Besides a quality shot of espresso, the most important element in preparing a cappuccino is the texture and temperature of the milk. When a barista steams the milk for a cappuccino, he or she creates microfoam by introducing very tiny bubbles of air into the milk, giving the milk a velvety texture and sweetness. In some places, skilled baristas create latte art when pouring properly steamed milk into the espresso, making designs such as apples, hearts, leaves, rosettes, and corporate logos.
Cappuccino is a large Italian beverage prepared with espresso and foamy steamed milk. A cappuccino differs from a cafe latte, which is mostly milk and little foam.
In Italy, cappuccino is generally consumed early in the day as part of a light breakfast, with croissant, better known for Italians as cornetto. Generally Italians do not drink cappuccino with meals other than breakfast; however, it is a very common habit, in Italy, to have a cappuccino and croissant after a night out, even if it is about time to go to bed. In other countries it is consumed throughout the day or after dinner.
A cappuccino is generally defined as 1/3 espresso, 1/3 steamed milk and 1/3 frothed milk. Another definition would call for 1/3 espresso and 2/3 microfoam. (A “dry cappuccino” has less milk.) The “iced cappuccino” (or cappuccino “Freddo”) beverage is somewhat of a misnomer since there is no way to duplicate the foam on top of the hot beverage, but the term is nevertheless widely spread in some Mediterranean countries where ice is added before the foam. Espresso and cold milk
on ice is called an iced caffelatte, while an espresso macchiato is a shot of espresso “stained” with a dollop of milk foam.
Servings – 24 cups
Recipe Yield 3 1/2 cups
1 cup powdered non-dairy creamer
1 cup instant chocolate drink mix
3/4 cup instant coffee granules
1/2 cup white sugar
1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg
- In a medium sized glass jar, combine the non-dairy creamer, chocolate drink mix, instant coffee, sugar, cinnamon and nutmeg; mix well.
- To prepare, place 2 tablespoons mix in a mug, pour in 3/4 cup boiling water, and stir until dissolved. Serve hot.
If you want decaf, use instant decaf coffee. If you can find decaf chocolate use that as well.
Amount Per Serving Calories: 56 | Total Fat: 1.8g | Cholesterol: < 1mg
“ If coffee is now five dollars a cup then why am I still dirt poor?”
~ Juan Valdez
Seen on a coffee cup on the Jay Leno Show
com‧mis‧er‧ate / [kuh–miz–uh-reyt] verb, -at‧ed, -at‧ing.
To feel or express sorrow or sympathy for; empathize with; pity.
To sympathize (usually fol. by with): They commiserated with him over the loss of his job.
[Origin: 1585–95; < L commiserātus (ptp. of commiserārī), equiv. to com- com- + miser pitiable (see misery) + -ātus -ate1]
1097 – First Crusade: Crusaders led by Godfrey of Bouillon, Bohemund of Taranto, and Raymond IV of Toulouse, begin the Siege of Antioch.
1512 – Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg
1774 – First display of the word “Liberty” on a flag, raised by colonists in Taunton, Massachusetts and which was in defiance of British rule in Colonial America.
1797 – U.S. Navy frigate Constitution, nicknamed “Old Ironsides,” was launched in Boston’s harbor. It was built to fight Barbary pirates off the coast of Tripoli. It was never defeated in 42 battles. 216 crew members set sail again in 1997 for its 200th birthday.
1805 – British fleet commanded by Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated a French-Spanish fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar, but Nelson was killed.
1824 – Joseph Aspdin patents Portland cement.
1837 – Osceola, who was sick with malaria, knew the Indians could fight no more. He went to the fort at St. Augustine with a white flag. When Osceola went to General Jesup the General had his men surround him. They threw the white flag to the ground and put chains on his hands and feet. The Seminoles were so angry with Osceola’s capture that they continued to fight for the next five years.
1849 – The first tattooed man, James F. O’Connell, was put on exhibition at the Franklin Theatre in New York City, NY.
1854 – Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 nurses were sent to the Crimean War.
1861 – Civil War: Battle of Ball’s Bluff – Union forces under Colonel Edward Baker, a close friend of Abraham Lincoln, are defeated by Confederate troops in the second major battle of the war. Baker is killed in the fighting.
1865 – Earthquake hit San Francisco. It lasted for 42 seconds and caused major damage throughout the city.
1867 – Medicine Lodge Treaty – Near Medicine Lodge, Kansas a landmark treaty is signed by southern Great Plains Indian leaders. The treaty requires Native American Plains tribes to relocate a reservation in western Oklahoma. Comanche Chief Quanah Parker refused to accept the treaty terms.
1869 – First shipment of fresh oysters comes overland from Baltimore.
1872 – The U.S. Naval Academy admitted John H. Conyers, the first African American to be accepted.
1879 – Thomas A. Edison invented the first working electric (incandescent) light, in his Menlo Park, New Jersey laboratory. It would last 13 1/2 hours before it would burn out.
1902 – A five month strike by United Mine Workers ends.
1904 – Panamanians clashed with U.S. Marines in Panama in a brief uprising.
1907 – The Panic of 1907 began with a run on the Knickerbocker Trust Co. of New York.
1908 – The Saturday Evening Post magazine carried an ad for a brand new product: a two-sided phonograph record.
1916 – US Army formed Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC).
1917 – The first American troops saw action in France during World War I. The U.S. Army’s First Division was assigned to Allied trenches in the Luneville sector near Nancy, France.
1918 – Margaret Owen sets world typing speed record of 170 wpm for 1 min.
1921 – President Warren G. Harding delivers the first speech by a sitting President against lynching in the Deep South.
1921 – George Melford’s silent film, The Sheik, starring Rudolph Valentino, premiers. A clip (1:42) The complete movie (1:26:05)
1925 – The photoelectric cell, the device that turns flood lights on and off, was first demonstrated at the Electrical Show in New York City.
1925 – The U.S. Treasury Department announced that it had fined 29,620 people for (alcohol) prohibition violations.
1927 – Construction began on the George Washington Bridge.
1938 – “Quaker City Jazz” was recorded by Jan Savitt and his Top Hatters Orchestra.
1940 – Ernest Hemingway’s novel “For Whom the Bell Tolls” was published.
1942 – Eight American and British officers landed from a submarine on an Algerian beach to take measure of Vichy French to the Operation Torch landings.
1944 – World War II: During World War II, the German city of Aachen was captured by U.S. troops.
1944 – World War II: The first kamikaze attack: HMAS Australia was hit by a Japanese plane carrying a 441 pound bomb off Leyte Island, as the Battle of Leyte Gulf began.
1944 – World War II: Organized Japanese resistance on Angaur, Palau Islands ends. A total of 1300 Japanese are killed and 45 are captured. American forces have suffered 265 dead and 1335 wounded.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Buy That Dream” by The Pied Pipers, “Till the End of Time” by Perry Como, “On the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe” by Johnny Mercer and “You Two Timed Me One Time Too Often” by Tex Ritter all topped the charts.
1948 – Facsimile high-speed radio transmission demonstrated (Washington DC).
1950 – “Goodnight Irene” by the Weavers with Gordon Jenkins topped the charts.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Vaya Con Dios” by Les Paul & Mary Ford, “You, You, You” by The Ames Brothers, “Crying in the Chapel” by June Valli and “I Forgot More Than You’ll Ever Know” by The Davis Sisters all topped the charts.
1954 – The first part of JRR Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings, “The Fellowship of the Ring” is published in the U.S.A.
1957 – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley shared #1.
1957 – “Chances Are” by Johnny Mathis shared the top of the chart.
1958 – “Tater Tots” were trademark registered.
1958 – Orchestral strings were used for the first time in a rock and roll tune. Buddy Holly recorded “It Doesn’t Matter Anymore“, written by Paul Anka.
1959 – The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York opened; it was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.
1959 – US President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order transferring Wernher von Braun and other German scientists from the United States Army to NASA. By the late 1960s Dr. Von Braun’s rockets were taking men to the moon. At age 25 he had masterminded the V-2 rocket for Nazi Germany.
1960 – The fourth and final debate between Vice President Richard M. Nixon, the Republican presidential candidate, and Senator John F. Kennedy, Democratic candidate, was televised.
1961 – Bob Dylan recorded his first album in a single day at a cost of $400.
1964 – The movie musical “My Fair Lady” (2:51:33) made its world premier in New York.
1965 – The Kingsmen and the Dave Clark Five appear on “Shindig!”
1967 – More than 50,000 Vietnam War protesters marched in Washington, D.C.
1967 – “To Sir with Love” by Lulu topped the charts. Movie closing credits
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Can’t Get Next to You” by The Temptations, “Hot Fun in the Summertime” by Sly & The Family Stone, “Suspicious Minds” by Elvis Presley and “Since I Met You, Baby” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1969 – The play “Butterflies are Free,” premiered in NYC at the Booth Theater. It was written by Leonard Gershe (d.2002). It closed in 1972 after 1128 performances.
1971 – President Nixon nominated Lewis F. Powell and William H. Rehnquist to the US Supreme Court following resignations of Justices Hugo Black and John Harlan.
1972 – “My Ding-a-Ling” by Chuck Berry topped the charts.
1972 – Curtis Mayfield’s “Superfly” movie soundtrack album was #1.
1973 – World Series: Oakland Athletics (4) vs New York Mets (3).
1973 – Fred Dryer of the then Los Angeles Rams becomes the first player in NFL history to score two safeties in the same game.
1973 – John Paul Getty III’s ear is cut off by his kidnappers and sent to a newspaper in Rome; it doesn’t arrive until November 8.
1975 – Red Sox Carlton Fisk’s 12th inning HR beats Reds 7-6 in game 6 of the World Series.
1976 – World Series: Cincinnati Reds (4) vs New York Yankees (0)
1976 – NY Knicks retire first number, # 19, Willis Reed.
1976 – Saul Bellow won the Nobel Prize for literature, the first American honored since John Steinbeck in 1962.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Light Up My Life” by Debby Boone, “Nobody Does It Better” by Carly Simon, “That’s Rock ’n’ Roll” by Shaun Cassidy and “Heaven’s Just a Sin Away” by The Kendalls all topped the charts.
1978 – “Kiss You All Over” by Exile topped the charts.
1980 – World Series: Philadelphia Phillies (4) vs Kansas City Royals (2). First (& only) time Phillies win the World Series (in 98 years).
1983 – The metre is defined at the seventeenth General Conference on Weights and Measures in terms of the speed of light as the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.
1983 – The Pentagon reported that 2,000 Marines were headed to Grenada to protect and evacuate Americans living there. They also sent a ten-ship task force to the island nation.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Take on Me” by a-ha, “Saving All My Love for You” by Whitney Houston, “Part-Time Lover” by Stevie Wonder and “You Make Me Want to Make You Mine” by Juice Newton all topped the charts.
1985-This is “Back to the Future Day.” This is the date that appears on the flux capacitor on the DeLorean time machine.
1986 – Pro-Iranian kidnappers in Lebanon claimed that they had abducted American writer Edward Tracy. He was not released until August of 1991.
1986 – The U.S. ordered 55 Soviet diplomats to leave. The action was in reaction to the Soviet Union expelling five American diplomats.
1987 – U.S. Senate rejected U.S. President Ronald Reagan’s nomination of Judge Robert Bork to the U.S. Supreme Court by the biggest margin in history, 58-42.
1988 – A federal grand jury in New York indicted former Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos and his wife, Imelda Marcos, on charges of fraud and racketeering.
1989 – Buck Helm found alive after being buried 4 days, in Loma Prieta earthquake. Helm died less than a month later.
1989 – Houston becomes first major college team to gain 1000 yards in a game.
1989 – “Miss You Much” by Janet Jackson topped the charts.
1991 – Jesse Turner, an American hostage in Lebanon, was released after nearly five years of being imprisoned.
1992 – New York protesters upset with Sinead O’Connor for ripping up a photo of Pope John Paul II on “Saturday Night Live,” used a steamroller to crush dozens of the Irish singer’s CDs, records and tapes.
1994 – North Korea nuclear weapons program: North Korea and the United States sign an agreement that requires North Korea to stop its nuclear weapons program and agree to inspections.
1994 – Rosario Ames, the wife of CIA agent Aldrich Ames, was sentenced to five years in prison for her role in her husband’s espionage.
1995 – Mariah Carey’s “Daydream” was the number one album in the US.
1995 – Rioting inmates surrendered control of a prison dormitory in Greenville, Illinois, ending a one-day uprising that began after the government ordered federal prisons locked down nationwide.
1996 – Firestorms covered 35,000 acres in Malibu and San Diego County and destroyed more than 60 homes. Another fire in the Los Padres National Forest was reported 60% contained.
1996 – Dow Jones industrial average of 30 major stocks topped the 6,000 mark for the first time.
1997 – “Candle in the Wind 1997” named biggest-selling single record of all time.
1997 – Reversing months of strong opposition, the Clinton administration endorsed a revised Republican bill to restructure the Internal Revenue Service and shift the burden of proof from the taxpayer to the government in contested court cases.
1997 – Pictures of the Antennae galaxies, two intermeshed colliding galaxies, were taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1996 and revealed to the public for the first time.
1998 – World Series: New York Yankees (4) vs San Diego Padres (0) The Yankees set a major league baseball record of 125 victories for the regular and postseason combined.
1998 – A radical environmental group, the Earth Liberation Front, claimed responsibility for fires that caused $12 million in damage at the nation’s busiest ski resort in Vail, CO.
1999 – Organizers called for a “Jam Echelon Day,” an effort to overload US National Security Agency (NSA) supercomputers with e-mail containing words such as “bomb.” Echelon was a worldwide surveillance network run by the NSA and partners in Britain, Australia, Canada and New Zealand.
1999 – The US Justice Dept. sued the city of Columbus, Ohio, for a pattern of civil rights violations by the police.
2001 – The Arizona Diamondbacks won the National League championship, defeating the Atlanta Braves 3-2 in game five.
2001 – A DC postal worker was diagnosed with the deadly inhalation form of anthrax. DC postal worker Thomas L. Morris Jr. (55) died. Officials began testing thousands of postal employees.
2002 – Pres. Bush said he would try diplomacy “one more time,” but did not think Saddam Hussein would disarm, even if doing so would allow him to remain in power.
2003 – The U.S. Senate voted to ban what was known as partial birth abortions.
2003 – In Florida tube-feeding was resumed for Terri Schiavo (39), brain-damaged since 1990, on orders from Governor Jeb Bush, who overrode a court decision for its removal.
2003 – US officials state that they believe Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl was killed by Khalid Sheikh Mohammed.
2004 – The U.S. Army sentences Staff Sergeant Ivan Frederick to eight years in prison for sexually and physically abusing detainees at Abu Ghraib prison.
2004 – The St. Louis Cardinals won the National League pennant with a 7th game win over the Houston Astros.
2004 – A University of Florida scientist, Thomas DeMarse, announces that he has grown a “brain” of rat neurons that can fly an airplane simulator. A “brain” such as this could be used to study how actual brains compute information and, potentially, as a sort of living computer.
2005 – Oscar Wyatt (81), former chairman of Coastal Corp., was arrested at his home in Houston for paying millions in kickbacks to the government of Saddam Hussein in exchange for rights to buy discounted Iraqi oil under the UN’s oil-for-food program.
2006 – Bush administration was reported putting together a timetable for Iraq to quell sectarian violence and take more responsibility for its own security. However, it didn’t call for withdrawal of U.S. troops.
2006 – Iraq: Three U.S. Marines are killed in combat in Anbar province, making October the deadliest month for American forces in Iraq in 2006.
2006 – MASS SHOOTING: In SF Joseph James Melcher (25), a traveling wine salesman, opened fire on three people in Japantown and two died. He was arrested the same evening.
2007 – U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney, in one of the strongest warnings from Washington on the matter, said, “We will not allow Iran to have a nuclear weapon.”
2007 – The Boston Red Sox won the American League championship in Game 7 of their series with the Cleveland Indians, 11-2.
2007 – More than a half-dozen wildfires driven by powerful Santa Ana winds spread across Southern California, killing one person near San Diego and destroying several homes and a church in celebrity-laden Malibu. The Buckweed fire started rampaging across 38,000 acres in the Santa Clarita area, 30 miles north of downtown Los Angeles.
2008 – US federal agents arrested dozens of members of the Mongol motorcycle club in six states, following an undercover investigation in which they infiltrated the notorious motorcycle gang. Prosecutors said it could herald the end of what they call a criminal group.
2009 – The Philadelphia Phillies win the 2009 National League Championship Series 4 games to 1 after defeating the Los Angeles Dodgers 10–4.
2009 – US federal prosecutors in Massachusetts arrested Tarek Mehanna (27) of Sudbury, a suburb of Boston. Prosecutors said he had conspired to kill two prominent US politicians and carry out a holy war by attacking shoppers in US malls and American troops in Iraq.
2009 – In Toledo, Ohio, Mohammad Zaki Amawi (29) was sentenced to 20 years in jail for plotting to recruit and train terrorists to kill US soldiers in Iraq.
2009 – Alyssa Bustamante (15) of St. Martins, Mo., strangled, stabbed and cut a 9-year-old neighbor’s throat. She told authorities she did it because she wanted to know what it was like to kill someone.
2010 – Toyota orders a recall of 1.5 million vehicles, including various Lexus models and Toyota Avalon models, due to brake fluid and fuel pump problems.
2011 – Verizon Communications reports third-quarter earnings have doubled.
2011 – Eleven people are arrested taking part in Occupy Cleveland protest activities in Public Square. They were arrested near the statue of former Mayor Tom Johnson, a symbol of free speech.
2011 – President Barack Obama, announces a plan to withdraw all of the remaining American military forces from Iraq by the end of 2011.
2012 – MASS SHOOTING: A shooting at a spa in Brookfield, Wisconsin, USA, leaves four people dead, including the shooter.
2012 – Sharmeka Moffitt, 20, a female from Winnsboro, Louisiana, sustains burns to over 60% of her body in what was initially believed to be a possible hate crime after she had claimed, through relatives, to have been set afire by three unknown at large male hoodie-wearing assailants in Winnsboro’s Civitan Park. It was later proved a lie.
2013 – New Jersey becomes the 14th U.S. state to allow same-sex marriages.
2014 – America’s oldest WWII veteran died today. Roscoe Cassidy lived in Owingsville, Bath County, Kentucky. Born in 1907 his biggest worry of late was that no one would come to his funeral. The community made sure that that did not happen.PFC Cassidy served in four campaigns during WWII, which include Tunisian, Southern France, Rhineland, and Rome Arno. He also received 4 Bronze Stars.
1687 – Nicolaus I Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (d. 1759)
1772 – Samuel Taylor Coleridge, British poet.
1833 – Alfred Nobel, Swedish chemist (invented dynamite), engineer, businessman, and philanthropist (founded the Nobel Prizes).
1917 – Dizzy Gillespie, American Grammy Award-winning musician and creator of be-bop.
1928 – Whitey Ford, American baseball Hall-of-Famer.
1956 – Carrie Fisher, American actress and writer
*WILSON, RICHARD G
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Co. 1, Medical Company, 187th Airborne Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Opari, Korea, October 21st, 1950. Entered service at: Cape Girardeau Mo. Born: 19 August 1931, Marion, Ill. G.O. No.: 64, 2 August 1951. Citation: Pfc. Wilson distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. As medical aid man attached to Company I, he accompanied the unit during a reconnaissance in force through the hilly country near Opari. The main body of the company was passing through a narrow valley flanked on three sides by high hills when the enemy laid down a barrage of mortar, automatic-weapons and small-arms fire. The company suffered a large number of casualties from the intense hostile fire while fighting its way out of the ambush. Pfc. Wilson proceeded at once to move among the wounded and administered aid to them oblivious of the danger to himself, constantly exposing himself to hostile fire. The company commander ordered a withdrawal as the enemy threatened to encircle and isolate the company. As his unit withdrew Private Wilson assisted wounded men to safety and assured himself that none were left behind. After the company had pulled back he learned that a comrade previously thought dead had been seen to be moving and attempting to crawl to safety. Despite the protests of his comrades, unarmed and facing a merciless enemy, Pfc. Wilson returned to the dangerous position in search of his comrade. Two days later a patrol found him lying beside the man he returned to aid. He had been shot several times while trying to shield and administer aid to the wounded man. Pfc. Wilson’s superb personal bravery, consummate courage and willing self-sacrifice for his comrades reflect untold glory upon himself and uphold the esteemed traditions of the military service.
*MOON, HAROLD H., JR.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company G, 34th Infantry, 24th Infantry Division. Place and date: Pawig, Leyte, Philippine Islands, October 21st, 1944. Entered service at: Gardena, Calif. Birth: Albuquerque, N. Mex. G.O. No.: 104, 15 November 1945. Citation: He fought with conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity when powerful Japanese counterblows were being struck in a desperate effort to annihilate a newly won beachhead. In a forward position, armed with a submachinegun, he met the brunt of a strong, well-supported night attack which quickly enveloped his platoon’s flanks. Many men in nearby positions were killed or injured, and Pvt. Moon was wounded as his foxhole became the immediate object of a concentration of mortar and machinegun fire. Nevertheless, he maintained his stand, poured deadly fire into the enemy, daringly exposed himself to hostile fire time after time to exhort and inspire what American troops were left in the immediate area. A Japanese officer, covered by machinegun fire and hidden by an embankment, attempted to knock out his position with grenades, but Pvt. Moon, after protracted and skillful maneuvering, killed him. When the enemy advanced a light machinegun to within twenty yards of the shattered perimeter and fired with telling effects on the remnants of the platoon, he stood up to locate the gun and remained exposed while calling back range corrections to friendly mortars which knocked out the weapon. A little later he killed two Japanese as they charged an aid man. By dawn his position, the focal point of the attack for more than four hours, was virtually surrounded. In a fanatical effort to reduce it and kill its defender, an entire platoon charged with fixed bayonets. Firing from a sitting position, Pvt. Moon calmly emptied his magazine into the advancing horde, killing eighteen and repulsing the attack. In a final display of bravery, he stood up to throw a grenade at a machinegun which had opened fire on the right flank. He was hit and instantly killed, falling in the position from which he had not been driven by the fiercest enemy action. Nearly two-hundred dead Japanese were found within 100 yards of his foxhole. The continued tenacity, combat sagacity, and magnificent heroism with which Pvt. Moon fought on against overwhelming odds contributed in a large measure to breaking up a powerful enemy threat and did much to insure our initial successes during a most important operation.
BIEGLER, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Captain, 28th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: Near Loac, Luzon, Philippine Islands, October 21st, 1900. Entered service at: Terre Haute, Ind. Birth: Terre Haute, Ind. Date of issue: 11 March 1902. Citation: With but nineteen men resisted and at close quarters defeated three-hundred of the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Arizona, October 21st, 1868. Entered service at:—— Birth: England. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Brought a comrade, severely wounded, from under the fire of a large party of the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company C, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Prussia. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 22d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at:——. Birth: Rutland, Vt. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action .
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: Pawtucket, R.I. Birth: North Attleboro, Mass Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Syracuse, N.Y. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Cltation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Brooklyn, N.Y. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
MONTROSE, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: St. Paul, Minn. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company A, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Birth: Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: Rocky Hill, Conn. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Bravery in action with Sioux.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
WHITEHEAD, PATTON G.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Russell County, Va. Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, etc., Mont., October 21st, 1876 to 8 January 1877. Entered service at: Beardstown, Ill. Birth: Petersburg, Ill Date of issue: 27 April 1877. Citation: Gallantry in action.
National Character Counts Week
Edison Lamp Day
Traits of a Good Leader
Compiled by the Santa Clara University and the Tom Peters Group:
- Honest — Display sincerity, integrity, and candor in all your actions. Deceptive behavior will not inspire trust.
- Competent — Base your actions on reason and moral principles. Do not make decisions based on childlike emotional desires or feelings.
- Forward-looking — Set goals and have a vision of the future. The vision must be owned throughout the organization. Effective leaders envision what they want and how to get it. They habitually pick priorities stemming from their basic values.
- Inspiring — Display confidence in all that you do. By showing endurance in mental, physical, and spiritual stamina, you will inspire others to reach for new heights. Take charge when necessary.
- Intelligent — Read, study, and seek challenging assignments.
- Fair-minded — Show fair treatment to all people. Prejudice is the enemy of justice. Display empathy by being sensitive to the feelings, values, interests, and well-being of others.
- Broad-minded — Seek out diversity.
- Courageous — Have the perseverance to accomplish a goal, regardless of the seemingly insurmountable obstacles. Display a confident calmness when under stress.
- Straightforward — Use sound judgment to make a good decisions at the right time.
- Imaginative — Make timely and appropriate changes in your thinking, plans, and methods. Show creativity by thinking of new and better goals, ideas, and solutions to problems. Be innovative!
“Retreat Hell! We’ve just got here!” — Attributed to several World War I Marine Corps officers, Belleau Wood, June 1918 (key ideal — take a stand)
Attributes establish what leaders are, and every leader needs at least three of them (U.S. Army Handbook, 1973):
Standard Bearers establish the ethical framework within an organization. This demands a commitment to live and defend the climate and culture that you want to permeate your organization. What you set as an example will soon become the rule as unlike knowledge, ethical behavior is learned more by observing than by listening. And in fast moving situations, examples become certainty. Being a standard bearer creates trust and openness in your employees, who in turn, fulfill your visions.
Developers help others learn through teaching, training, and coaching. This creates an exciting place to work and learn. Never miss an opportunity to teach or learn something new yourself. Coaching suggests someone who cares enough to get involved by encouraging and developing others who are less experienced. Employees who work for developers know that they can take risks, learn by making mistakes, and winning in the end.
Integrators orchestrate the many activities that take place throughout an organization by providing a view of the future and the ability to obtain it. Success can only be achieved when there is a unity of effort. Integrators have a sixth sense about where problems will occur and make their presence felt during critical times. They know that their employees do their best when they are left to work within a vision-based framework.
Perspectives of Character and Traits
Traits (acronym — JJ did tie buckle)
“Make it a rule of life never to regret and never to look back. Regret is an appalling waste of energy; you can’t build on it; it’s only for wallowing in.”
~ Katherine Mansfield
obstreperous uhb-STREP-uhr-uhs; ob-, adjective:1. Noisily and stubbornly defiant; unruly.
2. Noisy, clamorous, or boisterous.
1774 – The Continental Congress banned all forms of entertainment and theater in the Colonies. The colonists were to “discountenance and discourage all horse racing and all kinds of gaming, cock fighting, exhibitions of shows, plays and other expensive diversions and entertainment.”
1786 – Harvard University organized the first astronomical expedition in US.
1803 – United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.
1811 – Fulton’s steamboat, “New Orleans”, built in Pittsburgh, sailed to New Orleans. The boat traveled at the rate of eight miles per hour downstream and three miles per hour upstream.
1817 – First Mississippi showboat leaves Nashville on maiden voyage. It was basically a barge that resembled a long, flat-roofed house, and in order to move down the river, it was pushed by a small towboat. British-born actor William Chapman, Sr. created the first showboat, named the Floating Theater in Pittsburgh in 1831.
1818 – The Convention of 1818 signed between the United States and the United Kingdom which, among other things, settled the US-Canada border on the 49th parallel for most of its length.
1820 – Spain sold a part of Florida to US for $5 million.
1824 – U.S. Schooner Porpoise captures four pirate ships off Cuba.
1866 – Pierre Lallemont, French mechanic, was granted a US patent for his velocipede, a rotary crank bicycle.
1873 – P.T. Barnum’s Hippodrome opens in New York City.
1892 – The city of Chicago dedicated the World’s Columbian Exposition in honor of the 400th anniversary of Columbus discovering America.
1903 – A joint commission ruled in favor of the U.S. concerning a dispute over the boundary between Canada and the District of Alaska..
1904 – The song “Yankee Doodle Boy” was copyright registered.
1906 – Dr. Lee DeForest, one of the “fathers of radio,” announced his three-element electrical vacuum tube (now known as a triode) to a meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers.
1910 – First appearance of cork centered baseball in World Series.
1910 – The hull of the RMS Olympic, sister-ship to the ill-fated RMS Titanic, is launched from the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland.
