Walk On Your Wild Side Day
April 12-14, 1861
On March 5, 1861, the day after his inauguration as president of the United States, Abraham Lincoln received a message from Maj. Robert Anderson, commander of the U.S. troops holding Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. The message said that there was less than a six-week supply of food left in the fort.
Attempts by the Confederate government to settle its differences with the Union were spurned by Lincoln, and the Confederacy felt it could no longer tolerate the precense of a foreign force in its territory. Believing a conflict to be inevitable, Lincoln ingeniously devised a plan that would cause the Confederates to fire the first shot and thus, he hoped, inspire the states that had not yet seceded to unite in the effort to restore the Union.
On April 8, Lincoln notified Gov. Francis Pickens of South Carolina that he would attempt to resupply the fort. The Confederate commander at Charleston, Gen.P.G.T. Beauregard, was ordered by the Confederate government to demand the evacuation of the fort and if refused, to force its evacuation. On April 11, General Beauregard delivered the ultimatum to Anderson, who replied, “Gentlemen, if you do not batter the fort to pieces about us, we shall be starved out in a few days.” On direction of the Confederate government in Montgomery, Beauregard notified Anderson that if he would state the time of his evacuation, the Southern forces would hold their fire. Anderson replied that he would evacuate by noon on April 15 unless he received other instructions or additional supplies from his government. (The supply ships were expected before that time.) Told that his answer was unacceptable and that Beauregard would open fire in one hour, Anderson shook the hands of the messengers and said in parting, “If we do not meet again in this world, I hope we may meet in the better one.” At 4:30 A.M. on April 12, 1861, 43 Confederate guns in a ring around Fort Sumter began the bombardment that initiated the bloodiest war in American history.
In her Charleston hotel room, diarist Mary Chesnet heard the opening shot. “I sprang out of bed.” she wrote. “And on my knees–prostrate–I prayed as I never prayed before.” The shelling of Fort Sumter from the batteries ringing the harbor awakened Charleston’s residents, who rushed out into the predawn darkness to watch the shells arc over the water and burst inside the fort. Mary Chesnut went to the roof of her hotel, where the men were cheering the batteries and the women were praying and crying. Her husband, Col. James Chesnut, had delivered Beauregard’s message to the fort. “I knew my husband was rowing around in a boat somewhere in that dark bay,” she wrote, “and who could tell what each volley accomplished of death and destruction?”
Inside the fort, no effort was made to return the fire for more than two hours. The fort’s supply of ammunition was ill-suited for the task at hand, and because there were no fuses for their explosive shells, only solid shot could be used against the Rebel batteries. The fort’s biggest guns, heavy Columbiads and eight-inch howitzers, were on the top tier of the fort and there were no masonry casemates to protect the gunners, so Anderson opted to use only the casemated guns on the lower tier. About 7:00 A.M., Capt. Abner Doubleday, the fort’s second in command, was given the honor of firing the first shot in defense of the fort. The firing continued all day, the federals firing slowly to conserve ammunition. At night the fire from the fort stopped, but the confederates still lobbed an occasional shell in Sumter.
Although they had been confined inside Fort Sumter for more than three months, unsupplied and poorly nourished, the men of the Union garrison vigorously defended their post from the Confederate bombardment that began on the morning of April 12, 1861. Several times, red-hod cannonballs had lodged in the fort’s wooden barracks and started fires. But each time, the Yankee soldiers, with a little help from an evening rainstorm, had extinguished the flames. The Union garrison managed to return fire all day long, but because of a shortage of cloth gunpowder cartridges, they used just six of their cannon and fired slowly.
The men got little sleep that night as the Confederate fire continued, and guards kept a sharp lookout for a Confederate attack or relief boats. Union supply ships just outside the harbor had been spotted by the garrison, and the men were disappointed that the ships made no attempt to come to their relief.
After another breakfast of rice and salt pork on the morning of April 13, the exhausted Union garrison again began returning cannon fire, but only one round every 10 minutes. Soon the barracks again caught fire from the Rebel hot shot, and despite the men’s efforts to douse the flames, by 10:00 A.M. the barracks were burning out of control. Shortly thereafter, every wooden structure in the fort was ablaze, and a magazine containing 300 pounds of gunpowder was in danger of exploding. “We came very near being stifled with the dense livid smoke from the burning buildings,” recalled one officer. “The men lay prostrate on the ground, with wet hankerchiefs over their mouths and eyes, gasping for breath.”
The Confederate gunners saw the smoke and were well aware of the wild uproar they were causing in the island fort. They openly showed their admiration for the bravery of the Union garrison by cheering and applauding when, after a prolonged stillness, the garrison sent a solid shot screaming in their direction.
“The crasing of the shot, the bursting of the shells, the falling of the walls, and the roar of the flames, made a pandemonium of the fort,” wrote Capt. Abner Doubleday on the afternoon of April 13, 1861. He was one of the Union garrison inside Fort Sumter in the middle of South Carolina’s Charleston harbor. The fort’s large flag staff was hit by fire from the surrounding Confederate batteries, and the colors fell to the ground. Lt. Norman J. Hall braved shot and shell to race across the parade ground to retrieve the flag. Then he and two others found a substitute flagpole and raised the Stars and Stripes once more above the fort.
Once the flag came down, Gen. P.G.T. Beaugregard, who commanded the Confederate forces, sent three of his aides to offer the fort’s commander, Union Maj. Robert Anderson, assistance in extinguishing the fires. Before they arrived they saw the garrison’s flag raised again, and then it was replaced with a white flag. Arriving at the fort, Beaugregard’s aides were informed that the garrison had just surrendered to Louis T. Wigfall, a former U.S. senator from Texas. Wigfall, completely unauthorized, had rowed out to the fort from Morris Island, where he was serving as a volunteer aide, and received the surrender of the fort. The terms were soon worked out, and Fort Sumter, after having braved 33 hours of bombardment, its food and ammunition nearly exhausted, fell on April 13, 1861, to the curshing fire power of the Rebels. Miraculously, no one on either side had been killed or seriously wounded.
The generous terms of surrender allowed Anderson to run up his flag for a hundred-gun salute before he and his men evacuated the fort the next day. The salute began at 2:00 P.M. on April 14, but was cut short to 50 guns after an accidental explosion killed one of the gunners and mortally wounded another. Carrying their tattered banner, the men marched out of the fort and boarded a boat that ferried them to the Union ships outside the harbor. They were greeted as heroes on their return to the North.
Psalm 125 – A song of ascents.
1 Those who trust in the Lord are like Mount Zion, which cannot be shaken but endures forever.
2 As the mountains surround Jerusalem, so the Lord surrounds his people both now and forevermore.
3 The scepter of the wicked will not remain over the land allotted to the righteous,
for then the righteous might use their hands to do evil.
4 Lord, do good to those who are good, to those who are upright in heart.
5 But those who turn to crooked ways the Lord will banish with the evildoers.
Peace be on Israel.
“If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary.”
–James Madison, Federalist no. 51.
“Never place a period where God has placed a comma.”
Lenity LEN-uh-tee, noun:
The state or quality of being lenient; mildness; gentleness of treatment; leniency.
Lenity comes from Latin lenitas, from lenis, “soft, mild.”
467 – Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire.
1606 – The Union Flag is adopted as the flag of Great Britain.
1633 – The formal inquest of Galileo Galilei by the Inquisition begins.
1776 – The North Carolina Provincial Congress authorizes delegates to the Second Continental Congress to vote for independence by issuing the Halifax Resolves.
1782 – The British navy won its only naval engagement against the colonists in the American Revolution at the Battle of Les Saintes in the West Indies off Dominica.
1787 – Philadelphia’s Free African Society formed.
1799 – Phineas Pratt patented the comb cutting machine.
1811 – First US colonists on Pacific coast arrive at Cape Disappointment WA.
1833 – Charles Gaylor patented the fireproof safe in New York City. The fire-proof iron chest, called the Salamander Safe, was constructed from two chests, one within the other, with a space between to “inclose air of any non-conductor of heat”.
1844 – Texas became a US territory.
1858 – First US billiards championship is held in Detroit (Michael J Phelan wins).
1861 – Civil War: The war begins with Confederate forces firing on Fort Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina.
1861 – Civil War: Revenue cutter Harriet Lane fires first shot from a naval vessel in the Civil War across the bow of the merchant vessel Nashville when she attempted to enter Charleston Harbor.
1862 – Civil War: Union Gen. David Hunter (1802-1886) formed the first official African-American regiment during the Civil War.
1862 – Civil War: The Great Locomotive Chase or Andrews’ Raid was a military raid that occurred in northern Georgia during the Civil War.
1864 – Civil War: The Fort Pillow massacre: Confederate forces kill most African-American soldiers that surrendered at Fort Pillow, TN.
1865 – Civil War: Mobile, Alabama, falls to the Union Army.
1865 -Civil War: Confederate general Robert E. Lee surrendered what was left of his Army of Northern Virginia to Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia.
1869 – North Carolina legislature passed an anti-Klan Law.
1872 – Jesse James gang robbed bank in Columbia, Kentucky, of $1,500 with 1 person killed.
1877 – Catcher’s mask first used in a baseball game by James Alexander Tyng.
1892 – George C Blickensderfer patents portable typewriter .
1892 – Voters in Lockport, New York, became the first in the U.S. to use voting machines.
1905 – Hippodrome arena opens in New York NY. Its stage was 12 times larger than any Broadway “legit” house and capable of holding as many as 1,000 performers at a time, or a full-sized circus with elephants and horses. The theatre closed in August 1939 for demolition.
1908 – Fire devastated the city of Chelsea, Massachusetts.
1909 – Ben Shibe, an Athletics stockholder and manufacturer of baseball products, had a dream in mind when he set out to build the first concrete-and-steel stadium in major league history. William Steele and Sons were signed on in 1908 to make the dream a reality and one year later the doors opened to Shibe Park. This was the date of the first game played at the field (the last game ever played was on 10 -01-1970. It was demolished June 1976.
1911 – LT Theodore Ellyson qualifies as first naval aviator.
1912 – Clara Barton (b.1821), the founder of the American Red Cross, died at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland at age 90.
1916 – American cavalrymen and Mexican bandit troops clashed at Parrel, Mexico.
1917 – World War I: Canadian forces successfully complete the taking of Vimy Ridge from the Germans.
1918 – World War I: Marines of the 4th Brigade suffered their first gas attack on the night and early morning hours of 12-13 April when the Germans bombarded the 74th Company, 6th Marines near Verdun with mustard gas.
1922 – A San Francisco jury acquitted actor Roscoe “Fatty” Arbuckle in his 3rd murder trial following 2 hung juries.
1932 – “Joe Palooka”, also be a popular comic strip, made its debut on CBS radio.
1934 – The strongest surface wind gust in the world at 231 mph, is measured on the summit of Mount Washington, US. That was the recorded speed before the anemometer broke.
1934 – The US Auto-Lite Strike begins, culminating in a five-day fight between Ohio National Guard troops and 6,000 strikers and picketers.
1934 – “Tender Is the Night,” by F. Scott Fitzgerald, was first published.
1935 – “Your Hit Parade”, debuts on radio. It was broadcast from 1935 through 1955 on radio, and from 1950 through 1959 on TV. The most popular songs of the then-current week were sung or performed.
1937 – Sir Frank Whittle ground-tests the first jet engine designed to power an aircraft at Rugby, England.
1937 – The US Supreme Court ruled that the 1935 National Labor Relations Act is unconstitutional.
1938 – First US law requiring medical tests for marriage licenses was passed in New York.
1939 – Woody Herman’s orchestra recorded “Woodchopper’s Ball” for Decca.
1940 – NFL cuts clipping penalty from 25 yards to 15 yards.
1944 – The U.S. Twentieth Air Force was activated to begin the strategic bombing of Japan.
1945 – World War II: US 9th Army forces cross the Elbe River near Magdeburg, while in the rear of their advance, Brunswick falls.
1945 – World War II: Japanese Kamikaze attacks achieve hits on several of the radar picket ships as well as two battleships and eight other vessels.
1945 – World War II: Canadian troops liberated the Nazi concentration camp at Westerbork, Netherlands.
1945 – In New York, the organization of the first eye bank, the Eye Bank for Sight Restoration, was announced.
1945 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt died in Warm Spring, GA. He died of a cerebral hemorrhage at the age of 63; Vice-President Harry Truman is sworn in as the 33rd President.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton, “Music, Music, Music” by Teresa Brewer, “Peter Cottontail” by Gene Autry and “Long Gone Lonesome Blues” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1954 – Bill Haley and the Comets recorded “Rock Around the Clock.” The song was released a year later in the movie “Blackboard Jungle.”
1954 – Joe Turner’s “Shake, Rattle and Roll” was released.
1955 – First game in Kansas City Municipal Stadium, Kansas City A’s beat Detroit Tigers, 6-2.
1955 – The polio vaccine, developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, is declared safe and effective.
1960 – Bill Veeck & Chicago Comiskey Park debut the “Exploding Scoreboard.”
1961 – Douglas MacArthur declines offer to become baseball commissioner.
1963 – Police used dogs and cattle prods on peaceful civil rights demonstrators in Birmingham, AL.
1965 – First National League game at Houston’s Astrodome.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler, “(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration” by The Righteous Brothers, “Daydream” by The Lovin’ Spoonful and “I Want to Go with You” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1966 – Jan Berry (1942-2004) of the “Jan and Dean” duo was involved in a car crash that left him in a month-long coma.
1967 – Jim Brown made his TV acting debut. He debuted in “Cops and Robbers” on the NBC show “I Spy”, starring Bill Cosby and Robert Culp. “I Spy” aired from 1965 through 1968.
1968 – Nerve gas accident at Skull Valley, Utah. Six thousand sheep were killed on ranches near the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), and the popular explanation blamed Army testing of chemical weapons for the incident.
1969 – “Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In” by 5th Dimension topped the charts.
1969 – Lucy and Snoopy of the comic strip “Peanuts” made the cover of “Saturday Review”.
1969 – Simon & Garfunkel releases “The Boxer.”
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sunshine on My Shoulders” by John Denver, “Hooked on a Feeling” by Blue Swede, “Bennie & The Jets” by Elton John and “A Very Special Love Song” by Charlie Rich all topped the charts.
1975 – “Philadelphia Freedom” by Elton John topped the charts.
1975 – Linda Ronstadt releases “When Will I Be Loved.”
1975 – The US removed its embassy personnel from Phnom Penh.
1980 – “Another Brick In The Wall (Pt.II)” by Pink Floyd topped the charts.
1981 – The first launch of a Space Shuttle: Columbia launches on the STS-1 mission.
Launch of STS-1 Landing of STS-1
1981 – Joe Louis (b.1914), [Brown bomber] heavyweight champion boxer (1937-49), died. He was buried at Arlington Cemetery under a waiver by Pres. Reagan.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Love Rock ’N Roll” by Joan Jett & The Blackhearts, “We Got the Beat” by the Go-Go’s, “Make a Move on Me” by Olivia Newton-John and “Big City” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1982 – Three CBS employees were shot to death in a New York City parking lot.
1983 – Harold Washington was elected the first black mayor of Chicago.
1985 – Senator Joseph ‘Jake’ Garn became the first space politician. Garn was a Republican U.S. Senator from Utah, 1974-1993. In 1985, he became an Astronaut and Payloard Specialist on the space shuttle “Discovery.”
1986 – “Rock Me Amadeus” by Falco topped the charts .
1987 – Texaco Inc. filed the largest bankruptcy in history when it had $35.9 billion in assets. Adjusted for inflation, that amount would be about $73.7 billion today (2013).
1987 – Larry Mize, 28, hit a miracle shot — a 140-foot chip — to win the Masters golf title in Augusta, GA. Mize defeated Greg Norman and Severiano Ballesteros in a playoff.
1988 – The first patent issued for a mammal goes to the “Harvard-Dupont Oncomouse,” a genetically engineered mouse highly susceptible to breast cancer. It was the first patent for animal life.
1988 – Sonny Bono was elected mayor of Palm Springs, CA.
1990 – James Brown was released from a South Carolina jail on work furlough after serving 15 months of a six-year sentence for aggravated assault.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Will Lead You Back” by Taylor Dayne, “I’ll Be Your Everything” by Tommy Page, “All Around the World” by Lisa Stansfield, “Hard Rock Bottom of Your Heart” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.
1990 – Greyhound Bus hired new drivers to replace strikers.
1994 – Canter & Siegel, partners in a husband-and-wife firm of lawyers, post the first commercial mass Usenet spam.
1996 – Historian Stanley I. Kutler of the Univ. of Wisconsin won the release of the Nixon White House tapes.
1998 – Mark O’Meara won the Masters golf tournament in Augusta, Ga. with a 9-under-par score of 279.
1999 – In Arkansas U.S. District Judge Susan Webber Wright cited President Clinton for contempt of court, concluding that the president had lied about his relationship with Monica Lewinsky in a deposition in the Paula Jones case.
1999 – The Snake River in southeastern Washington state was named as the nation’s most endangered river because of 4 dams that have brought salmon runs to the brink of extinction.
2000 – It was reported that the Vermont-based Ben & Jerry’s ice-cream maker would be sold to Unilever Corp.
2001 – Pres. Bush blamed the Chinese for the midair collision of the US spy plane and a Chinese jet and rebuffed demands to end reconnaissance flights off the coast of China.
2001 – The 24 crew members of a U.S. spy plane arrived in Hawaii after being held for 11 days in China.
2003 – In the 25th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US officials said 1,200 police and judicial officers will go to Iraq to help restore order.
2003 – Rescued POW Jessica Lynch returned to the United States after treatment at a U.S. military hospital in Germany.
2004 – A federal judge allowed a nationwide ban on dietary supplements containing ephedra to take effect, turning aside a plea from two manufacturers.
2006 – The Indiana Toll Road was leased for $3.8 billion to a Spanish-Australian consortium that is to maintain and run it for 75 years.
2007 – The new US “forever” postage stamp was scheduled to go on sale. The cost for first class mail was set to rise to 41 cents on May 14.
2009 – US Navy SEAL snipers on a destroyer, shot and killed three Somali pirates and plucked an unharmed Capt. Richard Phillips to safety.
2009 – In New Hampshire a massive fire destroyed or damaged about 40 summer cottages at the 146-year-old Alton Bay Christian Conference Center.
2010 – President Barack Obama opens the summit of 47 countries, the purpose of which is to discuss nuclear security, in particular how to keep nuclear weapons out of the hands of potential terrorists.
2010 – The Washington Post wins four awards at the 2010 Pulitzer Prizes.
2011 – Los Angeles County prosecutors lodge four felony charges against a man suspected of bombing a Chabad house in Santa Monica, California.
2010 – Microsoft launches two new mobile phones marketed to young people. The phones, the Kin One and Kin Two, are built around their social networking features.
2011 – The Senate of the state of North Carolina pardons former Governor William Woods Holden who was impeached in 1871 because of his suspension of habeas corpus in the process of battling the Ku Klux Klan terror campaign.
2012 – The Sony Corp announces plans to cut 10,000 jobs around the world to reduce costs and return the company to profitability.
2012 – Google says that first quarter earnings rose over 24%, with net profit increasing to $8.14 billion.
2013 -Jonathan Winters, creator of breakneck improvisations and misfit characters inspired the likes of Robin Williams and Jim Carrey, died. Winters had made television history in 1956, when RCA broadcast the first public demonstration of color videotape on “The Jonathan Winters Show.”
1724 – Lyman Hall, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1790) 1777 – Henry Clay, American statesman (d. 1852)
1809 – Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States.
1887 – Harold Lockwood, American actor (d. 1918)
1893 – Robert Harron, American actor (d. 1920)
1898 – Lily Pons, American soprano (d. 1976)
1908 – Robert Lee Scott, Jr., American Air Force pilot (d. 2006)
1919 – Billy Vaughn, American musician and bandleader (d. 1991)
1923 – Ann Miller, American actor and dancer (d. 2004)
1940 – John Hagee, American pastor and televangelist
1947 – Tom Clancy, American author
1947 – David Letterman, American talk show host
1950 – David Cassidy, American singer and actor
1964 – Amy Ray, American musician
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 52d Bombardment Squadron, 29th Bombardment Group, 20th Air Force. Place and date: Koriyama, Japan, April 12th, 1945. Entered service at: Bessemer, Ala. Born: 8 May 1921, Adamsville, Ala. G.O. No.: 44, 6 June 1945. Citation: He was the radio operator of a B-29 airplane leading a group formation to attack Koriyama, Japan. He was charged with the additional duty of dropping phosphorous smoke bombs to aid in assembling the group when the launching point was reached. Upon entering the assembly area, aircraft fire and enemy fighter opposition was encountered. Among the phosphorous bombs launched by S/Sgt. Erwin, one proved faulty, exploding in the launching chute, and shot back into the interior of the aircraft, striking him in the face. The burning phosphorous obliterated his nose and completely blinded him. Smoke filled the plane, obscuring the vision of the pilot. S/Sgt. Erwin realized that the aircraft and crew would be lost if the burning bomb remained in the plane. Without regard for his own safety, he picked it up and feeling his way, instinctively, crawled around the gun turret and headed for the copilot’s window. He found the navigator’s table obstructing his passage. Grasping the burning bomb between his forearm and body, he unleashed the spring lock and raised the table. Struggling through the narrow passage he stumbled forward into the smoke-filled pilot’s compartment. Groping with his burning hands, he located the window and threw the bomb out. Completely aflame, he fell back upon the floor. The smoke cleared, the pilot, at 300 feet, pulled the plane out of its dive. S/Sgt. Erwin’s gallantry and heroism above and beyond the call of duty saved the lives of his comrades.
*HASTINGS, JOE R.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 386th Infantry, 97th Infantry Division. Place and date: Drabenderhohe, Germany, April 12th, 1945. Entered service at: Magnolia, Ohio. Birth: Malvern, Ohio. G.O. No.: 101, 8 November 1945. Citation: He fought gallantly during an attack against strong enemy forces defending Drabenderhohe, Germany, from the dug-in positions on commanding ground. As squad leader of a light machinegun section supporting the advance of the 1st and 3d Platoons, he braved direct rifle, machinegun, 20mm., and mortar fire, some of which repeatedly missed him only by inches, and rushed forward over 350 yards of open, rolling fields to reach a position from which he could fire on the enemy troops. From this vantage point he killed the crews of a 20mm. gun and a machinegun, drove several enemy riflemen from their positions, and so successfully shielded the 1st Platoon, that it had time to reorganize and remove its wounded to safety. Observing that the 3d Platoon to his right was being met by very heavy 40mm. and machinegun fire, he ran 150 yards with his gun to the leading elements of that unit, where he killed the crew of the 40mm. gun. As spearhead of the 3d Platoon’s attack, he advanced, firing his gun held at hip height, disregarding the bullets that whipped past him, until the assault had carried 175 yards to the objective. In this charge he and the riflemen he led killed or wounded many of the fanatical enemy and put two machineguns out of action. Pfc. Hastings, by his intrepidity, outstanding leadership, and unrelenting determination to wipe out the formidable German opposition, cleared the path for his company’s advance into Drabenderhohe. He was killed four days later while again supporting the 3d Platoon.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 1st North Dakota Infantry. Place and date: Near Paete, Luzon, Philippine Islands, April 12th, 1899. Entered service at: Grafton, N. Dak. Birth: Norway. Date of issue: 11 March 1902. Citation: Single-handed and alone defended his dead and wounded comrades against a greatly superior force of the enemy.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1849, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 176, 9 July 1872. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Kansas near Greytown, Nicaragua, April 12th, 1872. Displaying great coolness and self-possession at the time Comdr. A. F. Crosman and others were drowned, Denham, by heroism and personal exertion, prevented greater loss of life.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Chief Quarter Gunner, U.S. Navy. Born: 1844, England. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 176, 9 July 1872. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Kansas, Hill displayed great coolness and self-possession at the time Comdr. A. F. Crosman and others were drowned, near Greytown, Nicaragua, April 12th, 1872, and by extraordinary heroism and personal exertion, prevented greater loss of life.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1839, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 176, 9 July 1872. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Kansas near Greytown, Nicaragua April 12th, 1872, Johnson displayed great coolness and self-possession ai the time Comdr. A. F. Crosman and others were drowned and, by extraordinary heroism and personal exertion, prevented greater loss of life.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1841, Ireland. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 176, 9 July 1872. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Kansas, O’Neal displayed great coolness and self-possession at the time Comdr. A. F. Crosman and others were drowned near Greytown, Nicaragua, April 12th, 1872, and by personal exertion prevented greater loss of life.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1849, West Indies. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 176, 9 July 1872. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Kansas, Pile displayed great coolness and self-possession at the time Comdr. A. F. Crosman and others were drowned, near Greytown, Nicaragua, April 12th, 1872, and by his extraordinary heroism and personal exertion prevented greater loss of life.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, Hawaiian Islands. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 176, 9 July 1872. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Kansas, Smith displayed great coolness and self-possession at the time Comdr. A. F. Crosman and others were drowned near Greytown, Nicaragua, April 12th, 1872, and by extraordinary heroism and personal exertion, prevented greater loss of life.
INDIAN WAR PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Indian Scouts. Place and date: Winter of 1872-73. Entered service at: Camp Verde, Ariz. Born: 1853, Arizona Territory. Date of issue: April 12th, 1875. Citation: Gallant conduct during campaigns and engagements with Apaches.
(Second to receive Medal of Honor)
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 21st Ohio Infantry. Place and date: Georgia, April 12th, 1862. Entered service at: Hancock County, Ohio. Born: 14 January 1840, Wayne County, Ohio. Date of issue: 25 March 1863. Citation: One of the nineteen of twenty-two men (including two civilians) who, by direction of Gen. Mitchell (or Buell), penetrated nearly 200 miles south into enemy territory and captured a railroad train at Big Shanty, Ga., in an attempt to destroy the bridges and track between Chattanooga and Atlanta . Exact date unknown
Barbershop Quartet Day
International “Louie Louie” Day
The roots of barbershop singing date back to singing by Black Americans in the late 19th century. In that time frame barber shops were not only places to get shaves and haircuts but they also served as community centers, places where people would meet for “networking” and political discourse. Barbering was a kind of low-status job and a lot of barbers were Blacks.
While today we read a magazine or a book while waiting for our turn but at the turn of the century people would bring musical instruments or they would have community sings and because of the “community” nature, people would sing along and experiment with music. Add to this the popularity of travelling minstrel shows and vaudeville shows we see the growth of the barber shops as places where there was a ready-made crowd.
The most popular tunes of the day included simple melodies with sentimental lyrics and harmonies were mostly improvised. There was very little printed music so the most popular tunes were those easily memorized. The “singers” would then “interpret” the music to their what their ears wanted to hear.
Many of the most popular barbershop quartets of the day were African American groups. They were the ones that dared to experiment with the music and to do unconventional things to produce popular singing. At the turn of the century, these groups would provide entertainment at parties, picnics and were often used at minstrel shows top sing in front of the curtain while behind the curtain the stage was being reset. This proved to be very effective especially since no props or instruments were required.
When the big bands started to become more popular, there was a danger that this form of entertainment would disappear. To save this now unique American art form, groups were formed to continue it. Over time the Black Americans lost interest and today there are very few. Singer Thomas Johnson Jr. says he doesn’t know of any black quartets singing barbershop these days. He says that white singers “polished it up some, just like silver and gold… Barbershop music is very beautiful music. But it was a black tradition.”
May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, so that by the power of the Holy Spirit you may abound in hope.
“Free government is founded in jealousy, not confidence. It is jealousy and not confidence which prescribes limited constitutions, to bind those we are obliged to trust with power…. In questions of power, then, let no more be heard of confidence in men, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the Constitution.” — Thomas Jefferson, 1799
“There are three types of people in this world: those who make things happen, those who watch things happen and those who wonder what happened. We all have a choice. You can decide which type of person you want to be. I have always chosen to be in the first group.”
~ Mary Kay Ash
inveigle \in-VAY-guhl; -VEE-\, transitive verb:
1. To persuade by ingenuity or flattery; to entice.
2. To obtain by ingenuity or flattery.
Inveigle comes from Anglo-French enveogler, from Old French aveugler, “to blind, to lead astray as if blind,” from aveugle, “blind,” from Medieval Latin ab oculis, “without eyes.”
1689 – In the days of the “Divine Rights of Kings” we see a glimmer of future hope. William III and Mary II were crowned as joint sovereigns of Britain. As part of their oaths, the new King William III and Queen Mary were required to swear that they would obey the laws of Parliament. At this time, the Bill of Rights was read to both William and Mary. “We thankfully accept what you have offered us,” William replied, agreeing to be subject to law and to be guided in his actions by the decisions of Parliament.
1775 – The last execution for witchcraft in Germany takes place.
1783 – After receiving a copy of the provisional treaty on March 13, the U.S. Congress proclaimed a formal end to hostilities with Great Britain.
1803 – A twin-screw propeller steamboat was patented by John Stevens.
1803 – French Foreign Minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand surprises the U.S. when he makes an offer to sell all of Louisiana Territory to our new government.
1809 – Supreme Court rules federal government power greater than any state (Marbury v. Madison)
1862 – Civil War: Fort Pulaski, guarding the mouth of the Savannah River in Georgia, surrenders after a two-day Union bombardment tears great holes in the massive fort.
1862 – Civil War: Sea battle between the USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia, the first ever between two “ironclads. The Virginia retreated.
1863 – Civil War:Battle of Norfleet House (Suffolk, VA.)
1865 – President Abraham Lincoln makes his last public speech. He urged a spirit of generous conciliation during reconstruction.
1865 – Battle of Mobile, AL, evacuated by the Confederates.
1876 – The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks is organized.
1876 – The stenotype was patented by John C. Zachos of New York City.
1881 – Spelman College is founded in Atlanta, Georgia as the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary, an institute of higher education for African-American women.
1890 – Ellis Island designated as an immigration station. Two percent of immigrants seeking refuge in America who made it as far as Ellis Island failed to be admitted.
1893 – Frederic Ives patented the process for half-tone printing. This gentleman was the Ives part of Currier & Ives.
1895 – Anaheim, CA, completed its new electric light system.
1898 – President William McKinley asked Congress for a declaration of war with Spain.
1899 – The Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish-American War was declared in effect. Spain cedes Puerto Rico to the United States.
1900 – US Navy buys its sixth submarine (USS Holland). The 53.3-foot-long, 63-ton submarine cost $160,000 and could travel to a depth of 75 feet.
