearly in auto accidents.
1922 – Ed Wynn became the first big-name vaudeville entertainer to sign on as a radio talent.
1925 – President Calvin Coolidge proposed the phasing out of inheritance tax.
1929 – A medical diathermy machine was first used in Schenectady, NY. Diathermy is the controlled production of “deep heating” beneath the skin in the subcutaneous tissues, deep muscles and joints for therapeutic purposes.
1934 – US contract air mail service canceled, replaced by US army for 6 months. In the process of awarding air mail contracts there appeared to be a lot of favoritism and downright corruption, many small airlines complained. The change proved to be disastrous.
1941 – Coast Guard Reserve established. Auxiliary created from former Reserve.
1941 – World War II: The Afrika Korps, the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in North Africa, was formed.
1941 – World War II: Europe: Nazi police were attacked and driven away from Koco, Amsterdam by young Jews. Nazis raided Amsterdam and rounded up 429 young Jews for deportation.
1942 – Tommy Dorsey and his orchestra recorded “I’ll Take Tallulah.”
1942 – World War II: nearly 250 Japanese warplanes attack the northern Australian city of Darwin killing between 243 to 1100 people.
1942 – World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt bypasses Congress and signs the executive order 9066, allowing the United States military to relocate Japanese-Americans to Japanese internment camps.
1942 – World War II: The Army Air Corps’ all African-American 100th Pursuit Squadron, later designated a fighter squadron, was activated at Tuskegee Institute. The squadron served honorably in England and in other regions of the European continent during World War II.
1942 – World War II: General Dwight D. Eisenhower, is appointed chief of the War Plans Division of the US Army General Staff.
1942 – World War II: New York Yankees announce 5,000 uniformed soldiers will be admitted free at each of their upcoming home games.
1943 – World War II: On Guadalcanal American reinforcements arrive as part of the buildup for the next offensive move to the Russell Islands.
1944 – World War II: The U.S. Eighth Air Force and Royal Air Force began “Big Week,” a series of heavy bomber attacks against German aircraft production facilities.
1945 – World War II: Battle of Iwo Jima – about 30,000 United States Marines land on Iwo Jima. The initial assault forces are from US 4th and 5th Marine Divisions with 3rd Marines in reserve. The 36-day battle took the lives of 7,000 Americans and about 20,000 of 22,000 Japanese defenders.
1945 – World War II: On Ramree Island off the coast of old Burma, some 900 Japanese soldiers retreated from British soldiers into an alligator filled swamp. Only about 20 men survived.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Symphony” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Clyde Rogers), “I Can’t Begin to Tell You” by Bing Crosby with the Carmen Cavallaro Orchestra, “Aren’t You Glad You’re You” by Bing Crosby and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1949 – Ezra Pound won the Bollingen Prize. He was an American expatriate poet and critic, and a major figure in the early modernist movement in poetry.
1949 – “A Little Bird Told Me” by Evelyn Knight topped the charts.
1953 – State of Georgia approves the first literature censorship board in the United States.
1955 – “Sincerely” by the McGuire Sisters topped the charts.
1955 – Dot Records launched “Two Hearts, Two Kisses, One Love“, the first single by Pat Boone.
1958 -Really nasty weather in Minneapolis, MN, hail the size of baseballs was reported with flash lightning.
1959 – USAF rocket-powered rail sled attains Mach 4.1 (3,088 mph), New Mexico.
1960 – Bill Keane’s “Family Circus” cartoon strip debuts.
1960 – UniversityC Regents retracted the following question from an English aptitude test for high school applicants: “What are the dangers to a democracy of a national police organization, like the FBI, which operates secretly and is unresponsive to public criticism.” FBI director J. Edgar Hoover had organized a covert public relations campaign and put pressure on Gov. Brown to retract the question.
1960 – California Gov. Edmund G. Brown gave a 60-day stay of execution for San Quentin inmate Caryl Chessman (39), convicted sex offender and best-selling author, “The Red Light Bandit.”
1963 – The Soviet Union informed President John F. Kennedy it would withdraw “several thousand” of its troops in Cuba.
1964 – Paul Simon writes “The Sounds of Silence,” the song which, in a year and a half, will catapult him and Art Garfunkel to stardom as Simon & Garfunkel.
1966 – “Lightnin’ Strikes” by Lou Christie topped the charts.
1968 – National Educational Television (the predecessor to the Public Broadcasting Service in the United States) debuts the children’s television program Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood .
1969 – Elvis Presley recorded the Eddie Rabbit song “Kentucky Rain.”
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Thank You (Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin)/Everybody is a Star” by Sly & The Family Stone, “Hey There Lonely Girl” by Eddie Holman, “No Time” by The Guess Who and “It’s Just a Matter of Time” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1970 – American League Cy Young winner Denny McLain suspended for book-making. It was for alleged involvement in a bookmaking operation. The suspension lasted three months.
1970 – Nautel introduced first solid state Radio Beacon Transmitter.
1972 – “Without You” by Nilsson topped the charts.
1974 – Dick Clark premiered the “American Music Awards.”
1977 – “Blinded by the Light” by Manfred Mann’s Earth Band topped the charts.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Stayin’ Alive” by the Bee Gees, “(Love Is) Thicker Than Water” by Andy Gibb, “Just the Way You Are” by Billy Joel and “Don’t Break the Heart that Loves You” by Margo Smith all topped the charts.
1981 – The U.S. State Department called El Salvador a “textbook case” of a Communist plot.
1981 – Ford Motor Company announced a loss of $1.5 billion.
1983 – “Baby, Come to Me” by Patti Austin & James Ingram topped the charts.
1983 – MASS SHOOTING: A shooting at the Wah Mee gambling parlor in Seattle, Wa., left 13 men dead. Kwan-Fai Mak and Benjamin Ng were later found guilty on 13 murder counts.
1985 – Artificial heart patient William J. Schroeder becomes the first such patient to leave hospital. He spent 15 minutes outside Humana Hospital in Louisville, Ky.
1985 – Cherry Coke was introduced by the Coca-Cola Company.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “How Will I Know” by Whitney Houston, “When the Going Gets Tough, the Tough Get Going” by Billy Ocean, “Kyrie” by Mr. Mister and “Makin’ Up for Lost Time (The Dallas Lovers’ Song)” by Crystal Gayle & Gary Morris all topped the charts.
1986 – The Soviet Union launches the Mir space station.
1986 – After waiting 37 years, the United States Senate approves a treaty outlawing genocide.
1986 – In the San Francisco Bay Area water breached a levee on the 8,800 acre Tyler Island wiping out crops and nearly destroying the Mello family’s farming business.
1987 – Anti-smoking ad airs for first time on TV, featuring Yul Brynner. This was made just before he died of lung cancer and he had expressed a desire to make an anti-smoking commercial.
1987 – President Ronald Reagan lifts trade sanctions against Poland when the Communist government releases political prisoners.
1987 – Fidel Castro resigns; younger brother Raul to succeed. See 2008.
1988 – A group calling itself the “Organization of the Oppressed on Earth” claimed responsibility for the kidnapping in Lebanon of U.S. Marine Lt. Col. William R. Higgins. This group is a pseudonym for or a splinter of Hezbollah.
1988 – The Coast Guard Cutter Mallow made the largest drug bust in Hawaiian waters to date. A boarding team from Mallow discovered 454 55-pound bales of marijuana aboard.
1992 – John Singleton, the first African American director to be nominated for the Academy Award is nominated for best director and best screenplay for his first film “Boyz N the Hood.”
1992 – “Crazy For You” opened at Shubert Theater in New York City for 1622 performances.
1992 – Peter Collins of Boulder, Colo., discovered Nova Cygni 1992.
1994 – American speedskater Bonnie Blair won the fourth Olympic gold medal of her career as she won the 500-meter race in Lillehammer, Norway.
1993 – President Clinton’s economic plan won praise from Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan. The president, visiting Hyde Park, N.Y., suggested the United States might have to consider a national sales tax “not too long in the future,” then said he’d meant in 10 years or so.
1994 – American speedskater Bonnie Blair won the fourth Olympic gold medal of her career as she won the 500-meter race in Lillehammer, Norway.
1996 – President Clinton told Monica Lewinsky that their relationship must end. It was later resumed.
1997 – FCC made available 311 for non-emergency calls & 711 for hearing or speech-impaired emergency calls.
1997 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In southwestern Alaska Evan Ramsey (16) opened fire with a Mossberg 500 12-gauge shotgun as students assembled in a high school lobby, killing two people, a principal and 16-year-old classmate, wounding two others, in Bethel, a town of 6,000. Ramsey was sentenced to a 198-year prison term.
1998 – Federal officials in Henderson, Nevada, arrested Larry Wayne Harris and William Job Leavitt for possession of suspected anthrax bacterium.
1999 – President Clinton posthumously pardoned Henry O. Flipper, the first African-American graduate of West Point, whose military career was tarnished by a racially motivated discharge.
1999 – Ohio inmate Wilford Berry, “The Volunteer”, became the first inmate to be executed in Ohio since 1963.
1999 – An explosion in Allentown, Pa., at a chemical processing plant in the Lehigh Valley Industrial Park, killed 5 people and injured 14.
1999 – In Sylacauga, Alabama, Billy Jack Gaither (39), a textile warehouse worker, was abducted, beaten to death with an ax handle and burned on a pile of burning tires due to a sexual advance.
2000 – Physicists described the possible detection of a neutralino particle, also called a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP).
2001 – An Oklahoma City bombing museum is dedicated at the Oklahoma City National Memorial.
2002 – Vonetta Flowers became the first African-American gold medalist in the history of the Winter Olympic Games. She and partner Jull Brakken won the inaugural women’s two-person bobsled event.
2002 – The US Supreme Court approved peer grading in schools. Owasso Independent School District v. Falvo, 534 U.S. 426 (2002), was a case that held (in favor of the school district) that allowing students to score each other’s tests and call out the grades does not violate the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA).
2002 – NASA’s Mars Odyssey space probe begins to map the surface of Mars using its thermal emission imaging system.
2003 – In West Warwick, RI, 99 people were killed when fire destroyed the nightclub “The Station.” The fire started with sparks from a pyrotechnic display being used by Great White. Ty Longley, guitarist for Great White, was one of the victims in the fire.
2003 – Missouri Rep. Dick Gephardt announced his second candidacy for president with a pledge to repeal most of President Bush’s tax cuts.
2004 – Former Enron CEO Jeffrey Skilling surrenders to the FBI in Houston and is arraigned on charges of fraud and insider trading.
2004 – Nazi-hunter Simon Wiesenthal is awarded an honorary knighthood in recognition of a “lifetime of service to humanity.”
2004 – The AFL-CIO endorsed Democrat John Kerry for president.
2005 – The USS Jimmy Carter was commissioned at Groton, CT. It was the last of the Seawolf class of attack submarines. It is the most heavily armed submarine ever built.
2005 – In Arkansas a train slammed into an ambulance that apparently tried to get out of its path, but stopped at a rail crossing, killing all three paramedics on board. The patient in the vehicle survived.
2006 – Jimmie Johnson won the Daytona 500.
2006 – The East rallied from 21 points down for a 122-120 victory over the West in the NBA All-Star Game.
2008- Cuban leader Fidel Castro said Tuesday that he will not return to lead the country, retiring as head of state 49 years after he seized power in an armed revolution. The announcement was posted in a letter to readers on the website of the state-run newspaper Granma.
2008 – San Francisco-based Sharper Image retailer filed for bankruptcy protection.
2008 – In southwestern Minnesota a woman driving a van crashed into a school bus, killing four students. Olga Marino Franco del Cid (24) of Minnesota, was later charged in state court with four counts of criminal vehicular homicide.
2009 – Barack Obama made his first foreign trip as president to Canada where he sought to quell Canadian concerns about US protectionism.
2009 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 89.68 to 7465.95, a new 6-year low.
2009 – In Pennsylvania Roger Leon Barlow (19) was charged with setting nine fires in arson-prone Coatesville, 35 miles west of Philadelphia.
2010 – From Ponte Vedra Beach, Fla. Golf star Tiger Woods faced the world and formally apologized for his infidelity.
2011 – Pirates seize a yacht with four Americans off the coast of Oman.
2011 – Governor of Wisconsin Scott Walker rejects union concessions on the state budget as protests continue in the state capital.
2012 – ESPN admits two other instances in which it referred to the American basketball player Jeremy Lin by the racial slur “chink”. It comes after yesterday’s controversial “Chink in the Armor” headline.
2012 – Whitney Houston is buried at Fairview Cemetery in Westfield, New Jersey, USA.
2013 – U.S. Federal Court hits President Barack Hussein Obama with three charges of abuse of office. The indictments assert that President Obama “acted as a dictator” to exceed his powers of office. President Barack Obama violated the Constitution when he bypassed the Senate last year to appoint three members of the National Labor Relations Board, a federal appeals court decided.
2013 – Two people are missing and at least 14 injured after a car struck a gas main causing an explosion at the Country Club Plaza in Kansas City, Missouri.
1473 – Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikolaj Kopernick), Polish astronomer, known as the “Father of Modern Astronomy.”
1865 – Sven Hedin, Swedish explorer of Tibet, scientist.
1912 – Stan Kenton, American jazz bandleader.
1912 – Saul Chaplin, was one of Hollywood’s preeminent composers and musical directors. he won four Oscars for collaborating on the scores and orchestrations of An American in Paris (1951), Seven Brides for Seven Brothers (1954) and West Side Story (1961). (d. 1997)
1916 – Eddie Arcaro, known professionally as Eddie Arcaro, was an American Thoroughbred horse racing Hall of Fame jockey who won more American Classic Races than any other jockey in history and is the only rider to have won the U.S. Triple Crown twice. (d. 1997)
1924 – Lee Marvin, was an American film actor. Known for his gravelly voice, white hair and 6’2″ stature (d. 1987)
1940 – Smokey Robinson is an American R&B and soul singer-songwriter, record producer, and former record executive. Robinson is noted for being one of the primary figures associated with Motown Records.
1946 – Karen Silkwood, was an American labor union activist and chemical technician at the Kerr-McGee plant near Crescent, Oklahoma. She died under mysterious circumstances after investigating claims of irregularities and wrongdoing at the Kerr-McGee plant. (d. 1974)
ZABITOSKY, FRED WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class (then S/Sgt.), U.S. Army, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne). Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, February 19, 1968. Entered service at: Trenton, N.J. Born: 27 October 1942, Trenton, N.J. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sfc. Zabitosky, U.S. Army, distinguished himself while serving as an assistant team leader of a 9-man Special Forces long-range reconnaissance patrol. Sfc. Zabitosky’s patrol was operating deep within enemy-controlled territory when they were attacked by a numerically superior North Vietnamese Army unit. Sfc. Zabitosky rallied his team members, deployed them into defensive positions, and, exposing himself to concentrated enemy automatic weapons fire, directed their return fire. Realizing the gravity of the situation, Sfc. Zabitosky ordered his patrol to move to a landing zone for helicopter extraction while he covered their withdrawal with rifle fire and grenades. Rejoining the patrol under increasing enemy pressure, he positioned each man in a tight perimeter defense and continually moved from man to man, encouraging them and controlling their defensive fire. Mainly due to his example, the outnumbered patrol maintained its precarious position until the arrival of tactical air support and a helicopter extraction team. As the rescue helicopters arrived, the determined North Vietnamese pressed their attack. Sfc. Zabitosky repeatedly exposed himself to their fire to adjust suppressive helicopter gunship fire around the landing zone. After boarding one of the rescue helicopters, he positioned himself in the door delivering fire on the enemy as the ship took off. The helicopter was engulfed in a hail of bullets and Sfc. Zabitosky was thrown from the craft as it spun out of control and crashed. Recovering consciousness, he ignored his extremely painful injuries and moved to the flaming wreckage. Heedless of the danger of exploding ordnance and fuel, he pulled the severely wounded pilot from the searing blaze and made repeated attempts to rescue his patrol members but was driven back by the intense heat. Despite his serious burns and crushed ribs, he carried and dragged the unconscious pilot through a curtain of enemy fire to within ten feet of a hovering rescue helicopter before collapsing. Sfc. Zabitosky’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*COLE, DARRELL SAMUEL
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 20 July 1920, Flat River, Mo. Entered service at. Esther, Mo. other Navy award: Bronze Star Medal. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as leader of a Machinegun Section of Company B, 1st Battalion, 23d Marines, 4th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces during the assault on Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands, February 19, 1945. Assailed by a tremendous volume of small-arms, mortar and artillery fire as he advanced with one squad of his section in the initial assault wave, Sgt. Cole boldly led his men up the sloping beach toward Airfield No. 1 despite the blanketing curtain of flying shrapnel and, personally destroying with hand grenades two hostile emplacements which menaced the progress of his unit, continued to move forward until a merciless barrage of fire emanating from three Japanese pillboxes halted the advance. Instantly placing his one remaining machinegun in action, he delivered a shattering fusillade and succeeded in silencing the nearest and most threatening emplacement before his weapon jammed and the enemy, reopening fire with knee mortars and grenades, pinned down his unit for the second time. Shrewdly gauging the tactical situation and evolving a daring plan of counterattack, Sgt. Cole, armed solely with a pistol and one grenade, coolly advanced alone to the hostile pillboxes. Hurling his one grenade at the enemy in sudden, swift attack, he quickly withdrew, returned to his own lines for additional grenades and again advanced, attacked, and withdrew. With enemy guns still active, he ran the gauntlet of slashing fire a third time to complete the total destruction of the Japanese strong point and the annihilation of the defending garrison in this final assault. Although instantly killed by an enemy grenade as he returned to his squad, Sgt. Cole had eliminated a formidable Japanese position, thereby enabling his company to storm the remaining fortifications, continue the advance, and seize the objective. By his dauntless initiative, unfaltering courage, and indomitable determination during a critical period of action, Sgt. Cole served as an inspiration to his comrades, and his stouthearted leadership in the face of almost certain death sustained and enhanced the highest tradition of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
JOHNSTON, WILLIAM J.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company G, 180th Infantry, 45th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Padiglione, Italy, February 17th-February 19, 1944. Entered service at: Colchester, Conn. Birth: Trenton, N.J. G.O. No.: 73, 6 September 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. On 17 February 1944, near Padiglione, Italy, he observed and fired upon an attacking force of approximately eighty Germans, causing at least twenty-five casualties and forcing withdrawal of the remainder. All that day he manned his gun without relief, subject to mortar, artillery, and sniper fire. Two Germans individually worked so close to his position that his machinegun was ineffective, whereupon he killed one with his pistol, the second with a rifle taken from another soldier. When a rifleman protecting his gun position was killed by a sniper, he immediately moved the body and relocated the machinegun in that spot in order to obtain a better field of fire. He volunteered to cover the platoon’s withdrawal and was the last man to leave that night. In his new position he maintained an all-night vigil, the next day causing seven German casualties. On the afternoon of the 18th, the organization on the left flank having been forced to withdraw, he again covered the withdrawal of his own organization. Shortly thereafter, he was seriously wounded over the heart, and a passing soldier saw him trying to crawl up the embankment. The soldier aided him to resume his position behind the machinegun which was soon heard in action for about ten minutes. Though reported killed, Pfc. Johnston was seen returning to the American lines on the morning of 19 February slowly and painfully working his way back from his overrun position through enemy lines. He gave valuable information of new enemy dispositions. His heroic determination to destroy the enemy and his disregard of his own safety aided immeasurably in halting a strong enemy attack, caused an enormous amount of enemy casualties, and so inspired his fellow soldiers that they fought for and held a vitally important position against greatly superior forces.
McCARTER, LLOYD G.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, 503d Parachute Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Corregidor, Philippine Islands, February 16th-February 19th, 1945. Entered service at: Tacoma, Wash. Born: 11 May 1917, St. Maries, Idaho. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He was a scout with the regiment which seized the fortress of Corregidor, Philippine Islands. Shortly after the initial parachute assault on 16 February 1945, he crossed thirty yards of open ground under intense enemy fire, and at pointblank range silenced a machinegun with hand grenades. On the afternoon of 18 February he killed six snipers. That evening, when a large force attempted to bypass his company, he voluntarily moved to an exposed area and opened fire. The enemy attacked his position repeatedly throughout the night and was each time repulsed. By 2 o’clock in the morning, all the men about him had been wounded; but shouting encouragement to his comrades and defiance at the enemy, he continued to bear the brunt of the attack, fearlessly exposing himself to locate enemy soldiers and then pouring heavy fire on them. He repeatedly crawled back to the American line to secure more ammunition. When his submachine gun would no longer operate, he seized an automatic rifle and continued to inflict heavy casualties. This weapon, in turn, became too hot to use and, discarding it, he continued with an M-l rifle. At dawn the enemy attacked with renewed intensity. Completely exposing himself to hostile fire, he stood erect to locate the most dangerous enemy positions. He was seriously wounded; but, though he had already killed more than thirty of the enemy, he refused to evacuate until he had pointed out immediate objectives for attack. Through his sustained and outstanding heroism in the face of grave and obvious danger, Pvt. McCarter made outstanding contributions to the success of his company and to the recapture of Corregidor.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 30 September 1921, Dayton, Ohio. Accredited to: Ohio. citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with Company A, 1st Battalion, 28th Marines, 5th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo Jima, in the Volcano Islands, February 19,1945. The first man of his unit to be on station after hitting the beach in the initial assault, Cpl. Stein, armed with a personally improvised aircraft-type weapon, provided rapid covering fire as the remainder of his platoon attempted to move into position. When his comrades were stalled by a concentrated machinegun and mortar barrage, he gallantly stood upright and exposed himself to the enemy’s view, thereby drawing the hostile fire to his own person and enabling him to observe the location of the furiously blazing hostile guns. Determined to neutralize the strategically placed weapons, he boldly charged the enemy pillboxes one by one and succeeded in killing twenty of the enemy during the furious single-handed assault. Cool and courageous under the merciless hail of exploding shells and bullets which fell on all sides, he continued to deliver the fire of his skillfully improvised weapon at a tremendous rate of speed which rapidly exhausted his ammunition. Undaunted, he removed his helmet and shoes to expedite his movements and ran back to the beach for additional ammunition, making a total of eight trips under intense fire and carrying or assisting a wounded man back each time. Despite the unrelenting savagery and confusion of battle, he rendered prompt assistance to his platoon whenever the unit was in position, directing the fire of a half-track against a stubborn pillbox until he had effected the ultimate destruction of the Japanese fortification. Later in the day, although his weapon was twice shot from his hands, he personally covered the withdrawal of his platoon to the company position. Stouthearted and indomitable, Cpl. Stein, by his aggressive initiative sound judgment, and unwavering devotion to duty in the face of terrific odds, contributed materially to the fulfillment of his mission, and his outstanding valor throughout the bitter hours of conflict sustains and enhances the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
HISTORY OF CHERRIES
Cherries have been favorites of food lovers for centuries. Cherries were brought to
Modern day cherry production began in the mid-1800s. Peter Dougherty was a Presbyterian missionary living in northern Michigan. In 1852, he planted cherry trees on Old Mission Peninsula (near Traverse City, Michigan). Much to the surprise of the other farmers and Indians who lived in the area, Dougherty’s cherry trees flourished and soon other residents of the area planted trees. The area proved to be ideal for growing cherries because Lake Michigan tempers Arctic winds in winter and cools the orchards in summer.
The first commercial tart cherry orchards in Michigan were planted in 1893 on Ridgewood Farm near the site of Dougherty’s original plantings. By the early 1900s, the tart cherry industry was firmly established in the state with orchards not only in the Traverse City area, but all along Lake Michigan from Benton Harbor to Elk Rapids. Soon production surpassed other major crops. The first cherry processing facility, Traverse City Canning Company, was built just south of Traverse City, and the ruby-red fruit was soon shipped to Chicago, Detroit and Milwaukee.
In the Northwestern part of the United States, cherry orchards also flourished. In 1847, Henderson Lewelling planted an orchard in western Oregon, using nursery stock that he had transported by ox cart from Iowa. Lewelling Farms became known for its sweet cherries with orchards coming into production during the 1870s and 80s.
The most famous sweet cherry variety is the Bing cherry; this cherry variety got its name from one of Lewelling’s Chinese workmen. Another sweet cherry variety is the Lambert, which also got its start on Lewelling Farms. The Rainier cherry, a light sweet variety, originated from the cross breeding of the Bing and Van varieties by Dr. Harold W. Fogle at the Washington State University Research Station in Prosser, Washington. The Bing, Lambert and Rainier varieties together account for more than 95 percent of the Northwest sweet cherry production.
Galatians 5:22-23New King James Version (NKJV)
But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control. Against such there is no law.
“If we wish to be free, if we mean to preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending, if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and which we have pledged ourselves never to abandon until the glorious object of our contest shall be obtained – we must fight!”
“The truest greatness lies in being kind, the truest wisdom in a happy mind.”
~ Ella Wheeler Wilcox
sonorous suh-NOR-uhs; SAH-nuh-rus, adjective:
1. Giving sound when struck; resonant; as, sonorous metals.
2. Loud-sounding; giving a clear or loud sound; as, a sonorous voice.
3. Yielding sound; characterized by sound; as, the vowels are sonorous.
4.Impressive in sound; high-sounding.
1229 – The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy.
1493 – Columbus landed on the island of Santa Maria, the southernmost island of the Portuguese-controlled Azores.
1678 – John Bunyan’s “The Pilgrim’s Progress” is published. The Pilgrim’s Progress was read in virtually every Victorian home and remains a best seller for youth and adults alike. His works are considered devotional classics among Christian literature.
1685 – Fort St. Louis is established by a Frenchman at Matagorda Bay thus forming the basis for France’s claim to Texas.
1688 – At a Quaker meeting in Germantown, Pa, German Mennonites penned a memorandum stating a profound opposition to Negro slavery. Quakers in Germantown, Pa., adopted the first formal antislavery resolution in America.
1735 – First opera performed in America, “Flora”, in Charleston SC.
1804 – First US land-grant college, Ohio University, Athens OH, chartered.
1814 – The British schooner “Phoenix” fell to US Marines of the USS Constitution.
1823 – Mexican Emperor Augustin de Iturbide reconfirms the land grant made by the governor of New Spain to the late Moses Austin, made transferable to his son, Stephen F. Austin. This tract along the Rio Grande will become home to over 300 families brought in by Austin in 1825.
1841 – The first ongoing filibuster in the United States Senate begins and lasts until March 11.The Democratic minority tried to block a bank bill favored by the Whig majority by using this political tactic.
1845 – John Chapman, aka Johnny Appleseed, died in Allen County, Indiana.
1846 – “It having been represented to the (Navy) Department, that confusion arises from the use of the words “Larboard” and “Starboard,” in consequence of the similarity of sound, the word “Port” is hereafter to be substituted for “Larboard.”–Navy Department General Order.
1849 – First regular steamboat service to San Francisco CA starts: gold rush prospectors from east coast.
1850 – The California state legislature created the original 18 counties.
1850 – The city of San Francisco was incorporated.
1856 – The American Party (Know-Nothings) convene in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to nominate their first Presidential candidate, former President Millard Fillmore.
1861 – Civil War: In Montgomery, Alabama, Jefferson Davis is inaugurated as the provisional President of the Confederate States of America.
1864 – Civil War: President Lincoln ended the blockade of Brownsville, Texas, and opened the port for trade.
1865 – CIVIL WAR: Union forces under Major General William T. Sherman set the South Carolina State House on fire during the burning of Columbia.
1865 – Civil War: Following the fall of Fort Fisher at the mouth of the river, Union forces re-positioned for an attack on Fort Anderson, N.C on the Cape Fear River.
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Ft. Moultrie, SC.
1878 – The Lincoln County War begins in Lincoln County, New Mexico. It began with the murder of Billy the Kid’s mentor, Englishman rancher John Tunstall. Outlaw Jesse Evans of the James J. Dolan gang gunned down Tunstall in Lincoln, N.M.
1879 – Auguste Bartholdi was granted a design patent for the Statue of Liberty.
1885 – Mark Twain’s Adventures of “Huckleberry Finn” is published for the first time.
1896 – Cave of Winds at Niagara Falls goes almost dry for first time in 50 years.
1896 – Black American H. Grenon received Patent No. 554,867 for a “Razor Stropping Device.”
1901 – Winston Churchill makes his first speech in the British House of Commons.
1901 – H Cecil Booth patented a dust removing suction cleaner.
1907 – In San Francisco according to an agreement between Mayor Schmidt, Pres. Theodore Roosevelt and the San Francisco School Board, Japanese children under 16 were to be admitted to the city’s public schools. Skilled and unskilled laborers from Japan were to be banned from entering the US and American laborers were to be excluded from Japan.
1908 – First US postage stamps in coils issued.
1922 – Kenesaw Mountain Landis resigns his judgeship to work for baseball. Landis was selected to become the first Commissioner of Major League Baseball, serving from 1920 until his death in 1944. The position was created to restore public confidence in the integrity of baseball following the 1919 Black Sox scandal.
1927 – Singer Jessica Dragonette starred on radio’s “Cities Service Concerts” (sponsored by the oil company of the same name,)
1929 – First Academy Awards are announced. The ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 1927 and 1928 and took place on May 16, 1929, at a private dinner held at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in Los Angeles,California.
1930 – While studying photographs taken in January, Clyde Tombaugh discovers the planet Pluto.Tombaugh also discovered many asteroids and he called for the serious scientific research of unidentified flying objects, or “U.F.O.s”.
1930 – Elm Farm “Ollie” becomes the first cow to fly in a fixed-wing aircraft and also the first cow to be milked in an aircraft. It was as part of the International Air Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri. The aircraft, a Ford Trimotor, covered 72 miles from Bismarck, Missouri, to St. Louis.
1932 – Sonja Henie won her sixth world women’s figure skating title in Montreal, Canada.
1932 – In San Francisco, federal prohibition agents seized the offices and storehouses of two wholesale liquor setups: The Chicago Specialty Company at 724 Montgomery St. and J.C. Millet at 241 Clay St. The raids were aimed at breaking up a major bootlegging ring said to be headed by Johnny Marino.
1938 – “The Big Broadcast of 1938” was released.
1939 – The Golden Gate International Exposition opened on Treasure Island in the San Francisco Bay.
1940 – The American Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, applies the American “moral embargo” to the USSR.
1942 – The Mills Brothers recorded “Paper Doll” on Decca records.
1942 – The Free French submarine Surcouf (then the largest submarine in the world) is sunk in a collision with a US merchant ship.
1943 – World War II: Munich resistance group “White Rose” was captured by Nazis. The White Rose was a law abiding, non-violent, intellectual resistance group in Nazi Germany, consisting of students from the University of Munich and their philosophy professor. The group became known for an anonymous leaflet and graffiti campaign.
1943 – Groundbreaking ceremony in Oak Ridge, TN for the first uranium 235 plant. The uranium manufacturing facility cost $280,000,000 to build and was completed in the summer of 1944.
1943 – World War II: Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels delivers his Sportpalast speech.This speech was a speech delivered at the Berlin Sportpalast to a large but carefully selected audience calling for a total war, as the tide of World War II had turned against Nazi Germany and its Axis allies.
1943 – World War II: The new American 6th Army, commanded by General Krueger, become operational in the southwest Pacific.
1943– World War II: A US Task Group (Admiral McMorris) with two cruisers and four destroyers bombards Japanese positions on Attu Island.
1943– World War II: Rommel took three towns in Tunisia, North Africa. The intercepted communications of an American in Cairo provided a secret ear for the Desert Fox.
