National Jelly Bean Day
“E Pluribus Unum” was the original motto of the United States. It is Latin for “One from many parts.” The picture that would be drawn by this is of a sword being wielded by a small group. In this case it would be the federal sword being wielded by a group of colonies and later states. In June of 1782 the new “Great Seal of the United States” was adopted and it included an eagle with a heart-shaped shield, holding arrows and an olive branch in its claws. The motto “E Pluribus Unum” appeared on a scroll held in its beak. That motto was also used on some federal coins in as early as 1795.
During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key, an attorney, became a party to the release of several American prisoners including one Dr. William Beanes. Dr. Beanes was a noted country doctor who was, literally, dragged out of his bed and held hostage. Several of the doctors friends asked Key if he could get Dr. Beanes released. Key got the permission of President James Madison who also sent John Stuart Skinner.He was another attorney and had become the US Prisoner Exchange Agent for the region.
Key, accompanied by Colonel Skinner, dined aboard the British ship HMS Tonnant, as the guests of three British officers: Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane, Rear Admiral Sir George Cockburn, and Major General Robert Ross. Skinner and Key were there to negotiate the release of prisoners. The release was approved but Skinner, Key, and Beanes were not allowed to return to their own sloop: they had become familiar with the strength and position of the British units and with the British intent to attack Baltimore. All Key could do was watch the British attack. As the smoke cleared, one thing was very apparent, the American flag was still flying. On his way back to Baltimore he was inspired to write a poem called, “The Defense of Fort McHenry.”
This is the next major change in this history. The final stanza of that poem reads:
“And this be our motto: ‘In God is our trust.’
And the Star Spangled Banner in triumph shall wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave.”
In 1864, those words were shortened to “In God We Trust” and applied to a newly designed two-cent coin.
In 1956, the nation was suffering through the height of the cold war, and the McCarthy communist witch hunt. The “In God We Trust” motto then spread to more than just our coinage. It spread to our paper money and lots of other places. The change was partly motivated by a desire to differentiate between communism, which promotes Atheism, and Western capitalistic democracies, which were at least nominally Christian. The phrase “Atheistic Communists” has been repeated so many times that the public has linked Atheism with communism; the two are often considered synonymous. Many consider Atheism as unpatriotic and un-American as is communism.
The new motto was first used on paper money in 1957, when it was added to the one-dollar silver certificate. By 1966, “In God we Trust” was added to all paper money, from $1 to $100 denominations. The Freedom from Religion Foundation claimed to have been unable to find any other country in the world which has a religious motto on their money. That is, simply, untrue:
The Dutch have had a religious motto on their money for almost two centuries. It is even now included on the new two-euro coin. It says,” God zij met ons” or “God is with us.”
During the 1980’s under Brazilian president Jose Sarney, the phrase “Deus seja louvado” or God be praised” was added to their paper money.
Although not a motto , British coins have a drawing of the Queen and “Elizabeth II D.G. REG. F.D.”. This is an abbreviation for the Latin phrase, “Elizabeth II by Grace of God Defender of the Faith.”
In our states and territories we see mottos that include references to God:
Arizona is “Ditat Deus” – “God enriches”
American Samoais “Samoa, Muamua Le Atua” – “Samoa, let God be first”
Colorado is “Nil sine numine” – “Nothing without the Deity”
Connecticut is “Qui transtulit sustinet” – “He who transplanted sustains”
Florida is “In God We Trust”
Kentucky is “Deo gratiam habeamus” – “Let us be grateful to God”
Ohio is “With God, all things are possible”
South Dakota is “Under God the people rule”
This motto is under constant attack. It must be a priority to protect it from those that want to change or eliminate it.
Tomorrow, “Is it Constitutional?”
Ephesians 1: 3-5
Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ: According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love: Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will,
“Religion is of general and public concern, and on its support depend, in great measure, the peace and good order of government, the safety and happiness of the people.”
“In times of great stress or adversity, it is always best to keep busy, to plow your anger and your energy in to something positive.”
~ Lee Iaccoca
Countermand KOWN-tuhr-mand; kown-tuhr-MAND, transitive verb:
To revoke (a former command); to cancel or rescind by giving an order contrary to one previously given.
To recall or order back by a contrary order.
A contrary order.
Revocation of a former order or command.
1145 – 19th recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet.
1526 – The first American slave revolt occurred in South Carolina.
1692 – Edward Bishop is jailed for proposing flogging as cure for witchcraft. He and and his wife were thrown into prison. His wife, Bridget, was later convicted as being a witch.
1692 -In Salem, Massachusetts, Mary Black, a slave, was convicted of sorcery and jailed after a trial.
1778 – Captain John Paul Jones of Ranger led landing party raid on Whitehaven, England.Whitehaven was an English seaport on the Irish Sea.
1790 – Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, submitted a bill to Congress to create a “system of cutters” to enforce tariff and customs laws along the nation’s coastline. Congress passed his bill on 4 August of the same year. This would be the early version of the Coast Guard.
1792 – President George Washington proclaimed American neutrality in the war in Europe.
1793 – President George Washington attends the opening of Rickett’s, first circus in US.
1836 – Texas Revolution: A day after the Battle of San Jacinto forces under Texas General Sam Houston capture Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.
1861 – Civil War: Robert E. Lee was named commander of Virginia forces.
1861 – Civil War: Captain Franklin Buchanan, Commandant Washington Navy Yard, submitted his resignation and was relieved by Commander John A. Dahlgren; Buchanan joined the Confederate Navy and was promoted to Admiral, CSN. on 26 August 1862.
1863 – Civil War: Grierson’s Raid begins – troops under Union Colonel Benjamin Grierson attack central Mississippi.
1864 – The U.S. Congress passes the Coinage Act which mandates that the inscription “In God We Trust” be placed on all coins minted as United States currency. 2¢ coin is the first appearance of “In God We Trust”.
1876 – First National League game. Boston defeated Philadelphia at Athletic Park 6-5. Jim O’Rourke makes the first hit and Joseph Borden, pitching under the name of Josephs, is the winning pitcher. Philadelphia Athletics Wes Fisler scores baseball’s first run.
1878 – The first Egg Roll was held on the grounds of the White House.
1889 – At high noon, thousands rush to claim land in the Land Run of 1889. Within hours the cities of Oklahoma City and Guthrie are formed with populations of at least 10,000.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The United States Navy begins a blockade of Cuban ports and the USS Nashville captures a Spanish merchant ship.
1897 – New York City Jewish newspaper “Forward” began publishing.
1898 – Congress authorized creation of the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, popularly known as the “Rough Riders.”
1906 – A new baseball rule put the umpire in sole charge of all game balls.
1915 – World War I: The use of poison gas in World War I escalates when chlorine gas is released as a chemical weapon in the Second Battle of Ypres by the Germans.
1915 – The New York Yankees wore pinstripes and the hat-in-the-ring logo for the first time.
1930 – The United Kingdom, Japan and the United States sign the London Naval Treaty regulating submarine warfare and limiting shipbuilding.
1931 – James G. Ray landed an autogyro on the lawn of the White House.
1938 – In Virginia 45 workers were killed in a coal mine explosion at Keen Mountain in Buchanan County.
1940 – Rear Adm. Joseph Taussig testified before US Senate Naval Affairs Committee that war with Japan is inevitable.
1943 – World War II: A series of Allied attacks are launched against the Axis positions in the Tunisian hills. The US 2nd Corps, commanded by General Bradley, attacks Hill 609 in “Mousetrap Valley,” with the objective of advancing to Mateur.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Love, Love, Love” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Skip Nelson), ‘I Love You” by Bing Crosby, “Poinciana” by Bing Crosby and “Too Late to Worry, Too Blue to Cry” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: Operation Persecution initiated – Allied forces land in the Hollandia (currently known as Jayapura) area of New Guinea.
1945 – World War II: Prisoners at the Jasenovac concentration camp revolt. 520 are killed and 80 escape. Jasenovac was a complex of five subcamps [ spread over 93 sq mi on the banks of the Sava river.
1945 – World War II: Adolf Hitler, learning from one of his generals that no German defense was offered to the Russian assault at Eberswalde, admits to all in his underground bunker that the war is lost and that suicide is his only recourse.
1945 – World War II: Himmler meets Count Bernadotte of the Swedish Red Cross and gives him a message to pass to the western Allies, offering a German surrender to the British and Americans but not to the Soviets. The message is passed to the Allies on the 24th.
1945 – World War II: In Europe, US 7th Army units cross the Danube at Dillingen and Baldingen. Units of 2nd and 4th US Corps (parts of US 5th Army) reach the Penaro River in their advance to the Po River. On the left flank Modena is taken.
1951 – Korean War: The Chinese launched their spring offensive with a heavy artillery barrage northeast of Yonchon. The Battle of the Imjin River began.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr, “Any Time” by Eddie Fisher, “Be My Life’s Companion” by The Mills Brothers and “(When You Feel like You’re in Love) Don’t Just Stand There” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1952 – An atomic test conducted in Nevada was the first nuclear explosion shown on live network television.
1954 – Senator Joseph McCarthy begins hearings investigating the United States Army, which he charges with being “soft” on communism.
1956 – Elvis Presley made his Las Vegas debut at the Frontier Hotel.
1959 – The movie “Go Johnny Go” premiered.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith, “Greenfields” by The Brothers Four, “Sweet Nothin’s” by Brenda Lee and “He’ll Have to Go” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1962 – Jerry Lee Lewis’s 3-year-old son drowned.
1964 – The 1964-1965 New York World’s Fair opens for its first season. New York police arrested 294 demonstrators at the opening.
1965 – Vietnam War: USCG and US Navy agree on the deployment of 82-foot patrol and 40-foot utility boats to support Operation Market Time in Vietnam.
1967 – Randy Matson set a new world record with a shot put toss of 71 feet, and 5 1/2 inches in College Station, TX.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro, “Cry like a Baby” by The Box Tops, “Lady Madonna” by The Beatles and “Fist City” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1968 – Herb Alpert debuted “This Guy’s in Love With You” on his CBS-TV special.
1968 – Defense Secretary Clark Clifford declares that the South Vietnamese have “acquired the capacity to begin to insure their own security [and] they are going to take over more and more of the fighting.”
1969 – The first human eye transplant was performed for John Madden in Houston.
1970 – First Earth Day celebrated. President Nixon signed an executive order creating the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
1970 – African American students protest at Yale University in support of the Black panthers.
1971 – Former US Navy Lieutenant John Kerry (27) testified before the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee and talked about alleged war crimes and atrocities committed in Vietnam by US forces.
1972 – Vietnam War: Increased American bombing in Vietnam prompts antiwar protests in New York City, San Francisco, and Los Angeles.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Disco Lady” by Johnnie Taylor, “Let Your Love Flow” by The Bellamy Brothers, “Right Back Where We Started From” by Maxine Nightingale and “Drinkin’ My Baby (Off My Mind)” by Eddie Rabbitt all topped the charts.
1976 – Barbara Walters became first female nightly network news anchor.
1978 – John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd made their first appearance as The Blues Brothers on NBC’s “Saturday Night Live.”
1981 – In the largest US bank robbery, more than $3.3 million was stolen in Tucson Ariz. four men were later arrested for the robbery. The cash vault manager , Bud Grainger, was told that his wife was being held hostage at his home.
1981 – Joint Center for Political Studies reported that 2,991 Blacks held elective offices in 45 states and the District of Columbia, compared with 2,621 in April, 1973, and 1,185 in 1969. The Center reported 108 Black mayors. Michigan had the largest number of Black elected officials (194), followed by Mississippi (191).
1983 – The German magazine, Der Stern claims that Adolf Hitler’s diaries were found in wreckage in East Germany. Later found to be untrue.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)” by Phil Collins, “Hello” by Lionel Richie, “Hold Me Now” by The Thompson Twins and “The Yellow Rose” by Johnny Lee with Lane Brody all topped the charts.
1985 – Prince released the album “Around The World In a Day.” It was his first release after “Purple Rain.” No link, Prince does not want his music on YouTube.
1987 – The American Physical Society said that the “Star Wars” missile system was “highly questionable” and would take ten years to research.
1990 – Pro-Iranian kidnappers in Lebanon freed American hostage Robert Polhill after nearly 39 months of captivity.
1991 – Intel released 486SX chip.
1992 – The Supreme Court heard arguments on Pennsylvania’s restrictive abortion law. The court upheld most of the law’s provisions the following June, but also reaffirmed a woman’s basic right to an abortion.
1992 – A 6.0 Joshua Tree earthquake hit California.
1993 – The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum was dedicated in Washington, D.C., to honor the victims of Nazi extermination.
1994 – Richard M. Nixon (81), the 37th president of the United States (1969-1975), died at New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, four days after suffering a stroke.
1997 – A jury of seven men and five women was chosen in Denver to hear the Oklahoma City bombing trial of Timothy McVeigh.
1998 – Disney’s Animal Kingdom opens at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida, United States.
1998 – National TV Turnoff Week began.
1999 – In Kentucky an Army Black Hawk helicopter crashed during training at Fort Campbell and 7 people were killed and 4 injured.
2000 – In a pre-dawn raid, federal agents seize six-year-old Elián González from his relatives’ home in Miami, Florida. Riots erupted in Little Havana and 290 protesters were arrested.
2001 – Two spacewalking astronauts, including Canadian Chris Hadfield, installed a massive Canadian-built robot arm on the international space station.
2003 – American soldiers in Baghdad found $112 million sealed inside 7 animal kennels.
2003 – The world’s first native 64-bit x86 processor, the AMD Opteron processor, is launched.
2003 – President Bush announced he would nominate Alan Greenspan for a fifth term as Federal Reserve chairman.
2004 – Pat Tillman former safety for the Arizona Cardinals, was killed in an friendly-fire incident in Afghanistan. He had walked away from millions of dollars to join the Army Rangers and serve his country.
2004 – The Evangelical Lutheran Church is ordered to pay the largest per capita settlement in a church sexual abuse case in the United States by a jury in Marshall, Texas.
2005 – Zacarias Moussaoui pleads guilty to terror charges in U.S. federal court. He is a French citizen who was convicted of conspiring to kill citizens of the US as part of the September 11 attacks. As a result of his conviction, he is serving a life sentence without parole at the Federal ADX Supermax prison in Florence, Colorado.
2008 – A U.S. federal grand jury in Las Vegas, Nevada, indicts a man on charges of possessing the toxin ricin and on weapons charges.
2008 – Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice says that former President of the United States Jimmy Carter was advised not to hold talks with Hamas.
2008 – A US district Court in Manhattan charged Ben-ami Kadish (84), a former US Army mechanical engineer, with four counts of conspiracy. He was charged of spying for Israel and sending classified documents on nuclear weapons to an employee of the Israeli consulate.
2008 – In California a grizzly bear named Rocky (5) killed trainer Stephan Miller (39) at the Randy Miller’s Predators in Action center in San Bernadino County.
2010 – President Barack Obama calls on Wall Street to join him in his efforts to reform the financial sector in a visit to Manhattan.
2010 – The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers honours The Killers for “their impact in shaping American music”.
2010 – An episode of the American television series South Park is censored after a threat of fatwā from a New York-based group over the depiction of Muhammad in a bear costume.
2012 – White House lawyers launch an internal investigation into the role its advance staff may have played in the U.S. Secret Service sex scandal in Colombia, though no evidence has been found to implicate anyone in the scandal.
2012 – Officials in Florida refuse to allow Bill Lee, the police chief who did not arrest George Zimmerman after he shot and killed unarmed black teenager Trayvon Martin, to resign.
2012 – The North Carolina trial of former U.S. Senator and presidential hopeful John Edwards, concerning the use of illegal campaign donations to cover up an affair with a mistress, begins.
2013 – News Corporation agrees to pay $139 million to American shareholders due to the phone hacking scandal.
1711 – Eleazar Wheelock, American founder of Dartmouth College (d. 1779)
1724 – Immanuel Kant, German philosopher (d. 1804)
1832 – Julius Sterling Morton, Arbor Day founder (d. 1902 )
1844 – Lewis Thornton Powell, would-be assassin of Secretary of State William H. Seward (d. 1865)
1873 – Ellen Glasgow, American author (d. 1945)
1891 – Nicola Sacco, American anarchist (d. 1927)
1892 – Vernon Johns, American civil rights activist (d. 1965)
1904 – Robert Oppenheimer, American physicist (d. 1967)
1906 – Eddie Albert, American actor (d. 2005)
1916 – Yehudi Menuhin, American-born violinist (d. 1999)
1923 – Bettie Page, American model
1923 – Aaron Spelling, American television producer (d. 2006)
1926 – Charlotte Rae, American actress
1936 – Glen Campbell, American musician
1937 – Jack Nicholson, American actor
1939 – Mel Carter, American singer
1946 – Steven L. Bennett, USAF Congressional Medal of Honor Recipient (d. 1972)
1959 – Catherine Mary Stewart, Canadian actress
*LITTLETON, HERBERT A.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Company C, 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Chungchon, Korea, April 22nd, 1951. Entered service at: Blackhawk, S. Dak. Born: 1 July 1930, Mena, Ark. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a radio operator with an artillery forward observation team of Company C, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Standing watch when a well-concealed and numerically superior enemy force launched a violent night attack from nearby positions against his company, Pfc. Littleton quickly alerted the forward observation team and immediately moved into an advantageous position to assist in calling down artillery fire on the hostile force. When an enemy hand grenade was thrown into his vantage point shortly after the arrival of the remainder of the team, he unhesitatingly hurled himself on the deadly missile, absorbing its full, shattering impact in his body. By his prompt action and heroic spirit of self-sacrifice, he saved the other members of his team from serious injury or death and enabled them to carry on the vital mission which culminated in the repulse of the hostile attack. His indomitable valor in the face of almost certain death reflects the highest credit upon Pfc. Littleton and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and Organization: Sergeant (posthumous), U.S. Army, 442nd Regimental Combat Team – Born: August 14, 1920 in Salinas, California. Citation: Private Joe Hayashi distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on April 20th and April 22nd,1945, near Tendola, Italy. On 20 April 1945, ordered to attack a strongly defended hill that commanded all approaches to the village of Tendola, Private Hayashi skillfully led his men to a point within 75 yards of enemy positions before they were detected and fired upon. After dragging his wounded comrades to safety, he returned alone and exposed himself to small arms fire in order to direct and adjust mortar fire against hostile emplacements. Boldly attacking the hill with the remaining men of his squad, he attained his objective and discovered that the mortars had neutralized three machine guns, killed twenty-seven men, and wounded many others. On 22 April 1945, attacking the village of Tendola, Private Hayashi maneuvered his squad up a steep, terraced hill to within 100 yards of the enemy. Crawling under intense fire to a hostile machine gun position, he threw a grenade, killing one enemy soldier and forcing the other members of the gun crew to surrender. Seeing four enemy machine guns delivering deadly fire upon other elements of his platoon, he threw another grenade, destroying a machine gun nest. He then crawled to the right flank of another machine gun position where he killed four enemy soldiers and forced the others to flee. Attempting to pursue the enemy, he was mortally wounded by a burst of machine pistol fire. The dauntless courage and exemplary leadership of Private Hayashi enabled his company to attain its objective. Private Hayashi’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
*THOMAS, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 149th Infantry, 38th Infantry Division. Place and date: Zambales Mountains Luzon, Philippine Islands, April 22nd, 1945. Entered service at: Ypsilanti, Mich. Birth. Wynne, Ark. G.O. No.: 81, 24 September 1945. Citation: He was a member of the leading squad of Company B, which was attacking along a narrow, wooded ridge. The enemy strongly entrenched in camouflaged emplacements on the hill beyond directed heavy fire and hurled explosive charges on the attacking riflemen. Pfc. Thomas, an automatic rifleman, was struck by oneof these charges, which blew off both his legs below the knees. He refused medical aid and evacuation, and continued to fire at the enemy until his weapon was put out of action by an enemy bullet. Still refusing aid, he threw his last two grenades. He destroyed three of the enemy after suffering the wounds from which he died later that day. The effective fire of Pfc. Thomas prevented the repulse of his platoon and assured the capture of the hostile position. His magnificent courage and heroic devotion to duty provided a lasting inspiration for his comrades.
The Battle of Veracruz was a 20-day siege of the key Mexican beachhead seaport of Veracruz, during the Mexican-American War. Lasting from 9–29 March 1847, it began with the first large-scale amphibious assault conducted by United States military forces, and ended with the surrender and occupation of the city. U.S. forces then marched inland to Mexico City.
ANDERSON, EDWIN A.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Navy. Born: 16 July 1860, Wilmington N.C. Accredited to: North Carolina. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz,April 22nd, 1914, in command of the 2d Seaman Regiment. Marching his regiment across the open space in front of the Naval Academy and other buildings, Capt. Anderson unexpectedly met a heavy fire from riflemen, machineguns and l_pounders, which caused part of his command to break and fall back, many casualties occurring among them at the time. His indifference to the heavy fire, to which he himself was exposed at the head of his regiment, showed him to be fearless and courageous in battle.
BADGER, OSCAR CHARLES
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Born: 26 June 1890, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: District of Columbia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy Award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Ens. Badger was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
BERKELEY, RANDOLPH CARTER
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 9 January 1875, Staunton, Va. Appointed from: Washington, D.C. G.O. No.: 177 4 December 1915. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Maj. Berkeley was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion; was in the fighting of both days, and exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through action. His cool judgment and courage, and his skill in handling his men in encountering and overcoming the machinegun and rifle fire down Cinco de Mayo and parallel streets account for the small percentage of the losses of marines under his command.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 December 1876, Evansville, Ind. Accredited to: Indiana. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. In command of the 1st Seaman Regiment, Lt. Cmdr. Buchanan was in both days’ fighting and almost continually under fire from soon after landing, about noon of the 21st, until we were in possession of the city, about noon of the 22d. His duties required him to be at points of great danger in directing his officers and men, and he exhibited conspicuous courage, coolness, and skill in his conduct of the fighting. Upon his courage and skill depended, in great measure, success or Failure. His responsibilities were great, and he met them in a manner worthy of commendation.
BUTLER, SMEDLEY DARLINGTON
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 30 July 1881, West Chester, Pa. Appointed from: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy awards: Second Medal of Honor, Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Maj. Butler was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22d and in the final occupation of the city.
CASTLE, GUY WILKINSON STUART
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 8 February 1880. Appointed from: Wisconsin. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion, Lt. Castle was in the fighting of both days, and exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through action. In seizing the customhouse, he encountered for many hours the heaviest and most pernicious concealed fire of the entire day, but his courage and coolness under trying conditions were marked.
CATLIN, ALBERTUS WRIGHT
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1 December 1868, Gowanda, N.Y. Appointed from: Minnesota. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion, Maj. Catlin exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22nd and in the final occupation of the city.
COURTS, GEORGE McCALL
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Junior Grade, U.S. Navy. Born: 16 February 1888, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: District of Columbia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. Under fire, Lt.(j.g.) Courts was eminent and conspicuous in the performance of his duties. He had well qualified himself by thorough study during his years of duty in Mexico to deal with the conditions of this engagement, and his services were of great value. He twice volunteered and passed in an open boat through the zone of fire to convey important orders to the Chester, then under a severe fire.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Utah. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Entered service at: Wisconsin. Birth: Milwaukee, Wis. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Utah, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and 22 April 1914.
DYER, JESSE FARLEY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 2 December 1877, St. Paul, Minn. Appointed from: Minnesota. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914; was in both days fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
Rank and organization: Surgeon, U.S. Navy. Born: 16 October 1872, Beaufort, S.C. Accredited to: South Carolina. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Surg. Elliott was eminent and conspicuous in the efficient establishment and operation of the base hospital, and in his cool judgment and courage in supervising first aid stations on the firing line and removing the wounded.
FLETCHER, FRANK FRIDAY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. Born: 23 November 1855, Oskaloosa, lowa. Accredited to: lowa. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Under fire, Rear Adm. Fletcher was eminent and conspicuous in the performance of his duties; was senior officer present at Vera Cruz, and the landing and the operations of the landing force were carried out under his orders and directions. In connection with these operations, he was at times on shore and under fire.
FLETCHER, FRANK JACK
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Entered service at: Iowa. Born: 29 April 1885, Marshalltown, lowa. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and 22 April 1914. Under fire, Lt. Fletcher was eminent and conspicuous in performance of his duties. He was in charge of the Esperanze and succeeded in getting on board over 350 refugees, many of them after the conflict had commenced. Although the ship was under fire, being struck more than thirty times, he succeeded in getting all the refugees placed in safety. Lt. Fletcher was later placed in charge of the train conveying refugees under a flag of truce. This was hazardous duty, as it was believed that the track was mined, and a small error in dealing with the Mexican guard of soldiers might readily have caused a conflict, such a conflict at one time being narrowly averted. It was greatly due to his efforts in establishing friendly relations with the Mexican soldiers that so many refugees succeeded in reaching Vera Cruz from the interior.
FOSTER, PAUL FREDERICK
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd,1914. Entered service at: Kansas. Birth: Wichita, Kans. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and 22 April 1914. In both days’ fighting at the head of his company, Ens. Foster was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
FRAZER, HUGH CARROLL
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 22nd, 1914. Entered service at: West Virginia. Birth: Martinsburg, W. Va. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, 22 April 1914. During this engagement, Ens. Frazer ran forward to rescue a wounded man, exposing himself to hostile fire and that of his own men. Having accomplished the mission, he returned at once to his position in line.
FRYER, ELI THOMPSON
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 22 August 1878, Hightstown, N.J. Appointed from: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. In both days’ fighting at the head of his company, Captain Fryer was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
GISBURNE, EDWARD A.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Electrician Third Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 14 June 1892, Providence, R.l. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd,1914, and for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during this action.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 25 December 1872, Canada. Appointed from: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd,1914. During the second day’s fighting, the service performed by Lt. Grady, in command of the 2d Regiment, Artillery, was eminent and conspicuous. From necessarily exposed positions, he shelled the enemy from the strongest position.
HARRISON, WILLIAM KELLY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 30 July 1870, Waco, Tex. Accredited to: Texas. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. During this period, Comdr. Harrison brought his ship into the inner harbor during the nights of the 21st and 22d without the assistance of a pilot or navigational lights, and was in a position on the morning of the 22nd to use his guns with telling effect at a critical time.
HARTIGAN, CHARLES CONWAY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 September 1882, Norwich, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd,1914. During the second day’s fighting the service performed by him was eminent and conspicuous. He was conspicuous for the skillful handling of his company under heavy rifle and machinegun fire, for which conduct he was commended by his battalion commander.
HILL, WALTER NEWELL
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 29 September 1881, Haverhill, Mass. Appointed from: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Capt. Hill was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
HUGHES, JOHN ARTHUR
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 2 November 1880, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Capt. Hughes was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
HUSE, HENRY McLAREN PINCKNEY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Navy. Born: 8 December 1858, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y. Appointed from: New York. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Under fire, Capt. Huse was eminent and conspicuous in the performance of his duties; was indefatigable in his labors of a most important character, both with the division commander in directing affairs and in his efforts on shore to get in communication with the Mexican authorities to avoid needlessly prolonging the conflict.
INGRAM, JONAS HOWARD
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Junior Grade, U.S. Navy. Born: 15 October 1886, Jeffersonville, Ind. Accredited to: Indiana. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Distinguished Service Medal with gold stars in lieu of two additional DSM’s. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd,1914. During the second day’s fighting the service performed by him was eminent and conspicuous. He was conspicuous for skillful and efficient handling of the artillery and machineguns of the Arkansas battalion, for which he was specially commended in reports.
JOHNSTON, RUFUS ZENAS
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 7 June 1874, Lincolnton, N.C. Accredited to: North Carolina. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914; was regimental adjutant, and eminent and conspicuous in his conduct. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22d and in the final occupation of the city.
LANGHORNE, CARY DeVALL
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Surgeon, U.S. Navy. Born: 14 May 1873, Lynchburg, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Surg. Langhorne carried a wounded man from the front of the Naval Academy while under heavy fire.
LANNON, JAMES PATRICK
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 12 October 1878, Alexandria, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd,1914. Lt. Lannon assisted a wounded man under heavy fire, and after returning to his battalion was himself desperately wounded.
LOWRY, GEORGE MAUS
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 & April 22nd,1914. Entered service at: Pennsylvania. Birth: Eve, Pa. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21_22 April 1914; Ens. Lowry was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 3 January 1876, Brewster, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy awards: Second Medal of Honor, Navy Cross. Citation: For heroism in leading three picket launches along Vera Cruz sea front, drawing Mexican fire and enabling cruisers to save our men on shore, April 22nd,1914. Though wounded, he gallantly remained at his post.
McDONNELL, EDWARD ORRICK
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 November 1891, Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Posted on the roof of the Terminal Hotel and landing, Ens. McDonnell established a signal station there day and night, maintaining communication between troops and ships. At this exposed post he was continually under fire. One man was killed and three wounded at his side during the two days’ fighting. He showed extraordinary heroism and striking courage and maintained his station in the highest degree of efficiency. All signals got through, largely due to his heroic devotion to duty.
McNAlR, FREDERICK VALLETTE, JR.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 March, 1882, Maryland. Appointed at large. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Lt. McNair was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22nd and in the final occupation of the city.
MOFFETT, WILLIAM A.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Charleston, S.C. Born: 31 October 1869, Charleston, S.C. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. Comdr. Moffett brought his ship into the inner harbor during the nights of the 21st and 22nd without the assistance of a pilot or navigational lights, and was in a position on the morning of the 22nd to use his guns at a critical time with telling effect. His skill in mooring his ship at night was especially noticeable. He placed her nearest to the enemy and did most of the firing and received most of the hits.
NEVILLE, WENDELL CUSHING
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 12 May 1870, Portsmouth, Va. Appointed from: Virginia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz 21 and April 22nd, 1914. In command of the 2d Regiment Marines, Lt. Col. Neville was in both days’ fighting and almost continually under fire from soon after landing, about noon on the 21st, until we were in possession of the city, about noon of the 22d. His duties required him to be at points of great danger in directing his officers and men, and he exhibited conspicuous courage, coolness, and skill in his conduct of the fighting. Upon his courage and skill depended, in great measure, success or failure. His responsibilities were great and he met them in a manner worthy of commendation.
NORDSIEK, CHARLES LUERS
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 April 1896, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, Nordsiek showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914.
REID, GEORGE CROGHAN
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 9 December 1876, Lorain, Ohio. Appointed from: Ohio. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914; was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion; was in the righting of both days and exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through action. His cool judgment and courage and his skill in handling his men in encountering and overcoming the machinegun and rifle fire down Cinco de Mayo and parallel streets account for the small percentage of the losses of Marines under his command.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 September 1857, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. In command of the naval brigade, Capt. Rush was in both days’ fighting and almost continually under fire from soon after landing, about noon on the 21st, until we were in possession of the city, about noon of the 22nd. His duties required him to be at points of great danger in directing his officers and men, and he exhibited conspicuous courage, coolness and skill in his conduct of the fighting. Upon his courage and skill depended in great measure success or failure. His responsibilities were great, and he met them in a manner worthy of commendation.
SCHNEPEL, FRED JURGEN
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 24 February 1892, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, Schnepel showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 22nd, 1914. Entered service at: North Carolina. Born: 28 August 1879, Tarboro, N.C. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz, 22 April 1914; was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22nd and in the final occupation of the city.
STICKNEY, HERMAN OSMAN
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 December 1867, Pepperell, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Comdr. Stickney covered the landing of the 21st with the guns of the Prairie, and throughout the attack and occupation, rendered important assistance to our forces on shore with his three-inch battery.
TOWNSEND, JULIUS CURTIS
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 February 1881, Athens, Mo. Entered service at: Athens, Mo. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Lt. Townsend was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22nd and in the final occupation of the city.
WAINWRIGHT, RICHARD, JR.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 15 September 1881, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: District of Columbia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Lt. Wainwright was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion; was in the fighting of both days, and exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through action. In seizing the customhouse, he encountered for many hours the heaviest and most pernicious concealed fire of the entire day, but his courage and coolness under trying conditions were marked.
WALSH, JAMES A.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 24 July 1897 New York, N.Y. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida; for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914.