1904 – One officer and twenty enlisted men became the first Marines to garrison Midway Island.
1905 – Albert Einstein reveals his Theory of Relativity (special relativity).
1907 – New York Giant Roger Bresnahan becomes first catcher to wear shin guards.
1912 – Thursday 1:30pm: Titanic leaves Queenstown Ireland for New York.
1917 – Babe Ruth beats New York Yankees, pitching for the Red Sox.
1917 – President Wilson issued an executive order transferring 30 lighthouse tenders to the War Department.
1921 – First sports broadcast on the radio takes place. It was a 10-round, no decision fight between Johnny Ray and Johnny Dundee in Pittsburgh’s Motor Square Garden.
1921 – Iowa becomes the first U.S. state to impose a cigarette tax.
1924 – WLS-AM in Chicago IL began radio transmissions.
1938 – The SPEBSQSA (Society for the Preservation and Encouragement of Barbershop Quartet Singing in America) was founded by 26 singing, striped-shirted gentlemen.
1940 – Andrew Ponzi sets world’s record at a New York City pocket billiards tournament. Ponzi ran 127 balls straight.
1941 – Roosevelt tells Churchill that the US Navy will extend the American Defense Zone up to the line of 26 degrees West.
1943 – Frank Piasecki, Vertol founder, flies his first (single-rotor) craft.
1943 – “Nick Carter, Master Detective” debuted on Mutual radio.This was one of the first hit detective radio shows, and in it, Nick was a pretty typical private eye of the time.
1944 – World War II: Marlene Dietrich gives the first of her many shows for U.S. servicemen overseas.
1945 – World War II: Leading armored units of the US 9th Army reach the Elbe River, south of Magdeburg. Forces of US 3rd Army capture Weimar. Other elements capture the Mittlewerke underground V2 factory at Nordhausen.
1945 – World War II: American forces liberate the Buchenwald concentration camp.
1945 – World War II: Japanese Kamikaze attacks damage the battleship USS Missouri and the carrier USS Enterprise.
1945 – World War II: Holocaust: The Nazi SS shot and burned 1,100 on the Isenschnibbe estate near the northern German town of Gardelegen.
1947 – Jackie Robinson became the first African-American player in major league baseball, signing with the Brooklyn Dodgers.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cruising Down the River” by The Blue Barron Orchestra (vocal: ensemble), “Sunflower” by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: The Skylarks), “Red Roses for a Blue Lady” by Vaughn Monroe and “Candy Kisses” by – George Morgan all topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: President Harry Truman relieves General Douglas MacArthur of overall command in Korea.
1951 – The Stone of Scone, the stone upon which Scottish monarchs were traditionally crowned, is found on the site of the altar of Arbroath Abbey. It had been taken by Scottish nationalist students from its place in Westminster Abbey.
1953 – “The Doggie in the Window“ by Patti Page topped the charts.
1956 – Elvis Presley’s “Heartbreak Hotel” and “I Was the One.” topped the charts.
1956 – Elvis Presley’s “Heartbreak Hotel” went gold.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Little Darlin’” by The Diamonds, “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley, “Party Doll” by Buddy Knox and “Gone” by Ferlin Husky all topped the charts.
1957 – Ryan X-13 Vertijet becomes first jet to take-off & land vertically.
1959 – “Venus” by Frankie Avalon topped the charts.
1959 – Dodger pitcher Don Drysdale hits his first Opening Day homerun.
1961 – Bob Dylan made his professional singing debut in Greenwich Village.
1961 – The trial of Adolf Eichmann begins in Jerusalem. He was a German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust.. He was found guilty and executed by hanging in 1962. He is the only person to have been executed in Israel on conviction by a civilian court.
1962 – The New York Mets played their first regular season game.
1963 – Vietnam War: One hundred U.S. troops of the Hawaiian-based 25th Infantry Division are ordered to temporary duty with military units in South Vietnam to serve as machine gunners aboard Army H-21 helicopters. This was the first commitment of American combat troops to the war.
1964 – “Can’t Buy Me Love” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Telling You Now” by Freddie & The Dreamers, “The Birds and the Bees” by Jewel Akens, “Game of Love” by Wayne Fontana & The Mindbenders and “King of the Road” by Roger Miller all topped the charts.
1965 – The Palm Sunday tornado outbreak of 1965: Tornadoes hit in six Midwestern states involved 78 tornadoes (38 significant, 19 violent, 21 killers). It was the second biggest outbreak on record. In the Midwest, 271 people were killed and 1,500 injured (1,200 in Indiana).
1966 – Jack Nicklaus wins 30th Golf Masters Championship.
1967 – Harlem (NYC) voters defy Congress & reelect Adam Clayton Powell Jr. He wasn’t seated following allegations that Powell had misappropriated Committee funds for his personal use and other corruption allegations.
1967 – Vietnam War: US planes bombed two thermal power plants in Haiphong, North Vietnam.
1968 – President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968, prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing. This was just one week after the assassination of Martin Luther King. Jr.
1970 – The Apollo 13 spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on the third U.S. moon-landing mission. The attempt was aborted when an oxygen tank exploded but the astronauts safely returned to Earth. The astronauts were James A. Lovell, John L. Swigert, and Fred W. Haise.
1972 – Vietnam War: B-52 strikes against communist forces attacking South Vietnamese positions in the Central Highlands near Kontum remove any immediate threat to that city.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia” by Vicki Lawrence, “Neither One of Us (Wants to Be the First to Say Goodbye)” by Gladys Knight & The Pips, “Ain’t No Woman (Like the One I’ve Got)” by Four Tops and “Super Kind of Woman” by Freddie Hart & The Heartbeats all topped the charts.
1974 – The Judiciary committee subpoenas President Richard Nixon to produce tapes for impeachment inquiry.
1972 – Benjamin L. Hooks, a Memphis lawyer-minister, becomes the first African American named to the Federal Communications Commission.
1975 – Hank Aaron returns as a Milwaukee player (Brewers).
1976 – The Apple I is created.
1977 – The largest American Lobster was caught off of Nova Scotia, Canada. It weighed 44 lbs 6 oz. and was 42” long.
1979 – Ugandan dictator Idi Amin is deposed.
1980 – The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission issued regulations specifically prohibiting sexual harassment of workers by supervisors.
1980 – The Viking 2 Mars Lander ended communications.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss on My List“ by Daryl Hall & John Oates, “Just the Two of Us” by Grover Washington, Jr./Bill Withers, “Morning Train (Nine to Five)” by Sheena Easton and “You’re the Reason God Made Oklahoma” by David Frizzell & Shelly West all topped the charts.
1981 – President Ronald Reagan returns to the White House from the hospital, 12 days after he was wounded in an assassination attempt.
1983 – Harold Washington was elected the first black mayor of Chicago.
1984 – Challenger astronauts complete first in space satellite repair.
1985 – Scientists in Hawaii measured the distance between the earth and moon within one inch.
1985 – The White House announced that President Reagan would visit the Nazi cemetery at Bitburg.
1986 – Dodge Morgan completes nonstop sail solo around the world.
1986 – In Groton, CT, the submarine Nautilus exhibit opened to the public.
1986 – Halley’s Comet makes closest approach to Earth this trip, 39 million miles.
1986 – Kellogg’s stopped giving tours of its breakfast-food plant. The reason for the end of the 80-year tradition was said to be that company secrets were at risk due to spies from other cereal companies.
1987 – “Nothing’s Gonna Stop Us Now“ by Starship topped the charts.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Look” by Roxette, “She Drives Me Crazy” by Fine Young Cannibals, “Like a Prayer” by Madonna and “I’m No Stranger to the Rain” by Keith Whitley all topped the charts.
1989 – First playoff goal scored by a goalee, Ron Hextall of the Philadelphia Flyers.
1990 – Idaho became the 47th state to recognize Jan. 15 as Martin Luther King, Jr. Day and as a national holiday.
1991 – The Space Shuttle “Atlantis” landed safely after an extended, 93-orbit mission that included deployment of an observatory.
1991 – New York City’s Museum of Broadcasting becomes “Museum of Radio & Television.”
1993 – 450 prisoners rioted for ten days at the maximum-security Southern Ohio Correctional Facility near Lucasville. Nine inmates and one guard were killed.
1996 – Seven-year-old pilot Jessica Dubroff, her father and her flight instructor were killed when their plane crashed on takeoff from Cheyenne, Wyo.
1996 – “King & I”, premieres at Neil Simon Theater in New York City for 781 performances.
1996 – The Shell Oil Mars platform was towed to the Gulf of Mexico. Its construction began in Italy in Oct, 1993 and it will stand over 320 stories from ocean floor to the top of the rigging. Its cost was $650 mil. and it weighs 73 mil. lbs.
1996 – The St. Charles Baptist Church in Paintcourtville, La., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1997 – The Air Force announced that despite an intensive nine-day search, it couldn’t find a bomb-laden A-10 warplane that had disappeared with its pilot during a training mission over Arizona. Wreckage was later found on a Colorado mountainside.
2001 – The detained crew of a United States EP-3E aircraft that landed in Hainan, People’s Republic of China after a collision with an J-8 fighter is released. The Chinese pilot was never found.
2002 – A jury in Cleveland, Ohio convicted U.S. Rep. James Traficant, D-Ohio, of racketeering and corruption.
2002 – An attempted coup d’état in Venezuela against President Hugo Chávez takes place.
2002 – An empty American Airlines jet parked outside a hangar at Los Angeles International Airport rolls through a fence before coming to a stop on a service road.
2003 – In the 24th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom the northern city of Mosul fell into US and Kurdish hands after an entire corps of the Iraqi army surrendered.
2003 – In Yemen 10 suspects in the bombing of the US destroyer Cole escaped from prison.
2004 – Gunmen shot down a U.S. attack helicopter during fighting in western Baghdad, killing its two crew members. The bloodied bodies of two men, purportedly Americans killed during fighting in Fallujah, were shown on Arab TV.
2005 – Chelsea Cooley, the reigning Miss North Carolina, was crowned Miss USA in the 54th annual pageant.
2006 – Ariel Sharon was officially relieved of his duties as prime minister of Israel when the Cabinet declared him to be permanently incapacitated. Sharon suffered a major stroke on Jan. 4, 2006, and fell into a coma a short time later. He was succeeded by Ehud Olmert.
2006 – Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announces that Iran has successfully enriched uranium.
2006 – In New Jersey a jury awarded $9 million in punitive damages to a man who blamed his heart attack on Vioxx, finding that manufacturer Merck & Co. failed to warn about the risks of its arthritis drug and misrepresented the risks to physicians.
2007 – North Carolina’s top prosecutor dropped all charges against three former Duke University lacrosse players accused of sexually assaulting a stripper at a party, saying the athletes were innocent victims of a “tragic rush to accuse.”
2007 – The US Senate (democrat-controlled) votes to ease funding restrictions on stem-cell research but President Bush threatens to veto the bill.
2007 – A federal grand jury in Columbus, Ohio, indicted Christopher Paul (43), a US citizen, on charges of joining al-Qaida in the 1990s and conspiring to bomb European tourist resorts and US government facilities and military bases overseas.
2008 – Jane’s Information Group’s examination of Iran’s most recent missile launch indicated the nation is developing both long-range missile technology and a space center.
2008 – A fire destroys the campaign office of Senator Hillary Clinton in Terre Haute, Indiana.
2008 – Crystle Stewart (26), of Missouri City, Texas, was named Miss USA, besting 50 other beauty queens for the coveted crown in Las Vegas.
2010 – Texas Stadium, the former home of the National Football League’s Dallas Cowboys, is demolished by implosion. More than 20,000 people gathered at tailgate parties and other spots to watch fireworks go off one last time.
2011 – The U.S. Attorney’s office for San Diego announces that 10 individuals have been indicted on charges relating to an alleged point shaving scheme involving college basketball games.
2011 – Former Governor of Massachusetts Mitt Romney announces that he will be a candidate for the Republican Party nomination for President of the United States.
2011 – Vincent C. Gray, the Mayor of Washington DC is arrested while protesting about a US budget deal.
2011 – The U.S. Attorney’s office for San Diego announces that 10 individuals have been indicted on charges relating to an alleged point shaving scheme involving college basketball games.
2012 – A Florida special prosecutor charges George Zimmerman with murder in the second degree in relation to the death of Trayvon Martin.
2013 – The US Senate approved the motion to proceed on S. 649 (Gun Control) by a vote of 68-31. This means they will begin debating the issue. Sixteen Republican Senators voted with the Gun Control Proponents and two Democrats voted against.
1755 – James Parkinson, English physician who is most famous for his 1817 work, An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, in which he was the first to describe “paralysis agitans”, a condition that would later be named Parkinson’s disease after him. (d. 1824)
1794 – Edward Everett was a huge political presence in the early and mid 1800’s. In 1863 he delivered a two-hour Gettysburg Oration that has been eclipsed in history by President Lincoln’s two-minute Gettysburg Address, which Everett praised as superior to his own. (d. 1865)
1862 – Charles Evans Hughes, 11th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1948) He resisted President Franklin Roosevelt’s attempts to “pack” the Supreme Court with judges favorable to the New Deal.
1893 – Dean Acheson, U.S. Secretary of State (d. 1971) He served under President Harry S Truman from 1949 to 1953.
1899 – Percy Lavon Julian was an African American research chemist and a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants. (d. 1975)
1908 – Jane Bolin, first African-American female judge (d. 2007)
1913 – Oleg Cassini, American fashion designer (d. 2006)
1916 – Howard W. Koch, American film director (d. 2001)
1928 – Ethel Kennedy, wife of Robert F. Kennedy
1935 – Richard Berry, American singer and composer best known as the composer and original performer of the rock standard “Louie Louie”.(d. 1997)
1938 – Michael Deaver was a member of President Ronald Reagan’s White House staff serving as Deputy White House Chief of Staff under James Baker III and Donald Regan from January 1981 until May 1985. (d. 2007)
1941 – Ellen Goodman, American political columnist
1951 – James Patrick Kelly, American science fiction author
DE LA GARZA, EMILIO A., JR.
Rank and organization: Lance Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and Date: Near Da Nang, Republic of Vietnam, April 11th, 1970. Entered service at: Chicago, IL. Born: 23 June 1949, East Chicago, Ind. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a machine gunner with Company E. Returning with his squad from a night ambush operation, L/Cpl. De La Garza joined his platoon commander and another marine in searching for two enemy soldiers who had been observed fleeing for cover toward a small pond. Moments later, he located one of the enemy soldiers hiding among the reeds and brush. As the three Marines attempted to remove the resisting soldier from the pond, L/Cpl. De La Garza observed him pull the pin on a grenade. Shouting a warning, L/Cpl. De La Garza placed himself between the other two Marines and the ensuing blast from the grenade, thereby saving the lives of his comrades at the sacrifice of his life. By his prompt and decisive action, and his great personal valor in the face of almost certain death, L/Cpl. De La Garza upheld and further enhanced the finest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service.
PITSENBARGER, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Airman First Class, U.S. Air Force, Detachment 6, 38th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron, Bien Hoa Air Base, Republic of Vietnam. Entered service at: Piqua, Ohio Born: July 8, 1944, Piqua, Ohio Place and date: Near Cam My, April 11, 1966. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Airman First Class Pitsenbarger distinguished himself by extreme valor while assigned as a Pararescue Crew Member, Detachment 6, 38th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron. On that date, Airman Pitsenbarger was aboard a rescue helicopter responding to a call for evacuation of casualties incurred in an ongoing firefight between elements of the United States Army’s 1st Infantry Division and a sizeable enemy force approximately 35 miles east of Saigon. With complete disregard for personal safety, Airman Pitsenbarger volunteered to ride a hoist more than one hundred feet through the jungle, to the ground. On the ground, he organized and coordinated rescue efforts, cared for the wounded, prepared casualties for evacuation, and insured that the recovery operation continued in a smooth and orderly fashion. Through his personal efforts, the evacuation of the wounded was greatly expedited. As each of the nine casualties evacuated that day was recovered, Airman Pitsenbarger refused evacuation in order to get more wounded soldiers to safety. After several pick-ups, one of the two rescue helicopters involved in the evacuation was struck by heavy enemy ground fire and was forced to leave the scene for an emergency landing. Airman Pitsenbarger stayed behind on the ground to perform medical duties. Shortly thereafter, the area came under sniper and mortar fire. During a subsequent attempt to evacuate the site, American forces came under heavy assault by a large Viet Cong force. When the enemy launched the assault, the evacuation was called off and Airman Pitsenbarger took up arms with the besieged infantrymen. He courageously resisted the enemy, braving intense gunfire to gather and distribute vital ammunition to American defenders. As the battle raged on, he repeatedly exposed himself to enemy fire to care for the wounded, pull them out of the line of fire, and return fire whenever he could, during which time he was wounded three times. Despite his wounds, he valiantly fought on, simultaneously treating as many wounded as possible. In the vicious fighting that followed, the American forces suffered 80 percent casualties as their perimeter was breached, and Airman Pitsenbarger was fatally wounded. Airman Pitsenbarger exposed himself to almost certain death by staying on the ground, and perished while saving the lives of wounded infantrymen. His bravery and determination exemplify the highest professional standards and traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Air Force.
*ROBINSON, JAMES W., JR.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 2d Battalion, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and Date: Republic of Vietnam, April 11th, 1966. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 30 August 1940, Hinsdale, Ill. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Company C was engaged in fierce combat with a Viet Cong battalion. Despite the heavy fire, Sgt. Robinson moved among the men of his fire team, instructing and inspiring them, and placing them in advantageous positions. Enemy snipers located in nearby trees were inflicting heavy casualties on forward elements of Sgt. Robinson’s unit. Upon locating the enemy sniper whose fire was taking the heaviest toll, he took a grenade launcher and eliminated the sniper. Seeing a medic hit while administering aid to a wounded sergeant in front of his position and aware that now the two wounded men were at the mercy of the enemy, he charged through a withering hail of fire and dragged his comrades to safety, where he rendered first aid and saved their lives. As the battle continued and casualties mounted, Sgt. Robinson moved about under intense fire to collect from the wounded their weapons and ammunition and redistribute them to able-bodied soldiers. Adding his fire to that of his men, he assisted in eliminating a major enemy threat. Seeing another wounded comrade in front of his position, Sgt. Robinson again defied the enemy’s fire to affect a rescue. In so doing he was himself wounded in the shoulder and leg. Despite his painful wounds, he dragged the soldier to shelter and saved his life by administering first aid. While patching his own wounds, he spotted an enemy machinegun which had inflicted a number of casualties on the American force. His rifle ammunition expended, he seized two grenades and, in an act of unsurpassed heroism, charged toward the entrenched enemy weapon. Hit again in the leg, this time with a tracer round which set fire to his clothing, Sgt. Robinson ripped the burning clothing from his body and staggered indomitably through the enemy fire, now concentrated solely on him, to within grenade range of the enemy machinegun position. Sustaining two additional chest wounds, he marshaled his fleeting physical strength and hurled the two grenades, thus destroying the enemy gun position, as he fell dead upon the battlefield. His magnificent display of leadership and bravery saved several lives and inspired his soldiers to defeat the numerically superior enemy force. Sgt. Robinson’s conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity, at the cost of his life, are in keeping with the finest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon the 1st Infantry Division and the U.S. Armed Forces.
MICHAEL, EDWARD S.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 364th Bomber Squadron, 305th Bomber Group. Place and date: Over Germany, April 11th, 1944. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 2 May 1918, Chicago, Ill. G.O. No.: 5, 15 January 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as pilot of a B17 aircraft on a heavy-bombardment mission to Germany, 11 April 1944. The group in which 1st Lt. Michael was flying was attacked by a swarm of fighters. His plane was singled out and the fighters pressed their attacks home recklessly, completely disregarding the Allied fighter escort and their own intense flak. His plane was riddled from nose to tail with exploding cannon shells and knocked out of formation, with a large number of fighters following it down, blasting it with cannon fire as it descended. A cannon shell exploded in the cockpit, wounded the copilot, wrecked the instruments, and blew out the side window. 1st Lt. Michael was seriously and painfully wounded in the right thigh. Hydraulic fluid filmed over the windshield making visibility impossible, and smoke filled the cockpit. The controls failed to respond and 3,000 feet were lost before he succeeded in leveling off. The radio operator informed him that the whole bomb bay was in flames as a result of the explosion of three cannon shells, which had ignited the incendiaries. With a full load of incendiaries in the bomb bay and a considerable gas load in the tanks, the danger of fire enveloping the plane and the tanks exploding seemed imminent. When the emergency release lever failed to function, 1st Lt. Michael at once gave the order to bail out and seven of the crew left the plane. Seeing the bombardier firing the navigator’s gun at the enemy planes, 1st Lt. Michael ordered him to bail out as the plane was liable to explode any minute. When the bombardier looked for his parachute he found that it had been riddled with 20mm. fragments and was useless. 1st Lt. Michael, seeing the ruined parachute, realized that if the plane was abandoned the bombardier would perish and decided that the only chance would be a crash landing. Completely disregarding his own painful and profusely bleeding wounds, but thinking only of the safety of the remaining crewmembers, he gallantly evaded the enemy, using violent evasive action despite the battered condition of his plane. After the plane had been under sustained enemy attack for fully 45 minutes, 1st Lt. Michael finally lost the persistent fighters in a cloud bank. Upon emerging, an accurate barrage of flak caused him to come down to treetop level where flak towers poured a continuous rain of fire on the plane. He continued into France, realizing that at any moment a crash landing might have to be attempted, but trying to get as far as possible to increase the escape possibilities if a safe landing could be achieved. 1st Lt. Michael flew the plane until he became exhausted from the loss of blood, which had formed on the floor in pools, and he lost consciousness. The copilot succeeded in reaching England and sighted an RAF field near the coast. 1st Lt. Michael finally regained consciousness and insisted upon taking over the controls to land the plane. The undercarriage was useless; the bomb bay doors were jammed open; the hydraulic system and altimeter were shot out. In addition, there was no airspeed indicator, the ball turret was jammed with the guns pointing downward, and the flaps would not respond. Despite these apparently insurmountable obstacles, he landed the plane without mishap.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 1st Louisiana Cavalry. Place and date: At Mount Pleasant, Ala., April 11th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Capture of flag.
The Salvation Army began in 1865 when William Booth, a London minister, gave up the comfort of his pulpit and decided to take his message into the streets where it would reach the poor, the homeless, the hungry and the destitute. His original aim was to send converts to established churches of the day, but soon he realized that the poor did not feel comfortable or welcome in the pews of most of the churches and chapels of Victorian England. Regular churchgoers were appalled when these shabbily dressed, unwashed people came to join them in worship.
Booth decided to found a church especially for them — the East London Christian Mission. The mission grew slowly, but Booth’s faith in God remained undiminished.
In May of 1878, Booth summoned his son, Bramwell, and his good friend George Railton to read a proof of the Christian Mission’s annual report. At the top it read: THE CHRISTIAN MISSION is A VOLUNTEER ARMY. Bramwell strongly objected to this wording. He was not a volunteer: he was compelled to do God’s work. So, in a flash of inspiration, Booth crossed out “Volunteer” and wrote “Salvation”. The Salvation Army was born.
On March 10, 1880, Commissioner George Scott Raiton and seven women officers knelt on the dockside at Battery Park in New York City to give thanks for their safe arrival. At their first official street meeting, these pioneers were met with unfriendly actions, as had happened in Great Britain. They were ridiculed, arrested, and attacked. Several officers and soldiers even gave their lives.Three years later, Railton and other Salvationists had expanded their operation into California, Connecticut, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. President Grover Cleveland received a delegation of Salvation Army officers in 1886 and gave the organization a warm personal endorsement. This was the first recognition from the White House and would be followed by similar receptions from succeeding presidents.
General Booth’s death in 1912 was a great loss to The Salvation Army. However, he had laid a firm foundation’ even his death could not deter the ministry’s onward march. His eldest son, Bramwell Booth, succeeded him.
Edward J. Higgins served as the first elected general, beginning in 1929. The first female general was Booth’s daughter, the dynamic Evangeline Booth, serving from 1934 to 1939. The Army’s fifth general was George Carpenter, succeeded in 1946 by Albert Orsborn. General Wilfred Kitching was elected in 1954, succeeded by Frederick Coutts in 1963. Erik Wickberg followed in 1969; Clarence Wiseman in 1974; Arnold Brown in 1977; Jarl Wahlstrom in 1981; and Eva Burrows, the second female general, in 1986. General Bramwell Tillsley was elected in 1993 and was succeeded by General Paul Rader in 1994, followed by General John Gowans in 1999, General John Larsson in 2002, and General Shaw Clifton in 2006. General Linda Bond was elected the 19th General of The Salvation Army in January 2011, the third female to serve in this capacity. She currently commands the Army from International Headquarters in London, England.
By the 1900s, the Army had spread around the world. The Salvation Army soon had officers and soldiers in 36 countries, including the United States of America. This well-organized yet flexible structure inspired a great many much-needed services: women’s social work, the first food depot, the first day nursery and the first Salvation Army missionary hospital. During World War II, The Salvation Army operated 3,000 service units for the armed forces, which led to the formation of the USO.
Today, The Salvation Army is stronger and more powerful than ever. Now, in over 106 nations around the world, The Salvation Army continues to work where the need is greatest, guided by faith in God and love for all people.
Proverbs 28:13New International Version (NIV)
13 Whoever conceals their sins does not prosper, but the one who confesses and renounces them finds mercy.
“I conceive we cannot better express ourselves than by humbly supplicating the Supreme Ruler of the world . . . that the confusions that are and have been among the nations may be overruled by the promoting and speedily bringing in the holy and happy period when the kingdoms of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ may be everywhere established, and the people willingly bow to the scepter of Him who is the Prince of Peace.”
~ Samuel Adams
“We gain strength, and courage, and confidence by each experience in which we really stop to look fear in the face … we must do that which we think we cannot.”
~ Eleanor Roosevelt
Roister ROY-stur, intransitive verb:
1. To engage in boisterous merrymaking; to revel; to carouse.
2.To bluster; to swagger.Roister is probably from Middle French rustre, “a boor, a clown; clownish,” from Latin rusticus, “rustic,” from rus, “country.”
1606 – The Charter of the Virginia Company of London is established by royal charter by James I of England with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America.
1790 – US Patent system is established. This date marks the first time in American history that the law gave inventors rights to their creations.
1816 – The United States Government approves the creation of the Second Bank of the United States.
1825 – The first hotel opened in Hawaii.
1834 – LaLaurie was a sadistic socialite who lived in New Orleans. Her home was a chamber of horrors. Today a fire broke out in the mansion’s kitchen, and firefighters found two slaves chained to the stove. They appeared to have started the fire themselves, in order to attract attention. Many slaves were tortured and killed. She was never caught.
1841 – New York “Tribune” begins publishing under editor Horace Greeley.
1845 – Over 1,000 buildings were damaged by fire in Pittsburgh, Pa.
1849 – Walter Hunt was awarded a patent for what he called a “dress pin,” .It was a safety pin ,a simple device made of wire. The patent number for the safety pin is 6,281.
1856 – The Theta Chi Fraternity is founded at Norwich University, Norwich, Vermont.
1862 – Civil War: Union forces began the bombardment of Fort Pulaski in Georgia along the Tybee River.
1863 – Civil War: Rebel Gen. Earl Van Dorn attacked at Franklin, Tenn.
1863 – Civil War: An expedition led by Lieutenant Commander Selfridge of U.S.S. Conestoga cut across Beulah Bend, Mississippi, and destroyed guerrilla stations that had harassed Union shipping on the river.
1865 – Civil War: A day after his surrender to Union forces, Confederate General Robert E. Lee addresses his troops for the last time.General Lee issued Gen Order #9, his last orders to the Army of Northern Virginia.
1866 – The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is founded in New York City by Henry Bergh.
1869 – The US Congress increased the number of Supreme Court judges from seven to nine.
1874 – The first Arbor Day is celebrated in Nebraska.
1878 – The California St. Cable Car RR Co. started service.
1887 – President Abraham Lincoln was re-buried with his wife in Springfield, Il.
1912 – The RMS Titanic leaves port in Southampton, England for her first and only voyage.
1912 – The first wireless transmission was received on an airplane.
1913 – President Woodrow Wilson throws out first ball. It was Washington’s home opener at National Park. Under new manager Frank Chance, New York is playing its first official game as Yankees.
1913 – Walter Johnson begins string of 56 consecutive scoreless innings.
1916 – The Professional Golfers Association of America (PGA) is created in New York City.
1917 – A munitions factory explosion at Eddystone, PA., killed 133 workers.
1924 – Tubular steel golf club shafts approved for championship play.
1925 – “The Great Gatsby” by F. Scott Fitzgerald is first published in New York City, by Charles Scribner’s Sons.
1930 – Synthetic rubber first produced.
1933 – The Civilian Conservation Corps is created as part of FDR’s New Deal.
1933 – Michigan was the first state to ratify the 21st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which ended Prohibition and repealed the 18th Amendment. The 21st Amendment is the only amendment to repeal another amendment, and the only amendment ratified by the state convention process.
1941 – U.S. troops occupied Greenland to prevent Nazi infiltration.
1941 – President Roosevelt transferred ten Coast Guard cutters to England, stating that he found the defense of the United Kingdom vital to the defense of the United States.
1941 – USS Niblack, while rescuing survivors of torpedoed ship, was depth charged by a German submarine; first action of WW II between U.S. and German navies.
1941 – Ford Motor Co. became the last major automaker to recognize the United Auto Workers as the representative for its workers.
1942 – World War II: The 65-mile Bataan Death March began to a prison camp near Cabanatuan. The prisoners were forced to march 85 miles in six days with only one meal of rice during the entire journey. Some 10k-15k soldiers perished on the march.
1944 – World War II: Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler escape from the Auschwitz concentration camp and passed information to the Allies about the mass murder that was taking place there.
1944 – German submarines U-515 and U-68 are sunk by elements of US Task Group 21.12 which includes the carrier Guadalcanal.
1945 – World War II: German Me 262 jet fighters shot down ten U.S. bombers near Berlin.
1945 – World War II: The Allies liberated their first Nazi concentration camp, Buchenwald, north of Weimar, Germany.
1945 – NFL’s Boston Yanks & Brooklyn Tigers merge into the “Yanks.”
1947 – Jackie Robinson became the first African-American in modern major league baseball (Dodgers).
1951 – The Defense Department issued an order effective May 1 lowering the induction standards for the Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps. The plan called for the Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps to receive draftees for the first time since World War II.