1944 – President Roosevelt vetoes the Bankhead Bill which proposed to end food subsidies. The veto is upheld by the House of Representatives.
1944 – World War II: American forces continue their raid on the Japanese base at Truk. Over the course of the two days, US aircraft log 1250 sorties.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Fence Me In” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “Accentuate the Positive” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “I Dream of You” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Freddy Stewart) and “I’m Losing My Mind Over You” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: All US Third Army units attacked. The German Siegfried Line is broken north of Echternach by US 8th Corps while both US 12th and 20th Corps, to the south, are advancing.
1945 – World War II: While most of US Task Force 58 is replenishing, one group of four carriers commanded by Admiral Radford attacks Haha Jima and Chichi Jima.
1945 – World War II: U.S. Marines stormed ashore at Iwo Jima (2/18-19). About 60,000 US Marines went ashore at Iwo Jima, an 8-sq. mile island of rock, volcanic ash and black sand. The 36-day battle took the lives of 7,000 Americans and about 20,000 of 22,000 Japanese defenders.
1949 – “Yours Truly Johnny Dollar” (1:09:47) debuted on CBS radio.
1950 – “Rag Mop” by the Ames Brothers topped the charts.
1951 – “Tennessee Waltz” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: An enemy shore battery scored a hit on the destroyer USS Ozbourn and wounded two sailors. This was the first time a U.S. Navy ship operating in the vicinity of Wonsan had been hit by gunfire from a shore battery.
1952 – Two tanker ships broke apart off Cape Cod. 14 men died in the wrecks, 9 of 41 on the Pendleton and 5 of 43 on the Fort Mercer.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” by Perry Como, “Till I Waltz Again with You” by Teresa Brewer, “Keep It a Secret” by Jo Stafford and “I Let the Stars Get in My Eyes” by Goldie Hill all topped the charts.
1953 – Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz signed a contract worth $8,000,000 to continue the “I Love Lucy” TV show through 1955.
1953 – “Bwana Devil,” the movie that heralded the 3D fad of the 1950s, opened in New York City.
1955 – Operation Teapot begins. It is a series of fourteen nuclear detonations to determine the effects of nuclear weapons on a variety of materials and in a variety of conditions begins with detonation Wasp. The Teapot test shot “Wasp” is successfully detonated at the Nevada Test Site with a yield of 1.2 kilotons.
1959 – Elvis Presley appeared after hours at the Lido Club in Paris while on leave from the U.S. Army.
1959 – Ray Charles recorded “What’d I Say.”
1960 – The Eighth Winter Olympic Games were formally opened in Squaw Valley, Calif., by Vice President Nixon. A drought of snow ended 2 days before the start of the games.
1960 – Walter O’Malley, Los Angeles Dodger owner, purchases Chavez Ravine for $494,000. It was only worth $92,500.
1962 – Robert F. Kennedy said that U.S. troops would stay in Vietnam until Communism was defeated.
1964 – “Any Wednesday” opened at the Music Box Theatre in New York City. The play established Gene Hackman as an actor.
1964 – The United States cuts off military assistance to Britain, France, and Yugoslavia in retaliation for their continuing trade with the communist nation of Cuba. The action was chiefly symbolic, but represented the continued U.S. effort to destabilize the Cuban regime of Fidel Castro.
1965 – Alabama police were sent to Marion as some 500 people marched from a church toward the city jail to protest the jailing of a civil rights worker. Street lights went out and troopers began swinging clubs on the marchers. Jimmie Lee Jackson (26) was shot while aiding his grandfather (82) and mother. Jackson died 2 days later.
1967 – “Kind of a Drag” by the Buckinghams topped the charts.
1968 – Vietnam War: Three U.S. pilots who were held by the Vietnamese arrived in Washington.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Everyday People” by Sly & The Family Stone, “Touch Me” by The Doors, “Build Me Up Buttercup” by The Foundations and “Until My Dreams Come True” by Jack Greene all topped the charts.
1969 – Hawthorne Nevada Airlines Flight 708 disaster. The aircraft crashed into the tallest mountain in the contiguous United States, Mount Whitney, near Lone Pine, killing all 35 passengers and crew on board.
1970 – The Chicago Seven are found not guilty of conspiring to incite riots at the 1968 Democratic Party national convention.
1972 – The California Supreme Court in the case of People v. Anderson, 6 Cal.3d 628 invalidates the state’s death penalty and commutes the sentences of all death row inmates to life in prison.
1973 – A 119 lb octopus measuring 23 feet across captured in Hood Canal, Washington.
1976 – President Gerald Ford signed Executive Order #11905 prohibiting US officials from plotting or engaging in political assassination. The order was later broadened by Presidents Carter and Reagan.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Torn Between Two Lovers” by Mary MacGregor, “New Kid in Town” by the Eagles, “Blinded by the Light” by Manfred Mann’s Earth Band and “Near You” by George Jones & Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1977 – The Space Shuttle “Enterprise” test vehicle goes on its maiden “flight” while sitting on top of a Boeing 747.
1978 – “Stayin’ Alive” by the Bee Gees topped the charts. In 2012 it was determined that the “beat” to this song was perfect for training CPR students on the speed of chest compressions.
1979 – The miniseries “Roots: Next Generations” premiered on ABC TV. (This was very offensive.)
1983 – MASS SHOOTING: Thirteen people die and one is seriously injured in the Wah Mee Massacre in Seattle, Washington, said to be the largest robbery-motivated mass-murder in American history. The Wah Mee massacre was a multiple homicide in which Kwan Fai “Willie” Mak, Wai-Chiu “Tony” Ng, and Benjamin Ng gunned down 14 people in the Wah Mee gambling club.
1984 – “Karma Chameleon” by the Culture Club topped the charts.
1984 – Reed Larson (Detroit Red Wings) got two assists to become the highest scoring, American-born player in the history of the National Hockey League.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Careless Whisper” by Wham! featuring George Michael, “Loverboy” by Billy Ocean, “Method of Modern Love” by Daryl Hall John Oates and “Make My Life with You” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1985 – General William Westmoreland and CBS, INC. reach an out-of-court settlement in Westmoreland’s $120 million libel suit in which he charged that a CBS documentary falsely accused him of misrepresenting the strength of Vietcong forces.
1987 – The executives of the Girl Scout movement decided to change the color of the scout uniform from the traditional Girl Scout green to the newer Girl Scout blue.
1987 – The song “Sign O’ The Times” was released by Prince.
1988 – Anthony M. Kennedy was sworn in as the 104th justice of the Supreme Court.
1998 – Two white separatists are arrested in Nevada and accused of plotting a biological attack on New York City subways.
1986 – San Antonio’s Alvin Robertson scores NBA 2nd quadruple double- 20 points, 11 rebounds, 10 assists & 10 steals against Phoenix. The NBA only recognizes four in basketball history.
1989 – “Straight Up” by Paula Abdul topped the charts.
1994 – At the Winter Olympic Games in Norway, speedskater Dan Jansen finally won a gold medal, breaking the world record in the 1,000 meters.
1997 – Shuttle Discovery Astronauts completed their tuneup of the Hubble Space Telescope.
1997 – It was reported that scientists found evidence that upheld the theory of an asteroid hitting the Earth 65 million years ago in seabed drill sediments 300 miles off the coast of northern Florida.
1999 – The Clinton administration warned Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic to choose peace with ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, or face a devastating military strike.
2000 – Mariano Faget (54), a 34-year US immigration officer in Miami, was reported to be a Cuban spy. Faget was found guilty of disclosing government secrets May 30.
2000 – Ford Motor Co. agreed to pay $3.8 million in a settlement with the Labor Dept. over charges of discrimination in hiring against women and minorities at seven plants.
2000 – Announcer Bob Hite Sr. (86), whose rich voice introduced “The Lone Ranger” on radio, died in West Palm Beach, Fla.
2001 – FBI agent Robert Hanssen is arrested for spying for the Soviet Union. He was ultimately convicted and sentenced to life in prison.
2001 – Dale Earnhardt is killed in a crash during the final lap of the Daytona 500, which was won by Michael Waltrip, driving in a car that Earnhardt owned. His son, Dale Earnhardt, Jr. finished second.
2004 – Scientists reported that X-rays from galaxy RX J1242-11 indicated a black hole tearing apart a star and gobbling up a share of its gaseous mass.
2004 – The US federal debt passed the $7 trillion mark.
2005 – The United Kingdom law banning fox hunting, hare coursing and other sports which kill wild mammals is enforced from this date.
2005 – President George W. Bush signed the US Class Action Fairness Act. It expanded federal jurisdiction over many large class-action lawsuits and mass actions taken in the United States.
2005 – Mathematics: The 42nd known Mersenne prime is discovered by Martin Nowak of Germany. The prime number is the largest known Mersenne prime at the time of its discovery, and is nearly eight million digits long. That makes this number in Pica 10, over 25 miles long.
2006 – Thousands of people remained without power after a winter storm packing wind gusts of up to 77 mph rolled across the Northeast US, downing trees and power lines. Four people were killed.
2007 – The United States sent eight more US F-22 stealth fighter planes to the southern Japanese island of Okinawa in their first full deployment overseas.
2007 – Eight U.S. troops are killed and fourteen wounded in a helicopter crash in south-eastern Afghanistan.
2009 – The Federal Reserve cut its economic outlook for 2009 on Wednesday and warned that the United States economy would face an “unusually gradual and prolonged” period of recovery as the country struggles to climb out of a deep global downturn.
2009 – A Florida jury ordered Philip Morris to pay $8 million in damages to Elaine Hess, the widow of a smoker who died of lung cancer.
2009 – A Columbian mammoth is discovered in the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California.
2009 – General Motors will cut 47,000 jobs throughout 2009.
2010 – A small private plane is intentionally crashed into an office building in Austin, Texas. Andrew Joseph Stack III, flying his Piper Dakota, crashed into Building I of the Echelon office complex in a suicide attempt killing himself and Internal Revenue Service manager Vernon Hunter. Thirteen others were injured, two seriously.
2011 – The Obama administration rescinds most of a regulation designed to protect health care workers who refuse to provide a service that they find objectionable but retains protections against performing abortions when you have strong anti-abortion convictions.
2011 – The US House of Representatives blocks Federal funding for Planned Parenthood.
2011 – Wisconsin has demonstrations in the tens of thousands against a bill forcing public service workers to pay increased pension costs, increased healthcare coverage as well as striping them of almost all union rights. State Senators yesterday fled the state to Illinois.
2011 – NASA clears the Space Shuttle Discovery for its final flight.
2012 – The funeral of entertainer Whitney Houston is held at the New Hope Baptist Church in Newark, New Jersey. Kevin Costner’s emotional speech (17:09)
1745 – Alessandro Volta, Italian physicist (d. 1827) was an Italian physicist known especially for the development of the electric battery in 1800.
1838 – Ernst Mach, who was a Bohemian-Austrian physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the “Mach number” (also known as Mach speed) and the optical illusion known as Mach bands. (d. 1916)
1892 – Wendell Willkie, was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. He lost to Franklin D. Roosevelt . (d. 1944)
1901 – Wayne King, saxophonist, bandleader. He was an American musician, songwriter, singer and orchestral leader. He was sometimes referred to as “the Waltz King”. (d. 1985)
1914 – Pee Wee King, American country musician and songwriter was an American country music songwriter and recording artist. King’s songs included “The Tennessee Waltz”, “Slow Poke”, and “You Belong to Me”. (d. 2000)
1919 – Jack Palance, was an Oscar-winning American film actor. With his rugged facial features and gravelly voice, Palance was best known to modern movie audiences as both the characters of Curly and Duke in the two City Slickers movies (d. 2006)
1920 – Bill Cullen, was an Emmy Award-winning American radio and television personality . He was best known for his roles in game shows as the original host of The Price Is Right in the 1960s and The $25,000 Pyramid in the 1970s. (d. 1990)
1925 – George Kennedy is an Academy-Award winning American actor who has appeared in over 200 film and television productions. He is widely familiar as Joe Patroni in the Airport series of disaster movies from the 1970s,
1950 – Cybill Shepherd is a Golden Globe Award-winning American actress, singer, and former fashion model.
1954 – John Travolta is a two-time Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor and singer.
1957 – Vanna White, is an American television personality, best known as the hostess and puzzle board operator on the long-running game show Wheel of Fortune. She is the niece of actor Christopher George.
1968 – Molly Ringwald, is an American actress, singer, and dancer.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry (Mechanized) 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Cu Chi, Hau Nghia Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 18th, 1966. Entered service at: Albuquerque, N. Mex. Born: 30 June 1944, Albuquerque, N. Mex. c.o. No.: 21, 26 April 1967. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Fernandez demonstrated indomitable courage when the patrol was ambushed by a Viet Cong rifle company and driven back by the intense enemy automatic weapons fire before it could evacuate an American soldier who had been wounded in the Viet Cong attack. Sp4c. Fernandez, a sergeant and two other volunteers immediately fought their way through devastating fire and exploding grenades to reach the fallen soldier. Upon reaching their fallen comrade the sergeant was struck in the knee by machine gun fire and immobilized. Sp4c. Fernandez took charge, rallied the left flank of his patrol and began to assist in the recovery of the wounded sergeant. While first aid was being administered to the wounded man, a sudden increase in the accuracy and intensity of enemy fire forced the volunteer group to take cover. As they did, an enemy grenade landed in the midst of the group, although some men did not see it. Realizing there was no time for the wounded sergeant or the other men to protect themselves from the grenade blast, Sp4c. Fernandez vaulted over the wounded sergeant and threw himself on the grenade as it exploded, saving the lives of his four comrades at the sacrifice of his life. Sp4c. Fernandez’ profound concern for his fellow soldiers, at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
National PTA Founders Day
Black Sox Scandal
The players on the Charles Comiskey’s 1919 Chicago White Sox team were a fractious lot. The club was divided into two “gangs” of players, each with practically nothing to say to the other. Together they formed the best team in baseball–perhaps one of the best teams that ever played the game, yet they–like all ball players of the time–were paid a fraction of what they were worth. Because of baseball’s reserve clause, any player who refused to accept a contract was prohibited from playing baseball on any other professional team. The White Sox owner paid two of his greatest stars, outfielder “Shoeless” Joe Jackson and third baseman Buck Weaver, only $6000 a year. Comiskey has been labeled the tyrant and tightwad whose cheap practices made his players especially willing to sell their baseball souls for money, but in fact Comiskey was probably no worse than most owners–in fact, Chicago had the highest team payroll in 1919. In the era of the reserve clause, gamblers could find players on lots of teams looking for extra cash.
The 1919 World Series ended up being the most famous scandal in baseball history. Eight players from the Chicago White Sox (later nicknamed the Black Sox) were accused of throwing the series against the Cincinnati Reds. Details of the scandal and the extent to which each man was involved have always been unclear. It was, however, front-page news across the country and, despite being acquitted of criminal charges, the players were banned from professional baseball for life. The eight men included the great “Shoeless” Joe Jackson; pitchers Eddie Cicotte and Claude “Lefty” Williams; infielders Buck Weaver, Arnold “Chick” Gandil, Fred McMullin, and Charles “Swede” Risberg; and outfielder Oscar “Happy” Felsch. While the facts surrounding the throwing of the Series are confusing, people familiar with the case agree that “Chick” Gandil was the ringleader.
A few weeks before the 1919 World Series, Gandil approached Sullivan about fixing the Series. He told Sullivan that for $100,000, Gandil and several of his teammates would make sure the White Sox would lose. Gandil was known as a rough character and, at the age of thirty-three, he was getting ready to retire. Before his career ended, he had one last shot to make big money. While Sullivan started raising money, Gandil went to work getting the cooperation of his teammates.
The gamblers started almost immediately not paying on their promises and the players seeing that they were not getting paid had a change of heart. They started winning until the crucial final game. Unfortunately, any chance of winning was ruined by Arnold Rothstein. Instead of betting individual games, he had bet on Cincinnati to win the series. With his investment at risk, Rothstein sent one of his henchman to visit Williams, who was pitching in the eighth game. He explained to Williams that Rothstein wanted the Series to end the next day. He threatened Williams and his wife. Chicago lost 10-5. In the end, one scared man handed Cincinnati the World Series.\
“Why do you see the speck that is in your brother’s eye, but do not notice the log that is in your own eye? Or how can you say to your brother, ‘Let me take the speck out of your eye,’ when there is the log in your own eye? You hypocrite, first take the log out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly to take the speck out of your brother’s eye.”
“Be not intimidated… nor suffer yourselves to be wheedled out of your liberties by any pretense of politeness, delicacy, or decency. These, as they are often used, are but three different names for hypocrisy, chicanery and cowardice.”
“Without difficulties life would be like a stream without rocks or curves.”
~Tao of Pooh
idee fixe\ee-day-FEEKS\, noun:
An idea that dominates the mind; a fixed idea; an obsession.
1600 – Philosopher Giordano Bruno was burnt alive at Campo de’ Fiori in Rome, charged of heresy. The Roman Inquisition claimed that his cosmological theories went beyond the Copernican model in proposing that the Sun was essentially a star, and moreover, that the universe contained an infinite number of inhabited worlds populated by other intelligent beings.
1621 – Myles Standish is appointed as first commander of Plymouth colony.
1691 – Thomas Neale was granted a British patent for American postal service.
1776 – First volume of Gibbon’s “Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire” published.
1801 – An electoral tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr is resolved when Jefferson is elected President of the United States and Burr Vice President by the US House of Representatives.
1817 – First US city lit by gas (Baltimore.)
1820 – The United States House of Representatives passes the Missouri Compromise. The Missouri Compromise, also called the Compromise of 1820, was an agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30′ north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri.
1827 – Chester Stone patented a washing machine.
1861 – Civil War: Local militia forced the surrender of the federal arsenal at San Antonio, TX even before the state seceded on March 2.
1862 – Ironclad C.S.S. Virginia (ex-U.S.S. Merrimack) commissioned, Captain Franklin Buchanan commanding.
1862 – Legislation was introduced in the Senate on 17 February 1862, which authorized the Congressional Medal of Honor for the Army and followed the pattern of a similar award approved for Naval personnel in December 1861.
1864 – Civil War: H. L. Hunley (CSA) becomes the first submarine to engage and sink a warship, the USS Housatonic.
1865 – Civil War: Columbia, South Carolina burned as Confederate forces flee from advancing Union forces.
1865 – Civil War: Ships of Rear Admiral Porter’s fleet helped to ferry General Schofield’s two divisions from Fort Fisher to Smithville, on the west bank of the Cape Fear River.
1865 – Civil War: Union forces regained Fort Sumter.
1865– Civil War: During the night, Forts Moultrie, Sumter, Johnson, Beauregard, and Castle Pinckney were abandoned as the Confederates marched northward to join the beleaguered forces of General Lee.
1870 – Mississippi became the 9th state readmitted to US after Civil War.
1872 – The Senate refuses to ratify a treaty with the Samoan Islands that would have given the US the right to install a naval coaling station on Pago Pago and become “protector” of Samoa.
1876 – Sardines first canned by Julius Wolff in Eastport, ME.
1878 – In San Francisco, CA, the first large city telephone exchange opened. It had only 18 phones.
1897 – National Congress of Parents & Teachers (PTA) organizes (Washington, DC).
1900 – After an ambush that killed two Philippine-based Marines the day before, the gunboat USS Manileno was sent to the village of Moron a little after midnight on the morning of 17 February. Surprising the defenders, it took the town without much resistance, destroyed a store of ammunition, and burned the blockhouse. On the afternoon of the same day the captain ordered the inhabitants of Benictican and Baton to move into Olongapo, where the Marines were based, within three days or be declared outlaws. All obeyed his order except six families, who, according to his information, moved to another town.
1906 – Theodore Roosevelt’s daughter Alice marries in the White House.
1909 – A government commission reported that the tobacco industry was controlled by six men with 86 firms that were worth $450 million.
1911 – First amphibian flight to & from a ship, by Glenn Curtiss, San Diego.
1913 – The Armory Show opens in New York City, displaying works of artists who are to become some of the most influential painters of the early 20th century.
1924 – In Miami, Florida, Johnny Weissmuller sets a new world record in the 100-yard freestyle swimming competition with a time of 52-2/5 seconds.
1925 – Harold Ross and Jane Grant found The New Yorker magazine; the debut issue was dated February 21, 1925 and the cost was 15 cents.
1926 – An avalanche buried 75 in Sap Gulch, Bingham, Utah, and 40 died.
1927 – A major four day storm that dumped 25.38 inches of rain on the San Diego area. This was a 5000 year storm at the HenshawDam. The Henshaw weather station reported 14.48 inches on February 16, 1927 alone. The death toll reached 24 with some 3,000 left homeless.
1932 – Irving Berlin’s musical “Face the Music,” premiered in New York City.
1933 – The magazine Newsweek is published for the first time.
1933 – The Blaine Act ends Prohibition in the United States. It was sponsored by Wisconsin Senator John J. Blaine and passed by the United States Senate today.The repeal was formally adopted as the 21st Amendment to the Constitution on December 5, 1933.
1933 – Blondie Boopadoop marries Dagwood Bumstead. They married three years after Chic Young’s popular strip first debuted. Blondie is an American comic strip created by cartoonist Chic Young. Distributed by King Features Syndicate, the strip has been published in newspapers since September 8, 1930.
1934 – First high school auto driving course offered in State College, PA.
1936 – The world’s first superhero, The Phantom, makes his first appearance in comics.
1937 – Nearly at the end of the four years of construction of the Golden Gate Bridge, ten construction workers lost their lives when a section of scaffold fell through a safety net.
1940 – President Roosevelt sends Sumner Welles, Under-Secretary of State, on a “fact-finding” tour of Europe and appoints Myron C. Taylor as his “personal representative” to the Vatican.
1942 – World War II: Two-hundred ninety-six men of the first naval construction unit to deploy from the United States was designated the First Construction Detachment and it arrived at Bora Bora in the Societies Islands with the mission of constructing a fueling station and other facilities.
1943 – New York Yankee Joe DiMaggio, enlists into the US Army.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “Shoo, Shoo, Baby” by The Andrews Sisters, “My Heart Tells Me” by The Glen Gray Orchestra (vocal: Eugenie Baird), “Besame Mucho” by The Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Bob Eberly & Kitty Kallen), “Pistol Packin’ Mama” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1944 – Oil was discovered in commercial quantities in Alabama.
1944 – World War II: Battle of Eniwetok Atoll (Operation Catchpole)begins. The battle ends in an American victory on February 22.
1944 – World War II: Operation Hailstone begins. U.S. naval air, surface, and submarine attack against Truk (Chuuk), Japan’s main base in the central Pacific, in support of the Eniwetok invasion.
1944 – World War II: During the night (February 17-18), US destroyers bombard Japanese bases at Rabaul and Kavieng.
1944 – World War II: German forces continue attacks on the Anzio beachhead. The US 45th Division barely contains the German attack. Heavy losses are sustained by both sides.
1945 – There are new attacks by US 12th and 20th Corps, of US 3rd Army, from Luxembourg and around Saarlouis.
1945 – World War II:Gen. MacArthur’s troops landed on Corregidor in the Philippines. General Tomoyuki Yamashita was the Japanese general opposing MacArthur.
1945 -US Task Force 54 and TF52 continue the preliminary bombardment of Iwo Jima. The battleship Tennessee and a cruiser as well as several smaller ships are damaged by Japanese return fire. Meanwhile, a USAAF raid by B-24 bombers is also conducted.
1947 – With the words, “Hello! This is New York calling,“the Voice of America begins to transmit radio broadcasts into the Soviet Union.
1949 – Burl Ives release his original recording of Ghost Riders in the Sky. Numerous artists went on to record this as well.
1949 – Richard (Dick) Button bested all competition in Paris, France to retain the world title of the men’s figure skating championship. Button is a commentator on figure skating events the world over for American television, including Olympics competition.
1950 – In New York 31 people died in a train crash at Long Island’s Rockville Center.
1951 – Packard introduced its “250” Chassis Convertible.
1951 – FBI director J. Edgar Hoover initiated a secret nationwide program intended to remove politically suspect employees from their jobs.
1951 – Korean War: B-26s flew the first night bombing mission using SHORAN, a short-range navigation system employing an airborne radar device and two ground beacon stations for precision bombing.
1954 – Doris Day’s single, “Secret Love“, became the #1 tune in the U.S. It won the 1953 Academy Award winner for Best Song.
1956 – The US Coast Guard Cutter Casco saved twenty-one persons from a US Navy seaplane that was forced to ditch 100 miles south of Bermuda and delivered both the survivors and the disabled aircraft to the Naval Air Station at St. Georgia Harbor, Bermuda.
1957 – A fire at a home for the elderly, the Katie Jane Memorial Home for the Aged , in Warrenton, Missouri kills 72 people.
1958 – Pope Pius XII declares Saint Clare of Assisi (1193~1253) the patron saint of television.
1958 – Comic strip “BC” first appears. It was created by Johnny Hart (1931-2007.)
1958 – “Sugartime” by McGuire Sisters topped the charts.
1959 – Project Vanguard: Vanguard 2 – The first weather satellite launched to measure cloud-cover distribution.
1960 – Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested in the Alabama bus boycott.
1962 – Gene Chandler hit #1 with “Duke of Earl“.
1962 – Beach Boys introduced a new musical style with their hit “Surfin.”
1964 – In Wesberry v. Sanders, the Supreme Court of the United States rules that congressional districts have to be approximately equal in population.
1964 – Luke Appling became the 101st member elected to baseball’s Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, NY.
1965 – Project Ranger: The Ranger 8 probe launches on its mission to photograph the Mare Tranquillitatis region of the Moon in preparation for the manned Apollo missions. Mare Tranquillitatis or the “Sea of Tranquility” would become the site chosen for the Apollo 11 lunar landing.
1965 – Comedienne Joan Rivers made her first guest appearances on ” The Tonight Show starring Johnny Carson” on NBC-TV.
1966 – Staff Sgt. Barry Sadler received a gold record from RCA Victor, for both the album and the single of “The Ballad of the Green Berets“.
1966 – In testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Gen. Maxwell Taylor states that a major U.S. objective in Vietnam is to demonstrate that “wars of liberation” are “costly, dangerous and doomed to failure.”
1967 – Beatles release “Penny Lane” & “Strawberry Fields.” Strawberry Fields was a children’s home run by the Salvation Army. It was closed in 2005.
1967 – Vietnam War: The first full day of Operation DECKHOUSE VI, which lasted until 3 March, was conducted near Quang Ngai city. The Special Landing Force (BLT Y4 and HMM-363) accounted for 280 enemy killed.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love is Blue” by Paul Mauriat, “I Wish It Would Rain” by The Temptations, “(Theme From) Valley of the Dolls” by Dionne Warwick and “Skip a Rope” by Henson Cargill all topped the charts.
1968 – Vietnam War: American officials in Saigon report an all-time high weekly rate of U.S. casualties–543 killed in action and 2,547 wounded in the previous seven days.
1968 – In Springfield, Massachusetts the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame opens.
1970 – At Fort Bragg, North Carolina, Dr. Jeffrey MacDonald’s wife and two daughters were murdered. Dr. MacDonald was convicted of the murders but claimed that drug-crazed assailants were responsible.
1972 – Sales of the Volkswagen Beetle exceeded those of Ford Model-T.
1972 – President Richard Nixon departed on his historic trip to China.
1973 – President Richard Nixon named Patrick Gray director of the FBI.
1973 – “Crocodile Rock” by Elton John topped the charts.
1974 – Robert K. Preston, a disgruntled U.S. Army private, buzzes the White House with a stolen helicopter. At 2 A.M. Preston, stole a United States Army helicopter from Fort Meade, Maryland, flew it to Washington, D.C., and hovered for six minutes over the White House before descending on the south lawn, about 100 yards from the West Wing.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “50 Ways to Leave Your Lover” by Paul Simon, “Love to Love You Baby” by Donna Summer, “You Sexy Thing” by Hot Chocolate and “The White Knight” by Cledus Maggard & the Citizen’s Band all topped the charts.
1985 – U.S. Postage stamp prices were raised from 20 cents to 22 cents for first class mail.
1985 – Murray Haydon became the third person to receive an artificial heart.
1986 – Johnson and Johnson, maker of Tylenol, announced it would no longer sell over-the-counter medications in capsule form, following the death of a woman who had taken a cyanide-laced capsule.
1988 – Marine Lt. Col. William Higgins, an American officer, and veteran of Vietnam, serving with a United Nations truce monitoring group, was kidnapped in southern Lebanon by pro-Iranian terrorists.
1988 – In St. Paul, MN about 40 “well-to-do”partygoers celebrating after a pop concert were stripped naked and robbed by four men with machine guns.
1989 – A six-week study of Arctic atmosphere by NASA shows no ozone “hole”.
1990 – “Opposites Attract” by Paula Abdul & the Wild Pair topped the charts.
1992 – A court in Milwaukee, Wisconsin sentences serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer to life in prison. In November of 1994, he was beaten to death in prison.
1993 – President Clinton addressed a joint session of Congress, asking Americans to accept one of the biggest tax increases in history as part of a plan to stimulate the economy and curb massive budget deficits.
1995 – Federal judge allowed a lawsuit claiming US tobacco makers knew nicotine was addictive and manipulated its levels to keep customers hooked.
1995 – Colin Ferguson is convicted of six counts of murder for the December 1993 Long Island Rail Road shootings and later receives a 200+ year sentence.
1996 – In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, world champion Garry Kasparov beats the Deep Blue supercomputer in a chess match.
1996 – NASA’s Discovery Program begins as the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft lifts off on the first mission ever to orbit and land on an asteroid, 433 Eros.
1997 – The Virginia House of Delegates voted to retire the state song “Carry Me Back to Old Virginia,” and make it the state song emeritus.
1997 – In Austin, Texas, Angela Peck was stabbed in the back and the neck by Carl Wayne Thomas (21), a security guard. She pleaded for mercy and promised to blame the attack on a fictitious character. Thomas agreed and summoned aid. She later told the truth and Thomas confessed. He agreed to a 42-year prison sentence for attempted murder.
1998 – The U.S. women’s hockey team won the gold medal at Nagano, Japan, defeating Canada 3-1.
1998 – Bob Merrill (b.1921), composer and lyricist, died from suicide at age 74. His work included the musicals “Carnival” and “Funny Girl” and the song “How Much Is That Doggie in the Window.”
1998 – An Iranian crowd cheered as US wrestlers carried the Stars and Stripes into an international meet in Tehran.
1999 – In a satellite-linked address to college campuses across the country, President Clinton made his case for shoring up Social Security and Medicare.
2000 – Microsoft released the Windows 2000 computer operating system.
2002 – The new US Transportation Security Administration took over supervision of aviation security from the airline industry and the Federal Aviation Administration.
2003 – An estimated 40 million viewers tuned in to the finale of Fox’s reality show “Joe Millionaire,” in which Evan Marriott chose Zora Andrich. Once he was revealed to her, they did not stay together but did split the winnings.
2003 – A blizzard shut down much of the mid-Atlantic region on Presidents Day with windblown snow up to 4 feet deep, halting air and some rail travel and caused at least 40 deaths.
2003 – Baltimore Orioles pitcher Steve Bechler died of heatstroke at a Fort Lauderdale, Fla., hospital, less than 24 hours after complaining of dizziness during a spring training workout.