WILKINSON, THEODORE STARK, JR.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 December 1888, Annapolis, Md. Appointed from: Louisiana. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal with gold stars in lieu of 2 additional DSM’s. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. Ens. Wilkinson was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 20th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., April 22nd,1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Fayette County, Pa., Date of issue: 23 September 1897. Citation: Voluntarily served as one of the crew of a transport that passed the forts under a heavy fire.
NIBBE, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, Germany. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served as quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Peterel during its capture in Yazoo River, April 22nd, 1864. Standing his ground when a shot came through the stern, raking the gundeck and entering and exploding the boilers, when all the others had deserted the flag, Nibbe assisted in getting the wounded off the guard and proceeded to get ready to fire the ship despite the escaping steam from the boilers at which time he was surrounded on all sides by the rebels and forced to surrender.
VERNAY, JAMES D.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company B, 11th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg Miss., April 22nd, 1863. Entered service at: Lacon, Marshall County, Ill. Birth: Lacon, Ill. Date of issue: 1 April 1898. Citation: Served gallantly as a volunteer with the crew of the steamer Horizon that, under a heavy fire, passed the Confederate batteries.
Born on November 30th 1835 was a young man named Samuel Clemens who would later become “Mark Twain”. He was born in Florida, MO. Florida is a village in Monroe County, Missouri. The population was 9 at the 2000 census and zero at the 2010 census. He is closely tied to Halley’s Comet. It is believed that was born the same month as the passing of Halley’s comet in November 1835. Halley’s Comet passed on November 10th 1835 and Twain was born on the 30th. Twain vowed he would “go out”with the passing of the comet. It passes in 75 year cycles. Halley’s comet passed again April 20th 1910, Twain passed April 21st 1910.
During different times in his life he held many different jobs among them a riverboat pilot, a reporter and a publisher. These and many other jobs gave him a good education and varied experiences with many kinds of people. In 1862 Sam began writing for many magazines and newspapers under his pen name. Twain was a great writer, his three best books were Roughing It, The adventures of Tom Sawyer, and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.Twain was a very interesting character. He took his writing name from a process that was in use by the riverboats of his day. It is well-known that the Mississippi River changes daily. Sandbars come and go, silt moves with the river and what was not there yesterday was there today. As the boats move up and down the river or as they dock, men would throw forward a weight attached to a long string marked by fathoms (six feet). They could feel when the weight was on the bottom, they would look at the string and yell out, “Mark Twine, 6 fathoms.” That told the pilot they were in 36 feet of water.
Several things made Mark Twain great even during his lifetime. Besides the jobs he had and the people he came to know, he was a determined individual. For example, he was a great goal-setter. He would set goals on writing his books, magazine and newspaper articles and other articles. A third thing that helped him achieve greatness was that he had perseverance. He did not give up. It carried him well in all his writings.
Finally, Mark Twain learned from his experiences. He learned early on that his readers liked different writing styles. He didn’t disappoint them when he wrote his humor, satire, and adventure. He wrote as if he were telling his stories to his best friend and he was able to make his audience feel that.That feeling comes forward to today’s readers as well. His characteristics of integrity, sense-of-humor, and initiative came through. Mark Twain’s personality was funny, out-going, and cooperative. His humorous and insightful remarks were often quoted around the world, both then and now. Mark Twain will be remembered and quoted for a long time.
Halley’s Comet passed over Redding, CT on April 20th, 1910. He died the next day; April 21st, 1910, at 6:30 p.m. Mark Twain just stopped breathing.
Listen to the word of the LORD, O sons of Israel, For the LORD has a case against the inhabitants of the land, Because there is no faithfulness or kindness Or knowledge of God in the land. There is swearing, deception, murder, stealing and adultery. They employ violence, so that bloodshed follows bloodshed. Therefore the land mourns, And everyone who lives in it languishes.
“The Americans combine the notions of Christianity and of liberty so intimately in their minds, that it is impossible to make them conceive the one without the other; and with them this conviction does not spring from that barren traditionary faith which seems to vegetate in the soul rather than to live., Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, (New York: A. S. Barnes & Co., 1851), pp. 331, 332, 335, 336-7, 337.
“Kindness is the life’s blood, the elixir of marriage. Kindness makes the difference between passion and caring. Kindness is tenderness. Kindness is love, but perhaps greater than love … Kindness is good will. Kindness says, “I want you to be happy.” Kindness comes very close to the benevolence of God.”
~ Randolph Ray
gundygut (GUHN-di-guht) noun
A voracious eater; a greedy person.
From gundy, of unexplained origin + gut (belly).]
753 BC – Romulus and Remus founded Rome (traditional date).
43 BC – Battle of Mutina: Mark Antony is again defeated in battle by Aulus Hirtius, who is killed. Although Antony fails to capture Mutina, Decimus Brutus is murdered shortly afterwards.
1649 – The Maryland Toleration Act passed by the Maryland assembly. This law was issued by Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baron of Baltimore ( Lord Baltimore), the governor of the colony, banning criticism of various forms of Christianity and allowing people to practice their Christian religion freely. It was the first law establishing freedom of religion (or at least, Christianity) in North America.
1789 – John Adams was sworn in as the first U.S. Vice President.
1794 – New York City formally declares coast of Ellis Island publicly owned. In its history Ellis Island was also known as Dyre’s Island, Bucking Island, and Gibbet Island before permanently acquiring the name of Ellis Island from Samuel Ellis.
1828 – Noah Webster published the first American dictionary. It took him nearly 20 years to complete his two-volume dictionary of more than 35,000 entries.
1832 – Abraham Lincoln (23) assembled with his New Salem neighbors for the Black Hawk War on the Western frontier.
1836 – Texas Revolution: The Battle of San Jacinto – Republic of Texas forces under Sam Houston defeat troops under Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.
1856 – First railroad bridge across Mississippi River. The first bridge across the Mississippi was built at Rock Island,IL to Davenport IA.
1857 – Alexander Douglas patents the bustle.
1861 – Civil War: U.S.S. Saratoga, commanded by Commander Alfred Taylor, captured slave ship Nightingale with 961 slaves on board.
1862 – Congress establishes US Mint in Denver CO.
1863 – Civil War: Union Colonel Abel Streight begins a raid into northern Alabama and Georgia with the goal of cutting the Western and Atlantic Railroad between Chattanooga and Atlanta.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate guns at Vicksburg opened fire on Union Army steamers attempting a night passage of the batteries. Tigress was sunk and Empire City was totally disabled; Moderator was badly damaged, but J. W. Cheeseman, Anglo Saxon, and Horizon passed safely.
1864 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Petrel , the U.S.S. Prairie Bird and the transport Freestone steamed up the Yazoo River to operate with Union troops attacking Yazoo City.
1864 – Civil War: Boat crews from U.S.S. Howquah, Fort Jackson, and Niphon destroyed Confederate salt works on Masonboro Sound, North Carolina.
1864 – Civil War: Boat crews from the U.S.S. Ethan Allan landed at Cane Patch, near Murrell’s Inlet, South Carolina, and destroyed a salt work.
1864 – Boat expedition commanded by Acting Master John K. Crosby from U.S.S. Cimarron destroyed a rice mill and 5,000 bushels of rice stored at Winyah Bay, South Carolina.
1865 – Abraham Lincoln’s funeral train leaves Washington. The train would essentially retrace the 1,654 mile route Mr. Lincoln had traveled as President-elect.
1878 – New York installs first firehouse pole.
1878 – Ship Azor left Charleston with 206 blacks for Liberia.
1884 – Potters Field reopened as Madison Square Park in New York City.
1892 – The first Buffalo was born in Golden Gate Park.
1895 – Woodville Latham demonstrated the first use of a moving picture.
1898 – Spanish-American War: Volunteer African-American army units, including the 3rd Alabama, 3rd North Carolina, 6th Virginia, 9th Ohio, 9th Illinois, 23rd Kansas and 10th Cavalry regiments, some units with African-American officers, took part in the Spanish-American War on Cuban soil. Some of these veterans, upon return to the United States, were treated with parades and speeches. Others were assaulted and even lynched.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The U.S. Congress, on April 25, recognizes that a state of war exists between the United States and Spain as of this date.
1910 – Halley’s Comet was visible in the night sky. Entrepreneurs peddled “comet gas masks” for people worried about the Earth’s passage through poisonous cyanogen gas in the comet’s tail.
1910 – Author Mark Twain (b.1835), born as Samuel Langhorne Clemens, died in Redding, Conn.
1914 – U.S. Marines occupied Vera Cruz, Mexico. The troops stayed for six months.
1916 – Bill Carlisle, the infamous ‘last train robber,’ robbed a train in Hanna, WY.
1918 – World War I: German fighter ace Manfred von Richthofen, known as “The Red Baron”, is shot down and killed over Vaux sur Somme in France.
1922 – The first Aggie Muster is held as a remembrance for fellow Aggies who had died in the previous year.
1934 – Moe Berg, Senators catcher (and later US spy), played an American League record 117th consecutive, errorless game. He was sent to Japan with an All-Star baseball team where he took home movies of the Tokyo skyline that were used in the planning of General Jimmy Doolittle’s 1942 bombing raids on the Japanese capital.
1939 – In Texas the new San Jacinto Monument was dedicated following three years of construction. It stood over fourteen feet taller than the Washington Monument.
1940 – First $64 Question, “Take It or Leave It”, appeared on CBS Radio.
1940 -First American serviceman killed in World War II was Captain Robert M. Losey. He was killed during a German bombing at a Norwegian train station.
1942 – World War II: The most famous (and first international) Aggie Muster is held on the Philippine island of Corregidor, by Brigadier General George F. Moore (with 25 fellow Aggies who were under his command), while 1.8 million pounds of shells pounded the island over a 5-hour attack.
1943 – World War II: President Franklin Roosevelt announced that several Doolittle pilots had been executed by the Japanese.
1944 – US Task Force 58 (Admiral Mitscher) attacks Wakde Island, Sawar, Sarmi and Hollandia. The American force includes twelve carriers and cruisers. Aircraft strike during the day and cruisers bombard the Japanese positions at night.
1945 – World War II: The Soviet Union forces south of Berlin at Zossen attack the German High Command headquarters.
1945 – The US 77th Infantry Division completes the occupation of He Shima, Okinawa. The island and its airfield have been secured after six days of heavy fighting. Approximately 5000 Japanese troops were killed. The division was then ferried to Okinawa to join in the battle in the south.
1945 – World War II: Allied troops occupy German nuclear laboratory.
1948 – The first Polaroid camera was sold in US.
1949 – The prestigious George Foster Peabody Award for Broadcasting was presented to “You Bet Your Life” star, “The one, the only, Groucho Marx.” This was the first time the honor had been awarded to a comedian.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “If” by Perry Como, “Mockingbird Hill” by Les Paul & Mary Ford, “Would I Love You” by Patti Page and “The Rhumba Boogie” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: Carrier-based Marine aircraft downed three Yaks in the first air-to-air contact of Marine pilots with the North Korean Air Force.
1951 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Captain Robert J. Love, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, scored his fifth and sixth aerial victories in his F-86 Sabre “Bernie’s Bo” to become the 11th ace of the Korean War.
1952 – Korean War: A huge blast from gun turret one rocked the cruiser USS Saint Paul, killing 30 sailors. This gunpowder fire of unknown origin caused the U.S. Navy’s greatest single loss of life during the war.
1952 – Secretary’s Day (now Administrative Professionals’ Day) is first celebrated.
1955 – Jerome Lawrence & Robert E Lee’s “Inherit the Wind“, premieres in New York City.
1956 – Elvis Presley’s first hit record, “Heartbreak Hotel“, becomes #1.
1956 – Leonard Ross, age 10, became the youngest prizewinner on a big time quiz program. The youngster won $100,000 on “The Big Surprise” for knowing about his specialty: stocks! (see October 8th)
1958 – “Twilight Time” by Platters topped the charts.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods, “I Need Your Love Tonight” by Elvis Presley, “(Now and Then There’s) A Fool Such as I” by Elvis Presley and “White Lightning” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1961 – USAF Major Robert M White takes X-15 to an altitude of 104,960 feet.
1962 – “Good Luck Charm” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1962 – The Seattle World’s Fair (Century 21 Exposition) opens. It is the first World’s Fair in the United States since World War II.
1963 – Dr Michael Ellis De Bakey performs first successful heart implant.
1965 – The Beach Boys appeared on ABC-TV’s “Shindig!” and performed “Do You Wanna Dance?“
1965 – The 1964-1965 New York World’s Fair opens for its second and final season.
1966 – Vietnam War: “GEORGIA” operation southwest of DaNang started (21 Apr – 10 May).
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Somethin’ Stupid” by Nancy Sinatra & Frank Sinatra, “This is My Song” by Petula Clark, “A Little Bit Me, A Little Bit You” by The Monkees and “Lonely Again” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1967 – Josef Stalin’s daughter, Svetlana Alliluyeva (Lana Peters), defected to the US. She was born February 28, 1926 and became a naturalized citizen.
1967 – Northern Illinois was struck by 17 tornadoes, including several in the Chicago metropolitan area. One violent tornado moved through Belvidere (east of Rockford), killing 24 people and injuring another 450, including 13 deaths at the local high school.
1970 – Sportscaster Curt Gowdy was the recipient of the coveted George Foster Peabody Award for achievement in radio and television.
1975 – Vietnam War: President of South Vietnam Nguyen Van Thieu flees Saigon, as Xuan Loc, the last South Vietnamese outpost blocking a direct North Vietnamese assault on Saigon, falls.
1967 – Los Angeles Dodgers first rain out in Los Angeles (after 737 consecutive games).
1972 – Apollo 16 astronauts John Young and Charles Duke explored the surface of the moon. Thet returned with 213 lbs. of lunar material that they had collected.
1973 -“Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree” by Tony Orlando & Dawn topped the charts.
1974 – Lee Elder becomes the first African-American professional golfer to qualify for the Masters Tournament.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Philadelphia Freedom” by The Elton John Band, “(Hey Won’t You Play) Another Somebody Done Somebody Wrong Song” by B.J. Thomas, “He Don’t Love You (Like I Love You)” by Tony Orlando & Dawn and “Always Wanting You” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1975 – Bill Rodgers won the Boston Marathon, the first local winner in 30 years.
1975 – Members of the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) robbed the Carmichael Bank in suburban Sacramento, CA. Myrna Opsahl, a mother (42) of four, was shot dead. Patty Hearst drove the getaway car.
1975 – Vietnam War: Xuan Loc, the last South Vietnamese outpost blocking a direct North Vietnamese assault on Saigon, falls to the communists.
1976 – A Cadillac convertible, the ‘last’ American-made rag-top automobile, rolled off the assembly line at GM’s Cadillac production facility in Detroit, MI. The “last” didn’t last long when Lee Iococca brought them back.
1977 – Billy Martin pulls Yankee line-up out of a hat, beats Blue Jays 8-6.
1977 – The musical “Annie” opened at the Alvin Theatre in New York City for 2,377 performances .
1979 – “Knock on Wood” by Amii Stewart topped the charts.
1980 – Boats with Cuban migrants on board began departing Mariel, Cuba. Thousands of Cubans escaped Castro’s rule. It was later determined that a significant nuber of these people were known criminals.
1982 – Rollie Fingers of the Milwaukee Brewers becomes the first pitcher to record 300 saves.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Billy Jean” by Michael Jackson, “Come on Eileen” by Dexys Midnight Runners, “Mr. Roboto” by Styx and “Dixieland Delight” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1984 – After 37 weeks, “Thriller” is knocked off as top album by “Footloose”.
1984 – “Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)” by Phil Collins hits #1.
1986 – Geraldo Rivera opens Al Capone’s vault on TV & finds nothing.
1987 – Special occasion stamps were offered for the first time by the U.S. Postal Service. “Happy Birthday” and “Get Well” were among the first to be offered.
1989 – In the Philippines there was a communist guerrilla ambush on U.S. Army Col. James Nicolas Rowe. His car was raked with bullets near his office in the Manila suburb of Quezon City, killing him and wounding his driver. Years later, the New People’s Army eventually claimed responsibility for his assassination.
1989 – Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989: In Beijing, around 100,000 students gather in Tiananmen Square to commemorate Chinese reform leader Hu Yaobang.
1990 – “Nothing Compares 2U” by Sinead O’Connor topped the charts.
1990 – Pete Rose pleads guilty to hiding $300,000 in income.
1990 – Bob Engel, a National League umpire was arrested in Bakersfield, Ca., for stealing baseball cards.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “You’re in Love” by Wilson Phillips, “Baby Baby” by Amy Grant, “Joyride” by Roxette and “Down Home” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1991 – Gulf War: US Marines in northern Iraq began building the first safe-haven settlement for Kurdish refugees.
1992- Robert Alton Harris is put to death in the California Gas Chamber for murdering two teenage boys.
1993 – An 11-day siege at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility near Lucasville, Ohio, ended after rioting inmates reached an agreement with prison officials. One guard and nine inmates were killed during the siege.
1994 – The first discoveries of extrasolar planets are announced by astronomer Alexander Wolszczan.
1994 – The U.S. House of Representatives passed a $28 billion get-tough-on-crime bill.
1994 – Jackie Parker became the first woman to qualify to fly an F-16 combat aircraft.
1995 – The FBI arrested former soldier Timothy McVeigh at an Oklahoma jail where he had spent two days on minor traffic and weapons charges; he was charged in connection with the Oklahoma City bombing two days earlier.
1995 – Boston Celtics final game at Boston Gardens, New York Knicks win 98-92.
1996 – Chicago Bulls win NBA record 72 games (72-8).
1997 – Ashes of Timothy Leary & Gene Roddenberry launched into orbit.
1997 – Police in Franklin, N.J., arrested 2 teen-agers they say lured two pizza deliverymen on April 19 to an abandoned house before opening fire, killing both men.
1997 – The swollen Red River, which had flooded 75 percent of Grand Forks, N.D., reached a projected crest of 54 feet — or 26 feet above flood stage.
1999 – A day after the mass killing at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colo., investigators continued their work, while memorial services were held across the city and dozens of counselors offered support to grieving students, parents, friends and family.
1999 – The National Rifle Association scaled back its annual meeting in Denver from 3 days to one in response to the Columbine killings.
2000 – In Sinking Spring, PA, a man chased his estranged girlfriend through town and then forced her car into the path of an oncoming train. The woman and her 3 passengers were killed.
2000 – The 1998 Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act went into effect.
2001 – The Los Angeles Xtreme beat the San Francisco Demons 38-to-6 in the first and last XFL championship game.
2004 – Iraqi Freedom: U.S Marines backed by tanks and helicopter gunships battled insurgents in northern Fallujah, killing nine insurgents.
2004 – A grand jury indicts Michael Jackson on charges of child molestation.
2005 – Army Sgt. Hasan Akbar was convicted by a military jury at Fort Bragg, N.C., of premeditated murder and attempted murder in an attack that killed two of his comrades and wounded 14 others in Kuwait.
2005 – A commercial helicopter contracted by the US Defense Department was shot down by missile fire north of Baghdad. Eleven people aboard, including six American bodyguards, were killed.
2005 – Anna Ayala, the woman who claimed she found a finger in her bowl of Wendy’s chili on Mar 22 in San Jose, Ca., was arrested at her home in Las Vegas.
2006 – The US Justice Dept. gave assent to a Georgia law requiring photo IDs to vote.
2007 – The United States issues travel advisories warning not to go to the Philippines due to a potentially imminent terrorist threat.
2007 – A US Navy Blue Angel jet went down during an air show in Beaufort, South Carolina, plunging into a neighborhood of small homes and trailers, killing the pilot and injuring eight people on the ground.
2007 – Police in Las Vegas raided illegal brothels as part of “Operation Dollhouse,” a sting aimed at prostitution and human trafficking with suspected links to Asia. Prostitution is legal in most counties of Nevada, but not in Clark County, which includes Las Vegas.
2008 – The United States Air Force retires the F-117 Nighthawk.
2009 – U.S. Education Dept. partners with communist re-educators.
2009 – Twelve navies from the Americas begin annual UNITAS Gold exercises near Florida.
2009 – President Barack Obama signed a $5.7 billion national service bill to foster and fulfill people’s desire to make a difference, such as by mentoring children, cleaning up parks or building and weatherizing homes for the poor. Under the bill the AmeriCorps program started by President Bill Clinton will triple in size over the next eight years.
2009 – Daniel Andreas San Diego (31), a computer specialist from Berkeley, Ca., was added to the FBI’s list of “Most Wanted” terror suspects. Authorities described him as an animal rights activist who had turned to bomb attacks.
2010 – US Treasury officials unveiled a new $100 bill.
2010 – In Mississippi Richard Barrett (67), a white supremacist lawyer, was fatally stabbed and beaten at his home in Pearl. The next morning the house was set on fire and Vincent McGee (22), a black neighbor, was charged with murder.
2010 – Justice Department reports 60 percent increase in number of drug-smuggling tunnels at U.S.-Mexican Border.
2011 – U.S. Congressman Ed Markey (D-Mass.) sends Apple chief executive Steve Jobs a letter asking him to explain the purpose of a file embedded on iPhones and iPads that keeps a detailed log of the devices’ location. The controversy escalates as some governments announce an intent to investigate any violation of privacy laws.
2011 – U.S. Senator John Ensign, a Nevada Republican, announces his resignation from his Senate seat effective May 3, due to allegations he had an affair with the wife of a member of his staff.
2013 – A man approached a security officer at the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant and opened fire. The officer returned fire, and the assailant escaped. The security officer was unhurt in the exchange. Later in the day, helicopters and surveillance aircraft could be seen over the plant for several hours.
1555 – Ludovico Carracci, Italian painter (d. 1619)
1671 – John Law, Scottish economist (d. 1729)
1810 – John Putnam Chapin, American politician (d. 1864)
1811 – Alson Sherman, American politician (d. 1903)
1838 – John Muir, American environmentalist (d. 1914)
1882 – Percy Williams Bridgman, American physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1961)
1887 – Joe McCarthy, American baseball manager (d. 1978)
1915 – Anthony Quinn, Mexican-born actor (d. 2001)
1926 – Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
1936 – James Dobson, American evangelist
1951 – Tony Danza, American actor and comedian
1958 – Andie MacDowell, American actress
1980 – Tony Romo, American football player
*MARTINI, GARY W.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company F, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and Date: Binh Son, Republic of Vietnam, April 21st, 1967. Entered service at: Portland, OR Born: 21 September 1948, Lexington, Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 21 April 1967, during Operation UNION*, elements of Company F, conducting offensive operations at Binh Son, encountered a firmly entrenched enemy force and immediately deployed to engage them. The Marines in Pfc. Martini’s platoon assaulted across an open rice paddy to within twenty meters of the enemy trench line where they were suddenly struck by hand grenades, intense small arms, automatic weapons, and mortar fire. The enemy onslaught killed fourteen and wounded eighteen Marines, pinning the remainder of the platoon down behind a low paddy dike. In the face of imminent danger, Pfc. Martini immediately crawled over the dike to a forward open area within fifteen meters of the enemy position where, continuously exposed to the hostile fire. He hurled hand grenades, killing several of the enemy. Crawling back through the intense fire, he rejoined his platoon which had moved to the relative safety of a trench line. From this position he observed several of his wounded comrades lying helpless in the fire-swept paddy. Although he knew that one man had been killed attempting to assist the wounded, Pfc. Martini raced through the open area and dragged a comrade back to a friendly position. In spite of a serious wound received during this first daring rescue, he again braved the unrelenting fury of the enemy fire to aid another companion Lying wounded only twenty meters in front of the enemy trench line. As he reached the fallen Marine, he received a mortal wound, but disregarding his own condition, he began to drag the Marine toward his platoon’s position. Observing men from his unit attempting to leave the security of their position to aid him, concerned only for their safety, he called to them to remain under cover, and through a final supreme effort, moved his injured comrade to where he could be pulled to safety, before he fell, succumbing to his wounds. Stouthearted and indomitable, Pfc. Martini unhesitatingly yielded his life to save two of his comrades and insure the safety of the remainder of his platoon. His outstanding courage, valiant fighting spirit and selfless devotion to duty reflected the highest credit upon himself, the Marine Corps, and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
INOUYE, DANIEL K.
Rank and organization: United States Army, Nisei 442nd Regimental Combat Team. Entered Service: 1943, Honolulu, Hawaii. Born: September 7, 1924 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Citation: Second Lieutenant Daniel K. Inouye distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on April 21st, 1945, in the vicinity of San Terenzo, Italy. While attacking a defended ridge guarding an important road junction, Second Lieutenant Inouye skillfully directed his platoon through a hail of automatic weapon and small arms fire, in a swift enveloping movement that resulted in the capture of an artillery and mortar post and brought his men to within forty yards of the hostile force. Emplaced in bunkers and rock formations, the enemy halted the advance with crossfire from three machine guns. With complete disregard for his personal safety, Second Lieutenant Inouye crawled up the treacherous slope to within five yards of the nearest machine gun and hurled two grenades, destroying the emplacement. Before the enemy could retaliate, he stood up and neutralized a second machine gun nest. Although wounded by a sniper’s bullet, he continued to engage other hostile positions at close range until an exploding grenade shattered his right arm. Despite the intense pain, he refused evacuation and continued to direct his platoon until enemy resistance was broken and his men were again deployed in defensive positions. In the attack, twenty-five enemy soldiers were killed and eight others captured. By his gallant, aggressive tactics and by his indomitable leadership, Second Lieutenant Inouye enabled his platoon to advance through formidable resistance, and was instrumental in the capture of the ridge. Second Lieutenant Inouye’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
*MAY, MARTIN O.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 307th Infantry, 77th Infantry Division. Place and date: legusuku-Yama, Ie Shima, Ryukyu Islands, 19th -April 21st, 1945. Entered service at: Phillipsburg, N.J. Birth: Phillipsburg, N.J. G.O. No: 9, 25 January 1946. Citation: He gallantly maintained a three-day stand in the face of terrible odds when American troops fought for possession of the rugged slopes of legusuku-Yama on Ie Shima, Ryukyu Islands. After placing his heavy machinegun in an advantageous yet vulnerable position on a ridge to support riflemen, he became the target of fierce mortar and small arms fire from counterattacking Japanese. He repulsed this assault by sweeping the enemy with accurate bursts while explosions and ricocheting bullets threw blinding dust and dirt about him. He broke up a second counterattack by hurling grenades into the midst of the enemy forces, and then refused to withdraw, volunteering to maintain his post and cover the movement of American riflemen as they reorganized to meet any further hostile action. The major effort of the enemy did not develop until the morning of 21 April. It found Pfc. May still supporting the rifle company in the face of devastating rifle, machinegun, and mortar fire. While many of the friendly troops about him became casualties, he continued to fire his machinegun until he was severely wounded and his gun rendered useless by the burst of a mortar shell. Refusing to withdraw from the violent action, he blasted fanatical Japanese troops with hand grenades until wounded again, this time mortally. By his intrepidity and the extreme tenacity with which he held firm until death against overwhelming forces, Pfc. May killed at least sixteen Japanese, was largely responsible for maintaining the American lines, and inspired his comrades to efforts which later resulted in complete victory and seizure of the mountain stronghold.
BEASLEY, HARRY C.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1 November 1888 Ohio. Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914.
BISHOP, CHARLES FRANCIS
Rank and organization: Quartermaster Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 2 August 1898, Pittsburgh, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Florida, at Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914. Entered service at: New York. Born: 11 December 1885, New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 April 1914. Cregan was ashore when he volunteered for an assault detail under Ens. George Maus Lowry on the Vera Cruz Customhouse under enemy fire both in the alley between the customhouse and warehouse and the assault over objective’s walls. During the move up the alley, he tended a wounded comrade, J. F. Schumaker, holding a compress with one hand and firing with the other.
DECKER, PERCY A.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 4 August 1890, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914; for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 17 October 1876, Denmark. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 131, 17 July 1924. Citation: For meritorious service under fire on the occasion of landing of the naval forces at Vera Cruz, Mexico, on April 21st,1914. For several hours Lt. Drustrup was in charge of an advanced barricade under a heavy fire, and not only displayed utmost ability as a leader of men but also exerted a great steadying influence on the men around him. Lt. Drustrup was then attached to the U.S.S. Utah as a chief turret captain.
HARNER, JOSEPH GABRIEL
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 February 1889, Louisville, Ohio. Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914.
JARRETT, BERRIE H.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 June 1894 Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 116, 19 August 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida Jarrett displayed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st,1914.
NICKERSON, HENRY NEHEMIAH
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy U.S.S. Utah. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st,1914. Entered service at: West Virginia. Birth: Edgewood, W. Va. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Utah, Nickerson showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 April 1914.
Rank and organization: Chief Gunner, U.S. Navy. Born: 18 August 1887, Pittsburgh, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 120, 10 January 1924. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For meritorious service under fire on the occasion of the landing of the American naval forces at Vera Cruz on April 21st, 1914. C.G. Semple was then attached to the U.S.S. Florida as a chief turret captain.
SINNETT, LAWRENCE C.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 4 April 1888, Burnt House, W. Va. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, Sinnett showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st, 1914.
Rank and organization: Hospital Apprentice First Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 21st,1914. Entered service at: Michigan. Birth: Michigan. G.O. No.: 116, 9 August 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, Zuiderveld showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 April 1914.
SULLIVAN, JAMES F.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1857, Lowell, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S. Training Ship New Hampshire, at Newport, R.I., April 21st,1882, and rescuing from drowning Francis T. Price, third class boy.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S. Training Ship New Hampshire, at Newport, R.I., April 21st,1882, and rescuing from drowning Francis T. Price, third class boy.
National Look Alike Day
US Park Ranger Roy C. Sullivan from Virginia holds the record for the person most times struck by lightning – and living to tell the tale. Between 1942 and 1983, Roy has the dubious distinction of being struck by lightning seven times. He was known as the Human Lightning Rod.
The first lightning strike in 1942 happened as he was working up in a lookout tower and the lighting bolt shot through his leg and knocked his big toenail off.
In 1969 while he was driving along a mountain road a second strike burned off his eyebrows and knocked him unconscious. Another strike just a year later, while he was walking across his yard to get the mail, left his shoulder seared.
He was standing in the office at the ranger station in 1972 when lightning set his hair on fire and Roy had to throw a bucket of water over his head to cool off. A year later, after his hair had grown back, a lightning bolt ripped through his hat and hit him on the head, setting his hair on fire again. It threw him out of his truck, knocked his left shoe off and seared his legs. A sixth strike hit him in 1976 while he was checking on a campsite, injuring his ankle.
The last lightning bolt to hit Roy in 1977 happened while he was fishing. It sent him to hospital with chest and stomach burns.
Roy Sullivan was never killed by lighting – he committed suicide while in his 70’s in 1983 reportedly distraught over the loss of a woman.
John 6: 44 – 51 . .
44 No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him. And I will raise him up on the last day. 45 It is written in the Prophets, ‘And they will all be taught by God.’ Everyone who has heard and learned from the Father comes to me— 46 not that anyone has seen the Father except he who is from God; he has seen the Father. 47 Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever believes has eternal life. 48 I am the bread of life. 49 Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. 50 This is the bread that comes down from heaven, so that one may eat of it and not die. 51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. And the bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.
“You have rights antecedent to all earthly governments; rights that cannot be repealed or restrained by human laws; rights derived from the Great Legislator of the Universe”
~ John Adams
“The path to success is to take massive, determined action.”
~ Anthony Robbins
A dull or slovenly person.
[From Yiddish shlumperdik (unkempt, sloppy).]
1534 – Jacques Cartier begins his voyage, in which he will discover Canada and Labrador.
1657 – Freedom of religion is granted to the Jews of New Amsterdam (later New York City).
1775 – Revolutionary War: The siege of Boston begins, which followed the first battles at Lexington and Concord. Also following these two battles was the Gunpowder Incident or Gunpowder Affair. This was a conflict between Lord Dunmore, the Royal Governor of the Colony of Virginia, and militia led by Patrick Henry. Lord Dunmore ordered the removal of the gunpowder from the magazine in Williamsburg, Virginia to a Royal Navy ship. Dunmore, fearing for his personal safety, later retreated to a naval vessel, ending royal control of the colony.
1777 – New York adopts new constitution as an independent state.
1812 – George Clinton (73), the 4th vice president of the United States, died in Washington, becoming the first vice president to die while in office.