1952 – The MGM movie musical “Singin’ in the Rain,” starring Gene Kelly, was first released.
1953 – Eddie Fisher was discharged from the Army and arrived home to a check of $330,000 for record royalties for the 7 million records that were sold while he was enlisted.
1954 – “Wanted” by Perry Como topped the charts.
1954 – “Rocky Jones, Space Ranger” aired its first episode. Cruising the galaxy in his space ship “The Orbit Jet” Space Ranger, Rocky Jones, Vena Ray, and 10 year-old Bobby defend the Earth and themselves against space-bound evil doers.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Heartbreak Hotel” by Elvis Presley, “The Poor People of Paris” by Les Baxter, “(You’ve Got) The Magic Touch” by The Platters and “Blue Suede Shoes” by Carl Perkins all topped the charts.
1956 – Nat King Cole was beaten up by a group of racial segregationists in Birmingham, AL.
1958 – Bobby Darin recorded “Splish Splash.”
1960 – The U.S. Senate passed the Civil Rights Bill.
1962 – First major league game in Houston, Colt 45s beat Chicago Cubs, 11-2.
1962 – First baseball game at Los Angeles’ Dodger Stadium, they lose 6-3 to Cincinnati Reds.
1963 – The submarine USS Thresher sinks at sea 220 miles east of Boston . One hundred twenty-nine people die. The sub’s remnants came to a rest on the ocean floor at a depth of 8,500 feet.
1965 – “I’m Telling You Now” by Freddie & the Dreamers topped the charts.
1966 – Vietnam War: River Patrol Boats of River Patrol Force commenced operations on inland waters of South Vietnam.
1967 – The song “Somethin’ Stupid” became the first father-daughter song to hit No. 1 on the Billboard pop chart. The song was performed by Nancy and Frank Sinatra.
1967 – The thirteen-day strike by the American Federation of Radio-TV Artists (AFTRA) came to an end less than two hours before the 39th Academy Awards presentation went on the air.
1970 – Paul McCartney announces official split of the Beatles.
1971 – “Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)” by the Temptations topped the charts.
1971 – John Denver’s “Take Me Home Country Roads” hit the charts. It was his first appearance on the charts.
1971 – First baseball game at Philadelphia’s Veterans Stadium.
1971 – Ping Pong Diplomacy: In an attempt to thaw relations with the United States, the People’s Republic of China hosts the U.S. table tennis team for a weeklong visit.
1972 – Vietnam War: For the first time since November 1967, American B-52 bombers reportedly begin bombing North Vietnam.
1972 – U.S. B-52 bombers reportedly begin bombing North Vietnam for the first time since November 1967. The bombers struck in the vicinity of Vinh, 145 miles north of the Demilitarized Zone.
1972 – Isaac Hayes won an Oscar for the Best Music, Original Song award for the song “Shaft“.
1974 – Golda Meir announced her resignation as prime minister of Israel. Yitzhak Rabin replaced Golda Meir. She died December 8, 1978.
1976 – “Disco Lady” by Johnny Taylor topped the charts.
1979 – Red River Valley Tornado Outbreak: A tornado lands in Wichita Falls, Texas killing 42 people.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Another Brick in the Wall” by Pink Floyd, “Working My Way Back to You/Forgive Me, Girl” by the Spinners, “Call Me” by Blondie and “Sugar Daddy” by the Bellamy Brothers all topped the charts.
1981 – Computer glitch keeps Space Shuttle Columbia grounded. The countdown proceeded on schedule April 12.
1982 – “I Love Rock ‘n’ Roll” by Joan Jett & the Blackhearts topped the charts.
1984 – Damaged Solar Max satellite snared by Challenger shuttle.
1985 – At 80, Leo Sites becomes oldest bowler to score a 300 game.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Get Outta My Dreams, Get Into My Car” by Billy Ocean, “Out of the Blue” by Debbie Gibson, “Devil Inside” by INXS and “Famous Last Words of a Fool” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1988 – On Wall Street, 48 million shares of Navistar International stock changed hands in a single-block trade. It was the largest transaction ever executed on the New York Stock Exchange.
1989 – Intel corp announces shipment of the 80486 chip.
1989 – In Ohio, Jeffrey Lundgren (b.1950), a self-proclaimed prophet, led his cult in planning and executing murders of the Avery family in order to bring about a prophecy he interpreted from the Old Testament.
1991 – Last coin operated cafeteria (automat) closes at 3rd & 42nd St, New York NY.
1991 – Los Angeles King Wayne Gretzky scores NHL record 93rd playoff goal.
1992 – Outside Needles, CA, comedian Sam Kinison was killed when his white 1989 Pontiac Trans Am was struck head-on on U.S. Route 95, four miles north of Interstate 40 and several miles west of Needles, by a pickup truck driven by 17-year-old Troy Pierson, who had been drinking alcohol.
1992 – In Los Angeles, financier Charles Keating Jr. was sentenced to nine years in prison for swindling investors when his Lincoln Savings and Loan collapsed. The convictions were later overturned.
1995 – The Unabomber sent a letter to the New York Times claiming responsibility for the killing of Thomas Mosser.
1995 – New York City enacted the Smoke Free Air Act which banned smoking in all restaurants that seated 35 or more.
1997 – Onetime fighter pilot and former POW Pete Peterson was confirmed by the Senate as the first postwar U.S. ambassador to Vietnam.
1997 – A federal judge struck down as unconstitutional the Line-Item Veto Act, a law that lets the president strike specific items from bills passed by Congress.
1998 – The anti-impotence drug Viagra appeared on the market and became one of the best-selling new medications of all time.
1999 – “No Scrubs” by TLC topped the charts.
1999 – The Miami Heat humiliated the Chicago Bulls, 82-49, holding the Bulls to the lowest point total since the introduction of the basketball shot clock.
1999 – US F-16’s struck southern Iraqi radar and antiaircraft sites after the fighters were fired upon. Iraq claimed that two people were killed and nine wounded in the attacks.
2000 – Ken Griffey Jr. became the youngest player in baseball history to reach 400 home runs. He was 30 years, 141 days old.
2001 – Jane Swift took office as the first female governor of Massachusetts. She succeeded Paul Cellucci, who had resigned to become the U.S. ambassador to Canada.
2001 – Doctors in San Diego implanted genetically modified cells in to the brain of a 60-year-old woman with early Alzheimer’s disease in an effort to slow her mental decline.
2002 – In Ohio a state appeals court declared a ban on concealed weapons to be unconstitutional. 5 other states, all in the Midwest, carried similar laws banning concealed weapons.
2003 – Iraqi Freedom: In the 23rd day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US and Kurdish troops seized oil-rich Kirkuk without a fight and held a second city within their grasp as opposition forces crumbled in northern Iraq. Over 40 suicide vests were found in a Baghdad school. Looting in Kirkuk stripped the North Oil Co. facilities and pumping of 850,000 barrels a day ceased.
2003 – The US House passed a bill creating a national Amber Alert system and strengthening child pornography laws.
2004 – San Francisco Police officer Isaac A. Espinoza (29) was shot dead and his partner wounded in the Bayview neighborhood.
2005 – Tiger Woods won his fourth Masters with a spectacular finish of birdies and bogeys.
2008 – In San Francisco Luis Solari (38) was shot and killed in an apparent incident of road rage. His two young sons survived as his car spun out of control before stopping on I-280.
2009 – Cape Fear Bank in Wilmington, North Carolina, and New Frontier Bank in Greeley, Colorado, are shut down.
2009 – At least 27 tornadoes kill six people throughout the southern United States.
2010 – The Shroud of Turin is displayed in public for the first time in 10 years.
2011 – Wildfires in the US state of Texas destroy more than 230,000 acres of land, including about 20 homes in the small town of Fort Davis.
2012 – The attorneys for George Zimmerman, the main person of interest in the shooting of Trayvon Martin, say that they quit representing Zimmerman due to them losing contact with him.
2012 – University of Arkansas head football coach Bobby Petrino is fired because of misconduct involving an inappropriate relationship with a female employee.
2012 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average falls over 1% amid concerns in Europe over its debt crisis.
2013 – Five firefighters responding to a medical call in Suwanee, GA were taken hostage by a gunman. Suwanee is about 35 miles northeast of downtown Atlanta.
2015 -First female pilot in the Navy’s Blue Angels’ 69-year history, Marine Corps Capt. Katie Higgins reports for duty.
2015 – A 20 year old former Army enlistee attempted a truck bomb attack against soldiers at Fort Riley, Kansas. John T. Booker of Topeka, Kansas, also known as Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, was arrested by the FBI near the gate of the Army installation as he was making final preparations to conduct a truck bomb attack.
1735 – Button Gwinnett, Signer of the US Declaration of Independence (d. 1777)
1794 – Matthew C. Perry, American commodore (d. 1858)
1796 – James Bowie, American pioneer and soldier (d. 1836)
1829 – William Booth, English founder of the Salvation Army (d. 1912)
1847 – Joseph Pulitzer, American journalist and publisher (d. 1911)
1903 – Claire Boothe Luce, American activist, (d. 1987)
1918 – Lee Bergere, American actor (d. 2007)
1921 – Chuck Connors, American actor (d. 1992)
1921 – Sheb Wooley, American actor and singer (d. 2003)
1926 – Junior Samples, American musician (d. 1983)
1927 – Marshall Warren Nirenberg, American scientist, Nobel laureate
1936 – John Madden, American football coach and broadcaster
1938 – Don Meredith, American football player and broadcaster
1951 – Steven Seagal, American actor
1957 – John M. Ford, American science fiction author and poet (d. 2006)
1974 – Eric Greitens, Ph.D., US Navy Seal, Chairman of the Center for Citizen Leadership
BULKELEY, JOHN DUNCAN
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, Commander of Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron 3, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Philippine waters, December 7th, 1941 to April 10th, 1942. Entered service at: Texas. Born: 19 August 1911, New York, N.Y. Other awards: Navy Cross, Distinguished Service Cross, Silver Star, Legion of Merit. Citation: For extraordinary heroism, distinguished service, and conspicuous gallantry above and beyond the call of duty as commander of Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron 3, in Philippine waters during the period 7 December 1941 to 10 April 1942. The remarkable achievement of Lt. Comdr. Bulkeley’s command in damaging or destroying a notable number of Japanese enemy planes, surface combatant and merchant ships, and in dispersing landing parties and land-based enemy forces during the four months and eight days of operation without benefit of repairs, overhaul, or maintenance facilities for his squadron, is believed to be without precedent in this type of warfare. His dynamic forcefulness and daring in offensive action, his brilliantly planned and skillfully executed attacks, supplemented by a unique resourcefulness and ingenuity, characterize him as an outstanding leader of men and a gallant and intrepid seaman. These qualities coupled with a complete disregard for his own personal safety reflect great credit upon him and the Naval Service .
GLOVER, T. B.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Troop B, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Mizpah Creek, Mont., April 10th, 1879; at Pumpkin Creek, Mont., 10 February 1880. Entered service at:——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 20 November 1897. Citation: While in charge of small scouting parties, fought, charged, surrounded, and captured war parties of Sioux Indians.
Winston Churchill Day
Alaska is the 49th state having become such on January 3rd, 1959. It is 586,412 square miles or 2 ½ times the size of Texas and yet the population is approximately 627,000, roughly the size of Memphis, TN or Baltimore, MD.
The process to becoming a state started several years before the purchase date when the Russians started looking for a buyer for a huge piece of land that was “unhospitable” and very difficult to defend.
William H. Seward, Secretary of state under both Lincoln and Johnson, was an ardent expansionist. He was committed to the spread of American influence throughout the Pacific as a means of enhancing the nation’s trade and military standing.
Russia had been interested in selling Alaska for a number of years. The region seemed to have little value and was remote and hard to defend. Negotiations with the United States were opened during the Buchanan administration, but came to a halt with the opening of the Civil War.
Seward actually began negotiations with the Russians before receiving authorization from Johnson. Nonetheless, when the outline of a deal was presented to the cabinet, Seward was surprised to find little opposition. The agreement was signed on March 30, 1867. After the Senate approved of the purchase on April 9th, 1867 and Alaska was transferred to the United States in return for a payment of $7.2 million, amounting to a price of about 2.5 cents per acre. The treaty was ratified by the U.S. Senate by a single vote.
Criticism in the press was harsh, portraying the newly acquired wasteland as “Seward’s Folly,” “Seward’s Icebox” or Johnson’s “polar bear garden.” It was not until the 1890s with the discovery of gold that public attitudes regarding Alaska began to change.
Psalm 124: 1-2
Those who trust in the Lord are like Mount Zion, which cannot be shaken but endures forever. 2 As the mountains surround Jerusalem, so the Lord surrounds his people both now and forevermore.
“[America’s] glory is not dominion, but liberty. Her march is in the march of the mind. She has a spear and a shield: but the motto upon her shield is, FREEDOM, INDEPENDENCE, PEACE. This has been her Declaration: this has been, as far as her necessary intercourse with the rest of mankind would permit, her practice.”
~ John Adams
” In any moment of decision, the best thing you can do is the right thing. The worst thing you can do is nothing.”
Favorable to health; promoting health; healthful.
Salubriousis from Latin salubris, “healthful,” from salus, “health.”
193 – Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans).
1682 – Robert Cavelier de La Salle discovers the mouth of the Mississippi River, claims it for France and names it Louisiana. It starts just 200 miles north of Minneapolis at Lake Itasca State Park. The narrow stream there is ankle deep and naturally it is a favorite activity of visitors to walk across it. A raindrop that falls here will be in Louisiana in about 90 days according to the Park Service.
1730 – The first Jewish congregation in US formed the synagogue, “Sherith Israel, New York City.”
1833 – Peterborough, NH, opened the first municipally supported public library in the United States.
1861 – Second relief convoy for Fort Sumter left New York.
1864 – The Battle of Pleasant Hill, LA, left 2,870 casualties.
1865 – Civil War: Robert E. Lee surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia (26,765 troops) to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, effectively ending the war. Though there were still Confederate armies in the field, the war was officially over. The four years of fighting had killed 360,000 Union troops and 260,000 Confederate troops.
1865 – Civil War: Federals captured Ft. Blakely, Alabama.
1866 – Civil Rights Bill of 1866 was passed by Congress over President Andrew Johnson’s veto..
1867 – Alaska purchase: Passing by a single vote, the United States Senate ratifies a treaty with Russia for the purchase of Alaska.
1870 – The American Anti-Slavery Society was dissolved.
1872 – S.R. Percy of New York City received a patent for dried milk.
1905 – The first aerial ferry bridge went into operation — in Duluth, Minnesota.
1912 – First exhibition baseball game at Fenway Park (Red Sox vs Harvard).
1913 – Brooklyn Dodgers’ Ebbets Field opens, Philadelphia Phillies win 1-0.
1913 – The Connecticut legislature approved what now becomes the 17th Amendment. Ratified by three-fourths of the states in less than one year, the amendment takes the election of U.S. Senators out of the hands of state legislators and puts it in the hands of ordinary Americans.
1914 – The Tampico Affair flares up. It was caused by a misunderstanding that occurred on April 9, 1914, but would fully transpire into the breakdown of diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Mexico, and the occupation of the port city of Veracruz for over six months.
1916 – World War I: The Battle of Verdun – German forces launch their third offensive of the battle.
1917 – World War I: The Battle of Arras – the battle begins with Canadian forces executing a massive assault on Vimy Ridge.
1928 – Mae West’s NYC debut in a daring new play “Diamond Lil”.
1939 – Marian Anderson sings at the Lincoln Memorial, after being denied the right to sing at the Daughters of the American Revolution’s Constitution Hall.
1940 – Jimmy Dorsey and his orchestra recorded “Six Lessons from Madame La Zonga.”
1940 – World War II: Germany invades Denmark and Norway.
1941 – Commissioning of USS North Carolina, which carried 9 16-inch guns.
1941 – The PGA established a Golf Hall of Fame.
1942 – World War II: The Battle of Bataan/Bataan Death March – US forces surrender on the Bataan Peninsula. The Japanese Navy launches an air raid on Trincomalee in Ceylon (Sri Lanka); Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Hermes and Royal Australian Navy Destroyer HMAS Vampire are sunk off the island’s east coast.
1945 – World War II: The German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer is sunk.
1945 – World War II: The Battle of Königsberg, in East Prussia, ends.
1945 – World War II: At Bari, Italy, the Liberty exploded and killed 360 people. The ship was carrying aerial bombs.
1945 – World War II: In the attacks against the Ruhr pocket, US 9th Army units penetrate into Essen and reach the famous Krupp factories.
1945 – World War II: Dietrich Bonhoeffer (b.1906), a German Lutheran theologian and antifascist, was hanged by the Nazis at Flossenburg prison. He had participated in the failed July 20, 1944, plot to assassinate Hitler.
1945 – The United States Atomic Energy Commission is formed.
1945 – NFL requires players to wear long stockings.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Anniversary Song” by Dinah Shore, “How are Things in Glocca Morra” by Buddy Clark, “Managua, Nicaragua” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Don Rodney) and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1947 – The Glazier-Higgins-Woodward tornadoes kill 181 and injure 970 in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
1947 – The Journey of Reconciliation, the first interracial Freedom Ride, begins through the upper South in violation of Jim Crow laws. The riders wanted enforcement of the United States Supreme Court’s decision in Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia, 328 U.S. 373 (1946) that banned racial segregation in interstate travel.
1949 – “Cruising Down the River” by Blue Barron topped the charts.
1950 – Bob Hope hosted a “Star-Spangled Review” on NBC-TV.
1953 – Warner Brothers premieres the first 3-D film, entitled “House of Wax”. In Ashtabula, Ohio, fifteen cents allowed admittance to this and “The Creature from the Black Lagoon” including the special glasses.
1953 – Korean War: Marines regained “Carson” Hill during fighting in Korea.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes, “Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White” by Perez Prado, “Unchained Melody” by Les Baxter and “In the Jailhouse Now” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1959 – Mercury program: NASA announces the selection of the United States’ first seven astronauts, whom the news media quickly dub the “Mercury Seven”. The “Mercury Seven” were Scott Carpenter, L. Gordon Cooper, Jr., John H. Glenn, Jr., Virgil I. “Gus” Grissom, Walter M. Schirra, Jr., Alan B. Shepard, Jr., and Donald K. “Deke” Slayton.
1960 – Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1962 – President John F Kennedy throws out first ball at Washington DC’s new Stadium.
1963 – British statesman Winston Churchill was made an honorary U.S. citizen.
1965 – Bruce Johnston joined the Beach Boys as the permanent replacement for Brian Wilson.
1965 – “TIME” magazine featured a cover with the entire “Peanuts” gang.
1965 – The Houston Astrodome held its first baseball game.
1966 – “(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration” by the Righteous Brothers topped the charts.
1966 – Percy Sledge’s “When A Man Loves A Woman” was released.
1967 – The first Boeing 737 (a 100 series) makes its maiden flight.
1968 – Martin Luther King Jr, buried in Atlanta, GA.
1969 – The “Chicago Eight” plead not guilty to federal charges of conspiracy to incite a riot at the1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois.
1969 – Students and police clashed at Harvard University.
1970 – Paul McCartney quit the Beatles.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)” by The Temptations, “For All We Know” by the Carpenters, “What’s Going On” by Marvin Gaye and “After the Fire is Gone” by Conway Twitty & Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1973 – Paul McCartney released the song “My Love.”
1974 – Phil Brooks received a patent for a disposable syringe.
1977 – “Dancing Queen” by ABBA topped the charts.
1977 – Shaun Cassidy performed “Da Doo Ron Ron” on “American Bandstand.”
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Will Survive” by Gloria Gaynor, “What a Fool Believes” by The Doobie Brothers, “Sultans of Swing” by Dire Straits and “I Just Fall in Love Again” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.
1981 – Dodgers pitcher Fernando Valenzuela shuts out the Astros 2-0 on five hits in his first ML start.
1981 – The U.S. Submarine George Washington struck and sunk a small Japanese freighter in the East China Sea. The Nissho Maru’s captain and first mate died.
1983 – “Billie Jean” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1983 – The Space Shuttle Challenger concluded it’s first flight.
1985 – White Sox pitcher Tom Seaver starts a record 15th opening day game.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Nothing’s Gonna Stop Us Now” by Starship, “Tonight, Tonight, Tonight” by Genesis, “Come Go with Me” by Expose and “Ocean Front Property” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1987 – “(I Just) Died in Your Arms” by Cutting Crew topped the charts.
1987 – Dikye Baggett became the first person to undergo corrective surgery for Parkinson’s disease.
1987 – Responding to charges of bugging at the new U.S. Embassy in Moscow, Soviet officials displayed microphones and other gadgets they said were found in Soviet missions in the United States.
1987 – Special Forces Branch was established as a basic branch of the Army effective April 9, 1987, by General Orders No. 35, June 19, 1987.
1988 – “Get Outta My Dreams, Get Into My Car” by Billy Ocean topped the charts.
1989 – Rickey Henderson steals his 800th career base in New York’s 4-3 loss to Cleveland.
1991 – Release of Microsoft MS-DOS 5.0.
1992 – A U.S. Federal Court finds former Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega guilty of drug and racketeering charges. He is sentenced to 30 years in prison.
1993 – Colorado Rockies 1st home game & 1st victory, 11-4 over Montréal Expos.
1994 – “Bump n’ Grind” by R. Kelly topped the charts.
1994 – The Space Shuttle Endeavour (14:57) blasted off on an eleven-day mission that included mapping the Earth’s surface in three dimensions.
1995 – Women’s rights supporters rallied near the U.S. Capitol to protest violence against women.
1995 – Two Palestinians blew themselves up outside two Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip and killed seven Israeli soldiers and an American, Alisa Flatow (20).
1996 – Former representative Dan Rostenkowski (D-Ill.), the once-powerful House Ways and Means chairman, pleaded guilty to two mail fraud charges in a deal that brought with it a 17-month prison term.
1998 – The National Prisoner of War Museum opened in Andersonville, GA, at the site of an infamous CIVIL WAR camp.
1998 – A Los Angeles Superior Court jury awarded Michael Jackson $2.7 million in damages in a defamation-of-character suit against Victor Gutierrez of the TV show Hard Copy.
1999 – A $250 million Air Force satellite, intended to warn of missile launches, went into a useless orbit after being launched aboard a Titan IV.
1999 – A tornado hit the Cincinnati area and 7 people were reported killed.
2000 – CBS-TV aired “Failsafe. (1:24:23)” It was the first live full-length show to by aired by CBS in 39 years.
2001 – American Airlines completed the acquisition of bankrupt Trans World Airlines (TWA) and became the world’s largest air carrier.
2002 – The Wall Street Journal redesigned the front page for the 1st time since 1942.
2003 – Baghdad falls, ending Saddam Hussein’s 24-year rule.
2003 – James Smith (59), a senior FBI counterintelligence agent, was arrested in LA along with Katrina Leung (49), prominent venture capitalist, for the alleged theft and transfer of a classified defense document to the Chinese government. Smith was arrested today and charged with gross negligence for allowing an FBI asset, Katrina Leung access to classified material. He had been having an affair with Leung for 20 years, and allegedly brought classified materials to their trysts.
2003 – Iraqi Freedom: In the 22nd day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US commanders declared Saddam Hussein’s rule over Baghdad over and jubilant crowds swarmed into the streets here, dancing, looting, cheering and bringing down images of the Iraqi leader. No more than 150 Iraqis gathered in Farbus Square to watch American Marines, not Iraqis, pull down a statue of Hussein.
2004 – Rebels attacked a convoy near Baghdad’s airport and kidnapped two US soldiers and seven Halliburton construction employees. Four bodies were found in the area a few days later.
2005 – A day after the funeral for Pope John Paul II, cardinals began an intense period of silence and prayer before their conclave to choose the next pope.
2007 – Don Imus, nationally syndicated shock jock, was suspended for 2 weeks by CBS Radio and MSNBC due to his calling members of the Rutgers Univ. women’s basketball team “nappy-headed ho’s.”
2008 – The California Supreme Court rejected San Francisco’s appeal of a lower court ruling that limited its ability regulate handguns as approved by voters in 2005.
2009 – FBI hostage negotiators joined US Navy efforts to free an American ship captain held captive on a lifeboat by Somali pirates. A US destroyer and a spy plane kept close watch in the high-seas standoff near the Horn of Africa. Capt. Richard Phillips made a desperate escape attempt but was recaptured.
2009 – In Fullerton, Ca., Los Angeles Angels pitcher Nick Adenhart (22) was killed along with two others in a car accident with a suspected drunk driver.
2010 – U.S. helicopter – Air Force CV-22 Osprey – crashed in southern Afghanistan, killing three U.S. service members and one civilian employee. Zabiullah Mujahid said Taliban fighters shot down the chopper.
2010 – Associate Justice John Paul Stevens of the U.S. Supreme Court announces his retirement after serving on the court for 34 years.
2011 – A tornado hits in Iowa’s Monona County in the Midwest.
2012 – The Lion King becomes the all-time highest grossing show on Broadway, overtaking The Phantom of the Opera.
2012 – Facebook buys photo sharing application Instagram for $1 billion.
2013 – University of Connecticut women’s basketball team beats Louisville, 93-60, to win their eighth national championship.
1597 – John Davenport, Connecticut pioneer (d. 1670)
1897 – John B. Gambling, American radio talk-show host (d. 1974)
1898 – Curly Lambeau, American football coach, executive (d. 1965)
1898 – Paul Robeson, American singer and activist (d. 1976)
1903 – Ward Bond, American actor (d. 1960)
1905 – J. William Fulbright, U.S. Senator from Arkansas (d. 1995)
1919 – J. Presper Eckert, American computer pioneer (d. 1995)
1928 – Tom Lehrer, American musician and mathematician
1930 – F. Albert Cotton, American chemist (d. 2007)
1932 – Cheeta, chimpanzee actor
1939 – Michael Learned, American actress
1954 – Dennis Quaid, American actor
1965 – Mark Pellegrino, American actor
1966 – Cynthia Nixon, American actress
1987 – Jesse McCartney, American actor and singer
BOOKER, ROBERT D.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, 34th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Fondouk, Tunisia, April 9th, 1943. Entered service at: Callaway, Nebr. Born: 11 July 1920, Callaway, Nebr. G.O. No.: 34, 25 April 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in action. On 9 April 1943 in the vicinity of Fondouk, Tunisia, Pvt. Booker, while engaged in action against the enemy, carried a light machinegun and a box of ammunition over 200 yards of open ground. He continued to advance despite the fact that 2 enemy machineguns and several mortars were using him as an individual target. Although enemy artillery also began to register on him, upon reaching his objective he immediately commenced firing. After being wounded he silenced 1 enemy machinegun and was beginning to fire at the other when he received a second mortal wound. With his last remaining strength he encouraged the members of his squad and directed their fire. Pvt. Booker acted without regard for his own safety. His initiative and courage against insurmountable odds are an example of the highest standard of self-sacrifice and fidelity to duty.
MOSKALA, EDWARD J.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 383d Infantry, 96th Infantry Division. Place and date: Kakazu Ridge, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, April 9th, 1945. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 6 November 1921, Chicago, Ill. G.O. No.: 21, 26 February 1946. Citation: He was the leading element when grenade explosions and concentrated machinegun and mortar fire halted the unit’s attack on Kakazu Ridge, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands. With utter disregard for his personal safety, he charged forty yards through withering, grazing fire and wiped out two machinegun nests with well-aimed grenades and deadly accurate fire from his automatic rifle. When strong counterattacks and fierce enemy resistance from other positions forced his company to withdraw, he voluntarily remained behind with eight others to cover the maneuver. Fighting from a critically dangerous position for three hours, he killed more than twenty-five Japanese before following his surviving companions through screening smoke down the face of the ridge to a gorge where it was discovered that one of the group had been left behind, wounded. Unhesitatingly, Pvt. Moskala climbed the bullet-swept slope to assist in the rescue, and, returning to lower ground, volunteered to protect other wounded while the bulk of the troops quickly took up more favorable positions. He had saved another casualty and killed four enemy infiltrators when he was struck and mortally wounded himself while aiding still another disabled soldier. With gallant initiative, unfaltering courage, and heroic determination to destroy the enemy, Pvt. Moskala gave his life in his complete devotion to his company’s mission and his comrades’ well-being. His intrepid conduct provided a lasting inspiration for those with whom he served.
CALLAHAN, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 122d Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Macoupin County, Ill. Birth: Shelby County, Ky. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
CAREY, JAMES L.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 10th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox Courthouse, Va., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: —— Birth: Onondaga County, N.Y. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Daring bravery and urging the men forward in a charge.
COOK, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 119th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Pleasant Hill, La., April 9th, 1864. Entered service at: Quincy, Ill. Birth: England. Date of issue: 19 September 1890. Citation: During an attack by the enemy, voluntarily left the brigade quartermaster, with whom he had been detailed as a clerk, rejoined his command, and, acting as first lieutenant, led the line farther toward the charging enemy.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company L, 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox Courthouse, Va., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Butler County, Pa. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 4th Virginia Cavalry (C.S.A.).
FINKENBINER, HENRY S.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 107th Ohio Infantry Place and date: At Dingles Mill, S.C., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at. ——. Birth: North Industry, Ohio. Date of issue: 30 March 1898. Citation: While on the advance skirmish line and within direct and close fire of the enemy’s artillery, crossed the mill race on a burning bridge and ascertained the enemy’s position.
Rank and organization: Major, 121st Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Appomattox Courthouse, Va., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 15 October 1872. Citation: Capture of flag of 46th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox Campaign, Va., March 29th to April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: New Brighton, Pa. Birth: Pittsburgh, Pa. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company H, 119th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Bushnell, McDonough County, Ill. Birth: Belmont County, Ohio. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: While leading his company in an assault, Capt. McConnell braved an intense fire that mowed down his unit. Upon reaching the breastworks he found that he had only one member of his company with him, Pvt. Wagner. He was so close to an enemy gun that the blast knocked him down a ditch. Getting up, he entered the gun pit, the guncrew fleeing before him. About 30 paces away he saw a Confederate flag bearer and guard which he captured with the last shot in his pistol.
MERRIAM, HENRY C.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 73d U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Houlton, Maine. Birth: Houlton, Maine. Date of issue: 28 June 1894. Citation: Volunteered to attack the enemy’s works in advance of orders and, upon permission being given, made a most gallant assault.