1911 – Roald Amundsen set out on a race to the South Pole.
1924 – Baseball’s first “colored World Series” was held in Kansas City, Mo.
1926 – President Calvin Coolidge ordered the US Marines to guard the US Mail.
1930 – The “Adventures of Sherlock Holmes” premiered on the NBC Radio Network.
1934 – An all-star baseball team led by Babe Ruth and Connie Mack sailed to Hawaii and Japan.
1938 – World War II: Holocaust: Czechoslovakia, complying with Nazi policy, outlawed the Communist Party and began persecuting Jews.
1939 – “All the Things You Are” was recorded by the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra — for the Victor label.
1939 – The German government warns that neutral merchant ships joining Allied convoys will be sunk without warning.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: Thousands of civilians in Kragujevac in German-occupied Serbia are killed in the Kragujevac massacre.
1942 – World War II: The United States Congress passes the largest tax bill in the country’s history. It will raise $6,881,000,000 in tax revenue.
1943 – World War II: Elements of US 5th Army take Piedimonte d’Alife while other elements are advancing along the Volturno River.
1944 – World War II: A carrier fleet, including one large carrier, one small carrier, two seaplane carriers, and two hybrid carrier-battleships as well as small ships, sails for the Philippines as part of Operation Sho-go.
1944 – Liquid natural gas leaks from storage tanks in Cleveland, OH , then explodes; the explosion and resulting fire level 30 blocks, killed 130 and left 3600 homeless.
1944 – World War II: General Douglas MacArthur fulfills his promise to return to the Philippines when he commands an Allied assault on the islands, reclaiming them from the Japanese. This was 21/2 years after he famously said, “I shall return.”
1944 – World War II: During World War II, the Yugoslav cities of Belgrade and Dubrovnik were liberated.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Walk Alone” by Dinah Shore, “Is You is or is You Ain’t” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “It Had to Be You” by Helen Forrest & Dick Haymes and “Smoke on the Water” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1946 – Frank Seno returns kickoff 105 yd, Chicago Cards vs NY Giants.
1947 – The House Un-American Activities Committee begins its investigation into Communist infiltration of Hollywood, resulting in a blacklist that prevents some from working in the industry for years.
1947 – The radio rights to the World Series were sold for three years for $475,000.
1950 – President Harry S. Truman issued an executive order “activating” the Magnuson Act, which had been passed by Congress earlier that month. This act, authorizing the president to invoke the Espionage Act of 1917, tasked the Coast Guard with the port security mission.
1950 – In the first airborne operation of the Korean War, 2,860 paratroopers of the 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team jumped between Sukchon and Sunchon, 25 miles north of Pyongyang.
1951 – “Because of You” by Tony Bennett topped the charts.
1951 – The “Johnny Bright Incident” occurred in Stillwater, Oklahoma This was a violent, and most likely racially motivated, on-field assault against a Black player Johnny Bright by white American player Wilbanks Smith during a college football game held in Stillwater, Oklahoma.
1952 –Korean War: The destroyer escort Lewis was hit by shore fire off the West Coast of Korea. Seven sailors were killed and one wounded.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Belong to Me” by Jo Stafford, “Wish You Were Here” by Eddie Fisher, “I Went to Your Wedding” by Patti Page and “Jambalaya (On the Bayou)” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – Edward R. Murrow on his TV show “See It Now” brought public attention to the abuses of power in the era of Sen. McCarthy’s anti-communist crusade.
1954 – The musical “Peter Pan” opened.
1955 – Publication of “The Return of the King”, being the last part of “The Lord of the Rings”.
1955 – “No Time for Sergeants” opened on Broadway starring Andy Griffith.
1955 – “Day-O!” by Harry Belafonte Hits was recorded for RCA Victor .
1956 – Dr. Hannes Lindemann began his voyage across the Atlantic Ocean in a small boat (17 feet). Lindemann was a German physician on a U.S. Air Force base in Morocco. He wrote a book “Alone at Sea”, about his two journeys across the Atlantic Ocean.
1957 – Walter Cronkite hosted the documentary “The 20th Century.”
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Save the Last Dance for Me” by The Drifters, “My Heart Has a Mind of Its Own” by Connie Francis, “I Want to Be Wanted” by Brenda Lee and “Alabam” by Cowboy Copas all topped the charts.
1960 – First fully mechanized post office opened, Providence, RI.
1960 – The Elvis Presley film “G.I. Blues” premiered.
1962 – The Four Seasons released “Big Girls Don’t Cry.”
1962 – “Monster Mash” by Bobby Pickett & the Crypt Kickers topped the charts.
1962 – The musical, “Mr. President” opened on Broadway.
1963 – Jim Brown sets NFL single-season rushing record, 1,863 yards.
1964 – Herbert Hoover, the 31st president of the United States (1929-1933), died in New York at age 90.
1965 – The Beatles received a gold record for the single, “Yesterday.”
1967 – A purported bigfoot is filmed by Patterson and Gimlin .
1967 – Vietnam War: Operation Coronado VII began in Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
1967 – Seven men were convicted in Meridian, MS, on charges of violating the civil rights of three civil rights workers. Of the men convicted one was a Ku Klux Klan leader and another was a sheriff’s deputy.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hey Jude” by The Beatles, “Fire” by The Crazy World of Arthur Brown, “Little Green Apples” by O.C. Smith and “Then You Can Tell Me Goodbye” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1968 – Former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy marries Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis.
1969 – John Lennon released “Cold Turkey,” his second solo album.
1973 – “Angie” by the Rolling Stones topped the charts.
1973 – Arab oil-producing nations banned oil exports to the United States, to protest American military support for Israel in its 1973 war with Egypt and Syria. This brought soaring gas prices and long lines at filling stations, and it contributed to a major economic downturn in the U.S.
1973 – The San Francisco Zebra murders began and lasted for 179 days. 15 people were killed and 8 wounded by a gang of racial extremists.
1973 – The Saturday Night Massacre: President Nixon fires Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus after they refuse to fire Watergate prosecutor Archibald Cox, who is finally fired by Robert Bork.
1973 – “The Six Million Dollar Man” premiered on TV.
1973 – President Nixon proclaims Jim Thorpe greatest athlete of 20th century.
1973 – “The Joker” was released by the Steve Miller Band.
1975 – The US Supreme Court ruled that teachers could spank their pupils even if parents do not approve.
1976 – NY Nets Julius “Dr J” Erving sold to the Philadelphia 76ers.
1976 – Seventy-six people were killed when the Norwegian tanker Frosta collided with the ferryboat George Prince on the Mississippi River.
1978 – The Coast Guard Cutter Cuyahoga sank after colliding with M/V Santa Cruz II near the mouth of the Potomac River. Eleven Coast Guard personnel were killed.
1979 – “Rise” by Herb Alpert topped the charts.
1979 – The John F Kennedy library is opened in Boston, Massachusetts.
1981 – The Brink’s robbery of 1981 was an armed robbery carried out by Black Liberation Army members; including Jeral Wayne Williams (aka Mutulu Shakur), Donald Weems (aka Kuwasi Balagoon), Samuel Smith, Nathaniel Burns (aka Sekou Odinga), Cecilio “Chui” Ferguson, Samuel Brown (aka Solomon Bouines); several former members of the Weather Underground, now belonging to the May 19th Communist Organization, including David Gilbert, Samuel Brown, Judith Alice Clark, Kathy Boudin, and Marilyn Buck; and an unknown number of accomplices. They stole $1.6 million from a Brink’s armored car at the Nanuet Mall, in Nanuet, New York, killing two police officers, Edward O’Grady and Waverly Brown, and a Brink’s guard, Peter Paige.
1982 – World Series: St. Louis Cardinals (4) vs Milwaukee Brewers (3).
1983 – Due to political strife, USS Independence (CV-59) ordered to Grenada.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Just Called to Say I Love You” by Stevie Wonder, “Caribbean Queen (No More Love on the Run)” by Billy Ocean, “Hard Habit to Break” by Chicago and “I Don’t Know a Thing About Love (The Moon Song)” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1987 – An Air Force A-7D-4-CV Corsair II, serial 69-6207, piloted by Major Bruce L. Teagarden, 35, was en route to Nevada via Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma, after departing Pittsburgh International Airport earlier in the day. Ten people were killed when the jet crashed into a Ramada Inn hotel near Indianapolis International Airport after the pilot, who was trying to make an emergency landing, ejected safely. The cockpit and engine went into the lobby, killing nine people. Another person died 1 week later as a result of burn injuries. The hotel stood empty for two years and was never rebuilt.
1988 – World Series: Los Angeles Dodgers (4) vs Oakland Athletics (1)
1989 – The world’s largest milkshake, 1575 gallons, was made by the Smith Dairy at Orrville, Ohio.
1990 – “I Don’t Have the Heart” by James Ingram topped the charts.
1990 – The Cincinnati Reds won the World Series, 2-to-1, sweeping the Oakland A’s in four games.
1991 – The Oakland Hills firestorm kills 25 and destroys 3,469 homes and apartments, causing more than $2 billion in damage. The firestorm was a large urban fire that occurred on the hillsides of northern Oakland, California and southeastern Berkeley.
1993 – Attorney General Janet Reno warned the TV industry to limit the violence in their programs.
1994 – The Pentagon announced that more than 100,000 U.S. troops were being taken off alert for possible movement to the Persian Gulf because the Iraqi threat to Kuwait had abated.
1995 – Space shuttle “Columbia” was launched on a research flight that had been delayed six times.
1999 – Elizabeth Dole quit the US presidential race and her Republican bid to be America’s first woman president due to insufficient campaign funds.
2000 – Egyptian-born Ali Mohamed, a U.S. citizen who’d served in the Army (1986), pleaded guilty in New York to helping plan the deadly U.S. Embassy bombings in Africa in 1998 that killed 224 people, including twelve Americans.
2001 – Traces of anthrax were found in a US House of Representatives mail room. This became the 3rd Capital Hill building infected.
2002 – Yao Ming (22), a 7-foot-5 basketball player from China, arrived in Texas to join the Houston Rockets.
2002 – The Galaxy fishing ship, ported in Seattle, exploded and burned 750 miles SW of Alaska. One man was killed and two were missing.
2003 – President Bush personally condemned the Malaysian prime minister for his statement that Jews rule the world.
2003 – A 40-year-old man went over Niagara Falls without safety devices and survived. He was charged with illegally performing a stunt. Since 1901, 15 daredevils have taken the plunge in barrels or other devices, including a kayak and a personal watercraft. Ten survived,
2003 – The US deficit doubled to $374 billion in fiscal 2003 and was on track to exceed $500 billion for the year.
2004 – Boston Red Sox defeated the New York Yankees 10-3 in Game 7 of the 2004 American League Championship Series, becoming the first team in baseball history to overcome a 3-0 series deficit in a best-of-seven series. Boston Red Sox fans poured into the streets outside Fenway Park to celebrate their team’s victory. Victoria Snellgrove (21) died the next day after a crowd control pellet hit her in the eye.
2004 – Scientists of the Human Genome Project reported a new estimate of human genes at 20k to 25k.
2004 – ABC announced it was dropping the Miss America beauty pageant. It was later picked up by cable country musical network CMT.
2005 – US Congress approved legislation protecting firearms manufacturers and dealers from a broad swath of civil liability lawsuits. Pres. Bush pledged to sign it.
2005 – US Rep. Tom DeLay turned himself in at the sheriff’s office in Travis County, Texas, where he was fingerprinted, photographed and released on $10,000 bail on conspiracy and money-laundering charges. On October 1, 2014, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals affirmed the appellate court decision overturning DeLay’s conviction.
2006 – US federal authorities arrested Jake Brahm, a 20-year-old Wisconsin grocery store clerk, for making a hoax threat that said seven football stadiums across the nation would be targeted by terrorists with radiological “dirty bombs” this weekend.
2006 – Corrections officials said California will begin shipping thousands of inmates to prisons in four other states next month at a cost of more than $51 million a year.
2006 – In Pennsylvania 24 rail cars carrying ethanol derailed and nine caught fire on a bridge over the Beaver River in New Brighton, 25 miles northwest of Pittsburgh.
2007 – Piyush “Bobby” Jindal (36), the son of Punjabi immigrants, won an election in Louisiana to become the United States’ first Indian-American state governor. He became the first nonwhite to hold the job since Reconstruction.
2009 – The US Congress passed a bill allowing detainees from Guantanamo to be brought to the US, but only to stand for trial, not to be released or jailed there.
2009 – In Arizona Faleh Hassan Almaleki (49), an Iraqi immigrant, ran his Jeep Cherokee over his daughter, Noor Almaleki (20), after she refused an arranged marriage and went to college. Noor died of her injuries on Nov 2, 2009. On Feb 22, 2011, Faleh Hassan Almaleki was convicted of 2nd degree murder.
2009 – The U. S. observes the National Day on Writing, sponsored by the National Council of Teachers of English
2010 – The Obama administration notifies the United States Congress of plans for a $60 billion-dollar weapons deal with Saudi Arabia in a move to threaten Iran.
2011 – Two small earthquakes hit the San Francisco area, shaking residents on the same day many Californians took part in an annual earthquake preparedness drill.
2011 – Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi is captured and killed by opposition fighters.
2012 – In New Jersey, Autumn Pasquale (12) disappeared in her hometown of Clayton. On Oct 23 two teenagers were arrested and charged with her murder.
2014 – Ahmad Rouleau, a convert to Islam, hit two Canadian soldiers with his car, murdering Warrant Officer Patrice Vincent. Then he led police on a high-speed chase, during which he called 911 and explained that he was doing it all “in the name of Allah.” (See October 22)
1632 – Christopher Wren was a 17th century English designer, astronomer, geometrician, and the greatest English architect of his time.
1859 – John Dewey, American psychologist, philosopher, and educational reformer.
1882 – Bela Lugosi, Hungarian-born actor (d. 1956)
1905 – Ellery Queen, pseudonym of two American writers (d. 1982)
1907 – Arlene Francis, American television personality (d. 2001)
1913 – Grandpa Jones, American banjo player and singer (d. 1998)
1925 – Art Buchwald, American columnist and author.
1931 – Mickey Mantle, baseball player (d. 1995)
KEEBLE, WOODROW W.
Rank: Master Sergeant, Organization: U.S. Army Company G, 19th Infantry Born: May 16, 1917 Waubay, SD Date of Issue: 03/03/2008
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, United States Army, 442nd Regimental Combat Team Place and date: near Bruyeres, France on October 20th, 1944 Entered service at:Hawai’i Birth: November 8, 1922, Aiea, Hawai’i Date of issue: June 21, 2000 Citation: Staff Sergeant Robert T. Kuroda distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action, on 20 October 1944, near Bruyeres, France. Leading his men in an advance to destroy snipers and machine gun nests, Staff Sergeant Kuroda encountered heavy fire from enemy soldiers occupying a heavily wooded slope. Unable to pinpoint the hostile machine gun, he boldly made his way through heavy fire to the crest of the ridge. Once he located the machine gun, Staff Sergeant Kuroda advanced to a point within ten yards of the nest and killed three enemy gunners with grenades. He then fired clip after clip of rifle ammunition, killing or wounding at least three of the enemy. As he expended the last of his ammunition, he observed that an American officer had been struck by a burst of fire from a hostile machine gun located on an adjacent hill. Rushing to the officer’s assistance, he found that the officer had been killed. Picking up the officer’s submachine gun, Staff Sergeant Kuroda advanced through continuous fire toward a second machine gun emplacement and destroyed the position. As he turned to fire upon additional enemy soldiers, he was killed by a sniper. Staff Sergeant Kuroda’s courageous actions and indomitable fighting spirit ensured the destruction of enemy resistance in the sector. Staff Sergeant Kuroda’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Captain, United States Army, 24th Infantry Division Place and date: Leyte, Philippines on October 20th, 1944 Entered service at: Hawai’i Birth: April 17, 1917, Honolulu, Hawai’i Date of issue: June 21, 2000
Citation: Captain Francis B. Wai distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action, on 20 October 1944, in Leyte, Philippine Islands. Captain Wai landed at Red Beach, Leyte, in the face of accurate, concentrated enemy fire from gun positions advantageously located in a palm grove bounded by submerged rice paddies. Finding the first four waves of American soldiers leaderless, disorganized, and pinned down on the open beach, he immediately assumed command. Issuing clear and concise orders, and disregarding heavy enemy machine gun and rifle fire, he began to move inland through the rice paddies without cover. The men, inspired by his cool demeanor and heroic example, rose from their positions and followed him. During the advance, Captain Wai repeatedly determined the locations of enemy strong points by deliberately exposing himself to draw their fire. In leading an assault upon the last remaining Japanese pillbox in the area, he was killed by its occupants. Captain Wai’s courageous, aggressive leadership inspired the men, even after his death, to advance and destroy the enemy. His intrepid and determined efforts were largely responsible for the rapidity with which the initial beachhead was secured. Captain Wai’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 18 December 1898, Camden, N.J. Accredited to: New Jersey. (Awarded by Special Act of Congress 3 February 1933.) Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession on the occasion of a fire on board the U S.S. Trenton. At 3:35 on the afternoon of October 20th, 1924, while the Trenton was preparing to fire trial installation shots from the two 6-inch guns in the forward twin mount of that vessel, two charges of powder ignited. Twenty men were trapped in the twin mount. Four died almost immediately and ten later from burns and inhalation of flames and gases. The six others were severely injured. Cholister, without thought of his own safety, on seeing that the charge of powder from the left gun was ignited, jumped for the right charge and endeavored to put it in the immersion tank. The left charge burst into flame and ignited the right charge before Cholister could accomplish his purpose. He fell unconscious while making a supreme effort to save his shipmates and died the following day.
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Born: 7 August 1901, Braddock, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. (Awarded by Special Act of Congress, 3 February 1933.) Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession on the occasion of a fire on board the U.S.S. Trenton. At 3:35 on the afternoon of October 20th, 1924, while the Trenton was preparing to fire trial installation shots from the two 6-inch guns in the forward twin mount of that vessel, two charges of powder ignited. Twenty men were trapped in the twin mount. Four died almost immediately and ten later from burns and inhalation of flame and gases. The six others were severely injured. Ens. Drexler, without thought of his own safety, on seeing that the charge of powder for the left gun was ignited, jumped for the right charge and endeavored to put it in the immersion tank. The left charge burst into flame and ignited the right charge before Ens. Drexler could accomplish his purpose. He met his death while making a supreme effort to save his shipmates.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Camp on White River, Colo., October 20th, 1879. Entered service at: Huntsville, Mo. Birth: Randolph County, Mo. Date of issue: 18 September 1897. Citation: With a reconnoitering party of three men, was attacked by thirty-five Indians and several times exposed himself to draw the fire of the enemy, giving his small party opportunity to reply with much effect.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Baltimore County, Md. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: California. Birth: St. Louis, Mo. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Bravery in action.
Rank and organization: Blacksmith, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at:——. Birth: Canada West. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th,1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Essex County, N.Y. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Trumpeter, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Brooklyn, N.Y . Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th,1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Perry County, Ohio. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth. Ireland. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Baltimore, Md. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Bravery in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action with Indians.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Washington County, N.Y. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Wagoner, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahva Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at:——. Birth: Dover, Del. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Baltimore, Md. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Rahway, N.J. Date of issue: 14 February 1879. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth. Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization. Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at. ——. Birth. Bath, Maine. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th,1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Lapeer County, Mich. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: Tionesta, Pa. Birth: Forest County, Pa. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation. Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th,1869. Entered service at:——. Birth: York County, Pa. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Saddler, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th,1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Covington. Ky. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action against Indians concealed in a ravine.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill., Birth: England. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Bravery in action with Indians.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th, 1869. Entered service at: St. Paul, Minn. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Bravery in action with Indians.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th,1869. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: England, Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action with Indians.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 20th,1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Kosciusko County, Ind. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action with Indians.
Self Promotion Month
Evaluate Your Life Day
The Salvation Army, WWI and the Doughnut
According to The Donut Book: The Whole Story in Words, Pictures & Outrageous Tales, published in 2005 in the US alone over 10 Billion donuts are consumed every year. This translates into roughly $2 Billion dollars worth of tasty treats being sold each year. That is the US only.
The first doughnut was fried by Salvation Army (who would found the United Service Organization) volunteer women for American troops in France during World War I. The first of a group of 250 Officers and Soldiers of The Salvation Army to be posted to France to serve with General John Pershing’s American expeditionary force sailed from New York on August 12th 1917. General Pershing was far from convinced that The Salvation Army’s presence at the Front Line would benefit his troops and at first the Salvationists were treated with total indifference.
At Demange, in the American first division sector, Salvationists toiled in pouring rain to build a hut 25 feet wide by 100 feet long for the troops benefit. No one gave them the time of day, much less a hand. What swung the troops to The Army’s side was their practical example. No task was too menial, none too dangerous or difficult. But The Salvation Army won pride of place in American hearts by a brain wave born of sheer necessity.
At Montiers, after 36 days of rain, supplies were almost exhausted. Only flour, lard and sugar remained. Ensign Margaret Sheldon, from the Chicago slums made a suggestion which was to go down in history. “Why don’t we make them doughnuts?” They had no rolling pins or cake cutters and gales had blown down their tent but Salvationists thrive on challenges. Along with Ensign Helen Purviance, Margaret Sheldon crouched in the rain to prepare the dough. An empty bottle did duty as a rolling pin and in place of a cutter they used a knife to twist the doughnuts into shape. The first doughnuts cooked over a wood fire were triumph of improvisation.
On the first day they served up some 150 doughnuts. The following day’s batch topped 300. The traditional hole was being punched out with the inner tube of a coffee percolator. The doughnuts made by The Salvation Army Lassies were an instant success with the troops. Some of those troops lining up for hours in appalling conditions for their daily supply. Soon the troops came to realize that even in the firing line The Salvationists would not neglect them.
When Lassies like Ensign Florence Turkington crawled under shell fire to deliver
coffee and doughnuts to troops in the trenches, letters praising the work of The Salvation Army began flooding back home. Overnight the bewildered lassies found themselves national heroines. While often in great danger, the Salvationists displayed tremendous courage. At Baccarat they worked so close to the German lines that they couldn’t even whisper for fear of being heard by the listening posts. The sermon that came with the coffee and doughnuts was a friendly squeeze on the shoulder. The Doughnut became a symbol of The Salvation Army in the U.S.A. Outside many of The Army rest rooms and hostels were hung giant “doughnuts”. The Salvation Army, by selfless example, had won the hearts of a nation. At the end of the war the American people subscribed an unprecedented 13 million dollars to meet the debts incurred by The Salvation Army in its’ war work.
The Original recipe for donuts as made by the Salvation Army Lassies in WWI
Why not try them as a fundraiser for your corps?
WWI Donut Recipe – Makes approximately 15 – 20 donuts
4 cups plain flour
1½ tsp salt
½ tsp butter
4 tsp baking powder
1 cup sugar
1 cup milk
¼ tsp cinnamon
¼ tsp nutmeg
Method:Put flour in shallow pan, add salt, baking powder, and Sugar.
Rub in butter with fingertips.
Add the well beaten egg and milk and stir thoroughly.
Toss on floured board, roll to one-fourth inch in thickness, shape, fry, and drain.
No where does it say what to do with the cinnamon and nutmeg.
When I made them I mixed it with super fine (caster) sugar and used it to ‘dust’ the donuts with after they were cooked.
Much to my surprise these turned out very well and taste pretty good!!
Note: Some comments regarding this recipe concerning the amount of butter – or rather the lack of it! :-) To save any confusion, no, this is not a typo. Butter was a scarce commodity during WWI and therefore they used what they had, in this case not a lot! Believe me, the recipe does work and the picture above is of the donuts made by following the above recipe.
“A day will never be anymore than what you make of it. Practice being a ‘doer’!”
~ Josh S. Hinds
exemplar ig-ZEM-plar; -pluhr,noun:
1. A model or pattern to be copied or imitated.
2. A typical or standard specimen.
3. An ideal model or type.
4. A copy of a book or text.
Exemplar derives from Latin exemplum, “example,” from eximere, “to take out,” from ex-, “out” + emere, “to take.”
1216 – King John of England died and was succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry.
1512 – Martin Luther becomes a doctor of theology (Doctor in Biblia).
1630 – In Boston the first general court was held.
1722 – French C. Hopffer patented the fire extinguisher.
1739 – England declared war on Spain over borderlines in Florida. The war is known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear because a Member of Parliament waved a dried ear and demanded revenge for alleged mistreatment of British sailors.
1765 – The Stamp Act Congress drew up a declaration of rights and liberties at its meeting in New York.
1781 – British troops under Lord Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, Virginia. It was the last major battle of the Revolutionary War. British General Lord Cornwallis surrendered 8,000 British soldiers and seamen to a larger Franco-American force, effectively bringing an end to the American Revolution.
1789 – Chief Justice John Jay is sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
1813 – Napoleon was defeated at Leipzig by the Allies at the Battle of the Nations. Around 500,000 troops were involved.
1818 – The US and Chickasaw Indians signed a treaty. Andrew Jackson and Isaac Shelby represented American interests. The Chickasaws ceded their claims to lands in Tennessee.
1848 – John “The Pathfinder” Fremont moved out from near Westport, Missouri, on his fourth Western expedition–a failed attempt to open a trail across the Rocky Mountains along the 38th parallel.
1849 – Elizabeth Blackwell became first woman in US to receive medical degree.
1856 – James Kelly & Jack Smith fight bareknuckle for 6h15m in Melbourne.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Cedar Creek – Union Army under Philip Sheridan destroys Confederate Army under Jubal Early.
1864 – Civil War: Confederates enter Vermont from Canada and raid the town of St. Albans. Along the way, they robbed banks, looted, and attempted to set fire to the town before being chased back into Canada.
1873 – Yale University, Princeton University, Columbia University, and Rutgers University drafted the first code of football rules.
1914 – In the U.S., government owned vehicles were first used to pick up mail in Washington, DC.
1915 – Establishment of submarine base at New London, Connecticut.
1915 – The US Patent Office granted John Van Wormer a patent for his “paper bottle.” His patent was later acquired by the American Paper Bottle Company. The first paper milk carton was introduced in 1933.
1917 – Love Field in Dallas, Texas is opened.
1917 – The first doughnut was fried by Salvation Army volunteer women for American troops in France during World War I.
1919 – Reds beat White Sox, 5 games to 3 in 16th World Series.
1919 – The US Distinguished Service Medal was awarded to a woman for the 1st time.
1926 – John C. Garand patented a semi-automatic rifle.
1931 – Al Capone was convicted of tax evasion and sent to federal prison.
1933 – Berlin Olympic Committee vote to introduce basketball in 1936.
1933 – Dallas Egan, condemned slayer, was executed at San Quentin after California Gov. James Rolph agreed to allow him 8 ounces of good Kentucky bourbon whiskey.
1936 – When H.R. Ekins, a reporter for The New York World Telegram, completed an around-the-world airline trip in 18.5 days.
1937 – “Woman’s Day”, was first published.
1937 – The radio classic, “Big Town”, made its debut on CBS radio.
1939 – World War II: Europe: Reichsmarshal Hermann Goering began plundering art treasures throughout Nazi occupied areas.
1942 – World War II: The Japanese submarine I-36 launched a floatplane for a reconnaissance flight over Pearl Harbor. The pilot and crew reported on the ships in the harbor, after which the aircraft was lost at sea.
1943 – Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, is isolated by researchers at Rutgers University.
1943 – World War II: German forces defending Dragoni, Italy withdraw before a scheduled attack by elements of the US 5th Army begins.
1944 – Marlon Brando appeared in the Broadway hit, “I Remember Mama” by John van Druten,. It opened today at the Music Box Theater on Broadway.
1944 – World War II: The U.S. Navy announced that black women could join the WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service).
1944 – World War II: The US Army 442nd Regiment, composed of Japanese-Americans, fought their way into Bruyeres, France. It included the 100th Battalion of Japanese-Americans from Hawaii.
1944 – World War II: The American escort carriers of TG77.4 continue air strikes on Leyte.
