ANNIVERSARY – John F. Kennedy Assassination
JOHN F. KENNEDY ASSASSINATED
On this most Americans can agree: President John F. Kennedy was shot and killed in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963.
President Kennedy’s motorcade route through Dallas was planned to give him maximal exposure to Dallas crowds before his arrival, along with the vice president and the governor, at a luncheon with civic and business leaders in that city. The White House staff informed the secret service that the president would arrive in Dallas via a short (13 minutes in the air) flight, from Carswell Air Force Base in Fort Worth, to Dallas Love Field. The Dallas Trade Mart had been selected for the luncheon, and the final decision of the Trade Mart as the end of the motorcade journey was selected by Kennedy’s friend and appointments secretary Kenneth O’Donnell, who would accompany him on the trip.
Leaving from Love Field, 45 minutes had been allotted for the motorcade to reach the Dallas Trade Mart at a planned arrival time of 12:15 PM. The actual route was chosen to be a meandering 10-mile route which could be driven slowly in the allotted time. Special Agent Winston G. Lawson, a member of the White House detail and Secret Service agent Forrest V. Sorrels, SAC of the Dallas office, were most active in planning the actual route.
On November 14, Lawson and Sorrels attended a meeting at Love Field and drove over the route which Sorrels believed best suited for the motorcade. From Love Field, the route passed through a portion of suburban Dallas, through the downtown area along Main Street, and finally to the Trade Mart including a short segment of the Stemmons Freeway. For the President’s return to Love Field, for a fund-raising dinner in Austin later in the day would be a more direct and shorter route. The planned route to the Trade Mart was widely reported in Dallas newspapers several days before the event, for the benefit of people who wished to view the motorcade.
To pass through downtown Dallas, a route west along Dallas’ Main Street, rather than Elm Street was chosen. This was the traditional parade route, and provided the maximal building and crowd views. It also had an exit accessible only from Elm Street. The planned motorcade route thus included a short one-block turn at the end of the downtown segment of Main Street, onto Houston Street for one block northward, before turning again west onto Elm. The motorcade would proceed through Dealey Plaza before exiting Elm onto the Stemmons Freeway. The Texas School Book Depository was situated at this corner of Houston and Elm.
After a breakfast speech in Fort Worth, where Kennedy had stayed overnight after arriving from San Antonio the day previously, the President boarded Air Force One which departed at 11:10 and arrived at Love Field 15 minutes later. At about 11:40, the presidential motorcade left Love Field for the trip through Dallas, which was running on a schedule about 10 minutes longer than the planned 45 minutes, due to enthusiastic crowds and an unplanned stop directed by the president. By the time the motorcade reached Dealy Plaza, however, they were only 5 minutes away from their planned destination.
At 12:30 p.m. CST, as Kennedy’s uncovered limousine entered Dealey Plaza, Nellie Connally, then the First Lady of Texas, turned around to Kennedy, who was sitting behind her, and commented, “Mr. President, you can’t say Dallas doesn’t love you,” which President Kennedy acknowledged. From Houston Street, the presidential limousine made the planned left turn to put it on Elm Street to allow it to pass to the Stemmons Freeway exit. As it turned on Elm, the motorcade passed the Texas School Book Depository. As it continued down Elm Street, shots were fired at
Kennedy; a clear majority of witnesses recalled hearing three shots. A minority of the witnesses did recognize the first gunshot blast they heard as a weapon blast, but there was hardly any reaction from a majority in the crowd or riding in the motorcade itself to the first shot, with many later saying they heard what they first thought to be a firecracker or the exhaust backfire of a vehicle just after the president started waving.
Within one second of each other, President Kennedy, Governor Connally, and Mrs. Kennedy, all turned abruptly from looking to their left to looking to their right, between Zapruder film frames 155 and 169. Governor Connally, like the President, a WWII military veteran, testified that he immediately recognized the sound of a high-powered rifle, then he turned his head and torso rightward attempting to see President Kennedy behind him. Connally testified he could not see the president, so he then started to turn forward again (turning from his right, to his left). Connally testified that when his head was facing about twenty-degrees left of center he was hit in his upper right back by a bullet. He testified he did not hear the muzzle blast. After Connally was hit he then shouted, “Oh, no, no, no. My God. They’re going to kill us all!”
Mrs. Connally testified that right after hearing a first loud, frightening noise that came from somewhere behind her and to her right, she immediately turned towards President Kennedy and saw him with his arms and elbows already raised high with his hands already close to his throat. She then heard another gunshot and her husband started yelling. Mrs. Connally then turned away from President Kennedy towards her husband, then another gunshot sounded. She and the limousine’s rear interior were now covered with fragments of skull, blood, and brain matter.
According to the Warren Commission and the House Select Committee on Assassinations, as President Kennedy waved to the crowds on his right with his right arm upraised on the side of the limo, a shot entered his upper back, penetrated his neck, slightly damaged a spinal vertebra and the top of his right lung, exited his throat nearly centerline just beneath his larynx, then nicked the left side of his suit tie knot. He then raised his elbows and clenched his fists in front of his face and neck, then leaned forward and towards his left. Mrs. Kennedy then put her arms around him in concern.
Governor Connally also reacted after the same bullet penetrated his back just below his right armpit, creating an oval entry wound, impacted and destroyed four inches of his right, fifth rib bone, exited his chest just below his right nipple creating a two-and-a-half inch oval sucking-air chest wound, then entered just above his right wrist, impacted and cleanly shattered his right radius bone, exited just below the wrist at the inner side of his right palm, and entered his left inner thigh.
A second shot struck at Zapruder film frame 313 when the Presidential limousine was passing in front of the John Neely Bryan north pergola concrete structure. Both the Commission and the House Select Committee each concluded that this shot entered the rear of President Kennedy’s head then exploded out a roughly oval-shaped hole from his head’s rear and right side. Head matter, brain, blood, and skull fragments, originating from Kennedy, covered the interior of the car, the inner and outer surfaces of the front glass windshield and raised sun visors, the front engine hood, the rear trunk lid, the followup Secret Service car and its driver’s left arm, and motorcycle officers riding on both sides of the president behind him. Mrs. Kennedy then reached out onto the rear trunk lid. After she crawled back into her limousine seat, both Governor Connally and Mrs. Connally heard her say more than once, “They have killed my husband,” and “I have his brains in my hand.”
Clint Hill was riding on the left front running board of the followup car, immediately behind the Presidential limousine. Hill testified he heard one shot, then, he jumped off into Elm Street and ran forward to try and get on the limousine and protect the president. Hill testified to the Warren Commission that after he jumped into Elm Street, he heard two more shots. After the president had been shot in the head, Mrs. Kennedy began to climb out onto the back of the limousine, though she later had no recollection of doing so. Hill believed she was reaching for something, perhaps a piece of the president’s skull. He jumped onto the back of the limousine while at the same time Mrs. Kennedy returned to her seat, and he clung to the car as it exited Dealey Plaza and accelerated, speeding to Parkland Memorial Hospital.
I (Wayne Church) was a sophomore at Aurora High School in Aurora, Ohio on this day. My friends and I were on the far north side of the cafeteria up against the windows looking over the football field. We were in 8th period study hall and the next stop was the bus to go home. Mr. Richard Golnick walked toward our table. I remember him as a hard-nosed teacher from Brooklyn, NY. He was our gym teacher. As he walked across the room I remember that the noise level was dropping. He was wearing his blue gym suit with white striping and he had a day-old beard.
I remember all of this fifty years later (2013) because of what he said next. He said, “President Kennedy has been shot and killed in Dallas.” Nothing before or since has hit me harder than that short sentence. If you were old enough to remember, where were you???
Hosea 4: 6
My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge: because thou hast rejected knowledge, I will also reject thee, that thou shalt be no priest to me: seeing thou hast forgotten the law of thy God, I will also forget thy children.
“Joy is what happens when we allow ourselves to recognize how good things really are.”
~ Marianne Williamson
Lying under or below something.
[From Latin subjacent- (stem of subjacens), present participle of subjacere
(to underlie), from sub- (under) + jacere (to lie). Ultimately from the
Indo-European root ye- (to throw), that is also the source of jettison,
eject, project, reject, object, subject, adjective, joist, and ejaculate.]
1247 – Robin Hood died according to the 1400 ballad “A Lytell Geste of Robyn Hode.”
1497 – Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope in his search for a route to India.
1542 – New laws were passed in Spain giving protection against the enslavement of Indians in America.
1718 – Off the coast of North Carolina, British pirate Edward Teach (best known as “Blackbeard”) is killed in battle with a boarding party led by Royal Navy Lieutenant Robert Maynard.
1809 – Peregrine Williamson of Baltimore patents a steel pen.
1812 – War of 1812: Seventeen Indiana Rangers are killed at the Battle of Wild Cat Creek.
1842 – Mt Saint Helens erupts. In late fall or early winter of 1842, nearby settlers and missionaries were witness to the so-called “Great Eruption”. This small-volume outburst created large ash clouds, and mild explosions followed for 15 years. It was then fairly quiet for 123 years.
1847 – Astor Place Opera House, New York City’s first operatic theater, was opened.
1858 – Denver, Colorado is founded.
1862 – Civil War: Joint Army–Navy expedition to vicinity of Mathews Court House, Virginia.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate General John Bell Hood invades Tennessee in an unsuccessful attempt to draw Union General William T. Sherman from Georgia.
1864 – Civil War: Union General O. Howard at Gettysburg, ordered plunderers shot to death. Howard University is named for this General.
1864 – Civil War: Battle at Griswoldville, Georgia, ended after 650 casualties.
1869 – In Dumbarton, Scotland, the clipper Cutty Sark is launched – one of the last clippers ever built, and the only one still surviving today.
1880 – Vaudeville actress Lillian Russell makes her debut at Tony Pastor’s Theatre in New York City.
1898 – In Lake City, S.C. a Black postmaster was lynched and his three daughters were shot and maimed for life.
1899 – The Marconi Wireless Company of America was incorporated under laws of the State of New Jersey.
1904 – Design Patent for the Congressional Medal of Honor was granted to George Gillespie.
1906 – The “SOS” distress signal was adopted at the International Radio Telegraphic Convention.
1910 – Arthur Knight patents steel shaft golf clubs. The metal shaft was not approved by the US Golf Association until 1925. ;Approval by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrew’s wasn’t until 1929.
1915 – Germany offers £1,000 each of American passengers lost in “Lusitania”. Offer refused by America.
1917 – NHL created. The founding teams were the Canadiens, Wanderers, Senators and the newly-created Toronto Arenas.
1922 – Howard Carter, assisted by Lord Carnarvon, opens the tomb of Tutankhamen.
1923 – Pres. Coolidge pardoned WW I German spy Lothar Witzke, who was sentenced to death. Witzke, a member of a “fifth column” organization run from Mexico. He was suspected in the “Black Tom” explosion that damaged the Statue of Liberty in 1916.
1927 – The first U.S. patent for a snowmobile was issued to Carl J.E. Eliason of Saynor, Wisconsin. His “motor toboggan” had ski-like front runners and a rear drive track.
1927 – George Gershwin’s “Funny Face,” premiered in New York City.
1928 – “Bolero” by Maurice Ravel, first performed publicly, in Paris. The composition was a great success when it was premiered with choreography by Bronislava Nijinska and designs by Benois.
1930 – Elijah Muhammad formed the Nation of Islam in Detroit.
1932 – A pump was patented that computed quantity and price delivered.
1934 – “Santa Claus Is Comin’ to Town” was first heard on Eddie Cantor’s show.
1935 – Pan Am’s China Clipper, a flying boat, takes off from Alameda, California in an attempt to deliver the first airmail cargo across the Pacific Ocean (the airplane later reached its destination, Manila, and delivered over 110,000 pieces of mail).
1938 – The first coelacanth, a prehistoric fish thought extinct, was caught off the South African coast.
1938 – Bunny Berigan and his orchestra waxed “Jelly Roll Blues” on Victor Records.
1942 – World War II: General Friedrich von Paulus sends Adolf Hitler a telegram saying that the German 6th army is surrounded.
1943 – World War II:President Franklin Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek met to discuss strategies for defeating Japan.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Been a Long, Long Time” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “Till the End of Time” by Perry Como, “I’ll Buy that Dream” by The Pied Pipers and “Sioux City Sue” by Dick Thomas all topped the charts.
1945 – Jim Benton, Cleveland end, gains 303 yards (NFL record).
1946 – Biro ball point pens went on sale, invented by Hungarian journalist László Biro.
1950 – Lowest NBA score, Ft Wayne Pistons (19), Minneapolis Lakers (18).
1952 – “It’s in the Book” by Johnny Standley topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War – Captain Cecil G. Foster of the 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing became the 23rd ace of the Korean War.
1954 – The Humane Society of the United States is founded.
1957 – Mickey Mantle beats Ted Williams by one vote for MVP.
1958 – “Tom Dooley” by The Kingston Trio topped the charts.
1963 – In Dallas, Texas, US President John F. Kennedy is assassinated and Texas Governor John B. Connally is seriously wounded. Later the same day, US Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn in as the 36th President of the United States.
1963 – Two amateur films recorded the assassination of Pres. Kennedy. A 24 ½ sec. video by Orville Nix Sr. and Abraham Zapruder, a dress manufacturer, captured the assassination on video tape.
1963 – Dallas police officer J.D. Tippit was slain by Oswald 45 minutes after Kennedy was shot when he called Oswald over for questioning.
1964 – 40,000 paid tribute to John F Kennedy at Arlington Cemetery on the first anniversary of his death.
1965 – The production of “Man of La Mancha” opened in NYC for the first of 2,328 performances.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wedding Bell Blues” by The 5th Dimension, “Take a Letter Maria” by R.B. Greaves, “Smile a Little Smile for Me” by The Flying Machine and “Okie from Muskogee” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1969 – In American football, the University of Michigan upset Ohio State University, 24-12, in Bo Schembechler’s first season as Michigan’s head coach. The win set off the 10 Year War between Schembechler and Ohio State’s Woody Hayes.
1972 – Vietnam War: The United States loses its first B-52 Stratofortress of the war.
1972 – Pittsburgh Penguins set NHL record for scoring fastest 5 goals (2m7s).
1975 – “Dr. Zhivago” appeared on TV for the first time.
1975 – “That’s the Way (I Like It)” by K. C. & the Sunshine Band topped the charts.
1976 – Comic strip “Cathy,” by Cathy Guisewhite, made its debut.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Light Up My Life” by Debby Boone, “Don’t It Make My Brown Eyes Blue” by Crystal Gayle, “Baby, What a Big Surprise” by Chicago and “The Wurlitzer Prize (I Don’t Want to Get over You)” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1977 – Passenger service between New York and Europe on the British Airways supersonic Concorde began.
1980 – “Lady” by Kenny Rogers topped the charts.
1981 – San Diego Charger Dan Fouts passes for 6 touchdowns vs Oakland (55-21).
1984 – Fred Rogers (1928-2003) of PBS’ “Mr. Rogers’ Neighborhood” presented his sweater to the Smithsonian Institution.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “We Built this City” by Starship, “You Belong to the City” by Glenn Frey, “Separate Lives” by Phil Collins & Marilyn Martin and “Hang on to Your Heart” by Exile all topped the charts.
1985 – The largest swearing-in ceremony took place as 38,648 immigrants became citizens of the United States after six days of rallies around the country.
1985 – Anne Henderson-Pollard was taken into custody a day after her husband Jonathon Jay Pollard was arrested for spying for Israel.
1986 – The U.S. Justice Department found a memo in Lt. Col. Oliver North’s office on the transfer of $12 million to Contras of Nicaragua from Iranian arms sale.
1986 – Mike Tyson knocks out Trevor Berbick in the second round, becoming the youngest world heavyweight champion at the age of 20 years and 4 months.
1987 – Two Chicago television stations are hijacked by an unknown pirate dressed as Max Headroom.
1988 – The Northrop B-2 “stealth” bomber is shown publicly for the first time at Air Force Plant 42 in Palmdale, California.
1988 – Americans honored President Kennedy on the 25th anniversary of his assassination, with 2,500 people turning out in Dallas, and visitors stopping by his gravesite at Arlington National Cemetery.
1989 – DJ Jazzy Jeff and the Fresh Prince win the first rap Grammy for the hit single “Parents Just Don’t Understand.”
1989 – Conjunction of Venus, Mars, Uranus, Neptune, Saturn & the Moon.
1990 – Margaret Thatcher, the first female prime minister in British history, resigned after 11 years.
1990 – President H.W. Bush, his wife, Barbara, and other congressional leaders shared Thanksgiving dinner with U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia.
1994 – Inside the District of Columbia’s police headquarters a gunman opened fire. Two FBI agents, a city detective and the gunman were killed in the gun battle.
1996 – The 86-year-old Nobel Peace Prize winner Mother Teresa underwent heart surgery in Calcutta, India.
1996 – O.J. Simpson took the stand as a hostile witness in the wrongful death lawsuit filed against him, saying it was “absolutely not true” that he killed Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman.
1998 – Denver Broncos QB John Elway passed the 50,000-yard career-passing mark.
1998 – CBS’s “60 Minutes” aired a tape of Jack Kevorkian giving lethal drugs in an assisted suicide of a terminally ill patient. Kevorkian was later sentenced to 25 years in prison for second-degree murder.
1999 – In Japan a T-33 jet crashed and killed two crewmen. The crash severed a 275,000-volt power line.
2000 – Gov. George Bush called on the US Supreme Court to stop the vote counting in Florida.
2000 – Republican vice-presidential candidate Dick Cheney was hospitalized with what doctors called a very slight heart attack.
2000 – Yemen identified the bombers of the USS Cole as two Saudi Arabian citizens with Yemeni family roots.
2001 – Mary Kay Ash (b.1918), founder of the Mary Kay cosmetics firm, died in Dallas. By 2001 her 1963 sales force of 11 had grown to over 750,000 in 37 countries.
2003 – The Heritage Classic, the first outdoor hockey game in the history of the NHL, is played in Edmonton, Alberta.
2005 – A federal jury in Virginia found Ahmed Omar Abu Ali (24), a US citizen, guilty of numerous charges to commit acts of terrorism. In 2009 he was sentenced to life in prison for plotting to kill President George W. Bush.
2005 – Massachusetts signed an agreement with Venezuela to obtain discounted home heating oil. Democrat Representative William Delahunt helped broker the deal.
2005 – Ted Koppel hosted his final edition of ABC News’ “Nightline.”
2006 – Two explosions at a chemical plant in Danvers, Mass., wrecked 25 homes and left nearly 400 people homeless.
2006 – The U.S. Copyright Office said cell phone owners can now break locks to use their handsets with competing carriers, while film professors have the right to copy snippets from DVDs for educational compilations.
2010 – FBI raided three hedge funds in New York City as part of a sweeping investigation into insider trading.
2010 – A Washington D.C. jury convicts Ingmar Guandique of the murder of Chandra Levy.
2010 – Brad Childress is sacked as head coach of the Minnesota Vikings National Football League team.
2012 – Up to 120 people are injured and 2 killed near Beaumont, Texas in a 100-vehicle pileup in dense fog that forced the closure of both directions of Interstate 10 in Southeast Texas.
2013 – OBAMACARE: In an end run around the broken Obamacare website, the administration says people can enroll directly with insurance companies and still qualify for subsidies, which the law wasn’t supposed to allow.
2014 – A 3.3 earthquake is felt at Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) at 9:15 p.m. The epicenter was 3 miles ENE of Irving, TX. There as no serious damage.
1643 – René-Robert La Salle, French explorer of North America.
1744 – Abigail Smith Adams, wife of John Adams, second President of the United States.
1808 – Thomas Cook, English travel package pioneer.
1889 – Wiley Post, American airman, first to fly solo around the world (1933).
1890 – Charles de Gaulle, President of France (d. 1970)
1899 – Hoagy Carmichael, American songwriter, pianist, singer.
1918 – Claiborne Pell, American politician
1921 – Rodney Dangerfield, born Jacob Cohen, American comedian and actor.
1932 – Robert Vaughn (Emmy Award-winning actor: The Man from U.N.C.L.E., The Magnificent Seven, The Towering Inferno, Delta Force, Superman 3)
1943 – Billie Jean King, American tennis player.
1958 – Jamie Lee Curtis, American film actress.
1967 – Boris Becker, German-born professional tennis player.
1983 – Tyler Hilton, American singer and actor
1985 – DeVon Walker, American football player
*LORING, CHARLES J., JR.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Air Force, 80th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 8th Fighter-Bomber Wing. Place and date: Near Sniper Ridge, North Korea, November 22nd, 1952. Entered service at: Portland, Maine. Born: 2 October 1918, Portland, Maine. Citation: Maj. Loring distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While leading a night of four F-80 type aircraft on a close support mission, Maj. Loring was briefed by a controller to dive-bomb enemy gun positions which were harassing friendly ground troops. After verifying the location of the target, Maj. Loring rolled into his dive bomb run. Throughout the run, extremely accurate ground fire was directed on his aircraft. Disregarding the accuracy and intensity of the ground fire, Maj. Loring aggressively continued to press the attack until his aircraft was hit. At approximately 4,000 feet, he deliberately altered his course and aimed his diving aircraft at active gun emplacements concentrated on a ridge northwest of the briefed target, turned his aircraft forty-five degrees to the left, pulled up in a deliberate, controlled maneuver, and elected to sacrifice his life by diving his aircraft directly into the midst of the enemy emplacements. His selfless and heroic action completely destroyed the enemy gun emplacement and eliminated a dangerous threat to United Nations ground forces. Maj. Loring’s noble spirit, superlative courage, and conspicuous self-sacrifice in inflicting maximum damage on the enemy exemplified valor of the highest degree and his actions were in keeping with the finest traditions of the U.S. Air Force.
STONE, JAMES L.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company E 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Near Sokkogae, Korea, November 21 st and November 22nd, 1951. Entered service at: Houston Tex. Born: 27 December 1922, Pine Bluff, Ark. G.O. No.: 82, 20 October 1953. Citation: 1st Lt. Stone, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. When his platoon, holding a vital outpost position, was attacked by overwhelming Chinese forces, 1st Lt. Stone stood erect and exposed to the terrific enemy fire calmly directed his men in the defense. A defensive flame-thrower failing to function, he personally moved to its location, further exposing himself, and personally repaired the weapon. Throughout a second attack, 1st Lt. Stone; though painfully wounded, personally carried the only remaining light machine gun from place to place in the position in order to bring fire upon the Chinese advancing from two directions. Throughout he continued to encourage and direct his depleted platoon in its hopeless defense. Although again wounded, he continued the fight with his carbine, still exposing himself as an example to his men. When this final overwhelming assault swept over the platoon’s position his voice could still be heard faintly urging his men to carry on, until he lost consciousness. Only because of this officer’s driving spirit and heroic action was the platoon emboldened to make its brave but hopeless last ditch stand.
BONNYMAN, ALEXANDER, JR.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserves. Born: 2 May 1910, Atlanta, Ga. Accredited to: New Mexico. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as Executive Officer of the 2d Battalion Shore Party, 8th Marines, 2d Marine Division, during the assault against enemy Japanese-held Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands, November 20th -November 22nd, 1943. Acting on his own initiative when assault troops were pinned down at the far end of Betio Pier by the overwhelming fire of Japanese shore batteries, 1st Lt. Bonnyman repeatedly defied the blasting fury of the enemy bombardment to organize and lead the besieged men over the long, open pier to the beach and then, voluntarily obtaining flame throwers and demolitions, organized his pioneer shore party into assault demolitionists and directed the blowing of several hostile installations before the close of D-day. Determined to effect an opening in the enemy’s strongly organized defense line the following day, he voluntarily crawled approximately forty- yards forward of our lines and placed demolitions in the entrance of a large Japanese emplacement as the initial move in his planned attack against the heavily garrisoned, bombproof installation which was stubbornly resisting despite the destruction early in the action of a large number of Japanese who had been inflicting heavy casualties on our forces and holding up our advance. Withdrawing only to replenish his ammunition, he led his men in a renewed assault, fearlessly exposing himself to the merciless slash of hostile fire as he stormed the formidable bastion, directed the placement of demolition charges in both entrances and seized the top of the bombproof position, flushing more than one-hundred of the enemy who were instantly cut down, and effecting the annihilation of approximately 150 troops inside the emplacement. Assailed by additional Japanese after he had gained his objective, he made a heroic stand on the edge of the structure, defending his strategic position with indomitable determination in the face of the desperate charge and killing three of the enemy before he fell, mortally wounded. By his dauntless fighting spirit, unrelenting aggressiveness and forceful leadership throughout three days of unremitting, violent battle, 1st Lt. Bonnyman had inspired his men to heroic effort, enabling them to beat off the counterattack and break the back of hostile resistance in that sector for an immediate gain of 400 yards with no further casualties to our forces in this zone. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
SHOUP, DAVID MONROE
Rank and organization: Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps, commanding officer of all Marine Corps troops on Betio Island, Tarawa Atoll, and Gilbert Islands, from November 20th -November 22nd, 1943. Entered service at: Indiana. Born: 30 December 1904, Tippecanoe, Ind. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of all Marine Corps troops in action against enemy Japanese forces on Betio Island, Tarawa Atoll, Gilbert Islands, from 20 to 22 November 1943. Although severely shocked by an exploding enemy shell soon after landing at the pier and suffering from a serious, painful leg wound which had become infected, Col. Shoup fearlessly exposed himself to the terrific and relentless artillery, machinegun, and rifle fire from hostile shore emplacements. Rallying his hesitant troops by his own inspiring heroism, he gallantly led them across the fringing reefs to charge the heavily fortified island and reinforce our hard-pressed, thinly held lines. Upon arrival on shore, he assumed command of all landed troops and, working without rest under constant, withering enemy fire during the next 2 days, conducted smashing attacks against unbelievably strong and fanatically defended Japanese positions despite innumerable obstacles and heavy casualties. By his brilliant leadership daring tactics, and selfless devotion to duty, Col. Shoup was largely responsible for the final decisive defeat of the enemy, and his indomitable fighting spirit reflects great credit upon the U.S. Naval Service .
WHAT DO YOU LOVE ABOUT AMERICA DAY
PUMPKIN PIE DAY
Directions for Making Pumpkin Pie from Scratch
Yield: It really depends on the size of the pumpkin and the size of your pie plate. If you use a 6″ pie pumpkin and a full deep dish 9″ pie plate, then it should fill that pie to the brim and maybe have enough extra for either a small (4 inch) shallow pie (or a crustless pie – see step 11).
Some people manage to make 2 full pies, especially if they use shallow pie plates and/or 8 inch pie plates.
Ingredients and Equipment
A sharp, large serrated knife
an ice cream scoop
a large microwaveable bowl or large pot
1 large (10 inch) deep-dish pie plate and pie crust they will open in a new window) – or two small pie plates (9 inch) and crusts
A pie pumpkin (see step 1; you can use different types of pumpkin or even a butternut squash)
1 cup sugar (see step 10 for alternatives)
1.5 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1 teaspoon ground cloves
1 teaspoon ground allspice
1/2 teaspoon ground ginger
1/2 teaspoon of vanilla extract (optional)
1/2 teaspoon salt (optional)
4 large eggs – to reduce fat and cholesterol, you may use egg whites (like “Egg Beaters) instead, and vegans may want to use Ener-G .
3 cups pumpkin glop (ok… “sieved, cooked pumpkin”)
1.5 cans (12oz each) of evaporated milk (can use the nonfat version) for best results.
If you can’t get canned evaporated milk, make your own from nonfat dried milk and make it twice as concentrated as the directions on the box call for!
If you can’t get nonfat dried milk, just use milk.
If you are lactose-intolerant, use lactose-free milk or soy milk.
Try fresh whipping cream (unwhipped) to make a “wonderful” pie”
If you are allergic to dairy try using coconut milk,.
Note: if you do not have cinnamon, cloves, allspice and ginger, you can substitute 3 teaspoons of “pumpkin pie spice”. It’s not exactly the same, but it will do.
Recipe and Directions
Yield: One 9-inch deep dish pie or two 8-inch shallow pies
Step 1 – Get your pie pumpkin
“Pie pumpkins” are smaller, sweeter, less grainy textured pumpkins than the usual jack-o-lantern types. Grocery stores usually carry them in late September through December in the U.S. In some parts of the country, they are also called sugar pumpkins or even “cheese pumpkins”. To give you an idea of the size of a typical pie pumpkin look for one . They’re only about 6 to 8 inches in diameter (about 20 to 24 inches in circumference). TIP: If you’re in a pinch and can’t find a pie pumpkin, use a butternut squash, it tastes almost the same! If you need to use a regular Jack O’ Lantern type pumpkin, you may need to add about 25% more sugar and run the cooked pumpkin through a blender or food processor to help smooth it out.
Just like selecting any squash, look for one that is firm, no bruises or soft spots, and a good orange color. One 6″ pie pumpkin usually makes one 10 inch deep dish pie and a bit extra; or two 9 inch shallow pies! If you have extra goop, you can always pour it into greased baking pans and make a crustless mini pie with the excess (and the cooked pies do freeze well!)
Step 2 – Prepare the pumpkin for cooking
Wash the exterior of the pumpkin in cool or warm water, no soap.
Cut the pumpkin in half. A serrated knife and a sawing motion works best – a smooth knife is more likely to slip and hurt you!
Step 3 – Scoop out the seeds…
And scrape the insides. You want to get out that stringy, dangly stuff that coats the inside surface. I find a heavy ice cream scoop works great for this.
Note: SAVE THE SEEDS: The seeds can be used either to plant pumpkins next year, or roasted to eat this year! Place them in a bowl of water and rub them between your hands, then pick out the orange buts (throw that away) and drain off the water. Spread them out on a clean towel or paper towel to dry and they’re ready to save for next year’s planting or roast.
Step 4 – Cooking the pumpkin
There are several ways to cook the pumpkin; just choose use your preferred method.
Method 1 – Put it in a microwaveable bowl
Remove the stem, and put the pumpkin into a microwaveable bowl. You may need to cut the pumpkin further to make it fit. The fewer the number of pieces, the easier it will to scoop out the cooked pumpkin afterwards.
Put a couple of inches of water in the bowl, cover it, and put in the microwave. Cook it on high until it is soft. That may take 20 minutes or more, so like anything else, try 15 minutes, see how much it is softened, then do 5 minute increments until it is soft
Method 2 – Steam on the stovetop
You can also cook it on the stovetop; it takes about the same length of time in a steamer (20 to 30 minutes). Use a double pot steamer or you could use an ordinary large pot with a steamer basket.