MILLER, HENRY A.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company B, 8th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Decatur, Ill. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
MOORE, DANIEL B.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 11th Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Mifflin, Wis. Born: 12 June 1838, lowa County, Wis. Date of issue: 8 August 1900. Citation: At the risk of his own life saved the life of an officer who had been shot down and overpowered by superior numbers.
MYERS, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 1st Maryland Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox Courthouse, Va., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 14 June 1871. Citation: Gallantry in action; was five times wounded.
NICHOLS, HENRY C.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company E, 73d U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Brandon, Vt. Date of issue: 3 August 1897. Citation: Voluntarily made a reconnaissance in advance of the line held by his regiment and, under a heavy fire, obtained information of great value.
PAYNE, THOMAS H. L.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company E, 37th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Mendota, La Salle County, Ill. Born: 5 October 1840, Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 1 April 1898. Citation: While acting regimental quartermaster, learning of an expected assault, requested assignment to a company that had no commissioned officers present; was so assigned, and was one of the first to lead his men into the enemy’s works.
|PENTZER, PATRICK H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company C, 97th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Gillespie, Macoupin County, Ill. Birth: Marion County, Mo. Date of issue: 9 October 1 879. Citation: Among the first to enter the enemy’s entrenchments, he received the surrender of a Confederate general officer and his headquarters flag.
|REBMANN, GEORGE F.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 119th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Browning, Schuyler County, Ill. Birth: Schuyler County, Ill. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
|ROCKEFELLER, CHARLES M.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company A, 178th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: New York. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 2 August 1897. Citation: Voluntarily and alone, under a heavy fire, obtained valuable information which a reconnoitering party of 25 men had previously attempted and failed to obtain, suffering severe loss in the attempt The information obtained by him was made the basis of the orders for the assault that followed. He also advanced with a few followers, under the fire of both sides, and captured 300 of the enemy who would otherwise have escaped.
|SOVA, JOSEPH E.
Rank and organization: Saddler, Company H, 8th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox Campaign, Va., March 29th to April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Chili, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 83d Ohio Infantry. Place and date. At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Bethany, Ohio. Birth: Butler County, Ohio. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
|TOBIE, EDWARD P.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 1st Maine Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox Campaign, Va., March 29th to April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Lewiston, Maine. Birth: Lewiston, Maine. Date of issue: 1 April 1898. Citation: Though severely wounded at Sailors Creek, 6 April, and at Farmville, 7 April, refused to go to the hospital, but remained with his regiment, performed the full duties of adjutant upon the wounding of that officer, and was present for duty at Appomattox.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 97th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Saline County, Nebr. Birth: Belgium. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 8th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Illinois. Born: 15 July 1838, Calhoun County, Mich. Date of issue: 16 January 1894. Citation: Led the right wing of his regiment, and, springing through an embrasure, was the first to enter the enemy’s works, against a strong fire of artillery and infantry.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 119th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Ft. Blakely, Ala., April 9th, 1865. Entered service at: Camden, Schuyler County, Ill. Birth: Brown County, Ill. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
The History of Kites
The exact date and origin of the kite is not known but it is believed that they were flown in China more than two thousand years ago. One legend suggests that when a Chinese farmer tied a string to his hat to keep it from blowing away in a strong wind, the first kite was born.
There are many stories about how the people of Micronesia used leaf kites to carry bait far out over the water where the gar-fish fed. The Polynesians have myths about two brother gods introducing kites to man when they had a kite duel. The winning brother flew his kite the highest. There are still contests in the islands where the highest flying kite is dedicated to the gods.The earliest written account of kite flying was about 200 B.C. when the Chinese General Han Hsin of the Han Dynasty flew a kite over the walls of a city he was attacking to measure how far his army would have to tunnel to reach past the defenses. Knowing this distance his troops reached the inside of the city, surprised their enemy, and were victorious. Kite flying was eventually spread by traders from China to Korea, and across Asia to India. Each area developed a distinctive style of kite and cultural purpose for flying them.
Men like Benjamin Franklin and Alexander Wilson used their knowledge of kite flying to learn more about the wind and weather. Sir George Caley, Samuel Langley, Lawrence Hargrave, Alexander Graham Bell, and the Wright Brothers all experimented with kites and contributed to development of the airplane.
One of the strangest uses of kite power was developed by schoolmaster George Pocock. In 1822, he used a pair of kites to pull a carriage at speeds of up to 20 miles per hour. Some of his kite trips were recorded at over 100 miles. And because road taxes at the time were based on the number of horses a carriage used, he was exempted from any tolls.
During World War I, the British, French, Italian, and Russian armies all used kites for enemy observation and signaling. The introduction of airplanes quickly made these units obsolete. The German Navy continued to use man-lifting box kites to increase the viewing range of surface-cruising submarines. In World War II, the US Navy found several uses for kites. Harry Saul’s Barrage Kite prevented airplanes from flying too low over targets. Pilots lost at sea raised the Gibson-Girl Box kite so they could be found. And Paul Garber’s Target Kite, a large steerable Diamond was used for target practice and aircraft recognition at sea.
To humans belong the plans of the heart, but from the Lord comes the proper answer of the tongue. 2 All a person’s ways seem pure to them, but motives are weighed by the Lord. 3 Commit to the Lord whatever you do, and he will establish your plans.
“We…took our horses to the meeting in the afternoon and heard the minister again upon “Seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you.” There is great pleasure in hearing sermons so serious, so clear, so sensible and instructive as these ….”
~ John Adams July 4th, 1776
“There is a certain enthusiasm in liberty, that makes human nature rise above itself, in acts of bravery and heroism.” –Alexander Hamilton (1775)
Pugnacious puhg-NAY-shuhs, adjective:
Inclined to fight; combative; quarrelsome.
Pugnacious comes from Latin pugnare, “to fight,” from pugnus, “fist.”
217 – Roman Emperor Caracalla is assassinated (and succeeded) by his Praetorian Guard prefect, Marcus Opellius Macrinus.
1513 – Explorer Juan Ponce de León declares Florida a territory of Spain.
1730 – Shearith Israel, the first synagogue in New York City, is dedicated.
1766 – First fire escape patented, wicker basket on a pulley & chain.
1789 – The U.S. House of Representatives held its first meeting.
1812 – Marines participated in the sea battle between the USS Hyder Ally and HMS General Monk.
1823 – Marines chased pirates east of Havana, Cuba.
1832 – Black Hawk War: Around three-hundred United States 6th Infantry troops leave St. Louis, Missouri to fight the Sauk Indians.
1834 – In New York City, Cornelius Lawrence became the first mayor to be elected by popular vote in a city election.
1839 – The first Intercollegiate Rodeo was held at the Godshall Ranch, Apple Valley, CA.
1862 – John D Lynde patents aerosol dispenser.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Mansfield – Union forces are thwarted by the Confederate army at Mansfield, Louisiana.
1865 – General Robert E. Lee’s retreat was cut off near Appomattox Court House. Lee requested to meet with Gen Ulysses Grant to discuss possible surrender.
1865 – Thirteenth Amendment banning slavery passed the U.S. Senate with 100% Republican support and 63% Democrat opposition.
1879 – Milk is sold in glass bottles for first time. Before milk bottles, milkmen filled the customers’ jugs.
1893 – The first recorded college basketball game occurs in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania. It is located 31 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, and on the Beaver River, six miles from its confluence with the Ohio River.
1893 – The “Critic” reports that the ice cream soda is our national drink. Invention of the ice cream soda is usually attributed to Robert M. Green, who operated a soda water concession in Philadelphia.
1873 – Alfred Paraf patented the first successful oleomargarine.
1895 – The US Supreme Court declares income tax to be unconstitutional in Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan & Trust Co.
1899 – Martha Place becomes the first woman to be executed in an electric chair.
1904 – Longacre Square in midtown Manhattan is renamed Times Square after The New York Times.
1908 – Harvard University votes to establish the Harvard Business School.
1911 – The first squash tournament was played at the Harvard Club in New York City.
1913 – The 17th Amendment to the United States Constitution, requiring direct election of Senators, becomes law. The Connecticut legislature approved it in the ratification process and completed three-fourths of the states in less than one year, the amendment takes the election of U.S. Senators out of the hands of state legislators and puts it in the hands of ordinary Americans. This was another serious blow against State sovereignty.
1916 – In Corona, California, racecar driver Bob Burman crashes, killing three and badly injuring five spectators.
1918 – World War I: Actors Douglas Fairbanks and Charlie Chaplin sell war bonds on the streets of New York City’s financial district.
1918 – World War I: The US First Aero Squadron was assigned to the Western Front for the first time on observation duty.
1925 – First planned night landings on a carrier, USS Langley, by VF-1.
1935 – The Works Progress Administration is formed when the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 becomes law.
1940 – World War II: Great Britain and France announce that they have mined Norwegian territorial waters to prevent their use by German supply ships.
1942 – World War II: Siege of Leningrad – Soviet forces open a much-needed railway link to Leningrad.
1942 – World War II: The Japanese take Bataan in the Philippines.
1942 – World War II: Overwhelmed by numbers and short of food and equipment, the American and Filipino forces remaining on the Bataan peninsula are ordered to destroy their equipment prior to a surrender.
1943 – Wendell Wilkie’s “One World” was published for the first time. “One World” was a plea for international peacekeeping after the war.
1943 – World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in an attempt to check inflation, freezes wages and prices, prohibits workers from changing jobs unless the war effort would be aided thereby, and bars rate increases to common carriers and public utilities.
1945 – On Okinawa, the forces of US 3rd Amphibious Corps, attacking northward on the island, have cut the neck of the Motobu Peninsula and US 6th Marine Division begins operations to clear it of Japanese forces. At sea, there are less intense Kamikaze attacks.
1945 – US 7th Army units capture Schweinfurt. Other Allied armies farther north also advance.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh, What It Seemed to Be” by The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Marjorie Hughes), “Personality” by Johnny Mercer, “You Won’t Be Satisfied” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day) and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1946 – The last meeting of the League of Nations, the precursor of the United Nations, is held.
1947 – The first illustrated insurance policy was issued by the Allstate Insurance Company.
1950 – “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton topped the charts.
1950 – A US Navy privateer airplane flew from Wiesbaden, West Germany, to spy over the Soviet Union with 10 people on board. Soviet reconnaissance spotted the plane over Latvia and shot it down.
1950 – A tornado ripped through Clyde, TX, just east of Abilene, TX and left a refrigerator sitting on top of a telephone pole.
1952 – President Harry Truman (D) calls for the seizure of all domestic steel mills to prevent a nationwide strike.
1953 – A Federal Grand Jury in SF indicted Hugh Bryson, president of the National Union of Marine Cooks and Stewards, on charges that he falsely claimed that he was not a communist in a Taft-Hartley affidavit.
1954 – “By the Beautiful Sea” opens at the Majestic Theater on Broadway.
1956 – Ribbon Creek Incident: Six Marine recruits drowned during exercise at Parris Island, SC and the courts-martial of Sgt. McKeon.” The McKeon court-martial had been held at Parris Island during July and August 1956. There was a moratorium on physical contact with recruits.
1960 – The U.S. Senate approves the Civil Rights Act of 1960 despite Southern Democrat senators’ marathon filibuster effort.
1961 – “Blue Moon” by The Marcels topped the charts.
1962 – Bay of Pigs invaders got thirty years imprisonment in Cuba.
1963 – Steve Brooks became only the fifth race jockey to ride 4,000 career winners.
1964 – The Supremes recorded “Where Did Our Love Go.” The song was their first No. 1 single.
1964 – Unmanned Gemini 1 launched. Its main objectives were to test the structural integrity of the new spacecraft and modified Titan II.
1965 – African-American Senate Page appointed on April 8, 1965. sixteen-year old Lawrene Bradford of New York City was the first Black Page appointed to the US Senate.
1966 – Astros and Dodgers played baseball’s first game on synthetic grass CALLED Astroturf made by Monsanto.
1966 – The cover of Time magazine asked “Is God Dead?” An article inside examined the changing view of the Judeo-Christian God.
1967 – “Happy Together” by the Turtles topped the charts.
1968 – The Academy Awards and Baseball’s Opening Day is postponed because of Martin Luther King Jr assassination.
1968 – The Beatles receive a gold record for the single, “Lady Madonna“.
1968 – Vietnam War: Khe Sanh was officially relieved after 77 days by the US 2nd Cavalry. US forces in Operation Pegasus finally retook Route 9, ending the siege of Khe Sanh. Khe Sanh had been the biggest single battle of the Vietnam War to that point.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel, “Let It Be” by The Beatles, “Instant Karma (We All Shine On)” by John Ono Lennon and “Tennessee Bird Walk” by Jack Blanchard & Misty Morgan all topped the charts.
1970 – The Senate rejected President Nixon’s nomination of G. Harold Carswell to the Supreme Court.
1971 – First legal off-track betting system begins (OTB-New York).
1972 – “A Horse with No Name” by America topped the charts.
1974 – Hank Aaron hits his 715th home run breaking Babe Ruth’s record of 714.
1975 – Frank Robinson manages the Cleveland Indians in his first game as major league baseball’s first Black manager.
1979 – The 204th and final episode of “All in the Family” ran on TV.
1981 – General of the Army Omar Bradley, commander of the 12th Army Group who ensured Allied victory over Germany, dies.
1984 -In the 4th Golden Raspberry Awards: “The Lonely Lady” won.
1985 – Following the Bhopal disaster: India files suit against Union Carbide for the disaster which killed an estimated 2,000 and injured another 200,000.
1985 – Phyllis Diller underwent a surgical procedure for permanent eyeliner to eliminate the need for eyelid makeup.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Me Amadeus” by Falco, “R.O.C.K. in the U.S.A.” by John Cougar Mellencamp, “Kiss” by Prince & The Revolution and “100% Chance of Rain” by Gary Morris all topped the charts. Prince has banned both YouTube and iTunes from using his music, calling the internet dead.
1986 – Clint Eastwood was elected mayor of Carmel, CA.
1987 – Los Angeles Dodgers executive Al Campanis resigns amid controversy over racially-charged remarks he had made while on Nightline.
1989 – Former President Reagan aide Lyn Nofzinger was sentenced to prison for illegal lobbying for Wedtech Corp.
1989 – One-handed pitcher Jim Abbott debut but lasts only 4 2/3 innings.
1989 – “She Drives Me Crazy“ by Fine Young Cannibals topped the charts.
1991 – Oakland A’s Stadium becomes first outdoor arena to ban smoking.
1991 – The show “Twin Peaks” ended its run on TV.
1992 – Retired tennis great Arthur Ashe announces that he has AIDS, acquired from blood transfusions during one of his two heart surgeries.
1994 – Smoking banned in Pentagon & all US military bases.
1995 – Former Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara, in an interview with AP Network News and “Newsweek” magazine to promote his memoirs, called America’s Vietnam War policy “terribly wrong.”
1997 – Microsoft Corp releases Internet Explorer 4.0.
1998 – A line of storms struck the southeast and killed at least 41 people. 32 were left dead in Alabama, 8 in Georgia and 1 in Mississippi. Thirty-six people were killed by tornadoes that struck Alabama, Mississippi and Georgia.
2000 – Nineteen Marines are killed when an V-22 Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft crashes near Marana, Arizona.
2000 – The Central Intelligence Agency confirmed that personnel action had been taken following the mistaken bombing of the Chinese embassy during the NATO war against Yugoslavia; one employee was reportedly fired.
2001 – Eldrick Tiger Woods won the Masters golf tournament, his 4th straight major championship in a span of 294 days.
2002 – Suzan-Lori Parks became the first African-American woman to win a Pulitzer Prize for drama for her play “Topdog/Underdog.”
2002 – The space shuttle Atlantis took off for an 11-day mission to the ISS carrying latticework and a rail car.
2002 – Saddam Hussein cuts off Iraqi oil exports to the west in a bid to force Israel to abandon its West Bank offensive. Iraq says the oil supplies will be cut off for 30 days unless Israel pulls out before then.
2003 – In the 21st day of Operation Iraqi Freedom George W. Bush and Tony Blair met in Northern Ireland and endorsed a “vital role” for the United Nations when fighting ends in Iraq.
2003 – A US errant rocket struck in Iran near the Iraqi border and killed a 13-year-old boy.
2004 – Condoleeza Rice, US national security advisor, testified before the National Commission on Terrorism Attacks and contended that that Pres. Bush did not ignore threats of terrorism in the months before Sep 11, 2001.
2004 – Fred Olivi (82), who copiloted the plane that dropped the atomic bomb on Nagasaki, died in Lemont, Ill..
2005 – Kalman Ferenczfalvi (84), credited with saving the lives of some 2,000 Jews during the Holocaust, died in Hungary.
2006 – The New Yorker magazine reported in its April 17 issue that the administration of Pres. George W. Bush is planning a massive bombing campaign against Iran, including use of bunker-buster nuclear bombs to destroy a key Iranian suspected nuclear weapons facility.
2006 – Democratic Party leaders in Vermont passed a motion asking Congress to immediately begin impeachment proceedings against President Bush.
2008 – Congressional auditors reported that federal employees charged millions of dollars for Internet dating, tailor-made suits, lingerie, lavish dinners and other questionable expenses to their government credit cards over a 15-month period.
2009 – One person is killed and four are injured in a shooting in Temecula, California.
2010 – President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev sign a new arms reduction treaty that will cut both countries’ arsenals by a third.
2010 – Scientists say Glacier National Park has lost two more of its glaciers to global warming.
2011 – The Department of Justice (DOJ) defends its probing of WikiLeaks-related Twitter accounts and dismisses as “absurd” any privacy and freedom of speech concerns.
2011 – The United States Congress reaches a deal on the 2011 United States federal budget an hour before the deadline to avoid a government shutdown.
2012 – Police arrest two men suspected in carrying out a shooting attack in Tulsa, Oklahoma, that happened on April 7, leaving three people dead and two injured. The shootings are being investigated as a hate crime.
2012 – American golfer Bubba Watson wins the US Masters defeating Louis Oosthuizen of South Africa in a playoff.
2013 – The Baroness Margaret Thatcher, former Prime Minister of Britain and friend and co-leader to President Ronald Reagan died today.
2013 – Annette Funicello, one of the best-known members of the original 1950s “Mickey Mouse Club” and a star of numerous 1960s “beach party” films, died today at a California hospital. She was just 13 when she was selected by Walt Disney himself to be one of the original Mouseketeers.
2013 – Louisville beats Michigan 82-76 to win NCAA men’s basketball championship.
1732 – David Rittenhouse, American astronomer, inventor, and mathematician (d. 1796)
1865 – Charles W. Woodworth, American entomologist (d. 1940)
1869 – Harvey Cushing, American neuorosurgeon (d. 1939)
1871 – Clarence Hudson White American photographer (d. 1925)
1911 – Melvin Calvin, American chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1997)
1912 – Sonja Henie, Norwegian figure skater and actress. Henie won 10 consecutive world championships. (d. 1969)
1918 – Betty Ford, First Lady of the United States
1920 – Carmen McRae, American jazz singer (d. 1994)
1926 – Shecky Greene, American comedian
1931 – John Gavin, American actor and politician
1940 – John Havlicek, American basketball player
1941 – Peggy Lennon, American singer (The Lennon Sisters)
1944 – Carolyn Amy, future wife of the author of Unerased History.
1946 – Catfish Hunter, American baseball player (d. 1999)
1947 – Tom DeLay, American politician
1949 – Brenda Russell, American singer/songwriter
1955 – Kane Hodder, American actor and stuntman
1966 – Robin Wright Penn, American actress
1968 – Patricia Arquette, American actress
1980 – Katee Sackhoff, American actress
LITTRELL, GARY LEE
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Advisory Team 21, 11 Corps Advisory Group. Place and date: Kontum province, Republic of Vietnam, April 4th – April 8th, 1970. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif. Born: 26 October 1944, Henderson, Ky. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sfc. Littrell, U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, Advisory Team 21, distinguished himself while serving as a Light Weapons Infantry Advisor with the 23d Battalion, 2d Ranger Group, Republic of Vietnam Army, near Dak Seang. After establishing a defensive perimeter on a hill on April 4, the battalion was subjected to an intense enemy mortar attack which killed the Vietnamese commander, one advisor, and seriously wounded all the advisors except Sfc. Littrell. During the ensuing four days, Sfc Littrell exhibited near superhuman endurance as he single-handedly bolstered the besieged battalion. Repeatedly abandoning positions of relative safety, he directed artillery and air support by day and marked the unit’s location by night, despite the heavy, concentrated enemy fire. His dauntless will instilled in the men of the 23d Battalion a deep desire to resist. Assault after assault was repulsed as the battalion responded to the extraordinary leadership and personal example exhibited by Sfc. Littrell as he continuously moved to those points most seriously threatened by the enemy, redistributed ammunition, strengthened faltering defenses, cared for the wounded and shouted encouragement to the Vietnamese in their own language. When the beleaguered battalion was finally ordered to withdraw, numerous ambushes were encountered. Sfc. Littrell repeatedly prevented widespread disorder by directing air strikes to within 50 meters of their position. Through his indomitable courage and complete disregard for his safety, he averted excessive loss of life and injury to the members of the battalion. The sustained extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by Sfc. Littrell over an extended period of time were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on him and the U.S. Army.
*MICHAEL, DON LESLIE
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 4th Battalion, 503d Infantry, 1 73d Airborne Brigade. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, April 8th, 1967. Entered service at: Montgomery, Ala. Born: 31 July 1947, Florence, Ala. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Michael, U.S. Army, distinguished himself while serving with Company C. Sp4c. Michael was part of a platoon which was moving through an area of suspected enemy activity. While the rest of the platoon stopped to provide security, the squad to which Sp4c. Michael was assigned moved forward to investigate signs of recent enemy activity. After moving approximately 125 meters, the squad encountered a single Viet Cong soldier. When he was fired upon by the squad’s machine gunner, other Viet Cong opened fire with automatic weapons from a well-concealed bunker to the squad’s right front. The volume of enemy fire was so withering as to pin down the entire squad and halt all forward movement. Realizing the gravity of the situation, Sp4c. Michael exposed himself to throw two grenades, but failed to eliminate the enemy position. From his position on the left flank, Sp4c. Michael maneuvered forward with two more grenades until he was within twenty meters of the enemy bunkers, when he again exposed himself to throw two grenades, which failed to detonate. Undaunted, Sp4c. Michael made his way back to the friendly positions to obtain more grenades. With two grenades in hand, he again started his perilous move towards the enemy bunker, which by this time was under intense artillery fire from friendly positions. As he neared the bunker, an enemy soldier attacked him from a concealed position. Sp4c. Michael killed him with his rifle and, in spite of the enemy fire and the exploding artillery rounds, was successful in destroying the enemy positions. Sp4c. Michael took up pursuit of the remnants of the retreating enemy. When his comrades reached Sp4c. Michael, he had been mortally wounded. His inspiring display of determination and courage saved the lives of many of his comrades and successfully eliminated a destructive enemy force. Sp4c. Michael’s actions were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect the utmost credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
CREWS, JOHN R.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company F, 253d Infantry, 63d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Lobenbacherhof, Germany, April 8th, 1945. Entered service at: Bowlegs, Okla. Birth: Golden, Okla. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on 8 April 1945 near Lobenbacherhof, Germany. As his company was advancing toward the village under heavy fire, an enemy machinegun and automatic rifle with rifle support opened upon it from a hill on the right flank. Seeing that his platoon leader had been wounded by their fire, S/Sgt. Crews, acting on his own initiative, rushed the strongpoint with two men of his platoon. Despite the fact that one of these men was killed and the other was badly wounded, he continued his advance up the hill in the face of terrific enemy fire. Storming the well-dug-in position single-handedly, he killed two of the crew of the machinegun at pointblank range with his M-1 rifle and wrested the gun from the hands of the German whom he had already wounded. He then with his rifle charged the strongly emplaced automatic rifle. Although badly wounded in the thigh by crossfire from the remaining enemy, he kept on and silenced the entire position with his accurate and deadly rifle fire. His actions so unnerved the remaining enemy soldiers that seven of them surrendered and the others fled. His heroism caused the enemy to concentrate on him and permitted the company to move forward into the village.
HEYL, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 23d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Hartsuff, Nebr., 28 April 1876. Entered service at: Camden, N.J. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 26 October 1897. Citation: Voluntarily, and with most conspicuous gallantry, charged with three men upon six Indians who were entrenched upon a hillside.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 1st West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox Station, Va., April 8th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Washington County, Pa. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of Confederate flag.
BRAS, EDGAR A.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 8th Iowa Infantry. Place and date: Spanish Fort, Ala., April 8th, 1865. Entered service at: Louisa County, Iowa. Birth: Jefferson County, Iowa. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
READ, MORTON A.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company D, 8th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox Station, Va., April 8th,1865. Entered service at: Brockport, N.Y. Birth: Brockport, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 1st Texas Infantry (C.S.A.)
Rank and organization: Chief Bugler, Company M, 1st West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox, Va., April 8th, 1865. Entered service at: Mason City, W. Va. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of the Sumter Flying Artillery (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 2d West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox, Va., April 8th,1865. Entered service at: Ironton, Ohio. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of the Washington Artillery (C.S.A.).
No Housework Day
The Blue Hole
The Blue Hole is a fresh water pond located in Castalia, Erie County, Ohio, in the United States. From the 1920s to 1990 the Blue Hole was a tourist site, attracting 165,000 visitors annually at the height of its popularity, partly because of its location on State Route 269, about seven miles southwest of the Cedar Point amusement park in Sandusky, Ohio.
The Blue Hole, which is approximately 75 feet in diameter, captured the public’s interest because of its clarity, vibrant blue hue and enigmatic “bottomless” appearance. Contrary to prevalent belief, the depth of the Blue Hole is not unknown, but has been sounded and found to be about forty-three to forty-five feet deep. Water temperature is about 48 degrees Fahrenheit throughout the year. Floods and droughts have no effect on temperature or water level. The Blue Hole is fed by a passing underground stream which discharges seven million gallons of water daily into Sandusky Bay to the north, which feeds into Lake Erie. The water contains lime, soda, magnesia and iron, and because the Blue Hole is anoxic, it does not sustain fish. The surrounding terrain is largely limestone, which erodes quickly upon contact with ground water, creating water-filled sinkholes. The Blue Hole was known to American Indians and was first recorded in history in 1761. Several similar blue holes are known to local residents. The actual original Blue Hole is now off limits to the public and is located on the Castalia State Fish Hatchery operated by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife. Another hole similar in size and eerie bluish-green color is open for public viewing at the hatchery.
“It is he that sitteth upon the CIRCLE of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in.”
“It is the duty of the clergy to accommodate their discourses to the times, to preach against such sins as are most prevalent, and recommend such virtues as are most wanted. For example, if exorbitant ambition and venality are predominant, ought they not to warn their hearers against those vices? If public spirit is much wanted, should they not inculcate this great virtue? If the rights and duties of Christian magistrates and subjects are disputed, should they not explain them, show their nature, ends, limitations, and restrictions, how muchsoever it may move the gall of Massachusetts.”
~ John Adams
” The best way to predict the future is to create it!”
Lacking courage; timid.
[From Latin pusillus (weak, very small), diminutive of pullus (young of an animal) + animus (spirit, mind).]
529 – First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I.
1712 – Slave revolt in New York NY.
1776 – Captain John Barry and the USS Lexington captures the HMS Edward.
1788 – American pioneers to the Northwest Territory arrive at at the confluence of the Ohio and Muskingum rivers, establishing Marietta, Ohio as the first permanent American settlement of the new United States in the Northwest Territory.
1798 – The Mississippi Territory is organized from territory ceded by Georgia and South Carolina and is later twice expanded to include disputed territory claimed by both the U.S. and Spain.
1805 – The Corps of Discovery (Lewis & Clark) breaks camp among the Mandan tribe and resumes its journey West along the Missouri River.
1818 – Gen. Andrew Jackson captured St. Marks, Fla., from the Seminole Indians.
1827 – John Walker, an English chemist, sells the first friction match. He had invented it the previous year.
1829 – Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, commences translation of the Book of Mormon, with Oliver Cowdery as his scribe.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of Shiloh ends – the Union Army under General Ulysses S. Grant defeats the Confederates near Shiloh, TN.
1863 – Civil War:Battle of Charleston, SC. The Federal fleet attack on Fort Sumter failed.
1864 – The first camel race in America was held in Sacramento, CA.
1888 – P.F. Collier published a weekly periodical for the first time. “Collier’s” became the publication’s name at a later date. The magazine was popular for 69 years.
1891 – Nebraska introduced an 8-hour work day.
1896 – Tolbert Lanston was issued a patent for the first typeface issued by the Lanston Monotype Machine Company in the USA as Modern Condensed (Series 1).
1902 – Texas Oil Company (Texaco) was formed.
1913 – The suffragists’ marched to the Capitol in Washington, D.C. By the second decade of the 20th century, woman suffrage–women’s right to vote–had become an issue of national importance in America.
1917 – Navy takes control of all wireless radio stations in the U.S.
1922 – Teapot Dome scandal: United States Secretary of the Interior leases Teapot Dome petroleum reserves in Wyoming. US Secretary of the Interior leased the reserves to Harry F. Sinclair in Wyoming.
1923 – The Workers Party of America in New York City became an official communist party.
1926 – In San Luis Obispo, Ca., lightning sparked a 5-day oil fire killing 2 people. Over 6 million barrels of oil were burned. Final damages were estimated at $15 million.
1927 – First distance public television demonstration of a working prototype of a TV. by Philo Farnsworth (21) from Washington, DC to New York City, displaying the image of Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover.
1930 – The first steel columns were set for the Empire State Building.
1932 – Erv A. Kelley, US policeman, was shot to death by gangster Pretty Boy Floyd.
1933 – Prohibition is repealed for beer of no more than 3.2% alcohol by weight, eight months before the ratification of the 21st Amendment. (See April 6th – New Beers Eve)
1940 – Booker T. Washington becomes the first African American to be depicted on a United States postage stamp. It was a ten-cent stamp.
1941 – World War II: US naval and air bases open in Bermuda. The carrier Ranger and other ships are to be based there as the Central Atlantic Neutrality Patrol.
1942 – The Navy Department today announced that Negro volunteers will be accepted for enlistment for general service in the reserve components of the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Marine Corps, and the U.S. Coast Guard.
1942 – World War II: US President Roosevelt authorizes the American commanders in the Philippines to take any necessary steps.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust – In Terebovlia, Ukraine, Germans order 1,100 Jews to undress to their underwear and march through the city of Terebovlia to the nearby village of Plebanivka where they are shot dead and buried in ditches.