1944 – World War II: American attacks on Aachen continue. Farther south, forces of the US 7th Army capture Bruyeres. Nearby, other units prepare to assault St. Die.
1950 – Korean War: The North Korean capital of Pyongyang was captured by United Nations troops.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Because of You” by Tony Bennett, “I Get Ideas” by Tony Martin, “Cold, Cold Heart” by Tony Bennett AND “Always Late (With Your Kisses)” by Lefty Frizzell all topped the charts.
1951 – President Harry S Truman formally ends state of war with Germany.
1953 – TransWorld Airlines (TWA) was the first airline to inaugurate regularly scheduled nonstop transcontinental service between Los Angeles and New York.
1953 – Ray Bradbury’s novel, “Fahrenheit 451” was copyright registered.
1953 – Singer Julius LaRosa is fired on TV by Arthur Godfrey. Godfrey fired him for “lacking humility.”
1954 – Egypt and Britain signed a pact on the Suez Canal, ending 72 years of British military occupation. Britain agreed to withdraw its force within 20 months and Egypt agreed to maintain freedom of canal navigation.
1957 – “Wake Up Little Suzie” by the Everly Brothers topped the charts.
1957 – “Damn Yankees” closed at 46th St. Theater, New York City after 1,022 performances.
1958 – In Brussels, Belgium, the first world’s fair held since before World War II closes its doors, after nearly 42 million people have visited the various exhibits.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mack the Knife” by Bobby Darin, “Put Your Head on My Shoulder” by Paul Anka, “Mr. Blue” by The Fleetwoods and “The Three Bells” by The Browns all topped the charts.
1959 – Twelve year old Patty Duke made her first Broadway appearance in “The Miracle Worker.” The play lasted for 700 performances.
1960 – Martin Luther King Jr arrested in Atlanta sit-in. King’s arrest during a student-initiated protest in Atlanta became an issue in the national presidential campaign when Democratic candidate John F. Kennedy intervened to secure his release from jail.
1960 – The United States imposed an embargo on exports to Cuba covering all commodities except medical supplies and certain food products.
1963 – Beatles record “I Want to Hold Your Hand” was first song that Americans really liked.
1963 – “Sugar Shack” by Jimmy Gilmer & the Fireballs topped the charts.
1963 – Buck Owen “Love’s Gonna Live Here” topped the country charts.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Letter” by The Box Tops, “To Sir with Love” by Lulu, “Little Ole Man (Uptight=Everything’s Alright)” by Bill Cosby and “I Don’t Wanna Play House” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1968 – “Hey Jude” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1968 – Vietnam War: Operation Maui Peak, a combined regimental-sized operation which began on 6 October, ended 11 miles northwest of An Hoa, Vietnam. More than 300 enemy were killed in the 13-day operation.
1969 – US Vice President Spiro Agnew referred to anti-Vietnam War protesters as “an effete corps of impudent snobs.”
1970 – One World Trade Center was ready for its first tenants.
1970 – John Linley Frazier murdered Dr. Victor Ohta, his wife, 2 children and secretary in Santa Cruz, Ca. He did it it in a manner consistent with Charles Manson in the Tate-LaBianca murders. Frazier hanged himself in prison in August 2009, according to the Amador County Sheriff’s Office.
1971 – “Look” magazine last issue. Look was a bi-weekly, general-interest magazine published in Des Moines, Iowa from 1937 to 1971
1973 – President Richard Nixon rejects an Appeals Court demand to turn over the Watergate tapes.
1974 – “Nothing from Nothing” by Billy Preston topped the charts.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bad Blood” by Neil Sedaka, “Calypso/I’m Sorry” by John Denver, “Miracles” by Jefferson Starship and “Hope You’re Feelin’ Me (Like I’m Feelin’ You)” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1976 – Pres. Ford signed the US Copyright Act of 1976, effective as of January 1, 1978. It declared unpublished materials to be in the public domain when the records are 100 years old or when the creator of the records has been dead for fifty years, whichever date comes first. The act also declared that records created before January 1, 1978 enter the public domain in 2002, provided that they are over 100 years old or the creator of the records has been dead 50 years.
1977 – The supersonic Concorde jet landed in New York City for the first time.
1978 – The US League of Savings and Loan Associations reported that the San Francisco Bay Area had the highest housing costs in the nation.
1980 – Steve McPeak rides 101’9″ tall unicycle in front of the Las Vegas Hilton.
1982 – Carmaker John DeLorean was arrested in Los Angeles and charged in a 24-million-dollar cocaine scheme aimed at salvaging his bankrupt sports car company. He was found not guilty due to entrapment on August 16, 1984.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Total Eclipse of the Heart” by Bonnie Tyler, “Making Love Out of Nothing at All” by Air Supply, “Islands in the Stream” by Kenny Rogers & Dolly Parton and “Paradise Tonight” by Charly McClain & Mickey Gilley all topped the charts.
1983 – The U.S. Senate approved a bill establishing a national holiday in honor of Martin Luther King Jr.
1984 – Four U.S. employees of the CIA were killed in El Salvador when their plane crashed.
1985 – “Take On Me” by A-Ha topped the charts .
1985 – The first Blockbuster Video store opens in Dallas, Texas.
1987 – In retaliation for Iranian attacks on ships in the Persian Gulf, the U.S. Navy disables the first of three of Iran’s offshore oil platforms.
1987 – Black Monday: the stock market crashed as the Dow Jones Industrial Average plunged 508 points, or 22.6 percent.
1988 – Senate passes bill curbing ads during children`s TV shows.
1988 – The Los Angeles Dodgers defeated the Oakland A’s 4-3 in game four of the World Series.
1989 – The U.S. Senate rejected a proposed constitutional amendment that barred the desecration of the American flag.
1990 – Iraq ordered all foreigners in occupied Kuwait to report to authorities or face punishment.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Emotions” by Mariah Carey, “Do Anything” by Natural Selection, “Romantic” by Karyn White and “Keep It Between the Lines” by Ricky Van Shelton all topped the charts.
1991 – Fire begins in the hills of Oakland, California. It went on to burn thousands of homes and kill 25 people. Despite the fact that fires had ravaged the same area three times earlier in the century, people continued to build homes there. Fires had previously raged through the hills in the years 1923, 1970 and 1980.
1993 – Two US Blackhawk helicopters are fired upon with RPG’s over Mogadishu.
1998 – Former heavyweight champion Mike Tyson got his boxing license back after he had lost it for biting Evander Holyfield’s ear during a fight.
1998 – In Colorado a series of arson fires were set at Vail. The Earth Liberation Front later claimed responsibility for the fires that caused $12 million in damage.
1998 – The trial of Microsoft Corp. began in Washington on antitrust charges of stifling competition.
1998 – In Miami, the first class-action lawsuit brought by smokers against the tobacco industry went to trial. Jurors later found the nation’s largest cigarette makers and industry groups had produced a defective and deadly product.
1999 – The Atlanta Braves won the National League pennant by beating the New York Mets, 10-to-9, in Game Six of their championship series.
2001 – Two U.S. Army Rangers were killed in a helicopter crash in Pakistan. The deaths were the first American deaths of the military campaign in Afghanistan.
2001 – The FBI identified the Trenton, NJ, mailbox from which the anthrax letters were sent to NYC and Washington. Two more people were reported to be infected bringing the total to eight.
2001 – In Philadelphia luggage, from a baggage locker that was deposited Sep 29, was found to contain C-4 plastic explosives.
2001 – Enron Corp. froze the assets in its 401 (k) employee retirement plan and barred employees from selling company stock trading at $32.20. Employee stock was unfrozen Nov 19 with shares at $11.69.
2002 – In York, PA, former mayor Charlie Robertson was acquitted and two other men were convicted in the shotgun murder of a young black woman during race riots in 1969.
2002 – In Ashland, Va., a man (37) was shot and seriously wounded in what appeared to be another sniper attack. The sniper left a note that included a request for $10 million and threats to focus on children.
2003 – Mother Teresa is beatified by Pope John Paul II.
2003 – A Fallujah roadside attack on a military convoy leaves an American armored car and munitions truck burning wrecks. No one was reported killed. Iraqis nearby were reportedly cheering.
2004 – Thirteen people were killed when a Corporate Airlines commuter turboprop crashed near Kirksville, Missouri. 2 survived with only broken bones.
2005 – Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.
2005 – Busch Memorial Stadium is closed and destroyed.
2005 – The Houston Astros defeated the St. Louis Cardinals for the National League title. They will face the Chicago White Sox in the World Series.
2005 – Dell Computers, the world’s largest personal computer producer, announced it was moving jobs out of the United States and setting up a major customer call center in the Philippines.
2005 – On this date Hurricane Wilma goes through one of the fastest and most amazing rapid intensification processes in hurricane history to become the third Category 5 storm of 2005. It will not get to the US until the 24th but today it became the most intense hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic.
2006 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 12,000 for the first time closing at 12,011.73
2006 – The St. Louis Cardinals beat the New York Mets to win the National League pennant. They will face the Detroit Tigers for the World Series.
2006 – The United States has adopted a document that rejects any proposals to ban space weapons.
2007 – James D. Watson, who shared the 1962 Nobel Peace prize for deciphering the double-helix of DNA, apologizes for reported comments suggesting that black people, over all, are not as intelligent as whites.
2008 – Colin Powell, a Republican and retired general who was President Bush’s first secretary of state, broke with the party and endorsed Democrat Barack Obama for president.
2008 – It was reported that California’s San Mateo County suffered potential losses of some $150 million due to the bankruptcy of Lehman Bros.
2009 – American scientists Stewart D. Nozette (52) of Chevy Chase, Md., was arrested for attempted espionage after passing classified information to an undercover FBI agent posing as an Israeli intelligence operative.
2010 – Google and the Israel Antiquities Authority announce plans to publish the Dead Sea Scrolls online.
2010 – The Crystal Cathedral Ministries, the California megachurch founded by televangelist Robert Schuller and best known for its weekly The Hour of Power television program, files for bankruptcy court protection.
2010 – The National Football League announces that it will suspend players for dangerous hits, especially those involving helmets.
2011 – United States’ largest bank, Bank of America, is surpassed by JPMorgan Chase in total assets according to Bank of America’s third-quarter financial earnings report.
2011 – Evidence that Iran is funding terrorist activities along our southern Mexican Border. News program
2012 – Big Tex, a 52-foot statue and cultural icon in Dallas, Texas, is destroyed by fire during the final weekend of the 2012 State Fair of Texas.
2012 – A tour bus went off the highway and crashed in northwest Arizona late Friday at around 8:00 PM PDT, killing the bus driver (who was believed to have suffered a medical incident), and leaving at least four of the passengers with serious injuries. The bus was northbound on Highway 93 near Willow Beach, Arizona and the Nevada state line, southeast of Las Vegas.
2014 – Operation Deep Freeze 2014 began today. The Air National Guard’s 109th Airlift Wing sent its first LC-130 Hercules aircraft of the season to Antarctica from Stratton Air National Guard Base, N.Y.
1605 – Sir Thomas Browne, British physician and writer of famous quotations.
1810 – Cassius Marcellus Clay, American abolitionist (d. 1903)
1931 – John le Carré (David Cornwell), British author.
1945 – John Lithgow, American Emmy Award and Tony Award-winning actor.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 21st Infantry. Place and date: Kumson, Korea, October 19th, 1951. Born: October 18, 1928, Lamar, MO Departed: 4/20/2006 Date Issued: 3/18/2014
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Sergeant Jack Weinstein distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while leading 1st Platoon, Company G, 21st Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division in Kumsong, Korea on October 19, 1951. That afternoon, thirty enemy troops counterattacked Sergeant Weinstein’s platoon. Most of the platoon’s members had been wounded in the previous action and withdrew under the heavy fire. Sergeant Weinstein, however, remained in his position and continued to fight off the onrushing enemy, killing at least six with his M-1 rifle before running out of ammunition. Although under extremely heavy enemy fire, Sergeant Weinstein refused to withdraw and continued fighting by throwing enemy hand grenades found lying near his position. He again halted the enemy’s progress and inflicted numerous casualties. Alone and unaided, he held the ground which his platoon had fought tenaciously to take and held out against overwhelming odds until another platoon was able to relieve him and drive back the enemy. Sergeant Weinstein’s leg had been broken by an enemy grenade and old wounds suffered in previous battles had reopened, but he refused to withdraw and successfully bought time for his wounded comrades to reach friendly lines. Sergeant Weinstein’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 21st Infantry. Place and date: Kumson, Korea, October 19th, 1951. Born: October 18, 1928, Lamar, MO, Entered Service at: Departed:
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Private Joe Gandara distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving with Company D, 2d Battalion, 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 17th Airborne Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Amfreville, France on June 9, 1944. On that day, Private Gandara’s detachment came under devastating enemy fire from a strong German force, pinning the men to the ground for a period of four hours. Private Gandara voluntarily advanced alone toward the enemy position. Firing his machinegun from his hip as he moved forward, he destroyed three hostile machineguns before he was fatally wounded. Private Gandara’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
HAJIRO, BARNEY F.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, 442nd Regimental Combat Team Place and date: October 19th, 22, and 29 October 1944, in the vicinity of Bruyeres and Biffontaine, eastern France. Entered service at: Hawaii Birth: September 16, 1916 Date of issue: June 21, 2000 Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Private Barney F. Hajiro distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action. Private Hajiro, while acting as a sentry on top of an embankment on 19 October 1944, in the vicinity of Bruyeres, France, rendered assistance to allied troops attacking a house 200 yards away by exposing himself to enemy fire and directing fire at an enemy strong point. He assisted the unit on his right by firing his automatic rifle and killing or wounding two enemy snipers. On 22 October 1944, he and one comrade took up an outpost security position about fifty yards to the right front of their platoon, concealed themselves, and ambushed an eighteen-man, heavily armed, enemy patrol, killing two, wounding one, and taking the remainder as prisoners. On 29 October 1944, in a wooded area in the vicinity of Biffontaine, France, Private Hajiro initiated an attack up the slope of a hill referred to as “Suicide Hill” by running forward approximately 100 yards under fire. He then advanced ahead of his comrades about ten yards, drawing fire and spotting camouflaged machine gun nests. He fearlessly met fire with fire and single-handedly destroyed two machine gun nests and killed two enemy snipers. As a result of Private Hajiro’s heroic actions, the attack was successful. Private Hajiro’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon him, his unit, and the United States Army.
PIERCE, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company 1, 22d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near San Isidro, Luzon, Philippine Islands, October 19th, 1899. Entered service at: Delaware City, Del. Birth: Cecil County, Md. Date of issue: 10 March 1902. Citation: Held a bridge against a superior force of the enemy and fought, though severely wounded, until the main body came up to cross.
RAY, CHARLES W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company 1, 22d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near San Isidro, Luzon, Philippine Islands, October 19th, 1899. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: Pensacola Yancey County, N.C. Date of issue: 18 April 1902. Citation: Most distinguished gallantry in action. Captured a bridge with the detachment he commanded and held it against a superior force of the enemy, thereby enabling an army to come up and cross.
BLUNT, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company K, 6th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at. Chatham, Four Corners, N.Y. Birth: Columbia County, N.Y. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Voluntarily led a charge across a narrow bridge over the creek, against the lines of the enemy.
CROCKER, HENRY H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company F, 2d Massachusetts Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: California. Born: 20 January 1840, Colchester, Conn. Date of issue: 10 January 1896. Citation: Voluntarily led a charge, which resulted in the capture of fourteen prisoners and in which he himself was wounded.
CROCKER, ULRIC L.
Rank and organization: Private, Company M, 6th Michigan Cavalry.
Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th,1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ohio. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 18th Georgia (C.S.A.).
DU PONT, HENRY A.
Rank and organization: Captain, 5th U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Wilmington, Del. Birth: Eleutherean Mills, Del. Date of issue: 2 April 1898. Citation: By his distinguished gallantry, and voluntary exposure to the enemy’s fire at a critical moment, when the Union line had been broken, encouraged his men to stand to their guns, checked the advance of the enemy, and brought off most of his pieces.
HENRY, WILLIAM W.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 10th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Waterbury, Vt. Born: 21 November 1831, Waterbury, Vt. Date of issue: 21 December 1892. Citation: Though suffering from severe wounds, rejoined his regiment and let it in a brilliant charge, recapturing the guns of an abandoned battery.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 8th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Henry County, Ind. Birth: Henry County, Ind. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.
LOVE, GEORGE M.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 116th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: New York. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 6 March 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag of 2d South Carolina (C.S.A.).
LYON, FREDERICK A.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 1st Vermont Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th,1864. Entered service at: Burlington, Vt. Born: 25 June 1843, Williamsburg, Mass. Date of issue: 26 November 1864. Citation: With one companion, captured the flag of a Confederate regiment, three officers, and an ambulance with its mules and driver.
McGONNlGLE, ANDREW J.
Rank and organization: Captain and Assistant Quartermaster, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Cedar Creek. Va., October 19th, 1864 Entered service at: Cumberland, Md. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 21 July 1897. Citation: While acting chief quartermaster of Gen. Sheridan’s forces operating in the Shenandoah Valley was severely wounded while voluntarily leading a brigade of infantry and was commended for the greatest gallantry by Gen. Sheridan.
PARKS, HENRY JEREMIAH
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 9th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th,1864. Entered service at: Orangeville, N.Y. Born: 24 February 1848, Orangeville, N.Y. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: While alone and in advance of his unit and attempting to cut off the retreat of a supply wagon, he fought and sent to flight a Confederate color bearer. After capturing the color bearer and leaving him in the rear, he returned to the front and captured three more wagons and drivers.
REIGLE, DANIEL P.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 87th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Adams County, Pa. Birth: Adams County, Pa. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: For gallantry while rushing forward to capture a Confederate flag at the stone fence where the enemy’s last stand was made.
SCOFIELD, DAVID H.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster Sergeant, Company K. 5th N.Y., U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Mamaroneck, N.Y. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 13th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 1st Vermont Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Essex, Vt. Birth: England. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: With one companion captured the State flag of a North Carolina regiment, together with three officers and an ambulance with its mules and driver.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 18th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Martin County, Ind. Birth: Madison County. Ala. Date of issue: 21 November 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 8th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Montpelier, Vt. Birth: Vermont. Date of issue: 25 July 1892. Citation: Distinguished conduct in a desperate hand-to-hand encounter, in which the advance of the enemy was checked.
TRACY, AMASA A.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 2d Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Middlebury, Vt. Birth: Maine. Date of issue: 24 June 1892. Citation: Took command of and led the brigade in the assault on the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 5th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th,1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: Recaptured the flag of the 15th New Jersey Infantry.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 90th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: Cayuga County, N.Y. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 3 November 1896. Citation: While the enemy were in close proximity, this soldier sprang forward and bore off in safety the regimental colors, the color bearer having fallen on the field of battle.
WELLS, THOMAS M.
Rank and organization: Chief Bugler, 6th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: DeKalb, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: Capture of colors of 44th Georgia Infantry (C.S.A.).
WOODBURY, ERI D.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 1st Vermont Cavalry. Place and date: At Cedar Creek, Va., October 19th, 1864. Entered service at: St. Johnsbury, Vt. Birth: Francistown, N.H. Date of issue: 26 October 1864. Citation: During the regiment’s charge when the enemy was in retreat Sgt. Woodbury encountered 4 Confederate infantrymen retreating. He drew his saber and ordered them to surrender, overcoming by his determined actions their willingness to further resist. They surrendered to him together with their rifles and 12th North Carolina (C.S.A.) regimental flag.
Freedom from Bullies at Work Week
Dry Ice is frozen carbon dioxide, a normal part of our earth’s atmosphere. It is the gas that we exhale during breathing and the gas that plants use in photosynthesis. It is also the same gas commonly added to water to make soda water. Dry Ice is particularly useful for freezing, and keeping things frozen because of its very cold temperature: -109.3°F or -78.5°C. Dry Ice is widely used because it is simple to freeze and easy to handle using insulated gloves. Dry Ice changes directly from a solid to a gas -sublimation- in normal atmospheric conditions without going through a wet liquid stage. Therefore it gets the name “dry ice.”
As a general rule, Dry Ice will sublimate at a rate of five to ten pounds every 24 hours in a typical ice chest. This sublimation continues from the time of purchase; therefore, pick up Dry Ice as close to the time needed as possible. Bring an ice chest or some other insulated container to hold the Dry Ice and slow the sublimation rate. Dry Ice sublimates faster than regular ice melts but will extend the life of regular ice.
It is best not to store Dry Ice in your freezer because your freezer’s thermostat will shut off the freezer due to the extreme cold of the Dry Ice! Of course if the freezer is broken, Dry Ice will save all your frozen goods.
Commercial shippers of perishables often use dry ice even for non frozen goods. Dry ice gives more than twice the cooling energy per pound of weight and three times the cooling energy per volume than regular water ice (H2O). It is often mixed with regular ice to save shipping weight and extend the cooling energy of water ice. Sometimes dry ice is made on the spot from liquid CO2. The resulting dry ice snow is packed in the top of a shipping container offering extended cooling without electrical refrigeration equipment and connections.
Other uses include:
Cleaning with dry ice! This new development is quickly expanding around the world. One system uses small rice size pellets of dry ice shooting them out of a jet nozzle with compressed air. It works somewhat like sandblasting or high-pressure water or steam blasting, with superior results. The frigid temperature of the dry ice “blasting” against the material to be removed, causes it to shrink and lose adhesion from its sub surface. Additionally when some of of dry ice penetrates through the material to be removed, it comes in contact with the underlying surface. The warmer sub surface causes the dry ice to convert back into carbon dioxide gas. The gas has 800 times greater volume and expands behind the material speeding up its removal. Paint, oil, grease, asphalt, tar, decals, soot, dirt, ink, resins, and adhesives are some of the materials removed by this procedure. Only the removed material must be disposed of, as the dry ice sublimes into the atmosphere.
This method is superior to sandblasting because the dry ice is soft enough not to pit or damage the underlying surface. The dry ice sublimes quickly into the air and only the removed material must be cleaned up. Dry Ice blasting eliminates equipment damage in two ways. First, dry ice does not erode or wear away the targeted surface as traditional grit media and even wire brushes do. This means that surface integrity and critical tolerances are preserved and equipment will not have to be replaced due to surface erosion common with sand, glass beads, and other abrasive media. Second, with traditional cleaning methods, equipment is often damaged (bumped, dropped, etc.) while in transit to or from the dedicated cleaning area. Instead most equipment and machinery can be cleaned while in place.
CAMPING AND TRAVELING WITH DRY ICE
Plan on using 10 to 20 pounds of dry ice for every 24-hour period depending upon the size of the ice chest. Dry Ice will keep everything frozen in this ice chest, including extra ice, so keep non-frozen goods to be refrigerated with regular ice in a separate ice chest. Dry Ice normally comes in 10-inch squares, 2 inches thick weighing about 10 pounds each square. Plan to put one square per each 15 inches of ice chest length. This will work out to 2 squares (20 pounds) for an average 40-quart cooler. For larger containers and longer camping or traveling times, multiply dry ice quantities by these rates. Dry Ice, at -109.0°F or -78.5°C, will freeze and keep frozen everything in its container until it is completely sublimated. These frozen items will take some extra time to thaw because they have been so cold.
HOW TO PACK DRY ICE
If the Dry Ice is placed on top of the food (cold sinks), it will work better. However it is sometimes in the way so many people prefer to keep the Dry Ice on the bottom of the ice chest for convenience. When packing items in the container fill the empty space with wadded newspaper or other filler. Any “dead air space” will cause the Dry Ice to sublimate faster. The best storage container is a three-inch thick urethane insulated box. Lining the inside of your ice chest with sheets of Styrofoam will increase the life of Dry Ice. Dry Ice sublimation (changing from a solid to a gas) will vary depending on the temperature, air pressure and thickness of insulation. The more Dry Ice you have stored in the container, the longer it will last.
TRANSPORTING BY AUTO OR VAN
Plan to pick up the Dry Ice as close to the time it is needed as possible. If possible pack insulating items such as sleeping bags around the ice chest. This will stretch the time that the Dry Ice lasts. If it is transported inside a car or van (not in the trunk) for more than 10 minutes make sure there is fresh air. After 15 minutes with Dry Ice only in its paper bag in the passenger seat next to me, I started to breathe faster and faster as though I were running a race. I couldn’t figure out why I was so out of breath until I saw the car air system was set in the re-circulated position, not fresh outside air.
This informative site is supported by the manufacturers and sellers of Dry Ice. Thank you for supporting them.
“Your imagination is your preview to life’s coming attractions.”
~ Albert Einstein
An extremely intelligent but socially inept person.
[After Poindexter, a character in the animated series Felix the Cat.]
Poindexter is a synonym of nerd or geek. In the cartoon, Poindexter is the nephew of The Professor, the arch-enemy of Felix the Cat. The creator of the cartoon series is said to have named the character Poindexter after his lawyer.
1009 – The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the muslim Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who hacks the Church’s foundations down to bedrock.
1469 – Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella of Castile, making Spain a world power. They started the Spanish Inquisition in 1478.
1564 – John Hawkins began his second trip to America. In addition to being knighted by the Queen for his abilities in ship building, he was the first British slave trader.
1648 – The first American labor organization was founded by Boston’s shoemakers, barrel makers, and tub makers in Massachusetts.
1685 – The Edict of Nantes, granting religious freedom to the Huguenots, was revoked by King Louis XIV of France.
1767 – The Mason-Dixon line, the boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania, was agreed upon.
1776 – In a NY bar decorated with bird tail, a customer orders a “cock tail.”
1776 – Revolutionary War: At the Battle of Pelham, Col. John Glover and the Marblehead regiment collided with British Forces in the Bronx. Sir William Howe, Commander-in-Chief of the British army, landed 4,000 English and Hessian troops near the stables on Pelham Parkway.
1785 – Benjamin Franklin was elected president of Pennsylvania. A special balloting, unanimously elected Franklin the sixth President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, replacing John Dickinson. This was four years before the Constitution when we were a Confederation.
1812 – War of 1812: U.S. sloop of war Wasp captures HM brig Frolic in a 45-minute battle on rough seas.
1848 – Captain Douglas Ottinger, USRM, was designated by the Secretary of the Treasury to supervise the construction of the first Life-Saving Stations and the equipment and boats to be placed in them.
1851 – Herman Melville’s “Moby-Dick” is first published as “The Whale” by Richard Bentley of London.
1858 – The play “Our American Cousin” by Tom Taylor premiered at Laura Keene’s theater in New York. This was the play Lincoln and his wife went to see the night he was assassinated.
1859 – U.S. Marines reach Harper’s Ferry, VA and assault the arsenal seized by John Brown and his followers. Brown is “taken out” by the bent-up and damaged ceremonial sword of Lt. Israel Green after which Green hit him over the head with it.
1862 – James Creighton died of ruptured bladder caused from hitting a home run on Oct 14th.
1862 – Civil War: Morgan’s raiders captured federal garrison at Lexington, Ky.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Charlestown in WV. It was a small engagement between Confederate cavalry forces under Brig. Gen. John D. Imboden and the Union forces under Col. Benjamin L. Simpson as part of the Bristoe and Mine Run Campaigns, resulting in a Confederate victory..
1867 – The U.S. formally takes possession of Alaska after purchasing the territory from Russia for $7.2 million, or less than two cents an acre. The Alaska purchase comprised 586,412 square miles, about twice the size of Texas.
1873 – Columbia Princeton Rutgers & Yale set rules for collegiate football.
1878 – Edison made electricity available for household usage.
1889 – First All- New York City world series NY Giants (NL) play Brooklyn (AA).
1892 – The first long-distance telephone line between Chicago and New York became operational.
1898 – American troops raised the U.S. flag over Puerto Rico, formalizing U.S. authority over the island. In December, the Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Spanish-American War and approving the ceding of Puerto Rico to the United States.
1922 – Little Orphan Annie, comic strip character, was born.