1832 – Hot Springs National Park was established by an act of the U.S. Congress. It was the first national park in the U.S.
1836 – U.S. Congress passes an act creating the Wisconsin Territory.
1841 – First detective story (Poe’s “Murders in the Rue Morgue”) published.
1853 – Harriet Tubman starts Underground Railroad
1861 – Civil War: Robert E. Lee resigns his commission in the United States Army in order to command the forces of the state of Virginia.
1861 – Civil War: Norfolk Navy Yard partially destroyed to prevent Yard facilities from falling into Confederate hands and abandoned by Union forces.
1861 – Civil War: Thaddeus Lowe’s balloon landed in South Carolina only to be surrounded by a group of incredulous Carolinians who believed he was a spy. Lowe managed to persuade the crowd that his 500-mile trip from Cincinnati, Ohio, was merely an innocent aerial journey to test his strange craft.
1862 – Civil War: U.S.S. Itasca commanded by Lieutenant Caldwell and the U.S.S. Pinola commanded by Lieutenant Crosby, under direction of Commander Bell, breached the obstructions below Forts Jackson and St. Philip under heavy fire, opening the way for Flag Officer Farragut’s fleet.
1862 – The first pasteurization test completed by Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard.
1863 – Civil War: A joint Army-Navy attack succeeded in capturing a strong Confederate position at Hill’s Point on the Nansemond River, Virginia, taking 5 howitzers and some 160 prisoners.
1863 – Civil War: U.S.S. Estrella, Lieutenant Commander Cooke, with U.S.S. Clifton, Arina, and Calhoun, engaged and received the surrender of Fort Burton, Butte a’ la Rose, Louisiana.
1865 – Safety matches were first advertised this day.
1871 – Civil Rights Act of 1871 is a federal law in force in the United States. Several of its provisions still exist today as codified statutes, but the most important still-existing provision is 42 U.S.C. § 1983 – Civil action for deprivation of rights.
1871 – Republicans passed the anti-Ku Klux Klan Act outlawing Democratic terrorist groups. Popularly known as the Ku Klux Act, also known as the third Enforcement Act, Congress authorizes President Ulysses S. Grant to declare martial law, impose heavy penalties against terrorist organizations, and use military force to suppress the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).
1871 – Secretary of Treasury authorized to employ crews of experienced surfmen at lifeboat stations at maximum rate of $40 per month, marking the end of the volunteer system. This was the beginning of direct Federal control over life-saving activities.
1896 – First public film showing in US, John Philip Sousa’s “El Capitán” (Part 1), premieres in New York City.
1897 – Simon Lake was granted a patent for an even keel submarine. His Lake Torpedo Boat Company built a total of 33 submarines for the U.S. Navy between 1909 and 1922.
1902 – Marie & Pierre Curie isolate radioactive element radium.
1904 – The World’s Fair of 1904 opens and celebrates the Centennial of the Louisiana Purchase.
1910 – Halley’s Comet passes 29th recorded perihelion at 54 million miles.
1912 – Opening day for Tiger Stadium in Detroit, Michigan.
1912 – Fenway Park officially opens.
1914 – Forty-five men, women, and children die in the Ludlow Massacre during a Colorado coal-miner’s strike.
1914 – In first call to action of naval aviators, detachment on USS Birmingham sailed to Tampico, Mexico.
1916 – Chicago Cubs played their first game at Weeghman Park (later Wrigley Field), defeating the Cincinnati Reds 7-6 in 11 innings.
1918 – World War I: Manfred von Richthofen, aka The Red Baron, shoots down his 79th and 80th victims marking his final victories before his death the following day.
1925 – First regular-season Cubs game to be broadcast.
1926 – Western Electric and Warner Bros. announce Vitaphone, a process to add sound to film.
1926 – First check sent by radio facsimile transmission across the Atlantic.
1930 – Charles and Anne Lindbergh set a transcontinental speed record flying from Los Angeles to New York in 14 hours and 45 minutes.
1931 – Louis Armstrong records “When It’s Sleepy Time Down South.”
1934 – The movie “Stand Up And Cheer” (1:09:00) opened. It was Shirley Temple’s debut.
1935 – “Your Hit Parade”premieres on radio. Every Saturday night, Your Hit Parade presented the top tunes of the week, saving the top three songs for the end of the show.
1940 – First electron microscope demonstrated (RCA). It was able to produce a magnification of 100,000 times, in an apparatus 10 feet high and weighing half a ton.
1941 – Dodgers start to wear protective liners in their caps as a safety precaution.
1944 – NFL legalizes coaching from the bench.
1944 – World War II: The Germans use Neger (in English: Negro) human torpedoes against shipping off Anzio. A total of 37 are launched from beaches and 24 are lost. No results are achieved.
1945 – World War II: Allied bombers in Italy begin a three-day attack on the bridges over the rivers Adige and Brenta to cut off German lines of retreat on the Italian peninsula.
1945 – World War II: US troops capture Leipzig, Germany, only to later cede the city to the Soviet Union.
1945 – World War II: Allied forces took control of the German cities of Nuremberg and Stuttgart.
1945 – World War II: American forces liberated Buchenwald. 350 Americans were imprisoned at Berga, a sub-camp of Buchenwald, following their Dec, 1944, capture at the Battle of the Bulge.
1945 – World War II: Adolf Hitler makes his last trip from Fuehrerbunker to the surface to award Iron Crosses to boy soldiers of the Hitler Youth.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, US 3rd Amphibious Corps completes the capture of the Motobu Peninsula and the whole of the main northern part of the island. The US 24th Corps, on the Shuri Line, continue to attack but the limited gains made cannot be held against the Japanese counterattacks.
1946 – First baseball game telecast was in Chicago with the Cards vs. Cubs.
1947 – Fred Allen censored during his radio broadcast. Allen was telling a joke about a mythical network vice-president when he was suddenly taken off the air.
1947 – Capt L.O. Fox, USN, supported by 80 Marines, accepted the surrender of LT Yamaguchi and 26 Japanese soldiers and sailors, two and one half years after the occupation of Peleliu and nearly 20 months after the surrender of Japan.
1948 – United Auto Workers president Walter P. Reuther was shot and wounded at his home in Detroit.
1949 – Willie Shoemaker wins his first race as a jockey aboard Shafter V at Golden Gate Fields in Albany, CA.
1949 – Scientists at the Mayo Clinic announced they’d succeeded in synthesizing a hormone found to be useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis; the substance was named “cortisone.”
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton, “Music, Music, Music” by Teresa Brewer, “Peter Cottontail” by Gene Autry and “Long Gone Lonesome Blues” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: Operation Little Switch began in Korea. It was the exchange of sick and wounded prisoners of war. Thirty Americans were freed.
1953 – Korean War: USS New Jersey shells Wonsan, Korea from inside the harbor.
1957 – “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “He’s Got the Whole World (In His Hands)” by Laurie London, “Book of Love” by The Monotones, “Don’t You Just Know It” by Huey (Piano) Smith & The Clowns and “Oh Lonesome Me” by Don Gibson all topped the charts.
1958 – The last Key System train left San Francisco for Oakland. Ferry service from the SF Ferry Building ended when the Southern Pacific “Eureka” made its last crossing to Oakland.
1959 – “Desilu Playhouse” on CBS-TV presented a two-part show titled “The Untouchables.”
1961 – American Harold Graham makes first rocket belt flight. The device was three tanks mounted on a form-fitting strapped fiberglas jacket or corset worn by the rocket belt user.
1961 – Failure of the Bay of Pigs Invasion of US troops against Cuba.
1961 – FM stereo broadcasting was approved by the FCC.
1962 – NASA civilian pilot Neil A Armstrong takes X-15 to an altitude of 207,500 feet.
1962 – The New Orleans Citizens’ Council offered a free one-way ride for blacks to move to northern states.
1963 – “He’s So Fine” by the Chiffons topped the charts.
1964 – USS Henry Clay (SSBN-625) launches a Polaris A-2 missile from the surface in first demonstration that Polaris submarines could launch missiles from the surface.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler, “(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration” by The Righteous Brothers, “Daydream” by The Lovin’ Spoonful and “I Want to Go with You” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1967 – Surveyor III bounced and skidded to a halt in a broad crater in eastern Oceanus Procellarum.
1967 – Vietnam War: U.S. planes bombed Haiphong for first time during the Vietnam War.
1968 – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro topped the charts.
1970 – Vietnam War: President Nixon pledges to withdraw 150,000 more U.S. troops over the next year “based entirely on the progress” of the Vietnamization program.
1971 – Barbra Streisand records “We’ve Only Just Begun.”
1971 – The Pentagon releases figures confirming that “fragging incidents” are on the rise. In 1970, 209 such incidents caused the deaths of 34 men; in 1969, 96 such incidents cost 34 men their lives. Fragging was a slang term used to describe U.S. military personnel tossing of fragmentation hand grenades (hence the term “fragging”) usually into sleeping areas to murder fellow soldiers.
1971 – The U.S. Supreme Court in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education,upheld the use of busing to achieve racial desegregation in schools.
1972 – Apollo 16 lands on the Moon.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “TSOP (The Sound of Philadelphia)” by MFSB featuring The Three Degrees, “Best Thing that Ever Happened to Me” by Gladys Knight & The Pips, “The Loco-Motion” by Grand Funk and “A Very Special Love Song” by Charlie Rich all topped the charts.
1974 – Paul McCartney releases “Band on the Run.”
1977 – Woody Allen’s film “Annie Hall” premiered, Diane Keaton starred.
1979 – Howard K. Smith (d.2002) resigned as news analyst for ABC over the curtailment of his commentary.
1979 – President Carter attacked by a rabbit on a canoe trip in Plains, GA.
1980 – The first Cubans sailing to the United States as part of the massive Mariel boatlift reached Florida.
1981 – Final performance of TV show “Soap” airs.
1981 – A spokesman for the U.S. Navy announced that the U.S. was accepting full responsibility for the sinking of the Nissho Maru on April 9.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Love Rock ’N Roll” by Joan Jett & The Blackhearts, “We Got the Beat” by the Go-Go’s, “Chariots of Fire” by Titles – Vangelis and “The Clown” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1983 – President Ronald Reagan signs a $165 billion bail-out for Social Security.
1984 – In Washington, terrorists bombed an officers club at a Navy yard.
1985 – ATF raid on The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord compound in northern Arkansas.
1985 – “We Are the World” by USA for Africa topped the charts.
1986 – Professional basketball player Michael Jordan sets all-time record for points in an NBA playoff game with 63 against the Boston Celtics.
1989 – The case of Oliver North went to the jury in his Iran-Contra trial.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be Your Everything” by Tommy Page, “Don’t Wanna Fall in Love” by Jane Child, “Nothing Compares 2 U” by Sinead O’Connor and “Five Minutes” by Lorrie Morgan all topped the charts.
1990 – Oakland, California hosted the first Bay Area “Black Filmworks Festival.” Sponsored by the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame, the three-day event featured 25 films including a documentary entitled, “Making ‘Do the Right Thing.'”
1990 – Pete Rose pleaded guilty to two felony counts of filing false income tax returns.
1991 – “You’re in Love” by Wilson Phillips topped the charts.
1991 – US Marines landed in northern Iraq to begin building the first center for Kurdish refugees on Iraqi territory.
1993 – President Clinton said he accepted responsibility for the decision to try to end the 51-day siege at the Branch Davidian compound in Texas, yet laid “ultimate responsibility” on David Koresh for the deaths that resulted.
1995 – In the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing, the FBI announced it was looking for two men suspected of renting the truck used to carry the explosive.
1997 – In Atlanta, Ga., African American Timmie Sinclair (27) was beaten by police officers in a scene that was captured on videotape and showed excessive use of force and baton beating.
1998 – A federal jury in Chicago ruled that anti-abortion protest organizers had used threats and violence to shut down clinics. However, the US Supreme Court ruled in February 2003 that federal racketeering and extortion laws were wrongly used to try to stop blockades, harassment and violent protests outside clinics.
1999 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Littleton, Colo., two Columbine High School students, students Eric Harris (18) and Dylan Klebold (17), used guns and explosives to randomly kill twelve other students and one teacher and injuring twenty-four others before killing themselves. In addition to the shootings, the complex and highly planned attack involved a fire bomb to divert firefighters, propane tanks converted to bombs placed in the cafeteria, 99 explosive devices, and carbombs.
1999 – Jay Scott Ballinger (36), arrested in February, was indicted on charges of burning ten churches in Indiana and Georgia.
2001 – In Peru an air force jet shot down a Cessna 185 carrying US missionaries. Veronica Bowers (35) and her infant daughter, Charity, were killed when the plane crash landed in the Amazon River.
2002 – A US Navy F-4 Phantom crashed during an air show at Ventura, Ca., and its two crew members were killed.
2003 – Iraq: U.S. Army forces took control of Baghdad from the Marines in a changing of the guard that thinned the military presence in the capital.
2003 – A bench-clearing brawl happens in a baseball game between the Arizona Diamondbacks and the St. Louis Cardinals. Tino Martinez was hit by a 1–0 pitch from Miguel Batista, and took first base. He was then forced out at second base. Martinez charged Batista from behind. Batista turned and threw the ball at him, and players from both teams joined the altercation.
2004 – The US Labor Dept. established new rules on overtime pay. It expanded the range for lower income workers and put a ceiling on overtime for higher income workers.
2004 – The US federal government agreed to settle a civil suit filed by leaders of Earth First following an FBI arrest in Oakland May 24, 1990. Darryl Cherney and the estate of Judi Bari expected to receive $2 million.
2004 Iraq War: Twelve mortars are fired on Abu Ghraib Prison by insurgents, killing 22 detainees and wounding 92.
2004 – The NASA Gravity Probe B satellite, designed by Stanford researchers, was launched to test Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.
2005 – President Bush signed new legislation to make individual bankruptcy more difficult.
2005 – An air tanker Lockheed P-3 Orion crashed in California’s Lassen National Forest killing three crew members during a training run.
2006 – The CIA fired Mary McCarthy, a top intelligence analyst, who admitted leaking classified information about a network of secret CIA prisons.
2006 – Tony Snow is named White House Press Secretary.
2006 – John Negroponte, US National Intelligence Director, said the US employs almost 100,000 people in 16 federal departments and agencies dealing with intelligence.
2006 – Arkansas Republican Governor Mike Huckabee signed a $1.10 state minimum wage increase into law to be effective Oct 1. The previous minimum was at the federal standard of $5.15 per hour.
2006 – Georgia’s Gov. Sonny Perdue signed a bill into law that offered government-sanctioned elective classes on the Bible in public high schools. He also signed a bill permitting the display of the Ten Commandments at courthouses.
2006 – In Columbus, Kansas, five teenage boys were arrested for threatening to carry out a shooting spree at their high school on the anniversary of the Columbine bloodbath.
2007 – Johnson Space Center Shooting: A man with a handgun barricades himself in NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas before killing a male hostage and himself.
2007 – Virginia observes a day of mourning for the victims in the Virginia Tech massacre.
2008- Pope Benedict XVI has Papal Mass in Yankee Stadium in New York City .
2008 – The New York Times publishes an exposé on the Pentagon military analyst program.
2008 – Danica Patrick becomes the first woman to win a race in any top-flight American motor racing series with her victory in IndyCar’s 2008 Indy Japan 300.
2009 – The US commemorate the 10th anniversary of the Columbine High School massacre in 1999 by Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold.
2010 – The Gulf Oil Spill: The Transocean-owned (was BP) oil rig Deepwater Horizon explodes, leaking about 4,900,000 barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. At least seven people were injured and over a dozen were missing at sea.
2010 – The United States and Iraq kill an al-Qaeda leader, Ahmed al-Obeidi, in Nineveh.
2011 – Renowned photographers Tim Hetherington and Chris Hondros are killed and four others injured in Misrata, Libya.
2012 – Marcus Robinson, due to have been executed in 2007, is ordered off death row after North Carolina Superior Court Judge Gregory Weeks rules his trial was tainted by racial bias, grounds for cancellation of a death sentence under the state’s Racial Justice Act.
2013 – Howard Phillips, founder of the Constitution Party, died at 3:50 PM, EST today. Phillips is credited for helping to establish the Moral Majority which was instrumental in Ronald Reagan’s election to the White House in 1980.
2013 – Five people are killed and 17 are injured in Vail, Arizona when a car accident occurs during a U.S. Border Patrol pursuit.
2013 – Five snowboarders are killed in a backcountry avalanche on Loveland Pass,Colorado in the deadliest US avalanche since 1962.
2015 – The USS Theodore Roosevelt is heading to the Arabia Sea off the coast of Yemen to join other U.S. warships prepared to intercept any Iranian vessels carrying weapons to rebels, according to the U.S. Navy.
2015 – SS guard Oskar Groening, accountant of Auschwitz’ going on trial in Germany. Groening tasked with collecting belongings of victims arriving on trains, to go on trial for his part in Nazi crimes during Holocaust.
2015 – Police officers in the city of Baltimore, Maryland are placed on leave while an investigation is held into the death of Freddie Gray.
2016 – Aaron Hicks of the New York Yankees makes a record-breaking throw to home plate. Hicks threw out Danny Valencia at home plate in the fourth inning. The throw was recorded at 105.5 mph, setting a new record, according to MLB’s tracking technology Statcast.
1718 – David Brainerd, American missionary to the Indians (d. 1747)
1723 – Cornelius Harnett, American delegate to the Continental Congress (d. 1781)
1745 – Philippe Pinel, French physician (d. 1826)
1882 – Holland Smith, U.S. General (d. 1967)
1893 – Edna Parker, American supercentenarian , lived in 19th, 20th and 21st centuries.(d. November 26, 2008)
1908 – Lionel Hampton, American musician (d. 2002)
1920 – John Paul Stevens, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
1936 – Pat Roberts, American politician
1937 – George Takei, American actor
1941 – Ryan O’Neal, American actor
1949 – Veronica Cartwright, American actress
1949 – Jessica Lange, American actress
1951 – Luther Vandross, American singer (d. 2005)
Rank and Organization: Corporal, United States Army, Company I, Eighth Regiment, First Cavalry Division. Entered service at Chicago, IL. Born: Pásztó, Hungary, Citation: Corporal Tibor Rubin distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism during the period from July 23rd, 1950, to April 20th, 1953, while serving as a rifleman with Company I, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division in the Republic of Korea. While his unit was retreating to the Pusan Perimeter, Corporal Rubin was assigned to stay behind to keep open the vital Taegu-Pusan Road link used by his withdrawing unit. During the ensuing battle, overwhelming numbers of North Korean troops assaulted a hill defended solely by Corporal Rubin. He inflicted a staggering number of casualties on the attacking force during his personal 24-hour battle, single-handedly slowing the enemy advance and allowing the 8th Cavalry Regiment to complete its withdrawal successfully. Following the breakout from the Pusan Perimeter, the 8th Cavalry Regiment proceeded northward and advanced into North Korea. During the advance, he helped capture several hundred North Korean soldiers. On October 30, 1950, Chinese forces attacked his unit at Unsan, North Korea, during a massive nighttime assault. That night and throughout the next day, he manned a .30 caliber machine gun at the south end of the unit’s line after three previous gunners became casualties. He continued to man his machine gun until his ammunition was exhausted. His determined stand slowed the pace of the enemy advance in his sector, permitting the remnants of his unit to retreat southward. As the battle raged, Corporal Rubin was severely wounded and captured by the Chinese. Choosing to remain in the prison camp despite offers from the Chinese to return him to his native Hungary, Corporal Rubin disregarded his own personal safety and immediately began sneaking out of the camp at night in search of food for his comrades. Breaking into enemy food storehouses and gardens, he risked certain torture or death if caught. Corporal Rubin provided not only food to the starving Soldiers, but also desperately needed medical care and moral support for the sick and wounded of the POW camp. His brave, selfless efforts were directly attributed to saving the lives of as many as forty of his fellow prisoners. Corporal Rubin’s gallant actions in close contact with the enemy and unyielding courage and bravery while a prisoner of war are in the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, United States Army, 442nd Regimental Combat Team. Entered Service: Salinas, CA Born: August 14, 1920, Salinas, CA Citation: Private Joe Hayashi distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on April 20th and April 22nd, 1945, near Tendola, Italy. On 20 April 1945, ordered to attack a strongly defended hill that commanded all approaches to the village of Tendola, Private Hayashi skillfully led his men to a point within 75 yards of enemy positions before they were detected and fired upon. After dragging his wounded comrades to safety, he returned alone and exposed himself to small arms fire in order to direct and adjust mortar fire against hostile emplacements. Boldly attacking the hill with the remaining men of his squad, he attained his objective and discovered that the mortars had neutralized three machine guns, killed twenty-seven men, and wounded many others. On 22 April 1945, attacking the village of Tendola, Private Hayashi maneuvered his squad up a steep, terraced hill to within one-hundred yards of the enemy. Crawling under intense fire to a hostile machine gun position, he threw a grenade, killing one enemy soldier and forcing the other members of the gun crew to surrender. Seeing four enemy machine guns delivering deadly fire upon other elements of his platoon, he threw another grenade, destroying a machine gun nest. He then crawled to the right flank of another machine gun position where he killed four enemy soldiers and forced the others to flee. Attempting to pursue the enemy, he was mortally wounded by a burst of machine pistol fire. The dauntless courage and exemplary leadership of Private Hayashi enabled his company to attain its objective. Private Hayashi’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
TROUT, JAMES M.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Second Class Fireman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1850, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Frolic, Trout displayed gallant conduct in endeavoring to save the life of one of the crew of that vessel who had fallen overboard at Montevideo, April 20th, 1877.
Four Bad Days
Romans 8:5-8 New International Version (NIV)
5 Those who live according to the flesh have their minds set on what the flesh desires; but those who live in accordance with the Spirit have their minds set on what the Spirit desires. 6 The mind governed by the flesh is death, but the mind governed by the Spirit is life and peace. 7 The mind governed by the flesh is hostile to God; it does not submit to God’s law, nor can it do so. 8 Those who are in the realm of the flesh cannot please God.
“The Christian religion is, above all the religions that ever prevailed or existed in ancient or modern times, the religion of wisdom, virtue, equity and humanity.”
John Adams, Works, Vol. III, p. 421, diary entry for July 26, 1796.
“Success means doing the best we can with what we have. Success is the doing, not the getting; in the trying, not the triumph. Success is a personal standard, reaching for the highest that is in us, being all we can be.”
~ Zig Ziglar
Svengali (sven-GAH-lee) noun
A person who manipulates and exercises excessive control over another for sinister purposes. After Svengali, a musician and hypnotist, in the novel “Trilby” written by George du Maurier (1834-1896). In the story, Trilby is an artist’s model.
607 – Comet 1P/607 H1 (Halley) approaches within 0.0898 astronomical units (AUs) of Earth.
1529 – Beginning of the Protestant Reformation: After the Second Diet of Speyer bans Lutheranism, a group of rulers (German: Fürst) and independent cities (German:Reichsstadt) protests the reinstatement of the Edict of Worm.
1587 – Sir Frances Drake sailed into Cadiz, Spain, and sank the Spanish fleet.
1763 – Teedyuscung, a Lenape Indian, burned to death while sleeping in his cabin in the Wyoming Valley, Pa. The fire destroyed the whole Indian village. A few days later settlers from Connecticut arrived to resume their construction of a town.
1764 – The English Parliament banned the American colonies from printing paper money.
1770 – Captain James Cook sights the eastern coast of what is now Australia.
1775 – Revolutionary War: The war begins with an alerting by Paul Revere the War began at Lexington Common with the Battle of Lexington-Concord. Capt. John Parker mustered 78 militiamen on the town green of Lexington to send a warning to the 700 British soldiers marching to Concord to seize weapons and gunpowder. Maj. Gen. Thomas Gage sent a force of 700 British troops to Concord, west of Boston, to capture colonial weapons and arrest Patriot leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock. Arriving at Lexington on their way to Concord, the British were met on the town common by about 70 Minutemen. The “shot heard ‘round the world” ignited the American Revolutionary War. No one knows who fired the first shot, but when the smoke cleared, eight Americans lay dead. The British suffered more than 250 casualties as they opposed more than 1,500 Massachusetts men. Isaac Davis was among the first to die at Lexington and Concord.
1778 – Marines participated in the USS Ranger’s capturing and sinking of a British schooner off the coast of Ireland.
1782 – John Adams secures the Dutch Republic’s recognition of the United States as an independent government. The house which he had purchased in The Hague,Netherlands becomes the first American embassy.
1783 – George Washington proclaims end of hostilities.
1802 – Spain reopened the New Orleans port to American merchants.
1813 – Benjamin Rush (67), physician, revolutionary (signed Declaration of Independence), died.
1819 – The USS Alabama and Louisiana destroyed a pirate base at the Patterson’s Town Raid on Breton Island, Louisiana.
1861 – Civil War: President Lincoln ordered the blockade of Confederate ports.
1861 – Civil War: Baltimore riot of 1861: A pro-Secession mob in Baltimore, Maryland, attacks United States Army troops marching through the city. Four Union soldiers, nine civilians killed.
1861 – President Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus and hundreds of secessionist leaders were rounded up.
1864 – Civil War: Naval engagement at Cherbourg, France: USS Kearsarge vs. CSS Alabama.
1865 – Funeral service for Abraham Lincoln is held in the East Room of the White House.
1865 – Lieutenant W. H. Parker, commanding naval escort entrusted with the Confederate archives, treasury, and President Davis’ wife, successfully evaded Federal patrols en route southward from Charlotte and arrived at Washington, Georgia.
1892 – Charles Duryea claims to have driven the first automobile in the United States, in Springfield, Massachusetts.
1897 – Léo Taxil exposes his own fabrications concerning Freemasonry.
1897 – The first Boston Marathon was run from Ashland, Mass., to Boston. Winner John J. McDermott ran the course in 2 hours, 55 minutes and 10 seconds.
1898 – Congress passed a resolution recognizing Cuban independence and demanding that Spain relinquish authority over Cuba. President McKinley was also authorized to use military force to put the resolution into effect.
1913 – California passed the Webb Bill, excluding Japanese from owning land. It was signed into law on May 19, 1913.
1915 – Aviation engineers working for Dutch-born Anthony Fokker develop the mechanical interrupter gear, which allows machine gun bullets to be fired through rotating aircraft propeller blades.
1919 – Leslie Irvin of the United States makes the first successful voluntary free-fall parachute jump using a new kind of self-contained parachute.
1924 – The “National Barn Dance” premiered on WLS in Chicago.
1927 – Mae West is sentenced to ten days in jail for obscenity for her play “Sex.”
1928 – The 125th and final fascicle of the Oxford English Dictionary is published.
1933 – The United States went off the gold standard by presidential proclamation. FDR tied this with orders that 445,000 newly minted gold $20 “Double Eagle” coins be destroyed.
1934 – Shirley Temple appears in her first movie, “Stand Up & Cheer“.
1938 – RCA-NBC launches its first regular TV broadcasts. The programs, broadcast from the Empire State Building, were an experiment and aired only five hours a week. Very few TV sets existed at the time to receive the programs.
1939 – Connecticut finally approved Bill of Rights.
1940 – Jimmy Dorsey and his orchestra record the song “Six Lessons from Madame La Zonga”
1942 – World War II: On Bataan, the Japanese are overwhelmed by thousands of American and Filipino prisoners who assemble in the town of Balanga.
1943 – World War II: In Poland, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins, after German troops enter the Warsaw ghetto to round up the remaining Jews. Young Jews under Mordechai Anielewicz directed the first urban uprising against the Nazis. During World War II, tens of thousands of Jews living in the Warsaw Ghetto began a valiant but futile battle against Nazi forces. SS-Gen Jurgen Stroop led the destruction of the ghetto of Warsaw: “The Warsaw Ghetto is no more!” he wrote proudly to Heinrich Himmler and Adolf Hitler. Stroop was hanged on the site of the Warsaw ghetto after the war.
1944 – World War II: The House of Representatives approves an extension of Lend-Lease legislation.
1945 – World War II: US aircraft carrier Franklin was heavily damaged in Japanese air raid.
1947 – Garvin Smith sets the existing world record for the 25′ rope climb. Smith broke the record at the 1947 AAU competition making the 25′ climb in 4.2 seconds. By 1963 both the 20′ and the 25′ competitions had been discontinued in the AAU and NCAA as well.
1948 – ABC-TV network begins. Known until mid-1944 as “The Blue Network,” the company was re-christened the American Broadcasting Company. One of the starting stations was WXYZ where The Lone Ranger, Sergeant Preston, Sky King and other popular daily serials originated.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cruising Down the River” by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: The Skyliners), “Red Roses for a Blue Lady” by Vaughn Monroe, “Forever and Ever” by Perry Como and “Candy Kisses” by George Morgan all topped the charts.
1951 – General Douglas MacArthur retires from the military. His farewell included quoting a line from a ballad: “Old soldiers never die; they just fade away.”
1951 – “Tree Grows in Brooklyn” opens in New York City.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1956 – Actress Grace Kelly marries Prince Rainier of Monaco. She died in Monaco resulting in injuries from a car crash.
1958 – “Tequila” by the Champs topped the charts.
1958 – The San Francisco Giants defeated the Los Angeles Dodgers 11-4 at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum – their first meeting on the West Coast.
1958 – The last Key System train left Oakland for SF. Ferry service from the Ferry Building ended the next day when the Southern Pacific “Eureka” made its last crossing from SF to Oakland.
1960 – Baseball uniforms began displaying player’s names on their backs.
1961 – Howard Anderson was executed in Cuba after being convicted of arms smuggling to anti-Communist rebels.
1961 – Cuban forces shot down a B-26 bomber piloted by Captain Thomas Ray north of Larga beach, an area they controlled. Ray was flying the bomber from Nicaragua while on contract to the US CIA.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m Telling You Now” by Freddie & The Dreamers, “Game of Love” by Wayne Fontana & The Mindbenders, “I Know a Place” by Petula Clark and “King of the Road” by Roger Miller all topped the charts.
1965 – First all news radio station (WINS 1010 AM in NYC) begins operating. Its last record was the Shangri-La’s “Out In The Streets.”
1965 – At a cost of $20,000, the outer Houston Astrodome ceiling was painted because of sun’s glare. This in turn caused the grass to die.
1966 – Lt. Lee Aaron Adams of Willits, Ca., was killed when his F-105D Thunderchief fighter plane was shot down in North Vietnam. His remains were returned home in 2005.
1967 – “Casino Royale” premieres. It was a 1967 spy comedy film originally produced by Columbia Pictures. It is loosely based on Ian Fleming’s first James Bond novel. The film stars David Niven as the “original” Bond, Sir James Bond 007.
1967 – Katherine Switzer (b.1947) ran in the Boston Marathon registered under the name K. Switzer. Up to this time women were not allowed to register for the race.
1968 – Ralph S. Plaisted, insurance salesman turned explorer, reached the North Pole by snowmobile with three other men. This was the first expedition to indisputably reach the North Pole.
1969 – “Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In” by 5th Dimension topped the charts.
1969 – RACE RIOT: In Ithaca N.Y. approximately 80 armed, militant black students at Cornell Univ. took over Willard Straight Hall. They demanded a black studies program and cut a deal with frightened administrators for total amnesty.
1969 – The US turns over the first 20 of 60 jet fighter-bombers to the South Vietnamese Air Force.
1971 – Vietnam War: Vietnam Veterans Against the War begin a five-day demonstration in Washington, D.C..
1971 – Charles Manson is sentenced to death (later commuted life imprisonment) for conspiracy to commit the Tate/LaBianca murders.
1972 – US 7th Fleet warships, while bombarding the North Vietnamese coast, are attacked by MiGs and patrol boats as Hanoi begins to challenge US naval presence in The Tonkin Gulf for the first time since 1964. The destroyer USS Higbee is badly damaged.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia” by Vicki Lawrence, “Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree” by Dawn featuring Tony Orlando, “Sing” by the Carpenters and “A Shoulder to Cry On” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1973 – Barbra Streisand records “Between Yesterday & Tomorrow”.
1975 – “Philadelphia Freedom” by Elton John topped the charts.
1977 – Alex Haley received a special Pulitzer Prize for his book “Roots.”