1943 – World War II: In an effort to disrupt the American buildup in the Solomons, Japanese Admiral Yamamoto mounts an air offensive known as Operation I.
1943 – World War II: US Marine Lt. James Swett (1920-2009), division leader of Squadron 221, shot down seven Japanese bombers over the Solomon Islands.
1943 – NFL adopts free substitution rule. Enacted in response to the depleted rosters of the World War II period, any or all of the players may be replaced by substitutes after any play.
1943 – NFL dictates that wearing of helmets is mandatory for all players.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Dreams are Getting Better All the Time” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day), “I’m Beginning to See the Light” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “A Little on the Lonely Side” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Jimmy Brown) and “Shame on You” by Spade Cooley all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: The Japanese battleship Yamato, the largest battleship ever constructed, is sunk 200 miles north of Okinawa while en-route to a suicide mission in Operation Ten-Go. This was the last major Japanese naval operation in the Pacific Theater.
1945 – World War II: American P-51 Mustang fighters, based on Iwo Jima, escort B-29 Superfortress bombers on a raid to Tokyo.
1945 – World War II: Japanese Kamikaze attacks damage the carrier USS Hancock and the battleship Maryland as well as other ships.
1945 – World War II: First two Navy flight nurses land on an active battlefield (Iwo Jima): ENS Jane Kendeigh, USNR, and LTJG Ann Purvis, USN.
1947 – Auto pioneer Henry Ford (b.1863) died in Dearborn, Mich. Most of his personal estate, valued at $205 million, was left to the Ford Foundation.
1948 – The musical “South Pacific” by Rogers and Hammerstein debuted on Broadway.
1949 – The Rodgers and Hammerstein musical “South Pacific” opened on Broadway at the Majestic Theater for 1928 performances.
1951 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1953 – IBM unveiled the IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine. It was IBM’s first commercially available scientific computer.
1954 – “Gee” by The Crows became the first rhythm and blues single to gain attention on pop music charts.
1954 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower gives his “domino theory” speech during a news conference.
1956 – “Rock ‘n Roll Dance Party” debuted on the CBS Radio Network.
1956 – “The Poor People of Paris” by Les Baxter topped the charts.
1957 – The last of New York City’s electric trolleys completed its final run from the city’s borough of Queens to Manhattan.
1959 – Oklahoma ends prohibition, after 51 years.
1962 – “Johnny Angel” by Shelley Fabares topped the charts.
1963 – Jack Nicklaus became the youngest golfer to win the Green Jacket at the Masters Tournament. The ‘Golden Bear’ earned the win at one of golf’s premier events at the age of 23.
1964 – IBM announces the System/360. The chief architect of the S/360 was Gene Amdahl, and the project was managed by Fred Brooks, responsible to Chairman Thomas J. Watson Jr.
1966 – US recovers lost H-bomb from Mediterranean floor.
1967 – KMPX-FM, San Francisco unveiled “Progressive Rock” format. Freeform radio gained attention in 1967 when Tom Donahue began programming KMPX-FM in San Francisco with a progressive format that eliminated typical top 40 gimmicks. One of the station’s positioning statements was “no jingles, no talkovers, no time and temp, no pop singles.”
1967 – Six-Day War: Israel reported that they had shot down six Syrian MIGs.
1967 – Sonny & Cher’s movie “Good Times” debuted in Chicago, IL.
1968 – Jim Clark, two-time F1 World Champion and winner of the Indianapolis 500, dies in a racing accident during a Formula 2 race at Hockenheim, Germany.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dizzy” by Tommy Roe, “Aquarius/Let the Sun Shine In” by The 5th Dimension, “You’ve Made Me So Very Happy” by Blood, Sweat & Tears and “Who’s Gonna Mow Your Grass” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1969 – The Internet’s symbolic birth date: publication of RFC (Request for Comments) 1.
1969 – The U.S. Supreme Court in Stanley v. Georgia unanimously struck down laws prohibiting private possession of obscene material.
1969 – Bill Singer of the Dodgers is credited with the first official save, as Los Angeles defeats Cincinnati 3-2, scoring once in the 2nd and twice in the 3rd off Gary Nolan.
1970 – John Wayne, a movie veteran of over 200 films, won his first and only Oscar. The Duke earned an Academy Award for Best Actor for his role in “True Grit”, also starring Kim Darby and Glen Campbell.
1971 – President Richard Nixon announces his decision to increase the rate of American troop withdrawals from Vietnam.
1971 – President Nixon ordered Lt. Calley, imprisoned for the Mi Lai massacre, free.
1971 – Dismissal of Curt Flood’s suit against baseball is upheld by Supreme Court.
1972 – Richard McCoy (1942-1974), Vietnam veteran and pilot, hijacked a United Air Lines jet and extorted $500,000 in copycat version of the DB Cooper crime.
1972 – “Crazy” Joe Gallo, flamboyant mobster, was gunned down at his 43rd birthday party in Manhattan’s Umberto’s Clam House.
1973 – Vicki Lawrence got her number one single as “The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia” made it to the top of the pop charts.
1975 – Beverly Sills made her debut at the Metropolitan Opera in Gioacchino Rossini’s “Siege of Corinth.”
1978 – Gutenberg bible sold for $2,200,000 in New York City. It was bought by Martin Breslauer for the state museum of Baden Wurttemberg.
1978 – Development of the neutron bomb is canceled by President Jimmy Carter.
1979 – Henri LaMothe dives 28′ into 12 3/8″ of water. High-diving was a sideline occupation of LaMothe’s. His main line of work was as a doctor. In fact, he learned the high-diving trick — a special way of contorting your body when you hit the water — when he attended a medical school with a very shallow pool.
1979 – “I Will Survive” by Gloria Gaynor topped the charts.
1979 – Launching of first Trident submarine, USS Ohio (SSBN-726) at Groton, CT.
1980 – The U.S. broke diplomatic relations with Iran and imposed economic sanctions in response to the taking of hostages on November 4, 1979.
1983 – During STS-6, astronauts Story Musgrave and Don Peterson perform the first space shuttle spacewalk.
1984 – “Footloose” by Kenny Loggins topped the charts.
1985 – First live telecast of Easter Parade.
1990 – “Love Will Lead You Back” by Taylor Dayne topped the charts.
1990 – During the Iran Contra Affair, John Poindexter is found guilty of five charges for his part in the scandal (the conviction was reversed on appeal).
1991 – US military planes began airdropping supplies to Kurdish refugees who were facing starvation and exposure in the snow-covered mountains of northern Iraq. The United States warned Iraq not to interfere with the relief effort.
1995 – Baseball exhibition season begins late due to strike.
1995 – President Clinton threatened to veto a lengthy list of bills passed by the Republican-controlled House if they were not modified in the Senate.
1995 – In a prime-time television address, House Speaker Newt Gingrich declared the GOP “Contract with America” was only a beginning.
1996 – Monica Lewinsky informed President Clinton that she was to be transferred from the White House. He promised to bring her back following the elections and they had another sexual encounter.
1998 – Mary Bono, the widow of Sonny Bono, won a special election to serve out the remainder of her husband’s congressional term.
1999 – In Kentucky two volunteer firefighters, Kenneth Nickell (28) and Kevin Smith (30), were killed while battling a blaze at the Daniel Boone National Forest.
2000 – President Clinton signed the Senior Citizens Freedom to Work Act of 2000. The bill reversed a Depression-era law and allows senior citizens to earn money without losing Social Security retirement benefits.
2001 – The $297 million Mars Odyssey was launched on a six-month, 286-million-mile journey to the Red Planet and was expected to arrive near Mars Oct 24.
2003 – Embedded NPR journalists relay reports from a top official with the first Marine Division that U.S. forces near Baghdad have discovered 20 medium range BM-21 missiles armed with warheads containing deadly sarin and mustard gas that are “ready to fire.”
2003 – The US Supreme Court voted 6-3 to uphold a 50-year-old Virginia law making it a crime to burn a cross as an act of intimidation.
2003 – Jewelry valued at $4.5 million was stolen from the Lang Estate and Jewelry store on Union Square in San Francisco.
2003 – In Oakland, California, police fired rubber bullets and beanbags at anti-war protesters and dockworkers outside the Port, injuring at least a dozen demonstrators and six longshoremen standing nearby.
2003 – Iraqi Freedom: Capt. Harry Alexander Hornbuckle on the road to Baghdad led 80 US soldiers against 300 Iraqi and Syrian fighters. 200 enemy were killed with no US casualties.
2003 – The San Francisco Chronicle ran a $45,000 full-page ad that called for the impeachment of President Bush. Former US Attorney Gen’l. Ramsey Clark led the ad sponsors.
2004 – The US government issued the 1st license for a manned suborbital rocket to Scaled Composites of Mojave headed by Burt Rutan.
2004 – Represented by the ACLU, New York State Assembly man Daniel O’Donnell and his partner and 12 other same sex couples file suit against the New York Department of Health to strike down a state law defining marriage as between “a man and a woman.”
2004 – Militants inside the Abdul-Aziz al-Samarrai mosque shoot at US Marines, and Lt. Col. Brennan Byrne orders his men to return fire. “If they use the mosque as a military machine, then it’s no longer a house of worship and we strike”, he said.
2005 – Montana voted to ban smoking in all public places. Gov. Brian Schweitzer said he would sign the legislation.
2005 – The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) announces that it has drilled a hole to the lowest level of the Earth’s crust, and that it is poised to break through to the mantle, in search of the Mohorovicic discontinuity. This is a project to “drill a hole between the earth’s mantle and its core. It has been cancelled several times, the latest in 2011.
2006 – At 10 o’clock UTC NASA’s Pluto probe New Horizons crossed the orbit of Mars, after 78 days journey. This is a new Earth-to-Mars-distance flight record.
2007 – Cambridge University defeats Oxford University by one and a half lengths in the 153rd University Boat Race.
2007 – Thousands of people protest in Los Angeles, California calling for citizenship rights for undocumented immigrants to the United States.
2008 – The Kansas Jayhawks defeat the Memphis Tigers in overtime, 75-68, to win the 2008 U.S. Division I men’s college basketball championship.
2008 – The Washington Post wins six Pulitzer Prizes including the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service for a series of articles of poor conditions for veterans at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center.
2009 – US military leaders said the Pentagon has spent over $100 million in the past 6 months responding to and repairing damage from cyber attacks and other computer network problems.
2009 – MASS SHOOTING: In southern California a gunman in Temecula opened fire at a Korean Christian retreat center, leaving one woman dead and four people injured.
2009 – In Texas Jon Dale Jones (46), a former Army hospital nurse, pleaded guilty to assault and theft. He was accused of infecting fifteen patients with hepatitis C.
2009 – US District Judge Emmet G. Sullivan overturns the conviction of former Alaska Senator Ted Stevens.
2010 – us Tennis player Martina Navratilova announces she has been diagnosed with breast cancer.
2011 – General Electric Co. announces that it is investing $600 million to construct a facility for the manufacture of thin-film solar panels, and says it hopes and expects to drive the price of solar energy down.
2011 – The Hawaii Intermediate Court of Appeals dismisses an appeal from a man wanting to see President Barack Obama’s birth certificate.
2011 – Seventeen people are arrested at a protest organised by the Service Employees International Union trying to storm the Governor of Washington’s office in Olympia.
2012 – A woman and two men were shot overnight in Tulsa, Okla., in one of several shootings within a one-mile radius. Three people are dead and two in critical conditions. Police are speculating that the shootings were racially motivated because all of the victims are black; it is not believed the victims knew one another.
2013 – In college basketball:
The University of Louisville and University of Connecticut advance to the championship game of the 2013 NCAA Women’s Division I Basketball Tournament.
Drury University defeats Metropolitan State University of Denver 73–72 to win the 2013 NCAA Men’s Division II Basketball Championship.
Amherst College defeats the University of Mary Hardin–Baylor 87–80 to win the 2013 NCAA Men’s Division III Basketball Championship.
2014 – Connecticut defeats Kentucky 60–54 in the NCAA Men’s Division I Tournament final. It is the fourth national title for the Huskies.
1506 – Saint Francis Xavier, Spanish founder of the Society of Jesus (d. 1552)
1770 – William Wordsworth, English poet (d. 1850)
1803 – James Curtiss, Mayor of Chicago (d. 1859)
1859 – Walter Camp, sports authority known as the “Father of American Football” (d. 1925)
1860 – Will Keith Kellogg, American cereal manufacturer (d. 1951)
1893 – Allen Dulles, American Central Intelligence Agency director (d. 1969)
1897 – Walter Winchell, American broadcaster and journalist (d. 1972)
1908 – Percy Faith, Canadian composer and musician (d. 1976)
1915 – Billie Holiday, American singer (d. 1959)
1928 – James Garner, American actor
1929 – Bob Denard, French mercenary (d. 2007)
1933 – Wayne Rogers, American actor
1938 – Jerry Brown, American politician
1939 – Francis Ford Coppola, American film director
1939 – Sir David Frost, English broadcaster and TV host
1948 – Carol Douglas, American singer
1954 – Jackie Chan, Chinese actor, action choreographer, film director, producer, martial artist, comedian, screenwriter, singer and stunt performer.
1954 – Tony Dorsett, American football player
1971 – Jennifer Schwalbach Smith, American actress
1976 – Kevin Alejandro, American actor
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 398th Infantry, 100th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Untergriesheim, Germany, April 7th, 1945. Entered service at. Duluth, Minn. Birth: Hibbing, Minn. G.O. No.: 4, 9 January 1946. Citation: He was pinned down with other members of his company during an attack against strong enemy positions in the vicinity of Untergriesheim, Germany. Heavy artillery, mortar, and machinegun fire made any move hazardous when he stood up, shouted to the company to follow, and ran forward in the wake of a supporting tank, firing his machine pistol. Inspired by his example, his comrades advanced in the face of savage enemy fire. When his weapon was struck by shrapnel and rendered useless, he climbed to the deck of a friendly tank, manned an exposed machinegun on the turret of the vehicle, and, while bullets rattled about him, fired at an enemy emplacement with such devastating accuracy that he killed or wounded at least ten hostile soldiers and destroyed their machinegun. Maintaining his extremely dangerous post as the tank forged ahead, he blasted three more positions, destroyed another machinegun emplacement and silenced all resistance in his area, killing at least three and wounding an undetermined number of riflemen as they fled. His machinegun eventually jammed; so he secured a submachinegun from the tank crew to continue his attack on foot. When our armored forces exhausted their ammunition and the order to withdraw was given, he remained behind to help a seriously wounded comrade over several hundred yards of open terrain rocked by an intense enemy artillery and mortar barrage. By his intrepidity and inspiring courage Pfc. Colallilo gave tremendous impetus to his company’s attack, killed or wounded twenty-five of the enemy in bitter fighting, and assisted a wounded soldier in reaching the American lines at great risk of his own life.
*AMES, WILLY F., Jr.
Rank and Organization: Infantry Scout, Organization: US Army, Company G, 413th Infantry Regiment , 104th Infantry Division Born: Kansas City, MO Entered Service At: Kansas City, MO, September 11, 1942, Place and Date: April 7th, 1945 near Lippoldsberg, Germany. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in action. As lead scout during a maneuver to secure and expand a vital bridgehead, Private First Class James was the first to draw enemy fire. He was pinned down for over an hour, during which time he observed enemy positions in detail. Returning to his platoon, he assisted in working out a new plan of maneuver. He then led a squad in the assault, accurately designating targets as he advanced, until he was killed by enemy machine gun fire while going to the aid of his fatally wounded platoon leader. Private First Class James’ fearless, self-assigned actions, coupled with his diligent devotion to duty exemplified the finest traditions of the Armed Forces.
Rank and Organization: Yokio Okutsu, Technical Sergeant, US Army, 442nd Regimental Combat Team Born: 11/3/1921, Koloa, Hawaii; Entered Service At: Hawaii; Place and Date: April 7, 1945, Mount Belvedere in Italy; Citation: Technical Sergeant Yukio Okutsu distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on April 7th, 1945, on Mount Belvedere, Italy. While his platoon was halted by the crossfire of three machine guns, Technical Sergeant Okutsu boldly crawled to within 30 yards of the nearest enemy emplacement through heavy fire. He destroyed the position with two accurately placed hand grenades, killing three machine gunners. Crawling and dashing from cover to cover, he threw another grenade, silencing a second machine gun, wounding two enemy soldiers, and forcing two others to surrender. Seeing a third machine gun, which obstructed his platoon’s advance, he moved forward through heavy small arms fire and was stunned momentarily by rifle fire, which glanced off his helmet. Recovering, he bravely charged several enemy riflemen with his submachine gun, forcing them to withdraw from their positions. Then, rushing the machine gun nest, he captured the weapon and its entire crew of four. By these single-handed actions he enabled his platoon to resume its assault on a vital objective. The courageous performance of Technical Sergeant Okutsu against formidable odds was an inspiration to all. Technical Sergeant Okutsu’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
SWETT, JAMES ELMS
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Marine Fighter Squadron 221, with Marine Aircraft Group 12, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. Place and date: Solomon Islands area, April 7th, 1943. Entered service at: California. Born: 15 June 1920, Seattle, Wash. Other Navy award: Distinguished Flying Cross with 1 Gold Star. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and personal valor above and beyond the call of duty, as division leader of Marine Fighting Squadron 221 with Marine Aircraft Group 12, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, in action against enemy Japanese aerial forces in the Solomons Islands area, 7 April 1943. In a daring flight to intercept a wave of 150 Japanese planes, 1st Lt. Swett unhesitatingly hurled his four-plane division into action against a formation of fifteenenemy bombers and personally exploded three hostile planes in midair with accurate and deadly fire during his dive. Although separated from his division while clearing the heavy concentration of antiaircraft fire, he boldly attacked six enemy bombers, engaged the first four in turn and, unaided, shot down all in flames. Exhausting his ammunition as he closed the fifth Japanese bomber, he relentlessly drove his attack against terrific opposition which partially disabled his engine, shattered the windscreen and slashed his face. In spite of this, he brought his battered plane down with skillful precision in the water off Tulagi without further injury. The superb airmanship and tenacious fighting spirit which enabled 1st Lt. Swett to destroy seven enemy bombers in a single flight were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1841, Ireland. Accredited to: New Hampshire. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation. Served on board the U.S.S. Crusader and the Keokuk during various actions of those vessels. Carrying out his duties skillfully while on board the U.S.S. Crusader, Q.M. Anderson, on all occasions, set forth the greatest intrepidity and devotion. During the attack on Charleston, while serving on board the U.S.S. Keokuk April 7th, 1863, Q.M. Anderson was stationed at the wheel when shot penetrated the house and, with the scattering of the iron, used his own body as a shield for his commanding officer.
Rank and organization: Commissary Sergeant, 8th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Farmville, Va., April 7th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 30 October 1897. Citation: His regiment being surprised and nearly overwhelmed, he dashed forward under a heavy fire, reached the right of the regiment, where the danger was greatest, rallied the men and prevented a disaster that was imminent.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company G, 59th New York Veteran Infantry. Place and date: At Farmville, Va., April 7th, 1865. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: England. Date of issue: 10 August 1889. Citation: Gallantry and promptness in rallying his men and advancing with a small detachment to save a bridge about to be fired by the enemy.
New Beers Eve
New Beer’s Eve in an unofficial holiday in the United States, celebrating the end of Prohibition in the United States.The beginning of the end of Prohibition in the United States occurred as a result of the Cullen-Harrison Act and its signing into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on March 23, 1933. He had been president barely a month, having been sworn in on March 4 after a landslide victory the previous November. Sweeping into power with him was an anti-Prohibition majority in Congress known as “the wets.”
Sales of beer in the U.S would become legal on April 7, 1933, provided that the state in question had enacted its own law allowing such sales. The beer had to have an alcohol content less than 3.2% (4% ABV), compared to the 0.5% limit of the Volstead Act, because 3.2% was considered too low to produce intoxication.
On the evening of April 6, people lined up outside breweries and taverns, waiting for midnight when they would be able to legally purchase beer for the first time in over 13 years. When the act took effect at 12:01 a.m. ET April 7, trucks and carriages burst out of brewery gates bearing cases and barrels of beer for a parched republic — at least for the District of Columbia and the 20 states whose laws permitted it. Several breweries dispatched cases directly to the White House and the Capitol. Since then, the night of April 6 has been referred to as “New Beer’s Eve.”
According to the Brewers Association, more than 1.5 million barrels were snapped up in the first 24 hours.
Full-strength beer and hard liquor were still a few months away. National Prohibition wasn’t repealed until the 21st Amendment to the Constitution was ratified on December 5th.
“For I am not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the power of God that brings salvation to everyone who believes: first to the Jew, then to the Gentile.17 For in the gospel the righteousness of God is revealed—a righteousness that is by faith from first to last, just as it is written: “The righteous will live by faith.”
“A general dissolution of principles and manners will more surely overthrow the liberties of America than the whole force of the common enemy. While the people are virtuous they cannot be subdued; but when once they lose their virtue then will be ready to surrender their liberties to the first external or internal invader.”
~ Samuel Adams
“The world is more malleable than you think, and it’s waiting for you to hammer it into shape.”
chagrin shuh-GRIN, noun:
1. Acute vexation, annoyance, or embarrassment, arising from disappointment or failure.
2. To unsettle or vex by disappointment or humiliation; to mortify.
648 – Earliest total solar eclipse; chronicled by the Greeks.
1776 – Revolutionary War: Sloop-of-war Ranger, frigate Queen of France and frigate Warren capture British Hibernia and seven other vessels.
1789 – The first U.S. Congress began regular sessions at the Federal Hall in New York City.
1793 – During the French Revolution, the Committee of Public Safety becomes the executive organ of the republic, and the period known as the Reign of Terror begins.
1808 – John Jacob Astor incorporates the American Fur Company. The company grew to monopolize the fur trade in the United States, and became one of the largest businesses in the country. The company was one the first great trusts in American business. The company went out of business in 1842.
1815 – At Dartmoor Prison in southwest England seven American prisoners were killed by British soldiers under the command of Captain Thomas G. Shortland.
1830 – Joseph Smith and five others organized the Mormon Church in Seneca, NY.
1830 – Relations between the Texans and Mexico reached a new low when Mexico would not allow further emigration into Texas by settlers from the U.S.
1831 – First Scottsboro trial began in Scottsboro, Alabama. Trial of nine Black youths accused of raping two white women on a freight train became a cause celebré.
1832 – Indian Wars: The Black Hawk War begins – the Sauk warrior Black Hawk enters into war with the United States.
1862 – Civil War: The Battle of Shiloh begins – in Tennessee, forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant meet Confederate troops led by General Albert Sidney Johnston. The opposing sides slaughtered each other with such ferocity that one survivor wrote, “No blaze of glory…can ever atone for the unwritten and unutterable horrors of the scene.” Gen. Ulysses Grant after the Battle of Shiloh said: “I saw an open field… so covered with dead that it would have been possible to walk across… in any direction, stepping on dead bodies without a foot touching the ground.” More than 9,000 Americans died. The battle left some 24,000 casualties and secured the West for the Union.
1862 – Civil War: Albert Sidney Johnston (59), US and Confederate general, was killed in battle of Shiloh.
1865 – Civil War: The Battle of Sayler’s Creek – Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia fights its last major battle while in retreat from Richmond, Virginia.
1866 – The Grand Army of the Republic, an American patriotic organization composed of Union veterans of the American Civil War, is founded. It lasts until 1956.
1869 – John and Isaiah Hyatt applied for a new patent using collodion to manufacture billiard balls. The first plastic, Celluloid ,was patented.
1869 – Ebenezer Don Carlos Bassett, Principal of the Institute for Colored Youth, Philadelphia, named minister to Haiti and became the first major Black diplomat and the first American Black to receive a major appointment from the United Stated Government.
1875 – Alexander Graham Bell was granted a patent for the multiple telegraph, which sent two signals at the same time.
1889 – George Eastman places Kodak Camera on sale for first time. It was made with film available in rolls for the mass use of consumers. Previously the camera contained a 20-foot roll of paper, enough for 100 2.5-inch diameter circular pictures.
1893 – Andy Bowen & Jack Burke box 7 hours 19 minutes to no decision in St Louis (111 rounds, longest bout in boxing history)
1896 – In Athens, the opening of the first modern Olympic Games 1,500 years after the original games were banned by Roman Emperor Theodosius I. James Connolly, a self-educated 27-year-old American, won the first gold medal. Connolly‘s event, the triple jump, which was then called the hop, step, and jump, was the first final of the games.
1906 – The first animated cartoon in the United States was “Humorous Phases of Funny Faces“, copyrighted by J. Stuart Blackton.
1909 – Robert Peary and Matthew Henson allegedly reach the North Pole.
1909 – The first credit union gained legal status in Manchester, New Hampshire, through a special act of the state legislature.
1912 – Electric starter first appeared in cars. The first electrical ignition system or electric starter motor for cars was invented by GM engineers Clyde Coleman and Charles Kettering. The self starting ignition was first installed in a Cadillac on February 17, 1911. This (4/6) was the date for the general use of the invention.
1914 – American Radio Relay League (organization for hams) founded by Hiram Percy Maxim.
1916 – Charlie Chaplin became the highest-paid film star in the world when he signed a contract with Mutual Film Corporation for $675,000 a year. He was 26 years old.
1916 – WorldWar I: German government OK’d unrestricted submarine warfare.
1917 – World War I: The United States declares war on Germany. President Wilson, who had just inaugurated a policy of segregation in government agencies, told Congress that “the world must be made safe for democracy.”
1917 – The Coast Guard, which consisted of 15 cruising cutters, 200 commissioned officers, and 5000 warrant officers and enlisted men, became part of the U. S. Navy by Executive Order.
1924 – Four open-cockpit biplanes took off from Seattle for a round the world flight. Two of the planes made it back. They flew 26,000 miles in 363 hours over a 175 days at an average speed of 77 mph. The US Congress had to approve the financing and the airplanes were built by Douglas Aircraft.
1925 – Eddie Cantor recorded the standard, “If You Knew Susie.”
1926 – Walter Varney Airlines makes its first commercial flight (Varney is the root company of United Airlines).
1927 – William P. MacCracken, Jr. earned aviator license number ‘1’.
1930 – Frank Hawks made the first transcontinental glider flight. He also piloted a towed glider for 2860 miles across the US.
1930 – Hostess Twinkies invented by bakery executive James Dewar. (Update November 2012 – Hostess closed by union)
1931 – First broadcast of “Little Orphan Annie” on NBC-radio.
1936 – Tupelo-Gainesville tornado outbreak: Another tornado from the same storm system as the Tupelo tornado hits Gainesville, Georgia, killing 203.
1938 – Teflon invented by Roy J Plunkett. The story began at DuPont’s Jackson Laboratory in New Jersey. DuPont chemist, Dr. Roy J. Plunkett, was working with gases related to Freon® refrigerants, another DuPont product. Upon checking a frozen, compressed sample of tetrafluoroethylene, he and his associates discovered that the sample had polymerized spontaneously into a white, waxy solid to form polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). PTFE is inert to virtually all chemicals and is considered the most slippery material in existence.
1943 – World War II: British and American armies army linked up in Africa.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Love, Love, Love” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Skip Nelson), “Besame Mucho” by The Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Bob Eberly & Kitty Kallen), “I Love You” by Bing Crosby and “Too Late to Worry, Too Blue to Cry” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: German trucks rolled up to the safehouse of Sabina Zlatin in Izieu-Ain, France. Forty-four children and seven teachers including Mr. Zlatin were arrested. The raid was ordered by Klaus Barbie, head of the German police in Lyons.
1945 – “This is Your FBI” debuted on ABC radio.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, the US 3rd Amphibious Corps continues to advance in the north, but the US 24th Corps is held by Japanese forces along the first defenses of the Shuri Line.
1945 – World War II: The Japanese warship Yamato and nine other vessels sailed on a suicide mission to attack the U.S. fleet off Okinawa; the fleet was intercepted the next day.
1947 – The first Tony awards were presented at a dinner in the Grand Ballroom of the Waldorf-Astoria on Easter Sunday. They were named in honor of Antoinette Perry (1888-1946)
1949 – A US Coast Guard H03S-1 helicopter completed the longest unescorted helicopter ferry flight on record. The trip from Elizabeth City, NC to Port Angeles, WA via San Diego, a distance of 3,750 miles, took 10 1/2 days to complete and involved a total flight time of 57.6 hours.
1951 – Howdy Doody Episode for today. (29:36)
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr, “Anytime” by Eddie Fisher, “Please, Mr. Sun” by Johnnie Ray and “(When You Feel like You’re in Love) Don’t Just Stand There” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1954 – TV Dinner is first put on sale by Swanson & Sons.
1954 – Four weeks after being attacked on the air by Edward R. Murrow, Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy, R-Wis., delivered a filmed response on CBS’ “See It Now” in which he charged that Murrow had, in the past, “engaged in propaganda for Communist causes.”
1956 – Capitol Tower, the home of Capitol Records in Hollywood, CA, was dedicated. It was the first circular office tower designed in America. It is 13 stories tall and 92 feet in diameter.
1957 – NYC ends trolley car service. In the last year of operation before being replaced by buses in 1957, the yellow-and-orange trolleys made the 1.6-mile run in 10 minutes. A ride cost 10 cents. Some 125 passengers crowded the 44-passenger car for its last trip.
1957 – “Round and Round” by Perry Como & “Butterfly” by Charlie Gracie topped the charts.
1957 – Elvis Presley’s “All Shook Up” was released.
1958 – Arnold Palmer wins first major golf tournament – the Masters.
1959 – Hal Holbrook opened in the critically acclaimed, off-Broadway presentation of “Mark Twain Tonight”.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith, “Puppy Love” by Paul Anka, “Sink the Bismarck” by Johnny Horton and “He’ll Have to Go” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1963 – “He’s So Fine” by the Chiffons topped the charts.
1963 – The Kingsmen recorded their version of the song “Louie Louie“.
1965 – The Beach Boys recorded “California Girls.”
1965 – Launch of Early Bird, the first communications satellite to be placed in geosynchronous orbit.
1965 – Vietnam War: President Lyndon B. Johnson authorized the use of ground troops in combat operations in Vietnam.