Method 3 – Bake in the oven
You can also bake the prepared pumpkin in the oven, just like a butternut squash. This method takes the longest. Basically, you cut and scoop out the pumpkin as for the other methods, place it cut side down into a covered oven container. Cover the ovenproof container (with a lid), and pop it in a 3500 F oven. It normally takes about 45 minutes to 90 minutes (it can vary a lot!); just test it periodically by sticking it with a fork to see if it is soft!
Step 6 – Scoop out the cooked pumpkin
Whether you cook the pumpkin on the stove, microwave, or even the oven, once it is cooked until it is soft, it is easy to scoop out the guts with a broad, smooth spoon, (such as a tablespoon). Use the spoon to gently lift and scoop the cooked pumpkin out of the skin. It should separate easily an in fairly large chucks, if the pumpkin is cooked enough.
Many times the skin or rind will simply lift off with your fingers. The result is pumpkin “glop.”
If your pumpkin “glop” has standing, free water, you may want to let it sit for 30 minutes and then pour off any free water. This will help prevent the pie from being too watery! Don’t be TOO concerned about it! The recipe accounts for the fact that fresh pumpkin is more watery than canned!
Step 7 – Puree the pumpkin
To get a nice, smooth consistency use a hand blender. By blending it, you give the pie a smooth, satiny texture; rather than the rough graininess that is typical of cooked squashes. A regular blender works as well or a food processor.With the hand blender, it just takes 2 or 3 minutes!
Step 8 – Done with the pumpkin!
The pumpkin is now cooked and ready for the pie recipe. Note: You may freeze the puree or pie filling to use it later! Just use a freezer bag or other container to exclude as much air as possible. It should last a year or more in a deep freezer On the other hand, you may NOT “can” it: Pumpkin and winter squash are low-acid foods (pH > 4.6) capable of supporting the growth of Clostridium botulinumbacteria which can cause the very serious illness, botulism, under the right storage conditions. If the bacteria are present and survive processing, and the product has a high enough water activity, they can thrive and produce toxin in the product.
Step 9 – Make the pie crust
A flaky crust is easy to make! It is also time to start preheating the oven. Turn it on and set it to 425 F (210 C, for those in Europe)
Directions for Making a Flakey Pie Crust – Easily!
Yield: makes 1 deep dish 10″ pie shell. If you are making a double crust pie (a pie with dough on the top, too), simply double it.
1.5 cups flour (about 6 ounces by weight) – plain flour, not self-rising
2 tablespoons sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt (optional)
1/6 cup (1 ounce by weight) COLD vegetable shortening like Crisco.
Here’s a useful conversion: 1/6 cup = 2 tablespoons + 2 teaspoons
1/3 cup COLD butter
1/4 cup cold water
Food processor (is very helpful, but you can blend by hand)
Recipe and Directions
Step 1 – Mix the ingredients
Mix the flour, sugar and shortening first. About 15 seconds in a food processor is by far the best way, since it is fast and the ingredients don’t warm up much. Don’t make it too smooth or uniform. Little pea sized granules makes a flaky crust.
Note: Use shortening and butter together because they will melt at different temperatures. It makes a a lighter, flakier crust. Another key is to keep all the ingredients, especially the butter, shortening and water are very cold.
Another way is to substitute coconut oil for the Cisco vegetable shortening.
Step 2 – Mix and add water as needed
Sprinkle the water, just enough water to make it hold together; a good dough consistency. A pastry blender works very well to mix, but some people prefer a few seconds in a food processor instead. Just mix it enough to make it into pieces that hold together about the size of a pea. Do not overmix it!
If you have time, put the dough (wrapped in plastic wrap or a ziploc bag) into the fridge to rest and chill for a half hour or more. If you don’t have time, don’t worry, just move on to step 3.
Step 3 – Roll out the dough
Use a pie crust bag (a circular plastic bag that zips up around the edge. If unavailable, use two pieces of waxed paper). A couple of tablespoons of flour shaken in the bag will help to keep the dough from sticking to the bag. Roll it out to an even thickness, and just an inch or two wider than your pie pan. The crust should be about 1/8 inch thick.
Step 4 – Put in the pie pan and shape!
Place the dough into the pie pan. Don’t worry if it breaks. You can easily fix that.
Press the dough into the pan, seal any broken areas, and shape the top edge in any pattern you like; just for appearance’s sake. It’s now ready to add the pie ingredients and pop in the oven!
Step 10 – Mix the pie contents
All the hard work is behind you! Here’s where it gets really easy. If you start with a fresh 8″ pie pumpkin, you will get about 3 cups of cooked, mashed pumpkin. The right amount of ingredients for this is as follows:
1 cup sugar – or 1 cup Splenda, or 3/4 cup honey
1-1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1 teaspoon ground cloves
1 teaspoon ground allspice
one half teaspoon ground ginger
one half teaspoon salt (optional, I don’t use any)
4 large eggs
3 cups pumpkin glop
1-1/2 cans (12oz each) of evaporated milk (regular or nonfat )
1/2 teaspoon of vanilla extract (optional) For different flavors try rum or brandy extracts.
Mix well using a hand blender or mixer.
Note: This pie is light and fluffy. If you want a heavy, more dense pie, use 3 eggs instead of 4 and 1 can of evaporated milk instead of 1 ½ cans.
Step 11 – Pour into the pie crust
Fill it right up to about one quarter to one half inch from the very top.
Don’t be surprised if the mixture is very runny! It may start as a soupy liquid, but it will firm up nicely in the oven! Accident prevention! If you put the empty pie crust on the oven rack, with the rack slid partially out, you can fill it there and avoid making a mess while carrying the pie to the oven!
TIP: What do you do if you end up with more filling than will fit in your pie crust(s)? Easy! Of course, you can make another, smaller pie crust and fill a small pie pan… or just grease any baking dish, of a size that the extra filling will fill to a depth of about 2 inches (see the photo at right), and pour the extra filling in.. then bake it. It will be a crustless pumpkin pie that kids especially love! You can also use it in making pumpkin muffins or pumpkin bread!
TIP: Cover the exposed edges of the crust with strips of aluminum foil will prevent them from burning. Make your own crust cover by cutting the rim off of a disposable aluminum pie pan!
Step 12 – Bake the pie
Bake at 425 F (210 C ) for the first 15 minutes, then turn the temperature down to 350 F ( 175 C ) and bake another 45 to 60 minutes, until a clean knife inserted into the center comes out clean.
Step 13 – Cool the pie
And enjoy! Warm or chilled, with whipped cream , ice cream or nothing at all – it’s great!
Ecclesiastes 9: 1-2
1 For all this I considered in my heart even to declare all this, that the righteous, and the wise, and their works, are in the hand of God: no man knoweth either love or hatred by all that is before them.
2 All things come alike to all: there is one event to the righteous, and to the wicked; to the good and to the clean, and to the unclean; to him that sacrificeth, and to him that sacrificeth not: as is the good, so is the sinner; and he that sweareth, as he that feareth an oath.
“As we express our gratitude, we must never forget that the highest appreciation is not to utter words, but to live by them.”
~John Fitzgerald Kennedy
monomania mon-uh-MAY-nee-uh; -nyuh, noun:1. Pathological obsession with a single subject or idea.
2. Excessive concentration of interest upon one particular subject or idea.
Monomania is derived from the Greek elements mono-, “one, single, alone” + mania, “madness, frenzy, enthusiasm.”
164 BC – Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family, restores the Temple in Jerusalem. Events commemorated each year by the festival of Hanukkah.
1620 – Plymouth Colony settlers sign the Mayflower Compact (11 November, Old Style calendar), 10 days after arrival.
1783 – François de Rozier and the Marquis d’Arlandres made the first human flight in a hot-air balloon, in Paris, in a balloon built by the Joseph-Michel Montgolfier and Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier.
1789 – North Carolina ratifies the United States Constitution and is admitted as the twelfth U.S. state.
1791 – The first student entered Georgetown College. He was William Gaston, the son of a widow from New Bern, North Carolina. Mrs. Gaston agreed to an annual tuition of six pounds ten shillings, payable in six-month installments, with room and board adding 27pounds 10s. to the total bill.
1794 – Honolulu Harbor was discovered.
1836 – Marines and Soldiers took action against the Seminole Indians at Wahoo Swamp, Florida.
1847 – Steamer “Phoenix” was lost on Lake Michigan. 200 people were killed.
1848 – The John C. Fremont expedition, in search of a railroad route across the Rocky Mountains, reached Pueblo, Colorado.
1854 – Issac Von Bunschoten patented a rosin-oil lamp.
1855 – Franklin Colman, a pro-slavery Missourian, gunned down Charles Dow, a Free Stater from Ohio, near Lawrence, Kansas.
1861 – Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis appoints Judah Benjamin Secretary of War.
1864 – Civil War : Confederate General John Bell Hood launched the Franklin-Nashville Campaign into Tennessee from Georgia.
1865 – Shaw University was founded.Shaw University is a private liberal arts institution and historically black university specializing in social research and the liberal arts, located in Raleigh, North Carolina.
1871 – The first U.S. patent for a cigar lighter was issued to Moses F. Gale of New York City as an “Improvement in Cigar-Lighters.”
1871 – The first human cannonball, Emilio Onra, was fired from a cannon.
1877 – Thomas Edison announced his invention of his “talking machine” – the tin-foil cylinder recorder that preceded the phonograph.
1899 – Vice President Garret A. Hobart, serving under President McKinley, died in Paterson, N.J., at age 55.
1902 – First night football game, Philadelphia Athletics beats Kanaweola AC, 39-0.
1905 – Albert Einstein’s paper, “Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?”, is published in the journal “Annalen der Physik”. This paper reveals the relationship between energy and mass. This leads to the famous equation e=mc².
1906 – In San Juan, President Theodore Roosevelt pledged citizenship for Puerto Rican people.
1907 – The Cunard liner Mauritania set a new speed record for steamship travel, 624 nautical miles in a one day run.
1918 – World War I: The German High Seas Fleet surrendered to the Allies.
1918 – The last German troops left Alsace-Lorraine, France.
1921 – The first mid-air refueling was done by hand over Long Beach on a Curtiss JN-4.
1922 – Rebecca L. Felton of Georgia was sworn in as the first woman to serve in the U.S. Senate. She only got to serve one-day though.
1925 – Three-time All-American Harold “Red” Grange played his last football game for the University of Illinois and joined the Chicago Bears less than a week later on Thanksgiving Day.
1927 – Columbine Mine Massacre: Striking coal miners were allegedly attacked with machine guns by a detachment of state police dressed in civilian clothes in Serene, CO. Six strikers were killed, and dozens were injured.
1929 – Surrealist painter Salvador Dali had his first exhibit.
1933 – S.H. Love patents improved vending machine – Patent No.1936515
1934 – New York Yankees buy Joe DiMaggio from San Francisco Seals.
1934 – The Cole Porter musical “Anything Goes,” starring Ethel Merman as Reno Sweeney, premiered at New York’s Alvin Theatre.
1934 – Ella Fitzgerald makes her singing debut at age 16 at the Apollo Theater in Harlem, New York.
1938 – World War II: Nazi forces occupied western Czechoslovakia and declared its people German citizens.This annexation of Sudetenland was the first major belligerent action by Hitler.
1938 – WBOE in Cleveland, OH became the first school-operated radio station (owned by a municipality) to receive a license from the FCC.
1941 – The radio program King Biscuit Time is broadcast for the first time (it would later become the longest running daily radio broadcast in history and the most famous live blues radio program).
1942 – Tweety Bird, cartoon character, was born.
1942 – The Alcan Highway, an overland military supply route to the U.S. territory of Alaska, linking Canada and Alaska, was opened. It is now called the Alaska Highway. Passing through the Yukon, the more than 1,500-mile roadway connected Dawson Creek, British Columbia with Fairbanks, Alaska.
1943 – World War II: On Tarawa Atoll, more American troops (of the 2nd Marine Divison) land on Betio Island.
1944 – World War II: On Leyte, the US 32nd Division, advancing from the north coast, is held in the Ormoc Valley by Japanese forces.
1944 – World War II: Northeast of Formosa, the US submarine Sealion sinks the Japanese battleship Kongo and a destroyer.
1944 – :World War II: US 1st and 9th Armies meet firm resistance from German forces west of the Roer River.The US 3rd Army continues the siege of Metz while other elements gain ground near Saarebourg.
1944 – “The Roy Rogers Show” was first heard on the Mutual Broadcasting System. “Happy trails to you, until we meet again….”
1944 – “I’m Beginning to See the Light“, recorded by Harry James and his orchestra.
1945 – The last residents of the US Japanese-American internment left their camps.
1945 – General Motors workers went on strike.Within days of the end of World War II, the United Auto Workers demanded a 30% increase in wages. When denied their demands, the UAW went on strike for 113 days. They did not strike for increased wages but more for reduced profits by GM.
1946 – Harry Truman becomes first US President to travel in a submerged submarine. Mr. Truman had something to show for his temerity: a membership in the Royal Order of Deep Dunkers.
1950 – Korean War: The 17th Infantry Regiment of the 7th Infantry Division reached the Yalu River near its source at Hyesanjin, “Ghost City of Broken Bridges.”
1950 – The battleship USS New Jersey was recommissioned and re-entered active service under the command of Captain David M. Tyree.
1952 – First US postage stamp in 2 colors (rotary process) introduced.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Belong to Me” by Jo Stafford, “Glow Worm” by The Mills Brothers, “Because You’re Mine” by Mario Lanza and “Jambalaya (On the Bayou)” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – “Rags to Riches” by Tony Bennett topped the charts.
1953 – Authorities at the British Natural History Museum announce that the “Piltdown Man” skull, held to be one of the most famous fossil skulls in the world, was a hoax.
1955 – The first lady of the American stage, Helen Hayes, was honored for her many remarkable years in show business.
1959 – Jack Benny (violin) & Richard Nixon (piano) play their famed duet.
1959 – “Mr. Blue” by The Fleetwoods topped the charts.
1960 – Mercury-Redstone 1 (MR-1) was launched from Launch Complex 5 at Cape Canaveral, Florida. It was to be an unmanned suborbital flight. This was the first launch attempt for the Mercury-Redstone combination. The Redstone’s engine cut out about 1 second after lift-off.
1960 – American rocket launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, went off-course and a piece of debris fell in Cuba, killing a cow. The Cuban government gave the cow an official funeral as the victim of “imperialist aggression.” Date only known as November 1960.
1963 – President John F. Kennedy and his wife, Jacqueline, arrived in San Antonio, TX. They were beginning a two-day tour of Texas that would end in Dallas.
1963 – The Elvis Presley film “Fun in Acapulco” premiered.
1964 – New York’s Verrazano Narrows Bridge opened. World’s longest suspension bridge.
1964 – “Baby Love” by the Supremes topped the charts.
1967 – President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the air quality act, which allotted money to fight air pollution.
1967 – Vietnam War: American General William Westmoreland tells news reporters: “I am absolutely certain that whereas in 1965 the enemy was winning, today he is certainly losing.”
1967 – According to Guiness, “The single kite record is 22,500ft (min) – 28,000 ft. (max) by Prof. Phillip R. Kunz and Jay P. Kunz at Laramie, Wyoming.
1968 – Supremes & Temptations release “I’m Gonna Make You Love Me“.
1969 – The Senate (Democrat Majority) voted down the nomination of Clement F. Haynsworth to the Supreme Court, the first time since 1930 that a candidate for the nation’s highest court was rejected.
1970 – Vietnam War: Operation Ivory Coast – A joint Air Force and Army team raids the Son Tay prison camp in an attempt to free American POWs thought to be held there. It would be later learned that the POWs had been relocated to Dong Hoi, on July 14.
1970 – Vietnam War: Two 378-foot cutters, US Coast Guard Cutters Sherman and Rush combined with USS Endurance to sink a North Vietnamese trawler attempting to smuggle arms into South Vietnam.
1970 – “I Think I Love You” by the Partridge Family topped the charts.
1972 – It’s easy, and it’s good for everyone. What could possibly be so wonderful? World Hello Day, that’s what. This friendly annual event began on this day and has grown enormously since. Here’s what you do to participate: you just say “hello” to ten people on this day. Greet them warmly and with a smile. And you can say “hello” in any language.
1973 – The 18.5-minute gap in one of Richard Nixon’s White House tape recordings related to Watergate was revealed by Nixon’s lawyer, J. Fred Buzhardt .
1974 – George W. Bush is honourably discharged from the US Air Force Reserve.
1974 – U.S. Congress (Democrat Majority) passed the Freedom of Information Act over President Gerald Ford’s veto.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)” by Rod Stewart, “The Wreck of the Edmond Fitzgerald” by Gordon Lightfoot, “Love So Right” by Bee Gees and “Somebody Somewhere (Don’t Know What He’s Missin’ Tonight)” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1979 – The United States Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan is attacked by a mob and set on fire killing four, two of which were American.
1980 – A deadly fire breaks out at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada (now Bally’s Las Vegas). Eighty-seven people are killed and more than 650 are injured in the worst disaster in Nevada history.
1980 – Lake Peigneur, Louisiana drained into an underlying salt deposit. A misplaced Texaco oil probe drilled into the Diamond crystal salt mine; water flowing down into the mine eroded the edges of the hole. The whirlpool created sucked the drilling platform, several barges, houses and trees thousands of feet, to the bottom of the dissolving salt deposit.
1980 – Who Shot JR? – The Dallas Episode “Who Done It?” aired on US television. It was one of the highest-rated episodes (53.3) of a TV show ever aired. Kristin, played by Mary Crosby, was the character that fired the gun.
1981 – Olivia Newton-John’s “Physical,” single goes #1 & stays for 10 weeks.
1985 – United States Navy intelligence analyst Jonathan Jay Pollard is arrested for spying (he was caught giving Israel classified information on Arab nations and was eventually sentenced to life in prison).
1986 – Iran-Contra Affair: National Security Council member Oliver North and his secretary, Fawn Hall, start to shred documents implicating them in the sale of weapons to Iran and channeling the proceeds to help fund the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
1987 – “Mony Mony” by Billy Idol topped the charts.
1987 – An eight-day siege began at a detention center in Oakdale, LA, as Cuban detainees seized the facility and took hostages after news that they were going to be returned to Cuba.
1988 – “The Delicate Sound Of Thunder” by Pink Floyd was released.
1989 – A law banning smoking on most domestic flights signed by President Bush.
1990 – Leaders of NATO and Warsaw Pact member states signed the Charter of Paris and a treaty on conventional forces in Europe, bringing an end to the Cold War.
1991 – President George H.W. Bush signed the Civil Rights Act of 1991, making it easier for workers to sue in job discrimination cases.
1992 – Sen. Bob Packwood, R-Ore., issued an apology but refused to discuss allegations that he’d made unwelcome sexual advances toward ten women over the years.
1993 – The U.S. House of Representatives voted against making the District of Columbia the 51st state, 277-153.
1995 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed above the 5000 (5023.55) mark for the first time.
1995 – Israel granted jailed US spy Jason Pollard, citizenship.
1995 – “Toy Story” is released as the first feature-length film created completely using computer-generated imagery.
1996 – Thirty-three people were killed, and more than 100 injured, when an explosion blamed on leaking gas ripped through a six-story building in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
1997 – “The Food and Drug Administration Act of 1997″ was signed into law by President Clinton. The new law was designed to enhance the product development and review process; streamline the way the Agency regulates medical devices and simplify enforcement procedures.
2000 – Pres. Clinton agreed not to punish China for exporting missile components to Iran and Pakistan after China promised to end future technological cooperations with countries seeking to develop missile weaponry.
2000 – In a setback for George W. Bush, the Florida Supreme Court granted Al Gore’s request to keep the presidential recounts going; Democrats were jubilant, Republicans bitter and angry.
2001 – Tiger Woods won his 4th consecutive PGA Grand Slam with a win at Poipu Bay in Hawaii.
2002 -” It’s A Very Muppet Christmas Movie” first airs on NBC. Baby Jordan Elliott was born.
2002 – Intensive cleaning began aboard the cruise ship Disney Magic after over 100 passengers fell sick from an unknown stomach virus.
2002 – NATO invited the seven former communist countries into its membership.
2003 – Health officials said a deadly outbreak of hepatitis A at a Chi-Chi’s Mexican restaurant in suburban Pittsburgh was probably caused by green onions from Mexico.
2003 – Phil Spector was charged with the murder of Lana Clarkson at his home the previos February. Spector pled innocent.
2003 – The Air Force conducted a second test of the “Mother of All Bombs,” officially the Massive Ordnance Air Blast, in Florida. It was first tested Mar 11.
2004 – Donald Trump’s casino empire filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
2004 – Kurt Busch clinches the first NASCAR Nextel Cup championship trophy.
2004 – Fred Hale Sr., believed to have been the oldest man on Earth, died less than a month before his 114th birthday at a DeWitt, N.Y., nursing home. He was born the same year as basketball was invented and the Swiss Army knife was developed.
2004 – A trespassing deer hunter in northern Wisconsin opened fire on other hunters when they asked him to leave, killing five and wounding three. In 2005 Vang (36) was convicted of 1st degree murder and sentenced to six life terms.
2004 – Scientists began releasing water from Glen Canyon Dam to flood the Grand Canyon in a five-day effort to restore the Colorado river ecosystem.
2004 – The Nintendo DS was released in North America.
2005 – Camden, NJ, was named the most dangerous city in the USA for the 2nd year in a row by the Morgan Quitno, a Kansas-based publishing and research company.
2005 – In New Mexico, police arrested Monsignor Dale Fushek (53), former vicar general of the Phoenix Roman Catholic Diocese, on sex charges involving boys and young men.
2005 – General Motors Corp. said it will eliminate 30,000 jobs and close nine North American assembly, stamping and powertrain plants by 2008.
2006 – In Atlanta, Ga., Kathryn Johnston (92) was shot to death by police after she fired at narcotics investigators as they stormed her house in a no-knock raid.
2007 – University of Wisconsin-Madison scientists reported they had reprogrammed human skin cells to behave as embryonic stem cells. The procedure by-passes the ethical or political controversy caused by destroying embryos or cloning for stem cell research.
2007 – Senator Barack Obama makes the case for an Obama Presidency by saying he is uniquely qualified to bring stability to America’s relationships in the Muslim world because he lived in an Islamic country during his youth and his half-sister is Muslim.
2007 – New Hampshire set its presidential primary to Jan 8, claiming its traditional spot as the nation’s first primary.
2007 – Officials in the US announced the recall of more than a half-million pieces of Chinese-made children’s jewelry contaminated with lead.
2008 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average rose 494.13 to close at 8,046.42 following news that President-elect Obama would likely pick Timothy Geithner, chief of the New York Federal Reserve, as the next Treasury secretary.
2008 – The U.S. National Intelligence Council predicts a major decline in U.S. economic, military, and political dominance over the next two decades.
2009 – Th US Senate voted 60-39 to open debate on the health care bill. The vote was hailed a victory for President Obama, but final passage of the legislation was far from certain.
2009 – President Barack Obama’s job approval rating slips below 50 percent in a daily tracking survey by Gallup poll and reported by Rueters.
2010 – Iran delays the trial of two American citizens detained while hiking until 6 February 2011.
2010 – US stock car racer Jimmie Johnson wins his fifth straight NASCAR Sprint Cup Series championship, the first driver to do so.
2011 – The United States, United Kingdom, and Canada impose further sanctions against Iran’s nuclear program.
2011 – A Congressional panel fails to agree on proposals to cut the United States’ national budget deficit by $1.2 trillion, leading to automatic budget cuts.
2012 – Will Rogers World Airport in Oklahoma is shut down over the discovery of a painted golden object with a hole in the bottom in the luggage of musician Wayne Coyne. The object is mistaken for a live grenade by frightened staff.
2012 – Jesse Jackson, Jr. (D) resigns from U.S. Congress due to health problems and federal criminal investigation of his activities.|
2013 – The US Senate approved the most fundamental alteration of its rules in more than a generation, ending the minority party’s ability to filibuster most presidential nominees in response to the partisan gridlock that has plagued Congress for much of the Obama administration. By a vote of 52 to 48, with only three Democrats defecting, led by Reid, changed the rules to prevent filibusters of virtually all presidential nominees except Supreme Court justices.
694 – Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet), French philosopher, historian, poet, dramatist and novelist.
1787 – Samuel Cunard, Canadian-born shipping magnate (d. 1865)
1903 – Tom Horn was an American Old West lawman, scout, soldier, hired gunman, detective, outlaw and assassin during his lifetime. He was hanged for a murder he probably did not commit the day before his 43rd birthday, in Cheyenne, Wyoming.
1907 – Jim Bishop (newspaper columnist, author: The Day Christ Died, The Days of Martin Luther King, Jr., The Day Kennedy Was Shot; died July 26, 1987)
1916 – Sid Luckman (Pro Football Hall of Famer: Chicago Bears quarterback: 4 NFL Championships, MVP ; shares NFL individual record for touchdowns thrown in a game [7, Nov. 14, 1943]; died July 5, 1998)
1920 – Stan Musial, American baseball Hall-of-Famer.
1937 – Marlo Thomas, American actress
1945 – Goldie Hawn, American Academy Award-winning actress.
1949 – Barbara Jo Rubin (horse-racing jockey: first U.S. woman to win a flat race against male jockeys ; first woman to ride in NY & NJ)
1962 – Steven Curtis Chapman, American musician
1966 – Troy Aikman (football: Dallas Cowboys quarterback: Super Bowl XXVII, XXVIII; holds record for longest pass completion w/receiver Alvin Harper in a playoff game [94 yards, 1/8/95]) 1969 – Ken (George Kenneth) Griffey Jr. (baseball: Seattle Mariners left-handed outfielder)
CARPENTER, WILLIAM KYLE
Rank: Lance Corporal Organization: U.S. Marine Corps, Company F, 2d Battalion Division: 9th Marines Born: 17 October, 1989, Flowood, MS Entered Service At: Columbia, SC Date of Issue: 06/19/2014 Accredited To: South Carolina Place / Date: November 21st, 2010, Marjah District, Helmand Province, Afghanistan Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an Automatic Rifleman with Company F, 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, Regimental Combat Team 1, 1st Marine Division (Forward), 1 Marine Expeditionary Force (Forward), in Helmand Province, Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom on 21 November 2010. Lance Corporal Carpenter was a member of a platoon-sized coalition force, comprised of two reinforced Marine squads partnered with an Afghan National Army squad. The platoon had established Patrol Base Dakota two days earlier in a small village in the Marjah District in order to disrupt enemy activity and provide security for the local Afghan population. Lance Corporal Carpenter and a fellow Marine were manning a rooftop security position on the perimeter of Patrol Base Dakota when the enemy initiated a daylight attack with hand grenades, one of which landed inside their sandbagged position. Without hesitation, and with complete disregard for his own safety, Lance Corporal Carpenter moved toward the grenade in an attempt to shield his fellow Marine from the deadly blast. When the grenade detonated, his body absorbed the brunt of the blast, severely wounding him, but saving the life of his fellow Marine. By his undaunted courage, bold fighting spirit, and unwavering devotion to duty in the face of almost certain death, Lance Corporal Carpenter reflected great credit upon himself and upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the United States Naval Service.
HAWKINS, WILLIAM DEAN
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 19 .April 1914, Fort Scott, Kans. Appointed from: El Paso, Tex. Citation: For valorous and gallant conduct above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of a Scout Sniper Platoon attached to the Assault Regiment in action against Japanese-held Tarawa in the Gilbert Island, 20 and November 21st, 1943. The first to disembark from the jeep lighter, 1st Lt. Hawkins unhesitatingly moved forward under heavy enemy fire at the end of the Betio Pier, neutralizing emplacements in coverage of troops assaulting the main beach positions. Fearlessly leading his men on to join the forces fighting desperately to gain a beachhead, he repeatedly risked his life throughout the day and night to direct and lead attacks on pillboxes and installations with grenades and demolitions. At dawn on the following day, 1st Lt. Hawkins resumed the dangerous mission of clearing the limited beachhead of Japanese resistance, personally initiating an assault on a hostile position fortified by S enemy machineguns, and, crawling forward in the face of withering fire, boldly fired pointblank into the loopholes and completed the destruction with grenades. Refusing to withdraw after being seriously wounded in the chest during this skirmish, 1st Lt. Hawkins steadfastly carried the fight to the enemy, destroying three more pillboxes before he was caught in a burst of Japanese shellfire and mortally wounded. His relentless fighting spirit in the face of formidable opposition and his exceptionally daring tactics served as an inspiration to his comrades during the most crucial phase of the battle and reflect the highest credit upon the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
MINICK, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 121st Infantry, 8th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Hurtgen, Germany, November 21st, 1944. Entered service at: Carlisle, Pa. Birth: Wall, Pa. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, in action involving actual conflict with the enemy on 21 November 1944, near Hurtgen, Germany. S/Sgt. Minick’s battalion was halted in its advance by extensive minefields, exposing troops to heavy concentrations of enemy artillery and mortar fire. Further delay in the advance would result in numerous casualties and a movement through the minefield was essential. Voluntarily, S/Sgt. Minick led four men through hazardous barbed wire and debris, finally making his way through the minefield for a distance of three-hundred yards. When an enemy machinegun opened fire, he signaled his men to take covered positions, edged his way alone toward the flank of the weapon and opened fire, killing two members of the guncrew and capturing three others. Moving forward again, he encountered and engaged single-handedly an entire company killing twenty Germans and capturing twenty, and enabling his platoon to capture the remainder of the hostile group. Again moving ahead and spearheading his battalion’s advance, he again encountered machinegun fire. Crawling forward toward the weapon, he reached a point from which he knocked the weapon out of action. Still another minefield had to be crossed. Undeterred, S/Sgt. Minick advanced forward alone through constant enemy fire and while thus moving, detonated a mine and was instantly killed.
Rank and organization: Seaman Apprentice, Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 1866, France. Accredited to: New York. (Letter, Capt. N. Judlow, U.S. Navy, No. 8326B; 21 November 1885.) Citation: On board the U.S.S. Quinnebaug, Alexandria, Egypt, on the morning of November 21st, 1885. Jumping overboard from that vessel, Chandron, with the aid of Hugh Miller, boatswain’s mate, rescued William Evans, ordinary seaman, from drowning.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1859 Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. (Letter Capt. N. Judlow U.S. Navy, No. 8326/B; 21 November 1885.) Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S.S. Quinnebaug, at Alexandria, Egypt, on the morning of November 21st,1885 and assisting in saving a shipmate from drowning.