1980 – “Call Me” by Blondie topped the charts.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss on My List” by Daryl Hall & John Oates, “Morning Train (Nine to Five)” by Sheena Easton, “Just the Two of Us” by Grover Washington, Jr./Bill Withers and “Old Flame” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1982 – Astronauts Sally K. Ride and Guion S. Bluford Jr. became the first woman and first African-American to be tapped by NASA for U.S. space missions.
1985 – 16th Space Shuttle Mission (51-D)-Discovery 4 returns to Earth.
1987 – Jacqueline Blanc, sets women’s downhill ski speed record (124.902 mph).
1987 – The Simpsons premieres as a short cartoon on The Tracey Ullman Show.
1988 – Sarah LaChapelle (56) was found murdered at her home in East Oakland. Gregory Tate (21) was arrested later that day in LaChapelle’s stolen Oldsmobile Cutlass. He was convicted in 1992 for her murder and in 1993 was sentenced to death.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “She Drives Me Crazy” by Fine Young Cannibals, “Like a Prayer” by Madonna, “Funky Cold Medina” by Tone Loc and “ I’m No Stranger to the Rain” by Keith Whitley all topped the charts.
1989 – The battleship USS Iowa’s number 2 turret exploded while on maneuvers northeast of Puerto Rico. Forty-seven sailors were killed and a $4 million investigation was launched. The Navy attempted to lay the blame on Clayton Hartwig, a seaman described as gay soldier disappointed in a gay affair.
1991 – Evander Holyfield won a unanimous decision over George Foreman to retain boxing’s heavyweight title in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
1992 – After six days, engineers plugged the tunnel leak under the Chicago River that caused an underground flood that had virtually shut down business in the heart of the city.
1993 – The 51-day siege at the Branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas, ended as fire destroyed the structure after federal agents began smashing their way in; dozens of people, including leader David Koresh (Vernon Howell), were killed. In 1999 the FBI admitted that it used incendiary tear gas canisters but still maintained that it did not start the fire.
1993 – South Dakota governor George Mickelson and seven others are killed when a state-owned aircraft crashes in Iowa.
1994 – A Los Angeles jury awarded $3.8 million to beaten motorist Rodney King.
1994 – The US Supreme Court outlawed the practice of excluding people from juries because of their gender.
1995 – Oklahoma City bombing: The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma is bombed. At 9:02 A.M. Oklahoma City, USA, a large car bomb exploded at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building killing 168 people, and injuring 500 including many children in the building’s day care center. Within a week a suspect, Timothy McVeigh, was caught and charged. Two suspects, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, faced trial. McVeigh was arrested during a routine traffic stop 78 miles from Oklahoma City on weapons charges the same day. Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, were later convicted of charges related to the bombing. Michael Fortier, a key government witness and friend of Nichols and McVeigh, was sentenced to 12 years in prison in 1998 for failing to warn authorities, lying to the FBI, transporting stolen weapons and conspiring to fence stolen weapons.
1996 – On the first anniversary of the Oklahoma City bombing, hundreds of mourners paused for 168 seconds of silence at the site where the federal building once stood.
1997 – San Diego Padres hosted the St. Louis Cardinals in a series at Aloha Stadium, where their star Tony Gwynn used to play for the Islanders. The Cardinals won the game 2-1 behind Alan Benes.
1997 – The Red River Flood of 1997 overwhelms the city of Grand Forks, North Dakota. Fire breaks out and spreads in downtown Grand Forks, but high water levels hamper efforts to reach the fire, leading to the destruction of 11 buildings.
1998 – A small plane crashed on the west side of Detroit. It was reported to have contained cash and marijuana that neighbors quickly picked up. The pilot was believed to be Douglas C. Dufresne (66) of Florida.
1998 – In Arizona grasshoppers by the millions descended on communities along the lower Colorado River.
1999 – In Florida the Everglades fire charred had 130,000 acres and continued to rage.
1999 – In Puerto Rico two US Marine jets in training dropped bombs over the island of Vieques and missed their targets. One civilian, David Sanes Rodriguez, was killed and four people were injured.
2000 – President Clinton knelt among 168 empty chairs memorializing each victim of the Oklahoma City bombing and declared the site “sacred ground” in the soul of America during a fifth-anniversary dedication ceremony.
2000 – In Arizona Richard Glassel (61)(55) killed 2 women and injured 4 others in a retirement community in Peoria during a board meeting.
2000 – In Tennessee Robert Glen Coe, convicted for the 1979 murder and rape of Cary Ann Medlin (8), was executed by injection. This was the state’s first execution in 40 years.
2001 – The space shuttle Endeavour went into orbit with 7 astronauts on an 11-day mission to install a billion-dollar robot arm on the International Space Station.
2001 – A US cargo ship departed from Jacksonville, Fla., for Cuba, the first scheduled ship in forty years. Two days later the ship failed to dock in Cuba.
2002 – The space shuttle Atlantis returned to Earth after installing the first girder in what eventually will be a giant framework at the international space station.
2004 – Jim Cantalupo (60), McDonald’s Corp. Chairman and Chief Executive, died of an apparent heart attack in Florida and the company named Chief Operating Officer Charlie Bell to replace him as CEO.
2007 – US Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid offered a bleak assessment of Iraq, saying the war was “lost,” triggering an angry backlash by Republicans.
2007 – A jury in Selmer, Tenn., convicted Mary Winkler of voluntary manslaughter in the shooting death of her preacher-husband, Matthew. Winkler spent seven months in custody, with two months served in a mental facility.
2009 – In Arizona Doug Georgianni (51) was shot and killed while collecting data from a traffic enforcement camera inside an SUV in Phoenix. The next day police arrested Thomas Patrick Destories (68) on first degree murder charges.
2010 – Arizona lawmakers passed a controversial immigration bill requiring police in the state that borders Mexico to determine if people are in the United States illegally, a measure critics say is open to racial profiling.
2010 – In Oregon Jorge Ortiz-Oliva (40), the kingpin of one of the biggest drug organizations in Oregon history, was sentenced to 30 years in prison.
2010 – In Tennessee a man opened fire outside the Parkwest Medical Center in Knoxville killing a woman and injuring two others before committing suicide.
2011 – U.S. serviceman PFC Bradley Manning, pending cort martial for the release of reams of classified documents to the Wikileaks website, is moved by officials from the Marine stockade at Quanitco to a military prison in Kansas.
2012 – One of the first pennies ever produced by the US Mint, a 1792 Silver Center penny, was put up for auction and reportedly sold for more than $1 million.
2013 – Boston Marathon bombings suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev is killed in a shootout with police. His brother Dzhokhar Tsarnaev is captured while hiding in a boat inside a backyard in Watertown, Massachusetts.
2013 – A fishing boat owned by a Louisiana sea food company sank off the Texas Gulf Coast after it was hit by a freak wave. Four fishermen were lost and one was rescued.
2013 – The Boy Scouts of America proposed lifting a ban on gay scouts but maintaining a prohibition on gay adults from leading troops.
2013 – Floodwaters swelled the Mississippi River and other Midwestern rivers following days of torrential rains. In Quiincy, Ill., the river rose nearly 10 feet in 36 hours. Two flood related deaths were in Indiana, a 3rd in Missouri.
2016 – Target Stores issued a company statement welcoming transgender team members and [customer] guests to use the restroom or fitting room facility that corresponds with their gender identity.” The statement came as Americans were recognizing and rejecting the revolutionary political agenda behind the push for transgender status.
1857 – Clarence Darrow, American attorney (d. 1938)
1904 – Pigmeat Markham, American comedian (d. 1981)
1905 – George H. Hitchings, American scientist, Nobel laureate (d. 1998)
1915 – Joy Gresham Lewis, American writer, wife of C. S. Lewis (d. 1960)
1922 – Barbara Hale, American actress
1924 – Henry Hyde, American politician (d. 2007)
1939 – Thomas J. Moyer, American judge
1940 – Joseph L. Goldstein, American scientist, Nobel laureate
1947 – Cindy Pickett, American actress
1947 – James Woods, American actor
1956 – Eric Roberts, American actor
1968 – Mary Birdsong, American actress
1976 – Justin Ross, American politician
THORSNESS, LEO K.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel (then Maj.), U.S. Air Force, 357th Tactical Fighter Squadron. Place and date: Over North Vietnam, April 19th, 1967. Entered service at: Walnut Grove, Minn. Born: 14 February 1932, Walnut Grove, Minn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. As pilot of an F- 105 aircraft, Lt. Col. Thorsness was on a surface-to-air missile suppression mission over North Vietnam. Lt. Col. Thorsness and his wingman attacked and silenced a surface-to-air missile site with air-to-ground missiles, and then destroyed a second surface-to-air missile site with bombs. In tile attack on the second missile site, Lt. Col. Thorsness’ wingman was shot down by intensive antiaircraft fire, and the 2 crewmembers abandoned their aircraft. Lt. Col. Thorsness circled the descending parachutes to keep the crewmembers in sight and relay their position to the Search and Rescue Center. During this maneuver, a MIG-17 was sighted in the area. Lt. Col. Thorsness immediately initiated an attack and destroyed the MIG. Because his aircraft was low on fuel, he was forced to depart the area in search of a tanker. Upon being advised that 2 helicopters were orbiting over the downed crew’s position and that there were hostile MlGs in the area posing a serious threat to the helicopters, Lt. Col. Thorsness, despite his low fuel condition, decided to return alone through a hostile environment of surface-to-air missile and antiaircraft defenses to the downed crew’s position. As he approached the area, he spotted 4 MIG-17 aircraft and immediately initiated an attack on the MlGs, damaging 1 and driving the others away from the rescue scene. When it became apparent that an aircraft in the area was critically low on fuel and the crew would have to abandon the aircraft unless they could reach a tanker, Lt. Col. Thorsness, although critically short on fuel himself, helped to avert further possible loss of life and a friendly aircraft by recovering at a forward operating base, thus allowing the aircraft in emergency fuel condition to refuel safely. Lt. Col. Thorsness’ extraordinary heroism, self-sacrifice, and personal bravery involving conspicuous risk of life were in the highest traditions of the military service, and have reflected great credit upon himself and the U.S. Air Force.
CARSON, ANTHONY J.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 43d Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Catubig, Samar, Philippine Islands, April 15- April 19th, 1900. Entered service at: Malden, Mass. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 4 January 1906. Citation: Assumed command of a detachment of the company which had survived an overwhelming attack of the enemy, and by his bravery and untiring efforts and the exercise of extraordinary good judgment in the handling of his men successfully withstood for 2 days the attacks of a large force of the enemy, thereby saving the lives of the survivors and protecting the wounded until relief came.
BETTS, CHARLES M.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Greensboro, N.C., April 19, 1865. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Bucks County, Pa. Date of issue: 10 October 1892. Citation: With a force of but 75 men, while on a scouting expedition, by a judicious disposition of his men, surprised and captured an entire battalion of the enemy’s cavalry.
ELLIOTT, RUSSELL C.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 3d Massachusetts Cavalry. Place and date: At Natchitoches, La., April 19, 1864. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Concord, N.H. Date of issue: 20 November 1896. Citation: Seeing a Confederate officer in advance of his command, charged on him alone and unaided and captured him.
LANGBEIN, J. C. JULIUS
Rank and organization: Musician, Company B, 9th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Camden, N.C., April 19, 1862. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 29 September 1846, Germany. Date of issue: 7 January 1895. Citation: A drummer boy, 15 years of age, he voluntarily and under a heavy fire went to the aid of a wounded officer, procured medical assistance for him, and aided in carrying him to a place of safety.
Rank and organization: Captain and Assistant Adjutant General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and Date: At Fort Huger, Va., April 19th, 1863. Entered service at: Olympia, Washington Territory. Born: 9 June 1842, Newport, R.I. Date of issue: 13 June 1894. Citation: Gallantly led a party that assaulted and captured the fort.
1906 San Francisco Earthquake
“ONE of the great social events of the opera season in the spring of 1906 was the joint appearance of Enrico Caruso and Olive Fremstad in Carmen. A large and enthusiastic audience filled the house for this gala occasion. it was the night of April 17th. After a quiet supper party with some friends, I walked home and went to bed with the music of Carmen still singing in my ears. It seemed as if I had scarcely been asleep when I was awakened by a terrifying sound–the Chinese porcelains that I had been collecting in the last years had crashed to the floor. (My interest in Chinese porcelains ever since then has been purely platonic.) The whole house was creaking and shaking, the chandelier was swinging like a pendulum, and I felt as if I were on a ship tossed about by a rough sea. “This can’t go on much longer,” I said to myself. “When a house shakes like this, the ceiling is bound to collapse. As soon as the plaster begins to fall, I’ll cover my head and accept what comes.” ~ Arnold Genthe
The previous evening had been the opening night of the Metropolitan Opera Company’s San Francisco engagement. Caruso—already a worldwide sensation—had sung the part of Don José in Bizet’s Carmen at the Mission Opera House. He went to bed that night feeling pleased about his performance. “But what an awakening!” he wrote in the account published later that spring in London’s The Sketch. “I wake up about 5 o’clock, feeling my bed rocking as though I am in a ship on the ocean….I get up and go to the window, raise the shade and look out. And what I see makes me tremble with fear. I see the buildings toppling over, big pieces of masonry falling, and from the street below I hear the cries and screams of men and women and children.”
The 1906 earthquake ranks as one of the worst natural disasters in US history and one of the most significant earthquakes of all times. It affected 375,000 square miles, half of which were in the Pacific Ocean. The ground surface was ruptured along the San Andreas fault for almost 300 miles. The speed at which it ruptured at an estimated 4 to 5 feet per second, while the rupture itself traveled at about 5,900 miles per hour.
Near Point Reyes, just northwest of San Francisco, the surface slippage was 24 feet. The earthquake also devastated northern California areas including Santa Rosa, San Jose, and Santa Cruz. Property damage was estimated at $400 million, or more than $8 billion in today’s dollars.
After the earthquake, over 225,000 of the city’s 400,000 residents were homeless. Fires destroyed about 28,000 buildings and 500 blocks – ¼ of San Francisco. Fires burned for three days and three nights; some were as hot as 2,700°F. The fires were more catastrophic than the earthquake itself.
Psalm 75:4-7 New International Version (NIV)
4 To the arrogant I say, ‘Boast no more,’ and to the wicked, ‘Do not lift up your horns. 5 Do not lift your horns against heaven; I do not speak so defiantly.’”
6 No one from the east or the west or from the desert can exalt themselves.
7 It is God who judges: He brings one down, he exalts another.
“Suppose a nation in some distant region should take the Bible for their only law book and every member should regulate his conduct by the precepts there exhibited. . . . What a Eutopia – what a Paradise would this region be!”
John Adams, Works, Vol. II, pp. 6-7, diary entry for February 22, 17
“Success means doing the best we can with what we have. Success is the doing, not the getting; in the trying, not the triumph. Success is a personal standard, reaching for the highest that is in us, being all we can be.”
~ Zig Ziglar
Svengali (sven-GAH-lee) noun
A person who manipulates and exercises excessive control over another for sinister purposes. After Svengali, a musician and hypnotist, in the novel “Trilby” written by George du Maurier (1834-1896). In the story, Trilby is an artist’s model.
1676 – Sudbury, Massachusetts, was attacked by Indians.
1689 – Bostonians rise up in rebellion against Sir Edmund Andros.
1775 –Revolutionary War: The British planned a surprise attack on Lexington; a storage place for colonial arms. Paul Revere overheard these British plans. Revere, William Dawes and Samuel Prescott rode out in the middle of the night to warn colonial militia of the approaching British.
1775 – Revolutionary War: The British advancement by sea begin; riders warn of impending arrests of Samuel Adams and John Hancock.
1775 – Revolutionary War: In Massachusetts, General Gage orders 700 British soldiers to Concord to destroy the colonists’ weapons depot and to capture Patriot leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock.That night, Paul Revere and William Dawes are sent from Boston to warn colonists. Revere reaches Lexington about midnight and warns both men who are hiding out there.
1778 – Revolutionary War: John Paul Jones attacked the British revenue cutter Husar near the Isle of Man, but it escaped. Soon thereafter he raided Whitehaven and burned one coal ship.
1783 – Fighting ceases in the American Revolution, eight years to the day since it began.
1796 – “The Archers” by Benjamin Carr was performed in New York City. It was the first opera written by an American composer.
1805 – The Revenue cutter Louisiana recaptured the merchant brig Felicity from privateers off the mouth of the Mississippi River.
1806 – Congress passed the Nicholson Act (nee the Non-Importation Act), legislation which effectively shut the door on the importation of numerous British goods to America. The legislation blocked the trade of brass, tin, textiles and other items that could either be produced in the States or imported from other countries.
1818 – A regiment of Indians and blacks were defeated at the Battle of Suwann, in Florida, ending the first Seminole War.
1831 – The University of Alabama is founded.
1846 – The telegraph ticker was patented by R.E. House.
1848 – American victory at the battle of Cerro Gordo opens the way for invasion of Mexico. Robert E. Lee was promoted to brevet major after this battle.
1848 – U.S. Navy expedition to explore the Dead Sea and the River Jordan, commanded by LT William F. Lynch, reaches the Dead Sea.
1861 – Colonel Robert E Lee turns down offer to command Union armies.
1861 – Civil War: Battle of Harpers Ferry, VA.
1862 – Civil War: Union mortar boats, Commander D. D. Porter, began a five day bombardment of Fort Jackson as a part of the Battle of Ft Jackson, Ft St. Philip and New Orleans, LA.
1864 – Civil War: Landing party from U.S.S. Commodore Read, Commander F. A. Parker, destroyed a Confederate base together with a quantity of equipment and supplies at Circus Point on the Rappahannock River, Virginia.
1864 – Civil War: At Poison Springs, Arkansas, Confederate soldiers under the command of General Samuel Maxey capture a Union forage train and slaughter black troops escorting the expedition.
1865 – Civil War: Dr. Samuel A. Mudd originally claimed to have never met Booth during his initial interview with investigating detectives. Presidential assassin John Wilkes Booth, injured and fleeing Ford’s Theatre, had knocked on the door of Dr. Mudd for help.
1865 – Civil War: Confederate Gen Joseph Johnston surrendered to Gen W.T. Sherman in North Carolina.
1876 – Daniel O’Leary completes a 500-mile walk in 139 hours 32 minutes.
1880 – An F4 tornado strikes Marshfield, Missouri, killing 99 people and injuring another one hundred. Its damage path was 800 yards (730 m) wide and 64 miles (103 km) long. All but 15 of its buildings were destroyed.
1881 – Billy the Kid escapes from the Lincoln County jail in Mesilla, New Mexico.
1895 – New York State passed an act that established free public baths!
1906 – The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire destroys much of San Francisco, California. 28,000 buildings were destroyed and 498 blocks leveled. One quarter of the city burned. About 700 people died. SF Mayor Schmitz issued a proclamation that authorized police “to Kill any and all persons found engaged in looting or in the Commission of Any Other Crime.”
1906 – Dennis Sullivan, SF Fire Chief, was severely injured when the chimney of the California Hotel crashed into the adjoining firehouse. Sullivan died of his injuries on April 22.
1906 – San Francisco firefighters, with the assistance of the US Navy, managed to drag a single fire hose from a pumper in the bay, over the shoulder of Telegraph Hill, over a mile to the Jackson Street warehouses. They saved Anson Hotaling’s Whiskey warehouses at 451 and 455 Jackson street.
1906 – The San Francisco earthquake killed 119 people at Agnews State Hospital in San Jose.
1906 – The Los Angeles Times story on the Azusa Street Revival launches Pentecostalism as a worldwide movement.
1907 – The Fairmont Hotel opened in SF, exactly one year after the 1906 earthquake. It was designed by Julia Morgan and named after mining magnate James Graham Fair.
1910 – Walter R. Brookins made the first airplane flight at night.
1912 – The Cunard liner RMS Carpathia brings 705 survivors from the RMS Titanic to New York City.
1916 – Irving Langmuir received a patent for an incandescent gas lamp.
1921 – Junior Achievement incorporated in Colorado Springs CO.
1923 – Yankee Stadium, “The House that Ruth Built”, opens with a crowd of 74,000 (62,281 paid). The Yankees beat the Boston Red Sox 4-1. John Phillip Sousa’s band played the National Anthem.
1924 – Simon & Schuster publishes the first Crossword Puzzle book.
1929 – Red Nichols and his Five Pennies recorded the Glenn Miller arrangement of “Indiana” for Brunswick Records.
1934 – First “Washateria” (laundromat) opens (Fort Worth TX).
1936 – Pan-Am Clipper began regular passenger flights from San Francisco to Honolulu.
1936 – The first Champions Day is celebrated in Detroit, Michigan.
1938 – President Franklin Roosevelt threw out the first ball preceding the season opener between the Washington Senators and the Philadelphia Athletics.
1939 – Gene Autry recorded “Back in the Saddle Again.”
1941 – Dr. Robert Weaver named director of Office of Production Management section charged with integrating Blacks into the National Defense Program.
1942 – “Stars & Stripes” paper for US armed forces starts.
1942 – World War II: The Doolittle Raid on Japan. Tokyo, Yokohama, Kobe and Nagoya were bombed. It was the first air raid by the United States to strike the Japanese Home Islands (specifically Honshu) during World War II. Eighty men took off from an aircraft carrier on this top secret mission. (See November 9, 2013 for the final toast.)
1943 – World War II: Operation Vengeance, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto is killed when his aircraft is shot down by P-38 fighters over Bougainville Island.
1943 – World War II: A massive convoy of 100 transport aircraft leaves Sicily with supplies for the Axis forces. At least half the planes are shot down by Allied fighters.
1945 – World War II:Over 1,000 bombers attack the small island of Heligoland, Germany. Under the German Empire, the islands became a major naval base, and during the First World War the civilian population was evacuated to the mainland. The first naval engagement of the war, the Battle of Heligoland Bight, was fought nearby in the first month of the war.
1945 – World War II: The last German forces resisting in the Ruhr Pocket surrender.
1945 – Airship training for U.S. Coast Guard personnel (nine officers & 30 enlisted men) began at NAVAIRSTA Lakehurst, New Jersey.
1945 – World War II: American war correspondent Ernie Pyle was killed by Japanese gunfire on the Pacific island of Ie Shima, off Okinawa. He was 44 years old.
1946 – Jackie Robinson debuts as a second baseman for the Montreal Royals.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Now is the Hour” by Bing Crosby, “I’m Looking Over a Four Leaf Clover” by The Art Moonie Orchestra, “But Beautiful” by Frank Sinatra and “Anytime” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1949 – The aircraft carrier USS United States (CVA-58) is laid down at Newport News Drydock and Shipbuilding. However, the United States is canceled five days later, resulting in the Revolt of the Admirals.
1950 – First opening night-game, St Louis Cardinals beat Pittsburgh Pirates, 4-2.
1950 – Sam Jethroe is the first Black to play for Boston Braves.
1950 – The first transatlantic jet passenger trip was completed.
1953 – “Pal Joey” closes at Broadhurst Theater New York City after 542 performances.
1953 – “The Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1955 – James B. Parsons named chief judge of the Federal District Court in Chicago and became the first African American to hold that position.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Heartbreak Hotel/I Was the One” by Elvis Presley, “The Poor People of Paris” by Les Baxter, “Long Tall Sally” by Little Richard and “Blue Suede Shoes” by Carl Perkins all topped the charts.
1956 – Eddie Rommel, a baseball umpire, wore eyeglasses, a first for the game. This game was between the NY Yankees and Washington Senators.
1957 – Comedian Johnny Carson turned briefly to TV acting in a role on the “Playhouse 90” production of “Three Men on a Horse” on CBS-TV.
1958 – A United States federal court rules that poet Ezra Pound is to be released from an insane asylum.
1959 – “Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods topped the charts.
1961 – Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev sent a letter to Pres. Kennedy with an “urgent call” to end “aggression” against Cuba.
1964 – Sandy Koufax is first to strike out the side on 9 pitches.
1965 – Marian Anderson ended her 30-year singing career with a concert at Carnegie Hall in New York City.
1966 – Bill Russell became first African American coach in NBA history (Boston Celtics).
1968 – First ABA basketball championship begins. Pittsburgh Pipers beat New Orleans 122- 113.
1968 – London Bridge is sold and erected in Arizona. Robert P. McCulloch of McCulloch Oil was the purchaser for the sum of $2,460,000. The bridge was reconstructed at Lake Havasu City, Arizona, and dedicated on October 10, 1971.
1968 – Some 178,000 employees of US Bell Telephone System went on strike.
1970 – “Let it Be” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1973 – The Neil Young movie “Journey Through the Past” debuted at the Dallas Film Festival.
1974 – James Brown received a gold record for”The Payback.”
1975 – John Lennon releases “Stand by Me.”
1977 – Alex Haley, author of “Roots”, awarded Pulitzer Prize.
1978 – Senate votes to turn Panama Canal over to Panama on Dec 31, 1999.
1979 – The TV show “Real People” premiered.
1981 – Pawtucket & Rochester start a 33-inning baseball game. between the Rochester Red Wings and the Pawtucket Red Sox . The game began just after 8:00 PM local time and continued until 4:07 AM the next morning, when it was paused after 32 innings. Playing time was eight hours and 25 minutes. Thirty-two innings were played starting today at McCoy Stadium in Pawtucket, Rhode Island and the final 33rd inning was played June 23, 1981. Pawtucket won the game, 3–2.
1981 – “Kiss on My List” by Daryl Hall & John Oates topped the charts.
1983 – An Islamic Jihad car bomb destroys the United States embassy in Beirut, Lebanon, killing 63 people.
1985 – Ted Turner filed for a hostile takeover of CBS.
1985 – Tulane University abolished its 72-year-old basketball program. The reason was charges of fixed games, drug abuse, and payments to players.
1985 – Liberace grossed more than $2,000,000 for his engagement at New York City’s Radio City Music Hall. He broke his own record of $1.6 million.
1987 – Mike Schmidt hits 500th home run. Schmidt is the 15th ML player to reach the 500-HR plateau.
1987 – “I Knew You Were Waiting (For Me)” by Aretha Franklin & George Michael topped the charts. This song set the record for longest gap between #1 U.S. singles. The span of time from “Respect” (June 1967) to “I Knew You Were Waiting (For Me)” was 19 years, ten months.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Get Outta My Dreams, Get Into My Car” by Billy Ocean, “Devil Inside” by INXS, “Where Do Broken Hearts Go” by Whitney Houston and “I Wanna Dance with You” by Eddie Rabbitt all topped the charts.
1988 – The United States launches Operation Praying Mantis against Iranian naval forces in the largest naval battle since World War II. Navy destroys two Iranian surveillance platforms, sinks one frigate and one patrol ships, and severely damages a second frigate in retaliation for attack on USS Samuel B. Roberts.
1990 – The US Supreme Court ruled that states may make it a crime to possess or look at child pornography, even in one’s home.
1991 – President Bush unveiled his “America 2000” education strategy, which included a voluntary nationwide exam system and aid pegged to academic results.
1991 – The US Census Bureau estimated its 1990 census had failed to count up to 6.3 million people.
1991 – John Stockton breaks his own NBA season assist record at 1,136. He led the league in steals twice and retired as the all-time leader with 3,265.
1994 – Former President Richard Nixon suffered a stroke at his home in Park Ridge, N.J., and was taken to New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center; he died four days later.
1995 – Quarterback Joe Montana announces his retirement from football.
1995 – The Houston Post closed after 116 years.
1996 – “A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum”, opens at St James Theater New York City for 715 performances.
1997 – President Clinton held a news conference in which he warned Republicans that a balanced-budget deal may not come quickly, while reassuring nervous Democrats that he would not abandon the party’s prized social programs.
1998 – It was reported that Richard Mellon Scaife, 4th generation heir to the Mellon banking fortune, had donated million of dollars over more than 30 years to conservative groups and research centers. He had also supported groups critical of Pres. Clinton.
1999 – Wayne Gretzky (New York Rangers) played his final game in the NHL. He retired as the NHL’s all-time leading scorer and holder of 61 individual records.
2000 – In his first game back following a 12-game suspension for making disparaging remarks about minorities, gays and immigrants, Atlanta’s John Rocker pitched a scoreless ninth inning in a 4-to-3, 12-inning victory over Philadelphia.
2002 – Actor Robert Blake and his bodyguard were arrested in connection with the shooting death of Blake’s wife about a year before.
2003 – Scott Peterson was arrested in San Diego for the death of his wife, Laci, who was eight months pregnant when she vanished on Christmas Eve. DNA testing proved that the bodies found on the shores of San Francisco Bay were those of the missing Laci Peterson and her unborn son.
2003 – Burt Rutan, aircraft designer, unveiled SpaceShipOne, a rocket-powered spacecraft. He hoped to win the $10 million 1996 X Prize, offered for the first private launch of 3-people to an altitude of 62.5 miles twice in 2 weeks.
2003 – In the Florida Keys at least 28 pilot whales stranded themselves and 5 were reported dead.
2003 – North Korea said it was ready to begin reprocessing more than 8,000 spent nuclear fuel rods. US experts said it will give the communist state enough plutonium to make several atomic bombs.
2005 -The largest moving object on Earth, the iceberg B15A in Antarctica has collided with the Drygalski ice tongue, a feature large enough to be included in Antarctic maps. During the collision, a three mile long section of the ice tongue was broken off.
2005 – Black smoke signals no new Pope is chosen in the first ballot in the Papal conclave, 2005.
2006 – Today marks the 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Events marking the centennial will be held today and will continue through the end of the year.
2006 – Two Duke University lacrosse players were arrested on charges of raping and kidnapping a stripper hired to dance at an off-campus party on March 13.
2006 – Josephine Crawford (84), a Galloway Township widow, hit a $10 million jackpot, the biggest in the history of casino gambling in Atlantic City, NJ.
2007 – SCHOOL SHOOTING – Authorities announce that Seung-Hui Cho, the gunman who killed more than 30 people on Monday at Virginia Tech, has sent a package that contained disturbing images and video to NBC during the two-hour period between the shootings at the West Ambler Johnston Hall dormitory and the shootings at Norris Hall. The new evidence is sent to the FBI for more analysis.
2007 – Liviu Librescu, the Jewish Romanian engineering professor who was shot five times while holding off the gunman at his classroom entrance so his students could escape, is posthumously awarded the Star of Romania by the Romanian government.
2007 – The US Supreme Court upholds the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act (Pub.L. 108-105, 117 Stat. 1201, enacted November 5, 2003, 18 U.S.C. § 1531, PBA Ban) in a 5-4 decision.
2007 – US research found that Ethanol-fueled vehicles could contribute to more illnesses and deaths from respiratory disease than gasoline-powered cars and trucks.
2008 – A magnitude 5.2 earthquake hit southern Illinois, six miles from West Salem, IL in the Ozark Dome region and was felt across the Midwest. Effects were felt as far off as Evansville, St. Louis, Indianapolis, Detroit and Cleveland.
2008 – CNN news anchor Richard Quest is arrested for possession of methamphetamine in New York’s Central Park.
2008 – A Texas judge rules that 418 children taken from the YFZ Ranch should remain in state custody for 60 days.
2009 – In Texas five Houston children died after their sedan slid into a rain-swollen ditch when driver Chanton Jenkins (32) lost control while trying to answer a cell phone. Police the next day filed intoxication manslaughter charges against Jenkins, the father of three of the victims.
2010 – US Secretary of Defense Robert Gates says in a secret memo to the White House that the United States would be unable to cope with a nuclear threat from Iran.
2010 – The New York Daily News reported that former President George Washington owes $300,000 for overdue library books he borrowed from New York Society Library five months into his presidency and which he failed to return. Can anybody say, “statute of limitations?”
2011 – AZ Governor Jan Brewer signs bill to establish the State Volunteer Militia, separate from the AZ National Guard.
2012 – For the first time, two Lockheed Martin F-35C Lightning II carrier variant test aircraft launched together and conducted formation flying at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Md.
2012 – Television personality and producer Dick Clark dies of a heart attack at the age of 82.
2012 – Pat Summitt resigns as head coach of the Tennessee Lady Volunteers basketball team and is appointed head coach emeritus. She is the all-time winningest coach in NCAA basketball history of either a men’s or women’s team in any division.