2003 – In Chicago twenty-one people were killed at the E2 nightclub in an early morning stampede after security guards used mace and pepper spray to halt a fist fight between two women.
2004 – Cingular Wireless won the bidding war to acquire AT&T Wireless Services for nearly $41 billion in cash, a deal which would create the largest cell phone company in the US.
2004 – A study published in the latest issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association suggests breast cancer is linked to the use of antibiotics. (Tucson Citizen).
2004 – In Connecticut two cranes collapsed at a bridge construction site and one worker was killed.
2005 – President George W. Bush named John Negroponte as the first national intelligence director.
2005 – Two US Border Patrol agents in Texas stopped a van carrying 743 pounds of marijuana and shot Osvaldo Aldrete-Davila, an admitted Mexican drug smuggler, as he fled back across the Rio Grande.
2005 – The US House of Representatives passes a Class Action Fairness Act that intends to curb class action suits, moving them from state courts to federal courts.
2005 – Researchers demonstrated a robot that used a “passive-dynamic design” to learn walking step by step like a toddler.
2006 – Christian worship leader and songwriter Brenton Brown released his first solo album, “Everlasting God“.
2006 – Harry Whittington, the lawyer shot by Vice President Dick Cheney while quail hunting, left a Corpus Christi, Texas, hospital, saying “accidents do and will happen.”
2006 – US-based Space Adventures announced it plans to build a $265 million spaceport in the United Arab Emirates.
2006 – A fierce storm system swept across the Midwest moving eastward, ripping the roof off an Indiana church, pelting Arkansas with hail and cutting power to thousands in Michigan.
2007 – Presidential contender Hillary Clinton has called for a 90-day deadline to start withdrawing U.S. troops from Iraq. She states in a video on her website: “If George Bush doesn’t end the war before he leaves office, when I’m president, I will.” (Reuters via ABC Australia Online)
2007 – Bismarck, ND reclaims the snow angel record. More than 8,900 people flapped their arms and legs on Bismarck’s state Capitol grounds in an attempt to reclaim the snow angel record of 3,784 set by students at Michigan Technological University in Houghton, MI.
2007 – In Cape Canaveral, Florida, a rocket carried five satellites into orbit as part of the THEMIS mission to study magnetic storms in the Earth’s atmosphere.
2008 – California-based Hallmark/Westland Meat Packing Company voluntarily recalls just over 143 million pounds (65 million kilograms) of raw and frozen beef products, considered the largest meat recall in the United States, following an investigation into animal cruelty.
2009 – President Barack Obama authorizes the deployment of 12,000 more soldiers into the Afghanistan War.
2009 – President Obama signs the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 in Denver, Colorado.
2009 – General Motors and Chrysler inform the U.S. federal government that they will need additional loans of $21.6 billion.
2009 – Trump Entertainment Resorts Inc, the casino operator named for Donald Trump, filed for bankruptcy protection as recession and declining gambling revenues battered the company and its rivals.
2010 – Defense Secretary Robert Gates announced that the Obama administration has decided to give the war in Iraq a new name, “Operation New Dawn,” effective Sept 1, to reflect the reduced role US troops will play in securing the country this year as troop levels fall.
2010 – In Palo Alto, Ca., a Cessna 310 crashed into a neighborhood after takeoff from the fogged-in Palo Alto Airport, killing all three people aboard.
2011 – Police arrest nine people allegedly involved in a United States-Mexico arms ring, and seize 300 weapons.
2011 – The inquiry into the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is released finding that the accident was entirely preventable. (Oil Spill Commission)
2011 – US authorities charge more than a hundred doctors, nurses and physical therapists in nine cities with Medicare fraud.
2011 – Schools in Wisconsin close as teachers attend rallies against proposals to limit collective bargaining for state employees. Democratic State Senators leave the capital Madison to avoid participating in the debate.
2012 – United States Capitol Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation arrested Amine El Khalifi, a man from Morocco who allegedly planned a suicide attack on the United States Capitol.
2012 – A US Federal Court judge orders Tampa-based Odyssey Marine Exploration to return treasures from the shipwreck of the Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes to Spain.
2012 – New Jersey Governor Chris Christie vetoes a bill that would legalize same-sex marriage in the state.
2013 – Danica Patrick becomes the first woman to win pole position at the Daytona 500 and the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series.
2014 – Jimmy Fallon takes over the Tonight Show from Jay Leno!!!
2014 – A cafe owner was ordered to remove an extractor fan because the smell of her frying bacon offended passing Muslims. Planning officials acted against Beverley Akciecek, 49, after being told her next door neighbour’s Muslim friends had felt ”physically sick” due to the ”foul odour.”
1718 – Matthew Tilghman, American Continental Congressman (d. 1790)
1844 – Aaron Montgomery Ward, American department store founder (d. 1913)
1874 – Thomas J. Watson, American computer manufacturer (d. 1956)
1908 – Red Barber, American baseball announcer (d. 1992)
1910 – Arthur Hunnicutt, American actor (d. 1979)
1914 – Arthur Kennedy, American actor (d. 1990)
1914 – Wayne Morris, American actor (d. 1959)
1922 – Marshall Teague, American race car driver (d. 1959)
1924 – Margaret Truman, American novelist (d. 2008)
1925 – Hal Holbrook, American actor
1933 – Craig L. Thomas, American politician (d. 2007)
1936 – Jim Brown, American football player
1939 – Mary Ann Mobley, American actress and beauty queen
1942 – Huey P. Newton, American political activist (d. 1989)
1954 – Rene Russo, American actress
1963 – Michael Jordan, American basketball player
1963 – Larry the Cable Guy, American comedian
1975 – Wish Bone, American rapper
1981 – Paris Hilton, American actress and heiress
*HAMMERBERG, OWEN FRANCIS PATRICK
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 31 May 1920, Daggett, Mich. Accredited to: Michigan. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a diver engaged in rescue operations at West Loch, Pearl Harbor, February 17th, 1945. Aware of the danger when two fellow divers were hopelessly trapped in a cave-in of steel wreckage while tunneling with jet nozzles under an LST sunk in forty feet of water and twenty feet of mud. Hammerberg unhesitatingly went overboard in a valiant attempt to effect their rescue despite the certain hazard of additional cave-ins and the risk of fouling his lifeline on jagged pieces of steel imbedded in the shifting mud. Washing a passage through the original excavation, he reached the first of the trapped men, freed him from the wreckage and, working desperately in pitch-black darkness, finally effected his release from fouled lines, thereby enabling him to reach the surface. Wearied but undaunted after several hours of arduous labor, Hammerberg resolved to continue his struggle to wash through the oozing submarine, subterranean mud in a determined effort to save the second diver. Venturing still farther under the buried hulk, he held tenaciously to his purpose, reaching a place immediately above the other man just as another cave-in occurred and a heavy piece of steel pinned him crosswise over his shipmate in a position which protected the man beneath from further injury while placing the full brunt of terrific pressure on himself. Although he succumbed in agony eighteen hours after he had gone to the aid of his fellow divers, Hammerberg, by his cool judgment, unfaltering professional skill and consistent disregard of all personal danger in the face of tremendous odds, had contributed effectively to the saving of his two comrades. His heroic spirit of self-sacrifice throughout enhanced and sustained the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.
HERRING, RUFUS G.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Naval Reserve, LCI (G) 449. Place and date: Iwo Jima, February 17th, 1945. Entered service at: North Carolina. Born: 11 June 1921, Roseboro, N.C. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of LCI (G) 449 operating as a unit of LCI (G) Group 8, during the preinvasion attack on Iwo Jima on 17 February 1945. Boldly closing the strongly fortified shores under the devastating fire of Japanese coastal defense guns, Lt. (then Lt. (j.g.)) Herring directed shattering barrages of 40mm. and 20mm. gunfire against hostile beaches until struck down by the enemy’s savage counter-fire which blasted the 449’s heavy guns and whipped her decks into sheets of flame. Regaining consciousness despite profuse bleeding he was again critically wounded when a Japanese mortar crashed the conning station, instantly killing or fatally wounding most of the officers and leaving the ship wallowing without navigational control. Upon recovering the second time, Lt. Herring resolutely climbed down to the pilothouse and, fighting against his rapidly waning strength, took over the helm, established communication with the engineroom, and carried on valiantly until relief could be obtained. When no longer able to stand, he propped himself against empty shell cases and rallied his men to the aid of the wounded; he maintained position in the firing line with his 20mm. guns in action in the face of sustained enemy fire, and conned his crippled ship to safety. His unwavering fortitude, aggressive perseverance, and indomitable spirit against terrific odds reflect the highest credit upon Lt. Herring and uphold the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
JOHNSTON, WILLIAM J.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company G, 180th Infantry, 45th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Padiglione, Italy, February 17th to February 19th, February 1944. Entered service at: Colchester, Conn. Birth: Trenton, N.J. G.O. No.: 73, 6 September 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. On 17 February 1944, near Padiglione, Italy, he observed and fired upon an attacking force of approximately eighty Germans, causing at least twenty-five casualties and forcing withdrawal of the remainder. All that day he manned his gun without relief, subject to mortar, artillery, and sniper fire. Two Germans individually worked so close to his position that his machinegun was ineffective, whereupon he killed one with his pistol, the second with a rifle taken from another soldier. When a rifleman protecting his gun position was killed by a sniper, he immediately moved the body and relocated the machinegun in that spot in order to obtain a better field of fire. He volunteered to cover the platoon’s withdrawal and was the last man to leave that night. In his new position he maintained an all-night vigil, the next day causing seven German casualties. On the afternoon of the 18th, the organization on the left flank having been forced to withdraw, he again covered the withdrawal of his own organization. Shortly thereafter, he was seriously wounded over the heart, and a passing soldier saw him trying to crawl up the embankment. The soldier aided him to resume his position behind the machinegun which was soon heard in action for about ten minutes. Though reported killed, Pfc. Johnston was seen returning to the American lines on the morning of 19 February slowly and painfully working his way back from his overrun position through enemy lines. He gave valuable information of new enemy dispositions. His heroic determination to destroy the enemy and his disregard of his own safety aided immeasurably in halting a strong enemy attack, caused an enormous amount of enemy casualties, and so inspired his fellow soldiers that they fought for and held a vitally important position against greatly superior forces.
Famous Amos Cookies
Wally Amos is one of the most famous black entrepreneurs in America. He sometimes calls himself the Jackie Robinson of the theatrical business. It was Amos who “discovered” Simon and Garfunkel in a Manhattan Club. Amos was known for promoting talent at the William Morris Agency.
One evening a friend of Amos came over and with him brought a batch of chocolate chip cookies. Amos wanted to know how to make them himself and the friend said, Simple, the recipe is on the back of the bag of Nestles chocolate chips. After months of making cookies for his friends and making the recipe his own, Amos was ready to introduce his new discovery to the world.
It was opening night in Los Angeles. Two thousand people were sent special invitations. A red carpet adorned the sidewalk. Celebrities arrived in limousines. Music was playing and champagne were flowing. It was the opening night of the “Famous” Amos first chocolate chip cookie store.
Within five years, annual sales went to five million dollars annually. What’s out there waiting to be “discovered?” Look around it could the simplest, everyday thing that you could improve to the “world’s best!”
“A slack hand causes poverty, but the hand of the diligent makes rich.”
Virtues such as “industriousness, wisdom, and the development of insight” are also means by which possessions and property may be acquired.
“An elective despotism was not the government we fought for; but one in which the powers of government should be so divided and balanced among the several bodies of magistracy as that no one could transcend their legal limits without being effectually checked and restrained by the others.”
~ James Madison
“The thoughts we choose to think are the tools we use to paint the canvas of our lives.”
overweening oh-ver.-WEE-ning, adjective:
1. Overbearing; arrogant; presumptuous.
2.Excessive; immoderate; exaggerated.
Overweening is from Middle English overwening, present participle of overwenen, “to be arrogant,” from over + wenen “to ween,” from Old English wenan.
600 – Pope Gregory the Great decreed “God bless You” as the religiously correct response to a sneeze.
659- First known check (£400) – on display at Westminster Abbey (did it bounce?)
1741- Benjamin Franklin published America’s second magazine, “The General Magazine and Historical Chronicle”. It beat the first magazine by lasting twice as long. The first, Bradford’s American Magazine, lasted only three issues and Franklin’s lasted six.
1751 – Thomas Gray’s poem “Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard” was first published.
1760 – Cherokee Indians held hostage at Fort St. George by South Carolina Governor Lyttleton are killed in revenge for Indian attacks on frontier settlements that broke a peace treaty of December 1759.
1804 – During the First Barbary War, Stephen Decatur (USMC) leads a raid to burn the pirate-held frigate USS Philadelphia (1799). The First Barbary War (1801–1805) was the first of two wars fought between the United States and the Northwest African Berber Muslim states known collectively as the Barbary States.
1838 – Kentucky passes law permitting widows with children the right to vote in school board elections.
1840 – American Charles Wilkes discovers Shackleton Ice Shelf, Antarctica
1852 – Studebaker Brothers Wagon Company, precursor of the automobile manufacturer, is established.
1857 – The National Deaf Mute College was incorporated in Washington, DC. It was the first school in the world for advanced education of the deaf. The school was later renamed Gallaudet College.
1857 – Frederick Douglass elected President of Freedman Bank and Trust.
1859 – The French Government passes a law to set the A-note above middle C to a frequency of 435 Hz, in an attempt to standardize the pitch.
1862 – Civil War: General Ulysses S. Grant captures Fort Donelson, Tennessee and aapproximately 14,000 Confederate soldiers surrendered.
1862 – Civil War: Gunboats of Flag Officer Foote’s force destroyed the “Tennessee Iron Works” above Dover on the Cumberland River.
1864 – Civil War: Union naval forces, composed of double-ender U.S.S. Octorara, converted ferryboat U.S.S. J. P. Jackson and six mortar schooners, began bombarding the Confederate works at Fort Powell. Six months later this would result in the closing of Mobile Bay.
1865 – Civil War: Columbia, S.C., surrendered to Federal troops.
1868 – In New York City, the Jolly Corks organization is renamed the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks.
1878 – Silver dollar became US legal tender.
1883 – “Ladies Home Journal” began publication. It started as a women’s supplement to the Tribune and Farmer. The following year it became an independent publication.
1909 – First subway car with side doors goes into service in New York City.
1909 – The San Francisco Citizens Health Committee declared San Francisco free of bubonic plague.
1913 – President Taft agrees not to intervene in Mexico.
1914 – The first airplane flight between Los Angeles and San Francisco took place.
1923 – Black singer Bessie Smith makes her first recording, “Down Hearted Blues,” which sells 800,000 copies for Columbia Records. Her music reflected the Depression era.
1923 – Howard Carter unseals the burial chamber of Pharaoh Tutankhamun. On the 17th he entered the chamber with several invited guests. He had originally found the tomb on November 4, 1922.
1926 – Congress authorized Secretary of Treasury to acquire a site at New London, CT, without cost to United States, and construct thereon buildings for the United States Coast Guard Academy at a total cost not to exceed $1,750,000.
1932 – The first fruit tree patent was issued to James E. Markham for a peach tree which ripens later than other varieties.
1936 – 4th Winter Olympic games close at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.
1937 – Wallace H. Carothers receives a patent for nylon. Carothers was a research chemist for Du Pont.
1938 – The U.S. Federal Crop Insurance program was authorized.
1940 – World War II: Altmark Incident: The German tanker Altmark is boarded by sailors from the British destroyer HMS Cossack. 299 British prisoners are freed.
1942 – Shep Fields and his orchestra recorded “Jersey Bounce.”
1942 – German submarines attacked an Aruba oil refinery and sank the tanker “Pedernales.”
1943 – Sign on Munich facade: “Out with Hitler! Long live freedom!” was posted by the “White Rose” student group. They were caught on 2/18 and beheaded on 2/22.
1943 – World War II: The Soviet troops reenter Kharkov.
1944 – World War II: Justo Gonzalez became the first Hispanic-American to make the rank of chief petty officer when the Coast Guard promoted him to Chief Machinist’s Mate.
1944 – World War II: German forces begin a new attack on the Allied forces on the Anzio beachhead.
1945 – World War II: Two American battalions, one seaborne and one dropped by parachute, land on Corregidor Island in Manila Bay.
1945 – World War II: Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines is occupied by American troops, almost three years after the devastating and infamous Bataan Death March.
1945 – World War II: US Task Force 58, part of US 5th Fleet (Spruance), with twelve fleet carriers and four light carriers, conducts air raids on Tokyo. The aircraft carriers are escorted by eight battleships, fifteen cruisers and eighty-three destroyers as well as numerous support ships.
1945 – World War II: US Task Force 54 (Admiral Rodgers), with five cruisers and sixteen destroyers, as well as the ten escort carriers of US Task Force 52 begin the preliminary bombardment of Iwo Jima.
1946 – The first commercial helicopter, the four-seat Sikorsky S51, single rotor helicopter first flew. It could carry three passengers over 250 miles at a speed of 100 miles per hour.
1948 – The first U.S. newsreel telecast to be presented daily was the 20th Century-Fox Movietone News.
1948 – NBC-TV began airing its first nightly newscast, “The Camel Newsreel Theatre”, which consisted of Fox Movietone newsreels.
1948 – Miranda, famous moon of Uranus, photographed for the first time.
1950 – Longest-running prime-time game show (17 years), “What’s My Line” begins on CBS. “That’s three down. We move now to Arlene Francis.” Arlene Francis, Dorothy Kilgallen, humorist Hal Block, and Louis Untermeyer joined host John Daly.
1951 – Korean War: The 861-day naval siege of Wonsan began. This was one of the largest blockade and bombardment efforts ever initiated by the U.S. Navy.
1951 – New York City passes bill prohibiting racism in city-assisted housing.
1952 – “Slow Poke” by Pee Wee King topped the charts.
1952 – The FBI arrested ten members of the Ku Klux Klan in North Carolina.
1953 – Korean War: Marine Corps Captain Ted Williams, future baseball hall of famer, had his F9F Panther jet fighter badly damaged by anti-aircraft fire. Instead of ditching the aircraft, Captain Williams opted to return to base, an action that required exceptional skill and daring. He received the Air Medal for his actions. Williams walked away from the wheels-up landing.
1953 – Air Force Captain Joseph C. McConnell, Jr., 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flying his F-86 “Beauteous Butch” shot down his fifth MiG. He is recognized as the 27th ace of the war.
1953 – First man-made diamonds. The diamond crystals, the size of grains of sand, were produced in Sweden in a high pressure press by subjecting graphite to 83,000 atmospheres pressure and about 2000 degrees C for an hour.
1957 – “Young Love” by Tab Hunter topped the charts.
1959 – Leonard Spigelgass’ “Majority of One,” premiered in New York City.
1959 – The US House Committee on Un-American Activities has charged that an “elite corps” of Communist lawyers is promoting the party’s cause in the courts, Congress and government agencies.
1959 – Fidel Castro becomes Premier of Cuba after dictator Fulgencio Batista was overthrown on January 1.
1960 – The U.S.S. Triton began the first circumnavigation of the globe under water. The trip ended on May 10.
1961 – Explorer 9 (S-56a) is launched.The Explorer program was a United States space exploration program that provides flight opportunities for physics, heliophysics, and astrophysics investigations from space.
1961 – The DuSable Museum of African American History is chartered.
1962 – Jimmy Bostwick defeated his brother, Pete, to win the U.S. Open Court-Tennis championships for the third time.
1963 – First round-trip swim of Straits of Messina, Italy, was made by Mary Revell of the US.
1964 – The Beatles performed for the second time on “The Ed Sullivan Show.” They had made their first appearance on the show only a week before.
1965 – Pegasus 1 launched. Pegasus was a series of three satellites, which were launched 1965 to study the frequency of micrometeorite impacts. All three Pegasus satellites were launched by Saturn 1 rockets, and remained connected with the upper stage.
1965 – Four persons were held in a plot to blow up the Statue of Liberty, Liberty Bell and the Washington Monument.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m a Believer” by The Monkees, “Georgy Girl” by The Seekers, “Kind of a Drag” by The Buckinghams and “Don’t Come Home a’Drinkin’ (With Lovin’ on Your Mind)” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1967 – Vietnam: Operation River Raider begins in Mekong Delta.
1968 – In Haleyville, Alabama, the first 9-1-1 emergency telephone system goes into service.
1968 – Elvis Presley receives gold record for “How Great Thou Art.”
1970 – Joe Frazier began his reign as the undefeated heavyweight world champion when he knocked out Jimmy Ellis in five rounds. He lost the title on January 22,1973, when he lost for the first time in his professional career to George Foreman.
1970 – In San Francisco, a homemade bomb exploded outside the police Park Station on Waller St. Sgt. Brian McDonnell (44) died 2 days later and 8 other officers were injured. Black Panthers were suspected, but a later investigation suggested it was the work of the Weather Underground.
1971 – Aretha Franklin recorded “Spanish Harlem.”
1972 – Wilt Chamberlain (Los Angeles Lakers) reached the 30,000-point mark in his NBA career during a game against the Phoenix Suns. He was the first NBA player to do so.
1974 – “The Way We Were” by Barbra Streisand’s topped the charts.
1978 – The first computer bulletin board system is created (Ward & Randy’s CBBS) in Chicago, Illinois. (CBBS stood for Computerized Bulletin Board System.)
1980 – “Do That to Me One More Time” by Captain & Tennille topped the charts.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Down Under” by Men at Work, “Baby, Come to Me” by Patti Austin with James Ingram, “Shame on the Moon” by Bob Seger & The Silver Bullet Band and “’Til I Gain Control Again” by Crystal Gayle all topped the charts.
1984 – Bill Johnson becomes first American to win Olympic downhill skiing gold.
1984 – Musician Jerry Lee Lewis surrendered to federal authorities to answer income tax evasion charges. He was later acquitted.
1985 – “Careless Whisper” by George Michael topped the charts.
1985 – “Kojak” returned to network television after an absence of seven years with the CBS-TV special, “Kojak: The Belarus File.”
1985 – Ray ‘Boom Boom’ Mancini lost the World Boxing Association lightweight championship crown to Livingstone Bramble. The fighter retired in August, 1985.
1985 – Coach Lefty Driesell got his 400th career victory as the University of Maryland defeated Davidson by a score of 65-63.
1987 – The trial of John Demjanjuk, accused of being a Nazi guard dubbed “Ivan the Terrible” in Treblinka extermination camp, starts in Jerusalem.
1988 – First documented combat action by U.S. military advisors in El Salvador.
1989 – Investigators in Lockerbie, Scotland, announced that a bomb hidden inside a radio-cassette player was the reason that Pan Am Flight 103 was brought down the previous December. All 259 people aboard and 11 on the ground were killed.
1988 – MASS SHOOTING: Richard Wade Farley gunned down seven people at ESL Corp. during an office rampage in Sunnyvale, Calif. Farley was later convicted of murder and sentenced to death.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)” by C & C Music Factory featuring Freedom Williams, “All the Man that I Need” by Whitney Houston, “One More Try” by Timmy -T-, and “Brother Jukebox” by Mark Chesnutt all topped the charts.
1991 – US female Figure Skating championship won by Tonya Harding.
1992 – Former silver Goodyear blimps are now painted yellow & blue.
1993 – Prices fell as Wall Street reacted unfavorably to President Clinton’s economic austerity plan outlined in a White House address last night.
1994 – Figure skaters Tonya Harding and Nancy Kerrigan encountered each other at the Winter Olympic Games in Norway before posing for the U.S. team photograph.
1996 – World chess champion Garry Kasparov won for the second time against IBM supercomputer “Deep Blue” in the fifth game of their match in Philadelphia (Kasparov had drawn twice and lost once).
1996 – A commuter train slammed into Amtrak’s Capital Limited an Silver Spring, Md., and killed 11 people. It was later claimed that a new warning system was partly to blame.
1997 – At age 25, Jeff Gordon is youngest winner in Daytona 500 history.
1998 – Mr. Jefferson, the first cloned calf, was born in Virginia.
1999 – The Chinese Lunar New Year began the Year of the Rabbit.
1999 – Testimony began in the Jasper, TX, trial of John William King. He was charged with murder in the gruesome dragging death of James Byrd Jr. King was later convicted and sentenced to death.
2000 – In New York City, Lucy Edwards (41), a former Bank of New York executive, and her husband, Peter Berlin (46), pleaded guilty to laundering over $7 billion from Russian bankers in exchange for $1.8 million.
2001 – Two dozen US and British aircraft bombed 5 radar and other anti-aircraft sites around Baghdad with guided missiles. A number of new guided bombs, AGM-154A priced from $250-700k, missed their targets.
2002 – In Noble, Ga., officials found 334 decomposing bodies at the Tri-State Crematory, where the furnace had not worked for years. Ray Brent Marsh (28), manager of the family operation, was arrested and charged with five counts of theft by deception.
2003 – Michael Waltrip raced past leader Jimmie Johnson to win the rain-shortened Daytona 500 for the second time in three years.
2004 – In Ohio a crane collapsed at an I-80 bridge near Toledo and three workers were killed.
2004 – L. Paul Bremer, the United States administrator of Iraq states he will veto any interim constitution that would make Islam “the chief source of law”, as opposed to “a source of inspiration for the law.”
2005 – The Kyoto Protocol comes into force, following its ratification by Russia.
2005 – The National Hockey League (NHL) cancels the entire 2004-2005 regular season and playoffs, becoming the first major sports league in North America to do so over a labor dispute.
2006 – The last Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) is decommissioned by the United States Army.
2006 – Pennsylvania Senator Arlen Specter asked the Senate Ethics Committee to investigate whether a top aide improperly helped direct nearly $50 million in Pentagon spending to clients represented by her husband.
2007 – An annual survey released Forbes.com said Raleigh, North Carolina, topped the list of the best US cities for getting a job.
2007 – The Democrat-controlled US House of Representatives voted 246-182 for a non-binding resolution opposing President Bush’s Surge plan to send 21,500 more troops to Iraq. Seventeen Republicans voted in favor.
2007 – Francisco Castaneda, an illegal immigrant from El Salvador, died of penile cancer that went undiagnosed for more than a year while he was in state and federal custody in California. In 2010 a Los Angeles jury awarded his family $1.73 million.
2008 – In Maryland a car plowed into a crowd that had gathered to watch a drag race on a suburban road, killing eight people and injuring at least four.
2008 – A student dies of unknown causes while competing at the Harvard National Speech and Debate Tournament.
2008 – A company source said Toshiba Corp is planning to give up on its HD DVD format for high-definition video, conceding defeat to the competing Blu-Ray technology backed by Sony Corp.
2009 – In Kansas, Republican legislators blocked an effort by Democratic Gov. Kathleen Sebelius to transfer funds to allow the state to pay its bills. Income tax refunds were suspended and the state payroll was threatened.
2009 – In Stamford, Connecticut, a 200-pound domesticated chimpanzee was shot dead by police after a violent rampage that left a friend of its owner badly mauled. Travis (15) had once starred in TV commercials for Old Navy and Coca-Cola. Charla Nash lost her hands, nose, lips and eyelids in the attack. Doctors later said she will be blind for life.
2010 – New US Treasury data said China’s holdings of US Treasury bonds tumbled in December, allowing Japan to take over as the top holder of American government debt.
2010 – In New Jersey Shamsid-Din Abdul-Raheem (21) threw his 3-month-old daughter off the Garden State Parkway Driscoll Bridge after the mother filed a restraining order against him. The body of the infant was found on April 24.
2011 – Borders Group, the second largest bookstore chain in the United States, files for bankruptcy with plans to sell at least 200 stores.
2011 – The West Virginia Gazette reported that three U.S. marshals were shot in Elkins, West Virginia, while trying to serve a warrant, resulting in the death of one marshal and the shooter.
2012 – Two time Pulitzer Prize winner Anthony Shadid dies suddenly at age 43 of an acute asthma attack.
2012 – Four World Trade Center’s construction crane snaps while lifting a steel beam.
2013 -Two firefighters are killed and two others are injured extinguishing an inferno at a Knights of Columbus fraternal lodge in Bryan, Texas.
1698 – Pierre Bouguer was a French mathematician and astronomer. He is also known as “the father of naval architecture”. (d. 1758)
1812 – Henry Wilson, 18th Vice President of US (d. 1875) He served under President Ulysses S Grant. He was a leading Republican who committed himself to the destruction of what he called the Slave Power. This was a conspiracy of slave owners to seize control of the federal government and block the progress of liberty.
1826 – Julia Grant, First Lady of the United States (d. 1902)
1866 – Billy Hamilton (baseball player), MLB Hall of Fame Outfielder (d. 1940)
1887 – Kathleen Clifford, American actress (d. 1962)
1901 – Wayne King, American musician and orchestra leader (d. 1985)
1901 – Chester Morris, American film actor (d. 1970) He is most famous for his role in the Boston Blackie detective series of the 1940s.
1903 – Edgar Bergen, American ventriloquist (d. 1978)
1906 – Vera Menchik, British-Czech chess player, the first Women’s World Champion in chess (d. 1944)
1909 – Hugh Beaumont, American actor (d. 1982) is best known for his portrayal of Ward Cleaver, the husband of June Cleaver (Barbara Billingsley) and the father of Wally (Tony Dow) and Beaver (Jerry Mathers) on the television series, Leave It to Beaver (1957–1963).
1909 – Richard McDonald, American fast food pioneer (d. 1998)He was one of the early American fast food pioneers, originally from Manchester, New Hampshire, who established the first McDonald’s restaurant in San Bernardino, California in 1940.
1918 – Patty Andrews, American singer and one of the famous Andrew Sisters.
1920 – Anna Mae Hays, American army general. She was the first woman in the U.S. Military to be promoted to a general officer rank.
1934 – Herbie & Harold Kalin, American singers (d. 2005-Harold / 2006-Herbie) The twins were a pop music recording duo and remain the archetypal one-hit wonders with the 1958 song “When”.
1935 – Sonny Bono, American entertainer & U.S. Congressman (d. 1998)
1951 – William Katt, American actor. He is best known as the star of The Greatest American Hero.
1954 – Margaux Hemingway, American actress and model (d. 1996)
1957 – LeVar Burton, American actor. He is most well-known for his portrayal of Geordi La Forge on Star Trek: The Next Generation, and as the host of the PBS children’s program Reading Rainbow.
1958 – Ice-T, American rapper, songwriter, and actor
1959 – John McEnroe, American tennis player
1967 – Keith Gretzky, former hockey player; brother of Wayne Gretzky
*GRAVES, TERRENCE COLLINSON
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, 3d Force Reconnaissance Company, 3d Reconnaissance Battalion, 3d Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 16th, 1968. Entered service at: New York Born: 6 July 1945, Corpus Christi, Tex. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a platoon commander with the 3d Force Reconnaissance Company. While on a long-range reconnaissance mission, 2d Lt. Graves’ eight-man patrol observed seven enemy soldiers approaching their position. Reacting instantly, he deployed his men and directed their fire on the approaching enemy. After the fire had ceased, he and two patrol members commenced a search of the area, and suddenly came under a heavy volume of hostile small arms and automatic weapons fire from a numerically superior enemy force. When one of his men was hit by the enemy fire, 2d Lt. Graves moved through the fire-swept area to his radio and, while directing suppressive fire from his men, requested air support and adjusted a heavy volume of artillery and helicopter gunship fire upon the enemy. After attending the wounded, 2d Lt. Graves, accompanied by another Marine, moved from his relatively safe position to confirm the results of the earlier engagement. Observing that several of the enemy were still alive, he launched a determined assault, eliminating the remaining enemy troops. He then began moving the patrol to a landing zone for extraction, when the unit again came under intense fire which wounded two more Marines and 2d Lt. Graves. Refusing medical attention, he once more adjusted air strikes and artillery fire upon the enemy while directing the fire of his men. He led his men to a new landing site into which he skillfully guided the incoming aircraft and boarded his men while remaining exposed to the hostile fire. Realizing that one of the wounded had not embarked, he directed the aircraft to depart and, along with another Marine, moved to the side of the casualty. Confronted with a shortage of ammunition, 2d Lt. Graves utilized supporting arms and directed fire until a second helicopter arrived. At this point, the volume of enemy fire intensified, hitting the helicopter and causing it to crash shortly after liftoff. All aboard were killed. 2d Lt. Graves’ outstanding courage, superb leadership and indomitable fighting spirit throughout the day were in keeping with the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country .
