St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland, was not actually Irish. He was born on March 17 around AD 389, somewhere in Roman Britain, possibly near Dumbarton, Scotland. At 16, Irish raiders looking for slaves captured him and he was taken there to tend sheep. After six years of slavery, he ran away and ended up wandering through southern Gaul (France) and Italy. There, he had a vision from God that told him to return to Ireland and convert the pagans to Christianity. Returning to Ireland around 432, St. Patrick did missionary work until he died in 461 (some sources say 493). Using 389 as birth that means he was either 72 or 104 at his death.Patrick began his missionary work in the Lecale peninsular, preaching, converting pagans and baptizing.
He established himself securely in the area with the help of his friend Dichu, Patrick’s first convert. Dichu was an influential chieftain in the region. Dichu granted Patrick abarn for a Christian establishment, where Ireland’s first
Christians worshipped. The rustic association has been preserved in the name, which has remained ever since Sabhall or Saul, borrowed from the Latin stabulum meaning cattle-stall or sheep-fold.
Patrick returned often to Saul to rest between journeys. He died in Saul on 17 March 461 and was buried there. The country of Ireland went into mourning. The mythology surrounding his life became ever more ingrained in the Irish culture: Perhaps the most well known legend is that he explained the Holy Trinity (Father, Son and Holy Spirit) using the three leaves of a native Irish clover, the shamrock.
Since around the ninth or 10th century, people in Ireland have been observing the Roman Catholic feast day of St. Patrick on March 17. Interestingly, however, the first parade held to honor St. Patrick’s Day took place not in Ireland but in the United States. On March 17, 1762, Irish soldiers serving in the English military marched through New York City. Along with their music, the parade helped the soldiers reconnect with their Irish roots, as well as with fellow Irishmen serving in the English army.
3 Trust in the Lord, and do good; Dwell in the land, and feed on His faithfulness.
Now inscribed on the Library of Congress, James Madison’s words are as true today as they were in 1829: “The happy Union of these States is a wonder; their Constitution a miracle; their example the hope of Liberty throughout the world.” In forging such a nation, the Founding Fathers were the most exemplary of leaders.
The fulfillment of faith: To their credit, the Founders understood and valued the practice of faith. In their wisdom the founders recognized the truth that we are all “created equal and endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights” by which we live our lives and practice our faith, whether or in a higher power or ideals greater than ourselves. Stepping back to contemplate allows us to see the world around us, and the people entrusted to our leadership, in a more meaningful way. The executive model today is not so much an “independence from” mentality as it is a “responsibility toward” philosophy. Thoughtful leaders seek to be a blessing and to serve causes greater than self; wise ones remember the source.
“We have always found the Irish a bit odd. They refuse to be English.”
– Winston Churchill
a wooden club or cudgel, typically made from a stout knotty stick with a large knob on the end, that is associated with Ireland and Irish folklore.
180 – Marcus Aurelius dies. Commodus is now the only emperor of the Roman Empire.
461 – According to tradition, St. Patrick (b.c389), the patron saint of Ireland, died in Saul, County Down.
1190 – Crusaders completed the massacre of Jews of York, England.
1737 – First St Patrick’s Day celebration in America. It took place in Boston, Massachusetts.
1756 – St. Patrick’s Day is celebrated in New York City for the first time It waas held at the Crown and Thistle Tavern, near Wall Street, in 1756. NYC’s St. Patrick’s Day Parade remains true to its roots as a true marchers parade by not allowing floats, automobiles and other commercial aspects in the Parade.
1766 – Britain repealed the Stamp Act that had caused resentment in the North American colonies. It then passes the Declaratory Act, which asserts Great Britain’s right to pass any laws governing the American colonies.
1775 – The Transylvania Purchase, the largest private or corporate real estate transaction in United States history between the Transylvania Company, led by Richard Henderson of North Carolina, and the Cherokee Indians for over 20 million acres of land-all the lands of the Cumberland River watershed and extending to the Kentucky River-for 2000 pounds sterling and goods worth 8000 pounds. Richard Henderson, a North Carolina judge representing the Transylvania Company, met with three Cherokee Chiefs (Oconistoto, chief warrior and first representative of the Cherokee Nation or tribe of Indians, and Attacuttuillah and Sewanooko). It was known as the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals or The Henderson Purchase. The purchase was later declared invalid by the Continental Congress but the land cession was not reversed.
1776 – Revolution: British forces evacuate Boston, Massachusetts after George Washington and Henry Knox place artillery overlooking the city.
1780 – Revolutionary War: George Washington grants the Continental Army a holiday “as an act of solidarity with the Irish in their fight for independence”.
1811 – The USS New Orleans becomes the first practical sidewheel steamboat in the US.
1845 – The rubber band is patented.
1845 – Bristol baker, Henry Jones, patents self-rising flour.
1854 – First park land purchased by a US city, Worcester MA.
1860 – The Japanese ship Kanrin Maru, under Admiral Yoshitake Kimura, entered the Golden Gate after a 37-day voyage, on a diplomatic mission to San Francisco. It was the first Japanese ship to cross the Pacific. Three sailors died while the ship was in port. It set sail to return to Japan on May 8.
1863 – Civil War: Union cavalry attack Confederate cavalry at Kelly’s Ford, Virginia.
1865 – Civil War: A naval expedition, led by Lieutenant Commander Thomas H. Eastman, destroyed a supply base, near Montrose, VA on the peninsula between the Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers, that had been supporting Confederate guerrillas.
1868 – Postage stamp canceling machine patent issued.
1870 – Wellesley College was incorporated by the Massachusetts legislature under its first name, Wellesley Female Seminary.
1871 – National Association of Professional BaseBall players organized.
1876 – Indian Wars: Gen. Crook destroyed Cheyenne and Ogallala-Sioux Indian camps.
1884 – John Joseph Montgomery made the first glider flight in Otay, California.
1886 – In Carrollton, Mississippi a convict, Will McKinney, who was about 19, and those who died as a result of what happened on the second floor of the courthouse today, were black. McKinney had been convicted during the October 1885 session of circuit court of manslaughter in the death of a young man named Charlie Broadway and was serving a 12-month sentence. The grand jury wrote that on the night of Feb. 18, 1886, a crowd of armed, masked men forced Sheriff T.T. Hamilton to give them the keys to the jail. They took McKinney outside, where they shot and hung him to death.
1897 – Motion pictures of a bare-knuckles championship prize fight were taken for the first time as ‘Sunny’ Bob Fitzsimmons knocked out ‘Gentleman’ Jim Corbett for the world heavyweight title.
1898 – First practical submarine first submerges, New York NY (for 1 hour 40 minutes).
1906 – The Phi Kappa Tau Fraternity is founded at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio.
1906 – President Theodore Roosevelt first likened crusading journalists to a man with “the muckrake in his hand” in a speech to the Gridiron Club in Washington, DC, as he criticized what he saw as the excesses of investigative journalism.
1907 – America’s first bowling tournament for ladies began in St. Louis, MO this day. Almost 100 women participated in the event.
1910 – Campfire Girls organization announced by Mrs Luther Halsey Gulick. It was formed in Lake Sebago, Maine. It was formally presented to the public exactly two years later.
1912 – Luther Gulick, M.D. and his wife Charlotte announce the formation of Camp Fire Girls (now Camp Fire USA).
1917 – Delta Phi Epsilon is founded at New York University Law School.
1917 – First exclusively women’s bowling tournament begins in St Louis.
1917 – WW I: The Germans sank the U.S.S City of Memphis, without any type of warning. The U-Boat was the UC-66 commanded by Herbert Pustkuchen.
1918 – WW I: The 5th Marine Regiment was the first Marine unit to move into WW I front-line trenches.
1927 – The Teapot Dome and Elk hills naval oil reserve, which had featured in the scandals of the Harding Administration, are returned to the jurisdiction of the Navy Department. The Supreme Court has ruled that the Mammoth Company has received them under fraudulent contracts which rendered ownership invalid.
1929 – General Motors acquires German auto manufacturer Adam Opel.
1930 – Al Capone was released from jail.
1933 – Comedian Phil Baker was heard on network radio for the first time when “The Armour Jester” was heard on the NBC Blue network.
1934 – Thousands of Blacks battled the police in New York in protest of the Scottsboro trial. The Scottsboro Boys were nine black defendants in a 1931 rape case initiated in Scottsboro, Alabama. The case was heard by the United States Supreme Court twice and the decisions established the principles that criminal defendants are entitled to effective assistance of counsel and that people may not be de facto excluded from juries because of their race.
1937 – Amelia Earhart took off from Oakland, CA in an attempt to become the first pilot to fly around the globe at the equator.
1941 – In Washington, D.C., the National Gallery of Art is officially opened by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: The first Jews from the Lviv Ghetto (western Ukraine) are gassed at the Belzec death camp (eastern Poland). The Nazis also began deporting Jews to the Belsen camp.
1942 – World War II: Gen. Douglas MacArthur arrived in Australia to become supreme commander of Allied forces in the southwest Pacific theater during World War II.
1943 – World War II: The German occupation authority closed Lithuanian schools of higher education and the Academy of Education.
1944 – World War II: The U.S. bombed Vienna.
1944 – World War II: The battle for Cassino continues. Indian and New Zealander troops of US 5th Army mount attacks on the southwest of the town and along Snake’s Head Ridge to Point 593. German forces mount attacks against Castle Hill and Hangman’s Hill.
1944 – On Manus Island, US forces reach their primary objective and take Lorengau airfield.
1945 – World War II: The Ludendorff Bridge in Remagen, Germany collapses, ten days after its capture.
1947 – XB-45, first US 4-engine jet bomber, makes first test flight, Muroc CA.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Now is the Hour” by Bing Crosby, “I’m Looking Over a Four Leaf Clover” by The Art Moonie Orchestra, “Beg Your Pardon” by Francis Craig and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1950 – University of California, Berkeley researchers announce the creation of element 98, which they name “Californium”.
1951 – Korean War: The Chinese engage two fresh armies against the U.N. forces in an attempt to delay their advance.
1951 – Korean War: The newly trained ROK 8th Division replaced the U.S. 1st Marine Division in the Punchbowl area.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1952 – A US ban on the word “tornado” was lifted. The ban had started in 1886 when the US Army, which handled weather forecasting, determined that the harm done by predicting a tornado would be greater than that done by the tornado itself.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – ” Lisbon Antigua” by Nelson Riddle, “Why Do Fools Fall in Love” by Frankie Lymon & The Teenagers, “Hot Diggity (Dog Ziggity Boom)” by Perry Como and “Heartbreak Hotel” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.
1958 – The United States launches the Vanguard 1 satellite. It measured the Earth’s shape.
1958 – “Tequila” by the Champs topped the charts.
1959 – The USS Skate became the first submarine to surface at the North Pole. The ships crew held a funeral service and scattered the ashes of explorer Hubert Wilkins (d.1958), who had attempted the feat in 1931.
1960 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the National Security Council directive on the anti-Cuban covert action program that will ultimately lead to the Bay of Pigs Invasion.
1961 – New York DA arrests professional gamblers who implicate Seton Hall players.
1962 – “Hey! Baby” by Bruce Channel topped the charts.
1962 – After requesting the evacuation of a seriously injured crewman, the Russian merchant vessel Dbitelny transferred the patient to the Coast Guard LORAN station on St. Paul Island in the Bering Sea. Meanwhile, a Coast Guard aircraft flew a US Navy doctor and a hospital corpsman there to perform an emergency operation. Afterwards, the injured man was flown to Elmendorf Air Force Base, where he was admitted to the US Air Force hospital.
1963 – Bob Cousy plays his last NBA game. His nicknames included “The Houdini of the Hardwood”.”Mr. Basketball”.”The Cooz.”
1966 – Off the coast of Spain in the Mediterranean, the Alvin submarine finds a missing American hydrogen bomb.
1967 – Snoopy and Charlie Brown of “Peanuts” were on the cover of “LIFE” magazine.
1967 – Vietnam War: The first woman Marine to report to Vietnam for duty, Master Sergeant Barbara J. Dulinsky, began her 18-hour flight to Bien Hoa, 30 miles north of Saigon.
1969 – Golda Meir, a Milwaukee high school teacher, becomes the first female Prime Minister of Israel.
1970 – US Postal workers defied their unions, federal anti-strike laws, the military and the Nixon government to carry out the first national strike by federal employees against the United States government in history. Letter carriers voted March 17th, 1970, to strike, and set up picket lines around the city’s post offices which were honored by 25,000 drivers and clerks, bringing postal operations to a standstill.
1970 – My Lai massacre: The United States Army charges 14 officers with suppressing information related to the incident.
1970 – Peter O’Malley becomes CEO of Los Angeles Dodgers.
1972 – U.S. President Nixon asked Congress to halt busing in order to achieve desegregation.
1973 – Burst of Joy is a Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph by Associated Press photographer Slava “Sal” Veder was taken at Travis Air Force Base in California. The photograph came to symbolize the end of United States involvement in the Vietnam War, and the prevailing sentiment that military personnel and their families could begin a process of healing after enduring the horrors of war.
1973 – The first American prisoners of war (POWs) were released from the “Hanoi Hilton” in Hanoi, North Vietnam.
1973 – “Killing Me Softly with His Song” by Roberta Flack topped the charts.
1974 – Arab oil ministers, with the exception of Libya, announced the end the oil embargo on the US.
1975 – The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific railroad enter third and final bankruptcy, and William M. Gibbons selected as receiver and trustee for the railroad.
1979 – “I Will Survive” by Gloria Gaynor topped the charts.
1979 – The US Supreme Court in Wilkerson v. Utah ruled that Utah could use a firing squad for capital punishment.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Crazy Little Thing Called Love” by Queen, “Longer” by Dan Fogelberg, “Another Brick in the Wall” by Pink Floyd and “My Heroes Have Always Been Cowboys” by Willie Nelson all topped the charts.
1980 – In Iran, militants refuse to turn hostages over to government until parliament convenes in May.
1984 – “Jump” by Van Halen topped the charts.
1985 – U.S. President Reagan agreed to a joint study with Canada on acid rain.
1985 – William Schroeder set a record for heart transplant patients as he reached his 113th day of life with the artificial organ.
1985 – Serial killer Richard Ramirez, the “Night Stalker”, commits his first two murders in Los Angeles, California murder spree.
1987 – A US federal appeals court cleared the way for the perjury indictment of former White House aide Michael Deaver (b.1938). He was later convicted of three of five perjury counts and fined $100,000.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Never Gonna Give You Up” by Rick Astley, “I Get Weak” by Belinda Carlisle, “Man in the Mirror” by Michael Jackson and “Too Gone Too Long” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.
1988 – Highest scoring NCAA basketball game: Loyola-Marymount 119, Wyoming 115.
1988 – President Reagan orders U.S. soldiers to Palmerola Air Base in Honduras in a show of strength.
1988 – Apple filed suit against Microsoft, alleging copyright infringement in the Windows GUI.
1989 – The Senate unanimously confirmed Wyoming Congressman Dick Cheney to be secretary of defense, following the failed nomination of former Sen. John Tower.
1990 – “Escapade” by Janet Jackson topped the charts.
1991 – Gulf War: Allied commanders from the Gulf War held a second round of cease-fire talks with Iraqi officers; the Iraqis were told they could not move their warplanes inside Iraq for any reason.
1993 – Helen Hayes (92), the “First Lady of the American Theater,” died in Nyack, N.Y.
1995 – US approves first chicken pox vaccine, Varivax by Merck & Co.
1996 – The $16 mil Museum of Television and Radio was christened in Beverly Hills.
1998 – Washington Mutual announced it had agreed to buy H.F. Ahmanson and Co. for $9.9 billion dollars. The deal created the nation’s seventh-largest banking company.
1998 – Jeff King battled through blowing snow and poor visibility to earn his third victory in the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race.
1999 – Instant replay was voted back in the National Football League for the 1999 season.
1999 – A large prairie fire around Thedford, Nebraska burned tens of thousands of acres and killed one volunteer firefighter.
2000 – Smith and Wesson signed an unprecedented agreement with the Clinton administration to, among other things, include safety locks with all of its handguns to make them more childproof; in return, the agreement called for federal, state and city lawsuits against the gun maker to be dropped.
2000 – Ford Motor Co. acquired Land Rover from BMW.
2000 – Boeing Co. agreed to settle a 38-day strike by its engineers. It was the largest white-collar walkout in US history.
2000 – A bankruptcy plan for Iridium Corp. was approved. Its satellites would be allowed to burn up in the atmosphere.
2002 – Iraq War – US troops killed sixteen al-Qaeda fighters in the Gardez region.
2002 – It was reported that McDonald’s Corp. had agreed to give $410 million to vegetarian groups, Hindu and Sikh organizations and to pay $4,000 to 12 plaintiffs to settle a suit over the use of beef tallow in french fries.
2003 – Pres. Bush gave Saddam Hussein 48 hours to go into exile or face military onslaught. Iraq rejected Bush’s ultimatum, saying that a U.S. attack to force Saddam from power would be “a grave mistake.”
2003 – The US orders its non-essential diplomats and the families of all embassy staff in Israel, Syria and Kuwait to leave.
2003 – Washington, D.C., tobacco farmer Dwight Ware Watson, claiming to be carrying bombs, drove a tractor and trailer into a pond on the National Mall.
2003 – Homeland Security Department commences Operation Liberty Shield, an increase in protective measures to defend the homeland coinciding with the commencement of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
2004 – Major league Baseball banned THG, a steroid at the center of a criminal probe involving a San Francisco area lab.
2005 – US Congressional hearings began on steroid use among baseball players.
2006 – US Federal regulators reported the deaths of two more women who had taken the abortion pill RU-486; Planned Parenthood, which had provided the pills to the women, said it would immediately stop disregarding the approved instructions for the drug’s use.
2008 – New York State Governor Eliot Spitzer resigns after a scandal involving a high-end prostitute. David Paterson becomes acting New York State governor.
2008 – A judge awarded Heather Mills a total of $48.6 million in the financial settlement of her divorce from former Beatle Paul McCartney. This was a fifth of what she had demanded.
2008 – Barack Obama gives a major speech addressing race and racial divisions in Philadelphia.
2009 – The Seattle Post-Intelligencer publishes its final print edition and becomes an online newspaper.
2010 – President Barack Obama announces that the United States will pursue aggressive sanctions to prevent Iran from getting a nuclear weapon that could potentially spark a nuclear arms race in the Middle East.
2011 – The House today voted to end federal funding to National Public Radio. Republican supporters said it made good fiscal sense, and Democratic opponents called it an ideological attack that would deprive local stations of access to programs such as “Car Talk” and “All Things Considered.”
2011 – The New York Times newspaper announces it is to start charging people who access content on its website.
2011 – NASA’s MESSENGER space probe becomes the first space craft ever to enter into orbit around Mercury.
2013 -Following a train derailment, Amtrak temporarily suspends service along the busy New York-to-Boston route.
2013 – Two members of the Steubenville High School football team have been found guilty of raping a sixteen-year-old girl in Steubenville, Ohio.
2014 – A 4.4-magnitude earthquake struck Los Angeles at 06:25 local time (13:25 GMT) , rattling nerves but as yet causing no reported injuries or deaths. Local broadcaster KCBS was in the middle of its morning news program when presenters felt the earthquake jolt their studio.
1777 – Roger Brooke Taney, 5th Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court (d. 1864)
1804 – Jim Bridger, American trapper and explorer (d. 1881)
1834 – Gottlieb Daimler, German engineer and inventor (d. 1900)
1866 – Pierce Butler, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1939)
1881 – Walter Rudolf Hess, Swiss physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1973) He mapped the areas of the brain involved in the control of internal organs.
1894 – Paul Green, American writer (d. 1981)
1902 – Bobby Jones, American golfer (d. 1971)
1907 – Sonny Werblin, former owner of the New York Jets (d. 1991)
1919 – Nat King Cole, American singer (d. 1965)
1930 – James Irwin, American astronaut (d. 1991)
1936 – Ken Mattingly, American astronaut
1937 – Adam Wade, American singer and actor
1945 – Michael Hayden, General USAF, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
1949 – Patrick Duffy, American actor
1951 – Kurt Russell, American actor
1955 – Gary Sinise, American actor
1959 – Danny Ainge, American basketball player and coach
1962 – Clare Grogan, Scottish actress-singer
1964 – Rob Lowe, American actor
1976 – Brittany Daniel, American actress
1976 – Cynthia Daniel, American actress and photographer
*DEVORE, EDWARD A., Jr.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 4th Battalion, 39th Infantry, 9th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Saigon, Republic of Vietnam, March 17th, 1968. Entered service at: Harbor City, Calif. Born: 15 June 1947, Torrance, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. DeVore, distinguished himself by exceptionally valorous actions on the afternoon of 17 March 1968, while serving as a machine gunner with Company B, on a reconnaissance-in-force mission approximately five kilometers south of Saigon. Sp4c. DeVore’s platoon, the company’s lead element, abruptly came under intense fire from automatic weapons, Claymore mines, rockets and grenades from well-concealed bunkers in a nipa palm swamp. One man was killed and three wounded about twenty meters from the bunker complex. Sp4c. DeVore raced through a hail of fire to provide a base of fire with his machine gun, enabling the point element to move the wounded back to friendly lines. After supporting artillery, gunships and air strikes had been employed on the enemy positions, a squad was sent forward to retrieve their fallen comrades. Intense enemy frontal and enfilading automatic weapons fire pinned down this element in the kill zone. With complete disregard for his personal safety, Sp4c. DeVore assaulted the enemy positions. Hit in the shoulder and knocked down about thirty-five meters short of his objectives, Sp4c. DeVore, ignoring his pain and the warnings of his fellow soldiers, jumped to his feet and continued his assault under intense hostile fire. Although mortally wounded during this advance, he continued to place highly accurate suppressive fire upon the entrenched insurgents. By drawing the enemy fire upon himself, Sp4c. DeVore enabled the trapped squad to rejoin the platoon in safety. Sp4c. DeVore’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty in close combat were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, the 39th Infantry, and the U.S. Army.
BRYAN, WILLIAM C.
Rank and organization: Hospital Steward, U.S. Army. Place and date: At Powder River, Wyo., March 17th, 1876. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Born: 9 September 1850, Zanesville, Ohio. Date of issue: 15 June 1899. Citation: Accompanied a detachment of cavalry in a charge on a village of hostile Indians and fought through the engagements, having his horse killed under him. He continued to fight on foot, and under severe fire and without assistance conveyed two wounded comrades to places of safety, saving them from capture.
Rank and organization: Blacksmith, Company M, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Powder River, Mont., March 17th, 1876. Entered service at:——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 16 October 1877. Citation: During a retreat he selected exposed positions, he was part of the rear guard.
Rank and organization: Private, Company M, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Powder River, Mont., March 17th, 1876. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 16 October 1877. Citation: Being the only member of his picket not disabled, he attempted to save a wounded comrade.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Baltimore, Md. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served as boatswain’s mate on board the U.S.S. Wyandank during a boat expedition up Mattox Creek, March 17th,1865. Rendering gallant assistance to his commanding officer, Mullen, lying on his back, loaded the howitzer and then fired so carefully as to kill and wound many rebels, causing their retreat.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: North Carolina. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Wyandank during a boat expedition up Mattox Creek, March 17th, 1865. Participating with a boat crew in the clearing of Mattox Creek, L/man Anderson carried out his duties courageously in the face of a devastating fire which cut away half the oars, pierced the launch in many places and cut the barrel off a musket being fired at the enemy.
Joseph Lister and Antiseptics
“I am a believer in the fundamental doctrines of Christianity.” ~ Joseph Lister
“Bearing in mind that it is from the vitality of the atmospheric particles that all the mischief arises, it appears that all that is requisite is to dress the wound with some material capable of killing these septic germs, provided that any substance can be found reliable for this purpose, yet not too potent as a caustic.”
“In the course of the year 1864 I was much struck with an account of the remarkable effects produced by carbolic acid upon the sewage of the town of Carlisle, the admixture of a very small proportion not only preventing all odour from the lands irrigated with the refuse material, but, as it was stated, destroying the entozoa which usually infest cattle fed upon such pastures.”
— Lord Joseph Lister
‘On a New Method of Treating Compound Fracture, Abscesses, etc: With Observations on the Conditions of Supperation’, Part 1, The Lancet (1867), 327.
Joseph Lister did not create any drugs, he was the one that established the link between lack of cleanliness in hospitals and deaths after operations. For this reason, he is known as the ‘Father of Antiseptic Surgery’.
At the time he was working in the hospitals conditions, especially in operating theatres, were very unhygienic. As a result some 50 percent of patients died due to infection after surgery. The infected wounds were generally known as ‘hospital gangrene’ or sepsis, the Greek word for ‘putrefaction’. The common belief seemed to be that sepsis was caused by the exposure of moist body tissue to air, with the resultant claim that wounds should be covered to keep the air out.
Joseph Lister was a British surgeon who was greatly influenced by the work of Louis Pasteur. In making the above observation he realized that the deaths due to infection could be reduced and eliminated if the germs present at any incident were eliminated. He used carbolic acid as an antiseptic in surgery and greatly reduced the incidence of infection. When Lister then developed his idea further, he devised a machine that pumped out a fine mist of carbolic acid into the air around an operation. The number of patients operated on by Lister who died fell dramatically.
Joseph Lister is also credited as being the first to wire fractures together and to develop dissolving sutures.
Another of his quotes was used in the making of “The Dark Territory”, “Chance favors the prepared mind.”
John 3:16 New King James Version (NKJV)
16 For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life.
The sanctity of sacrifice: In the formation of our republic and in signing the Declaration of Independence, the Founders pledged to one another, “our lives, our fortunes, our sacred honor.” The leadership principle of sacrifice is not new. Our Founders understood it well. And to that end we understand that sacrificial leadership is selfless, not self-serving. The commitment made 236 years ago reminds us that no great accomplishment comes without sacrifice and that causes greater than self are the lasting ones. Time tested through two centuries, today’s best leaders understand the power of sacrifice when it comes to building a lasting business.
Tomorrow – The fulfillment of faith:
“Here is a test to find whether your mission on earth is finished: If you are alive, it isn’t.”
~ Richard Bach
som·nil·o·quy (sŏm-nĭl’ə-kwē) n. pl. som·nil·o·quies
The act or habit of talking in one’s sleep.
From the Latin somnus-to sleep and loquī, to speak
597 BC – Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king (II Kings 24:17).
1190 – The Crusaders began the massacre of Jews in York, England.
1521 – Ferdinand Magellan reaches the Philippines.
1621 – Samoset walked into the settlement of Plymouth Colony, later Plymouth, MA. Samoset was a native from the Monhegan tribe in Maine who spoke English. He greeted the Pilgrims by saying, “Welcome, Englishmen! My name is Samoset.”
1802 – The United States Military Academy at West Point is established.
1802 – The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was established for the second time.
1827 – First Black American newspaper, Freedom’s Journal, published in New York City.
1830 – New York Stock Exchange slowest day ever (31 shares traded).
1836 – The Republic of Texas approved a constitution.
1850 – “The Scarlet Letter,” by Nathaniel Hawthorne was published.
1861 – Civil War: Edward Clark became Governor of Texas, replacing Sam Houston, who was evicted from the office for refusing to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy.
1861 – Civil War: Confederate Territory of Arizona is formed. Actually Arizona was not a separate entity at the time so it was really the southern part of the New Mexico Territory.
1862 – Civil War: Union gunboats and mortar boats under Flag Officer Foote commenced bombardment of strongly fortified and strategically located Island No. 10 in the Mississippi River.
1863 – Civil War: U.S.S. Chillicothe, Lieutenant Commander J. P. Foster, resumed the attack on Fort Pemberton, Mississippi In a brief engagement, the gunboat was struck eight times which rendered her guns unworkable and forced her to retire.
1864 – Civil War: Nine Union vessels had arrived at Alexandria, Louisiana, by morning and a landing party under Lieutenant Commander Selfridge, U.S.S. Osage, occupied the town prior to the arrival of Rear Admiral Porter and the troops.
1865 – Civil War: Union troops pushed past Confederate blockers at the Battle of Averasborough, N.C., and left 1,500 casualties.
1867 – First publication of an article by Joseph Lister outlining the discovery of antiseptic surgery, in The Lancet.
1869 – The first official speech by a Black American in Congress. Hiram R. Revels made his first speech in the Senate, opposing the readmission of Georgia without adequate safeguards for Black American citizens.
1881 – Barnum & Bailey Circus debuted.
1882 – The U.S. Senate approved a treaty allowing the United States to join the Red Cross.
1883 – Susan Hayhurst graduated from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. She was the first woman pharmacy graduate.
1900 – Ban Johnson announces the American League franchises. Franchises include Chicago, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Milwaukee, Indianapolis, Detroit, Cleveland, and Buffalo.
1910 – Barney Oldfield sets land speed record of 131.7 mph at Daytona.
1911 – Hulk of USS Maine sunk at sea in deep water with full military honors. This was the ship that sank at Havana, Cuba and precipitated the Spanish- American War.
1912 – Lawrence Oates, ill member of Scott’s South Pole expedition leaves the tent saying, “I am just going outside and may be some time.”
1913 – The 15,000-ton battleship Pennsylvania was launched at Newport News, VA.
1915 – Federal Trade Commission organizes. It is an independent agency charged with keeping American business competition free and fair.
1916 – The 7th and 10th US cavalry regiments under John J. Pershing cross the US-Mexico border to join the hunt for Pancho Villa.
1917 – WW I: The Germans sank the Steamer Vigilancia , without any type of warning, 145 miles west of Bishop’s Rock. The U-Boat was the UC-70 commanded by Otto Wünsche.
1918 – Geoffrey O’Hara’s “K-K-K-Katy” song published.
1918 – Tallulah Bankhead made her New York acting debut with a role in “The Squab Farm.”
1922 – Marines guarded the U.S. mail during a national crime wave.
1926 – Robert Goddard launches the first liquid-fueled rocket, at Auburn, Massachusetts. It goes 184 feet.
1927 – The 4th Marines sailed to Shanghai, in February 1927, to protect American citizens and property in Shanghai’s International Settlement. They landed today in 1927.
1928 – The U.S. planned to send 1,000 more Marines to Nicaragua.
1930 – USS Constitution (Old Ironsides) floated out to become a national shrine.
1937 – Former world champion hurdler, Percy Beard, was hired by the Brooklyn Dodgers to teach the faltering baseball team how to run.
1939 – NHL record 10 goals in 1 period-New York Rangers (7), New York Americans (3) & a record 26 points in the 3rd period.
1941 – A blizzard hit North Dakota and Minnesota killing 60. This storm started on the 15th.
1941 – National Gallery of Art opens in Washington DC.
1942 – Fats Waller recorded “The Jitterbug Waltz” in New York.
1942 – The first V-2 rocket test launch (exploded at liftoff).
1942 – World War II: Japanese siege guns bombard American forts in Manila Bay. One 240 mm shell detonates beneath a Fort Frank powder room, breaking up the concrete and hurling some 60 (filled) powder cans about. Miraculously, none of them explode or catch fire.
1944 – World War II: On Los Negros and Manus, American forces are advancing. Japanese resistance is increasing on Manus.
1944 – World War II: US aircraft strike a Japanese convoy off Wewak.
1944 – World War II: A US plane named “God Bless Our Ship” was hit by anti-aircraft fire over Berlin and crash-landed outside the city. Lt. George Lymburn (1924-2005) was captured and sent to Stalag Luft 1, where he was liberated by Russian soldiers in April, 1945.
1945 – World War II: The Battle of Iwo Jima ends but small pockets of Japanese resistance persist.
1945 – World War II: Würzburg, Germany is 90% destroyed, with 5,000 dead, in only 20 minutes by British bombers.
1945 – World War II: Bitche is taken as US 7th Army continues its efforts to break through the Siegfried Line.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Anniversary Song” by Dinah Shore, “Managua, Nicaragua” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Don Rodney), “Oh, But I Do” by Margaret Whiting and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1947 – Convair Liner, first US twin-engine pressurized airplane, tested. The first customer delivery was made on February 23, 1948 to American Airlines and entered service on June 1.
1947 – Margaret Truman (16) made her concert debut signing over a nationwide radio hookup with the Detroit Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Dr. Karl Krueger.
1950 – Congress voted to remove federal taxes on oleomargarine. The law was signed by President Truman.
1951 – Korean War: In the wake of allied successes of Operation RIPPER, communist forces attempted to disengage and withdraw.
1955 – President Eisenhower upheld the use of atomic weapons in case of war.
1957 – Tab Hunter’s song “Young Love” was number one in the U.S.
1958 – The Ford Motor Company produces its 50 millionth automobile, the Thunderbird, averaging almost a million cars a year since the company’s founding.
1959 – John Sailling (111), last documented Civil War vet, died.