1924 – Harold “Red” Grange, was one of the finest collegiate football player (4 long TD runs)In history. In a game between Michigan and his Univerity of Illinois,Grange streaked ninety-five yards for a touchdown on the opening kickoff and then darted from scrimmage for three more stunning touchdown runs of sixty-seven, fifty-six and forty-four yards before leaving the field with three minutes remaining in the first quarter. Grange became the first recipient of the Chicago Tribune Silver Football award denoting the Big Ten’s MVP. In 2008, he was named the best college football player of all time by ESPN, and in 2011, he was named the Greatest Big Ten Icon by the Big Ten Network.
1924 – Notre Dame beats Army 13-7. NY Herald Tribune dubs them the 4 Horsemen.
1925 – The Grand Ole Opry opens.
1931 – Inventor Thomas Alva Edison died at the age of 84.
1935 -“I’m Getting Sentimental Over You” was recorded by Tommy Dorsey and orchestra.
1939 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt banned foreign war submarines from U.S. ports and waters.
1940 – Kaufman’s & Harts “George Washington Slept Here,” premiered in New York City.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: The Germans forces in Mariupol, Ukraine, murdered some 9,000 local Jews.
1942 – World War II: In reaction to several incidents, Hitler orders that all prisoners taken from Allied Commando or similar units are to be shot immediately whether in uniform or not and whether surrendering or not. At the Nuremberg Trials, the Commando Order was found to be a direct breach of the laws of war, and German officers who carried out illegal executions under the Commando Order were found guilty of war crimes.
1942 – World War II: On New Guinea, American forces sent on a parallel trail to help the Australians cut off Japanese retreats down the Kokoda Trail, finally begin to reach Pongani. The trip has proved to be so difficult that the soldiers are in no condition to fight.
1943 – World War II: US bombing of Bougainville, Solomon Islands.
1943 – The first broadcast of “Perry Mason” (10:00) was presented on CBS radio.
1943 – World War II: In Italy, elements of the US 5th Army reach Dragoni, while other elements capture Gioia.
1943 – World War II: General Orders 27, 29th Infantry Division (DC, MD, VA) disbands the 29th Ranger Battalion (Provisional.) This was designed to be a “Train-the-trainer” learning from the British Commandos and taking it back to our troops.
1944 – World War II: All able-bodied German males between the ages of 16 and 60 are now liable for conscription into the Volkssturm (the home defense force).
1944 – World War II: The American escort carriers of TG77.4 concentrate air strikes on Leyte while the now 12 fleet carriers, in three groups from TF38, strike Luzon.
1944 – “Forever Amber” was first published this day. Forever Amber tells the story of orphaned Amber St. Clare, who makes her way up through the ranks of 17th century English society by sleeping with and/or marrying successively richer and more important men, while keeping her love for the one man she could never have. It became a movie in 1947.
1945 – The first German War Crimes Trial began. The International Military Tribunal met at Nuremberg and lasted through to 1946.
1945 – The USSR’s nuclear program receives plans for the USA’s plutonium bomb from Klaus Fuchs (d.1988) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Goodnight Irene” by The Weavers, “All My Love” by Patti Page, “Harbor Lights” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Tony Alamo) and “I’m Moving On” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1950 – Connie Mack announced he was retiring after 50 seasons as manager of baseball’s Philadelphia Athletics.
1950 –Korean War: US forces drove north across the 38th parallel into the Peoples Republic of North Korea.
1952 – “I Went to Your Wedding” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1953 – Willie Thrower becomes first black NFL quarterback in modern times. While a good player, his greater achievement was in breaking the racial barrier of what was then a predominantly white sport.
1954 – The comic strip “Hi and Lois” appeared in newspapers for the first time.
1954 – Texas Instruments announces the first transistor radio.
1954 – Hurricane Hazel, the third of 1954, dissipated today and became the most severe to hit US. It came ashore on the 15th as a Category 4. It killed 1000 in Haiti, 95 in the U.S. and 81 in Canada mostly in Toronto.
1955 – Track & Field magazine names Jesse Owens all-time track athlete.
1955 – University of California discovered the anti-proton.
1956 – NFL commissioner Bert Bell disallowed the use of radio-equipped helmets by NFL quarterbacks.
1956 – Elvis Presley is involved in a fight at a downtown Memphis gas station with two stations attendants. Elvis was cleared of misconduct with assault & battery charges. On 10/25 Clarence Harwell, owner of the station, showed up at Elvis’ house to apologize for the incident. Elvis lived at 1034 Audubon Drive at the time.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s All in the Game” by Tommy Edwards, “Rock-in Robin” by Bobby Day, “Tears on My Pillow” by Little Anthony & The Imperials and “Bird Dog” by The Everly Brothers all topped the charts.
1958 – The first computer-arranged marriage took place on Art Linkletter’s show.
1961 – Vietnam: An emergency crisis was proclaimed in South Vietnam due to a communist attack.
1962 – Tony Sheridan & the Beat Brothers record “Let’s Dance.‘”
1962 – Dr. James D. Watson of the United States, and Dr. Francis Crick and Dr. Maurice Wilkins of Britain, were named winners of the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology for their work in determining the double-helix molecular structure of DNA.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Reach Out I’ll Be There” by Four Tops, “Last Train to Clarksville” by The Monkees, “Psychotic Reaction” by Count Five and “Blue Side of Lonesome” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1967 – Walt Disney’s “Jungle Book” is released.
1967 – American League votes to allow Athletics to move from KC to Oakland, new franchises were awarded to Kansas City and Seattle.
1967 – A protest in Madison, Wisc., against recruiting by Dow Chemical, the maker of napalm and Agent Orange, turned violent.
1968 – Circus Circus Casino opened in Las Vegas “to attract all members of the family.”
1968 – The U.S. Olympic Committee suspends two black athletes, Tommie Smith and John Carlos, for giving a “black power” salute during a victory ceremony at the Mexico City games.
1968 – Bob Beamon sets a world record of 29″2″ in the long jump at the Olympic Games in Mexico City. This becomes the longest unbroken track and field record in history, standing for 23 years, and is later named by Sports Illustrated magazine as one of the five greatest sporting moments of the 20th century. On August 30, 1991 Mike Powell of the United States set the current records with a jump of 29 ft 4¼ in.
1968 – Vietnam War: In Operation Sea Lords, the Navy’s three major operating forces in Vietnam (TF 115, 116, and 117) are brought together for the first time to stop Vietcong infiltration deep into South Vietnam’s Mekong Delta.
1969 – “I Can’t Get Next to You” by the Temptations topped the charts.
1969 – The U.S. federal government banned cyclamates, the artificial sweeteners, because it was shown that the substance caused cancer in laboratory rats.
1971 – The final issue of “Look” magazine was published, after 34 years.
1972 – Congress passed the Water Pollution Control Act.
1973 – “Raisin” opened at 46th St. Theater New York City for 847 performances.
1973 – Congress authorized a bicentennial quarter, half-dollar and dollar coin.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Honestly Love You” by Olivia Newton-John, “Nothing from Nothing” by Billy Preston “Then Came You” by Dionne Warwicke & Spinners and “Please Don’t Stop Loving Me” by Porter Wagoner & Dolly Parton all topped the charts.
1974 – Chicago Bull Nate Thurmond becomes first in the NBA to complete a quadruple double-22 pts, 14 rebounds, 13 assists & 12 blocks.
1975 – “Bad Blood” by Neil Sedaka topped the charts.
1977 – Reggie Jackson hits three consecutive homers on three successive pitches. The three swings lead the Yankees to an 8-4, Series-clinching victory. This also tied the record for homers by Babe Ruth in a single World Series game. The New York Yankees (4) beat the Los Angeles Dodgers (2).
1977 – A German Special Forces team stormed a hijacked Lufthansa airliner and killed all four hijackers and freed 86 hostages. The Palestinian hijackers had demanded the release of members of the Red Army Faction.
1980 – “Another One Bites the Dust” by Queen topped the charts.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Jack & Diane” by John Cougar, “Who Can It Be Now?” by Men at Work, “Eye in the Sky” by The Alan Parsons Project and “I Will Always Love You” by Dolly Parton all topped the charts.
1982 – Former first lady Bess Truman (97) died at her home in Independence, Mo.
1983 – Kenny Rogers and Dolly Parton received gold for “Islands in the Stream.”
1983 – General Motors agreed to hire more women and minorities for five years as part of a settlement with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
1985 – Nintendo releases the Nintendo Entertainment System in the United States.
1986 – “When I Think of You” by Janet Jackson topped the charts.
1988 – The TV sitcom “Roseanne” began a nine- year showing.
1989 – The space shuttle Atlantis was launched on a mission that included the deployment of the Galileo space probe.
1991 – Confirmed Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas swore to uphold the Constitution during an oath-taking ceremony at the White House.
1992 – The visiting Toronto Blue Jays defeated the Atlanta Braves in game two of the World Series, 5-to-4, evening the series at one game apiece. The pre-game ceremony was marred by a U.S. Marine Corps color guard that mistakenly presented the Canadian flag upside-down.
1993 – In California two defendants were acquitted of most of the felony charges in the beating of trucker Reginald Denny and other motorists at the start of the 1992 Los Angeles riots.
1996 – New findings were published in the journal Science that linked mutations in lung cancer to cigarette smoke. An ingredient in the smoke was found to damage the gene p53, vital to the suppression of runaway growth that leads to tumors.
1997 – A $21.5 million memorial monument honoring U.S. servicewomen, past and present, was dedicated at Arlington National Cemetery.
1997 – The Florida Marlins beat the Cleveland Indians 7-4 in game one of the World Series.
1998 – A weekend storm in Texas killed at least 14 people after 12 inches of rain fell. The death toll increased to 22 and later 28.
1998 – The new Steve Wynn $1.6 billion, 3,000 room Bellagio Casino opened in Las Vegas. It was built over the site of the old Dunes casino. It was named after the Italian town of Bellagio whose name means place of relaxation.
1999 – The New York Yankees won a record 36th pennant, beating the Boston Red Sox 6-to-1 in Game Five of the American League Championship Series.
2000 – President Clinton honored the 17 sailors killed in a suicide bomb attack against the USS Cole as he attended a ceremony at the Norfolk Naval Station in Virginia.
2001 – In New York, four defendants were convicted for the 1998 bombings of two U.S. embassies in Africa. They were sentenced to life in prison and ordered to pay $33 million in restitution to victims.
2001 – It was announced that a New Jersey letter carrier and an employee in the office of CBS news anchorman Dan Rather’s office had tested positive for skin anthrax.
2001 – Two new cases of anthrax were reported in New Jersey. The FBI and Postal Service announced a $1 million reward for information leading to the arrest of anthrax mailings.
2002 – Two US Navy planes, F/A-18F Super Hornet jets, collided off the Big Sur coast of California and both pilots and both RIO’s were killed.
2002 – Space shuttle Atlantis returned to Earth following an 11-day mission to the International Space Station.
2003 – The Florida Marlins won the first game of the 99th World Series, defeating the New York Yankees 3-2.The Marlins became the second straight wild card team to win the World Series.
2003 – In a new audiotape, a voice purported to be that of Osama bin Laden vowed suicide attacks “inside and outside” the United States and threatened nations that were helping the American occupation of Iraq.
2004 – President Bush and Democratic rival John Kerry traded biting accusations over the war in Iraq, with Bush saying his Democratic challenger stood for “protest and defeatism” while Kerry accused the president of “arrogant boasting.”
2004 – David Ortiz single-handedly triumphed over the New York Yankees in the American League Championship Series twice on this day. His first triumph occurred at 1:10 a.m. EST when he hit a two-run walk-off home run. At 10:50 p.m., Ortiz hit a walk-off single into center field.
2004 – The Dover, Pa., school district voted 6-3 to mandate the teaching of “intelligent design” in public schools along with the theory of evolution. A number of parents soon filed suit.
2005 – William Evan Allan, the last surviving Australian First World War veteran, dies aged 106.
2005 – Scientists announced that tracks of a previously unknown swimming dinosaur have been found along the shores of an ancient sea in Wyoming.
2005 – Authorities closed one of two highway tunnels carrying traffic under Baltimore, Maryland’s harbor following a threat to detonate explosive filled vehicles.
2005 – Saddam Hussein’s trial begins.
2006 – Microsoft released Internet Explorer 7.0.
2006 – President Bush signed a new National Space Policy the rejects future arms-control agreements that might limit US flexibility in space.
2006 – The Dow Jones industrial average passed 12,000 for the first time before pulling back to close at 11,992.68.
2007 – Oil prices reach $90 a barrel for the first time due to the low dollar and ongoing tension between Turkey and Iraq.
2008 – NASA launches the Interstellar Boundary Explorer satellite that will study the edge of solar system.
2010 – With increasing uncertainty about the timing of the release of the next batch of classified documents by WikiLeaks, the U.S. military assembles a 120-member team to search its database for clues in preparation for the publication event.
2010 – Bank of America resumes foreclosures in twenty-three states following a temporary halt in foreclosures due to the 2010 Foreclosure crisis.
2011 – Motorola introduces the Droid RAZR, the world’s thinnest smartphone.
2011 – A bill to takeover the capital city of Harrisburg, rather than have it file for Chapter 9, clears the Pennsylvania State Legislature. The Governor of Pennsylvania, Tom Corbett, is expected to sign it.
2011 – Spaceport America in New Mexico, United States, officially opens as the world’s first purpose-built commercial spaceport.
2011 – About 400,000 illegal immigrants were deported from the United States in the 2011 fiscal year, the most deportations ever in United States history, according to a report released by ICE.
2012 – Newsweek buckled under the pressure afflicting the magazine industry in general and newsweeklies in particular. In a message posted on The Daily Beast, Ms. Tina Brown announced that Newsweek would cease print publication at the end of the year and move to an all-digital format.
2015 – Iran Nuclear Deal Goes Into Effect Today. The implementation of the Iran nuclear deal is meant to begin but only time will tell if Iran will comply with the agreement and whether the international community will actually hold the Islamic Republic to its word.
1595 – Edward Winslow, Plymouth Colony founder (d. 1655)
1921 – Jesse Helms, U.S. Senator from North Carolina
1926 – Chuck Berry, American singer.
1927 – George C. Scott, American actor.
1934 – Chuck Swindoll, American evangelist
1939 – Lee Harvey Oswald, American assassin of John F. Kennedy (d. 1963)
1956 – Martina Navratilova, Czechoslovakian-born tennis player.
1960 – Jean-Claude Van Damme, Belgian actor
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company K, 18th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Haaren, Germany, October 18th, 1944. Entered service at: Prescott, Ariz. Birth: Bethel, N.C. G.O. No.: 47, 18 June 1945. Citation: On 18 October 1944, Company K, 18th Infantry, occupying a position on a hill near Haaren, Germany, was attacked by an enemy infantry battalion supported by tanks. The assault was preceded by an artillery concentration, lasting an hour, which inflicted heavy casualties on the company. While engaged in moving wounded men to cover, Sgt. Thompson observed that the enemy had overrun the positions of the 3d Platoon. He immediately attempted to stem the enemy’s advance single-handedly. He manned an abandoned machinegun and fired on the enemy until a direct hit from a hostile tank destroyed the gun. Shaken and dazed, Sgt. Thompson picked up an automatic rifle and although alone against the enemy force which was pouring into the gap in our lines, he fired burst after burst, halting the leading elements of the attack and dispersing those following. Throwing aside his automatic rifle, which had jammed, he took up a rocket gun, fired on a light tank, setting it on fire. By evening the enemy had been driven from the greater part of the captured position but still held three pillboxes. Sgt. Thompson’s squad was assigned the task of dislodging the enemy from these emplacements. Darkness having fallen and finding that fire of his squad was ineffective from a distance, Sgt. Thompson crawled forward alone to within twenty yards of one of the pillboxes and fired grenades into it. The Germans holding the emplacement concentrated their fire upon him. Though wounded, he held his position fearlessly, continued his grenade fire, and finally forced the enemy to abandon the blockhouse. Sgt. Thompson’s courageous leadership inspired his men and materially contributed to the clearing of the enemy from his last remaining hold on this important hill position.
Get The World To Beat A Path To Your Doorway Week
Loma Prieta Earthquake
On October 17, 1989, at 5:04:15 p.m. (PDT), a magnitude 6.9 (moment magnitude; surface-wave magnitude, 7.1) earthquake severely shook the San Francisco and Monterey Bay regions. The epicenter was located at 37.04° N. latitude, 121.88° W. longitude near Loma Prieta peak in the Santa Cruz Mountains, approximately 9 miles northeast of Santa Cruz and 60 miles south-southeast of San Francisco. The earthquake occurred when the crustal rocks comprising the Pacific and North American Plates abruptly slipped as much as 7 ft along their common boundary in the San Andreas fault system. The rupture initiated at a depth of 11 miles and extended 22 miles along the fault, but it did not break the surface of the Earth. The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake ended decades of tranquility in the San Francisco Bay region. It was a wakeup call to prepare for the potentially even more devastating shocks that are inevitable in the future. KXTV Channel 10 Live
The proximity of the San Andreas Fault to San Francisco was well-known for most of the 20th century, but the knowledge did not stop the construction of many un-reinforced brick buildings in the area. Finally, in 1972, revised building codes forced new structures to be built to withstand earthquakes. The new regulations also called for older buildings to be retrofitted to meet the new standards, but the expense involved made these projects a low priority for the community.
On this day the Bay Area was buzzing about baseball. The Oakland Athletics and San Francisco Giants, both local teams, had reached the World Series. The first game of the series was scheduled to begin at 5:30 p.m. at San Francisco’s Candlestick Park. Just prior to the game, with the cameras on the field the earthquake hit. Though the stadium withstood the shaking, much of the rest of San Francisco was not so fortunate.
The city’s Marina District suffered great damage. Built before 1972, on an area of the city where there was no underlying bedrock, the liquefaction of the ground resulted in the collapse of many homes. Burst gas mains and pipes also sparked fires that burned out of control for nearly two days. Also hard hit by the quake were two area roads, the Nimitz Expressway and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. Both roads featured double-decker construction and, on each, the upper level collapsed during the earthquake. Forty-one of the 67 victims of this disaster were motorists on the lower level of the Nimitz, who were killed when the upper level of the road collapsed and crushed them in their cars. Only one person was killed on the Bay Bridge–which had been scheduled for a retrofitting the following week–because there were no cars under the section that collapsed.
Other heavily damaged communities included Watsonville, Daly City and Palo Alto. More than 10 percent of the homes in Watsonville were completely demolished. The residents, most of whom were Hispanic, faced additional hardship because relief workers and the Red Cross did not have enough Spanish-speaking aides or translators to assist them.
The earthquake caused billions of dollars in damages, and contributed in part to the deep recession that California suffered in the early 1990s.
“Just remember – when you think all is lost, the future remains.”
Dr. Robert H. Goddard
disgregate (DIS-gri-gayt) verb tr., intr.
To separate or to scatter.
From Latin disgregare, from dis- (apart) + gregare (to collect), from greg-, stem of grex (flock). Ultimately from the Indo-European root ger- (to gather) which is also the source of such words as aggregate, congregation, egregious, and segregate.]
539 BC – King Cyrus The Great of Persia marches into the city of Babylon, releasing the Jews from almost 70 years of exile and making the first Human Rights Declaration.
1604 – Kepler’s Star: German astronomer Johannes Kepler observes that an exceptionally bright star had suddenly appeared in the constellation. Ophiuchus, which turned out to be the last supernova to have been observed in our own galaxy, the Milky Way.
1777 – British forces under General John Burgoyne surrendered to American troops in Saratoga, New York. It was a turning point of the Revolutionary War. He surrenders 7,000 British and Hessian troops to Patriot General Horatio Gates.
1781 – General Charles Cornwallis offers his surrender to the American revolutionaries at Yorktown, Virginia.
1814 – The crew of USRC Eagle, which had been driven ashore near Negros Head, New York in an encounter with the British brig HMS Dispatch, dragged the cutter’s guns up a bluff in an effort to continue the battle.
1814 – Marines and sailors landed on Grand Terre Island, Louisiana, to punish pirates. Pirate leader, Jean Lafitte’s activities threatened to monopolize the city’s import trade.
1855 – Bessemer steelmaking process patented. The principle involved is that of oxidation of the impurities in the iron by the oxygen of air that is blown through the molten iron.
1871 – President Ulysses S. Grant suspended habeas corpus in nine counties in South Carolina and sent federal troops to South Carolina to stop attacks by the Ku Klux Klan against newly emancipated black citizens.
1877 – Brigadier General Alfred Terry met with Sitting Bull in Canada to discuss the Indians’ return to the United States. Sitting Bull and his followers had fled to Canada after the Little Big Horn.
1888 – Thomas Edison files a patent for the Optical Phonograph (the first movie).
1888 – The first issue of “National Geographic Magazine.“
1894 – Ohio National Guard killed five members of a lynch mob while rescuing a black man. The mob had gathered outside the Fayette County court house with the intent to lynch convicted rapist William “Jasper” Dolby.
1917 – World War I: First British bombing of Germany in World War I.
1919 – GE caused to be organized under the laws of the State of Delaware the company known as the Radio Corporation of America. In the certificate of incorporation, it was provided that ‘no person shall be eligible for election as a director or officer of the corporation who is not at the time of such election a citizen of the United States’.
1920 – Chicago Bears (as Decatur Staleys) play first NFL game, win 7-0.
1922 – LCDR Virgil C. Griffin in Vought VE-7SF makes first takeoff from U.S. Navy aircraft carrier, USS Langley (CV-1) anchored in York River, Virginia.
1931 – Mobster Al Capone was convicted of income tax evasion and sentenced to 11 years in prison.
1933 – Albert Einstein, fleeing Nazi Germany, moves to the US. He made his new home in Princeton, N.J.
1933 – “News-Week” appeared for the first time at newsstands. The name was later changed to “Newsweek.”
1937 – Huey, Dewey and Louie, Donald Duck’s three almost identical nephews, first appear in a newspaper comic strip.
1939 – “Mr. Smith Goes to Washington” premiered.
1940 – “Five O’Clock Whistle” recorded by Will Bradley’s orchestra.
1941 – USS Kearney became the first destroyer attacked by a German submarine, when it was torpedoed south of Iceland.
1941 – General Hideki Tojo (1885-1948) became Premier and Minister of War in Japan. When he became most powerful man in Japan, he became prime minister, there no longer was a chance of avoiding war with Britain and the United States.
1943 – The Young Communist League declared itself dissolved at a convention in New York and 400 delegates organize American Youth for Democracy, which only offers membership to non-Communists.
1943 – World War II: The last operational German auxiliary cruiser, Michel, is sunk by the American submarine Tarpon off the Japanese coast. The German raider has sunk 17 ships during its cruise.
1944 – World War II: US Task Group 77.4 (Admiral TF Sprague) continues air strikes on Leyte, Cebu and Mindanao.
1945 – Iva Toguri D’Aquino, a Japanese-American suspected of being wartime radio propagandist “Tokyo Rose,” was arrested by 3 CIC officers in her Tokyo apartment.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “You’re Breaking My Heart” by Vic Damone, “Someday” by
Vaughn Monroe, “That Lucky Old Sun” by Frankie Laine and “Slipping Around” by Margaret Whiting & Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1953 – “St. George and the Dragonet” by Stan Freberg topped the charts.
1955 – Lee Merriwether joins the Today Show panel.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Chances Are/The Twelfth of Never” by Johnny Mathis, “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley, “Keep a Knockin’” by Little Richard and “Wake Up Little Susie” by The Everly Brothers all topped the charts.
1959 – “Mack the Knife” by Bobby Darin topped the charts.
1960 – “Save the Last Dance for Me” by the Drifters topped the charts.
1960 – Billboard reported that Dion and the Belmonts were breaking up.
1960 – Charles Van Doren, a former contestant on the popular TV game show “Twenty-One,” was arrested along with 13 others, including television producers Dan Enright and Al Freedman, for perjury.
1961 – NASA civilian pilot Joseph A Walker takes X-15 to 108,600 feet.
1961 – “HOT ROCKS” Candy was trademark registered.
1964 – “Do Wah Diddy Diddy” by Manfred Mann topped the charts.
1964 – “She’s Not There,” by the Zombies, was released.
1967 – Pete Knight in X-15 reaches 278,885 feet.
1967 – The play “Hair” is first performed. The show opened on Broadway at the Biltmore Theater on April 29, 1968. It closed on July 1, 1972 after 1,742 performances.
1968 – Jose Feliciano released his controversial, bluesy rendition of “The Star Spangled Banner.”
1970 – “I’ll Be There” by the Jackson 5 topped the charts.
1970 – Eric Clapton released “After Midnight.”
1971 – World Series: Pittsburgh Pirates (4) vs Baltimore Orioles (3).
1973 – Leaders of OPEC decided to suspend oil exports to all nations supporting Israel in the Yom Kippur War. The embargo caused major shortages and gas rationing.
1974 – World Series: Oakland Athletics (4) vs Los Angeles Dodgers (1).
1974 – NBA New Orleans Jazz begin a 28-game losing streak on the road.
1974 – A meeting of the Boston Massachusetts School Committee is “stink-bombed” by the Weather Underground to protest busing.
1977 – West German commandos stormed a hijacked Lufthansa jetliner on the ground in Mogadishu, Somalia, freeing all 86 hostages and killing three of the four hijackers.
1977 – “Street Survivors” was released by Lynyrd Skynyrd. Three days later vocalist Ronnie Van Zant, guitarist Steve Gaines, Cassie Gaines (Steve’s sister) and road manager Dean Kilpatrick were killed when their plane crashed in Gillsburg, MS. The other four members of the band were seriously injured but survived the crash.
1978 – World Series: New York Yankees (4) vs Los Angeles Dodgers (2)
1978 – President Jimmy Carter signed a bill restoring U.S. citizenship to Confederate President Jefferson Davis.
1979 – World Series: Pittsburgh Pirates (4) vs Baltimore Orioles (3).
1979 – Mother Teresa of India was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Arthur’s Theme (Best That You Can Do)” by Christopher Cross, “Start Me Up” by The Rolling Stones, “For Your Eyes Only” by Sheena Easton and “Party Time” by T.G. Sheppard all topped the charts.
1987 – First World Series game in a covered stadium (Minnesota Metrodome.)
1987 – “Lost in Emotion” by Lisa Lisa & the Cult Jam topped the charts.
1987 – U.S. First Lady Nancy Reagan underwent a modified radical mastectomy at Bethesda Naval Hospital in Maryland.
1989 – An earthquake (Loma Prieta earthquake) measuring 7.1 on the Richter scale struck northern California, killing 67 people and causing $7 billion worth of damage. It was witnessed on live television by millions of people who were watching the third game of the World Series of baseball, being played in San Francisco. This was Game 3 of the Series which was moved to 10-27-89. The Series was completed although there were those that felt it should be cancelled.
1990 – In testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Secretary of State James Baker said Iraqi President Saddam Hussein “must fail if peace is to succeed.”
1992 – Japanese exchange student Yoshi Hattori, 16, was shot and killed by Rodney Peairs in Center, La., after Hattori and his American host mistakenly knocked on Peairs’ door while looking for a Halloween party.
1994 – Taxicab driver Jeremy Levine returned to London, England, from a round-trip journey to Cape Town, South Africa, on this day. Passengers Mark Aylett and Carlos Aresse paid 40,000 pounds, or approximately $65,000, for the 21,691-mile trip, setting a world record for the longest known taxicab ride.
1995 – The Cleveland Indians won the American League pennant by defeating the Seattle Mariners, 4-to-0, in game six of their playoff series.
1996 – The Atlanta Braves won the National League Championship Series, beating the St. Louis Cardinals.
1996 – In Leland, Miss. Aaron White, a black TV repairman received a gunshot wound to the head and was killed. It was claimed that a white police narcotics officer shot Mr. White, while the police claimed that Mr. White shot himself.
1997 – The US Army used a Miracl (medium infra-red advanced chemical laser developed by TRW) laser beam to hit the MISTI-3 satellite in orbit. The laser test was prohibited by Congress in 1985, but the ban expired in 1995. The test failed to be recorded by sensors on the satellite.
1998 – “One Week” by Barenaked Ladies topped the charts.
1998 – The New York Yankees beat the San Diego Padres in the first game of the Baseball World Series 9 to 6.