*MILLER, GARY L.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company A, 1st Battalion, 28th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and Date: Binh Duong province, Republic of Vietnam, February 16th,1969. Entered service at: Roanoke, Va. Born: 19 March 1947, Covington, Va. Citation: For conspicuous intrepidity and gallantry in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. First Lt. Miller, Infantry, Company A, was serving as a platoon leader at night when his company ambushed a hostile force infiltrating from Cambodian sanctuaries. After contact with the enemy was broken, 1st Lt. Miller led a reconnaissance patrol from their prepared positions through the early evening darkness and dense tropical growth to search the area for enemy casualties. As the group advanced they were suddenly attacked. First Lt. Miller was seriously wounded. However, the group fought back with telling effect on the hostile force. An enemy grenade was thrown into the midst of the friendly patrol group and all took cover except 1st Lt. Miller. who in the dim light located the grenade and threw himself on it, absorbing the force of the explosion with his body. His action saved nearby members of his patrol from almost certain serious injury. The extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by this officer were an inspiration to his comrades and are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army.
*MONROE, JAMES H.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and Date: Bong Son, Hoai Nhon Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 16th, 1967. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 17 October 1944, Aurora, Ill. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. His platoon was deployed in a night ambush when the position was suddenly subjected to an intense and accurate grenade attack, and one foxhole was hit immediately. Responding without hesitation to the calls for help from the wounded men Pfc. Monroe moved forward through heavy small-arms fire to the foxhole but found that all of the men had expired. He turned immediately and crawled back through the deadly hail of fire toward other calls for aid. He moved to the platoon sergeant’s position where he found the radio operator bleeding profusely from fragmentation and bullet wounds. Ignoring the continuing enemy attack, Pfc. Monroe began treating the wounded man when he saw a live grenade fall directly in front of the position. He shouted a warning to all those nearby, pushed the wounded radio operator and the platoon sergeant to one side, and lunged forward to smother the grenade’s blast with his body. Through his valorous actions, performed in a flash of inspired selflessness, Pfc. Monroe saved the lives of two of his comrades and prevented the probable injury of several others. His gallantry and intrepidity were in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army, and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
*SMITH, ELMELINDO R.
Rank and organization: Platoon Sergeant (then S/Sgt.), U.S. Army, 1st Platoon, Company C, 2d Battalion, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, February 16th,1967. Entered service at: Honolulu, Hawaii. Born: 27 July 1935, Honolulu, Hawaii. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. During a reconnaissance patrol, his platoon was suddenly engaged by intense machinegun fire hemming in the platoon on three sides. A defensive perimeter was hastily established, but the enemy added mortar and rocket fire to the deadly fusillade and assaulted the position from several directions. With complete disregard for his safety, P/Sgt. Smith moved through the deadly fire along the defensive line, positioning soldiers, distributing ammunition and encouraging his men to repeal the enemy attack. Struck to the ground by enemy fire which caused a severe shoulder wound, he regained his feet, killed the enemy soldier and continued to move about the perimeter. He was again wounded in the shoulder and stomach but continued moving on his knees to assist in the defense. Noting the enemy massing at a weakened point on the perimeter, he crawled into the open and poured deadly fire into the enemy ranks. As he crawled on, he was struck by a rocket. Moments later, he regained consciousness, and drawing on his fast dwindling strength, continued to crawl from man to man. When he could move no farther, he chose to remain in the open where he could alert the perimeter to the approaching enemy. P/Sgt. Smith perished, never relenting in his determined effort against the enemy. The valorous acts and heroic leadership of this outstanding soldier inspired those remaining members of his platoon to beat back the enemy assaults. P/Sgt. Smith’s gallant actions were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and they reflect great credit upon him and the Armed Forces of his country.
*KYLE, DARWIN K.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company K, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kamil-ni, Korea, February 16th, 1951. Entered service at: Racine, W. Va. Born: 1 June 1918, Jenkins, Ky. G.O. No.: 17, 1 February 1952. Citation: 2d Lt. Kyle, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. When his platoon had been pinned down by intense fire, he completely exposed himself to move among and encourage his men to continue the advance against enemy forces strongly entrenched on Hill 185. Inspired by his courageous leadership, the platoon resumed the advance but was again pinned down when an enemy machine gun opened fire, wounding six of the men. 2d Lt. Kyle immediately charged the hostile emplacement alone, engaged the crew in hand-to-hand combat, killing all three. Continuing on toward the objective, his platoon suddenly received an intense automatic-weapons fire from a well-concealed hostile position on its right flank. Again leading his men in a daring bayonet charge against this position, firing his carbine and throwing grenades, 2d Lt. Kyle personally destroyed four of the enemy before he was killed by a burst from an enemy submachinegun. The extraordinary heroism and outstanding leadership of 2d Lt. Kyle, and his gallant self-sacrifice, reflect the highest credit upon himself and are in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the military service.
McCARTER, LLOYD G.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, 503d Parachute Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Corregidor, Philippine Islands, February 16th – February 19th 1945. Entered service at: Tacoma, Wash. Born: 11 May 1917, St. Maries, Idaho. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He was a scout with the regiment which seized the fortress of Corregidor, Philippine Islands. Shortly after the initial parachute assault on 16 February 1945, he crossed thirty yards of open ground under intense enemy fire, and at pointblank range silenced a machinegun with hand grenades. On the afternoon of 18 February he killed six snipers. That evening, when a large force attempted to bypass his company, he voluntarily moved to an exposed area and opened fire. The enemy attacked his position repeatedly throughout the night and was each time repulsed. By 2 o’clock in the morning, all the men about him had been wounded; but shouting encouragement to his comrades and defiance at the enemy, he continued to bear the brunt of the attack, fearlessly exposing himself to locate enemy soldiers and then pouring heavy fire on them. He repeatedly crawled back to the American line to secure more ammunition. When his submachine gun would no longer operate, he seized an automatic rifle and continued to inflict heavy casualties. This weapon, in turn, became too hot to use and, discarding it, he continued with an M-l rifle. At dawn the enemy attacked with renewed intensity. Completely exposing himself to hostile fire, he stood erect to locate the most dangerous enemy positions. He was seriously wounded; but, though he had already killed more than thirty of the enemy, he refused to evacuate until he had pointed out immediate objectives for attack. Through his sustained and outstanding heroism in the face of grave and obvious danger, Pvt. McCarter made outstanding contributions to the success of his company and to the recapture of Corregidor.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 4 June 1873, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: Served in battle against the enemy at February 16th,1900. Throughout this action and in the presence of the enemy, Harvey distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.
Invention of the Outboard Motor
Ole Evinrude was born in in 1877 in Norway.. In October 1881 his father emigrated to America, followed the next year by his wife and three children. Three additional children were born in America. The family settled on a farm in Ripley Lake near Cambridge, Wisconsin. At age sixteen Evinrude went to Madison, where he worked in machinery stores and studied engineering on his own. He became a machinist while working at various machine tool firms in Milwaukee, Pittsburgh, and Chicago.
Necessity is the mother of invention and she could not have found a better person
to appear to than Ole Evinrude. 1n 1893, on a nice warm day in Wisconsin, Ole, some of his friends and the love of his life, Bess Cary rowed out to an island on Oconomowoc Lake, just outside Milwaukee. As the day warmed up even more, it would have been nice to have something cool. Bess said she would like to have some ice cream. Eager to please, Ole jumped into his rowboat and took off. The wind was favorable to the trip going to land and the trip did not take long. The trip back, however, was much tougher because the trip was into the wind. The result was ice cream soup. Regardless, they enjoyed it but Ole said to himself, “Never again.”
He had owned a company that had made small gasoline engines but it had failed. He had helped a young man named Arthur Davidson make an air-cooled engine and watch as he went on to Harley-Davidson fame and he now thought that this was the way to propel a small boat.
In 1900, Evinrude co-founded the custom engine firm Clemick & Evinrude. In 1907, he invented the first practical and reliable outboard motor, which was built of steel and brass, and had a crank on the flywheel to start the two-cycle engine. On his first test he amazed the deckhands at the river by skimming across the water at about five miles per hour. After some cosmetic changes, he made engine #2. He gave it to a friend who then immediately bought ten engines.
By 1912, the firm employed 300 workers. Ole then formed the Evinrude Outboard Motors, which he sold in 1913 in order to look after his sick wife.
In 1919, Evinrude invented a more efficient and lighter two-cylinder motor. Having sold his part in Clemick & Evinrude, he founded ELTO or the Elto Outboard Motor Company. (ELTO was an acronym for “Evinrude Light Twin Outboard”.) Although ELTO faced stiff competition from other companies, such as Johnson Motor Company of South Bend, Indiana, Evinrude’s company survived through acquisitions, eventually forming the Outboard Marine Corporation.The advertising went in to effect. It began with, “DON’T ROW, use the Evinrude Detachable Row Boat Motor.”
His wife Bess died in 1933, at only 48 years old, and Ole Evinrude died the following year, 57 years old. After Evinrude died, his son, Ralph Evinrude, took over day-to-day management of the company, eventually rising to Chairman of the Board. The company is now called Evinrude Outboard Motors, and is owned by Bombardier Recreational Products.
1 Corinthians 9: 9-11
9 For it is written in the Law of Moses, “You shall not muzzle an ox when it treads out the grain.” Is it for oxen that God is concerned? 10 Does he not certainly speak for our sake? It was written for our sake, because the plowman should plow in hope and the thresher thresh in hope of sharing in the crop. 11 If we have sown spiritual things among you, is it too much if we reap material things from you?
—John Jay, first Chief Justice of the United States
“If you wish the world to become loving and compassionate, become loving and compassionate yourself. If you wish to diminish fear in the world, diminish your own. These are the gifts that you can give.”
~ Gary Zukav
Contemplation of one’s navel.[From Greek omphalos (navel) + skepsis (act of looking, examination).
Ultimately from the Indo-European root spek- (to observe) which is
also the ancestor of suspect, spectrum, bishop (literally, overseer),
despise, espionage, telescope, spectator, and spectacles.]
399 BC – Socrates was condemned to death on charges of corrupting the youth and introducing new gods into Greek thought. A tribunal of 501 citizens found Socrates guilty of the charge of impiety and corruption of youth.
1758 – The first mustard, made by Benjamin Franklin was put on sale in America.
1762 – The British capture Fort Martiniqe, the main French port in the West Indies, and then St. Lucia and Grenada. Later in the year, Britain will also overrun the Spanish colonial outposts of Cuba and of Manila in the Philippines.
1764 – St Louis (MO) founded as a French trading post by Pierre Laclade Ligue.
1798 – The first serious fist fight occurred in Congress.Roger Griswold (CT-Federalist) v. Matthew Lyon (VT- Republican)
1799 – Printed ballots were authorized for use in elections in the State of Pennsylvania.
1803 – Marbury v. Madison decided. It is a landmark case in United States law. It formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution.
1804 – New Jersey became the last northern state to abolish slavery.
1805 – Harmony Society officially formed. The Society was founded and led by Johann Georg Rapp (1757–1847) and his adopted son, Frederick (Reichert) Rapp (1775–1834), and lasted for 100 years –until 1905.
1838 – In defiance of the new “gag rule” adopted 19 December 1837, Representative John Quincy Adams introduces 350 petitions against slavery into the House. The petitions were all tabled.
1842 – First adhesive postage stamps in US (private delivery company), New York, NY.
1847 – The House of Representatives approves a bill for negotiations to purchase occupied territory from Mexico. Several attempts were made to exclude slavery but they all failed.
1848 – Sarah Roberts was barred from a white school in Boston. Boston required Sarah Roberts, a five-year-old Black, to enroll in an all-black public elementary school. Benjamin Roberts, Sarah’s father and one of the nation’s first Black American printers, challenged the Boston School Committee’s policy of racial segregation.
1851 – Black abolitionists invaded a Boston courtroom to rescue a fugitive slave.
1856 – USS Supply, commanded by LT David Dixon Porter, sails from Smyrna, Syria, bound for Indianola, Texas, with a load of 21 camels intended for experimental use in the American desert west of the Rockies.
1861 – Civil War: Ft. Point in the San Francisco Bay area was completed and garrisoned to defend San Francisco Bay against hostile warships. It never fired a cannon in anger.
1862 – Civil War: General Ulysses S. Grant attacks Fort Donelson, Tennessee.
1862 – Civil War: Four Confederate gunboats under Commodore Tattnall attacked Union batteries at Venus Point, on Savannah River, Georgia, but were forced back to Savannah. Tattnall was attempting to effect the passage of steamer Ida from Fort Pulaski to Savannah.
1864 – Civil War: U.S.S. Forest Rose came to the relief of Union soldiers who were hard pressed by attacking Confederate troops at Waterproof, Louisiana.
1869 – Charges of treason against Jefferson Davis were dropped.
1870 – Ground was broken for Northern Pacific Railway near Duluth, Minn.
1876 – Historic Elm at Boston blown down. On the first complete map of Boston, drafted by Captain John Bonner in 1722, is a record of three trees only, standing at the time the first settlers came. One of these, represented as the largest, was the Old Elm on Boston Common.
1879 – President Rutherford B. Hayes signs a bill allowing female attorneys to argue cases before the Supreme Court of the United States.
1895 – 8.2 inches of snow falls on New Orleans.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The USS Maine explodes and sinks in Havana harbor in Cuba, killing more than 260 of the 400 men on board. On April 25, the U.S. Congress declared war on Spain to the shouts of “Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain!” The true cause of the explosion that sank the battleship Maine remains a mystery.
1903 – Morris Michtom and his wife Rose introduce the first teddy bear in America.
1911 – Congress transferred Fort Trumbull, New London, CT from War Department to Treasury Department for the use of the USRCS (US Revenue Cutter Service).
1912 – The Fram reached latitude 78ø 41′ S, farthest south ever by ship.
The Fram (“Forward”) was a ship that was used in expeditions of the Arctic and Antarctic regions between 1893 and 1912.
1917 – The Main Branch of the San Francisco Public Library at the Civic center was dedicated.
1918 – The first WW I US army troopship was torpedoed & sunk off Ireland by Germany.
1919 – American Legion organizes in Paris.
1926 – Contract air mail service begins in US.
1930 – Wenona beat Toluca in an Illinois Basketball Tournament in ten overtimes.
1931 – First Dracula movie released.
1931 – Spring training site of New York Yankees in St Petersburg is renamed Miller Huggins Field in honor of the team’s late manager.
1932 – George Burns and Gracie Allen debuted as regulars on “The Guy Lombardo Show” on CBS radio.
1932 – US bobsled team member Eddie Eagan became the only athlete to win gold in both Summer & Winter Olympics (1920 boxing gold).
1933 – In Miami, Florida, Giuseppe Zangara attempts to assassinate President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt, but instead shoots Chicago, Illinois Mayor Anton J. Cermak, who dies of his wounds on March 6, 1933.
1934 – America was plagued by poverty and unemployment, prompting President Franklin Roosevelt to call on Congress to establish a Federal institution for doling out funds to the nation’s needy. The result was the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA).
1939 – Lillian Hellman’s “Little Foxes,” premiered in New York City.
1940 – World War II: Europe – Hitler ordered that all British merchant ships would be considered warships.
1941-Duke Ellington first records “Take the “A” Train“.
1942 – World War II: The Fall of Singapore. Following an assault by Japanese forces, the British General Arthur Percival surrenders. About 80,000 Indian, United Kingdom and Australian soldiers become prisoners of war, the largest surrender of British-led military personnel in history. The Sook Ching massacre begins.
1943 – World War II: North Africa – The Germans broke the U.S. lines at the Fanid-Sened Sector in Tunisia.
1943 – World War II: Pacific – Women’s camp Tamtui on Ambon (Moluccas) was hit by allied air raid.
1943 – “My True Story” was heard for the first time on ABC radio.
1944 – World War II: The assault on Monte Cassino, Italy begins.
1944 – World War II: British bombers attacked Berlin.
1945 – World War II: During the day, the US 8th Air Force raids Dresden where the fire storm continues.
1945 – World War II: American USAAF B-24 and B-29 bombers raid Iwo Jima in preparation for the landings later in the month. They drop a daily average of 450 tons of bombs over the course of 15 days (6800 tons).
1945 – World War II: A regiment from US 11th Corps is landed at the southern tip of Bataan on Luzon to help in the operations of the remainder of the corps. The fighting in Manila continues.
1946 – ENIAC, the first electronic general-purpose computer, is formally dedicated at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.
1946 – Edith Houghton, at age 33, was signed as a baseball scout by the Philadelphia Phillies becoming the first female scout in the major leagues.
1950 – Walt Disney’s “Cinderella” released.
1951 – Korean War: The communists were defeated at Chipyong-ni by the U.S. 2nd Infantry Division’s 23rd Infantry Regimental Combat Team (RCT) and the French Battalion.
1953 – Korean War: Radio Pyongyang went off the air when B-29s attacked the nearby Pingjang-ni communications center, damaging power lines and twenty-two F-84s from the 474th Fighter-Bomber Wing bombed the generators at the Sui-ho hydroelectric plant.
1953 – Seventeen-year-old Tenley Albright becomes the first American to win the world figure skating championship.
1954 – An ocean exploration depth record of 13,287 feet (4,050 meters, over 2,000 fathoms, or over 2-1/2 miles) in FNRS III was set when two French Navy officers, Lt. Commander Georges Houot and Lt. Pierre Willm, reached the Atlantic Ocean floor, 120 miles southwest of Dakar, Senegal, Africa, in the tropical Atlantic Ocean.
1954 – Canada and the United States agree to construct the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line, a system of radar stations in the far northern Arctic regions of Canada and Alaska.
1955 – First pilot plant to produce man-made diamonds announced.
1956 – Pirates & Kansas City A’s cancel an exhibition game in Birmingham AL, because of local ordinance barring blacks from playing against whites.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t/I Beg of You” by Elvis Presley, “Get a Job” by The Silhouettes, “Catch a Falling Star/Magic Moments” by Perry Como and “Ballad of a Teenage Queen” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1960 – US nuclear submarine USS Triton set off on underwater round-world trip.
1961 – Sabena Flight 548 crashes in Belgium, killing 73, with the entire 18 – member US Figure Skating team, several coaches & family.
1962 – CBS-TV bought the exclusive rights to college football games from the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) for $10 million.
1964 – “I Saw Her Standing There” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1967 – Vietnam War : Thirteen U.S. helicopters were shot down in one day in Vietnam.
1967 – The first anti-bootleg recording laws were enacted.
1968 – Anaheim’s Les Salvage scored 10, 3-pt baskets in an ABA game vs. Denver.
1969 – “Everyday People” by Sly & the Family Stone topped the charts.
1970 – William Kunstler, Chicago defense attorney, got a four-year sentence on contempt charges for his conduct during the Chicago Seven trial.
1972 – Sound recordings are granted U.S. federal copyright protection for the first time.
1972 – William Kolff obtained a patent for the soft shell mushroom shaped artificial heart.
1973 – Friendsville Academy in Tenn. ended a 138-game basketball losing streak. It beat a small catholic school from West Virginia who had a similar record with 70 straight losses. Neither team ever played basketball again.
1973 – The US and Cuba reached an anti-hijacking agreement.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love’s Theme” by Love Unlimited Orchestra, “Americans” by Byron MacGregor, “Until You Come Back to Me (That’s What I’m Gonna Do)” by Aretha Franklin and “World of Make Believe” by Bill Anderson all topped the charts.
1974 – US gasoline stations threatened to close because of federal fuel policies.
1975 – “You’re No Good” by Linda Ronstadt topped the charts.
1975 -In local elections 78.8% of the residents approved a covenant under which the Northern Marianas would become a US Commonwealth. In 1976 the US Congress approved a covenant whereby Saipan became the capital of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Today (2014), the Marianas Islands are composed of two U.S. jurisdictions: the territory of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
1976 – David Pearson survived a last lap chaos with Richard Petty and limped his car to victory lane to win his only Daytona 500 victory in one of NASCAR’s amazing endings.
1978 – Boxer Leon Spinks defeated Muhammad Ali to win the heavyweight boxing crown.
1978 – Ted Bundy (1946-1989), American escaped serial killer, was recaptured in Pensacola, Fla. Bundy eventually confessed to 29 murders.
1979 – The Temple City Kazoo Orchestra appeared on the Mike Douglas Show. (See YouTube)
1981 – A rocket-powered ice sled attained 399 kph on Lake George, NY.
1982 – The drilling rig Ocean Ranger sinks during a storm off the coast of Newfoundland, killing 84 rig workers.
1982 – Sugar Ray Leonard, the welterweight boxing champion, knocked out Bruce Finch in the third round of a fight in Reno, NV. Leonard was injured in the second round and underwent retinal surgery in May.
1985 – The STS 51-E vehicle was moved to the launch pad.
1985 – The Center for Disease Control reported that more than half of all nine-year-olds in the U.S. showed no sign of tooth decay.
1986 – “How Will I Know” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1987 – ABC-TV began broadcasting “Amerika” mini-series.
1989 – Soviet Union invasion of Afghanistan: The Soviet Union officially announces that all of its troops had left Afghanistan.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Opposites Attract” by Paula Abdul with The Wild Pair, “Two to Make It Right” by Seduction, “Janie’s Got a Gun” by Aerosmith and “Southern Star” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1990 – Professional Baseball owners lock out players.
1991 – Iraq: Iraq proposed a conditional withdrawal from Kuwait, an offer dismissed by President Bush as a “cruel hoax.”
1992 – One hundredth episode of “Cops” aired on the Fox network.
1992 – A Milwaukee jury found that Jeffrey Dahmer was sane when he killed and mutilated fifteen men and boys.
1993 – President Clinton issued an economic “call to arms,” asking Americans to accept a painful package of tax increases and spending cuts.
1994 – Navy chief Adm. Frank Kelso II agreed to early retirement because of criticism over the Tailhook sex abuse scandal.
1995 – Kevin Mitnick is arrested for computer hacking by the FBI and charged with breaking into some of the United States’ most “secure” computer systems. He did five years in prison.
1996 – Mortar attack on the US Embassy in Athens, Greece. An antitank rocket hit a perimeter wall of the Embassy damaging three parked cars. There were no injuries in the blast.
1996 – A federal judge temporarily blocked the Communications Decency Act, saying the government had to explain what material it considered indecent before it could enforce the law, designed to protect children from sexually explicit material on computer networks.
1997 – Tara Lipinski upset Michelle Kwan at the U.S. Figure Skating Championships in Nashville, Tenn., becoming the youngest gold medalist at the nationals.
1999 – Coast Guard recruiting ads began appearing on World Wrestling Federation cable television programs.
1999 – Carole Sund (42), Julie Sund (15) and Silvina Pelosso were last seen at the Cedar Lodge motel in Portal, Ca. The trio were visiting the area from Eureka. Carole Sund’s wallet and credit cards were found in Modesto on Feb 19. Cary Stayner, motel maintenance man, later admitted to the murders and faced trial in 2002.
2000 – Indian Point II nuclear power plant in New York State vents a small amount of radioactive steam when a steam generator fails.
2000 – Fox aired “Who Wants to Marry a Multimillionaire?,” a TV special which drew huge ratings.
2001 – First draft of the complete human genome is published in Nature.
2002 – President George W. Bush approved Nevada’s Yucca Mountain as a site for long-term disposal of radioactive nuclear waste.
2002 – Globalstar, a satellite telephone company, filed for bankruptcy. The company had spent $4 billion to launch a network of 48 communications satellites.
2002 – At the Tri-State Crematory in La Fayette, Georgia, investigators find uncremated bodies disposed of in the woods and buildings on the crematorium’s property. The discovery reveals one of the worst incidents of abuse in the funeral service industry.
2003 – American warplanes bombed two anti-aircraft missile sites in southern Iraq.
2004 – Scientists at the California Institute of Technology announce the discovery of a galaxy which is the farthest known object in the universe. The galaxy was found with the help of the magnification effect from the Abell 2218 galaxy cluster.
2004 – Dale Earnhardt Jr. won the Daytona 500 on the same track where his father was killed three years earlier.
2004 – Iraqi police arrested No. 41 on the American military’s most-wanted list, Baath Party official Mohammed Zimam Abdul-Razaq.
2005 – YouTube, a popular video-sharing Web site, is started.
2005 – The United States recalls its ambassador to Syria, Margaret Scobey, in protest of alleged Syrian involvement in the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri.
2005 – Microsoft announces its intentions to release Internet Explorer version 7.0.
2006 – Robert Rich (92), inventor of frozen non-dairy topping, died. In 1990 he was among the 1st 4 people inducted into the Frozen Food Hall of Fame.
2006 – A US Republican-led House committee report, “A Failure of Initiative,” cited major failures at all levels of government in the handling of Hurricane Katrina.
2007 – Top US auditors told Congress that over $10 billion paid to military contractors for Iraq reconstruction and troop support was either excessive or unsupported by documents.
2007 – Democratic Party officials in the U.S. Congress have warned President Bush that he does not have the authority to go to war with Iran.
2007 – In another case of “Corporate Flight”, Hershey Co. said it would cut about 11 percent of its workforce and reduce the number of production lines it operates by more than a third as it spends as much as $575 million to overhaul its manufacturing. The Chicago-based US chocolate maker also said it will build a new, cost-efficient manufacturing plant in Monterrey, Mexico.
2007 – A new version of the US $1 coin, paying tribute to American presidents, went into general circulation. A unknown number were mistakenly struck without their edge inscription “In God We Trust.” George Washington appeared on the first coin.
2007 – Hundreds of drivers became stranded on a stretch of eastern Pennsylvania that had been hit by a monster storm. The National Guard was called in to deliver food and other necessities to a 50-mile line of vehicles trapped on I-78.
2008 – A Cook County, Illinois, probate judge declares adventurer Steve Fossett to be legally dead five months after he disappeared in the Nevada desert.
2008 – It was reported that a new computer virus called Mocmex, identified as a Trojan Horse from China, had been discovered in digital photo frames. It recognized and blocked antivirus software from over 100 security vendors and collected passwords for online games.
2009 – NASCAR driver Matt Kenseth wins the rain-shortened 2009 Daytona 500 at Daytona International Speedway after 152 of 200 laps.
2009 – In Washington State a 16-year-old girl was found dead and another teenage girl was discovered unconscious in a barracks at Fort Lewis Army base south of Tacoma. In March, Army authorities charged Pvt. Timothy E. Bennitt (19) if the drug overdose of his girlfriend.
2009 – Illinois Republicans called for the resignation of Democratic Sen. Roland Burris following reports of contradicting statements regarding conversations with close associates of former Gov. Rod Blagojevich.
2010 – Astronauts successfully attached a fancy new observation deck to the International Space Station after a long, frustrating night spent dealing with stuck bolts and wayward wiring.
2011 – Secretary of State Hillary Clinton outlines a new policy on Internet freedom.
2011 – Two U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement officers are shot while travelling between Monterrey and Mexico City with one officer dying.
2012 – Sony admits it increased the price of two Whitney Houston albums hours after she was found in the bathtub of her hotel room last Saturday. Fans react with outrage.
2012 – The Kellogg Company purchases snack maker Pringles from Procter & Gamble for $2.7 billion.
2012 – Seventeen students at Texas Christian University in the U.S., including four members of the school’s football team, are arrested on drug charges.
2013 – Near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA14 with an estimated diameter of about 50 160 ft comes within 17,200 miles from the Earth’s surface. This distance is a record close approach for a known object of such size.
2013 – Former Congressman Jesse Jackson, Jr. is charged with misusing campaign funds while in office.
2015 – The Oscar Mayer Wienermobile slipped off the roadway near the intersection of State Road and Fairview Avenue in East Pennsboro Township, PA , slamming into a pole and smashing the windshield. No injuries were reported, but spectators claimed their bologna had a first name and it was C-R-A-S-H.
1564 – Galileo Galilei, Italian astronomer and physicist (d. 1642)
1725 – Abraham Clark, American founding father, Declaration of Independence signer (d. 1794)
1734 – William Stacy, Continental Army officer, and pioneer to the Ohio Country (d. 1802)
1809 – Cyrus McCormick, American inventor (d. 1884)
1812 – Charles Lewis Tiffany, American jeweler (d. 1902)
1820 – Susan B. Anthony, American suffragist (d. 1906)
1825 – Carter Harrison, Sr., (d. 1893) was an American politician who served as mayor of Chicago, Illinois from 1879 until 1887;
1877 – Louis Renault, French automobile executive (d. 1944)
1882 – John Barrymore, American actor (d. 1942)
1892 – James Forrestal, United States Secretary of Defense (d. 1949) U.S.S. Forrestal named after him.
1893 – Walter Donaldson, American songwriter “Carolina in the Morning” “How Ya Gonna Keep ‘Em Down on the Farm?” “Yes Sir, That’s My Baby” (d. 1947)
1907 – Cesar Romero, American actor (d. 1994)
1911 – Leonard Woodcock, American labor union official and diplomat (d. 2001)
1916 – Mary Jane Croft, was an American actress best known for her role as Mary Jane Lewis on The Lucy Show and Here’s Lucy. (d. 1999)
1927 – Harvey Korman, American actor and comedian (d. 2008)
1929 – James Schlesinger, American politician
1935 – Roger Chaffee, astronaut (d. 1967)
1947 – David Brown, American musician (Santana) (d. 2000)
1947 – Rusty Hamer, American actor. Hamer grew up on TV as Rusty Williams, the freckle-faced son of TV Dad, Danny Thomas, on Make Room for Daddy (1953–1964) (d. 1990)
1964 – Chris Farley, American actor and comedian (d. 1997)
1973 – Amy Van Dyken, is an American swimmer who has six career Olympic gold medals. Four of these gold medals came in the 1996 Summer Olympics, making her the first American woman to accomplish such a feat.