1961 – “The Agony and the Ecstasy” was published by Irving Stone.
1962 – US Lockheed Super-Constellation disappeared above Pacific Ocean and 167 were killed.
1962 – First launching of Titan 2-rocket. This was the first full-scale test of the vehicle; it flew 8000 km out over the Atlantic Ocean.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Walk Like a Man” by the Four Seasons, “Our Day Will Come” by Ruby & The Romantics, “You’re the Reason I’m Living” by Bobby Darin and “The Ballad of Jed Clampett” by Flatt & Scruggs all topped the charts.
1963 – Peter, Paul and Mary released the single, “Puff The Magic Dragon”
1964 – President Lyndon B. Johnson submitted a $1 billion war on poverty program to Congress.
1964 – Paul Hornung & Alex Karras reinstated in NFL after 1 year suspension. They were suspended by Pete Rozelle for betting on NFL games and associating with gamblers.
1966 – Launch of Gemini 8, the 12th manned American space flight and first space docking with the Agena Target Vehicle. Former naval aviator Neil Armstrong flew on this mission which completed 7 orbits in 10 hours and 41 minutes at an altitude of 161.3 nautical miles.
1966 – Vietnam War: Col. Paul Underwood flew a bombing mission over Lai Chau Province and crashed after releasing bombs from his F-105 Thunderchief. His remains were returned to the US in 1998.
1968 – Vietnam War: In the My Lai massacre, between 350 and 500 Vietnamese villagers: men, women, and children are killed by American troops.
1968 – Vietnam War: President Lyndon B Johnson decided to send 35-50,000 more troops to Vietnam.
1968 – General Motors produces its 100 millionth automobile, the Oldsmobile Toronado.
1968 – “(Sittin’ on) The Dock of the Bay” by Otis Redding topped the charts.
1969 – Boston Bruins scores a NHL record 8 goals in 1 period.
1969 – Peter Stone & Sherman Edward’s “1776” premieres at 46th St Theater New York City for 1217 performances.
1974 – First performance at new Grand Ole Opry House at Opryland in Nashville.
1974 – “Seasons in the Sun” by Terry Jacks topped the charts.
1975 – US Mariner 10 makes 3rd & final fly-by of Mercury. The mission shows a cratered surface and a faint, mostly helium atmosphere.
1980 – A member of Iranian Revolutionary Council says US hostages suspected of spying have been kept in solitary confinement.
1982 – Claus Von Bulow was found guilty in Newport, R.I., of trying to kill his now-comatose wife, Martha, with insulin. Von Bulow was acquitted in a retrial.
1984 – William Buckley, the CIA station chief in Beirut, Lebanon, is kidnapped by Islamic fundamentalists and later dies in captivity.
1985 – Associated Press newsman Terry Anderson is taken hostage in Beirut. He is released on December 4, 1991 after 2, 455 days being blindfolded.
1985 – “A Chorus Line” played performance number 4,000 this night at NY’s Shubert Theatre.
1985 – “Can’t Fight This Feeling” by REO Speedwagon topped the charts.
1985 – Denny McLain, winner of the American League Cy Young Award in 1968, is convicted of racketeering, extortion, and cocaine possession.
1985 – “People” magazine listed the top 57 money-making show-biz stars. At the pinnacle was Paul McCartney, former Beatle and leader of the group, Wings, whose music empire was said to be worth $500 million. Bob Hope made the list with a worth of about $200 million.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Jacob’s Ladder” by Huey Lewis & The News, “Somewhere Out There” by Linda Ronstadt & James Ingram, “Let’s Wait Awhile” by Janet Jackson and “Baby’s Got a New Baby” by S-K-O all topped the charts.
1987 – “Bostonia” magazine printed an English translation of Albert Einstein’s last high school report card. The brain behind the theory of relativity did relatively well with an ‘A’ in math, of course, but a ‘D’ in French.
1988 – Iran-Contra Affair: Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North and Vice Admiral John Poindexter are indicted on charges of conspiracy to defraud the United States.
1988 – Saddam Hussein uses mustard gas to attack Kurds. In the northern Iraqi town of Halabja, nearly 5,000 people are killed.
1988 – Mickey Thompson and his wife Trudy were shot to death in their driveway. Thompson, known as the “Speed King,” set nearly 500 auto speed endurance records including being the first person to travel more than 400 mph on land.
1991 – Americans Kristi Yamaguchi, Tonya Harding and Nancy Kerrigan swept the World Figure Skating Championships in Munich, Germany.
1991 – Seven members of singer Reba McEntire’s band and her road manager were killed when their private plane crashed near California’s border with Mexico. McEntire was on a separate plane.
1992 – Matt Keough, in the dugout, is hit flush in the head by a batted ball. He is taken to the hospital and undergoes emergency surgery to remove a blood clot.
1994 – Tonya Harding pleads guilty to felony attack on Nancy Kerrigan. She avoided jail but drew a $100,000 fine.
1995 – NASA astronaut Norman Thagard became the first American to visit the Russian space station Mir.
1995 – House Republicans pushed through $17 billion in spending cuts, prompting a veto threat by the White House.
1995 – Mississippi formally ratifies the Thirteenth Amendment, becoming the last state to approve the abolition of slavery. The Thirteenth Amendment was officially ratified in 1865.
1995 – Dow-Jones hits record 4069.15.
1999 – The Nebraska Cornhuskers beat Chicago State 50-3 in an NCAA baseball game.
1999 – The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) presented the first Diamond Awards. The awards are given in recognition of albums and singles that have sold 10 million copies or more.
1999 – The Nebraska Cornhuskers beat Chicago State 50-3 in an NCAA baseball game.
1999 – The Dow Jones industrial average briefly topped the 10,000 level, reaching a high of 10,001.78 before retreating. See 1995.
2000 – Thomas Wilson Ferebee, the Enola Gay bombardier who dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, died in Windermere, Fla., at age 81.
2000 – In Georgia a gunman shot and wounded two sheriff’s deputies while being served a warrant in Atlanta at the home of Jamil Abdullah Al-Amin, formerly known as H. Rap Brown.
2002 – In Ohio Brittanie Cecil (13) was struck by a flying hockey puck during a game between the hometown Columbus Blue Jackets and the Calgary Flames; she died two days later.
2004 – Yemen authorities said nine suspects in the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole had been arrested, including eight who escaped from jail in 2003.
2004 – Mitch Seavey won the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race in nine days, 12 hours, 20 minutes and 22 seconds.
2005 – The US Senate voted 51-49 to drill for oil in Alaska.
2005 – A jury in Los Angeles acquitted actor Robert Blake of murder in the shooting death of his wife, Bonny Lee Bakley, four years earlier.
2005 – In California a judge sentenced Scott Peterson (32) to death for the 2002 murder of his wife and unborn son.
2006 – The White House issued a 49-page security strategy report that listed Iran as the single country that may pose the biggest danger to the US and reaffirmed pre-emptive military actions as a central tenet of US security policy.
2006 – US Federal drug agents raided several “marijuana candy factories” in Oakland and Emeryville, Ca., seizing hundreds of sodas and candies with such names as Trippy, Stoney Rancher, Toka-Cola and Budtela.
2006 – NASA released data backing the Big Bang theory that the universe sprang from marble size to infinity in less than a trillion-trillionth second.
2007 – JetBlue canceled 215 flights because of a winter storm on the East Coast. The storm was blamed for as many as a dozen deaths and forced more than 3,600 flight cancellations.
2007 – In Wilmington, Del., Rachel L. Holt (35), who had pleaded guilty to second-degree rape, was sentenced to 10 years in prison for having sex with a 13-year-old student.
2008 – JPMorgan said it would buy Bear Stearns for $236.2 million, $2 a share, in a stunning fall for one of the world’s largest and most venerable investment banks.
2009 – President Barack Obama blistered insurance giant AIG for “recklessness and greed” and pledged to try to block it from handing its executives $165 million in bonuses after taking billions in federal bailout money. Obama also freed billions of dollars to help the nation’s small businesses with loans.
2009 – In Michigan four teenagers were killed when their car was struck by a van driven by Frances Patricia Dingle in Roseville. Dingle was measured with a blood alcohol level of .08, twice the legal limit, and was charged with 2nd degree murder.
2009 – US researchers said a new test can accurately detect Alzheimer’s disease in its earliest stages, before dementia symptoms surface and widespread damage occurs.
2010 – DHS Secretary Janet Napolitano said she is freezing funding for the SBInet project, the virtual border fence along the US-Mexican border, due to cost overruns and missed deadlines by Boeing Corp.
2010 – NASA researchers in Antarctica discover cold-water Lysianassidae, shrimp-like amphipods, living in the water beneath the Ross Ice Shelf.
2011 – Hillary Clinton, the United States Secretary of State, states that she will not serve a second term in President Obama’s Cabinet if he is reelected in 2012 and will retire from public life.
2011 – The Governor of Michigan Rick Snyder signs legislation giving enhanced powers to emergency managers appointed to manage cities and schools including the power to terminate union contracts.
2012 – President Obama signed the Executive Order 13603 entitled National Defense Resources Preparedness (NDRP), which gave a host of government agencies control of any and all national resources in the name of martial law. It also gives the Federal government the legal authority to force any person into de facto slavery. It says the President, or those he designates, can conscript “persons of outstanding experience and ability without compensation,” in “peacetime and times of national emergency.
2013 – A tour bus carrying the Seton Hill University women’s lacrosse team veers off the Pennsylvania Turnpike and strikes a tree near Carlisle, Pennsylvania, United States, killing the team’s head coach, her unborn child, and the bus driver.
2015 – It was announced that the winter of 2014-2015 in Boston, MA set a new record for total snowfall. The new record is 108.6 inches and is compared to the old record in 1995-1996 of 107.6 inches.
1751 – James Madison, 4th President of the United States (d. 1836)
1877 – Reza Shah Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (d. 1941)
1897 – Conrad Nagel, American actor (d. 1970)
1903 – Mike Mansfield, American politician, and diplomat (d. 2001)
1906 – Henny Youngman, American comedian (d. 1998)
1912 – Pat Nixon, First Lady of the United States (d. 1993)
1916 – Mercedes McCambridge, American actress (d. 2004)
1926 – Jerry Lewis, American comedian
1927 – Daniel Patrick Moynihan, U.S. Senator from New York (d. 2003)
1932 – Walter Cunningham, American astronaut
1941 – Chuck Woolery, American game show host
1949 – Erik Estrada, Puerto Rican actor
1967 – Lauren Graham, American actress
RASCON, ALFRED V.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Reconnaissance Platoon, Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion (Airborne), 503rd Infantry,173d Airborne Brigade (Separate) Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, March 16th, 1966 Born: 1945, Chihuahua, Mexico Citation: Specialist Four Alfred Rascon, distinguished himself by a series of extraordinarily courageous acts on 16 March 1966, while assigned as a medic to the Reconnaissance Platoon, Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion (Airborne), 503rd Infantry, 173d Airborne Brigade (Separate). While moving to reinforce its sister battalion under intense enemy attack, the Reconnaissance Platoon came under heavy fire from a numerically superior enemy force. The intense enemy fire from crew-served weapons and grenades severely wounded several point squad soldiers. Specialist Rascon, ignoring directions to stay behind shelter until covering fire could be provided, made his way forward. He repeatedly tried to reach the severely wounded point machine-gunner laying on an open enemy trail, but was driven back each time by the withering fire. Disregarding his personal safety, he jumped to his feet, ignoring flying bullets and exploding grenades to reach his comrade. To protect him from further wounds, he intentionally placed his body between the soldier and enemy machine guns, sustaining numerous shrapnel injuries and a serious wound to the hip. Disregarding his serious wounds he dragged the larger soldier from the fire-raked trail. Hearing the second machine-gunner yell that he was running out of ammunition, Specialist Rascon, under heavy enemy fire crawled back to the wounded machine-gunner stripping him of his bandoleers of ammunition, giving them to the machine-gunner who continued his suppressive fire. Specialist Rascon fearing the abandoned machine gun, its ammunition and spare barrel could fall into enemy hands made his way to retrieve them. On the way, he was wounded in the face and torso by grenade fragments, but disregarded these wounds to recover the abandoned machine gun, ammunition and spare barrel items, enabling another soldier to provide added suppressive fire to the pinned-down squad. In searching for the wounded, he saw the point grenadier being wounded by small arms fire and grenades being thrown at him. Disregarding his own life and his numerous wounds, Specialist Rascon reached and covered him with his body absorbing the blasts from the exploding grenades, and saving the soldier’s life, but sustaining additional wounds to his body. While making his way to the wounded point squad leader, grenades were hurled at the sergeant. Again, in complete disregard for his own life, he reached and covered the sergeant with his body, absorbing the full force of the grenade explosions. Once more Specialist Rascon was critically wounded by shrapnel, but disregarded his own wounds to continue to search and aid the wounded. Severely wounded, he remained on the battlefield, inspiring his fellow soldiers to continue the battle. After the enemy broke contact, he disregarded aid for himself, instead treating the wounded and directing their evacuation. Only after being placed on the evacuation helicopter did he allow aid to be given to him. Specialist Rascon’s extraordinary valor in the face of deadly enemy fire, his heroism in rescuing the wounded, and his gallantry by repeatedly risking his own life for his fellow soldiers are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.
PIERCE, FRANCIS JUNIOR
Rank and organization: Pharmacist’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy serving with 2d Battalion, 24th Marines, 4th Marine Division. Place and date: Iwo Jima, 15 and March 16th, 1945. Entered service at Iowa Born: 7 December 1924, Earlville, Iowa. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while attached to the 2d Battalion, 24th Marines, 4th Marine Division, during the Iwo Jima campaign, 15 and 16 March 1945. Almost continuously under fire while carrying out the most dangerous volunteer assignments, Pierce gained valuable knowledge of the terrain and disposition of troops. Caught in heavy enemy rifle and machinegun fire which wounded a corpsman and two of the eight stretcher bearers who were carrying two wounded Marines to a forward aid station on 15 March, Pierce quickly took charge of the party, carried the newly wounded men to a sheltered position, and rendered first aid. After directing the evacuation of three of the casualties, he stood in the open to draw the enemy’s fire and, with his weapon blasting, enabled the litter bearers to reach cover. Turning his attention to the other 2 casualties he was attempting to stop the profuse bleeding of 1 man when a Japanese fired from a cave less than twenty yards away and wounded his patient again. Risking his own life to save his patient, Pierce deliberately exposed himself to draw the attacker from the cave and destroyed him with the last of his ammunition Then lifting the wounded man to his back, he advanced unarmed through deadly rifle fire across 200 feet of open terrain. Despite exhaustion and in the face of warnings against such a suicidal mission, he again traversed the same fire-swept path to rescue the remaining Marine. On the following morning, he led a combat patrol to the sniper nest and, while aiding a stricken Marine, was seriously wounded. Refusing aid for himself, he directed treatment for the casualty, at the same time maintaining protective fire for his comrades. Completely fearless, completely devoted to the care of his patients, Pierce inspired the entire battalion. His valor in the face of extreme peril sustains and enhances the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
TAYLOR, RICHARD H.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Apia, Samoa March 16th, 1889 Born: 1871, Virginia. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 157, 20 April 1904. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Nipsic, Taylor displayed gallantry during the hurricane at Apia, Samoa, 16 March 1889.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Hold, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845 Norway Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884 Second award. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S.S Lackawanna, March 16th, 1883, at Honolulu, T.H., and rescuing from drowning Thomas Moran, landsman.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 1st Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At Mason’s Hill, Va., March 16th, 1864. Entered service at: Rome, N.Y. Birth: Newark, N.J. Date of issue: 28 September 1897. Citation: Having been surprised and captured by a detachment of guerrillas, this soldier, with other prisoners, seized the arms of the guard over them, killed two of the guerrillas, and enabled all the prisoners to escape.
Ides of March Marked Murder of Julius Caesar
for National Geographic NewsMarch 12, 2004
Julius Caesar’s bloody assassination on March 15, 44 B.C., forever marked March 15, or the Ides of March, as a day of infamy. It has fascinated scholars and writers ever since. For ancient Romans living before that event, however, an ides was merely one of several common calendar terms used to mark monthly lunar events.
The ides simply marked the appearance of the full moon.
But the Ides of March assumed a whole new identity after the events of 44 B.C. The phrase came to represent a specific day of abrupt change that set off a ripple of repercussions throughout Roman society and beyond.
Josiah Osgood, an assistant professor of classics at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., said: “You can read in Cicero’s letters from the months after the Ides of March. … He even says, ‘The Ides changed everything.'”
By the time of Caesar, Rome had a long-established republican government headed by two consuls with joint powers. Praetors were one step below consuls in
the power chain and handled judicial matters. A body of citizens forming the
Senate proposed legislation, which general people’s assemblies then approved by vote. A special temporary office, that of dictator, was established for use only during times of extreme civil unrest.
The Romans had no love for kings. According to legend, they expelled their last one in 509 B.C. While Caesar had made pointed and public displays of turning down offers of kingship, he showed no reluctance to accept the office of “dictator for life” in February 44 B.C. According to Osgood, this action may have sealed his fate in the minds of his enemies. “We can see [now] that that was enough to get him killed,” Osgood said.
Caesar had pushed the envelope for some time before his death. “Caesar was the first living Roman ever to appear on the coinage,” Osgood said. Normally, the honor was reserved for deities. He notes that some historians suspect that Caesar might have been attempting to establish a cult in his honor in a move towards deification.
It is unclear if Caesar was aware of the plot to kill him on March 15 in 44 B.C. But Caesar was not oblivious to the mounting danger of a backlash, noted Charles McNelis, an assistant professor of classics and Osgood’s colleague at Georgetown University.
The plot’s conspirators, who termed themselves “the liberators,” had to move quickly. “Caesar had plans to leave Rome on March 18th for a military campaign in Parthia, the region around modern-day Iraq. So the conspirators did not have much time,” McNelis said. Whether or not Caesar was a true tyrant is debated still to this day. It is safe to say, however, that in the mind of Marcus Brutus, who helped mastermind the attack, the threat Caesar posed to the republican system was clear.
In the play by William Shakespeare we see his friend Antony called upon to do his funeral oration. I have taken out the public parts, set the stage with Brutus as Antony delivered the wry, ironic oration. Antony starts after Brutus tries to justify what he and Cassius did.
SCENE II. The Forum.
Enter BRUTUS and CASSIUS, and a throng of Citizens
We will be satisfied; let us be satisfied.
Then follow me, and give me audience, friends.
Cassius, go you into the other street,
And part the numbers.
Those that will hear me speak, let ’em stay here;
Those that will follow Cassius, go with him;
And public reasons shall be rendered
Of Caesar’s death.
The noble Brutus is ascended: silence!
Be patient till the last.
Romans, countrymen, and lovers! hear me for my
cause, and be silent, that you may hear: believe me
for mine honour, and have respect to mine honour, that
you may believe: censure me in your wisdom, and
awake your senses, that you may the better judge.
If there be any in this assembly, any dear friend of
Caesar’s, to him I say, that Brutus’ love to Caesar
was no less than his. If then that friend demand
why Brutus rose against Caesar, this is my answer:
–Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved
Rome more. Had you rather Caesar were living and
die all slaves, than that Caesar were dead, to live
all free men? As Caesar loved me, I weep for him;
as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was
valiant, I honour him: but, as he was ambitious, I
slew him. There is tears for his love; joy for his
fortune; honour for his valour; and death for his
ambition. Who is here so base that would be a
bondman? If any, speak; for him have I offended.
Who is here so rude that would not be a Roman? If
any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so
vile that will not love his country? If any, speak;
for him have I offended. I pause for a reply.
Then none have I offended. I have done no more to
Caesar than you shall do to Brutus. The question of
his death is enrolled in the Capitol; his glory not
extenuated, wherein he was worthy, nor his offences
enforced, for which he suffered death.
Enter ANTONY and others, with CAESAR’s body
Here comes his body, mourned by Mark Antony: who,
though he had no hand in his death, shall receive
the benefit of his dying, a place in the
commonwealth; as which of you shall not? With this
I depart,–that, as I slew my best lover for the
good of Rome, I have the same dagger for myself,
when it shall please my country to need my death.
Good countrymen, let me depart alone,
And, for my sake, stay here with Antony:
Do grace to Caesar’s corpse, and grace his speech
Tending to Caesar’s glories; which Mark Antony,
By our permission, is allow’d to make.
I do entreat you, not a man depart,
Save I alone, till Antony have spoke.
For Brutus’ sake, I am beholding to you.
You gentle Romans,–
Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;
I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.
The evil that men do lives after them;
The good is oft interred with their bones;
So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus
Hath told you Caesar was ambitious:
If it were so, it was a grievous fault,
And grievously hath Caesar answer’d it.
Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest–
For Brutus is an honourable man;
So are they all, all honourable men–
Come I to speak in Caesar’s funeral.
He was my friend, faithful and just to me:
But Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man.
He hath brought many captives home to Rome
Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill:
Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?
When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept:
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff:
Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man.
You all did see that on the Lupercal
I thrice presented him a kingly crown,
Which he did thrice refuse: was this ambition?
Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And, sure, he is an honourable man.
I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke,
But here I am to speak what I do know.
You all did love him once, not without cause:
What cause withholds you then, to mourn for him?
O judgment! thou art fled to brutish beasts,
And men have lost their reason. Bear with me;
My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar,
And I must pause till it come back to me.
But yesterday the word of Caesar might
Have stood against the world; now lies he there.
And none so poor to do him reverence.
O masters, if I were disposed to stir
Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage,
I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong,
Who, you all know, are honourable men:
I will not do them wrong; I rather choose
To wrong the dead, to wrong myself and you,
Than I will wrong such honourable men.
But here’s a parchment with the seal of Caesar;
I found it in his closet, ’tis his will:
Let but the commons hear this testament–
Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read–
And they would go and kiss dead Caesar’s wounds
And dip their napkins in his sacred blood,
Yea, beg a hair of him for memory,
And, dying, mention it within their wills,
Bequeathing it as a rich legacy
Unto their issue.
Have patience, gentle friends, I must not read it;
It is not meet you know how Caesar loved you.
You are not wood, you are not stones, but men;
And, being men, bearing the will of Caesar,
It will inflame you, it will make you mad:
‘Tis good you know not that you are his heirs;
For, if you should, O, what would come of it!
Will you be patient? will you stay awhile?
I have o’ershot myself to tell you of it:
I fear I wrong the honourable men
Whose daggers have stabb’d Caesar; I do fear it.
You will compel me, then, to read the will?
Then make a ring about the corpse of Caesar,
And let me show you him that made the will.
Shall I descend? and will you give me leave?
Nay, press not so upon me; stand far off.
If you have tears, prepare to shed them now.
You all do know this mantle: I remember
The first time ever Caesar put it on;
‘Twas on a summer’s evening, in his tent,
That day he overcame the Nervii:
Look, in this place ran Cassius’ dagger through:
See what a rent the envious Casca made:
Through this the well-beloved Brutus stabb’d;
And as he pluck’d his cursed steel away,
Mark how the blood of Caesar follow’d it,
As rushing out of doors, to be resolved
If Brutus so unkindly knock’d, or no;
For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar’s angel:
Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar loved him!
This was the most unkindest cut of all;
For when the noble Caesar saw him stab,
Ingratitude, more strong than traitors’ arms,
Quite vanquish’d him: then burst his mighty heart;
And, in his mantle muffling up his face,
Even at the base of Pompey’s statua,
Which all the while ran blood, great Caesar fell.
O, what a fall was there, my countrymen!
Then I, and you, and all of us fell down,
Whilst bloody treason flourish’d over us.
O, now you weep; and, I perceive, you feel
The dint of pity: these are gracious drops.
Kind souls, what, weep you when you but behold
Our Caesar’s vesture wounded? Look you here,
Here is himself, marr’d, as you see, with traitors.
Good friends, sweet friends, let me not stir you up
To such a sudden flood of mutiny.
They that have done this deed are honourable:
What private griefs they have, alas, I know not,
That made them do it: they are wise and honourable,
And will, no doubt, with reasons answer you.
I come not, friends, to steal away your hearts:
I am no orator, as Brutus is;
But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man,
That love my friend; and that they know full well
That gave me public leave to speak of him:
For I have neither wit, nor words, nor worth,
Action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech,
To stir men’s blood: I only speak right on;
I tell you that which you yourselves do know;
Show you sweet Caesar’s wounds, poor poor dumb mouths,
And bid them speak for me: but were I Brutus,
And Brutus Antony, there were an Antony
Would ruffle up your spirits and put a tongue
In every wound of Caesar that should move
The stones of Rome to rise and mutiny.
Yet hear me, countrymen; yet hear me speak.
Peace, ho! Hear Antony. Most noble Antony!
Why, friends, you go to do you know not what:
Wherein hath Caesar thus deserved your loves?
Alas, you know not: I must tell you then:
You have forgot the will I told you of.
Most true. The will! Let’s stay and hear the will.
Here is the will, and under Caesar’s seal.
To every Roman citizen he gives,
To every several man, seventy-five drachmas.
Hear me with patience.
Moreover, he hath left you all his walks,
His private arbours and new-planted orchards,
On this side Tiber; he hath left them you,
And to your heirs forever, common pleasures,
To walk abroad, and recreate yourselves.
Here was a Caesar! when comes such another?
Now let it work. Mischief, thou art afoot,
Take thou what course thou wilt!
Proverbs 2:1- 6a
My son, if you receive my words, And treasure my commands within you, 2 So that you incline your ear to wisdom, And apply your heart to understanding; 3 Yes, if you cry out for discernment, And lift up your voice for understanding, 4 If you seek her as silver, And search for her as for hidden treasures; 5 Then you will understand the fear of the Lord, And find the knowledge of God. 6 For the Lord gives wisdom;
From His mouth come knowledge and understanding;
Margaret Mead once said, “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world, indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has.” In the next four days we will look at some of the leadership principles of our Founders.
The courage of convictions: Our founders clung to and fought for the cause of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” With years of hindsight and the benefit of our modern comforts, it is hard to comprehend their sacrifices. Leadership in a global economy requires steady conviction in the face of incredible challenges. To say that our Founding Fathers were men of conviction would be an understatement, but all great leaders are. What will be the measure of your leadership?
Tomorrow: The sanctity of sacrifice
“If you view all the things that happen to you, both good and bad, as opportunities, then you operate out of a higher level of consciousness.”
~ Les Brown
argal (AHR-guhl) conjunction, adverb:
By alteration of the Latin ergo (therefore). The word argal is usually used to indicate that the reasoning presented is ludicrous.
44 BC – Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus and several other Roman senators on the Ides of March.
1493 – Christopher Columbus returns to Spain after his first trip to the Americas.
1521 – Ferdinand Magellan discovered the Philippine Islands, where he was killed by natives the following month.
1697 – A band of Abnaki Indians made a raid on Haverhill, Massachusetts. Twenty-seven women and children were killed in the raid.
1776 – South Carolina becomes the first American colony to declare its independence from Great Britain and set up its own government.
1781 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Guilford Courthouse – Near present-day Greensboro, North Carolina, 1,900 British troops under General Charles Cornwallis defeat an American force numbering 4,400.
1783 – In an emotional speech in Newburgh, New York, George Washington asks his officers not to support the Newburgh Conspiracy. The plea is successful and the threatened coup d’etat never takes place. The Newburgh Conspiracy was what appeared to be a threatened uprising in the Continental Army when the Revolutionary War was at its end. It was possibly instigated by political actors in the Congress of the Confederation.
1812 – First Russian settlement in California, Russian River. These Russians had come to hunt sea otter, to grow wheat and other crops for the Russian settlements in Alaska, and to trade with Spanish California.
1820 – Maine becomes the 23rd U.S. state.
1855 – Louisiana established the first health board to regulate quarantine. It was to enforce isolation of malaria and cholera.
1862 – Civil War: General John Hunt Morgan began four days of raids near the city of Gallatin, TN.
1862 – Civil War: After ordering ironclads U.S.S. Benton and Essex to remain at Fort De Russy in support of the Army detachment engaged in destroying the works, Rear Admiral Porter convoyed the main body of troops up the Red River toward Alexandria, Louisiana.
1864 – Civil War: Red River Campaign began as the Union forces reach Alexandria, LA.
1865 – President Abraham Lincoln delivered his Second Inaugural Address.
1867 – Michigan becomes first state to tax property to support a university.
1869 – Cincinnati Red Stockings become the first pro baseball team.
1873 – The Phi Sigma Kappa fraternity is founded at Massachusetts Agricultural College.
1875 – Archbishop of New York John McCloskey is named the first cardinal in the United States.
1892 – First escalator (inclined elevator) patented by inventor Jesse W Reno (New York NY).
1892 – New York State unveils automatic ballot booth (voting machine). The first official use of a lever type voting machine, known then as the “Myers Automatic Booth,” occurred in Lockport, New York.
1895 – Bone Mizell, the famed cowboy of Florida, appeared before a judge for altering cattle brands.
1902 – In Boston, MA, 10,000 freight handlers went back to work after a weeklong strike.
1906 – Rolls-Royce Limited is incorporated.
1912 – Pitcher Cy Young retires from baseball with 511 wins.
1913 – President Woodrow Wilson conducts the first Presidential press.
1916 – President Woodrow Wilson sends 12,000 United States troops over the U.S.-Mexico border to pursue Pancho Villa. General Pershing failed to capture the Villa dead or alive. Villa was assassinated at Parral in 1923.
1919 – The American Legion forms in Paris. It was founded by delegates from combat and service units of the American Expeditionary Force (WW I).
1930 – First streamlined submarine of the US Navy, USS Nautilus, launched.
1933 – Los Angeles Sentinel newspaper founded by Leon H. Washington. the newspaper is a weekly African-American-owned paper published in Los Angeles, California.
1933 – Spingarn Medal presented to YMCA secretary Max Yergan for his achievements as a missionary in South Africa, “representing the gift of cooperation…American Negroes may send back to their motherland.”
1933 – The NAACP began a coordinated attack on segregation and discrimination.
1934 – Henry Ford restored the $5 a day wage.
1937 – Bernard Fantus, director of therapeutics at the Cook County Hospital in Chicago, Illinois established the first hospital blood bank in the United States.
1937 – The first state contraceptive clinic opened in Raleigh, NC.
1938 – Oil was discovered in Saudi Arabia.
1939 – World War II: German troops occupy the remaining part of Bohemia and Moravia; Czechoslovakia ceases to exist.
1941 – A blizzard in North Dakota killed 151.
1941 – World War II: In an important speech Roosevelt promises that the United States will supply Britain and the Allies “aid until victory” and that there will be an “end to compromise with tyranny.”
1943 – World War II: The US 7th Fleet (Admiral Carpender) is formed to control naval operations around New Guinea.|
1944 – World War II: Battle of Monte Cassino – Allied aircraft bomb the German-held monastery and stage an assault. Cassino, Italy was destroyed.
1944 – World War II: On Bougainville, there are renewed attacks by Japanese forces against the American beachhead. US forces hold the effort.
1945 – World War II: On Iwo Jima, US 5th Amphibious Corps continues to engage the Japanese forces which are now confined a small area in the northwest of the island.
1945 – World War II: The US 7th Army launches attacks in the area around Saarbrucken and Bitche in a joint effort with US 3rd Army to eliminate German forces from the area between the Saar, Moselle and Rhine rivers.
1945 – Billboard publishes its first album chart (King Cole Trio is #1).
1945 – Brooklyn Dodgers open spring training at Bear Mountain NY.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh, What It Seemed to Be” by The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Marjorie Hughes), “Let It Snow” by Vaughn Monroe, “Symphony” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Clyde Rogers) and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1946 – For the first time, U.S. Coast Guard aircraft supplemented the work of the Coast Guard patrol vessels of the International Ice Patrol, scouting for ice and determining the limits of the ice fields from the air.
1948 – Sir Laurence Olivier was on the cover of “LIFE” magazine for his starring role in Shakespeare’s “Hamlet.”
1950 – New York City hired Dr Wallace E Howell as the city’s official “rainmaker”. His job was to create rain during a prolonged drought for which he received $100 per day.
1951 – Korean War: Eighth Army recaptured Seoul.
1951 – Korean War : U.S. Navy ships fired on Wonsan for a full seven minutes, killing an estimated 8,000 Chinese troops.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1954 – CBS television debuted its “Morning Show.” It premiered with Walter Cronkite (1916-2009) and Jack Paar (1918-2004).
1955 – The U.S. Air Force unveiled a self-guided missile.
1956 – The Lerner and Loew musical “My Fair Lady” opened starring Julie Andrews and Rex Harrison at the Mark Hellinger Theater in NYC for 2,715 performances.
1958 – Saturday Evening Post included Norman Rockwell’s “Runaway Kid and the Cop” as its cover.
1960 – The first underwater park was established as Key Largo Coral Reef Preserve.