1999 – The FBI reported that serious crimes reported to police declined for seventh straight year in 1998 and murder and robbery rates reached 30-year lows.
2000 – In New York City, Madame Tussaud’s Wax Museum opened to the public.
2000 – The New York Yankees followed the Mets into the World Series, beating the Seattle Mariners 9-to-7 and winning the American League championship series four games to two.
2000 – Patrick Roy (Colorado Avalanche) achieved his 448th victory as a goalie in the NHL. Roy passed Terry Sawchuck to become the record holder for career victories.
2001 – The House of Representatives announced plans to close for an anthrax sweep after 31 people at the Capitol tested positive for exposure; New York Gov. George Pataki’s Manhattan office was evacuated after anthrax was detected.
2002 – Ira Einhorn, the ’70s hippie guru who had fled to Europe after being charged with murder, was convicted in Philadelphia of killing his girlfriend, Holly Maddux, and stuffing her corpse in his closet a quarter-century earlier. He was later sentenced to life without parole.
2003 – In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration approved a drug, known as memantine, to help people with Alzheimer’s symptoms.
2003 – The US House and Senate voted to spend some $87 billion earmarked for securing peace and eliminating terrorist threats in Iraq and Afghanistan.
2003 – In Chicago government workers trapped in a burning downtown office tower frantically dialed 911 as they tried to make their way through smoke-filled staircases and hallways. Thirteen were found unconscious amid the smoke, six of them dead.
2004 – Jordan’s military prosecutor indicted Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, one of the most wanted insurgents in Iraq, and 12 other alleged Muslim militants for an alleged al-Qaida linked plot to attack the U.S. Embassy in Amman and Jordanian government targets.
2005 – The FBI reported that US murders fell to 16,137 in 2004, 391 fewer than in 2003 and that the overall violent crime rate hit a 3-year low.
2005 – General Motors Corp. and the United Auto Workers reached a tentative agreement that will help the automaker lower its health care costs even as they reported a $1.6 billion loss for the third quarter.
2005 – It was reported that the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation pledged $15 million for the Computer History Museum in Silicon Valley, the world’s largest institution dedicated to preserving Information Age artifacts.
2006 – Actor Wesley Snipes was indicted for cheating the US government out of nearly $12 million in false refund claims and not filing for 6 years. On Feb 1, 2008, a federal jury in Florida acquitted Snipes (45) of the most serious charges but convicted him on 3 of 6 lesser charges and said he must pay up to $17 million in back taxes plus penalties and interest.
2006 – The 300 millionth US resident was born at 4:46 am according to a US Census Bureau estimate. The 200 million mark was reached in 1967. The 400 million mark was expected around 2043.
2007 – President Bush attended a ceremony in which the Dalai Lama was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal, Congress’ highest civilian honor. China lodged an official protest over the honoring of the Dalai Lama in Washington.
2008 – US drug czar John Walters said that Mexico’s drug cartels are crossing the border to kidnap and kill inside the United States, and promised that an anti-drug aid package to help Mexico to fight the gangs will be ready soon.
2008 – In Philadelphia college student Jocelyn Kirsch (23) was sentenced to five years in prison and ordered to pay more than $100,000 in restitution. She and her former boyfriend, Edward Anderton, had stolen the identities of friends and neighbors in 2006 and 2007 to net more than $116,000 in goods and services.
2009 – In Oakland, Ca., three people died when their car flipped during a sideshow in the early hours. The Nissan in the crash was said to have been in a hyphy train, like a conga line on wheels with cars weaving and speeding in unison.
2009 – Deficit hits $1.4 trillion. The deficit is the largest relative to the size of the economy since 1945.
2010 – GM workers protest a drop in wages, from $58,000/year to $30,000/year, at a new car plant in Michigan that was funded by a $50 billion government bailout and is receiving $770 million in tax incentives.
2010 – Workers in Hilton Hotels in the US cities of Chicago, San Francisco, and Honolulu continue a strike over what they claim are efforts to “lock workers into cheap recession contracts.”
2010 – It was reported that Ingmar Guandique, an illegal immigrant from El Salvador, was to go on trial Monday for Chandra Levy’s 2001 killing.
2011 – Apple Inc. releases its sales report for the iPhone 4S smartphone, which has reportedly sold over four million units worldwide in under four days, breaking company sales records.
2011 – Occupy Wall Street protests take place in hundreds of cities worldwide.
2012 – The FBI and NYPD have reportedly arrested a man they’d led into a sting operation for allegedly attempting to blow up the New York Federal Reserve Bank building in lower Manhattan today. Quazi Mohammad Rezwanul Ahsan Nafis, 21, was arrested after he attempted to detonate a a van filled with what he thought to be explosives outside the fortress-like structure on Liberty Street.
2012 – Alpha Centauri Bb, an exoplanet, is discovered orbiting around Alpha Centauri, the nearest star system to our Solar System.
2013 – President Barack Obama signs a bipartisan deal approved by Congress to end the Government shutdown and the debt ceiling crisis.
2014 – President Barack Obama names lawyer and former political operative Ron Klain as “ebola czar” to coordinate US response to the Ebola outbreak.
2015 – US Airways final flight, Flight 1939 – named for the airline’s founding year, landed at Philadelphia International Airport at 5:54 a.m. Saturday. Future flights will fly under the American Airlines banner, completing the merger announced in 2013.
2015 – A shooting just before midnight at the ninth annual Fort Myers, Florida, Zombicon kills one person and injures four others, none with life threatening injuries, and causes pandemonium on the city’s downtown streets.
1880 – Charles Kraft, American food and cheese entrepreneur.
1912 – Pope John Paul I.
1914 – Jerry Siegel, American cartoonist, co-creator of Superman (d. 1996)
1915 – Arthur Miller, American Tony Award and Emmy Award-winning playwright. 1918 – Rita Hayworth, American film actress.
1938 – Montgomery Clift, American film actor.
*DURHAM, HAROLD BASCOM, JR.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Battery C, 6th Battalion, 15th Artillery, 1st Infantry Division . Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, October 17th, 1967. Entered service at: Atlanta, Ga. Born: 12 October 1942, Rocky Mount, N.C. Citation: 2d Lt. Durham, Artillery, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the cost of his life above and beyond the call of duty while assigned to Battery C. 2d Lt. Durham was serving as a forward observer with Company D, 2d Battalion, 28th Infantry during a battalion reconnaissance-in-force mission. At approximately 1015 hours contact was made with an enemy force concealed in well-camouflaged positions and fortified bunkers. 2d Lt. Durham immediately moved into an exposed position to adjust the supporting artillery fire onto the insurgents. During a brief lull in the battle he administered emergency first aid to the wounded in spite of heavy enemy sniper fire directed toward him. Moments later, as enemy units assaulted friendly positions, he learned that Company A, bearing the brunt of the attack, had lost its forward observer. While he was moving to replace the wounded observer, the enemy detonated a Claymore mine, severely wounding him in the head and impairing his vision. In spite of the intense pain, he continued to direct the supporting artillery fire and to employ his individual weapon in support of the hard pressed infantrymen. As the enemy pressed their attack, 2d Lt. Durham called for supporting fire to be placed almost directly on his position. Twice the insurgents were driven back, leaving many dead and wounded behind. 2d Lt. Durham was then taken to a secondary defensive position. Even in his extremely weakened condition, he continued to call artillery fire onto the enemy. He refused to seek cover and instead positioned himself in a small clearing which offered a better vantage point from which to adjust the fire. Suddenly, he was severely wounded a second time by enemy machine gun fire. As he lay on the ground near death, he saw two Viet Cong approaching, shooting the defenseless wounded men. With his last effort, 2d Lt. Durham shouted a warning to a nearby soldier who immediately killed the insurgents. 2d Lt. Durham died moments later, still grasping the radio handset. 2d Lt. Durham’s gallant actions in close combat with an enemy force are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Marine Squadron 214. Place and date: Central Solomons area, from 12 September 1943 to 3 January 1944. Entered service at: Washington. Born: 4 December 1912, Coeur D’Alene, Idaho. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and valiant devotion to duty as commanding officer of Marine Fighting Squadron 214 in action against enemy Japanese forces in the Central Solomons area from 12 September 1943 to 3 January 1944. Consistently outnumbered throughout successive hazardous flights over heavily defended hostile territory, Maj. Boyington struck at the enemy with daring and courageous persistence, leading his squadron into combat with devastating results to Japanese shipping, shore installations, and aerial forces. Resolute in his efforts to inflict crippling damage on the enemy, Maj. Boyington led a formation of 24 fighters over Kahili on October 17th, and, persistently circling the airdrome where sixty hostile aircraft were grounded, boldly challenged the Japanese to send up planes. Under his brilliant command, our fighters shot down twenty enemy craft in the ensuing action without the loss of a single ship. A superb airman and determined fighter against overwhelming odds, Maj. Boyington personally destroyed twenty-six of the many Japanese planes shot down by his squadron and, by his forceful leadership, developed the combat readiness in his command which was a distinctive factor in the Allied aerial achievements in this vitally strategic area.
Special Note: The squadron he commanded is best known as the Black Sheep of World War II fame. His memoirs also inspired the 1970s television show Baa Baa Black Sheep, which dramatized the squadron’s exploits during the war. I had the opportunity to meet “Pappy” at an airshow in Chino, CA. It was a true honor!!
*VAN NOY, JUNIOR
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Headquarters Company, Shore Battalion, Engineer Boat and Shore Regiment. Place and date: Near Finschafen, New Guinea, October 17th, 1943.Entered service at: Preston, Idaho. Birth: Grace, Idaho. G.O. No.: 17, 26 February 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy near Finschafen, New Guinea, on 17 October 1943. When wounded late in September, Pvt. Van Noy declined evacuation and continued on duty. On 17 October 1943 he was gunner in charge of a machinegun post only five yards from the water’s edge when the alarm was given that three enemy barges loaded with troops were approaching the beach in the early morning darkness. One landing barge was sunk by Allied fire, but the other two beached ten yards from Pvt. Van Noy’s emplacement. Despite his exposed position, he poured a withering hail of fire into the debarking enemy troops. His loader was wounded by a grenade and evacuated. Pvt. Van Noy, also grievously wounded, remained at his post, ignoring calls of nearby soldiers urging him to withdraw, and continued to fire with deadly accuracy. He expended every round and was found, covered with wounds dead beside his gun. In this action Pvt. Van Noy killed at least half of the thirty-nine enemy troops taking part in the landing. His heroic tenacity at the price of his life not only saved the lives of many of his comrades, but enabled them to annihilate the attacking detachment.
National Ergonomics Month
National Boss’s Day
Facts About You!!
Your brain has the potential to remember everything that you have ever experienced, read, heard or seen. The only problem is that you can’t recall it, but its all in there somewhere.
Your body is constantly replacing cells, so much so if fact that you have a completely different body than you had seven years ago.
The amount of information your brain can hold is believed to be 1 petabyte (1000 terrabytes or 1 billion megabytes). The IBM Super Computer Watson, the one that Jeopardy contestants competed against had only 16 terrabytes of RAM.
Gentlemen, if every sperm in your body could produce a child you could repopulate the earth in six months.en while awake at some point in your life.
In your lifetime you will eat about 50 tons of food.
To exercise your legs as much as your eyes get, you would have to walk 50 miles a day EVERY DAY.
In the next four years you will shed your body weight in dead skin.
Your hair grows about a half an inch a month.
You constantly sweat (about 2 pints a day) If you exercise, it is much more.
When you were a baby you were stronger than an ox.
Your reactions occur at about 170 miles per hour.
Aside from burning, your hair is indestructible.Twenty-five million cells of yo die while you read this sentence but your body made 300 billion more of them today.
You were a one-celled creature for only about 1/2 hour.
You are absolutely unique in at least three different ways: Fingerprints, retina patterns and DNA.
“I’m a great believer in luck and I find the harder I work, the more I have of it.”
~ Thomas Jefferson
perorate PUR-uh-rayt, intransitive verb:
1. To conclude or sum up a long discourse.
2. To speak or expound at length; to declaim.
Perorate comes from Latin perorare “to speak at length or to the end,” from per-, “through, throughout,” + orare, “to speak.”
1492 – Columbus’ fleet anchored at “Fernandina” (Long Island, Bahamas).
1555 – Protestant martyrs Bishop Hugh Latimer and Bishop Nicholas Ridley were burned at the stake for heresy in England.
1701 – The Collegiate School was founded in Killingworth, CT. The school moved to New Haven in 1745 and changed its name to Yale College.
1775 – Portland, Maine burned by the British.
1780 – Royalton, Vermont and Tunbridge, Vermont last major raid of the Revolutionary War.
1781 – George Washington captures Yorktown, Virginia.
1793 – Queen Marie Antoinette was beheaded during the Reign of Terror following the French Revolution.
1829 – Tremont Hotel in Boston opens. It was the first hotel to have indoor plumbing and became the prototype of a modern, first – class American hotel. It had 170 rooms that rented for $2 a day and included four meals.
1846 – Ether was first used in an operation, at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.
1854 – Abraham Lincoln debated before a large crowd in Peoria, IL the merits of the Kansas-Nebraska Act with Stephen Douglas. Lincoln denounced slavery and its extension and called the practice a violation of the most basic tenets of the Declaration of Independence.
1859 – Abolitionist John Brown led a group in a raid on Harper’s Ferry, intending to seize the arsenal of weapons and retreat to the Appalachian Mountains of Maryland and Virginia, where they would establish an abolitionist republic of liberated slaves and abolitionist whites. John Brown was later hanged in Virginia for treason.
1861 – Civil War: Confederate general issue postage stamps made their first appearance. The Confederacy would issue 13 different major stamps (16 stamps when the different printers are taken into consideration) which would see postal usage.
1867 – Alaska adopts the Gregorian calendar and crosses the international date line.
1868 – America’s first department store “ZCMI” (Zion’s Co-Operative Mercantile Institution) opened in Salt Lake City, Utah.
1869 – The Cardiff Giant, one of the most famous hoaxes in American history, was a 10-foot-tall (3 m) “petrified man” uncovered today by workers digging a well behind the barn of William C. “Stub” Newell in Cardiff, New York. Both it and an unauthorized copy made by P.T. Barnum are still on display.
1876 – Construction began on the first cantilever bridge built on the American continent. Preliminary work had already been completed for the 1,125 foot long High Bridge between Jessamine and Mercer counties to carry the Cincinnati Southern Railroad 275 feet high over a deep gorge of the Kentucky River. The bridge currently there is the original one expanded.
1900 – Frank Sprague was granted a patent for a multi-control for electric trains.
1909 – World Series Pittsburgh Pirates (4) vs Detroit Tigers (3)
1912 – World Series: Boston Red Sox (4) vs New York Giants (3). First pitch was by New York City Mayor James Gaynor. New York Giants outfielder Fred Snodgrass drops an easy pop-fly in the 10th inning of the tie-breaking eighth game of the World Series against the Red Sox. His error led to a two-run Boston rally and cost the Giants the championship.
1916 – Margaret Sanger founded Planned Parenthood in order to eliminate what she thought were “inferior races like Orientals, Jews, and Blacks. She referred to them as “human weeds.” She also opened the first birth control clinic in New York City, NY on this day.
1923 – The Walt Disney Company is founded by Walt Disney and his brother, Roy Disney. Walt Disney contracted with M.J. Winkler to distribute the Alice Comedies. This event is recognized as the start of the Disney Company.
1926 – Patent for the frosted electric light bulb was filed by Marvin Pipkin.
1939 – “The Right to Happiness” debuted on the NBC Blue network. It was an off-shoot of the Guiding Light.
1939 – “The Man Who Came to Dinner” opened on Broadway.
1940 – Benjamin O. Davis, became the U.S. Army’s first African American Brigadier General.
1940 – Registration begins for the draft according to the provisions of the Selective Service Act. The first drafts will be balloted on October 29th. This is the first peacetime draft in US history.
1941 – “Gordo” comic strip (by Gus Arriola) first appears in newspapers.
1941 – “Fry Me Cookie, with a Can of Lard” recorded by the Will Bradley Orchestra.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: The Nazis advanced to within 60 miles of Moscow. Romanians entered Odessa, USSR, and began exterminating 150,000 Jews.
1942 – World War II: Near Guadalcanal, American aircraft from the carrier USS Hornet raid supply bases on Santa Isabel. On Guadalcanal, the Japanese increase their bombardment of American positions in preparation for a major attack.
1942 – National Boxing Association freezes titles of those serving in armed services.
1943 – Chicago Mayor Edward J. Kelly officially opened the city’s new subway system.
1944 – World War II: Aachen, Germany (640 km east of Berlin) is surrounded by troops of the US 19th and 8th Corps (elements of US 1st Army.)
1944 – World War II: Land-based aircraft of US 13th and 5th Air Forces attack targets on Mindanao. US Task Group 77.4, with 18 escort carriers, launch air strikes on Leyte, Cebu and Mindanao.
1944 – “The Robe”, by Lloyd Douglas, was published.
1945 – “His Honor, the Barber” debuted on NBC radio.
1946 – At Nuremberg, Germany, ten high-ranking Nazi officials were hung for their war crimes during World War II.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “A Tree in the Meadow” by Margaret Whiting, “You Call Everybody Darlin’” by Al Trace (vocal: Bob Vincent), “Hair of Gold, Eyes of Blue” by Gordon MacRae and “Just a Little Lovin’ (Will Go a Long, Long Way)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1951 – Little Richard held his first recording session in Atlanta, GA.
1954 – “Hey There” by Rosemary Clooney topped the charts.
1954 – Elvis Presley made his first radio appearance on the “Louisiana Hayride.”
1955 – Mrs. Jules Lederer replaced Ruth Crowley in newspapers using the name Ann Landers.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Honky Tonk (Parts 1 & 2)” by Bill Doggett, “Just Walking in the Rain” by Johnnie Ray, “Love Me Tender” by Elvis Presley and “Hound Dog/Don’t Be Cruel” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.
1958 – Chevrolet introduces the El Camino. The El Camino was a combination sedan-pickup truck built on the Impala body, with the same “cat’s eye” taillights and dramatic rear fins.
1961 – Cork International Airport opened in Ireland.
1962 – The Cuban missile crisis began when President John F. Kennedy was informed that reconnaissance photographs had revealed the presence of missile bases in Cuba.
1962 – World Series: New York Yankees (4) vs San Francisco Giants (3).
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh, Pretty Woman” by Roy Orbison, “Do Wah Diddy Diddy” by Manfred Mann, “Dancing in the Street” by Martha & The Vandellas and “I Guess I’m Crazy” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1964 – China detonated its first atomic bomb, at Lop Nor. It became the fifth nuclear power.
1965 – “Yesterday” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1966 – Joan Baez and 123 other anti-draft demonstrators were arrested for blocking the entrance to the Armed Forces Induction Center in Oakland, CA.
1968 – United States athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos are kicked out of the USA’s team for performing a Black Power salute during a medal ceremony.
1968 – Milwaukee Bucks play their first game losing 89-84 to Chicago Bulls.
1969 – World Series: New York Mets (4) vs Baltimore Orioles (1). The Mets had been a 100-1 shot going into the Series.
1970 – Anwar Sadat was elected president of Egypt, succeeding the late Gamal Abdel Nasser.
1971 – “Maggie May” by Rod Stewart topped the charts.
1971 – Isaac Hayes’ “Theme From Shaft” was released.
1976 – Stevie Wonder’s album, “Songs in the Key of Life” hits #1 in the US.
1976 – “Disco Duck (Part 1)” by Ricky Dees & His Cast of Idiots topped the charts.
1978 – Sacred College of Cardinals of the Catholic Church chose Cardinal Karol Wojtyla as the new pope (John Paul II).
1982 – Mt Palomar Observatory was the first to detect Halley’s comet on its 13th return.
1982 – “Jack and Diane” by John Cougar topped the charts.
1982 – RCA Records released “H2O” by Daryl Hall and John Oates.
1983 – World Series: Baltimore Orioles (4) vs Philadelphia Phillies (1).
1985 – Intel introduces 32-bit 80386 microcomputer chip.
1987 – Jessica McClure, 18 months old, was trapped in an abandoned well in Midland, Texas, but rescued today after 58.5 hours.
1987 – In the Persian Gulf, an Iranian missile hit a re-flagged Kuwaiti ship in the first direct attack on the tanker fleet guarded by the U.S.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Red Red Wine” by UB40, “Groovy Kind of Love” by Phil Collins, “What’s on Your Mind” (Pure Energy) by Information Society and “Streets of Bakersfield” by Dwight Yoakam & Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1988 – Orel Hershiser, first to pitch a shutout in playoff and World Series play. The Championship was transformed into a “California Classic” as the Los Angeles Dodgers went up against the neighboring Oakland Athletics.
1989 – President George H.W. Bush signed the Gramm-Rudman budget reduction law that ordered federal programs be cut by $16.1 billion.
1990 – Comedian Steve Martin and his wife Victoria Tennant visited U.S. soldiers in Saudi Arabia.
1991 – MASS SHOOTING: Luby’s massacre: George Hennard″Jo Jo” drove his pickup truck into a Luby’s cafeteria in Killeen, TX , shooting 23 people to death while wounding another 20 and subsequently committing suicide by shooting himself. It was the deadliest shooting rampage in American history until the 2007 Virginia Tech massacre.
1995 – The Million Man March took place in Washington, D.C., under the direction of Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan.
1997 – Charles M. Schulz and his wife Jeannie announced that they would give $1 million toward the construction of a D-Day memorial to be placed in Virginia.
1999 – A 7.0-magnitude earthquake in California’s Mojave Desert derails an Amtrak train, knocks out power to thousands but causes no serious damage or injuries.
1999 – A New York Air National Guard plane rescued Dr. Jerri Nielsen from a South Pole research center after she’d spent five months isolated by the Antarctic winter, which forced her to treat herself for a breast lump.
2000 – It was announced that Chevron Corp. would be buying Texaco Inc. for $35 billion. The combined company was called Chevron Texaco Corp. and became the 4th largest oil company in the world.
2001 – A wing of the US Senate building was closed following confirmation that a letter to Sen. Tom Daschle, D-S.D., carried anthrax. It was later found that the anthrax contained the additive bentonite to enhance suspension in air. 12 Senate offices were closed as hundreds of staffers underwent anthrax tests.
2001 – US Customs at JFK found $140,763 in the luggage of Basam Nahshal who was bound for Yemen. A second man Ali Alfatimi claimed the money was his and was being smuggled to Yemen as part of his travel business.
2001 – Operation Active Endeavour is christened. It operates in the Mediterranean Sea and is designed to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of mass destruction as well as to enhance the security of shipping in general.
2002 – The White House announced that North Korea had disclosed it had a nuclear weapons program.
2002 – U.S. President George W. Bush signed a congressional resolution authorizing war against Iraq.
2002 – The Arthur Andersen accounting firm was sentenced to five years probation and fined $500,000 for obstructing a federal investigation of the energy company Enron.
2002 – Seven members of the Dawson family were murdered in Baltimore, Maryland in retribution for opposing local drug activity.
2003 – The Boston Red Sox and the New York Yankees face off in a historical ALCS game 7 at Yankee Stadium. The game ends in dramatic fashion with an Aaron Boone walk off home run.
2003 – Apple launches its iTunes Music Store, an online download music store, for the Microsoft Windows platform. The iTunes software can be downloaded from apple.com.
2003 – Alan Mulally, CEO of Boeing, announced that production of the Boeing 757 would end in late 2004.
2003 – In Iraq three American soldiers were killed during a clash at a Shiite Muslim cleric’s headquarters in Karbala.
2004 – In Arizona a stolen truck filled with suspected illegal immigrants sped away from deputies and rolled over at a busy intersection near an Army post, causing an 11-car crash that killed six people and seriously injured 15.
2005 – The Chicago White Sox beat the Los Angeles Angels 6-3 to win the American League Championship Series in five games, their first pennant since 1959.
2005 – In Wisconsin a bus carrying Chippewa Falls High School students home from a band competition collided with a semi truck, killing five passengers near Osseo.
2005 – Louis Farrakhan, leader of the Nation of Islam, addresses the Millions More event in Washington DC and condemns George W. Bush for the federal government’s response to Hurricane Katrina.
2006 – Lynne Stewart, a firebrand civil rights lawyer, was sentenced in New York to 28 months in prison for helping an imprisoned terrorist sheik communicate with his followers on the outside.
2006 – In southeast Texas heavy rains and a tornado left 3 people dead.
2007 – President Bush and the Dalai Lama met. On 10/17 the spiritual leader will be awarded a Congressional Gold Medal. China warned that the events are bad for US-Chinese ties.
2007 – In California a blinding sandstorm north of Los Angeles caused a pileup of some 15 vehicles leaving at least 2 people dead and 16 injured.
2007 – Barbara West Dainton (96), believed to be one of the last two survivors from the sinking of the Titanic in 1912, died in Camborne, England.
2008 – The US FDA said it would open its first office in China before the end of the year. Over 60 FDA offices would be placed world-wide over the next year.
2008 – The US Environmental Protection Agency sets a new standard, cutting the amount of lead that can be released into the atmosphere by 90 percent.
2008 – The Hubble Space Telescope went into the final stages of recovery after NASA successfully bypassed a faulty computer and resurrected an 18-year-old spare from orbital hibernation.
2009 – President Barack Obama signed a 7.5 billion dollar aid package for Pakistan after the US Congress acted to placate critics in the strife-torn nation who warned it violated Pakistani sovereignty.
2009 – Two US civil and constitutional rights groups called for Keith Bardwell, a justice of the peace in Louisiana, to resign for refusing to issue a marriage license to an interracial couple.
2009 – The United States records a budget deficit of $1.42 trillion.
2011 – Indianapolis 500 winner Dan Wheldon (9:18) died in a fiery 15-car wreck at Las Vegas Motor Speedway when his car flew over another on Lap 13 and smashed into the wall just outside turn 2.
2011 – The Saint Louis Cardinals defeat the Milwaukee Brewers in the 2011 National League Championship Series; the Cardinals now go on to face the Texas Rangers in the 2011 World Series.
2012 – Ford recalls 154,000 Fiestas due to an issue with airbag deployment.
2012 – The CEO of Citigroup, Vikram Pandit, announces his resignation from that post, and is immediately succeeded by Michael Corbat.
2013 – The US Senate reaches a bipartisan deal to avoid default and end the 16-day US government shutdown.
1758 – Noah Webster, American lexicographer, patriot, educator, and author.
1854 – Oscar Wilde, Irish dramatist.
1886 – David Ben-Gurion, Israel’s first prime minister.
1888 – Eugene O’Neill, American Nobel Prize (1936) and Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright.
1898 – William O. Douglas, U.S. Supreme Court Justice.