1966 – Emmett Ashford became the first Black major league umpire.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “(Sittin’ on) The Dock of the Bay” by Otis Redding, “Young Girl” by The Union Gap, “La – La – Means I Love You” by The Delfonics and “How Long Will My Baby Be Gone” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1968 – In Richmond, Indiana’s downtown district, a double explosion kills 41 and injures 150. The explosion was fueled by gunpowder stocks at a sporting-goods store
1968 – Black Panther member Bobby Hutton (17) was killed in a gun battle with police in West Oakland, Ca., and Eldridge Cleaver was arrested.
1968 – USS New Jersey recommissioned for shore bombardment duty in Vietnam.
1970 – Four California Highway Patrol officers were killed in a 4-1/2 minute gun battle in the Newhall region of Southern California. The incident is a landmark in CHP history due both to its emotional impact and the procedural and doctrinal reforms made by the CHP in the incident’s aftermath.
1972 – Vietnam War: Easter Offensive – American forces begin sustained air strikes and naval bombardments. This was a military campaign conducted by the People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN) against the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) and the United States.
1972 – Vietnam War: Six US helicopter crew members were killed in Vietnam during a heroic rescue attempt of Air Force Lt. Col. Iceal Hambleton (1918-2004), who had been shot down on April 2.
1973 – Launch of Pioneer 11 spacecraft.
1973 – The American League of Major League Baseball begin using the Designated Hitter. Yankee Ron Blomberg becomes first designated hitter, he walks.
1973 – Roberto Clemente Day, Pirates retire his number. Clemente was one of the greatest baseball players ever to play right field and arguably to play the game. His career was cut tragically short by an accident as he was delivering emergency relief to earthquake victims in Nicaragua.
1974 – “Hooked on a Feeling” by Blue Swede topped the charts.
1975 – Bundy victim Denise Oliverson (25) disappeared from Grand Junction, Colo.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Disco Lady” by Johnnie Taylor, “Let Your Love Flow” by Bellamy Brothers, “Sweet Thing” by Rufus featuring Chaka Khan and “You’ll Lose a Good Thing” by Freddy Fender all topped the charts.
1977 – First Mariners game at the Kingdome. In their first game, the Seattle Mariners were defeated 7-0 by the Angels.
1980 – 3-M introduced Post-It Notes. In 2010 inventors, 3M scientists Arthur Fry and Spencer Silver, were inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
1983 – U.S. Interior Secretary James Watt banned the Beach Boys from the 4th of July celebration on the Washington Mall. He said rock ‘n’ roll bands attract the “wrong element.”
1983 – The U.S. Veteran’s Administration announced it would give free medical care for conditions traceable to radiation exposure to more than 220,000 veterans who participated in nuclear tests from 1945 to 1962.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Footloose” by Kenny Loggins, “Here Comes the Rain Again” by Eurythmics, “Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)” by Phil Collins and “Let’s Stop Talkin’ About It” by Janie Fricke all topped the charts.
1985 – The country group, Alabama as the album “40 Hour Week” topped the “Billboard” country chart.
1985 – “One More Night” by Phil Collins topped the charts.
1985 – William J. Schroeder became the first artificial heart recipient to be discharged from the hospital.
1987 – The Dow Jones industrial average closed above 2,400 for the first time.
1987 – Sugar Ray Leonard defeated Marvin Hagler for the middleweight title.
1988 –Black American Arctic explorer Matthew Henson (1866-1955) was re-buried next to Robert Peary in Arlington, Va.
1992 – First game in Oriole Park at Camden Yards, Baltimore Orioles beat Cleveland Indians 2-0. Rick Sutcliffe pitches the shutout for Baltimore.
1992 – The US Supreme Court limited some undercover sting operations as it ruled that a Nebraska farmer had been entrapped by postal agents into buying mail-order child pornography.
1992 – Microsoft announced Windows 3.1, upgrading Windows 3.0.
1994 – Supreme Court Justice Harry A. Blackmun announced his retirement after 24 years. Two months before his retirement he declared his opposition to capital punishment because the system was fraught with discrimination and mistakes.
1996 – “Nobody Knows” by the Tony Rich Project topped the charts.
1996 – A sorrowful President Clinton was on hand at Dover Air Force Base in Delaware to greet the arrival of 33 flag-draped caskets carrying the remains of Commerce Secretary Ron Brown and other victims of a plane crash in Croatia.
1997 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 9,000 for the first time closing at 9,033.23.
1997 – NASA officials announced they were cutting short the 16-day mission of space shuttle Columbia by 12 days because of a deteriorating and potentially explosive power generator.
1998 – Citicorp and Travelers Group announced that they would be merging. The new creation was the largest financial-services conglomerate in the world. The name would become Citigroup.
1998 – Dick Clark, Chubby Checker, Fabian and Lesley Gore appeared on CBS-TV’s “Murphy Brown.”
1998 – The British TV program for toddlers, “Teletubbies,” opened in the US.
1998 – The Dow Jones industrial average closed above 9,000 points for the first time.
1998 – President Clinton announced a ban on imports of 58 types of military-style assault weapons.
2000 – Iraq: US and British warplanes bombed military sites in southern Iraq and Iraqi military reported 14 civilians killed and 19 wounded.
2001 – US officials announced some progress toward the release of 24 military personnel in China and hoped to establish a joint US-China commission to examine the April 1 collision of a US spy plane and Chinese jet.
2003 – In the 19th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom 18 Kurdish fighters were killed and 45 wounded in northern Iraq when a US warplane mistakenly bombed a convoy. The 1st US transport plane landed at Baghdad Airport.
2003 – US forces near Baghdad reportedly found a weapons cache of around 20 medium-range Rockets, BM-21 missiles, equipped with sarin and mustard gas and “ready to fire.”
2004 – University of Connecticut becomes the first NCAA Division I school to win the men’s and the women’s U.S. amateur national basketball championships in the same season, after the women’s team three-peats.
2004 – Iraq: Insurgents and rebellious Shiites mounted a string of attacks across Iraq’s south and U.S. Marines launched a major assault on the turbulent city of Fallujah.
2005 – In southeast Afghanistan a US military helicopter crashed in bad weather. Fifteen US service members and three American civilians were killed when their Chinook helicopter crashed.
2006 – The National Geographic Society unveils the restored Gospel of Judas in Washington, D.C. Written in Coptic, the document is thought to have come from the 2nd century. It had been deteriorating rapidly when found.
2006 – Orthodox Jews in Boro Park in New York City continue to protest after a 75-year-old Hasidic man was beaten and arrested by police for talking on a cell phone while driving. NYPD Chief Joseph Esposito allegedly cursed out the protestors in anti-Semitic terms.
2007 – Arizona authorities found at least eighty suspected illegal immigrants in a house west of Phoenix and arrested two suspected smugglers.
2007 – Dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy: Monica Goodling, who was an assistant counsel to Attorney General Alberto Gonzales, resigns after refusing to testify before the Congress.
2008 – American evangelist John Hagee announced donations of $6 million to Israeli causes and said that Israel must remain in control of all of Jerusalem.
2008 – A rocket attack on the Green Zone in Baghdad results in the death of two United States Army soldiers and seventeen injuries.
2009 – Adam Dylan Leon stole a single-engine Cessna 172 from his Ontario flight school Monday and flying erratically over three states before landing more than seven hours later on a desolate stretch of highway in southern Missouri.
2009 – A “significant explosive event” occurs at the Mount Redoubt volcano in Alaska.
2009 – The US Federal Reserve said it will supply new lines of credit worth up to $287 billion to the central banks of Japan, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and EU.
2009 – Andrew Cuomo, NY state’s attorney general, filed a civil suit against J. Ezra Merkin, a New York philanthropic leader and former chairman of GMAC, on allegations that he betrayed hundreds of investors by repeatedly lying to them about how he invested their money.
2010 – The US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit rules that the FCC cannot enforce net neutrality and that Comcast can limit its customers’ access to BitTorrent.
2011 – A Navy F/A-18 crashes near Naval Air Station Lemoore in California.
2011 – The US Senate (Democrat majority) defeated a measure that would have banned the Environmental Protection Agency from regulating greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Air Act.
2012 – Thomas Kinkade, one of the most popular painters in the United States, dies in Los Gatos, California.
2012 – A Navy FA-18 Hornet crashes into an apartment complex in Virginia Beach, Virginia with minimal injuries and no fatalities.
2013 – A Navy ship named in honor of the victims and first responders of the
9/11 attack on the Pentagon joined the fleet today, serving as a floating
tribute to the people who died that day and an active warship that can
transport Marines around the world. The Navy commissioned the USS Arlington in
front of about 5,000 people in its new home port of Naval Station Norfolk.
1892 – Donald Wills Douglas, Sr., American industrialist (d. 1981)
1892 – Lowell Thomas, American travel writer (d. 1981)
1894 – Gertrude Baines, American Supercentarian
1909 – William M. Branham, American evangelist (d. 1965)
1928 – James D. Watson, American geneticist, Nobel laureate
1929 – André Previn, German-born composer and conductor
1937 – Billy Dee Williams, American actor
1941 – Don “The Snake” Prudhomme, American drag racer
1949 – Horst Ludwig Störmer, German-born physicist, Nobel laureate
1969 – Bison Dele, American basketball player (disappeared 2002)
1976 – Candace Cameron, American actress
1987 – Hilary Rhoda, American supermodel
Rank and Organization: First Lieutenant, Infantry, U.S. Army Company C, 370th Regiment, 92nd Infantry Division. Born: December 17, 1919 Cheyenne, Wyoming Citation: For extraordinary heroism in action on April 5th and April 6th, 1945, near Viareggio, Italy. Then Second Lieutenant Baker demonstrated outstanding courage and leadership in destroying enemy installations, personnel and equipment during his company’s attack against a strongly entrenched enemy in mountainous terrain. When his company was stopped by the concentration of fire from several machine gun emplacements, he crawled to one position and destroyed it, killing three Germans. Continuing forward, he attacked and enemy observation post and killed two occupants. With the aid of one of his men, Lieutenant Baker attacked two more machine gun nests, killing or wounding the four enemy soldiers occupying these positions. He then covered the evacuation of the wounded personnel of his company by occupying an exposed position and drawing the enemy’s fire. On the following night Lieutenant Baker voluntarily led a battalion advance through enemy mine fields and heavy fire toward the division objective. Second Lieutenant Baker’s fighting spirit and daring leadership were an inspiration to his men and exemplify the highest traditions of the Armed Forces.
*BEAUDOIN, RAYMOND O.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company F, 119th Infantry, 30th Infantry Division. Place and date: Hamelin, Germany, April 6th,1945. Entered service at: Holyoke, Mass. Birth: Holyoke, Mass. G.O. No.: 9, 25 January 1946. Citation: He was leading the 2d Platoon of Company F over flat, open terrain to Hamelin, Germany, when the enemy went into action with machineguns and automatic weapons, laying down a devastating curtain of fire which pinned his unit to the ground. By rotating men in firing positions he made it possible for his entire platoon to dig in, defying all the while the murderous enemy fire to encourage his men and to distribute ammunition. He then dug in himself at the most advanced position, where he kept up a steady fire, killing 6 hostile soldiers, and directing his men in inflicting heavy casualties on the numerically superior opposing force. Despite these defensive measures, however, the position of the platoon became more precarious, for the enemy had brought up strong reinforcements and was preparing a counterattack. Three men, sent back at intervals to obtain ammunition and reinforcements, were killed by sniper fire. To relieve his command from the desperate situation, 1st Lt. Beaudoin decided to make a l-man attack on the most damaging enemy sniper nest ninety yards to the right flank, and thereby divert attention from the runner who would attempt to pierce the enemy’s barrier of bullets and secure help. Crawling over completely exposed ground, he relentlessly advanced, undeterred by eight rounds of bazooka fire which threw mud and stones over him or by rifle fire which ripped his uniform. Ten yards from the enemy position he stood up and charged. At point-blank range he shot and killed two occupants of the nest; a third, who tried to bayonet him, he overpowered and killed with the butt of his carbine; and the fourth adversary was cut down by the platoon’s rifle fire as he attempted to flee. He continued his attack by running toward a dugout, but there he was struck and killed by a burst from a machinegun. By his intrepidity, great fighting skill, and supreme devotion to his responsibility for the well-being of his platoon, 1st Lt. Beaudoin single-handedly accomplished a mission that enabled a messenger to secure help which saved the stricken unit and made possible the decisive defeat of the German forces.
Sailors Creek, VA
On April 2nd General Ulysses S. Grant had broken the seige at Petersburg. The Confederate Army was on the run. That same day the Confederacy was to lose one of its longest-serving corps commanders, Lt. Gen. Ambrose Powell Hill, in a brief confrontation with two Federal soldiers.
On April 6 at Sailor’s Creek, nearly one fourth of the retreating Confederate army was cut off by Sheridan’s Cavalry and elements of the II and VI Corps. Most surrendered, including Confederate generals Richard S. Ewell, Barton, Simms, Kershaw, Custis Lee, Dubose, Hunton, and Corse. This action was considered the death knell of the Confederate army. Upon seeing the survivors streaming along the road, Lee exclaimed “My God, has the army dissolved?”
This battle was fought across Amelia, Prince Edward, and Nottoway Countys just east of Jamestown and southwest of Petersburg. Both sides experienced almost 9,000 casualties out of a total of 27,000 troops.
These men received the Medal of Honor for their actions. The reason the flags were so important was because they providfed rallying points, they guided troops and they were used to communicate the health of the unit.
For centuries the nature of warfare centered around capturing the flag of the enemy. It didn’t matter how many soldiers were killed, wounded, or captured in a battle. Victory only came when the flag was captured. Likewise, the only way to avoid being defeated was to protect your own flag. During the Civil War, more than a third of the 1520 Medals of Honor awarded went to soldiers for either capturing the enemy’s flag, or for saving the Union flag. That is because capturing the enemy’s flag was just like capturing an entire enemy unit, and saving your own flag was like saving your entire unit.
BENJAMIN, JOHN F.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company M, 2d New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Orange County, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag of 9th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 141st Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Towanda, Pa. Birth: Bradford County, Pa. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
BOON, HUGH P.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company B, 1st West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at:——. Born: 28 July 1831, Washington, Pa. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
BREST, LEWIS F.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 57th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Mercer, Pa. Date of Issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 10th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Buffalo, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 July 1865. Citation: Charged the enemy and assisted Sgt. Norton in capturing a field piece and two prisoners
CALKIN, IVERS S.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company M., 2d New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Willsborough, N.Y. Birth: Essex County, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 18th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 1st Maine Heavy Artillery. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: St. John, New Brunswick. Birth: St. John, New Brunswick. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
CLAPP, ALBERT A.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company G, 2d Ohio Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Pompey, N.Y. Date of issue: 24 April 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag of the 8th Florida Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 138th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at. Fort Kennedy, Pa. Birth: Lancaster, Pa. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
CUNNINGHAM, FRANCIS M.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company H, 1st West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at: Springfield, Pa. Birth: Somerset County, Pa. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag of 12th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.) in hand-to-hand battle while wounded.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 2d New York Heavy Artillery. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at: New York. Birth: Wales. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
DOCKUM, WARREN C.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 121st New York Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Clintonville, N Y. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of Savannah Guards (C.S.A.), after two other men had been killed in the effort.
EDDY, SAMUEL E.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 37th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at: Chesterfield, Mass. Birth: Vermont. Date of issue: 10 September 1897. Citation: Saved the life of the adjutant of his regiment by voluntarily going beyond the line and there killing one of the enemy then in the act of firing upon the wounded officer. Was assailed by several of the enemy, run through the body with a bayonet, and pinned to the ground, but while so. situated he shot and killed his assailant.
FORD, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company E, 88th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 121st New York Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: German Flats, N.Y. Birth: German Flats, N.Y. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
GRIBBEN, JAMES H.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company C, 2d New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 12th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 61st New York Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Canada, Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
HAWTHORNE, HARRIS S.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 121st New York Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Otsego, N.Y. Born: 1832, Salem, N.Y. Date of issue: 29 December 1894. Citation: Captured the Confederate Gen. G. W. Custis Lee.
HAYNES, ASBURY F.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 17th Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Maine. Birth: Edinburgh, Maine. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company M, 2d Ohio Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
HOLMES, WILLIAM T.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 3d Indiana Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Indianapolis, Ind. Birth: Vermilion County, Ill. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 27th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Commissary Sergeant, 1st West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Clymer, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company L, 2d Ohio Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Highland, Ohio. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 38th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 3d Indiana Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: North Madison, Ind. Birth: Brown County, Ohio. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
KENYON, SAMUEL P.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 24th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creeks, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at: Oriskany Falls, N.Y. Birth: Ira, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 67th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Albany, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag of 50th Georgia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 2d West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at: Ironton, Ohio. Birth: Littleton, N.H. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 6th North Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 40th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Syracuse, N.Y. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag.
LANE, MORGAN D.
Rank and organization: Private, Signal Corps, U.S. Army. Place and date: Near Jetersville, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at: Allegany Mich. Birth: Monroe, N.Y. Date of issue: 16 March 1866. Citation Capture of flag of gunboat Nansemond.
LANFARE, AARON S.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company B, 1st Connecticut Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Branford, Conn. Birth: Branford, Conn. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 11th Florida Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 2d Ohio Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Columbus, Ohio. Birth: Richland County, Ohio. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of General Kershaw’s headquarters.
MATTOCKS, CHARLES P
Rank and organization: Major, 17th Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Portland, Maine. Born: 1840, Danville, Vt. Date of issue: 29 March 1899. Citation: Displayed extraordinary gallantry in leading a charge of his regiment which resulted in the capture of a large number of prisoners and a stand of colors.
McDONALD, JOHN WADE
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 20th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., April 6th,1862. Entered service at: Wayneville, DeWitt County, Ill. Birth: Lancaster, Ohio. Date of issue: 27 August 1900. Citation: Was severely wounded while endeavoring, at the risk of his life, to carry to a place of safety a wounded and helpless comrade.
McELHlNNY, SAMUEL O.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 2d West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Point Pleasant, W. Va. Birth. Meigs County, Ohio. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
McWHORTER, WALTER F.
Rank and organization: Commissary Sergeant, Company E, 3d West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Harrison County, W. Va. Birth: Lewis County, W. Va. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 6th Tennessee Infantry (C.S.A.).
MENTER, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 5th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Birth: Palmer, N.Y. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Private, Company M, 2d New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Jamaica, N.Y. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 24 April 1865. citation: Capture of flag of 25th Battalion Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.); was taken prisoner, but successfully retained his trophy until recaptured.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 1st New York (Lincoln) Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation. Capture of flag of 40th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
MUNDELL, WALTER L.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 5th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Dallas, Mich. Born: 1839, Michigan. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
NEVILLE, EDWIN M.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company C, 1st Connecticut Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Waterbury, Conn. Birth:——. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
NORTON, ELLIOTT M.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company H, 6th Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Cooper, Mich. Birth: Connecticut. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Rushed ahead of his column and captured the flag of the 44th Tennessee Infantry (C.S.A.).
NORTON, JOHN R.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company M, 1st New York (Lincoln) Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ontario County, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
NORTON, LLEWELLYN P
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company L, 10th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at: Cortland County, N.Y. Birth: Scott, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 July 1865. Citation: Charged the enemy and, with the assistance of Corporal Bringle, captured a fieldpiece with two prisoners.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company B, 2d Rhode Island Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 2 April 1865, at Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Providence, R.I. Birth. England. Date of issue: 29 May 1867. Citation. Planted the first color on the enemy’s works. Carried the regimental colors over the creek after the regiment had broken and been repulsed.
|PITMAN, GEORGE J.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 1st New York (Lincoln) Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Recklestown N.J. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of the Sumter Heavy Artillery (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 July 1865. Citation: Among the first to check the enemy’s countercharge.
|RICHARDSON, WILLIAM R.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 2d Ohio Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at: Washington, Ohio. Birth: Cleveland, Ohio. Date of issue: 7 April 1866. Citation: Having been captured and taken to the rear, made his escape rejoined the Union lines, and furnished information of great importance as to the enemy’s position and the approaches thereto.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company I, 61st New York Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at: Hamilton, N.Y. Birth: Hamilton, N.Y. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Captured the flag of the 6th Alabama Cavalry (C.S.A.).
*SAVACOOL, EDWIN F.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company K, 1st New York (Lincoln) Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: Marshall, Mich. Born: 1835, Jackson, Mich. Date of issue: 24 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag, during which he was wounded and died several days later in Washington, D.C.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 1st West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Preston County, W. Va. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 76th Georgia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 3d Indiana Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at: Dillsboro, Ind. Birth: Dearborn County, Ind. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 2d New York Heavy Artillery. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th,1865. Entered service at: Liberty, N.Y. Birth: Bethel, N.Y. Date of issue: 24 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date. At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ocean County, N.J. Date of issue: 3 July 1865. Citation: Capture of flag; and was the first man over the works in the charge.
|TAGGART, CHARLES A.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 37th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Blandford, Mass. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: New Brunswick, N.J. Birth: Millstone, N.J. Date of issue: 3 July 1865. Citation: Was among the first to check the enemy’s countercharge.
|WILSON, CHARLES E.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Bucks County, Pa. Date of issue: 3 July 1865. Citation: Charged the enemy’s works, colors in hand, and had two horses shot from under him.
|WOODS, DANIEL A.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 1st Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., April 6th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ohio County, W. Va. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 18th Florida Infantry (C.S.A.).
History of Ice Cream and related issues!!!
One theory on the first “ice cream”was actually a frozen dessert and it is credited to Emperor Nero of Rome. It was a mixture of snow (which he sent his slaves into the mountains to retrieve) and nectar, fruit pulp and honey. If you live in snow country this recipe is still excellent. A second theory tells of Marco Polo, bringing back with him to Europe from the Far East, recipes for water ices….said to be used in Asia for thousands of years.
In more recent history:
1700 – Governor Bladen of Maryland served ice cream to his guests.
1776 – The first ice cream parlor in America opened in New York City in 1776.
1812 – Dolly Madison created a sensation when she served ice cream as a dessert in the White House at the second inaugural ball.
Ice Cream Cones
Italo Marchiony sold his homemade ice cream from a pushcart on Wall Street. He reduced his overhead caused by customers breaking or wandering off with his serving glasses by baking edible waffle cups with sloping sides and a flat bottom. He patented his idea in 1903. Others link the ice cream cone’s invention to the 1904 World’s Fair in St. Louis. An ice cream vendor there reportedly didn’t have enough dishes to keep up with demand, so he teamed up with a waffle vendor who rolled his product into “cornucopias.”
Ice Cream Sodas
Invention of the ice cream soda is usually attributed to Robert M. Green, who operated a soda water concession in Philadelphia. Green, who sold a mix of carbonated water, cream, and syrup, apparently ran out of cream and substituted ice cream, hoping his customers wouldn’t notice. But they did and daily sales receipts climbed from $6 to $600.
Ice Cream Sundaes
During the stuffy Victorian period, drinking soda water was considered improper, so some towns banned its sale on Sundays. An enterprising druggist in Evanston, IN, reportedly concocted a legal Sunday alternative containing ice cream and syrup, but no soda. To show respect for the Sabbath, he later changed the spelling to “sundae.”
Ice Cream Churn
In 1843, New England housewife Nancy Johnson invented the hand-cranked ice cream churn. She patented her invention but lacked the resources to make and market the churn herself. Mrs. Johnson sold the patent for $200 to a Philadelphia kitchen wholesaler who, by 1847, made enough freezers to satisfy the high demand. From 1847 to 1877, more than 70 improvements to ice cream churns were patented.
Great New Flavors
In 1983, Cookies ‘N Cream, made with real Oreo cookies, became an instant hit, climbing to number five on the list of best-selling ice cream flavors. It also holds the distinction of being the fastest growing new flavor in the history of the ice cream industry.
In 1991, another flavor phenomenon was created — Chocolate Chip Cookie Dough ice cream, which combines the best part of the Chocolate Chip cookie — the raw dough — with creamy vanilla ice cream and semi-sweet chocolate chips.
“So do not fear, for I am with you; do not be dismayed, for I am your God. I will strengthen you and help you; I will uphold you with my righteous right hand.”
“It is only when the people become ignorant and corrupt, when they degenerate into a populace, that they are incapable of exercising their sovereignty. Usurpation is then an easy attainment, and an usurper soon found. The people themselves become the willing instruments of their own debasement and ruin.”
– James Monroe
“That some achieve great success, is proof to all that others can achieve it as well.”
~ Abraham Lincoln
Of gigantic size.
After Brobdingnag, the fictional region where everything was enormous, in Jonathan Swift’s satire “Gulliver’s Travels.”
2348 BC Noah’s ark grounded, Mount Ararat (calculated date).
456 – St. Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop.
1566 – Two-hundred Dutch noblemen, led by Hendrik van Brederode, force themselves into the presence of Margaret of Parma and present the Petition of Compromise, denouncing the Spanish Inquisition in the Netherlands. The Inquisition is suspended and a delegation is sent to Spain to petition Philip II.
1614 – In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. Takes Christian name Rebecca.
1621 – The Mayflower sets sail from Plymouth, Massachusetts on a return trip to England.
1768 – First US Chamber of Commerce forms (New York NY).
1792 – President George Washington exercises his authority to veto a bill, the first time this power is used. The vetoed bill was entitled: “An Act for an apportionment of Representatives among the several States according to the first enumeration.”
1806 – Isaac Quintard patents apple cider. The fresh juice is known in the U.S. as sweet apple cider.
1861 – Civil War: Gideon Wells, the Secretary of the Navy, issued official orders for the relief of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, S.C.
1861 – Civil War: Federals (Union) abandoned Ft. Quitman, Tx. The fort was a United States Army installation on the Rio Grande in Texas, south of present-day Sierra Blanca, 20 miles southeast of McNary in southern Hudspeth County. The fort is now a ghost town,
1862 – Civil War: Union forces under General George McClellan arrive at Yorktown, Virginia, and establish siege lines instead of directly attacking the Confederate defenders.
1865 – Civil War: Confederate General Robert E. Lee pulls his troops from Amelia Court House and begins a desperate race west to escape pursuing Yankee troops.
1865 – Civil War: As the Confederate army approached Appomattox, it skirmished with Union army at Amelia Springs and Paine’s Cross Road, Va.
1869 – Daniel Bakeman, the last surviving soldier of the Revolutionary War, died at the age of 109.
1881 – Houston and Thomson were granted a patent for a centrifugal separator (a creamer.)
1887 – Anne Sullivan taught Helen Keller the meaning of the word “water” as spelled out in the manual alphabet.
1894 – Eleven strikers were killed in riot at Connellsville, Penn.
1915 – Heavyweight Jess Willard KOs Jack Johnson in Havana. He knocked out the Johnson to win the World Heavyweight Boxing Championship in 26 rounds.
1923 – Firestone Tire and Rubber Company begins production of balloon-tires.
1925 – People gathered in Robinson’s drugstore in Dayton, Tennessee, agree that the Butler Bill, opposing the teaching of evolution, might provide a grand opportunity for profit if they can arrange for the trial to happen in their town.
1927 – Johnny Weissmuller (Tarzan) set records in 100 and 200 m. free style.
1933 – The first operation to remove a lung was performed at Barnes Hospital in St. Louis, MO.
1936 – Tupelo-Gainesville tornado outbreak: An F5 tornado kills 233 in Tupelo, Mississippi.
1939 – Membership in Hitler Youth became obligatory.
1941 – In San Francisco, Castro & Fillmore streetcars replaced by buses.
1941 – World War II: German commandos secured docks along the Danube River in preparation for Germany’s invasion of the Balkans.
1942 – World War II: The Japanese Navy attacks Colombo in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Royal Navy Cruisers HMS Cornwall and HMS Dorsetshire are sunk southwest of the island.
1942 – World War II: The Japanese offensive down the Bataan peninsula continues. In fierce fighting, at Mount Samat, the US 21st Division takes heavy losses as the Japanese take the position.
1942 – World War II: US naval forces (Task Force 39) arrive to reinforce the British naval position at Scapa Flow, with the aircraft carrier, USS Wasp and the battleship, USS Washington.
1944 – World War II: The Ploesti oil installations and rail sidings are attacked by B-17 and B-24 bombers of the US 15th Air Force, with a strong fighter escort.
1944 – World War II: 270 inhabitants of the Greek town of Kleisoura are executed by the Germans.
1945 – World War II: On the Italian west coast, American units from US 5th Army begin to attack north near Massa, south of La Spezia.
1945 – World War II: The battleship, USS Nevada, is damaged by Japanese fire from a shore battery.
1945 – It is announced that General MacArthur will take control of all army forces in the Pacific theater of operations and Admiral Nimitz will command all naval forces in preparation for the invasion of Japan.
1947 – Five Marine guards were killed and eight wounded when attacked by Communist Chinese raiders near the Hsin Ho ammunition depot in Northern China.
1948 – WGN TV channel 9 in Chicago IL (IND) begins broadcasting. The call letters are derived from the Chicago Tribune’s first slogan, “World’s Greatest Newspaper.”
1949 – Fireside Theater debuts on television.
1949 – The 60 year old St. Anthony’s Hospital burned and killed 77 in Effingham, Illinois and leads to nationwide fire code improvements.
1950 – Coast Guard announced that former enlisted women of the Coast Guard Reserve could apply for enlistment in the Women’s Volunteer Reserve SPARS.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “If” by Perry Como, “Mockingbird Hill” by Patti Page, “Aba Daba Honeymoon” by Debbie Reynolds and Carleton Carpenter and “The Rhumba Boogie” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1951 – Ethel and Julius Rosenberg are sentenced to death for performing espionage for the Soviet Union.
1951 – Korean War: Operation RUGGED, a general advance to the Kansas Line north of the 38th parallel began.
1951 – General MacArthur’s letter of March 20 to House minority leader Joseph W. Martin criticizing President Truman’s strategy and the concept of limited war was made public.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1955 – Winston Churchill resigns as British Prime Minister.
1955 – Richard J. Daley was elected mayor of Chicago. He served 6 terms until his death in 1976.
1958 – “Tequila” by the Champs topped the charts.
1958 – Irvin Feld’s Greatest Show of Stars opened an 80-day tour of North America.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Venus” by Frankie Avalon, “Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods, “It’s Just a Matter of Time” by Brook Benton and “When It’s Springtime in Alaska (It’s Forty Below)” by Johnny Horton all topped the charts.
1962 – NASA civilian pilot Neil A Armstrong takes X-15 to an altitude of 180,000 feet.
1964 – The Searchers appeared on “The Ed Sullivan Show.” They were the first British Invasion group to appear on the show after the Beatles.
1964 – Army Gen. Douglas MacArthur died in Washington, D.C., at age 84.