1974 – Seattle Slew, American racehorse (d. 2002)
*WILLETT, LOUIS E.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 12th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division. Place and date: Kontum Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 15th, 1967. Entered service at: Brooklyn, N.Y. Born: 19 June 1945, Brooklyn, N.Y. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Willett distinguished himself while serving as a rifleman in Company C, during combat operations. His squad was conducting a security sweep when it made contact with a large enemy force. The squad was immediately engaged with a heavy volume of automatic weapons fire and pinned to the ground. Despite the deadly fusillade, Pfc. Willett rose to his feet firing rapid bursts from his weapon and moved to a position from which he placed highly effective fire on the enemy. His action allowed the remainder of his squad to begin to withdraw from the superior enemy force toward the company perimeter. Pfc. Willett covered the squad’s withdrawal, but his position drew heavy enemy machinegun fire, and he received multiple wounds enabling the enemy again to pin down the remainder of the squad. Pfc. Willett struggled to an upright position, and, disregarding his painful wounds, he again engaged the enemy with his rifle to allow his squad to continue its movement and to evacuate several of his comrades who were by now wounded. Moving from position to position, he engaged the enemy at close range until he was mortally wounded. By his unselfish acts of bravery, Pfc. Willett insured the withdrawal of his comrades to the company position, saving their lives at the cost of his life. Pfc. Willett’s valorous actions were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
|BENNETT, EDWARD A.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company B, 358th Infantry, 90th Infantry Division. Place and date: Heckhuscheid, Germany, February 15th, 1945 (Exact day is unknown). Entered service at: Middleport, Ohio. Birth: Middleport, Ohio. G.O. No.: 95, 30 October 1945. Citation: He was advancing with Company B across open ground to assault Heckhuscheid, Germany, just after dark when vicious enemy machinegun fire from a house on the outskirts of the town pinned down the group and caused several casualties. He began crawling to the edge of the field in an effort to flank the house, persisting in this maneuver even when the hostile machine gunners located him by the light of burning buildings and attempted to cut him down as he made for the protection of some trees. Reaching safety, he stealthily made his way by a circuitous route to the rear of the building occupied by the German gunners. With his trench knife he killed a sentry on guard there and then charged into the darkened house. In a furious hand-to-hand struggle he stormed about a single room which harbored seven Germans. Three he killed with rifle fire, another he clubbed to death with the butt of his gun, and the three others he dispatched with his .45 caliber pistol. The fearless initiative, stalwart combat ability, and outstanding gallantry of Cpl. Bennett eliminated the enemy fire which was decimating his company’s ranks and made it possible for the Americans to sweep all resistance from the town.
FLUCKEY, EUGENE BENNETT
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy, Commanding U.S.S. Barb. Place and date: Along coast of China, 19 December 1944 to February 15th, 1945. Entered service at: Illinois. Born: S October 1913, Washington, D.C. Other Navy award: Navy Cross with 3 Gold Stars. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Barb during her eleventh war patrol along the east coast of China from 19 December 1944 to 15 February 1945. After sinking a large enemy ammunition ship and damaging additional tonnage during a running two-hour night battle on 8 January, Comdr. Fluckey, in an exceptional feat of brilliant deduction and bold tracking on 25 January, located a concentration of more than thirty enemy ships in the lower reaches of Nankuan Chiang (Mamkwan Harbor). Fully aware that a safe retirement would necessitate an hour’s run at full speed through the uncharted, mined, and rock-obstructed waters, he bravely ordered, “Battle station–torpedoes!” In a daring penetration of the heavy enemy screen, and riding in five fathoms of water, he launched the Barb’s last forward torpedoes at 3,000-yard range. Quickly bringing the ship’s stern tubes to bear, he turned loose four more torpedoes into the enemy, obtaining eight direct hits on six of the main targets to explode a large ammunition ship and cause inestimable damage by the resultant flying shells and other pyrotechnics. Clearing the treacherous area at high speed, he brought the Barb through to safety and four days later sank a large Japanese freighter to complete a record of heroic combat achievement, reflecting the highest credit upon Comdr. Fluckey, his gallant officers and men, and the U.S. Naval Service.
|GORDON, NATHAN GREEN
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy, commander of Catalina patrol plane. Place and date: Bismarck Sea, February 15th, 1944. Entered service at: Arkansas. Born: 4 September 1916, Morrilton, Ark. Citation: For extraordinary heroism above and beyond the call of duty as commander of a Catalina patrol plane in rescuing personnel of the U.S. Army 5th Air Force shot down in combat over Kavieng Harbor in the Bismarck Sea, 15 February 1944. On air alert in the vicinity of Vitu Islands, Lt. (then Lt. j.g.) Gordon
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1847, Canada. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S.S. Tennessee at New Orleans, La., February 15th, 1881, and sustaining, until picked up by a boat’s crew, N. P. Petersen, gunner’s mate, who had fallen overboard.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nolensville, Tenn., February 15th, 1863. Entered service at: Crystal Lake, Minn. Birth: Austria. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Burger was one of a detachment of sixteen men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of one hundred twenty-five Confederate cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.
His grandson was United States Supreme Court Justice Warren E. Burger.
|CLARK, WILLIAM A.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nolensville, Tenn., February 15th, 1863. Entered service at: Shelbyville, Minn. Birth: Pennsylvania. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Was one of a detachment of sixteen men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of one hundred twenty-five Confederate cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nolensville, Tenn., February 15th, 1863.. Entered service at: Louisville, Scott County, Minn. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Was one of a detachment of sixteen men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of one hundred twenty-five Confederate cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nolensville, Tenn., February 15th, 1863. Entered service at: Henderson, Minn. Birth: Lickland County, Ohio. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Was one of a detachment of sixteen men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of one hundred twenty-five Confederate cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.
|HOLMES, LOVILO N.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company H, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nolensville, Tenn., February 15th, 1863. Entered service at: Mankato, Minn. Birth: Cattaraugus County, N.Y. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Was one of a detachment of sixteen men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of one hundred twenty-five Confederate cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.
|PAY, BYRON E.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nolensville, Tenn., February 15th, 1863. Entered service at: Mankato, Minn. Born: 21 October 1844, LeRoy Township, Jefferson County, N.Y. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Was one of a detachment of sixteen men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of one hundred twenty-five Confederate cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.
|TWOMBLY, VOLTAIRE P.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 2d Iowa Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Donelson, Tenn., February 15th,1862. Entered service at: Keosauqua, Van Buren County, Iowa. Birth: Van Buren County, Iowa. Date of issue: 12 March 1897. Citation: Took the colors after three of the color guard had fallen, and although most instantly knocked down by a spent ball, immediately arose and bore the colors to the end of the engagement.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nolensville, Tenn., February 15th,1863. Entered service at: Rochester, Minn. Birth: England. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Was one of a detachment of sixteen men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of one hundred twenty-five Confederate cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nolensville, Tenn., February 15th, 1863. Entered service at: Swan Lake, Minn. Birth: Indiana. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Was one of a detachment of sixteen men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of one hundred twenty-five Confederate cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.
National Have A Heart Day
Every February we celebrate Valentine’s Day by giving flowers, candy and cards to those we love. We do this in honor of Saint Valentine. You may be wondering, “Who is St. Valentine”? Time to brush up on your Valentine’s history!
One legend has it that Valentine was an imprisoned man who fell in love with his jailer’s daughter. Before he was put to death he sent the first ‘valentine’ himself when he wrote her a letter and signed it ‘Your Valentine’, words still used on cards today.
Another story which made Saint Valentine famous is this story. In ancient times, Saint Valentine was a person who helped people and heard their problems to find solutions. The main story started when the emperor of the time Claudius banned all marriages and engagements. The reason behind such act was that at that times, the war was ON and emperor thought was depressed due to the less participation of the young men. So he sorted out the problem by banning marriages so as the young men do not fall in love and hence will join the emperor’s army to fight. Valentine was helping the young couples to marry and when emperor sorted out St. Valentine, he ordered his men to throw Valentine into prison where he died on the 14th February 270 AD. From then, the day is celebrated as the Valentine’s Day.The other story related to the Valentine’s day is that Saint Valentine was a bishop who was killed by the emperor.
Perhaps we’ll never know the true identity and story behind the man named St. Valentine, but this much is for sure…February has been the month to celebrate love for a long time, dating clear back to the Middle Ages. In fact, Valentines ranks second only to Christmas in number of greeting cards sent.
The Valentine Week starts from the blossomy Rose Day followed by the Propose Day, Chocolate Day, Teddy Day, Promise Day, Kiss Day & Hug Day (21st) sequentially. The Valentine’s Day ends the Valentine Week on 14 February.
Another valentine gentleman you may be wondering about is Cupid (Latin cupido, “desire”). In Roman mythology Cupid is the son of Venus, goddess of love. His counterpart in Greek mythology is Eros, god of love. Cupid is often said to be a mischievous boy who goes around wounding both gods and humans with his arrows, causing them to fall in love.
1 Corinthians 13:4-8New King James Version (NKJV)
Love suffers long and is kind; love does not envy; love does not parade itself, is not puffed up; does not behave rudely, does not seek its own, is not provoked, thinks no evil; does not rejoice in iniquity, but rejoices in the truth; bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things.
Love never fails. But whether there are prophecies, they will fail; whether there are tongues, they will cease; whether there is knowledge, it will vanish away.
“The people cannot be all, and always, well informed. The part which is wrong will be discontented, in proportion to the importance of the facts they misconceive. If they remain quiet under such misconceptions, it is lethargy, the forerunner of death to the public liberty. … What country before ever existed a century and half without a rebellion? And what country can preserve its liberties if their rulers are not warned from time to time that their people preserve the spirit of resistance? Let them take arms. The remedy is to set them right as to facts, pardon and pacify them. What signify a few lives lost in a century or two? The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure.”
― Thomas Jefferson, Letters of Thomas Jefferson
When love is not madness, it is not love. ~Pedro Calderon de la Barca
Anyone can catch your eye, but it takes someone special to catch your heart.
~ Scriptor Incompertus
A bell is no bell ’til you ring it,
A song is no song ’til you sing it,
And love in your heart
Wasn’t put there to stay -
Love isn’t love
‘Til you give it away.
~Oscar Hammerstein, Sound of Music, “You Are Sixteen (Reprise)”
Love noun adoration
Synonyms: adulation, affection, allegiance, amity, amorousness, amour, appreciation, ardency, ardor, attachment, cherishing, crash, crush, delight, devotedness, devotion, emotion, enchantment, enjoyment, fervor, fidelity, flame, fondness, friendship, hankering, idolatry, inclination, infatuation, involvement, like, liking, mad for, mash, partiality, pash, passion, piety, rapture, regard, relish, respect, sentiment, soft spot, taste, tenderness, the hots, weakness, “wild for”, worship, yearning and zeal
1349 – Two thousand Jews were burned at the stake in Strasbourg, Germany.
1688 – The Carolina colonial assembly denies the power of the Lords Proprietor, agents of the King, to invalidate the Fundamental Constitutions of 1669.
1778 – Our flag, “Stars & Stripes” arrives in foreign port for first time (France). This was the first time that the Stars and Stripes, the flag of the new nation, was officially recognized by a foreign government. A nine gun salute to USS Ranger, commanded by John Paul Jones.
1779 – Capt. James Cook is killed by Native Hawaiians near Kealakekua on the Island of Hawaii (then called the Sandwich Islands).
1779 – Revolutionary War – American Loyalists are defeated by Patriots at Kettle Creek, Ga.
1794 – First US textile machinery patent granted, to James Davenport. His patent for “weaving and beating sail duck,” was the first one issued in the United States.
1803 – Chief Justice John Marshall declares that any act of U.S. Congress which conflicts with the Constitution is void.
1803 – The first American patent for an apple peeler was issued to Moses Coates of Chester Co., Pennsylvania.
1813 – Essex becomes first U.S. warship to round Cape Horn and enter the Pacific Ocean.
1814 – USS Constitution captures British Lovely Ann and Pictou.
1840 – Officers from USS Vincennes make first landing in Antarctica on floating ice.
1849 – James Polk became the first U.S. president to be photographed while in office. The photographer was Mathew Brady, who later became famous for his Civil War pictures.
1854 – Texas linked by telegraph with the rest of the United States, with the completion of a connection between New Orleans and Marshall, Texas.
1854 – Horace Smith and Daniel Wesson patented a firearm. Their first pistol was known as the “Smith & Wesson Model 1.”
1859 – Oregon admitted as the 33rd U.S. state.
1861 – First military action to result in Congressional Medal of Honor occurred in what would become Arizona on the night of 2/13-14. The medal went to Army Assistant Surgeon Bernard J.D. Irwin. He rescued the 60 soldiers of 2nd Lt. George Bascom’s unit at Apache Pass, AZ. (recorded on both the 13th & 14th)
1862 – Galena, the first US iron-clad warship for service at sea, was launched in CT.
1862 – Civil War: Gunboats U.S.S. St. Louis, Carondelet, Louisville, Pittsburg, Tyler, and Conestoga under Flag Officer Foote joined with General Grant in attacking Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River.
1867 – Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection & Insurance Co. issued its first policy. It is now “The Hartford”.
1870 – Esther Morris became the world’s first female justice of the peace. She began term in South Pass City, WY but only served nine months. She “filled in” after R.S. Barr resigned in protest for the passage of the WY women’s suffrage amendment.
1876 – Alexander Graham Bell applies for a patent for the telephone,as does Elisha Gray.
1886 – First trainload of oranges left Los Angeles via the transcontinental railroad.
1895 – First performance of Oscar Wilde’s last play, “The Importance of Being Earnest” at the St James’s Theatre in London.
1899 – Voting machines are approved by the U.S. Congress for use in federal elections.
1903 – The United States Department of Commerce and Labor is established (later split into Dept. of Commerce and Dept. of Labor).
1904 – “The Missouri Kid” (AKA William Rudolph, AKA Charles Gorney. He was credited with numerous highway robberies, bank robberies, and murder.) was captured in Kansas.
1912 – Arizona admitted as the 48th U.S. state.
1912 – In Groton, Connecticut, the first diesel-powered submarine, a pig-boat designated “E” is commissioned.
1918 – “Tarzan of the Apes“,(1:00:32) the first movie featuring Edgar Rice Burroughs’ Tarzan character, is released.
1918 – Sigmund Romberg’s musical “Sinbad,” premiered in New York City.
1919 – United Parcel Service forms.
1920 – The League of Women Voters is founded in Chicago, Illinois. Its first president was Maude Wood Park.
1921 – Skeezix of “Gasoline Alley” discovered on Wallet’s doorstep. This was the day Gasoline Alley entered history as the first comic strip in which the characters aged normally.
1921 – The Little Review faced obscenity charges in NY for publishing “Ulysses” by James Joyce. Margaret Anderson and Jane Heap were convicted and fined $50 each.
1924 – The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is founded by Thomas Watson.
1929 – St. Valentine’s Day Massacre: Seven gangster rivals of Al Capone are murdered in Chicago, Illinois. Seven members of Moran’s gang were lined up against a wall , then shot and killed by five members of Al Capone’s gang.
1932 – The U.S. won the first bobsled competition at the Winter Olympic Games at Lake Placid, NY.
1933 – An eight-day bank holiday was declared in Michigan in a Depression-era move to avert a financial panic. A total of $50 million was rushed to Detroit to bolster bank assets.
1939 – German battleship Bismarck was launched.
1940 – The first porpoise born in captivity arrived at Marineland in Florida.
1941 – WW II: German Africa Corps lands in Tripoli, Libya.
1941 – 1,000,000th vehicle traverses the New York Midtown Tunnel.
1941 – Frank Leahy was named head football coach at the University of Notre Dame. Leahy coached at Notre Dame for 11 years, from 1941-1943, and 1946-1953. His record of thirty-nine straight, undefeated games still stands as a Notre Dame record. Coach Leahy’s overall college football record was 107 wins, 13 losses, and 9 ties.
1942 – World War II: This Is War, a 13-week anti-fascist radio series, debuted in the midst of World War II.
1943 – World War II: Battle of the Kasserine Pass – German General Erwin Rommel and the Afrika Korps launch an offensive against Allied defenses in Tunisia.
1944 – World War II: American and New Zealand forces land on the Green Islands.
1945 – WW II: On the second day of the Bombing of Dresden , the British Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces begin fire-bombing Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony. 521 American heavy bombers flew daylight raids over Dresden, Germany .The firestorm killed an estimated 135,000 people.
1945 – American USAAF B-24 and B-29 bombers raid Iwo Jima in preparation for the landings later in the month (2/19). They drop a daily average of 450 tons of bombs over the course of 15 days (6800 tons).
1945 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt meets with King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia aboard the USS Quincy, officially starting the U.S.-Saudi diplomatic relationship.
1946 – ENIAC (for “Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer”), the first general-purpose electronic computer, unveiled at the University of Pennsylvania. ENIAC contained 17,468 vacuum tubes, 7,200 crystal diodes, 1,500 relays, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors and around 5 million hand-soldered joints. It weighed 30 short tons, was roughly 8.5 by 3 by 80 feet, took up 680 square feet and consumed 150 kW of power.
1949 – The Knesset (Israeli parliament) first convenes.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “A Little Bird Told Me” by Evelyn Knight, “Powder Your Face with Sunshine” by Evelyn Knight, “Far Away Places” by Margaret Whiting and “I Love You So Much It Hurts” by Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: Operation ROUNDUP officially concluded and the 30-day battle of Wonju began as the 2nd Infantry Division repelled repeated attacks from seven Chinese divisions.
1952 – Olympic Games: Winter Olympic Games – VI Olympic Winter Games open in Oslo, Norway.
1953 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Colonel Royal N. “The King” Baker, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, downed his tenth enemy aircraft and became the third double ace of the war. (An ace has five enemy kills.)
1953 – “Till I Waltz Again with You” by Teresa Brewer topped the charts.
1954 – Senator John F. Kennedy appears on “Meet the Press”.
1954 – The TV show “Letter to Loretta” changed its name to “The Loretta Young Show.” The show premiered on September 20, 1953.
1955 – Elvis Presley performs the first show booked by his new manager, “Col.” Tom Parker, at Lubbock’s Fair Park Coliseum.
1957 – Lionel Hampton’s only major musical work, “King David,” made its debut at New York’s Town Hall.
1959 – “Stagger Lee” by Lloyd Price topped the charts.
1961 – Discovery of the chemical elements: Element 103, Lawrencium, is first synthesized at the University of California.
1962 – First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy takes television viewers on a tour of the White House. (57:20)
1962 – President John F. Kennedy authorizes U.S. military advisors in Vietnam to return fire if fired upon.
1963 – US launches communications satellite Syncom 1.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “You’ve Lost that Lovin’ Feelin’” by The Righteous Brothers, “This Diamond Ring” by Gary Lewis & The Playboys, “All Day and All of the Night” by The Kinks and “You’re the Only World I Know” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1966 – Wilt Chamberlain breaks NBA career scoring record at 20,884 points.
1967 – Aretha Franklin records “Respect“.
1970 – “Thank You (Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin)” by Sly & the Family Stone topped the charts.
1971 – Movie “Ben Hur” first shown on television.
1971 – Richard Nixon installs secret taping system in White House.
1972 – The musical, “Grease”, opened at the Eden Theatre in New York City.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Crocodile Rock” by Elton John, “Why Can’t We Live Together” by Timmy Thomas, “Oh, Babe, What Would You Say?” by Hurricane Smith and “She Needs Someone to Hold Her (When She Cries)” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1976 – “50 Ways to Leave Your Lover” by Paul Simon topped the charts.
1978 – Texas Instruments introduced the first single chip speech synthesizer and incorporated it in a product called the “Speak & Spell” which was later immortalized in the movie “E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.”
1978 – G. W. Boone and M.J. Cochran of Texas Instruments received a patent for their Variable Function Programmed Calculator.
1979 – In Kabul, Muslim extremists kidnap the American ambassador to Afghanistan, Adolph Dubs who is later killed during a gunfight between his kidnappers and police.
1979 – Twenty-year-old rookie, Don Maloney, of the New York Rangers, scored his first goal in the National Hockey League. It came on his first NHL shot.
1979 – Iranian guerrillas stormed the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, trapping Ambassador William Sullivan and 100 staff members. Forces of the Ayatollah Khomeini later freed them but the incident foreshadowed the embassy takeover in November.
1980 – Olympic Games: Winter Olympic Games – XIII Olympic Winter Games open in Lake Placid, New York.
1980 – Walter Cronkite announces his retirement from the CBS Evening News.
1980 – The Solar Max satellite was launched by NASA to monitor the sun and its flares at an orbit of 400 miles above Earth.
1984 – A 6-year-old (Stormie Jones) became the first person to receive a heart and liver transplants in the same operation. She lived until 1990.
1985 – CNN reporter Jeremy Levin is freed from captivity in Lebanon. He was kidnapped in March 1984.
1987 – “Livin’ on a Prayer” by Bon Jovi topped the charts.
1988 – American David Jansen lost his bid for a Gold medal at the Winter Olympics in Calgary, Canada. He fell during his 500-meter speed-skating event just hours after hearing that his sister has died.
1989 – The world’s first satellite telephone communications system for airline passengers, Skyphone, had its commercial debut on a British Airways 747.
1989 – Union Carbide agrees to pay $470 million to the Indian government for damages it caused in the 1984 Bhopal Disaster.
1989 – Iranian leader Ruhollah Khomeini issues a fatwa encouraging Muslims to kill the author of The Satanic Verses, Salman Rushdie. In 1998, Tehran rescinded the death sentence.
1989 – The first of 24 satellites of the Global Positioning System is placed into orbit.
1990 – Space probe Voyager 1 took photographs of entire solar system.
1990 – Ike Turner (Ike & Tina Turner) is convicted of 11 charges (including cocaine possession and distribution) and is sentenced to four years in prison, but is released after 18 months.
1993 – Six people were killed in a modern Valentine’s Day massacre in a Bronx, New York, neighborhood where area residents ignored the gunfire.
1997 – Astronauts on the space shuttle Discovery began a series of space walks that are required to overhaul the Hubble Space Telescope.
1997 – American Airlines and its pilots union continued contract talks as the clock ticked down to a midnight strike deadline. The pilots did strike, but President Clinton immediately intervened, ordering a 60-day “cooling off” period.
1998 – Authorities in the United States announce that Eric Robert Rudolph is a suspect in an Alabama abortion clinic bombing.
1998 – “Nice & Slow” by Usher topped the charts.
1999 – Iraq threatened Kuwait and Saudi Arabia with missile attacks for permitting US warplanes to fly from their countries.
2000 – In Georgia three tornadoes struck the southwest part of the state and twenty-two people were killed.
2000 – The spacecraft NEAR Shoemaker enters orbit around asteroid 433 Eros, the first spacecraft to orbit an asteroid.
2000 – In Colorado two teens, Nicholas Kunselman (15) and Stephanie Hart (16), from Columbine High School were shot and killed in a Subway sandwich shop near the school, which was still reeling from the April 1999 massacre.
2001 – The Kansas Board of Education approved new science standards restoring evolution to the state’s curriculum.
2002 – The U.S. House of Representatives passed the Shays-Meehan bill. The bill, if passed by the U.S. Senate, would ban millions of unregulated money that goes to the national political parties. It went into effect November 6, 2002.
2002 – The US House voted to ban unregulated contributions to national political parties.
2002 – Jayson Williams (34), former NBA star and NBC Sports commentator, accidentally shot and killed Costas Christofi (55), a limousine driver.
2003 – Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal and mother of 6 lambs, was put to sleep by veterinarians in Scotland, because of incurable lung cancer.
2003 – Four ex-Symbionese Liberation Army members were sentenced to prison for the 1975 murder of Myrna Opsahl during a bank robbery in Carmichael, CA.
2004 – Staff advisors for President George W. Bush say he will support the proposed Federal Marriage Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which would outlaw same-sex marriage and federalize marriage law, which has been set by individual states since the founding of the country.
2005 – President Bush said he would nominate Lester M. Crawford as head of the Food and Drug Administration. Crawford had been acting commissioner for nearly a year.
2006 – In Texas lawyer Harry Whittington, who was accidentally injured 3 days earlier by birdshot fired by VP Cheney, suffered a minor heart attack.
2007 – Valentine’s Day blizzard blasted out of the Midwest and shut down parts of the Northeast including New York City.
2007 – The U.S. military confirms that a United States Marine Corps CH-46 Sea Knight helicopter that crashed on 7 February 2007 was shot down by Iraqi insurgents.|
2007 – All Peter Pan and Great Value peanut butter made at a Georgia ConAgra plant was recalled because of a salmonella outbreak.
2007 – Challenged on the accuracy of US intelligence, President Bush told a news conference there was no doubt the Iranian government was providing armor-piercing weapons to kill American soldiers in Iraq, and he said he would fight any attempt by the Democratic-controlled Congress to cut off money for the war.
2008 – The US Mint officially issued the Monroe dollar coin, the fifth of its presidential dollar series.
2008 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Former student at Northern Illinois University, Stephen Kazmierczak, opened fire in a lecture hall at the school, killing six students and wounding 15 others before killing himself.
2009 – The White House had a monogram that symbolizes the name of Jesus hidden from the backdrop of a speech President Obama gave at Georgetown University.
2009 – Suspicious fires destroyed two churches and damaged a third near the Georgia border. Authorities were concerned that this was the work of Satanists.
2009 – Louie Bellson (b.1924), big band and jazz drummer, died. The master musician performed with such greats as Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Benny Goodman and his late wife, Pearl Bailey.
2010 – In Arizona, a helicopter crashed north of Phoenix killing 5 people onboard including Thomas Stewart (64), the head of Services Group of America.
2010 – In Florence, AZ, Viva Leroy Nash, the oldest death row inmate in the U.S. dies of natural causes at age 94.
2010 – An apartment fire in Cicero, Ill., killed at least 7 people including 4 children. The fire spread to nearby buildings and over 20 people were left homeless.
2011 – General Motors announces that it will pay its United States hourly workers more than $4000 each as a share of profits.
2011 – The US House of Representatives votes to extend the Patriot Act for another nine months.
2012 – An illegal alien, Ulugbek Kodirov, a Uzbekistan national, who has been residing in the U.S. on an expired visa, pleaded guilty today, to providing material support to radical Islamic terrorists, plotting to assassinate President Barack Obama, and illegally possessing a firearm.
2012 – The U.S. aircraft carrier Abraham Lincoln, accompanied by the cruiser Cape St. George and the destroyer Sterett, sails through the Strait of Hormuz, close to the coast of Iran, for the second time in recent weeks.
2012 – The Detroit Red Wings set a new record of 21 consecutive home victories in the National Hockey League by defeating the Dallas Stars 3-1.
2013 – US Airways and the bankrupt American Airlines announce a merger to form the world’s largest air carrier trading as American Airlines.
2013 – Republican Senators filibuster the nomination of muslim convert Chuck Hagel as US Secretary of Defense.
2014 – Jay Leno does his final show on the Tonight Show. Conan O’Brien will be starting on February 17th. Jay’s Final Monologue!!
2015 – The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives announced proposed ban of .223 ammunition. It would ban the manufacture, sale, or importation of such ammunition, which is used by thousands of gun owners.The rule change affects Congress’ Gun Control Act of 1968, as amended by Congress in 1986.
1812 – Alfred Thomas Agate was a noted American artist, painter and miniaturist.
1819 – Christopher Sholes, American inventor invented the first practical typewriter and the QWERTY keyboard still in use today. (d. 1890)
1824 – Winfield Scott Hancock, American Civil War Union general and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1880. (d. 1886)
1838 – Margaret Knight was an American inventor, famous as the female Thomas Edison. She invented a machine that folded and glued paper to form the brown paper bags familiar to shoppers today. (d. 1914)
1846 – Julian Scott was an American artist and Civil War Medal of Honor recipient. (d. 1901)
1847 – Anna Howard Shaw was a leader of the women’s suffrage movement in the United States. She was also a physician and the first ordained female Methodist minister in the United States. (d. 1919)
1859 – George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr., engineer and inventor who invented the Ferris wheel, for the 1893 Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition in an attempt to create something as impressive as the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France. (d. 1896)
1894 – Jack Benny was an American comedian, vaudevillian, and actor for radio, television, and film. (d. 1974)
1904 – Charles Oatley, Professor of electrical engineering, (scanning electron microscope), (d. 1996)
1913 – Woody Hayes was a college football coach who is best remembered for winning five national titles and 13 Big Ten championships in 28 years at Ohio State University. (d. 1987)
1913 – Jimmy Hoffa, American labor union leader, served as the General President of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters from 1958–1971 (disappeared 1975)
1921 – Hugh Downs, American television host. He served as anchor of 20/20, host of The Today Show, announcer for the Tonight Show with Jack Paar, and host of the Concentration game show.
1931 – Brian Kelly was an American actor best known for his role as Porter Ricks, the widowed father of two sons on the NBC television series Flipper. (d. 2005)
1931 – Phyllis McGuire, American singer (The McGuire Sisters)
1934 – Florence Henderson, American actress who is perhaps best known for playing the role of Carol Brady in the television program The Brady Bunch.
1936 – Fanne Foxe, Argentine dancer best known for being involved in a 1974 sex scandal surrounding Arkansas Congressman Wilbur Mills, until then one of the most powerful members of the House of Representatives.
1948 – Pat O’Brien, American sportscaster and television host.
1960 – Jim Kelly, American football player, led the Buffalo Bills to four consecutive Super Bowls in 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993, though the Bills lost all four of them. In 2002, in his first year of eligibility, he was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame.
*SITMAN, WILLIAM S.
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Company M, 23d Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Chipyong-ni, Korea, February 14th, 1951. Entered service at: Bellwood, Pa. Birth: Bellwood, Pa. G.O. No.: 20, 1 February 1952. Citation: Sfc. Sitman distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against an armed enemy of the United Nations. Sfc. Sitman, a machine gun section leader of Company M, was attached to Company I, under attack by a numerically superior hostile force. During the encounter when an enemy grenade knocked out his machine gun, a squad from Company I, immediately emplaced a light machine gun and Sfc. Sitman and his men remained to provide security for the crew. In the ensuing action, the enemy lobbed a grenade into the position and Sfc. Sitman, fully aware of the odds against him, selflessly threw himself on it, absorbing the full force of the explosion with his body. Although mortally wounded in this fearless display of valor, his intrepid act saved 5 men from death or serious injury, and enabled them to continue inflicting withering fire on the ruthless foe throughout the attack. Sfc. Sitman’s noble self-sacrifice and consummate devotion to duty reflect lasting glory on himself and upheld the honored traditions of the military service.
*BIGELOW, ELMER CHARLES
Rank and organization: Watertender First Class, U.S. Naval Reserve. Born: 12 July 1920, Hebron, IL. Accredited to. Illinois. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving on board the U.S.S. Fletcher during action against enemy Japanese forces off Corregidor Island in the Philippines, February 14th, 1945. Standing topside when an enemy shell struck the Fletcher, Bigelow, acting instantly as the deadly projectile exploded into fragments which penetrated the No. 1 gun magazine and set fire to several powder cases, picked up a pair of fire extinguishers and rushed below in a resolute attempt to quell the raging flames. Refusing to waste the precious time required to don rescue-breathing apparatus, he plunged through the blinding smoke billowing out of the magazine hatch and dropped into the blazing compartment. Despite the acrid, burning powder smoke which seared his lungs with every agonizing breath, he worked rapidly and with instinctive sureness and succeeded in quickly extinguishing the fires and in cooling the cases and bulkheads, thereby preventing further damage to the stricken ship. Although he succumbed to his injuries on the following day, Bigelow, by his dauntless valor, unfaltering skill and prompt action in the critical emergency, had averted a magazine explosion which undoubtedly would have left his ship wallowing at the mercy of the furiously pounding Japanese guns on Corregidor, and his heroic spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of almost certain death enhanced and sustained the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.
|BONNEY, ROBERT EARL
Rank and organization: Chief Watertender, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Hopkins. Place and date: Aboard U.S.S. Hopkins, February 14th,1910. Entered service at: Nashville, Tenn. Birth: Tennessee. Citation: While serving on board the U.S.S. Hopkins, Bonney displayed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession on the occasion of the accident to one of the boilers of that vessel, 14 February 1910.