2013 – Fifteen people are confirmed dead after the Texas fertilizer plant explosion in West, Texas
2013 – One Islamic bomber dead, the other is on the run; Boston suburbs locked down. The two suspects in the Boston Marathon bombing killed an MIT police officer, injured a transit officer in a firefight and threw explosive devices at police during their getaway attempt in a long night of violence that left one of them dead and another still at large Friday, authorities said as the manhunt intensified for a young man described as a dangerous terrorist.
2014 – Arts and crafts retailer Michaels announces that 3 million customers were affected by the 8-month long security breach that resulted in the theft of their customers’ personal information.
2015 – Bales Memorial Wesleyan Church in Jamestown, N.C., was the first Christian house of worship to be targeted by militant LGBT advocates, who destroyed the church’s sign, broke windows and pulled parking signs out of the ground. Not stopping there, the homosexual activists tore up flowers in the parking lot and vandalized the church bus by scratching up its hood and jamming a sign through its front grill,
2016 – Los Angeles police find 12 white female bodies in a garage freezer tagged with ‘Black Lives Matter’. The frozen bodies were within 6 freezers in the man’s garage. The bodies had several things in common – they were all white women in their mid-20s, blonde hair and all had the writings marked on them which read “Black Lives Matter” and “BLM.”
1857 – Clarence Darrow, American attorney (d. 1938)
1904 – Pigmeat Markham, American comedian (d. 1981)
1905 – George H. Hitchings, American scientist, Nobel laureate (d. 1998)
1915 – Joy Gresham Lewis, American writer, wife of C. S. Lewis (d. 1960)
1922 – Barbara Hale, American actress
1924 – Henry Hyde, American politician (d. 2007)
1939 – Thomas J. Moyer, American judge
1940 – Joseph L. Goldstein, American scientist, Nobel laureate
1947 – Cindy Pickett, American actress
1947 – James Woods, American actor
1956 – Eric Roberts, American actor
1968 – Mary Birdsong, American actress
1976 – Justin Ross, American politician
DALY, MICHAEL J.
Rank and organization: Captain (then Lieutenant), U.S. Army, Company A, 15th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Nuremberg, Germany, April 18th, 1945. Entered service at: Southport, Conn. Born: 15 September 1924, New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: Early in the morning of 18 April 1945, he led his company through the shell-battered, sniper-infested wreckage of Nuremberg, Germany. When blistering machinegun fire caught his unit in an exposed position, he ordered his men to take cover, dashed forward alone, and, as bullets whined about him, shot the three-man guncrew with his carbine. Continuing the advance at the head of his company, he located an enemy patrol armed with rocket launchers which threatened friendly armor. He again went forward alone, secured a vantage point and opened fire on the Germans. Immediately he became the target for concentrated machine pistol and rocket fire, which blasted the rubble about him. Calmly, he continued to shoot at the patrol until he had killed all six enemy infantrymen. Continuing boldly far in front of his company, he entered a park, where as his men advanced, a German machinegun opened up on them without warning. With his carbine, he killed the gunner; and then, from a completely exposed position, he directed machinegun fire on the remainder of the crew until all were dead. In a final duel, he wiped out a third machinegun emplacement with rifle fire at a range of ten yards. By fearlessly engaging in four single-handed fire fights with a desperate, powerfully armed enemy, Lt. Daly, voluntarily taking all major risks himself and protecting his men at every opportunity, killed fifteen Germans, silenced three enemy machineguns and wiped out an entire enemy patrol. His heroism during the lone bitter struggle with fanatical enemy forces was an inspiration to the valiant Americans who took Nuremberg.
*MERRELL, JOSEPH F.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company I, 15th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Lohe, Germany, April 18th,1945. Entered service at: Staten Island, N.Y. Birth: Staten Island, N.Y. G.O. No.: 21, 26 February 1946. Citation: He made a gallant, one-man attack against vastly superior enemy forces near Lohe, Germany. His unit, attempting a quick conquest of hostile hill positions that would open the route to Nuremberg before the enemy could organize his defense of that city, was pinned down by brutal fire from rifles, machine pistols, and two heavy machineguns. Entirely on his own initiative, Pvt. Merrell began a single-handed assault. He ran 100 yards through concentrated fire, barely escaping death at each stride, and at pointblank range engaged four German machine pistolmen with his rifle, killing all of them while their bullets ripped his uniform. As he started forward again, his rifle was smashed by a sniper’s bullet, leaving him armed only with three grenades. But he did not hesitate. He zigzagged 200 yards through a hail of bullets to within ten yards of the first machinegun, where he hurled two grenades and then rushed the position ready to fight with his bare hands if necessary. In the emplacement he seized a Luger pistol and killed what Germans had survived the grenade blast. Rearmed, he crawled toward the second machinegun located 30 yards away, killing four Germans in camouflaged foxholes on the way, but himself receiving a critical wound in the abdomen. And yet he went on, staggering, bleeding, disregarding bullets which tore through the folds of his clothing and glanced off his helmet. He threw his last grenade into the machinegun nest and stumbled on to wipe out the crew. He had completed this self-appointed task when a machine pistol burst killed him instantly. In his spectacular one-man attack Pvt. Merrell killed six Germans in the first machinegun emplacement, seven in the next, and an additional ten infantrymen who were astride his path to the weapons which would have decimated his unit had he not assumed the burden of the assault and stormed the enemy positions with utter fearlessness, intrepidity of the highest order, and a willingness to sacrifice his own life so that his comrades could go on to victory.
The brainchild of Lee Iococca, the Ford Mustang debuted on April 17, 1964 and sold for only $2,368. Ford expected annual sales of only a 100,000 units but 22,000 orders taken on the first day and Ford quickly realized it had something special. They eventually sold 417,000 Mustangs over the next 12 months shaking up the car world. In addition to this, 93,000 pedal-powered children’s Mustangs were purchased during the 1964 Christmas season. A winner was loose.
Dealers were swamped with requests for the car. In Garland, Texas, 15 customers bid on the same Mustang, and the winner insisted on sleeping in the car overnight to guarantee that it wouldn’t get sold from under him before his check cleared the next day.
Not much more than a month after its introduction, Ford’s new Mustang was on the racetrack as the pace car for the 1964 Indianapolis 500 race.
The early Mustangs have figured prominently in hundreds of notable films to date, beginning in 1964 with the James Bond movie Goldfinger, in which Bond’s Aston Martin DB5 chased a white Mustang convertible.
Mustangs were selling like hotcakes but the best was yet to come. n 1965, the Shelby GT350 was introduced, with a 306 horsepower V-8 engine, giving the Mustang performance credibility. When this happened Mustang Mania took over. The Shelby GT350 for Sports Car Club of America (SCCA) competition, and the GT350 went on to win three straight SCCA national championships.
At the Barrett-Jackson auto auction in 2011 I watched as a beautiful 1969 Super Cobra Mustang sell for $91,000.
The history of the Ford Mustang is much more than can even be touched here and it makes for excellent reading. “Google” Ford Mustang History.
Obedience to God includes the right attitude toward work, promotion, and financial gain.
Matthew 6:33 New International Version (NIV)
33 But seek first His kingdom and His righteousness, and all these things will be given to you as well.
“The name of the Lord (says the Scripture) is a strong tower; thither the righteous flee and are safe [Proverbs 18:10]. Let us secure His favor and He will lead us through the journey of this life and at length receive us to a better.”
Samuel Adams to Elizabeth Adams on December 26, 1776
“I have found that being honest is the best technique I can use. Right up front, tell people what you are trying to accomplish and what you are willing to sacrifice to accomplish it.”
~ Lee Iaccoca
umbrage UHM-brij, noun:
1. Shade; shadow; hence, something that affords a shade, as a screen of trees or foliage.
2. a. A vague or indistinct indication or suggestion; a hint.
3. b. Reason for doubt; suspicion.
4. Suspicion of injury or wrong; offense; resentment.Umbrage is derived from Latin umbra, “shade.”
6 B.C. – Jupiter was in a rare alignment with the constellation Aries and marked an important date for ancient astrologers. Jesus was believed to have been born in this year.
1054 – Supernova Crab nebula last seen by the naked eye. On July 4, 1054, a bright star appeared in the sky. For 23 days, it was bright enough to be seen in the daytime. It gradually dimmed, until it was no longer visible on April 17, 1056.
1397 – Geoffrey Chaucer tells the Canterbury Tales for the first time at the court of Richard II. Chaucer scholars have also identified this date (in 1387) as when the book’s pilgrimage to Canterbury starts.
1492 – Spain and Christopher Columbus sign a contract for him to sail to Asia to get spices.
1521 – Martin Luther speaks to the assembly at the Diet of Worms, refusing to recant his teachings. He then went into hiding for eight months and during that time he translated the NewTestament into German.
1524 – Giovanni da Verrazzano reaches New York harbor.
1629 – Horses were first imported into the colonies by the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1758 – Francis Williams, first Black college graduate, publishes a poem book in Latin.
1778 – Revolutionary War: Sloop-of-war Ranger captures a British brig.
1790 – Benjamin Franklin , American statesman, printer, scientist, and writer, dies in Philadelphia at age 84.
1797 – Sir Ralph Abercromby attacks San Juan, Puerto Rico in what would be one of the largest invasions to Spanish territories in America.
1808 – Bayonne Decree by Napoleon I of France ordered the seizure of U.S. ships.
1810 – Lewis Norton of Troy, PA., introduced his pineapple cheese.
1824 – Russia abandoned all North American claims south of 54′ 40′.
1849 – The USS Preeble weighed anchor at Nagasaki without Japanese permission. It’s mission was to rescue American merchant marine sailors who were being held in a Japanese prison as spies.
1860 – The Common Council of New York passed an ordinance compelling the placing of fire escapes on all tenements.
1860 – English boxer Tom Sayers fought John Heenan of the US for 37 rounds in an international bare-knuckle match at Farnborough, Hampshire, that was called a draw. Heenan was later acclaimed as the “World Boxing Champion.”
1861 – Civil War: Virginia secedes from the United States.
1861 – Civil War: U.S.S. Powhatan, commanded by Lieutenant D. D. Porter, arrived off Pensacola. He protected Fort Pickens until it was reinforced. It remained in Union hands for the whole war.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Plymouth begins – Confederate forces attack Plymouth, North Carolina.
1864 – Civil War: General Grant banned the trading of prisoners.
1864 – Civil War: There was a bread revolt in Savannah, Georgia.
1865 – Civil War: The Confederate ironclad Jackson (previously Muscogee) was destroyed at Columbus, Georgia.
1865 – Mary Surratt is arrested as a conspirator in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.
1869 – First pro baseball games (Cincinnati).
1892 – Cincinnati beat St. Louis, 5-1, in the National League’s first Sunday game. The league had prohibited play on Sunday before merging with the American Association.
1905 – The US Supreme Court decides Lochner v. New York that a law limiting bakery workers to a ten-hour day was unconstitutional, because such a measure bore no relation to the workers’ health or safety.
1907 – The Ellis Island immigration center processes 11,747 people, more than any other day. The record for this year was 1,285,349.
1908 – “Hail, Hail the Gangs All Here“, the song, was copyrighted. This is the copy right to a tune originally written by Arthur Sullivan for the 1879 comic opera The Pirates of Penzance. The lyrics were written by Robert Baden Powell of Scouting fame in 1917.
1909 – In San Francisco five bodies were recovered and probably eight or ten others buried in the ruins of an early morning fire which destroyed the St. George hotel, a lodging house for laborers at Howard and Eighth streets.
1912 – Al Jolson’s “Ragging The Baby To Sleep” becomes a national hit.
1916 – The American Academy of Arts and Letters obtained a charter from the U.S. Congress.
1917 – A bill in Congress to establish Daylight Saving Time was defeated. It was passed a couple of months later.
1923 – In the longest National League opener to date, Brooklyn and Philadelphia battle to a fourteen-inning 5-5 tie.
1924 – Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios is formed from a merger of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, and the Louis B. Mayer Company.
1933 – “Call for Philip Morris” heard for the first time on radio. The music was the “On the Trail” portion of the magnificent “Grand Canyon Suite.”
1934 – The new Fenway Park opens.
1935 – “Lights Out” , the ultimate horror show, premiered on NBC radio.
1937 – Cartoon characters Daffy Duck, Elmer J Fudd & Petunia Pig, debut.
1941 – Office of Price Administration established to handle rationing.
1941 – Igor Sikorsky accomplishes the first helicopter lift-off from water.
1941 – World War II: The Kingdom of Yugoslavia surrenders to Germany.
1943 – World War II: The US 8th Air Force carries out a daylight bombing raid on aircraft factories in Bremen. Of 115 B-17 bombers employed, 16 are lost on the mission.
1943 – World War II: Lieutenant Ross P. Bullard and Boatswain’s Mate First Class C. S. “Mike” Hall boarded the U-175 at sea after their cutter, the CGC Spencer, blasted the U-boat to the surface with depth charges. They became the first American servicemen to board an enemy warship underway at sea since the War of 1812.
1944 – World War II: US B-17 and B-24 bombers attack Sofia, Bulgaria.
1944 – World War II: US B-17 and B-24 bombers attack Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
1945 – World War II: In Stassfurt, Germany, US Lieutenant Colonel Boris T. Pash seizes half a ton of uranium, in an attempt to foil Soviet Union plans to build an atomic bomb.
1945 – World War II: Assault units from the US 24th Infantry Division; US 10th Corps (General Sibert) Landed in Moro Gulf at Cotabatu.
1945 – World War II: Mussolini fled to Milan.
1945 – World War II: Hannie Schaft (24), Dutch resistance fighter who lived in Haarlem, known as the “Girl with red hair,” was executed by the Germans just one month before the war ended. She delivered ration coupons, newspapers, secret information and weapons on her bicycle.
1945 – One-armed outfielder, St Louis Brown Pete Gray make MLB debut. He played his Major League debut game with the St. Louis Browns.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Anniversary Song” by Dinah Shore, “Heartaches” by The Ted Weems Orchestra (whistler: Elmo Tanner), “How are Things in Glocca Morra” by Buddy Clark and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1947 – Jackie Robinson bunts for his first major league hit.
1951 – New York Yankee Mickey Mantle’s first game. Making his debut before 44,860, he has one hit and scores a run.
1953 – Mickey Mantle hits a 565′ homerun in Washington DC’s Griffith Stadium. The ball went over the centerfield fence and dented a house.
1954 – “Wanted” by Perry Como topped the charts.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes, “The Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Fess Parker, “Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White” by Perez Prado and “In the Jailhouse Now” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1956 – Willie Mosconi sinks 150 consecutive balls in a billiard tournament.
1959 – A nationwide US air raid drill suspended most television and radio programs for a half hour.
1961 – Bay of Pigs Invasion: A group of CIA finances and trains Cuban refugees lands at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba with the aim of ousting Fidel Castro.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “He’s So Fine” by The Chiffons, “Can’t Get Used to Losing You” by Andy Williams, “South Street” by The Orlons and “Still” by Bill Anderson all topped the charts.
1964 – The Ford Motor Company unveils the Ford Mustang at the New York World’s Fair. The Mustang was a mid-year model that set sales records that have yet to be broken.
1964 – Jerrie Mock, a 38-year-old mother of three, jumped in the family Cessna 180 and departed Port Columbus (OH) Airport. Just over 23,000 miles later she became the first woman to circumnavigate the world by air. She completed the trip in 29 days, 11 hours and 59 minutes.
1964 – Shea Stadium opens.
1964 – The FBI lab reported that it could not determine the lyrics to “Louie Louie.”
1965 – “I’m Telling You Now” by Freddie & the Dreamers topped the charts.
1965 – The Beach Boys’ “Help Me Rhonda” was released.
1965 – Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) held its first anti-Vietnam war protest rally in Washington DC.
1965 – A stretch of the Mississippi River near Minneapolis crested at a record high. Flooding caused $100 million in damages and left 12 people dead.
1967 – “The Joey Bishop Show” debuted on ABC-TV.
1967 – The U.S. Supreme Court barred Muhammad Ali’s request to be blocked from induction into the U.S. Army.
1969 – Sirhan Sirhan is convicted of assassinating Robert F. Kennedy.
1970 – Apollo program: The ill-fated Apollo 13 spacecraft returns to Earth safely. Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the American Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon. The mission stretched the capabilities of astronauts Jim Lovell, Jack Swigert and Fred Haise and the people at Mission Control.
1970 – Johnny Cash performed at the White House at the invitation of President Richard M. Nixon. He played “A Boy Named Sue.”
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Joy to the World” by Three Dog Night, “Another Day/Oh Woman Oh Why” by Paul McCartney, “Put Your Hand in the Hand” by Ocean and “Empty Arms” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1972 – “Betcha by Golly, Wow“, by The Stylistics from Philadelphia, earned a gold record .
1972 – First Boston Women’s Marathon won by Nina Kuscsik. Her winning time was 3:10:26.
1973 – Federal Express delivers its first package.
1976 – The greatest comeback National League history was between the Phillies and the Cubs. At the end of three innings the Cubs were ahead 12-1. With some fantastic play from Mike Schmidt the Phillies beat the Cubs 18-16 in 10 innings.
1976 – “Disco Lady” by Johnny Taylor topped the charts.
1977 – “I Love My Wife” opens at Barrymore Theater New York City for 864 performances.
1978 – A record 63,500,000 shares traded on the New York stock exchange.
1978 – Carl Sagan (1934-1996) received the non-fiction Pulitzer Prize for “Dragons of Eden” (1977).
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “What a Fool Believes” by The Doobie Brothers, “Knock on Wood” by Amii Stewart, “Music Box Dancer” by Frank Mills and “(If Loving You is Wrong) I Don’t Want to Be Right” by Barbara Mandrell all topped the charts.
1982 – “I Love Rock ‘n’ Roll” by Joan Jett & the Blackhearts topped the charts.
1983 – Nolan Ryan strikes out his 3,500th batter. It happened with 9,334 fans watching in a 6-3 Houston win.
1983 – In New York, a transit strike that began on March 7 ended.
1985 – The U.S. Postal Service unveiled its new 22-cent “LOVE” stamp.
1986 – IBM produces first megabit-chip.
1986 – The bodies of American librarian Peter Kilburn and two British were found near Beirut; the three hostages had been slain in apparent retaliation for the U.S. raid on Libya.
1986 – Pulitzer prize awarded to Larry McMurtry for “Lonesome Dove.”
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Nothing’s Gonna Stop Us Now” by Starship, “I Knew You Were Waiting (For Me)” by Aretha Franklin & George Michael, “Don’t Dream It’s Over” by Crowded House and “”You’ve Got” the Touch” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1987 – President Reagan slapped $300 million in punitive duties on imported Japanese computers, television sets and power tools, in retaliation for Japan’s alleged violation of a computer chip trade agreement.
1987 – Julius Erving becomes the 3rd NBA player to score 30,000 points.
1987 – LT Tom McClay received a direct commission as a flight officer for duty with the Coast Guard’s E2C Hawkeyes. LT McClay was the first Coast Guard flight officer.
1989 – The US House Ethics Committee released its report accusing Speaker Jim Wright of violating House rules on the acceptance of gifts and outside income — charges denied by the Texas Democrat.
1990 – African American playwright August Wilson won his second Pulitzer Prize for drama with the play “The Piano Lesson.”
1991 – Congress voted to put a quick end to a day-old nationwide strike by 235,000 rail workers. President Bush signed the legislation early the next day.
1991 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 3,000 for the first time ever gaining 17.58 to 3,004.46.
1993 – A federal jury in Los Angeles convicted two former police officers of violating the civil rights of beaten motorist Rodney King. Two other officers were acquitted.
1995 – President Clinton signed an executive order stripping the classified label from most national security documents that were at least 25 years old.
1995 – An Air Force jet exploded and crashed in a wooded area in eastern Alabama, killing eight people, including an assistant Air Force secretary and a two-star general.
1996 – Erik and Lyle Menendez were sentenced to life in prison without parole for killing their parents.
1997 – The Red River in Fargo, North Dakota, was to have crested at 39.5 feet, surpassing the 1897 record. The Weather Service said that it crested on Apr 21 at 54 feet.
1998 – The Space Shuttle Columbia blasted off with seven astronauts and a host of creatures to test the effects of space travel on the nervous system.
1999 – The US launched the 505-foot Navy destroyer Winston S. Churchill at the Bath Iron Works in Maine.
1999 – In Iraq US fighter planes bombed anti-aircraft sites in the northern no-fly zone.
2000 – In Spokane, Wa., Robert L. Yates Jr., a National Guardsman and the father of 5, was arrested for the murder of a 16-year-old prostitute and suspected in the murder of as many as 13 others all of whom were prostitutes working on Spokane’s “Skid Row” on E. Sprague Avenue.
2001 – San Francisco Giants slugger Barry Bonds became the 17th major leaguer ever to reach 500 career home runs.
2001 – Mississippi residents vote to keep the Confederate emblem on their state flag by a margin of 65 to 35%.
2001 – Internet access (www.ellisislandrecords.org) to Ellis Island records became available.
2002 – Tammy Wynette’s four daughters reached a confidential agreement with Wynette’s doctor over her death. Wynette’s daughters filed a lawsuit that claimed the Pittsburgh doctor had contributed to Wynette’s death in 1998.
2002 – US District Judge Robert Jones upheld Oregon’s assisted-suicide law and said that Attorney General John Ashcroft should not “determine the legitimacy” of medical acts.
2003 – Michael Jordan retired from professional basketball while playing for the Washington Wizards.
2003 – In the 30th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom American forces released more than 900 Iraqi prisoners, beginning the process of sorting through the thousands detained in the month-old war. Coalition forces still held 6,850 prisoners.
2003 – A riot broke out at a Baghdad bank after thieves blew a hole in the vault and dropped children in to bring out fistfuls of cash.
2003 – Denver police reached an agreement with the ACLU to end the practice of keeping files on protesters.
2003 – The Bechtel Corporation is awarded a $680 million contract for the rebuilding of parts of Iraqs electricity system, water supplies and other key infrastructures.
2004 – 15th Annual Thunder Over Louisville is held. Thunder Over Louisville is the annual kickoff event of the Kentucky Derby Festival and is an airshow and fireworks display held in mid April in Louisville, Kentucky.
2005 – Students at the University at Albany in Albany, New York set the record for the world’s largest pillow fight with 3,648 participants, observed by Guinness Records officials.
2005 – Registered sex offender David Lee Onstott was charged with first-degree murder in the death of Sarah Michelle Lunde, the 13-year-old Florida girl whose body had been found the day before.
2006 – Oil closed at a record $70.40 per barrel in NY trading. This was the first time it had closed above $70 in NY.
2006 – Georgia’s Gov. Sonny Perdue signed a sweeping immigration bill that supporters and critics say gives the state some of the toughest measures against illegal immigrants in the nation.
2006 – In Chicago a jury convicted former Gov. George Ryan of steering state contracts and leases to political insiders during his term as secretary of state in the 1990s and then governor for one term. He was later sentenced to 6 1/2 years in prison,
2007 – Seung-hui Cho is identified as the spree shooter in the attacks at Virginia Tech.
2007 – A new survey said US household with a net worth of $5 million, excluding primary home, totaled one million in 2006, up from 250,000 in 1996.
2008 – In Fresno, Ca., Jesus Carrizales (17), a Roosevelt High School sophomore, attacked a campus police officer with a baseball bat. Officer Junus Perry received a 2-inch gash in the head before shooting and killing Carrizales.
2009 – American Sterling Bank in Sugar Creek, Missouri, is closed.
2009 – The US EPA declared that greenhouse gases endanger public health paving the way for new federal regulations on pollutants. The Obama administration declared that carbon dioxide and 5 other industrial emissions threaten the planet. Carbon dioxide is a major element in the growth of green plants.
2009 – A US federal judge sentenced John Philip Hernandez of Houston to 8 years in prison for buying military-style firearms and that ended up in the hands of Mexico’s drug cartels. Prosecutors said Hernandez led a group that purchased 339 weapons over 15 months.
2010 – Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran, describes the United States as an “atomic criminal”, saying that religion prohibits the use of nuclear weapons (haram) and calls for the US to be expelled from the international nuclear system.
2011 – More than forty people die in the Mid-April 2011 Southern United States tornado outbreak, with North Carolina being the worst affected state.
2012 – The Space Shuttle Discovery landed at Washington-Dulles Airport attached to its 747 transport aircraft.. The Discovery was the most traveled and most used used of the shuttles. It traveled more than 149 million miles. It spent a total of 354 days in space. It was the third one constructed, the one that flew first after both the Challenger and Columbia disasters and it was the one that took John Glenn into space the second time at age 77.
2013 – The FBI has confirmed that a letter addressed to President Obama has “preliminarily tested positive” for ricin.
2013 – Boston Marathon Bombing yesterday FOLLOWUP: Three died and at least 176 were injured when two bombs went off just before 3 p.m., shattering a festive atmosphere several hours after the legendary race began on the city’s 238th annual Patriots’ Day. The FBI recovers forensic evidence suggesting the two explosive devices which exploded near the finish line of the 2013 Boston Marathon were pressure cooker bombs, placed inside heavy black nylon bags containing shrapnel.
2013 – An ammonium nitrate explosion occurred at the West Fertilizer Company storage and distribution facility in West, Texas, 18 miles north of Waco while emergency services personnel were responding to a fire at the facility. At least 15 people were killed, more than 160 were injured and more than 150 buildings were damaged or destroyed.
2016 – A Russian fighter Jet Intercepted US aircraft in ‘Unprofessional Manner,’ officials say. The U.S. reconnaissance plane was flying in international airspace over the Baltic Sea Thursday when the Russian plane flew within 50 feet of it.
1741 – Samuel Chase, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1811)
1837 – J.P. Morgan, American financier (d. 1913)
1849 – William R. Day, American diplomat and Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1923)
1897 – Thornton Wilder, American dramatist (d. 1975)
1905 – Arthur Lake, American actor (d. 1987)
1906 – Sidney R. Garfield, American physician (d. 1984)
1915 – Joe Foss, American soldier and politician, Medal of Honor recipient (d. 2003)
1918 – William Holden, American actor (d. 1981)
1923 – Harry Reasoner, American journalist (d. 1991)
1950 – L. Scott Caldwell, American actress
1967 – Kimberly Elise, American actress
(also known as FRANCIS X. BURKE)
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 15th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Nuremberg, Germany, April 17th, 1945. Entered service at: Jersey City, N.J. Born: 29 September 1918, New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 4, 9 January 1946. Citation: He fought with extreme gallantry in the streets of war-torn Nuremberg, Germany, where the 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry, was engaged in rooting out fanatical defenders of the citadel of Nazism. As battalion transportation officer he had gone forward to select a motor-pool site, when, in a desire to perform more than his assigned duties and participate in the fight, he advanced beyond the lines of the forward riflemen. Detecting a group of about ten Germans making preparations for a local counterattack, he rushed back to a nearby American company, secured a light machinegun with ammunition, and daringly opened fire on this superior force, which deployed and returned his fire with machine pistols, rifles, and rocket launchers. From another angle a German machinegun tried to blast him from his emplacement, but 1st Lt. Burke killed this gun crew and drove off the survivors of the unit he had originally attacked. Giving his next attention to enemy infantrymen in ruined buildings, he picked up a rifle dashed more than one-hundred yards through intense fire and engaged the Germans from behind an abandoned tank. A sniper nearly hit him from a cellar only twenty yards away, but he dispatched this adversary by running directly to the basement window, firing a full clip into it and then plunging through the darkened aperture to complete the job. He withdrew from the fight only long enough to replace his jammed rifle and secure grenades, then re-engaged the Germans. Finding his shots ineffective, he pulled the pins from two grenades, and, holding one in each hand, rushed the enemy-held building, hurling his missiles just as the enemy threw a potato masher grenade at him. In the triple explosion the Germans were wiped out and 1st Lt. Burke was dazed; but he emerged from the shower of debris that engulfed him, recovered his rifle, and went on to kill three more Germans and meet the charge of a machine pistolman, whom he cut down with three calmly delivered shots. He then retired toward the American lines and there assisted a platoon in a raging, thirty-minute fight against formidable armed hostile forces. This enemy group was repulsed, and the intrepid fighter moved to another friendly group which broke the power of a German unit armed with a 20-mm. gun in a fierce fire fight. In four hours of heroic action, 1st Lt. Burke single-handedly killed eleven and wounded three enemy soldiers and took a leading role in engagements in which an additional twenty-nine enemy were killed or wounded. His extraordinary bravery and superb fighting skill were an inspiration to his comrades, and his entirely voluntary mission into extremely dangerous territory hastened the fall of Nuremberg, in his battalion’s sector.
CRILLEY, FRANK WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Chief Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 September 1883, Trenton, N.J. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. (19 November 1928). Citation: For display of extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession above and beyond the call of duty during the diving operations in connection with the sinking in a depth of water 304 feet, of the U.S.S. F-4 with all on board, as a result of loss of depth control, which occurred off Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii, on 25 March 1915. On April 17th, 1915, William F. Loughman, chief gunner’s mate, U.S. Navy, who had descended to the wreck and had examined one of the wire hawsers attached to it, upon starting his ascent, and when at a depth of 250 feet beneath the surface of the water, had his lifeline and air hose so badly fouled by this hawser that he was unable to free himself; he could neither ascend nor descend. On account of the length of time that Loughman had already been subjected to the great pressure due to the depth of water, and of the uncertainty of the additional time he would have to be subjected to this pressure before he could be brought to the surface, it was imperative that steps be taken at once to clear him. Instantly, realizing the desperate case of his comrade, Crilley volunteered to go to his aid, immediately donned a diving suit and descended. After a lapse of time of 2 hours and 11 minutes, Crilley was brought to the surface, having by a superb exhibition of skill, coolness, endurance and fortitude, untangled the snarl of lines and cleared his imperiled comrade, so that he was brought, still alive, to the surface.
COVINGTON, JESSE WHITFIELD
Rank and organization: Ship’s Cook Third Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: At sea aboard the U.S.S. Stewart, April 17th, 1918. Entered service at: California. Born: 16 September 1889, Haywood, Tenn. G.O. No.: 403, 1918. Citation: For extraordinary heroism following internal explosion of the Florence H. The sea in the vicinity of wreckage was covered by a mass of boxes of smokeless powder, which were repeatedly exploding. Jesse W. Covington, of the U.S.S. Stewart, plunged overboard to rescue a survivor who was surrounded by powder boxes and too exhausted to help himself, fully realizing that similar powder boxes in the vicinity were continually exploding and that he was thereby risking his life in saving the life of this man.
UPTON, FRANK MONROE
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 29 April 1896, Loveland, Colo. Accredited to: Colorado. G.O. No.: 403, 1918. Citation: For extraordinary heroism following internal explosion of the Florence H, on April 17th, 1918. The sea in the vicinity of wreckage was covered by a mass of boxes of smokeless powder, which were repeatedly exploding. Frank M. Upton, of the U.S.S. Stewart, plunged overboard to rescue a survivor who was surrounded by powder boxes and too exhausted to help himself. Fully realizing the danger from continual explosion of similar powder boxes in the vicinity, he risked his life to save the life of this man.
Teach Your Daughters To Volunteer Day
There was a Ford-built snow machine that predates Bombardier’s snowmobile patent — the Fordson Snow Devil built by putting a Fordson tractor on an Armstead Snow Motor. This did not catch on and it appears they went two different directions.
The two paths to the invention and development of the modern snowmobile (snow machine, skidoo, snow mobile) went to Carl Eliason and Armand Bombadier. Carl Eliason has to be listed as inventor of the snowmobile, since his patent is 30 years earlier than the other contender for that honor, Joseph Armand Bombardier. Carl Eliason of Sayner Wisconsin built what is basically a motorized toboggan in 1924, which was patented in 1927. The other path to development started when
Joseph Armand Bomdardier of Valcourt, Quebec built his first snow coach in the 1930s. The earliest snowmobiles were modified Ford Model Ts with the undercarriage replaced with tracks and skis. They were popular for rural mail delivery for a time.
Due to a difference in the types of snow between Wisconsin and Quebec, a different type of drive system. Enter Joseph-Armand Bombardier of the small town of Valcourt in Quebec, Canada. He invented different caterpillar track system suitable for all kinds
of snow conditions. His new revolutionary track traction system made up of a toothed wheel covered in rubber, and a rubber and cotton track that wraps around the back wheels.