1965 – Lava Lamp Day celebrated. The first motion lamp was designed in 1963 by an engineer, Edward Craven Walker, who sold it under the name Astro Lamp.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Happy Together” by The Turtles, “Dedicated to the One I Love” by The Mamas & The Papas, “Somethin’ Stupid” by Nancy Sinatra & Frank Sinatra and “Walk Through This World with Me” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1967 – Philadelphia ’76er Wilt Chamberlain sets NBA record of 41 rebounds.
1967 – Vietnam War: The 4th Marines began a multi-battalion operation named Big Horn in Thua Thien Province.
1968 – Vietnam War: The siege of Khe Sahn ended after 76 days.
1968 – Riots erupted across the US following the King assassination.
1969 – “Dizzy” by Tommy Roe topped the charts.
1969 – Vietnam War: Massive antiwar demonstrations occur in many U.S. cities.
1972 – Baseball season is delayed due to a strike. Eighty-six games were cancelled due to the first general players’ strike, which was eventually resolved on April 13th.
1973 – NFL adopts jersey numbering system (ie quarterbacks, 1-19), 20-49 for running backs and defensive backs, 50-59 for centers and linebackers, 60-79 for defensive linemen and interior offensive linemen other than centers, and 80-89 for wide receivers and tight ends.
1974 – The World Trade Center, the tallest building in the world at 110 stories, opened.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lovin’ You” by Minnie Riperton, “Philadelphia Freedom” by The Elton John Band, “No No Song/Snookeroo” by Ringo Starr and “I Just Can’t Get Her Out of My Mind” by Johnny Rodriguez all topped the charts.
1980 – “Another Brick In The Wall (Pt.II)” by Pink Floyd topped the charts.
1982 – St Louis Cardinals’ Jim Kaat pitches in record 24th consecutive season.
1982 – After eight years of publication to the radio and recording industry, “Record World” magazine ceased publication and filed for bankruptcy protection.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Billy Jean” by Michael Jackson, “Do You Really Want to Hurt Me” by Culture Club, “Hungry like the Wolf” by Duran Duran and “When I’m Away from You” by The Bellamy Brothers all topped the charts.
1984 – Kareem Abdul-Jabbar breaks Wilt Chamberlain’s all-time career scoring record of 31,419 points.
1985 – Broadcasters banded together to play the single, “We Are the World”, at 10:50 a.m. E.S.T.
1986 – “Rock Me Amadeus” by Falco topped the charts.
1986 – A discotheque in Berlin was bombed by Libyan terrorists. The U.S. attacked Libya with warplanes in retaliation on April 15, 1986.
1987 – Fox TV network premieres showing “Married With Children” & “Tracey Ullman.”
1987 – In New York state the Schoharie Creek Bridge, a New York State Thruway bridge over the Schoharie Creek near Fort Hunter, collapsed killing 10 people.
1989 – David Letterman becomes first network TV series to use dolby stereo.
1990 – Paul Newman won a court victory over Julius Gold to keep giving all profits from Newman foods to charity.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Coming Out of the Dark” by Gloria Estafan, “This House” by Tracie Spencer, “Hold You Tight” by Tara Kemp and “Two of a Kind, Workin’ on a Full House” by Garth Brooks all topped the charts.
1991 – The Space Shuttle “Atlantis” blasted off on a mission that included the deploying of the second of “NASA’s” Great Observatories. NASA launched the $670 million Compton Gamma Ray Observatory.
1991 – Former Texas Senator John Tower, his daughter and 21 other people were killed in a commuter plane crash near Brunswick, Georgia.
1992 – Several hundred-thousand abortion rights demonstrators march in Washington, D.C.
1993 – Colorado Rockies first game – lose to New York Mets 3-0.
1993 – Construction begins on Cleveland’s Rock & Roll Hall of Fame.
1993 – Florida Marlins first game – beat Los Angeles Dodgers 6-3.
1995 – The House of Representatives passed, 246-188, a tax-cut bill, the final major item in the Republicans’ “Contract with America.”
1997 – Galileo’s third flyby of Ganymede, the largest of Jupiter’s Galilean satellites, occurred on 05 April 1997 at 07:10 UTC. At that time, Galileo came about 3095 km from the surface of Ganymede.
1999 – The US Supreme Court ruled that police can search the belongings of car passengers while seeking evidence against the driver.
1999 – Two Libyans suspected of bringing down Pan Am flight 103 in 1988 are handed over for eventual trial in the Netherlands.
1999 – At Newport News, Va., members of local 8888 of the United Steelworkers went on strike. The shipyard offered a $2.49 per hour raise over 3 years as opposed to the union demand for $3.95.
2000 – Netscape 6 browser was introduced.
2000 – Russia the FSB arrested a US businessman for suspected espionage after he allegedly bought information on defense technology from Russian scientists. Edmond Pope was later identified as a retired navy captain working for Pennsylvania State Univ. in applied research.
2001 – The United States and China intensified negotiations for the release of an American spy plane’s crew; President Bush, in a conciliatory gesture, expressed regret over the plane’s Apr 1 in-flight collision with a Chinese fighter that triggered the tense standoff.
2001 – Wang Zhizhi of China, 7 feet and 1 inch tall, made his NBA debut for the Dallas Mavericks. Wang Zhizhi became the first Chinese player to play in the NBA when he took the court for Dallas against Atlanta.
2003 – In the 18th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US 3rd Infantry troops entered Baghdad for the first time.
2003 – Ali Hassan al-Majid (king of spades), Saddam Hussein’s first cousin and dubbed “Chemical Ali” by opponents for ordering a 1988 poison gas attack that killed thousands of Kurds, was killed by an airstrike on his house in Basra.
2004 – A United States government study finds that an African-American woman was 23 times more likely to be infected with AIDS than is a white woman. Recent studies suggest that 30 percent of all black bisexual men may be infected with HIV.
2005 – At 3 seconds after 1:02 AM it was 01:02:03 04/05/06. Thought you’d like to know.
2006 – US scientists have successfully implanted artificial bladders (artificial urinary bladders) grown in the laboratory from patients’ own cells into patients.
2006 – San Francisco picked Google and EarthLink to bring free Internet access to the city.
2008 – A bus carrying high school band students tips over on Interstate 94 northwest of Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, killing one person and leaving three others in critical condition.
2008 – 183 women and children are taken into protective custody from the YFZ Ranch compound linked to polygamist Warren Jeffs.
2009 – U.S. President Barack Obama announces his plan for worldwide nuclear disarmament.
2010 – The Duke Blue Devils defeat the Butler Bulldogs, 61-59, to win their fourth U.S. men’s college basketball title.
2010 – An explosion at a coal mine in Raleigh County, West Virginia kills 25 miners and leaves several missing. This is the deadliest mining accident in the U.S. in at least 35 years.
2011 – Florida Congresswoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz is appointed as the Chairwoman of the US Democratic National Committee.
2011 – The Idaho House of Representatives passes a bill banning abortion once a fetus is more than 20 weeks old
2011 – The US Federal Trade Commission considers taking antitrust action against Google.
2012 – President Barack Obama attempted to erase 200 years of legal history, stating in a press conference with world leaders, that the law codified in the Supreme Court Case Marbury v. Madison (5 U.S. 137) 1803 is not valid: “Ultimately, I’m confident that the Supreme Court will not take what would be an unprecedented extraordinary step of overturning a law that was passed by a strong majority of a democratically elected congress.” – Barack Obama 4-5-2012
2013 – An ESPN investigation claims that 12 Auburn University football players tested positive for synthetic cannabis in the 2011 season, and that the school’s athletic department kept the test results confidential.
1523 – Blaise de Vigenère, French cryptographer (d. 1596)
1588 – Thomas Hobbes, English philosopher (d. 1679)
1649 – Elihu Yale, American benefactor of Yale University (d. 1721)
1816 – Samuel Freeman Miller, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1890)
1827 – Joseph Lister, English surgeon (d. 1912)
1856 – Booker T. Washington, American educator (d. 1915)
1900 – Spencer Tracy, American actor (d. 1967)
1901 – Melvyn Douglas, American actor (d. 1981)
1908 – Bette Davis, American actress (d. 1989)
1916 – Gregory Peck, American actor (d. 2003)
1917 – Robert Bloch, American author (d. 1994)
1920 – Arthur Hailey, American writer. His novels included “Hotel” and ”Airport.” (d. 2004)
1922 – Gale Storm, American singer (d. 2009)
1928 – Tony Williams, American singer (The Platters) (d. 1992)
1937 – Allan R. Thieme, American inventor
1949 – Judith Resnik, American astronaut (d. 1986)
1951 – Dean Kamen, American inventor
1961 – Lisa Zane, American actress
1962 – Lana Clarkson, American actress (d. 2003)
1981 – Michael A. Monsoor, a United States Navy SEAL killed in Iraq and posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.
*BUKER, BRIAN L.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Detachment B-55, 5th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces. Place and Date: Chau Doc Province, Republic of Vietnam, 5 April 1970. Entered service at: Bangor, Maine. Born: 3 November 1949, Benton, Maine. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Buker, Detachment B-55, distinguished himself while serving as a platoon adviser of a Vietnamese mobile strike force company during an offensive mission. Sgt. Buker personally led the platoon, cleared a strategically located well-guarded pass, and established the first foothold at the top of what had been an impenetrable mountain fortress. When the platoon came under the intense fire from a determined enemy located in two heavily fortified bunkers, and realizing that withdrawal would result in heavy casualties, Sgt. Buker unhesitatingly, and with complete disregard for his personal safety, charged through the hail of enemy fire and destroyed the first bunker with hand grenades. While reorganizing his men for the attack on the second bunker, Sgt. Buker was seriously wounded. Despite his wounds and the deadly enemy fire, he crawled forward and destroyed the second bunker. Sgt. Buker refused medical attention and was reorganizing his men to continue the attack when he was mortally wounded. As a direct result of his heroic actions, many casualties were averted, and the assault of the enemy position was successful. Sgt. Buker’s extraordinary heroism at the cost of his life are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
DEWERT, RICHARD DAVID
Rank and organization: Hospital Corpsman, U.S. Navy. Hospital Corpsman attached to Marine infantry company, 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Korea, 5 April 1951. Entered service at: Taunton, Mass. Birth: Taunton, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a HC, in action against enemy aggressor forces. When a fire team from the point platoon of his company was pinned down by a deadly barrage of hostile automatic weapons fired and suffered many casualties, HC Dewert rushed to the assistance of one of the more seriously wounded and, despite a painful leg wound sustained while dragging the stricken Marine to safety, steadfastly refused medical treatment for himself and immediately dashed back through the fireswept area to carry a second wounded man out of the line of fire. Undaunted by the mounting hail of devastating enemy fire, he bravely moved forward a third time and received another serious wound in the shoulder after discovering that a wounded marine had already died. Still persistent in his refusal to submit to first aid, he resolutely answered the call of a fourth stricken Marine and, while rendering medical assistance, was himself mortally wounded by a burst of enemy fire. His courageous initiative, great personal valor, and heroic spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of overwhelming odds reflect the highest credit upon HC Dewert and enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
KELLY, THOMAS J.
WORLD WAR II
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Medical Detachment, 48th Armored Infantry Battalion, 7th Armored Division. Place and date: Alemert, Germany, 5 April 1945. Entered service at: Brooklyn, N.Y. Birth: Brooklyn, N.Y. G.O. No.: 97, 1 November 1945. Citation: He was an aid man with the 1st Platoon of Company C during an attack on the town of Alemert, Germany. The platoon, committed in a flanking maneuver, had advanced down a small, open valley overlooked by wooded slopes hiding enemy machineguns and tanks, when the attack was stopped by murderous fire that inflicted heavy casualties in the American ranks. Ordered to withdraw, Cpl. Kelly reached safety with uninjured remnants of the unit, but, on realizing the extent of casualties suffered by the platoon, voluntarily retraced his steps and began evacuating his comrades under direct machinegun fire. He was forced to crawl, dragging the injured behind him for most of the 300 yards separating the exposed area from a place of comparative safety. Two other volunteers who attempted to negotiate the hazardous route with him were mortally wounded, but he kept on with his herculean task after dressing their wounds and carrying them to friendly hands. In all, he made ten separate trips through the brutal fire, each time bringing out a man from the death trap. Seven more casualties who were able to crawl by themselves he guided and encouraged in escaping from the hail of fire. After he had completed his heroic, self-imposed task and was near collapse from fatigue, he refused to leave his platoon until the attack had been resumed and the objective taken. Cpl. Kelly’s gallantry and intrepidity in the face of seemingly certain death saved the lives of many of his fellow soldiers and was an example of bravery under fire.
*MUNEMORI, SADAO S.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 100th Infantry Battalion, 442d Combat Team. Place and date: Near Seravezza, Italy, 5 April 1945. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif Birth: Los Angeles, Calif. G.O. No.. 24, 7 March 1946. Citation: He fought with great gallantry and intrepidity near Seravezza, Italy. When his unit was pinned down by grazing fire from the enemy’s strong mountain defense and command of the squad devolved on him with the wounding of its regular leader, he made frontal, one-man attacks through direct fire and knocked out two machineguns with grenades Withdrawing under murderous fire and showers of grenades from other enemy emplacements, he had nearly reached a shell crater occupied by two of his men when an unexploded grenade bounced on his helmet and rolled toward his helpless comrades. He arose into the withering fire, dived for the missile and smothered its blast with his body. By his swift, supremely heroic action Pfc. Munemori saved two of his men at the cost of his own life and did much to clear the path for his company’s victorious advance.
PRENDERGAST, THOMAS FRANCIS
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 2 April 1871, Waterford, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 55 19 July 1901. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy in battle while with the Eighth Army Corps, 25, 27, 29 March, and 5 April 1899.
CAMPBELL, JAMES A.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 2d New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Woodstock, Va., 22 January 1865; At Amelia Courthouse, Va., 5 April 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 30 October 1897. Citation: While his command was retreating before superior numbers at Woodstock, Va., he voluntarily rushed back with one companion and rescued his commanding officer, who had been unhorsed and left behind. At Amelia Courthouse he captured two battle flags.
CHANDLER, STEPHEN E.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster Sergeant, Company A, 24th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Amelia Springs, Va., 5 April 1865. Entered service at: Granby, Oswego County, N.Y. Birth: Michigan. Date of issue: 4 April 1898. Citation: Under severe fire of the enemy and of the troops in retreat, went between the lines to the assistance of a wounded and helpless comrade, and rescued him from death or capture.
DAVIDSIZER, JOHN A.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Paines Crossroads, Va., 5 April 1865. Entered service at: Lewiston, Pa. Birth: Milford, Pa. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Paines Crossroads, Va., 5 April 1865. Entered service at: North Sewickley, Pa. Birth: Beaver County, Pa. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
LANDIS, JAMES P.
Rank and organization: Chief Bugler, 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Paines Crossroads, Va., 5 April 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Mifflin County, Pa. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date: At Paines Crossroads, Va., 5 April 1865. Entered service at: Jersey City, N.J. Birth: Clintonville, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of a Confederate flag.
PEIRSOL, JAMES K.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 13th Ohio Cavalry. Place and date: At Paines Crossroads, Va., 5 April 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Beaver County, Pa. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
SCHMAL, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Blacksmith, Company M, 24th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Paines Crossroads, Va., 5 April 1865. Entered service at: Buffalo, N.Y. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
STEWART, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company E, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date: At Paines Crossroads, Va., 5 April 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Salem, N.J. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date: At Paines Crossroads, Va., 5 April 1865. Entered service at: Jersey City, N.J. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
THOMAS, HAMPTON S.
Rank and organization: Major, 1st Pennsylvania Veteran Cavalry. Place and date: At Amelia Springs, Va., 5 April 1865. Entered service at: Pennsylvania. Born: 3 November 1837, Quakertown, Bucks County, Pa. Date of issue: 15 January 1894. Citation: Conspicuous gallantry in the capture of a field battery and a number of battle flags and in the destruction of the enemy’s wagon train. Maj. Thomas lost a leg in this action.
TOMPKINS, AARON B.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., 5 April 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Orange, Essex County, N.J. Date of issue: 3 July 1865. Citation: Charged into the enemy’s ranks and captured a battle flag, having a horse shot under him and his cheeks and shoulders cut with a saber.
WARFEL, HENRY C.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Paines Crossroads, Va., 5 April 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Huntington, Pa. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of Virginia State colors.
YOUNG, ANDREW J.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Paines Crossroads, Va., 5 April 1865. Entered service at: Carmichaelstown, Pa. Birth: Greene County, Pa. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Chocolate Milk Powder Day (Debut 1828)
Student Government Day
Chocolate Facts & Trivia:
Chocoholic: – n [chocolate + -oholic (as in alcoholic)](1968): a person who craves or compulsively consumes chocolate. – Webster’s Dictionary
Did you know that the Aztecs considered all chocolate an aphrodisiac? Because of this, all foods made with chocolate were strictly forbidden to women.
Chocolate is old-school Viagra. Montezuma reputedly chugged a cup of chocolate before entering his harem, while Casanova called chocolate the “elixir of love” and drank it instead of champagne.Although chocolate is not an aphrodisiac, chocolate contains phenylethylamine (PEA), a natural substance that is reputed to stimulate the same reaction in the body as falling in love. So – heartbreak and loneliness are great excuses for chocolate gorging!
Christopher Columbus is said to have brought back cacao beans to King Ferdinand from his fourth visit to the New World around 1502, but they were overlooked in favor of the many other treasures he had found. Records suggest that he didn’t particularly like the Aztec delicacy of “hot chocolate”- a thick cocoa drink laced with ground chiles and dyed red to look like blood – but recognizing its potential he took a load of cocoa beans back to Spain.
The early Spanish explorers thought the primary (if not only) use of chocolate was medicinal. Chocolate drinks were developed in Spain that were seasoned with pepper, vanilla, sugar and cinnamon or mixed with beer or wine. They became such a hit that Spanish society ladies had them served during Mass.
The first attempt at making a solid chocolate product came in the 1700’s, when Mexican nuns raised money for their convent by producing and exporting solid chocolate bars.
The first “chocolate box” was introduced by Richard Cadbury in 1868, when he decorated a candy box with a painting of his young daughter holding a kitten in her arms. Cadbury also introduced the first Valentine’s Day candy box.
For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that people are without excuse.
“It will be of little avail to the people that the laws are made by men of their own choice, if the laws be so voluminous that they cannot be read, or so incoherent that they cannot be understood; if they be repealed or revised before they are promulgated, or undergo such incessant changes that no man who knows what the law is today can guess what it will be to-morrow.”
–James Madison, Federalist #62, Feb. 27, 1788
“Everything can be taken from a man but one thing; the last of the human freedoms–to choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances, to choose one’s own way.”
~ Viktor Frankl
Rodomontade \rod-uh-muhn-TADE; roh-duh-; -TAHD\, noun:
Vain boasting; empty bluster; pretentious, bragging speech; rant.
1581 – Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I.
1687 – King James II ordered that his declaration of indulgence be read in church.
1776 – The first Columbus, a 24-gun armed ship, was built at Philadelphia in 1774 as Sally; purchased for the Continental Navy in November 1775, Captain Abraham Whipple in command.
1788 – Last of the Federalist essays was published.
1812 – U.S. President James Madison enacted a ninety-day embargo on trade with the United Kingdom.
1812 – The territory of Orleans became the 18th U.S. state and will become known as Louisiana.
1818 – The United States Congress adopts the flag of the United States with 13 red and white stripes and one star for each state (then 20).
1832 – Charles Darwin aboard HMS Beagle reached Rio de Janeiro.
1841 – William Henry Harrison dies of pneumonia becoming the first President to die in office and the one with the shortest term served (31 days).
1848 – Thomas Douglas became the first San Francisco public teacher.
1850 – Los Angeles, California is incorporated as a city.
1859 – Bryant’s Minstrels debut “Dixie” in New York City in the finale of a blackface minstrel show.
1859 – Daniel Emmett introduced “I Wish I was in Dixie’s Land.” Just two years later, the song became the CIVIL WAR song of the Confederacy..
1862 – Civil War: the Battle of Yorktown began as Union General George B. McClellan closed in on Richmond,VA.
1862 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Carondelet,. Commander Walke, shrouded by a heavy storm at night, successfully ran past Island No. 10, Mississippi River, and reached Major General John Pope’s army at New Madrid.
1865 – Civil War: A day after Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln visits the Confederate capital.
1865 – Civil War: Lee’s army arrived at the Amelia Courthouse.
1887 – Argonia, Kansas elects Susanna M. Salter as the first female mayor in the United States.
1891 – Distinguished American actor Edwin Booth made his final stage appearance. This last appearance was in Brooklyn Academy of Music as Hamlet.
1911 – Hugh Chalmers, automaker, suggests idea of baseball MVP.
1914 – The first known serialized moving picture opened in New York City. “The Perils of Pauline” starring Pearl White is considered the most famous suspense serial in cinema history. Week after week, Pauline evades attempts on her life. She fights pirates, Indians, gypsies, rats, sharks, and her dastardly guardian. Her most familiar plight is being tied to railroad tracks with a rapidly approaching train.
1916 – US Senate agrees (82-6) to participate in WWI. The House agreed, 373-50 on April 6.
1918 – World War I: Second Battle of the Somme ends.
1921 – The US Navy Department completes the first helium production plant in Fort Worth, Texas.
1922 – First radio station in the US to have “W” call letters. WAAB, Baton Rouge, Louisiana was the first to begin with a “W”.
1932 – Vitamin C 1st isolated, C C King, University of Pittsburgh.
1932 – George Bernard Shaw’s “Too True to be Good” premieres in New York City.
1938 – After seven years of singing on the radio, Kate Smith began a new noontime talk show.
1939 – Glenn Miller recorded his theme song, “Moonlight Serenade.”
1940 – Richard Rodgers’ and Lorenz Hart’s “Higher & Higher,” premiered in New York City.
1941 – World War II: Field Marshal Erwin Rommel captured the British held town of Benghazi in North Africa.|
1944 – World War II: British troops captured Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
1944 – World War II: The Bucharest marshalling yards are bombed by heavily escorted bombers of the US 15th Air Force. A total of 20 aircraft are lost. Civilian casualties are reported to amount to 2942 killed and 2126 injured.
1945 – World War II: American troops liberate Ohrdruf forced labor camp in Germany.
1945 – World War II: Soviet Army takes control of Hungary.
1945 – World War II: US 9th Army units have reached the river Weser opposite Hameln. Troops from US 3rd Army capture Kassel while other units take Gotha and advance near Erfurt. The Nazi gold reserves are captured in the salt mine at Merkers.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, the forces of US 10th Army begin to meet the first real Japanese resistance on the ground.
1948 – Elder baseball owners race from home to 1st base in one of the slowest sprints in history. 84-year-old Connie Mack, owner of the Philadelphia Athletics, and 78-year-old Clark Griffith, owner of the Washington Senators, raced from home plate to first base in a pre-game exhibition. It was a tie.
1949 – Twelve nations sign the North Atlantic Treaty creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton, “Dearie” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Kenny Gardner Trio), “Music, Music, Music” by Teresa Brewer and “Long Gone Lonesome Blues” by Hank Williams all topper the charts.
1953 – “The Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1959 – “Venus” by Frankie Avalon topped the charts.
1959 – Buddy Holly’s “It Doesn’t Matter Anymore” hit #13. It was his first posthumous hit.
1960 – Elvis Presley recorded “Are You Lonesome Tonight.”
1964 – The Beatles occupy the top five positions on the Billboard Hot 100 pop chart. They were: 1) Can’t Buy Me Love, 2) Twist and Shout, 3) She Loves You, 4) I Want to Hold Your Hand & 5) Please Please Me.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler, “(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration” by The Righteous Brothers, “Daydream” by The Lovin’ Spoonful and “Waitin’ in Your Welfare Line” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1967 – Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers his “Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence” (56:49) speech in New York City’s Riverside Church.
1967 – Johnny Carson quit “The Tonight Show.” He returned three weeks later after getting a raise of $30,000 a week.
1967 – “CHINOOK II” ended in Vietnam (17 Feb – 4 Apr).
1967 – The U.S. lost its 500th plane over Vietnam.
1968 – Bobby Goldsboro received a gold record for the single, “Honey“.
1968 – Civil rights leader Martin Luther King, 39, was assassinated while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tenn. James Earl Ray (d.1998) confessed and pleaded guilty in Mar, 1969.
1968 – NASA launches Apollo 6.
1969 – Dr. Denton Cooley implants the first temporary artificial heart. The patient, Haskell Karp, lived for 65 hours on an artificial heart.
1970 – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel topped the charts.
1971 – “Follies” opens at Winter Garden Theater New York City for 524 performances.
1971 – Veterans stadium in Philadelphia, PA, was dedicated this day.
1972 – First electric power plant fueled by garbage begins operating.
1973 – The World Trade Center in New York is officially dedicated.
1973 – A Lockheed C-141 Starlifter, dubbed the Hanoi Taxi, famous for bringing back the first returned prisoners of war, makes the last flight of Operation Homecoming.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sunshine on My Shoulders” by John Denver, “Hooked on a Feeling” by Blue Swede, “Bennie & The Jets” by Elton John and “Would You Lay with Me (In a Field of Stone)” by Tanya Tucker all topped the charts.
1974 – Hank Aaron ties Babe Ruth’s home-run record by hitting his 714th.
1975 – Microsoft is founded as a partnership between Bill Gates and Paul Allen.
1975 – Vietnam War: Operation Baby Lift – An Air Force C-5A Galaxy crashes near Saigon, South Vietnam shortly after takeoff, transporting orphans – 172 die.
1975 – The first group of boat people from Vietnam began arriving in Malaysia. More than 1 million people fled from the close of the war to the early 1980s.
1977 – The Coast Guard designated its first female Coast Guard aviator, Janna Lambine. She was Coast Guard Aviator #1812.
1981 – “Rapture” by Blondie topped the charts.
1981 – Henry Cisneros became the first Mexican-American elected mayor of a major U.S. city, which was San Antonio, TX.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Love Rock ’N Roll” by Joan Jett & The Blackhearts, “We Got the Beat” by the Go-Go’s, “Make a Move on Me” by Olivia Newton-John and “Bobbie Sue” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1983 – At Cape Canaveral, the space shuttle Challenger took off on its first flight and the first US female into space was Sally Ride.
1984 – President Ronald Reagan calls for an international ban on chemical weapons.
1984 – Bob Bell retired as Bozo the Clown on WGN-TV in Chicago, IL.
1984 – Winston Smith in Orwell’s “1984” begins his secret diary.
1985 – Gary Dotson, who served six years of a prison sentence for rape, was freed on bail from the Joliet Correctional Center in Illinois after his accuser, Cathleen Crowell Webb, testified that the attack had never occurred.
1987 – “Nothing’s Gonna Stop Us Now” by Starship topped the charts.
1987 – The U.S. charged the Soviet Union with wiretapping a U.S. Embassy.
1988 – Arizona Governor Evan Mecham was voted out of office by the Arizona Senate. Mecham was found guilty of diverting state funds to his auto business and of trying to impede an investigation into a death threat to a grand jury witness.
1989 – Kareem Abdul-Jabbar’s last NBA game in Seattle.|
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Black Velvet” by Alannah Myles, “Love Will Lead You Back” by Taylor Dayne, “I Wish It Would Rain Down” by Phil Collins and “Hard Rock Bottom of Your Heart” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.
1990 – Gloria Estefan left the hospital after being injured in a bus crash on March 20.
1991 – Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania and six others are killed when a helicopter collides with their plane over an elementary school in Merion, Pennsylvania.
1992 – Bill Clinton campaign acknowledged that he had received an induction notice in April 1969 while attending college in Oxford, England; Clinton said the notice arrived after he was due to report, and that his local draft board had told him he could complete the school term.
1994 – Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark found Netscape Communications Corporation under the name “Mosaic Communications Corporation.”
1995 – U.S. Senator Alfonse D’Amato ridiculed judge Lance Ito using a mock Japanese accent on a nationally syndicated radio program. D’Amato apologized two days later for the act.
1995 – It was reported that Nuclear Matrix Proteins that act as a type of scaffolding for DNA were being used as markers for cancer. They were also thought to help turn genes off and on.
1996 – Comet Hyakutake was imaged by the USA Asteroid Orbiter Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous.
1995 – ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT: Francisco Martin Duran, who had raked the White House with semiautomatic rifle fire on October 29,1994, was convicted in Washington of trying to assassinate President Clinton. Duran was later sentenced to 40 years in prison.
1996 – US intelligence indicated the Libya was building a chemical weapons plant at Tarhunah, 40 miles southeast of Tripoli. The plant was reportedly designed to replace a plant a Rabta, 55 miles SW of Tripoli, where Libya insists that only pharmaceuticals are produced.
1997 – Braves officially open Turner Field against Cubs.
1997 – Space shuttle Columbia blasted off from Cape Canaveral, Fla., on what was supposed to have been a 16-day mission. However, a defective power generator forced the shuttle’s return four days later.
1998 – “All My Life” by K-Ci & Jojo topped the charts.
1998 – Richard Butler, chief arms inspector in Iraq, refused to certify the Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction have been destroyed.
2001 – Hideo Nomo became the fourth pitcher in major league history to throw a no-hitter in both leagues with Boston’s 3-to-0 victory over Baltimore. Nomo, who threw a no-hitter for Los Angeles in 1996, joined Cy Young, Jim Bunning and Nolan Ryan as the only pitchers with no-hitters in both leagues.
2001 – US diplomats met with 24 US crew members held by the Chinese military on Hainan island.
2001 – The US Pentagon reportedly destroyed its last canister of napalm, a jellied gasoline used extensively during the Vietnam war. It was developed in 1942 by Harvard and Army chemists who combined naphthene and palmitate. It was made by Dow Chemical from 1965-1969.
2002 – An Iraqi defector tells Vanity Fair that Iraq is developing a long-range ballistic missile system that could carry weapons of mass destruction up to 700 miles.
2002 – It was reported that Saddam Hussein of Iraq had raised financial payments to the relatives of suicide bombers from $10k to $25k.
2003 – In the 17th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom thousands of Iraqis fled Baghdad as US forces seized the international airport to the west and armored convoys pressed in from the south.
2003 – A Marine unit found concentrations of cyanide and mustard-gas agents in the Euphrates River near Nasiriyah.
2004 – Muqtada al-Sadr issued a call to his followers to “terrorize your enemy.” Gunmen opened fire on the Spanish garrison in the holy city of Najaf during a huge demonstration by followers of al-Sadr, an anti-American Shiite Muslim cleric.