1925 – Angela Lansbury, English-born actress
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 20 November 1908. Woodruff, Kans. Appointed from: Nebraska. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous courage as Squadron Commander of Marine Fighting Squadron 212 in the South Pacific Area during the period 10 May to 14 November 1942. Volunteering to pilot a fighter plane in defense of our positions on Guadalcanal, Lt. Col. Bauer participated in two air battles against enemy bombers and fighters outnumbering our force more than two to one, boldly engaged the enemy and destroyed one Japanese bomber in the engagement of 28 September and shot down four enemy fighter planes in flames on 3 October, leaving a fifth smoking badly. After successfully leading twenty-six planes on an over-water ferry flight of more than 600 miles on October 16th, 1942, Lt. Col. Bauer, while circling to land, sighted a squadron of enemy planes attacking the U.S.S. McFarland. Undaunted by the formidable opposition and with valor above and beyond the call of duty, he engaged the entire squadron and, although alone and his fuel supply nearly exhausted, fought his plane so brilliantly that four of the Japanese planes were destroyed before he was forced down by lack of fuel. His intrepid fighting spirit and distinctive ability as a leader and an airman, exemplified in his splendid record of combat achievement, were vital factors in the successful operations in the South Pacific Area.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company M, 107th Infantry, 42d Division. Place and date: Near Landres-et-St. Georges, France, October 16th, 1918. Entered service at: Sugar City, Idaho. Born: 17 May 1898, Sharon, Idaho. G.O. No.: 1 18, W .D., 1918. Citation: On the afternoon of 16 October 1918, when the Cote-de-Chatillion had just been gained after bitter fighting and the summit of that strong bulwark in the Kriemhilde Stellung was being organized, Pvt. Neibaur was sent out on patrol with his automatic rifle squad to enfilade enemy machinegun nests. As he gained the ridge he set up his automatic rifle and was directly thereafter wounded in both legs by fire from a hostile machinegun on his flank. The advance wave of the enemy troops, counterattacking, had about gained the ridge, and although practically cut off and surrounded, the remainder of his detachment being killed or wounded, this gallant soldier kept his automatic rifle in operation to such effect that by his own efforts and by fire from the skirmish line of his company, at least 100 yards in his rear, the attack was checked. The enemy wave being halted and Iying prone, four of the enemy attacked Pvt. Neibaur at close quarters. These he killed. He then moved alone among the enemy Iying on the ground about him, in the midst of the fire from his own lines, and by coolness and gallantry captured eleven prisoners at the point of his pistol and, although painfully wounded, brought them back to our lines. The counterattack in full force was arrested to a large extent by the single efforts of this soldier, whose heroic exploits took place against the skyline in full view of his entire battalion.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 20th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Murfrees Station, Va., October 16th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Clayton, N.Y. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Volunteered to swim Blackwater River to get a large flat used as a ferry on other side; succeeded in getting the boat safely across, making it possible for a detachment to cross the river and take possession of the enemy’s breastworks.
National Construction Toy Month
National Grouch Day
A farmer took his young son on a hike and they tramped through the meadows and woods. They hiked through the pines and up over the hills.
They climbed the steep mountains and finally, high above the timber line, scaled the crags and peaks they saw a giant eagle soaring overhead. They scanned the cliffs and finally located the eagles nest. The boy climbed up the cliff to where the nest was located. He reached into the nest, which rested on a ledge, and pulled out an egg, which he put inside his shirt. Then he climbed carefully back down the cliff.
He and his father returned home, and the boy put the egg in a nest where a hen was brooding over her eggs. By and by, when the eggs were hatched, each delivered a small chick except the one from which a young eaglet was hatched. Months passed and the eaglet matured.
After the eagle was full grown, a naturalist was driving down the highway out in the country. As he drove by the farmer’s yard, he saw the giant eagle. He slammed on his brakes, got out of the car, and went over to the fence. He could hardly believe his eyes. He opened the gate, walked into the yard, and found the farmer. ‘Where did you get that eagle?’ he asked.
The farmer said, ‘It’s a chicken.’ The man responded: ‘I am a naturalist. I know all about these things, and I tell you that is an eagle. Furthermore, I’ll prove it.’ He picked up the eagle, put it on his arm, and said, ‘Thou art an eagle-fly.’ The eagle hopped off his arm and began to scratch in the dirt like the chickens. The farmer said, ‘I told you it was only a chicken.’
The naturalist asked for a ladder. He leaned it against the barn. Then he carried the eagle up on top of the barn. He stood at the peak of the roof on the barn, placed the eagle on his arm, and said, ‘Thou art an eagle-fly.’ The eagle swooped down into the yard below and began scratching in the gravel. The farmer hollered up, ‘I told you it was a chicken.’
The man climbed down off the barn. He made an agreement with the farmer and the next morning, long before sunrise, he picked up the eagle. He carried it through the woods and over the meadows. He continued up into the hills and the pines, onward, upward, above the timberline to the peaks and crags and pinnacles of the mountains. He arrived at the mountaintop just before dawn.
As the first rays of the sun began to streak across the sky, he put the eagle on his arm. The fresh, cool winds came through the valleys and trees below and swept up to the cliff where the naturalist stood. The eagle breathed deeply. The first streaks of sunlight caught his eye. He stretched his giant wings, almost six feet across. The naturalist said, ‘Thou art an eagle-fly.’
The eagle slowly lifted off the naturalist’s arm. It ascended into the sky. It soared higher and higher and further and further.
It saw more in an instant than its companions had in an entire lifetime, and from that time forth it was never again content to be a barnyard fowl.
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“Take your life in your own hands and what happens? A terrible thing: no one to blame.”
concinnity kuhn-SIN-uh-tee, noun:
1. Internal harmony or fitness in the adaptation of parts to a whole or to each other.
2. Studied elegance of design or arrangement — used chiefly of literary style.
3. An instance of concinnity.
Concinnity comes from Latin concinnitas, “elegance; harmony of style,” from concinnus, “well put together; pleasing, on account of harmony and proportion.”
1581 – The first major ballet was staged at the request of Catherine de’ Medici at the palace in Paris.
1582 – Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15.
1789 – First presidential tour-George Washington in New England.
1794 – US moneymakers minted some 2,000 silver dollars of which 1,750 were deemed good enough to go into circulation. The press initially used was designed for a smaller coin and large scale production on a bigger press began a year later.
1815 – Napoleon began his exile on the island of St. Helena, after suffering a final defeat against a force under the Duke of Wellington.
1855 – In San Francisco St. Ignatius opened for classes with three students, including Richard McCabe, at 841 Market St. In the 1880s St. Ignatius College moved to a new campus on Van Ness.
1858 – The seventh and final debate between senatorial candidates Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas took place in Alton, Ill.
1860- Eleven-year-old Grace Bedell writes to Lincoln, tells him to grow a beard. A excerpt of her letter reads “… I have got four brothers and part of them will vote for you any way and if you will let your whiskers grow I will try and get the rest of them to vote for you. You would look a great deal better for your face is so thin. All the ladies like whiskers and they would tease their husband’s to vote for you and then you would be President.”
1863 – Civil War: The first submarine to sink a ship, and first to sink an enemy warship, the CSS H. L. Hunley sinks during a test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley and seven crew members.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate troops occupied Glasgow, Missouri.
1874 – A US child labor law took 12 year-olds out of work force.
1878 – Thomas A. Edison founded the Edison Electric Light Co.
1880 – Mexican soldiers kill Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.
1881 – First American fishing magazine, American Angler published. It cost 10 cents an issue back in 1881, or you could subscribe, for three dollars a year.
1883 – U.S. Supreme Court struck down a significant part of the Civil Rights Act of 1875, saying that only state-imposed discrimination was unlawful.
1892 – The U.S. government convinced the Crow Indians to give up 1.8 million acres of their reservation for 50 cents per acre. On this day, by presidential proclamation, the land in the mountainous area of western Montana was opened to settlers.
1893 – The NY Times declared Coney Island “Sodom-by-the-Sea” for the thrilling rides that let men and women clutch each other.
1894 – Captain Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935), a Jewish army officer in France, was arrested for allegedly betraying military secrets to Germany.
1897 – Aaron and Samuel Bloch carried the first US Mail Pouch.
1900 – Boston’s Symphony Hall, one of the world’s most highly regarded concert halls, was inaugurated. It was the first to be built in known conformity with acoustical laws described by Harvard physicist Wallace Sabine.
1905 – President Grover Cleveland wrote an article for “Ladies Home Journal.” He wrote in that article,” “Sensible and responsible women do not want to vote. “
1914 – Congress passed the Clayton Anti-Trust Act.
1917 – World War I: At Vincennes outside of Paris, Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by firing squad for spying for Germany.
1917 – World Series: Chicago White Sox (4) vs New York Giants (2).
1919 – Fourteen horses begin a 300-mile race from from Burlington, Vermont to Camp Devens, Massachusetts for $1000 prize money.
1923 – World Series : New York Yankees (4) vs New York Giants (2)
1924 – Pres Coolidge declared the Statue of Liberty a national monument.
1925 – World Series: Pittsburgh Pirates (4) vs Washington Senators (3)
1928 – The airship, the Graf Zeppelin completed its first trans-Atlantic flight, landing at Lakehurst, New Jersey.
1931 – “Cat and the Fiddle” opened in New York for the first of 395 performances.
1937 – Ernest Hemingway novel “To Have & Have Not” published.
1938 – Robert Sherwood’s “Abe Lincoln in Illinois,” premiered in New York City.
1939 – The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed La Guardia Airport) is dedicated.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: The first mass deportation of German Jews to Eastern Europe.
1945 – The former Vichy French Premier Pierre Laval was executed by a firing squad for his wartime collaboration with the Germans.
1946 – World Series: St. Louis Cardinals (4) vs Boston Red Sox (3)
1946 – Nazi war criminal Hermann Goering, founder of the Gestapo, poisoned himself hours before he was to have been executed.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Wish I Didn’t Love You So” by Vaughn Monroe, “Feudin’ and Fightin’” by Dorothy Shay, “Near You” by The Francis Craig Orchestra (vocal: Bob Lamm) and “Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)” by Tex Williams all topped the charts.
1949 – Billy Graham begins his ministry. He gained world attention in 1949 with a tent revival in downtown Los Angeles that was scheduled for three weeks and lasted six.
1949 – “That Lucky Old Sun” by Frankie Laine topped the charts.
1951 – “I Love Lucy” premiered on TV.
1952 – “I Married Joan” with Joan Davis and Jim Backus aired for the first time. The last episode was April 6, 1955.
1953 – “The Teahouse of the August Moon” opened on Broadway.
1954 – Hurricane Hazel struck US and Canada and 348 people died. 81 people were killed in Ontario where damages were estimated at $24 million.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love is a Many-Splendored Thing” by The Four Aces, “Autumn Leaves” by Roger Williams, “Black Denim Trousers” by The Cheers and “The Cattle Call” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1955 – Buddy Holly opened a show for Elvis Presley in Lubbock, TX.
1955 – Richard Martin Theiler (28) was in the front seat of the Lockheed-Martin T-33A that went missing just after takeoff from the Los Angeles International Airport. The plane had just departed in bad weather bound for its base in Yuma, Ariz., but the pilots didn’t make contact after they cleared the clouds. In 2009 aviation archaeologist G. Pat Macha and a group of volunteers found the plane underneath 100 feet of water.
1955 – “Grand Ole Opry” premiered on ABC-TV.
1956 – Pan Am Flight 943, enroute to Hawaii from San Francisco crash landed in the ocean. All 31 aboard were rescued by the Coast Guard cutter Pontchartrain.
1959 – “26 men” premiered. It was an American western television series about the Arizona Rangers, an elite group commissioned in 1901 by the legislature of the Arizona Territory and limited, for financial reasons, to twenty-six active members. The series aired between October 15, 1957 and June 30, 1959, for a total of 78 episodes.
1959 – “Untouchables” premieres. It was based on the memoir of the same name by Eliot Ness and Oscar Fraley, it dealt with the experiences of Eliot Ness, a United States Justice Department agent, as he fought crime in Chicago in the 1930s.
1960 – “Mr. Custer” by Larry Verne topped the charts.
1962 – The Cuban Missile Crisis began. It was on this day that U.S. intelligence personnel analyzing data discovered Soviet medium-range missle sites in Cuba. On October 22 President John F. Kennedy announced that he had ordered the naval “quarantine” of Cuba. October 14 was when the structures were identified.
1962 – Byron R. White (1917-2002) was appointed to the US Supreme Court by Pres. Kennedy.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sugar Shack” by Jimmy Gilmer & The Fireballs, “Be My Baby” by The Ronettes, “Cry Baby” by Garnet Mimms & The Enchanters and “Talk Back Trembling Lips” by Ernest Ashworth all topped the charts.
1964 – World Series: St. Louis Cardinals (4) vs New York Yankees (3)
1964 – Craig Breedlove sets auto speed record of 526 mph.
1965 – First draft card was burned in protest of the U.S.’s involvement in Vietnam.
1966 – President Lyndon Johnson signed a bill creating the Department of Transportation.
1966 – “Reach Out, I’ll Be There” by the Four Tops topped the charts.
1966 – US Congress passed the Endangered Species Preservation Act. It was expanded in 1973 as the Endangered Species Act.
1969 – Oriole Earl Weaver becomes first manager ejected in a World Series. Weaver was the third manager to leave early in a World Series, but the first since 1935.
1969 – Peace demonstrators staged activities across the US, including a candlelight march around the White House, as part Vietnam Moratorium Day.
1969 – The $100-million, 52-story Bank of America World Headquarters at 555 California St. in San Francisco, was dedicated.
1970 – World Series: Baltimore Orioles (4) vs Cincinnati Reds (1)
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Maggie Mae/Reason to Believe” by Rod Stewart, “Superstar” by Carpenters “Yo-Yo” by The Osmonds and “How Can I Unlove You” by Lynn Anderson all topped the charts.
1971 – “Garden Party” was Ricky Nelson’s biggest hit in years and his last hit.
1973 – “Tomorrow” debuted on NBC-TV.
1974 – President Ford signed legislation limiting campaign spending by political parties. Congress amended the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971 to set limits on contributions by individuals, political parties and PACs.
1974 – National Guard mobilized to restore order in Boston school busing.
1976 – First televised debate between vice-presidential nominees took place, involving Democrat Walter F. Mondale and Republican Bob Dole.
1976 – Ike and Tina Turner split their musical act.
1977 – “Slip Slidin’ Away,” by Paul Simon, was released.
1977 – Arkansas’ Steve Little kicks a record tying 67 yard field goal.
1977 – Debbie Boone’s “You Light Up My Life,” goes #1.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Stop ’Til You Get Enough” by Michael Jackson, “Rise” by Herb Alpert, “Sail On” by Commodores and “Last Cheater’s Waltz” by T.G. Sheppard all topped the charts.
1979 – New York Knicks retire their 2nd number, # 10, in honor of Walt Frazier.
1981 – Professional cheerleader Krazy George Henderson leads what is thought to be the first audience wave in the Oakland Athletics-New York Yankees playoff game.
1983 – U.S. Marines killed five snipers who had pinned them down in Beirut International Airport.
1983 – Columbia beats Yale 21-18 in football and they will lose next 44 games.
1983 – “Total Eclipse of the Heart” by Bonnie Tyler topped the charts.
1984 – The Freedom of Information Act was passed.
1985 – Shelley Taylor makes fastest swim ever around Manhattan Island. She did it in 6 hours 12 minutes 29 seconds.
1986 – Longest post season game, Mets beat Astros 7-6 in 16 & win NL pennant.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Here I Go Again” by Whitesnake, “Lost in Emotion” by Lisa Lisa & Cult Jam, “Carrie” by Europe and “The Way We Make a Broken Heart” by Rosanne Cash all topped the charts.
1987 – NFL Players Association orders an end to the 24 day strike.
1987 – Frantic efforts continued in Midland, Texas, to save 18-month-old Jessica McClure, who had fallen 22 feet down an abandoned well the day before. Jessica was freed the following evening.
1988 – Dodgers win game one of the World Series behind Kirk Gibson’s HR. Gibson hits a 2-run home run off Dennis Eckersley with two out in the bottom of the 9th inning to give the Dodgers a 5-4 win.
1988 – “Red Red Wine” by UB40 topped the charts.
1989 – Billy Graham is given the 1,900th star on Hollywood Blvd. His ministry is 40 years old.
1989 – Wayne Gretsky passes Gordie Howes as NHL’s all time top scorer.
1990 – Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1991 – U.S. Senate narrowly confirmed the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court, 52-to-48, despite sexual harassment allegations.
1991 – Pizza Hut, Inc. was trademark registered.
1992 – New York City Subway motorman Robert Ray was convicted of manslaughter in death of five riders, when he fell asleep drunk while in control of train on Aug 28, 1991.
1993 – Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk were named winners of the Nobel Peace Prize.
1994 – President Jean-Bertrand Aristide returned to Haiti after three years in exile.
1995 – Saddam Hussein gains 99.96% of votes in Iraq’s presidential elections.
1997 – The US CIA disclosed that its annual budget for spy services totaled $26.6 billion.
1997 – Former Representative Dan Rostenkowski was released from custody for mail fraud.
1999 – The US stock market Dow Jones average dropped 266.9 points, 2.6%, to 10,019.71. It was the largest % drop since Oct 13, 1989.
1999 – Hurricane Irene hit southern Florida and five people were electrocuted by down power lines in Miami.
2001 – NASA’s Galileo spacecraft passes within 112 miles of Jupiter’s moon Io.
2001 – US warplanes carried out their heaviest bombings in 9 days over Afghanistan. The Pentagon called in the slow moving AC-130 Spectre gunships to targets around Kandahar.
2001 – In Texas the last 2 of 5 escaped convicts were captured after one shot another and freed a farm couple that was held hostage.
2001 – Bethlehem Steel filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
2002 – Former New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani will be paid $4.3 million plus expenses for a one-year contract to advise Mexico City’s mayor on reducing crime.
2002 – It was reported that duct tape is effective in removing warts when worn over the wart for a number of days.
2002 – A listeria outbreak blamed for at east 7 deaths in the northeast was traced to a Wampler Foods plant in Franconia, Pa.
2003 – Terri Schiavo’s feeding tube is removed following numerous failed petitions by her parents to prevent such action. It would be reinserted a week later by order of Florida Governor Jeb Bush.
2003 – The Florida Marlins defeated the Chicago Cubs 9-6 in game 7 for the National League pennant.
2003 -In New York City a collision between the Staten Island Ferry “Andrew J. Barberi” and a pier at the St. George ferry terminal, has left at least ten people dead, forty-two injured and three who lost limbs. The ferry pilot lost consciousness before the vessel slammed into a pier.
2004 – A federal judge struck down a ban on snowmobiles in Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks.
2004 – A federal bankruptcy judge allowed U.S. Airways to cut union workers’ pay immediately by 21 percent.
2004 – US Marines launched air and ground attacks on the insurgent bastion Fallujah after city representatives suspended peace talks with the government over PM Ayad Allawi’s demand to hand over terror mastermind Abu Musab al-Zarqawi.
2005 – Marcia and Ken Powers, a husband-and-wife team, reached the Pacific Ocean on after a 4,900-mile cross-country hike, becoming the first to backpack the transcontinental American Discovery Trail in one continuous trek. They had started Feb. 27 at Cape Henlopen in Delaware.
2005 – In Toledo, Ohio, a riot broke out when protesters confronted members of the National Socialist Movement who had gathered at a city park. More than 100 people were arrested and one officer was seriously injured.
2006 – Three members of Duke University’s lacrosse team appeared on CBS’ “60 Minutes” to deny raping a woman who had been hired to perform as a stripper. Collin Finnerty, Reade Seligmann and David Evans were later exonerated.
2006 – UnitedHealth Group said CEO Dr. William McGuire agreed to leave the company by Dec 1 due to illegal stock option practices. His walk away package was estimated at $1.1 billion.
2006 – A 6.7-magnitude quake hit Hawaii’s Big Island at 7:07 am, followed by aftershocks. It caused blackouts and landslides but no reported fatalities.
2007 – News Corporation’s Fox Business Network launched a new cable channel that will focus on financial markets and global economy news.
2007 – In San Diego, Ca., local and federal agents seized over 5,000 trained birds in the largest cockfighting bust in US history.
2007 – Kathleen Casey-Kirschling became the first baby boomer to make an early filing for Social Security benefits. Kathleen Casey became the first official US baby boomer following her January 1, 1946, birth just after midnight.
2008 – John McCain and Barack Obama held their final televised debate at Hofstra Univ. in Hempstead, NY. It was moderated by Bob Schieffer of CBS.
2008 – U.S. Congressman Vito Fossella is convicted of drunken driving.
2008 – In Illinois a medical helicopter crashed just before midnight and killed a desperately ill 1-year-old girl and three crew members when the aircraft clipped a radio structure’s wire and went down in a suburban Chicago field.
2009 – In Colorado the flight of a home-made helium balloon touched off a frantic rescue attempt for the young boy thought to be aboard. It was later determined to have been a publicity-seeking hoax.
2009 – Colleen R. LaRose (46), a self-described “Jihad Jane,” was arrested in Philadelphia. She is an American citizen who pleaded guilty in February 2011 to charges in terrorism-related crimes, including conspiracy to commit murder and providing material support to terrorists.
2009 – Two F-16 planes collided around 8:30 p.m. about 40 miles off Folly Beach, near Charleston, SC. One jet, piloted by Capt. Lee Bryant, landed safely at Charleston Air Force Base. The missing plane was piloted by Capt. Nicholas Giglio.
2010 – A United States Army soldier from 5th Stryker Brigade Combat Team is to face a court martial on murder and other charges related to the deaths of civilians in Afghanistan.
2010 – GM workers protest a drop in wages, from $58,000/year to $30,000/year, at a new car plant in Michigan that was funded by a $50 billion government bailout and is receiving $770 million intax incentives.
2010 – Workers in Hilton Hotels in the US cities of Chicago, San Francisco, and Honolulu continue a strike over what they claim are efforts to “lock workers into cheap recession contracts.”
2011 – The United States Department of Commerce reports that U.S. retail sales rose at their fastest rate for seven months in September, having risen by 1.1% over the previous month.
2011 – Occupy Wall Street protests take place in hundreds of cities worldwide.
2011 – The world’s first commercial spaceport, Spaceport America, in New Mexico, opens. The SpaceShipTwo spaceplane is expected to begin commercial flights from the spaceport by 2013.
2012 – South Dakota executed Eric Robert (50), the first person to be executed there since 2007. He killed a prison guard during a failed escape attempt in 2011.
70 B.C.E. – Virgil, Roman poet.
1608 – Evangelista Torricelli, Italian physicist and mathematician.
1844 – Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher.
1858 – John L. Sullivan, American world heavyweight champion.
1881 – P.G. Wodehouse, English novelist.
1908 – John Kenneth Galbraith, American economist.
1917 – Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., American historian.
1921 – Mario Puzo, American novelist and screenplay writer.
1844 – Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher (d. 1900)
1959 – Sarah Ferguson (Fergi), Duchess of York.
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Battery A, 2d Battalion, 320th Field Artillery, 101st Airborne Infantry Division (Airmobile). Place and date: Tam Ky, Republic of Vietnam, October 15th, 1967. Entered service at: Winnsboro, S.C. Born: 15 July 1933, Winnsboro, S.C. Citation: Sfc. Anderson (then S/Sgt.), distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action while serving as chief of section in Battery A, against a hostile force. During the early morning hours Battery A’s defensive position was attacked by a determined North Vietnamese Army infantry unit supported by heavy mortar, recoilless rifle, rocket propelled grenade and automatic weapon fire. The initial enemy onslaught breached the battery defensive perimeter. Sfc. Anderson, with complete disregard for his personal safety, mounted the exposed parapet of his howitzer position and became the mainstay of the defense of the battery position. Sfc. Anderson directed devastating direct howitzer fire on the assaulting enemy while providing rifle and grenade defensive fire against enemy soldiers attempting to overrun his gun section position. While protecting his crew and directing their fire against the enemy from his exposed position, two enemy grenades exploded at his feet knocking him down and severely wounding him in the legs. Despite the excruciating pain and though not able to stand, Sfc. Anderson valorously propped himself on the parapet and continued to direct howitzer fire upon the closing enemy and to encourage his men to fight on. Seeing an enemy grenade land within the gun pit near a wounded member of his gun crew, Sfc. Anderson heedless of his own safety, seized the grenade and attempted to throw it over the parapet to save his men. As the grenade was thrown from the position it exploded and Sfc. Anderson was again grievously wounded. Although only partially conscious and severely wounded, Sfc. Anderson refused medical evacuation and continued to encourage his men in the defense of the position. Sfc. Anderson by his inspirational leadership, professionalism, devotion to duty and complete disregard for his welfare was able to maintain the defense of his section position and to defeat a determined attack. Sfc. Anderson’s gallantry and extraordinary heroism at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*POMEROY, RALPH E.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company E, 31st Infantry Regiment, 7th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kumhwa, Korea, October 15th, 1952. Entered service at: Quinwood, W. Va. Born: 26 March 1930, Quinwood, W. Va. G.O. No.: 97, 30 December 1953. Citation: Pfc. Pomeroy, a machine gunner with Company E, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. While his comrades were consolidating on a key terrain feature, he manned a machine gun at the end of a communication trench on the forward slope to protect the platoon flank and prevent a surprise attack. When the enemy attacked through a ravine leading directly to his firing position, he immediately opened fire on the advancing troops inflicting a heavy toll in casualties and blunting the assault. At this juncture the enemy directed intense concentrations of artillery and mortar fire on his position in an attempt to neutralize his gun. Despite withering fire and bursting shells, he maintained his heroic stand and poured crippling fire into the ranks of the hostile force until a mortar burst severely wounded him and rendered the gun mount inoperable. Quickly removing the hot, heavy weapon, he cradled it in his arms and, moving forward with grim determination, raked the attacking forces with a hail of fire. Although wounded a second time he pursued his relentless course until his ammunition was expended within 10 feet of the foe and then, using the machine gun as a club, he courageously closed with the enemy in hand-to-hand combat until mortally wounded. Pfc. Pomeroy’s consummate valor, inspirational actions and supreme sacrifice enabled the platoon to contain the attack and maintain the integrity of the perimeter, reflecting lasting glory upon himself and upholding the noble traditions of the military service .
DONOVAN, WILLIAM JOSEPH
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, 165th Infantry, 42d Division. Place and date: Near Landres-et-St. Georges, France, 14-October 15th, 1918. Entered service at: Buffalo, N.Y. Born: 1 January 1883, Buffalo, N.Y. G.O., No.: 56, W.D., 1922. Citation: Lt. Col. Donovan personally led the assaulting wave in an attack upon a very strongly organized position, and when our troops were suffering heavy casualties he encouraged all near him by his example, moving among his men in exposed positions, reorganizing decimated platoons, and accompanying them forward in attacks. When he was wounded in the leg by machine-gun bullets, he refused to be evacuated and continued with his unit until it withdrew to a less exposed position.
*INGRAM, OSMOND K.
Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 4 August 1887, Alabama. Accredited to. Alabama. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the presence of the enemy on the occasion of the torpedoing of the Cassin, on October 15th, 1917. While the Cassin was searching for the submarine, Ingram sighted the torpedo coming, and realizing that it might strike the ship aft in the vicinity of the depth charges, ran aft with the intention of releasing the depth charges before the torpedo could reach the Cassin. The torpedo struck the ship before he could accomplish his purpose and Ingram was killed by the explosion. The depth charges exploded immediately afterward. His life was sacrificed in an attempt to save the ship and his shipmates, as the damage to the ship would have been much less if he had been able to release the depth charges.
VILLEPIGUE, JOHN C.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company M, 118th Infantry, 30th Division. Place and date: At Vaux-Andigny, France, October 15th, 1918. Entered service at. Camden, S.C. Born: 29 March 1896, Camden, S.C. G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919. Citation: Having been sent out with two other soldiers to scout through the village of Vaux-Andigny, he met with strong resistance from enemy machinegun fire, which killed one of his men and wounded the other. Continuing his advance without aid 500 yards in advance of his platoon and in the face of machinegun and artillery fire he encountered four of the enemy in a dugout, whom he attacked and killed with a handgrenade. Crawling forward to a point 150 yards in advance of his first encounter, he rushed a machinegun nest, killing four and capturing six of the enemy and taking two light machineguns. After being joined by his platoon he was severely wounded in the arm.
BATCHELDER, RICHARD N.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel and Chief Quartermaster, 2d Corps. Place and date: Between Catlett and Fairfax Stations, Va., 13-October 15th, 1863. Entered service at: Manchester, N.H. Born: 27 July 1832, Meredith, N.H. Date of issue: 20 May 1895. Citation: Being ordered to move his trains by a continuous day-and-night march, and without the usual military escort, armed his teamsters and personally commanded them, successfully fighting against heavy odds and bringing his trains through without the loss of a wagon.
Peanut butter was invented and reinvented many times during history. Peanuts were known as early as 950 B.C. and originated inSouth America. The ancient Incas used peanuts and were known to have made it into a kind of paste-like substance. As a crop peanuts emigrated from South America to Africa by early explorers and then traveled by trade into Spain who then traded the product to the American colonies. The first commercial peanut crop was grown in Virginia in the early to mid 1840’s and in North Carolina beginning around 1818.
According to the Corn Products Company, Dr. Ambrose Straub of St. Louis patented a peanut butter-making machine in 1903 and some unknown doctor invented peanut butter in 1890.