NATIONAL BIBLE WEEK
NAME YOUR PC DAY
Armadillos are an amazing group of animals that originated in South America. Armadillos are mammals, just like you. Contrary to what you may have heard, the armadillo is neither a rodent nor a marsupial, and they are not related to the opossum any more than you are. There are twenty different species of armadillos. They belong to the order Xenarthra, family Dasypodidae.
What’s an armadillo?
Their closest relatives are sloths and anteaters. The most easily recognized feature of an armadillo is its shell. All armadillos have shells, made of true bone, that cover their backs. Most armadillos also have bony rings or plates that protect their tails. Because their backs are covered with bone, armadillos are not very flexible. Although one species, the three-banded armadillo, can roll itself into a ball, none of the others can do so. They rely on speed or their digging ability to escape danger.
Armadillos are built to dig. They have short, strong legs that are well suited to rapid digging, either for food or for shelter. Like their cousins, the sloth and anteater, armadillos have strong claws. They use them to help in digging, or to tear apart rotting wood to find food. Armadillos eat a wide variety of different foods, ranging from insects to plants. Most armadillos eat small invertebrates like ants, beetles, and grubs. Many of them also eat bits of flesh from dead animals when they can find them.
Most armadillos also eat plants, and some species — like the giant armadillo — can cause quite a bit of agricultural damage if they happen to wander into a farmer’s field. Because small bugs and soft plants are not too difficult to chew, armadillos do not have very complicated teeth. They have lost all but their molars over time, and the teeth that remain are peg-shaped. Armadillo teeth do not have the hard white enamel coating that protects the teeth of other mammals.
Many species of armadillo are endangered or threatened. Human encroachment, slash-and-burn farming, hunting, and deaths due to domestic dogs account for a large percentage of the problem. Of the twenty species of armadillo, only one — the nine-banded armadillo — appears to be increasing in number. In the last hundred years or so, the nine-banded armadillo has expanded its home range northward into the United States. Armadillos have moved as far west as Colorado and as far north as Nebraska, with occasional sightings even farther north. Cold weather will eventually stop the spread of the armadillo, as they cannot tolerate even relatively short periods of extreme cold — they do not have large fat reserves to help insulate their bodies.
Proverbs 16: 1-3 King James Version (KJV)
1 The preparations of the heart in man, and the answer of the tongue, is from the Lord.
2 All the ways of a man are clean in his own eyes; but the Lord weigheth the spirits.
3 Commit thy works unto the Lord, and thy thoughts shall be established.
“It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”
~ Charles Darwin
inveterate in-VET-uhr-it, adjective:
1. Firmly established by long persistence; deep-rooted; of long standing.
2. Fixed in habit by long persistence; confirmed; habitual.
Inveterate is from the past participle of Latin inveterari, “to grow old, to endure,” from in- + vetus, veter-, “old.” It is related to veteran, “one who is long experienced in some activity or capacity; an old soldier of long service; one who has served in the armed forces.” The noun form is inveteracy or inveterateness.
269 – Diocletian was proclaimed emperor of Numerian in Asia Minor. Under his rule the last and most terrible persecution of the Christians took place, perhaps some 3,000 martyrs.
1620 – Peregrine White was born aboard the Mayflower in Massachusetts Bay. White was the first child to be born of English parents, son of William and Susanna White, in present-day New England.
1720 – Pirates Mary Read, Anne Bonny (b.~1700) and Captain Calico Jack Rackham were tried by an admiralty court in Jamaica. Rackham was found guilty and hanged the next day. Read and Bonny were also found guilty and sentenced to hang but pleaded pregnancy.
1789 – New Jersey became the first state to ratify the Bill of Rights, approving ten of the twelve amendments.
1817 – First Seminole War began in Florida.
1819 – Louis Charles Guille at 500 feet altitude, cut his basket loose from a balloon in Jersey City and parachuted safely to earth. He is credited with the first parachute jump in the western world.
1820 – The whaler Essex, from Nantucket, Massachusetts, was attacked and sunk by an 80-ton sperm whale 2,000 miles from the western coast of South America. It was the first American vessel sunk by a whale. (Herman Melville’s 1851 novel Moby-Dick is in part inspired by this story).
1856 – Commander Andrew H. Foote lands at Canton, China, with 287 Sailors and Marines to stop attacks by Chinese on U.S. military and civilians.
1861 – Civil War: Secession ordinance is filed by Kentucky’s Confederate government.
1866 – Howard University, the first university for Black students, was founded in Washington, D.C. as the Howard Theological Seminary.
1866 – The first U.S. patent on a rotary crank bicycle was issued to Pierre Lallemont of Paris, France.
1866 – The first U.S. patent for a yoyo was issued to James L. Haven and Charles Hittrick of Cincinnati, Ohio.
1888 – Willard LeGrand Bundy, a jeweller, was issued the first U.S. patent for a time recording clock. A workman inserted a key which actuating his number by engaging corresponding catches on a type-wheel mechanism. This printed his identification number and time on a paper tape.
1893 – Western League of Professional Baseball Clubs, meeting in Detroit, Michigan, elected Byron Bancroft Johnson (29), a former ballplayer and Cincinnati sportswriter, as president.
1902 – Henri Desgrange and fellow journalist Géo Lefèvre dream up the idea of the Tour de France over lunch at the Café de Madrid in Paris.
1914 – US State Department began requiring photographs for passports.
1917 – USS Kanawha, Noma and Wakiva sink German sub off France.
1919 – Tucson, AZ opened the first municipally owned airport in the United States. Commercial air service began in Tucson with Standard Airlines (later American Airlines) in 1928.
1920 – The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to US President Woodrow Wilson.
1923 – American Black Garrett Morgan (1877-1963) patented an automatic traffic signal. He later sold the technology for the Morgan traffic signal to General Electric Corporation for $40,000.
1928 – Mrs. Glen Hyde became the first woman to dare the Grand Canyon rapids in a scow.
1929 – Leo Reisman and his orchestra recorded “Happy Days are Here Again“.
1929 – The first episode of “The Rise of the Goldbergs” aired as a sustaining program on WJZ, flagship of the NBC Blue network.
1931 – Commercial teletype service begins (AT & T).
1933 – Navy crew (Lt. Commander Thomas G. W. Settle, USN, and MAJ Chester I. Fordney, USMC) sets a world altitude record in balloon (62,237 ft.) in flight into stratosphere.
1940 – World War II: Hungary, Romania and Slovakia join the Axis Powers.
1943 – World War II: Battle of Tarawa begins – United States Marines land on Tarawa Atoll in the Gilbert Islands and suffer heavy fire from Japanese shore guns and machine guns.
1944 – World War II: The first Japanese suicide submarine attack was at Ulithi Atoll, Carolines. A Japanese Kaiten attack sinks the US naval tanker Mississinewa.
1945 – The Nuremberg Trials began for 24 top Nazis accused of war crimes and atrocities.
1947 – Britain’s future queen, Princess Elizabeth II, married Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh, in a ceremony broadcast worldwide from Westminster Abbey.
1947 – “Meet the Press” made network TV debut on NBC.
1950 – Korean War: U.S. troops pushed to Yalu River within five miles of Manchuria.
1953 – Scott Crossfield piloted the Douglas D-558-2 Skyrocket research aircraft to Mach 2, or 1,291 mph.
1954 – “I Need You Now” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.
1955 – Maryland National Guard was ordered desegregated.
1955 – Bo Diddley becomes the first Black performer to appear on The Ed Sullivan Show. Apparently Sullivan was infuriated when Diddley sang his self-titled song instead of Tennessee Ernie Ford’s hit, “Sixteen Tons”.
1955 – RCA paid the unheard of sum of $35,000 to Sam Phillips of Memphis, TN for the rights to the music of a truck driver from Tupelo, Mississippi: Elvis Presley.
1959 – “Moondoggy” himself, Alan Freed, was axed in the midst of the payola music scandal. In 1959 the U.S. House Oversight Committee, at the urging of ASCAP, began to look into deejays who took gifts from record companies in return for playing their records on their shows.
1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis ends: In response to the Soviet Union’s agreeing to remove its missiles from Cuba, U.S. President John F. Kennedy ends the quarantine of the Caribbean nation.
1962 – Mickey Mantle was named the American League – Most Valuable Player for the third time.
1962 – The Four Seasons’ “Big Girls Don’t Cry” was released.
1962 – President Kennedy issued executive order barring religious or racial discrimination in federally financed housing.
1962 – Robert C. Weaver, economist and government official was awarded Spingarn Medal for his leadership in the movement for open housing.
1965 – “I Hear a Symphony” by the Supremes topped the charts.
1966 – “Cabaret” opened on Broadway for the first of 1,165 stellar performances.
1967 – The U.S. census clock reported the population at 200 million.
1968 – Vietnam War: Eleven men comprising a Long Range Patrol team from F Company, 58th Infantry, 101st Airborne are surrounded and nearly wiped out by North Vietnamese army regulars from the 4th and 5th Regiment. The seven wounded survivors are rescued after several hours by an impromptu force made of other men from their unit.
1969 – Vietnam War: The Cleveland Plain Dealer publishes explicit photographs of dead villagers from the My Lai massacre in Vietnam.
1969 – A group of eighty Native Americans, all college students, seized Alcatraz Island in the name of “Indians of All Tribes.”
1969 – The Nixon administration announced a halt to residential use of the pesticide DDT.
1971 – “Theme From Shaft” by Isaac Hayes topped the charts.
1974 – The United States filed an antitrust suit against AT&T Corporation. This suit later leads to the breakup of AT&T and its Bell System.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Island Girl” by Elton John, “Who Loves You” by Four Seasons, “That’s the Way (I like It)” by KC & The Sunshine Band and “Are You Sure Hank Done It This Way” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1976 – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)” by Rod Stewart topped the charts.
1977 – Walter Payton (Bears) rushes for NFL-record 275 yards against the Minnesota Vikings.
1979 – The first US artificial blood transfusion occurred at Univ. of Minnesota Hospital. The patient was a Jehovah’s Witness, who had refused a transfusion of real blood because of his religious beliefs.
1980 – Steve Ptacek in Solar Challenger piloted its first solar-powered flight.
1980 – Lake Peigneur in Louisiana drains into an underlying salt deposit. A misplaced Texaco oil probe had been drilled into the Diamond Crystal Salt Mine, causing water to flow down into the mine, eroding the edges of the hole. The resulting whirlpool sucked the drilling platform, several barges, houses and trees thousands of feet down to the bottom of the dissolving salt deposit.
1982 – Andy Kaufman was forever voted off Saturday Night Live by a live phone poll.
1982 – “Up Where We Belong” by Joe Cocker & Jennifer Warnes topped the charts.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “All Night Long (All Night)” by Lionel Richie, “Say Say Say” by Paul McCartney & Michael Jackson, “Uptown Girl” by Billy Joel and “One of a Kind Pair of Fools” by Barbara Mandrell all topped the charts.
1983 – In the U.S., an estimated 100 million people watch the controversial made-for-television movie “The Day After“, depicting a nuclear war and its effects on the United States.
1984 – McDonalds flip past the 50 billionth burger mark. It came 35 years and 11 months after the very first McDonald’s hamburger was sold. The 50 billionth burger was made by Edward Rensi, president of Mickey D’s at the Grand Hyatt Hotel in New York City.
1985 – Microsoft Windows 1.0 is released.
1990 – The space shuttle Atlantis landed at Cape Canaveral, FL, after completing a secret military mission.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cream” by Prince & The N.P.G., “Can’t Stop This Thing We Started” by Bryan Adams, “When a Man Loves a Woman” by Michael Bolton and “Shameless” by Garth Brooks all topped the charts.
1993 – Savings and Loan scandal: The United States Senate Ethics Committee issues a stern censure of California senator Alan Cranston for his “dealings” with savings-and-loan executive Charles Keating.
1993 – The U.S. Senate passed the Brady Bill and legislation implementing NAFTA.
1994 – David Crosby got a liver transplant.
1995 – Princess Diana admitted being unfaithful to Prince Charles in an interview that was broadcast on BBC Television.
1998 – Forty-six states agreed to a $206 billion settlement of health claims against the tobacco industry.
1998 – International Space Station is launched.
2000 – Lawyers for Al Gore and George W. Bush battled before the Florida Supreme Court over whether the presidential election recount should be allowed to continue.
2000 – The EU began to build its own defense force, a 60,000 man, rapid reaction corps. EU defense chiefs pledged 100,000 soldiers, 400 planes and 100 ships for a rapid-reaction force.
2001 – In Washington, D.C., U.S. President George W. Bush dedicates the US Department of Justice headquarters building as the Robert F. Kennedy Justice Building, honoring the late Robert F. Kennedy on what would have been his 76th birthday.
2001 – A federal judge extended a court order blocking an attempt by Attorney General John Ashcroft to dismantle Oregon’s one-of-a-kind law allowing physician-assisted suicides.
2001 – Jeff Hawkins, inventor of the Palm computer, was reported to hold that the brain works by anticipating and completing patterns more than it does through inputs and outputs of information.
2002 – Louisiana began offering a $4-a-tail bounty on the swamp-dwelling nutria rodent, due to wetlands damage from devoured plants.
2003 – Motor Trend named the Toyota’s hybrid Prius as “Car of the Year.”
2003 – Michael Jackson turned himself over to police in Santa Barbara, Ca., on an arrest warrant alleging multiple counts of child molestation. He posted a $3 million bail bond. Jackson was later acquitted at trial.
2003 – Record producer Phil Spector was charged with murder in the shooting death of an actress, Lana Clarkson in February 2003 at his home in Alhambra, Calif.
2004 – The NBA suspended nine players without pay over the Nov 19 Piston and Pacer brawl in Auburn Hills, Mich.
2004 – Scientist Ancel Keys (100), died in Minneapolis. He invented the K rations eaten by soldiers in World War II.
2004 – Juan Rodriguez (49) of New York City, a Colombian immigrant and parking garage worker, won the $149 million Mega Millions lottery jackpot. He chose to take a single payment of $88.5 million before taxes.
2005 – President George W. Bush attends a church service during his visit to People’s Republic of China as he presses for greater freedoms of expression and faith during his east Asian tour.
2005 – In Tacoma, Wash., Dominick Sergio Maldonado (20) went on a shooting spree at a crowded shopping mall. 7 people were injured, one critically.
2006 – A school bus carrying high school students falls nose-first 40 feet to the ground off an Interstate 565 overpass in downtown Huntsville, Alabama, killing four teenage girls.
2006 – The US Mint announced designs for new one-dollar coins that will feature images of the presidents beginning in February.
2006 – Six imams were removed from a US Airways flight at Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport after passengers reported they were acting suspiciously.
2006 – Authorities seized a 50-foot homemade submarine with three tons of cocaine off the coast of Costa Rica.
2007 – In San Francisco, CA, large grocery stores stopped using plastic bags as a new city ordnance banning the bags took effect.
2007 – Warren Jeffs, the leader of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, is sentenced to five years to life in jail for complicity in rape. He was also sentenced to 10 years to life in prison for forcing a 14-year-old to marry her first cousin.
2008 – US Attorney General Michael Mukasey collapses while giving a speech to the Federalist Society in Washington, D.C.
2008 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average reaches its lowest level since 1997.
2008 – NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter discovers evidence of enormous underground deposits of water ice on Mars; one such deposit, under Hellas Planitia, is estimated to be the size of Los Angeles.
2008 – Five Guantánamo Bay detainees who successfully argued Boumediene v. Bush before the Supreme Court are ordered freed by Judge Richard J. Leon of the District Court for Washington, D.C.
2009 – The United States Senate clears Senator Roland Burris of legal wrongdoing in relation to his appointment to the Senate.
2009 – A US judge blocked a Tennessee law that allowed people to bring handguns into restaurants and bars.
2009 – The Manhattan Declaration was signed by about 150 prominent Christian clergy, ministry leaders and scholars and was released at a press conference in Washington, DC. It was born out of an urgent concern about growing efforts to marginalize the Christian voice in the public square, to redefine marriage, and to move away from the biblical view of the sanctity of life.
2009 – Lester Shubin (84), former US Justice Dept. researcher, died at his home in Virginia. In the 1970s he began developing Kevlar, a new DuPont fabric invented in 1965, into body armor for police and soldiers.
2010 – The US Senate settles with a payment of $4.6 billion to black farmers and at least 300,000 Native Americans who objected to government discrimination and cheating in Cobell v. Salazar.
2010 – Four Talon T-38 Trainer jets flew just 16 feet above the stadium’s press box and at 400 mph (max allowable is 300) when they wowed 70,000 fans inside Kinnick Stadium before Iowa hosted Ohio State in football. The pilots were punished, see March 24th, 2011.
2011 – Jose Pimentel, a 27-year-old Dominican-American, is arrested in New York City after planning to detonate pipe bombs, according to New York mayor Michael Bloomberg. The suspect is believed to have Al-Qaeda sympathies, although no wider conspiracy is suspected.
2012 – Sesame Street puppeteer Kevin Clash, known for being the voice of Elmo, resigns after a second accuser files a complaint that Clash had underage sexual relations with him.
2012 – The nation awoke to the story of Grinnell’s Jack Taylor, the 5-foot-10 guard who scored an NCAA record 138 points in a college basketball game, which undoubtedly evoked a collective, coast-to-coast, “Whaaaaaaaaat?” Fifty-two shots of 108 from the field, 27 of 71 from 3-point land, 7 of 10 free throws, 138 points!
2012 – Wildlife officials investigate the killing and mutilations of dolphins along the coast of the United States over the past year.
2013 – President Barack Obama announces executive orders to defer the deportations of a certain group of illegal immigrants: parents whose children are already U.S. citizens and legal permanent residents who have lived in the United States for five years or more.
1620 – Peregrine White, first English child born in the Plymouth Colony (d. 1704)
1858 – Selma Lagerlof, Swedish author, first woman to win the Nobel Prize for literature.
1889 – Edwin Powell Hubble, American astronomer.
1900 – Chester Gould, creator of comic strips (Dick Tracy) (d. 1985)
1908 – Sir Alistair Cooke, English journalist and TV host.
1917 – Robert Byrd, American politician
1921 – Jim Garrison, American district attorney and judge (d. 1992)
1925 – Robert F. Kennedy, American senator, attorney general, and presidential candidate.
1932 – Richard Dawson, British actor, Game Show Host
1954 – Bo Derek, American film actress and model.
*CRESCENZ, MICHAEL J.
Rank and Organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company A, 4th Battalion, 31st Infantry, 196th Infantry Brigade, Americal Division. Place and date: Hiep Duc Valley area, Republic of Vietnam, November 20th, 1968. Entered service at: Philadelphia, PA. Born: 14 January 1949, Philadelphia, Pa. Citation: Cpl. Crescenz distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action while serving as a rifleman with Company A. In the morning his unit engaged a large, well-entrenched force of the North Vietnamese Army whose initial burst of fire pinned down the lead squad and killed the two point men, halting the advance of Company A. Immediately, Cpl. Crescenz left the relative safety of his own position, seized a nearby machine gun and, with complete disregard for his safety, charged one-hundred meters up a slope toward the enemy’s bunkers which he effectively silenced, killing the two occupants of each. Undaunted by the withering machine gun fire around him, Cpl. Crescenz courageously moved forward toward a third bunker which he also succeeded in silencing, killing two more of the enemy and momentarily clearing the route of advance for his comrades. Suddenly, intense machine gun fire erupted from an unseen, camouflaged bunker. Realizing the danger to his fellow soldiers, Cpl. Crescenz disregarded the barrage of hostile fire directed at him and daringly advanced toward the position. Assaulting with his machine gun, Cpl. Crescenz was within five meters of the bunker when he was mortally wounded by the fire from the enemy machine gun. As a direct result of his heroic actions, his company was able to maneuver freely with minimal danger and to complete its mission, defeating the enemy. Cpl. Crescenz’s bravery and extraordinary heroism at the cost of his life are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*LOZADA, CARLOS JAMES
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 503d Infantry, 173d Airborne Brigade. Place and date: Dak To, Republic of Vietnam, November 20th, 1967. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 6 September 1946, Caguas, Puerto Rico. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Lozada, U.S. Army, distinguished himself at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in the battle of Dak To. While serving as a machine gunner with 1st platoon, Company A, Pfc. Lozada was part of a four-man early warning outpost, located forty yards from his company’s lines. At 1400 hours a North Vietnamese Army company rapidly approached the outpost along a well defined trail. Pfc. Lozada alerted his comrades and commenced firing at the enemy who were within ten yards of the outpost. His heavy and accurate machine gun fire killed at least twenty North Vietnamese soldiers and completely disrupted their initial attack. Pfc. Lozada remained in an exposed position and continued to pour deadly fire upon the enemy despite the urgent pleas of his comrades to withdraw. The enemy continued their assault, attempting to envelop the outpost. At the same time enemy forces launched a heavy attack on the forward west flank of Company A with the intent to cut them off from their battalion. Company A was given the order to withdraw. Pfc. Lozada apparently realized that if he abandoned his position there would be nothing to hold back the surging North Vietnamese soldiers and that the entire company withdrawal would be jeopardized. He called for his comrades to move back and that he would stay and provide cover for them. He made this decision realizing that the enemy was converging on three sides of his position and only yards away, and a delay in withdrawal meant almost certain death. Pfc. Lozada continued to deliver a heavy, accurate volume of suppressive fire against the enemy until he was mortally wounded and had to be carried during the withdrawal. His heroic deed served as an example and an inspiration to his comrades throughout the ensuing four-day battle. Pfc. Lozada’s actions are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*BORDELON, WILLIAM JAMES
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 25 December 1920, San Antonio, Tex. Accredited to: Texas. Citation: For valorous and gallant conduct above and beyond the call of duty as a member of an assault engineer platoon of the 1st Battalion, 18th Marines, tactically attached to the 2d Marine Division, in action against the Japanese-held atoll of Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands on November 20th, 1943. Landing in the assault waves under withering enemy fire which killed all but four of the men in his tractor, S/Sgt. Bordelon hurriedly made demolition charges and personally put two pillboxes out of action. Hit by enemy machinegun fire just as a charge exploded in his hand while assaulting a third position, he courageously remained in action and, although out of demolition, provided himself with a rifle and furnished fire coverage for a group of men scaling the seawall. Disregarding his own serious condition, he unhesitatingly went to the aid of one of his demolition men, wounded and calling for help in the water, rescuing this man and another who had been hit by enemy fire while attempting to make the rescue. Still refusing first aid for himself, he again made up demolition charges and single-handedly assaulted a fourth Japanese machinegun position but was instantly killed when caught in a final burst of fire from the enemy. S/Sgt. Bordelon’s great personal valor during a critical phase of securing the limited beachhead was a contributing factor in the ultimate occupation of the island, and his heroic determination throughout three days of violent battle reflects the highest credit upon the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
BRILES, HERSCHEL F.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Co. C, 899th Tank Destroyer Battalion. Place and date: Near Scherpenseel, Germany, November 20th, 1944. Entered service at: Fort Des Moines, lowa. Birth: Colfax, lowa. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He was leading a platoon of destroyers across an exposed slope near Scherpenseel, Germany, on 20 November 1944, when they came under heavy enemy artillery fire. A direct hit was scored on one of the vehicles, killing one man, seriously wounding two others, and setting the destroyer afire. With a comrade, S/Sgt. Briles left the cover of his own armor and raced across ground raked by artillery and small-arms fire to the rescue of the men in the shattered destroyer. Without hesitation, he lowered himself into the burning turret, removed the wounded and then extinguished the fire. From a position he assumed the next morning, he observed hostile infantrymen advancing. With his machinegun, he poured such deadly fire into the enemy ranks that an entire pocket of fifty-five Germans surrendered, clearing the way for a junction between American units which had been held up for two days. Later that day, when another of his destroyers was hit by a concealed enemy tank, he again left protection to give assistance. With the help of another soldier, he evacuated two wounded under heavy fire and, returning to the burning vehicle, braved death from exploding ammunition to put out the flames. By his heroic initiative and complete disregard for personal safety, S/Sgt. Briles was largely responsible for causing heavy enemy casualties, forcing the surrender of fifty-five Germans, making possible the salvage of our vehicles, and saving the lives of wounded comrades.
MABRY, GEORGE L., JR.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, 2d Battalion, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division Place and date: Hurtgen Forest near Schevenhutte, Germany, November 20th, 1944. Entered service at: Sumter, S.C. Birth: Sumter, SC G.O. No.: 77, September 1945. Citation: He was commanding the 2d Battalion, 8th Infantry, in an attack through the Hurtgen Forest near Schevenhutte, Germany, on 20 November 1944. During the early phases of the assault, the leading elements of his battalion were halted by a minefield and immobilized by heavy hostile fire. Advancing alone into the mined area, Col. Mabry established a safe route of passage. He then moved ahead of the foremost scouts, personally leading the attack, until confronted by a boobytrapped double concertina obstacle. With the assistance of the scouts, he disconnected the explosives and cut a path through the wire. Upon moving through the opening, he observed three enemy in foxholes whom he captured at bayonet point. Driving steadily forward he paced the assault against three log bunkers which housed mutually supported automatic weapons. Racing up a slope ahead of his men, he found the initial bunker deserted, then pushed on to the second where he was suddenly confronted by nine onrushing enemy. Using the butt of his rifle, he felled one adversary and bayoneted a second, before his scouts came to his aid and assisted him in overcoming the others in hand-to-hand combat. Accompanied by the riflemen, he charged the third bunker under pointblank small arms fire and led the way into the fortification from which he prodded six enemy at bayonet point. Following the consolidation of this area, he led his battalion across three-hundred yards of fire-swept terrain to seize elevated ground upon which he established a defensive position which menaced the enemy on both flanks, and provided his regiment a firm foothold on the approach to the Cologne Plain. Col. Mabry’s superlative courage, daring, and leadership in an operation of major importance exemplify the finest characteristics of the military service.
WETHERBY, JOHN C.
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 4th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near Imus, Luzon, Philippine Islands, November 20th, 1899. Entered service at: Martinsville, Ind. Birth: Morgan County, Ind. Date of issue: 25 April 1902. Citation: While carrying important orders on the battlefield, was desperately wounded and, being unable to walk, crawled far enough to deliver his orders.
AUER, JOHN F.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman Apprentice, U.S. Navy. Born: 1866, New York. Accredited to: New York. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Lancaster, Marseille, France, November 20th, 1883. Jumping overboard, Auer rescued from drowning a French lad who had fallen into the sea from a stone pier astern of the ship.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1852, Providence, R.I. Accredited to: Rhode Island. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Lancaster at Marseille, France, November 20th, 1883. Jumping overboard from the Lancaster, Gillick rescued from drowning a French lad who had fallen into the sea from a stone pier astern of the ship.
FALCONER, JOHN A.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 17th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Sanders, Knoxville, Tenn., November 20th, 1863. Entered service at: Manchester, Mich. Born: 1844, Wachtenaw, Mich. Date of issue: 27 July 1896. Citation: Conducted the “burning party” of his regiment at the time a charge was made on the enemy’s picket line, and burned the house which had sheltered the enemy’s sharpshooters, thus insuring success to a hazardous enterprise.
HADLEY, CORNELIUS M.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 9th Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At siege of Knoxville, Tenn., November 20th, 1863. Entered service at: Adrian, Mich. Born: 27 April 1838, Sandy Creek, Oswego County, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: With one companion, voluntarily carried through the enemy’s lines important dispatches from Gen. Grant to Gen. Burnside, then besieged within Knoxville, and brought back replies, his comrade’s horse being killed and the man taken prisoner.
KELLEY, ANDREW J.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 17th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Knoxville, Tenn., November 20th, 1863. Entered service at: Ypsilanti, Mich. Born: 2 September 1845, Lagrange County, Ind. Date of issue: 17 April 1900. Citation: Having voluntarily accompanied a small party to destroy buildings within the enemy’s lines whence sharpshooters had been firing, disregarded an order to retire, remained and completed the firing of the buildings, thus insuring their total destruction; this at the imminent risk of his life from the fire of the advancing enemy.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 17th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Knoxville, Tenn. November 20th, 1863. Entered service at: Chelsea, Mich. Birth: Skaneateles, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 August 1897. Citation: Having voluntarily accompanied a small party to destroy buildings within the enemy’s lines, whence sharpshooters had been firing, disregarded an order to retire, remained and completed the firing of the buildings, thus insuring their total destruction; this at the imminent risk of his life from the fire of the advancing enemy.
Pushbutton Telephone Day
IF Your Cellphone Gets Wet
Get it out of the water as soon as possible. The plastic covers on cell phones are fairly tight, but water can enter the phone over time. But this time may be quite short – 20 seconds or less. So grab your phone quickly!
Remove the battery. This is one of the most important steps. Don’t take time to think about it; electricity and water do not mix. Cutting power to your phone is a crucial first step in saving it. Then remove your SIM card; some or all of your valuable contacts could be stored on your SIM (along with other data). To some people this could be more worth saving than the phone itself. SIM cards survive water damage well, but some of the following steps are unnecessary i.e. don’t heat it. Just pat it dry and leave it aside until you need to connect your phone to your cellular network.
Dry your phone. Obviously you need to remove as much of the water as soon as possible, so you can to prevent it from getting into the phone. Use a towel or paper towel to remove as much of the water as possible.
Allow the phone to dry. Since you do not want to ruin your phone or lose all of the numbers in your phone book, you need to allow the phone to dry. Also, ringtones and graphics stay with the phone – not the SIM. Don’t try putting the battery back on to see if it works as this would risk damaging the phone with a short circuit. Leaving your phone in a bowl of dry rice will help to expedite moisture evaporation.
Heat your phone. Apply enough heat to your phone to cause the water to evaporate without water-logging your digital screen. One of the best things you can do to save a cell phone is to set it on the back of your computer monitor or TV screen over the heat vents. This is usually the perfect amount of heat to fix your phone. The convection action of the heat vents will help carry away the moisture in your phone. Leave the phone on the heat for at least 2-3 days.
Test your phone. After you have waited 3 days, make sure everything is clean and dry looking and re-attach the battery to the phone and see if it works. If your phone does not work repeat step 4. If it still won’t work, try taking your cell phone to an authorized dealer. Sometimes they can fix it.