Bombardier had already made some “metal” tracked vehicles since 1928, but is his first major invention and led him to become an industrialist. He started production of a large, enclosed, seven-passenger snowmobile in 1937, the B-7 and introduced another enclosed twelve-passenger model, the B-12 in 1942. It was only in 1959, when motors became lighter and smaller than before, that Bombardier invented what we know as the modern snowmobile in its open-cockpit one- or two-person form, and started selling it as the “Ski-doo”.
Deuteronomy 28:1-2 New International Version (NIV)
Blessings for Obedience
1 If you fully obey the Lord your God and carefully follow all his commands I give you today, the Lord your God will set you high above all the nations on earth. 2 All these blessings will come on you and accompany you if you obey the Lord your God:
3 You will be blessed in the city and blessed in the country.
4 The fruit of your womb will be blessed, and the crops of your land and the young of your livestock—the calves of your herds and the lambs of your flocks.
5 Your basket and your kneading trough will be blessed.
6 You will be blessed when you come in and blessed when you go out.
7 The Lord will grant that the enemies who rise up against you will be defeated before you. They will come at you from one direction but flee from you in seven.
8 The Lord will send a blessing on your barns and on everything you put your hand to. The Lord your God will bless you in the land he is giving you.
9 The Lord will establish you as his holy people, as he promised you on oath, if you keep the commands of the Lord your God and walk in obedience to him.10 Then all the peoples on earth will see that you are called by the name of the Lord, and they will fear you. 11 The Lord will grant you abundant prosperity—in the fruit of your womb, the young of your livestock and the crops of your ground—in the land he swore to your ancestors to give you.
12 The Lord will open the heavens, the storehouse of his bounty, to send rain on your land in season and to bless all the work of your hands. You will lend to many nations but will borrow from none.
“You have been instructed from your childhood in the knowledge of your lost state by nature – the absolute necessity of a change of heart and an entire renovation of soul to the image of Jesus Christ – of salvation through His meritorious righteousness only – and the indispensable necessity of personal holiness without which no man shall see the Lord [Hebrews 12:14]. You are well acquainted that the most perfect and consummate doctrinal knowledge is of no avail without it operates on and sincerely affects the heart, changes the practice, and totally influences the will – and that without the almighty power of the Spirit of God enlightening your mind, subduing your will, and continually drawing you to Himself, you can do nothing. . . . And may the God of your parents (for many generations past) seal instruction to your soul and lead you to Himself through the blood of His too greatly despised Son, Who notwithstanding, is still reclaiming the world to God through that blood, not imputing to them their sins. To Him be glory forever!”
A letter of Elias Boudinot to his daughter, Susan Boudinot, on October 30, 1782
“Never give in, never give in, never, never, never, never– in nothing, great or small, large or petty– never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense.”
~ Sir Winston Churchill
Adjective: Very small.
Noun: A very small person.
Created after Lilliput, a fictional island nation in Jonathan Swift’s satirical novel Gulliver’s Travels. Everything was diminutive in Lilliput — its inhabitants were six inches in height.
1178 BC- A solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom after the Trojan War.
73 – Masada, a Jewish fortress, falls to the Romans after several months of siege, ending the Jewish Revolt.
1503 – Christopher Columbus abandoned the garrison at Rio Belen (Panama) and sailed for home (Hispaniola) with three ships. On the way he was shipwrecked in Jamaica.
1521 – Martin Luther’s first appearance before the Diet of Worms to be examined by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the other estates of the empire.
1705 – Queen Anne of England knighted Isaac Newton.
1724 – First Easter observed.
1777 – Revolutionary War: New England’s Minute Men and Green Mountain Boys
routed British regulars at the Battle of Bennington.
1787 – “The first American play” opened, at the John Street Theater in New York City. It was written by 29-year-old Royall Tyler.
1789 – George Washington began the journey from his home at Mount Vernon to New York City, then the nation’s capital, where he would be inaugurated.
1818 – The Senate ratified Rush-Bagot amendment to form an unarmed U.S.-Canada border.
1851 – A lighthouse was swept away in a gale at Minot’s Ledge, MA.
1861 – Civil War: President Lincoln outlawed business with confederate states.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis approved conscription act for white males between 18 and 35.
1862 – Civil War: The Battle at Lee’s Mills in Virginia. This battle took place near the site of the 1781 Siege of Yorktown, the final battle of the Revolutionary War in the east.
1862 – Civil War: A bill ending slavery in the District of Columbia becomes law.
1863 – Civil War: The Siege of Vicksburg – ships led by Union Admiral David Dixon Porter move through heavy Confederate artillery fire on approach to Vicksburg, Mississippi.
1865 – Civil War: The Navy Department directed that on 17 April a gun be fired in honor of the late President Lincoln each half hour, from sunrise to sunset, that all flags be kept at half-mast until after the funeral, and that officers wear mourning crepe for six months.
1881 – In Dodge City, Kansas, Bat Masterson fights his last gun battle. His first gunfight took place in 1876 in Sweetwater, Texas.
1900 – US Post Office issues first books of postage stamps.
1905 – An endowment of a college teachers’ pension fund was established by Andrew Carnegie. He advanced the idea that the rich are merely trustees of wealth and that they have a duty to use their resources to benefit society.
1910 – The oldest existing indoor ice hockey arena still used for the sport in the 21st century, Boston Arena, opens for the first time.
1912 – Harriet Quimby, an American pilot, becomes the first woman to fly an airplane across the English Channel. She took off from Dover, England, en route to Calais, France and made the flight in 59 minutes, landing about 25 miles from Calais on a beach.
1922 – Annie Oakley sets record by breaking 100 clay targets in a row. Annie was sixty-two years old at this event.
1922 – Belvin Maynard, better known as the ‘Flying Parson’, gave his first sermon from an airplane. In 1919 in France, Maynard set a world record by completing 318 outside loops in a sopwith Pup.
1926 – The new Book of the Month Club sent out its 1st selection: “Lolly Willows or The Loving Huntsman” by Sylvia Townsend Warner. It went to nearly 5,000 members who had joined the Club.
1929 – Cleveland Indian Earl Averill, becomes first in the American League to hit a homerun on first at bat.
1929 – New York Yankees become first team to use numbers on uniforms.
1935 – First radio broadcast of “Fibber McGee & Molly.” This was a situation comedy radio show that was broadcast from 1935-1959 on the National Broadcasting Company.
1935 – Babe Ruth’s first National League game, for Boston Braves, included a homerun.
1940 – Cleveland Indian Bob Feller hurls an opening day no-hitter vs Chicago.
1941 – Bob Feller of the Cleveland Indians throws the only Opening Day no-hitter in the history of Major League Baseball, beating the Chicago White Sox 1-0.
1943 – Dr. Albert Hofmann discovers the psychedelic effects of LSD.
1944 – World War II: The destroyer USS Laffey survived immense damage from attacks by 22 Japanese aircraft off Okinawa.
1944 – World War II: The Coast Guard-manned destroyer escort (DE) USS Joyce, along with her sister ship USS Peterson and a Navy DE sank the U-550 off New York after the U-boat torpedoed a tanker that was part of a convoy.
1945 – World War II: The United States Army liberates Nazi Sonderlager (high security) Prisoner of War camp Oflag IV-C (better known as Colditz Castle).
1945 – World War II: More than 7,000 die when the German refugee ship Goya is sunk by a Soviet submarine torpedo.
1945 – World War II: American troops entered Nuremberg, Germany.
1945 – World War II: US troops landed on He Shima, Okinawa.
1945 – World War II: American forces land on Fort Frank and find it abandoned. This completes the capture of the islands in Manila Bay.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh, What It Seemed to Be” by The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Marjorie Hughes), “You Won’t Be Satisfied” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day), “Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief” by Betty Hutton and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1946 – First US launch of captured V-2 rocket, White Sands NM; 5 miles altitude.
1946 – On Opening Day in Boston with the Braves vs. the Brooklyn Dodgers, the newly painted seats had not yet dried when guests seated themselves. The Braves management picked up the cleaning tab for all.
1947 – In Texas City, TX, the French ship Grandcamp, carrying ammonium nitrate fertilizer, caught fire and blew up. The explosions and resulting fires killed 576 people.
1947 – Bernard Baruch coins the term “Cold War” to describe the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union.
1947 – Act of Congress gives Navy Nurse Corps members commissioned rank.
1948 – First televised baseball game, WGN-TV, (White Sox vs Cubs exhibition).
1949 – “Cruising Down the River“ by Blue Barron topped the charts.
1951 – General and Mrs. MacArthur departed Haneda Airport for the United States. Nearly 500,000 Japanese turned out to say goodbye.
1953 – During the Battle of Pork Chop Hill, the 17th and 31st Infantry Regiments of the 7th Infantry Division were hit hard by the Communist Chinese and sustained heavy casualties.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wanted” by Perry Como, “Cross Over the Bridge” by Patti Page, “Here” by Tony Martin and “Slowly” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1955 – “Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes topped the charts.
1956 – ABC premiered the TV show “Rhythm on Parade.”
1956 – Buddy Holly released his first single, “Blue Days, Black Nights.”
1956 – First solar powered radios go on sale. The $60 radio was small (about 3 x 9 x 10 in.) and weighed only 5.25 pounds. The $185 auxiliary Sun Power Pak provided electrical power from sunlight using a silicon “solar cell element.”
1958 – Arnold Palmer won his first Masters golf tournament.
1959 – New York Yankees unveil their first message scoreboard.
1960 – Theme from “A Summer Place“ by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1961 – In a nationally broadcast speech, Cuban leader Fidel Castro declares that he is a Marxist–Leninist and that Cuba is going to adopt Communism.
1961- Pres. Kennedy called off the CIA air strikes in Cuba. The message did not reach the 1,511 commandos headed for the Bay of Pigs.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Johnny Angel” by Shelley Fabares, “Good Luck Charm” by Elvis Presley, “Slow Twistin’ “ by Chubby Checker and “She’s Got You” by Patsy Cline all topped the charts.
1962 – Walter Cronkite succeeded Douglas Edwards as anchorman of “The CBS Evening News.” During this time he became “the most trusted man in America”.
1963 – Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. pens his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail while incarcerated in Birmingham, Alabama for protesting against segregation.
1964 – Great Train Robbery – Twelve men are sentenced to a total of 307 years.
1965 – The Hollies opened their first tour of the U.S. at the Brooklyn Paramount theater in New York.
1966 – “(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration“ by the Righteous Brothers topped the charts.
1968 – Baseball’s longest night game to date was completed. The Astros score an unearned run in the 24th inning to squeeze by the Mets 1-0 after six hours and six minutes.
1968 – Vietnam War: The Pentagon announced that troops would begin coming home from Vietnam.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Let It Be” by The Beatles, “ABC” by The Jackson 5, “Spirit in the Sky” by Norman Greenbaum and “Tennessee Bird Walk” by Jack Blanchard & Misty Morgan all topped the charts.
1972 – Apollo program: The launch of Apollo 16 from Cape Canaveral, Florida.
1972 – Vietnam War: Nguyen Hue Offensive – prompted by the North Vietnamese offensive, the United States resumes the bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong.
1977 – “Don’t Give Up on Us” by David Soul topped the charts.
1977 – The ban on women attending West Point was lifted.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Night Fever” by the Bee Gees, “Stayin’ Alive” by the Bee Gees, “Lay Down Sally” by Eric Clapton and “Someone Loves You Honey” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1980 – Arthur Ashe retires from professional tennis following quadruple bypass surgery.
1983 – Steve Garvey sets National League record by playing in 1,118 consecutive games.
1983 – “Billie Jean” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1985 – Mickey Mantle was reinstated after being banned from baseball for several years.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Me Amadeus” by Falco, “Kiss” by Prince & The Revolution, “Manic Monday” by Bangles and “She and I” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1987 – The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) sternly warned U.S. radio stations to watch the use of indecent language on the airwaves.
1987 – Michael Jordan, becomes 2nd NBA to score 3000 points in a season. Wilt Chamberlain was first in 1963.
1988 – “Get Outta My Dreams, Get Into My Car” by Billy Ocean topped the charts.
1990 – The “Doctor of Death”, Jack Kevorkian, goes through with his first assisted suicide.
1990 – The Supreme Court rejected appeals by Dalton Prejean, a nearly retarded man, who was condemned to die for the 1977 murder of a Louisiana state trooper. Prejean was executed the following month.
1990 – The Supreme Court let stand a ban on school dances in the Bible Belt town of Purdy, Mo.
1991 – President Bush announced that US forces would be sent into northern Iraq to assist Kurdish refugees.
1992 – The House Ethics Committee listed 303 current and former lawmakers who had overdrawn their House bank accounts.
1993 – A jury reached guilty verdict in the Federal case against cop who beat Rodney King, but the verdict was not read until April 17th.
1995 – George W. Bush names April 16 as Selena Day in Texas, after she was killed two weeks earlier.
1996 – Oprah Winfrey hosted her evening show and included a segment on mad cow disease. A group of Texas cattle ranchers later sued her for her comments.
1998 – Paula Jones announced she would ask an appeals court to reinstate her sexual harassment lawsuit against President Clinton after it was thrown out by a federal judge.
1998 – Tornadoes claimed eleven lives in Arkansas, Tennessee and Kentucky.
1999 – Shania Twain became the first woman to be named as songwriter/artist of the year by the Nashville Songwriters Association International.
1999 – Wayne Gretzky, hockey star of the New York Rangers, announced his retirement.
2002 – The U.S. Supreme Court overturned major parts of a 1996 child pornography law based on rights to free speech.
2003 – Michael Jordan played his last NBA game with the Washington Wizards, who lost to the Philadelphia 76ers, 107-87.
2003 – In the 29th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom Shooting in Mosul killed three people and wounded at least 11 and some Iraqis blamed US troops. War casualties totaled 121 US soldiers with sixteen from friendly fire.
2003 – Colorado Republican Gov. Bill Owens signed a law that established the first state school voucher program.
2004 – The super liner Queen Mary 2 embarks on her first Trans-Atlantic crossing, linking the golden age of ocean travel to the modern age of ocean travel.
2004 – Videotape broadcast on the Arab TV station Al-Jazeera showed Army Pvt. 1st Class Keith M. Maupin, abducted during an attack on a fuel truck convoy near Baghdad a week earlier. Arab television reported June 29, 2004, that Maupin had been killed; he is listed as missing by the U.S. military.
2005 – Authorities in Hillsborough County, Fla., found the body of missing 13-year-old Sarah Michelle Lunde. A suspect, David Lee Onstott, was later charged with her murder.
2007 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: The deadliest mass shooting in modern American history in a dorm and classroom at Virginia Tech left 32 people dead. Two people died in a dorm room, and 31 others were killed in Norris Hall, including the gunman, who put a bullet in his own head. Seventeen people were hurt, some seriously. The gunman was Seung-Hui Cho. He was born in South Korea in 1984 and became a permanent U.S. resident in 1992.
2007 – The board overseeing operations at the Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport ruled that taxi drivers who refuse service to travelers carrying alcohol face tougher penalties despite protests from Muslim cabbies who sought a compromise for religious reasons.
2008 – Start of Papal Journey of Pope Benedict XVI to the United States.
2008 – The US government reported plans to begin collecting DNA samples from anyone arrested by a federal law enforcement agency.
2008 – The US Supreme Court ruled that the combination of drugs used in the death chambers of most states does not create a substantial risk of severe pain and therefore is constitutional.
2008 – Computer consultant John Schiefer (26) pleaded guilty in Los Angeles to raiding hundreds of thousands of computers with spyware to steal users’ identities and commit fraud.
2008 – In Oklahoma, Custer County Sheriff Mike Burgess (56) resigned just as state prosecutors filed thirty-five felony charges against him, including fourteen counts of second-degree rape, seven counts of forcible oral sodomy and five counts of bribery by a public official.
2009 – In Sacramento, Ca., a tent city of some 150 homeless people was closed. It had been around for close to a decade on a strip of land between the American River and a power company.
2009 – President Barack Obama announced his decision not to prosecute CIA operatives who used interrogation practices described by many as torture. He condemned the aggressive techniques, including waterboarding, shackling and stripping, used on terror suspects while promising not to legally pursue the perpetrators.
2009 – In California pharmacy worker Mario Ramirez (50) showed up at the Long Beach Memorial Medical Center and shot Hugo Bustamante (46) and Kelly Hales (56) before turning the gun on himself and pulling the trigger.
2009 – In Middletown, Maryland, Christopher Alan Wood (34) killed his wife (33) and 3 children, then himself, in their home, leaving a gruesome scene that authorities said was found by the children’s’ grandfather on April 18.
2010 – Gary Jackson, former president of the US private security firm, Blackwater Worldwide (Xe Services LLC), and four other former workers are indicted on federal weapons charges.
2010 – The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission charges Goldman Sachs with defrauding investors.
2011 – Tornadoes kill several people in North Carolina and South Carolina with storms killing at least 20 people over the past few days.
2012 – Jeff Neeley, the General Services Administration official at the center of a scandal over lavish government spending declined to answer questions at a congressional hearing today invoking the Fifth Amendment.
2013 – In 1942 the 80 men of Doolittle’s Raiders bombed Tokyo in death-defying mission, retaliation for Pearl Harbor. Today, the last four will toast the raid. A case of 80 goblets is brought to their annual reunions. When a Raider dies a cup is upended. This year, there are four left. They’ll toast the Raiders with aged cognac, and end reunions.
2013 – Mail to the US Senate is suspended after letter sent to U.S. Senator Roger Wicker (R-MS) tests positive for the poisonous substance ricin at an offsite Congressional mail facility. The letter is being sent to the FBI Laboratory in Quantico, Virginia, for further testing.
2013 – Gospel singer George Beverly Shea died at the age of 104, following a brief illness.
2013 – A team of well-coordinated snipers attacked a PG&E Corp’s Metcalf substation located near Silicon Valley in California. For 19 minutes, they fired strategically placed shots that ended in 17 major transformers becoming non-functional.
2151 – Today in StarTrek future History: In 2151, USS Enterprise NX-01 will launch from Warp 5 Complex in Bozeman, Montana.
1495 – Petrus Apianus, German mathematician (d. 1557) was a German humanist, famous for his works in mathematics, astronomy and cartography. The crater Apianus on the Moon is named in his honor.
1867 – Wilbur Wright, American aviation pioneer (d. 1912)
1886 – Margaret Woodrow Wilson, American daughter of Woodrow Wilson (d. 1944)
1889 – Charlie Chaplin, English actor, director, producer, screenwriter, and composer (d. 1977)
1907 – Joseph-Armand Bombardier, French-Canadian inventor of the snowmobile and businessman (Bombardier) (d. 1964)
1924 – Henry Mancini, American composer (d. 1994)
1924 – Rudy Pompilli, American saxophonist (Bill Haley & His Comets) (d. 1976)
1927 – Edie Adams, American actress
1935 – Bobby Vinton, American singer
1939 – Dusty Springfield, English singer and producer (The Lana Sisters and The Springfields) (d. 1999)
1947 – Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, American basketball player
1952 – Bill Belichick, American football coach
1956 – David McDowell Brown, American captain, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2003)
1965 – Martin Lawrence, American actor
1971 – Peter Billingsley, American actor
1971 – Selena (Quintanilla), American singer ( murdered at age 23 on March 31, 1995)
1981 – Jake Scott, American football player
*INGALLS, GEORGE ALAN
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 5th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and date: Near Duc Pho, Republic of Vietnam, April 16th, 1967. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif. Born: 9 March 1946, Hanford, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Ingalls, a member of Company A, accompanied his squad on a night ambush mission. Shortly after the ambush was established, an enemy soldier entered the killing zone and was shot when he tried to evade capture. Other enemy soldiers were expected to enter the area, and the ambush was maintained in the same location. Two quiet hours passed without incident, then suddenly a hand grenade was thrown from the nearby dense undergrowth into the center of the squad’s position. The grenade did not explode, but shortly thereafter a second grenade landed directly between Sp4c. Ingalls and a nearby comrade. Although he could have jumped to a safe position, Sp4c. Ingalls, in a spontaneous act of great courage, threw himself on the grenade and absorbed its full blast. The explosion mortally wounded Sp4c. Ingalls, but his heroic action saved the lives of the remaining members of his squad. His gallantry and selfless devotion to his comrades are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflects great credit upon Sp4c. Ingalls, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
DEWEY, DUANE E.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Company E, 2d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Near Panmunjon, Korea, April 16th, 1952. Entered service at: Muskegon, Mich. Born: 16 November 1931, Grand Rapids, Mich. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a gunner in a machine gun platoon of Company E, in action against enemy aggressor forces. When an enemy grenade landed close to his position while he and his assistant gunner were receiving medical attention for their wounds during a fierce night attack by numerically superior hostile forces, Cpl. Dewey, although suffering intense pain, immediately pulled the Corpsman to the ground and, shouting a warning to the other Marines around him. bravely smothered the deadly missile with his body, personally absorbing the full force of the explosion to save his fellow Marines from possible injury or death. His indomitable courage, outstanding initiative, and valiant efforts in behalf of others in the face of almost certain death reflect the highest credit upon Cpl. Dewey and enhance the finest traditions of the United States Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service.
BUSH, RICHARD EARL
Rank and organization: Corporal, U .S. Marine Corps Reserve, 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, 6th Marine Division. Place and date: Mount Yaetake on Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, April 16th, 1945. Entered service at: Kentucky. Born: 23 December 1923, Glasgow, Ky. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a squad leader serving with the 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, 6th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces, during the final assault against Mount Yaetake on Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 16 April 1945. Rallying his men forward with indomitable determination, Cpl. Bush boldly defied the slashing fury of concentrated Japanese artillery fire pouring down from the gun-studded mountain fortress to lead his squad up the face of the rocky precipice, sweep over the ridge, and drive the defending troops from their deeply entrenched position. With his unit, the first to break through to the inner defense of Mount Yaetake, he fought relentlessly in the forefront of the action until seriously wounded and evacuated with others under protecting rocks. Although prostrate under medical treatment when a Japanese hand grenade landed in the midst of the group, Cpl. Bush, alert and courageous in extremity as in battle, unhesitatingly pulled the deadly missile to himself and absorbed the shattering violence of the exploding charge in his body, thereby saving his fellow Marines from severe injury or death despite the certain peril to his own life. By his valiant leadership and aggressive tactics in the face of savage opposition, Cpl. Bush contributed materially to the success of the sustained drive toward the conquest of this fiercely defended outpost of the Japanese Empire. His constant concern for the welfare of his men, his resolute spirit of self-sacrifice, and his unwavering devotion to duty throughout the bitter conflict enhance and sustain the highest traditions of the United States Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service.
BATES, NORMAN F.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 4th Iowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Vermont. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and bearer.
BEBB, EDWARD J.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 4th Iowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Henry County, Iowa. Birth: Butler County, Ohio. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
BIRDSALL, HORATIO L.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 3d Iowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Keokuk, Lee County, Iowa. Birth: Monroe County, N.Y. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and bearer.
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 4th lowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Wapello, Louisa County, lowa. Birth: Dunkirk County, N.Y. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag in a personal encounter with its bearer.
HAYS, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 4th lowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Oskaloosa, Mahaska County, lowa. Birth: Jefferson County, Ohio. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and bearer Austin’s Battery (C.S.A.).
HOLTON, EDWARD A.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company I, 6th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Lees Mills, Va., April 16th, 1862. Entered service at: Williston, Vt. Birth: Westminster, Vt. Date of issue: 9 July 1892. Citation: Rescued the colors of his regiment under heavy fire, the color bearer having been shot down while the troops were in retreat.
LEONARD, WILLIAM E.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 85th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Deep Bottom, Va., April 16th, 1864. Entered service at: Jacksonville, Pa. Birth: Greene County, Pa. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Capture of battle flag.
MORGAN, RICHARD H.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 4th lowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Taylor, Freemont County, lowa. Birth: Dubois County, Ind. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag inside the enemy’s works, contesting for its possession with its bearer.
PINGREE, SAMUEL E.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company F, 3d Vermont Infantry Place and date: Lees Mills, Va., April 16th, 1862. Entered service at. Hartford, Vt. Birth: Salisbury, N.H. Date of issue: 17 August 1891. Citation: Gallantly led his company across a wide, deep creek, drove the enemy from the rifle pits, which were within two yards of the farther bank, and remained at the head of his men until a second time severely wounded.
SCOTT, JULIAN A.
Rank and organization: Drummer, Company E, 3d Vermont Infantry. Place and date. At Lees Mills, Va., April 16th, 1862. Entered service at. Johnson, Vt. Birth: Johnson, Vt. Date of issue: February 1865. Citation: Crossed the creek under a terrific fire of musketry several times to assist in bringing off the wounded.
TIBBETS, ANDREW W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 3d lowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Columbus, Ga., April 16th, 1865. Entered service at: Appanoose County, lowa. Birth: Clark County, Ind. Date of issue: 17 June 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and bearer, Austin’s Battery (C.S.A.).
The Short History ot the Income Tax
From its very infancy this nation had very few taxes. They had just come out of a very long and bad time where the Britishm taxed the colonists excessively and finally started using those taxes as a weapon. The Constitution passed in 1789 and from 1791 to 1802, the government was supported by internal taxes on items such as distilled spirits, carriages, refined sugar, tobacco and snuff, property sold at auction, corporate bonds, and slaves. The huge cost of the War of 1812 added to that list our first official sales taxes and it was on gold, silverware, jewelry, and watches. That worked so well tha by 1817 Congress did away with all internal taxesand they relied only upon tariffs on imported goods to provide the necessary funds to run the government. The first income tax law was not passed until 1862 to support the CIVIL WAR. Its design was later used by Progressives to make this a permanent part of our government’s tax structure. It had all the parts that we now see. It had the principles of graduated, or progressive, taxation and of withholding income at the source. It was the Act of 1862 that formed this first tax collection and appointed a government official to head it. The Commissioner of Internal Revenue was given the power “to assess, levy, and collect taxes, and the right to enforce the tax laws through seizure of property and income and through prosecution.” The powers and authority remain very much the same today. It was never designed to be taxpayer or citizen friendly. The income tax was eliminated in 1872 and Congress focused on tobacco and distilled spirits. It did have a short revival in 1894 and 1895. In 1895, though, the U.S. Supreme Court decided that the income tax was unconstitutional because it was not apportioned among the states in conformity with the Constitution. The country then entered a time of being controlled by Progressives and as a result, in 1913, the 16th Amendment to the Constitution was passed The amendment gave Congress legal authority to tax income and resulted in a revenue law that taxed incomes of both individuals and corporations. The withholding tax on wages was introduced in 1943 prior to this the tax was “voluntary.” The Tax Reform Act of 1986 was passed on Oct. 22, 1986 by President Ronald Reagan and it was one of the most far-reaching reforms of the United States tax system since it was adopted. The top tax rate on individual income was lowered from 50% to 28%, the lowest it had been since 1916. Tax preferences were eliminated to make up most of the revenue. Following was an almost a yearly tradition of new tax acts that began in 1986. We saw tax acts passed in 1987, 1988, 1989 and then the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990 was signed into law. With a Democrat House and Senate, the emphasis of the 1990 act was increased taxes on the wealthy. In 1993, President Clinton signed the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1993. The act’s purpose was to reduce by approximately $496 billion the federal deficit that would otherwise accumulate in fiscal years 1994 through 1998. The joke of the day was that President Clinton’s 1040 asked only one question, “How much did you make?’ followed by one instruction: “Send it in.”
President George W. Bush signed a series of tax cuts into law. The largest was the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001. It was estimated to save taxpayers $1.3 trillion over ten years, making it the third largest tax cut since World War II. The Bush tax cut created a new lowest rate, 10% for the first several thousand dollars earned. It also established a slow schedule of incremental tax cuts that would eventually double the child tax credit from $500 to $1,000, adjust brackets so that middle-income couples owed the same tax as comparable singles, cut the top four tax rates (28% to 25%; 31% to 28%; 36% to 33%; and 39.6% to 35%). Two tax bills signed in 2005 and 2006 extended through 2010 the favorable rates on capital gains and dividends that had been enacted in 2003, raised the exemption levels for the Alternative Minimum Tax, and enacted new tax incentives designed to persuade individuals to save more for retirement. Our tax laws have become a convoluted mess and no one really knows what it says anymore. There is a strong voice among the citizenry to eliminate this for of taxation.
Joshua 1:7-8 New International Version (NIV)
7 “Be strong and very courageous. Be careful to obey all the law my servant Moses gave you; do not turn from it to the right or to the left, that you may be successful wherever you go. 8 Keep this Book of the Law always on your lips;meditate on it day and night, so that you may be careful to do everything written in it. Then you will be prosperous and successful.
“But you must remember, my fellow-citizens, that eternal vigilance by the people is the price of liberty, and that you must pay the price if you wish to secure the blessing. It behooves you, therefore, to be watchful in your States as well as in the Federal Government.”
— Andrew Jackson, Farewell Address, March 4, 1837
“Have great hopes and dare to go all out for them. Have great dreams and dare to live for them. Have tremendous expectations and believe in them.”
~ Norman Vincent Peale
bifurcate BY-fur-kayt; by-FUR-kayt,transitive verb: To divide into two branches or parts. intransitive verb: To branch or separate into two parts. adjective: 1. Divided into two branches or parts; forked. Bifurcate comes from the past participle of Medieval Latin bifurcare, “to divide,” from Latin bifurcus, “two-pronged,” from bi- + furca, “fork.”
1493-Columbus meets with King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella. When he arrived at Barcelona, seven of the natives Columbus took with him were baptized before Isabella and Ferdinand.
1715 – Pocotaligo Massacre triggers the start of the Yamasee War in colonial South Carolina.
1738 – Bottle opener invented.
1755 – Samuel Johnson’s A Dictionary of the English Language published in London. After 9 years of work, the first edition had 42,773 entries. This was the dictionary in use by our Founding Fathers.
1783 – Preliminary articles of peace ending Revolutionary War ratified.
1791 – Surveyor General Andrew Ellicott consecrated the southern tip of the triangular District of Columbia at Jones Point.
1794 – “Courrier Francais” became the first French daily newspaper to be published in the U.S.
1802 – William Wordsworth and his sister, Dorothy see a “long belt” of daffodils, inspiring the former to pen I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud.
1813 – War of 1812 – U.S. troops under James Wilkinson sieged the Spanish-held city of Mobile in future state of Alabama.
1817 – First American school for the deaf opens in Hartford CT. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc founded the American School for the Deaf.
1850 – The city of San Francisco was incorporated.
1854 – The immigrant steamer ship “Powchattan” (Powhattan) struck Brigantine Shoals and sank off Long Beach, NY. Over 300 people died.
1861 – Civil War: Three days after the attack on Fort Sumter, S.C., President Lincoln declared a state of insurrection and called out 75,000 Union troops.
1864 – Civil War: General Steele’s Union troops occupied Camden, Arkansas.
1865 – Civil War: Abraham Lincoln dies after being shot the previous evening by John Wilkes Booth with a .44 caliber derringer. Andrew Johnson is then sworn in as the 17th President of the United States.
1871 – “Wild Bill” Hickok became the marshal of Abilene, Kansas.
1874 – New York legislature passes compulsory education law. All children between the ages of 8 and 14 must be educated in spelling, reading, writing, English grammar, geography and arithmetic at least 14 weeks a year.
1877 – First telephone installed Boston-Somerville MA.
1878 – Harley Procter introduces Ivory Soap.
1885 – Naval forces land at Panama to protect American interests during revolution.
1889 – A marshal’s posse killed and captured a group of Sooners, settlers who stole onto the Public Domain territory in Oklahoma in hopes of claiming it legally, just nine days before the official start of the land rush.
1892 – The General Electric Company is formed.
1896 – First Olympic games close at Athens, Greece.
1899 – Thomas Edison organized the Edison Portland Cement Company.
1900 – Philippine–American War: Filipino guerrillas launch a surprise attack on U.S. infantry and begin a four-day siege of Catubig, Philippines.
1907 – Triangle Fraternity was founded at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. It was a social fraternity, limiting its recruitment of members to male students majoring in engineering, architecture, and the physical, mathematical, biological, and computer sciences.
1910 – Jolly Trixie, aka Miss Kitty Plunkett, was arrested for allegedly violating the Penal Code. She was accused of being deformed and exhibiting her deformity in a Fillmore Street show house. Plunkett said she weighed only 585 pounds as opposed to the alleged 685 pounds. Two physicians testified that she was perfectly symmetrical.