Dr. John Harvey Kellogg patented a “Process of Preparing Nut Meal” in 1895 and used peanuts. Kellogg served the patients at his Battle Creek Sanitarium peanut butter. Joseph Lambert worked for Dr. Kellogg and began selling his own hand-operated peanut butter grinder in 1896. Almeeta Lambert published the first nut cookbook, “The Complete Guide to Nut Cookery” in 1899.
There are lots of ways to use peanut butter
Peanut butter is an excellent lubricator. If your lawnmower blades are getting a little tight and rusty – smear on some of the spread and voila – perfect lubrication. This hint is particularly useful because almost every time I need lube, I don’t have any around – but I always have a jar of peanut butter in the cupboard. It can be used for virtually all your lubrication needs.
If you own a cat or a dog, you will know how hard it can be to get them to take their medication – especially when it is in pill form. Fortunately cats and dogs love peanut butter – so next time you have to give them some medication, mix it up with a spoonful and feed it to them. No more struggling with the animal as you hold its mouth open and try to force feed it a bitter pill.
Most recipes that use butter can be cooked with peanut butter instead. In cookies and cakes this can make a wonderful and subtle taste difference. Next time you are making fudge brownies, try using peanut butter instead – it will be like eating a huge Reese’s Peanut Butter Cup. You can also stir peanut butter into a sauce instead of butter to give it a nutty finish.
Mice are not particularly fond of cheese – so it is strange that it is the first food people go for when they are baiting their mousetraps. What most people don’t know is that mice prefer peanut butter – how this has been proven I do not know, but the fact that peanut butter is so much cheaper than cheese, makes this tip a very handy and frugal one. So next time you need to bait a mouse trap, don’t bother loading it with camembert or 5 year aged cheddar, stick on some trusty peanut butter.
Despite the major advances in science in recent years, no one seems to have managed to invent a label that can be removed easily without leaving any glue behind. Fortunately, we have peanut butter. Rub some of the tasty spread on the label glue and rub with a cloth – it works brilliantly.
If you have ever fried fish, you will know that it leaves behind a rather unpleasant fishy smell in the house. To help eradicate the smell, take a tablespoon of peanut butter after you have finished frying the fish, drop it in the frying pan and fry it off for a minute or two. The smell of peanut butter is the house is much more enjoyable than stale fish and oil.
Peanut butter is an excellent cleaner for leather furniture. Just rub a small amount on and work it in in a circular motion. Remove with a buffing cloth and there you have it! The caveat to this tip is peanut-butter smelling furniture. To avoid that you might want to mix a little perfume oil in it – but not too much. Also, if you do add the perfume, make sure you don’t mix up your jars or you will end up with a peanut butter and jelly sandwich that tastes like mouth wash.
This one doesn’t seem quite so weird, but it is included because some cookies use peanut butter as the main ingredient – there is no flour at all. The cookies are a mix of peanut butter, sugar, egg, and vanilla. You can even throw in a handful of chocolate chips if you wish. The resulting cookies are amazingly tasty and it only takes about 20 minutes from start to finish.
While it doesn’t happen quite so often to us adults, children often end up with gum in their hair. This would normally be followed up by a lot of tugging and pulling with a comb to remove it, and the eventual chopping of the locks. But what most people don’t realize, is that peanut butter is a perfect “gum remover” – not only will it remove gum from hair, but it will remove it from carpet and any other object that is tainted with the chewy stuff. Just rub some peanut butter into the gum and you can wipe the whole mess off with a cloth.
Believe it or not, peanut butter makes a great shaving gel. Just apply it like you would apply the gel, and shave as normal. It works just as well and anyone that has bought a container of shaving gel will know, it is a hell of a lot cheaper. The end result is a very smooth shave and, as a bonus, the oils in the peanut butter are very good for your skin, so you don’t need to spend even more money on moisturizer for your legs or face. You might want to remember to use smooth peanut butter though – the chunky stuff doesn’t work quite as well.
“If you don’t mind smelling like peanut butter for two or three days, peanut butter is darn good shaving cream.”
~ Barry Goldwater
n. Informal.Unwavering pertinacity; perseverance: “You’ve got to have reasonable goals and the stick-to-itiveness to get there” (J. Robert Buchanan).
54 A.D. – Roman emperor Claudius I died, after being poisoned with mushrooms by his wife, Agrippina. Nero (37-68AD), son of Agrippina, succeeded his great uncle Claudius as the new emperor of Rome. After the murder of his wife, Octavia, Nero descended deep into a religious delirium. His acts became wild and unintelligible and he was displaced by his soldiers with Galba after which he committed suicide.
1307 – Members of the Knights of Templar are arrested throughout France, imprisoned and tortured by the order of King Philip the Fair of France.
1670 – Virginia passed a law that blacks arriving in the colonies as Christians cannot be used as slaves.
1775 – The Continental Congress authorized the first American naval force. Later in the year, Esek Hopkins is appointed the first commander-in-chief of the Continental Navy (later called the United States Navy).
1776 – Benedict Arnold was defeated at Lake Champlain by the British, who then retreated to Canada for the winter. Arnold’s efforts bought the colonists nine months to consolidate their hold in northern New York.
1792 – The Executive Mansion (later White House) cornerstone block was laid by President George Washington; it was designed by Irish-American architect James Hoban. John Adams was the first President to occupy it.
1792 – The “Old Farmer’s Almanac” was first published.
1812 – During the War of 1812, British and Indian forces under Sir Isaac Brock defeated Americans under General Stephen Van Rensselaer at the Battle of Queenstown Heights, effectively ending further United States invasion of Canada.
1843 – The Jewish organization B’nai B’rith (meaning “Sons of the Covenant”) was founded in New York City by Henry Jones and eleven others.
1845 – A majority of voters in the Republic of Texas approve a proposed constitution that, if accepted by the U.S. Congress, will make Texas a U.S. state.
1849 – The California state constitution, which prohibited slavery, was signed in Monterey.
1854 – The state of Texas ratified a state constitution.
1858 – The sixth debate between senatorial candidates Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas took place in Quincy, Ill.
1860 – The first aerial photo was taken in the U.S., from a hot air balloon over Boston.
1864 – Civil War: Battle at Darbytown Road Virginia resulted in 337 casualties. Union forces advanced to find and feel the new Confederate defensive line in front of Richmond.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Harpers Ferry, WV (Mosby’s Raid). Learning that the garrison at Harpers Ferry had not retreated after his incursion into Maryland, Lee decided to surround the force and capture it.
1881 – A revival of the Hebrew language began as Eliezer Ben-Yehuda and friends agreed to use Hebrew exclusively in their conversations.
1893 – The melody for “Happy Birthday To You” (originally published as “Good Morning To All” in Mildred J. and Patty S. Hill’s “Song Stories for the Kindergarten”) was copyright registered.
1903 – World Series: The Boston Americans defeated the Pittsburgh Pirates in baseball’s first World Series. It was an eight game series and the Americans won 5 with the Pirates winning 3. Attendances ran from a low of 7455 to a high of 18,801.
1903 – “Babes in Toyland” entertained youngsters of all ages in New York City.
1904 – Sigmund Freud’s “The Interpretation of Dreams” was published.
1913 – The 16th amendment to the constitution was ratified and the modern income tax came into being. It lifted the constitutional ban on income taxes. The levy was 1% of GDP and the highest rate was 7%. An exemption on the first $20,000 in dividend income was revoked during WW I.
1914 – World Series: Boston Braves (4) vs Philadelphia Athletics (0).
1914 – Garrett Morgan invented and patented a gas mask, a breathing device consisting of a canvas hood placed over the head. A double tube extended from the hood and merged into a single tube at the back. The open end held a sponge soaked with water to filter out smoke and to cool incoming air.
1915 – World Series: Boston Red Sox (4) vs Philadelphia Phillies (1). This series was notable mostly for the debut of a young twenty year old lefty named George Herman Ruth.
1921 – World Series: New York Giants (5) vs New York Yankees (3). This was the first broadcast on the radio of the World Series.
1939 – Harry James and his band featuring Frank Sinatra recorded “On a Little Street in Singapore.”
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: Nazis killed 11,000 Jewish children and old people.
1942 – World War II: In the first of four attacks, two Japanese battleships sail down the slot and shelled Henderson field on Guadalcanal with 918 rounds, in an unsuccessful effort to destroy the American Cactus Air Force.
1943 – World War II: The new government of Italy sides with the Allies and declares war on Germany.
1944 – World War II: American troops entered Aachen, Germany.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Till the End of Time” by Perry Como, “If I Loved You” by Perry Como, “Along the Navajo Trail” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters and “You Two Timed Me One Time Too Often” by Tex Ritter all topped the charts.
1947 – “Kukla, Fran & Ollie” premieres. It was unique in the history of television: a live, daily, ad-libbed puppet show that was watched by more adults than children.
1951 – Korean War- Hill 851, the last peak comprising Heartbreak Ridge, was secured by the 23rd Regimental Combat Team of the 2nd Infantry Division after a fierce assault of bayonets, grenades and flame-throwers.
1951 – A football with a rubber covering was used for the first time, as Georgia Tech whipped Louisiana State 25-7.
1951 – “Because of You” by Tony Bennett topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: US Naval aircraft hit enemy positions around Kojo, and Navy surface craft shelled the beach area. After almost a year, the enemy, using small fabric-covered biplanes, hassled Cho-do and the Seoul area with “Bedcheck Charlie” raids.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Vaya Con Dios” by Les Paul & Mary Ford, “You, You, You” by The Ames Brothers, “No Other Love” by Perry Como and “I Forgot More Than You’ll Ever Know” by The Davis Sisters all topped the charts.
1953 – The first U.S. patent for a burglar alarm operated by ultrasonic sound was issued to Samuel Bagno of New York City on a system for movement detection in a confined space by intruders or fire. It was manufactured as the Alertronic and first sold in June 1950.
1955 – A US Air Force B-47B crashed while taking off from March Air Base in California. Capt. Edward A. O’Brien Jr. (Pilot), Capt. David J. Clare (co-pilot), Major Thomas F. Mulligan (navigator), and Capt. Joseph M. Graeber (chaplain) were all killed.
1957 – “The Edsel Show” (Part 1) was an hour-long television special broadcast live on CBS. The show starred Bing Crosby and featured Frank Sinatra, Rosemary Clooney, Louis Armstrong, Lindsay Crosby and The Four Preps. It also featured an appearance by a “mystery guest” who turned out to be Bob Hope.
(Part 2 – 14:57)) (Part 3 – 13:32)) (Part 4 – 11:01) (Part 5 – 14:48)
1958 – “Tea for Two Cha Cha” by the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra made the pop chart.
1960 – World Series: Pittsburgh Pirates (4) vs New York Yankees (3). Bill Mazeroski becomes the first person to end a World Series with a home run.
1960 – Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy participated in the third televised debate of their presidential campaign, with Nixon in Hollywood and Kennedy in New York. (Part 1 – 15:17 ) (Part 2 – 14:56) (Part 3 – 15:11) (Part 4 – 13:35)
1962 – “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?,” by Edward Albee, opened on Broadway.
1962 – “Sherry” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1963 – “Beatlemania” was coined after Beatles appeared at the London Palladium.
1965 – Vietnam: War: Marine Attack Squadron 211 (VMA-211) was awarded the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Gallantry Cross for Vietnam service, 13 October 1965 – 13 July 1966.
1966 – Vietnam: War: US completes a major bombing of North Vietnam using 173 aircraft.
1967 – The first game of the new American Basketball Association was played.
1967 – Pat Boone, the owner of the Oakland Oaks, sang the national anthem at the first game of the new American Basketball Association.
1970 – Angela Yvonne Davis, a former philosophy professor at the University of California, black militant, and self-proclaimed Communist, was arrested for supplying weapons used in a courtroom shootout in California.
1971 – Donny Osmond earned a gold record for “Go Away Little Girl.”
1971 – Bing Crosby, part owner of the Pittsburgh Pirates, threw out the first ball in Game 4 of the World Series between the Pirates and the Orioles. This was also the first World Series game to be played entirely under the lights. Pittsburgh comes back from a 3-0 deficit to beat Baltimore 4-3.
1973 – The Rolling Stones’ “Goat’s Head Soup” (1:19:54) was number one album in the U.S. This link is 30th Anniversary version.
1973 – “Half-Breed” by Cher topped the charts.
1974 – Television host Ed Sullivan died in New York City at age 72.
1976 – The first electron micrograph of an Ebola viral particle was obtained by Dr. F.A. Murphy, now at U.C. Davis. He was then working at the C.D.C..
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Star Wars Theme/Cantina Band” by Maco, “Keep It Comin’ Love” by KC & The Sunshine Band, “You Light Up My Life” by Debby Boone and “Heaven’s Just a Sin Away” by The Kendalls all topped the charts.
1979 – “Don’t Stop ’til You Get Enough” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1982 – The International Olympic Committee restores 2 gold medals from 1912 Olympics to Jim Thorpe. During the summers of 1909 and 1910, Thorpe was paid – reports have him earning from $2 a game to $35 a week – for playing for Rocky Mountain in Fayetteville in the Class D Eastern Carolina League.
1983 – The Space Shuttle Challenger, carrying seven, the largest crew to date, landed safely at Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
1983 – Ameritech Mobile Communications (now Cingular) launched the first US cellular network in Chicago.
1984 – John Henry becomes first thoroughbred to win $6 million.
1984 – “I Just Called to Say I Love You” by Stevie Wonder topped the charts.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh Sheila” by Ready For The World, “Take on Me” by a-ha, “Saving All My Love for You” by Whitney Houston and “Meet Me in Montana” by Marie Osmond with Dan Seals all topped the charts.
1987 – First military use of trained dolphins (US Navy in Persian Gulf)
1988 – Vice President George Bush and Democrat Michael Dukakis met in their second presidential debate of the 1988 campaign.
1988 – The first U.S. Merchant Marine World War II veterans received their Coast Guard issued discharge certificates. Congress gave the Merchant Mariners veterans’ status and tasked the Coast Guard with administering the discharges.
1989 – President George H.W. Bush called for an overthrow of the Panamanian ruler Manuel Antonio Noriega.
1990 – “Praying for Time” by George Michael topped the charts.
1991 – The Minnesota Twins won the American League pennant, defeating the Toronto Blue Jays 8-5 at SkyDome.
1992 – A commercial flight record was set by an Air France supersonic jetliner for circling the Earth in 33 hours and one minute.
1993- The Philadelphia Phillies won the National League pennant, defeating the Atlanta Braves in game six.
1994 – Netscape Communications Corporation announced that it was offering its new Netscape Navigator free to users via the Internet.
1995 – Walt Disney World Resort admitted its 500-millionth guest. Bill Trow from Wentworthville, Australia, was presented a key for being guest number 500 million at the fantasy US theme park in Los Angeles.
1996 – The Yankees won the American League pennant, defeating the Baltimore Orioles.
1996 – House Speaker Newt Gingrich, appearing on CBS’ “Face the Nation,” called on Congress to investigate campaign contributions made to President Clinton’s re-election campaign by the Lippo Group, an Indonesian banking conglomerate.
1997 – A British jet car, Thrust SSC, driven by Andy Green of the Royal Air Force set a land speed record of 764.168 mph in Nevada’s Black Rock Desert. The record was not recorded as official because turn around time went over an hour due to braking problems. Green officially broke the record two days later.
1998 – The National Basketball Association canceled the first two weeks of its regular season because of a lockout. This was the first time in its 51-year history. It will happen again in 2011.
1998 – The New York Yankees won the American League pennant with a 9-5 victory over the Cleveland Indians in Game 6 of their championship series.
1998 – Eric Robert Rudolph, a suspect in the bombing of a Birmingham, Ala. abortion clinic, was reported to be linked to the 1996 Olympics bombing and would be charged for that and two other bombings in Atlanta.
1999 – The US Senate rejected the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban treaty 51-48.
1999 – In Boulder, Colorado, the JonBenet Ramsey grand jury was dismissed after 13 months of work with prosecutors saying there wasn’t enough evidence to charge anyone in the six-year-old’s strangulation.|
1999 – MASS SHOOTING: In Texas, three Pleasanton law officers, Mark Stephenson, Thomas Monse and Terry Miller were shot and killed by Jeremiah Engleton (21), who had been arrested earlier for beating his wife.
2000 – A US federal appeals court ruled that residents of Puerto Rico cannot vote in presidential elections unless the island becomes a state or the US Constitution is amended.
2001 – Anthrax was confirmed in three US states. In Florida five more employees tested positive; in Nevada a letter sent to a Microsoft office tested positive; and in New York City a letter sent to NBC News tested positive.
2001 – In Nebraska a school bus carrying a high school band in Douglas County overturned and three people were killed.
2002 – The Anaheim Angels routed the Minnesota Twins 13-5 to win the American League Championship Series in five games.
2002 – In Iowa up to eleven bodies of suspected Mexican immigrants were found in a Union Pacific rail car. The car had left Matamoros, Mexico, in June, and had been parked in Oklahoma since mid-June.
2003 – It was reported that scientists in North Carolina had built a brain implant that lets monkeys control a robotic arm with their thoughts.
2003 – In Louisiana a bus crash on I-20 killed eight members of a Texas church group after the driver fell asleep.
2004 – A Russian rocket lifted off in Kazakhstan carrying two Russians and an American to replace the crew of the International Space Station.
2004 – In Tempe, AZ, Pres. Bush and Sen John Kerry held their 3rd and final debate trading blows on taxes, gun control, abortion and jobs.
2004 – The US government approved a microchip that can be implanted under the skin to provide doctors with patient data. Two weeks after the device’s approval took effect on Jan. 10, 2005, Tommy Thompson left his Cabinet post, and within five months was a board member of VeriChip Corp. and Applied Digital Solutions.
2005 – ABC investigative reporter Brian Ross reports that security at nuclear reactors on U.S. college campuses is easily compromised.
2006 – Air America Radio, a liberal talk radio network founded in 2004, filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy.
2006 – A jury in Philadelphia said US retail giant Wal-Mart must pay $78 million dollars for violating labor laws in Pennsylvania.
2008 – ABC News reported that Tim Mahoney (52), a US Democratic Representative from Florida, had an affair with an aide and then paid her $121,000 to keep her quiet and avoid a sexual harassment suit. His affair with Patricia Allen (50) had begun in 2006.
2008 – In the San Francisco Bay Area fire crews extinguished a fire that had begun a day earlier on Angel Island. All the historic buildings on the island were saved. The fire burned 400 of the island’s 740 acres.
2009 – It was reported that the FBI has begun using facial-recognition technology on millions of motorists comparing driver’s license photos with pictures of convicts. The project in North Carolina had already helped nab at least one suspect.
2009 – The Missouri Dept. of Revenue sent letters to 140 yoga and Pilates practices telling them they must collect sales tax on fees for their classes and services.
2009 – In Ohio a woman being driven around in a rented limousine pulled up at a Burlington coat store and announced she’d won the lottery and would pay for everyone’s purchases. Linda Brown (44) ended up causing a riot when customers realized it was a hoax. When the limousine driver realized he wasn’t going to be paid the $900 Brown owed him for the day’s rental, he turned her in to police.
2010 – The US government rules out a moratorium on foreclosures. The moratorium would help millions expected to lose their homes, but may also hurt the housing market.
2011- Illinois Democratic Rep. Jesse Jackson, Jr stated that congressional opposition to the American Jobs Act is akin to the Confederate ‘states in rebellion. He called for full government employment of the 15 million unemployed and said that Obama should ‘declare a national emergency’ and take ‘extra-constitutional’ action ‘administratively’ — without the approval of Congress — to tackle unemployment.
2012 – President Obama in his weekly address said that he refused to “let Detroit go bankrupt.”“[W]e refused to throw in the towel and do nothing,” Obama said. “We refused to let Detroit go bankrupt, I bet on American workers, and American ingenuity and three years later that bet is paying off in a big way.” On July 18, 2013 it went officially bankrupt.
2012 – Residents of Los Angeles watch in awe as U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour inches through the city on a giant trolley, bound for a museum. Hundreds of trees in its path are chopped down.
2013 – Jimmy Johnson, professional bass angler, was shot and killed by a 17-year-old assailant in Jackson, MS. The crime occurred because a fence surrounding the property was broken down allowing the assailant to get past the property’s cameras. (See February 23, 2014 for the lawsuit filed for inadequate security).
1754 – “Molly Pitcher” (Mary Hays (Ludwig) McCauley), heroine of the American Revolution.
1853 – Lillie Langtry, British actress (d. 1929) Remember Judge Roy Bean?
1909 – Herblock (Herbert Lawrence Block), American editorial cartoonist.
1921 – Yves Montand, French singer and actor.
1924 – Nipsey Russell, American comedian, actor, and television personality (d. 2005)
1925 – Lenny Bruce, American controversial comedian.
1925 – Lady Margaret Thatcher (Roberts), first female Prime Minister of Great Britain
1941 – Paul Simon, American singer, songwriter, and guitarist
BURT, JAMES M.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Company B, 66th Armored Regiment, 2d Armored Division. Place and date: Near Wurselen, Germany, October 13th, 1944. Entered service at: Lee, Mass. Birth: Hinsdale, Mass. G.O. No.: 95, 30 October 1945. Citation: Capt. James M. Burt was in command of Company B, 66th Armored Regiment on the western outskirts of Wurselen, Germany, on 13 October 1944, when his organization participated in a coordinated infantry-tank attack destined to isolate the large German garrison which was tenaciously defending the city of Aachen. In the first day’s action, when infantrymen ran into murderous small-arms and mortar fire, Capt. Burt dismounted from his tank about two-hundred yards to the rear and moved forward on foot beyond the infantry positions, where, as the enemy concentrated a tremendous volume of fire upon him, he calmly motioned his tanks into good firing positions. As our attack gained momentum, he climbed aboard his tank and directed the action from the rear deck, exposed to hostile volleys which finally wounded him painfully in the face and neck. He maintained his dangerous post despite pointblank self-propelled gunfire until friendly artillery knocked out these enemy weapons, and then proceeded to the advanced infantry scouts’ positions to deploy his tanks for the defense of the gains which had been made. The next day, when the enemy counterattacked, he left cover and went seventy-five yards through heavy fire to assist the infantry battalion commander who was seriously wounded. For the next eight days, through rainy, miserable weather and under constant, heavy shelling, Capt. Burt held the combined forces together, dominating and controlling the critical situation through the sheer force of his heroic example. To direct artillery fire, on 15 October, he took his tank 300 yards into the enemy lines, where he dismounted and remained for one-hour giving accurate data to friendly gunners. Twice more that day he went into enemy territory under deadly fire on reconnaissance. In succeeding days he never faltered in his determination to defeat the strong German forces opposing him. Twice the tank in which he was riding was knocked out by enemy action, and each time he climbed aboard another vehicle and continued the fight. He took great risks to rescue wounded comrades and inflicted prodigious destruction on enemy personnel and materiel even though suffering from the wounds he received in the battle’s opening phase. Capt. Burt’s intrepidity and disregard of personal safety were so complete that his own men and the infantry who attached themselves to him were inspired to overcome the wretched and extremely hazardous conditions which accompanied one of the most bitter local actions of the war. The victory achieved closed the Aachen gap.
*OLSON, ARLO L.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 1 5th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Crossing of the Volturno River, Italy, October 13th, 1943. Entered service at: Toronto, S. Dak. Birth: Greenville, lowa. G.O. No.: 71, 31 August 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 13 October 1943, when the drive across the Volturno River began, Capt. Olson and his company spearheaded the advance of the regiment through thirty miles of mountainous enemy territory in thirteen days. Placing himself at the head of his men, Capt. Olson waded into the chest-deep water of the raging Volturno River and despite pointblank machine-gun fire aimed directly at him made his way to the opposite bank and threw two handgrenades into the gun position, killing the crew. When an enemy machinegun 150 yards distant opened fire on his company, Capt. Olson advanced upon the position in a slow, deliberate walk. Although five German soldiers threw handgrenades at him from a range of five yards, Capt. Olson dispatched them all, picked up a machine pistol and continued toward the enemy. Advancing to within fifteen yards of the position he shot it out with the foe, killing 9 and seizing the post. Throughout the next thirteen days Capt. Olson led combat patrols, acted as company No. 1 scout and maintained unbroken contact with the enemy. On 27 October 1943, Capt. Olson conducted a platoon in attack on a strongpoint, crawling to within twenty-five yards of the enemy and then charging the position. Despite continuous machinegun fire which barely missed him, Capt. Olson made his way to the gun and killed the crew with his pistol. When the men saw their leader make this desperate attack they followed him and overran the position. Continuing the advance, Capt. Olson led his company to the next objective at the summit of Monte San Nicola. Although the company to his right was forced to take cover from the furious automatic and small arms fire, which was directed upon him and his men with equal intensity, Capt. Olson waved his company into a skirmish line and despite the fire of a machinegun which singled him out as its sole target led the assault which drove the enemy away. While making a reconnaissance for defensive positions, Capt. Olson was fatally wounded. Ignoring his severe pain, this intrepid officer completed his reconnaissance, Supervised the location of his men in the best defense positions, refused medical aid until all of his men had been cared for, and died as he was being carried down the mountain.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company D, 115th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Buzzard’s Roost Gap, Ga., October 13th, 1864. Entered service at: Rushville, Schuyler County, Ill. Born: 17 May 1829, Harrison County, Ind. Date of issue: 28 March 1896. Citation: With only forty-one men under his command, defended and held a blockhouse against the attack of Hood’s Division for nearly ten hours, thus checking the advance of the enemy and insuring the safety of the balance of the regiment, as well as that of the 8th Kentucky Infantry, then stationed at Ringgold, Ga.
Domestic Violence Awareness Month
Columbus Day (Traditional)
A parachute is a soft fabric device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag. Parachutes are generally used to slow the descent of a person or object to Earth or another celestial body within an atmosphere. Drogue parachutes are also sometimes used to aid horizontal deceleration of a vehicle (a fixed-wing aircraft or space shuttle after touchdown, or a drag racer). The word parachute comes from the French words para, protect or shield, and chute, the fall. Therefore parachute actually means “fall protection”. Most modern parachutes are classified as semi-rigid wings, are quite maneuverable, and can be flown as a glider.
Credit for the invention of the first practical parachute frequently goes to Sebastien Lenormand who demonstrated the parachute principle in 1783. However, parachutes had been imagined and sketched by Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) centuries earlier.
Jean Pierre Blanchard (1753-1809) a Frenchman, was probably the first person to actually use a parachute for an emergency. In 1785, he dropped a dog in a basket, to which a parachute was attached, from a balloon high in the air. In 1793, Blanchard claimed to have escaped from an exploded hot air balloon with a parachute. However, this was an unwitnessed event. Blanchard, it should be noted, did develop the first foldable parachute made from silk, up until that point all parachutes were made with rigid frames. Originally silk was used for parachute suspension lines, but was replaced by nylon during the Second World War.
In 1797 (October 22), Andrew Garnerin was the first person recorded to jump with a parachute without a rigid frame. Garnerin jumped from hot air balloons as high as 8,000 feet in the air. Garnerin also designed the first air vent in a parachute intended to reduce oscillations. When opened, the Andrew Garnerin parachute resembled a huge umbrella about thirty feet in diameter. It was made of canvas and was attached to a hydrogen balloon.
In 1890, Paul Letteman and Kathchen Paulus invented the method of folding or packing the parachute in a knapsack to be worn on the back before its release. Kathchen Paulus was also behind the invention of the intentional breakaway, which is when one small parachute opens first and pulls open the main parachute.
Two parachutters claim to be the first person to jump from an airplane,
both Grant Morton and Captain Albert Berry parachuted from an airplane in 1911. Stanley Switlik founded the “Canvas-Leather Speciality Company” on October 9,
1920. The company first manufactured items such as leather hampers, golf bags, coal bags, pork roll casings, and postal mail bags. However, Switlik soon switched to making pilot and gunner belts, designing flight clothing, and experimenting with parachutes. The company was soon renamed the Switlik Parachute & Equipment Company.