1960 – National Observatory at Kitt Peak, Arizona dedicated.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hey! Baby” by Bruce Channel, “Midnight in Moscow” by Kenny Ball & His Jazzmen, “Don’t Break the Heart that Loves You” by Connie Francis and “Misery Loves Company” by Porter Wagoner all topped the charts.
1962 – Donald Jackson of Canada, is first to land a triple lutz ice skate jump.
1962 – Wilt Chamberlain is first to score 4,000 points in an NBA season.
1965 – President Lyndon B. Johnson, responding to the Selma crisis, tells U.S. Congress “We shall overcome” while advocating the Voting Rights Act.
1965 – TGI Friday’s first restaurant opens in New York NY.
1966 – Vietnam War: Establishment of River Squadron Five in Vietnam.
1968 – The U.S. mint halted the practice of buying and selling gold.
1968 – Bob Beamon, best known for his world record in the long jump at the Mexico Olympics in 1968, sets indoor long jump record (29′ 2.5″). This remained the world record for 22 years, 316 days.
1968 – “LIFE” magazine called Jimi Hendrix, “the most spectacular guitarist in the world.”
1969 – “Dizzy” by Tommy Roe topped the charts.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel, “Travelin’ Band/Who’ll Stop the Rain” by Creedence Clearwater Revival, “The Rapper” by The Jaggerz and “It’s Just a Matter of Time” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1971 – CBS television announced it was going to drop “The Ed Sullivan Show.”
1975 – “Black Water” by the Doobie Brothers topped the charts.
1975 – Ted Bundy victim Julie Cunningham (26) disappeared from Vail, Colo.
1977 – The first episode of “Eight is Enough” was aired on ABC-TV.
1977 – The U.S. House of Representatives began a 90-day test to determine the feasibility of showing its sessions on television.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “(Love Is) Thicker Than Water” by Andy Gibb, “Night Fever” by Bee Gees, “Lay Down Sally” by Eric Clapton and “Mamas Don’t Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Cowboys” by Waylon & Willie all topped the charts.
1980 – “Crazy Little Thing Called Love” by Queen topped the charts.
1980 – Masked terrorists believed to be Puerto Rican nationalists raid Carter campaign headquarters in Chicago and Bush campaign headquarters in New York City.
1980 – Scores injured in Klan-related incidents in Georgia, Tennessee, California, Indiana and North Carolina, in March and April.
1980 – The Penobscot Indians settle a claim for land taken in a violation of the Indian Nonintercourse Act of 1790.
1984 – The acquittal of a Miami police officer on charges of negligently killing a ghetto youth sparked a rampage by angry blacks in Miami; 550 people were arrested.
1985 – The first Internet domain name is registered to Symbolics Technologies (symbolics.com).
1986 – The AMA ruled that euthanasia was ethical on coma patients.
1988 – NFL owners approved the move of the St Louis Cardinals to Phoenix.
1989 – The U.S. Food and Drug administration decided to impound all fruit imported from Chile after two cyanide-tainted grapes were found in Philadelphia, PA.
1989 – The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs became the 14th Department in the President’s Cabinet.
1990 – The Ford Explorer was introduced to the public.
1990 – Mikhail Gorbachev is elected as the first executive president of the Soviet Union.
1991 – Four Los Angeles police officers were indicted in the beating of Rodney King on March 3.
1991 – Germany formally regains complete independence after the four post-World War II occupying powers (France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union) relinquish all remaining rights.
1993 – CBS’ “60 Minutes” aired an interview with former White House employee Kathleen Willey. Wiley said U.S. President Clinton made unwelcome sexual advances toward her in the Oval Office in 1993.
1993 – Searchers found the body of the sixth and last missing victim of the World Trade Center bombing in New York.
1994 – William Hartman was issued a patent for a method and apparatus for painting highway markings – the stripes etc.
1996 – The Liggett Group agreed to repay more than $10 million in Medicaid bills for treatment of smokers, settling lawsuits with five states.
1997 – Operation Gulf Shield begins. This operation is a counterpart to the counter narcotics operation Frontier Shield.
1999 – The US prison population was reported at 1.8 million with 668 inmates per 100,000 residents.
1999 – In Bourbonnais, Ill., the “City of New Orleans” Amtrak train derailed after hitting a truck loaded with steel. The truck was driven by John Stokes and 11 people were killed and 119 injured. A witness testified that Stokes tried to go around the crossing gates to beat the train, but the testimony was later reported as mistaken.
2000 – Iraq War: U.S. and British warplanes hit southern Iraqi targets.
2000 – In Michigan four teens beat to death and robbed Willie Jones (66) as he left the Michigan Lanes Bowling Alley in Grand Rapids. The teens then stuffed Jones into their car trunk and drove around town to show him off.
2000 – Patrick Poland was put to death by lethal injection for his role in the robbery and murder of two armored car guards on May 24th 1977.
2001 – Federal authorities confirmed that remains found on a Texas ranch were those of missing atheist leader Madalyn Murray O’Hair and two of her relatives. David Waters, the key suspect in the slayings, was sentenced to 20 years in prison on a federal extortion charge in connection with the case.
2002 – In the U.S., Burger King began selling a veggie burger. The event was billed as the first veggie burger to be sold nationally by a fast food chain.
2004 – President George W. Bush urges passage of a constitutional amendment to define marriage as between one man and one woman, as the only way to stop “municipal and judicial activists” from issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples. “If we are to prevent the meaning of marriage from being changed forever, our nation must enact a constitutional amendment.” John Kerry denounces the amendment as “toying” or “tampering” with the Constitution for partisan advantage.
2004 – Ohio police identified Charles A. McCoy Jr. (28) as the gunman in two dozen highway shootings that have terrorized motorists for months.
2005 – OPEC announces that it’s unable to control oil prices.
2005 – In Burbank, California, the last 78 General Motors EV1 vehicles were removed by General Motors from the storage lot, temporarily impeded by a group of EV1 activists, and transferred to the GM Desert Proving Grounds in Mesa, Arizona for disposal, crushing, and recycling.The General Motors EV1 was an electric car produced and leased by the General Motors Corporation from 1996 to 1999. It was the first mass-produced and purposely-designed electric vehicle of the modern era from a major automaker, and the first GM car designed to be an electric vehicle from the outset.
2006 – The FCC proposed a record fine of $3.6 million against dozens of CBS stations and affiliates in a crackdown on indecent television programming.
2006 – Lawrence Edward Woods (60), a transient with two guns, shot and killed two people inside a Denny’s restaurant in Pismo Beach, Ca. He wounded two others and then killed himself.
2007 – Iraq: Four US soldiers die in Baghdad in a car bomb attack.
2007 – In the US Senate Republicans easily turned back Democratic legislation requiring a troop withdrawal from Iraq to begin within 120 days.
2007 – In Sacramento, Ca., a fire burned hundreds of feet of a railroad trestle at the American River causing part of the bridge to collapse.
2007 – Scientists said a spacecraft orbiting Mars has scanned huge deposits of water ice at its south pole so plentiful they would blanket the planet in 36 feet of water if they were liquid.
2008 – In New York City an apartment building on Manhattan’s East Side was crushed in a giant crane collapse that killed seven people and injured seventeen.
2008 – Michael D. Griffin, the current Administrator of NASA, announces the agency will concentrate more on the outer Solar System and less on Mars exploration, due to cuts to its 2009–2012 budget.
2009 – The space shuttle Discovery and its crew of seven launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, FL bound for the International Space Station. It carried the last set of solar wings to boost the station to full power.
2010 – Honda Motor Co. notified the NHTSA it will recall 410,000 Odyssey minivans and Element small trucks, from the 2007-2008 model years, due to braking system problems.
2010 – US Senator Christopher Dodd submits a draft of a bill that would reform financial regulation, mostly in accord with the proposals of President Barack Obama’s administration.
2011 – The passing of the United States generation that fought in World War I is marked by the funeral of Frank Buckles, who died on 27 February 2011, aged 110, and was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery.
2011 – Former US mafia leader Joey Merlino of the Scarfo crime family is released from prison in Indiana and is sent to a halfway house in Florida.
2011 – The US Drug Enforcement Administration seizes the state of Georgia’s supply of a lethal injection drug due to questions over how it was imported to the US.
2011- In Atlanta, GA, a Garda guard was shot three times as he left a Kroger grocery store just after 12 p.m. at the Toco Hills Shopping Center, say law enforcement. The gunman got away after a getaway car picked him up. Investigators later found the car a short distance away from the store. The Garda guard was rushed to the hospital, where he died.
2012 – Former Governor of Illinois Rod Blagojevich arrives at a US federal prison in Colorado to begin a 14-year sentence on corruption charges.
2013 – A 19-year-old man is arrested in connection with a drive-by shooting in Washington, D.C., on March 11, that injured 13 people.
1767 – Andrew Jackson, 7th President of the United States, founder of the Democrat Party (d. 1845)
1809 – Joseph Jenkins Roberts, first President of Liberia (d. 1876)
1821 – William Milligan, Scottish theologian (d. 1892)
1835 – Eduard Strauss, Austrian composer (d. 1916)
1882 – Jim Lightbody, American runner (d. 1953)
1887 – Marjorie Merriweather Post, Socialite and businesswoman (d. 1973)
1892 – James Basevi Ord, US army officer (d. 1938)
1897 – Jackson Scholz, American runner (d. 1986)
1912 – Lightnin’ Hopkins, American musician (d. 1982)
1915 – Joe E. Ross, American actor and comedian (d. 1982)
1916 – Harry James, American musician and band leader (d. 1983)
1920 – E. Donnall Thomas, American physician,
1926 – Norm Van Brocklin, American football player (d. 1983)
1932 – Alan Bean, American astronaut
1933 – Ruth Bader Ginsburg, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
1935 – Judd Hirsch, American actor
1935 – Jimmy Swaggart, American televangelist
1941 – Mike Love Singer, songwriter: group: The Beach Boys)
1944 – Sly Stone, American musician
1968 – Mark McGrath, American musician (Sugar Ray)
*SARGENT, RUPPERT L.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company B, 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Hau Nghia Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 15th, 1967. Entered service at: Richmond, Va. Born: 6 January 1938, Hampton, Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While leading a platoon of Company B, 1st Lt. Sargent was investigating a reported Viet Cong meeting house and weapons cache. A tunnel entrance which 1st Lt. Sargent observed was booby trapped. He tried to destroy the booby trap and blow the cover from the tunnel using hand grenades, but this attempt was not successful. He and his demolition man moved in to destroy the booby trap and cover which flushed a Viet Cong soldier from the tunnel, who was immediately killed by the nearby platoon sergeant. 1st Lt. Sargent, the platoon sergeant, and a forward observer moved toward the tunnel entrance. As they approached, another Viet Cong emerged and threw two hand grenades that landed in the midst of the group. 1st Lt. Sargent fired three shots at the enemy then turned and unhesitatingly threw himself over the two grenades. He was mortally wounded, and his two companions were lightly wounded when the grenades exploded. By his courageous and selfless act of exceptional heroism, he saved the lives of the platoon sergeant and forward observer and prevented the injury or death of several other nearby comrades. 1st Lt. Sargent’s actions were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military services and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
HERRERA, SILVESTRE S.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company E, 142d Infantry, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Mertzwiller, France, March 15th, 1945. Entered service at: Phoenix, Ariz. Birth: El Paso, Tex. G.O. No.: 75, 5 September 1945. Citation: He advanced with a platoon along a wooded road until stopped by heavy enemy machinegun fire. As the rest of the unit took cover, he made a one-man frontal assault on a strongpoint and captured eight enemy soldiers. When the platoon resumed its advance and was subjected to fire from a second emplacement beyond an extensive minefield, Pvt. Herrera again moved forward, disregarding the danger of exploding mines, to attack the position. He stepped on a mine and had both feet severed but, despite intense pain and unchecked loss of blood, he pinned down the enemy with accurate rifle fire while a friendly squad captured the enemy gun by skirting the minefield and rushing in from the flank. The magnificent courage, extraordinary heroism, and willing self-sacrifice displayed by Pvt. Herrera resulted in the capture of two enemy strongpoints and the taking of eight prisoners.
SMITH, HENRY I.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company B, 7th lowa Infantry. Place and date: At Black River, N.C., March 15th, 1865. Entered service at: Shell Rock Fall, Cerro Gordo County, lowa. Born: 4 May 1840, England. Date of issue: 7 September 1894. Citation: Voluntarily and under fire rescued a comrade from death by drowning.
On the night of April 29, 1900, Casey and engine 382 with Sim Webb firing were listed out of Memphis on train #1 with six cars southbound for Canton. The conductor was J. C. Turner. The scheduled departure time was 11:15. Records indicate he left at 12:50; one hour and thirty-five minutes late.
A good engine, a good fireman, a light train and away late; the perfect setting for a record run. He made that record run too, if the oft quoted departure time of 12:50 is correct, for Casey went to Goodman on time for a meet with #2.
While Casey was rolling south, the stage was being set for his tragic wreck. Freights #72 and #83 were both in the passing track at Vaughan and there were more cars
Meanwhile, northbound local passenger #26 arrived from Canton and had to be sawed in on the house track west of the main line. As #83 and #72 sawed back south to clear the north passing track switch, an air hose broke on #72 and he couldn’t move. Several cars of #83’s train were still out on the main line above the north switch.than the track would hold. It was necessary for these trains to move north or south to clear the main line switches in order to allow other trains to pass; this is known as a saw- by.
Engine 382 crashed through the caboose and several cars and came to rest on the right side pointing back north. Casey was fatally wounded in the throat. He was carried one-half mile to the depot were he died lying on a baggage wagon.
The railroad’s formal investigation concluded that “Engineer Jones was solely responsible for the accident as consequence of not having properly responded to flag signals.”
Copyright © 2006 Jack Gurner
Proverbs 1: 1-7
“The happy Union of these States is a wonder; their Constitution a miracle; their example the hope of Liberty throughout the world.”
1829 – inscribed on the Library of Congress
“America’s greatest strength, and its greatest weakness, is our belief in second chances, our belief that we can always start over, that things can be made better. “
~ Anthony Walton
guerdon GUR-duhn, noun
- a reward
- to reward, pay back
1629 – A Royal charter was granted to the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1644 – Roger Williams of Providence, Rhode Island, was issued a charter in the name of the king, which connected the towns of Providence, Portsmouth, and Newport under the title of “the Incorporation of Providence Plantations in the Narragansett Bay in New England.” A March 24 date is also common for this and reflects later use of the new style calendar.
1743 – First American town meeting (Boston’s Faneuil Hall).
1776 – The Continental Congress recommends a policy of disarming all loyalist (pro-Britain) American colonists.
1780 – Revolutionary War: Spanish forces capture Fort Charlotte in Mobile, Alabama, the last British frontier post capable of threatening New Orleans in Spanish Louisiana.
1794 – Eli Whitney is granted a patent for the cotton gin. Patent: X72 (US)
1812 – Congress authorizes $11 million in war bonds to finance War of 1812.
1821 – African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church founded in New York.
1838 – Blacks held a mass meeting in Philadelphia to protest the action of the Pennsylvania Reform Convention of 1837 which denied them the right to vote.
1839 – Herschel introduces “photography.” He referred to “photography” in a lecture to the Royal Society, possibly the first use of the word. Herschel used the name Chrysotype (from the Greek word for gold) for his process.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of New Bern, NC.Union forces conquered New Bern, a strategic port and rail hub by joint amphibious attack under Commander Rowan and Brigadier General Burnside.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate troops launched a surprise night attack against Fort Anderson on the Neuse River, North Carolina.
1863 – Civil War: Rear Admiral Farragut with his squadron of seven ships attacked the strong Confederate works at Port Hudson, attempting to effect passage.
1889 – German Ferdinand von Zeppelin patents his “Navigable Balloon“.
1891 – A mob in New Orleans broke open a jail after a court dismissed charges against nineteen Italian men indicted for the murder of police chief David C. Hemmessey. Eleven of nineteen defendants were hanged.
1900 – The Gold Standard Act is ratified, placing United States currency on the gold standard.
1901 – Utah Governor Heber M. Wells vetoed a bill that would have relaxed restrictions on polygamy.
1903 – First national bird reservation established in Sebastian FL.
1903 – The Hay-Herran Treaty, granting the United States the right to build the Panama Canal, is ratified by the United States Senate. The Colombian Senate would later reject the treaty.
1905 – The first Marine military attaché was appointed to Legation at Peking, China.
1907 – President Theodore Roosevelt signed an executive order designed to prevent Japanese laborers from immigrating to the United States as part of a “gentlemen’s agreement” with Japan.
1910 – Lakeview Gusher, the largest U.S. oil well gusher near Bakersfield, California, vented to atmosphere.
1913 – John D Rockefeller gives $100 million to Rockefeller Foundation.
1914 – Henry Ford announced the new continuous motion method to assemble cars. The process decreased the time to make a car from 12½ hours to 93 minutes.
1915 – World War I: The British Navy sank the German battleship Dresden off the Chilean coast.
1917 – World War I: First training camp for “colored” officers is established by the U.S. Army in Des Moines, Iowa
1918 – First concrete (ferro-cement) ship to cross the Atlantic (a steamer named the SS Faith) is launched in San Francisco.
1923 – President Warren G Harding became first President filing an income tax report and to pay taxes.
1932 – George Eastman, the founder of the Kodak company, committed suicide.
1933 – Civilian Conservation Corporation begins tree conservation. President Roosevelt loved trees and hated to see them cut and not replaced. It was natural for him to wish to put large numbers of the unemployed to repairing such devastation.
1936 – Federal Register, first magazine of the US government, publishes first issue. The FR is published daily, and provides notice to the public of a federal government agency’s proposed new rules, or changes to existing rules.
1936 – Adolf Hitler told a crowd of 300,000 that Germany’s only judge is God and itself.
1937 – Fred Allen and Jack Benny feud in “The Battle of the Century”. The two comedians locked horns in the ballroom of the Hotel Pierre, exchanging torrid insults that were heard by the second largest audience in the history of radio.
1939 – John Steinbeck novel “The Grapes of Wrath” published.
1941 – Xavier Cugat & his Orchestra record “Babalu“.
1942 – John Bumstead and Orvan Hess became the first in the world to successfully treat a patient, Anne Miller, using penicillin.
1942 – World War II: The 172-foot tender Coast Guard Cutter Acacia was en route from Curacao, Netherlands West Indies to Antigua, British West Indies, when she was sunk by shellfire from the German submarine U-161. She was the only Coast Guard buoy tender sunk by enemy action during the war.
1943 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first U.S. President to fly in an airplane while in office.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Accentuate the Positive” by Johnny Mercer, “Saturday Night” by Frank Sinatra, “A Little on the Lonely Side” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Jimmy Brown) and “I’m Losing My Mind Over You” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: The US 7th Army launches attacks in the area around Saarbrucken and Bitche in a joint effort with US 3rd Army to eliminate German forces from the area between the Saar, Moselle and Rhine rivers.
1945 – World War II: In Germany, a 22,000 pound “Grand Slam” bomb was dropped by the Royal Air Force Dumbuster Squad on the Beilefeld railway viaduct. It was the heaviest bomb used during World War II.
1946 – For the first time, U.S. Coast Guard aircraft supplemented the work of the Coast Guard patrol vessels of the International Ice Patrol, scouting for ice and determining the limits of the ice fields from the air.
1947 – The U.S. signed a 99-year lease on naval bases in the Philippines.
1947 – Ensign John W. Lee becomes first Black officer commissioned in regular Navy. He was assigned to the USS Kearsage.
1948 – Freedom Train (12:30) arrives in San Francisco. This was a special exhibit train that toured the country in the latter half of the 1940s with displays of Americana and related historical artifacts.
1950 – FBI’s “10 Most Wanted Fugitives” program begins. It was started after a reporter asked for the names and descriptions of the “toughest guys” the FBI would like to capture.
1951 – Korean War: For the second time, United Nations troops recapture Seoul.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Till I Waltz Again with You” by Teresa Brewer, “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” by Perry Como, “The Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page and “Kaw-Liga” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1954 – Braves Henry Aaron homers in his first exhibition game.
1954 – NBA Baltimore Bullets end a 32 game road losing streak.
1956 – Satchel Paige signs with the Birmingham Black Barons (Negro League).
1958 – RIAA (Recording Industry Association of American) is created. It represents U.S. record companies, has been the official certification agency for single and album certifications since its inception. Its first gold record was Perry Como’s, “Catch A Falling Star.”
1958 – The U.S. government suspended arms shipments to the Batista government of Cuba.
1959 – “Venus” by Frankie Avalon topped the charts.
1960 – Wilt Chamberlain (Philadelphia) sets NBA playoff record of 53 points.
1964 – A jury in Dallas, Texas find Jack Ruby guilty of killing Lee Harvey Oswald, assassin of John F. Kennedy.
1964 – “I Want to Hold Your Hand” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1965 – Vietnam War: Twenty-four South Vietnamese Air Force planes, led by Vice-Marshal Nguyen Cao Ky and supported by U.S. jets, bomb the barracks and depots on Con Co (“Tiger”) Island, 20 miles off the coast of North Vietnam.
1966 – Vietnam: Establishment of River Squadron Five.
1967 – The body of President John F. Kennedy is moved to a permanent burial place at Arlington National Cemetery.
1967 – First NFL-AFL common draft, Baltimore Colts pick Bubba Smith.
1968 – ABC-TV showed the last episode of “Batman”, starring Adam West and Burt Ward as Robin.
1969 – Less than one month after winning her first horse race, Barbara Jo Rubin became the first woman jockey to win at Aqueduct Race Course in New York. She rode Brave Galaxy to victory and into the winner’s circle.
1970 – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel topped the charts.
1972 – NBA’s Cincinnati Royals announce they are moving to Kansas City.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Theme from “A Star is Born” (Evergreen)” by Barbra Streisand, “Fly like an Eagle” by Steve Miller, “I Like Dreamin’” by Kenny Nolan and “She’s Just an Old Love Turned Memory” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1978 -NFL permanently adds 7th official (side judge).
1979 – The Census Bureau reported that 95% of all Americans were married or would get married.
1980 – In Poland, a plane crashes during an emergency landing near Warsaw, killing 87 people, including a 22-man American boxing team.
1981 – “9 to 5” by Dolly Parton topped the charts.
1983 – OPEC agreed to cut its oil prices by 15% for the first time in its 23-year history.
1983 – The Coast Guard retired its last HC-131A Samaritan.
1987 – “Jacob’s Ladder” by Huey Lewis & the News topped the charts.
1989 – Imported assault guns were banned in the U.S. under President H.W. Bush.
1991 – Speakers at a Los Angeles Police Commission hearing demanded the ouster of Chief Daryl F. Gates in the wake of the videotaped police beating of motorist Rodney King.
1992 – The Associated Press obtained the names of 22 of 24 of the worst offenders in the check overdraft scandal at the House bank; topping the list were former Rep. Tommy Robinson of Arkansas and Rep. Bob Mrazek of New York, both Democrats.
1994 – Linux kernel version 1.0.0 is released.
1995 – Prince released the single “Purple Medley.” Prince does not want his likeness to appear on YouTube so this is another artist playing the music.
1995 – Astronaut Norman Thagard becomes the first American astronaut to ride to space on-board a Russian launch vehicle.
1996 – President Bill Clinton committed $100 million for an anti-terrorism pact with Israel to track down and root out Islamic militants.
1996 – Steve Forbes dropped his quest for the Republican presidential nomination after spending $30 million of his own money.
1997 – Operation Gulf Shield begins. This operation is a counterpart to the counter narcotics operation Frontier Shield.
1998 – “Gettin’ Jiggy With It” by Will Smith topped the charts.
2000 – Defending champion Doug Swingley drove his dog team to victory in the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race.
2000 – Five convoys of trucks were reported heading for Washington DC to protest the rising cost of fuel and low freight rates.
2001 – Doug Swingley won the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race in Alaska for the third straight year.
2002 – A New Jersey federal grand jury indicted Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh for the kidnapping and murder of journalist Daniel Pearl in Pakistan.
2002 – The US Justice Dept. unveiled a criminal indictment against Arthur Anderson LLP on obstruction of justice charges in the Enron case.
2003 – Robert Blake was released from jail on $1.5 million bail. Blake had been jailed for the murder of his wife Bonny Lee Bakley.
2003 – Christopher Boyce, whose Cold War spying was immortalized on film in “The Falcon and the Snowman,” was released from a halfway house in San Francisco after about a quarter-century in prison.
2003 – American defense officials say a long-range B1-B bomber aircraft has been used for the first time against Iraqi targets in the no-fly zone in southern Iraq.
2005 – The US government in Operation Community Shield announced the arrests in 7 cities of 103 members of MS-13, Mara Salvatrucha, a street gang rooted in Central America.
2006 – A Washington DC judge ruled that the slaughter of horses for meat may continue in the US.
2006 – In California scores of FBI agents and local police raided 14 homes and arrested 9 members of the drug trafficking Project Trojans gang in Contra Costa County.
2006 – In Hawaii an 1890s-era plantation dam failed in the rugged hills above northern Kauai, sending water and mud surging through two homes and wiping out the only highway.
2007 – A US judge in Virginia ruled that Sudan should pay damages to the families of seventeen sailors killed in the October 2000 bombing of the U.S.S. Cole.
2007 – The Pentagon released the transcript of a military hearing in which Khalid Sheikh Mohammed said he “was responsible for the 9/11 operation from A to Z.”
2007 – In New York City David Gavin (32), with a fake beard and carrying 100 rounds of ammunition, fatally shot a pizzeria employee and two unarmed volunteer police officers in Greenwich Village before other officers shot him to death. Gavin was a former employee at the pizzeria.
2008 – A tornado his downtown Atlanta, Georgia and left 27 people injured. Workers cleaning debris found one dead body on March 22.
2008 – Robert Soloway (28), dubbed “the King of Spam,” faced a possible 26-year jail sentence after pleading guilty in Seattle to charges of fraud and tax evasion.
2009 – President Barack Obama said the nation’s decades-old food safety system is a “hazard to public health” and in need of an overhaul.
2009 – In Florida, Donte Stallworth, a wide receiver for the Cleveland Browns, killed pedestrian Mario Reyes (59) while driving after a night out. On April 1 Stallworth was charged with DUI manslaughter.
2010 – American rower Katie Spotz (22) completed a solo journey across the Atlantic Ocean, touching a pier in the coffee-brown waters of Guyana to claim a record as the youngest person to accomplish the feat. The athlete from Mentor, Ohio, set out from Dakar, Senegal, on Jan. 3 and endured rough seas during the 2,817-mile crossing.
2010 – Five Somali pirates are sentenced to life in a United States prison plus eighty years for an attack on the United States Navy frigate USS Nicholas.
2011 – The Obama administration holds the first of five meetings that eventually lead to Operation Neptune Spear, which caused the death of Osama bin Laden.
2011 – US comedian Gilbert Gottfried is fired from doing voiceover work as the AFLAC duck for making a number of tasteless posts on the Japanese earthquake on the Twitter social network.
2011 – Rock and roll musicians including Dr. John, Darlene Love, Neil Diamond, Alice Cooper and Tom Waits are inducted in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
2012 – An American jury finds Virginia Tech guilty of negligence for delaying a campus warning about the massacre of 33 students in 2007.
2012 – Mike D’Antoni resigns as the coach of the NBA New York Knicks.
2013 – The U.S. Navy detected and tracked a Russian nuclear-powered attack submarine less than 300 miles from the southern U.S. East Coast last month, according to U.S. defense officials.
2014 – American sandwich shop chain Quiznos files for bankruptcy.
2014 – Rescue crew continue to search for victims in the explosion in the New York City neighborhood of East Harlem, which killed 8 and injured more than 70.
2014 – The United States announces plans to relinquish remaining controls of the Internet following revelations of National Security Agency surveillance last year.
1804 – Johann Straub, Sr., Austrian composer (d. 1849)
1813 – Joseph Philo Bradley, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1892)
1863 – Casey Jones, American railroad engineer (d. 1900)
1879 – Albert Einstein, German-born physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1955)
1885 – Raoul Lufbery, American World War I pilot (d. 1918)
1887 – Sylvia Beach, American publisher (d. 1962)
1887 – Charles Reisner, American silent actor and film director (d. 1962)
1904 – Doris Eaton Travis, American actress, Ziegfeld girl
1908 – Ed Heinemann, American aircraft designer (Douglas Aircraft; d. 1991)
1912 – Les Brown, American bandleader (d. 2001)
1914 – Lee Petty, American race car driver (d. 2000)
1920 – Hank Ketcham, American cartoonist (d. 2001)
1921 – S. Truett Cathy, founder of Chick-fil-A
1925 – William Clay Ford, Sr., American owner of the Detroit Lions
1928 – Frank Borman, American astronaut and CEO
1933 – Sir Michael Caine, British actor
1939 – Raymond J. Barry, American actor
1948 – Billy Crystal, American actor and comedian
1951 – Jerry Greenfield, American co-founder of Ben & Jerry’s ice cream
1965 – Catherine Dent, American actress
KERREY, JOSEPH R.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Junior Grade, U.S. Naval Reserve, Sea, Air, and Land Team (SEAL). Place and date: Near Nha Trang Bay, Republic of Vietnam, March 14th, 1969. Entered service at: Omaha, Nebr. Born: 27 August 1943, Lincoln, Nebr. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a SEAL team leader during action against enemy aggressor (Viet Cong) forces. Acting in response to reliable intelligence, Lt. (J.G..) Kerrey led his SEAL team on a mission to capture important members of the enemy’s area political cadre known to be located on an island in the bay of Nha Trang. In order to surprise the enemy, he and his team scaled a 350-foot sheer cliff to place themselves above the ledge on which the enemy was located. Splitting his team in two elements and coordinating both, Lt. (J.G..) Kerrey led his men in the treacherous downward descent to the enemy’s camp. Just as they neared the end of their descent, intense enemy fire was directed at them, and Lt. (J.G.) Kerrey received massive injuries from a grenade which exploded at his feet and threw him backward onto the jagged rocks. Although bleeding profusely and suffering great pain, he displayed outstanding courage and presence of mind in immediately directing his element’s fire into the heart of the enemy camp. Utilizing his radioman, Lt. (J.G.) Kerrey called in the second element’s fire support which caught the confused Viet Cong in a devastating crossfire. After successfully suppressing the enemy’s fire, and although immobilized by his multiple wounds, he continued to maintain calm, superlative control as he ordered his team to secure and defend an extraction site. Lt. (J.G.) Kerrey resolutely directed his men, despite his near unconscious state, until he was eventually evacuated by helicopter. The havoc brought to the enemy by this very successful mission cannot be over-estimated. The enemy soldiers who were captured provided critical intelligence to the allied effort. Lt. (J.G.) Kerrey’s courageous and inspiring leadership, valiant fighting spirit, and tenacious devotion to duty in the face of almost overwhelming opposition sustain and enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
*MICHAEL, HARRY J.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company L, 318th Infantry, 80th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Neiderzerf, Germany, March 14th, 1945. Entered service at: Milford, Ind. Birth: Milford, Ind. G.O. No.: 18, 13 February 1946. Citation: He was serving as a rifle platoon leader when his company began an assault on a wooded ridge northeast of the village of Neiderzerf, Germany, early on 13 March 1945. A short distance up the side of the hill, 2d Lt. Michael, at the head of his platoon, heard the click of an enemy machinegun bolt. Quietly halting the company, he silently moved off into the woods and discovered two enemy machineguns and crews. Executing a sudden charge, he completely surprised the enemy and captured the guns and crews. At daybreak, enemy voices were heard in the thick woods ahead. Leading his platoon in a flanking movement, they charged the enemy with hand grenades and, after a bitter fight, captured twenty-five members of an SS mountain division, three artillery pieces, and twenty horses. While his company was establishing its position, 2d Lt. Michael made two personal reconnaissance missions of the wood on his left flank. On his first mission he killed two, wounded four, and captured six enemy soldiers single-handedly. On the second mission he captured seven prisoners. During the afternoon he led his platoon on a frontal assault of a line of enemy pillboxes, successfully capturing the objective, killing ten and capturing thirty prisoners. The following morning the company was subjected to sniper fire and 2d Lt. Michael, in an attempt to find the hidden sniper, was shot and killed. The inspiring leadership and heroic aggressiveness displayed by 2d Lt. Michael upheld the highest traditions of the military service.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Place and date: Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands, on March 14th, 1945. Born 14 July 1926, Rich Hill, Mo. Entered service at: Labadie, Mo. Citation. For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 2d Battalion, 28th Marines, 5th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces during the seizure of Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands, on 14 March 1945. Standing the foxhole watch while other members of his squad rested after a night of bitter hand grenade fighting against infiltrating Japanese troops, Pvt. Phillips was the only member of his unit alerted when an enemy hand grenade was tossed into their midst. Instantly shouting a warning, he unhesitatingly threw himself on the deadly missile, absorbing the shattering violence of the exploding charge in his own body and protecting his comrades from serious injury. Stouthearted and indomitable, Pvt. Phillips willingly yielded his own life that his fellow Marines might carry on the relentless battle against a fanatic enemy. His superb valor and unfaltering spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of certain death reflect the highest credit upon himself and upon the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: New York. Birth: Scotland. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Mississippi during her abandonment and firing in the engagement at Port Hudson, March 14th, 1863. Remaining under enemy fire for 2-1/2 hours, Brinn remained on board the grounded vessel until all the abandoning crew had landed. After asking to be assigned some duty, he was finally ordered to save himself and to leave the Mississippi which had been deliberately fired to prevent her falling into rebel hands.