1911 – Walter Johnson pitches a record-tying four strike outs in an inning.
1912 – The British passenger liner, the RMS Titanic, sinks in the North Atlantic, after hitting an iceberg two and a half hours earlier, the previous day. It sank at 2:27 AM in North Atlantic as the band played on. 1,517 people died and more than 700 people survived.
1918 – First Marine Aviation Force formed at Marine Flying Field, Miami, FL.
1919 – Jane Arminda Delano (b.1862), founder of the American Red Cross Nursing Service, died in France while on a Red Cross mission and was buried there. She was posthumously awarded the US Distinguished Service Medal, the first female recipient.
1920 – Two security guards are killed during a mid-afternoon armed robbery of a shoe company in South Braintree, Massachusetts. Anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti were convicted and both were executed in August 1927.
1922 – Wall Street Journal reported an unprecedented secret arrangement in which the Secretary of the Interior, John B. Kendrick of Wyoming introduces a resolution calling for an investigation of secret land deal without competitive bidding, had leased the U.S. naval petroleum reserve at Wyoming’s Teapot Dome to a private oil company.
1922 – Insulin is discovered by Frederick Banting, John MacLeod & Charles Best.
1923 – Insulin becomes generally available for use by diabetics.
1923 – Dr. Lee DeForest demonstrates Phonofilm. The first Phonofilm, sound-on-sound film, motion picture, was demonstrated for a by-invitation-only audience at the Rivoli Theatre in New York City.
1924 – Rand McNally publishes its first road atlas.
1927 – The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, the most destructive river flood in U.S. history, begins. The flood began when heavy rains pounded the central basin of the Mississippi in the summer of 1926. By September, the Mississippi’s tributaries in Kansas and Iowa were swollen to capacity. The flood affected Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas. Arkansas was hardest hit, with 14% of its territory covered by floodwaters.
1931 – The first walk across America backwards began. Plennie L. Wingo walked backwards from Santa Monica, California to Istanbul, Turkey (about 8,000 miles) from April 15, 1931 to October 24, 1932, approximately 8,000 miles.
1934 – Dagwood and Blondie Bumstead welcomed a baby boy, Alexander.
1940 – World War II:The Allies begin their attack on the Norwegian town of Narvik which is occupied by Nazi Germany.
1941 – First helicopter flight of one hour duration, Stratford CT.
1941 – World War II: In the Belfast Blitz, two-hundred bombers of the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) attack Belfast, Northern Ireland killing one thousand people.
1942 – World War II:The George Cross is awarded to “to the island fortress of Malta – its people and defenders” by King George VI. It is the highest civil decoration of the United Kingdom, and also holds, or has held, that status in many other countries.
1943 – World War II: An Allied bomber attack misses the Minerva automobile factory and hits the Belgian town of Mortsel instead, killing 936 civilians.
1943 – World War II: US forces prepare for an invasion of the Aleutian Island, Attu, held by the Japanese. The US 7th Division, preparing for deployment in North Africa, is earmarked for the operation.
1944 – U.S. plans Operation Wedlock, an invasion of the Kurile Islands of northern Japan. There was no invasion–or a Ninth Fleet. It was all a ruse to divert Japanese attention away from the Marianas Islands, the Allies’ true target.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Dreams are Getting Better All the Time” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day), “I’m Beginning to See the Light” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “Candy” by Johnny Mercer & Jo Stafford and “Smoke on the Water” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: The Bergen-Belsen concentration camp is liberated.
1945 – World War II: US troops occupied the concentration camp at Colditz.
1945 – World War II: Commenting on the death of American President Franklin Roosevelt in his Order of the Day, Adolf Hitler proclaimed: “Now that fate has removed from the earth the greatest war criminal of all time, the turning point of this war will be decided.”
1945 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt was buried on the grounds of his Hyde Park home.
1946 – Manager Mel Ott of Giants hits 511th & final homerun.
1947 – Jackie Robinson debuts for the Brooklyn Dodgers, breaking baseball’s color line. He goes hitless in his first game.
1950 – “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton topped the charts.
1951 – The first episode of the “Adventures of Wild Bill Hickok” (24:35) radio show aired.
1952 – President Harry Truman signed the official Japanese peace treaty.
1952 – The maiden flight of the B-52 Stratofortress. History
1952 – Franklin National Bank issues first bank credit card. This followed two other banking innovations such as Junior savings accounts (1947) and the drive up teller window (1950). Following these the bank instituted a no-smoking policy on banking floors (1958) and installed outdoor teller machines at branch banks (1968).
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Believe” by Frankie Laine, “Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page, “Till I Waltz Again with You” by Teresa Brewer and “Your Cheatin’ Heart” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – Charlie Chaplin surrendered his U.S. re-entry permit rather than face proceedings by the U.S. Justice Department. Chaplin was accused of sympathizing with Communist groups.
1954 – Orioles first game in Baltimore; beat White Sox 3-1.
1955 – Ray Kroc opens his first franchise of McDonald’s restaurant in Des Plaines, Illinois.
1956 – The worlds’ first, all-color TV station was dedicated. It was WNBQ-TV in Chicago and is now WMAQ-TV.
1957 – Saturday mail delivery restored after Congress gives Post Office $41 million.
1958 – First MLB baseball game in California. The San Francisco Giants defeat the Los Angeles Dodgers in Seals Stadium, with Ruben Gomez pitching an 8-0 shutout.
1958 – Buddy Holly’s Fender Stratocaster guitar was stolen at a St. Louis concert.
1959 – Cuban leader Fidel Castro began a U.S. goodwill tour.
1960 – At Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina, Ella Baker leads a conference that results in the creation of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, one of the principal organizations of the African-American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.
1961 – Launching of first nuclear-powered frigate, USS Bainbridge, at Quincy, MA.
1961 – “Music Man” closed at Majestic Theater in New York City after 1,375 performances.
1964 – The first Ford Mustang rolls off the show room floor, two days before it is set to go on sale nationwide.
1964 – Chesapeake Bay Bridge opens. Following its opening the Bridge-Tunnel was selected “One of the Seven Engineering Wonders of the Modern World.”
1966 – Buffalo Springfield performed for the first time as the opening act for The Byrds in San Bernadino, CA.
1967 – “Somethin’ Stupid” by Nancy & Frank Sinatra topped the charts.
1967 – Richard Speck was found guilty of murdering eight student nurses.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Aquarius/Let the Sun Shine In” by The 5th Dimension, “You’ve Made Me So Very Happy” by Blood, Sweat & Tears, “Galveston” by Glen Campbell and “Woman of the World (Leave My World Alone)” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1969 – Archie Bell of the Drells was released from military service after a tour of Vietnam.
1969 – North Korea shot down a US airplane above the Sea of Japan. All 31 men aboard the plane were believed dead.
1971 – Vietnam War: North Vietnamese troops ambushed a company of Delta Raiders from the 101st Airborne Division near Fire Support Base Bastogne in Vietnam. The American troops were on a rescue mission.
1972 – “The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face” by Roberta Flack topped the charts.
1974 – SLA members including Patty Hearst robbed the Sunset Branch of the Hibernia Bank in San Francisco of more than $10,000. While fleeing they wounded two people passing by.
1975 – First appearance of the San Diego Chicken. The Chicken was born when Ted Giannoulas, a 5-foot 3-inch college student majoring in journalism in San Diego State took a job for a radio station in 1974 to dress up as a chicken and deliver Easter eggs at the San Diego Zoo.
1975 – Karen Ann Quinlan went into a coma after drinking several gin-and-tonics on top of a mild tranquilizer. She lived in a coma for over 10 more years.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dancing Queen” by Abba, “Don’t Give Up on Us” by David Soul, “Don’t Leave Me This Way” by Thelma Houston and “Lucille” by Kenny Rogers all topped the charts.
1978 – “Night Fever” by The Bee Gees topped the charts.
1980 – The Mariel boatlift officially began. When it ended on Oct 31, some 207,000 refugees entered the US of which 125,000 were Cubans.
1981 – Janet Cooke said her Pulitzer awardwinning story about an 8-year-old heroin addict was a lie. The Washington Post returned the Pulitzer Prize over the fabricated story.
1982 – Billy Joel was seriously hurt in a motorcycle accident on Long Island, New York.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “We are the World” by USA for Africa, “Crazy for You” by Madonna, “Nightshift” by the Commodores and “Honor Bound” by Earl Thomas Conley all topped the charts.
1986 – The United States launches Operation El Dorado Canyon against Libya. The United States bombing of Libya comprised of joint United States Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps air-strikes. The attack was in response to the bombing of a discotheque in Berlin on April 5, 1986.
1987 – Alfred Uhry’s “Driving Miss Daisy,” premieres in New York City.
1989 – “She Drives Me Crazy” by Fine Young Cannibals topped the charts.
1991 – Magic Johnson sets NBA record for career assists with 9,898.
1992 – Hotel magnate Leona Helmsley began serving a prison sentence for tax evasion. She was released from prison after 18 months.
1995 – “This is How We Do It” by Montell Jordan topped the charts.
1996 – Funeral services were held in Pescadero, Calif., for Jessica Dubroff, the 7-year-old girl who died trying to become the youngest person to fly across America.
1997 – Baseball honors Jackie Robinson by retiring #42 for all teams.
1998 – In San Francisco a Superior Court judge ordered the immediate closure of the Cannabis Cultivator’s Club, the nation’s largest dispenser of medicinal pot. 1999 – Astronomers announced that three planets had been detected orbiting the star Upsilon Andromedae some 44 light-years away.
1999 – MASS SHOOTING: In Salt Lake City, Utah, Sergei Babarin (70) entered the Mormon Church’s Family History Library and opened fire. He killed two people, Patricia Frengs of Pleasant Hill, Ca. and security guard Donald Thomas (62). He wounded four others and was shot dead by police.
2000 – In California Pres. Clinton created Giant Sequoia National Monument in Sequoia National Park. It protected 328,000 acres and 34 groves of Sequoias from timber harvest.
2000 – Cal Ripken of the Baltimore Orioles became the 24th player to reach three-thousand hits when he lined a clean single to center off Twins reliever Hector Carrasco. The Orioles won the game, 6-to-4.
2002 – In Washington DC thousands of Jews and supporters of Israel gathered for a “National Solidarity Rally.”
2003 – In the 28th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom selected Iraqi leaders met with retired US Lt. Gen. Jay Garner to shape a new government with 13 goals, the 1st being “Iraq must be democratic.”
2003 – Seven Iraqis died when American troops opened fire to keep an angry crowd from storming a government complex in Mosul. US troops in Baghdad arrested Abu Abbas, head of the Palestinian terrorist group that attacked the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro in 1985.
2007 – Scientists unveiled the world’s tiniest eyedropper, capable of squeezing out zeptoliter droplets. A zeptoliter is one billionth of one trillionth of a liter and contains about 10,000 atoms.
2009 – Pres. Obama directed the US Treasury Dept. to seize assets of three Mexican drug cartels including the Sinaloa cartel, the Los Zetas cartel and the La Familia Michoacan group.
2009 – In Washington, DC, the FBI arrested Walter Kendall Myers (72) and his wife, Gwendolyn (71), for spying. For three decades, Myers and his wife had shuffled secrets to their Cuban contacts.
2010 – A federal district court in Wisconsin ruled on Thursday that the National Day of Prayer is unconstitutional, a decision that has angered a constitutional law firm that filed an amicus brief defending the National Day of Prayer.
2011 – US health officials report that 21 players on 13 National Basketball Association teams were sickened with the novovirus stomach virus last fall including Dwight Howard of the Orlando Magic.
2011 – Wildfires in Texas, United States destroy dozens of homes and kill a firefighter.
2012 – Events and ceremonies are held around the world marking the 100th anniversary of the sinking of the RMS Titanic.
2012 – The U.S. Secret Service announces it has put eleven agents on leave while it investigates alleged “inappropriate conduct” in Cartagena, Colombia.
2013 – TERRORIST ATTACK: Two explosions rocked the finish line of the Boston Marathon. There were two booms heard from near the finish line inside the Fairmount Copley Plaza Hotel. “It happened around 2:45 p.m. outside Marathon Sports on Boylston Street, according to WBZ-TV’s Lisa Hughes, who was near the scene covering the marathon.” More than 120 people were injured, three dead and 15 of the injured have missing limbs. Of the 23,326 runners who started the race on Monday, 17,584 finished before the blast, marathon officials said. The runners were diverted before officials brought the marathon to a halt.
2014 – A total lunar eclipse occurs, producing a Blood Moon.
1452 – Leonardo da Vinci, Italian Renaissance polymath (d. 1519)
1741 – Charles Willson Peale, American painter, soldier and naturalist (d. 1827) 1841 – Joseph E. Seagram, Canadian distillery founder (d. 1919)
1875 – James J. Jeffries, American heavyweight boxer (d. 1953)
1894 – Bessie Smith, American blues singer (d. 1937)
1916 – Alfred S. Bloomingdale, American businessman (d. 1982)
1933 – Elizabeth Montgomery, American actress (d. 1995)
1942 – Kenneth Lay, American businessman (d. 2006)
1951 – Heloise, American newspaper columnist
1963 – Bobby Pepper, American journalist
GONSALVES, HAROLD WW II
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Place and date: Okinawa Shima in the Ryukyu Chain, April 15th, 1945 Born: 28 January 1926, Alameda, Calif. Accredited to: California. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as Acting Scout Sergeant with the 4th Battalion, 15th Marines, 6th Marine Division, during action against enemy Japanese forces. Undaunted by the powerfully organized opposition encountered on Motobu Peninsula during the fierce assault waged by his battalion against the Japanese stronghold at Mount Yaetake, Pfc. Gonsalves repeatedly braved the terrific enemy bombardment to aid his forward observation team in directing well-placed artillery fire. When his commanding officer determined to move into the front lines in order to register a more effective bombardment in the enemy’s defensive position, he unhesitatingly advanced uphill with the officer and another Marine despite a slashing barrage of enemy mortar and rifle fire. As they reached the front and a Japanese grenade fell close within the group, instantly Pfc. Gonsalves dived on the deadly missile, absorbing the exploding charge in his own body and thereby protecting the others from serious and perhaps fatal wounds. Stouthearted and indomitable, Pfc. Gonsalves readily yielded his own chances of survival that his fellow marines might carry on the relentless battle against a fanatic enemy and his cool decision, prompt action and valiant spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of certain death reflect the highest credit upon himself and upon the U.S. Naval Service.
BARRELL, CHARLES L.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company C, 102d U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: Near Camden, S.C., April 15th, 1865. Entered service at: Leighton, Allegan County, Mich. Birth:——. Date of issue: 14 May 1891. Citation: Hazardous service in marching through the enemy’s country to bring relief to his command. (Exact day is unknown).
BROWN, WILSON W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F., 21st Ohio Infantry. Place and date: Georgia, April 15th, 1862. Entered service at: Wood County, Ohio. Birth: Logan County, Ohio. Date of issue: September 1863. Citation: One of the nineteen of twenty-two men (including two civilians) who, by direction of Gen. Mitchell (or Buell), penetrated nearly 200 miles south into enemy territory and captured a railroad train at Big Shanty, Ga., in an attempt to destroy the bridges and tract between Chattanooga and Atlanta. (Exact day is unknown)
(Third to receive Medal of Honor)
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 21st Ohio Infantry. Place and date: Georgia, April 15th, 1862. Entered service at:——. Birth: Salem, Mass. Date of issue: 25 March 1863. Citation: One of the nineteen of twenty-two men (including two civilians) who, by direction of Gen. Mitchell (or Buell), penetrated nearly 200 miles south into enemy territory and captured a railroad train at Big Shanty, Ga., in an attempt to destroy the bridges and track between Chattanooga and Atlanta. (Exact day is unknown)
Abraham Lincoln Assassinated
It was a cold night on Good Friday 1865 when President Abraham Lincoln and his wife and military bodyguards headed towards Ford’s Theatre. They were to attend Laura Keene’s acclaimed performance of “Our American Cousin.” Lincoln occupied a booth above the stage with his wife; Henry Rathbone, a young army officer; and his fiancee, Clara Harris, daughter of New York Senator Ira Harris.It had been a very good week. Just prior to this night, the South, the Confederacy had finally surrendered. Earlier in the day the President had approved the formation of the Secret Service, a new department that would investigate couterfeit money. Counterfeiters were very prevalent in both the South and the North. Toward the end of the war, the estimate was that half the money in circulation was bogus. The Lincoln’ had arrived late but the President seemed to be enjoying himself. He had an excellent attitude was was laughing throughout the presentation. His attitude toward merryment can be seen best in hisquote, “With the fearful strain that is on me night and day, if I did not laugh I should die.” He knew the powerof laughter. At 10:15, John Wilkes Booth slipped into the Presidential box and fired his .44-caliber single-shot derringer into the back of Lincoln’s head. Rathbone rushed Booth, who stabbed the soldier in the shoulder. Booth then leapt from the president’s box to the stage below, breaking his leg as he landed. He shouted, “Sic semper tyrannis!” (“Thus ever to tyrants!”–the Virginia state motto) and ran from the stage. A 23-year-old doctor named Charles Leale was in the audience and rushed up to the presidential box immediately upon hearing the shot and Mrs. Lincoln’s scream. He found the president slumped in his chair, paralyzed and struggling to breathe. The military quickly took him across the street to the Petersen house. The Surgeon General Brig. Gen. Joseph K. Barnes said the the President would probably not last the night. Vice President Andrew Johnson, members of Lincoln’s cabinet and several of the president’s closest friends stood vigil by Lincoln’s bedside until he was officially pronounced dead at 7:22 am. The first lady lay on a bed in an adjoining room with her eldest son Robert at her side, overwhelmed with shock and grief. The president’s body was placed in a temporary coffin, draped with a flag and escorted by armed cavalry to the White House, where surgeons conducted a thorough autopsy. Edward Curtis, an Army surgeon in attendance, later wrote that, during the autopsy, while he removed Lincoln’s brain, a bullet “dropped out through my fingers” into a basin with a clatter. The doctors stopped to stare at the offending bullet, “the cause of such mighty changes in the world’s history as we may perhaps never realize.” During the autopsy, Mary Lincoln sent the surgeons a note requesting they cut a lock of Lincoln’s hair for her.
Haggai 1:5-11New International Version (NIV)
5 Now this is what the Lord Almighty says: “Give careful thought to your ways.6 You have planted much, but harvested little. You eat, but never have enough.You drink, but never have your fill. You put on clothes, but are not warm. You earn wages, only to put them in a purse with holes in it.”
7 This is what the Lord Almighty says: “Give careful thought to your ways. 8 Go up into the mountains and bring down timber and build my house, so that I may take pleasure in it and be honored,” says the Lord. 9 “You expected much, but see, it turned out to be little. What you brought home, I blew away. Why?” declares the Lord Almighty. “Because of my house, which remains a ruin, while each of you is busy with your own house. 10 Therefore, because of you the heavens have withheld their dew and the earth its crops. 11 I called for a drought on the fields and the mountains, on the grain, the new wine, the olive oil and everything else the ground produces, on people and livestock, and on all the labor of your hands.”
“It is the common fate of the indolent to see their rights become a prey to the active. The condition upon which God hath given liberty to man is eternal vigilance; which condition if he break, servitude is at once the consequence of his crime and the punishment of his guilt.”
— John Philpot Curran: Speech upon the Right of Election, 1790. (Speeches. Dublin, 1808.)
“Effective people are not problem-minded, they are opportunity-minded. They feed opportunities and starve problems.”
~ Stephen Covey
Argus (AHR-guhs) noun
An alert and observant person; a watchful guardian. [After Argus, a giant in Greek mythology who had 100 eyes and was sent to watch over Zeus’s lover Io. He was killed by Hermes and after his death his eyes transformed into spots on the peacock’s tail. Greek argos (bright).]
1543 – Bartoleme Ferrelo returned to Spain after discovering San Francisco Bay in the New World.
1611 – The word “telescope” was first used in public by Prince Federico Cesi at a banquet held by the pioneer scientific society, the Academy of Linceans.
1774 – The first abolition society in North America is established. The “Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage” is organized in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush.
1775 – Gen. Thomas Gage, commander of British forces in North America, received orders from Parliament authorizing him to use aggressive military force against the American rebels.
1777 – NY adopted a new constitution as an independent state. Governeur Morris was the chief writer of the state constitution.
1787 – Rush and Franklin united to lead the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery.
1818 – The new Army Medical Department was founded. It was modeled after the medical corps in use in the War of 1812.
1828 – Noah Webster’s 1828 American Dictionary of the English Language was copyrighted and produced.
1841 – Edgar Allen Poe’s “Murders in the Rue Morgue” published.
1846 – The Donner Party of pioneers departs Springfield, Illinois, for California, on what will become a year-long journey of hardship, cannibalism, and survival.
1859 – Charles Dickens’ “A Tale Of Two Cities” published.
1860 – The first Pony Express rider reaches Sacramento, California.
1861 – Robert E. Lee resigned from Union army.
1865 – President Abraham Lincoln gave the go-ahead to a proposal to create the Secret Service on this day. It was originally started to combat counterfeit money.
1865 – U.S. President Abraham Lincoln is shot in Ford’s Theatre by John Wilkes Booth.
1865 – U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward and his family are attacked in his home by Lewis Powell.
1865 – William Bullock patents continuous-roll printing press.
1881 – The Four Dead in Five Seconds Gunfight erupts in El Paso, Texas.
1890 – The Pan-American Union is founded by the First International Conference of American States in Washington, D.C.
1894 – Thomas Edison demonstrates the kinetoscope, a device for peep-show viewing using photographs that flip in sequence, a precursor to movies.
1896 – John Philip Sousa’s “El Capitan”, premieres in New York City.
1898 – Commissioning of first post Civil War hospital ship, USS Solace.
1900 – An early 50 mile race is won by an electric car in over 2 hours. A gentleman named Andrew Lawrence Riker won the race, traveling the entire distance in 2 hours and 3 1/3 minutes in an electric car.
1902 – James Cash (J.C.) Penney opened his first retail store.
1906 – President Theodore Roosevelt denounces “muckrakers” in US press.
1910 – President William Howard Taft begins tradition of throwing out ball on opening day.
1912 – The British passenger liner RMS Titanic hits an iceberg in the North Atlantic, and sinks the following morning with the loss of 1,503 lives and more than 700 survived.
1912 – Frederick Rodman Law was a stunt man and became the first man to intentionally jump from the Brooklyn Bridge in New York without intending to take his own life. He was OK after the leap.
1914 – Stacy G Carkhuff patents non-skid tire pattern.
1915 – Dr Harry Plotz discovers vaccine against typhoid (New York NY).
1918 – World War I: The U.S. First Aero Squadron engaged in America’s first aerial dogfight with enemy aircraft over Toul, France. |
1925 – First regular-season Cubs game to be broadcast on radio (WGN). |
1935 – “Black Sunday Storm“, the worst dust storm of the U.S. Dust Bowl.
1939 – The John Steinbeck novel “The Grapes of Wrath” was first published.
1940 – World War II: Royal Marines land in Namsos, Norway in preparation for a larger force to arrive two days later.
1940 – RCA demonstrates its new electron microscope in Philadelphia.
1941 – Hildegarde recorded the standard “Darling Je Vous Aime Beaucoup” on Decca Records. Hildegarde was the elegant singer with the long white gloves who was accompanied by the Harry Sosnik Orchestra.
1941 – World War II: The first massive German raid in Paris rounded up 3,600 Jews.
1941 – World War II: The Ustashe, a Croatian far-right organization is put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers after the Axis Operation 25 invasion. In addition, Rommel attacks Tobruk.
1942 – The American destroyer USS Roper sinks German U-boat U-85. This is the first sinking of an German submarine by an American ship.
1943 – Joseph C. Jenkins graduates as ensign in the Coast Guard Reserve, becoming the first commissioned African-American officer in the Coast Guard.
1943 – James Boarman, Fred Hunter, Harold Brest and Floyd G. Hamilton take part in an Alcatraz escape attempt. Shots were fired at Boarman, Brest, and Hamilton, who were swimming away from the island. Hunter and Brest were both apprehended. Boarman was hit by gunfire and sank below the water before officers were able to reach him; his body was never recovered. Hamilton was initially presumed drowned but found two days later.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Love, Love, Love” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra
(vocal: Skip Nelson), “I Love You” by Bing Crosby, “Besame Mucho” by The Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Bob Eberly & Kitty Kallen) and “Too Late to Worry, Too Blue to Cry” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: General Eisenhower becomes head commander of allied air fleet.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust: First Jews transported from Athens arrived at Auschwitz.
1945 – World War II: Robert Dole, later US senator and 1996 presidential candidate, was severely crippled by an artillery shell. During World War II, Robert Dole served in the 85th Regiment of the 10th Mountain Division.
1945 – World War II: Allied forces conduct Operation Teardrop. Two carrier task groups carry out an extensive search for Seewolf U-boats suspected of transporting V2 rockets to be launched against New York City.
1945 – World War II: US 7th Army and allies forces captured Nuremberg and Stuttgart, Germany. The US 3rd Army captures Bayreuth.
1945 – World War II: Reichsfuhrer SS Himmler orders that no prisoners at Dachau “shall be allowed to fall into the hands of the enemy alive.”
1945 – World War II: Japanese Kamikaze attacks damage the battleship USS New York. On Okinawa, American forces attack strong Japanese defenses in the hilly Motobu Peninsula in the north.
1945 – World War II: B-29’s damaged the Imperial Palace during firebombing raid over Tokyo.
1948 – New York City subway fares jump from 5¢ to 10¢. |
1951 – Korean War: U.N. Forces reached the Kansas Line as Operation DAUNTLESS continued to push the communists northward.
1951 – Korean War: Since Dec. 15, Bomber Command B-29s had destroyed 48 out of 60 assigned bridges and 27 of 39 listed marshaling yards under Interdiction Campaign No. 4, but at a loss of eight bombers and their crews from combat and operational causes.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr, “Anytime” by Eddie
Fisher, “Tell Me Why” by The Four Aces and “(When You Feel like You’re in Love) Don’t Just Stand There” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1953 – First home game for the Milwaukee Braves. In a 3-2 victory over St. Louis, Braves OutFielder Billy Bruton hits the first Major League Home Run in Milwaukee’s County Stadium.
1955 – Elston Howard becomes the first Black to wear the Yankee uniform.
1955 – Fats Domino’s “Ain’t That A Shame” was released.
1956 – “The Poor People of Paris” by Les Baxter topped the charts.
1956 – Ampex Corp demonstrates the first commercial videotape recorder, VRX-1000, was demonstrated at the National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters Convention. The VRX-1000 was renamed the Mark IV and sold briskly at $50,000.
1958 – “He’s Got the Whole World in His Hands” by Laurie London topped the charts.
1959 – The Taft Memorial Bell Tower was dedicated in Washington, DC.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Theme from “A Summer Place” “ by Percy Faith,
“Greenfields” by The Brothers Four, “Mama” by Connie Francis and “He’ll Have to Go” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1960 – The first underwater launching of Polaris missile.
1961 – US element 103 (Lawrencium) discovered.
1962 – “Johnny Angel” by Shelley Fabares topped the charts.
1964 – Paul Winchell was granted a patent for an “inverted novelty mask”.
1964 – Sandy Koufax throws his 9th complete game without allowing a walk.
1965 – Millie Small appeared on ABC-TV’s “Shindig!” and performed her song “My Boy Lollipop.”
1967 – Herman’s Hermits went gold with the single, “There’s a Kind of Hush“.
1967 – The final “Where the Action Is” aired on ABC-TV.
1967 – Vietnam War: In the Vietnam War, US planes bombed Haiphong for first time.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro, “Young Girl” by The Union
Gap, “Cry like a Baby” by The Box Tops and “You are My Treasure” by Jack Greene all topped the charts.
1968 – At the Academy Awards, a tie for the Academy Award for Best Actress is achieved by Katharine Hepburn and Barbra Streisand.
1969 – In New York City the student Afro-American Society seized Columbia College.
1969 – North Korean aircraft shoots down a Navy EC-121 reconnaissance aircraft from VQ-1 over the Sea of Japan.
1973 – “The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia” by Vicki Lawrence topped the charts.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Disco Lady” by Johnnie Taylor, “Let Your Love Flow” by Bellamy Brothers, “Right Back Where We Started From” by Maxine Nightingale and “’Til I Can Make It on My Own” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1977 – Supreme Court says people may refuse to display state motto on license.
1977 – Computer enthusiasts gathered for the first West Coast Computer Faire at the SF Civic Auditorium. An estimated 20-30 thousand American homes had computers.
1979 – “What a Fool Believes” by Doobie Brothers topped the charts.
1980 – A New Jersey state assemblyman introduced a resolution to make Bruce Springsteen’s “Born to Run” the official state song.
1980 – Stan Mikita retired after 21 years with the Chicago Black Hawks of the NHL. His #21 jersey became the first Blackhawks number to be retired.
1981 – STS-1 – The first operational space shuttle, Columbia (OV-102) completes its first test flight.
1984 –CHART TOPPERS – “Footloose” by Kenny Loggins, “Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)” by Phil Collins, “Hello” by Lionel Richie and “Thank God for the Radio” by The Kendalls all topped the charts.
1984 – The Texas Board of Education began requiring that the state’s public school textbooks describe the evolution of human beings as “theory rather than fact”.
1986 – In retaliation for the April 5 bombing in West Berlin that killed two U.S. servicemen, U.S. president Ronald Reagan orders major bombing raids against Libya, killing 60 people.
1988 – The USS Samuel B. Roberts strikes an Iranian mine in the Persian Gulf during Operation Earnest Will. No sailors died but several were injured.
1988 – In New York, real estate tycoons Harry and Leona Helmsley were indicted for income tax evasion.
1990 – “I’ll Be Your Everything” by Tommy Page topped the charts.
1990 – Cal Ripken of the Baltimore Orioles began a streak of 95 errorless games and 431 total chances by a shortstop.
1991 – The final withdrawal of American combat troops from southern Iraq began, 88 days after the United States launched its massive offensive to drive Saddam Hussein’s forces from Kuwait.
1992 – “Guys & Dolls” opens at Martin Beck Theater NYC on Broadway for 1143 performances.
1994 – In a U.S. friendly fire incident during Operation Provide Comfort in northern Iraq, two United States Air Force aircraft mistakenly shoot-down two United States Army helicopters, killing twenty-six people.
1996 – A tornado struck in Arkansas and killed seven people and injured thirty in the Ozarks.
1997 – Clyde Barrow’s bullet-ridden shirt was auctioned off to a Nevada casino for $85,000.
1997 – Some 500 black demonstrators marched in the Grays Ferry section of Philadelphia in response to a Feb 23 beating of Annette Williams, her son and nephew by a mob of white men.
1998 – The state of Virginia ignored the requests from the World Court and executed a Paraguayan for the murder of a U.S. woman.
1998 – FMC Corp. was hit with a $125 million verdict for misleading the US Army about the safety of its Bradley Fighting Vehicle.
2000 – Metallica drummer Lars Ulrich files a lawsuit against P2P sharing phenomenon Napster. This lawsuit eventually leads the movement against file-sharing programs.
2001 – The twenty-one men and three women crew of the US spy plane who were held in China for eleven days landed at their home base, Whidbey Island Naval Air Station in Washington, where they were greeted by thousands of friends, family members and other well-wishers.
2002 – Tiger Woods became only the third player to win back-to-back Masters titles; he closed with a 1-under 71 to claim a three-stroke victory over Retief Goosen.
2003 – The Human Genome Project is completed with 99% of the human genome sequenced to an accuracy of 99.99%.
2003 – In the 27th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US troops poured into Saddam Hussein’s hometown of Tikrit and fought pockets of hard-core defenders. Iraqis and US troops began jointly patrolling the streets of Baghdad to quell the lawlessness.
2003 – U.S. troops in Baghdad capture Abu Abbas, leader of the Palestinian group that killed an American on the hijacked cruise liner the Achille Lauro in 1985.
2003 – In New Orleans a gunman with an AK-47 shot a killed one boy (15) at the John McDonough High School. three teenage girls were wounded. Four suspects were arrested in the gang-related shooting.