1 Corinthians 12:6-11 Living Bible (TLB)
6 There are many ways in which God works in our lives, but it is the same God who does the work in and through all of us who are his. 7 The Holy Spirit displays God’s power through each of us as a means of helping the entire church.
8 To one person the Spirit gives the ability to give wise advice; someone else may be especially good at studying and teaching, and this is his gift from the same Spirit. 9 He gives special faith to another, and to someone else the power to heal the sick. 10 He gives power for doing miracles to some, and to others power to prophesy and preach. He gives someone else the power to know whether evil spirits are speaking through those who claim to be giving God’s messages—or whether it is really the Spirit of God who is speaking. Still another person is able to speak in languages he never learned; and others, who do not know the language either, are given power to understand what he is saying. 11 It is the same and only Holy Spirit who gives all these gifts and powers, deciding which each one of us should have.
“The people who succeed are the efficient few. They are the few who have the ambition and will power to develop themselves.”
~ Herbert N. Casson
Third degree (thurd di-GREE)
As a Noun
Intensive questioning using rough treatment.
As an Adjective
Pertaining to the third degree.
As a Verb
To subject to such treatment.
[There are many folk etymologies regarding possible origins of
this term but lexicographers are not certain. The more popular of
the stories suggests it came from the third degree in freemasonry
that was the most difficult to achieve. One aspiring to that rank
was supposed to undergo intense questioning and grilling.]
326 – The old St. Peter’s Basilica is consecrated.
1307 – According to legend, William Tell shoots an apple off his son’s head.
1421 – A seawall at the Zuider Zee dike breaks, flooding 72 villages and killing about 10,000 people in the Netherlands.
1477 – William Caxton set “Dictes and Sayenges of the Phylosophers,” the first book to be printed in England. Caxton went on to print almost 100 books in England, including the “Canterbury Tales.”
1626 – St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome was consecrated.
1686 – Charles Francois Felix operates on King Louis XIV’s anal fistula after practicing the surgery on several peasants.
1755 – At about 4:30 in the morning a strong earthquake rocked the New England area. Observers reported damage to chimneys, brick buildings, and stone walls in coastal communities from Portland, Maine to south of Boston, Massachusetts.
1805 – The Lewis and Clark expedition reached the Pacific Ocean.
1820 – U.S. Navy Captain Nathaniel Palmer was the first American to sight the continent of Antarctica.
1861 – Poet and abolitionist Julia Ward Howe writes the lyrics for the Battle Hymn of the Republic.
1863 – President Lincoln boards a train for Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to deliver a short speech at the dedication for the cemetery of soldiers killed during the battle there on July 1 to 3, 1863.The address he gave became perhaps the most famous speech in American history.
1863 – Civil War: Merchant schooner Joseph L. Garrity was seized by five Southern sympathizers under Thomas E. Hogg.
1865 – Mark Twain’s story “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” is published in the New York Saturday Press.
1874 – National Woman’s Christian Temperance Union organizes in Cleveland. There were 300 women representing 16 states.
1883 – American and Canadian railroads institute five standard continental time zones, ending the confusion of thousands of local times.
1886 – Chester A. Arthur (56), 21st president of the United States (1881-1885), died in New York.
1890 – USS Maine, first American battleship, is launched.
1894 – The “New York World” published the first color Sunday comic.
1903 – The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty is signed by the United States and Panama, giving the Americans exclusive rights over the Panama Canal Zone.
1909 – Two United States warships are sent to Nicaragua after 500 revolutionaries (including two Americans) are executed by order of José Santos Zelaya.
1913 – The first airplane in the U.S. to perform a loop-the-loop was piloted by Lincoln Beachey over North Island, San Diego, California. At a level of 1,000 feet, he brought his aircraft up with a swoop and a moment later was flying head downward. He completed the loop at a height of 300 feet.
1915 – Marines participated in the Battle of Fort Riviere during the occupation of Haiti.
1919 – Ticker tape was first used in a parade to welcome the Prince of Wales to New York City.
1919 – H. Tierney’s and J. McCarthy’s musical “Irene,” premiered in New York City.
1922 – CDR Kenneth Whiting in a PT seaplane, makes first catapult launching from aircraft carrier, USS Langley, at anchor in the York River. Watch 100 years of Naval Aviation.
1926 – George Bernard Shaw refuses to accept the money for his Nobel Prize, saying, “I can forgive Alfred Nobel for inventing dynamite, but only a fiend in human form could have invented the Nobel Prize.”
1928 – The first animated talking picture, “Steamboat Willie,” starring Mickey Mouse, was screened in the U.S.. This is also considered Mickey Mouse’s birthday.
1929 – Large quake in Atlantic breaks Transatlantic cable in 28 places. It occurred at 5:02 pm Newfoundland time approximately 400 miles south of Newfoundland along the southern edge of the Grand Banks. This magnitude 7.2 tremor was felt as far away as New York and Montreal.
1929 – Dr. Vladimir K. Zworykin demonstrated the “kinescope.”
1930 – The musical “Smiles” with Bob Hope and Fred Astaire premiered in New York City.
1936 – The main span of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco was joined.
1938 – Trade union members elect John L. Lewis as the first president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations.
1941 – World War II: Eleven Japanese submarines are launched to take up station-keeping off Hawaii and scouting mission.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: German SS carry out selection of Jewish ghetto in Lviv, western Ukraine, arresting 5.000 “unproductive Jews”. All get deported to Belzec death camp.
1942 – Thornton Wilder’s play, “The Skin of Our Teeth”, opened in New York City. It starred Tallulah Bankhead, Fredric March, Montgomery Clift and E.G. Marshall.
1943 – World War II: 440 Royal Air Force planes bomb Berlin causing only light damage and killing 131. The RAF lost nine aircraft and 53 air crew.
1943 – World War II: German submarine U-211 sank in the Atlantic Ocean.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “That Lucky Old Sun” by Frankie Laine, “Don’t Cry, Joe” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Betty Brewer), “I Can Dream, Can’t I?” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Jack Leonard), “Slipping Around” by Margaret Whiting & Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1949 – Jackie Robinson, Brooklyn Dodgers, named National League’s MVP.
1950 – “Harbor Lights” by Sammy Kaye topped the charts.
1951 – Edward R. Murrow and Fred Friendly launched one of the most highly-praised TV productions in history. “See It Now” debuted on CBS.
1951 – Chuck Connors (Los Angeles Angels) became the first player to oppose the major league draft. Connors later became the star of the television show “The Rifleman.”
1951 – Korean War: MiG jet fighters are destroyed for the first time on the ground in North Korea by two F-86 Sabres in a strafing run.
1952 – Korean War: Captain Leonard W. Lilley of the 334th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, became the 22nd ace of the war.
1952 – Korean War: F9F Panthers from the USS Oriskany shot down two Russian MiG jet fighters and damaged a third over North Korea.
1952 – “ELMER’S” glue was trademark registered. The glue was named Elmer’s, after the spouse of Borden’s famed dairy mascot, Elsie.
1955 – Bell X-2 rocket plane was taken up for its first powered flight. Lt. Col. Frank K. “Pete” Everest was the pilot.
1955 – A memorial honoring the 4th Marine Brigade was dedicated at Belleau Wood, France by General Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr.
1956 – Fats Domino appeared on the Ed Sullivan show and performed his hit “Blueberry Hill.”
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley, “You Send Me” by Sam Cooke, “Little Bitty Pretty One” by Thurston Harris and “Wake Up Little Susie” by The Everly Brothers all topped the charts.
1958 – The cargo freighter SS Carl D. Bradley sank during a storm in Lake Michigan, claiming 33 of the 35 lives on board.
1959 – William Wyler’s film “Ben-Hur” premieres at Loew’s Theater in New York City.
1960 – Copyright office issues its 10 millionth registration.
1961 – On this day, just two weeks after the 1961 DeSoto was introduced to an uninterested market, Chrysler announced the termination of the DeSoto marque.
1961 – “Big Bad John” by Jimmy Dean topped the charts.
1963 – The push-button telephone debuted. Touch-tone service was available as an option in two Pennsylvania cities, initially in Greensburg and Carnegie, Pennsylvania.
1964 – J Edgar Hoover describes Martin Luther King as “most notorious liar” for accusing FBI agents in Georgia of failing to act on complaints filed by blacks.
1964 – The Supremes and The Righteous Brothers appeared on the show “Shindig!”
1966 – Sandy Koufax, the ace pitcher for the Los Angeles Dodgers, retires from baseball. He was just 30 years old, and he was retiring after a great season–he’d led the Dodgers to a National League pennant and won his third Cy Young award.
1967 – Lulu’s “To Sir with Love“, from the movie of the same name, started its fifth and final week at number one on the “Billboard Hot 100” chart.
1969 – Apollo 12 astronauts Charles “Pete” Conrad Jr. and Alan L. Bean landed on the lunar surface during the second manned mission to the moon.
1970 – Nobel Prize-winner Linus Pauling declared that large doses of Vitamin C could ward off the common cold.
1971 – The US federal Airborne-Hunting Act prohibited shooting animals from planes without license.
1972 – “I Can See Clearly Now” by Johnny Nash topped the charts.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Keep on Truckin’” by Eddie Kendricks, “Heartbeat – It’s a Lovebeat” by The DeFranco Family, “Photograph” by Ringo Starr and “Paper Roses” by Marie Osmond all topped the charts.
1976 – Spain’s parliament approved a bill to establish a democracy.
1978 – JONESTOWN MASSACRE: California Congressman Leo Ryan and four other people were killed in Jonestown, Guyana, by members of the Peoples Temple. They had gone there to investigate the religious sect of Jim Jones, a U.S. pastor. Leo Ryan, became the first and only Congressman murdered in the line of duty in the history of the United States. Jonestown incident: In Guyana, Jim Jones leads his Peoples Temple cult in a mass murder-suicide that claims 918 lives in all, 909 of them at Jonestown itself, including over 270 children.
1978 – Spingarn Medal presented to Ambassador Andrew J. Young.
1978 – “MacArthur Park” (17:53) by Donna Summer topped the charts.
1979 – Ayatollah Khomeini charged US ambassador William H. Sullivan and the American embassy of espionage.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Private Eyes” by Daryl Hall & John Oates, “Start Me Up” by The Rolling Stones, “Physical” by Olivia Newton-John and “My Baby Thinks He’s a Train” by Rosanne Cash all topped the charts.
1982 – Duk Koo Kim dies unexpectedly from injuries sustained during a 14-round match against Ray Mancini in Las Vegas, prompting reforms in the sport of boxing.
1985 – Calvin and Hobbes, a comic strip by Bill Watterson, is first published.
1985 – Joe Theismann (Washington Redskins) broke his leg after being hit by Lawrence Taylor (New York Giants). The injury ended Theismann’s 12 year NFL career.
1986 – “Amanda” by Boston topped the charts.
1987 – The Iran-Contra committee of Congress said in their final report that President Ronald Reagan bore “ultimate responsibility” for wrongdoing of his aides.
1988 – US President Ronald Reagan signs a bill into law providing the death penalty for murderous drug traffickers.
1990 – The musical revival “Fiddler on the Roof” opened.
1989 – Pennsylvania became the first state to restrict abortions after Supreme Court gave states the right to do so.
1991 – The Shi’ite Muslim faction Islamic Jihad freed Church of England envoy Terry Waite and U.S. university professor Thomas Sutherland.
1994 – “Star Trek VII – Generations,” premiered.
1995 – The Rolling Stones become the first act to broadcast a concert on the Internet.
1995 – “Goldeneye” the James Bond movie, opened, featuring a title song by Tina Turner.
1997 – Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays are formed in the expansion draft. The Diamondbacks start with pitcher Brian Anderson from Cleveland and Florida started with pitcher Tony Saunders.
1997 – The FBI officially pulled out of the probe into the TWA Flight 800 disaster. They said the explosion that destroyed the Boeing 747 was not caused by a criminal act. 230 people were killed.
1997 – John Denver’s last recording, “The Unplugged Collection,” (56:31) was released in the U.S.
1998 – Republicans, for the first time, elected an African-American, Oklahoma’s J.C. Watts, to their leadership.
1998 – Frederick McPhail (27), a graduate student from NYU, was found dead in a car in Mexico City. In 1999 thirteen current and former police officers were arrested as suspects in a gang that robbed and kidnapped tourists.
1999 – In College Station, Texas, twelve are killed and twenty-seven injured at Texas A&M University when a huge bonfire under construction collapses.
1999 – The US Sacagawea “Golden Dollar” coin went into full production.
1999 – A jury in Jasper, Texas, convicted Shawn Allen Berry of murder for his role in the dragging death of James Byrd Junior, but spared him the death penalty.
2000 – In Florida the absentee ballot count raised Gov. Bush’s lead over Al Gore to 930 votes.
2001 – The Nintendo GameCube is released in North America.
2001 – In Georgia thousands demonstrated outside Fort Benning during the annual march to the post to protest the School of the Americas training for Latin America soldiers.
2001 – Phillips Petroleum and Conoco Inc. announced they were merging in a $35 billion deal that created the third-largest U.S. oil and gas company.
2002 – A US federal review court expanded the government’s power to use wiretaps and searches to prosecute suspected terrorists and spies.
2003 – Santa Barbara County, California, police search the Neverland ranch of pop icon Michael Jackson, looking for evidence to corroborate a 12-year-old boy’s complaint that he was sexually molested.
2003 – Pres. Bush brought a forceful defense of the Iraq invasion to skeptical Britons, arguing that history proves war is sometimes necessary when certain values are threatened.
2003 – Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled 4-3 that the state’s prohibition against same-sex marriages was unconstitutional.
2003 – Barry Bonds won his record sixth National League MVP award.
2003 – The Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled 4-3 that a ban on same sex marriage is illegal.
2004 – In Little Rock, Ark., an estimated 30,000 guests attended the opening of the Clinton Presidential Center, a 30-acre, $165 million glass-and-steel home of artifacts and documents gathered during Clinton’s eight years in the White House.
2004 – Former Ku Klux Klansman Bobby Frank Cherry (74), who was convicted of killing four black girls in a racially motivated bombing of a Birmingham, Ala., church in 1963, died in prison.
2004 – The Great American Smokeout, sponsored by the American Cancer Society is held for the 28th time.
2005 – Robert Blake was found liable for the wrongful death of his wife in a civil trial. The jury has ordered him to pay $30 million.
2005 – The US Senate voted to extend $60 billion in tax cuts for individuals and businesses but added a $5 billion tax on big oil companies, drawing a veto threat from the White House. Congress voted itself a $3,100 pay raise.
2005 – In Washington DC Michael Scanlon (35) was charged with conspiring with former lobbyist Jack Abramoff to bribe government officials and bilk millions of dollars from Indian tribes.
2006 – Connecticut woman who pleaded guilty to sending cookies loaded with rat poison to the U.S. Supreme Court was sentenced to 15 years in prison.
2007 – Detroit pushed past St. Louis to become the nation’s most dangerous city, according to a private research group’s controversial analysis of annual FBI crime statistics. Flint, Mich., ranked 3rd and Oakland, Ca., ranked 4th.
2008 – The chief executives of Detroit’s Big Three automakers appeared before the US Senate Banking Committee along with the head of the UAW union to plea for financial aid under the current economic crises.
2009 – US District Judge Stanwood Duval ruled that the Army Corps of Engineers’ failure to properly maintain a navigation channel led to massive flooding in Hurricane Katrina. The ruling gave more than 100,000 other individuals, businesses and government entities a better shot at claiming damages.
2009 – In New York City the 60th annual Book Awards honored Gore Vidal with its lifetime achievement award.
2009 – In Texas Danielle Simpson (30) was executed by lethal injection for the Jan, 2000, abduction and slaying of Geraldine Davidson (84).
2010 – The United States House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct recommends that the United States House of Representatives censure Rep. Charlie Rangel D-NY for ethics violations and be required to make restitution for any unpaid taxes.
2010 – The Leonid meteor shower was visible across much of the US early this morning.
2010 – A fault discovered in Idaho could produce an earthquake of 7.5 magnitude.
2011 – Regis Philbin retires.
2011 – Thirty-Seven House Republicans are standing up to the Barack Hussein Obama Regime’s political imprisonment of U.S. Border Patrol Agent Jesus Diaz.
It’s nice to see Republicans act like Republicans, even if it’s merely fifteen percent of House Republicans acting like they understand the Constitution!
2011 – A proposed constitutional amendment that would require Congress to balance the budget failed in the House capping a months-long campaign by congressional conservatives to build support for the measure.
2011 – President Obama’s United States Department of Agriculture has delayed shale gas drilling in Ohio for up to six months by cancelling a mineral lease auction for Wayne National Forest (WNF). The move was taken in deference to environmentalists, on the pretext of studying the effects of hydraulic fracturing.
2013 – The launch of MAVEN, NASA’s next Mars explorer is scheduled. The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution, or MAVEN, spacecraft will be the first to study the Red Planet’s upper atmosphere.
2013 – The 9th Circuit held that 18 U.S.C. § 922(g)(9), which prohibits a person convicted of a domestic violence misdemeanor from possessing a firearm, does not violate the Second Amendment on its face and that a defendant is not entitled to the “civil rights restored” exception, even though he was now allowed to have a firearm under California law. (US v. Chovan Case #:11-50107 (9th Cir November 18, 2013))
2014 – A major early snowstorm hits the Great Lakes with more than five feet falling in one night on Buffalo, NY. The storm was blamed for at least eight deaths in New York, New Hampshire, and Michigan. When this snow is over there will be numerous records broken.
2014 – TERRORISM: It occurred in Jerusalem, Israel – Three Americans are among four rabbis and a guard, who are hacked to death at a synagogue by two Palestinian terrorists with axes shouting praises to Allah.
1789 – Louis Daguerre, French theater scene painter, physicist, inventor of daguerreotype photography.
1836 – Sir William Gilbert, British comic opera libretto writer of Gilbert & Sullivan.
1870 – Dorothea Dix, pseudonym for Elizabeth Gilman, American advice columnist.
1901 – George Gallup, American pollster.
1908 – Imogene Coca, American actress and comedienne (d. 2001)
1923 – Alan Shepard, first American astronaut in space.
1942 – Actress Linda Evans
1956 – Warren Moon, American football player
DAVIS, SAMMY L.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Battery C, 2d Battalion, 4th Artillery, 9th Infantry Division. Place and date: West of Cai Lay, Republic of Vietnam, November 18th, 1967. Entered service at: Indianapolis, Ind. Born: 1 November 1946, Dayton, Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Davis (then Pfc.) distinguished himself during the early morning hours while serving as a cannoneer with Battery C, at a remote fire support base. At approximately 0200 hours, the fire support base was under heavy enemy mortar attack. Simultaneously, an estimated reinforced Viet Cong battalion launched a fierce ground assault upon the fire support base. The attacking enemy drove to within twenty-five meters of the friendly positions. Only a river separated the Viet Cong from the fire support base. Detecting a nearby enemy position, Sgt. Davis seized a machine gun and provided covering fire for his guncrew, as they attempted to bring direct artillery fire on the enemy. Despite his efforts, an enemy recoilless rifle round scored a direct hit upon the artillery piece. The resultant blast hurled the guncrew from their weapon and blew Sgt. Davis into a foxhole. He struggled to his feet and returned to the howitzer, which was burning furiously. Ignoring repeated warnings to seek cover, Sgt. Davis rammed a shell into the gun. Disregarding a withering hail of enemy fire directed against his position, he aimed and fired the howitzer which rolled backward, knocking Sgt. Davis violently to the ground. Undaunted, he returned to the weapon to fire again when an enemy mortar round exploded within twenty meters of his position, injuring him painfully. Nevertheless, Sgt. Davis loaded the artillery piece, aimed and fired. Again he was knocked down by the recoil. In complete disregard for his safety, Sgt. Davis loaded and fired three more shells into the enemy. Disregarding his extensive injuries and his inability to swim, Sgt. Davis picked up an air mattress and struck out across the deep river to rescue three wounded comrades on the far side. Upon reaching the three wounded men, he stood upright and fired into the dense vegetation to prevent the Viet Cong from advancing. While the most seriously wounded soldier was helped across the river, Sgt. Davis protected the two remaining casualties until he could pull them across the river to the fire support base. Though suffering from painful wounds, he refused medical attention, joining another howitzer crew which fired at the large Viet Cong force until it broke contact and fled. Sgt. Davis’ extraordinary heroism, at the risk of his life, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
NIETZEL, ALFRED B.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company H, 16th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Heistern, Germany, November 18th, 1944. Born: April 27, 1921, Queens, NY Entered Service at: Jamaica, NY Departed: : Yes (11/18/1944) Date Issued: 3/18/2014
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Sergeant Alfred B. Nietzel distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a section leader for Company H, 16th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Heistern, Germany on November 18, 1944. That afternoon, Sergeant Nietzel fought tenaciously to repel a vicious enemy attack against his unit. Sergeant Nietzel employed accurate, intense fire from his machinegun and successfully slowed the hostile advance. However, the overwhelming enemy force continued to press forward. Realizing he desperately needed reinforcements, Sergeant Nietzel ordered the three remaining members of his squad to return to the company command post and secure aid. He immediately turned his attention to covering their movement with his fire. After expending all his machinegun ammunition, Sergeant Nietzel began firing his rifle into the attacking ranks until he was killed by the explosion of an enemy grenade. Sergeant Nietzel’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
How to Regain Control of a Spooked Camel
(Analogy: What to do when your life goes crazy!!)
In life, there are numerous “problems” that we encounter that need extraordinary steps to come to excellent solutions. In this article, properly titled, there are step-by-step solutions to those “problems.”
In some parts of North Africa and the Middle East, the camel remains the primary means of long-distance transportation. These remarkable animals are intelligent and strong, and they possess incredible endurance. They can also be quite fast: some camels can briefly attain speeds up to 40 miles per hour. While their speed makes them ideal for racing—camel races are very popular in many parts of the world—it can provide a camel rider with a harrowing, potentially deadly experience if a camel is spooked or otherwise begins to run out of control. So what do you do if it does become spooked or out-of-control. Do these:
Stay calm. When things start to get out of control don’t let fear or anger control your next steps. In either case you lose your ability to handle the problem and you will not be able to learn from the event.
Hang on to the reins. The reins are how you will control the camel or the event that is now, apparently no longer in control. When it looks as though the problem is near control, it can take-off again unless you have the reins.
Consider a quick dismount. The other event that will give you some kind of control is to maintain the ability to escape. On a spooked camel, the ability to have even a little control is better than having no control, That is the same as with one of your “problems.”
Hang on. eventually the camel will stop. Hang on sometimes the “problem” will run out of energy just as a camel will. They can run up to 40 mph but they cannot maintain it for long. “Problems” can do the same thing but know that sooner or later they will slow down or stop.
Get off the camel once you have it under control. Don’t tempt your fate. Not with a spooked camel and certainly not with any problem. Don’t exacerbate the situation because camels can “re-spook” just as problems can re-energize.
Now apply this description to the next project that you believe you cannot do. Never say no, just keep the spooked camel in mind.
Proverbs 15: 11- 14
11 Hell and destruction are before the Lord: how much more then the hearts of the children of men?
12 A scorner loveth not one that reproveth him: neither will he go unto the wise.
13 A merry heart maketh a cheerful countenance: but by sorrow of the heart the spirit is broken.
14 The heart of him that hath understanding seeketh knowledge: but the mouth of fools feedeth on foolishness.
“Every tomorrow has two handles. We can take hold of it with the handle of anxiety or the handle of faith.”
~ Henry Ward Beecher
fourth estate (forth i-STAYT) noun
Journalistic profession, the press.
[Supposedly, a power other than the three estates (the Lords Spiritual,
the Lords Temporal, and the House of Commons) in UK.] In the U.S. it would be the President, the Senate and the House and then the Fourth Estate.
1278 – In England 680 Jews were arrested for counterfeiting coins. 293 were hanged.
1534 – The Act of Supremacy, which declared King Henry VIII as head of the Church of England, was passed by Parliament.
1558 – Elizabeth I ascended the English throne upon the death of Queen Mary I at 42, thus beginning the Elizabethan Age.
1603- English explorer, writer and courtier Sir Walter Raleigh goes on trial for treason.
1734 – John Peter Zenger, who founded America’s first regularly published newspaper, was arrested for allegedly libeling the colonial governor of New York.
1775 – Continental Congress unanimously elected Henry Knox “Colonel of the Regiment of Artillery.” The Field Artillery regiment formally entered service on January 1, 1776.
1777 – Articles of Confederation submitted to the states for ratification.
1800 – The U.S. Congress convened for the first time in Washington, D.C., in the partially completed Capitol building. It was the second session of the Sixth Congress. Previously, the federal capital had briefly been in other cities, including New York, Philadelphia, and Annapolis, Maryland.
1820 – Captain Nathaniel Palmer becomes the first American to see Antarctica (the Palmer Peninsula was later named after him).
1827 – The Delta Phi Fraternity, America’s oldest continuous social fraternity, was founded at Union College in Schenectady, NY.
1842 – George Latimer, a mulatto, was one of the first fugitive slaves to be apprehended in Massachusetts under the Fugitive Slave Bill (1793). Four hundred dollars was collected to buy his freedom.
1851 – The U.S. Post Office issued a 1-cent carrier stamp.
1856 – On the Sonoita River in present-day southern Arizona, the United States Army establishes Fort Buchanan in order to help control new land acquired in the Gadsden Purchase.This fort was responsible for touching off and escalating the Indian Wars in Arizona, but also for the succession of Arizona Territory during the Civil War.
1862 – Civil War: Union General Burnside marched north out of Washington, D.C. to begin the Fredericksburg Campaign.
1863 – Civil War: Siege of Knoxville begins – Confederate forces led by General James Longstreet place Knoxville, Tennessee under siege.
1863 – President Abraham Lincoln began the first draft of his Gettysburg Address.
1871 – The National Rifle Association is granted a charter by the state of New York. Dismayed by the lack of marksmanship shown by their troops, Union veterans Col. William C. Church and Gen. George Wingate formed the National Rifle Association. The primary goal of the association would be to “promote and encourage rifle shooting on a scientific basis,” according to a magazine editorial written by Church.
1881 – Under Samuel Gompers (d.1924), the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Union of the United States was formed–a precursor to the American Federation of Labor.
1884 – Police arrested boxer John L. Sullivan in 2nd round of a fight for being “cruel.”
1889 – The Union Pacific Railroad Co. began direct, daily railroad service between Chicago and Portland, Ore., as well as Chicago and San Francisco.
1891 – Emile Berliner was issued a patent for a combined telegraph and telephone.
1904 – The first underwater submarine journey was taken, from Southampton, England, to the Isle of Wight.
1904 – George Cohan’s musical “Little Johnny Jones,” premiered in New York City. The show introduced Cohan’s tunes “Give My Regards to Broadway” and “The Yankee Doodle Boy.” The “Yankee Doodle” character was inspired by real-life Hall of Fame jockey Tod Sloan.
1911 – Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. was founded on the campus of Howard University.
1913 – The first ship sailed through the Canal, the steamship Louise.
1913 – In Germany, Kaiser Wilhelm banned the armed forces from dancing the tango.
1914 – The U.S. declared the Panama Canal to be neutral.
1917 – The Marine Corps’ Leatherneck Magazine established.
1917 – World War I: USS Fanning (DD-37) and USS Nicholson (DD-52) sink first enemy submarine, U-58, off Milford Haven, Wales. U-58 had been responsible for sinking 21 ships for a total of 30,901 tons in commercial shipping.
1918 – Deaths resulting from the Great Influenza reported in the U.S. far exceeded World War I casualties.
1924 – America’s first aircraft carrier, USS Langley, reports for duty. She served until 27 February 1942, She was attacked by Japanese aircraft, hit by several bombs and disabled. She was scuttled by her escorting destroyers.
1927 – Tornado hit Washington DC. Over 100 people were injured in Alexandria as over 200 homes lost their roofs and were torn apart. At around 2:30 p.m., it touched down southwest of Alexandria, Virginia. After damaging Alexandria, the tornado crossed the Potomac River and injured several people at the Anacostia Naval Air Station. The tornado crossed the Anacostia River and continued through the Navy Yard.
1928 – Notre Dame finally lost a football game after nearly 25 years.
1930 – Musical “Sweet & Low” with Fanny Brice premiered in New York City. It opened today at Chanin’s 46th Street Theatre, where it ran for 184 performances.
1931 – Charles Lindbergh inaugurated Pan Am service from Cuba to South America in the Sikorsky flying boat American Clipper.
1940 – Green Bay Packers become first NFL team to travel by plane.
1941 – World War II: Joseph Grew, the United States ambassador to Japan, cables the State Department that Japan has plans to launch an attack against Pearl Harbor, Hawaii (his cable is ignored).
1941 – World War II: While still a neutral nation, Congress amends the Neutrality Act to allow U.S. merchant ships to be armed.
1942 – World War II: A Japanese convoy successfully lands 1000 troops at Buna, New Guinea.
1944 – World War II: The USS Spadefish sinks the Japanese fleet carrier Junyo in the China Sea.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Buttons and Bows” by Dinah Shore, “On a Slow Boat to China” by The Kay Kaiser Orchestra (vocal: Harry Babbitt & Gloria Wood), “A Tree in the Meadow” by Margaret Whiting and “One Has My Name (The Other Has My Heart)” by Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1950 – Roberta Peters made her debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City. She stayed with the Opera for thirty-five years.
1951 – “Sin (It’s No Sin)” by Eddy Howard topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: Colonel Royal N. Baker, commander of the 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing shot down his fifth enemy aircraft to become the Korean War’s 21st ace.
1954 – Golfer Arnold Palmer signed a contract with Wilson Sporting Goods and became a pro.
1958 – “Tom Dooley” by the Kingston Trio topped the charts.
1962 – Washington’s Dulles International Airport was dedicated by President John F. Kennedy.
1962 – “Big Girls Don’t Cry” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “Baby Love” by The Supremes, “Leader of the Pack” by The Shangri-Las, “Come a Little Bit Closer” by Jay & The Americans and “I Don’t Care (Just as Long as You Love Me)” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 – Vietnam War: The NVA ambushed American troops of the 7th Cavalry at Landing Zone Albany in the Ia Drang Valley, almost wiping them out.
1966 – The Leonid meteor shower peaked at 150,000+ per hour. The Leonids are a prolific meteor shower associated with the comet Tempel-Tuttle.
1966 – Woody Allen’s first play, “Don’t Drink the Water”, opened on Broadway.