CARUANA, ORLANDO E.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 51st New York Infantry. Place and date: At New Bern, N.C., March 14th, 1862; at South Mountain, Md., 14 September 1862. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ca Valletta, Malta. Date of issue: 14 November 1890. Citation: At New Bern, N.C., brought off the wounded color sergeant and the colors under a heavy fire of the enemy. Was one of four soldiers who volunteered to determine the position of the enemy at South Mountain, Md. While so engaged was fired upon and his three companions killed, but he escaped and rejoined his command in safety.
Rank and organization: Second Class Fireman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837, Richmond, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Richmond in the attack on Port Hudson, March 14th, 1863. Damaged by a 6-inch solid rifle shot which shattered the starboard safety-valve chamber and also damaged the port safety-valve, the fire room of the U.S.S. Richmond immediately became filled with steam to place it in an extremely critical condition. Acting courageously in this crisis, Hickman persisted in penetrating the steam-filled room in order to haul the hot fires of the furnaces and continued this action until the gravity of the situation had been lessened.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1829 France. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Mississippi during the action against Port Hudson, March 14th, 1863. Running aground during the darkness and in the midst of battle while exposed to a devastating fire from enemy shore batteries, the Mississippi was ordered abandoned after a long and desperate attempt to free her. Serving courageously throughout this period in which a steady fire was kept up against the enemy until the ship was enveloped in flames and abandoned. Howard acted gallantly in his duties as boatswain’s mate. Soon after the firing of the Mississippi and its abandonment, it was seen to slide off the shoal, drift downstream and explode, leaving no possibility of its falling into enemy hands.
Rank and organization: First Class Fireman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1833, Brooklyn, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Richmond in the attack on Port Hudson, March 14th, 1863. Damaged by a 6-inch solid rifle shot which shattered the starboard safety valve chamber and also damaged the port safety valve, the fire room of the Richmond immediately became filled with steam to place it in an extremely critical condition. Acting courageously in this crisis, McClelland persisted in penetrating the steam-filled room in order to haul the hot fires of the furnaces and continued this gallant action until the gravity of the situation had lessened.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company A, 11th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. At Fort DeRussey, La., March 14th, 1864. Entered service at: Illinois. Born: 30 April 1830, Ireland. Date of issue. 11 September 1897. Citation Voluntarily joined the color guard in the assault on the enemy’s works when he saw indications of wavering and caused the colors of his regiment to be planted on the parapet. Voluntarily placed himself in the ranks of an assaulting column (being then on staff duty) and rode with it Into the enemy’s works, being the only mounted officer present, was twice wounded in battle.
Rank and organization: First Class Fireman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835 Washington, D.C. Accredited to: District of Columbia. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Richmond in the attack on Port Hudson, March 14th, 1863. Damaged by a 6-inch solid rifle shot which shattered the starboard safety valve chamber and also damaged the port safety valve, the fireroom of the Richmond immediately became filled with steam to place it in an extremely critical condition. Acting courageously in this crisis, Rush persisted in penetrating the steam-filled room in order to haul the hot fires of the furnaces, and continued this action until the gravity of the situation had been lessened.
TERRY, JOHN D.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 23d Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At New Bern, N.C., March 14th, 1862. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Montville, Maine. Date of issue: 12 October 1867. Citation: In the thickest of the fight, where he lost his leg by a shot, still encouraged the men until carried off the field.
THOMPSON, J. (JAMES) HARRY
Rank and organization: Surgeon, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At New Bern, N.C., March 14th, 1862. Entered service at: New York. Birth: England. Date of issue: 11 November 1870. Citation: Voluntarily reconnoitered the enemy’s position and carried orders under the hottest fire.
VANTINE, JOSEPH E.
Rank and organization: First Class Fireman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Richmond in the attack on Port Hudson, March 14th, 1863. Damaged by a 6_inch solid rifle shot which shattered the starboard safety valve chamber and also damaged the port safety valve, the fireroom of the Richmond immediately filled with steam to place it in an extremely critical condition. Acting courageously in this crisis, Vantine persisted in penetrating the steam-filled room in order to haul the hot fires of the furnaces and continued this action until the gravity of the situation had been lessened.
VAUGHN, PINKERTON R.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1839, Downingtown, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Mississippi during her abandonment and firing in the action with the Port Hudson batteries, March 14th, 1863. During the abandonment of the Mississippi which had to be grounded, Sgt. Vaughn rendered invaluable assistance to his commanding officer, remaining with the ship until all the crew had landed and the ship had been fired to prevent its falling into enemy hands. Persistent until the last, and conspicuously cool under the heavy shellfire, Sgt. Vaughn was finally ordered to save himself as he saw fit.
Donald Duck is one of the most popular of all the Disney Characters. He got his start on June 9, 1934 in a Silly Symphony cartoon titled ‘The Wise Little Hen‘. Audiences have always loved his fiery temper and silly antics. Donald is a lovable character with a good heart who usually tries to do the right thing. He takes humiliation and keeps on going.
He never backs down from a fight. Donald may be hard to understand most of the time but he always has a lot to say. He is easily calmed down by his beloved Daisy who can simply soothe his brow to make him happy. Donald is the character well known for his short fuse, his many fights, and his need to be as good as Mickey Mouse.
In the 1940’s Donald Duck had more cartoons than Mickey Mouse; with over 128 to his credit. These don’t include the ones that did include the famous Mouse.
Our favorite duck is well known for his attire; wearing simply a sailor shirt and hat, with no pants in sight. Donald even has a middle name: Donald Fauntleroy Duck.
He is also the lesser-known member of the Three Caballeros from 1944. He is also very well known from Duck Tales; which was on television from 1987-1990. And for those who are not sure where Donald lives, well of course it is in Duckburg, Calisota USA. He does dock his boat, the Miss Daisy, at Disneyland in ToonTown.
Donald is not just a Disney icon. He is also the mascot for the Oregon Ducks.
Romans 8: 5-6
For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 6 For to be carnally minded is death, but to be spiritually minded is life and peace.
“Our constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate to the government of any other.”
“The only limit to your impact is your imagination and commitment.”
~ Anthony Robbins
perquisite PUR-kwuh-zit, noun:
1. A profit or benefit in addition to a salary or wages.
2. Broadly: The benefits of a position or office.
3. A gratuity or tip for services performed.
4. Anything to which someone has or claims the sole right.
607 – 12th recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet. Halley’s Comet, named after Edmond Halley, is a comet that can be seen every 75-76 years and is the most famous of all periodic comets.
1519 – Cortez landed in Mexico, and suppressed the town of Tabasco. Cortez landed in Mexico with 10 stallions, 5 mares and a foal. Although “horses” started in North America about 4 million years ago, according to scientists, the genus had gone extinct approximately 1.7 million years ago with the “Yukon” horse. These horses that came with Cortez were the seed that repopulated horses to North America.
1610 – Galileo published his observations of the night sky under the title “Siderius Nuncius” (Starry Messenger).
1639 – Cambridge College was re-named Harvard College for clergyman John Harvard.
1660 – A statute was passed limiting the sale of slaves in the colony of Virginia.
1677 – Massachusetts gains title to Maine for $6,000.
1759 – 27th recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet.
1781 – Astronomer William Herschel discovered the planet Uranus, which he named ‘Georgium Sidus,’ in honor of George III.
1836 – Less than a week after the disastrous defeat of Texas rebels at the Alamo, the newly commissioned Texan General Sam Houston begins a series of strategic retreats to buy time to train his ill-prepared army.
1852 – The New York “Lantern” newspaper published an Uncle Sam cartoon. The drawing was the work of Frank Henry Bellew.
1861 – Civil War: Jefferson Davis signed a bill authorizing slaves to be used as soldiers for the Confederacy.
1862 – Civil War: Major General John P. McCown, CSA, ordered the evacuation of Confederate troops from New Madrid, Missouri.
1862 – Civil War: The U.S. federal government forbids all Union army officers from returning fugitive slaves, thus effectively annulling the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 and setting the stage for the Emancipation Proclamation.
1863 – Civil War: RADM Farragut’s squadron of 7 ships forces way up Mississippi River to support Union troops at Vicksburg and Baton Rouge.
1865 – Civil War: The Confederate States of America agree to the use of Black American troops.
1868 – The U.S. Senate began the impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson.
1869 – Arkansas legislature passed anti-Klan law.
1877 – Chester Greenwood of Farmington, ME patented the earmuff.
1878 – The first collegiate golf match was played between Oxford and Cambridge.
1882 -Eadweard Muybridge invents a zoopraxiscope. This is optical apparatus to exhibit photographs of moving animals.
1884 – Standard Time was adopted throughout the United States.
1888 – The Great Blizzard of 1888: The storm continues to rage with torrential rains changing to heavy snow and it buried the unprepared city in drifts of up to thirty feet deep! The temperature plunged and the East River, running between Manhattan and Queens, froze over, an extremely rare occurrence. This inspired some brave souls to cross the river on foot, which proved a terrible mistake when the tides changed and broke up the ice, stranding the adventurers on ice floes.
1895 – Award of first submarine building contract to John P. Holland Torpedo Boat Co.
1897 – San Diego State University is founded.
1898 – The ship New York, built in Philadelphia in 1888 as the T.F. Oaks, was caught in the surf of Half Moon Bay and broke up after a few days. It was 259 days out of Hong Kong and all 22 aboard under Capt. Thomas Peabody made it to shore. Most of the cargo was lost.
1901 – Benjamin Harrison (67), 23rd president of the United States (1889-1893), died in Indianapolis.
1901 – Andrew Carnegie announced that he was retiring from business and that he would spend the rest of his days giving away his fortune. His net worth was estimated at $300 million.
1911 – The U.S. Supreme Court approved corporate tax law.
1911 – Atlantic Landing Force of 688 Marines landed at Guantanamo Bay.
1913 – Kansas legislature approves censorship of motion pictures. The Superintendent of Public Instruction, W.D. Ross, served as the Board’s first chairman.
1915 – Dodgers manager Wilbert Robinson is set to catch a baseball dropped from an airplane flying at an altitude of 525 feet. Aviatrix Ruth Law supposedly forgets to bring a baseball aloft and instead drops a grapefruit which splatters all over Robbie.
1917 – Armed merchant ships authorized to take action against U-boats.
1918 – Women were scheduled to march in the St. Patrick’s Day Parade in New York due to a shortage of men due to wartime.
1923 – New radio receivers eliminated the need for headphones. The new models had a concealed speaker. The Thorophone was a gooseneck loudspeaker with a voice-coil driver.
1925 – Scopes Trial: A law, the Butler Bill, in Tennessee prohibits the teaching of evolution.
1930 – The Lowell Observatory in Arizona announced Clyde Tombaugh’s Feb 18 discovery of a new planet, later named Pluto.
1930 – The trial of Edward Doheny begins in Washington, D.C.; he is charged with bribing the former Secretary of the Interior, Albert Fall to obtain a lease for the Elk hills naval oil reserve; Doheny will be acquitted on 22 March.
1932 – The Atlanta Daily World, the first Black American daily newspaper, founded by William A. Scott, III, began publication.
1933 – Great Depression: Banks in the U.S. begin to re-open after President Franklin D. Roosevelt mandated a “bank holiday”.
1935 – Three-thousand-year-old archives were found in Jerusalem confirming biblical history.
1936 – The first meeting of the Friday the 13th Club founded by Philip Klein, advertising executive, was held. Klein requested that the club self-destruct before the year 2001. The actual last meeting was October 13, 2000. There is now a new one.
1938 – “World News Roundup” (22:29) is broadcast for the first time on CBS Radio in the United States. It is about the German invasion of Austria.
1941 – World War II: Hitler issued an edict calling for an invasion of the USSR.
1942 – Bing Crosby and Mary Martin record “Wait Till the Sun Shines, Nellie” for Decca Records.
1942 – The United States K9 Corps was founded; it’s now known as K-9 Veterans Day. In memory of the countless brave dogs who have gone where no human could or would, who have served multiple tours of duty in war-torn lands, who protected their handlers with their last breath.
1942 – Julia Flikke of the Nurse Corps became the first woman colonel in the U.S. Army.
1943 – World War II: In Bougainville, Japanese troops end their assault on American forces at Hill 700.
1943 – World War II: There was a failed assassination attempt on Hitler during the Smolensk-Rastenburg flight.
1943 – World War II: The Holocaust: German forces liquidate the Jewish ghetto in Kraków.
1943 – Baseball approves official ball (with cork & balata).
1943 – Frank Dixon became the first great African American miler in track as he won the Columbian Mile in New York City. Dixon ran the mile in a record time of 4 minutes, 9.6 seconds.
1943 – World War II: There was a failed assassination attempt on Hitler during the Smolensk-Rastenburg flight. A time-bomb was placed on board Hitler’s personal aircraft by German Army conspirators intending to assassinate the Fuhrer. It failed to explode.
1944 – Abbott and Costello’s “Who’s On First” was copyrighted.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mairzy Doats” by The Merry Macs, “Besame Mucho” by The Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Bob Eberly & Kitty Kallen), “No Love, No Nothin’” by Ella Mae Morse and “Rosalita” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: The 1st and 3rd Battalions of the 9th Marine Regiment attacked through “Cushman’s Pocket,” Iwo Jima. This was the last strongpoint of enemy resistance on the island.
1946 – Col. B.O. Davis Jr. assumed command of Lockbourne Air Force Base, Ohio. The Tuskegee Airmen were the black pilots, bombardiers, navigators and support personnel trained during World War II.
1947 – The musical “Brigadoon” opened at the Ziegfeld Theatre in New York City. The show ran for 581 performances.
1949 – In Los Angeles, CA, Lew Chudd formed Imperial Records.
1951 – Korean War: The communists started to withdraw across all fronts.
1953 – Korean War: Colonel Royal N. “The King” Baker, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, achieved his 30th aerial victory and became the fifth ranking ace of the Korean War.
1954 – Braves’ Bobby Thomson breaks his ankle, he is replaced by Hank Aaron.
1954 – “Make Love to Me!” by Jo Stafford topped the charts.
1957 – Jimmy Hoffa was arrested by the FBI on bribery charges.
1957 – John Lee, first Black commissioned officer in the U.S. Navy is assigned to duty.
1960 – NFL’s Chicago Cardinals move to St Louis.
1960 – White Sox unveil new road uniforms with players’ names above number.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Theme from “A Summer Place“ by Percy Faith, “Wild One” by Bobby Rydell , “Baby (You’ve Got What It Takes)” by Dinah Washington & Brook Benton and “He’ll Have to Go” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1961 – JFK sets up the Alliance for Progress. It was aimed to establish economic cooperation between North and South America. The aid was intended to counter the perceived emerging communist threat from Cuba to U.S. interests and dominance in the region.
1961 – Rick Nelson recorded “Travelin’ Man“.
1962 – Lyman Lemnitzer, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, delivers a proposal, called Operation Northwoods, regarding performing terrorist attacks in Guantanamo Bay, to Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara. The proposal is scrapped and President John F. Kennedy removes Lemnitzer from his position.
1963 – Soviet reconnaissance planes fly over Alaskan airspace, becoming the first established Soviet overflight of the US.
1963 – In Arizona, Glen Canyon Dam valves were opened to create Lake Powell. The lake was named for John Wesley Powell, a Confederate soldier who explored much of the Grand Canyon system. It took 17 years for the lake to fill the canyon to the high water mark.
1964 – Thirty-eight residents of a New York City neighborhood failed to respond to the screams of Kitty Genovese, 28 years old, as she was stabbed to death. She was a New York City woman who was stabbed to death near her home in the Kew Gardens neighborhood of the borough of Queens in New York City.
1965 – Beatles’ “Eight Days a Week” single goes #1.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love is Blue” by Paul Mauriat, “(Theme From) Valley of the Dolls” by Dionne Warwick, “(Sittin’ On) The Dock of the Bay” by Otis Redding and “Take Me to Your World” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1968 – Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) and Humble Oil and Refining Company (now Exxon Company, U.S.A.) announced the discovery of oil on Alaska’s North Slope (Prudhoe Bay).
1969 – Apollo program: Apollo 9 returns safely to Earth after testing the Lunar Module.
1969 – In Vietnam Navy Lt. John Kerry rescued Jim Rassman on the Bay Hap River while under Viet Cong fire. In 2004 Kerry became the Democratic nominee for President.
1970 – The cover of “LIFE” magazine was extremely popular. It showed the extremes of the new hemline hassle that was raging — a battle between long versus short skirts.
1970 – Digital Equipment Corp introduces PDP-11 minicomputer.
1970 – A group calling itself “Revolutionary Force 9″ took credit for 3 bombs that exploded in New York City.
1972 – “The Merv Griffin Show” debuted in syndication.
1974 – The U.S. Senate voted 54-33 to restore the death penalty.
1974 – An embargo imposed by Arab oil-producing countries was lifted.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “December, 1963 (Oh, What a Night)” by the Four Seasons, “All by Myself” by Eric Carmen, “Take It to the Limit” by the Eagles and “The Roots of My Raising” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1980 – A jury in Winamac, IN, found Ford Motor Company innocent of reckless homicide in the deaths of three young women that had been riding in a Ford Pinto.
1980 – Ford Motor Chairman Henry Ford II announced he was stepping down.
1981 – President Reagan granted Atlanta $1.5 million to search for the murderer of some twenty African-American children.
1981 – In the Poletown case the Michigan Supreme Court allowed Detroit to take the 4,200 people who lived in the area, along with their 1,300 homes, 140 businesses, six churches and one hospital to make way for a General Motors Corp. plant. The decision was overturned by the Michigan Supreme Court in 2004 when the court ruled that state and local governments may not take property from one private owner and give it to another purely for the purpose of economic development.
1982 – “Centerfold” by the J. Geils Band topped the charts.
1984 – Somewhere in either Chicago, Baltimore or Washington, someone plunked down $3,995 to buy the first handheld cellphone. These sales were unrecorded when they first came out and were just considered a “rich boys toy”. It Measuring 13 x 1.75 x 3.5 inches and weighing 28 ounces, the 8000X was so big and heavy, even its creators had nicknamed it “The Brick.”
1985 – National Football League owners met in Phoenix, AZ and tabled a proposal that would have allowed transmitters and receivers in football helmets.
1986 – Microsoft has its initial public offering.
1986 – The US submarine Nathaniel Green was severely damaged when it ran aground in the Irish Sea. It was deactivated in May, 1986.
1988 – The board of trustees off Gallaudet University in Washington, DC, chose I. King Jordan to be its first deaf president. The college is a liberal arts college for the hearing-impaired.
1991 – The United States Justice Department announces that Exxon has agreed to pay $1 billion for the clean-up of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska.
1992 – FCC rules companies can own thirty AM & thirty FM stations (formerly twelve).
1993 – “Informer” by Snow topped the charts.
1993 – Blizzard of ’93 hits north-east US. It was described as one of the largest and most intense storms in a century, Go back to the Blizzard of 1888, one-hundred five years before. It left more than 100 dead in its wake. Syracuse, NY, was covered with fresh snow 43 inches deep.
1996 – Liggett, the nation’s fifth-largest tobacco company, made history by settling a private class-action lawsuit alleging cigarette makers’ manipulated nicotine to hook smokers.
1997 – The Phoenix lights were seen over Phoenix, Arizona by hundreds of people, and by millions on television. They are now a hotly debated controversy. Was it a UFO? It seems all other ideas have been addressed.
1997 – Eddie DeBartolo, owner of the SF 49ers, was awarded a Louisiana casino license one day after paying former Gov. Edwin Edwards $400,000 in cash.
1998 – US Sergeant Major Gene McKinney (47), once the Army’s top enlisted man, was cleared on 18 of 19 charges brought against him by women who said he pressured them for sex.
1999 – “Believe” by Cher topped the charts.
1999 – Evander Holyfield, the WBA and IBF champion, and Lennox Lewis, the WBC champion, kept their respective titles after fighting to a controversial draw in New York.
2000 – In Costa Rica two American women were found shot to death near Cabhuita. Emily Howell of Kentucky and Emily Eagen of Michigan were attacked while driving an SUV.
2000 – CBS began filming its “Survivor” show on the Malaysian island of Pulau Tiga. Filming lasted to April 20 and the last survivor was to be awarded a $1 million prize.
2002 – President Bush declared at a news conference that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein was a menace “and we’re going to deal with him,” and said Osama bin Laden had been reduced to a marginal figure in the war on terrorism.
2002 – Fox aired “Celebrity Boxing.” Tonya Harding beat Paula Jones, Danny Banaduce beat Barry Williams and Todd Bridges defeated Vanilla Ice.
2002 – The US Senate rejected higher fuel economy standards for cars.
2003 – Human evolution: The journal Nature reports that 350,000-year-old footprints of an upright-walking human have been found in Italy.
2003 – The Senate voted 64-33 to ban a procedure that critics called partial birth abortion.
2004 – Near Barstow, California, robotic vehicles began a 200-mile road race sponsored by DARPA. The Pentagon sponsored race ended without a winner, as none of the autonomous vehicles built by the fifteen qualifying teams was able to travel farther than seven miles from the starting line.
2004 – In Tikrit, Iraq, a roadside bomb killed two American soldiers and wounded three American soldiers died in two bomb explosions in Baghdad. A fourth died from his injuries the next morning.
2005 – CHURCH SHOOTING: Terry Ratzmann shoots and kills six members of the Living Church of God and the minister at Sheraton Inn in Brookfield, Wisconsin before killing himself.
2006 – Heart researchers said clogging of arteries by plaque was reversed through aggressive use of an anticholesterol statin.
2006 – The Cleveland Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducted Black Sabboth, Blondie, Miles Davis, Lynyrd Skynyrd and the Sex Pistols at a ceremony in New York City.
2006 – Kia Motors Corp. said it will build a $1.2 billion factory in West Point, Ga., its first in the US. Toyota said it will build a plant in Lafayette, Ind.
2007 – Federal agents in Connecticut raided New Haven police headquarters and charged the head of the narcotics division with stealing thousands of dollars planted by the FBI during sting operations.
2007 – New Mexico got official state neckwear, a real Western icon, the bolo tie.
2007 – Lance Mackey won the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, in nine days, five hours, eight minutes.
2008 – Gold prices on the New York Mercantile Exchange hit $1,000.00 an ounce for the first time.
2008 – The US House Republicans’ campaign committee said it is missing several hundred thousand dollars, and possibly more, after discovering suspected fraudulent activity by former treasurer Christopher Ward, who was dismissed on Jan 28.
2008 – The Florida Senate passed a bill that could mean suspensions for students with droopy britches. Orlando Sen. Gary Siplin, a Democrat, has said the fashion statement has a back-story — it was made popular by rap artists after first appearing among prison inmates as a signal they were looking for sex.
2009 – The Obama administration dropped the use of the term “enemy combatant” for suspected terrorists detained at Guantanamo Bay and slightly modified the legal standard used to justify their continued imprisonment.
2010 – A storm battered parts of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York and Connecticut with gusts of up to 70 mph.
2010 – President Barack Obama proposes sweeping changes to education law which would rework the “No Child Left Behind” program.
2011 – UNIX timestamp ticks over 1,300,000,000 (1.3 billion) seconds since midnight (UTC) of January 1, 1970 when UNIX time started counting. Unix time, or POSIX time, is a system for describing points in time, defined as the number of seconds elapsed since midnight Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) of January 1, 1970, not counting leap seconds. It crossed the 1 billionth second on September 9, 2001, at exactly 01:46:40 (UTC) and it represented 1234567890 on February 13, 2009, at exactly 23:31:30 (UTC).
2011 – Four police officers are shot in Buchanan County, Virginia with two killed.
2012 – Encyclopaedia Britannica, the oldest encyclopedia still in print in the English language, announces that it will no longer be producing printed versions but continuing online editions.
2012 – Republican voters in Alabama and Mississippi head to the polls for primaries with Rick Santorum winning in both states. Voters in the state of Hawaii and the territory of American Samoa also go to the polls for caucuses with Mitt Romney winning both.
2012 – In sled dog racing, Dallas Seavey becomes the youngest winner of the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race run in Alaska.
1764 – Earl Grey, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1845)
1798 – Abigail Fillmore, First Lady of the United States (d. 1853)
1813 – Lorenzo Delmonico, restaurateur: the famous Delmonico’s in NYC (1881)
1815 – James Curtis Hepburn, American missionary and linguist (d. 1911)
1855 – Percival Lowell, American astronomer (d. 1916)
1898 – Henry Hathaway, American film director and producer (d. 1985)
1899 – John Hasbrouck van Vleck, American physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1980)
1908 – Walter Annenberg, American publisher and philanthropist (d. 2002)
1910 – Sammy Kaye, American musician (d. 1987)
1913 – William Casey, American CIA director (d. 1987)
1914 – Edward O’Hare, American pilot (d. 1943) Medal of Honor Recipient. O’Hare Airport in Chicago is named after him.
1921 – Al Jaffee, American cartoonist
1923 – William F. Bolger, 65th Postmaster General of the United States (d. 1989)
1930 – Jan Howard, American singer
1930 – Liz Anderson, American country music singer-songwriter
1935 – Leslie Parrish, American actress
1938 – Erma Franklin, American singer (d. 2002)
1938 – Joseph Bellino (football: Heisman Trophy Winner: Navy )
1939 – Neil Sedaka, American singer and songwriter
1942 – Dave Cutler, American software engineer
1950 – Charles Krauthammer, American political commentator
1950 – William H. Macy, American actor
1951 – Fred Berry, American actor and dancer (d. 2003)
1955 – Glenne Headly, American actress, Mr. Holland’s Opus
1959 – Kathy Hilton, socialite-Hilton Hotels, mother of Nikki Hilton and Paris Hilton.
1971 – Annabeth Gish, American actress
1980 – Molly Stanton, American actress
1987 – Marco Andretti, American racecar driver (grandson of Mario Andretti)
*CRAIN, MORRIS E.
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company E, 141st Infantry, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: Haguenau, France, March 13th, 1945. Entered service at: Paducah, Ky. Birth: Bandana, Ky. G.O. No.: 18, 13 February 1946. Citation: He led his platoon against powerful German forces during the struggle to enlarge the bridgehead across the Moder River. With great daring and aggressiveness he spearheaded the platoon in killing ten enemy soldiers, capturing twelve more and securing its objective near an important road junction. Although heavy concentrations of artillery, mortar, and self-propelled gunfire raked the area, he moved about among his men during the day, exhorting them to great efforts and encouraging them to stand firm. He carried ammunition and maintained contact with the company command post, exposing himself to deadly enemy fire. At nightfall the enemy barrage became more intense and tanks entered the fray to cover foot troops while they bombarded our positions with grenades and rockets. As buildings were blasted by the Germans, the Americans fell back from house to house. T/Sgt. Crain deployed another platoon which had been sent to his support and then rushed through murderous tank and small-arms fire to the foremost house, which was being defended by five of his men. With the enemy attacking from an adjoining room and a tank firing pointblank at the house, he ordered the men to withdraw while he remained in the face of almost certain death to hold the position. Although shells were crashing through the walls and bullets were hitting all around him, he held his ground and with accurate fire from his submachinegun killed 3 Germans. He was killed when the building was destroyed by the enemy. T/Sgt. Crain’s outstanding valor and intrepid leadership enabled his platoon to organize a new defense, repel the attack and preserve the hard-won bridgehead.
KYLE, PATRICK J.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1855, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. Citation: For rescuing from drowning a shipmate from the U.S.S. Quinnebaug, at Port Mahon, Minorca, March 13th, 1879.
Girl Scout Day
Baskin Robbins 31 Original Flavors
As a teen, Irv Robbins worked in his father’s ice cream store. During World War II, Burt Baskin was a Lieutenant in the U.S. Navy and produced ice cream for his fellow troops. When the war was over, the two entrepreneurs were eager to capitalize on America’s love of ice cream.
In 1945, Irv Robbins opened an ice cream store in Glendale, California called “Snowbird,” which proudly featured 21 exotic flavors. The next year, Robbins teamed up with his brother-in-law and competing ice cream store owner, Burt Baskin, to form Baskin-Robbins.
In 1948, after opening six successful Baskin-Robbins ice cream stores, Baskin and Robbins recognized that to maintain the high standards they set in the beginning, each new store would require a manager who had an ownership interest in its overall operation. Even though they didn’t realize it at the time, the two founders had pioneered the concept of franchising in the ice cream industry.They then licensed operations of a seventh store. In 1953, the big “31” sign made its debut at all Baskin-Robbins stores, offering customers a different ice cream for every day of the month. The original “31” flavors are: Banana Nut Fudge, Black Walnut, Burgundy Cherry, Butter Pecan, Butterscotch Ribbon, Chocolate, Chocolate Almond, Chocolate Chip, Chocolate Fudge, Chocolate Ribbon, Coffee, Coffee Candy, Date Nut, Egg Nog, French Vanilla, Green Mint, Lemon Crisp, Lemon Custard, Lemon Sherbet, Maple Walnut, Orange Sherbet, Peach, Peppermint Fudge, Peppermint Stick, Pineapple Sherbet, Pistachio Nut, Raspberry Sherbet, Rocky Road, Strawberry, Vanilla, and Vanilla Burnt Almond.
Romans 8: 1-3
There is therefore now no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus,who do not walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit. 2 For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has made me free from the law of sin and death. 3 For what the law could not do in that it was weak through the flesh, God did by sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, on account of sin: He condemned sin in the flesh.
“We base all our experiments on the capacity of mankind for self-government.”
~ James Madison
“It’s how you deal with failure that determines how you achieve success.”
~ David Feherty
irascible ih-RASS-uh-buhl, adjective:
Prone to anger; easily provoked to anger; hot-tempered.
1496 – Jews were expelled from Syria.
1664 – New Jersey becomes a colony of Britain. King Charles II granted land in the New World to his brother James (The Duke of York) that included all lands between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers. This land grant includes all Dutch holdings in North America..
1676 – Indians attack Plymouth, Massachusetts.
1690 – In the face of the French and Indian threat, the New Hampshire colony votes to reannex itself to Massachusetts.
1755 – First steam engine in America installed, to pump water from a mine. It was at a copper mine in New Barbados Neck (now North Arlington), NJ.
1773 – The Virginia House of Burgesses delegates an 11-member correspondence committee for communication of grievances.
1773 – Jeanne Baptiste Pointe de Sable founded settlement now known as Chicago, Ill.
1776 – The Commander-in-Chief’s Guard was formed to protect General Washington, his official papers, and the Continental Army’s cash.
1777 – Since George Washington has effectively cleared all but easternmost New Jersey of British forces, the Continental Congress returns to Philadelphia from Baltimore, where it reconvenes.
1789 – The U.S. Post Office was established.
1824 – US Marines from Boston under the command of Brevet Maj. Robert D. Wainwright quelled riot in state prison. Story in McGuffey’s Reader spread Marines’ fame.
1849 – First gold seekers arrive in Nicaragua en route to California.
1850 – First US $20 gold piece issued. The coins were nicknamed “double eagles,” which were issued from 1850 to 1907. The term “double eagle” is derived from the fact that the $10 coin is called an “eagle.”
1860 – US Congress accepted the Pre-emption Bill. It provided free land in West for colonists.
1862 – Civil War: Union troops occupy Winchester, Virginia, after its evacuation by the Confederates commanded by Stonewall Jackson. Winchester will change hands 54 times during the course of the war.
1862 – Civil War: Landing party under Lieutenant Thomas H. Stevens of U.S.S. Ottawa occupied Jacksonville, Florida, without opposition.
1863 – Civil War: President Jefferson Davis delivered his State of the Confederacy address.
1863 – Civil War: The Battle of Raymond, MS., was fought.
1865 – Civil War: Acting Master H. Walton Grinnell, leading a detachment of four sailors, succeeded in delivering important Army dispatches to General Sherman near Fayetteville.
1877 – In Philadelphia the first department store, The Grand Depot, opened. John Wanamaker turned an abandoned railway depot into one of the world’s first department stores.
1884 – The State of Mississippi authorized the first state-supported college for women. It was called the Mississippi Industrial Institute and College.