According to the Switlik Parachute Company: “In 1934, Stanley Switlik and George Palmer Putnam, Amelia Earhart’s husband, formed a joint venture and built a 115 foot tall tower on Stanley’s farm in Ocean County. Designed to train airmen in parachute jumping, the first public jump from the tower was made by Ms. Earhart on June 2, 1935. Witnessed by a crowd of reporters and officials from the Army and Navy, she described the descent as “Loads of Fun!”
Parachute jumping as a sport began in the 1960s when new “sport parachutes” were first designed. The parachute uses drive slots for greater stability and horizontal speed.
“Skill in the art of communication is crucial to a leader’s success. He can accomplish nothing unless he can communicate effectively.”
~ Norman Allen
bon ton \bahn-TAHN\, noun:
1. Fashionable or elegant manner or style.
2. The proper or fashionable thing to do.
3. Fashionable society; a fashionable social set.
Bon ton is from the French bon (from Latin bonus), good + ton (from Latin tonus), tone.
539 BC – The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon.
1285 – One hundred-eighty Jews refused baptism in Munich, Germany, and were set on fire.
1492 – Christopher Columbus arrived with his expedition in the present-day Bahamas and sighted Watling Island. He believed that he had found Asia while attempting to find a Western ocean route to India.
1609 – The song “Three Blind Mice” was published in London; it was believed to be the earliest printed secular song.
1681 – A London woman is publicly flogged for the crime of “involving herself in politics”
1773 – America’s first insane asylum opens for ‘Persons of Insane and Disordered Minds’ in Virginia.
1775 – The United States Navy is formed.
1776 – British Brigade began guarding Throgs Necks Road in Bronx.
1792 – First celebration of Columbus Day in the USA held in New York.
1810 – The Bavarian royalty invited the citizens of Munich to attend the festivities, held for Bavarian Crown Prince Ludwig’s (later King Ludwig I of Bavaria) wedding to Princess Therese of Saxony-Hildburghausen. The decision to repeat the festivities in the subsequent year gave rise to the tradition of the annual Oktoberfest.
1823 – Charles Macintosh, of Scotland, sells the first raincoat.
1850 – The first women’s medical college opens, in Pennsylvania. This was two years after the formation of Hahnemann University.
1853 – John Morrissey wins boxing title, when Yankee Sullivan leaves ring after 36th round.
1859 – Self-described “Emperor of the United States” Joshua A. Norton issues a decree dissolving the U.S. Congress. Congress fails to notice.
1861 – Civil War: Confederate ironclad Manassas attacks Union’s Richmond on Mississippi River. The Manassas was the Confederacy‘s first operational ironclad.
1862 – Civil War: There was a skirmish at Monocacy, Maryland.
1870 – Gen. Robert E. Lee died in Lexington, Va., at 63.
1871 – President Grant ordered the South Carolina Ku Klux Klan to disperse and disarm in five days.
1872 – Apache (Chiricahua) leader Cochise signed a peace treaty with General O.O. Howard in Arizona Territory.
1892 – The Pledge of Allegiance is first recited in unison by students in US public schools in honor of the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’s discovery. Francis Bellamy, a magazine editor of Rome, NY, wrote the “Pledge of Allegiance.”
1895 – In Newport, RI, the first amateur golf tournament was held.
1901 – U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt renamed the Executive Mansion “The White House.”
1907 – World Series: Chicago Cubs (4) vs Detroit Tigers (0) Tie(1).
1914 – USS Jupiter (AC-3) is first Navy ship to complete transit of Panama Canal.
1915 – World War I: British nurse Edith Cavell was executed by a German firing squad in Brussels for helping Allied soldiers escape from German-occupied Belgium during World War I.
1915 – Former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt criticized U.S. citizens who identified themselves by dual nationalities.
1915 – Ford Motor Company manufactured its 1 millionth Model T automobile.
1916 – World Series: Boston Red Sox (4) vs Brooklyn Robins (1).
1917 – Lions International was founded in Dallas, Texas.
1917 – The 1st Marine Aviation Squadron and 1st Marine Aeronautic Company formed at Philadelphia.
1918 – The 1918 Cloquet fire was a massive fire in northern Minnesota caused by sparks on the local railroads and dry conditions. It was the worst natural disaster in Minnesota history in terms of the number of lives lost in a single day.
1920 – Construction of the Holland Tunnel got underway. The tunnel provides a direct link between Twelfth Street in Jersey City, NJ and Canal Street in New York City.
1920: World Series: Cleveland Indians (5) vs Brooklyn Robins (2)
1920 – Race Horse Man O’War’s ran his last race and won.
1923 – NY Giants’ Casey Stengel home run beats Yanks 1-0 in Game 3 of the World Series.
1928 – The first iron lung was used, at Boston Children’s Hospital, Massachusetts. The inventors used an iron box and two vacuum cleaners to build their prototype respirator. Almost the length of a subcompact car, the iron lung exerted a push-pull motion on the chest.
1928 – Graf Zeppelin, the first commercial dirigible to cross the Atlantic Ocean, embarked on its maiden voyage. It made more than 500 transatlantic flights before being retired in favor of the ill-fated Hindenburg.
1933 – The United States Army Disciplinary Barracks on Alcatraz Island, is acquired by the United States Department of Justice. It becomes an unofficial federal penitentiary.
1933 – John Dillinger escapes from the Allen County, OH, jail. The sheriff was killed by his gang as they helped Dillinger escape.
1937 – “Mr. Keen, Tracer of Lost Persons” debuted on radio. This kind, elderly, boring sleuth, in company with his bumbling assistant, Mike Clancy, was on the airwaves from 1937 to 1955.
1938 – Filming starts on The Wizard of Oz.
1939 – “Body and Soul“, by jazz great Coleman Hawkins, was waxed on Bluebird Records.
1939 – The Philadelphia Eagles lost the first televised game 23-14 to the Brooklyn Dodgers. The game was played in Brooklyn’s Ebbetts Field before 13,000 fans and broadcast to approx. 1,000 television sets in New York City without the knowledge of the players.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: Thousands of Jews were killed in Ivano Frankivsk, Ukraine, by men of the Security Police (Sicherheitspolizei; SiPo), assisted by members of the German Order Police (Ordnungspolizei) and the railroad police.
1942 – President Franklin Delano Roosevelt delivered a “fireside chat” in which he reemphasized America’s unbeatable spirit.
1942 – U.S. Attorney General Francis Biddle announced that Italian nationals in the U.S. would no longer be considered enemy aliens.
1942 – World War II: US Navy defeated Japanese in WW II Battle of Cape Esperance.
1944 – World War II: Aircraft from Carrier Task Force 38 attack Formosa.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Walk Alone” by Dinah Shore, “Is You is or is You Ain’t” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “Together” by Helen Forrest & Dick Haymes and “Smoke on the Water” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1944 – Frank Sinatra returned to the Paramount Theatre to a huge crowd known as the “Columbus Day Riot”.
1945 – Private First Class Desmond T. Ross, of Lynchburg, Virginia, was presented the Medal of Honor for outstanding bravery as a medical corpsman. Ironically, Ross had registered as a conscientious objector upon entering the service.
1948 – Casey Stengel takes over as Yankee manager.
1949 – Eugenie Anderson became the first woman U.S. ambassador.
1950 – The “George Burns and Gracie Allen Show” (27:19) made its debut on CBS-TV.
1950 – The Kefauver Crime Commission convened in New York to investigate interstate organized crime.
1950 – Korean War: The battleship USS Missouri bombarded Chongjin.
1950 – Korean War: The USS Pirate and USS Pledge were both destroyed by mines. The Pirate sank in four minutes with six killed and forty-three wounded. The Pledge suffered seven killed in action and thirty-six wounded.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Belong to Me” by Jo Stafford, “Wish You Were Here” by Eddie Fisher, “Jambalaya (On the Bayou)” by Jo Stafford and “Jambalaya (On the Bayou)” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – “The Bob Hope Show” debuted on television.
1954 – Philadelphia A’s gets permission to move to Kansas City.
1957 – “Honeycomb” by Jimmie Rodgers topped the charts.
1958 – Spencer Tracy’s classic movie, The Old Man and the Sea was released. Based on Ernest Hemingway’s Pulitzer Prize-winning novel of the same name, it is the story of an aging fisherman attempting to find himself, and hopefully a fish, on a fishing trip near Cuba. Audiobook 2:30:30
1960 – Nikita Khrushchev pounds his shoe on a desk at United Nations General Assembly meeting to protest a Philippine assertion of Soviet Union colonialist policy being conducted in Eastern Europe.
1961 – The first video memoirs by a U.S. president were made. CBS presented a three-hour discussion with former President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
1962 – Little Richard headlined a concert in Liverpool. One of the opening acts was the Beatles.
1963 – “Sugar Shack” by Jimmy Gilmer & the Fireballs topped the charts.
1964 – Mary Meyer, lover to John F. Kennedy up to his assassination, was brutally murdered on a walking path by the Potomac River.
1965 – End of Project Sealab II where teams of naval divers and scientists spent 15 days in Sealab moored 205 feet below surface near La Jolla, California.
1965 – First group of men commissioned into Navy Nurse Corps report for one month indoctrination to Naval Service; LTJG Jerry McClelland, ENS Charles Franklin, ENS Israel Miller, ENS Richard Gierman and ENS George Silver.
1967 – World Series: St. Louis Cardinals (4) vs Boston Red Sox (3).
1968 – “Cheap Thrills“, (56:25) the album by Big Brother and the Holding Company hit #1.
1968 – The U.S. launched Apollo 7. It was described by commander Walter M. Schirra, Jr. as a “magnificent flying machine.”
1970 – Vietnam War: US President Richard Nixon announces that the United States will withdraw 40,000 more troops before Christmas
1971 – The U.S. House of Representatives passed the Equal Rights Amendment (354-23).
1971 – “Jesus Christ Superstar,” (2:01:04) the rock opera by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice, opened at the Mark Hellinger Theater on Broadway.
1972 – Stevie Wonder registered the words and music for “You Are the Sunshine of My Life“.
1972 – Vietnam War: A racial brawl broke out aboard the U.S. aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk. Nearly 50 sailors were injured.
1972 – Mariner 9 takes pictures of Martian northern pole.
1973 – President Richard Nixon nominated House minority leader Gerald R. Ford of Michigan to succeed Spiro T. Agnew as vice president.
1974 – “I Honestly Love You” by Olivia Newton-John topped the charts.
1975 – “Live from New York! It’s Saturday Night!” The late-night comedy show, Saturday Night Live, made its debut — with George Carlin as the first guest host. Monologue
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “A Fifth of Beethoven” by Walter Murphy & The Big Apple Band, “Lowdown” by Boz Scaggs, “Disco Duck (Part 1)” by Rick Dees & His Cast of Idiots and “The Games That Daddies Play” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1977 – The US Supreme Court ruled that communities have a right to prevent commuters from parking in residential neighborhoods.
1977 – US Supreme Court heard arguments in the “reverse discrimination” case of Allan Bakke (35), a white student denied admission to U of California Med School.
1981 – Barbara Mandrell won the Country Music Association’s Entertainer of the Year honor for the second year in a row.
1982 – Milwaukee Brewer Paul Molitor gets World Series record five hits in one game.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Let’s Go Crazy” by Prince & The Revolution, “I Just Called to Say I Love You” by Stevie Wonder, “Hard Habit to Break” by Chicago and “Everyday” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1984 – Brighton hotel bombing: Margaret Thatcher survives an IRA bomb, which shredded her bathroom barely two minutes after she had left it. Five other people did die in the attack.
1984 – Space-shuttle Challenger astronaut Dr. Kathy Sullivan became the first U.S. woman to perform an EVA (extra-vehicular activity), or walk in space.
1985 – “Oh Sheila” by Ready For the World topped the charts.
1986 – California Angels within one pitch of pennant victory, lose to Red Sox.
1988 – Federal prosecutors announced that the Sundstrand Corp. would pay $115 million dollars to settle with the Pentagon for overbilling airplane parts over a five-year period.
1989 – Herschel Walker is traded from Cowboys to Vikings for twelve players.
1989 – The U.S. House of Representatives approved a statutory federal ban on the destruction of the American flag.
1990 – The Cincinnati Reds won the National League pennant, defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates 2-to-1.
1991 – “Emotions” by Mariah Carey topped the charts.
1991 – Actor/comedian Redd Foxx, star of TV’s “Sanford and Son”, suffered a fatal heart attack on the set of his new sitcom, The Royal Family.
1991 – Testifying for a second day on sexual harassment charges leveled by law professor Anita Hill, Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas told the Senate Judiciary Committee he’d “rather die than withdraw,” and repeated his denial of Hill’s allegations.
1994 – The Magellan space probe ended its four-year mission to Venus for the purpose of mapping.
1995 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Blackville-Hilda High School. Blackville, SC is a farm community of 2700, 45 miles south of Columbia.Toby Sincino’s height was the source of some of his troubles, but not all of them. At less than 5 feet tall some of his fellow students would kick him, shut him in lockers or dump him upside down in trash cans. The 16-year-old also had occasional run-ins with teachers and once told a fellow student his heroes were Charles Manson and Jeffrey Dahmer. A day after being suspended for making an obscene gesture, he walked to school, shot and seriously wounded a math teacher, then killed himself. A second teacher died but authorities weren’t sure whether she was shot or suffered a heart attack.
1996 – Thousands of Hispanic Americans marched in Washington to push for simplified citizenship procedures and a seven-dollar minimum wage.
1997 – John Denver was killed when the plane he was piloting crashed into Monterey Bay, CA. He was 53 years old.
1997 – Ramzi Ahmed Yousef and Eyad Ismoil were convicted in the United States of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing in New York.
1998 – The U.S. House of Representatives passed the Online Copyright Bill.
1998 – A record 974-pound pumpkin won the Great Pumpkin Weigh-Off in Half Moon Bay, Ca. It was raised from an Atlantic Giant seed by Lincoln Mettler of Eatonville, Wa.
1999 – The world population reached six billion, according to the United Nations.
2000 – In Aden, Yemen, the USS Cole, a U.S. Navy destroyer, experienced a large explosion while refueling. The explosion was the result of a terrorist attack using a small boat. 17 crewmembers were killed and at least 39 were injured.
2001 – A special episode of America’s Most Wanted was aired that focused on 22 wanted terrorists. The show was specifically requested by U.S. President George W. Bush.
2001 – Polaroid Corp. filed for bankruptcy protection.
2001 – US Attorney General John Ashcroft urged federal agencies to resist most Freedom of Information Act requests made by American citizens. The act was passed in 1974 during the Watergate scandal.
2002 – A bomb destroyed a nightclub on the Indonesian island of Bali, killing 202 people, many of them foreign tourists. Islamic militants linked to al-Qaeda were blamed.
2003 – Some 70,000 employees of Ralphs, Vons and Albertsons grocery stores began a strike in southern California, Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia and Ohio. Health care costs were a main issue.
2003 – The operation to separate two-year old Egyptian twins joined at the head is going well in Dallas; the two boys have been separated and no troublesome complications have arisen. The next steps are to reconstruct the boys’ skulls including the skin.
2004 – The Seattle Storm won their first WNBA title with a 74-60 victory over the Connecticut Sun.
2004 – A jury in Baton Rouge, La., took eighty minutes to find suspected serial killer Derrick Todd Lee guilty of first-degree murder in the death of 22-year-old Charlotte Murray Pace. Lee was later sentenced to death for Pace’s killing.
2005 – US federal agents in Operation Long Whine arrested 28 people and seized 1,300 pounds of cocaine during an overnight raid in Atlanta.
2005 – Bridgestone Firestone North American Tire said it has agreed to pay $240 million to Ford Motor Co. to settle claims related to the tiremaker’s 2000 recall of defective tires.
2005 – CNN reports that the Louisiana attorney general is investigating the possibility that mercy killings of critically ill patients by staff medical professionals at Memorial Medical Center in New Orleans, Louisiana occurred during Hurricane Katrina.
2005 – A fire at the Wines Central warehouse in Vallejo, Ca., destroyed tens of millions of dollars worth of vintage wine. An estimated 6 million bottles were in storage there.
2006 – PO2 Michael Monsoor was buried at Fort Rosencrans in San Diego, CA. (See Medal of Honor record 29 September 2006.)
2006 – It was reported that Coke planned to introduce its new drink Evigna, a green-tea based soft drink, in November with claims that it could help burn off calories.
2006 – Workers begin demolishing the one-room Amish schoolhouse in Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania where five girls were shot to death and five others were injured.
2006 – A blast occurred when a tugboat pushing two barges hit an undersea pipeline in West Cote Blanche Bay, 100 miles southwest of New Orleans. four bodies were found and two people were missing.
2007 – Two men were sentenced to prison in the first successful criminal prosecution under the CAN-SPAM Act. James R. Schaffer, 41, of Paradise Valley, Arizona, and Jeffrey A. Kilbride, 41, of Venice, California, were convicted in June of fraud, conspiracy, money laundering, and obscenity.
2007 – In southern California 28 commercial vehicles and one passenger vehicle were involved in the crash in the southbound truck tunnel of Interstate 5 that killed three people and injured at least ten.
2007 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Norristown, Pa., Michele Cossey (46), the mother of a 14-year-old who authorities say had a cache of guns, knives and explosive devices in his bedroom for a possible school attack, was charged with buying her son three weapons. Authorities said the teenager felt bullied and tried to recruit another boy for a possible attack at Plymouth Whitemarsh High School.
2008 – In California Hans Florine (44) and Yuji Hirayama (39) broke their own World Record for the fastest climb up the Nose of El Capitan (2:37:5) in Yosemite National Park. Their first record was set on Jul 2 with a time of 2:43:33.
2009 – Edgar Allan Poe receives a funeral in Baltimore, USA, 160 years after his death and 200 after his birth.
2009 – Don Young of Des Moines, Iowa, won the 39th Half Moon Bay Art & Pumpkin Festival with his 1,658-pound pumpkin. It broke the year-old record of 1,528 pounds. His first prize of $9,948 came out to $6 per pound.
2010 – The Obama administration in the United States lifts a six-month moratorium on deep water oil drilling in the Gulf of Mexico imposed following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Actual resumption was still weeks to months away.
2010 – A US federal judge ordered an immediate halt to military discharges under the “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy. District Judge Virginia Phillips of Riverside, Ca., had ruled the 1993 law unconstitutional on Sep 9.
2011 – MASS SHOOTING: At least eight people are killed and one is seriously injured in a shooting at a hair salon in Seal Beach, California.
2011 – The City Council in Harrisburg, Pa., filed for bankruptcy, despite opposition by the Mayor Linda Thompson and state Gov. Tom Corbett. Harrisburg faced $300 million in debt connected to a city-owned rubbish incinerator.
2011 – Dennis Ritchie (b.1941), American computer scientist, was found dead at his home in New Jersey. In the late 1960s Ritchie invented the C programming language. Ritchie and Ken Thompson then used C to develop the Unix operating system.
2011 – The death toll from the 2011 United States listeriosis outbreak reaches a total of 23 dead with 116 affected, making it the deadliest outbreak of foodborne illness in the U.S. in 25 years.
2013 – In boxing, Timothy Bradley defeats Juan Manuel Márquez to win the World Boxing Organization Welterweight Title.
2014 – A Texas nurse tests positive for Ebola. The health care worker is the first person to contract the disease in the US, the first infection in the US to occur by secondary contact, and the second in the world sickened from exposure outside of the African continent.
1537 – Edward VI, King of England.
1710 – Jonathan Trumbull, Governor of the Colony and the state of Connecticut (d. 1785)
1860 – Elmer Sperry, American inventor (d. 1930)
1935 – Joan Rivers (Molinsky), American comedienne, author, TV host.
1935 – Luciano Pavarotti, Italian operatic tenor.
*PERKINS, WILLIAM THOMAS, JR.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, Company C, 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, October 12th, 1967. Entered service at: San Francisco, Calif. Born: 10 August 1947, Rochester, N.Y. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a combat photographer attached to Company C. During Operation MEDINA, a major reconnaissance in force southwest of Quang Tri, Company C made heavy combat contact with a numerically superior North Vietnamese Army force estimated at from two to three companies. The focal point of the intense fighting was a helicopter landing zone which was also serving as the Command Post of Company C. In the course of a strong hostile attack, an enemy grenade landed in the immediate area occupied by Cpl. Perkins and three other Marines. Realizing the inherent danger, he shouted the warning, “Incoming Grenade” to his fellow Marines, and in a valiant act of heroism, hurled himself upon the grenade absorbing the impact of the explosion with his body, thereby saving the lives of his comrades at the cost of his life. Through his exceptional courage and inspiring valor in the face of certain death, Cpl. Perkins reflected great credit upon himself and the Marine Corps and upheld the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country .
*COURSEN, SAMUEL S.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company C 5th Cavalry Regiment. Place and date: Near Kaesong, Korea, October 12th,1950. Entered service at: Madison, N.J. Born: 4 August 1926 Madison, N.J. G.O. No.: 57, 2 August 1951. Citation: 1st Lt. Coursen distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. While Company C was attacking Hill 174 under heavy enemy small-arms fire, his platoon received enemy fire from close range. The platoon returned the fire and continued to advance. During this phase one his men moved into a well-camouflaged emplacement, which was thought to be unoccupied, and was wounded by the enemy who were hidden within the emplacement. Seeing the soldier in difficulty he rushed to the man’s aid and, without regard for his personal safety, engaged the enemy in hand-to-hand combat in an effort to protect his wounded comrade until he himself was killed. When his body was recovered after the battle seven enemy dead were found in the emplacement. As the result of 1st Lt. Coursen’s violent struggle several of the enemies’ heads had been crushed with his rifle. His aggressive and intrepid actions saved the life of the wounded man, eliminated the main position of the enemy roadblock, and greatly inspired the men in his command. 1st Lt. Coursen’s extraordinary heroism and intrepidity reflect the highest credit on himself and are in keeping with the honored traditions of the military service.
WEST, ERNEST E.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company L, 14th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Sataeri, Korea, October 12th,1952. Entered service at: Wurtland Ky. Born: 2 September 1931, Russell, Ky. G.O. No.: 7, 29 January i954. Citation: Pfc. West distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. He voluntarily accompanied a contingent to locate and destroy a reported enemy outpost. Nearing the objective, the patrol was ambushed and suffered numerous casualties. Observing his wounded leader lying in an exposed position, Pfc. West ordered the troops to withdraw, then braved intense fire to reach and assist him. While attempting evacuation, he was attacked by three hostile soldiers employing grenades and small-arms fire. Quickly shifting his body to shelter the officer, he killed the assailants with his rifle, then carried the helpless man to safety. He was critically wounded and lost an eye in this action. but courageously returned through withering fire and bursting shells to assist the wounded. While evacuating two comrades, he closed with and killed three more of the foe. Pfc. West’s indomitable spirit, consummate valor, and intrepid actions inspired all who observed him, reflect the highest credit on himself, and uphold the honored traditions of the military service.
*PENDLETON, JACK J.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 120th Infantry, 30th Infantry Division. Place and date: Bardenberg, Germany, October 12th, 1944. Entered service at: Yakima, Wash. Birth: Sentinel Butte, N. Dak. G.O. No.: 24, 6 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on 12 October 1944. When Company I was advancing on the town of Bardenberg, Germany, they reached a point approximately two-thirds of the distance through the town when they were pinned down by fire from a nest of enemy machineguns. This enemy strong point was protected by a lone machinegun strategically placed at an intersection and firing down a street which offered little or no cover or concealment for the advancing troops. The elimination of this protecting machinegun was imperative in order that the stronger position it protected could be neutralized. After repeated and unsuccessful attempts had been made to knock out this position, S/Sgt. Pendleton volunteered to lead his squad in an attempt to neutralize this strongpoint. S/Sgt. Pendleton started his squad slowly forward, crawling about ten yards in front of his men in the advance toward the enemy gun. After advancing approximately one-hundred thirty yards under the withering fire, S/Sgt. Pendleton was seriously wounded in the leg by a burst from the gun he was assaulting. Disregarding his grievous wound, he ordered his men to remain where they were, and with a supply of handgrenades he slowly and painfully worked his way forward alone. With no hope of surviving the veritable hail of machinegun fire which he deliberately drew onto himself, he succeeded in advancing to within ten yards of the enemy position when he was instantly killed by a burst from the enemy gun. By deliberately diverting the attention of the enemy machine gunners upon himself, a second squad was able to advance, undetected, and with the help of S/Sgt. Pendleton’s squad, neutralized the lone machinegun, while another platoon of his company advanced up the intersecting street and knocked out the machinegun nest which the first gun had been covering. S/Sgt. Pendleton’s sacrifice enabled the entire company to continue the advance and complete their mission at a critical phase of the action.
Rank and organization: Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 August 1889, Indianapolis, Ind. Appointed from: Indiana. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty during action against enemy Japanese forces off Savo Island on the night of October 11th and October 12th and again on the night of 12-13 November 1942. In the earlier action, intercepting a Japanese Task Force intent upon storming our island positions and landing reinforcements at Guadalcanal, Rear Adm. Scott, with courageous skill and superb coordination of the units under his command, destroyed eight hostile vessels and put the others to flight. Again challenged, a month later, by the return of a stubborn and persistent foe, he led his force into a desperate battle against tremendous odds, directing close-range operations against the invading enemy until he himself was killed in the furious bombardment by their superior firepower. On each of these occasions his dauntless initiative, inspiring leadership and judicious foresight in a crisis of grave responsibility contributed decisively to the rout of a powerful invasion fleet and to the consequent frustration of a formidable Japanese offensive. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.
*HERIOT, JAMES D.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company I, 118th Infantry, 30th Division. Place and date: At Vaux-Andigny, France, October 12th, 1918. Entered service at: Providence, S.C. Birth: Providence, S.C. G.O. No.: 13, W.D., 1919. Citation: Cpl. Heriot, with four other soldiers, organized a combat group and attacked an enemy machine-gun nest which had been inflicting heavy casualties on his company. In the advance two of his men were killed, and because of the heavy fire from all sides the remaining two sought shelter. Unmindful of the hazard attached to his mission, Cpl. Heriot, with fixed bayonet, alone charged the machinegun, making his way through the fire for a distance of thirty yards and forcing the enemy to surrender. During this exploit he received several wounds in the arm, and later in the same day, while charging another nest, he was killed.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 60th Infantry, 5th Division. Place and date: At Cunel, France, October 12th, 1918. Entered service at: Bryantsburg, Ind. Birth: Jefferson County, Ind. G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919. Citation: While he was leading his company against the enemy, his line came under heavy machinegun fire, which threatened to hold up the advance. Followed by two soldiers at twenty-five yards, this officer went out ahead of his first line toward a machinegun nest and worked his way around its flank, leaving the two soldiers in front. When he got within ten yards of the gun it ceased firing, and four of the enemy appeared, three of whom were shot by 1st Lt. Woodfill. The fourth, an officer, rushed at 1st Lt. Woodfill, who attempted to club the officer with his rifle. After a hand-to-hand struggle, 1st Lt. Woodfill killed the officer with his pistol. His company thereupon continued to advance, until shortly afterwards another machinegun nest was encountered. Calling on his men to follow, 1st Lt. Woodfill rushed ahead of his line in the face of heavy fire from the nest, and when several of the enemy appeared above the nest he shot them, capturing three other members of the crew and silencing the gun. A few minutes later this officer for the third time demonstrated conspicuous daring by charging another machinegun position, killing five men in one machinegun pit with his rifle. He then drew his revolver and started to jump into the pit, when two other gunners only a few yards away turned their gun on him. Failing to kill them with his revolver, he grabbed a pick lying nearby and killed both of them. Inspired by the exceptional courage displayed by this officer, his men pressed on to their objective under severe shell and machinegun fire.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 13th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Jefferson, Va., October 12th, 1863. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Born: 10 May 1844, Ireland. Date of issue: 23 January 1897. Citation: At the head of a detachment of his company dashed across an open field, exposed to a deadly fire from the enemy, and succeeded in dislodging them from an unoccupied house, which he and his comrades defended for several hours against repeated attacks, thus preventing the enemy from flanking the position of the Union forces.