2005 – The US Supreme Court ruled that IRAs can’t be seized in bankruptcies.
2006 – Republican Rep. Tom DeLay of Texas, the House of Representatives’ fallen majority leader, announced the end of a re-election fight he was in jeopardy of losing and said he would soon step down from the US Congress.
2007 – Film director Robert Clark (67), best known for the holiday classic “A Christmas Story” (1983), was killed in southern California with his son in a head-on crash with a vehicle steered into the wrong lane by a drunken driver.
2008 – US airline Skybus announces that it will be shutting down Saturday and cancels all flights.
2008 – The raid on the FLDS owned ranch called the YFZ Ranch in Texas, 401 children were taken into custody. 133 woman were taken into state custody also, the total number of woman and children is 534.
2009 – MASS SHOOTING: In Pittsburgh, Pa., Richard Poplawski (23) shot and killed three police officers, who were responding to a domestic violence disturbance.
2011 – A possible tornado hits an automotive plant in Hopkinsville, Kentucky near Nashville, injuring seven people. Storms kill eight people in Northern Georgia, one in Mississippi and another in Tennessee. A record number of American storm reports in a 24-hour period is set, likely in part due to increased reporting.
2011 – Barack Obama is to run for a second term as President of the United States next year, his campaign announces.
2011 – The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame announces its induction class of 2011, which will be formally inducted in August. The class includes Dennis Rodman, Chris Mullin, Tex Winter, Herb Magee, Tara VanDerveer, Artis Gilmore, Arvydas Sabonis,Teresa Edwards, Reece “Goose” Tatum and Tom “Satch” Sanders.
2012 – The first deployment of US Marines arrives in the Australian city of Darwin, Northern Territory.
2012 – Parents at a Massachusetts elementary school were left fuming after teachers removed the word ‘God’ from the Lee Greenwood song ‘God Bless the U.S.A.’ – then pulled it from a school concert when they complained. Children at Stall Brook Elementary School in Bellingham were reportedly told to sing ‘We love the U.S.A.’ instead of ‘God Bless the U.S.A.‘ – the original title of the popular country song.
2013 – American Pulitzer Prize-winning film reviewer Roger Ebert dies at the age of 70 following a battle with cancer.
2013 – Colorado lawmakers attempted to ban welfare recipients from withdrawing
their benefits at ATMs located inside strip clubs. The bill was killed by
2013 -The Hubble Space Telescope observes the most distant supernova on record.
186 – Caracalla, Roman emperor (d. 217)
1718 – Benjamin Kennicott, English churchman and Hebrew scholar (d. 1783)
1821 – Linus Yale, Jr., American inventor and manufacturer (d. 1868)
1884 – Isoroku Yamamoto, Japanese naval commander (d. 1943)
1895 – Arthur Murray, American dance teacher (d. 1991)
1902 – Stanley G. Weinbaum, American science-fiction author (d. 1935)
1906 – John Cameron Swayze, American journalist (d. 1995)
1908 – Ernestine Gilbreth Carey, American memoirist (Cheaper by the Dozen) (d. 2006)
1924 – Gil Hodges, American baseball player and manager (d. 1972)
1931 – Bobby Ray Inman, American admiral and intelligence director
1932 – Richard Lugar, American politician
1932 – Anthony Perkins, American actor (d. 1992)
1938 – A. Bartlett Giamatti, American university president and Commissioner of Baseball (d. 1989)
1948 – Berry Oakley, American bassist (The Allman Brothers Band) (d. 1972)
1958 – Mary-Margaret Humes, American actress
1965 – Robert Downey Jr., American actor
*SMITH, PAUL R.
Rank and Organization: Sergeant First Class, United States Army. Born: September 24th, 1969 in El Paso, TX.
Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Sergeant First Class Paul R. Smith distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with an armed enemy near Baghdad International Airport, Baghdad, Iraq on April 4th, 2003. On that day, Sergeant First Class Smith was engaged in the construction of a prisoner of war holding area when his Task Force was violently attacked by a company-sized enemy force. Realizing the vulnerability of over one-hundred fellow soldiers, Sergeant First Class Smith quickly organized a hasty defense consisting of two platoons of soldiers, one Bradley Fighting Vehicle and three armored personnel carriers. As the fight developed, Sergeant First Class Smith braved hostile enemy fire to personally engage the enemy with hand grenades and anti-tank weapons, and organized the evacuation of three wounded soldiers from an armored personnel carrier struck by a rocket propelled grenade and a 60mm mortar round. Fearing the enemy would overrun their defenses, Sergeant First Class Smith moved under withering enemy fire to man a .50 caliber machine gun mounted on a damaged armored personnel carrier. In total disregard for his own life, he maintained his exposed position in order to engage the attacking enemy force. During this action, he was mortally wounded. His courageous actions helped defeat the enemy attack, and resulted in as many as fifty enemy soldiers killed, while allowing the safe withdrawal of numerous wounded soldiers. Sergeant First Class Smith’s extraordinary heroism and uncommon valor are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, the Third Infantry Division “Rock of the Marne,” and the United States Army.
CONDEE-FALCON, FELIX M.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 1st Battalion, 82nd Division. Place and date: April 4, 1969, Ap Tan Hoa, Vietnam Born: February 24, 1938, Juncos, Puerto Rico Entered Service At: Chicago, IL Departed: Yes (04/04/1969) Date of Issue: 03/18/2014
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Staff Sergeant Felix M. Conde-Falcon distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an acting Platoon Leader in Company D, 1st Battalion, 505th Infantry Regiment, 3d Brigade, 82d Airborne Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Ap Tan Hoa, Republic of Vietnam on April 4, 1969. While entering a heavily wooded section on the route of advance, Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon and his company encountered an extensive enemy bunker complex, later identified as a battalion command post. Following tactical artillery and air strikes on the heavily-secured enemy position, Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon’s platoon was selected to assault and clear the bunker fortifications. Moving out ahead of his platoon, Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon charged the first bunker, heaving grenades as he went. As the hostile fire increased, he crawled to the blind side of an entrenchment position, jumped to the roof, and tossed a grenade into the bunker aperture. Without hesitating, he proceeded to two additional bunkers, both of which he destroyed in the same manner as the first. Rejoining his platoon, Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon advanced about one hundred meters through the trees before coming under intense hostile fire. Selecting three men to accompany him, he maneuvered toward the enemy’s flank position. Carrying a machinegun, he single-handedly assaulted the nearest fortification, killing the enemy inside before running out of ammunition. After returning to the three men with his empty weapon and taking up an M-16 rifle, he concentrated on the next bunker. Within ten meters of his goal, Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon was shot by an unseen assailant and soon died of his wounds. Staff Sergeant Conde-Falcon’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
BUCKLEY, HOWARD MAJOR
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 23 January 1868, Croton Falls, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the presence of the Enemy in battle while with the Eighth Army Corps on 25, 27, 29 March, and April 4th, 1899.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. (Enlisted as Joseph Melvin). Born: 28 August 1876, Cohoes, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy in battles, while with the Eighth Army Corps on 25, 27, and 29 March, and on April 4th, 1899.
BREWER, WILLIAM J.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 2d New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Appomattox campaign, Va., April 4th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Putnam County, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 May 1865. Citation: Capture of engineer flag, Army of Northern Virginia.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 1st Louisiana Cavalry. Place and date: At Fort Blakely, Ala., April 4th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 8 June 1865. Citation: Captured the flag of the 6th Alabama Cavalry.
The Pony Express
The key issue was communications. Amazingly no one in the government had ever even considered how to get information from the East Coast to the West Coast quickly. Here it was, the Civil War was brewing and no one had any idea on how to get information back and forth to California. Remember the California had only been a state ten years when the planning for the war had started. Because California was a “Northern” state (slavery not permitted) there had to be a fast way to communicate. In comes William H. Russell, William B. Waddell, and Alexander Majors. They planned a means of taking mail across the country by men on horseback. They called it the Pony Express.
The Pony Express consisted of relays of men riding horses carrying saddlebags of mail across a 2000-mile trail. The pony riders covered 250 miles in a 24-hour day. The service opened officially on April 3, 1860, when riders left simultaneously from St. Joseph, Missouri, and Sacramento, California. The first westbound trip was made in 9 days and 23 hours and the eastbound journey in 11 days and 12 hours. Eventually, the Pony Express had more than 100 stations, 80 riders, and between 400 and 500 horses.
The express route was extremely hazardous, but only one mail delivery was ever lost. The service lasted only 19 months until October 24, 1861, when the completion of the Pacific Telegraph line ended the need for its existence. The romantic drama surrounding the Pony Express has made it a part of the legend of the American West.
The route of the Pony Express was brutally simple: west out of St. Joseph, the eastern portion of the route followed the Oregon Trail from Kansas through what is now Nebraska and Wyoming. The rider would pass by many of the landmarks then familiar to thousands of overland travelers.
Proceeding up the Little Blue River to Fort Kearney, the route then continued up the Platte River passing Courthouse Rock, Chimney Rock, and Scotts Bluff to Fort Laramie; then along the Sweetwater River passing Independence Rock, Devil’s Gate, and Split Rock, to Fort Caspar, through South Pass to Fort Bridger and Salt Lake City, across the Great Basin and Utah-Nevada Desert, skirting Lake Tahoe, over the rugged Sierra Nevada mountains into California as fast as man and horse could go, day and night. The entire trip of the Pony Express would be cutting the time of mail and news delivery to the west coast by more than half.
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 He was with God in the beginning. 3 Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. 4 In him was life,and that life was the light of all mankind. 5 The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.
Thomas Paine (1737–1809). Common Sense. 1776.
SOME writers have so confounded society with government, as to leave little or no distinction between them; whereas they are not only different, but have different origins. Society is produced by our wants, and government by wickedness; the former promotes our happiness positively by uniting our affections, the latter negatively by restraining our vices. The one encourages intercourse, the other creates distinctions. The first is a patron, the last a punisher.
Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one; for when we suffer, or are exposed to the same miseries by a government, which we might expect in a country without government, our calamity is heightened by reflecting that we furnish the means by which we suffer. Government, like dress, is the badge of lost innocence; the palaces of kings are built on the ruins of the bowers of paradise. For were the impulses of conscience clear, uniform, and irresistibly obeyed, man would need no other lawgiver; but that not being the case, he finds it necessary to surrender up a part of his property to furnish means for the protection of the rest; and this he is induced to do by the same prudence which in every other case advises him out of two evils to choose the least.
“It is inevitable that some defeat will enter even the most victorious life. The human spirit is never finished when it is defeated… it is finished when it surrenders.”
~ Ben Stein
nocebo (no-SEE-bo) noun
A substance producing harmful effects in someone because it is believed to be harmful, but which in reality is harmless.Nocebo comes from the Latin nocebo (I will harm), from nocere (to harm). It is modeled after placebo (I will please).]
33 – Christ was crucified (according to astronomers Humphreys and Waddington). The date is highly debated.
1776 – Harvard College conferred the first honorary Doctor of Laws degree to George Washington.
1790 – Revenue Marine Service (US Coast Guard) was created.
1796 – The first elephant was shipped to the US from Bengal, India, by Broadway showman Jacob Croninshield.
1797 – Captain Thomas Truxtun issued first known American signal book using numerary system.
1800 – Martha Washington became the first U.S. President’s wife to be allowed to ‘frank’ mail.
1817 – The “Peace Establishment Act” reduced the Marine Corps to 50 officers and 942 enlisted.
1829 – James Carrington of Wallingford, CT patented the coffee mill.
1847 – Marines and Sailors from the USS Portsmouth landed and captured San Lycas, Mexico.
1854 – The San Francisco Mint opened at 608 Commercial St. It issued $4 million in gold coins this year. An Indian princess appeared on gold dollars.
1860 – The first successful Pony Express run from Saint Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California begins.
1862 – Civil War: Slavery was abolished in Washington, DC.
1865 – Civil War: Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederate States of America. This is the most significant sign yet that the Confederacy is nearing its final days.
1865 – Civil War: Battle at Namozine Church, Virginia (Appomattox Campaign).
1866 – Rudolph Eickemeyer and G. Osterheld of Yonkers, New York patented a blocking and shaping machine for hats.
1868 – An earthquake estimated at magnitude 7.9 hit the Big Island of Hawaii. 46 people were killed in the resulting tsunami at Keauhou and 31 died in a landslide at Kapapala.
1882 – Wood block alarm invented, when alarm rang, it dropped 20 wood blocks. The blocks were suspended over one’s bed, it dropped the blocks on the occupant’s head when tripped.
1882 – Jesse James, living in St. Joseph, Missouri under his pseudonym “Thomas Howard” was shot by Robert Ford. Ford was a member of Jesse’s gang whom Jesse regarded as a friend. Ford shot Jesse in the back while Jesse was hanging a picture.
1885 – Gottlieb Daimler is granted a German patent for his engine design.
1895 – Trial of the libel case instigated by Oscar Wilde begins, eventually resulting in his imprisonment on charges of homosexuality.
1910 – Highest mountain in North America, Alaska’s Mount McKinley climbed. The lower north peak was first climbed by a group of climbers bringing a 6 by 12 foot American flag and a 14-foot spruce pole.
1911 – The US Supreme Court ruled against Dr. Miles Medical Co., which had sued a distributor for selling at cut rate prices. In 1937 Congress passed the Free Trade Law letting states selectively allow price fixing to protect small retailers.
1926 – Second flight of a liquid-fueled rocket by Robert Goddard. Goddard launched a rocket in a flight that covered a distance of 50 feet in 4.2 seconds.
1930 – The first of two Academy Awards banquets this year was held in Los Angeles at the Fiesta Room of the Ambassador Hotel. The awards were given for films released between 2 August 1928 and 31 July 1929.
1933 – First airplane flight over Mount Everest. Due to downdrafts and lack of altitude they did not make it over the top but came within 2,000’ of it.
1933 – First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt informed newspaper reporters that beer would be served at the White House. This followed the March 22 legislation that legalized “3.2” beer.
1933 – The dirigible Akron crashed into the Atlantic off of New Jersey and killed 73 0f the 76 men aboard.
1936 – Al Carr KOs Lew Massey on 1 punch, :07 of the 1st round (shortest boxing bout with gloves).
1936 – Bruno Richard Hauptmann is electrocuted for the kidnapping and death of Charles Augustus Lindbergh II, the baby son of pilot Charles Lindbergh.
1939 – “Mr. District Attorney” was heard for the first time on NBC radio. The serial about the ‘champion of the people’ was originally a 15-minute nightly program. In June of 1939, the program went to a half-hour weekly format. “Mr. District Attorney” aired until 1952.
1942 – “People Are Funny” was first heard on NBC radio. Contestants on the original People Are Funny were picked from the studio audience by host Art Linkletter prior to the filming of each week’s episode.
1942 – World War II: Japanese forces begin an assault on the United States and Filipino troops on the Bataan Peninsula.
1942 – World War II: ADM Nimitz named Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas, a joint command, and retained his other title, Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Fleet.
1943 – World War II: Attacks by American General Patton’s 2nd Corps around El Guettar are held by the Axis defenders.
1944 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that black citizens are eligible to vote in all elections, including primaries. The Smith vs. Allwright decision ruled “white primaries” unconstitutional.
1944 – World War II: The B-17 and B-24 bombers of the US 15th Air Force drop 1100 tons of bombs on rail and industrial targets in Budapest.
1945 – World War II: Nazis began evacuation of camp Buchenwald.
1946 – Japanese Lt. General Masaharu Homma is executed in the Philippines for leading the Bataan Death March.
1948 – President Harry S. Truman signs the Marshall Plan, authorizing $5 billion in aid for 16 countries.
1948 – The first US figure skating championships were held.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cruising Down the River” by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: The Skyliners), “Far Away Places” by Margaret Whiting, “Red Roses for a Blue Lady” by Vaughn Monroe and “Candy Kisses” by George Morgan all topped the charts.
1949 – Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis debuted on NBC radio.
1951 – Korean War: Eighth Army, led by the 1st Cavalry Division, crossed the 38th parallel.
1951 – Korean War: Air Force Captain Robert H. Moore, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, shot down his fifth enemy plane and became the ninth ace of the War.
1953 – “TV Guide” publishes first national issue. A picture of the first cover featured Lucy and Desi Arnaz’ baby (I Love Lucy). The publication reached a circulation of 1,500,000 readers in its first year.
1954 – “Make Love to Me!” by Jo Stafford topped the charts.
1955 – Fred Astaire appeared on television for the first time on “The Toast of the Town,” with host, Ed Sullivan.
1955 – The American Civil Liberties Union announces it will defend Allen Ginsberg’s book Howl against obscenity charges.
1956 – Elvis Presley performed on “The Milton Berle Show.” The show was broadcast live from the aircraft carrier USS Hancock. Elvis played the songs “Heartbreak Hotel,” “Money, Honey,” and “Blue Suede Shoes.”
1956 – Hudsonville-Standale Tornado: The western half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan is struck by a deadly F5 tornado.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Little Darlin’” by The Diamonds, “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley, “Gone” by Ferlin Husky and “There You Go” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1961 – “Blue Moon” by Marcels topped the charts.
1965 – First atomic powered spacecraft (SNAP) launched. The US SNAP-10A launched in 1965 was a 45 kWt thermal nuclear fission reactor which produced 650 watts using a thermoelectric converter and operated for 43 days but was shut down due to a satellite (not reactor) malfunction. It remains in orbit.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Stop! In the Name of Love” by the Supremes, “I’m Telling You Now” by Freddie & The Dreamers, “Shotgun” by Jr. Walker & The All Stars and “King of the Road” by Roger Miller all topped the charts.
1965 – “Wooly Bully” by Sam the Sham and the Pharaoh’s was released.
1967 – Vietnam War: The U.S. State Department said that Hanoi might be brainwashing American prisoners.
1968 – Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop“ (43:15) speech just 24 hours before he was assassinated.
1969 – Vietnam War: U.S. Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird announces that the United States will start to “Vietnamize” the war effort. By that, he meant that the responsibility for the fighting would be gradually transferred to the South Vietnamese as they became more combat capable.
1971 – “Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)” by the Temptations topped the charts.
1972 – The United States prepares hundreds of B-52s and fighter-bombers for possible air strikes to blunt the recently launched North Vietnamese “Easter Offensive.”
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Killing Me Softly with His Song” by Roberta Flack, “Also Sprach Zarathustra (2001)” by Deodato, “Neither One of Us (Wants to Be the First to Say Goodbye)” by Gladys Knight & The Pips and “Keep Me in Mind” by Lynn Anderson all topped the charts.
1973 – The first cellular telephone was developed by Dr. Martin Cooper of Motorola. It was 9″ by 5″by 1.75″ and weighed 2.5 lbs. The prototype offered a talk time of just 30 minutes and took 10 hours to re-charge.
1973 – Francis W. Dorion was granted a patent for a “dual razor blade assembly”.
1974 – The Super Outbreak occurs, the biggest tornado outbreak in recorded history. The death toll is 315, with nearly 5,500 injured. There were 148 tornadoes confirmed in 13 US states including Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, and New York.
1974 – A tape from the SLA announced Patty Hearst’s decision to “stay and fight” with the SLA. This was a classic example of the “Stockholm Syndrome” at work.
1976 – “Disco Lady” by Johnny Taylor topped the charts.
1978 – Cher’s TV special with guest Rod Stewart aired on ABC.
1979 – Jane M. Byrne (D) was elected as the first woman mayor of Chicago, defeating Republican Wallace D. Johnson.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rapture” by Blondie, “Woman” by John Lennon, “The Best of Times” by Styx and “Texas Women” by Hank Williams, Jr. all topped the charts.
1982 – “I Love Rock ‘n’ Roll” by Joan Jett & the Blackhearts topped the charts.
1982 – John Chancellor stepped down as anchor of the “The NBC Nightly News.” Roger Mudd and Tom Brokaw became the co-anchors of the show.
1983 – Martin Cooper, Motorola project manager, demonstrated the first mobile phone, the DynaTAC 8000x. It was designed by Rudy Krolopp.
1984 – Coach John Thompson of Georgetown University became the first African-American coach to win an NCAA basketball tournament.
1985 – The landmark Brown Derby restaurant in Hollywood closed after 56 years in business. All of the furnishings were kept, including famous Booth #5 — where Clark Gable proposed to Carole Lombard.
1986 – The U.S. national debt hit $2 trillion.
1987 – Stock prices rocketed on Wall Street as the Dow Jones industrial average soared 69.89 points, ending the day at a record 2,390.34.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Eternal Flame” by Bangles, “Girl You Know It’s True” by Milli Vanilli, “The Look” by Roxette and “Baby’s Gotten Good at Goodbye” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1989 – The University of Michigan Wolverines won the NCAA championship by defeating Seton Hall in overtime, 80-79.
1992 – President Bush, speaking in Philadelphia, said members of Congress should shorten their annual sessions and retire after 12 years, calling for changes in “a failed status quo”; Democratic leaders accused Bush of “scapegoating.”
1992 – First five coed recruit companies from Orlando, FL Naval Training Center graduate.
1993 – The Norman Rockwell Museum opened in Stockbridge, MA.
1994 – First roster of Silver Bullets (all-female pro baseball team) announced. The team played together until 1997.
1994 – Frank Wells, president of the Walt Disney Co., died in helicopter crash while returning from a ski trip in Nevada’s Ruby Mountains.
1995 – Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor became the first woman to preside over the court. She sat in for Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist.
1995 – UCLA defeated Arkansas, 89-78, to win the NCAA basketball championship.
1995 – Former United Way of America President William Aramony was convicted in Alexandria, Va., of 25 counts of fraud for stealing nearly $600,000 dollars from the nation’s biggest charity.
1996 – Much of North America was treated to a total lunar eclipse.
1996 – Suspected “Unabomber” Theodore Kaczynski is arrested at his Montana cabin.
1996 – A United States Air Force airplane carrying Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown crashes near Dubrovnik, Croatia, killing all 35 on board.
1997 – About 2,000 youngsters in California and Georgia lined up for shots to protect them against hepatitis from a contaminated shipment of frozen strawberries.
1998 – The Dow Jones industrial average climbed above 9,000 for the first time.
1998 – Douglas Fred Groat, a disgruntled spy fired by the CIA, was charged with espionage and extortion. Groat later pleaded guilty to extortion, and was sentenced to five years in prison.
1999 – In Louisiana a tornado hit north of Shreveport and 10 people were reported killed with some 100 injured.
2000 – In Indianapolis, Michigan State beat the Florida Gators for the NCAA basketball championship, 89-to-76.
2000 – The Nasdaq set a one-day record when it lost 349.15 points to close at 4,233.68.
2000 – United States v. Microsoft: Microsoft is ruled to have violated United States antitrust laws by keeping “an oppressive thumb” on its competitors.
2001 – President Bush warned China it risked damaging relations with the United States unless it quickly released the American crew of a damaged Navy spy plane. The plane had made an emergency landing in China after colliding with a Chinese fighter.
2001 – US agents seized over seven tons of marijuana from a tractor-trailer at the Tijuana border. It was believed to be the largest seizure along the US-Mexican border and was valued at $12.1 million.
2001 – A US fishing boat, the Arctic Rose out of Seattle, sank in the Bering Sea and all 15 aboard died.
2003 – Moving with a sense of wartime urgency, the House and Senate separately agreed to give President Bush nearly $80 billion to carry out the battle against Iraq and meet the threat of terrorism.
2003 – In the 16th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US Marines and infantry moved with surprising speed toward Baghdad.
2003 – Atlantic magazine editor Michael Kelly, 46, became the first American journalist to be killed while covering the Iraq war when his Army Humvee came under fire and rolled into a canal.
2003 – Dr. Julie Gerberding, a director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, states her concern that SARS threatens to become a global pandemic.
2004 – The US Postal Service unveiled a new John Wayne commemorative postage stamp for its annual “Legends of Hollywood” issue at a private fund-raiser.
2004 – A judge in New York declares a mistrial after eleven days of deliberations in the case of former Tyco International chairman and chief executive Dennis Kozlowski and former chief financial officer Mark Swartz after a juror received either a “threatening or coercive” letter in the previous 24 hours.
2005 – In Arizona Minuteman anti-immigrant activists began showing up to guard the border against illegal crossings.
2005 – Various world leaders express their condolences for the death of Pope John Paul II, including Queen Elizabeth II, John Howard, Tony Blair, George W. Bush, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi and Lawrence Gonzi. He lies in state in the Clementine Room of the Apostolic Palace for a private viewing, a ceremony to confirm and certify the death of the Pontifex Maximus.
2006 – The jury in the first phase of the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui has decided that he is eligible for the death penalty.
2006 – In Boston a 10-ton construction platform collapsed and fell 13 stories killing 3 people on Boylston St.
2006 – Florida beat UCLA, 73-57, to win its first NCAA title in men’s basketball.
2006 – Charles Barkley, Dominique Wilkins and Joe Dumars were among six people elected to the Basketball Hall of Fame.
2007 – President Bush denounced Democrats for going on spring break without approving money for the Iraq war; he also criticized House Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s trip to Syria.
2008 – The whistleblowers who exposed maintenance and inspection problems at Southwest Airlines told Congress their jobs were threatened and their reports of noncompliance were ignored for years by their superiors.
2008 – ATA Airlines discontinued all flights and filed for bankruptcy.
2008 – Jules Verne, the first European Automated Transfer Vehicle, successfully performs a fully automated docking with the International Space Station.
2009 – MASS SHOOTING: Fourteen people die and 26 are injured during a shooting at the American Civic Association in Binghamton, New York. ( an immigration services center).
2009 – US administration officials said President Obama planned to lift some curbs on travel to Cuba, including a ban on family travel and remittances to Cuba.
2009 – The regulator of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac released a letter disclosing bonus awards of more than $210 million through next year to more than 7,600 employees.
2009 – Iowa’s Supreme Court legalizes same-sex marriage.
2009 – The United States economy lost 663,000 jobs in March, raising the unemployment rate to 8.5%.
2010 – The Apple iPad went on sale.
2011 – Taylor Swift wins the Entertainer of the Year award at the Academy of Country Music Awards 2010 with Miranda Lambert winning four awards including Female Vocalist of the year.
2012 – Federal Appeals Court orders Justice Department to explain whether the Obama administration believes judges can strike down federal laws.
2012 – Tornadoes tore through the Dallas area, tearing roofs off homes, tossing trucks into the air and leaving flattened tractor trailers strewn along highways and parking lots.
2012 – President Barack Obama officially secures the nomination of the Democratic Party with wins in the Democratic Party primaries in Wisconsin, Maryland and Washington DC.
2012 – In basketball, the Baylor Lady Bears win the 2012 NCAA Women’s Division I Basketball Tournament, defeating the Notre Dame Fighting Irish women’s basketball team 80-61.
2013 – NBC announces the departure of Jay Leno from the The Tonight Show in spring 2014. Leno is to be replaced by Jimmy Fallon, host of Late Night with Jimmy Fallon.
2013 – The US plans to set up a missile defence system in Guam. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel describes North Korea as a “real and clear danger”.
2013 – Mingo County Sheriff (WVa) Eugene Crum, with a reputation for cracking down on drug dealers was shot in the head at point-blank range and killed outside The Mingo county courthouse during his lunch break. Since April 2, 2012, 28 police officers have been killed nationwide.
1715 – William Watson, English physician and scientist (d. 1787)
1783 – Washington Irving, American author (d. 1859)
1822 – Edward Everett Hale, American writer (d. 1909)
1823 – William Marcy Tweed, American political boss (d. 1878)
1898 – George Jessel, American comedian (d. 1981)
1898 – Henry Luce, American publisher (d. 1967)
1904 – Iron Eyes Cody, American actor (d. 1999)
1904 – Russel Wright, American industrial designer (d. 1976)
1905 – Robert Frederick Sink, United States Army Officer (d. 1965)
1916 – Herb Caen, American newspaper columnist (d. 1997)
1924 – Marlon Brando, actor (On the Waterfront, The Godfather), was born in Omaha, Neb. (d. 2004)
1924 – Doris Von Kappelhoff [Doris Day], American singer and actress, was born in Cincinnati, Oh.
1926 – Gus Grissom, American astronaut (d. 1967)
1930 – Lawton Chiles, U.S. (Florida) Senator and Governor (d. 1998)
1934 – Jane Goodall, English zoologist
1941 – Jan Berry, American musician (d. 2004)
1942 – Wayne Newton, American singer
1943 – Doreen Tracey, English-born Mouseketeer
1944 – Tony Orlando, American musician
1956 – Ray Combs, American game show host and comedian (d. 1996)
1961 – Eddie Murphy, American actor and comedian
*WETZEL, WALTER C.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 13th Infantry, 8th Infantry Division. Place and date: Birken, Germany, April 3rd, 1945. Entered service at: Roseville, Mich. Birth: Huntington, W. Va. G.O. No.: 21, 26 February 1946. Citation: Pfc. Wetzel, an acting squad leader with the Antitank Company of the 13th Infantry, was guarding his platoon’s command post in a house at Birken, Germany, during the early morning hours of 3 April 1945, when he detected strong enemy forces moving in to attack. He ran into the house, alerted the occupants and immediately began defending the post against heavy automatic weapons fire coming from the hostile troops. Under cover of darkness the Germans forced their way close to the building where they hurled grenades, two of which landed in the room where Pfc. Wetzel and the others had taken up firing positions. Shouting a warning to his fellow soldiers, Pfc. Wetzel threw himself on the grenades and, as they exploded, absorbed their entire blast, suffering wounds from which he died. The supreme gallantry of Pfc. Wetzel saved his comrades from death or serious injury and made it possible for them to continue the defense of the command post and break the power of a dangerous local counterthrust by the enemy. His unhesitating sacrifice of his life was in keeping with the U.S. Army’s highest traditions of bravery and heroism.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 126th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 3rd, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Lancaster, Pa. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company B, 1st New Jersey Veteran Battalion. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 3rd, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Elizabeth, N.J. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag of 46th North Carolina (C.S.A.).
BRIGGS, ELIJAH A.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company B, 2d Connecticut Heavy Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., April 3rd, 1865. Entered service at: Salisbury, Conn. Birth: Salisbury, Conn. Date of issue: 10 May 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 11, April 3rd, 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Louisville at New Madrid, Missouri, through 7 April, and helped to prevent southern ships from ascending the river. Carrying out his duties through the thick of battle and acting as captain of a 9-inch gun, Brynes consistently showed “Attention to duty, bravery, and coolness in action against the enemy.”