Rank and organization: Signal Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, Scotland. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Carondelet at the reduction of Forts Henry and Donelson, 6 and February 14th,1862 and other actions. Carrying out his duties as signal quartermaster and captain of the rifled bow gun, S/Q.M. Arther was conspicuous for valor and devotion, serving most faithfully, effectively and valiantly.
|IRWIN, BERNARD J. D.
Pre- Indian Wars
Rank and organization: Assistant Surgeon, U.S. Army. Place and date: Apache Pass, Ariz., 13-February 14th, 1861. Entered service at: New York. Born: 24 June 1830, Ireland. Date of issue: 24 January 1894. Citation: Voluntarily took command of troops and attacked and defeated hostile Indians he met on the way. Surgeon Irwin volunteered to go to the rescue of 2d Lt. George N. Bascom, 7th Infantry, who with 60 men was trapped by Chiricahua Apaches under Cochise. Irwin and 14 men, not having horses began the 100-mile march riding mules. After fighting and capturing Indians, recovering stolen horses and cattle, he reached Bascom’s column and help break his siege.
The area where this occurred was in the Chiricahua Mountains in what would become Arizona 49 years later to the day.
History shows that there have been many strange and unusual taxes over time. Many of them were implemented to raise additional revenue, while the purpose of others was to promote social change. Here are some of the strangest ones:
“In this world nothing can be said to be certain except death and taxes.”
~ Benjamin Franklin
In Ancient Egypt, cooking oil was taxed, and on top of that, people had to buy their taxed cooking oil from the Pharaoh’s monopoly, and were prohibited from reusing previously purchased oil.
During the 1st century AD, Roman emperor Vaspasian placed a tax on urine. At the time, urine was collected and used as a source of ammonia in such tasks as tanning hides and laundering garments. Therefore, those who obtained valuable urine from collectors were charged a tax.
In Ancient Rome, it was not uncommon for slave owners to free their slaves after a certain number of years of work, and/or the payment of a certain fee. Slaves could pay that fee because many of them had the opportunity to work in several places, and thus could earn the money used to obtain their freedom. The Roman government required the newly freed slave to pay a tax on his or her freedom.
During the Middle Ages, European governments placed a tax on soap. Great Britain didn’t repeal its soap tax until 1835.
King Henry I allowed knights to opt out of their duties fight in wars by paying a tax called “scutage”. At first the tax wasn’t high, but then King John came to power and raised it to a rate of 300%. Some claim that the excessive tax rate was one of the things that contributed to the creation of the Magna Carta, which limited the king’s power.
Oliver Cromwell placed a tax on Royalists, who were his political opponents, taking one tenth of their property. He then used that money to fund his activities that were aimed against the Royalists.
Playing cards were taxed as early as the 16th century, but in 1710, the English government dramatically raised taxes on playing cards and dice. This led to widespread forgeries of playing cards to avoid paying taxes. The tax was not removed until 1960.
In 1660, England placed a tax on fireplaces. The tax led to people covering their fireplaces with bricks to conceal them and avoid paying the tax. It was repealed in 1689.
Like many English monarchs, William III was short of money, which he attempted to rectify by the introduction of the much-despised Window Tax. As the name suggests, this was a tax levied on the windows or window-like openings of a property. The details were much amended over time, but the tax was levied originally on all dwellings except cottages. The upper classes, having the largest houses, paid the most. Some wealthy individuals used their ability to pay as a mark of status and demonstrated their wealth by ostentatiously building homes with many windows. Eventually this became a health problem and ultimately led to the tax’s repeal in 1851.
In the 1700’s, England placed a tax on bricks. Builders soon realized that they could use bigger bricks (and thus fewer bricks) to pay less tax. Soon after, the government caught on and placed a larger tax on bigger bricks. Brick taxes were finally repealed in 1850.
In 1705, Russian Emperor Peter the Great placed a tax on beards, hoping to force men to adopt the clean-shaven look that was common in Western Europe.
The French had a salt tax called the gabelle, which angered many and was one of the contributing factors to the French Revolution.
In 1712, England imposed a tax on printed wallpaper. Builders avoided the tax by hanging plain wallpaper and then painting patterns on the walls.
England introduced a tax on hats in 1784. To avoid the tax, hat-makers stopped calling their creations “hats”, leading to a tax on any headgear by 1804. The tax was repealed in 1811.
In 1789, England introduced a tax on candles. People were forbidden from making their own candles unless they obtained a license and then paid taxes on the candles they produced. The tax was repealed in 1831, leading to a more widespread popularity of candles.
In 1795, England put a tax on the aromatic powders that men and women put on their wigs. This led to a dramatic decline in the popularity of wigs.
In 1885 Canada created the Chinese Head Tax, which taxed the entry of Chinese immigrants into Canada. The tax lasted until 1923 when a law was passed banning Chinese people from entering Canada altogether with a few exceptions.
Johnstown, Pennsylvania was devastated by a flood that killed nearly 2,000 people in the late 19th century, and in 1936 another flood damaged the town. That led to the state of Pennsylvania passing a tax on alcohol, the proceeds of which would be used to rebuild the city. By 1942, enough money was raised to rebuild Johnstown, yet the tax exists to this day, and brings in around $200 million a year for Pennsylvania.
Salt was a very popular thing to tax because consuming it is necessary to humans. The British placed a tax on salt, and the salt tax gained worldwide attention when Ghandi staged nonviolent protests against it.
New York City places a special tax on prepared foods, so sliced bagels are taxed once as food and again as prepared food, thus creating a sliced bagel tax.
Maine has special tax on blueberries, a valuable state resource.
Pennsylvania has a tax on coin operated vacuum machines at gas stations.
Pittsburgh has a 5% amusement tax on anything that offers entertainment or allows people to engage in entertainment.
States like Iowa, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey exempt pumpkins from a sales tax but only if they will be eaten and not carved.
In 2005, Tennessee began requiring drug dealers to anonymously pay taxes on any illegal substances they sold. In North Carolina, just go to the Department of Revenue and pay tax on your fix. You’ll receive stamps to affix to your illegal substance as proof you paid your tax…just before they apply the handcuffs. Despite marijuana being illegal on a federal level and in most states, many states impose taxes on the sale of marijuana.
In Arkansas, body piercings, pet grooming, and gutter cleaning are all subject to a 6% sales tax.
In California, snuff tobacco is taxed differently depending on its type. Dry snuff is taxed at 256% of its price if it’s $1.70 or more. Moist snuff is taxed at 170% of its price if it’s $1.70 or more.
In Chicago, candy that is prepared with flour is taxed as food at 1%, while candy that is prepared without flour is taxed as candy at 6.25%.
In Florida, a sales tax holiday was created that included items like fanny packs, bowling shoes, school supplies, vests, and seemingly randomly assembled list of other items.
In California, fresh fruit bought through a vending machine is subject to a 33% tax.
In Oregon, double amputees get a $50 tax credit.
In West Virginia, there is an additional tax on sparklers.
Kentucky levies a sales tax on thoroughbred stud fees (whether the horses were in the Derby or not).
The IRS taxes stolen property. The 1040 instructions say that you should report it as stolen property. However, doing that would be self-incrimination, from which we are protected by the Constitution; therefore, one has the option of reporting it as “other income”.
In Texas, Christmas tree decoration services are subject to a tax only if the decorator provides the decorations and ornaments. In addition, there is a tax on holiday-themed pictures that are meant to be placed on windows.
Many cities and states levy a “jock tax” on any income earned by entertainers and athletes while working in that city. Therefore, athletes have to pay taxes on a portion of their income in any place they play.
Wisconsin is one of the few states that levies a tax on internet access. When dial-up was a popular method of getting online, there was double taxation occurring because phone calls were also taxed.
In Colorado, essential food items are tax-free, but straws and cup lids are subject to sales tax because they are considered to be nonessential food items.
In New Mexico, people over 100 years old are tax-exempt, but only if they are not dependents.
In many states there are “occupancy taxes” for anyone who books a room in a hotel. For example, in Texas, occupancy of any room costing over $15 is taxed at 6% of the room fee.
In 2004, Maryland imposed a tax on residents whose houses are hooked up to sewers leading to treatment plants. Proceeds go to protect the polluted Chesapeake Bay.
The city of Chicago taxes soda bought in a bottle at a rate of 3%, and taxes soda from fountains at a rate of 9%.
In Tennessee, there is a tax on all litigation. The amount varies case-by-case but it can be as low as $1 for a parking violation case. The tax tends to discourage frivolous lawsuits.
In Minnesota, there is a special tax on fur.
In the state of Kansas, untethered hot air balloon rides are exempt from sales tax because they are considered a legitimate form or air transportation. Tethered hot air balloon rides, on the other hand, are considered to be an amusement ride and therefore are subject to sales tax.
Japan imposed a tax on whiskey which is based on the percentage of alcohol by volume, so Japanese whiskey manufacturers began diluting their product with water to avoid the tax. European whiskey manufacturers were prohibited from doing so; therefore, Japanese whiskey had an advantage in Japan.
In Utah if you are the owner of a business that employs “nude or partially nude individuals perform any service” then your business must pay a 10% “sales tax”.
In Maine, a three quarter cent per pound tax is levied against anyone who grows, sells, buys, or handles blueberries in the state.
Purchase a pumpkin in New Jersey and there is no sales tax. That is, of course, unless you decide to carve a Jack-O-Lantern from it. Then the standard state sales tax applies.
Ohio has a Cadaver Make-Up Tax. If you go to your favorite salon in Akron and they apply makeup, you pay a makeup tax. If you’re dead, the funeral parlor can apply the same makeup FOR FREE.
And finally (not really), all the way from Germany…
Germany’s tax law allows private businesses to write off the costs of bribery on their corporate income tax returns.
Luke 20: 24-26
“Show Me a denarius. Whose likeness and inscription does it have?” They said, “Caesar’s.” And He said to them, “Then render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.” And they were unable to catch Him in a saying in the presence of the people; and being amazed at His answer, they became silent.
“A strong positive mental attitude will create more miracles than any wonder drug.”
~ Patricia Neal
palliate PAL-ee-ayt, transitive verb:1. To reduce in violence (said of diseases, etc.); to lessen or abate.
2. To cover by excuses and apologies; to extenuate.
3.To reduce in severity; to make less intense.
Palliate derives from Late Latin palliatus, past participle of palliare, “to cloak, to conceal,” from Latin pallium, “cloak.”
1542 – Catherine Howard, the fifth wife of Henry VIII of England, is executed for adultery.
1566 – St. Augustine, Florida, was established.
1633 – Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. He was found guilty of professing the belief that the earth revolved around the sun.
1635 – The first public school in the U.S., Boston Latin School, is founded.
1693 – The College of William and Mary opened in Virginia.
1741 – The American Magazine, the first magazine in the U.S., was published in Philadelphia, PA.
1795 – The University of North Carolina became the first U.S. state university to admit students with the arrival of Hinton James, who was the only student on campus for two weeks.
1819 – Congress introduces the Missouri Bill. It would allow the Missouri Territory to draft a constitution and prepare for statehood.
1826 – American Temperance Society, forms in Boston.
1837 – There was a riot in NY over the high price of flour. The crowd marched to Eli Hart & Co. and looted the warehouse, destroying hundreds of barrels of ﬂour and thousands of bushels of wheat. When it was over, the streets were white and a foot deep in ﬂour.
1847 – General Kearney acts on orders to establish a new government in Monterey, CA while John C. Freemont still acts a governor in Los Angeles.
1854 – Admiral Perry anchors off Yokosuka, Japan to receive Emperor’s reply to treaty proposal.
1861 – Abraham Lincoln was declared president.
1861 – First military action to result in Congressional Medal of Honor occurred in what would become Arizona on the night of 2/13-14. The medal went to Army Assistant Surgeon Bernard J.D. Irwin. He rescued the 60 soldiers of 2d Lt. George Bascom’s unit at Apache Pass, AZ. (recorded on both the 13th & 14th) (Located south of I-10, east of Willcox, AZ in the Chirihacua Mountains.)
1862 – Civil War: The four-day Battle of Fort Donelson, Tennessee, begins.
1864 – Civil War: Miridian Campaign fighting at Chunky Creek and Wyatt, Mississippi.
1865 – Civil War: The Confederacy approved the recruitment of slaves as soldiers, as long as the approval of their owners was gained.
1866 – The first daylight robbery in United States history during peacetime takes place in Liberty, Missouri. This is considered to be the first robbery committed by Jesse James and his gang, although James’s role is disputed. ($15,000).
1875 – Mrs. Edna Kanouse gave birth to America’s first quintuplets. All five of the baby boys died within two weeks.
1880 – Thomas Edison observes the Edison effect.
1889 – Norman Coleman became the first U.S. Secretary of Agriculture.
1892 – The first Black performers, the World’s Fair Colored Opera Company, appear at Carnegie Hall.
1894 – Auguste and Louis Lumière patent the Cinematographe, a combination movie camera and projector.
1901 – May be the day after a truncated January 19, 2038 on Unix and Unix-like computer systems still suffering from the year 2038 problem.
1905 – Major cold snap hits Midwest to the south and set several records including -40° in Warsaw, Missouri; -29° in Pond, AR; -2° in Tallahassee, FL; and -40° in Lebanon, KS.
1907 – Wendell P. Dabney establishes The Union. The Cincinnati, Ohio paper’s motto is “For no people can become great without being united, for in union there is strength.”
1913 – Naval Radio Station, Arlington, VA begins operations.
1914 – Copyright: In New York City the ASCAP (for American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers) is established to protect the copyrighted musical compositions of its members.
1920 – The Negro National Baseball League is formed.
1923 – First Black pro Basketball team, “Renaissance,” organizes. The New York Rens were the first all-black fully professional Black owned basketball team, formed in Harlem.
1925 – US Congress made a Supreme Court appeal more difficult.
1929 – Congress passes the Cruiser Act authorizing the construction of 19 new cruisers and 1 aircraft carrier.
1932 – “Free Eats” introduces George “Spanky” McFarland to “Our Gang”. Spanky McFarland was the most popular member of the Our Gang children’s comedy troupe.
1935 – A jury in Flemington, New Jersey finds Bruno Hauptmann guilty of the 1932 kidnapping and murder of the Lindbergh baby, the son of Charles Lindbergh.
1935 – First US surgical operation for relief of angina pectoris, Cleveland OH.
1936 – The first social security checks were put in the mail.
1937 – Cleveland Rams formed. The NFL Rams first coach was Hugo Bezdek.
1937 – NFL Boston Redskins move to Washington DC and become the Washington Redskins
1937 – “Prince Valiant” comic strip debuts. Prince Valiant is a long-run comic strip created by Hal Foster in 1937. It is an epic adventure that has told a continuous story during its entire history, and the full stretch of that story now totals more than 3700 Sunday strips in more than 300 American newspapers.
1939 – Virginia Payne became a new character in NBC’s soap opera, “The Carter’s of Elm Street”. She played the part of Mrs. Carter.
1940 – Earl ‘Fatha’ Hines recorded “Boogie Woogie on St. Louis Blues“.
1943 – Women’s Marine Corps created. Officially, Opha Mae Johnson (2 Feb 1900 – Jan 1976) is credited as the first woman Marine.
1945 – World War II: Soviet Union forces capture Budapest, Hungary from the Nazis.
1945 – World War II: Allied bombers were dispatched to Dresden, Germany to raid the city by massive aerial bombardment.
1945 -World War II: US Navy forces begin operations in Manila Bay, clearing minefields and shelling landing grounds. Corregidor is bombarded.
1945 – World War II: American USAAF B-24 and B-29 bombers raid Iwo Jima in preparation for the landings later in the month.
1947 – “Family Theater of the Air” premieres.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ballerina” by Vaughn Monroe, “I’ll Dance at Your Wedding” by Buddy Clark with The Ray Noble Orchestra, “Now is the Hour” by Bing Crosby and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War – At the Battle of Chipyong-ni, in Korea, U.N. troops contain the Chinese forces’ offensive in a four-day battle.
1953 – Major-league baseball owners were warned by Senator Edwin Johnson against televising their games nationwide. The Senator said that broadcasting these games to a national audience would be a threat to the survival of minor league baseball.
1953 – Kansas City A’s change name of Shibe Park to Connie Mack Stadium.
1953 – Senator Joseph McCarthy states that President Eisenhower’s foreign policy is being subverted by the Voice of America radio network.
1954 – Nicknamed “The Corbin Comet”, Frank Selvy is best remembered for scoring 100 points in a college game for South Carolina’s Furman University against Newberry College on February 13th, 1954, the only NCAA Division I player ever to do so.
1954 – “Oh! My Papa” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.
1955 – Israel obtains four of the seven Dead Sea scrolls. The scrolls are a collection of some 981 different texts discovered between 1946 and 1956 in eleven caves from the immediate vicinity of the ancient settlement at Khirbet Qumran in the West Bank.
1955 – Elvis Presley performs at the Fair Park Coliseum in Lubbock, TX, billed as “The Be-Bop Western Star of the Louisiana Hayride.” It is the first concert booked through Col. Tom Parker. Also on the bill that day: Buddy and Bob, a country duo featuring an eighteen-year-old Buddy Holly.
1957 – Southern Christian Leadership Conference organized at New Orleans meeting with Martin Luther King Jr. as president.
1960 – Black college students stage the first of the Nashville sit-ins at three lunch counters in Nashville, Tennessee.
1960 – “Teen Angel” by Mark Dinning topped the charts.
1961 – “Calcutta” by Lawrence Welk topped the charts.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Want to Hold Your Hand” by The Beatles, “You Don’t Own Me” by Leslie Gore, “Um, Um, Um, Um, Um, Um” by Major Lance and “Begging to You” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.
1965 – Sixteen-year-old Peggy Fleming won the ladies senior figure skating title at Lake Placid, NY.
1965 – “You’ve Lost that Lovin’ Feeling” by the Righteous Brothers topped the charts.
1968 – Vietnam War: As an emergency measure in response to the 1968 communist Tet Offensive, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara approves the deployment of 10,500 troops.
1969 – In North Carolina the Afro-American Society students of Duke Univ. led a black student takeover of the Allen Building.
1970 – The New York Stock Exchange admits its first Black member, Joseph Searles.
1970 – GM was reportedly redesigning automobiles to run on unleaded fuel.
1971 – Vietnam War: Backed by American air and artillery support, South Vietnamese troops invade Laos.
1971 – “One Bad Apple” by the Osmonds topped the charts.
1972 – “1776” closes at 46th St Theater NYC after 1,217 performances.
1972 – Vietnam War: Enemy attacks, in Vietnam, declined for the third day as the U.S. continued its intensive bombing strategy.
1973 – Gertrude E. Downing and William Desjardin invented the Corner Cleaner Attachment, Patent No. 3,715,772.
1973 – Musical “El Grande de Coca-Cola,” premiered in NYC. The off-Broadway show closed April 13, 1975.
1974 – Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, winner of the Nobel Prize in literature in 1970, is exiled from the Soviet Union.
1975 – There was a fire in the World Trade Center in New York City, New York. This 110-story steel-framed office building suffered a fire on the 11th floor. The fire department on arrival found a very intense fire. The cause of the fire was unknown.
1979 – An intense windstorm strikes western Washington and sinks a 1/2-mile-long section of the Hood Canal Bridge. During the night the bridge had withstood sustained winds of up to 85 mph and gusts estimated at 120 mph , and finally succumbed at about 7:00 a.m.
1979 – Charles Chidsey received a patent for male baldness solution.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock with You” by Michael Jackson, “Do That To Me One More Time” by The Captain & Tennille, “Coward of the County” by Kenny Rogers and “Leaving Louisiana in the Broad Daylight” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1981 – Longest english sentence published by New York Times-1288 words.
1981 – A series of sewer explosions destroys more than two miles of streets in Louisville, Kentucky.
1982 – “Centerfold” by the J. Geils Band topped the charts.
1983 – World Boxing Council becomes first to cut boxing from 15 to 12 rounds.
1985 – The Dow Jones industrial average closed at a record high of 1297.92 after it topped the 1300 mark earlier in the trading session.
1988 – Winter Olympic Games – The XV Olympic Winter Games open in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
1990 – German reunification: An agreement is reached for a two-stage plan to reunite Germany.
1990 – The U.S. space probe Voyager I , while heading out to the edge of the Solar System, photographed a look backward which captured the Sun and six planets in one image, the first record of the Solar System from space.
1990 – Larry Bird (Celtics) ends NBA free throw streak of 71 games.
1991 – Gulf War: Two laser-guided “smart bombs” destroy a bunker in Baghdad. The bunker was being used as a military communications outpost and unknown to allied forces, as a shelter for Iraqi civilians.
1997 – Space Shuttle program: STS-82 Mission – Tune-up and repair work on the Hubble Space Telescope started by astronauts from the Space Shuttle Discovery.
1997 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 7,000 for the first time closing at 7,022.44.
1998 – Dr. David Satcher was sworn in as US surgeon general during an Oval Office ceremony.
1998 – The United Auto Workers reached a tentative contract agreement with Caterpillar Inc.; union members rejected the agreement, which was revised and later ratified, ending a bitter dispute that lasted more than six years.
1999 – A federal judge held American Airlines’ pilots’ union and two top board members in contempt and promised sizable fines against them, saying the union did not do enough to encourage pilots to return to work after a court order. A federal judge fined the American Airlines pilot’s union at least $10 million for ignoring his back-to-work order.
2000-Tiger Woods saw his streak of six consecutive victories come to an end as he fell short to Phil Mickelson in the Buick Invitational.
2000 – The last original “Peanuts” comic strip appears in newspapers one day after Charles M. Schulz dies.
2001 – US Treasury Sec. Paul O’Neill urged Congress to accelerate plans for an across-the-board tax cut and a doubling of the child credit.
2002 – In Alexandria, VA, John Walker Lindh pled innocent to a 10-count federal indictment. He was charged with conspiring to kill Americans and aiding Osama bin Laden’s terrorist network.
2002 – In Yemen Sameer Mohammed Ahmed al-Hada (25), an al Qaeda fugitive, died as troops closed in and a hand grenade exploded in his hand.
2002 – Former New York mayor Rudolph Giuliani received an honorary knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II.
2002 – The US House of Reps. voted 240-189 to ban unlimited “soft money” donations to national parties as part of the Shays-Meehan campaign finance bill.
2003 – Smith & Wesson unveiled a new Model 500, .50 caliber Magnum revolver.
2003 – An investigative panel found that superheated air almost certainly seeped through a breach in space shuttle Columbia’s left wing and possibly its wheel compartment during the craft’s fiery descent, resulting in the deaths of all seven astronauts.
2003 – US and British warplanes have struck an Iraqi surface-to-surface missile system located near Basra in southern Iraq that had been moved into striking range of US troops in Kuwait.
2003 – Joint Committee on Taxation said the former energy trading giant Enron Corp. manipulated the U.S. tax code so aggressively that from 1996 through 1999 it paid no federal income taxes.
2003 – U.S. Senate Democrats continue to threaten to filibuster the candidacy of Miguel Estrada for the D.C. Circuit Court. The Democrats argue that Estrada is too conservative and not answering all of their questions. Estrada was first nominated for the position in May 2001.
2004 – The FCC began writing rules to enable users to access the Internet through electric power lines.
2004 – The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics discovers the universe’s largest known diamond, white dwarf star BPM 37093.
2004 – President Bush, trying to calm a political storm, ordered the release of his Vietnam-era military records to counter Democrats’ suggestions that he’d shirked his duty in the Texas Air National Guard.
2005 – The AFC won the Pro Bowl, defeating the NFC 38-27.
2005 – Ray Charles’ final album, “Genius Loves Company,” (1:00:52) won a leading eight Grammy awards, including album of the year, record of the year for “Here We Go Again” with Norah Jones, and pop vocal album.
2006 – US government investigators told the Senate that FEMA has let nearly 11,000 unused manufactured homes deteriorate on old runways and open fields in Arkansas, and spent $416,000 per person to house a few hundred Hurricane Katrina evacuees for a short time in Alabama last fall.
2007 – With Democrats in control, House members debated Iraq in an emotional and historic faceoff over a war that Speaker Nancy Pelosi condemned as a commitment with “no end in sight.”
2007 – US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said the US plans to cancel $391 million in outstanding debt owed by Liberia, and she urged others to help the struggling West African nation.
2007 – A powerful storm and likely a tornado hit the New Orleans area killing an elderly woman, injuring at least 15 other people.
2008 – Former Governor of Massachusetts Mitt Romney (R) formally announces his candidacy for president.
2008 – NY Gov. Eliot Spitzer hired a prostitute in Washington, DC, and paid her $4,300.
2008 – A prosecutor in Buffalo, NY, announced that a woman, who spent 13 years in prison after being convicted of strangling her 13-year-old daughter, was exonerated by forensic evidence showing she died of a cocaine overdose. Lynn DeJac (44) insisted that a former boyfriend was responsible.
2009 – Congress approves the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.
( The Stimulus) Obama had only been president 24 days.The House vote was 246-183, with all Republicans opposed to the package. The Senate approved the measure 60-38 with three GOP moderates siding with the Democrats.
2009-Unix time equalled “1234567890” at 23:31:30 UTC.
2010 – In Alaska an avalanche near Seward buried Jim Bowles, head of Conoco Phillips Alaska and Alan Gage, part of the company’s capital projects team. They were among a party of twelve snowmobilers.
2012 – Beverly Hills police confirm Whitney Houston was underwater and unconscious when found in a bath in her Los Angeles hotel room last Saturday.
2012 – President Barack Obama presents 16 people with the National Medal of Arts at the White House including actor Al Pacino, country music singer Mel Tillis and former United States Poet Laureate Rita Dove.
2012 – A 5.5-magnitude earthquake hits Northern California, near Weitchpec. Weitchpec is located in the northern part of the state at the confluence of the Klamath and Trinity Rivers, and the junction of State Highways 96 and 169, 35 miles northeast of Eureka.
2013 – The Obama administration’s nominee to become next Treasury Secretary, Jack Lew, testifies before the financial committee of the Senate at the start of his confirmation hearing.
1721 – John Reid, British army general and composer (d. 1807)
1728 – John Hunter, Scottish surgeon (d. 1793)
1743 – Joseph Banks, English botanist and naturalist (d. 1820)
1831 – John Aaron Rawlins, American general and politician, 29th United States Secretary of War (d. 1869)
1876 – Fritz Buelow, German-born American baseball player (d. 1933)
1884 – Alfred Carlton Gilbert, American athlete, inventor, and businessman (d. 1961)
1885 – Bess Truman, 35th First Lady of the United States, wife of President Harry S. Truman (d. 1982)
1891 – Grant Wood, American painter (d. 1942)
1910 – William Shockley, American physicist and eugenicist, Nobel Laureate (d. 1989)
1918 – Patty Berg, American golfer (d. 2006)
1919 – Tennessee Ernie Ford, American musician (d. 1991)
1919 – Eddie Robinson, American football coach (d. 2007)
1923 – Chuck Yeager, American fighter and test pilot
1928 – Dorothy McGuire, American singer (The McGuire Sisters)
1933 – Kim Novak, American actress
1934 – George Segal, American actor
1939 – R. C. Sproul, American pastor, theologian, and author
1942 – Peter Tork, American musician and actor (The Monkees)
1944 – Stockard Channing, American actress
1944 – Jerry Springer, American television host, actor, and politician, 56th Mayor of Cincinnati
1977 – Randy Moss, American football player
*CREEK, THOMAS E.
Rank and organization: Lance Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, Company I, 3d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and Date: Near Cam Lo, Republic of Vietnam, February 13th,1969. Entered service at: Amarillo, Texas. Born 7 April 1950, Joplin, Mo. Citation:: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a rifleman with Company 1 in action against enemy forces. L/Cpl. Creek’s squad was providing security for a convoy moving to resupply the Vandegrift Command Base when an enemy command detonated mine destroyed one of the vehicles and halted the convoy near the Cam Lo Resettlement Village. Almost immediately, the marines came under a heavy volume of hostile mortar fire followed by intense small-arms fire from a well-concealed enemy force. As his squad deployed to engage the enemy, L/Cpl. Creek quickly moved to a fighting position and aggressively engaged in the fire fight. Observing a position from which he could more effectively deliver fire against the hostile forces. he completely disregarded his own safety as he fearlessly dashed across the fire-swept terrain and was seriously wounded by enemy fire. At the same time, an enemy grenade was thrown into the gully where he had fallen, landing between him and several companions. Fully realizing the inevitable results of his action, L/Cpl. Creek rolled on the grenade and absorbed the full force of the explosion with his body, thereby saving the lives of five of his fellow Marines. As a result of his heroic action, his men were inspired to such aggressive action that the enemy was defeated and the convoy was able to continue its vital mission. L/Cpl. Creek’s indomitable courage, inspired the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
PEREZ, MANUEL, JR.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company A 511th Parachute Infantry, 11th Airborne Division. Place and date: Fort William McKinley, Luzon, Philippine Islands, February 13th, 1945. Entered service at. Chicago, Ill. Born: 3 March 1923 Oklahoma City, Okla. G.O. No.: 124, 27 December 1945. Citation: He was lead scout for Company A, which had destroyed 11 of 12 pillboxes in a strongly fortified sector defending the approach to enemy-held Fort William McKinley on Luzon, Philippine Islands. In the reduction of these pillboxes, he killed 5 Japanese in the open and blasted others in pillboxes with grenades. Realizing the urgent need for taking the last emplacement, which contained 2 twin-mount .50-caliber dual-
Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1850, Boston, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Constitution, at sea, February 13th, 1879, Horton showed courageous conduct in going over the stern during a heavy gale and cutting the fastenings of the ship’s rudder chains.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1849, Malta. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For courageous conduct in going over the stern of the U.S.S. Constitution at sea, February 13th, 1879, during a heavy gale, and cutting the fastenings of the ship’s rudder chains.
Rank and organization: Carpenter’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born 1833 Canada. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884 Citation: For going over the stern of the U.S.S. Constitution, at sea, February 13th,1879, during a heavy gale, and performing important carpenter’s work upon her rudder.
National Plum Pudding Day
Abe Lincoln’s Patent
Lincoln displayed a lifelong fascination with mechanical things. William H. Herndon, his law partner, attributed this to his father, saying, “he evinced a decided bent toward machinery or mechanical appliances, a trait he doubtless inherited from his father who was himself something of a mechanic and therefore skilled in the use of tools.”
Henry Whitney, another lawyer friend of Lincoln’s, recalled that “While we were traveling in ante-railway days, on the circuit, and would stop at a farm-house for dinner, Lincoln would improve the leisure in hunting up some farming implement, machine or tool, and he would carefully examine it all over, first generally and then critically;”
Lincoln also delivered lectures on discoveries and inventions before he became president. “Man is not the only animal who labors; but he is the only one who improves his workmanship,” he noted in 1858. In 1859 he praised the patent laws for having “secured to the inventor, for a limited time, the exclusive use of his invention; and thereby added the fuel of interest to the fire of genius, in the discovery and production of new and useful things.”
Abraham Lincoln was the only President who held his own patent. On May 22nd, 1849 he was granted U.S. Patent No. 6,469 (the only president ever granted a patent).
|UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
ABRAHAM LINCOLN, OF SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS
BUOYING VESSELS OVER SHOALS
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, Abraham Lincoln, of Springfield, in the County of Sangamon, in the State of Illinois, have invented a new and improved manner of combining adjustable buoyant air chambers with a steamboat or other vessel for the purpose of enabling their draught of water to be readily lessened to enable them to pass over bars, or through shallow water, without discharging their cargoes; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description thereof, reference being had to the accompanying drawings making a part of this specification. Similar letters indicate like parts in all the figures.