1967 – Vietnam War: Acting on optimistic reports he was given on November 13, US President Lyndon B. Johnson tells his nation that, while much remained to be done, “We are inflicting greater losses than we’re taking…We are making progress.”
1967 – Surveyor 6 becomes first man-made object to lift off the Moon. It made a six-second “leap”.
1968 – NBC preempts the final 1:05 minutes of a very close NFL football game between the New York Jets and the Oakland Raiders with Heidi, prompting an outrage among sport fans. In that time the Oakland Raiders scored two touchdowns within nine seconds but no one saw them. This event quickly and historically became known as the “Heidi Bowl.”
1969 – US-Soviet talks on strategic arms limitation (SALT) opened in Helsinki.
1970 – Vietnam War: Lieutenant William Calley goes on trial for the My Lai massacre.
1970 – Douglas Engelbart receives the patent for the first computer mouse.
1972 – Barbara Jordan of Houston and Andrew Young of Atlanta, become the first Blacks from the south elected to Congress since Reconstruction.
1972 – President Nixon reelected, carrying forty-nine of the fifty states, despite massive Black vote for Sen. McGovern.
1973 – In the Watergate scandal President Richard Nixon tells 400 Associated Press managing editors “I am not a crook” at a meeting in Orlando, Florida.
1973 – The “Largest Icebreaker in the Western World,” Coast Guard Cutter Polar Star, is launched.
1973 – “Keep on Truckin’” by Eddie Kendricks topped the charts.
1979 – Iran’s Ayatollah Khomeini ordered the release of thirteen female and minority hostages being held at the U.S. Embassy in Tehran during the Iran hostage crisis.
1979 – “Still” by the Commodores topped the charts.
1980 – WHMM-TV in Washington, DC becomes the first African American broadcasting television station.
1981 – Luke Spencer married Laura Baldwin in what was called “the wedding of the year” on the TV serial “General Hospital”.
1984 – “Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go” by Wham! topped the charts.
1986 – Pres. Reagan signed the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Act. This is a canyon of the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest
1986 – Racecar driver Rick Mears set a U.S. closed-course record at the Michigan International Speedway. Mears was timed at an average speed of 233.934 mph, breaking the record set by Mark Donahue in 1975.
1987 – A federal jury in Denver convicted two neo-Nazis and acquitted two others of civil rights violations in the 1984 slaying of radio talk show host Alan Berg.
1989 – The Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite was launched. It provided evidence for the “Big Bang.”
1990 – “Love Takes Time” by Mariah Carey topped the charts.
1990 – A mass grave was discovered by the bridge over the River Kwai in Thailand. The bodies were believed to be those of World War II prisoners of war.
1992 – An appeals court in Washington ruled the Watergate tapes and Nixon presidential papers rightfully belonged to U.S. President Richard Nixon when he left office in 1974.
1992 – Dateline NBC aired a demonstration that showed a General Motors trucks blowing up on impact. It was later revealed that NBC rigged the test.
1993 – U.S. House of Representatives approved the North American Free Trade Agreement.
1994 – PRESIDENTIAL ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT: Francisco Martin Duran was indicted on a new charge of trying to assassinate President Clinton. The Colorado man was accused of an assault-rifle attack on the White House,
1999 – Hurricane Lenny hit the Virgin Islands with 150 mph winds with most of the force over St. Croix.
1999 – The Texas A&M “Aggie Bonfire” collapsed during construction, killing twelve people, eleven students and one former student, and injuring twenty-seven others. The accident led Texas A&M to stop the official Bonfire.
2000 – The Florida Supreme Court froze the state’s presidential tally, forbidding Secretary of State Katherine Harris from certifying results of the marathon vote count. In addition, a federal appeals court refused to block recounts under way in two heavily Democratic counties.
2001 – The animated Justice League cartoon premieres on Cartoon Network in America.
2001 – The Taliban confirmed the death of Osama bin Laden’s military chief Mohammed Atef after an airstrike three days prior.
2003 – Actor Arnold Schwarzenegger was sworn in as the 38th governor of California.
2003 – Britney Spears, at 21 years old, became the youngest singer to get a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
2003 – John Allen Muhammad is unanimously convicted of all four counts in the indictment against him, including two charges of capital murder, committed during the October 2002 sniper shootings in the Washington, DC, metro area.
2004 – In a surprise move, Kmart acquired Sears for $11 billion.
2005 – Just 13 days before his 3rd birthday, Steven Jacob Gaines sets fire to his home in Oceanside, CA. Stevie was thought to be taking a nap but was instead playing with a bbq lighter behind the closed doors of his bedroom.
2006 – Sony’s PlayStation 3 went on sale in the United States.
2006 – The US FDA lifted a 14-year ban on the sale of silicon-gel breast implants.
2008 – Jerry Yang, who helped build Yahoo! from an early directory of Web sites into a sprawling Internet giant, will step down from his role as chief executive after the company finds a replacement.
2008 – On the New York Mercantile Exchange, crude oil futures contracts fall by 3.7% to close at $54.95 per barrel, the lowest price in 22 months.
2009 – U.S. President Barack Obama continues his first trip to China and meets with Chinese President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao.
2009 – US Fish & Wildlife Services agents issued a search warrant on Gibson Guitars’ manufacturing plant in Nashville, TN. The Nashville Post writes that they “seized wood, guitars, computers and boxes of files from Gibson Guitar’s Massman Road manufacturing facility.”
2010 – A United States bankruptcy judge orders Bank of America to return $500 million it seized from the bank accounts of the defunct Lehman Brothers trading firm a few weeks before Lehman declared bankruptcy in 2008.
2010 – New home construction fell to its lowest level since April 2009, mortgage applications declined by 14% in the week ending 12 November, the biggest drop this year, core Consumer Price Index (CPI) recorded a 0.6% rise for the year, marking the slowest increase in prices since records began in 1957 and the Chicago Climate Exchange announces that it will close its cap-and-trade market, given the death of supportive legislation in the U.S. Senate.
2010 – Ahmed Khalfan Ghailani is convicted on one count of conspiracy in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York for his role in the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Tanzania and Kenya.
2010 – Senator Lisa Murkowski wins the Alaska senate election becoming the first successful write-in candidate to be elected since 1954.
2011 – PRESIDENTIAL ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT: The man suspected of shooting at the White House has been charged with attempting to assassinate US President Barack Obama or a member of his staff. Oscar Ortega-Hernandez, 21, of Idaho, remains in federal custody and is to be prosecuted in Washington DC.
2011 – The US House of Representatives considers censoring the Internet for the first time with the Stop Online Piracy Act.
2012 – Authorities in Bolivar, Missouri, arrest Blaec Lammers, 20, after he is accused of stockpiling weapons in an attempt to commit a copycat crime mirroring the 2012 Aurora shooting, this time targeting the premiere of The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn – Part 2.
1790 – August Mobius, German astronomer, mathematician, teacher, and author.
1901 – Lee Strasberg, Austrian-born American director and teacher of method acting at the Actor’s Studio.
1925 – Rock Hudson (Roy Scherer Fitzgerald), American actor.
1938 – Gordon Lightfoot, American singer-songwriter.
1948 – Howard Dean, American politician
1951 – Dean Paul Martin, American singer and actor (d. 1987)
*RAY, BERNARD J.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company F, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division. Place and date: Hurtgen Forest near Schevenhutte, Germany, 17 November 17th, 1944. Entered service at: Baldwin, N.Y. Birth: Brooklyn, N.Y. G.O. No.: 115, 8 December 1945. Citation: He was platoon leader with Company F, 8th Infantry, on 17 November 1944, during the drive through the Hurtgen Forest near Schevenhutte, Germany. The American forces attacked in wet, bitterly cold weather over rough, wooded terrain, meeting brutal resistance from positions spaced throughout the forest behind minefields and wire obstacles. Small arms, machinegun, mortar, and artillery fire caused heavy casualties in the ranks when Company F was halted by a concertina-type wire barrier. Under heavy fire, 1st Lt. Ray reorganized his men and prepared to blow a path through the entanglement, a task which appeared impossible of accomplishment and from which others tried to dissuade him. With implacable determination to clear the way, he placed explosive caps in his pockets, obtained several bangalore torpedoes, and then wrapped a length of highly explosive primer cord about his body. He dashed forward under direct fire, reached the barbed wire and prepared his demolition charge as mortar shells, which were being aimed at him alone, came steadily nearer his completely exposed position. He had placed a torpedo under the wire and was connecting it to a charge he carried when he was severely wounded by a bursting mortar shell. Apparently realizing that he would fail in his self-imposed mission unless he completed it in a few moments he made a supremely gallant decision. With the primer cord still wound about his body and the explosive caps in his pocket, he completed a hasty wiring system and unhesitatingly thrust down on the handle of the charger, destroying himself with the wire barricade in the resulting blast. By the deliberate sacrifice of his life, 1st Lt. Ray enabled his company to continue its attack, resumption of which was of positive significance in gaining the approaches to the Cologne Plain.
BUTLER, SMEDLEY DARLINGTON
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 30 July 1881, West Chester, Pa. Appointed from: Pennsylvania. Other Navy awards: Second Medal of Honor, Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: As Commanding Officer of detachments from the 5th, 13th, 23d Companies and the Marine and sailor detachment from the U.S.S. Connecticut, Maj. Butler led the attack on Fort Riviere, Haiti, November 17th, 1915. Following a concentrated drive, several different detachments of Marines gradually closed in on the old French bastion fort in an effort to cut off all avenues of retreat for the Caco bandits. Reaching the fort on the southern side where there was a small opening in the wall, Maj. Butler gave the signal to attack and Marines from the 15th Company poured through the breach, engaged the Cacos in hand-to-hand combat, took the bastion and crushed the Caco resistance. Throughout this perilous action, Maj. Butler was conspicuous for his bravery and forceful leadership.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps, 23d Co. (Real name is Marguiles, Samuel.) Born: 9 May 1891, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. Citation: In company with members of the 5th, 13th, 23d Companies and the Marine and sailor detachment from the U.S.S. Connecticut, Gross participated in the attack on Fort Riviere, Haiti, November 17th, 1915. Following a concentrated drive, several different detachments of Marines gradually closed in on the old French bastion fort in an effort to cut off all avenues of retreat for the Caco bandits. Approaching a breach in the wall which was the only entrance to the fort, Gross was the second man to pass through the breach in the face of constant fire from the Cacos and, thereafter, for a 10-minute period, engaged the enemy in desperate hand-to-hand combat until the bastion was captured and Caco resistance neutralized.
IAMS, ROSS LINDSEY
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, 5th Co. Born: 5 May 1879, Graysville, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. Citation: In company with members of the 5th, 13th, 23d Companies and marine and sailor detachment from the U.S.S. Connecticut, Sgt. Iams participated in the attack on Fort Riviere, Haiti, November 17th,1915. Following a concentrated drive, several different detachments of Marines gradually closed in on the old French bastion fort in an effort to cut off all avenues of retreat for the Caco bandits. Approaching a breach in the wall which was the only entrance to the fort, Sgt. Iams unhesitatingly jumped through the breach despite constant fire from the Cacos and engaged the enemy in a desperate hand-to-hand combat until the bastion was captured and Caco resistance neutralized.
BEARSS, HIRAM IDDINGS
Rank and organization: Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 13 April 1875, Peru, Ind. Appointed from: Indiana. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and eminent and conspicuous conduct in battle at the junction of the Cadacan and Sohoton Rivers, Samar, Philippine Islands, November 17th,1901. Col. Bearss (then Capt.), second in command of the columns upon their uniting ashore in the Sohoton River region, made a surprise attack on the fortified cliffs and completely routed the enemy, killing 30 and capturing and destroying the powder magazine, forty lantacas (guns), rice, food and cuartels. Due to his courage, intelligence, discrimination and zeal, he successfully led his men up the cliffs by means of bamboo ladders to a height of 200 feet. The cliffs were of soft stone of volcanic origin, in the nature of pumice, and were honeycombed with caves. Tons of rocks were suspended in platforms held in position by vine cables (known as bejuco) in readiness to be precipitated upon people below. After driving the insurgents from their position which was almost impregnable, being covered with numerous trails lined with poison spears, pits, etc., he led his men across the river, scaled the cliffs on the opposite side, and destroyed the camps there. Col. Bearss and the men under his command overcame incredible difficulties and dangers in destroying positions which, according to reports from old prisoners, had taken three years to perfect, were held as a final rallying point, and were never before penetrated by white troops. Col. Bearss also rendered distinguished public service in the presence of the enemy at Quinapundan River, Samar, Philippine Islands, on 19 January 1902.
PORTER, DAVID DIXON
Rank and organization: Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 29 April 1877, Washington, D.C. Appointed from: District of Columbia. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and eminent and conspicuous conduct in battle at the junction of the Cadacan and Sohoton Rivers, Samar, Philippine Islands, November 17th, 1901. In command of the columns upon their uniting ashore in the Sohoton Region, Col. Porter (then Capt. ) made a surprise attack on the fortified cliffs and completely routed the enemy, killing thirty and capturing and destroying the powder magazine, 40 lantacas (guns), rice, food and cuartels. Due to his courage, intelligence, discrimination and zeal, he successfully led his men up the cliffs by means of bamboo ladders to a height of 200 feet. The cliffs were of soft stone of volcanic origin, in the nature of pumice and were honeycombed with caves. Tons of rocks were suspended in platforms held in position by vines and cables (known as bejuco) in readiness to be precipitated upon people below. After driving the insurgents from their position which was almost impregnable, being covered with numerous trails lined with poisoned spears, pits, etc., Col. Porter led his men across the river, scaled the cliffs on the opposite side, and destroyed the camps there. He and the men under his command overcame incredible difficulties and dangers in destroying positions which, according to reports from old prisoners, had taken three years to perfect, were held as a final rallying post, and were never before penetrated by white troops. Col. Porter also rendered distinguished public service in the presence of the enemy at Quinapundan River, Samar, Philippine Islands, on 26 October 1901.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1857, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Richmond, Mitchell rescued from drowning, M. F. Caulan, first class boy, serving with him on the same vessel, at Shanghai, China, November 17th,1879.
One of the great truths of life is that failure is an integral part of success. Many people try things, fail and then give up. The real tragedy is that they gave up. In every failure there is a lesson to be learned. To be successful then you take the lessons learned and re-apply them to the next attempt to succeed. Winston Churchill grabbed the essence of this when he said, “Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm.” Michael Jordan also grasped this idea and displayed it with this quote, “I’ve failed over and over and over again in my life and that is why I succeed.”
Even, sometimes, you will run into people who do not want you to succeed even though they might not verbally say that to you personally. When the statements get back to you they can often hurt and cause disappointment and discouragement. Do not take these to heart. Dale Carnegie once said, “Develop success from failures. Discouragement and failure are two of the surest stepping stones to success.” Keeping this in mind will certainly help you overcome these two maladies successfully.
What about the people who talked me down or said very demeaning things about me? First, forgive them, not necessarily to their face but certainly in your heart. Unforgivingness will most assuredly drag you down and delay your success. One very good description of unforgivingness is, “lighting yourself on fire and hoping the other person dies of smoke inhalation.” Instead of being unforgiving, practice what David Brinkley believed, “A successful man is one who can lay a firm foundation with the bricks others have thrown at him.”
The final truth is this Malcolm Forbes quote, “Failure is success if we learn from it.”
But that is not really the end of this article. Let’s look at the famous failures below, who are now well-known and their names are synonymous with success. It wasn’t always this way. At one point the idea of these people reaching the heights they have reached would have seemed absurd. Many didn’t just fail, they failed in spectacular fashion.
Abraham Lincoln – He first went into politics at the age of 23 when he campaigned for a seat in the Illinois General Assembly and failed. He then opened a general store which failed after only a few months. Eight more failures in politics and he was the President of the United States.
Robert M Pirsig – His well known book ‘Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance’ was rejected by 121 publishers. Since finally being published in 1974 it has gone on to sell millions of copies in 27 languages.
Michael Jordan – The most famous name in basketball was actually cut from his high school basketball team. He, himself, says he lost almost 300 games (that’s more games than many NBA players have court time in), missed over 9000 shots at goal (again more shots than an average NBA player even takes) and 26 times he was given the ball to take the game winning shot and MISSED. He is considered one of the most successful basketball players ever.
John Wayne – Before his successful acting career he was rejected from the United States Naval Academy and then went on to only receive one Oscar in his whole acting career.
Steven Spielberg – Dropped out of high school and applied to attend film school three times but was unsuccessful due to his C grade average.
Beethoven – His music teacher once told him that he was a hopeless composer.
Harry S. Truman – This former US President was rejected by the US Military & Naval Academies due to his poor eyesight. At one point he was a clerk in a newspaper mailroom, and also an usher in a movie theater.
Babe Ruth – This baseball legend struck out 1,330 times.
Henry Ford – While Ford is today known for his innovative assembly line and American-made cars, he wasn’t an instant success. In fact, his first two businesses failed and left him broke five times before he founded the successful Ford Motor Company.
Winston Churchill – This former British Prime Minister did poorly in school and had a speech impediment in his early years.
Marilyn Monroe – She spent much of her younger years in foster homes. One of her first jobs, during the Second World War, was inspecting parachutes.
Walt Disney – He was fired by the editor of a newspaper for lacking in ideas.
Soichiro Honda – The founder of Honda was turned down for an engineering job by Toyota after World War Two.
Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita – These two were the founders of Sony, but one of their first products was an electric rice cooker. They only sold 100 or so of these cookers because they tended to burn rice rather than cook it.
Albert Einstein – He learned to speak at age four and, some say, he performed poorly in school. That contention is disputed by the Albert Einstein Archives. Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works. His great intelligence and originality have made the word “Einstein” synonymous with genius.
Thomas Edison – As a boy he was told by his teacher that he was too stupid to learn anything.
John Grisham – This best selling novelist’s first novel was rejected by sixteen agents and twelve publishing houses.
Isaac Newton – He failed at running the family farm and did poorly in school.
Emily Dickinson – She was told by a magazine editor that he could not publish her poems because they failed to rhyme.
F.W. Woolworth – Some may not know this name today, but Woolworth was once one of the biggest names in department stores in the U.S. Before starting his own business, young Woolworth worked at a dry goods store and was not allowed to wait on customers because his boss said he lacked the sense needed to do so.
Most of these people are now household names and there is no reason that you can’t be as well. It is simply a matter of your commitment to your success.
Proverbs 15: 1- 5 King James Version (KJV)
1 A soft answer turneth away wrath: but grievous words stir up anger.
2 The tongue of the wise useth knowledge aright: but the mouth of fools poureth out foolishness.
3 The eyes of the Lord are in every place, beholding the evil and the good.
4 A wholesome tongue is a tree of life: but perverseness therein is a breach in the spirit.
5 A fool despiseth his father’s instruction: but he that regardeth reproof is prudent.
“I have always been delighted at the prospect of a new day, a fresh try, one more start, with perhaps a bit of magic waiting somewhere behind the morning.”
~ J. B. Priestley
ab ovo \ab-OH-voh\, adverb:
Ab ovo is from Latin, literally, “from the egg.”
From the beginning.
1532 – The Inca Empire fell to Spain. Pizarro first encountered Incan emperor Atahualpa at Cajamarca, who declined conversion to Christianity. Pizzaro and 167 fellow Spaniards, armored and on horseback, killed or wounded some 6,000 to 7,000 natives and captured emperor Atahualpa.
1620 – The first corn (maize) found in the U.S. by British settlers was discovered in Provincetown, Mass., by sixteen desperately hungry Pilgrims led by Myles Standish, William Bradford, Stephen Hopkins, and Edward Tilley at a place they named Corn Hill.
1676 – The first U.S. jail was established on Nantucket island on Vestal Street in response to its emerging status as an international seaport, which brought with it an increase in the number of transient visitors.
1766 – Indians surrendered to British in Indian War of Chief Pontiac.
1776 – Revolutionary War: British troops captured Fort Washington at the north end of Manhattan.
1776 – Revolutionary War: The United Provinces (The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands) recognize the independence of the United States, the first country in the world to do so. [This is a controversial statement, because other sources say that the Kingdom of Morocco was the first to extend diplomatic recognition to the new United States.)
1798 – The British boarded the U.S. frigate Baltimore and seized a number of crewmen as alleged deserters, a contributor to the War of 1812.
1798 – Kentucky became the first state to nullify an act of Congress. The Kentucky Resolution was passed in opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts by the Kentucky legislature and written by Thomas Jefferson.
1811 – The New Madrid earthquake in Missouri caused the Mississippi River to flow backwards. These earthquakes remain the most powerful earthquakes ever to hit the eastern United States in recorded history.
1813 – War of 1812: The British announced a blockade of Long Island Sound, leaving only the New England coast open to shipping.
1821 – Trader William Becknell reached Santa Fe, New Mexico, via the route that will become known as the Santa Fe Trail.
1824 – New York City’s Fifth Avenue opened for business.
1841 – Napoleon Guerin of New York City patented the cork life preserver.
1846 – Mexican-American War: General Zachary Taylor took Saltillo, Mexico. “General”, cried Brig. Gen. John Wool in despair, “we are whipped!” ” I know it”, replied Maj. Gen. Zachary Taylor”, but the volunteers don’t know it. Let them alone; we’ll see what they do.”
1856 – Marines participated in the Battle of Barrier Forts in China.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Campbell’s Station near Knoxville, Tennessee. Confederate troops unsuccessfully attack Union forces.
1863 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Monongahela escorted Army transports and covered the landing of more than a thousand troops on Mustang Island, Arkansas Pass, Texas.
1864 – Civil War: Union General William Sherman and his troops began their March to the Sea during the Civil War.
1873 – Richard T. Greener, first Black graduate of Harvard University, named professor of metaphysics at the University of South Carolina.
1875 – William Bonwill patented dental mallet to impact gold into cavities.
1889 – The Oahu Railway and Land Company began operating in Hawaii.
1892 – University of Chicago, a founding member of the Big 10 Conference, won its first football game, beating Illinois, 10-4.
1899 – Marines from the USS Castine and the USS Manila captured Zamboanga, Philippines.
1901 – The first American electric car was the “Torpedo Racer” and it broke the world’s speed record by going down a one-mile straight track in just 63 seconds or at about 57 m.p.h. The feat was accomplished by A.C. Bostwick on the Ocean Parkway racetrack in Brooklyn, New York. Today’s world speed record is “The Buckeye Bullet 1” which holds the distinction of being the world’s fastest electric car with a top recorded speed of 321.834 mph.
1902 – A cartoon appeared in the Washington Star on this date, prompting the Teddy Bear Craze, after President Teddy Roosevelt refused to kill a captive bear tied up for him to shoot during a hunting trip to Mississippi.
1904 – John Ambrose Fleming invents the vacuum tube.
1906 – Opera star Enrico Caruso is charged with an indecent act after allegedly pinching a woman’s bottom in the monkey house of New York’s Central Park Zoo.
1907 – Oklahoma became the 46th state of the Union.
1907 – The Gila Cliff Dwellings in New Mexico was established as a national monument. People of the Mogollon culture lived in these cliff dwellings from the 1280s through the early 1300s.
1914 – The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States officially opens.
1915 – Coca-Cola had its prototype for a contoured bottle patented.
1920 – Metered mail was born in Stamford, Connecticut with the first Pitney-Bowes postage meter.
1926 – NY Rangers first game, beat Montreal Maroons 1-0.
1932 – The Palace in New York City, the most famous vaudeville theatre in America, closed its doors. Technology spelled its end with the start of radio and talking pictures in 1927.
1933 – The United States and the Soviet Union established diplomatic relations.
1935 – Richard Rodgers’ and Lorenz Hart’s musical “Jumbo,” premiered in New York City.
1937 – Bob Crosby and his orchestra recorded “South Rampart Street Parade”.
1939 – Al Capone was freed from Alcatraz.
1940 – World War II: In response to Germany’s leveling of Coventry, England two days before, the Royal Air Force bombs Hamburg, Germany.
1940 – Holocaust: In occupied Poland, German Nazis close off the Warsaw Ghetto from the outside world.
1940 – New York City’s Mad Bomber places his first bomb at a Manhattan office building used by Consolidated Edison.
1942 – World War II: Navy’s first Night Fighter squadron (VMF(N)-531) established at Cherry Point, NC.
1943 – World War II: American bombers strike a hydro-electric power facility and heavy water factory in German-controlled Vermork, Norway.
1944 – World War II: Allied air strikes support offensives of US 9th and 1st Armies; about 10,000 tons of bombs are dropped by some 1200 US 8th Air Force planes and 1100 RAF bombers.
1945 – Cold War: The United States Army secretly admits 88 German scientists & engineers to help in the production of rocket technology.
1946 – Television Screen Magazine launches. The show, one of NBC’s first network series, included a collection of features on news, lifestyles, fashion, and other topics. The show ran until 1949.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Wish I Didn’t Love You So” by Vaughn Monroe, “Near You” by The Francis Craig Orchestra (vocal: Bob Lamm), “You Do” by Dinah Shore and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 – Operation Magic Carpet began with the first plane from Yemen carrying Jews to Israel.
1950 – The largest single disaster suffered by the US Coast Guard in World War II occurred on the night of 29 January 1945 when the USS Serpens was destroyed off Lunga Beach, Guadalcanal. On this day a monument was erected in Arlington National Cemetery on the gravesite of those who lost their lives.
1950 – President Harry Truman proclaimed an emergency crisis caused by communist threat.
1952 – In the Peanuts comic strip, Lucy first held a football for Charlie Brown.
1955 – “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford became the fastest-selling record in history. The song was originally written in 1947 by the Country & Western guitarist and songwriter Merle Travis and it was about his dad.
1955 – First speed-boat to exceed 200 mph (Don Campbell on Lake Mead, NV)
1956 – “Love Me Tender,” the first Elvis Presley film, premiered in New York City.
1957 – Notre Dame beats Oklahoma 7-0, ending the Sooners’ 47-game, 1,512-day college football winning streak. The game also marked the first time in more than 120 games that Oklahoma didn’t score a single point.
1957 – Jim Brown (Cleveland Browns) set an NFL season rushing record of 1163 yards after only eight games.
1957 – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1958 – Tucson, AZ received 6.4 inches of snow across the metro area causing auto accidents, stranded people, dropped power lines, knocked out telephone service, closed highways and paralyzing air travel.
1959 – Rodgers and Hammerstein’s “The Sound of Music” opened on Broadway at Lunt Fontanne Theater, New York City, for 1443 performances. It starred Mary Martin and Theodore Bikel.
1959 – “Mr. Blue” by the Fleetwoods topped the charts.
1960 – After the integration of two all white schools, 2,000 rioted in the streets of New Orleans.
1961 – President John F. Kennedy decides to increase military aid to South Vietnam without committing U.S. combat troops.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Deep Purple” by Nino Tempo & April Stevens, “Washington Square” by The Village Stompers, “I’m Leaving It Up to You” by Dale & Grace, “Love’s Gonna Live Here” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1963 – President John F. Kennedy on USS Observation Island witnesses launch of Polaris A-2 missile by USS Andrew Jackson (SSBN-619).
1963 – Touch-tone telephone was introduced.
1966 – Dr. Samuel H. Sheppard was acquitted in his second trial of charges he had murdered his pregnant wife, Marilyn, in 1954. He had served 9 years.
1967 – Vietnam War: Haiphong shipyard in North Vietnam was hit by U.S. planes for the first time.
1968 – “Hey Jude” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1969 – Lieutenant William Calley, Jr., faced a court martial for directing his platoon in the massacre of at least 400 unarmed peasants in the Vietnamese village of My Lai.
1970 – Anne Murray received a gold record for “Snowbird“.
1971 – Vietnam War: In support of the Cambodian government. U.S. helicopter gunships struck at North Vietnamese emplacements at Tuol Leap, 10 miles north of Phnom Penh.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves” by Cher, “Theme from Shaft” by Isaac Hayes, “Imagine” by John Lennon Plastic Ono Band and “Lead Me On” by Conway Twitty & Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1972 – National Guard mobilized after officers killed two students during Southern University demonstrations.
1973 – Skylab 4, under the command of Lt. Colonel Gerald P. Carr, USMC, launched from Cape Canaveral for an 84-day mission. This was the last of the Skylab missions.
1973 – The Alaska Pipeline was signed into law by President Richard M. Nixon.
1973 – David Bowie appeared in his first TV special, “1980 Floor Show,” broadcast on NBC’s “Midnight Special.”
1974 – First intentional interstellar radio message sent. The Arecibo message was a radio message that was beamed into space at a ceremony to mark the remodeling of the Arecibo radio telescope.
1974 – John Lennon’s #1 solo “Whatever Gets You Through the Night“.
1975 – Walter Payton of the Chicago Bears rushed for 105 yards in a game against the San Francisco 49ers. It was Payton’s first game of 100 plus yards.
1976 – Rick Barry (San Francisco), ends then longest NBA free throw streak of 60.
1977 – Steven Spielberg’s “Close Encounters of the Third Kind” opens in theaters.
1978 – The movie version of “Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band” opens. The Bee Gees, Peter Frampton and Billy Preston made their acting debuts in the movie.
1979 – Paul McCartney releases “Wonderful Christmas”
1981 – Luke and Laura marry on the U.S. soap opera General Hospital; it is the highest-rated hour in daytime television history.
1981 – A vaccine for hepatitis B was approved. The vaccine had been developed at Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research.
1982 – The Space Shuttle Columbia completed its first operational flight. STS-5, the first operational mission, also carried the largest crew up to that time — four astronauts.
1982 – An agreement was announced, ending a 57-day strike by the National Football League players.
1984 – Space shuttle Discovery returned to Earth with the first two satellites ever plucked from space.
1985 – “We Built This City” by Starship topped the charts.
1985 – Colonel Oliver North was put in charge of the shipment of HAWK anti-aircraft missiles to Iran.
1986 – Gerber Products announced intentions to produce baby food in plastic jars, instead of glass — a first for the industry.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Think We’re Alone Now” by Tiffany, “Mony Mony “Live“” by Billy Idol, “(I’ve Had) The Time of My Life” by Bill Medley & Jennifer Warnes and “Maybe Your Baby’s Got the Blues” by The Judds all topped the charts.
1991 – Former Louisiana Gov. Edwin Edwards won a landslide victory in his bid to return to office, defeating state representative David Duke, a former Ku Klux Klan leader.
1993 – The US Congress enacted the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. It instructed government officials to bend the rules for persons whose actions are based on their religion.