1888 – The Great Blizzard of 1888: In this second full day of this blizzard, drifts reached the second story of some buildings, many city residents trudged out to New York’s elevated trains to go to work, only to find many of them blocked by snow drifts and unable to move. Up to 15,000 people were stranded on the elevated trains; in many areas, enterprising people with ladders offered to rescue the passengers for a small fee.
1889 – Almon B. Stowger applied for a patent for his automatic telephone system.
1890 – Louisiana legalized prize fighting.
1894 – In Vicksburg, Mississippi, USA, Coca-Cola is sold in bottles for the first time by local soda fountain operator Joseph Biedenharn. . Coca-Cola was originally used as a nerve and brain tonic and a medical elixir.
1901 – Ground is broken for Boston’s first American League ballpark (Huntington Ave Grounds).
1903 – New York Highlanders (Yankees) approved as members of American League.
1904 – After 30 years of drilling, the tunnel under the Hudson River was completed. The link was between Jersey City, NJ, and New York, NY.
1906 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that corporations must yield incriminating evidence in anti-trust suits.
1908 – The Aerial Experiment Association (AEA) launched their new airplane, called Red Wing, from a frozen lake near Hammondsport, NY. Pilot F.W. Baldwin rose 20 feet and flew 319 feet before crashing. Newspapers hailed the test as the “first public flight” in the US.
1909 – Three U.S. warships were ordered to Nicaragua to stem the conflict with El Salvador.
1911 – Dr. Fletcher of Rockefeller Institute discovered the cause of infantile paralysis.
1912 – The Girl Guides (later renamed the Girl Scouts of the USA) are founded in the United States. They were founded in Savannah, GA by Juliette Gordon Low.
1912 – Capt. Albert Berry performed the first parachute jump from an airplane.
1912 – Helen Hayes Theater opens at 238 W 44th St., New York City.
1917 – World War I: The US merchant ship Algonquin is sunk without warning. All American merchant ships are to be armed in war zones.
1918 – WW I Marines landed at Scapa Flow, Great Britain.
1923 – Dr. Lee DeForest demonstrated his putting sound on motion picture film.
1928 – In California, the St. Francis Dam fails, killing over 600 people. The dam was located 40 miles (64 km) northwest of Los Angeles, California, near the present city of Santa Clarita.
1933 – Great Depression: Franklin D. Roosevelt addresses the nation for the first time as President of the United States. This was also the first of his “Fireside Chats.”
1935 – Parimutuel betting became legal in the State of Nebraska.
1935 – Colorado dust storms killed six people, suffocated livestock and covered the ground with up to six feet of dust.
1938 – World War II: Anschluss: German troops occupy Austria; annexation declared the following day. All Jews and other political opponents from the universities were expelled from the country.
1939 – Artie Shaw and his band recorded “Deep Purple,” in New York.
1942 – World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt designates Admiral Ernest J. King to serve as the Chief of Naval Operations, as well as the Commander-in-Chief, United States Fleet to which he was appointed on 30 December 1941.
1942 – World War II: On New Caledonia, American troops land to garrison the island. These forces include the first operational “Seabees.”
1944 – World War II: On Bougainville, Japanese attacks continue. US forces continue to hold.
1944 – World War II: Great Britain barred all travel to neutral Ireland, which was suspected of collaborating with Nazi Germany.
1944 – World War II: Americans occupy Wotho Atoll. There was no Japanese garrison.
1945 – World War II: There is heavy fighting in the Remagen bridgehead where elements of the German 7th Army are counterattacking.
1945 – New York was the first state to establish a Fair Employment Practices Commission. It prohibited discrimination by race and creed in employment.
1945 – Anne Frank, author of “The Diary of Anne Frank,” died at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp a month before it was liberated.
1947 – The Truman Doctrine is proclaimed to help stem the spread of Communism.
1948 – In Alaska, twenty-four Merchant Marines and six crewmen were flying from China to New York City, when their DC-4 slammed into Mount Sanford killing all thirty.
1949 – “Cruising Down the River” by Blue Barron topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: Communist troops were driven out of Seoul, Korea.
1951 – “Dennis The Menace,” made its syndicated debut in 16 newspapers.
1951 – Baseball Commissioner Happy Chandler loses fight (9-7) to stay in office.
1952 – Korean War: Ten B-29s struck the Sinchang-ni choke point, ten miles east of Sunchon, with ninety-one tons of high explosives, rendering the point impassable.
1955 – “Sincerely” by the McGuire Sisters topped the charts.
1955 – Effective this date, all foreign and domestic ships were required to give 24-hour advance notice to the local U.S. Coast Guard Captain of the Port before entering U.S. ports. This order was designed to improve the U .S. Coast Guard’s port security program without “material inconvenience” to shipping.
1956 – In first overseas deployment of Navy missile squadron, VA-83 left on USS Intrepid.
1956 – Dow Jones closes above 500 for first time (500.24).
1957 – Buddy Holly and the Crickets recorded “Maybe Baby.”
1959 – The U.S. House joined the U.S. Senate in approving the statehood of Hawaii.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Venus” by Frankie Avalon, “Alvin’s Harmonica” by David Seville & The Chipmunks, “Charlie Brown “ by The Coasters and “Don’t Take Your Guns to Town” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1960 – Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1963 – US House granted former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill honorary U.S. citizenship.
1964 – Malcolm X resigned from the Nation of Islam.
1965 – Vietnam War: US Navy’s Operation Market Time begins. Purpose is to interdict resupply of Communist forces in South Vietnam by river and coastal routes. The initiation of this campaign led to the Navy’s request for US Coast Guard vessels and crews to participate in riverine and coastal patrols during the Vietnam War.
1966 – Bobby Hull of the Chicago Blackhawks scored his 51st goal of season, sets record .
1966 – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler topped the charts.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love is Here and Now You’re Gone” by The Supremes and “Baby I Need Your Lovin’” by Johnny Rivers, “Penny Lane” by The Beatles and “The Fugitive” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1968 – A Miami-bound flight was commandeered to Cuba by three Cubans.
1972 – NHL great Gordie Howe retires.
1974 – “Wonder Woman” (14:30) debuted on ABC-TV. The show later went to CBS-TV. The first star to play the part was Cathy Lee Crosby followed in November 1975 with Lynda Carter.
1974 – Nilsson and John Lennon were ejected from the Troubador Club in Los Angeles for heckling the Tom Smothers’ comedy act.
1974 – Bundy victim Donna Manson (b.1954) disappeared from Evergreen State College in Olympia, Wa.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Have You Never Been Mellow” by Olivia Newton-John, “Black Water” by The Doobie Brothers, “My Eyes Adored You” by Frankie Valli and “Linda on My Mind” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1977 – “Love Theme From A Star Is Born (Evergreen)” by Barbra Streisand topped the charts.
1977 – The Commission on Judicial Appointments confirmed Rose Elizabeth Bird (40) as California’s 25th chief justice and the first woman to sit on the state’s Supreme Court.
1980 – In Chicago, IL, a jury found John Wayne Gacy Jr. guilty of the murders of 33 men and boys.
1980 – Greek TV airs films of American hostages in Tehran recently undergoing medical exams.
1981 – Walter R T Witschey installs world’s largest sundial, Richmond VA.
1982 – Charles Fuller wins the Pulitzer Prize for “A Soldier’s Play.”
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Billie Jean” by Michael Jackson, “Shame on the Moon” by Bob Seger & The Silver Bullet Band, “Do You Really Want to Hurt Me” by Culture Club and “The Rose” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1985 – Larry Bird, of the NBA’s Boston Celtics, scored a club-record 60 points against the Atlanta Hawks.
1985 – Former U.S. President Richard M. Nixon announced that he planned to drop Secret Service protection and hire his own bodyguards in an effort to lower the deficit by $3 million.
1986 – Susan Butcher wins 1,158 mile Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race.
1987 – “Les Miserables” opens at Broadway/Imperial NYC for 4000+ performances.
1988 – “Never Gonna Give You Up” by Rick Astley topped the charts.
1989 – Approximately 2,500 veterans and supporters marched at the Art Institute of Chicago to demand that officials remove an American flag placed on the floor as part of a student’s exhibit.
1992 – The U.N. Security Council stood firm in its demand that Iraq comply totally with Gulf War cease-fire resolutions, rebuffing an appeal for leniency from Saddam Hussein’s special envoy, deputy prime minister Tariq Aziz.
1993 – The Blizzard of 1993 – Snow begins to fall across the eastern portion of the US with tornadoes, thunder snow storms, high winds and record low temperatures. The storm lasts for 30 hours. The storm killed more than 300 people and dumped more than 20 inches of snow across a wide corridor of the Appalachians and Northeast. Fierce winds blew snow around into massive drifts. Some of the highest snowfall amounts include 42.9 inches in Syracuse, N.Y., 30.9 inches in Beckley, W.Va., and 25.3 inches in Pittsburgh, Pa.
1993 – The Pentagon called for the closure of 31 major military bases.
1993 – Entertainment Tonight’s 3,000th show.
1993 – Janet Reno was sworn in as the first female U.S. Attorney General.
1994 – “The Sign” by Ace of Base topped the charts.
1994 – A photo by Marmaduke Wetherell of the Loch Ness monster was confirmed to be a hoax. The photo was taken of a toy submarine with a head and neck attached.
1995 – President Clinton declared 39 California counties disaster areas after storms and floods battered two-thirds of the state.
1996 – President Clinton signed the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act, better known as the Helms-Burton Act. It shut off visas to executives and shareholders of firms doing business in Cuba on property confiscated from Americans.
1997 – Edward DeBartolo Jr. handed over $400,000 to former Louisiana Gov. Edwin Edwards at the San Francisco Airport in order to clinch a riverboat gambling license.
1997 – Police in Los Angeles arrested Mikail Markhasev for the shooting of Bill Cosby’s 27-year-old son, Ennis. Markhasev was later convicted and sentenced to life in prison without parole.
1998 – Astronomers cancelled a warning that a mile-wide asteroid might collide with Earth saying that calculations had been off by 600,000 miles.
1999 – Scientists had developed a device to shoot streams of atoms in any direction. Atoms from a Bose-Einstein condensate were propelled with pulsating lasers.
2001 – An anonymous donor pledged a no-strings-attached $360 million to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) of Troy, NY, the largest donation to a university in US history.
2001 – A US Navy fighter dropped an errant 500-pound bomb in Kuwait that hit an observation post and killed five Americans and one New Zealander.
2001 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 436 to 10,208. The Nasdaq fell 129 to 1923. The 61% Nasdaq drop since Mar 10, 2000, was the largest in its 30 year history.
2002 – In Houston, Andrea Yates was convicted of murdering her five children in the family bathtub.
2002 – U.S. Homeland Security Chief Tom Ridge unveiled a five-color coded system for terror warnings.
2002 – Martin Buser captured his fourth victory in the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race.
2002 – The space shuttle Columbia returned to Earth, ending the Hubble Space Telescope repair mission.
2003 – The Chinese government ordered the Rolling Stones to eliminate four songs from their upcoming performances in Shanghai and Beijing. The banned songs were “Brown Sugar,” “Honky Tonk Women,” “Beast of Burden,” and “Let’s Spend the Night Together.”
2003 – In Utah, Elizabeth Smart was reunited with her family nine months after she was abducted from her home. She had been taken on June 5, 2002, by a drifter that had previously worked at the Smart home.
2003 – The U.S. Air Force announced that it would resume reconnaissance flights off the coast of North Korea. The flights had stopped on March 2 after an encounter with four armed North Korean jets.
2003 – The US Air Force tests for the first time its Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) a 9,450kg (21,000 lb. bomb) bomb which is the biggest conventional bomb in the US arsenal.
2004 – An FBI proposal was made public to require all broadband Internet providers to support easy wiretapping.
2005 – Brian Nichols, suspected in the slayings of a judge and three other people, surrendered to authorities in suburban Atlanta after allegedly holding Ashley Smith hostage in her own apartment.
2005 – CHURCH SHOOTING: In Brookfield, Wisconsin, Terry Ratzmann (44) opened fire with a handgun during an evangelical church service at a suburban Milwaukee hotel, killing 7 people before taking his own life.
2006 – Swarms of tornadoes killed at least 10 people across the Midwest states of Indiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, Arkansas, South Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin. It caused so much damage in Springfield, Ill., that the mayor compared it to the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.
2007 – Corporate Flight: US lawmakers responded angrily over a weekend announcement by Texas-based Halliburton, a US oil services giant, that it is shifting its corporate headquarters to Dubai.
2007 – R.E.M. and Van Halen were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
2008 – NY Gov. Eliot Spitzer announced his resignation effective March 17, completing a stunning fall from power after he was nationally disgraced by links to a high-priced prostitution ring. This put Lt. Gov. David Peterson in place as the nation’s first legally blind governor.
2008 – In Alaska Lance Mackey won his second consecutive Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, completing the 1,100-mile journey in just under 9 1/2 days.
2008 – The US Treasury said the government turned in a $175.56 billion budget deficit for February, a record for any month. The federal deficit swelled to $263.3 billion in the first five months of this budget year.
2009 – It was announced that the Sear Tower in Chicago, IL, would be renamed Willis Tower.
2009 – Astronauts aboard the International Space Station briefly evacuate to a Russian escape pod as space debris passes.
2009 – Bernard Madoff pleaded guilty to charges that he carried out an epic fraud that robbed investors around the world of billions of dollars.
2009 – Texas Gov. Rick Perry announced that he turned down $555 million of federal stimulus funding that would expand the state’s unemployment benefits.
2011 – Eighty-three people are rescued from a floating restaurant called “The Waterfront” after it drifted away carrying 150 passengers on the flooded Ohio River in Covington, Kentucky and became lodged under the Clay Wade Bailey Bridge.
2011 – US Aid worker Alan Gross is sentenced to 15 years in a Cuban jail, supposedly for working to undermine the government of Cuba.
2011 – National Football League owners lock out their players in the first labor dispute since 1987.
2012 – United States Census Bureau – World Population Clock: “7 Billion” people in the world already.
2012 – The Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals rules that a 22-year sentence given to Ahmed Ressam for attempting to bomb the Los Angeles International Airport as part of the 2000 millennium attack plots was too light.
2013 – City of New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg says New Yorkers will no longer be able to purchase two-liter bottles of soda with their pizzas, thanks to a new ban being put into place today, the New York Post reported February 24th. On March 11, 2013 a judge overturned his law.
2014 – An explosion in the New York City neighborhood of East Harlem kills 8 and injures over 70.
2014 – Sir Tim Berners-Lee calls for a World Wide Web equivalent of the Magna Carta.
2015 – A crash at Marine Corps Air Station Yuma resulted in the death of one Marine around 11:45 a.m. today, according to a MCAS Yuma.
1607 – Paul Gerhardt, German hymnist (d. 1676)
1613 – André Le Nôtre, French landscape architect (d. 1700)
1806 – Jane Pierce, First Lady of the United States (President Franklin Pierce) (d. 1863)
1831 – Clement Studebaker, American automobile pioneer (d. 1901)
1832 – Charles Boycott, British land agent and originator of the term to boycott (d. 1897)
1891 – George W. Mason, American industrialist (d. 1954)
1895 – William C. Lee, U.S. Army general (d. 1948)
1921 – Gordon MacRae, American singer and actor (d. 1986)
1923 – Wally Schirra, American astronaut (d. 2007)
1931 – Herbert Kelleher, Southwest Airlines co-founder
1931 – Billie “Buckwheat” Thomas, American actor (d. 1980)
1932 – Barbara Feldon, American actress and model
1932 – Andrew Young, American civil rights activist and politician
1938 – Johnny Rutherford, American automobile racer
1946 – Liza Minnelli, American singer and actress
1947 – Mitt Romney, 70th Governor of Massachusetts
1948 – James Taylor, American musician
1957 – Marlon Jackson, American singer and musician (The Jackson 5)
1962 – Darryl Strawberry, American baseball player
1966 – John Thompson III, NCAA Basketball Head Coach
1970 – John Nemechek, American NASCAR driver (d. 1997)
ADKINS, BENNIE G.
Rank: Sergeant First Class Organization: U.S. Army Company: Detachment A-102Division: 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces Born: 1 February 1934, Waurika, Okla. Entered Service At: Waurika, Oklahoma Date of Issue: 09/15/2014 Place / Date: Camp A Shau, Republic of Vietnam, March 9th to March 12th, 1966 Citation: Sergeant First Class Adkins distinguished himself during the period 9 March 1966 to 12 March 1966 during combat operations at Camp A Shau, Republic of Vietnam. When the camp was attacked by a large Viet Cong force, Sergeant First Class Adkins rushed through intense hostile fire and manned a mortar position. Although he was wounded, he ran through exploding mortar rounds and dragged several of his comrades to safety. When the hostile fire subsided, Sergeant First Class Adkins exposed himself to sporadic sniper fire and carried his wounded comrades to the camp dispensary. During the evacuation of a seriously wounded American, Sergeant First Class Adkins maneuvered outside the camp walls to draw fire and successfully covered the rescue. During the early morning hours of 10 March 1966, a Viet Cong regiment launched their main attack. Within two hours, Sergeant First Class Adkins was the only man firing a mortar weapon. Although he was painfully wounded and most of his crew was killed or wounded, he fought off the fanatical waves of attacking Viet Cong. After withdrawing to a communications bunker where several Americans were attempting to fight off a company of Viet Cong, Sergeant First Class Adkins killed numerous insurgents with his suppressive fire. Running extremely low on ammunition, he returned to the mortar pit, gathered the vital ammunition, and ran through intense fire back to the communications bunker. After being ordered to evacuate the camp, all signal equipment and classified documents were destroyed. Sergeant First Class Adkins and a small group of men fought their way out of the camp and evaded the Viet Cong for two days until they were rescued by a helicopter. Sergeant First Class Adkins’ extraordinary heroism in close combat against a numerically superior hostile force was in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.
*KAROPCZYC, STEPHEN EDWARD
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 35th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Kontum Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 12th, 1967. Entered service at: Bethpage, N.Y. Born: 5 March 1944, New York, N.Y. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While leading the 3d Platoon, Company A, on a flanking maneuver against a superior enemy force, 1st Lt. Karopczyc observed that his lead element was engaged with a small enemy unit along his route. Aware of the importance of quickly pushing through to the main enemy force in order to provide relief for a hard-pressed friendly platoon, he dashed through the intense enemy fire into the open and hurled colored smoke grenades to designate the foe for attack by helicopter gunships. He moved among his men to embolden their advance, and he guided their attack by marking enemy locations with bursts of fire from his own weapon. His forceful leadership quickened the advance, forced the enemy to retreat, and allowed his unit to close with the main hostile force. Continuing the deployment of his platoon, he constantly exposed himself as he ran from man to man to give encouragement and to direct their efforts. A shot from an enemy sniper struck him above the heart but he refused aid for this serious injury, plugging the bleeding wound with his finger until it could be properly dressed. As the enemy strength mounted, he ordered his men to organize a defensive position in and around some abandoned bunkers where he conducted a defense against the increasingly strong enemy attacks. After several hours, a North Vietnamese soldier hurled a hand grenade to within a few feet of 1st Lt. Karopczyc and two other wounded men. Although his position protected him, he leaped up to cover the deadly grenade with a steel helmet. It exploded to drive fragments into 1st Lt. Karopczyc’s legs, but his action prevented further injury to the two wounded men. Severely weakened by his multiple wounds, he continued to direct the actions of his men until he succumbed two hours later. 1st Lt. Karopczyc’s heroic leadership, unyielding perseverance, and selfless devotion to his men were directly responsible for the successful and spirited action of his platoon throughout the battle and are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army.
*STOUT, MITCHELL W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Battery C, 1st Battalion, 44th Artillery. Place and date: Khe Gio Bridge, Republic of Vietnam, March 12th, 1970. Entered service at: Raleigh, N.C. Born: 24 February 1950, Knoxville, Tenn. Citation: Sgt. Stout distinguished himself during an attack by a North Vietnamese Army Sapper company on his unit’s firing position at Khe Gio Bridge. Sgt. Stout was in a bunker with members of a searchlight crew when the position came under heavy enemy mortar fire and ground attack. When the intensity of the mortar attack subsided, an enemy grenade was thrown into the bunker. Displaying great courage, Sgt. Stout ran to the grenade, picked it up, and started out of the bunker. As he reached the door, the grenade exploded. By holding the grenade close to his body and shielding its blast, he protected his fellow soldiers in the bunker from further injury or death. Sgt. Stout’s conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action, at the cost of his own life, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon him, his unit and the U.S. Army.
*WOMACK, BRYANT E.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Medical Company, 14th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Sokso-ri, Korea, March 12th, 1952. Entered service at: Mill Springs, N.C. Birth: Mill Springs, N.C. G.O. No.: 5, 12 January 1953. Citation: Pfc. Womack distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. Pfc. Womack was the only medical aid man attached to a night combat patrol when sudden contact with a numerically superior enemy produced numerous casualties. Pfc. Womack went immediately to their aid, although this necessitated exposing himself to a devastating hail of enemy fire, during which he was seriously wounded. Refusing medical aid for himself, he continued moving among his comrades to administer aid. While he was aiding one man, he was again struck by enemy mortar fire, this time suffering the loss of his right arm. Although he knew the consequences should immediate aid not be administered, he still refused aid and insisted that all efforts be made for the benefit of others that were wounded. Although unable to perform the task himself, he remained on the scene and directed others in first aid techniques. The last man to withdraw, he walked until he collapsed from loss of blood, and died a few minutes later while being carried by his comrades. The extraordinary heroism, outstanding courage, and unswerving devotion to his duties displayed by Pfc. Womack reflect the utmost distinction upon himself and uphold the esteemed traditions of the U.S. Army.
WAINWRIGHT, JONATHAN M.
Rank and organization: General, Commanding U.S. Army Forces in the Philippines. Place and date: Philippine Islands, March 12th to 7 May 1942. Entered service at: Skaneateles, N.Y. Birth: Walla Walla, Wash. G.O. No.: 80, 19 September 1945. Citation: Distinguished himself by intrepid and determined leadership against greatly superior enemy forces. At the repeated risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in his position, he frequented the firing line of his troops where his presence provided the example and incentive that helped make the gallant efforts of these men possible. The final stand on beleaguered Corregidor, for which he was in an important measure personally responsible, commanded the admiration of the Nation’s allies. It reflected the high morale of American arms in the face of overwhelming odds. His courage and resolution were a vitally needed inspiration to the then sorely pressed freedom-loving peoples of the world.
Thumbelina the world’s smallest horse
She may be small, a mere 17 inches and weighing only 57 pounds. But she is all horse. Born as a dwarf to a miniature horse, Thumbelina is officially the world’s smallest horse.
She may never aspire to be a champion show-jumper – she is so tiny she would find it hard to jump over a bucket.But these things matter little to the feisty Thumbelina, who has been officially recognized as the world’s smallest horse.
That title was conferred on her in 2006 when the five-year-old (born May 1, 2001) entered the Guinness Book of Records.
The real-life My Little Pony was born on an American farm to a couple who specialize in breeding miniature horses. Normally these horses weight about 250lb and rise to a height of 34 inches when they are fully grown. But from the day she was born it was clear that tiny Thumbelina would never grow to that size.
She weighed in at only 8lb – the size of a new-born baby – when she was born. Eventually she grew to just 60lb. Her amazing size has been explained as dwarfism. This makes her a miniature of a miniature. She may be a mini-horse, but small means beautiful as far as her owners, the Goessling family in Goose Creek farm in St. Louis, are concerned.
She likes to hang out with the cocker spaniels rather than the other horses on their 150-acre farm. “When she was born, she was so small we thought she wasn’t going to make it. She looked very ill. We feared the worse.“Because her legs are proportionally smaller than her body and her head, she has to wear orthopedic fittings to straighten them out a lot of the time.“But we love her and wouldn’t want her any other way,” said Michael Goessling, whose parents Kay and Paul bred the miniature horses.
She only measures up to the shins of the normal-sized horses in the paddock. Michael’s parents have bred hundreds of miniature horses, but they have never had one as small as Thumbelina. She has become something of a celebrity in her home town. She lives on a cup of grain and a handful of hay, served twice a day. She is expected to live to the age of 17 years because of her size – normal horses live for about 35 years.
Romans 6: 17 -19
“But God be thanked that though you were slaves of sin, yet you obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine to which you were delivered. 18 And having been set free from sin, you became slaves of righteousness. 19 I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh. For just as you presented your members as slaves of uncleanness, and of lawlessness leading to more lawlessness, so now present your members as slaves of righteousness for holiness.”
“Laws that forbid the carrying of arms…disarm only those who are neither inclined nor determined to commit crimes. Such laws make things worse for the assaulted and better for the assailants; they serve rather to encourage than prevent homicides, for an unarmed man may be attacked with greater confidence than an armed one.”
— Thomas Jefferson
“Search for the best in every person and discover ways you can be of mutual benefit to each other.”
~ E.R. Haas
Of uncertain origin, perhaps from Scots curfuffle, from fuffle (to disorder).]
105 – Ts’ai Lun invented paper, made from bamboo, mulberry, and other fibers, along with fish nets and rags. He lived and served as an official at the Chinese Imperial Court at the Han Dynasty in China.
1302 – Romeo & Juliet’s wedding day, according to Shakespeare. Romeo Montevecchio and Juliet Cappelletto were married at Cittadella in Italy.
1665 – A new legal code was approved for the Dutch and English towns, guaranteeing religious observances unhindered.
1702 – The first regular English language newspaper, The Daily Courant, is published in London, England.
1778 – Marines participated in the action when the Continental Navy frigate BOSTON, enroute to France, sighted, engaged, and captured the British merchant ship MARTHA.
1779 – Army Corps of Engineers for the United States is authorized by Congress (first time).
1791 – Samuel Mulliken of Philadelphia, PA was the first to receive multiple patents. The Secretary of State issued him the first patent on a threshing machine for corn and grain, being the seventh in the records of the office. On the same day he was granted three more letters patent: for breaking and swingling hemp; for cutting and polishing marble; and to raise the nap on cloths.
1823 – First normal school in US opens, Concord Academy, Concord VT.
1824 – The United States War Department creates the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Seneca Indian Ely Parker became the first Native American to lead the Bureau.
1845 – British baker Henry Jones invents self-rising flour.
1847 – John Chapman ‘Johnny Appleseed’ died in Allen County, Indiana. This day became known as Johnny Appleseed Day.
1850 – Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania opened as the first female medical school.
1853 – Marines from the USS Cyane landed at San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua to protect American lives and interests during political disturbances.
1861 – Civil War: The Constitution of the Confederate States of America is adopted.
1862 – Civil War: President Lincoln suspended General George McClellan from command of all the Union armies so that McClellan could concentrate on the Army of the Potomac and Richmond.
1862 – Civil War: Landing party from U.S.S. Wabash, Commander C. R. P. Rodgers, occupied St. Augustine, Florida, which had been evacuated by Confederate troops in the face of the naval threat.
1863 – Civil War: A naval engagement occurred between the CSS Alabama and the USS Hatteras. The Alabama sank the USS Hatteras along the Texas coast and captured her crew.
1865 – Civil War: Union General William Sherman and his forces occupied Fayetteville, NC.
1865 – Civil War: Lieutenant Commander George W. Young, senior officer present off Wilmington, led a naval force consisting of U.S.S. Eolus and boat crews from U.S.S. Maratanza, Lenapee, and Nyack up the Cape Fear River to Fayetteville. The expedition rendezvoused with General Sherman’s army.
1867 – The eruption of Mauna Kea (Hawaii) caused the largest earthquake in the islands history registering the equivalent of 8 on the Richter Scale.
1888 – The great blizzard of 1888 (March 11-14) dumped 20″ of snow in Baltimore and 40″ in New York. Drifts in the Big Apple were up to 20 feet and over 400 people died. Cold Arctic air from Canada collided with Gulf air from the south and temperatures plunged from the mid-50’s just yesterday. Rain turned to snow and winds reached hurricane-strength levels. By midnight gusts were recorded at 85 miles per hour in New York City. Along with heavy snow, there was a complete whiteout in the city when the residents awoke the next morning.
1892 – First public basketball game (Springfield MA). Springfield’s newspaper called it a “Basket Football Game.” Famous football coach Alonzo Stagg who was a member of the Springfield College staff at that time, also played. Stagg scored the only basket for the faculty team.
1897 – A meteorite enters the earth’s atmosphere and explodes over New Martinsville, West Virginia. The debris causes damage but no human injuries are reported.
1901 – U.S. Steel was formed when industrialist J.P. Morgan purchased Carnegie Steel Corp. The event made Andrew Carnegie the world’s richest man.
1901 – The Cincinnati Enquirer reports that Baltimore manager John McGraw has signed a Cherokee Indian named Tokohoma. It is really Black American second baseman Charlie Grant, who McGraw is trying to pass off as an Indian, but the ruse does not work.
1906 – The Simplified Spelling Board was announced with Andrew Carnegie funding the organization, to be headquartered in New York City. In August Pres. Theodore Roosevelt issued an executive order mandating simplified spelling in all government administrative documents.
1909 – The first gold medal to a perfect-score bowler was awarded to A.C. Jellison by the American Bowling Congress.
1911 – The Cadillac Division of General Motors demonstrated the first electric self starter, enabling women to drive alone. Charles Kettering created the device. His self-starter was introduced in the 1912 Cadillac.
1916 – USS Nevada (BB-36) is commissioned. It was the first of the more powerful “super-dreadnoughts.” What made them ‘super’ was the unprecedented 2,000-ton jump in displacement, and the introduction of the heavier 13.5-inch gun.
1918 – First confirmed cases of the Spanish Flu are observed at Fort Riley, Kansas. An Army private reports to the camp hospital just before breakfast complaining of fever, sore throat, and headache. He is quickly followed by another soldier with similar complaints. By noon, the camp’s hospital has dealt with over 100 ill soldiers. By week’s end, that number will jump to 500.
1927 -Samuel Roxy Rothafel opened the famous Roxy Theatre in New York City. It cost more than $10,000,000 to build. The first feature shown at the Roxy was “The Loves of Sunya”, starring Gloria Swanson and John Boles.
1927 – The Flatheads Gang stole $104,250 in the first armored-car robbery near Pittsburgh, PA.
1929 – Major Seagrave broke the auto speed record in Daytona Beach. He reached an average of 223.2 mph in a 450 horse-powered Golden Arrow.
1930 – Babe Ruth signed a two-year contract with the New York Yankees for the sum of $80,000.
1930 – President Howard Taft became the first U.S. president to be buried in the National Cemetery in Arlington, VA.
1940 – World War II (Europe): The government lifts its arms embargo to allow Britain and France to buy some P40 fighter planes.
1941 – World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease Act into law, allowing American-built war supplies to be shipped to the Allies on loan.
1942 – Vaughn Monroe and his orchestra recorded the classic, “Sleepy Lagoon”. It was the last song Monroe would record for Bluebird Records. “Racing With the Moon” and “Ghost Riders in the Sky” were two of his greatest contributions to popular music.
1942 – World War II: General Douglas MacArthur abandons Corregidor. MacArthur, who subsequently vowed, “I shall return,” kept that promise more than 2 1/2 years later.
1942 – World War II: First deportation train left Paris for the Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
1945 – World War II: The Imperial Japanese Navy attempts a large-scale kamikaze attack on the U.S. Pacific fleet anchored at Ulithi atoll in Operation Tan No. 2.
1945 – World War II: One thousand Allied bombers harassed Essen with 4,662 tons of bombs.
1945 – World War II: Flemish Nazi collaborator Maria Huygens was sentenced to death.
1946 – Rudolf Höss, the first commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp, is captured by British troops.
1947 – The DuMont network aired “Movies For Small Fry.” It was network television’s first successful children’s program.
1948 – Reginald Weir became the first Black American tennis player to participate in a U.S. Indoor Lawn Tennis Association tournament.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Music, Music, Music” by Teresa Brewer, “I Said My Pajamas” by Tony Martin & Fran Warren, “Dear Hearts and Gentle People” by Bing Crosby and “Chatanooga Shoe Shine Boy” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: The first 51 U.S. Korean War dead left Yokohama for burial in the United States.
1953 – F.M. Adams became the first US commissioned female Army doctor.
1953 – An American B-47 accidentally dropped a nuclear bomb on South Carolina; however the bomb did not go off due to 6 safety catches.
1954 – US Army charges Senator Joseph McCarthy used undue pressure tactics to give preferential treatment to former McCarthy aide and friend of Cohn’s, G. David Schine.
1956 – Sir Lawrence Olivier starred in the three-hour afternoon NBC-TV special, “Richard III.”
1957 – Charles Van Doren’s 14-week run on the rigged NBC game show “Twenty-One” ended as he was “defeated” by attorney Vivienne Nearing; Van Doren’s take was $129,000.
1958 – Starting this season, American League batters are required to wear batting helmets.