The buoyant chambers A, A, which I employ, are constructed in such a manner that they can be expanded so as to hold a large volume of air when required for use, and can be contracted, into a very small space and safely secured as soon as their services can be dispensed with.
Proverbs 8:11-12 King James Version (KJV)
For wisdom is better than rubies; and all the things that may be desired are not to be compared to it. I wisdom dwell with prudence, and find out knowledge of witty inventions.
“Inspiration does exist, but it must find you working.”
~ Pablo Picasso
sequacious (si-KWAY-shuhs) adjective
Unthinkingly following others.
[From Latin sequax (inclined to follow), from sequi (to follow).]
Often the people who believe that abortion is okay are sequacious in how they follow their leaders.
1486 – In the Auto Da Fe at Toledo, Spain the Jews were forced to recant their faith , were fined 1/5 of their property and permanently forbidden from wearing decent clothes or holding office.
1502 – Vasco da Gama sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal on his second voyage to India.
1554 – A year after claiming the throne of England for nine days, Lady Jane Grey is beheaded for treason.
1733 – Englishman James Oglethorpe founds the 13th United States colony of Georgia, and its first city at Savannah.
1793 – Congress passes the first fugitive slave law, requiring all states, including those that forbid slavery, to forcibly return slaves who have escaped from other states to their original owners.
1809 – Abraham Lincoln born in present-day Larue County, Kentucky (then Hardin County).
1821 – In New York City, the Mercantile Library opened. It was the largest and most successful of the mercantile libraries, and for that matter of all membership libraries. It is now called the Center for Fiction.
1825 – William McIntosh, Chief of the Creek nation, signs the Treaty of Indian Springs. The Creek Indians cede the last of their lands in Georgia to the United States government, and migrate west. A Creek mob, denouncing McIntosh as a traitor, kills him.
1836 – Mexican General Santa Anna crossed the Rio Grande en route to the Alamo.
1839 – Boundary dispute between Maine & New Brunswick leads to Aroostook War.
1846 – Mexican President, General Mariano Paredes, refuses to receive John Slidell of Louisiana who has been sent as an envoy by the United States.
1850 – Original Washington’s Farewell Address manuscript sells for $2,300 to James Lennox.
1863 – Civil War: U.S.S. Queen of the West, Colonel C. R. Ellet, steamed up Red River and the Atchafalaya River where a landing party destroyed twelve Confederate Army wagons.
1870 – Women gain the right to vote in Utah Territory. That right was taken away in 1887.
1870 – April 15th as last day of grace for US silver coins to circulate in Canada.
1873 – The US Congress abolished bimetallism and authorized $1 & $3 gold coins. Bimetallism is a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit is defined as equivalent either to a certain quantity of gold or to a certain quantity of silver.
1876 – Albert Spalding opens his sporting good shop. Spalding is still an on-going sports equipment business.
1877 – First news dispatch by telephone, between Boston and Salem MA.
1877 – US railroad builders struck against a wage reduction.
1879 – At New York City’s Madison Square Garden the first artificial ice rink in North America opens.
1880 – The National Croquet League was organized in Philadelphia, PA.
1892 – Former President Abraham Lincoln’s birthday is declared a national holiday in the United States.
1899 – First 2-man team 6-day bicycle race in US begins, Madison Square Garden, NYC
1908 – New York to Paris auto race begins in New York NY. The route was New York City, Albany, Chicago, San Francisco, Seattle, Valdez Alaska, Japan, Vladivostok, Omsk, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Berlin and finally Paris. It covered 22,000 miles in 169 days. The average was 130 miles per day.
1909 – The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is founded.
1915 – In Washington, DC, the first stone of the Lincoln Memorial is put into place.
1918 – President Garfield orders all non-essential businesses to shut down including all theatres in New York City in an effort to conserve coal.
1918 – World War I: Marines landed at Scapa Flow, Great Britain.
1924 – Premiere of George Gershwin’s “Rhapsody in Blue “ (16:24) in Aeolian Hall in New York City.
1924 – Calvin Coolidge becomes the first President of the United States to deliver a political speech by radio.
1924 – “The Eveready Hour” became radio’s first sponsored network program. The National Carbon Company was the first sponsor of a network show.
1934 – The Export-Import Bank was incorporated.
1935 – The USS Macon, the last U.S. Navy dirigible, crashed on its 55th flight off the coast of California, killing two people.
1940 – The radio play “The Adventures of Superman” debuted on the Mutual network.
1942 – Mildred Bailey recorded “More Than You Know” on Decca Records. She was a popular and influential American jazz singer during the 1930s, known as “Mrs. Swing”.
1944 – Wendell Wilkie (R) entered the American presidential race against Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1944 – World War II: On New Britain, US Marines capture Gorissi, 25 miles east of Cape Gloucester. Meanwhile, Allied forces land on Rooke Island.
1945 – World War II: American USAAF B-24 and B-29 bombers raid Iwo Jima in preparation for the landings later in the month (2/19/1945).
1945 – World War II: USS Batfish (SS-310) sinks second Japanese submarine within three days.
1946 – Operation Deadlight ends after scuttling 121 of 154 captured U-boats.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “For Sentimental Reasons” by Nat King Cole, “Ole Buttermilk Sky” by The Kay Kyser Orchestra (vocal: Mike Douglas & The Campus Kids), “A Gal in Calico” by Johnny Mercer and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1947 – Record 221 lb. sailfish caught by C W Stewart in the Galapagos Islands.
1947 – First launching of guided missile (Loon) from a submarine, USS Cusk.
1948 – First Lt. Nancy Leftenant (Colon) became the first Black in the Army Nursing Corps.
1949 – “Annie Get Your Gun” closes after 1147 performances.
1949 – “A Little Bird Told Me” by Evelyn Knight topped the charts. The idiom means that if someone doesn’t want to say where they got some information, they can say that a little bird told them.
1950 – Senator Joe McCarthy claims to have list of 205 communist government employees.
1950 – Albert Einstein warns against hydrogen bomb. He feared that the Hydrogen Bomb might annihilate “any life.”
1951 – Korean War: I Corps forces regrouped south of the Han River while the ROK Capital Division took Yangyang.
1953 – The Willys-Overland Company, which brought America the Jeep, celebrated its golden anniversary.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sincerely” by the McGuire Sisters, “Hearts of Stone” by the Fontane Sisters, “Ko Ko Mo (I Love You So)” by Perry Como and “Let Me Go, Lover!” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1955 – President Eisenhower sent first US “advisors” to South Vietnam to aid the government under Ngo Dinh Diem.
1955 – “Sincerely” by the McGuire Sisters topped the charts.
1957 – Researchers announced the development of Borazan, a substance harder than diamonds. As of 10/2010 it does not appear to be in production.
1961 – The Miracles’ “Shop Around” became Motown’s first million-selling single.
1962 – Civil Rights: Bus boycott started in Macon, Georgia.
1964 – Beatles first New York City concert (Carnegie Hall).
1966 – “My Love” by Petula Clark topped the charts.
1968 – “Soul on Ice” by Eldridge Cleaver was published for the first time.
1972 – “Let’s Stay Together” by Al Green topped the charts.
1972 – “Roundabout” was released by Yes.
1973 – Ohio becomes the first U.S. state to post distance in metric on signs.
1972 – Senator Ted Kennedy advocated amnesty for Vietnam draft resisters.
1973 – Vietnam War: The first United States prisoners of war are released by the Viet Cong. Operation Homecoming was completed on March 29, 1973, when the last of 591 U.S. prisoners were released and returned to the United States.
1974 – Stephen Kovacs received a patent for a magnetic heart pump.
1976 – Sal Mineo (b.1939), American film and theater actor, was stabbed to death in Los Angeles while coming home from a play rehearsal.
1977 – “Torn Between Two Lovers” by Mary MacGregor topped the charts.
1977 – The Police record “Fall Out,” their first single.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Da Ya Think I’m Sexy?” by Rod Stewart, “Y.M.C.A.” by the Village People, “A Little More Love” by Olivia Newton-John and “Every Which Way But Loose” by Eddie Rabbitt all topped the charts.
1983 – “Down Under” by Men At Work topped the charts.
1983 – “Package Saver” invented (protects the pizza in the box). This is the little white “bridge” that holds up the middle of the box.
1984 – Cale Yarborough, becomes first Daytona 500 qualifier, above 200 MPH.
1988 – Two Soviet warships bump two U.S. Navy vessels in waters claimed by the Soviet Union.
1994 – “The Power of Love” by Celine Dion topped the charts.
1997 – The Clinton administration gave permission to 10 U.S. news organizations to open bureaus in Cuba. Cuba only allowed CNN.
1997 – In Maine, Philip Berrigan was arrested at an anti-nuclear protest. He was one of six activists later convicted for vandalizing a Navy guided missile destroyer at the Bath Iron Works.
1998 – The presidential line-item veto is declared unconstitutional by United States federal judge. It takes away from the House of representatives one of its enumerated powers.
1999 – President Bill Clinton is acquitted by the United States Senate in his impeachment trial. He was acquitted on two impeachment articles. The charges were perjury (55-45) and obstruction of justice (50-50).
2001 – NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft touchdown in the “saddle” region of 433 Eros becoming the first spacecraft to land on an asteroid.
2001 – Scientists published their first examinations of nearly all the human genetic code.
2001 – The U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals ordered Napster to stop its users from trading copyrighted material without charge.
2002 – Nuclear waste: US Secretary of Energy makes the decision that Yucca Mountain is suitable to be the United States’ nuclear repository.
2003 – UN weapons inspectors in Iraq destroy a declared stockpile of mustard gas and artillery shells at a former weapons site.
2003 – An audio tape attributed to Osama bin Laden is released by al Jazeera television. It recounts the battle of Tora Bora and urges Muslims to fight the United States and to overthrow the Iraq regime of Saddam Hussein.
2004 – On National Freedom to Marry Day, two days after Mayor Gavin Newsom of San Francisco, California, issued a directive to the county clerk, the City and County of San Franciso begins issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples.
2004 – Virginia House of Delegates give preliminary approval to legislation that would ban the recognition of same-sex civil unions and domestic partnerships.
2004 – Mattel announced the split of Barbie and Ken. The dolls had met on the set of their first television commercial together in 1961. The price of Barbie went up significantly because she now came with all Ken’s stuff.
2005 – Howard Dean, a former governor of Vermont and a 2004 U.S. presidential candidate, is elected chairman of the Democratic National Committee.
2006 – A powerful Nor’easter Winter Storm blankets the Northeastern United States dumping 1 to 2 feet of snow from Washington DC up to Boston, Massachusetts. The storm dumped a record 26.9 inches of snow in New York City.
2006 – United States military strategists reportedly are developing plans for a possible major military bombing campaign against Iranian nuclear sites as a “last resort” in the event that diplomatic efforts fail to convince Iran to voluntarily end what Western governments consider to be efforts at acquiring a nuclear weapon.
2007 – Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad states in an interview that Iran does not fear the U.S. and that any foreign attack would be “severely punished”.
2007 – MASS SHOOTING: In Salt Lake City, Utah, Sulejmen Talovic (18) opened fire on shoppers, killing five and wounding four others. Off-duty police officer Kenneth Hammond held him in position until authorities could arrive. Hammond ran on scene after hearing gunshots fire out while having an early Valentine’s Day dinner with his pregnant wife at a local restaurant. He was eventually stopped in a shoot-out involving Salt Lake City Police Department SWAT.
2008 – A US federal appeals court has overturned a statute outlawing sex toy sales in Texas, one of the last states, all in the South, to retain such a ban. Judges out-of-control.
2008 – Speedo introduced its new LZR Racer swimsuit. By June 38 of 42 world-swimming records were broken by swimmers wearing the suit.
2008 – General Motors Corp. reported a $38.7 billion loss for 2007, the largest annual loss ever for an automotive company.
2009 – The National Transportation Safety Board concludes that Canada geese caused US Airways Flight 1549 to ditch into New York City’s Hudson River.
2009 – The first of four new pennies chronicling Abraham Lincoln’s rise from a small Kentucky cabin went into circulation to honor the 16th president’s 200th birthday.
2009 – A commuter plane, Continental Connection Flight 3407 from Newark, N.J., coming in for a landing nose-dived into a house in suburban Buffalo, sparking a fiery explosion that killed all 49 people aboard and a person in the home. It was the nation’s first fatal crash of a commercial airliner in 2 1/2 years.
2009 – Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. reopens for the bicentennial of assassinated U.S. President Abraham Lincoln’s birth.
2010 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Three faculty members at the University of Alabama in Huntsville were shot to death, and three other people were seriously wounded at a biology faculty meeting on Friday afternoon, university officials said. The Associated Press reported that a biology professor, identified as Amy Bishop, was charged with murder.
2010 – The US successfully shoots down a launching ballistic missile using the Boeing YAL-1, a military Boeing 747-400F aircraft mounted with a chemical oxygen iodine laser weapon.
2011 – Julie Andrews, Roy Haynes, Juilliard String Quartet, the Kingston Trio, Dolly Parton, The Ramones and George Beverly Shea win Grammy Lifetime Achievement Awards.
2012 – The 54th Grammy Awards for music are held at the Staples Center in the U.S. city of Los Angeles, with some of the show being re-worked to commemorate Whitney Houston.
2013 – Christopher Dorner, former LAPD, kills a sheriff’s deputy and injures another in the Big Bear Lake, California. He then barricades himself in a cabin, which catches on fire during a police assault. The suspect was killed in the fire.
1606 – John Winthrop, the Younger, Governor of Connecticut (d. 1676)
1663 – Cotton Mather, New England minister (d. 1728)
1775 – Louisa Adams, First Lady of the United States, wife of John Quincy Adams (d. 1852)
1791 – Peter Cooper, American Industrialist, inventor and philanthropist (d. 1883) he manufactured the first steam powered railroad locomotive made in America, which was called Tom Thumb.
1809 – Charles Darwin, English naturalist (d. 1882)
1809 – Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States (d. 1865)
1880 – John L. Lewis, American labor union leader (d. 1969)
1893 – Omar Bradley, American general (d. 1981)
1915 – Lorne Greene, American actor (d. 1987)
1919 – Forrest Tucker, American actor (d. 1986)
1920 – William Roscoe Estep, Baptist historian and professor (d. 2000)
1926 – Joe Garagiola, American baseball player and announcer
1926 – Charles Van Doren, American quiz show contestant
1936 – Joe Don Baker, American actor
1951 – Steven Parent, Manson murder victim (d. 1969)
1956 – Arsenio Hall, American actor and talk show host
1993 – Jennifer Stone, American actress
*LONG, CHARLES R.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 38th Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Hoengsong, Korea, February 12th, 1951. Entered service at: Kansas City, Mo. Born: 10 December 1923, Kansas City, Mo. G.O. No.: 18, 1 February 1952. Citation: Sgt. Long, a member of Company M, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against an armed enemy of the United Nations. When Company M, in a defensive perimeter on Hill 300, was viciously attacked by a numerically superior hostile force at approximately 0300 hours and ordered to withdraw, Sgt. Long, a forward observer for the mortar platoon, voluntarily remained at his post to provide cover by directing mortar fire on the enemy. Maintaining radio contact with his platoon, Sgt. Long coolly directed accurate mortar fire on the advancing foe. He continued firing his carbine and throwing handgrenades until his position was surrounded and he was mortally wounded. Sgt. Long’s inspirational, valorous action halted the onslaught, exacted a heavy toll of enemy casualties, and enabled his company to withdraw, reorganize, counterattack, and regain the hill strongpoint. His unflinching courage and noble self-sacrifice reflect the highest credit on himself and are in keeping with the honored traditions of the military service.
*DELEAU, EMILE, JR.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that is leftover from the formation of the nine planets in the solar system. These phenomena are both due to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind on the center of the comet. The inside of comets is loose collections of ice, dust, and small rocky particles, ranging from a few hundred meters to tens of kilometers across. Generally considered bad omens, comets have been observed since ancient times.The orbital periods of comets range from a few years to hundreds of thousands of years. Short-period comets originate in the Kuiper Belt beyond the orbit of Neptune. Longer-period comets are thought to originate in the Oort Cloud, a spherical cloud made-up of 10 million icy bodies in the outer Solar System. The Sun’s heat melts the snow and these comets appear to grow greatly. Astronomers have seen about 700 comets in the Earth’s sky. As of May 2010 there are a reported 3,976 known comets of which about 1,500 are Kreutz Sungrazers and about 484 are short-period.
Hundreds of tiny comets pass through the inner solar system every year, very few get noticed by the general public. About every decade or so, a comet will become bright enough to be noticed by a casual observer and those are called Great Comets. During the passage of Halley’s Comet in 1910, the Earth passed through the comet’s tail, and erroneous newspaper reports inspired a fear that cyanogen in the tail might poison millions, while the appearance of Comet Hale-Bopp in 1997 triggered the mass suicide of the Heaven’s Gate cult. To most people, however, a great comet is simply a beautiful spectacle.
Psalm 51: 1-5
Have mercy on me, O God, according to your unfailing love;
according to your great compassion blot out my transgressions.
Wash away all my iniquity and cleanse me from my sin. For I know my transgressions, and my sin is always before me.
Against you, you only, have I sinned and done what is evil in your sight; so you are right in your verdict and justified when you judge. Surely I was sinful at birth, sinful from the time my mother conceived me.
A psalm of David. When the prophet Nathan came to him after David had committed adultery with Bathsheba.
~ Chief Justice John Marshall
“The one thing we can never get enough of is love. And the one thing we never give enough is love.”
~ Henry Miller
chortle CHOR-tl, transitive and intransitive verb:
To utter, or express with, a snorting, exultant laugh or chuckle.
A snorting, exultant laugh or chuckle.
1752 – Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in the United States, opens. It is still in operation today!!
1766 – The Stamp Act was declared unconstitutional in Virginia.
1768 – Samuel Adams composes a letter to the other colonial governments outlining the step taken in Massachusetts to oppose the Townshend Acts.
1790 – Religious Society of Friends, also known as Quakers, petitions U.S. Congress for abolition of slavery.
1794 – First session of United States Senate open to the public.
1805 – Sacagawea, the Shoshone Indian interpreter and guide to the Lewis and Clark expedition, gives birth to her first child, Jean Baptiste Charbonneau.
1808 – Anthracite coal is first burned as fuel, experimentally.
1809 – Robert Fulton took out a patent for improvements to steamboat navigation.
1812 – Massachusetts governor Elbridge Gerry gerrymanders for the first time. Gerrymandering is a form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for electoral advantage. Gerrymandering may be used to help or hinder particular constituents, such as members of a political, racial, linguistic, religious or class group. The result looked like a salamander thus the name gerrymander.
1815 – News of the Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812, finally reached the United States.
1854 – Major streets lit by coal gas for first time.
1856 – President Franklin Pierce warns “border ruffians’ and the Free State men in Kansas to stop fighting.
1858 – The Blessed Virgin Mary reputedly appears to Saint Bernadette Soubirous of Lourdes.
1861 – Civil War: United States House of Representatives unanimously passes a resolution guaranteeing noninterference with slavery in any state.
1861 – President-elect Abraham Lincoln left Springfield, Illinois, for Washington.
1862 – The Secretary of the Navy directs formation of organization to evaluate new inventions and technical development which eventually led to National Academy of Science.
1870 – US mint at Carson City NV begins issuing coins.
1878 – Frederick W. Thayer patented a catcher’s mask.
1887 – President Grover Cleveland vetoes the Dependent Pension Bill. This bill was a major defeat for the GAR (Grand Army of the Republic) and it infuriated this veteran’s group.
1904 – Marines landed at Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
1905 – James Blackstone, Seattle, bowls 299½ — last pin breaks but stands.
1907 – The passenger ship Larchmont was rammed by the coal carrying schooner Harry P. Knowles, which had drifted off course in the blizzard, four miles southwest of Watch Hill, Rhode Island. The Larchmont sank in 10 minutes and only 19 men including the captain survived.
1916 – Emma Goldman is arrested for lecturing on birth control. She was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing and speeches. She was lionized as a free-thinking “rebel woman” by admirers, and derided by critics as an advocate of politically motivated murder and violent revolution.
1916 – The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra presented its first concert. The symphony was the first by a municipal orchestra to be supported by taxes.
1922 – “April Showers” by Al Jolson hit #1.
1933 – President Herbert Hoover declared Death Valley, CA a national monument.
1936 – Pumping began for the creation of Treasure Island in SF Bay. It was built with imported fill on shoals on the north side of Yerba Buena Island for the Expo in 1939.
1936 – World War II: The Reich arrested 150 Catholic youth leaders in Berlin. When the war was over many of the leaders of the Reich were put on trial for the atrocities that had been committed.
1937 – A sit-down strike ends when General Motors recognizes the United Auto Workers Union. This is also an “unofficial” National holiday and honors the men and women who participated in the strike at General Motors on this day. The United Auto Workers (UAW) union was helped by these autoworkers to become the sole bargaining agent for General Motors autoworkers.
1938 – BBC Television produces the world’s first ever science fiction television program, an adaptation of a section of the Karel Capek play R.U.R., which coined the term “robot”.
1939 – Lockheed P-38 flies from California to New York in 7 hours 2 minutes.
1940 – NBC radio presented “The Chamber Music Society of Lower Basin Street” for the first time.
1941 – First Gold record is presented to Glenn Miller for “Chattanooga Choo Choo“.
1942 – “Archie” comic book debuts.
1943 – World War II: General Dwight Eisenhower is selected to command the Allied armies in Europe.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust: Transport #47 departed with French Jews to Nazi Germany. These people were Frenchmen turned in by other non-Jew Frenchmen.
1944 – World War II: Forces of the US 5th Army continue to engage German defenders around Cassino. The US 34th Division makes an unsuccessful attempt to approach the Cassino monastery from the north.
1945 – World War II: The Yalta Agreement was signed by U.S. President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin.
1945 – First gas turbine propeller-driven airplane flight tested, Downey CA.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Symphony” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Clyde Rogers), “I Can’t Begin to Tell You” by Bing Crosby with the Carmen Cavallaro Orchestra, “Let It Snow” by Vaughn Monroe and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1951 – “Tennessee Waltz” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: The Chinese fourth-phase offensive was launched against X Corps in central Korea along the Hoengsong-Wonju axis. The largest single loss of U.S. soldiers happened when 530 men of the 15th and 503rd Field Artillery Battalions were completely overrun.
1952 – Captain Margaret G. Blake, the first Army nurse in Korea to earn the Bronze Star Medal.
1953 – President Dwight Eisenhower refuses clemency appeal for Ethel and Julius Rosenberg.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh! My Pa-Pa” by Eddie Fisher, “Make Love to Me” by Jo Stafford, “Young-at-Heart” by Frank Sinatra and “Bimbo” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1954 – A 75,000-watt light bulb was lit at the Rockefeller Center in New York, to commemorate the 75th anniversary of Edison’s first light bulb.
1956 – “Memories Are Made of This” by Dean Martin.
1958 – Ruth Carol Taylor was the first Black woman to become a stewardess by making her initial flight on Mohawk Airlines from Ithaca, NY to New York City.
1960 – Jack Paar walks off his TV show. A “water closet” joke he had told the night before was considered in bad taste by the NBC censors and had been removed. Paar didn’t think the joke was offensive and he left the show for a month.
1961 – Trial of Adolf Eichmann begins in Jerusalem.
1961 – “Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow?” by The Shirelles topped the charts.
1963 – Julia Child’s show “The French Chef” (28:50) premieres.
1964 – The Beatles hold their first concert in the United States at the Washington Coliseum in Washington, D.C.
1965 – Vietnam War: Pres. Lyndon Johnson ordered air strikes against targets in North Vietnam, in retaliation for guerrilla attacks on the American military in South Vietnam. The American “Rolling Thunder” bombing campaign intensified.
1966 – “I’m a Believer” by the Monkees topped the charts.
1966 – Willie Mays became the highest-paid baseball player in either league as he signed a two-year contract with the San Francisco Giants for a salary of about $130,000 a year.
1968 – The Memphis Sanitation Strike began today in Memphis, Tennessee. Citing years of poor treatment, discrimination, dangerous working conditions, and the horrifying recent deaths of two workers, Echol Cole and Robert Walker, some 1300 black sanitation workers walked off the job in protest.
1968 – Israeli-Jordanian border clashes.
1969 – Diana Crump becomes first US woman jockey to ride against men, Hialelah.
1969 – A Lockheed SP2E Neptune crashed in the Santa Ana Mountains of Orange County, Ca., while on night training. 7 seamen were killed.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Venus” by The Shocking Blue, “Thank You (Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin)/Everybody is a Star” by Sly & The Family Stone, “I’ll Never Fall in Love Again” by Dionne Warwick and “A Week in a Country Jail” by Tom T. Hall all topped the charts.
1970 – The film “The Magic Christian,” featuring Ringo Starr debuted in New York City.
1970 – “Variety” reported this day that Walt Disney had secretly taken its “Song of the South” movie out of circulation back in 1958. It was pulled because of racist attitudes reflected in the Black roles in the film.
1971 – Eighty-seven countries, including the US, UK, and USSR, sign the Seabed Treaty outlawing nuclear weapons in international waters.
1971 – President Richard Nixon issued Executive Order 11582 dealing with holidays given to federal employees. The order specified the first day of January, the third Monday of February, the last Monday of May, the fourth day of July, the first Monday of September, the second Monday of October, the fourth Monday of October, the fourth Thursday of November, the twenty-fifth day of December, or any other calendar day designated as a holiday by Federal statute or Executive order.
1972 – McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. and Life magazine canceled plans to publish an autobiography of Howard Hughes. The work turned out to be fake.
1973 – Vietnam War: First release of American prisoners of war from Vietnam takes place.
1974 – Dick Woodson is first of 48 to invoke baseball’s new arbitration rule.
1976 – Clifford Alexander, Jr. is confirmed as the first Black Secretary of the Army.
1977- Largest American Lobster ever caught was in Nova Scotia, Canada. It weighed 44 lbs 6oz and was 3 ft 6”long from tail to top of the claw.
1978 – The People’s Republic of China lifts a ban on works by Aristotle, Shakespeare and Dickens.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Stayin’ Alive” by the Bee Gees, “(Love Is) Thicker Than Water” by Andy Gibb, “Just the Way You Are” by Billy Joel and “I Just Wish You Were Someone I Love” by Larry Gatlin with Brothers & Friends all topped the charts.
1979 – Islamic revolution of Iran achieves victory under the leadership of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
1979 – The TV movie “Elvis,” with Kurt Russell, aired on ABC.
1979 – In New York City, “They’re Playing Our Song” opened at the Imperial Theater and played for 1082 performances.
1981 – 100,000 gallons (380 m³) of radioactive coolant leak into the containment building of TVA Sequoyah 1 nuclear plant in Tennessee, contaminating 8 workers.
1982 – ABC-TV’s presentation of “The Winds of War” concluded. The 18-hour miniseries cost $40 million to produce and was the most-watched television program in history at the time. World War II – The complete Collection
1984 – The tenth Space Shuttle mission returned to Earth safely.
1986 – The single “Superbowl Shuffle” by the Chicago Bears Shufflin’ Crew was certified gold by the RIAA. It is a rap song performed by players of the Chicago Bears football team slightly prior to their performance in Super Bowl XX during 1985, .
1987 – North Carolina basketball coach Dean Smith got his 600th career coaching win as the Tar Heels defeated Wake Forest 94-85.
1989 – “Straight Up” by Paula Abdul topped the charts.
1990 – Nelson Mandela, a political prisoner for 27 years, is freed from Victor Verster Prison outside Cape Town, South Africa.
1990 – Buster Douglas KO’s “Iron” Mike Tyson in Tokyo, Japan.
1993 – Janet Reno was appointed to the position of attorney general by President Clinton. She was the first female to hold the position.
1994 – The space shuttle “Discovery” returned from an eight-day mission.
1994 – A judge in Fort Worth, Texas, ordered Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchison acquitted of ethics charges after prosecutors refused to present their case.
1995 – The space shuttle Discovery landed at Cape Canaveral, Fla., ending a historic rendezvous mission with Russia’s Mir space station.
1995 – President Clinton, in his weekly radio address, threatened to veto any attempt by Republicans to scrap plans to put 100,000 additional police officers on the streets. (unfunded mandate)
1996 – A day after losing to an IBM computer dubbed “Deep Blue,” world chess champion Garry Kasparov rebounded to defeat the machine and even their six-game series in Philadelphia at one victory apiece.
1997 – Space Shuttle Discovery is launched on a mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope.
1998 – Ben Cohen, co-founder of Ben and Jerry’s Ice Cream, was named as director of the Greenpeace environmental group.
1998 – Attorney General Janet Reno asked for an independent prosecutor to investigate whether Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt had misled Congress in connection with an Indian casino controversy.
1999 – US jets struck seven Iraqi air defense sites.
1999 – A federal jury in New York found several gun makers responsible in three area shootings for letting guns fall into the hands of criminals; other manufacturers were cleared.
2000 – The space shuttle Endeavor took off. The mission was to gather information for the most detailed map of the earth ever made.
2000 – An early morning bomb exploded in New York City on the corner of Wall and Water streets in front of an office building owned by Barclay’s Bank. One person was slightly injured.
2000 – In Minnesota Gov. Jesse Ventura cut his ties to the Reform Party. In Nashville the national chairman, Jack Gargan, was ousted by forces loyal to Ross Perot and Pat Buchanan.
2001 – The East NBA All-Stars defeated the West squad, 111-to-110.
2001 – Two space commanders opened the door to Destiny, the American-made science laboratory attached the day before to the international space station.
2001 – Three Rivers Stadium in Pittsburgh was demolished to clear the way for new separate baseball and football stadiums nearby.
2002 – The FBI issued a warning for a possible terrorist assault and identified Fawaz Yahya al-Rabeei, a Yemeni national, as a possible attacker.
2002 – Americans Ross Powers, Danny Kass and J.J. Thomas took gold, silver and bronze in the men’s halfpipe at the Salt Lake City Olympics.
2003 – The purported voice of Osama bin Laden, broadcast over the Al Jazeera network, told his followers to help Saddam Hussein fight Americans.
2004 – It was reported that Mattel planned to introduce a line of toys capable of receiving digital signals from a new Batman TV cartoon show scheduled for the Fall.
2004 – Philippine troops rescued Alastair Joseph Onglingswan (35), a kidnapped American businessman, who was chained by his neck and feet for 22 days by a lone abductor.
2004 – The United States Army in Iraq announces a $10 million dollar reward for the capture of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, a leader of the terrorist organization Ansar al-Islam.
2006 – Vice President Dick Cheney accidentally shoots Harry Whittington in the face while the two are hunting together.
2006 – Steve Fossett breaks record for non-stop flight in his lightweight experimental plane, the Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer, to set a new record of 26,389 miles in about 76 hours.
2006 – American Chad Hedrick won the 5,000 meters in speedskating at the Olympics in Turin, Italy.
2007 – Harvard University appointed Drew Gilpin Faust as its 28th and first female president.
2007 – Barack Obama, following a political rally in Ames, Iowa, regretted saying the lives of military personnel had been “wasted.”
2007 – Intel introduced a new super-processor at the opening of an international conference of chip scientists. The processor would be able to perform over 1 trillion mathematical calculations per second (teraflop), but commercial use would not be available for 5 years.