1994 – A US federal judge issued a temporary restraining order prohibiting the state of California from implementing most provisions of Proposition 187.
1996 – Mother Teresa receives honorary US citizenship.
1996 – “Head Over Feet” by Alanis Morissette topped the charts.
1997 – Six-hundred protestors at Fort Benning, Ga., called for the closing of the Army’s School of the Americas, which trains Latin American soldiers.
1998 – In Burlington, Wisconsin, five high school students, aged 15 to 16, were arrested in an alleged plot to kill a carefully selected group of teachers and students.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court said that union members could file discrimination lawsuits against employers even when labor contracts require arbitration.
1999 – Nathaniel Abraham, at 13, is one of the youngest murder defendants in US history. He was convicted in Pontiac, Michigan, of second-degree murder for shooting a stranger outside a convenience store with a rifle when he was eleven. Nathaniel was sentenced to juvenile detention. He will be released Jan. 13, 2007, when he turns 21.
2000 – President Bill Clinton becomes the first serving U.S. President to visit Vietnam.
2000 – Amtrak christened its new bullet train, the Acela Express, with an inaugural run from Washington DC to New York City and Boston.
2000 – A US Air Force F-16 collided with a small plane near Sarasota, Fla. The pilot of the Cessna was killed, the fighter pilot ejected safely.
2000 – The Internet Corp. for Assigned Names and Numbers adopted 7 new domains: .aero for airports, .biz for businesses, .coop for business cooperatives, .info for general use, .museum for accredited museums, .name for individuals, and .pro for professionals.
2001 – The first Harry Potter movie, “ Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone (Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone in the United States)”, released in theatres in the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada.
2001 – A letter containing anthrax was found at the Capitol in Washington, addressed to Sen. Patrick Leahy, D-Vt.
2003 – A 7.5 magnitude earthquake in the Aleutian Islands in Alaska triggers tsunami warnings.
2004 – X-43A scramjet becomes the fastest air-breathing jet flying at nearly Mach 10 at approximately 7,000 mph.
2004 – President George W. Bush picked National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice to be his new Secretary of State, succeeding Colin Powell.
2004 – In Iraq a blindfolded woman, believed to be aid worker Margaret Hassan (59), was the shown being shot in the head by a hooded militant on a video obtained but not aired by Al-Jazeera television.
2005 – Vice President Dick Cheney joined the chorus of Republican criticism of Democrats who contended the Bush administration had manipulated intelligence on Iraq, an accusation Cheney called “one of the most dishonest and reprehensible charges ever aired in this city.”
2005 – The US House passed a bill authorizing up to $38 million in federal funds to preserve and restore 10 WW II internment camps, including Tule Lake and Manzanar in California, as well as 17 assembly centers. Nonprofits would need to come up with 75% of the money for the projects.
2006 – Minnesota Twins ace Johan Santana won the American League Cy Young Award.
2006 – Nancy Pelosi was unanimously named speaker-elect by US House Democrats, the first woman set to take the post that is third in line of succession to the presidency, but then selected Steny Hoyer as majority leader against her wishes.
2006 – In North Carolina a tornado struck Riegelwood, a tiny riverside community, killing eight people as thunderstorms continued a path of destruction across the South.
2007 – Marchers surrounded the Justice Department headquarters to demand federal intervention in the Jena Six case in Louisiana.
2008 – Jimmie Johnson wins NASCAR’s 2008 Sprint Cup Series championship, becoming the second driver to win three in a row.
2009 – US federal prosecutors said the Kuwait logistics firm, Public Warehousing co., had inflated prices and defrauded the US government under its multi-billion dollar contract to feed American troops. The contract was set to expire in December 2010.
2009 – NASA’s shuttle Atlantis lifted off from Cape Canaveral with six astronauts on a mission to supply the International Space Station with spare parts and experimental equipment.
2010 – Republican Party Senators adopt a ban on earmarking, or setting aside money in bills for specific purposes specified by legislators.
2011- America hurled over the $15,000,000,000,000 (trillion) debt mark. Since President Obama took office, the debt has risen almost $4.5 trillion (41.5%), and Congress’s solution is leaving spending rates (including stimulus dollars) untouched!
2011 – An investigation by the Government Accountability Office (GAO), into the Obama Administration’s use of $18 million in taxpayer funds to provide funding for a group pushing legalized abortion in Kenya finds the administration broke the law.
2012 – Failing to persuade striking employees to return to work, Hostess Brands disclosed plans on Friday to liquidate its assets and lay off most of its 18,500 workers, bringing the 82-year-old maker of Wonder Bread and Twinkies to the end of its line. The company will now be forced to close its 33 bakeries, 565 distribution centers, 5,500 delivery routes and 570 bakery outlet stores throughout the U.S. thanks to the actions of the Bakery, Confectionery, Tobacco Workers and Grain Millers International Union.
2014- Peter Kassig, former Army Ranger and aid worker becomes the third American to be beheaded by the Muslim group ISIS.
2015 – Paris relights the Eiffel Tower following the murderous attacks on Friday the 13th.
42 B.C. – Tiberius, Roman emperor.
1873 – W.C. Handy, American composer. He was an African-American blues composer and musician, often known as “the Father of the Blues.”
1889 – George S. Kaufman, American playwright.
1896 – Fibber McGee (Jim Jordan), American actor He was a part of the team ofFibber McGee and Molly.1907 – Burgess Meredith, American actor.
1961 – Sam Rayburn, U.S. Speaker of the House (b. 1882)
HORNER, FREEMAN V.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company K, 119th Infantry, 30th Infantry Division. Place and date: Wurselen, Germany, November 16th, 1944. Entered service at: Shamokin, Pa. Birth: Mount Carmel, Pa. G.O. No.: 95, 30 October 1945. Citation: S/Sgt. Horner and other members of his company were attacking Wurselen, Germany, against stubborn resistance on 16 November 1944, when machinegun fire from houses on the edge of the town pinned the attackers in flat, open terrain 100 yards from their objective. As they lay in the field, enemy artillery observers directed fire upon them, causing serious casualties. Realizing that the machineguns must be eliminated in order to permit the company to advance from its precarious position, S/Sgt. Horner voluntarily stood up with his submachine gun and rushed into the teeth of concentrated fire, burdened by a heavy load of ammunition and hand grenades. Just as he reached a position of seeming safety, he was fired on by a machinegun which had remained silent up until that time. He coolly wheeled in his fully exposed position while bullets barely missed him and killed two hostile gunners with a single, devastating burst. He turned to face the fire of the other two machineguns, and dodging fire as he ran, charged the two positions fifty yards away. Demoralized by their inability to hit the intrepid infantryman, the enemy abandoned their guns and took cover in the cellar of the house they occupied. S/Sgt. Horner burst into the building, hurled two grenades down the cellar stairs, and called for the Germans to surrender. Four men gave up to him. By his extraordinary courage, S/Sgt. Horner destroyed three enemy machinegun positions, killed or captured seven enemy, and cleared the path for his company’s successful assault on Wurselen.
LINDSEY, JAKE W.
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Hamich, Germany, November 16th, 1944. Entered service at: Lucedale, Miss. Birth: Isney, Ala. G.O. No.: 43, 30 May 1945. Citation: For gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on 16 November 1944, in Germany. T/Sgt. Lindsey assumed a position about ten yards to the front of his platoon during an intense enemy infantry-tank counterattack, and by his unerringly accurate fire destroyed two enemy machinegun nests, forced the withdrawal of two tanks, and effectively halted enemy flanking patrols. Later, although painfully wounded, he engaged eight Germans, who were reestablishing machinegun positions, in hand-to-hand combat, killing three, capturing three, and causing the other two to flee. By his gallantry, T/Sgt. Lindsey secured his unit’s position, and reflected great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 377th Infantry, 95th Infantry Division. Place and date: From Woippy, France, through Metz to Kerprich Hemmersdorf, Germany, November 16th to – November 29th, 1944. Entered service at: Two Rivers, Wis. Birth: Manitowoc, Wis. G.O. No.: 74, 1 September 1945. Citation: For performing a series of heroic deeds from 1629 November 1944, during his company’s relentless drive from Woippy, France, through Metz to Kerprich Hemmersdorf, Germany. As he led a rifle squad on 16 November at Woippy, a crossfire from enemy machineguns pinned down his unit. Ordering his men to remain under cover, he went forward alone, entered a building housing one of the guns and forced five Germans to surrender at bayonet point. He then took the second gun single-handedly by hurling grenades into the enemy position, killing two, wounding three more, and taking two additional prisoners. At the outskirts of Metz the next day, when his platoon, confused by heavy explosions and the withdrawal of friendly tanks, retired, he fearlessly remained behind armed with an automatic rifle and exchanged bursts with a German machinegun until he silenced the enemy weapon. His quick action in covering his comrades gave the platoon time to regroup and carry on the fight. On 19 November S/Sgt. Miller led an attack on large enemy barracks. Covered by his squad, he crawled to a barracks window, climbed in and captured six riflemen occupying the room. His men, and then the entire company, followed through the window, scoured the building, and took seventy-five prisoners. S/Sgt. Miller volunteered, with three comrades, to capture Gestapo officers who were preventing the surrender of German troops in another building. He ran a gauntlet of machinegun fire and was lifted through a window. Inside, he found himself covered by a machine pistol, but he persuaded the four Gestapo agents confronting him to surrender. Early the next morning, when strong hostile forces punished his company with heavy fire, S/Sgt. Miller assumed the task of destroying a well-placed machinegun. He was knocked down by a rifle grenade as he climbed an open stairway in a house, but pressed on with a bazooka to find an advantageous spot from which to launch his rocket. He discovered that he could fire only from the roof, a position where he would draw tremendous enemy fire. Facing the risk, he moved into the open, coolly took aim and scored a direct hit on the hostile emplacement, wreaking such havoc that the enemy troops became completely demoralized and began surrendering by the score. The following day, in Metz, he captured twelve more prisoners and silenced an enemy machinegun after volunteering for a hazardous mission in advance of his company’s position. On 29 November, as Company G climbed a hill overlooking Kerprich Hemmersdorf, enemy fire pinned the unit to the ground. S/Sgt. Miller, on his own initiative, pressed ahead with his squad past the company’s leading element to meet the surprise resistance. His men stood up and advanced deliberately, firing as they went. Inspired by S/Sgt. Miller’s leadership, the platoon followed, and then another platoon arose and grimly closed with the Germans. The enemy action was smothered, but at the cost of S/Sgt. Miller’s life. His tenacious devotion to the attack, his gallant choice to expose himself to enemy action rather than endanger his men, his limitless bravery, assured the success of Company G.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Ship’s Corporal U.S. Navy. Born: 1853, Ireland. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For rescuing from drowning a boy serving with him on the U.S.S. Constitution, at the Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va., November 16th, 1879.
BRANDLE, JOSEPH E.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 17th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Lenoire, Tenn., November 16th, 1863. Entered service at: Colon, Mich. Born: 1839, Seneca County, Ohio. Date of issue: 20 July 1897. Citation: While color bearer of his regiment, having been twice wounded and the sight of one eye destroyed, still held to the colors until ordered to the rear by his regimental commander.
GILE, FRANK S.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845, Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Lehigh, Charleston Harbor, November 16th, 1863, during the hazardous task of freeing the Lehigh, which had been grounded, and was under heavy enemy fire from Fort Moultrie. After several previous attempts had been made, Gile succeeded in passing in a small boat from the Lehigh to the Nahant with a line bent on a hawser. This courageous action while under severe enemy fire enabled the Lehigh to be freed from her helpless position.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Lehigh, Charleston Harbor, November 16th, 1863, during the hazardous task of freeing the Lehigh, which had grounded, and was under heavy enemy fire from Fort Moultrie. Rowing the small boat which was used in the hazardous task of transferring hawsers from the Lehigh to the Nahant. Irving twice succeeded in making the trip, while under severe fire from the enemy, only to find that each had been in vain when the hawsers were cut by hostile fire and chaffing.
LELAND, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1834, Savannah, Ga. Accredited to: Georgia. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Lehigh, Charleston Harbor, 16 November 1863, during the hazardous task, of freeing the Lehigh, which had grounded, and was under heavy enemy fire from Fort Moultrie. Rowing the small boat which was used in the hazardous task of transferring hawsers from the Lehigh to the Nahant, Leland twice succeeded in making the trip, only to find that each had been in vain when the hawsers were cut by enemy fire and chaffing.
STARKINS, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, 34th New York Battery. Place and date: At Campbell Station, Tenn., November 16th, 1863. Entered service at:——. Birth: Great Neck, N.Y. Date of issue: 30 July 1896. Citation; Brought off his piece without losing a man.
SWIFT, FREDERIC W.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 17th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Lenoire Station, Tenn., November 16th, 1863. Entered service at: Michigan. Born: 30 January 1831, Mansfield Center, Conn. Date of issue: 15 February 1897. Citation: Gallantly seized the colors and rallied the regiment after 3 color bearers had been shot and the regiment, having become demoralized, was in imminent danger of capture.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Ireland. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Lehigh, Charleston Harbor, November 16th, 1863, during the hazardous task of freeing the Lehigh, which had been grounded, and was under heavy enemy fire from Fort Moultrie. After several previous attempts had been made, Williams succeeded in passing in a small boat from the Lehigh to the Nahant with a line bent on a hawser. This courageous action while under severe enemy fire enabled the Lehigh to be freed from her helpless position.
YOUNG, HORATIO N.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 July 1845, Calaise, Maine. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Lehigh, Charleston Harbor, November 16th, 1863, during the hazardous task of freeing the Lehigh, which had grounded, and was under heavy enemy fire from Fort Moultrie. After several previous attempts had been made, Young succeeded in passing in a small boat from the Lehigh to the Nahant with a line bent on a hawser. This courageous action while under severe enemy fire enabled the Lehigh to be freed from her helpless position.
National Clean Out Your Refrigerator Day
I Love to Write Day
“The role of a writer is not to say what we all can say, but what we are unable to say.” ~Anaïs Nin
“And by the way, everything in life is writable about if you have the outgoing guts to do it, and the imagination to improvise. The worst enemy to creativity is self-doubt.” ~Sylvia Plath
Writing is the visible recording of language peculiar to the human species. Writing enables the transmission of ideas over vast distances of time and is a prerequisite of complex civilization. Where and by whom writing was first developed remains unknown but scholars place the beginning of writing at 6000 years ago or , roughly, 4000 B.C. The norm of writing is phonemic, i.e., it attempts to symbolize all the significant sounds of the language and no others. When the goal is established as one for one phoneme, the result is a complete alphabet. Few alphabets attain this phonemic goal but some ancient ones (e.g. Sanskrit) and a few modern ones (e.g., Finnish) have been very successful.
The contemporary important writing not of the alphabetic type is that in Chinese characters, in which thousands of characters are used, each representing a word or concept, and Japanese, where each character represents a syllable. The Chinese system is so distant from the language that the same characters are used in writing mutually unintelligible dialects, e.g., Cantonese and Mandarin. In some languages, as in English and French the modern freezing of spelling has removed the writing more and more from pronunciation and has resulted in the need to teach spelling and the growth of fallacies like the silent letter (a letter is really either the symbolic sound or it is unnecessary).
Writing was developed independently in Egypt (hieroglyphics), Mesopotamia (Cuneiform), China and among the Maya in Central America. There are some areas where the question as to where writing was adopted or independently developed is in doubt, as atEaster Island. Ancient writing, pictographic in nature, is best known from stone and clay inscriptions, but the use of perishable materials, palm leaf, papyrus, and paper, began in ancient times.
That, they do say, is the technically historical part. Writing, though, is so much more. Writing is a love affair. Most times it is really intense and it is easy to express your feelings and what you are seeing, Like that affair, though, there are times of disillusionment, times of sheer boredom, times when nothing seems to happen. Then it all sparks again with a different look, with a different idea, doing something different and exciting together (you and your writing), reading something in a different light. Then you have to take it dancing and see what develops.
One of my favorite descriptions of something was in a book called, “This Present Darkness.” A gentleman had spent his entire career at the New York Times. He had started working as a copyboy (pre-computer), moved up step by step to reporter, Assistant Editor and finally Editor–In-Chief. His days were long and hard with fantastic stresses. When he decided to retire, he knew he could not stop cold. The stress of going from fulltime in-charge to nothing would have brought on major physical stresses. Instead he had bought a small-town community newspaper where he could “slow down” until it would be safe to stop.
He was on the train to this small town, thinking about what he had done and what he was about to do and the thought came to him: he was on this hurtling train going at breakneck speed very similar to his time at the Times. He was headed to a two person newspaper and his description was ”like jumping off a speeding train into a wall of half set Jello.”
That is writing, drawing pictures with words. Putting ideas and concepts into understandable descriptions.
“On plenty of days the writer can write three or four pages, and on plenty of other days he concludes he must throw them away.” ~ Annie Dillard
“Fill your paper with the breathings of your heart.” ~ William Wordsworth
“I try to leave out the parts that people skip.” ~ Elmore Leonard
Psalm 25: 1- 5 King James Version (KJV)
1 Unto thee, O Lord, do I lift up my soul.
2 O my God, I trust in thee: let me not be ashamed, let not mine enemies triumph over me.
3 Yea, let none that wait on thee be ashamed: let them be ashamed which transgress without cause.
4 Shew me thy ways, O Lord; teach me thy paths.
5 Lead me in thy truth, and teach me: for thou art the God of my salvation; on thee do I wait all the day.
“To dream anything that you want to dream, that is the beauty of the human mind. To do anything that you want to do, that is the strength of the human will. To trust yourself, to test your limits, that is the courage to succeed.”
~ Bernard Edmonds
gauche GOHSH, adjective:
Lacking social polish; tactless; awkward; clumsy.
Gauche is from the French for left, awkward.
1533 – Francisco Pizarro arrives in Cuzco, Peru.
1626 – The Pilgrim Fathers, who settled in New Plymouth, bought out their London investors.
1763 – Charles Mason & Jeremiah Dixon begin surveying Mason-Dixon Line. They surveyed 233 miles by October 9, 1767 when indigenous Indians of the area told them they could not proceed any further west.
1777 – The Continental Congress approved the Articles of Confederation, a precursor to the Constitution of the United States of America, after 16 months of debate.
1791 – The first U.S Catholic college, Georgetown University, opens its doors.
1805 – Meriwether Lewis, William Clark and their party reached the mouth of the Columbia River, completing their trek to the Pacific.
1806 – Pike expedition: Lieutenant Zebulon Pike sees a distant mountain peak while near the Colorado foothills of the Rocky Mountains (it was later named Pikes Peak).
1806 – First US college magazine, Yale Literary Government, published its first issue.
1827 – Creek Indians lost all their property in US. The Creek Indians consisted of more than one tribe of Indians.
1835 – HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin reached Tahiti.
1837 – Isaac Pitman’s system of shorthand was published, under the title “Stenographic Sound-Hand.”
1856 – The clipper ship Neptune’s Car arrived in SF after sailing 136 days from NYC. Mary Ann Patten (1837-1861), the pregnant 19-year-old wife of Captain Joshua Patten (d.1857), commanded the ship for much of its voyage after the captain fell ill.
1862 – President Lincoln, with Secretaries Seward and Chase, drove to the Washington Navy Yard to view the trial of the Hyde rocket.
1863 – Civil War: Fort Moultrie opened a heavy, evening bombardment on Union Army positions at Cumming’s Point, Morris Island.
1864 – Civil War: Union General William Tecumseh Sherman burns Atlanta, Georgia and starts Sherman’s March to the Sea.
1872 – In California the 115-foot Pigeon Point Light Station near Pescadero started operation. It was built due to a series of shipwrecks in the area.
1881 – The Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions of the United States and Canada was founded which in 1886 became The American Federation of Labor (AFL.)
1884 – Samuel Sidney McClure of New York City started the first literary syndicate — the McClure Syndicate. It bought authors’ works and then sold the right to print them to various newspapers across the U.S.
1896 – Power plant at Niagara Falls begins operation. It was the first long-distance transmission of hydroelectricity from the Niagara Falls Power Company to Buffalo, N.Y., 26 miles away. The generators were built by Westinghouse and the transformers by General Electric.
1898 – Lyda A. Newman (New York City, NY) patented a hair brush which permitted easy cleaning by having a detachable unit which carried the brush and bristles.
1899 – Winston Churchill (24), war correspondent for London’s Morning Post, was captured by Boers in Natal, South Africa. He escaped prison in Pretoria on Dec 12 and after some days reached the English colony in Durban, Natal.
1901 – Miller Reese patented an electrical hearing aid.
1904 – A patent was granted to King C. Gillette for a safety ‘razor’.
1904 – Ethel Barrymore, appearing in the play, “Sunday”, first spoke her trademark line, “That’s all there is. There isn’t any more.”
1919 – Senate first invokes cloture to end a filibuster (Versailles Treaty). The cloture was adopted by a vote of 78-16, leading to a rejection of the treaty.
1922 – Dr. Alexis Carrel reported the discovery of white corpuscles.
1926 – National Broadcasting Company (NBC) debuted its 24-station radio network.
1932 – Walt Disney Art School created.
1933 – Marines at Quantico, Virginia, began work on a new field operations manual, the Tentative Landing Operations Manual.
1936 – Nazi Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Komintern pact. The Anti-Komintern, ostensibly a defensive treaty opposed to Communism, would define the Axis powers.
1937 – Al Capp, cartoonist of Lil’ Abner creates Sadie Hawkins Day. Sadie Hawkins was “the homeliest gal in the hills” who grew tired of waiting for the fellows to come a courtin’. Sadie Hawkins Day was a foot race in which the unmarried gals pursued the town’s bachelors, with matrimony the consequence. Sadie Hawkins Day can be celebrated any day between today and November 29th.
1937 – The first US congressional session in air-conditioned chambers took place.
1938 – Television’s first on-the-scene program took place. A fire on Ward’s Island, New York was seen by the cameras of NBC’s W2XBT. The cameras caught the unexpected fire as it broke out.
1939 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt laid the cornerstone of the Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C.
1939 – World War II (Europe): Nazis began their mass murder of Warsaw Jews.
1939 – The New York Giants, formerly opposed to night baseball, made plans for a lighting system at the Polo Grounds for the 1940 season.
1940 – “One Night in the Tropics” released. It was a comedy film which is noteworthy for being the film debut of Abbott and Costello. The team play minor roles but steal the picture with five classic routines, including an abbreviated version of “Who’s On First?.”
1940 – The first 75,000 men were called to armed forces duty in the United States under peacetime conscription.
1940 – World War II: US flying boats begin patrols from bases in Bermuda.
1941 – World War II: SS chief Heinrich Himmler orders the arrest and deportation to concentration camps of all homosexuals in Germany, with the exception of certain top Nazi officials.
1942 – World War II: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal ends in a decisive Allied victory. U.S. lost several ships in naval battle of Guadalcanal, naval norce under Rear Admiral Willlis Lee, USS Washington (BB-56), turns back Japanese transports trying to reinforce Guadalcanal. The Japanese never again try to send large naval forces to Guadalcanal. The five Sullivan brothers, onboard USS Juneau, were all killed in the action.
1942 – World War II: thirty-three C-47 transports dropped three hundred men of the 2nd Battalion, 509th Parachute Regiment on Youks-les-Bains airfield in central Tunisia near Tebessa, Algeria.
1943 – World War II: HOLOCAUST: German SS leader Heinrich Himmler orders that Gypsies were to be put “on the same level as Jews and placed in concentration camps.”
1944 – World War II: Forces of the US 3rd Army advance around Metz. To the south of the city, the Metz-Sarrebourg rail line is cut. To the right, the US 7th Army advances along the line north of St. Die.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rumors are Flying” by Frankie Carle, “South America, Take It Away” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “You Keep Coming Back like a Song” by Dinah Shore and “Divorce Me C.O.D.” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1950 – First Negro player in organized hockey-Arthur Dorrington signed with the Atlantic City Seagulls of the Eastern Amateur Division.
1952 – The Bugs Bunny Cartoon Rabbit’s Kin is released in theaters, it introduces Pete Puma and Buster Rabbit.
1952 – “I Went to Your Wedding” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1954 – First regularly scheduled commercial flights over North Pole begins. The “Helge Viking” (OY-KMI) took off in Copenhagen for the first commercial flight over the North Pole. Final destination was Los Angeles (LAX).
1954 – “Studio One” on CBS-TV featured Joan Weber singing “Let Me Go, Lover.”
1956 – The first film starring Elvis Presley, “Love Me Tender”, opens. The music for “Love Me Tender” is based on a 1861 Classical piece called “Aura Lee.”
1956 – “Li’l Abner” opened at St James Theater NYC for 693 performances.
1957 – US sentences Soviet spy Rudolf Ivanovich Abel to 30 years & $3,000. He later became the exchange for Francis Gary Powers, the U2 pilot held by the Russians.
1957 – Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev claims that the Soviet Union has missile superiority over the United States and challenges America to a missile “shooting match” to prove it.
1958 – “It’s Only Make Believe” by Conway Twitty topped the charts.
1960 – The first submarine with nuclear missiles, USS George Washington, went to sea.
1960 – The Polaris missile is test launched.
1962 – Cuba threatened to down U.S. planes on reconnaissance flights over its territory.
1965 – Craig Breedlove sets land speed record (600.601 mph).
1965 – The Rolling Stones made their debut on NBC-TV’s “Hullabaloo” television show. The band performed “Get Off My Cloud.”
1966 – Gemini program: Gemini 12 splashes down safely in the Atlantic Ocean with astronauts James A. Lovell and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin Jr. on board.
1968 – RMS Queen Elizabeth, in its day the largest ocean liner ever built, retired from service.
1969 – The first album featuring Karen and Richard Carpenter was released by A&M Records.
1969 – A quarter of a million anti-Vietnam War demonstrators staged a peaceful march in Washington, D.C.
1969 – The Soviet submarine K-19 collides with the American submarine USS Gato in the Barents Sea.
1969 – Dave Thomas opens the first Wendy’s fast food restaurant in Dublin, Ohio.
1969 – “Wedding Bell Blues” by 5th Dimension topped the charts.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be There” by The Jackson 5, “We’ve Only Just Begun” by the Carpenters, “I Think I Love You” by The Partridge Family and “I Can’t Believe That You’ve Stopped Loving Me” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1971 – Intel advertised its 4004-processor.
1972 – Small Astronomy Satellite Explorer 48 launched to study gamma rays. Its purpose was to measure the spatial and energy distribution of primary galactic and extragalactic gamma radiation.
1975 – “Island Girl” by Elton John topped the charts.
1979 – ABC-TV announces it would broadcast nightly specials on Iran hostages.
1979 – Nobel Prize in economics awarded to Professor Arthur Lewis of Princeton. He was the first Black cited in a category other than peace.
1979 – Spingarn Medal awarded to Rosa L. Parks, who was the catalyst in the Montgomery bus boycott of 1955-56.
1979 – A package from the Unabomber Ted Kaczynski begins smoking in the cargo hold of a flight from Chicago to Washington, forcing the plane to make an emergency landing. Twelve American Airlines passengers suffered from smoke inhalation.
1980 – “Lady” by Kenny Rogers topped the charts.
1983 – U.S. Navy CAPT George Tsantes was shot and killed while on his way to work in Athens. His chauffeur also died in the attack. The Greek terrorist organization “November 17” subsequently took credit for the killings.
1984 – Baby Fae died 20 days after receiving a baboon heart transplant in Loma Linda, California.
1985 – A research assistant is injured as a package from the Unabomber addressed to a University of Michigan professor explodes.
1986 – Ivan F. Boesky faced penalties of $100 million for insider stock trading. It was the highest penalty ever imposed by the Securities & Exchange Commission.
1987 – Twenty-eight of 82 people aboard a Continental Airlines DC-9 enroute to Boise, ID, including the pilot and co-pilot, were killed when the jetliner crashed seconds after taking off from Denver’s Stapleton International Airport in an early snowstorm.
1989 – “Batman” is released on video tape.
1990 – President George H.W. Bush signed the Clear Air Act of 1990.
1990 – Space Shuttle program: Space Shuttle Atlantis launches with flight STS-38.
1990 – Producers confirm that Milli Vanilli didn’t sing on their album. As a result of American media pressure, Milli Vanilli’s Grammy was withdrawn four days later.
1990 – Members of the so-called Keating Five — Sens. Alan Cranston, D-Calif.; Dennis DeConcini, D-Ariz.; John Glenn, D-Ohio; John McCain, R-Ariz.; and Donald Riegle, D-Mich. — were accused of influence peddling on behalf of savings and loan kingpin Charles Keating. John McCain was later completely exonerated of the charges.
1990 – The US Golf Association bans racial & gender discrimination.
1991 – Ricky Pierce (Seattle) begins NBA free throw streak of 75 games.
1991 – A federal appeals panel threw out former National Security Adviser John M. Poindexter’s felony convictions in the Iran-Contra affair, saying his immunized testimony to Congress was improperly used against him.
1992 – After 200 victories and 7 championships, Richard Petty retires from NASCAR. Today he drove his last lap.
1993 – A judge in Mineola, NY, sentenced Joey Buttafuoco to six months in jail for the statutory rape of Amy Fisher. Fisher was serving a prison sentence for shooting and wounding Buttafuoco’s wife, Mary Jo.
1995 – Texaco agreed to pay $176 million to settle a race-discrimination lawsuit.
1995 – The space shuttle “Atlantis” docked with the orbiting Russian space station “Mir.”
1995 – On the second day of a government shutdown Monica Lewinsky and Pres. Clinton began a sexual relationship at the White House. The relationship lasted about eighteen months.
1996 – Miami black commissioner, Miller Dawkins, pleaded guilty to bribery, corruption and conspiracy in attempting to shake down Unisys Corp. for $200,000.
1996 – Singer Michael Jackson married the woman carrying his baby — his plastic surgeon’s nurse, Debbie Rowe.
1996 – In San Francisco a Vietnamese gang leader, Conga Tran, and his lawyer, Dennis Natali, were shot to death in separate incidents.
1999 – Transit of Mercury visible in North America.
2000 – Al Gore made a surprise proposal for a statewide hand recount of Florida’s 6 million ballots.
2001 – Investigators in Florida said anthrax was found throughout the 68,000-square-foot America Media building in Boca Raton, where the first case of anthrax poisoning was identified.
2001 – Two al-Qaeda computers were acquired by a Wall Street journalist in Kabul for $1,100 following US bombing. They were found to contain over 1,750 text and video files of al Qaeda activities including weapons programs.