1958 – A B-47 bomber accidentally drops a nuclear weapon over Mars Bluff, South Carolina. The conventional explosive trigger detonates, leaving a crater 75 feet wide and 35 feet deep.
1959 – The Lorraine Hansberry drama “A Raisin in the Sun” opened at New York’s Ethel Barrymore Theater. It was the first Broadway play by a Black woman and the first Broadway play with a Black director, Lloyd Richards, in the modern era. The play ran for 530 performances, becoming the longest running Broadway play written by an American Black.
1959 – Comedian and television star Flip Wilson received the International Broadcasting Man of the Year Award. Flip Wilson was the first Black to be a television superstar.
1960 – Pioneer 5 launched; orbits sun between Earth & Venus.
1961 – “Pony Time” by Chubby Checker topped the charts.
1964 – The Beatles played their first U.S. concert at the Colosseum in Washington, DC.
1964 – U.S. Senator Carl Hayden (D-AZ) broke the record for continuous service in the U.S. Senate. He had worked 37 years and seven days. His political carrer was longer. He started as a the sheriff in Maricopa County AZ and was the first law enforcement to chase down bank robbers in an automobile.
1965 – The U.S. Navy began inspecting Vietnamese junks in an effort to end arms smuggling to the South.
1965 – The Rev. James J. Reeb, a white minister from Boston, died after being beaten by whites during a civil rights disturbances in Selma, Alabama.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler; “Listen People” by Herman’s Hermits and “California Dreamin’” by The Mamas & The Papas and “Waitin’ in Your Welfare Line” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1966 – Cher recorded “Bang Bang.”
1967 – “Love Is Here and Now You’re Gone” by the Supremes topped the charts.
1967 – Vietnam War: U.S. First Infantry Division troops engage in one of the heaviest battles of Operation Junction City.
1968 – Otis Redding posthumously receives gold record for “(Sittin’ On) the Dock of the Bay”. Redding was killed in a plane crash on December 10th, 1967.
1969 – Levi-Strauss started selling bell-bottomed jeans.
1970 – The Fifth Dimension’s “Aquarius/Let the Sun Shine In” is named Record of the Year at the Grammys.
1971 – Television networks ABC, NBC and CBS were told by the Federal Communications Commission that a limited three-hour nightly program service — or ‘prime time’ — would begin in September. The network programs were to be slotted between 8 and 11 p.m. on the East and West coasts — an hour earlier in the Central and Mountain time zones.
1972 – “Without You” by Nilsson topped the charts.
1972 – David Bowie performed as “Ziggy Stardust” for the first time.
1973 – An FBI agent was shot at Wounded Knee, U.S. Marshal Lloyd Grimm, in South Dakota.
1975 – American Indian Movement (AIM) perpetrated the cold-blooded murder of Special Agents Jack Coler and Ron Williams, the only FBI Agents ever to have been executed in the line of duty.
1977 – The 1977 Hanafi Muslim Siege: more than 130 hostages held in Washington, D.C., by Hanafi Muslims are set free after ambassadors from three Islamic nations join negotiations.
1978 – “(Love Is) Thicker Than Water” by Andy Gibb topped the charts.
1978 – Bobby Hull (Winnipeg Jets) joined Gordie Howe by getting his 1,000th career goal.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Centerfold” by The J. Geils Band, “Open Arms” by Journey, “I Love Rock ’N Roll” by Joan Jett & The Blackhearts and “You’re the Best Break This Old Heart Ever Had” by Ed Bruce all topped the charts.
1982 – Protesting his innocence, Sen. Harrison A. Williams Jr., D-N.J., resigned after 23 years in the Senate, rather than face expulsion in the wake of his ABSCAM conviction. Abscam was an FBI sting operation run from the FBI’s Hauppauge, Long Island office in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The operation initially targeted trafficking in stolen property but was converted to a public corruption investigation.
1983 – The Rolling Stones concert film “Let’s Spend the Night Together” opened in New York.
1985 – Mikhail Gorbachev becomes the Soviet Union’s leader.
1986 – The single “Superbowl Shuffle” by the Chicago Bears Shufflin’ Crew was certified gold by the RIAA.
1986 – Popsicle announced its plan to end the traditional twin-stick frozen treat for a one-stick model.
1986 – One million days since traditional foundation of Rome, 4/21/753 BC.
1986 – NFL adopts instant replay rule.
1986 – The state of Georgia pardoned Leo Frank, a Jewish businessman who had been lynched in 1915 for the murder of 13-year-old Mary Phagan.
1987 – Wayne Gretzky scores 1,500th NHL point.
1988 – Saying, “The people have decided,” Gary Hart withdrew a second time from the race for the 1988 Democratic presidential nomination. Gary Hart, former US Senator from Colorado campaigned for the democratic nomination for president until a photograph of himself with a woman named Donna Rice, not his wife, appeared.
1989 – “Lost in Your Eyes” by Debbie Gibson topped the charts.
1993 – Janet Reno is confirmed by the United States Senate and sworn-in the next day, becoming the first female Attorney General of the United States.
1997 – Ashes of Star Trek creator, Gene Roddenberry are launched into space.
1997 – A gunman, Allen Griffin, in Detroit killed three and wounded two before being killed by police after staging an robbery at the Comerica Bank on the East Side.
1998 – The International Astronomical Union issued an alert that said that a mile-wide asteroid could come very close to, and possibly hit, Earth on Oct. 26, 2028. The next day NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory announced that there was no chance the asteroid would hit Earth.
1998 – In Los Angeles Efren Saldivar, a respiratory care therapist, claimed to have killed as many as 50 terminally ill patients from 1989 to 1997 at the Glendale Adventist medical Center.
1999 – The US Rodman Naval Station in Panama was transferred to Panama.
2002 – It was reported that the US CIA and State Dept. was interviewing former Iraqi generals for a possible overthrow of Saddam Hussein.
2002 – Two columns of light were pointed skyward from ground zero in New York as a temporary memorial to the victims of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.
2003 – The US military reports that US warplanes have bombed a mobile-radar for a surface-to-air missile system in Iraq’s western desert.
2003 – A US Army Black Hawk helicopter crashed in Fort Drum, NY, and 11 of 13 soldiers were killed.
2004 – In San Diego, four Marines were killed when their small UC-35 jet crashed on landing at Air Station Miramar.
2005 – MASS SHOOTING: In Georgia, Brian Nichols (33), on trial for rape, shot and killed Superior Court Judge Rowland Barnes, court reporter Julie Ann Brandau and Deputy Hoyt Teasley at the Fulton County Courthouse.He then killed deferral agent David Wilhelm in Atlanta’s posh Buckhead neighborhood.
2006 – After a record ‘dry spell’ of 143 days, it rains in Phoenix, AZ.
2007 – U.S., Daylight Saving Time begins three weeks earlier than in previous years. It was reset by Congress in the Energy Policy Act of 2005, signed into law by the President on August 8, 2005. It now starts on the second Sunday of March and ends a week later than before, on the first Sunday of November. Daylight Savings Time was originally used in Great Britain during WWI as a coal-conserving measure.
2007 – The US national debt was reported to be approaching $9 trillion. Some $240 billion would be spent this year paying interest on the half that’s held by public creditors, of which China and Japan are the largest.
2008 – The US space shuttle Endeavour (STS-123) blasted off from the John F. Kennedy Space Center to deliver part of a long-awaited Japanese space laboratory and a Canadian-built robotic system to the International Space Station.
2008 – The San Francisco Board of Supervisors passed a law requiring chain restaurants to post nutrition information on their menus.
2009 – The NASA delays the Space Shuttle Discovery‘s mission to the International Space Station due to a hydrogen gas leak.
2010 – The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) intervenes when Mississippi bans same-sex relationships and cancels its prom (leavers’ dinner) due to the desire of a female student to bring her girlfriend and wear a tuxedo.
2011 -The Governor of Oklahoma, Mary Fallin, declares a state of emergency in all 77 counties due to wildfires burning out of control in that state and Colorado.
2012 – A US soldier kills 16 civilians in the Panjwayi District of Afghanistan near Kandahar.
2013 – MASS SHOOTING: Thirteen people are shot and injured during a drive-by shooting in Washington, D.C.
2013 – Former Mayor of Detroit Kwame Kilpatrick is convicted on corruption charges.
2013 -A New York state judge invalidates a New York City ban on the sale of soft drinks larger than 16 ounces that was set to take effect on March 12. The office of Mayor Michael Bloomberg says it will appeal.
2013 – An EA-6B Prowler military plane crashes about 50 miles west of Spokane, Washington and kills three Navy crew members.
2014 – Colorado says it has collected $2 million in taxes from marijuana sales in the month of January.
1738 – Benjamin Tupper, Continental Army officer, and pioneer to the Ohio Country (d. 1792)
1785 – John McLean, 6th US Postmaster General (d. 1861)
1876 – Carl Ruggles, American composer and a prolific painter, selling hundreds of paintings during his lifetime. (d. 1971)
1887 – Raoul Walsh, American actor and director. He was known for portraying John Wilkes Booth in the silent classicThe Birth of a Nation (1915) (d. 1980)
1890 – Vannevar Bush, American engineer and politician (d. 1974)
1898 – Dorothy Gish, American actress (d. 1968)
1903 – Lawrence Welk, American accordion player and bandleader (d. 1992)
1915 – J. C. R. Licklider, American computer scientist and Internet pioneer (d. 1990)
1916 – Ezra Jack Keats, American author and illustrator (d. 1983) was an American writer and illustrator of children’s books. He won the 1963 Caldecott Medal for illustrating The Snowy Day, which he also wrote. It is considered one of the most important American books of the 20th century.
1926 – Reverend Ralph Abernathy, American civil rights leader (d. 1990)
1931 – Rupert Murdoch, Australian-American businessman, founded News Corporation
1934 – Sam Donaldson is an American reporter and news anchor, serving with ABC News from 1967 to the present.
1936 – Antonin Scalia, US Supreme Court Justice
1939 – Lorraine Hunt, former Lieutenant Governor of Nevada
1945 – Harvey Mandel, American musician
1954 – Gale Ann Norton served as the 48th US Secretary of the Interior from 2001 to 2006 under President George W. Bush. She was the first woman to hold the position.
1958 – Jim Pinkerton, columnist, author, and political analyst. He served on the White House staff under both Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush and in January 2008 became a senior adviser to the Mike Huckabee campaign.
1967 – Brad Carson, American lawyer and politician from the state of Oklahoma who currently serves as the General Counsel of the Army.
1982 – Brian Anderson, Major League Baseball player who is currently a member of the Colorado Rockies organization.
ETCHBERGER, RICHARD L.
Rank: Chief Master Sergeant, Organization: U.S. Air Force, Detachment 1, 1043d Radar Evaluation Squadron. Born: 5 March 1933 Entered Service At: Hamburg, Pennsylvania, Date of Issue: 09/21/2010 Accredited To: Pennsylvania Place / Date: Phou Pha Thi, Laos, March 11th, 1968 Citation:For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Chief Etchberger and his team of technicians were manning a top secret defensive position at Lima Site 85 when the base was overrun by an enemy ground force. Receiving sustained and withering heavy artillery attacks directly upon his unit’s position, Chief Etchberger’s entire crew lay dead or severely wounded. Despite having received little or no combat training, Chief Etchberger single-handedly held off the enemy with an M-16, while simultaneously directing air strikes into the area and calling for air rescue. Because of his fierce defense and heroic and selfless actions, he was able to deny the enemy access to his position and save the lives of his remaining crew. With the arrival of the rescue aircraft, Chief Etchberger, without hesitation, repeatedly and deliberately risked his own life, exposing himself to heavy enemy fire in order to place three surviving wounded comrades into rescue slings hanging from the hovering helicopter waiting to airlift them to safety. With his remaining crew safely aboard, Chief Etchberger finally climbed into an evacuation sling himself, only to be fatally wounded by enemy ground fire as he was being raised into the aircraft. Chief Etchberger’s bravery and determination in the face of persistent enemy fire and overwhelming odds are in keeping with the highest standards of performance and traditions of military service. Chief Etchberger’s gallantry, self-sacrifice, and profound concern for his fellow men at risk of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, reflect the highest credit upon himself and the United States Air Force.
KELLOGG, ALLAN JAY, JR.
Rank and organization: Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps (then S/Sgt.), Company G, 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Quang Nam province, Republic of Vietnam, March 11th, 1970. Entered service at: Bridgeport, Conn. Born: 1 October 1943, Bethel, Conn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a platoon sergeant with Company G, in connection with combat operations against the enemy on the night of 11 March 1970. Under the leadership of G/Sgt. Kellogg, a small unit from Company G was evacuating a fallen comrade when the unit came under a heavy volume of small arms and automatic weapons fire from a numerically superior enemy force occupying well-concealed emplacements in the surrounding jungle. During the ensuing fierce engagement, an enemy soldier managed to maneuver through the dense foliage to a position near the marines, and hurled a hand grenade into their midst which glanced off the chest of G/Sgt. Kellogg. Quick to act, he forced the grenade into the mud in which he was standing, threw himself over the lethal weapon and absorbed the full effects of its detonation with his body thereby preventing serious injury or possible death to several of his fellow Marines. Although suffering multiple injuries to his chest and his right shoulder and arm, G/Sgt. Kellogg resolutely continued to direct the efforts of his men until all were able to maneuver to the relative safety of the company perimeter. By his heroic and decisive action in risking his life to save the lives of his comrades, G/Sgt. Kellogg reflected the highest credit upon himself and upheld the finest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service.
Check Your Batteries Day
Have you ever been caught by surprise when someone uses words that mean the same thing or produce redundancies? For example Pizza Pie is Italian for pie and American for pie or “pie pie.” Try some more:
How about the driver looking for “as being “on the El Camino Road”.
That is, “the the road road”.
La Rue Road sounds very French but when translating from French to English it says, “.The Road Road.”
The Great Sahara is well known to people all over the world but note the lack of the word Desert. Sahara means desert in Arabic so Sahara Desert is Desert Desert.
Another one would be Mount Fujiyama (in Japan), which means, Mount Fuji Mount.
In southern Arizona they have a state park near the site of the only
Civil War battle fought in the state, at Picacho Peak… or Peak Peak.
Los Angeles has another example of inadvertent duplication, and my favorite:
the baseball team The Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, or The The Angels
Angels of Anaheim.
Redundancy typically takes the form of tautology: phrases that repeat a meaning with different though semantically similar words. Common examples are: “a variety of different items”, “an added bonus”, “end result”, “free gift”, “future plans”, “unconfirmed rumor”, “to kill, murder, or electrocute someone to death”, “past history”, “safe haven”, and so on.
1 John 1 New King James Version (NKJV)
1 That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled, concerning the Word of life— 2 the life was manifested, and we have seen, and bear witness, and declare to you that eternal life which was with the Father and was manifested to us— 3 that which we have seen and heard we declare to you, that you also may have fellowship with us; and truly our fellowship is with the Father and with His Son Jesus Christ. 4 And these things we write to you that your joy may be full.
“Certainly, Gentlemen, it ought to be the happiness and glory of a representative to live in the strictest union, the closest correspondence, and the most unreserved communication with his constituents. Their wishes ought to have great weight with him; their opinions high respect; their business unremitted attention. It is his duty to sacrifice his repose, his pleasure, his satisfactions, to theirs,—and above all, ever, and in all cases, to prefer their interest to his own.
But his unbiased opinion, his mature judgment, his enlightened conscience, he ought not to sacrifice to you, to any man, or to any set of men living. These he does not derive from your pleasure,—no, nor from the law and the Constitution. They are a trust from Providence, for the abuse of which he is deeply answerable. Your representative owes you, not his industry only, but his judgment; and he betrays instead of serving you if he sacrifices it to your opinion.”
- Speech to the Electors of Bristol (1774-11-03); reported in The Works of the Right Honorable Edmund Burke (1899), vol. 2, p. 95.
God gave you the gift of 86,400 seconds today. Have you used one to say “thank you”?”
~ William Arthur Ward
caterwaul \KAT-uhr-wawl\, intransitive verb:
To make a harsh cry.
To have a noisy argument.
A shrill, discordant sound.
551 BC- The building of the great Jewish temple in Jerusalem was completed.
241 BC – The Battle of Aegusa in which the Roman fleet sank 50 Carthaginian ships occurred.
418 – Jews were excluded from public office in the Roman Empire.
1496 – Christopher Columbus concluded his second visit to the Western Hemisphere as he left Isabela, with two ships for Spain.
1629 – Charles I of England dissolves Parliament, starting the Eleven Years Tyranny in which there was no parliament.
1656 – In the American colony of Virginia, suffrage was extended to all free men regardless of their religion.
1681 – English Quaker William Penn received a charter from Charles II, making him sole proprietor of colonial American territory of Pennsylvania.
1762 – French Huguenot Jean Calas, who was wrongly convicted of killing his son, dies after being tortured by authorities; the event inspired Voltaire to begin a campaign for religious tolerance and legal reform.
1769 – Philadelphia merchants finally agree among themselves to support an inter-colonial non-importation movement. Effective 1 April, they ban the import of nearly all British trade goods until the Townshend Acts are repealed.
1775 – The Transylvania Company sends Daniel Boone and 30 woodchoppers to cut the Wilderness Road from Fort Wautauga to the mouth of the Kentucky River.
1776 – “Common Sense” by Thomas Paine was published.
1783 – USS Alliance (Captain John Barry) defeats HMS Sybil in final naval action of Revolution in West Indies waters.
1785 – Thomas Jefferson was appointed minister to France. He succeeded Benjamin Franklin.
1791 – John Stone, Concord MA, patents a pile driver.
1801 – First census in Great Britain.
1804 – Louisiana Purchase: In St. Louis, a formal ceremony is conducted to transfer ownership of the Louisiana Territory from France to the United States.
1848 – The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is ratified by the United States Senate, ending the Mexican-American War. The memorial is located on Interstate 10 at the rest stop just north of Casa Grande.
1849 – Abraham Lincoln of Springfield, IL applied for a patent. The device was to lift vessels over shoals by means of inflated cylinders.
1849 – A riot erupts in New York where a British actor named Macready is performing at the Astor Place Opera House.Crowds are angry because of the theater’s snobbish dress requirements and because Macready makes scornful comments on the vulgarity of Americans. Twenty-two people are killed and thirty-six injured when troops are called in.
1862 – US issues first paper money ($5, $10, $20, $50, $100, $500 & $1000).
1864 – Civil War: The Red River Campaign begins as Union troops reach Alexandria, Louisiana.
1864 – Civil War: Ulysses S. Grant became commander of the Union armies.
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Monroe’s Crossroads, NC.
1876 – Alexander Graham Bell makes the first successful telephone call by saying “Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you.”
1880 – Commissioner George Scott Railton and seven women officers of English ‘General’ William Booth’s Salvation Army landed in New York on this day to officially put the group to work in the United States.
1891 – Almon Strowger, an undertaker in Topeka, Kansas, patents the strowger switch, a device which led to the automation of telephone circuit switching.
1893 – New Mexico State University cancels its first graduation ceremony, its only graduate Sam Steele was robbed & killed the night before.
1894 – New York Gov. Roswell P. Flower signed the nation’s first dog-licensing law.
1896 – Bob Fitzsimmons KO’d much larger Jim Corbett to win world Heavy Weight championship and said, “The bigger they are, the harder they fall.”
1902 – A United States court of appeals rules that Thomas Edison did not invent the movie camera.
1903 – Harry C. Gammeter of Cleveland, OH patented the multigraph duplicating machine.
1906 – In New York’s harbor, the disease-stricken ship Karmania was quarantined with six dead from cholera.
1913 – William Knox rolled the first perfect 300 game in tournament competition at the American Bowling Congress in Toledo, OH.
1916 – President Woodrow Wilson ordered General John J. “Black Jack” Pershing to pursue and capture Pancho Villa, following Villa’s raid in New Mexico.
1922 – “Variety” magazine greeted readers with the front-page headline that read, “Radio Sweeping Country – 1,000,000 Sets in Use.”
1924 – The U.S. Supreme Court upheld a New York state law forbidding late-night work for women.
1933 – An earthquake in Long Beach, California kills 120 people and causes an estimated $40 million in damage.
1933 – Nevada became the first U.S. state to regulate drugs.
1937 – An audience of 21,000 jitterbuggers jammed the Paramount Theatre in New York City. A young clarinetist whom they would crown, “King of Swing” performed at the Paramount on this night. His name was Benny Goodman.
1941 – Larry MacPhail, Dodger GM predicts all players will wear batting helmets.
1942 – World War II: American aircraft launched from the American carriers Lexington and Yorktown attack Japanese vessels near Lae, New Guinea.
1944 – World War II: On New Britain, American forces capture Talasea.
1944 – World War II: On Bougainville, Japanese forces capture Hill 260 but lose ground to American counterattacks in other areas.
1945 – World War II: The Army Air Force firebombs Tokyo, and the resulting firestorm kills more than 100,000 people, mostly civilians.
1945 – World War II: In the Philippines Pfc. Thomas Eugene Atkins (d. 1999 at 78) repulsed a Japanese attack while wounded and killed 14 enemy soldiers in northern Luzon.
1945 – World War II: Navy and civilian nurses interned at Los Banos, Philippines flown back to U.S. Navy nurses awarded Bronze Star.
1948 – First civilian to exceed speed of sound-Herb H Hoover, Edwards AFB California.
1948 – First use of jets assigned to operational squadron (VF-5A) on board a carrier (Boxer).
1948 – Author Zelda Fitzgerald died in a fire at Highland Hospital, NC. She was locked in on the 3rd floor while undergoing insulin-induced coma therapy.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Far Away Places” by Margaret Whiting, “Powder Your Face with Sunshine” by Evelyn Knight, “Galway Bay” by Bing Crosby and “Don’t Rob Another Man’s Castle” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1949 – Nazi wartime broadcaster Mildred E. Gillars, a.k.a. “Axis Sally,” was convicted of treason. She served 12 years in prison.
1951 – FBI director J Edgar Hoover declines the post of baseball commissioner.
1951 – “Be My Love” by Mario Lanza topped the charts.
1952 – Carson v. Landon, 342 US 524 was decided by the US supreme court. Under § 20(a) of the Immigration Act, as amended by § 23 of the Internal Security Act, the Attorney General may, in his discretion, hold in custody without bail, pending determination as to their deportability, aliens who are members of the Communist Party of the United States when there is reasonable cause to believe that their release on bail would endanger the safety and welfare of the United States. Pp. 342 U. S. 526-547.
1953 – Korean War: North Korean gunners at Wonsan fired upon the USS Missouri. The ship responded by firing 998 rounds at the enemy position.
1954 – Pres. Eisenhower called Sen. Joseph McCarthy a peril to the Republican Party.
1955 – The last broadcast of “The Silver Eagle” was heard on radio.
1956 – Julie Andrews at the age of 23 made her TV debut in “High Tor” with Bing Crosby and Nancy Olson.
1956 – Peter Twiss sets new world air record 1,132 mph (1,823 kph).
1956 – “Lisbon Antigua” by Nelson Riddle topped the charts.
1959 – “Sweet Bird of Youth”, a play by Tennessee Williams, opened in New York City.
1962 – The Philadelphia Phillies baseball club left the Jack Tar Harrison Hotel due to its refusal to admit black players, and moved to Rocky Point Motel, 20 miles outside Clearwater, Florida.
1962 – “Hey! Baby” by Bruce Channel topped the charts.
1963 – Pete Rose debuts with hits in his two first at bats in spring training.
1963 – Wilt Chamberlain of NBA San Francisco Warriors scores 70 points vs Syracuse.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Girl” by The Temptations, “The Jolly Green Giant” by The Kingsmen, “Eight Days a Week” by The Beatles and “I’ve Got a Tiger by the Tail” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 – Walter Matthau and Art Carney opened in “The Odd Couple”, one of Neil Simon’s greatest theatrical triumphs.
1965 – Vietnam War. The ground war started in Vietnam.
1966 – The North Vietnamese captured a Green Beret camp at Ashau Valley.
1966 – France withdrew from NATO’s military command to protest U.S. dominance of the alliance and asked NATO to move its headquarters from Paris.
1969 – In Memphis, Tennessee, James Earl Ray pleads guilty to assassinating Martin Luther King Jr. He would later retract his guilty plea.
1970 – Vietnam War: Captain Ernest Medina is charged with My Lai war crimes.
1971 – Senate approves amendment lowering voting age to 18.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Killing Me Softly with His Song” by Roberta Flack, “Dueling Banjos” by Eric Weissberg & Steve Mandell, “Love Train” by O’Jays and “’Till I Get It Right” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1975 – Vietnam War: North Vietnamese troops attack Ban Me Thuot, South Vietnam, on their way to capturing Saigon.
1977 – Rings of Uranus: Astronomers discover rings around Uranus.
1979 – “I Will Survive” by Gloria Gaynor topped the charts.
1980 – Madeira School headmistress Jean Harris shoots and kills Scarsdale diet doctor Herman Tarnower.
1980 – Willard Scott becomes the weather forecaster on the Today Show.
1980 – Iran’s leader, Ayatollah Khomeini, lent his support to the militants holding American hostages in Tehran.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Love a Rainy Night” by Eddie Rabbitt, “9 to 5” by Dolly Parton, “Keep on Loving You” by REO Speedwagon and “Do You Love as Good as You Look” by The Bellamy Brothers all topped the charts.
1982 – The United States places an embargo on Libyan petroleum imports because of their support of terrorist groups.
1982 – Syzygy: all nine planets align on the same side of the Sun. Also known as the Jupiter effect.
1983 – The Coast Guard retired the last operational HU-16E Albatross, ending the “era of seaplanes” for the service.
1984 – “Jump” by Van Halen topped the charts.
1982 – The U.S. banned Libyan oil imports due to their continued support of terrorism.
1985 – Dick Motta of the Dallas Mavericks became the fourth coach in the National Basketball Association to win 700 games in a career as the Mavs defeated the New Jersey Nets 126-113. The three other winningest coaches in NBA history to that time were: Red Auerbach (938 games), Jack Ramsey (733 games) and Gene Shue (717).
1986 – The Wrigley Company, of Chicago, raised the price of its seven-stick pack of Wrigley’s chewing gum from a quarter to 30 cents.
1987 – The Vatican condemned surrogate parenting as well as test-tube and artificial insemination.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lost in Your Eyes” by Debbie Gibson, “The Lover in Me” by Sheena Easton, “The Living Years” by Mike & The Mechanics and “I Still Believe in You” by The Desert Rose Band all topped the charts.
1991 – “Phase Echo” began. It was the operation to withdraw 540,000 U.S. troops from the Persian Gulf region.
1993 – Authorities announced the arrest of Nidal Ayyad, a second suspect in the bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City.
1994 – White House officials began testifying before a federal grand jury about the Whitewater controversy.
1995 – U.S. Secretary of State Warren Christopher told Yasser Arafat that he must do more to curb Palestinian terrorists.
1998 – Secretary Of State Warren Christopher, accusing China of “reckless” provocations against Taiwan, said on NBC that US warships would move closer to Taiwan.
1998 – U.S. troops in the Persian Gulf began receiving the first vaccinations against anthrax.
1998 – In South Carolina the FBI received a videotape made by Daniel Rudolph, brother of abortion clinic bombing suspect Eric Robert Rudolph, in which he amputated his left hand with a circular saw.
1998 – The U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) announced that food stamps were issued to nearly 26,000 dead people in 1995-1996; food stamps valued at $8.5 million were issued to 25,881 deceased people during that period.
2000 – The NASDAQ Composite stock market index peaks at 5132.52, signaling the beginning of the end of the dot-com boom.
2000 – Nasdaq reached a record high at 5048.62.
2002 – The Associated Press reported that the Pentagon informed the U.S. Congress in January that it was making contingency plans for the possible use of nuclear weapons against countries that threaten the U.S. with weapons of mass destruction, including Iraq and North Korea.
2003 – North Korea test-fired a short-range missile. The event was one of several in a patter of unusual military maneuvers.
2003 – Natalie Maines, alleged American and lead singer of the Dixie Chicks, told a London audience: “Just so you know … we’re ashamed the president of the United States is from Texas.”
2004 – Lee Boyd Malvo, teenage sniper, was sentenced in Chesapeake, Va., to life in prison.
2005 – A Texas ranch has implemented a computer-assisted remote hunting website allowing paying hunters to bag big game from their home computers.
2006 – The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter arrives at Mars.
2006 – The US Treasury said February’s deficit of $119.2 billion set a one-month record. It cited early tax filing, hurricane aid and Medicare drug costs.
2006 – Bill Campbell (52), former mayor if Atlanta, Georgia (1994-2002), was convicted of tax evasion, but acquitted for corruption charges. In June he was sentenced to 2 ½ years in prison and fined $6,300.
2006 – In Alaska another oil leak was detected on a second North Slope transmission pipeline. This followed the recently plugged leak discovered on Mar 2.
2007 – President Bush in Uruguay said the FBI has addressed the problems that led to illegal prying into personal information on people in the US, but “there’s more work to be done.”
2007 – 22,000 evangelical teenagers attended the BattleCry rally at AT&T Park in SF, where organizer Ron Luce (45) urged they become stalkers of God. Together with his wife Katie, Luce founded the Texas-based Teen Mania Ministries in 1986 in his van.
2008 – New York Governor Eliot Spitzer (D) admitted to his role in a prostitution scandal.
2008 – Highway and utility crews cleared major highways in time for morning commuters following the weekend snowstorm that buried parts of Ohio in as much as 20 inches of snow. The storm battered a wide band from the lower Mississippi Valley to New England.
2009 – MASS KILLING: In Alabama Michael McLendon (28) set off on a rampage of 10 slayings across two rural counties and then killed himself.
2010 – The Kansas City, Mo., school board narrowly approved a plan to close nearly half the district’s schools in a desperate attempt to avoid a potential bankruptcy.
2010 – Virginia’s general assembly became the first state legislature to ban mandatory health insurance. Idaho followed suit a week later. About 35 other states planned similar measures.
2011 – Wisconsin Assembly approves bill stripping nearly all collective bargaining rights from state’s public workers.
2011 – Under heightened security, Representative Peter King opened hearings into Islamic radicalization in America, dismissing what he called the “rage and hysteria” surrounding the hearings.
2011 – The US Attorney’s office in New Mexico said the mayor of Columbus, Eddie Espinoza, the town’s police chief Angelo Vega, and village trustee Blas Gutierrez were among those arrested on an 84-count indictment for allegedly trafficking approximately 200 guns to Mexico.
2011 – Ohio executed Johnnie Baston (37) for the 1994 killing of Chong Mah (53), a Toledo store owner. Baston was executed with pentobarbital, previously used primarily to euthanize animals.
2012 – Frank Sherwood Rowland, the winner of the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for warning about the depletion of the ozone layer, died in California.
2013 – Six teenagers are killed and two other people are injured in a car accident near Warren, Ohio. It was the deadliest accident in Trumbull County history and the deadliest in Ohio in three years.
2013 – Five teenagers are killed after a Chevrolet SUV and a gas tanker collide at the intersection of two county roads in Dumas, Texas.
2015 – Seven Marines killed in military helicopter crash in Santa Rosa Sound. The Marines were Captain Stanfort H. Shaw III, SSgt. Kerry Kemp, SSgt. Marcus S. Bawol, SSgt. Trevor P. Blaylock, SSgt. Liam A. Flynn, MSgt. Thomas A. Saunders and SSgt. Andrew Seif. The training exercise in which they died was a nights exercise at Eglin Air Force Base in Navarre, Florida. On March 6, just days before the helicopter crash, SSgt. Seif, 26, was awarded the Silver Star. for facing enemy fire to save a mortally wounded friend in Afghanistan in July 2012.
1745 – John Gunby, Maryland Soldier in the American Revolutionary War (d. 1807) 1772 – Friedrich von Schlegel, German aesthetician (d. 1829)
1880 – Broncho Billy Anderson, American actor (d. 1971)
1888 – Barry Fitzgerald, Irish actor (d. 1961)
1917 – Frank Perconte, American sergeant from Easy Company during WWII. He was portrayed by James Madio in the HBO/BBC miniseries Band of Brothers.