2008 – House Representative Tom Lantos (80) of California, the only Holocaust survivor to serve in Congress, died.
2008 – Gregg Bergersen, a United States Defense Department Analyst, is arrested and charged with espionage after being accused of leaking American military secrets to the Chinese government involving sensitive military and aerospace secrets, including on the space shuttle.
2008 – The US files charges against six alleged al-Qaeda operatives including Khalid Sheikh Mohammed in connection with the September 11, 2001 attacks, seeking the death penalty for war crimes and murder.
2008 – It was reported that Patricia Cornwell (51), crime novelist, was donating $1 million to New York City’s John Jay College of Criminal Justice to help start a Crime Scene Academy.
2008 – It was reported that Ronald Fearing, Berkeley professor in electrical engineering, has invented a tape-like substance based on the physics used by geckos to scoot upside-down across ceilings.
2009 – US House and Senate leaders agreed to a $789 stimulus package. This just 22 days into President Obama’s term of office.
2009 – San Francisco city leaders banned floats, beer and nudity for the upcoming 98th annual Bay to Breakers run. On Feb 27 city officials agreed to allow nudity and registered floats free of alcohol.
2009 – U.S. Democrat John Dingell of Michigan becomes the House of Representatives’ longest-serving member.
2010 – The US military used a laser gun aboard a Boeing 747 jumbo jet to shoot down a missile near Point Mugu, Ventura County, Ca.
2010 – President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announces that Iran is now a nuclear state, following a successful 20% uranium enrichment.
2010 – Former President Bill Clinton has two coronary stents implanted in his heart at the NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital in New York City, after chest pains.
2010 – Haiti announces that the 10 American missionaries accused of attempted kidnapping will be released from custody.
2012 – American singer and actress Whitney Houston dies suddenly at the age of 48 at the Beverly Hills Hilton Hotel.
2012 – The Republican caucuses in the state of Maine finish with Mitt Romney finishing just ahead of Ron Paul.
2015 – U.S. Embassy in Yemen is closed and emptied. U.S. Marines forced to leave weapons behind!!
2015 – In a paramount victory for the U.S. Constitution, the great men who created it, and those since who have fought so hard to uphold and defend it, U.S. District Court Judge Reed O’Connor “ruled that the federal law prohibiting handgun sales to out of state residents…is in violation of both the Second and Fifth amendments.” [Guns.com]
1802 – Lydia Maria Child, American abolitionist (d. 1880)
1833 – Melville Weston Fuller, 8th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1910)
1839 – Josiah Willard Gibbs, American physicist was one of the greatest American scientists of all time, he devised much of the theoretical foundation for chemical thermodynamics as well as physical chemistry. (d. 1903)
1847 – Thomas Alva Edison, American inventor. Edison is considered one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding 1,093 U.S. patents in his name, as well as many patents in the United Kingdom, France and Germany. (d. 1931)
1908 – Philip Dunne, American screenwriter, director and producer (d. 1992) He is best known for the films How Green Was My Valley (1941), The Ghost and Mrs. Muir (1947), The Robe (1953) and The Agony and the Ecstasy (1965).
1909 – Max Baer was an American Hall of Fame boxer of the 1930s, one-time Heavyweight Champion of the World, Hollywood actor, entertainer, professional wrestler and referee. (d. 1959)
1920 – Daniel “Chappie” James Jr., American general (d. 1978) was a fighter pilot in the U.S. Air Force, who in 1975 became the first African-American to reach the rank of (four-star) general.
1926 – Leslie Nielsen, Canadian actor. He is well known for his roles as Frank Drebin in The Naked Gun, Dr. Rumack in “Airplane!” and most recently President Harris in the “Scary Movie” series.
1936 – Burt Reynolds, American actor. Some of his memorable roles include Lewis Medlock in Deliverance, Paul Crewe in The Longest Yard, Bo ‘Bandit’ Darville in Smokey and the Bandit, J.J. McClure in The Cannonball Run and Jack Horner in Boogie Nights.
1953 – Jeb Bush, American politician is an American politician and was the 43rd Governor of Florida. He is a prominent member of the Bush family.
1969 – Jennifer Aniston, American actress She became famous from the mid 1990s to the early 2000s for playing the role of Rachel Green in the popular US sitcom Friends, a role for which she won an Emmy Award, a Golden Globe Award, and a Screen Actors Guild Award.
*BENNETT, THOMAS W.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, 2d Platoon, Company B, 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry. Place and date: Chu Pa Region, Pleiku Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 9th to February 11th, 1969. Entered service at: Fairmont, W. Va. Born: 7 April 1947, Morgantown, W. Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Cpl. Bennett distinguished himself while serving as a platoon medical aidman with the 2d Platoon, Company B, during a reconnaissance-in-force mission. On 9 February the platoon was moving to assist the 1st Platoon of Company D which had run into a North Vietnamese ambush when it became heavily engaged by the intense small arms, automatic weapons, mortar and rocket fire from a well fortified and numerically superior enemy unit. In the initial barrage of fire, three of the point members of the platoon fell wounded. Cpl. Bennett, with complete disregard for his safety, ran through the heavy fire to his fallen comrades, administered life-saving first aid under fire and then made repeated trips carrying the wounded men to positions of relative safety from which they would be medically evacuated from the battle position. Cpl. Bennett repeatedly braved the intense enemy fire moving across open areas to give aid and comfort to his wounded comrades. He valiantly exposed himself to the heavy fire in order to retrieve the bodies of several fallen personnel. Throughout the night and following day, Cpl. Bennett moved from position to position treating and comforting the several personnel who had suffered shrapnel and gunshot wounds. On 11 February, Company B again moved in an assault on the well fortified enemy positions and became heavily engaged with the numerically superior enemy force. Five members of the company fell wounded in the initial assault. Cpl. Bennett ran to their aid without regard to the heavy fire. He treated 1 wounded comrade and began running toward another seriously wounded man. Although the wounded man was located forward of the company position covered by heavy enemy grazing fire and Cpl. Bennett was warned that it was impossible to reach the position, he leaped forward with complete disregard for his safety to save his comrade’s life. In attempting to save his fellow soldier, he was mortally wounded. Cpl. Bennett’s undaunted concern for his comrades at the cost of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
DAHLGREN, EDWARD C.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant (then Sergeant), U.S. Army, Company E, 142d Infantry, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: Oberhoffen, France, February 11th, 1945. Entered service at: Portland, Maine. Birth: Perham, Maine. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He led the 3d Platoon to the rescue of a similar unit which had been surrounded in an enemy counterattack at Oberhoffen, France. As he advanced along a street, he observed several Germans crossing a field about one hundred yards away. Running into a barn, he took up a position in a window and swept the hostile troops with submachine gun fire, killing six, wounding others, and completely disorganizing the group. His platoon then moved forward through intermittent sniper fire and made contact with the besieged Americans. When the two platoons had been reorganized, Sgt. Dahlgren continued to advance along the street until he drew fire from an enemy-held house. In the face of machine pistol and rifle fire, he ran toward the building, hurled a grenade through the door, and blasted his way inside with his gun. This aggressive attack so rattled the Germans that all eight men who held the strongpoint immediately surrendered. As Sgt. Dahlgren started toward the next house, hostile machinegun fire drove him to cover. He secured rifle grenades, stepped to an exposed position, and calmly launched his missiles from a difficult angle until he had destroyed the machinegun and killed its two operators. He moved to the rear of the house and suddenly came under the fire of a machinegun emplaced in a barn. Throwing a grenade into the structure, he rushed the position, firing his weapon as he ran; within, he overwhelmed five Germans. After reorganizing his unit he advanced to clear hostile riflemen from the building where he had destroyed the machinegun. He entered the house by a window and trapped the Germans in the cellar, where he tossed grenades into their midst, wounding several and forcing ten more to surrender. While reconnoitering another street with a comrade, he heard German voices in a house. An attack with rifle grenades drove the hostile troops to the cellar. Sgt. Dahlgren entered the building, kicked open the cellar door, and, firing several bursts down the stairway, called for the trapped enemy to surrender. Sixteen soldiers filed out with their hands in the air. The bold leadership and magnificent courage displayed by Sgt. Dahlgren in his heroic attacks were in a large measure responsible for repulsing an enemy counterattack and saving an American platoon from great danger.
SMITH, ALBERT JOSEPH
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Marine Barracks, Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla., February 11th, 1921. Entered service at: Michigan. Born: 31 July 1898, Calumet, Mich. G.O. No.: 72, 29 September 1921. Citation: At about 7:30 a.m. on the morning of 11 February 1921, Pvt. Smith, while on duty as a sentry, rescued Plen M. Phelps, late machinist’s mate second class, U.S. Navy, from a burning seaplane which had fallen near his post, gate No. 1, Marine Barracks, Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla. Despite the explosion of the gravity gasoline tank, with total disregard of personal safety, he pushed himself to a position where he could reach Phelps, who was pinned beneath the burning wreckage, and rescued him from the burning plane, in the performance of which he sustained painful burns about the head, neck and both hands.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Ship’s Cook, First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 1867, Brunswick, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 489, 20 May 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Cushing, February 11th, 1898. Showing gallant conduct, Atkins attempted to save the life of the late Ens. Joseph C. Breckenridge, U.S. Navy, who fell overboard at sea from that vessel on this date.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate, Third Class, U.S. Born: 25 August 1873, Therold, Canada. Accredited to: New G.O. No.: 489, 20 May 1898. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Cushing, February 11th, 1898, Everetts displayed gallant conduct in attempting to save the life of the late Ens. Joseph C. Breckinridge, U.S. Navy, who fell overboard at sea from that vessel.
TOBAN, JAMES W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 9th Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At Aiken, S.C., February 11th, 1865. Entered service at: Northfield, Mich. Born: 1844, Northfield, Mich. Date of issue: 9 July 1896. Citation: Voluntarily and at great personal risk returned, in the face of the advance of the enemy, and rescued from impending death or capture, Maj. William C. Stevens, 9th Michigan Cavalry, who had been thrown from his horse.
Plimsoll Day is in honor of Samuel Plimsoll, who was a British Social reformer. He was a member of parliament, and is most remembered for the legislation that introduced the Plimsol Line or load line. The plimsoll line is the marking on a ship’s hull that shows how low or high the ship is resting in the water. By examining the plimsoll line it is possible to tell how heavy a load the ship is carrying and it serves as a warning against overloading. A ship riding too low in the water will become dangerously unstable and could capsize. The marking is now mandatory and international. It is also known as a Load Line. The name Plimsoll comes from the British social reformer Samuel Plimsoll who first advocated an international standard to prevent unnecessary loss of life at sea. Until the load line became more widely used ships were often dangerously overloaded causing many tragedies. The level of a ship in the water is affected by temperature and salinity as well as load and so different levels are shown with code letters to indicate the type of water.
When Plimsoll’s bill passed in 1870, it only required that a line be drawn on the boat, it didn’t require that it be an accurately safe line. Sounds like a typically political compromise.
During the time of Samuel Plimsoll, because it was Victorian England, and we learn from Dickens that it was absolutely horrid to live in Victorian England if you didn’t have money, it was more cool to load your ships up and increase the danger of shipwreck, and save a few bucks on shipping costs, than to worry about the safety of your crew.
Anyway, the Plimsoll Line on boats lead to a popular fashion trend: the Plimsoll shoe. This shoe, as far as I can tell, was the original Ked. According to Wikipedia, the plimsoll shoe was a “canvas upper and rubber sole” which acquired the name “‘plimsoll’ because the colored horizontal band joining the upper to the sole resembled the Plimsoll line on a ship’s hull.”
A plimsoll shoe, plimsoll, or plimsole (British English) is a type of athletic shoe with a canvas upper and rubber sole, developed as beachwear in the 1830s by the Liverpool Rubber Company. The shoe was originally, and often still is in parts of the United Kingdom, called a ‘sand shoe’ and acquired the nickname ‘plimsoll’ in the 1870s.This name derived, according to Nicholette Jones’ book “The Plimsoll Sensation”, because the coloured horizontal band joining the upper to the sole resembled the Plimsoll line on a ship’s hull, or because, just like the Plimsoll line on a ship, if water got above the line of the rubber sole, the wearer would get wet.
Psalm 18 : 1-2 [ For the director of music. Of David the servant of the Lord. He sang to the Lord the words of this song when the Lord delivered him from the hand of all his enemies and from the hand of Saul. He said: ]
“I love you, Lord, my strength. The Lord is my rock, my fortress and my deliverer; my God is my rock, in whom I take refuge, my shield and the horn of my salvation, my stronghold.”
“All that is necessary for the triumph of evil is that good men do nothing.”
“Let us never negotiate out of fear; but let us never fear to negotiate.”
~ John F. Kennedy
tatterdemalion (tat-uhr-di-MAYL-yuhn, -MALEE-uhn)
A person in ragged clothes.
60 A.D. – St. Paul is believed to have been shipwrecked near Malta while enroute to Rome for trial for practicing catholicism. The story is told in the Bible’s New Testament Acts of the Apostles, chapter 27. The event is marked in Malta every February 10.
1258 – Battle of Baghdad – Mongols overrun Baghdad, burning it to the ground and killing large numbers of citizens (estimates range from 10,000 to 800,000).
1542 – Queen Catherine Howard of England is confined in the Tower of London to be executed three days later for treason (adultery).
1676 – Lancaster, Mass was raided in King Philip’s War. The Narragansett and Nipmuck Indians, searching for food killed over 35 villagers and 24 were taken captive including Mary Rowlandson and her 3 children. She was released eleven weeks later.
1677 – Virginia Governor William Berkley revokes the royal pardon for rebels of Bacon’s Rebellion. In defiance of the Crown, Berkley proceeds to execute twenty-three of the rebels.
1763 – The Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War. In the treaty France ceded Canada to England.
1774 – Andrew Becker demonstrates a diving suit.
1807 – US Coast Survey authorized by Congress.
1846 – Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints began their exodus to the west from Illinois.
1855 – US citizenship laws amended. It was changed to read, “All children heretofore born or hereafter born out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, whose fathers were or may be at the time of their birth citizens thereof, are declared to be citizens of the United States; but the rights of citizenship shall not descend to children whose fathers never resided in the United States.”
1861 – Civil War: Jefferson Davis receives word that he has been selected president of the new Confederate States of America. Davis was at his plantation, Brierfield, pruning rose bushes with his wife Varina when a messenger arrived from nearby Vicksburg.
1862 – After the capture of Roanoke Island, a naval flotilla pursued the escaping Confederate naval force up the Pasquotank River and engaged the gunboats and batteries at Elizabeth City, North Carolina.
1863 – The world-famous dwarfs General Tom Thumb and Lavinia Warren get married in New York City.
1863 – The fire extinguisher was patented by Alanson Crane.
1865 – Civil War: The Confederate Navy began its last attempt to gain control of the James River and force the withdrawal of General Grant’s army by cutting its communications at City Point.
1870 – The YWCA is founded first in New York City.
1879 – The electric arc light was used for the first time. It was used in a California theater.
1890 – Eleven million acres, ceded to US by Sioux Indians, opens for settlement.
1897 – New York Times begins using slogan “All the News That’s Fit to Print”.
1915 – WW I: President Wilson blasted the British for using the U.S. flag on merchant ships to deceive the Germans.
1920 – Major league baseball representatives outlawed pitches that involve tampering with the ball.
1923 – Ink paste manufactured for first time by Standard Ink Company.
1924 – Bucky Harris, 27, becomes youngest baseball manager (Washington Senators).
1925 – First waterless gas storage tank put into service, Michigan City, IN.
1933 – The New York City-based Postal Telegraph Company introduces the first singing telegram.
1933 – In round 13 of a boxing match at New York City’s Madison Square Garden, Primo Carnera knocks out Ernie Schaaf. Schaaf died as a result of the knockout punch.
1934 – The first imperforated, ungummed sheets of postage stamps were issued. The Postal Service changed quickly with a large number of complaints.
1935 – Pennsylvania RR begins passenger service on new streamlined electric locomotive.
1940 – Tom & Jerry created by Hanna & Barbera debut by MGM.
1940 – “In The Mood” by Glenn Miller hits #1.
1940 – Coast Guard Cutters Bibb and Duane make first transmissions as weather stations.
1941 – The first Highway Post Office bus was built by the White Motor Company of Cleveland, Ohio. This vehicle inaugurated service between Washington, D.C., and Harrisonburg, Virginia, a distance of 149 miles.
1941 – World War II: Iceland was attacked by German planes. In July, the US 5th Division was deployed for the defense of Iceland.
1942 – RCA Victor presented Glenn Miller and his Orchestra with a “gold record” for their recording of “Chattanooga Choo Choo,” which had sold more than 1 million copies.
1942 – World War II: The war halted civilian car production at Ford.
1942 – World War II: Japanese submarine launches attack on Midway, a coral atoll used as a U.S. Navy base.
1945 – World War II: American USAAF B-24 and B-29 bombers raid Iwo Jima in preparation for the landings later in the month. They drop a daily average of 450 tons of bombs over the course of 15 days (6800 tons).
1945 – World War II: Task Force 58, with Marine Fighter Squadrons 123, 216, 217, 212, and 451 on board carriers, attacked Tokyo and provided air cover support for Iwo Jima landing forces. They also bombed and strafed Okinawa.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Fence Me In” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “Accentuate the Positive” by Johnny Mercer, “I Dream of You” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Freddy Stewart) and “I’m Losing My Mind Over You” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1949 – Arthur Miller’s play, “Death of a Salesman”, premiered in the Morosco Theater, New York City.
1951 – Korean War: Eighth Army units retook Inchon and Kimpo airfield. U.N. patrols entered Seoul.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” by Perry Como, “Why Don’t You Believe Me” by Joni James, “Keep It a Secret” by Jo Stafford and “I Let the Stars Get in My Eyes” by Goldie Hill all topped the charts.
1954 – President Dwight Eisenhower warns against United States intervention in Vietnam.
1955 – Bell Aircraft displayed a fixed-wing vertical takeoff plane. An ingenious blend of airplane and helicopter features, the Fairey Rotodyne was a case of almost–but not quite enough.
1956 – “My Friend Flicka” (26:16) premieres on CBS (later NBC) TV.
1956 – Elvis Presley records “Heartbreak Hotel” for RCA.
1958 – “Don’t” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1960 – “Unsinkable Molly Brown” ended at Winter Garden, NYC, after 532 performances.
1960 – USS Sargo (SSN-583) surfaces at North Pole.
1961 – Niagara Falls hydroelectric project began producing power.
1962 – Captured American spy pilot Francis Gary Powers is exchanged for captured Soviet spy Rudolf Abel.
1962 – “Peppermint Twist ” by Joey Dee & the Starliters topped the charts.
1964 – After twelve days of debate and voting on 125 amendments, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by a vote of 290-130. The bill prohibited any state or local government or public facility from denying access to anyone because of race or ethnic origin.
1965 – Vietnam War: Viet Cong guerrillas blow up the U.S. barracks at Qui Nhon, 75 miles east of Pleiku on the central coast, with a 100-pound explosive charge under the building. A total of twenty-three U.S. personnel were killed.
1966 – Protester David Miller was convicted of burning his draft card.
1966 – Andrew Brimmer becomes the first Black governor of the Federal Reserve Board when he is appointed by President Johnson.
1967 – The 25th Amendment to the United States Constitution ratified. This amendment clarified the procedures for presidential succession in the event of the disability of a sitting president.
1968 – “Love Is Blue” by Paul Mauriat topped the charts.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Crimson and Clover” by Tommy James & The Shondells, “Everyday People” by Sly & The Family Stone, “Touch Me” by The Doors and “Daddy Sang Bass” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1971 – Combat photographers Henri Huet of AP, Kent Potter of UPI, Larry Burrows (b.1926) of Life Magazine and Keisaburo Shimamato of Newsweek were killed in a helicopter crash over Laos.
1973 – “Crocodile Rock” by Elton John topped the charts.
1976 – Sidney Jacoby was granted a patent for a combination smoke and heat detector alarm.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Torn Between Two Lovers” by Mary MacGregor, “New Kid in Town” by Eagles, “Blinded by the Light” by Manfred Mann’s Earth Band and “Near You” by George Jones & Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1979 – “Da Ya Think I’m Sexy?” by Rod Stewart topped the charts.
1981 – A fire at the Las Vegas Hilton hotel-casino kills eight and injures 198. This was just 9 days after the MGM Grand fire.
1984 – Kevin Andrew Collins (9) was abducted from a San Francisco street corner. The child’s picture was among the first to appear on milk cartons around the country.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Want to Know What Love Is” by Foreigner, “Easy Lover” by Philip Bailey with Phil Collins, “Careless Whisper” by Wham! featuring George Michael and “Ain’t She Somethin’ Else” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1988 – A three-judge panel of the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco struck down the Army’s ban on homosexuals.
1989 – Ron Brown is elected chairman of the Democratic National Committee becoming the first African-American to lead a major American political party.
1990 – James “Buster” Douglas KO’s Mike Tyson In what perhaps was one of the greatest upsets in sports history .
1990 – “Opposites Attract” by Paula Abdul & the Wild Pair topped the charts.
1993 – Michael Jackson granted his first interview in 15 years to Oprah Winfrey. In the interview, Jackson claimed that he has a disorder that destroys the pigmentation of the skin and that he had had very little plastic surgery.
1994 – Jeannie Flynn (b.1966)), the first female combat pilot in the US Air Force, finished flight training in the F-15.
1996 – The IBM supercomputer Deep Blue defeats Garry Kasparov for the first time. He went on to win four games to two.
1997 – The United States Army suspends CSM Gene C. McKinney, its top-ranking enlisted soldier, after hearing allegations of sexual misconduct.
1997 – The city of Cincinnati revealed plans for a new $80 museum for its role in the Underground Railroad during the Civil War. The museum and freedom center opened in 2002.
1998 – A college dropout becomes the first person to be convicted of a hate crime committed in cyberspace.
1998 – Voters in Maine repeal a gay rights law passed in 1997 becoming the first U.S. state to abandon such a law.
1999 – Iraq War: US and British jets again hit Iraqi air defense sites. It was reported that Saddam Hussein has offered $14,000 to air defense troops who shoot down a US or British plane.
2000 – The Federal Aviation Administration ordered inspections of MD-80, MD-90, DC-9 and 717 series jetliners after two Alaska Airlines planes were found to have equipment damage similar to that on Alaska Airlines Flight 261, which crashed off the California coast January 31st, killing all 88 people on board.
2001 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis’ astronauts installed the $1.4 billion Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station.
2002 – Snowboarder Kelly Clark won America’s first gold medal at the Salt Lake City Olympics in women’s halfpipe.
2002 – The Western Conference defeated the Eastern Conference, 135-120, in the NBA All-Star Game.
2004 – The White House released documents on President Bush’s time of service in the Air National Guard. Questions remained over his service in Alabama in 1972.
2004 – The US broke ground for a new U.S. Embassy compound in the Chinese capital, billed by the American government as the largest State Department project ever built on foreign soil.
2005 – New York civil rights lawyer Lynne Stewart was convicted of smuggling messages of violence from one of her jailed clients, radical Egyptian sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman, to his terrorist disciples on the outside. In 2006 Stewart was sentenced to 28 months in prison.
2005 – North Korea suspends participation in multi-nation talks to discuss its arms program and officially admits to developing nuclear weapons.
2006 – The XX Olympic Winter Games open in Turin, Italy.
2006 -Former federal disaster chief Michael Brown told a Senate committee he had alerted the White House to how bad things were in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, and agreed with senators who said he’d been made a scapegoat for government failures.
2006 – Dr. Norman Shumway (83), who performed the first successful heart transplant in the U.S., died in Palo Alto, Calif.
2007 – In Iraq Gen. David Petraeus (b.1952) took command of the 135,000-strong US force.
2007 – Democrat Barack Obama announced in Illinois that he is running for the White House in 2008.
2009 – Timothy Geithner, US Treasury Secretary, outlined the government stimulus package. As much as $2.5 trillion, including $350 billion from the bailout fund, would come from the Federal Reserve and private investors.
2009 – The US Postal Service announced that the price of a first-class stamp will rise to 44 cents on May 11, 2009.
2009 – General Motors Corp. said it will cut 10,000 salaried jobs, citing the need to restructure itself with a government deadline looming and amid some of the worst sales in the auto industry’s history.
2009 – The first-ever collision between two satellites occurred over Siberia when a derelict Russian military communications satellite crossed paths with a US Iridium satellite.
2010 – Snow, wind and slush covered eastern commuters as blizzard warnings from Baltimore to New York City announced the second major storm in a region already largely blanketed by weekend snowfall. Snow was falling from northern Virginia to Connecticut after crawling out of the Midwest, where the storm canceled hundreds of flights and was blamed for three traffic deaths in Michigan.
2011 – Arizona filed a lawsuit against the federal government, alleging that Washington has failed to secure the state’s porous border with Mexico.
2011 – The U.S. Department of Defense identified remains discovered in the South Pacific seven years ago as those of 11 airmen who had been missing since World War II.
2011 – The Montana House of Representatives voted to repeal the state’s 6-year-old medical marijuana law.
2011 – In Allentown, Pennsylvania, a natural gas explosion rocked a downtown neighborhood overnight, leveling two houses and spawning fires that burned for hours through an entire row of neighboring homes. One person was killed, and at least five others were unaccounted for.
2012 – The United States Central Intelligence Agency website and Alabama state websites go down with reports that Anonymous is responsible. Anonymous (used as a mass noun) is a loosely associated hacktivist group.
2012 – An internal plot among cardinals to kill Pope Benedict XVI is alleged in Italy.|
2013 – Three crew members are killed when a Bell 206 helicopter crashes at the Polsa Rosa Movie Ranch in Acton, California, United States, while filming a documentary.
2014 – Shirley Temple, the dimpled, curly-haired child star who sang, danced, sobbed and grinned her way into the hearts of Depression-era moviegoers, has died. She was 85.
1846 – Ira Remsen, was a chemist who, along with Constantin Fahlberg discovered the artificial sweetener saccharin. He was the second president of Johns Hopkins University. (d. 1927)
1890 – Boris Pasternak, Nobel Prize Laureate (d. 1960) was a Nobel Prize-winning Russian poet and writer. In the West he is best known for his epic novel Doctor Zhivago
1893 – Jimmy Durante, American actor/comedían (d. 1980) was an American singer, pianist, comedian and actor, whose distinctive gravel delivery, comic language butchery, jazz-influenced songs, and large nose.
1906 – Lon Chaney Jr., was an American character actor, known mainly for his roles in monster movies and as the son of silent film actor Lon Chaney. (d. 1973)
1950 – Mark Spitz is a retired American swimmer, best known for winning seven gold medals at the 1972 Munich Olympic Games, an achievement surpassed only when Michael Phelps won his eighth gold medal of the 2008 Olympics.
1961 – George Stephanopoulos is an American broadcaster and former political adviser.
1964 – Glen Beck is a politically conservative American television and radio host, political commentator, author, television network producer, media personality, and entrepreneur.
1969 – Laurie Dhue was a Fox News Channel anchor from 2000-2008, reporting for the television show Geraldo at Large, which airs Saturday and Sunday nights, and the host of Fox Report Weekend.
1974 – Elizabeth Banks is an American actress whose theatrical appearances include Scrubs, Spider-Man, The 40-Year-Old Virgin.
|BACA, JOHN P.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company D, 1st Battalion, 12th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Phuoc Long Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 10th, 1970. Entered service at: Fort Ord, Calif. Born: 10 January 1949, Providence, R.I.. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Baca, Company D, distinguished himself while serving on a recoilless rifle team during a night ambush mission A platoon from his company was sent to investigate the detonation of an automatic ambush device forward of his unit’s main position and soon came under intense enemy fire from concealed positions along the trail. Hearing the heavy firing from the platoon position and realizing that his recoilless rifle team could assist the members of the besieged patrol, Sp4c. Baca led his team through the hail of enemy fire to a firing position within the patrol’s defensive perimeter. As they prepared to engage the enemy, a fragmentation grenade was thrown into the midst of the patrol. Fully aware of the danger to his comrades, Sp4c. Baca unhesitatingly, and with complete disregard for his own safety, covered the grenade with his steel helmet and fell on it as the grenade exploded, thereby absorbing the lethal fragments and concussion with his body. His gallant action and total disregard for his personal well-being directly saved 8 men from certain serious injury or death. The extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by Sp4c. Baca, at the risk of his life, are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*DAVIS, GEORGE ANDREW, JR.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Air Force, CO, 334th Fighter Squadron, 4th Fighter Group, 5th Air Force. Place and date: Near Sinuiju-Yalu River area, Korea, February 10th, 1952. Entered service at: Lubbock, Tex. Born: 1 December 1920, Dublin, Tex. Citation: Maj. Davis distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While leading a flight of four F-86 Saberjets on a combat aerial patrol mission near the Manchurian border, Maj. Davis’ element leader ran out of oxygen and was forced to retire from the flight with his wingman accompanying him. Maj. Davis and the remaining F-86’s continued the mission and sighted a formation of approximately twelve enemy MIG-15 aircraft speeding southward toward an area where friendly fighter-bombers were conducting low level operations against the Communist lines of communications. With selfless disregard for the numerical superiority of the enemy, Maj. Davis positioned his two aircraft, then dove at the MIG formation. While speeding through the formation from the rear he singled out a MIG-15 and destroyed it with a concentrated burst of fire. Although he was now under continuous fire from the enemy fighters to his rear, Maj. Davis sustained his attack. He fired at another MIG-15 which, bursting into smoke and flames, went into a vertical dive. Rather than maintain his superior speed and evade the enemy fire being concentrated on him, he elected to reduce his speed and sought out still a third MIG-15. During this latest attack his aircraft sustained a direct hit, went out of control, then crashed into a mountain thirty miles south of the Yalu River. Maj. Davis’ bold attack completely disrupted the enemy formation, permitting the friendly fighter-bombers to successfully complete their interdiction mission. Maj. Davis, by his indomitable fighting spirit, heroic aggressiveness, and superb courage in engaging the enemy against formidable odds exemplified valor at its highest.
GREELY, ADOLPHUS W.
Rank and organization: Major General, U.S. Army, retired. Place and date: —-. Entered service at: Louisiana. Born: 27 March 1844, Newburyport, Mass. G.O. No.: 3, W.D., 1935. Act of Congress, 21 March 1935. Citation: For his life of splendid public service, begun on 27 March 1844, having enlisted as a private in the U.S. Army on 26 July 1861, and by successive promotions was commissioned as major general February 10th, 1906, and retired by operation of law on his 64th birthday.
|GLOVER, T. B.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Troop B, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Mizpah Creek, Mont., 10 April 1879; at Pumpkin Creek, Mont., February 10th, 1880. Entered service at:——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 20 November 1897. Citation: While in charge of small scouting parties, fought, charged, surrounded, and captured war parties of Sioux Indians.
Rank and organization: Quarter Gunner, U.S. Navy. Born: Cedarville, N.J. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Valley City during action against rebel fort batteries and ships off Elizabeth City, N.C., on February 10th, 1862. When a shell from the shore penetrated the side and passed through the magazine, exploding outside the screen on the berth deck, several powder division protecting bulkheads were torn to pieces and the forward part of the berth deck set on fire. Showing great presence of mind, Davis courageously covered a barrel of powder with his own body and prevented an explosion, while at the same time passing powder to provide the division on the upper deck while under fierce enemy fire.