2003 – The bodies of a headless woman and a newborn fetus with the umbilical cord still attached washed up separately on the shore of San Francisco Bay near Richmond, California. DNA testing determined the body is that of Laci Peterson, who had been missing from her home in Modesto since December 24, 2002.
2004 – John Ashcroft tells the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States that he blames former president Bill Clinton for intelligence failures and Jamie S. Gorelick for organizational failures leading to the September 11, 2001 attacks.
2004 – U.S. presidential election : An advertisement for John Kerry placed in a newspaper in Gulfport, Florida by a local Democratic Party club gets negative national publicity, as it suggests shooting United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. The ad was placed by the Saint Petersburg Democratic Club of Florida.
2005 – The US House of Representatives voted 302-126 to pass legislation that will make it tougher for consumers to avoid repaying debt by filing for bankruptcy.
2005 – The U.S. Oregon Supreme Court nullifies marriage licenses issued to gay couples a year earlier by Multnomah County.
2005 – US Attorney General Alberto Gonzales announces that law enforcement agencies have arrested 10,340 fugitives in Operation Falcon between April 4-10.
2006 – Kobe Bryant broke the Los Angeles Lakers’ single-season scoring record, getting 50 points to eclipse Elgin Baylor’s long-standing total of 2,719 points in a 110-99 victory over the Portland Trail Blazers.
2008 -Delta Air Lines reaches an agreement with Northwest Airlines to take over Northwest and create the world’s biggest airline.
2009 – Pirates hijack three ships in the Gulf of Aden.
2009 – San Francisco Supervisor Ross Mirkarimi proposed legislation for the city to sell and distribute medical marijuana.
2010 – President Barack Obama unveiled a “bold and daring” new space mission to send astronauts to Mars months after he controversially scrapped a project to return to the Moon. Neil Armstrong and other former astronauts release harsh criticism of the president’s recent cuts to NASA.
2011 – Two people are killed, one missing and four people critically injured after a tornado hits Atoka County in Oklahoma.
2012 – A major tornado outbreak occurred across a major portion of Oklahoma. The storms resulted in 6 tornado-related fatalities, all of which occurred in a single mobile home park in Woodward, Oklahoma. An EF3 tornado caused significant damage and leveled at least ten homes.
2015 – SpaceX CRS-6 launch at Cape Canaveral Florida, Kennedy Space Center. SpaceX CRS-6 is the sixth of at least 12 missions to the International Space Station that SpaceX will fly for NASA under the Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contract.
1788 – David G. Burnet, interim president of the Republic of Texas (d. 1870)
1866 – Anne Sullivan, Helen Keller’s teacher (d. 1936)
1897 – Claire Windsor, American actress (d. 1972)
1905 – Elizabeth Huckaby, American educator (d. 1999)
1921 – Thomas Schelling, American economist, Nobel laureate
1924 – Shorty Rogers, American jazz musician (d. 1994)
1925 – Rod Steiger, American actor (d. 2002)
1935 – Loretta Lynn, American singer/songwriter
1936 – Frank Serpico, American policeman
1941 – Pete Rose, American baseball player
1950 – Francis Collins, American scientist
1960 – Brad Garrett, American actor
1977 – Sarah Michelle Gellar, American actress
1979 – Randal McCloy, Survivor of the Sago Mine Disaster
*DUNHAM, JASON L. IRAQ WAR
Rank and Organization: Corporal, United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps Security Force Battalion, 3rd Battalion 7th Marines. Entered service in Scio, NY Born November 10, 1981 Scio, NY. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as Rifle Squad Leader, 4th Platoon, Company K, Third Battalion, Seventh Marines (Reinforced), Regimental Combat Team 7, First Marine Division (Reinforced), April 14th, 2004. Corporal Dunham’s squad was conducting a reconnaissance mission in the town of Karabilah, Iraq, when they heard rocket-propelled grenade and small arms fire erupt approximately two kilometers to the west. Corporal Dunham led his Combined Anti-Armor Team towards the engagement to provide fire support to their Battalion Commander’s convoy, which had been ambushed as it was traveling to Camp Husaybah. As Corporal Dunham and his Marines advanced, they quickly began to receive enemy fire. Corporal Dunham ordered his squad to dismount their vehicles and led one of his fire teams on foot several blocks south of the ambushed convoy. Discovering seven Iraqi vehicles in a column attempting to depart, Corporal Dunham and his team stopped the vehicles to search them for weapons. As they approached the vehicles, an insurgent leaped out and attacked Corporal Dunham. Corporal Dunham wrestled the insurgent to the ground and in the ensuing struggle saw the insurgent release a grenade. Corporal Dunham immediately alerted his fellow Marines to the threat. Aware of the imminent danger and without hesitation, Corporal Dunham covered the grenade with his helmet and body, bearing the brunt of the explosion and shielding his Marines from the blast. In an ultimate and selfless act of bravery in which he was mortally wounded, he saved the lives of at least two fellow Marines. By his undaunted courage, intrepid fighting spirit, and unwavering devotion to duty, Corporal Dunham gallantly gave his life for his country, thereby reflecting great credit upon himself and upholding the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the United States Naval Service. Dunham became the first Marine to receive the Medal of Honor for actions in Iraq, and the first Marine to receive the Medal of Honor since the Vietnam War.
STREET, GEORGE LEVICK, III
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Tirante. Place and date: Harbor of Quelpart Island, off the coast of Korea, April 14th, 1945. Entered service at. Virginia. Born: 27 July 1913, Richmond, Va. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Silver Star with one Gold Star. Citation. For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Tirante during the first war patrol of that vessel against enemy Japanese surface forces in the harbor of Quelpart Island, off the coast of Korea, on 14 April 1945. With the crew at surface battle stations, Comdr. (then Lt. Comdr.) Street approached the hostile anchorage from the south within 1,200 yards of the coast to complete a reconnoitering circuit of the island. Leaving the ten-fathom curve far behind he penetrated the mined and shoal-obstructed waters of the restricted harbor despite numerous patrolling vessels and in defiance of five shore-based radar stations and menacing aircraft. Prepared to fight it out on the surface if attacked, Comdr. Street went into action, sending two torpedoes with deadly accuracy into a large Japanese ammunition ship and exploding the target in a mountainous and blinding glare of white flames. With the Tirante instantly spotted by the enemy as she stood out plainly in the flare of light, he ordered the torpedo data computer set up while retiring and fired his last two torpedoes to disintegrate in quick succession the leading frigate and a similar flanking vessel. Clearing the gutted harbor at emergency full speed ahead, he slipped undetected along the shoreline, diving deep as a pursuing patrol dropped a pattern of depth charges at the point of submergence. His illustrious record of combat achievement during the first war patrol of the Tirante characterizes Comdr. Street as a daring and skilled leader and reflects the highest credit upon himself, his valiant command, and the U.S. Naval Service.
*MAGRATH, JOHN D.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company G, 85th Infantry, 10th Mountain Division. Place and date: Near Castel d’Aiano, Italy, April 14th, 1945. Entered service at: East Norwalk, Conn. Birth: East Norwalk, Conn. G.O. No.: 71, 17 July 1946. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty when his company was pinned down by heavy artillery, mortar, and small arms fire, near Castel d’Aiano, Italy. Volunteering to act as a scout, armed with only a rifle, he charged headlong into withering fire, killing two Germans and wounding three in order to capture a machinegun. Carrying this enemy weapon across an open field through heavy fire, he neutralized two more machinegun nests; he then circled behind four other Germans, killing them with a burst as they were firing on his company. Spotting another dangerous enemy position to this right, he knelt with the machinegun in his arms and exchanged fire with the Germans until he had killed two and wounded three. The enemy now poured increased mortar and artillery fire on the company’s newly won position. Pfc. Magrath fearlessly volunteered again to brave the shelling in order to collect a report of casualties. Heroically carrying out this task, he made the supreme sacrifice–a climax to the valor and courage that are in keeping with highest traditions of the military service.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1826, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Attached to the U.S.S. Minnesota and temporarily serving on the U.S.S. Mount Washington, during action against the enemy in the Nansemond River, April 14th, 1863. When the Mount Washington drifted against the bank following several successive hits which struck her boilers and stopped her engines, Jordan boarded the stricken vessel and, for six hours as fierce artillery and musketry continued to rake her decks, calmly assisted in manning a 12-pound howitzer which had been mounted on the open hurricane deck.
SIMONDS, WILLIAM EDGAR
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 25th Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Irish Bend, La., April 14th, 1863. Entered service at: Canton, Conn. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 25 February 1899. Citation. Displayed great gallantry, under a heavy fire from the enemy, in calling in the skirmishers and assisting in forming the line of battle.
WOOD, ROBERT B.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: New Garden Ohio. Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Attached to the U.S.S. Minnesota and temporarily serving on the U.S.S. Mount Washington, during action against the enemy in the Nansemond River, April 14th, 1863. When the U.S.S. Mount Washington drifted against the bank and all men were driven from the decks by escaping steam following several successive hits which struck her boilers and stopped her engines, Wood boarded the stricken vessel and, despite a strike on the head by a spent ball, continued at his gun for six hours as fierce artillery and musketry continued to rake her decks.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, California. Accredited to. California. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: As captain of the gun, serving temporarily on board the U.S.S. Mount Washington, during the Nansemond River action, April 14th, 1863. When one of his comrades was struck by a bullet and knocked overboard, Woods fearlessly jumped into the water and swam after him. Before he reached him, the man sank beneath the surface and Woods promptly swam back to the vessel, went to his gun, and fought it to the close of the action. At the close of the battle, he tirelessly cared for the wounded.
Thomas Jefferson Day
International “Moment of Laughter” Day
NO TIME TO DO THINGS?
There were only twenty-four hours in the day, just as now; but before he died, he accomplished the following:
Finished college in less than three years;
Admitted to the bar at the age of twenty-four;
Introduced crop rotation and terracing to the US;
Designed one of his country’s leading universities;Designed and built his own home;
Designed the capital building of his home state;
Invented a plow, lettercopy press, manifold signing machine, double-swinging doors, a seven day calendar clock and countless other gadgets;
Learned to play the violin;
Originated the decimal system for US currency;
Learned to speak fluently: Latin, Greek, Italian, French, German, Old Anglo-Saxon, and several Native American languages;
Became a serious scholar in mathematics, philosophy, economics, history, civics, and geography;
Created the public school system in his state;
Became President of a major university;
Established the US Military Academy at West Point and designed the uniforms the cadets wear to this day;
Wrote the rules of parliamentary procedure under which the US Senate still operates;
Fought for a system of government where the people would rule …. not the aristocracy;
Wrote 16,000 letters in longhand to friends and colleagues around the world;
Served as a member of his state legislature, governor of his state, Minister to France, Secretary of State, Vice President and President of the US for two terms;
Designed his own tombstone and wrote his own epitaph, listing the three accomplishments of which he was most proud …….
HERE WAS BURIED THOMAS JEFFERSON
AUTHOR OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE,
AUTHOR OF THE STATUTES OF VIRGINIA FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM,
AND, FATHER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA.
In these present days of labor and time saving devices such as computers, automobiles, airplanes, telephones etc. …….. how can we dare say….. we don’t have the time?
so that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith—that you, being rooted and grounded in love, may have strength to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth, and to know the love of Christ that surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled with all the fullness of God.
“It is weakness rather than wickedness which renders men unfit to be trusted with unlimited power.”
— John Adams, 1788
The most valuable thing you can make is a mistake – you can’t learn anything from being perfect.”
sobeit (so-BEE-it) conjunction:
ETYMOLOGY: From so + be + it.
1598 – Henry IV of France issues the Edict of Nantes, allowing freedom of religion to the Huguenots. (Edict repealed in 1685.)
1742 – George Frideric Handel’s oratorio Messiah makes its world-premiere in Dublin, Ireland.
1775 – Lord North extended the New England Restraining Act to South Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The act prohibited trade with any country other than Britain and Ireland when Parliament hears that these colonies have ratified the Continental Association.
1782 – Washington, North Carolina was incorporated – first town to be named for George Washington.
1796 – The first elephant ever seen in the USA arrives from India.
1805 – After marching 500 miles from Egypt, U.S. agent William Eaton leads a small force of U.S. Marines and Berber mercenaries against the Tripolitan port city of Derna.
1813 – Zebulon Pike dies during a battle in the War of 1812. Pikes Peak named for him.
1829 – The British Parliament grants freedom of religion to Roman Catholics.
1840 – William Henry Lane (“Juda”) perfects the tap dance. The dance was a mix of European Jig, Reel Steps, Clog and African Rhythms.
1847 – Naval Forces begin a five-day battle to capture several towns in Mexico.
1847 – Marines captured LaPaz, California, during the Mexican War.
1860 – The first mail was delivered via Pony Express when a westbound rider arrived in Sacramento, CA from St. Joseph, MO.
1861 – Civil War: After 34 hours of bombardment, the Union-held Fort Sumter surrendered to Confederates.
1862 – Civil War:In the Washington area volunteers led by Sarah J. Evans paid homage to the graves of Civil War soldiers. Villagers in Waterloo, NY, held their first Memorial Day service on May 5, 1866. In 1966 Pres. Johnson gave Waterloo, NY, the distinction of holding the first Memorial Day.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Irish Bend, LA (Ft. Bisland).
1863 – Civil War: Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled in New York became the first orthopedic hospital.
1865 – Civil War: Union forces under Gen. Sherman began their devastating march through Georgia. Sherman’s troops took Raleigh, NC.
1869 – Steam power brake patented.
1870 – Metropolitan Museum of Art founded.
1873 – Colfax Massacre in Grant Parish, Louisiana, 105 blacks were killed.
1877 – President Hayes removed Federal troops from Louisiana. Reconstruction ended.
1885 – Marines guarded the rail line to Panama City.
1902 – James C. Penney opens his first store in Kemmerer, Wyoming.
1904 – Congress authorizes Lewis & Clark Expo $1 gold coin.
1904 – In Pensacola, Fl., an explosion on the US battleship Missouri killed twenty-nine men and injured five men, of whom two died later.
1906 – An explosion on the US battleship Kearsarge killed seven men. The vessel was off Culebra Island in the Caribbean Sea when the explosion in the forward turret occurred. Two more deaths were soon reported with ten sailors in serious condition.
1908 – Groundbreaking on Philadelphia’s Shibe Park (home of A’s & Phillies). It was the first ballpark built out of concrete and steel, Shibe is the common ancestor of every modern park.
1911 – Polo Grounds grandstand & left field bleachers go up in flames. This was the second stadium and was used primarily for baseball.
1914 – First Federal League Game Baltimore Terrapins beat Buffalo 3-2.
1918 – Electrical fire killed 37 mental patients at Oklahoma State Hospital in Norman. The boys, aged from ten to fifteen years, were burned to death in this state hospital for the insane. All of the boys were inmates of the institution and were helpless as the flames wrapped around them.
1926 – At age 41, Walter Johnson pitches his 7th opening day shutout.
1939 – USS Astoria arrives in Japan under the command of Richard Kelly Turner in an attempt to photograph the Japanese battleships Yamato and Musashi.
1940 – Cornelious Warmerdam becomes the first man to pole vault 15 feet, Berkeley CA.
1940 – “The Road to Singapore,” opened at the Paramount Theatre in NYC. The stars were Bing Crosby, Dorothy Lamour and Bob Hope.
1941 – World War II: German troops captured Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Hitler soon installed Gen. Milan Nedic as a quisling leader. Nedic proceeded to wipe out the Jewish community of Serbia. A quisling is a person who collaborated with Axis forces in occupied Allied countries during World War II.
1942 – World War II: First convoys of Japanese detainees arrived at the Tanforan detention center south of San Francisco.
1943 – World War II: The discovery of a mass grave of Polish prisoners of war executed by Soviet forces in the Katyń Forest Massacre is announced, alienating the Western Allies, the Polish government in exile in London, from the Soviet Union.
1943 – The Jefferson Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C., on the 200th anniversary of Thomas Jefferson’s birth by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. It was designed by John Russell Pope.
1943 – World War II: US bombers conduct day and night raids on Kiska Island.
1944 – World War II: Transport No. 71 departed with French Jews to Nazi Germany.
1945 – World War II: German troops kill more than 1,000 political and military prisoners in Gardelegen Germany.
1945 – World War II: In Manila Bay, American forces land on Fort Drum, known as “the Concrete Battleship”, and begin to pour 5,000 gallons of oil fuel into the fortifications. This was then set on fire and burned for five days, eliminating the Japanese garrison.
1945 – World War II: The Nazi concentration camps at Belsen and Buchenwald are liberated by British and American forces respectively.
1946 – Pitcher Eddie Klepp barred from field in Birmingham, AL. Klepp was victimized by the same Jim Crow laws in the South that had barred black players from playing on white teams. In some Southern cities like Birmingham the law prohibited black and white players from playing together on public athletic fields.
1948 – Seventy-seven doctors, nurses and medical students from Hadassah Hospital are ambushed and massacred by Arabs in Sheikh Jarra near Jerusalem.
1949 – A magnitude 7.1 quake near Olympia, Washington, kills eight.
1949 – Philip S. Hench and associates announced that cortizone was an effective
treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.
1951 – Korea: Munsan fell to communist forces as the Chinese Communist Forces Spring Offensive continued.
1953 – CIA director Allen Dulles launches the mind-control program MKULTRA.
1953 – First game of Milwaukee Braves, they beat Cincinnati Reds 2-0.
1954 – Milwaukee Braves’ Hank Aaron’s first game. In his first ever major-league baseball game, Aaron went 0-for-5 against Cincinnati.
1954 – Baltimore Orioles first game, lose to Tigers in Detroit 3-0.
1954 -Robert Oppenheimer accused of being a communist. While, in truth, he never actually became a communist, he did pass money to liberal causes by way of acquaintances who were alleged to be Communist Party members.
1957 – “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1957 – Due to lack of funds, Saturday mail delivery in the US is temporarily halted.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods, “Pink Shoe Laces” by Dodie Stevens, “(Now and Then There’s) A Fool Such as I” by Elvis Presley and “White Lightning” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1959 – USAF launches Discoverer II into polar orbit. This mission did produce several “firsts.” It was the world’s first satellite stabilized in all three axes, the first to be maneuvered on command from Earth, and the first to eject its reentry vehicle on command for return to Earth. Discoverer I is also generally touted as the world’s first polar-orbiting satellite.
1960 – The first atomic powered electric-drive submarine was launched as the USS Tullibee.
1960 – Transit 1B, first navigational satellite, launched.
1961 – “Carnival!” opens at Imperial Theater NYC for 719 performances.
1962 – Stan Musial scores National League record 1,869th run.
1963 – Pete Rose gets first major-league hit for the Cincinnati Reds.
1963 – “He’s So Fine” by the Chiffons topped the charts.
1964 – Sidney Poitier was the first black to win an Academy Award for Best Actor. This was during the era that also saw Martin Luther King, Jr. won the Nobel Prize and Thurgood Marshall was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court.
1965 – Lawrence Wallace Bradford Jr. (16) was appointed by New York Republican Jacob Javits to be the first black page of the US Senate.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Happy Together” by The Turtles, “Somethin’ Stupid” by Nancy Sinatra & Frank Sinatra, “Bernadette” by the Four Tops and “Walk Through This World with Me” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1968 – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro topped the charts.
1969 – Diana Ross appeared solo on Dinah Shore’s NBC-TV special “Like Hep”.
1970 – Apollo 13 announces “Houston, we’ve got a problem!” An oxygen tank aboard the craft explodes, putting the crew in great danger and causing major damage to the spacecraft while en route to the Moon.
1972 – First baseball players’ strike ends after 13 days.
1972 – Vietnam: North Vietnamese troops shatter defenses north of Quang Tri and move to within 2.5 miles of the city.
1974 – “Bennie and the Jets” by Elton John topped the charts.
1974 – Western Union (in cooperation with NASA and Hughes Aircraft) launches the U.S.’s first commercial geosynchronous communications satellite, Westar 1.
1975 – Saigon was encircled by North Vietnamese troops.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Philadelphia Freedom” by The Elton John Band, “Poetry Man” by Phoebe Snow, “(Hey Won’t You Play) Another Somebody Done Somebody Wrong Song” by B.J. Thomas and “Always Wanting You” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1976 – Federal Reserve begins issuing $2 bicentennial notes.
1978 – New York Yankees win home opener on Reggie Candy Bar Day. Jackson slugs a 3-run homerun in the 1st inning, & the field is showered with ReggieBars It all started with a remark that Reggie Jackson made while he was still an Oakland Athletic. “If I played in New York,” he said, “they’d name a candy bar for me.”
1979 – Longest doubles ping-pong match ends after 101 hours.
1980 – US boycotted the Summer Olympics in Moscow.
1980 – “Grease” closes at Broadhurst Theater NYC after 3,388 performances.
1983 – Harold Washington is elected as the first Black mayor in Chicago’s history.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Billy Jean” by Michael Jackson, “Do You Really Want to Hurt Me” by Culture Club, “Hungry like the Wolf” by Duran Duran and “We’ve Got Tonight” by Kenny Rogers & Sheena Easton all topped the charts.
1984 – Pete Rose becomes first National League player to get 4,000 hits in a career.
1984 – President Reagan sent emergency military aid to El Salvador without congressional approval.
1984 – Christopher Walker was killed in a fight with police in New Hampshire. Walker was wanted as a suspect in the kidnappings of 11 young women in several states.
1985 – “The Grand Ole Opry”, a radio staple from Nashville for 60 years, came to TV. The Nashville Network presented the country music jamboree to some 22-million homes across the U.S.
1985 – “We Are the World” by USA for Africa topped the charts.
1986 – Jack Nicklaus won his sixth Masters green jacket with a 9-under-par 279.
1990 – The aperture door of the Hubble Space Telescope was opened by ground controllers as the space shuttle Discovery, which had carried the Hubble into orbit, prepared to return home.
1992 – The Great Chicago Flood took place as the city’s century-old tunnel system and adjacent basements filled with water from the Chicago River. Nothing could be seen from the streets but some of the buildings had forty feet of water in them.
1992 – American Airlines reduces its first-class fares 20%-50%.
1993 – The day before a visit by Pres. Bush, fourteen people were arrested in Kuwait for plotting to assassinate him. Kuwaiti officials said the plot was organized by Iraqi intelligence.
1996 – “Ironic” by Alanis Morissette topped the charts.
1996 – The Rosemary Baptist Church in Barnwell, S.C., burned down. Arson was sus-pected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1997 – Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win golf’s Masters Tournament.
1997 – First time since 1961 that two doubleheaders are played in the same city. The double headers were San Francisco Giants vs New York Mets & Oakland A’s vs New York Yankees in New York.
1997 – A Texas militia group, called Republic of Texas, took two hostages at the Davis Mountain Resort community in a standoff with 300 police officers.
1998 – A 500-pound steel joint fell from the upper level of New York’s Yankee Stadium, crashing onto seats below. No fans were inside the park at the time.
1999 – Jack Kervorkian was sentenced in Pontiac, MI, to 10 to 25 years in prison for the second-degree murder of Thomas Youk. Youk’s assisted suicide was videotaped and shown on “60 Minutes” in 1998.
1999 – VH1 debuted their Internet radio station called VH1 at Work. The first webcast was the “Divas Live” (1:14:33)concert.
2003 – In the 26th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US troops pushed into Tikrit. Marines found seven missing US troops, including Army Specialist Shoshana Johnson, on the road between Baghdad and Tikrit. Army engineers worked to help restore electricity in Baghdad.
2004 – A provisional report from the September 11 Commission states that the FBI was hampered in its fight against terrorism by poor intelligence, insufficient staffing and resources and a bureaucratic culture.
2004 – Barry Bonds hit his 661st homer, passing Willie Mays to take sole possession of third place on baseball’s career list.
2004 – Cuba agreed to buy $13 million in food from American companies and reached a tentative deal for up to $10 million in farm goods from California.
2005 – A 2,500-strong U.S. force, backed by tanks and artillery, pushed to the outskirts of the Shiite holy city of Najaf for a showdown with a radical cleric. One soldier was killed enroute. US forces in Fallujah killed over 100 insurgents.
2005 – National Geographic and IBM Corp. announced a project to collect DNA samples from people around the globe to trace the routes of human migration.
2006 – Powerful tornadoes rip through Iowa City, Iowa.
2006 – The Nebraska Legislature voted to divide the Omaha school system into 3 districts, one mostly black, one mostly white, and one largely Hispanic. Gov. Dave Heineman signed the measure into law, effective July 2008.
2007 – A NASA Review Board finds that the Mars Global Surveyor stopped working in November 2006 due to computer programming errors.
2007 – A police report shows that New Jersey Governor Jon Corzine was not wearing a seatbelt during the hit and run car accident that injured him the day before.
2009 – United States Representative Donald M. Payne comes under mortar fire at Aden Adde International Airport in Somalia.
2009 – The U.S. federal government will rescind travel and gift restrictions to Cuba.
2011 – The U.S. Bureau of Land Management announces that it has launched a new environmental impact study of oil shale and tar sands development.
2012 – Joe Vitt is named as the interim head coach of the New Orleans Saints for the 2012 season to replace Sean Payton, who was suspended earlier in the year for his role in the New Orleans Saints bounty scandal.
2012 – Tom Benson, owner of the Saints, agrees to buy the New Orleans Hornets from the National Basketball Association for an estimated $338 million.
2013 – Russia bans 18 American diplomats from entering the country, in retaliation for similar restrictions placed on 18 Russian officials by the Magnitsky Act.
2013 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: A man suspected of a shooting at the New River Community College in Christiansburg, Virginia, United States, is charged with multiple counts of malicious wounding and use of a firearm during the commission of a felony, and held without bail.
2014 – CHURCH SHOOTING – There were fatal shootings at the Overland Park (KS) Jewish Community Center at 5800 W. 115th Street and at an assisted living center several blocks south at 123rd Street and Nall. Police said one person was killed at the Jewish Community Center and another was killed at Village Shalom, an assisted living facility. A third person was shot and critically injured. That person was taken to a nearby hospital.
2015 -Two Oklahoma City Police Department officers were called to a park and found a woman and her four children sleeping in a car. They were homeless. Officers Boyett and Dutton took it upon themselves to find shelter for the family, put gas in the woman’s car, and even bought some toys for the kiddos. Great job, guys!
1570 – Guy Fawkes, English Catholic conspirator (d. 1606)
1715 – John Hanson, President of the United States in Congress Assembled (d. 1783)
1743 – Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President of the United States (d. 1826)
1852 – F.W. Woolworth, American businessman (d. 1919)
1866 – Butch Cassidy, American outlaw (d. 1908)
1875 – Ray Lyman Wilbur, U.S. university president and politician (d. 1949)
1892 – Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, Scottish inventor (d. 1973)
1899 – Alfred Mosher Butts, American architect and Scrabble inventor (d. 1993)
1919 – Madalyn Murray O’Hair, American atheist activist (d. 1995)
1923 – Don Adams, American actor and comedian (d. 2005)
1944 – Jack Casady, American musician
1946 – Al Green, American singer and pastor
1950 – William Sadler, American actor
1964 – Caroline Rhea, Canadian actress
|NORRIS, THOMAS R.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy, SEAL Advisor, Strategic Technical Directorate Assistance Team, Headquarters, U.S. Military Assistance Command. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, April 10th to April 13th, 1972. Entered service at: Silver Spring, Md. Born: 14 January 1944, Jacksonville, Fla. Citation: Lt. Norris completed an unprecedented ground rescue of two downed pilots deep within heavily controlled enemy territory in Quang Tri Province. Lt. Norris, on the night of 10 April, led a five-man patrol through 2,000 meters of heavily controlled enemy territory, located one of the downed pilots at daybreak, and returned to the Forward Operating Base (FOB). On 11 April, after a devastating mortar and rocket attack on the small FOB, Lt. Norris led a three-man team on two unsuccessful rescue attempts for the second pilot. On the afternoon of the 12th, a forward air controller located the pilot and notified Lt. Norris. Dressed in fishermen disguises and using a sampan, Lt. Norris and one Vietnamese traveled throughout that night and found the injured pilot at dawn. Covering the pilot with bamboo and vegetation, they began the return journey, successfully evading a North Vietnamese patrol. Approaching the FOB, they came under heavy machinegun fire. Lt. Norris called in an air strike which provided suppression fire and a smoke screen, allowing the rescue party to reach the FOB. By his outstanding display of decisive leadership, undaunted courage, and selfless dedication in the face of extreme danger, Lt. Norris enhanced the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
|ANDERSON, BEAUFORD T
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, 381st Infantry, 96th Infantry Division. Place and date: Okinawa, April 13th,1945. Entered service at: Soldiers Grove, Wis. Birth: Eagle, Wis. G.O. No.: 63, 27 June 1946. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty. When a powerfully conducted predawn Japanese counterattack struck his unit’s flank, he ordered his men to take cover in an old tomb, and then, armed only with a carbine, faced the onslaught alone. After emptying one magazine at pointblank range into the screaming attackers, he seized an enemy mortar dud and threw it back among the charging Japs, killing several as it burst. Securing a box of mortar shells, he extracted the safety pins, banged the bases upon a rock to arm them and proceeded alternately to hurl shells and fire his piece among the fanatical foe, finally forcing them to withdraw. Despite the protests of his comrades, and bleeding profusely from a severe shrapnel wound, he made his way to his company commander to report the action. T/Sgt. Anderson’s intrepid conduct in the face of overwhelming odds accounted for twenty-five enemy killed and several machineguns and knee mortars destroyed, thus single-handedly removing a serious threat to the company’s flank.
|GAUJOT, JULIEN E.
Rank and organization: Captain, Troop K, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Aqua Prieta, Mexico, April 13th,1911. Entered service at: Williamson, W. Va. Birth: Keweenaw, Mich. Date of issue: 23 November 1912. Citation: Crossed the field of fire to obtain the permission of the rebel commander to receive the surrender of the surrounded forces of Mexican Federals and escort such forces, together with five Americans held as prisoners, to the American line.
|COX, ROBERT EDWARD
Rank and organization: Chief Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Missouri on April 13th,1904. Born: 22 December 1855, St. Albans, WV Accredited to: West Virginia. G.O. No.: 43, 14 April 1921. (Medal presented by President Harding.) Citation: For extraordinary heroism on U.S.S. Missouri 13 April, 1904. While at target practice off Pensacola, Fla., an accident occurred in the after turret of the Missouri. The lives of five officers and twenty-eight men were lost. The ship was in imminent danger of destruction by explosion, and the prompt action of C.G. Cox and two gunners’ mates caused the fire to be brought under control, and the loss of the Missouri, together with her crew, was averted.
Rank and organization: Chief Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Missouri on April 13th, 1904.Born: 20 January 1867, Norway. G.O. No.: 160, 26 May 1904. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Missouri, for extraordinary heroism in entering a burning magazine through the scuttle and endeavoring to extinguish the fire by throwing water with his hands until a hose was passed to him, 13 April 1904.
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Kearsage on April 13th, 1906. Born: 24 May 1876, Goteborg, Sweden. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 142, 4 December 1924. Citation: For gallant conduct upon the occasion of the disastrous fire of accidentally ignited powder charges. The incident occurred in the forward turret of the U.S.S. Kearsage during target practice on 13 April 1906. Chief Boatswain Nordstrom, then chief boatswain’s mate, was among the first to enter the turret in order to assist in bringing out the injured.
|SCHEPKE, CHARLES S.
Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: On board the U.S.S. Missouri on April 13th,1904.Born: 26 December 1878, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 160, 26 May 1904. Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving on the U.S.S. Missouri in remaining by a burning magazine and assisting to extinguish the fire, 13 April 1904.
|WESTON, JOHN F.
Rank and organization: Major, 4th Kentucky Cavalry. Place and date: Near Wetumpka, Ala., April 13th, 1865. Entered service at: Kentucky. Birth: Kentucky. Date of issue: 9 April 1898. Citation: This officer, with a small detachment, while en route to destroy steamboats loaded with supplies for the enemy, was stopped by an unfordable river, but with five of his men swam the river, captured two leaky canoes, and ferried his men across. He then encountered and defeated the enemy, and on reaching Wetumpka found the steamers anchored in midstream. By a ruse obtained possession of a boat, with which he reached the steamers and demanded and received their surrender.