1937 – Joe Viterelli, American actor (d. 2004)
1940 – Chuck Norris, American actor and martial artist
1940 – Dean Torrence, American singer (Jan and Dean)
1946 – Jim Valvano, American basketball coach (d. 1993)
1957 – Osama bin Laden, Islamic terrorist
1958 – Sharon Stone, American actress
1960 – Anne MacKenzie, journalist and broadcaster
1961 – Laurel Clark, physician and astronaut (d. 2003)
1961 – Bobby Petrino, American football coach
1969 – Paget Brewster, American actress
1972 – Matt Kenseth, American race car driver
1977 – Shannon Miller, American gymnast and Olympic gold medalist
1983 – Carrie Underwood, American country singer
DETHLEFSEN, MERLYN HANS
Rank and organization: Major (then Capt.), U.S. Air Force. Place and date: In the air over North Vietnam, March 10th, 1967. Entered service at: Royal, Iowa. Born: 29 June 1934, Greenville, Iowa. Citation: Maj. Dethlefsen was one of a flight of F-105 aircraft engaged in a fire suppression mission designed to destroy a key antiaircraft defensive complex containing surface-to-air missiles (SAM), an exceptionally heavy concentration of antiaircraft artillery, and other automatic weapons. The defensive network was situated to dominate the approach and provide protection to an important North Vietnam industrial center that was scheduled to be attacked by fighter bombers immediately after the strike by Maj. Dethlefsen’s flight. In the initial attack on the defensive complex the lead aircraft was crippled, and Maj. Dethlefsen’s aircraft was extensively damaged by the intense enemy fire. Realizing that the success of the impending fighter bomber attack on the center now depended on his ability to effectively suppress the defensive fire, Maj. Dethlefsen ignored the enemy’s overwhelming firepower and the damage to his aircraft and pressed his attack. Despite a continuing hail of antiaircraft fire, deadly surface-to-air missiles, and counterattacks by MIG interceptors, Maj. Dethlefsen flew repeated close range strikes to silence the enemy defensive positions with bombs and cannon fire. His action in rendering ineffective the defensive SAM and antiaircraft artillery sites enabled the ensuing fighter bombers to strike successfully the important industrial target without loss or damage to their aircraft, thereby appreciably reducing the enemy’s ability to provide essential war material. Maj. Dethlefsen’s consummate skill and selfless dedication to this significant mission were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Air Force and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
FISHER, BERNARD FRANCIS
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Air Force, 1st Air Commandos. Place and date: Bien Hoa and Pleiku, Vietnam, March 10th, 1966. Entered service at: Kuna, Idaho. Born: 11 January 1927, San Bernardino, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On that date, the special forces camp at A Shau was under attack by 2,000 North Vietnamese Army regulars. Hostile troops had positioned themselves between the airstrip and the camp. Other hostile troops had surrounded the camp and were continuously raking it with automatic weapons fire from the surrounding hills. The tops of the 1,500-foot hills were obscured by an 800 foot ceiling, limiting aircraft maneuverability and forcing pilots to operate within range of hostile gun positions, which often were able to fire down on the attacking aircraft. During the battle, Maj. Fisher observed a fellow airman crash land on the battle-torn airstrip. In the belief that the downed pilot was seriously injured and in imminent danger of capture, Maj. Fisher announced his intention to land on the airstrip to effect a rescue. Although aware of the extreme danger and likely failure of such an attempt, he elected to continue. Directing his own air cover, he landed his aircraft and taxied almost the full length of the runway, which was littered with battle debris and parts of an exploded aircraft. While effecting a successful rescue of the downed pilot, heavy ground fire was observed, with nineteen bullets striking his aircraft. In the face of the withering ground fire, he applied power and gained enough speed to lift-off at the overrun of the airstrip. Maj. Fisher’s profound concern for his fellow airman, and at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Air Force and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
ATKINS, THOMAS E.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 127th Infantry, 32d Infantry Division. Place and date: Villa Verde Trail, Luzon, Philippine Islands, March 10th, 1945. Entered service at: Campobello, S.C. Birth: Campobello, S.C. G.O. No.: 95, 30 October 1945. Citation: He fought gallantly on the Villa Verde Trail, Luzon, Philippine Islands. With two companions he occupied a position on a ridge outside the perimeter defense established by the 1st Platoon on a high hill. At about 3 a.m., two companies of Japanese attacked with rifle and machinegun fire, grenades, TNT charges, and land mines, severely wounding Pfc. Atkins and killing his two companions. Despite the intense hostile fire and pain from his deep wound, he held his ground and returned heavy fire. After the attack was repulsed, he remained in his precarious position to repel any subsequent assaults instead of returning to the American lines for medical treatment. An enemy machinegun, set up within twenty yards of his foxhole, vainly attempted to drive him off or silence his gun. The Japanese repeatedly made fierce attacks, but for four hours, Pfc. Atkins determinedly remained in his fox hole, bearing the brunt of each assault and maintaining steady and accurate fire until each charge was repulsed. At 7 a.m., thirty enemy dead lay in front of his position; he had fired four-hundred rounds, all he and his two dead companions possessed, and had used three rifles until each had jammed too badly for further operation. He withdrew during a lull to secure a rifle and more ammunition, and was persuaded to remain for medical treatment. While waiting, he saw a Japanese within the perimeter and, seizing a nearby rifle, killed him. A few minutes later, while lying on a litter, he discovered an enemy group moving up behind the platoon’s lines. Despite his severe wound, he sat up, delivered heavy rifle fire against the group and forced them to withdraw. Pfc. Atkins’ superb bravery and his fearless determination to hold his post against the main force of repeated enemy attacks, even though painfully wounded, were major factors in enabling his comrades to maintain their lines against a numerically superior enemy force.
Get Over It Day
Barbie, is named after Ruth Handler’s daughter, Barbara. The doll made its debut at the New York International American Toy Fair on March 9, 1959. The first Barbie doll wore a black-and-white “zebra-striped” swimsuit and signature topknot ponytail with tightly-curled bangs. Barbie’s wardrobe was designed by esteemed Mattel fashion designer Charlotte Johnson, whose inspiration came from the fashion runways of Paris.
Barbie’s fictional biography has developed with her continued sales. She has been given the fuller name Barbara Millicent Roberts, According to the Random House novels of the 1960s, her parents’ names are George and Margaret Roberts of Willows, Wisconsin. Barbie has been said to attend Willows High School in Willows, Wisconsin and Manhattan International High School in New York City (based on the real-life Stuyvesant High School). Barbie is a college graduate. She attended a generic educational institution called State College.
Other Barbie “Facts”
1. Barbie doll has had more than 80 careers — everything from a rock star to a paleontologist to a presidential candidate.
2. Barbie doll’s first career was a teenage fashion model.
3. Barbie Goes to College was introduced in 1964.
4. Army Barbie , introduced in 1992, represented a medic Sergeant enlisted in Desert Storm.
5. The first Olympic athlete Barbie was introduced in 1975; she competed again as an Olympic swimmer in 2000.
6. Summit Barbie dolls were introduced in the 1980s to commemorate the end of the cold war between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
7. Barbie doll represented a candidate for President in 1992 and is running again in 2000 with a platform of opportunities for girls, educational excellence and animal rights.
8. The military series of Barbie dolls, Army, Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps went through approvals by the Pentagon to ensure the most realistic costumes.
9. Barbie doll represented an astronaut in 1965, 1986 and 1994.
10.The Barbie Sport collection, including a clothing line and sport-related dolls, was introduced by Mattel in 1998 to allow girls to play out their athletic aspirations every day.
It’s a global village these days . . .
11 .Barbie doll was introduced in Europe in 1961.
12. Italian was the first nationality Barbie doll represented in the Dolls of the World® Collection.
13. Quinceanera Teresa doll was released in Mexico in 1994 to celebrate Girls Day.
14.The Barbie doll is currently marketed in more than 150 nations around the world.
15. Placed head to toe, Barbie dolls and family members sold since 1959 would circle the earth more than seven times.
16. Every second, two Barbie dolls are sold somewhere in the world.
17. One of the latest nationality Barbie doll is Spanish Barbie, released in 2000 wearing an ensemble inspired by the “traje de luces” (suit of lights) worn by toreadors.
18. Barbie doll has represented 45 different nationalities.
19. The first black and Hispanic Barbie dolls were introduced in 1980.
20. Freundshcafts (Friendship) Barbie was introduced in 1990 to commemorate the tearing down of the Berlin Wall.
Life of the party . . .
21. Barbie doll has had over 43 pets including 21 dogs, 12 horses, 3 ponies, 6 cats, a parrot, a chimpanzee, a panda, a lion cub, a giraffe and a zebra.
22.The best selling Barbie doll ever was Totally Hair BarbieÒ, with hair from the top of her head to her toes.
23. The full name of Barbie doll is “Barbie Millicent Roberts.” She is from Willows, Wisconsin and went to Willows High School.
24. Barbie doll has five sisters, Skipper, introduced in 1964, Tutti, a twin introduced in 1966, Stacie in 1992, Kelly in 1995 and Krissy in 1999.
25.Barbie doll’s boyfriend, Ken doll made his debut two years after Barbie, in 1961.
26. Ken doll was named after the son of Mattel founders Ruth and Elliot Handler.
27. The first celebrity to join the Barbie doll family was fashion model Twiggy in 1967 and the M. C. Hammer doll, complete with a cassette of his songs, was added in 1991.
28. Barbie doll’s first pet was a horse named Dancer.
29. Barbie doll’s best friend, Midge was introduced in 1963 and then again in 1988 as California Midge .
30. Consumers can now use their computers and the Internet to customize their friend of the Barbie doll through My Design™, launched in 1998.
31. 1999 was the first year that a family member of the Barbie doll was introduced into the line as a large-scale doll, Cuddly Soft Kelly .
32. Doll collecting is second only to stamp collecting as the most popular collecting hobby in America – Barbie doll is collected by women, men and children around the world.
33. The Barbie Polaroid I-zone is an instant camera that allows girls to create postage-size sticky pictures of all their fun activities.
Fashion police sign off — Barbie doll’s record is sparkling
34. Close to 1 billion fashions have been produced since 1959 for Barbie and her friends.
35. More than 105 million yards of fabric have gone into making Barbie doll and her friends’ fashions, making Mattel one the largest apparel manufacturers in the world.
36. Barbie doll has had more than a billion pair of shoes and over one hundred new additions to her wardrobe annually.
37. Barbie doll’s signature color is Barbie pink.
38. The “Barbie Fashion Designer” CD ROM was the best-selling software title of the 1996 holiday season.
39. Barbie doll’s collection of couture includes designs by Givenchy, Versace, Dolce & Gabana, Vera Wang and Gucci.
40. The Barbie clothing line for real girls includes knit tops, bootleg pants, backpacks, sleepwear and accessories.
A dazzling debut . . .
41. Barbie doll was introduced in 1959 and first appeared in the now-famous black and white striped swimsuit and signature ponytail.
42. The inventor of the Barbie doll is Ruth Handler, co-founder of Mattel. She named the doll after her daughter, Barbara.
43. The first Barbie doll sold for $3.00.
44. During the first year of her introduction in 1959, 351,000 Barbie dolls were sold.
45. An original 1959 Barbie doll in mint condition has sold for up to $10,000.
Right here, right now. . .
46. Barbie doll is currently a $1.5 billion dollar-per-year industry.
47. In 2000, Barbie doll has a belly button for the first time.
48. In 1999, Barbie doll walked by herself for the first time and in 2000, she inline skates by herself.
49. Barbie doll celebrated 40 years as the world’s most popular fashion doll in 1999.
50. Barbie CD ROMs have been the best selling children’s software titles in 1996, 1997, 1998 and 1999.
51.The latest Barbie Software for Girls is the Barbie Magic Genie Bottle and CD-ROM that lets girls interact with a 3-D adventure game.
52. Barbie entered the world of electronics in 1999 with the e-Secret.
BARBIE and associated trademarks are owned by Mattel, Inc.
Politician – Barbie ran for President of the United States in 1992, 2000 and again in 2004.
The Middle Eastern country of Saudi Arabia outlawed the sale of Barbie dolls on September 10, 2003 for not conforming to the ideals of Islam, thus she was replaced with the Egyptian doll Fulla.
If Barbie was a real person her measurements would be an impossible 36-18-38.
In 2014 the “Normal Barbie” comes with cellulite, stretch marks, acne, and tattoos. The doll also has add-on accessories with moles, freckles, stitches, scrapes, and scars. She has the proportions of an average 19-year-old woman.
Romans 5: 1- 5
Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, 2 through whom also we have access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God. 3 And not onlythat, but we also glory in tribulations, knowing that tribulation produces perseverance; 4 and perseverance, character; and character, hope. 5 Now hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out in our hearts by the Holy Spirit who was given to us.
“The virtues of men are of more consequence to society than their abilities; and for this reason, the heart should be cultivated with more assiduity than the head.”
– Noah Webster, On the Education of Youth in America, 1788
“ Most of us, swimming against the tides of trouble the world knows nothing about, need only a bit of praise or encouragement — and we will make the goal. ”
~ Jerome P. Fleishman
blue streak (bloo streek) noun
Something moving very fast.
A rapid and seemingly endless stream of words
(He/She) is in there talking a blue streak.
1497 – Nicolaus Copernicus first recorded astronomical observation.
1522 – Martin Luther preaches his Invocavit . For eight days beginning today, Invocavit Sunday, and concluding on the following Sunday, Luther preached eight sermons that would become known as the Invocavit Sermons.
1562 – A public ban on kissing is proclaimed in the city of Naples, Italy, punishable by death. It lasts for about a day before the local nobleman is forced to rescind it .
1611 – Johannes Fabricius, a Dutch astronomer, observed the rising sun through his telescope, and observed several dark spots on it. This was probably the first ever observation of sunspots.
1728 – During the course of the Anglo-Spanish War, a military force of English settlers from the South Carolina colony conducts an expedition deep into Spanish controlled Florida to destroy a Yamassee Indian village close to the Spanish settlement of St. Augustine.
1745 – The first carillon was shipped from England to Boston, MA. A carillon is a musical instrument that is typically housed in the bell tower (belfry) of a church or municipal building.
1781 – The siege of Pensacola Florida begins.
1788 – Connecticut became the fifth state to join the United States.
1793 – Jean Pierre Blanchard made the first balloon flight in North America. President George Washington watched aeronaut Jean Pierre Blanchard make the first aerial voyage in the New World.
1798 – Dr. George Balfour became first naval surgeon in the US Navy.
1799 – The U.S. Congress contracted with Simeon North, of Berlin, CT, for 500 horse pistols at the price of $6.50 each.
1820 – The U.S. Congress passed the Land Act that paved the way for westward expansion of North America.
1822 – Charles M Graham of New York patents artificial teeth.
1832 – Abraham Lincoln of New Salem, IL announced that he would run for political office.
1841 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled, with only one dissent, that the African slaves who seized control of the Amistad slave ship had been illegally forced into slavery and thus were free under U.S. law.
1847 – Mexican-American War: The first large-scale amphibious assault in U.S. history is launched in the Siege of Veracruz. U.S. forces under General Winfield Scott invade Mexico three miles south of Vera Cruz. This was the largest amphibious landing in U.S. history until WW II.
1858 – The first U.S. patent for a street mailbox was patented by Albert Potts of Philadelphia. It comprised a simple metal box designed to attach to a lamppost.
1859 – The National Association of Baseball Players adopted the rule that limited the size of bats to no more than 2-1/2 inches in diameter.
1860 – The first Japanese ambassador to the U.S. was appointed. His name was Man’en gannen kenbei shisetsu lit. First year of the Man’en era mission to America) was dispatched in 1860 by the Tokugawa shogunate
1861 – Civil War: First hostile act of the Civil War occurred when the Union merchant ship, the Star of the West, is fired upon as it tries to deliver supplies to Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina.
1862 – Civil War: The USS Monitor and CSS Virginia fight to a draw after a four-hour battle in the Battle of Hampton Roads, the first fight between two ironclad warships.
1862 – Civil War: Naval force under Commander Godon, consisting of U.S.S. Mohican, Pocahontas, and Potomska, took possession of St. Simon’s and Jekyl Islands and landed at Brunswick, Georgia. Jekyll Island is an island off the coast of Georgia, in Glynn County; it is one of the Sea Islands and one of the Golden Isles of Georgia.
1863 – Civil War: U.S. Grant was appointed commander-in-chief of the Union forces.
1864 – Civil War: Ulysses S. Grant was officially commissioned the first lieutenant general in the U.S. Army since George Washington.
1897 – Cleveland Spiders, a Major League Baseball team which played between 1887 and 1899 in Cleveland, Ohio, sign Louis Sockalexis, full-blooded Penobscot. He was an immediate success, hitting an impressive .338 with eight triples and 16 stolen bases in his first 60 games.
1897 – Cleveland Indian “Blues” fans start calling the team the Indians (in 1915 becomes official).
1898 – Congress unanimously appropriates $50,000,000 “for national defense and each and every purpose connected therewith.” The Navy is already well prepared, but the Army is scandalously disorganized.
1906 – In the Philippines, fifteen Americans and 600 Moros were killed in the last two days of fighting in the “Philippine Insurrection.”
1907 – Indiana enacted the nation’s first involuntary sterilization law based on eugenics. It was intended “to prevent procreation of confirmed criminals, idiots, imbeciles, and rapists.”
1910 – The Westmoreland County Coal Strike, involving 15,000 coal miners represented by the United Mine Workers, begins.
1914 – Test of wind tunnel at Washington Navy Yard. A wind tunnel is a tool used in aerodynamic research to study the effects of air moving past solid objects. A wind tunnel consists of a closed tubular passage with the object under test mounted in the middle.
1914 – US Senator Albert Fall (Teapot Dome) demanded the “Cubanisation of Mexico.”
1915 – The Cleveland “Indians” made the name official. According to the ballclub’s official account, the name was “suggested by a fan who said he was doing it in honor of an Indians ballplayer named Louis Francis Sockalexis”. Sockalexis had died in 1913.
1916 – Pancho Villa leads nearly 1,500 horsemen, Mexican raiders in an attack against Columbus, New Mexico. They killed 17 Americans.
1929 – Eric Krenz became the first athlete to toss the discus over 160 feet.
1933 – Congress is called into special session by FDR, & began its “100 days”.
1933 – Great Depression: President Franklin D. Roosevelt submits the Emergency Banking Act to the Congress, the first of his New Deal policies. The Act’s primary function was to prohibit the hoarding of gold coins, and did so by authorizing the United States Treasury to request all people and companies of the US to send in their gold reserves.
1936 – The German press warned that all Jews who vote in the upcoming elections would be arrested.
1936 – Babe Ruth turns down Reds to make a comeback as a player.
1938 – Comedian Bob Hope makes his first film appearance, singing “Thanks for the Memories” in The Big Broadcast of 1938. The song later became his trademark.
1942 – Construction of the Alaska Highway began. It begins at the junction with several Canadian highways in Dawson Creek, British Columbia, and runs to Delta Junction, Alaska, via Whitehorse, Yukon.
1942 – Tommy Dorsey and his orchestra recorded “Well, Git It!” for Victor Records. Ziggy Elman was featured on the session which was recorded in Hollywood. Sy Oliver arranged the Dorsey classic.
1944 – World War II: Japanese troops counter-attack American forces on Hill 700 in Bougainville in a battle that would last five days.
1944 – World War II: The Coast Guard-manned destroyer escort USS Leopold (DE-319) was torpedoed off Iceland by the U-255. The attack was one of the first times the Germans used their newly developed acoustic torpedo successfully.
1945 – “Those Websters” debuted on CBS radio.
1945 – World War II: American bombers (343) carrying all the incendiary bombs they could hold bombed Tokyo, killing 83,000 people and destroying some 250,000 buildings over 16 square miles. It was the worst single firestorm in recorded history.
1945 – Bonn and Godesberg are captured by units of US 1st Army while others continue to expand the bridgehead over the Rhine River, at Remagen, where Erpel is captured.
1946 – Ted Williams is offered $500,000 to play in Mexican League, he refuses.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Looking Over a Four Leaf Clover” by The Art Moonie Orchestra, “Now is the Hour” by Bing Crosby, “Beg Your Pardon” by Francis Craig and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1949 – The first all-electric dining car was placed in service — on the Illinois Central Railroad. Passengers enjoyed all-electric cooking between Chicago and St. Louis.
1950 – Willie Sutton robs Manufacturer’s Bank of $64,000 in New York NY.
1950 – “Space Patrol” debuted as a local, 15-minute show that aired live five days a week in Los Angeles and ran to 1955.
1953 – U.S. vs. Reynolds was a landmark ruling that formally established the government’s “state secrets” privilege. This is the privilege that has enabled federal agencies to conceal certain conduct, withhold documents and block litigation where such actions might reveal the “sources and methods” of US intelligence.
1954 – CBS television broadcasts the “See It Now” episode, “A Report on Senator Joseph McCarthy”, produced by Fred Friendly. Edward R Murrow criticizes Senator Joseph McCarthy.
1954 – WNBT-TV (now WNBC-TV), New York, broadcast the first local color television commercials. The ad was Castro Decorators of New York City. They were the company that made the Castro convertible sofa beds.
1954 – Senate Republicans level criticism at fellow Republican Joseph McCarthy and take action to limit his power. They acted to limit McCarthy’s ability to conduct hearings and to derail his investigation of the U.S. Army. McCarthy’s days as a political force were indeed numbered.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Why Do Fools Fall in Love” by Frankie Lymon & The Teenagers, “Lisbon Antigua” by Nelson Riddle, “Hot Diggity (Dog Ziggity Boom)” by Perry Como and “I Don’t Believe You’ve Met My Baby” by The Louvin Brothers all topped the charts.
1957 – A magnitude 9.1 earthquake in the Andreanof Islands, Alaska triggers a Pacific-wide tsunami causing extensive damage to Hawaii and Oahu.
1957 – Teenage heartthrob Tab Hunter’s song “Young Love” was number one in the US.
1958 – George Yardley (Pistons) is first NBA player to score 2,000 points in season.
1959 – Jack Paar was featured on the cover of “LIFE” magazine on this day. He was accused, the article said, of “keeping the U.S. up nights.”
1959 – The Barbie doll makes its debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York. There have been over 800 million sold. The cost of the first Barbie Dolls was $3.
1959 – “Venus” by Frankie Avalon topped the charts.
1960 – In Seattle, Wa., Clyde Shields (39), was implanted with the first kidney dialysis shunt developed by Dr. Belding H. Scribner (d.2003) and engineer Wayne Quinton.
1961 – First animal returned from space, dog named Blackie aboard Sputnik 9.
1962 – VIETNAM: US “advisors” in South-Vietnam joined the fight.
1963 -“Walk Like a Man” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1964 – A group of five Lakota (Sioux) Native Americans occupied Alcatraz Island in a peaceful protest.
1964 – First Ford Mustang produced. It was the brain child of Ford Division Vice President and General Manager Lee Iacocca. He had a vision: a sporty car that would seat four people, be no more than 180 in. long, weigh less than 2500 lb, and sell for under $2500. It was introduced to the public on April 17th, 1964.
1964 – The US Supreme Court, in its New York Times v. Sullivan decision, ruled that public officials who charged libel could not recover damages for defamatory statements related to their official duties unless they proved actual malice on the part of the news organization.
1965 – Vietnam: The first U.S. combat troops arrived in South Vietnam.
1966 – Vietnam: Coast Guard Cutter Point White, on duty with Coast Guard Squadron One, Division 13, in Vietnam, captured a Vietcong junk after a running firefight.
1966 – The Beach Boys recorded “God Only Knows.”
1967 – Trans World Airlines Flight 553, a Douglas DC-9-15, crashes in a field in Concord Township, Ohio following a mid-air collision with a Beechcraft Baron, killing 26.
1967 – The daughter of Soviet dictator Josef Stalin, Svetlana, defected to the United States.
1968 – General William Westmoreland asked for 206,000 more troops in Vietnam.
1968 – “Love Is Blue” by Paul Mauriat topped the charts.
1969 – “The Smothers Brothers’ Comedy Hour” was canceled by CBS-TV.
1970 – The U.S. Marines turn over control of the five northernmost provinces in South Vietnam to the U.S. Army. The Marines had been responsible for this area since they first arrived in South Vietnam in 1965.
1974 – Last Japanese soldier, Officer Hiroo Onoda, a guerrilla operating in Philippines, surrenders 29 years after World War II ended.
1974 – “Seasons in the Sun” by Terry Jacks topped the charts.
1975 – Work began on the Alaskan oil pipeline.
1976 – Forty-two people die in the 1976 Cavalese cable-car disaster. This was the worst cable car accident ever, 42 people including 15 children died when the steel cable of their cable car broke.
1976 – The first female cadets were accepted to West Point Military Academy.
1977 – The Hanafi Muslim Siege: In a thirty-nine hour standoff, armed Hanafi Muslims seize three Washington, D.C., buildings, killing two and taking 149 hostage.
1977 – President Carter proposed an end to travel restrictions to Cuba, Vietnam, N. Korea and Cambodia effective as of March 18.
1979 – Bowie Kuhn orders baseball to give equal access to female reporters.
1984 – John Lennon’s “Borrowed Time” is released.
1984 – Philadelphia 76’ers block 20 Seattle shots tying NBA regulation game record.
1985 “Can’t Fight This Feeling” by REO Speedwagon topped the charts.
1986 – The module containing the bodies of the seven astronauts killed in the Jan. 28 explosion of the shuttle Challenger was located off Florida.
1987 – Chrysler Corp offered to buy American Motors Corp.
1988 – President Reagan presides at unveiling of the Knute Rockne stamp.
1989 – A strike forces financially-troubled Eastern Air Lines into bankruptcy.
1989 – In the U.S., President Bush urged for a mandatory death penalty in drug-related killings.
1989 – The U.S. Senate rejected John Tower as a choice for a cabinet member. It was the first rejection in 30 years.
1990 – Dr. Antonia Novello is sworn in as Surgeon General of the United States, becoming the first female and Hispanic American to serve in that position.
1991 – “Someday” by Mariah Carey topped the charts.
1991 – Joe Dumars (Detroit MI) begins NBA free throw streak of 62 games.
1992 – A federal judge in New York announced a final $1.3 billion agreement to settle the civil suits growing out of the 1989 collapse of Drexel Burham Lambert, once the most powerful firm on Wall Street.
1993 – Rodney King testifies against the four LAPD officers accused of violating his civil rights when they beat him during his 1991 arrest.
1993 – Janet Reno sailed through her confirmation hearing en route to becoming the nation’s first female attorney general.
1995 – Baseball awards a franchise to Tampa Bay Devil Rays.
1996 – The first “all-Coast Guard” Ceremonial Honor Guard carried out a wreath laying at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington National Cemetery.
1996 – The space shuttle “Columbia” landed safely a day late at the Kennedy Space Center, ending a 16-day mission.
1996 – Comedian George Burns died in Beverly Hills, Calif., just weeks after turning 100.
1997 – Rapper The Notorious B.I.G. (Biggie) was returning to his hotel in Los Angeles, California after an awards party. A car pulled up beside his and opened fire. Biggie was killed almost instantly.
1998 – It was reported that the government owned the fastest computer, an Intel ASCI Red unit at the Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque. It was designed to perform 1.5 trillion operations per second. It was planned to develop computers capable of 30 trillion calculations per second by 2001, and 100 trillion per second by 2004.
1998 – A vast storm caused deadly flooding in the US South and heavy snows in the Midwest. In Elba, Alabama, the Pea River broke its levee and put the town under 5 feet of water. The death toll rose to 8 after 3 days of storms.
1999 – Pres. Clinton visited Honduras and paid tribute to US military efforts in rebuilding roads, bridges, schools and clinics following Hurricane Mitch.
1999 – Energy Secretary Bill Richardson fired Wen Ho Lee, a Los Alamos weapons designer, who was under suspicion of handing nuclear secrets to China in 1988.
1999 – Amtrak unveiled a new high speed train for travel between Boston and New York in 3 hours. A New York to Washington run was expected to take 2 ½ hours.
2000 – The US NASDAQ market reached a record 5,000, ten weeks after passing 4,000.
2001 – A judge in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., sentenced 14-year-old Lionel Tate to life in prison for the 1999 killing of Tiffany Eunick, a 6-year old girl. Tate, who had been convicted of first-degree murder, said he was imitating pro-wrestling moves.
2001 – Federal regulators warned power companies that they may have to refund $69 million to California ratepayers for charging unreasonable prices.
2002 – In Chicago scaffolding under high winds tore loose from the John Hancock Center and fatally crushed three people.
2002 – A Marine Corps helicopter from Beaufort, SC, crashed in the Atlantic Ocean during a rescue operation from a downed civilian helicopter. Two people were killed.
2002 -The space shuttle Columbia’s astronauts released the Hubble Space Telescope into orbit after five days of repairs.
2004-John Allen Muhammad was sentenced to death for his part in one of the 10 Washington-area sniper killings in 2002.
2005 – Dan Rather stepped down as anchor and managing editor of “CBS Evening News.” His action followed acknowledgment of major flaws in a broadcast about U.S. President George Bush’s National Guard service.
2005 – The acting boss of the New York City Gambino family and at least thirty other mob figures were arrested following an undercover FBI operation.
2005 – Information broker LexisNexis reported that thieves hacked into records and stole personal data on some 310,000 US individuals.
2006 -U.S. President George Bush signed the USA Patriot Act reauthorization, giving law enforcement tools the president said are needed to fight terrorists.
2006 – The body of Tom Fox (54), an American man taken hostage with three other Christian peace activists in Nov 26, 2005, was found near a railroad line in Baghdad with gunshots to his head and chest.
2006 – Dubai Ports World bowed to pressure from the US Congress and announced that it will sell off its US operations to a US owner.
2007 – Justice Department accused the FBI of misusing the USA Patriot Act in gathering information on thousands of U.S. citizens and foreign nationalists allegedly with suspected links to terrorism.
2007 – A US appeals court overturned a District of Columbia handgun ban.
2008 – In Cupertino, Ca., two racing cyclists, Kristy Gough (30) and Mat Peterson (29), were killed during a training ride when a deputy sheriff veered into the opposite lane of traffic on Stevens Canyon Road. Officer James Council (27) said he had fallen asleep at the wheel.
2009 – President Barack Obama signed an executive order reversing the US government’s ban on funding stem-cell research today and pledge to “use sound, scientific practice and evidence, instead of dogma” to guide federal policy.
2009 – In North Carolina Philip Guyett (42) pleaded guilty to falsifying records so that he could sell human tissue from corpses that were riddled with cancer or showed intravenous drug use.
2010 – San Francisco officials ordered the shutdown of all drug testing at the police crime lab amid allegations that Deborah J. Madden (60), a former technician, stole and used some of the cocaine she was supposed to analyze.
2010 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: An Ohio State University custodian, Nathaniel Brown (51), killed a supervisor and wounded another and then killed himself. Brown had been told that he was being fired.
2011 – Space shuttle Discovery touched down safely at Kennedy Space Center at 11:58 a.m. E.T., completing its 27-year spaceflight career and its final mission into space.
2011 – The Governor of New Jersey, Chris Christie declares a state of emergency along the Passaic and Delaware Rivers and Bound Brook in Somerset County in order to prepare for anticipated floods later in the week.
2011 – A Federal grand jury in the US city of Lubbock, Texas indicts Khalid Al-Dawsari on one charge of Attempted Use of a Weapon of Mass Destruction.
2013 – A house fire kills five children and two adults (including a pregnant woman) in the Gray community of Knox County, Kentucky, cause undetermined and under investigation.
2014 – The man who claimed to be the sailor in a famous V-J Day image that inspired “The Kiss” statue in San Diego died. Glenn McDuffie, 86, claimed he was the sailor in the cuddle with a nurse in the famous World War II–era photograph captured by a Life magazine photographer.
1454 – Amerigo Vespucci, Italian explorer and cartographer. Matthias Ringmann, a German mapmaker, named the American continent in his honor. (d. 1512)
1815 – David Davis, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. He also served as Abraham Lincoln’s campaign manager at the 1860 Republican National Convention. (d. 1886)
1820 – Samuel Blatchford, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. He was an expert in admiralty law and patent law, and authored Blatchford and Howland’s Admiralty Cases, which was considered the most complete work of its kind. (d. 1893)
1839 – Phoebe Knapp, American hymn writer . She wrote over 500 hymn tunes, the most familiar being Assurance for Fanny Crosby’s hymn Blessed Assurance. (d. 1908)
1856 – Eddie Foy, American singer ,dancer ,comedian and vaudevillian. (d. 1928)
1900 – Howard Aiken, was a pioneer in computing.He was the primary engineer behind IBM’s Harvard Mark I computer. (d. 1973)
1902 – Will Geer, American actor. He is remembered for his portrayal of the character Grandpa Walton, in the popular 1970s TV series The Waltons. (d. 1978)
1918 – George Lincoln Rockwell, founder of the American Nazi Party (d. 1967)
1918 – Mickey Spillane was an American author of crime novels, many featuring his signature detective character, Mike Hammer. (d. 2006)
1934 – Joyce Van Patten, American actress appeared in dozens of television series. She was a member of the original cast of the daytime drama As the World Turns.
1936 – Mickey Gilley, American musician and singer. Among his biggest hits are “Room Full of Roses,” “Don’t the Girls All Get Prettier at Closing Time,” and the remake “Stand by Me”. He is also the cousin of Jerry Lee Lewis and Jimmy Swaggart.