2001 – United Airlines announced that it would put stun guns into the cockpits of each of its 500 planes.
2001 – Henry Ossawa Tanner, painter of biblical, landscape and genre subjects, was the first African-American artist elected to full membership in the National Academy.
2003 – The city of Augusta, GA, announced that it planned to construct a statue of James Brown and rename a music festival in his honor.
2003 – Two US Army Black Hawk helicopters collided under fire and crashed in the northern Iraqi city of Mosul, killing at least 17 soldiers.
2004 – Iran announced it would suspend its uranium enrichment program when, faced with the possibility of U.N. sanctions.
2004 – Top CIA officials, Stephen Kappes and Michael Sulick announced their resignations after reported disputes with new Director Peter J. Goss.
2004 – President George W. Bush accepts the resignation of Secretary of State Colin Powell. He is the sixth Cabinet member to resign since the re-election of President Bush.
2004 – New Jersey Gov. James E. McGreevey stepped down from office amid rumors of that he was about to be sued for sexual harassment. Upon publicly revealing his homosexuality on August 12, 2004, McGreevey became the first and, to date, the only openly gay state governor in United States history.
2005 – Albert Pujols of the St. Louis Cardinals won the National League MVP award.
2005 – A tornado outbreak stretching from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico occurred. Many of the tornadoes (at least 50 confirmed) happened during the afternoon and evening across the country.
2005 – The US government declared the Puget Sound orcas an endangered species.
2005 – The Mega Millions lottery reached $315 million and was won by a group of 7 employees at the Kaiser Permanente medical center at Garden Grove, Ca.
2006 – O.J. Simpson caused an uproar with plans for a TV interview and book titled “If I Did It,” in which Simpson describes how he would have committed the 1994 slayings of his ex-wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend Ronald Goldman.
2006 – Researchers said heart valves were grown from stem cells filtered from amniotic fluid.
2006 – Senator Mitch McConnell becomes the leader of the Republicans in the United States Senate.
2007 – During a feisty Democratic debate in Las Vegas, Hillary Rodham Clinton accused her closest rivals, Barack Obama and John Edwards, of slinging mud “right out of the Republican playbook” and sharply criticized their records.
2007 – Barry Bonds, former San Francisco Giant, was indicted on four counts of perjury and one count of obstruction of justice related to a December, 2003, grand jury investigation on the BALCO steroid ring.
2007 – Actress Lindsay Lohan completed her jail sentence for drunken driving in a swift 84 minutes.
2008 – Mission STS-126 starts with the launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour. The Shuttle will deliver equipment required to increase the crew capacity of the International Space Station from three to six members.
2008 – In Southern California the Triangle Complex Fire broke out in Corona and Orange counties. The fire soon covered 10,475 acres and damaged or destroyed 119 residences.
2008 – In North Carolina tornado outbreak killed two people and injured six others.
2008 – Over 1 million people in 300 cities protest the passing of California’s Proposition 8.
2009 – President Barack Obama becomes the first U.S. President to meet with Burma’s military government, calling for the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and other political prisoners.
2010 – US diplomat Richard Holbrooke says the US has a transition plan for Afghanistan, not an exit strategy, and that there will be some drawdown of American troops in Afghanistan next year but the U.S. combat mission will not end there until 2014.
2010 – Scientists exhume the remains of 16th century astronomer Tycho Brahe in Prague to try to solve the mystery of his sudden death.
2011 – The New York Police Department clears Occupy Wall Street protesters from Zuccotti Park.
2011 – Negotiators from the United States Senate and House of Representatives reach a partial budget agreement.
2012 – BP announces it will plead guilty to charges of manslaughter and obstruction of Congress, and will pay a total of US$4.5 billion to the US Department of Justice and Securities and Exchange Commission.
2012 – The two highest-ranking BP supervisors on board the Deepwater Horizon on the day of the explosion have been indicted on 23 criminal counts.
2012 – Four people are killed and 17 others are injured in the Midland train wreck after a Union Pacific train struck a parade float in Midland, Texas.
2013 – A Georgia restaurant owner received a fine from the city of McDonough code enforcement on Friday for flying nine patriotic flags atop his business, CJ’s Hot Dogs.
1708 – William Pitt, the Elder, British statesman.
1738 – William Herschel, English astronomer. He was a German-born British astronomer and composer who became famous for discovering the planet Uranus. He also discovered infrared radiation and made many other astronomical discoveries.
1882 – Felix Frankfurter, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1965)
1887 – Georgia O’Keeffe, American artist.
1891 – W. Averell Harriman, American diplomat.
1891 – Erwin Rommel, German field marshal (d. 1944)
1906 – Curtis LeMay, U.S. Air Force general (d. 1990)
1925 – Howard Baker, U.S. Senator and White House Chief of Staff
1934 – Petula Clark, British singer and actress.
1957 – Kevin Eubanks, American jazz guitarist who has been the leader of the Tonight Show band since 1995.
*BALDANADO, JOE R.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company B, 187 Airborne Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Kangdong, Korea, November 15th, 1950. Entered service at: Santa Clara, Calif. Born: 28 August 1930, Colorado Date of Issue: 18 March 2014 Departed: Yes (11/25/1950)
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Corporal Joe R. Baldonado distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an acting machinegunner in 3d Squad, 2d Platoon, Company B, 187th Airborne Infantry Regiment during combat operations against an armed enemy in Kangdong, Korea on November 25, 1950. On that morning, the enemy launched a strong attack in an effort to seize the hill occupied by Corporal Baldonado and his company. The platoon had expended most of its ammunition in repelling the enemy attack and the platoon leader decided to commit his 3d Squad, with its supply of ammunition, in the defensive action. Since there was no time to dig in because of the proximity of the enemy, who had advanced to within twenty-five yards of the platoon position, Corporal Baldonado emplaced his weapon in an exposed position and delivered a withering stream of fire on the advancing enemy, causing them to fall back in disorder. The enemy then concentrated all their fire on Corporal Baldonado’s gun and attempted to knock it out by rushing the position in small groups and hurling hand grenades. Several times, grenades exploded extremely close to Corporal Baldonado but failed to interrupt his continuous firing. The hostile troops made repeated attempts to storm his position and were driven back each time with appalling casualties. The enemy finally withdrew after making a final assault on Corporal Baldonado’s position during which a grenade landed near his gun, killing him instantly. Corporal Baldonado’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
*JORDAN, MACK A.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company K 21st Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kumsong, Korea, November 15th, 1951. Entered service at: Collins, Miss Born: 8 December 1928, Collins, Miss. G.O. No.: 3, 8 January 1953 Citation: Pfc. Jordan, a member of Company K, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and indomitable courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. As a squad leader of the 3d Platoon, he was participating in a night attack on key terrain against a fanatical hostile force when the advance was halted by intense small-arms and automatic-weapons fire and a vicious barrage of hand grenades. Upon orders for the platoon to withdraw and reorganize, Pfc. Jordan voluntarily remained behind to provide covering fire. Crawling toward an enemy machine gun emplacement, he threw three grenades and neutralized the gun. He then rushed the position delivering a devastating hail of fire, killing several of the enemy and forcing the remainder to fall back to new positions. He courageously attempted to move forward to silence another machine gun but, before he could leave his position, the ruthless foe hurled explosives down the hill and in the ensuing blast both legs were severed. Despite mortal wounds, he continued to deliver deadly fire and held off the assailants until the platoon returned. Pfc. Jordan’s unflinching courage and gallant self-sacrifice reflect lasting glory upon himself and uphold the noble traditions of the infantry and the military service.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date: Over Borneo and Leyte, 10 October to November 15th, 1944. Entered service at: Poplar, Wis. Birth: Poplar, Wis. G.O. No.: 90, 8 December 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty in the Southwest Pacific area from 10 October to 15 November 1944. While he was assigned to duty as gunnery instructor and neither required nor expected to perform combat duty. Maj. Bong voluntarily, and at his own urgent request, engaged in repeated combat missions, including unusually hazardous sorties over Balikpapan, Borneo, and in the Leyte area of the Philippines. His aggressiveness and daring resulted in his shooting down eight enemy airplanes during this period.
Loosen Up- Lighten Up Day
National Teddy Bear Day
In 1902 President Theodore Roosevelt was on a hunting trip in Mississippi. As reported in the Washington Post, the presidential hunting party trailed and lassoed a lean, black bear, then tied it to a tree. The president was summoned, but when he arrived on the scene he refused to shoot the tied and exhausted bear, considering it to be unsportsmanlike.
The following day, November 16, Clifford Barryman, Washington Post editorial cartoonist, immortalized the incident as part of a front-page cartoon montage. Barryman pictured Roosevelt, his gun before him with the butt resting on the ground and his back to the animal, gesturing his refusal to take the trophy shot. Written across the lower part of the cartoon were the words “Drawing the Line in Mississippi,” which coupled the hunting incident to a political dispute.
The cartoon drew immediate attention. In Brooklyn,NY, shopkeeper Morris Michtom displayed two toy bears in the window of his Stationary and novelty store. The bears had been made by his wife, Rose from plush stuffed excelsior and finished with black shoe button eyes. Michtom recognized the immediate popularity of the new toy, requested and received permission from Roosevelt himself to call them “Teddy’s Bears.”
The little stuffed bears were a success. As demand for them increased, Michtom moved his business to a loft, under the name of the Ideal Novelty and Toy Corporation.
At the same time as it was born in The United States, the Teddy Bear was also born in Germany. The Steiff Company of Giengen produced it’s first jointed stuffed bears during the same 1902-1903 period. The company had made toys for a number of years and had produced small wool-felt pincushion type animals of many varieties. The animals were the creation of Margaret Steiff. Steiff bears were first introduced at the 1903 Leipzig Fair, where an American buyer saw them and ordered several thousand for shipment to theUS.
While other stories have been told regarding the birth of this wonderful toy, the simultaneous births in Brooklyn and Giengen are the best substantiated.
Psalms 20: 5-7
5 We will rejoice in thy salvation, and in the name of our God we will set up our banners: the Lord fulfil all thy petitions.
6 Now know I that the Lord saveth his anointed; he will hear him from his holy heaven with the saving strength of his right hand.
7 Some trust in chariots, and some in horses: but we will remember the name of the Lord our God.
“Be ready when opportunity comes. Luck is the time when preparation and opportunity meet.”
~ Roy D. Chapin Jr.
First water (furst WA-tuhr) noun
1. The highest degree of quality in a precious stone,
especially a diamond.
2. The best grade or quality.
[Transparency is highly desirable in diamonds, and when they are
nearly as transparent as water, they are known as diamonds of the
first water. As the transparency decreases, we get second or third
water. Hence figuratively, something or someone of the first water
is first grade, first class, or of the best in its class.]
1666 – First blood transfusion took place (between dogs); it was performed by Dr. Croone in England.
1732 – The Library Company of Philadelphia, founded by Benjamin Franklin, signed a contract with its first librarian. The Library Company served as the de facto Library of Congress until 1800. First professional librarian’s name was Louis Timothee.
1770 – Scottish explorer James Bruce discovered the source of the Blue Nile in Ethiopia.
1792 – Captain George Vancouver is first Englishman to enter San Francisco Bay.
1832 – The first streetcar — a horse-drawn vehicle called the John Mason — went into operation in New York City on 4th Avenue between Prince & 14th. There was room for 30 people and the fare was 12 cents.
1839 – First US anti-slavery party, Liberty Party, convenes in NY.
1846 – US Naval forces capture Tampico, Mexico. This will be a staging point for the coming action against Vera Cruz.
1851 – Herman Melville’s novel Moby-Dick is published in the U.S. by Harper & Brothers, New York – after it was first published on October 18, 1851 by Richard Bentley, London.
1862 – Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln approves General Ambrose Burnside’s plan to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia, leading to the Battle of Fredericksburg.
1881 – Charles J. Guiteau went on trial for assassinating President Garfield. Guiteau was convicted and hanged the following year.
1882 – Billy Clairborne, a survivor of the gunfight at the O.K. Corral, lost his life in a shoot-out with Buckskin Frank Leslie.
1888 – USC Trojans (then Methodists) play their first football game. The game against the Alliance Athletic Club ended in a 16-0 victory for the Methodists.
1889 – Newspaper reporter Nellie Bly set off to attempt to break Jules Verne’s imaginary hero Phileas Fogg’s record of voyaging around the world in 80 days. She beat the record, needing just over 72 days for the trip.
1904 – First stadium built specifically for football opens. The Harvard Stadium opens for its first athletic event, the Harvard-Dartmouth football game. Dartmouth wins, 11-0.
1906 – Roosevelt becomes first US President to visit a foreign country (Panama).
1910 – Aviation pioneer Eugene Ely performs the first take-off from a ship inHampton Roads, VA. He took off from a makeshift deck on the light cruiser USS Birmingham in a Curtiss pusher.
1921 – The Cherokee Indians asked the U.S. Supreme Court to review their claim to 1 million acres of land in Texas.
1922 – The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) began its first radio broadcasts.
1935 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed the Philippines a free commonwealth. The Tydings-McDuffie Act planned for the Phillipines to be completely independent by July 4, 1946.
1940 – World War II: German Luftwaffe bombers virtually destroyed the industrial town of Coventry, England.
1941 – The order to withdraw Marines at Shanghai, Peiping, and Tientsin, China was issued.
1942 – World War II: Off the coast of Guadalcanal, Admiral Tanaka turns south with his destroyers and transports and comes under heavy air attack from both Henderson Field and planes from the USS Enterprise.
1943 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Secretary of State Cordell Hull, and all of America’s top military brass, narrowly escaped disaster aboard the U.S. battleship Iowa, when a live torpedo is accidentally fired at them from the U.S. destroyer William D. Porter.
1943 – World War II: On Bougainville the American divisions push back the Japanese along the jungle tracks.
1943 – Chicago Bear Sid Luckman passes for seven touchdowns vs NY Giants (56-7).
1943 – Ernie Nevers of the St. Louis Cardinals became the first professional football player to score six touchdowns in a single game and kicking four extra points, racking up 40 points against the crosstown rival Chicago Bears.
1944 – Tommy Dorsey and orchestra records “Opus No. 1.”
1945 – Captain Eddie Rickenbacker sold the historic Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Former Indy winner Wilbur Shaw became the new president and manager of the speedway. The track was purchased by the Tony Holman family a short time later.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Been a Long, Long Time” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “Till the End of Time” by Perry Como, “I’ll Buy that Dream” by The Pied Pipers and “With Tears in My Eyes” by Wesley Tuttle all topped the charts.
1951 – The first world lightweight title fight was telecast coast to coast. Jimmy Carter beat Art Aragon in Los Angeles.
1952 – Korean War – Thirty-seven service members returning from rest and recuperation leave in Japan and seven crew members were killed in the crash of a C-119 transport near Seoul.
1953 – “St. George and the Dragonet” by Stan Freberg topped the Billboard charts.
1959 – Kilauea’s most spectacular eruption (in Hawaii).
1959 – “Mack the Knife” by Bobby Darin topped the charts.
1960 – “Georgia on My Mind” by Ray Charles topped the charts.
1960 – President Dwight Eisenhower ordered U.S. naval units into the Caribbean after Guatemala and Nicaragua charged Castro with starting uprisings.
1960 – U.S. marshals and parents escorted four Black girls to two New Orleans schools.
1961 – President Kennedy increased the number of American advisors in Vietnam from 1,000 to 16,000.
1964 – “Baby Love” by the Supremes topped the charts.
1964 – “Oliver!” closed at Imperial Theater NYC after 774 performances.
1965 – Vietnam War: Battle of the Ia Drang begins – the first major engagement between regular American and North Vietnamese forces.
1965 – Vietnam War: US government sent 90,000 soldiers to Vietnam.
1966 – Boxing’s largest indoor crowd assembled in the Houston Astrodome to see Cassius Clay (later Muhammad Ali) defeat Cleveland Williams — by a TKO.
1967 The Monkees received a gold record for “Daydream Believer.”
1967 – Vietnam War: Maj. Gen. Bruno Hochmuth, commander of the 3rd Marine Division, is killed when the helicopter in which he is travelling is shot down. He was the most senior U.S. officer to be killed in action in the war to date.
1968 – Yale University announced that it will become co-ed.
1969 – Apollo 12, the second manned mission to the surface of the moon, was launched, with astronauts Charles Conrad, Jr., Richard F. Gordon, Jr., and Alan L. Bean aboard. They landed within walking distance of Surveyor III spacecraft which had landed on the Moon in April of 1967.
1970 – “I’ll Be There” by the Jackson 5 topped the charts.
1970 – On a rainy hill side in Wayne County, West Virginia, the lives of 75 people were lost in the worst single air tragedy in NCAA sports history. Among the losses were nearly the entire Marshall University football team, coaches, flight crew, numerous fans, and supporters. 75 people wer killed. See the movie, “We Are
1971 – Mariner program: Mariner 9 reaches Mars, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit another planet.
1972 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed above the 1,000 (1003.6) level for the first time.
1972 – Blue Ribbon Sports became Nike.
1973 – Patsy Sherman & Samuel Smith obtained a patent for a method for treating carpets, known as Scotchguard. 3M.
1975 – “They Just Can’t Stop It (The Games People Play)” became a gold record for the Spinners.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Light Up My Life” by Debby Boone, “Boogie Nights” by Heatwave, “It’s Ecstasy When You Lay Down Next to Me” by Barry White and “More to Me” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1979 – Iran hostage crisis: US President Jimmy Carter issues Executive order12170, freezing all Iranian assets in the United States in response to the hostage crisis.
1981 – Paul ‘Bear’ Bryant tied the record of Amos Alonzo Stagg for most football wins. The Alabama Crimson Tide put up win #314 for Coach Bryant.
1981 – “Private Eyes” by Daryl Hall and John Oates topped the charts.
1982 – Solidarity leader Lech Walesa was released from prison after 11 months.
1984 – Astronauts aboard “Discovery” pluck a 2-second satellite from orbit.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Miami Vice Theme” by Jan Hammer, “Head over Heels” by Tears For Fears, “You Belong to the City” by Glenn Frey and “Can’t Keep a Good Man Down” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1986 – The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission imposed a record $100 million penalty against Ivan F. Boesky for insider-trading and barred him from working again in the securities industry.
1986 – White House acknowledges CIA role in secretly shipping weapons to Iran.
1987 – “I Think We’re Alone Now” by Tiffany topped the charts.
1987 – The “Dirty Dancing” movie soundtrack was the number one album in the US.
1988 – The TV series “Murphy Brown” featured Candice Bergen working as an investigative journalist and producer of a TV news magazine. The show continued to 1998.
1990 – Simon and Schuster announced it had dropped plans to publish Bret Easton Ellis novel “American Psycho.” Vintage Books purchased the rights to the novel and published the book after the customary editing process. Interestingly, the book was never published in hardcover form in the United States.
1990 – Iraq War: PSU 302, staffed by Coast Guard reservists from Cleveland, Ohio, arrived in the Persian Gulf in support of operation Desert Shield. They were stationed in Bahrain.
1991 – WORKPLACE VIOLENCE – Thomas McIlvane fatally shot four workers at the Royal Oak, MI, Post Office before killing himself. He had been fired from the location.
1993 – Don Shula became the winningest coach in NFL history.
1995 – A budget standoff between Democrats and Republicans in the U.S. Congress forces the federal government to temporarily close national parks and museums and to run most government offices with skeleton staffs.
1996 – The first General Motors electric automobile, the EV1, was produced in Lansing, Mich. Its range was estimated at 70-90 miles before recharge.
1997 – A jury in Fairfax, Va., decided that Pakistani national Mir Aimal Kasi should get the death penalty for gunning down two CIA employees outside agency headquarters. Kasi was sentenced to death in January 1998 and was then executed by lethal injection on November 14, 2002, at Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt, Virginia
1997 – Sara Lister, assistant secretary of the Army for manpower and reserve affairs, resigned in the wake of political pressure after she called Marines “extremists” and made fun of their uniforms as “checkerboard fancy.”
1998 – “Doo Wop” by Lauryn Hill topped the charts.
1998 – The US tobacco industry agreed to a $260 billion settlement of state’s claims for public health costs due to smoking.
2000 – Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris certified George W. Bush’s fragile 300-vote lead over Al Gore, hours after a judge refused to lift a 5 p.m. deadline; however, the judge gave Harris the authority to accept or reject follow-up manual recount totals.
2001 – The Microsoft Xbox, a video game player, went on sale for $299.
2001 – Attorney General Ashcroft unveiled an overhaul of the INS. Law enforcement and service operations would be split.
2002 – The US House of Representatives votes to not create an independent commission to investigate the September 11 attacks.
2002 – Nancy Pelosi of California was elected to succeed Richard Gephardt, who chose to step down, as leader of the Democratic Party in the U.S. House of Representatives; she was the first woman to be named leader of either party in either house of Congress. Robert Menendez of New Jersey was elected as caucus chairman, the highest post ever held by an Hispanic.
2003 – The Bush administration announced that it intends to hand over sovereignty to the Iraqis by June 30, 2004.
2003 – John Kerry became the second Democratic hopeful to opt out of public financing for his presidential run, following the example of rival Howard Dean.
2003 – In Pittsburgh, Pa., a third person died from an outbreak of hepatitis A that infected nearly 600 people. They all had recently eaten at a Chi-Chi’s Mexican mall restaurant. Green onions were blamed for the outbreak.
2004 – Iraq War – The US military occupied Fallujah after six days of fighting. The military said thirty-one Americans have been killed in the siege. US Marines found the mutilated body of what they believe was a Western woman during a sweep of a street in central Fallujah.
2004 – It was reported that since 2002 the dollar has lost about 20% against a broad basket of currencies and over 40% against the euro.
2005 – Alex Rodriguez of the New York Yankees won his second American League Most Valuable Player award in three seasons.
2005 – AOL and Warner Bros. announced plans to create a broadband network called In2TV to streamcast old TV shows beginning in early 2006. They planned 2 minutes of advertising for each half hour.
2005 – Marriott Corp. said it had agreed to pay about $4 billion to acquire a portfolio of 38 luxury and upscale hotels from Starwood Hotels and Resorts Worldwide Inc.
2006 – Intel launched its first computer chips with four processing cores.
2006 – Brandon Webb of the Arizona Diamondbacks won a wide-open race for the NL Cy Young Award.
2006 – Honda unveiled the hydrogen powered Honda FCX in Monterey, Ca. Hondo planned to produce fuel cell cars within two years.
2006 – Sen. Harry Reid, a liberal Nevada Democrat, was elected by colleagues as US Senate majority leader for the 110th Congress that will convene in January.
2007 – A justice of the peace ordered O.J. Simpson to stand trial on kidnapping and armed robbery charges stemming from a confrontation with memorabilia dealers in a Las Vegas casino hotel room. Simpson and a co-defendant were convicted in October, 2008.
2007 – A US congressional advisory panel said that Chinese espionage posed “the single greatest risk” to US technology, and called for efforts to protect industrial secrets and computer networks.
2007 – In Texas Joe Horn (62) shot and killed two suspected burglars, with bags in hand, crawling out of windows from his neighbor’s home in the Houston suburb of Pasadena. In 2008 a jury acquitted Horn of murder.
2008 – The US Army promoted its first woman, Ann Dunwoody, to the rank of four-star general.
2008 – Space shuttle Endeavour and seven astronauts made a night time launch and raced toward the International Space Station for a home makeover job.
2008 – In California firefighters and a squadron of aircraft launched a desperate daylight attack to push back a wind-whipped wildfire that destroyed 210 homes and forced thousands to evacuate near Santa Barbara. The fire was later traced to a bonfire out at a tea garden by a group of young adults, who thought they had put the fire.
2009 – In Lassen County, Ca., a medical Aerospatiale AS350 helicopter crashed near the Nevada state line killing all three crew members. They were returning to Susanville after dropping off a patient in Reno.
2009 – Evangelist Tony Alamo is sentenced to 175 years in prison for taking underage girls across several states for sexual intercourse.
2010 – The United States, under President Obama, offered Israel 20 F-35s and opposition to anti-Israel resolutions in the UN if Israel agrees to a partial 90-day freeze in building in the West Bank, excluding east Jerusalem.
2011 – Riot police shut down the “Occupy Portland” and “Occupy Oakland” rallies. Dozens of people are arrested.
2013 – Rep. Pete Olson (R-TX) has introduced an Articles of Impeachment resolution against Attorney General Eric Holder for his role in Operation Fast and Furious and other scandals of President Barack Obama’s administration.
2013 – OBAMACARE: Under fire after insurers canceled plans that didn’t meet the law’s requirements, the White House instructs states to let individuals keep their policies for another year.
2014 – The National Cathedral in Washington, D.C., hosted its very first Muslim call to prayer.
1765 – Robert Fulton, American builder of first profitable steamboat.
1828 – James B. McPherson, American Civil War general (d. 1864)
1840 – Claude Monet, French Impressionist artist.
1896 – Mamie Eisenhower, First Lady of 34th U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower.
1904 – Dick Powell, American actor (d. 1963)
1935 – Jordan’s King Hussein.
1947 – P. J. O’Rourke, American political satirist, journalist, and writer.
1948 – Charles, Prince of Wales, heir to the British throne.
1954 – Former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.
1966 – Curt Schilling, baseball player
CRANDALL, BRUCE P.
Rank and Organization: Major, U.S. Army, Company A, 229th Assault Helicopter Battalion, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and date: La Drang Valley, Republic of Vietnam, November 14th, 1965. Birth: Olympia, Washington, 1933. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Major Bruce P. Crandall distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism as a Flight Commander in the Republic of Vietnam, while serving with Company A, 229th Assault Helicopter Battalion, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). On 14 November 1965, his flight of sixteen helicopters was lifting troops for a search and destroy mission from Plei Me, Vietnam, to Landing Zone X-Ray in the La Drang Valley. On the fourth troop lift, the airlift began to take enemy fire, and by the time the aircraft had refueled and returned for the next troop lift, the enemy had Landing Zone X-Ray targeted. As Major Crandall and the first eight helicopters landed to discharge troops on his fifth troop lift, his unarmed helicopter came under such intense enemy fire that the ground commander ordered the second flight of eight aircraft to abort their mission. As Major Crandall flew back to Plei Me, his base of operations, he determined that the ground commander of the besieged infantry batallion desperately needed more ammunition. Major Crandall then decided to adjust his base of operations to Artillery Firebase Falcon in order to shorten the flight distance to deliver ammunition and evacuate wounded soldiers. While medical evacuation was not his mission, he immediately sought volunteers and with complete disregard for his own personal safety, led the two aircraft to Landing Zone X-Ray. Despite the fact that the landing zone was still under relentless enemy fire, Major Crandall landed and proceeded to supervise the loading of seriously wounded soldiers aboard his aircraft. Major Crandall’s voluntary decision to land under the most extreme fire instilled in the other pilots the will and spirit to continue to land their own aircraft, and in the ground forces the realization that they would be resupplied and that friendly wounded would be promptly evacuated. This greatly enhanced morale and the will to fight at a critical time. After his first medical evacuation, Major Crandall continued to fly into and out of the landing zone throughout the day and into the evening. That day he completed a total of 22 flights, most under intense enemy fire, retiring from the battlefield only after all possible service had been rendered to the Infantry battalion. His actions provided critical resupply of ammunition and evacuation of the wounded. Major Crandall’s daring acts of bravery and courage in the face of an overwhelming and determined enemy are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.
FREEMAN, ED W.
Rank and Organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Company A, 229th Assault Helicopter Battalion, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) Place and date: La Drang Valley, Republic of Vietnam, November 14th, 1965. Birth: Neely, Perry County, Mississippi Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Captain Ed W. Freeman, United States Army, distinguished himself by numerous acts of conspicuous gallantry and extraordinary intrepidity on 14 November 1965 while serving with Company A, 229th Assault Helicopter Battalion, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). As a flight leader and second in command of a 16-helicopter lift unit, he supported a heavily engaged American infantry battalion at Landing Zone X-Ray in the Ia Drang Valley, Republic of Vietnam. The unit was almost out of ammunition after taking some of the heaviest casualties of the war, fighting off a relentless attack from a highly motivated, heavily armed enemy force. When the infantry commander closed the helicopter landing zone due to intense direct enemy fire, Captain Freeman risked his own life by flying his unarmed helicopter through a gauntlet of enemy fire time after time, delivering critically needed ammunition, water and medical supplies to the besieged battalion. His flights had a direct impact on the battle’s outcome by providing the engaged units with timely supplies of ammunition critical to their survival, without which they would almost surely have gone down, with much greater loss of life. After medical evacuation helicopters refused to fly into the area due to intense enemy fire, Captain Freeman flew fourteen separate rescue missions, providing life-saving evacuation of an estimated thirty seriously wounded soldiers — some of whom would not have survived had he not acted. All flights were made into a small emergency landing zone within 100 to 200 meters of the defensive perimeter where heavily committed units were perilously holding off the attacking elements. Captain Freeman’s selfless acts of great valor, extraordinary perseverance and intrepidity were far above and beyond the call of duty or mission and set a superb example of leadership and courage for all of his peers. Captain Freeman’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
MARM, WALTER JOSEPH, JR.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant (then 2d Lt.), U.S. Army, Company A, 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and Date: Vicinity of La Drang Valley, Republic of Vietnam, November 14th, 1965. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, PA. Born: 20 November 1941, Washington, PA. G.O. No.: 7, 15 February 1967. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. As a platoon leader in the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), 1st Lt. Marm demonstrated indomitable courage during a combat operation. His company was moving through the valley to relieve a friendly unit surrounded by an enemy force of estimated regimental size. 1st Lt. Marm led his platoon through withering fire until they were finally forced to take cover. Realizing that his platoon could not hold very long, and seeing four enemy soldiers moving into his position, he moved quickly under heavy fire and annihilated all four. Then, seeing that his platoon was receiving intense fire from a concealed machine gun, he deliberately exposed himself to draw its fire. Thus locating its position, he attempted to destroy it with an antitank weapon. Although he inflicted casualties, the weapon did not silence the enemy fire. Quickly, disregarding the intense fire directed on him and his platoon, he charged thirty meters across open ground, and hurled grenades into the enemy position, killing some of the eight insurgents manning it. Although severely wounded, when his grenades were expended, armed with only a rifle, he continued the momentum of his assault on the position and killed the remainder of the enemy. 1st Lt. Marm’s selfless actions reduced the fire on his platoon, broke the enemy assault, and rallied his unit to continue toward the accomplishment of this mission. 1st Lt. Marm’s gallantry on the battlefield and his extraordinary intrepidity at the risk of his life are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
BAUER, HAROLD WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 20 November 1908. Woodruff, Kans. Appointed from: Nebraska. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous courage as Squadron Commander of Marine Fighting Squadron 212 in the South Pacific Area during the period 10 May to November 14th,1942. Volunteering to pilot a fighter plane in defense of our positions on Guadalcanal, Lt. Col. Bauer participated in two air battles against enemy bombers and fighters outnumbering our force more than two to one, boldly engaged the enemy and destroyed one Japanese bomber in the engagement of 28 September and shot down four enemy fighter planes in flames on 3 October, leaving a fifth smoking badly. After successfully leading twenty-six planes on an over-water ferry flight of more than 600 miles on 16 October, Lt. Col. Bauer, while circling to land, sighted a squadron of enemy planes attacking the U.S.S. McFarland. Undaunted by the formidable opposition and with valor above and beyond the call of duty, he engaged the entire squadron and, although alone and his fuel supply nearly exhausted, fought his plane so brilliantly that four of the Japanese planes were destroyed before he was forced down by lack of fuel. His intrepid fighting spirit and distinctive ability as a leader and an airman, exemplified in his splendid record of combat achievement, were vital factors in the successful operations in the South Pacific Area.