1941 – Ernesto Miranda, American criminal whose confession under police interrogation resulted in the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case (Miranda v. Arizona). This warning is known as a Miranda warning. (d. 1976)
1942 – Mark Lindsay, American musician (Paul Revere & The Raiders)
1943 – Charles Gibson, American television journalist is the anchor of ABC World News with Charles Gibson, the network’s flagship evening newscast.
JACOBS, JACK H.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, U.S. Army Element, U.S. Military Assistance Command, Republic of Vietnam. Place and date: Kien Phong Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 9th, 1968. Entered service at: Trenton, N.J. Born: 2 August 1945, Brooklyn, N.Y. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Jacobs (then 1st Lt.), Infantry, distinguished himself while serving as assistant battalion advisor, 2d Battalion, 16th Infantry, 9th Infantry Division, Army of the Republic of Vietnam. The 2d Battalion was advancing to contact when it came under intense heavy machine gun and mortar fire from a Viet Cong battalion positioned in well fortified bunkers. As the 2d Battalion deployed into attack formation its advance was halted by devastating fire. Capt. Jacobs, with the command element of the lead company, called for and directed air strikes on the enemy positions to facilitate a renewed attack. Due to the intensity of the enemy fire and heavy casualties to the command group, including the company commander, the attack stopped and the friendly troops became disorganized. Although wounded by mortar fragments, Capt. Jacobs assumed command of the allied company, ordered a withdrawal from the exposed position and established a defensive perimeter. Despite profuse bleeding from head wounds which impaired his vision, Capt. Jacobs, with complete disregard for his safety, returned under intense fire to evacuate a seriously wounded advisor to the safety of a wooded area where he administered lifesaving first aid. He then returned through heavy automatic weapons fire to evacuate the wounded company commander. Capt. Jacobs made repeated trips across the fire-swept open rice paddies evacuating wounded and their weapons. On three separate occasions, Capt. Jacobs contacted and drove off Viet Cong squads who were searching for allied wounded and weapons, single-handedly killing three and wounding several others. His gallant actions and extraordinary heroism saved the lives of one U.S. advisor and thirteen allied soldiers. Through his effort the allied company was restored to an effective fighting unit and prevented defeat of the friendly forces by a strong and determined enemy. Capt. Jacobs, by his gallantry and bravery in action in the highest traditions of the military service, has reflected great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Company C, 17th Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Vicinity of Taemi-Dong, Korea, March 9th, 1951. Entered service at: Pasadena, Calif. Born: 1 March 1920 Ford City, Pa. G.O. No.: 67, 2 August 1951. Citation: Capt. Harvey Company C, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. When his company was pinned down by a barrage of automatic weapons fire from numerous well-entrenched emplacements, imperiling accomplishment of its mission, Capt. Harvey braved a hail of fire and exploding grenades to advance to the first enemy machine gun nest, killing its crew with grenades. Rushing to the edge of the next emplacement, he killed its crew with carbine fire. He then moved the 1st Platoon forward until it was again halted by a curtain of automatic fire from well fortified hostile positions. Disregarding the hail of fire, he personally charged and neutralized a third emplacement. Miraculously escaping death from intense crossfire, Capt. Harvey continued to lead the assault. Spotting an enemy pillbox well camouflaged by logs, he moved close enough to sweep the emplacement with carbine fire and throw grenades through the openings, annihilating its 5 occupants. Though wounded he then turned to order the company forward, and, suffering agonizing pain, he continued to direct the reduction of the remaining hostile positions, refusing evacuation until assured that the mission would be accomplished. Capt. Harvey’s valorous and intrepid actions served as an inspiration to his company, reflecting the utmost glory upon himself and upholding the heroic traditions of the military service.
*JULIAN, JOSEPH RODOLPH
Rank and organization: Platoon Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Place and date: Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands, March 9th, 1945. Born: 3 April 1918, Sturbridge, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a P/Sgt. serving with the 1st Battalion, 27th Marines, 5th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces during the seizure of Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands, 9 March 1945. Determined to force a breakthrough when Japanese troops occupying trenches and fortified positions on the left front laid down a terrific machinegun and mortar barrage in a desperate effort to halt his company’s advance, P/Sgt. Julian quickly established his platoon’s guns in strategic supporting positions, and then, acting on his own initiative, fearlessly moved forward to execute a one-man assault on the nearest pillbox. Advancing alone, he hurled deadly demolition and white phosphorus grenades into the emplacement, killing two of the enemy and driving the remaining five out into the adjoining trench system. Seizing a discarded rifle, he jumped into the trench and dispatched the five before they could make an escape. Intent on wiping out all resistance, he obtained more explosives and, accompanied by another Marine, again charged the hostile fortifications and knocked out two more cave positions. Immediately thereafter, he launched a bazooka attack unassisted, firing four rounds into the one remaining pillbox and completely destroying it before he fell, mortally wounded by a vicious burst of enemy fire. Stouthearted and indomitable, P/Sgt. Julian consistently disregarded all personal danger and, by his bold decision, daring tactics, and relentless fighting spirit during a critical phase of the battle, contributed materially to the continued advance of his company and to the success of his division’s operations in the sustained drive toward the conquest of this fiercely defended outpost of the Japanese Empire. His outstanding valor and unfaltering spirit of self-sacrifice throughout the bitter conflict sustained and enhanced the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
CLUTE, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 14th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Bentonville, N.C., 19 March 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Marathon, Mich. Date of issue: 26 August 1898. Citation: In a charge, captured the flag of the 40th North Carolina (C.S.A.), the flag being taken in a personal encounter with an officer who carried and defended it.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1831, Norway, Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Ironclad Steamer Monitor, Hampton Roads, March 9th, 1862. During the engagement between the U.S.S. Monitor and the C.S.S. Merrimack, Williams gallantly served throughout the engagement as quartermaster, piloting the Monitor throughout the battle in which the Merrimack, after being damaged, retired from the scene of the battle.
Private George Watson Day
Learn What Your Name Means Day
Private George Watson Day in Alabama
Watson, from Birmingham, was a member of the 29th Quartermaster Regiment. On this date in 1943, near Porloch Harbor in New Guinea, his ship was badly damaged by Japanese aircraft. The crew abandoned ship, but many could not swim.
Watson stayed in the water, helping soldiers reach life rafts, but when the ship sank, he was pulled under. Watson was the first black soldier to receive the distinguished service cross during World War II.
In 1997, for his selfless actions, he was posthumously awarded the nation’s highest medal, the Medal of Honor. Across the country, there are some 23.5 million veterans — one-in-10 of them African-American.
General Order: Citation: For extraordinary heroism in action on 8 March 1943. Private Watson was on board a ship which was attacked and hit by enemy bombers. When the ship was abandoned, Private Watson, instead of seeking to save himself, remained in the water assisting several soldiers who could not swim to reach the safety of the raft. This heroic action, which subsequently cost him his life, resulted in the saving of several of his comrades. Weakened by his exertions, he was dragged down by the suction of the sinking ship and was drowned. Private Watson’s extraordinarily valorous actions, daring leadership, and self-sacrificing devotion to his fellow-man exemplify the finest traditions of military service.
Watson’s military awards include the Medal of Honor, Purple Heart, Army Good Conduct Medal, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, and World War II Victory Medal. Watson had no known next of kin, so his medals are displayed in the U.S. Army Quartermaster Museum inFort Lee, Virginia.
Several places and structures have been named in Watson’s honor, including a field in Fort Benning, Georgia, and, in 1997, the United States Navy ship USNS Watson (T-AKR-310). The Watson is the lead ship of her class of large, medium-speed, roll-on/roll-off (LMSR) ships.
Romans 3: 21-23
But now the righteousness of God apart from the law is revealed, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets, 22 even the righteousness of God, through faith in Jesus Christ, to all and on all[h] who believe. For there is no difference; 23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God
“The Constitution shall never be construed….to prevent the people of the United States who are peaceable citizens from keeping their own arms.”
“We are all here for a single purpose: to grow in wisdom and to learn to love better. We can do this through losing as well as through winning, by having and by not having, by succeeding or by failing. All we need to do is to show up openhearted for class.”
~ Rachel Naomi Remen
per⋅snick⋅et⋅y [per-snik-i-tee] –adjective Informal.
1. overparticular; fussy.
2. snobbish or having the aloof attitude of a snob.
3. requiring painstaking care.
1885–90; orig. Scots, var. of pernickety
1655 – John Casor becomes the first legally-recognized slave in England’s North American colonies.
1765 – The British House of Lords passes the Stamp Act to tax the American colonies.
1775 – Thomas Paine’s “African Slavery in America” was published. It was the first article in the United States calling for the emancipation of all slaves and the abolition of slavery.
1782 – Gnadenhütten massacre: Some 90 Native Americans in Gnadenhutten, Ohio, who had converted to Christianity were killed by Pennsylvania militiamen in retaliation for raids carried out by other Indians.
1790 – George Washington delivered the first State of the Union address.
1796 – The Supreme Court handed down an early decision on taxation in the case of Hylton v. United States. The Court ruled that the carriage tax, the issue at the heart of the case, was an indirect tax. As such, the carriage tax was deemed constitutional, marking the first time in U.S. history that the Court had weighed in on the constitutionality of legislation that had been passed by Congress.
1817 – The New York Stock Exchange is founded.
1822 – President Monroe sends a special message to Congress proposing US recognition of the new Latin American republics that have recently achieved independence from Spain. Among them are Colombia, Peru, Argentina and Mexico.
1847 – Commodore David Connor leads successful amphibious assault near Vera Cruz, Mexico.
1853 – The first bronze statue of Andrew Jackson is unveiled in Washington, DC.
1854 – U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry makes his second landing in Japan, where he would conclude a treaty with the Japanese within a month.
1855 – First train crosses first US railway suspension bridge, Niagara Falls. The first locomotive named “London” crossed the bridge. It was one of the largest engines of its time, weighing twenty-three tons. It crossed at a speed of eight miles per hour.
1861 – Civil War: St. Augustine, Florida, surrenders to Union forces.
1862 – Civil War: At the Battle of Pea Ridge (Elkhorn Tavern) in Arkansas, on the second day, Confederate forces, including some Indian troops, under General Earl Van Dorn surprised Union troops, but the Union troops won the battle.
1862 – Civil War: The iron-clad CSS Virginia (formerly USS Merrimack) is launched at Hampton Roads, Virginia. In the Battle of Hampton Roads, the first ship engaged, USS Cumberland was sunk after being rammed.
1862 – Nat Gordon, the last pirate, was hanged in New York City for stealing 1,000 slaves.
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Kingston, NC (Wilcox’s ridge, Wise’s Forks).
1874 – Millard Fillmore (b.1800), the 13th president of the United States (1850-1853), died in Buffalo, N.Y.
1880 – U.S. President Rutherford B. Hays declared that the United States would have jurisdiction over any canal built across the Isthmus of Panama.
1884 – Susan B. Anthony addresses the U.S. House Judiciary Committee arguing for an amendment to the U.S. Constitution granting women the right to vote. Anthony’s argument came 16 years after legislators had first introduced a federal women’s suffrage amendment.
1887 – Everett Horton, a Bristol, Connecticut mechanic, patented a fishing rod of telescoping steel tubes. The rod was lightweight and compact, and the steel tubes protected the line from tangling and snagging on branches while hiking to his favorite fishing hole.
1894 – The state of New York enacts the nation’s first dog-licensing law. It was the first animal control law in the U.S.
1896 – The Western Conference was formed by representatives of Midwestern universities. The group changed its name to the Big 10 Conference.
1900 – National League decides to go with 8 teams. It would stay this way until 1953 when the Boston Braves move to Milwaukee.
1909 – An F4 tornado hit Brinkley, Arkansas, killing 49 people. It was one of 7 to touch down on the state that day.
1910 – William D. Boyce incorporated the Boy Scouts of America.
1913 – The Internal Revenue Service begins to levy and collect federal income taxes, as provided for under the Sixteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Federal income taxes had previously been collected from 1864-1872.
1913 – Baseball’s Federal League is organized as a 6-team “outlaw” circuit and elects John T. Powers president.
1916 – US invades Cuba for 3rd time, this to end corrupt Menocal regime.
1917 – The U.S. Senate votes to limit filibusters by adopting the cloture rule. Cloture is the only procedure by which the Senate can vote to place a time limit on consideration of a bill or other matter, and thereby overcome a filibuster. Under the cloture rule (Rule XXII), the Senate may limit consideration of a pending matter to 30 additional hours, but only by vote of three-fifths of the full Senate, normally 60 votes.
1918 – The first case of Spanish flu occurs, the start of a devastating worldwide pandemic.
1922 – The White House began using radio after U.S. President Harding had it installed.
1924 – The Castle Gate mine disaster kills 172 coal miners near Castle Gate, Utah.
1930 – William Howard Taft (72), 27th President of the United States (1909-1913), died in Washington. In addition to John F. Kennedy, William Howard Taft is the only other U.S. President buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
1930 – Babe Ruth signs 2-year contract for $160,000 with the New York Yankees. At $80,000 per year, “The Sultan of Swat” became the highest paid player of all time and earned more money than the President of the United States.
1933 – Self-liquidating scrip money, money only used a certain amount of times, was issued for the first time at Franklin, IN.
1934 – Edwin Hubble photo showed as many galaxies as Milky Way has stars.
1934 – Workmen excavating for the San Francisco Federal Building unearthed the skeletal remains of 3 San Francisco settlers and several gold and silver coins near the corner of McAllister and Hyde streets. Over 20 graves were uncovered during the course of the excavation.
1935 – In San Francisco a boxing match between Joe Lewis and Red Barry was stopped after Barry collapsed under punches from Lewis. Close to 8,000 fans watched the bout at Dreamland.
1936 – The first stock car race on an oval track is held in Daytona Beach, Florida. Two of the most famous oval tracks are the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and the Daytona Raceway.
1936 – The first National Football League draft was held. Jay Berwanger was the first to be selected. He went to the Philadelphia Eagles.
1938 – Herbert Hoover told Hitler that his doctrine would be unacceptable and intolerable in the U.S.
1940 – Tax freedom day, the day by which citizens met their financial obligations to the government. In 1902 it was Jan 31 and by 1999 it had shifted to May 10. By 2010 it had backed up to March 30th. Every dollar that is officially considered income by the government is counted, and every payment to the government that is officially considered a tax is counted. Taxes at all levels of government—local, state and federal—are included.
1941 – Horace Heidt and his orchestra recorded “G’bye Now“.
1941 – World War II – Europe: Martial law was proclaimed in Holland in order to extinguish any anti-Nazi protests.
1941 – World War II: First baseball player drafted into WWII. (Hugh Mulcahy, Phillies)
1942 – World War II: Coast Guard plane located the lifeboats of SS Arubutan, which had been sunk by a Nazi submarine off the North Carolina coast, and directed Coast Guard Cutter Calypso to them.
1942 – World War II: The Dutch surrender to Japanese forces on Java.
1942 – World War II: Japan captures Rangoon, Burma.
1942 – World War II: British bombers begin a new style of air raid, using incendiary bombs to light the way for a nighttime attack on the Krupp armament works in Essen. The long series of attacks reduce the city to ruins.
1943 – World War II: Japanese troops counter-attack American forces on Hill 700 in Bougainville in a battle that would last five days.
1943 – World War II: US Ambassador to the USSR, Admiral W.M. Standley, claims that the Soviet leaders are not telling their people about all the aid the US is sending.
1943 – World War II: Three hundred thirty-five allied bombers attacked Nuremberg.
1944 – USAAF heavy bombers raid Berlin for a second time. About 10 percent of the force of 580 bombers is lost despite the escort of 800 fighters.
1944 – Japanese forces attack the American beachhead on Bougainville. The US airfields at Piva are shelled by the Japanese and some of the American bombers are withdrawn. Japanese infantry infiltrate the positions of the US 37th Division. The attacking troops are most from the Japanese 6th Division (General Hyakutake).
1944 – On New Britain, the attacks of US 1st Marine Division makes progress as does the American advance along the coast from Cape Gloucester.
1945 – World War II: Allied forces move large numbers of troops across the Rhine River to significantly reinforce and expand their tenuous hold on the captured Ludendorff Bridge (Bridge at Remagen).
1945 – During the night, German forces from the garrisons in the occupied Channel Islands mount a raid on Granville on the west coast of the Cotentin Peninsula. One small US warship and four merchant ships are sunk. The raiders also free 67 German prisoners of war.
1945 – Phyllis Mae Daley received a commission in the U.S. Navy Nurse Corps. She later became the first Black nurse to serve duty in World War II.
1945 – On Iwo Jima, the forces of US 5th Amphibious Corps continue pushing northward with heavy fire support. Japanese forces are now all within one mile of the north end of the island.
1946 – The “New York Journal American” became the first commercial business to receive a helicopter license.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Anniversary Song” by Dinah Shore, “Managua, Nicaragua” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Don Rodney), “Oh, But I Do” by Margaret Whiting and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1948 – The US Supreme Court, in the case of McCollum vs. the Board of Education, struck down voluntary religious education classes in Champaign, Ill., public schools, saying the program violated separation of church and state. Judge Robert Jackson warned: “One can hardly respect a system of education that would leave the student wholly ignorant of the currents of religious thought that move the world.”
1949 – Mildred Gillars (“Axis Sally”) is condemned to prison for treason. “Axis Sally” along with Rita Zucca, was an American broadcaster employed by the Third Reich in Nazi Germany to proliferate propaganda during World War II.
1952 – “Slow Poke” by Pee Wee King topped the charts.
1953 – Census indicates 239,000 farmers gave up farming in last two years.
1954 – Herb McKenley set a world record for the quarter mile when he ran the distance in 46.8 seconds.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sincerely” by the McGuire Sisters, “The Crazy Otto (Medley)” by Johnny Maddox , “The Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes and “In the Jailhouse Now” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1957 – The 1957 Georgia Memorial to Congress, which petitions the U.S. Congress to declare the ratification of the 14th & 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution null and void, is adopted by the state of Georgia.
1957 – The International Boxing Club was ruled a monopoly putting it in violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Law.
1958 – William Faulkner said US schools had degenerated to become babysitters.
1958 – Battleship USS Wisconsin (BB-64) is decommissioned, leaving the Navy without an active battleship for the first time since 1895.
1959 – Groucho, Chico & Harpo’s final TV appearance together. The show? G.E. Theater’s presentation of “The Incredible Jewel Robbery,” hosted by Ronald Reagan.
1961 – Max Conrad circled the globe in a record time of eight days, 18 hours and 49 minutes in the Piper Aztec.
1961 – US nuclear submarine Patrick Henry arrived at Scottish naval base of Holy Loch from South Carolina in a record under seas journey of 66 days 22 hrs.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Walk like a Man” by The Four Seasons, “Rhythm of the Rain” by The Cascades, “You’re the Reason I’m Living” by Bobby Darin and “The Ballad of Jed Clampett” by Flatt & Scruggs all topped the charts.
1965 – Vietnam War: 3,500 United States Marines arrive in South Vietnam, becoming the first American combat troops in Vietnam.
1966 – Vietnam War: Australia announces it is going to substantially increase its number of troops in Vietnam.
1966 – “Golden Boy” closed at Majestic Theater in New York City after 569 performances.
1967 – New Orleans Saints begin selling season tickets (20,000 sold first day).
1968 – A Soviet submarine, code-named K129, sank in the Pacific at a depth of almost 20,000 feet. A US sub, the Halibut, found the Soviet vessel 6 months later and recovered 3 missiles with nuclear warheads, Soviet code books and an encryption machine.
1969 – “Everyday People” by Sly & the Family Stone topped the charts.
1971 – Joe Frazier becomes the undisputed world heavyweight boxing champion by winning a unanimous 15-round decision over Muhammad Ali at Madison Square Garden in New York City.
1971 – Radio Hanoi broadcast Jimi Hendrix’s “Star Spangled Banner.”
1971 – Joe Frazier fought Muhammad Ali for the heavyweight championship. Frazier won. They fought rematches in 1974 and 1975.
1972 – Pres. Nixon signed Executive Order 11652 lifting a 50-year secrecy ban on the exploits of the more than 6,000 Nisei, second-generation Japanese-Americans, who helped decode Japanese messages and who provided crucial information on Japanese military operations during WW II.
1973 – Eisenhower Memorial Tunnel, world’s highest/US longest, opens. It is located in Summit Country Colorado, 60 miles west of Denver Colorado on Interstate 70. The Eisenhower Tunnel is notable because it is the highest vehicular tunnel in the world. This tunnel is located at an impressive elevation of 11,013 feet at the East Portal and 11, 158 feet at the West Portal.
1973 – The first “Coast Guard-controlled drug seizure” took place when the Coast Guard Cutter Dauntless seized the sport fishing vessel Big L which was carrying an illicit cargo: one ton of marijuana.
1975 – “Have You Never Been Mellow” by Olivia Newton-John topped the charts.
1977 – The U.S. Army announced that they had conducted 239 open-air tests of germ warfare.
1977 – Henry L. Marsh III elected first African American mayor of Richmond, VA.
1979 – The first extraterrestrial volcano is discovered on Io, a satellite of the planet Jupiter.
1979 – Philips demonstrates the Compact Disc publicly for the first time.
1979 – Cesar Chavez led some 5,000 striking farm workers on a march through the streets of Salinas, Ca.
1980 – “Crazy Little Thing Called Love” by Queen topped the charts.
1983 – IBM releases PC DOS version 2.0
1983 – President Ronald Reagan referred to the Soviet Union as an “evil empire” during a speech to the National Association of Evangelicals convention in Orlando, Fla.
1983 – The U.S. House Foreign Affairs Committee endorses a nuclear weapons freeze with the Soviet Union, a move denounced by President Ronald Reagan.
1985 – Thomas Creighton (33) dies at the University of Arizona after having three heart transplants in a 46-hour period.
1985 – The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) reported that 407,700 Americans were millionaires. That was more than double the total from just five years before.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Livin’ on a Prayer” by Bon Jovi, “Jacob’s Ladder” by Huey Lewis & The News, “Somewhere Out There” by Linda Ronstadt & James Ingram and “Mornin’ Ride” by Lee Greenwood all topped the charts.
1988 – In Fort Campbell, KY, seventeen U.S. soldiers were killed when two Army helicopters collided in midair.
1990 – Opening arguments were heard in the Iran-Contra trial of former national security adviser John M. Poindexter.
1990 – New York City’s Zodiac killer shot his first victim, Mario Orozco. Orozco survived a bullet lodged near his spine.
1991 – Gulf War: The first U.S. troops arrive home from the Gulf War; Iraq hands over 40 foreign journalists and two American soldiers it had captured.
1993 – On Wall Street, the Dow Jones industrial average soared to a record high, climbing 64.84 to end the day at 3,469.42.
1994 – Don Ku granted a patent for a wheeled suitcase with a collapsible towing handle.
1994 – The Defense Department announced a smoking ban for workplaces ranging from the Pentagon to battle tanks.
1995 – Two United States diplomats were killed, one injured, when their car was ambushed as they were driving to the U.S. Consulate in Karachi, Pakistan.
1999 – Baseball Hall of Famer Joe DiMaggio died at age 84.
1999 – The Supreme Court of the United States upholds the murder convictions of Timothy McVeigh for the Oklahoma City bombing.
1999 – The White House, under President Bill Clinton, directed the firing of nuclear scientist Wen Ho Lee from his job at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The firing was a result of alleged security violations.
1999 – US warplanes dropped laser-guided bombs on northern and southern Iraq.
2000 – President Clinton submitted to Congress legislation to establish permanent normal trade relations with China.
2000 – In California, fifty-five Oscar statuettes were reported missing from a loading dock in LA. Willie Fullgear (61) found them in a dumpster on Mar 19. Police arrested two men associated with the trucking company.
2000 – In Florida a 24-vehicle pileup on I-10, 90 miles east of Tallahassee, left 3 people dead and 21 injured. Blinding smoke from a forest fire was blamed.
2001 – The U.S. House of Representatives voted for an across-the-board tax cut of nearly $1 trillion over the next decade.
2001 – Scott Waddle, the embattled commander of the Navy submarine that collided with a Japanese fishing vessel off Hawaii, offered a tearful apology to the families of some of the victims.
2001 – The Space Shuttle Discovery lifted off with supplies for the International Space Station in a new Italian module named Leonardo. The 12-day mission also included a fresh crew of three for the station.
2002 – K-Mart announced the closure of 284 stores and layoffs of 22,000.
2003 – Iraq demanded that the UN strip Israel of weapons of mass destruction, require withdrawal from occupied Palestinian territory and that the UN brand the US and Britain as liars.
2004 – In Haiti US Marines shot and killed the driver of a vehicle speeding up in front of Port-au-Prince’s presidential palace after the man fired rounds at the Marines and protesters.
2004 – An Ohio nuclear power plant was allowed to reopen following a two-year shutdown over an acid leak.
2004 – Abu Abbas (56), the Palestinian who planned the 1985 hijacking of the Achille Lauro passenger ship in which a wheelchair-bound American tourist was killed and thrown overboard, died of natural causes in Baghdad while in U.S. custody.
2005 – A very high plume of ash and steam is seen coming from the direction of active volcano Mount St. Helen’s in the U.S. state of Washington. The plume is visible as far away as Portland.
2006 – The New Orleans Hornets played their first game at The New Orleans Arena since Katrina; they lost to the Los Angeles Lakers, 113-107.
2006 – US federal law enforcement officials arrested 3 college students, Matthew Lee Cloyd (20), Benjamin Nathan Moseley (19) and Russell Lee DeBusk Jr. (19), for the string of church arsons that destroyed or damaged nine rural churches in Alabama last month.
2006 – NFL owners agreed to the players’ union proposal, extending the collective bargaining agreement for six years.
2006 – The US House Appropriations Committee votes to block the Bush administration’s plan for Dubai Ports World to take over operations at six major U.S. ports.
2007 – House Democrats unveiled legislation that would require the withdrawal of US combat troops from Iraq by the fall of 2008; the White House said President Bush would veto it.
2008 – Over 20 inches of snow in Columbus, Ohio, eclipsed the February 1910 record of 15.3 inches. At least seven deaths were linked to the Midwest snowstorm.
2009 – CHURCH SHOOTING: In Illinois, Pastor Fred Winters was shot and killed during his Sunday sermon at First Baptist Church in Maryville. He had deflected the first of Terry Joe Sedlacek’s four rounds with a Bible, sending a confetti-like spray of paper into the air in a horrifying scene that congregants initially thought was a skit.
2009 – President Barack Obama announces that Operation Enduring Freedom’s forces are “not winning” the war in Afghanistan.
2010 – In California GOP State Sen. Roy Ashburn (55) announced that he was gay on a Kern County radio station. Five days earlier he was arrested in Sacramento on suspicion of drunk driving.
2010 – The resignation of New York Rep. Eric Massa (50) took effect following an ethics investigation. He had earlier cited health reasons but added that Democratic House leadership forced him out.
2011 – Authorities in Redondo Beach, California, in Los Angeles, investigate what caused the death of millions of fish at the King Harbor Marina.
2011 – The Archdiocese of Philadelphia said it has suspended 21 priests from active ministry in connection with a grand jury’s Feb 10 accusations that they sexually abused or otherwise acted inappropriately with minors.
2011 -Voters in Memphis, Tennessee, agree to hand over controls of Memphis City Schools to Shelby County.
2011 – The Ohio State University suspends head coach Jim Tressel and fines him $250,000 for failing to advise the NCAA of breaches of its rules and conduct by some star Ohio State players.
2012 – A gunman kills one person and injures seven others before himself being shot dead at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center’s Western Psychiatric Institute & Clinic in Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania.
2012 – Former Los Angeles Police Department detective Stephanie Lazarus is found guilty of a high profile 1986 murder. She killed a woman named Sherri Rasmussen who was found dead in the apartment she shared with her new husband John Ruetten in Van Nuys, California. The victim had been beaten and shot three times following a struggle.
2012 – Toyota recalls 700,000 cars over safety concerns.
2012 – Spanx , an American hosiery company, inventor Sara Blakely becomes the youngest self-made female billionaire on Forbes’ list.
1783 – Hannah Van Buren, wife of Martin Van Buren (d. 1819)
1799 – Simon Cameron, U.S. Secretary of War (d. 1889)
1841 – Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1935) Born in Boston
1856 – William Bramwell Booth, the 2nd General of The Salvation Army (d. 1929)
1865 – Frederic Goudy, American type designer (d. 1947)
1886 – Edward Calvin Kendall, American chemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1972)
1891 – Sam Jaffe, American actor (d. 1984)
1892 – Mississippi John Hurt, American blues singer and guitarist (d. 1966)
1912 – Preston Smith, Governor of Texas (d. 2003)
1916 – John Seybold, American economist and computer typesetting pioneer (d. 2004)
1922 – Cyd Charisse, American actress and dancer (d. 2008)
1922 – Ralph Baer, Creator of the first video game console
1925 – Warren Bennis, American educator and author
1945 – Bruce Broughton, American composer
1947 – Carole Bayer Sager, American composer
1964 – Thomas Bezucha, American screenwriter and director
1976 – Freddie Prinze Jr., American actor
Private 29th Quartermaster Regiment. Place and date: near Porloch Harbor in New Guinea, March 8th. 1943 Born: Birmingham, AL Citation: For extraordinary heroism in action Private Watson was on board a ship which was attacked and hit by enemy bombers. When the ship was abandoned, Private Watson, instead of seeking to save himself, remained in the water assisting several soldiers who could not swim to reach the safety of the raft. This heroic action, which subsequently cost him his life, resulted in the saving of several of his comrades. Weakened by his exertions, he was dragged down by the suction of the sinking ship and was drowned. Private Watson’s extraordinarily valorous actions, daring leadership, and self-sacrificing devotion to his fellow-man exemplify the finest traditions of military service.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Place and date: Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands, March 8th, 1945. Born: 22 November 1925, Columbia Heights, Minn. Accredited to: Minnesota. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while attached to the 27th Marines, 5th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces during the seizure of Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands, 8 March 1945. Filling a gap in the front lines during a critical phase of the battle, Pfc. LaBelle had dug into a foxhole with 2 other Marines and, grimly aware of the enemy’s persistent attempts to blast a way through our lines with hand grenades, applied himself with steady concentration to maintaining a sharply vigilant watch during the hazardous night hours. Suddenly a hostile grenade landed beyond reach in his foxhole. Quickly estimating the situation, he determined to save the others if possible, shouted a warning, and instantly dived on the deadly missile, absorbing the exploding charge in his own body and thereby protecting his comrades from serious injury. Stouthearted and indomitable, he had unhesitatingly relinquished his own chance of survival that his fellow Marines might carry on the relentless fight against a fanatic enemy His dauntless courage, cool decision and valiant spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of certain death reflect the highest credit upon Pfc. LaBelle and upon the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 22 October 1915, Ennie, Tex. Appointed from: Texas. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as leader of a Rifle Platoon attached to the 2d Battalion, 27th Marines, 5th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands, March 8th, 1945. Resuming his assault tactics with bold decision after fighting without respite for 2 days and nights, 1st Lt. Lummus slowly advanced his platoon against an enemy deeply entrenched in a network of mutually supporting positions. Suddenly halted by a terrific concentration of hostile fire, he unhesitatingly moved forward of his front lines in an effort to neutralize the Japanese position. Although knocked to the ground when an enemy grenade exploded close by, he immediately recovered himself and, again moving forward despite the intensified barrage, quickly located, attacked, and destroyed the occupied emplacement. Instantly taken under fire by the garrison of a supporting pillbox and further assailed by the slashing fury of hostile rifle fire, he fell under the impact of a second enemy grenade but, courageously disregarding painful shoulder wounds, staunchly continued his heroic 1-man assault and charged the second pillbox, annihilating all the occupants. Subsequently returning to his platoon position, he fearlessly traversed his lines under fire, encouraging his men to advance and directing the fire of supporting tanks against other stubbornly holding Japanese emplacements. Held up again by a devastating barrage, he again moved into the open, rushed a third heavily fortified installation and killed the defending troops. Determined to crush all resistance, he led his men indomitably, personally attacking foxholes and spider traps with his carbine and systematically reducing the fanatic opposition until, stepping on a land mine, he sustained fatal wounds. By his outstanding valor, skilled tactics, and tenacious perseverance in the face of overwhelming odds, 1st Lt. Lummus had inspired his stouthearted Marines to continue the relentless drive northward, thereby contributing materially to the success of his regimental mission. His dauntless leadership and unwavering devotion to duty throughout sustain and enhance the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 24 May 1886, Austria. Accredited to: lowa. G.O. No.: 19, 1 May 1906. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Pampanga, Mount Dajo Jolo, Philippine Islands, March 8th, 1906. Serving in the presence of the enemy on this date, Fitz displayed bravery and extraordinary heroism.