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
Rank and organization: Fireman First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 May 1869, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 503, 12 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Potomac during the passage of that vessel from Cat Island to Nassau, November 14th, 1898. Volunteering to enter the fireroom which was filled with steam, Cavanaugh, after repeated attempts, succeeded in reaching the auxiliary valve and opening it, thereby relieving the vessel from further danger.
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
Rank and organization: Fireman First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 March 1873, Inverness, Scotland. Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 503, 13 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Potomac during the passage of that vessel from Cat Island to Nassau, November 14th, 1898. Volunteering to enter the fireroom which was filled with steam, Jardine, after repeated attempts, succeeded in reaching the auxiliary valve and opening it, thereby relieving the vessel from further danger.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Cooper, U.S. Navy. Born: 1855, St. Vincent West Indies. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Adams at the Navy Yard, Mare Island, Calif., November 14th, 1879, Johnson rescued Daniel W. Kloppen, a workman, from drowning.
International Tongue Twisters Day
World Kindness Day
Speaking with a Twist
I am a public speaker and I enjoy creative thinking and improving, constantly, my skills. Tongue twisters are great for improving speaking skills and NOT getting your tang all tongueled up!!! To be an excellent speaker you must exercise your memory, your voice, your creativity and your mouth. These twisters are to exercise the mouth, to loosen the parts that actually move. Try each of these first few at least five times and increase your speed each time through. Stop each time you make a mistake and start over,.
Something in a thirty-acre thermal thicket of thorns and thistles thumped and thundered threatening the three-D thoughts of Matthew the thug – although, theatrically, it was only the thirteen-thousand thistles and thorns through the underneath of his thigh that the thirty year old thug thought of that morning.
To sit in solemn silence in a dull, dark dock,
In a pestilential prison, with a life-long lock,
Awaiting the sensation of a short, sharp shock,
From a cheap and chippy chopper on a big black block!
To sit in solemn silence in a dull, dark dock,
In a pestilential prison, with a life-long lock,
Awaiting the sensation of a short, sharp shock,
From a cheap and chippy chopper on a big black block!
A dull, dark dock, a life-long lock,
A short, sharp shock, a big black block!
To sit in solemn silence in a pestilential prison,
And awaiting the sensation
From a cheap and chippy chopper on a big black block!
I wish to wish the wish you wish to wish, but if you wish the wish the witch wishes, I won’t wish the wish you wish to wish.
Picky people pick Peter Pan Peanut-Butter, ’tis the peanut-butter picky people pick.
Through three cheese trees three free fleas flew.
While these fleas flew, freezy breeze blew.
Freezy breeze made these three trees freeze.
Freezy trees made these trees’ cheese freeze.
That’s what made these three free fleas sneeze.
from Fox in Sox by Dr. Seuss
I thought a thought, but the thought I thought was not the thought I thought I thought.
Then you can do this one:
“I think I thought that a thought that I thought was not the thought that I think that I thought though the thought that I thought was the thought that I thought and not the thought that I thought that I thought.”
Here are a few that you do at least eight times faster with each repetition:
Mommala Poppala Mommala Poppala
A box of biscuits, a box of mixed biscuits and a biscuit mixer
Get Grandma Great Greek Grapes
Eleven benevolent elephants
Honorificabilitudinatibus (From Shakespeare’s Love’s Labours Lost)
Choose orange shoes
A proper pot of coffee in a proper pot of coffee pot
Big black bug bit a big black bear and the big black bear bled black blood.
Knit kilts for nasty cold nights.
The more you practice these, the easier it will to speak and these are excellent exercises for extemporaneous speech.
[Romans 7:14-20] Bible tongue twister
14 We know that the law is spiritual; but I am unspiritual, sold as a slave to sin. 15 I do not understand what I do. For what I want to do I do not do, but what I hate I do. 16 And if I do what I do not want to do, I agree that the law is good. 17 As it is, it is no longer I myself who do it, but it is sin living in me. 18 For I know that good itself does not dwell in me, that is, in my sinful nature. For I have the desire to do what is good, but I cannot carry it out. 19For I do not do the good I want to do, but the evil I do not want to dothis I keep on doing. 20 Now if I do what I do not want to do, it is no longer I who do it, but it is sin living in me that does it.
“The reality of life is that your perceptions — right or wrong — influence everything else you do. When you get a proper perspective of your perceptions, you may be surprised how many other things fall into place.”
~ Roger Birkman
fillip FIL-uhp, noun:
1. A snap of the finger forced suddenly from the thumb; a smart blow.
2. Something serving to rouse or excite; a stimulus.
3. A trivial addition; an embellishment.
4. To strike with the nail of the finger, first placed against the ball of the thumb, and forced from that position with a sudden spring; to snap with the finger.
5. To snap; to project quickly.
6. To urge on; to provide a stimulus, by or as if by a fillip.
Fillip is probably of imitative origin.
1775 – U.S. forces under General Richard Montgomery captured Montreal in the American Revolution.
1776 – Captain John Paul Jones in Alfred with brig Providence captures British transport Mellish, carrying winter uniforms later used by Washington’s troops.
1789 – George Washington, inaugurated as the first president of the United States in April, returns to Washington at the end of his first presidential tour. For four weeks, Washington traveled by stagecoach through New England,
1789 – Benjamin Franklin wrote his “death and taxes” quote. He wrote it in a letter to French scientist and author Jean-Baptiste Leroy. Franklin noted that “Our new Constitution is now established, and has an appearance that promises permanency; but in this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.”
1805 – Johann George Lehner, a Viennese butcher, invented a recipe and called it the “frankfurter.”
1830 – Oliver Wendell Holmes publishes “Old Ironsides.” It was his first important poem and was a protest against the scrapping of the fighting ship Constitution.
1835 – Texans officially proclaimed independence from Mexico and called it the Lone Star Republic.
1841 – James Braid first sees a demonstration of animal magnetism, which leads to his study of the subject he eventually calls hypnosis.
1843 – Mt Rainier in Washington State erupts. Written by Brevet Captain J.C. Fremont: “… Wherever we came in contact with the rocks of these mountains, we found them volcanic, which is probably the character of the range; and at the time, two of the great snowy cones, Mount Regnier and St. Helens, were in action.”
1851 – The telegraph service between London and Paris started operations.
1851 – The Denny Party lands at Alki Point, the first settlers of what will become Seattle, Washington.
1860 – South Carolina’s legislature called a special convention to discuss secession from the Union.
1861 – President Lincoln pays a late night visit to General George McClellan, who Lincoln had recently named general in chief of the Union army. The general retired to his chambers before speaking with the president. This was the most famous example of McClellan’s cavalier disregard for the president’s authority.
1865 – US issues first gold certificates.
1875 – Harvard-Yale game is first college football contest with uniforms. Yale wore dark trousers, blue shirts, and yellow caps. Not to be outdone in sartorial splendor any more than in the score, Harvard showed up in crimson shirts, stockings, and knee breeches.
1875 – National Bowling Association organized in New York City.
1878 – New Mexico Governor Lew Wallace offered amnesty to many participants of the Lincoln County War, but not to gunfighter Billy the Kid.
1895 – First shipment of canned pineapple from Hawaii.
1900 – Baltimore Orioles (now NY Yankees) enter baseball’s American League.
1909 – Collier’s magazine accuses U.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger of questionable dealings in Alaskan coal fields. It was, in fact, a fight about differing ideas on how to best use and conserve western natural resources.
1909 – Two hundred fifty miners were killed in a fire and explosion at the St. Paul Mine at Cherry, IL.
1921 – “The Sheik,” starring Rudolph Valentino, is released. “The Sheik” proved extremely popular with female movie goers and helped established Valentino as the top male movie star and sex symbol of the day.
1927 – The Holland Tunnel opened to the public, connecting New York City and New Jersey beneath the Hudson River. It was the first to do so.
1930 – First revolving milk platform used. This was a 50-stall revolving platform that enabled the milking of 1,680 cows in seven hours by rotating them into position with the milking machines. A Rotolactor was displayed at the 1939 New York World’s Fair as part of the “Dairy World of Tomorrow,” exhibit in the Borden building.
1933 – In Minnesota, the first sit-down strike in American history was held by workers at the packing plant of George A. Hormel and Company.
1937 – NBC forms first full-sized symphony orchestra exclusively for radio. The NBC Symphony Orchestra made many recordings of symphonies, choral music, and operas. The conductor for its first seventeen years was Arturo Toscanini.
1940 – “Fantasia,” the Walt Disney animated movie, premiered in New York.
1941 – Congress amends the Neutrality Act of 1935 to allow American merchant ships access to war zones. This put U.S. vessels in the line of fire.
1941 – World War II: Europe: The aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal is torpedoed by U-81, sinking the following day.
1942 – World War II: Naval Battle of Guadalcanal – Off the coast of Guadalcanal, a Japanese convoy of 11 transports carrying 11,000 men and equipment escorted by Admiral Tanaka’s “Tokyo Express” approaches the island.
1942 – World War II: The minimum U.S. draft age was lowered to 18 from 21.
1942 – World War II: Five Sullivan brothers lost in Japanese raid. The five Sullivan Brothers from Waterloo, Iowa, were lost in the sinking of the cruiser USS Juneau by a Japanese torpedo off Guadalcanal during World War II in the Pacific. Following their deaths, the U.S. Navy changed regulations to prohibit close relatives from serving on the same ship.
1943 – World War II: Fifth Fleet carriers begin long range night bombing attacks on Japanese positions in Gilberts and Marshalls in preparation for landings. American B-17 Flying Fortresses bomb Tarawa atoll in preparation for the coming landings.
1943 – World War II: On Bougainville, the third wave of the US landing force comes ashore. This includes the rest of the US 37th Infantry Division and the 21st Marine Division.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dance with the Dolly” by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: Al Jennings), “I’ll Walk Alone” by Dinah Shore, “The Trolley Song” by The Pied Pipers and “Smoke on the Water” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: The Coast Guard-manned frigate USS Rockford, in concert with the Navy minesweeper USS Ardent, attacked and sank the Japanese Navy submarine I-12 mid-way between Hawaii and California. There were no survivors.
1944 – German U-978 sinks three Liberty ships in the English Channel.
1944 – Aircraft from US Task Force 38 (McCain) attack shipping and land targets on Luzon. American planes claim a Japanese cruiser and four destroyers sunk.
1946 – An aircraft flew over Mount Greylock in western Massachusetts and seeded the clouds with super-cooled ice crystals. This action produced the first artificial snow produced from a natural cloud. The snow, however, melted before it hit the slopes.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Belong to Me” by Jo Stafford, “Wish You Were Here” by Eddie Fisher, “Because You’re Mine” by Mario Lanza and “Jambalaya (On the Bayou)” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – A member of the Indiana Textbook Commission called for the removal of references to the book, “Robin Hood” from textbooks used by the state’s schools. She claimed that Robin Hood was a communist because he robbed the rich and gave it to the poor.
1954 – “I Need You Now” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.
1955 – FBI agents search the home of John Graham, a chief suspect in the United Airlines plane explosion that killed all 44 people on board on November 1.
1956 – US Supreme Court declared Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses illegal; this ended the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Save the Last Dance for Me” by The Drifters, “Poetry in Motion” by Johnny Tillotson, “Georgia on My Mind” by Ray Charles and “Wings of a Dove” by Ferlin Husky all topped the charts.
1961 – The Tokens’ “The Lion Sleeps Tonight” was released.
1964 – Bob Petit (St Louis Hawks) becomes first NBAer to score 20,000 points.
1965 – “Get Off My Cloud” by the Rolling Stones topped the charts.
1965 – “Fever” by the McCoys’ was released.
1965 – The SS Yarmouth Castle caught fire and burned on a trip from New York to the Bahamas. The fire was started by a mattress stored too close to a lighting circuit in a storage room, Room 610 and it caught fire. The room was filled with mattresses and paint cans, which fed the flames. Fourteen critically injured people were taken by helicopter from Bahama Star to Nassau hospitals. Bahama Star rescued 240 passengers and 133 crewmen. The Finnpulp rescued 51 passengers and 41 crewmen. Both ships arrived in Nassau on November 13. Eighty-seven people went down with the ship, and three of the rescued passengers later died at hospitals, bringing the final death toll to 90. Of the dead, only two were crewmembers: stewardess Phyllis Hall and Dr. Lisardo Diaz-Toorens, the ship’s physician. While some bodies were recovered, most were lost with the ship.
1967 – Carl Stokes became the first Black mayor in the U.S., elected mayor of Cleveland, OH.
1968 – The Beatles’ animated movie “Yellow Submarine” premiered in the U.S.
1969 – Vietnam War: Anti-war protesters in Washington, DC stage a symbolic “March Against Death.”
1969 – Vice President Spiro T Agnew accused network TV news depths of bias & distortion.
1970 – Vice President Spiro Agnew calls TV executives “impudent snobs.”
1971 – “Gypsys, Tramps, & Thieves” by Cher topped the charts.
1971 – Three Dog Night’s “Old Fashioned Love Song” was released.
1971 – The American space probe, Mariner 9, has become the first spacecraft to orbit another planet, swinging into its planned trajectory around Mars without a hitch.
1973 – Jerry Lee Lewis, Jr. was killed in a highway accident near Hernando, MS.
1974 – Nuclear activist Karen Silkwood is killed in a car crash while she is travelling to an interview with New York Times reporter David Burnham.
1974 – Ronald DeFeo, Jr. murders his entire family in Amityville, Long Island in the house that would become known as The Amityville Horror.
1975 – “Feelings” by Morris Albert, went gold.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)” by Rod Stewart, “The Wreck of the Edmond Fitzgerald” by Gordon Lightfoot, “Love So Right” by Bee Gees and “Somebody Somewhere (Don’t Know What He’s Missin’ Tonight)” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1977 – Al Capp’s “Li’l Abner” comic strip ended its newspaper run after 43 years.
1979 – Robert Jarvik was granted a patent for an artificial heart.
1979 – Ronald Reagan in New York announces his candidacy for President.
1982 – “Up Where We Belong” by Joe Cocker & Jennifer Warnes topped the charts.
1982 – A boxing match held in Las Vegas, Nevada ends when Ray Mancini defeats Kim Duk Koo. Kim’s died as a result of injuries on November 17. His death led to significant changes in the sport.
1982 – The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is dedicated in Washington D.C. after a march to its site by thousands of Vietnam War veterans. From August 5, 1964 through March 28, 1973, our Veteran brothers and sisters were among the 8,744,000 active duty U.S. military personnel who proudly served our Nation during the war in Vietnam, with 2,594,000 serving within the borders of South Vietnam, some deployed as early as 1954 and leaving as late as 1975. The Vietnam Era also includes all Veterans who served in the Republic of Vietnam as early as February 28, 1961.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Caribbean Queen (No More Love on the Run)” by Billy Ocean, “Purple Rain” by Prince & The Revolution, “Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go” by Wham! And “I’ve Been Around Enough to Know” by John Schneider all topped the charts.
1985 – Dwight Gooden, youngest 20-game winner, wins Cy Young award.
1986 – The state of California put Fricot City on the auction block for $8.8 million. The California town, about 60 miles southeast of Sacramento, featured a motel, 20 homes, and two swimming pools to the buyer.
1986 – President Ronald Reagan publicly acknowledged that the U.S. had sent “defensive weapons and spare parts” to Iran. He denied that the shipments were sent to free hostages, but that they had been sent to improve relations.
1990 – The World Wide Web first began.
1991 – Roger Clemens won his third Cy Young Award for the American League.
1994 – In San Francisco, CA, a heavily armed gunman traded fire with police, hitting two police officers, a paramedic and another person before being killed.
1995 – Greg Maddox (Atlanta Braves) became the first major league pitcher to win four consecutive Cy Young Awards.
1995 – Seven people, including five Americans are killed in a car bomb attack at a U.S. military headquarters in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
1996 – Sgt. Loren B. Taylor, a drill sergeant who’d had sex with three women recruits at Fort Leonard Wood, Mo., was given five months in prison and a bad-conduct discharge in the first sentencing of a growing Army sex scandal.
1996 – A grand jury in St. Petersburg, Fla., declined to indict a white policeman, Jim Knight, who had shot black motorist TyRon Lewis to death the previous month; the decision prompted angry mobs to return to the streets.
1997 – The musical “The Lion King” opened.
1998 – President Bill Clinton agreed to pay Paula Jones $850,000 — with no apology or admission of guilt — to settle her sexual harassment suit.
1998 – Monica Lewinsky signed a deal with St. Martin’s Press for the North American rights to her story about her affair with President Bill Clinton.
1998 – “The Wizard of Oz” was released on the big screen by Warner Bros. 59 years after its original release.
1999 – Lennox Lewis became the undisputed heavyweight champion of the world, winning a unanimous decision over Evander Holyfield in Las Vegas.
1999 – The Navy recovered the cockpit voice recorder from EgyptAir Flight 990, which crashed into the Atlantic Ocean October 31st with the loss of all 217 people aboard.
2000 – Two US F-16 military jets collided over waters off of northern Japan. One pilot was rescued and the other was missing.
2000 – Joe Mullen and Denis Savard were among those inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame.
2001 – Afghanistan’s ruling Taliban relinquished the capital of Kabul without a fight, allowing the U.S.-backed northern alliance to take over the city.
2001 – President George W. Bush signs an executive order allowing military tribunals against any foreigners suspected of having connections to terrorist acts or planned acts on the United States.This was the first time since World War II.
2002 – Irv Rubin (57), Jewish Defense League leader, died nine days after what federal authorities said was a suicide attempt in jail.
2003 – Eric Gagne of the Los Angeles Dodgers won the National League Cy Young Award.
2003 – Alabama Chief Justice Roy Moore, who had refused to remove his granite Ten Commandments monument from the state courthouse, was thrown off the bench by a judicial ethics panel for having “placed himself above the law.”
2005 – It was reported that within days after Hurricane Katrina hit, Lily Duke managed to do what other relief agencies couldn’t: get food and water to her neighbors in New Orleans.
2005 – Chicago Bears cornerback Nathan Vasher returns a missed field goal 108 yards against the San Francisco 49ers, the longest play in NFL history.
2006 – The Bush administration said illegal immigrants arrested in the US may be held indefinitely on suspicion of terrorism and may not challenge their imprisonment in civilian courts.
2007 – CC Sabathia won the AL Cy Young Award to become the first Cleveland pitcher in 35 years to earn the honor.
2007 – Officials said New York Gov. Eliot Spitzer has decided to abandon a plan to issue driver’s licenses to illegal immigrants.
2007 – In Las Vegas the New Frontier casino, opened in 1942, was imploded to make way for a $5 billion megaresort. It earned historical notations by becoming the Strip’s first theme casino and hosting Elvis Presley’s debut in the city.
2008 – The US Mint was scheduled to issue the Van Buren dollar coin, the eighth of its presidential dollar series.
2008 – The US government said the number of newly laid-off individuals seeking unemployment benefits has jumped to a seven-year high.
2009 – NASA announced that water had been discovered on the moon. The discovery came from the planned impact on the moon of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS).
2009 – Ohio became the first US state to adopt a procedure for lethal injections that uses just one drug, thiopental sodium.
2009 – The United States’ first marijuana cafe opened in Portland, Oregon, posing an early test of the Obama administration’s move to relax policing of medical use of the drug.
2010 – In California a gold Honda Accord tried to pass a group of motorcycles and caused a Dodge car to lose control on two-lane Route 98, a desert highway near Ocotillo, triggering a crash that killed five people and injured six others.
2011 – Police in the city of Portland, Oregon close down the Occupy Portland site resulting in 50 arrests.
2013 – One World Trade Center becomes the tallest building in the United States.
2013 – Four members of the United States Marine Corps are killed after ordnance accidentally explodes after a training exercise at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton.
2015 – Muslim terrorists conduct a series of terrorist attacks including mass shootings, suicide bombings, and hostage-taking in Paris, France, and its northern suburb, Saint-Denis. Three suicide bombings occurred outside the Stade de France, along with mass shootings and another suicide bombing at four locations near central Paris. The attacks killed 129 people, 89 of whom were at the Bataclan theatre. An additional 433 people were admitted to hospital with injuries sustained in the attacks. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) claimed responsibility for the attacks.
354 – Saint Augustine, Christian theologian and philosopher.
1312 – Edward III, father of Edward the Black Prince and John of Gaunt.
1732 – John Dickinson, American lawyer and Governor of Delaware and Pennsylvania (d. 1808)
1814 – Joseph Hooker, American General (d. 1879)
1850 – Robert Louis Stevenson, Scottish writer (d. 1894)
1856 – Louis Brandeis, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
1918 – Jack Elam, American actor (d. 2003)
1950 – Mary Lou Metzger, American singer, The Lawrence Welk Show
1955 – Whoopi Goldberg, American comic actress.
Rank and organization: Captain (then 1st Lt.), U.S. Army, Company A, 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, November 13th, 1966. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Born: 28 March 1940, Cambridge, Mass. G.O. No.: 4, 29 January 1968. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Company A was participating in a search and destroy operation when the leading platoon made contact with the enemy and a fierce fire-fight ensued. Capt. Grant was ordered to disengage the two remaining platoons and to maneuver them to envelop and destroy the enemy. After beginning their movement, the platoons encountered intense enemy automatic weapons and mortar fire from the front and flank. Capt. Grant was ordered to deploy the platoons in a defensive position. As this action was underway, the enemy attacked, using “human wave” assaults, in an attempt to literally overwhelm Capt. Grant’s force. In a magnificent display of courage and leadership, Capt. Grant moved under intense fire along the hastily formed defensive line repositioning soldiers to fill gaps created by the mounting casualties and inspiring and directing the efforts of his men to successfully repel the determined enemy onslaught. Seeing a platoon leader wounded, Capt. Grant hastened to his aid, in the face of the mass of fire of the entire enemy force, and moved him to a more secure position. During this action, Capt. Grant was wounded in the shoulder. Refusing medical treatment, he returned to the forward part of the perimeter, where he continued to lead and to inspire his men by his own indomitable example. While attempting to evacuate a wounded soldier, he was pinned down by fire from an enemy machine gun. With a supply of hand grenades, he crawled forward under a withering hail of fire and knocked out the machine gun, killing the crew, after which he moved the wounded man to safety. Learning that several other wounded men were pinned down by enemy fire forward of his position, Capt. Grant disregarded his painful wound and led 5 men across the fire-swept open ground to effect a rescue. Following return of the wounded men to the perimeter, a concentration of mortar fire landed in their midst and Capt. Grant was killed instantly. His heroic actions saved the lives of a number of his comrades and enabled the task force to repulse the vicious assaults and defeat the enemy. Capt. Grant’s actions reflect great credit upon himself and were in keeping with the finest traditions of the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, 74th Infantry Detachment (Long Range Patrol), 173d Airborne Brigade. Place and Date: Binh Dinh Province, Republic of Vietnam, November 13th, 1968. Entered service at: Minneapolis, Minn. Born: 21 September 1939, Budapest, Hungary. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. S/Sgt. Rabel distinguished himself while serving as leader of Team Delta, 74th Infantry Detachment. At 1000 hours on this date, Team Delta was in a defensive perimeter conducting reconnaissance of enemy trail networks when a member of the team detected enemy movement to the front. As S/Sgt. Rabel and a comrade prepared to clear the area, he heard an incoming grenade as it landed in the midst of the team’s perimeter. With complete disregard for his life, S/Sgt. Rabel threw himself on the grenade and, covering it with his body, received the complete impact of the immediate explosion. Through his indomitable courage, complete disregard for his safety and profound concern for his fellow soldiers, S/Sgt. Rabel averted the loss of life and injury to the other members of Team Delta. By his gallantry at the cost of his life in the highest traditions of the military service, S/Sgt. Rabel has reflected great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. Born: 26 July 1892, San Francisco, Calif. Appointed from: California. Entered service at: Oakland, Calif. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty during action against enemy Japanese forces off Savo Island on the night of November 12th-November 13th, 1942. Although out-balanced in strength and numbers by a desperate and determined enemy, Rear Adm. Callaghan, with ingenious tactical skill and superb coordination of the units under his command, led his forces into battle against tremendous odds, thereby contributing decisively to the rout of a powerful invasion fleet, and to the consequent frustration of a formidable Japanese offensive. While faithfully directing close-range operations in the face of furious bombardment by superior enemy fire power, he was killed on the bridge of his flagship. His courageous initiative, inspiring leadership, and judicious foresight in a crisis of grave responsibility were in keeping with the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the defense of his country.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 January 1918, Ralston, Wash. Accredited to: Washington. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and distinguished courage above and beyond the call of duty while serving aboard the U.S.S. San Francisco during action against enemy Japanese forces in the Solomon Islands, November 12th-November 13th,1942. When a hostile torpedo plane, during a daylight air raid, crashed on the after machine-gun platform, Keppler promptly assisted in removal of the dead and, by his capable supervision of the wounded, undoubtedly helped save the lives of several shipmates who otherwise might have perished. That night, when the ship’s hangar was set afire during the great battle off Savo Island, he bravely led a hose into the starboard side of the stricken area and there, without assistance and despite frequent hits from terrific enemy bombardment, eventually brought the fire under control. Later, although mortally wounded, he labored valiantly in the midst of bursting shells, persistently directing fire-fighting operations and administering to wounded personnel until he finally collapsed from loss of blood. His great personal valor, maintained with utter disregard of personal safety, was in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. San Francisco. Place and date: Battle off Savo Island, November 12th-November 13th, 1942. Entered service at: Colorado. Born: 12 August 1911, Washington, D.C. Other Navy award: Silver Star. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and exceptionally distinguished service above and beyond the call of duty as communication officer of the U.S.S. San Francisco in combat with enemy Japanese forces in the battle off Savo Island, 12-13 November 1942. In the midst of a violent night engagement, the fire of a determined and desperate enemy seriously wounded Lt. Comdr. McCandless and rendered him unconscious, killed or wounded the admiral in command, his staff, the captain of the ship, the navigator, and all other personnel on the navigating and signal bridges. Faced with the lack of superior command upon his recovery, and displaying superb initiative, he promptly assumed command of the ship and ordered her course and gunfire against an overwhelmingly powerful force. With his superiors in other vessels unaware of the loss of their admiral, and challenged by his great responsibility, Lt. Comdr. McCandless boldly continued to engage the enemy and to lead our column of following vessels to a great victory. Largely through his brilliant seamanship and great courage, the San Francisco was brought back to port, saved to fight again in the service of her country.
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. San Francisco Place and date: Savo Island, November 12th-November 13th, 1943. Entered service at. Maine. Born: 7 September 1900, Portland, Maine. Citation: For extreme heroism and courage above and beyond the call of duty as damage control officer of the U.S.S. San Francisco in action against greatly superior enemy forces in the battle off Savo Island, 12-13 November 1942. In the same violent night engagement in which all of his superior officers were killed or wounded, Lt. Comdr. Schonland was fighting valiantly to free the San Francisco of large quantities of water flooding the second deck compartments through numerous shell holes caused by enemy fire. Upon being informed that he was commanding officer, he ascertained that the conning of the ship was being efficiently handled, then directed the officer who had taken over that task to continue while he himself resumed the vitally important work of maintaining the stability of the ship. In water waist deep, he carried on his efforts in darkness illuminated only by hand lanterns until water in flooded compartments had been drained or pumped off and watertight integrity had again been restored to the San Francisco. His great personal valor and gallant devotion to duty at great peril to his own life were instrumental in bringing his ship back to port under her own power, saved to fight again in the service of her country.
Rank and organization: Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 August 1889, Indianapolis, Ind. Appointed from: Indiana. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty during action against enemy Japanese forces off Savo Island on the night of 11-12 October and again on the night of November 12th-November 13th, 1942. In the earlier action, intercepting a Japanese Task Force intent upon storming our island positions and landing reinforcements at Guadalcanal, Rear Adm. Scott, with courageous skill and superb coordination of the units under his command, destroyed eight hostile vessels and put the others to flight. Again challenged, a month later, by the return of a stubborn and persistent foe, he led his force into a desperate battle against tremendous odds, directing close-range operations against the invading enemy until he himself was killed in the furious bombardment by their superior firepower. On each of these occasions his dauntless initiative, inspiring leadership and judicious foresight in a crisis of grave responsibility contributed decisively to the rout of a powerful invasion fleet and to the consequent frustration of a formidable Japanese offensive. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 134th Infantry, 35th Infantry Division. Place and date: Achain, France, November 13th, 1944. Entered service at: Riggs, Ky. Birth: Russell County, Ky. G.O. No.: 18, 15 March 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy at Achain, France, on 13 November 1944. At 2 p.m., Company G attacked the village of Achain from the east. S/Sgt. Spurrier armed with a BAR passed around the village and advanced alone. Attacking from the west, he immediately killed three Germans. From this time until dark, S/Sgt. Spurrier, using at different times his BAR and Ml rifle, American and German rocket launchers, a German automatic pistol, and hand grenades, continued his solitary attack against the enemy regardless of all types of small-arms and automatic-weapons fire. As a result of his heroic actions he killed an officer and twenty-four enlisted men and captured two officers and two enlisted men. His valor has shed fresh honor on the U.S. Armed Forces.